Science.gov

Sample records for 34mm cuff study

  1. Validation of the western ontario rotator cuff index in patients with arthroscopic rotator cuff repair: A study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Arthroscopic rotator cuff repair is described as being a successful procedure. These results are often derived from clinical general shoulder examinations, which are then classified as 'excellent', 'good', 'fair' or 'poor'. However, the cut-off points for these classifications vary and sometimes modified scores are used. Arthroscopic rotator cuff repair is performed to improve quality of life. Therefore, disease specific health-related quality of life patient-administered questionnaires are needed. The WORC is a quality of life questionnaire designed for patients with disorders of the rotator cuff. The score is validated for rotator cuff disease, but not for rotator cuff repair specifically. The aim of this study is to investigate reliability, validity and responsiveness of WORC in patients undergoing arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. Methods/Design An approved translation of the WORC into Dutch is used. In this prospective study three groups of patients are used: 1. Arthroscopic rotator cuff repair; 2. Disorders of the rotator cuff without rupture; 3. Shoulder instability. The WORC, SF-36 and the Constant Score are obtained twice before therapy is started to measure reliability and validity. Responsiveness is tested by obtaining the same tests after therapy. PMID:21453470

  2. Leakage of fluid around endotracheal tube cuffs: a cadaver study

    PubMed Central

    Lucius, Ralph; Ewald, Kristian

    2013-01-01

    Background The aim of the study was to evaluate the leakage of liquid past the cuffs of tracheal tubes in fresh frozen human heads. Methods Six truncated fresh frozen heads were used and intubated with 8.0 mm endotracheal tubes. The intracuff pressures tested were 30 and 100 cmH2O. Subsequently, 20 ml of each of two oral antiseptic rinses (0.2% chlorhexidine and octenidine [octenidol®, Schülke & Mayr GmbH, Norderstedt, Germany]) was applied for thirty seconds in the mouth. During the trial, leakage of the cuffs was examined. Results The sealing between the tracheal cuff and tracheal wall was leakage-proof for all tested intracuff pressures and all tested antiseptic rinses. However, approximately 5.6 ml and 1.8 ml leaked into the esophagus and remained as a cuff-puddle, respectively. Conclusions The sealing between an endotracheal tube cuff with an intracuff pressure of 30 cmH2O and the tracheal wall is leakage-proof during oral care with antiseptic rinsing. An increase of intracuff pressure to 100 cmH2O does not appear to be required. PMID:24363847

  3. Comorbidities in rotator cuff disease: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Titchener, Andrew G; White, Jonathan J E; Hinchliffe, Sally R; Tambe, Amol A; Hubbard, Richard B; Clark, David I

    2014-09-01

    Rotator cuff disease is a common condition in the general population, but relatively little is known about its associated risk factors. We have undertaken a large case-control study using The Health Improvement Network database to assess and to quantify the relative contributions of some constitutional and environmental risk factors for rotator cuff disease in the community. Our data set included 5000 patients with rotator cuff disease who were individually matched with a single control by age, sex, and general practice (primary care practice). The median age at diagnosis was 55 years (interquartile range, 44-65 years). Multivariate analysis showed that the risk factors associated with rotator cuff disease were Achilles tendinitis (odds ratio [OR] = 1.78), trigger finger (OR = 1.99), lateral epicondylitis (OR = 1.71), and carpal tunnel syndrome (OR = 1.55). Oral corticosteroid therapy (OR = 2.03), oral antidiabetic use (OR = 1.66), insulin use (OR = 1.77), and "overweight" body mass index of 25.1 to 30 (OR = 1.15) were also significantly associated. Current or previous smoking history, body mass index of greater than 30, any alcohol intake, medial epicondylitis, de Quervain syndrome, cubital tunnel syndrome, and rheumatoid arthritis were not found to be associated with rotator cuff disease. We have identified a number of comorbidities and risk factors for rotator cuff disease. These include lateral epicondylitis, carpal tunnel syndrome, trigger finger, Achilles tendinitis, oral corticosteroid use, and diabetes mellitus. The findings should alert the clinician to comorbid pathologic processes and guide future research into the etiology of this condition. Copyright © 2014 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The effect of rotator cuff repair on early overhead shoulder function: a study in 1600 consecutive rotator cuff repairs.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Hayden A; Lam, Patrick H; Walton, Judie R; Murrell, George A C

    2017-01-01

    Rotator cuff tears are often surgically repaired, generally with good results. However, repairs not infrequently retear, and how important repair integrity is with respect to early functional outcomes after rotator cuff repair is unclear. Thus, the purpose of this study was to determine the effect of a retear on overhead activities in a large cohort of patients after rotator cuff repair. This was a retrospective cohort study of prospectively collected data from 1600 consecutive rotator cuff repairs. Outcomes were based on patient responses to the L'Insalata Shoulder Questionnaire and findings on examination preoperatively and at 6 months of follow-up. Repair integrity was determined by ultrasound imaging at the 6-month follow-up visit. The 1600 patients (885 men, 715 women) were a mean age of 58 years. Postoperative ultrasound imaging found 13% (211 of 1600) of repairs had retorn. Significant improvements were seen irrespective of rotator cuff integrity in pain levels with overhead activity (P < .0001) and range of motion in forward flexion (P < .001) and abduction (P < .01). Patients with intact repairs had 9.5 N greater supraspinatus strength (P < .0001) and 6.9 N greater external rotation strength (P < .01) than those with a retear. To our knowledge, this is the largest study to evaluate the effect of rotator cuff repair integrity on shoulder function. Patients who had an arthroscopic rotator cuff repair reported significant improvements in overhead pain levels irrespective of the repair integrity at 6 months. Repair integrity influenced supraspinatus and external rotation power, where patients with intact repairs were stronger than those with a retear. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The Relationship Between Shoulder Stiffness and Rotator Cuff Healing: A Study of 1,533 Consecutive Arthroscopic Rotator Cuff Repairs.

    PubMed

    McNamara, William J; Lam, Patrick H; Murrell, George A C

    2016-11-16

    Retear and stiffness are not uncommon outcomes of rotator cuff repair. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between rotator cuff repair healing and shoulder stiffness. A total of 1,533 consecutive shoulders had an arthroscopic rotator cuff repair by a single surgeon. Patients assessed their shoulder stiffness using a Likert scale preoperatively and at 1, 6, 12, and 24 weeks (6 months) postoperatively, and examiners evaluated passive range of motion preoperatively and at 6, 12, and 24 weeks postoperatively. Repair integrity was determined by ultrasound evaluation at 6 months. After rotator cuff repair, there was an overall significant loss of patient-ranked and examiner-assessed shoulder motion at 6 weeks compared with preoperative measurements (p < 0.0001), a partial recovery at 12 weeks, and a full recovery at 24 weeks. Shoulders that were stiff before surgery were more likely to be stiff at 6, 12, and, to a lesser extent, 24 weeks after surgery (r = 0.10 to 0.31; p < 0.0001). A stiffer shoulder at 6 and 12 weeks (but not 24 weeks) postoperatively correlated with better rotator cuff integrity at 6 months postoperatively (r = 0.11 to 0.18; p < 0.001). The retear rate of patients with ≤20° of external rotation at 6 weeks postoperatively was 7%, while the retear rate of patients with >20° of external rotation at 6 weeks was 15% (p < 0.001). In patients who developed stiffness after surgery, a rotator cuff repair was more likely to heal. Therapeutic Level III. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence. Copyright © 2016 by The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Incorporated.

  6. The Jovian ammonia abundance from interferometric observations of limb darkening at 3.4 mm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valdes, F.; Welch, W. J.; Haber, D.

    1982-01-01

    The relative abundances of the various atomic and molecular constituents in the Jovian atmosphere are important data for studies of the origin of the solar system. The determination of the ammonia abundance presents a number of difficulties. However, difficulties related to a use of the microwave sensing technique can be largely overcome by measuring the brightness distribution across the disk. In particular, information about the atmosphere can be obtained from the degree of limb darkening, which requires only a relative brightness measurement as opposed to an absolute measurement. Valdes and Welch (1978) have used the considered approach in a study of Jupiter at 1.3 cm. In the present investigation a more general relation between the amount of limb darkening in the broad 1.25-cm inversion band of ammonia and the ammonia abundance is derived. The model is applied to new measurements of Jupiter's limb darkening at 3.4 mm.

  7. Prognostic factors for recovery after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair: a prognostic study.

    PubMed

    Fermont, Anouk J; Wolterbeek, Nienke; Wessel, Ronald N; Baeyens, Jean-Pierre; de Bie, Rob A

    2015-08-01

    Studies concerning prognostic factors of recovery after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair mostly focus on tendon integrity or functional recovery as an outcome. Little is known about how they influence quality of life after surgery. We therefore tried to identify prognostic factors having an impact on quality of life after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. This study included 30 patients who underwent arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. We assessed Western Ontario Rotator Cuff Index as primary outcome and RAND-36, Constant-Murley score, and a shoulder hindrance score as secondary outcomes. Patients were repeatedly measured: once preoperatively and 4 times postoperatively. Preoperative range of motion, obesity, fatty infiltration, and cuff retraction were preselected as prognostic factors. Patients were significantly improved at 3 months and 6 months after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. In multiple regression analysis, none of the preselected factors could be identified as a prognostic factor influencing quality of life after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair (measured with the Western Ontario Rotator Cuff Index). For the outcome variables RAND-36 (6 months, 1 year) and shoulder hindrance score (1 year), fatty infiltration Goutallier stages 1 and 2 and retraction grades II, III, and IV were significant predictors. Although fatty infiltration and retraction grade predict the RAND-36 and shoulder hindrance score, this study could not support preoperative range of motion, obesity, fatty infiltration, or retraction of the cuff as a prognostic factor for quality of life after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. This study shows that if selection of patients is done properly, these factors do not influence a successful outcome. Copyright © 2015 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of tamoxifen on fatty degeneration and atrophy of rotator cuff muscles in chronic rotator cuff tear: An animal model study.

    PubMed

    Cho, Edward; Zhang, Yue; Pruznak, Anne; Kim, H Mike

    2015-12-01

    Fatty degeneration of the rotator cuff muscles is an irreversible change resulting from chronic rotator cuff tear and is associated with poor clinical outcomes following rotator cuff repair. We evaluated the effect of Tamoxifen, a competitive estrogen receptor inhibitor, on fatty degeneration using a mouse model for chronic rotator cuff tear. Sixteen adult mice were divided into two diet groups (Tamoxifen vs. Regular) and subjected to surgical creation of a large rotator cuff tear and suprascapular nerve transection in their left shoulder with the right shoulder serving as a control. The rotator cuff muscles were harvested at 16 weeks and subjected to histology and RT-PCR for adipogenic and myogenic markers. Histology showed substantially decreased atrophy and endomysial inflammation in Tamoxifen group, but no significant differences in the amount of intramuscular adipocytes and lipid droplets compared to the Regular group. With RT-PCR, the operated shoulders showed significant upregulation of myogenin and PPAR-γ, and downregulation of myostatin compared to the nonsurgical shoulder. No significant differences of gene expression were found between the two diet groups. Our study demonstrated that tamoxifen diet leads to decreased muscle atrophy and inflammatory changes following chronic rotator cuff tear, but has no apparent effect on adipogenesis. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Prevalence of symptomatic rotator cuff ruptures after shoulder trauma: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Valkering, Kars P; Stokman, Remco D; Bijlsma, Taco S; Brohet, Richard M; van Noort, Arthur

    2014-10-01

    After shoulder trauma, most fractures and dislocations are easily recognized on radiographic examination; however, the opposite is true for rotator cuff injuries. As a consequence, shoulder complaints may persist or arise due to unrecognized cuff injury. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of shoulder pain and symptomatic rotator cuff ruptures 1 year after shoulder trauma without fracture or dislocation. This prospective descriptive study included all the patients presented at our emergency department between January 2007 and January 2008 after a trauma to the shoulder without fracture or dislocation. One year after trauma, this cohort was interviewed by telephone and re-examined at the outpatient clinic on indication. Of the 217 patients included, all had been pain-free before the trauma. One year after trauma, 69 patients (32%) were still suffering from shoulder pain. Of these patients, 31 were re-examined and 27 had already been re-examined in the meantime. In total, 20 of these 58 patients (34%) were diagnosed with a symptomatic rotator cuff rupture, representing a prevalence of 9% among the included patients. Emergency physicians should be aware that normal radiography does not exclude the presence of a rotator cuff tear in patients with a history of shoulder trauma. Regular follow-up is essential for discovering rotator cuff injuries. In this study, 32% still suffered from shoulder pain 1 year after shoulder trauma, and re-examination revealed a prevalence of 9% symptomatic rotator cuff ruptures.

  10. Thickness of the Rotator Cuff Tendons at the Articular Margin: An Anatomic Cadaveric Study.

    PubMed

    Sessions, William C; Lawrence, Rebekah L; Steubs, J Tyler; Ludewig, Paula M; Braman, Jonathan P

    2017-01-01

    With a substantial portion of the population experiencing rotator cuff pathology, the importance of understanding mechanisms of rotator cuff disease remains critical. Current research aimed at understanding relationships between shoulder movement and cuff injuries has been hindered by our limited knowledge of the thickness of soft tissue structures within the shoulder. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to measure the thicknesses of all four rotator cuff tendons at the articular margin. An anatomic study of 21 cadaveric shoulders was conducted. The thicknesses of the four rotator cuff tendon insertions were measured by caliper at the articular margin. The mean thickness of the supraspinatus at the articular margin was 4.9 mm ± 2.1 (median: 4.2 mm, range: 2.9-12.7 mm). The mean thickness of the infraspinatus tendon was 4.9 mm ± 1.3 (median: 4.8 mm, range: 3.0-7.2 mm). The mean thickness of the teres minor tendon was 3.20 mm ± 1.14 (median: 2.9 mm, range: 1.7-5.7 mm). Finally, the mean thickness of the subscapularis tendon at the articular margin was 5.5 mm ± 1.3 (median: 5.5 mm, range: 3.5-9.3 mm). This current study provides needed objective data about the thickness of the rotator cuff tendons at the articular margin. Data regarding the infraspinatus, teres minor and teres major, which have been largely understudied, are particularly important. In addition, the current study demonstrates that rotator cuff thicknesses can vary substantially between individuals. There are likely natural age related changes as well as changes from etiologies that are not yet elucidated. Clinical Relevance: Data from this study will allow for improved modelling accuracy of soft tissue structures specific to the shoulder. Eventually knowledge gained through study of shoulder mechanics can be used to pursue prevention of rotator cuff tears and improve targeted treatment planning.

  11. Living with a symptomatic rotator cuff tear ‘bad days, bad nights’: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Rotator cuff tears are a common cause of shoulder pain. There is an absence of information about symptomatic rotator cuffs from the patients’ perspective; this limits the information clinicians can share with patients and the information that patients can access via sources such as the internet. This study describes the experiences of people with a symptomatic rotator cuff, their symptoms, the impact upon their daily lives and the coping strategies utilised by study participants. Methods An interpretive phenomenological analysis approach was used. 20 participants of the UKUFF trial (The United Kingdom Rotator Cuff Surgery Trial) agreed to participate in in-depth semi-structured interviews about their experiences about living with a symptomatic rotator cuff tear. Interviews were digitally recorded and fully transcribed. Field notes, memos and a reflexive diary were used. Data was coded in accordance with interpretive phenomenological analysis. Peer review, code-recode audits and constant comparison of data, codes and categories occurred throughout. Results The majority of patients described intense pain and severely disturbed sleep. Limited movement and reduced muscle strength were described by some participants. The predominantly adverse impact that a symptomatic rotator cuff tear had upon activities of daily living, leisure activities and occupation was described. The emotional and financial impact and impact upon caring roles were detailed. Coping strategies included attempting to carry on as normally as possible, accepting their condition, using their other arm, using analgesics, aids and adaptions. Conclusions Clinicians need to appreciate and understand the intensity and shocking nature of pain that may be experienced by participants with known rotator cuff tears and understand the detrimental impact tears can have upon all areas of patient’s lives. Clinicians also need to be aware of the potential emotional impact caused by cuff tears and to

  12. Arthroscopic vs mini-open rotator cuff repair. A quality of life impairment study

    PubMed Central

    Osti, Leonardo; Papalia, Rocco; Paganelli, Massimo; Denaro, Enzo

    2009-01-01

    We compared the clinical and quality of life related outcome of rotator cuff repair performed using either a mini-open or an arthroscopic technique for rotator cuff tears of less than 3 cm. The records of 64 patients who underwent rotator cuff repair between September 2003 and September 2005 were evaluated. Thirty-two patients underwent a mini-open rotator cuff repair, and 32 patients underwent an arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. The mean follow-up period was 31 months in the mini-open group and 30.6 months in the arthroscopic group (P > 0.05). The UCLA rating system, range of motion examination and the self-administered SF-36 used for postoperative evaluation showed a statistically significant improvement from the preoperative to the final score for both groups (P < 0.05). No statistically significant difference in the total UCLA scores was found when comparing the two repair techniques (P > 0.05). This study suggests that there is no difference in terms of subjective and objective outcomes between the two surgical procedures studied if patients have rotator cuff tears of less than 3 cm. PMID:19424692

  13. Arthroscopic vs mini-open rotator cuff repair. A quality of life impairment study.

    PubMed

    Osti, Leonardo; Papalia, Rocco; Paganelli, Massimo; Denaro, Enzo; Maffulli, Nicola

    2010-03-01

    We compared the clinical and quality of life related outcome of rotator cuff repair performed using either a mini-open or an arthroscopic technique for rotator cuff tears of less than 3 cm. The records of 64 patients who underwent rotator cuff repair between September 2003 and September 2005 were evaluated. Thirty-two patients underwent a mini-open rotator cuff repair, and 32 patients underwent an arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. The mean follow-up period was 31 months in the mini-open group and 30.6 months in the arthroscopic group (P > 0.05). The UCLA rating system, range of motion examination and the self-administered SF-36 used for postoperative evaluation showed a statistically significant improvement from the preoperative to the final score for both groups (P < 0.05). No statistically significant difference in the total UCLA scores was found when comparing the two repair techniques (P > 0.05). This study suggests that there is no difference in terms of subjective and objective outcomes between the two surgical procedures studied if patients have rotator cuff tears of less than 3 cm.

  14. Microfractures at the rotator cuff footprint: a randomised controlled study.

    PubMed

    Osti, Leonardo; Del Buono, Angelo; Maffulli, Nicola

    2013-11-01

    Microfractures at the footprint may be a potential additional source of growth factor and enhance the tendon healing at the bone-tendon junction when repairing rotator cuff tears. Fifty-seven patients who underwent shoulder arthroscopy for repair of complete rotator cuff tears were randomly divided into two groups, using a block randomisation procedure. Patients underwent microfracture at the footprint in the treatment group. The patients in the control group (n = 29) did not receive that treatment. All patients had the same post-operative rehabilitation protocol. The two groups were homogeneous. There was a significant improvement from baseline to the last minimum follow-up of two years. At three months from the index procedure, visual analogue scale (VAS), range of motion (ROM) and University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA) and Constant scores were significantly better in group 1 than in group 2 (P < .05). At the last follow-up (minimum two years), clinical and functional outcomes were further improved in both the groups but inter-group differences were not significant. No technique-related complications were recorded. Microfractures at the footprint are simple, safe, inexpensive and effective at producing less pain in the short term in patients who undergo rotator cuff repair, but at two years they do not result in significantly different outcomes, either clinically or at imaging, compared to traditional rotator cuff repair.

  15. Dynamic Three-Dimensional Shoulder Mri during Active Motion for Investigation of Rotator Cuff Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Tempelaere, Christine; Pierrart, Jérome; Lefèvre-Colau, Marie-Martine; Vuillemin, Valérie; Cuénod, Charles-André; Hansen, Ulrich; Mir, Olivier; Skalli, Wafa; Gregory, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Background MRI is the standard methodology in diagnosis of rotator cuff diseases. However, many patients continue to have pain despite treatment, and MRI of a static unloaded shoulder seems insufficient for best diagnosis and treatment. This study evaluated if Dynamic MRI provides novel kinematic data that can be used to improve the understanding, diagnosis and best treatment of rotator cuff diseases. Methods Dynamic MRI provided real-time 3D image series and was used to measure changes in the width of subacromial space, superior-inferior translation and anterior-posterior translation of the humeral head relative to the glenoid during active abduction. These measures were investigated for consistency with the rotator cuff diseases classifications from standard MRI. Results The study included: 4 shoulders with massive rotator cuff tears, 5 shoulders with an isolated full-thickness supraspinatus tear, 5 shoulders with tendinopathy and 6 normal shoulders. A change in the width of subacromial space greater than 4mm differentiated between rotator cuff diseases with tendon tears (massive cuff tears and supraspinatus tear) and without tears (tendinopathy) (p = 0.012). The range of the superior-inferior translation was higher in the massive cuff tears group (6.4mm) than in normals (3.4mm) (p = 0.02). The range of the anterior-posterior translation was higher in the massive cuff tears (9.2 mm) and supraspinatus tear (9.3 mm) shoulders compared to normals (3.5mm) and tendinopathy (4.8mm) shoulders (p = 0.05). Conclusion The Dynamic MRI enabled a novel measure; ‘Looseness’, i.e. the translation of the humeral head on the glenoid during an abduction cycle. Looseness was better able at differentiating different forms of rotator cuff disease than a simple static measure of relative glenohumeral position. PMID:27434235

  16. Dynamic Three-Dimensional Shoulder Mri during Active Motion for Investigation of Rotator Cuff Diseases.

    PubMed

    Tempelaere, Christine; Pierrart, Jérome; Lefèvre-Colau, Marie-Martine; Vuillemin, Valérie; Cuénod, Charles-André; Hansen, Ulrich; Mir, Olivier; Skalli, Wafa; Gregory, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    MRI is the standard methodology in diagnosis of rotator cuff diseases. However, many patients continue to have pain despite treatment, and MRI of a static unloaded shoulder seems insufficient for best diagnosis and treatment. This study evaluated if Dynamic MRI provides novel kinematic data that can be used to improve the understanding, diagnosis and best treatment of rotator cuff diseases. Dynamic MRI provided real-time 3D image series and was used to measure changes in the width of subacromial space, superior-inferior translation and anterior-posterior translation of the humeral head relative to the glenoid during active abduction. These measures were investigated for consistency with the rotator cuff diseases classifications from standard MRI. The study included: 4 shoulders with massive rotator cuff tears, 5 shoulders with an isolated full-thickness supraspinatus tear, 5 shoulders with tendinopathy and 6 normal shoulders. A change in the width of subacromial space greater than 4mm differentiated between rotator cuff diseases with tendon tears (massive cuff tears and supraspinatus tear) and without tears (tendinopathy) (p = 0.012). The range of the superior-inferior translation was higher in the massive cuff tears group (6.4mm) than in normals (3.4mm) (p = 0.02). The range of the anterior-posterior translation was higher in the massive cuff tears (9.2 mm) and supraspinatus tear (9.3 mm) shoulders compared to normals (3.5mm) and tendinopathy (4.8mm) shoulders (p = 0.05). The Dynamic MRI enabled a novel measure; 'Looseness', i.e. the translation of the humeral head on the glenoid during an abduction cycle. Looseness was better able at differentiating different forms of rotator cuff disease than a simple static measure of relative glenohumeral position.

  17. Surgical referral criteria for degenerative rotator cuff tears: a Delphi questionnaire study.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Stephanie; Yohannes, A M

    2014-06-01

    Selecting the most appropriate patients to refer for surgery is crucial for high-quality and efficient clinical care. However, there are no specific referral criteria to guide the referral of appropriate patients for rotator cuff repair surgery. The aim of the present study was to design robust surgical referral criteria for patients with degenerative rotator cuff tears using consensus methodology. A two-round Delphi questionnaire was undertaken with a nationally representative sample of 41 specialist shoulder surgeons experienced in rotator cuff repair. Surgical referral criteria for degenerative rotator cuff tear were developed where consensus of at least 70% agreement was achieved. The initial questionnaire consisted of 24 items. Consensus was reached on 14 items, including: severity of pain, functional limitation, the identification of fat atrophy, agreement that a course of physiotherapy should be attempted before surgical referral, and exclusion for those with an active frozen shoulder. However, there was no consensus with regard to the dimensions of the tear. The surgical referral criteria developed were novel and promising for patients with degenerative rotator cuff tears, and further research is required to examine their efficacy.

  18. Association Between Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors and Rotator Cuff Tendinopathy: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Applegate, Kara Arnold; Thiese, Matthew S; Merryweather, Andrew S; Kapellusch, Jay; Drury, David L; Wood, Eric; Kendall, Richard; Foster, James; Garg, Arun; Hegmann, Kurt T

    2017-02-01

    Recent evidence has found potential associations between cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors and common musculoskeletal disorders. We evaluated possible associations between risk factors and both glenohumeral joint pain and rotator cuff tendinopathy. Data from WISTAH hand study participants (n = 1226) were assessed for associations between Framingham Heart Study CVD risk factors and both health outcomes. A strong association was observed between CVD risk scores and both glenohumeral joint pain and rotator cuff tendinopathy. Peak odds ratios (ORs) of the adjusted models were 4.55 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.97 to 10.31] and 5.97 (95% CI 2.12 to 16.83), respectively. The results show a dose-response trend of increasing risk. Individual risk factors were associated with both outcomes. Combined, CVD risk factors demonstrated a strong correlation with glenohumeral joint pain and an even stronger correlation with rotator cuff tendinopathy. Results suggest a potentially modifiable disease mechanism.

  19. Thickness of the Rotator Cuff Tendons at the Articular Margin: An Anatomic Cadaveric Study

    PubMed Central

    Sessions, William C.; Lawrence, Rebekah L.; Steubs, J. Tyler; Braman, Jonathan P.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background With a substantial portion of the population experiencing rotator cuff pathology, the importance of understanding mechanisms of rotator cuff disease remains critical. Current research aimed at understanding relationships between shoulder movement and cuff injuries has been hindered by our limited knowledge of the thickness of soft tissue structures within the shoulder. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to measure the thicknesses of all four rotator cuff tendons at the articular margin. Methods An anatomic study of 21 cadaveric shoulders was conducted. The thicknesses of the four rotator cuff tendon insertions were measured by caliper at the articular margin. Results The mean thickness of the supraspinatus at the articular margin was 4.9 mm ± 2.1 (median: 4.2 mm, range: 2.9-12.7 mm). The mean thickness of the infraspinatus tendon was 4.9 mm ± 1.3 (median: 4.8 mm, range: 3.0-7.2 mm). The mean thickness of the teres minor tendon was 3.20 mm ± 1.14 (median: 2.9 mm, range: 1.7-5.7 mm). Finally, the mean thickness of the subscapularis tendon at the articular margin was 5.5 mm ± 1.3 (median: 5.5 mm, range: 3.5-9.3 mm) Conclusions This current study provides needed objective data about the thickness of the rotator cuff tendons at the articular margin. Data regarding the infraspinatus, teres minor and teres major, which have been largely understudied, are particularly important. In addition, the current study demonstrates that rotator cuff thicknesses can vary substantially between individuals. There are likely natural age related changes as well as changes from etiologies that are not yet elucidated. Clinical Relevance: Data from this study will allow for improved modelling accuracy of soft tissue structures specific to the shoulder. Eventually knowledge gained through study of shoulder mechanics can be used to pursue prevention of rotator cuff tears and improve targeted treatment planning. PMID:28852340

  20. Operatively treated traumatic versus non-traumatic rotator cuff ruptures: a registry study.

    PubMed

    Kukkonen, Juha; Joukainen, Antti; Itälä, Ari; Äärimaa, Ville

    2013-03-01

    Operative treatment of traumatic rotator cuff ruptures, i.e. ruptures with a predisposing traumatic event, is reported to yield superior results compared to operative treatment of non-traumatic, degenerative ruptures. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the difference of outcome, peroperative findings, and demographics after operative treatment of traumatic versus non-traumatic rotator cuff rupture. A total of 306 consecutive shoulders with an operated rotator cuff rupture (124 traumatic and 182 non-traumatic) were followed up. Constant and Murley score, size of the rupture, and age of the patients were used as an outcome measure. A total of 112 traumatic and 167 non-traumatic rotator cuff rupture shoulders were available for 1-year follow-up (91%). Mean Constant and Murley score was preoperatively lower in the traumatic group (46 versus 52, P = 0.01). At 3 months postoperatively, Constant and Murley scores were 61 and 60 (P = 0.72) and at 1 year 73 and 77 (P = 0.03), respectively. Altogether 91% of the patients in the traumatic and 93% in the non-traumatic group were satisfied with the final outcome (P = 0.45). In 94% of traumatic and 95% of a non-traumatic cases the rupture involved the supraspinatus tendon. In the traumatic group the rupture was larger and involved more frequently the whole supraspinatus insertion area (41% versus 17%, P < 0.0001). Mean age of patients was 58 and 57 years, respectively. Operative treatment of both traumatic and non-traumatic rotator cuff ruptures gives essentially good results. In our cohort, patients' recollection of predisposing trauma reflects the size of the rotator cuff rupture, but does not reflect the age of the patients.

  1. A 3.4-mm beam diameter system for retinal imaging with OCT and adaptive optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddikumar, Maddipatla; Cense, Barry

    2017-04-01

    We present an adaptive-optics optical coherence tomography (AO-OCT) system with 3.4-mm beam diameter. A deformable mirror is used for the correction of two radial Zernike orders (defocus, vertical and oblique astigmatism). The aberrations are corrected sequentially with a Shack-Hartmann wave-front sensor and the deformable mirror. This system fills a gap between a standard clinical 1.2-mm beam diameter OCT system and a 6-mm beam diameter AO-OCT system. We also present 8° by 8° en face OCT images from a patient with macular degeneration. This system has a 25 cm by 50 cm footprint, which makes it considerably smaller to conventional 6-mm beam diameter AO-OCT system. Because of its larger field of view and smaller size, it is likely to be useful in the ophthalmic clinics for high-resolution imaging of the human eye retina.

  2. Assessment of rotator cuff repair integrity using ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging in a multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Codsi, Michael J; Rodeo, Scott A; Scalise, Jason J; Moorehead, Tara McDonnell; Ma, C Benjamin

    2014-10-01

    This study compared ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) evaluation of the repaired rotator cuff to determine concordance between these imaging studies. We performed a concordance study using the data from a prospective nonrandomized multicenter study at 13 centers. A suture bridge technique was used to repair 113 rotator cuff tears that were between 1 and 4 cm wide. Repairs were evaluated with MRI and ultrasound at multiple time points after surgery. The MRI scans were read by a central radiologist and the surgeon, and the ultrasounds were read by a local radiologist or the surgeon who performed the ultrasound. The concordance between the central radiologist's MRI reading and the investigator's MRI readings at all time points was 89%, with a κ coefficient of 0.60. The concordance between the central radiologist's MRI and ultrasound readings at all time points was 85%, with a κ coefficient of 0.40. The concordance between the investigator's MRI and ultrasound readings was 92%, with a κ coefficient of 0.70. In the community setting, ultrasound may be used to evaluate the integrity of a repaired rotator cuff tendon and constitutes a comparable alternative to MRI when evaluating the integrity of a rotator cuff repair. Clinical investigators should compare their postoperative ultrasound results with their postoperative MRI results for a certain time period to establish the accuracy of ultrasound before relying solely on ultrasound imaging to evaluate the integrity of their rotator cuff repairs. Copyright © 2014 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Prevalence and predictors of out-of-range cuff pressure of endotracheal and tracheostomy tubes: a prospective cohort study in mechanically ventilated patients.

    PubMed

    Alzahrani, Amer R; Al Abbasi, Shatha; Abahoussin, Othman Khalid; Al Shehri, Tariq Othman; Al-Dorzi, Hasan M; Tamim, Hani M; Sadat, Musharaf; Arabi, Yaseen M

    2015-10-15

    Maintaining the cuff pressure of endotracheal tubes (ETTs) within 20-30 cmH2O is a standard practice. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of standard practice in maintaining cuff pressure within the target range. This was a prospective observational study conducted in a tertiary-care intensive care unit, in which respiratory therapists (RTs) measured the cuff pressure 6 hourly by a handheld manometer. In this study, a research RT checked cuff pressure 2-4 h after the clinical RT measurement. Percentages of patients with cuff pressure levels above and below the target range were calculated. We identified predictors of low-cuff pressure. We analyzed 2120 cuff-pressure measurements. The mean cuff pressure was 27 ± 2 cmH2O by the clinical RT and 21 ± 5 cmH2O by the research RT (p < 0.0001). The clinical RT documented that 98.0 % of cuff pressures were within the normal range. The research RT found the cuff pressures to be within the normal range in only 41.5 %, below the range in 53 % and above the range in 5.5 %. Low cuff pressure was found more common with lower ETT size (OR, 0.34 per 0.5 unit increase in ETT size; 95 % CI, 0.15-0.79) and with lower peak airway pressure (OR per one cm H2O increment, 0.93; 95 % CI, 0.87-0.99) on multivariate analysis. Cuff pressure is frequently not maintained within the target range with low-cuff pressure being very common approximately 3 h after routine measurements. Low cuff pressure was associated with lower ETT size and lower peak airway pressure. There is a need to redesign the process for maintaining cuff pressure within the target range.

  4. Quantifying extensibility of rotator cuff muscle with tendon rupture using shear wave elastography: A cadaveric study.

    PubMed

    Hatta, Taku; Giambini, Hugo; Itoigawa, Yoshiaki; Hooke, Alexander W; Sperling, John W; Steinmann, Scott P; Itoi, Eiji; An, Kai-Nan

    2017-08-16

    Surgical repair for large rotator cuff tear remains challenging due to tear size, altered muscle mechanical properties, and poor musculotendinous extensibility. Insufficient extensibility might lead to an incomplete reconstruction; moreover, excessive stresses after repair may result in repair failure without healing. Therefore, estimates of extensibility of cuff muscles can help in pre-surgical planning to prevent unexpected scenarios during surgery. The purpose of this study was to determine if quantified mechanical properties of the supraspinatus muscle using shear wave elastography (SWE) could be used to predict the extensibility of the musculotendinous unit on cadaveric specimens. Forty-five fresh-frozen cadaveric shoulders (25 intact and 20 with rotator cuff tear) were used for the study. Passive stiffness of 4 anatomical regions in the supraspinatus muscle was first measured using SWE. After detaching the distal edge of supraspinatus muscle from other cuff muscles, the detached muscle was axially pulled with the scapula fixed. The correlation between the SWE modulus and the extensibility of the muscle under 30 and 60N loads was assessed. There was a significant negative correlation between SWE measurements and the experimental extensibility. SWE modulus for the anterior-deep region in the supraspinatus muscle showed the strongest correlation with extensibility under 30N (r=0.70, P<0.001) and 60N (r=0.68, P<0.001). Quantitative SWE assessment for the supraspinatus muscle was highly correlated with extensibility of musculotendinous unit on cadaveric shoulders. This technique may be used to predict the extensibility for rotator cuff tears for pre-surgical planning. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Do partial thickness, bursal side cuff tears affect outcome following arthroscopic subacromial decompression? A prospective comparative cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Al-Maiyah, Mohammed; Goodchild, Lorna; Fourie, J M Brendan; Finn, Paul; Rangan, Amar

    2014-01-01

    Background: The present study aimed to compare medium-term clinical outcomes of patients following arthroscopic subacromial decompression (ASAD): those with intact rotator cuff with two groups of increasing size of partial thickness bursal-side tears. Methods: Patients undergoing shoulder arthroscopy by a single surgeon had pre- and postoperative Constant scores prospectively recorded. Arthroscopic surgery included the assessment of any supraspinatus tears using the Ellman criteria, as well as ASAD and cuff debridement. Groups were created based on the status of rotator cuff and size of bursal tear. Outcome in these patient groups was then compared and analyzed Results: Seventy-four patients were suitable for inclusion in the study: 32 patients without a cuff tear; 21 patients with a cuff tear of 9 mm or less in length; and 21 patients with a cuff tear of 10 mm or more in length. Baseline characteristics of the three groups were similar. All three groups showed a significant improvement in their Constant scores following surgery. There was, however, no significant difference in Constant scores between the three groups. Conclusions: The results of the present study show that patients with varying sizes of bursal-side tears respond to ASAD as well as those with no rotator cuff tear. PMID:27582953

  6. Performance After Rotator Cuff Tear and Operative Treatment: A Case-Control Study of Major League Baseball Pitchers

    PubMed Central

    Namdari, Surena; Baldwin, Keith; Ahn, Albert; Huffman, G. Russell; Sennett, Brian J.

    2011-01-01

    Context: Little is known about pitching performance or lack of it among Major League Baseball (MLB) pitchers who undergo operative treatment of rotator cuff tears. Objective: To assess pitching performance outcomes in MLB players who needed operative treatment of rotator cuff tears and to compare performance in these athletes with that in a control group of MLB players. Design: Case-control study. Setting: Publicly available player profiles, press releases, and team injury reports. Patients or Other Participants: Thirty-three MLB pitchers with documented surgery to treat rotator cuff tears and 117 control pitchers who did not have documented rotator cuff tears were identified. Main Outcome Measure(s): Major League Baseball pitching attrition and performance variables. Results: Players who underwent rotator cuff surgery were no more likely not to play than control players. Performance variables of players who underwent surgery improved after surgery but never returned to baseline preoperative status. Players who needed rotator cuff surgery typically were more experienced and had better earned run averages than control players. Conclusions: Pitchers who had symptomatic rotator cuff tears that necessitated operative treatment tended to decline gradually in performance leading up to their operations and to improve gradually over the next 3 seasons. In contrast to what we expected, they did not have a greater attrition rate than their control counterparts; however, their performances did not return to preoperative levels over the course of the study. PMID:21669100

  7. Postoperative pain after arthroscopic versus open rotator cuff repair. A prospective study.

    PubMed

    Pham, T T; Bayle Iniguez, X; Mansat, P; Maubisson, L; Bonnevialle, N

    2016-02-01

    Although the arthroscopic technique is becoming the gold standard for rotator cuff tendon repair, there is no proof that this technique results in less postoperative pain compared to open repair. The aim of this study was to prospectively compare the postoperative pain level after arthroscopic or open rotator cuff repair and to define factors that could influence its course. Between January 2012 and January 2013, 95 patients were operated for a rotator cuff tear: 45 using an arthroscopic technique and 50 an open technique. Daily analgesic use and self-evaluation of pain level using a visual analogic scale were recorded preoperatively and twice a day postoperatively during the first 6 weeks. These data were compared between the two groups and analyzed according to patients' demographic data and preoperative evaluation of the tear. The preoperative pain level was equivalent in the two groups (P=0.22). Postoperatively, level-2 analgesic medication use was greater in the arthroscopic group after the 4th week (P=0.01). A pain-free shoulder was obtained before the 6th week in 75% and 66% of the patients after arthroscopic or open repair, respectively (P=0.34). There was a positive correlation between the preoperative and postoperative pain level (r=0.25; P=0.02). Work compensation patients experienced more pain postoperatively (P=0.08). Level-III analgesic medication use was greater for patients with massive rotator cuff tear (P=0.001). No evidence was found on the superiority of arthroscopy versus open repair of rotator cuff tear concerning the postoperative pain level. The choice of the surgical technique should not be based on this argument. II. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Pulsed electromagnetic fields after rotator cuff repair: a randomized, controlled study.

    PubMed

    Osti, Leonardo; Buono, Angelo Del; Maffulli, Nicola

    2015-03-01

    The current study tested the hypothesis that the use of pulsed electromagnetic fields after rotator cuff repair is effective in the short term as an adjuvant treatment to reduce local inflammation, postoperative joint swelling, and recovery time, as well as to induce pain relief. Sixty-six patients who underwent shoulder arthroscopy for repair of small to medium rotator cuff tears were randomly divided into 2 groups with a block randomization procedure. Thirty-two patients underwent arthroscopic rotator cuff repair and application of pulsed electromagnetic fields postoperatively; 34 patients underwent rotator cuff repair and placebo treatment (placebo group). All patients had the same postoperative rehabilitation protocol. At 3 months from the index procedure, visual analog scale, range of motion, and University of California at Los Angeles and Constant scores were significantly better in the pulsed electromagnetic fields group than in the placebo group (P<.05). Three patients in the pulsed electromagnetic fields group and 7 patients in the placebo group had mild to moderate capsulitis (P=.2). Severe capsulitis occurred in 1 patient in the pulsed electromagnetic fields group and 2 patients in the placebo group (P=.6). At the last follow-up (minimum, 2 years), clinical and functional outcomes were further improved in both groups, with no significant intergroup differences. Application of pulsed electromagnetic fields after rotator cuff repair is safe and reduces postoperative pain, analgesic use, and stiffness in the short term. At 2 years, no difference was seen in outcomes in patients who did or did not undergo treatment with pulsed electromagnetic fields. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  9. The effect of endotracheal tube cuff pressure change during gynecological laparoscopic surgery on postoperative sore throat: a control study.

    PubMed

    Geng, Guiqi; Hu, Jingyi; Huang, Shaoqiang

    2015-02-01

    Postoperative respiratory complications related to endotracheal intubation usually present as cough, sore throat, hoarseness. The aim of the study was to examine the effects of endotracheal tube cuff pressure changes during gynecological laparoscopic surgery on postoperative sore throat rates. Thirty patients who underwent gynecological laparoscopic surgery and 30 patients who underwent laparotomy under general anesthesia with endotracheal intubation were included. After induction of general anesthesia and endotracheal intubation, the cuff was inflated to 25 mmHg. At 5, 15, 30, 45 and 60 min after endotracheal intubation, cuff pressure and peak airway pressure were recorded. At 2 and 24 h after surgery, the patients were assessed for complaints of a sore throat. In patients who underwent laparotomy, cuff pressure and peak airway pressure did not change significantly at different time points after intubation. In patients who received laparoscopic surgery, cuff pressure and peak airway pressure were significantly increased compared to initial pressure at all examined time points. In both groups, the endotracheal tube cuff pressure and peak airway pressure were significantly correlated (R=0.9431, P<0.01; R=0.8468, P<0.01). Compared to patients who had undergone laparotomy, patients who had undergone laparoscopic surgery showed significantly higher sore throat scores at both 2 and 24 h after surgery (P<0.01). Pneumoperitoneum and Trendelenburg position may increase airway pressure and cuff pressure, resulting in increased incidence of postoperative sore throat.

  10. Fractures of the greater tuberosity of the humerus: a study of associated rotator cuff injury and atrophy.

    PubMed

    Rouleau, Dominique M; Laflamme, G Yves; Mutch, Jennifer

    2016-10-01

    This is a retrospective prognostic study on soft tissue injury following isolated greater tuberosity (GT) fractures of the proximal humerus with respect to the relationship between rotator cuff tears and GT displacement. Forty-three patients with isolated GT fractures were recruited and evaluated with a standardized interview and physical examination, quality of life and shoulder function questionnaires (Western Ontario Rotator Cuff Index, SF-12 Version 2, Constant, Quick-Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand, Visual Analogue Scale), standard shoulder radiographs and an ultrasound. The main outcome measurements were: incidence of rotator cuff tears and atrophy, biceps pathology and sub-acromial impingement; superior displacement of the GT fragment; and questionnaire scores. Mean age was 57 years (31 years to 90 years) with a follow-up of 2.4 years (0.8 years to 6.8 years). In total, 16% had a full rotator cuff tear and 57% showed subacromial impingement on ultrasound. Full rotator cuff tears and supraspinatus fatty atrophy significantly correlated with decreased function and abduction strength. Significant atrophy (>50%) of the supraspinatus and infraspinatus, without a rotator cuff tear, was correlated with the worst function in the presence of a residual displacement of the greater tuberosity at the last-follow-up (7 mm). Residual displacement, full rotator cuff tear and muscle atrophy are associated with the worst outcomes. Soft tissue imaging could benefit patients with an unfavourable outcome after a GT fracture to treat soft tissue injury.

  11. Prospective observational study on tracheal tube cuff pressures in emergency patients– is neglecting the problem the problem?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Inappropriately cuffed tracheal tubes can lead to inadequate ventilation or silent aspiration, or to serious tracheal damage. Cuff pressures are of particular importance during aeromedical transport as they increase due to decreased atmospheric pressure at flight level. We hypothesised, that cuff pressures are frequently too high in emergency and critically ill patients but are dependent on providers’ professional background. Methods Tracheal cuff pressures in patients intubated before arrival of a helicopter-based rescue team were prospectively recorded during a 12-month period. Information about the method used for initial cuff pressure assessment, profession of provider and time since intubation was collected by interview during patient handover. Indications for helicopter missions were either Intensive Care Unit (ICU) transports or emergency transfers. ICU transports were between ICUs of two hospitals. Emergency transfers were either evacuation from the scene or transfer from an emergency department to a higher facility. Results This study included 101 patients scheduled for aeromedical transport. Median cuff pressure measured at handover was 45 (25.0/80.0) cmH2O; range, 8-120 cmH2O. There was no difference between patient characteristics and tracheal tube-size or whether anaesthesia personnel or non-anaesthesia personnel inflated the cuff (30 (24.8/70.0) cmH2O vs. 50 (28.0/90.0) cmH2O); p = 0.113. With regard to mission type (63 patients underwent an emergency transfer, 38 patients an ICU transport), median cuff pressure was different: 58 (30.0/100.0) cmH2O in emergency transfers vs. 30 (20.0/45.8) cmH2O in inter-ICU transports; p < 0.001. For cuff pressure assessment by the intubating team, a manometer had been applied in 2 of 59 emergency transfers and in 20 of 34 inter-ICU transports (method was unknown for 4 cases each). If a manometer was used, median cuff pressure was 27 (20.0/30.0) cmH2O, if not 70 (47.3/102.8) cmH2O; p < 0

  12. Use of a shoulder abduction brace after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair: A study on gait performance and falls.

    PubMed

    Sonoda, Yuma; Nishioka, Takashi; Nakajima, Ryo; Imai, Shinji; Vigers, Piers; Kawasaki, Taku

    2017-03-01

    Fall prevention is essential in patients after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair because of the high risk of re-rupture. However, there are no reports related to falls that occur during the early postoperative period, while the affected limb is immobilized. This study assessed gait performance and falls in patients using a shoulder abduction brace after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. Prospective cohort and postoperative repeated measures. This study included 29 patients (mean age, 67.1 ± 7.4 years) who underwent arthroscopic rotator cuff repair followed by rehabilitation. The timed up and go test, Geriatric Depression Scale, and Falls Efficacy Scale were measured, and the numbers of falls were compared between those shoulder abduction brace users and patients who had undergone total hip or knee arthroplasty. In arthroscopic rotator cuff repair patients, there were significant improvements in timed up and go test and Geriatric Depression Scale, but no significant differences in Falls Efficacy Scale, between the second and fifth postoperative weeks ( p < 0.05). Additionally, arthroscopic rotator cuff repair patients fell more often than patients with total hip arthroplasty or total knee arthroplasty during the same period. The findings suggest that rehabilitation in arthroscopic rotator cuff repair patients is beneficial, but decreased gait performance due to the immobilizing shoulder abduction brace can lead to falls. Clinical relevance Although rehabilitation helps motor function and mental health after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair, shoulder abduction brace use is associated with impaired gait performance, high Falls Efficacy Scale scores, and risk of falls, so awareness of risk factors including medications and lower limb dysfunctions is especially important after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair.

  13. Rotator cuff-sparing approaches for glenohumeral joint access: an anatomic feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Amirthanayagam, Tressa D; Amis, Andrew A; Reilly, Peter; Emery, Roger J H

    2017-03-01

    The deltopectoral approach for total shoulder arthroplasty can result in subscapularis dysfunction. In addition, glenoid wear is more prevalent posteriorly, a region difficult to access with this approach. We propose a posterior approach for access in total shoulder arthroplasty that uses the internervous interval between the infraspinatus and teres minor. This study compares this internervous posterior approach with other rotator cuff-sparing techniques, namely, the subscapularis-splitting and rotator interval approaches. The 3 approaches were performed on 12 fresh frozen cadavers. The degree of circumferential access to the glenohumeral joint, the force exerted on the rotator cuff, the proximity of neurovascular structures, and the depth of the incisions were measured, and digital photographs of the approaches in different arm positions were analyzed. The posterior approach permits direct linear access to 60% of the humeral and 59% of the glenoid joint circumference compared with 39% and 42% for the subscapularis-splitting approach and 37% and 28% for the rotator interval approach. The mean force of retraction on the rotator cuff was 2.76 (standard deviation [SD], 1.10) N with the posterior approach, 2.72 (SD, 1.22) N with the rotator interval, and 4.75 (SD, 2.56) N with the subscapularis-splitting approach. From the digital photographs and depth measurements, the estimated volumetric access available for instrumentation during surgery was comparable for the 3 approaches. The internervous posterior approach provides greater access to the shoulder joint while minimizing damage to the rotator cuff. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Biomechanical effect of rotator cuff augmentation with an acellular dermal matrix graft: a cadaver study.

    PubMed

    Omae, Hiromichi; Steinmann, Scott P; Zhao, Chunfeng; Zobitz, Mark E; Wongtriratanachai, Prasit; Sperling, John W; An, Kai-Nan

    2012-10-01

    Acellular human dermal matrix grafts (Graftjacket; Wright Medical Technology, Arlington, TN, USA) are used clinically for rotator cuff augmentation without a detailed understanding of their biomechanical effects. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of augmentation with dermal grafts on the biomechanical effects of rotator cuff repairs. Nine matched pairs of human cadaveric shoulders were used. A single-row rotator cuff repair combined with an augmentation graft was performed on one shoulder, and a single-row repair was performed on the contralateral shoulder as a control. An acellular dermal matrix graft was sutured to the tendon medially and fixed to the humerus laterally. The constructs were preloaded at 10 N and then cyclically loaded between 10 and 180 N for 1000 cycles, followed by tensile testing to failure at 1.0 mm/s. The maximum load of the augmentation group (560.2 N, SD 95.5) was greater than that of the control group (345.7 N, SD 60.8), while the linear stiffness of the augmentation group (65.2 N/mm, SD 15.6) was less than that of the control group (77.2 N/mm, SD 15.7). Reliable gap distance data were not obtained during cyclic loading in 5 of 9 augmented repairs due to the elasticity of the dermal matrix graft. The dermal matrix graft augmentation increased the maximum load but did not increase the linear stiffness. The elasticity of the dermal matrix graft affected the biomechanical effects of the augmented rotator cuff repairs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. R1234yf vs. R134a Flow Boiling Heat Transfer Inside a 3.4 mm ID Microfin Tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diani, A.; Mancin, S.; Rossetto, L.

    2014-11-01

    The refrigerant charge minimization as well as the use of eco-friendly fluids can be considered two of the most important targets for these applications to cope with the new environmental challenges. This paper compares the R1234yf and R134a flow boiling heat transfer and pressure drop measurements inside a small microfin tube with internal diameter at the fin tip of 3.4 mm. This study is carried out in an experimental facility built at the Dipartimento di Ingegneria Industriale of the University of Padova especially designed to study both single and two phase heat transfer processes. The microfin tube is brazed inside a copper plate and electrically heated from the bottom. Several T -type thermocouples are inserted in the wall to measure the temperature distribution during the phase change process. In particular, the experimental measurements were carried out at constant saturation temperature of 30 °C, by varying the refrigerant mass velocity between 190 kg m-2 s-1 and 940 kg m-2 s-1, the vapour quality from 0.2 to 0.99, at different imposed heat fluxes. The two refrigerants are compared considering the values of the two-phase heat transfer coefficient and pressure drop.

  16. Arthroscopic treatment of rotator cuff disease.

    PubMed

    Gartsman, G M

    1995-01-01

    Rotator cuff disease represents a spectrum of tendon lesions including inflammation of an intrinsically normal tendon, tendon fibrosis, partial-thickness tears, complete tears, and cuff tear arthropathy. An in-depth analysis of the entire subject is beyond the scope of this article. This article will focus on the arthroscopic management of the spectrum of rotator cuff disease in an attempt to provide a timely summary of the present state of knowledge. Five stages of rotator cuff disease will be reviewed: stage 2 impingement, partial-thickness cuff tears, complete-thickness rotator cuff tears, irreparable rotator cuff tears, and cuff tear arthropathy. In preparing this article I have assumed that the reader is familiar with the diagnosis of rotator cuff lesions through the use of appropriate patient history, physical examination, and radiologic studies.

  17. Rotator cuff injuries.

    PubMed

    Crusher, R H

    2000-07-01

    Different types of rotator cuff injuries frequently present to Accident and Emergency departments and minor injury units but can be difficult to differentiate clinically. This brief case study describes the examination and diagnosis of related shoulder injuries, specifically rotator cuff tears/disruption and calcifying supraspinatus tendinitis. The relevant anatomy and current therapies for these injuries is also discussed to enable the emergency nurse practitioner to have a greater understanding of the theory surrounding their diagnosis and treatments.

  18. [Fixation of a non-adjustable gastric band using an anterior gastric wall cuff (randomized study)].

    PubMed

    Kasalický, M; Fried, M; Pesková, M; Bortlík, M; Votrubová, J

    2000-05-01

    We have been concerned with bariatric surgery at the First Surgical Clinic of th General Faculty Hospital, First Medical Faculty, Charles University Prague since 1983. In 1983-1986 vertical gastroplasties were made, between 1986 and 1993 non-adjustable gastric bands were provided by the laparotomic approach. Since 1993 when we were the first to implement a gastric band operation (GB) by the laparoscopic route, this method is used as the standard method. In 1993-1998 we made at the First Surgical Clinic 517 laparoscopic GB operation on account of morbid obesity in patients with a body mass index of 34-49 kg/m2. The group comprised 449 women and 59 men. The most frequent late complication in our group of morbidly obese patients who had a laparoscopically administered GB was in 5.1% enlargement of the proximal pouch above the GB by dilatation of its wall or slippage of the anterior wall proximally under the GB with a subsequent disorder of gastric evacuation and vomiting. We tried to reduce the incidence of this complication by fixing the GB by a cuff made from the anterior gastric wall. To test the effectiveness of the suggested fixation of the non-adjustable GB by a cuff we implemented in 1998-1999 a prospective randomized study in a group of 80 morbidly obese patients divided into experimental group n1-GB + C with the cuff and a control group n2-GB - C without a cuff. We investigated the incidence of the mentioned complication and the changed volume of the pouch above the GB after one year. Endoscopic assessment of the size of the pouch above the GB after surgery and after one year revealed that in group n1-GB + C the mean increase of the pouch volume was 14.6 ml, i.e. 124% of the original size, while in group n2-GB - C the mean increase of the volume was 33.6 ml, i.e. 154.1% of the original size (p < 0.001). Based on the assembled results and aware of the fact that small groups were involved, we should like to express the assumption that the suggested modification

  19. An in vitro study to assess determinant features associated with fluid sealing in the design of endotracheal tube cuffs and exerted tracheal pressures.

    PubMed

    Li Bassi, Gianluigi; Ranzani, Otavio Tavares; Marti, Joan Daniel; Giunta, Valeria; Luque, Nestor; Isetta, Valentina; Ferrer, Miquel; Farre, Ramon; Pimentel, Guilherme Leite; Torres, Antoni

    2013-02-01

    To assess the structural characteristics involved in the design of high-volume low-pressure endotracheal tube cuffs that are associated with fluid sealing effectiveness and to determine the extent of transmitted tracheal pressures upon cuff inflation. In vitro study. Pneumology laboratories. Eight high-volume low-pressure cuffs of cylindrical or tapered shape, made of polyvinylchloride or polyurethane, were studied. Cuffs were tested within a tracheal model, oriented 30° above horizontal to assess 1 hr leakage of oropharyngeal secretions simulant at cuff internal pressures of 15-30 cm H2O. The four best performing cuffs were evaluated for 24 hrs using an internal pressure of 30 cm H2O. The extent of transmitted tracheal wall pressure throughout the cuff-trachea contact area was determined using an internal pressure sensor within a tracheal model upon cuff inflation up to 30 cm H2O. Outer diameter, length, and compliance of each cuff were assessed. Multivariate regression analysis was performed to identify the main determinants of simulant leakage rate. The cuff-trachea contact area and the percentage of tracheal wall pressure measurements greater than 50 cm H2O were computed. Cuff design characteristics significantly differ among tubes. The cuffs made of polyurethane showed the best short- and long-term sealing efficacy. Nevertheless, in the multivariate analysis, the cuff outer diameter (n: 288, p = 0.003) and length (n: 288, p < 0.001), along with the internal pressure (n: 288, p < 0.001), were the only predictors of simulant leakage rate. The tapered cuffs showed the lowest tracheal wall contact area (n: 96, p < 0.001). The tracheal wall pressure distribution pattern was heterogeneous, and the percentage of high tracheal wall pressure significantly differs among the cuffs (n: 96, p < 0.001). The high-volume low-pressure cuffs' outer diameter, length, material, and internal pressure are the main determinants of sealing efficacy. Despite internal pressure within

  20. Suprascapular neuropathy in the setting of rotator cuff tears: study protocol for a double-blinded randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Sachinis, Nikolaos Platon; Boutsiadis, Achilleas; Papagiannopoulos, Sotirios; Ditsios, Konstantinos; Christodoulou, Anastasios; Papadopoulos, Pericles

    2016-11-22

    It has been indicated that rotator cuff tears, especially large or massive ones, can cause suprascapular neuropathy. When such a diagnosis has been established, it is still unknown whether an arthroscopic release of the superior transverse scapular ligament during cuff repair can change the course of this neuropathy. This is a single-center, double-blinded randomized controlled trial for which 42 patients with large or massive repairable rotator cuff tears and suprascapular neuropathy will be recruited and followed up at 6 and 12 months. Nerve function will be measured by nerve conduction and electromyography studies preoperatively and at the selected follow-up periods. Patients will be randomly divided into equally numbered groups, the first one being the control group. Patients of this group will undergo arthroscopic repair of the rotator cuff without combined arthroscopic release of the superior transverse scapular ligament; in the second group the ligament will be released. The primary objective is to test the null hypothesis that arthroscopic repair of large/massive rotator cuff tears in patients with combined suprascapular neuropathy provides equivalent outcomes to one-stage arthroscopic cuff repair where the superior suprascapular ligament is additionally released. The secondary objective is to search for a relation between rotator cuff tear size and degree of suprascapular nerve recovery. The tertiary objective is to demonstrate any relation between rotator cuff muscle fatty infiltration grade and degree of suprascapular nerve function. Patients, clinicians during follow-up clinics and the neurologist will be blinded to the type of surgery performed. To the best of our knowledge, we are unaware of any prospective, randomized double-blinded studies with similar objectives. So far, the evidence suggests a positive correlation between massive rotator cuff tears and suprascapular neuropathy. However, there is mixed evidence suggesting that neuropathy can be

  1. An MRI-based leg model used to simulate biomechanical phenomena during cuff algometry: a finite element study.

    PubMed

    Manafi-Khanian, Bahram; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Graven-Nielsen, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    Cuff pressure stimulation is applicable for assessing deep-tissue pain sensitivity by exciting a variety of deep-tissue nociceptors. In this study, the relative transfer of biomechanical stresses and strains from the cuff via the skin to the muscle and the somatic tissue layers around bones were investigated. Cuff pressure was applied on the lower leg at three different stimulation intensities (mild pressure to pain). Three-dimensional finite element models including bones and three different layers of deep tissues were developed based on magnetic resonance images (MRI). The skin indentation maps at mild pressure, pain threshold, and intense painful stimulations were extracted from MRI and applied to the model. The mean stress under the cuff position around tibia was 4.6, 4.9 and around fibula 14.8, 16.4 times greater than mean stress of muscle surface in the same section at pain threshold and intense painful stimulations, respectively. At the same stimulation intensities, the mean strains around tibia were 36.4, 42.3 % and around fibula 32.9, 35.0 %, respectively, of mean strain on the muscle surface. Assuming strain as the ideal stimulus for nociceptors the results suggest that cuff algometry is less capable to challenge the nociceptors of tissues around bones as compared to more superficially located muscles.

  2. Endotracheal Tube Cuff Pressure Following Intubation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-08

    inflated ETT cuff. This method may lead to erroneous cuff pressures. Fernandez, Blanch, Mancebo, Bonsoms, and Artigas studied the accuracy of...Laryngologica, 345, suppl: 1-71. 10. Fernandez, R., Blanch, L., Mancebo, J., Bonsoms, N., Artigas , A. (1990). Endotracheal tube cuff pressure assessment

  3. Grammont inverted prosthesis for the treatment of cuff tear arthropathy: a 6-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    de Cupis, Vincenzo; Chillemi, Claudio; Marinelli, Mario

    2008-05-01

    This study evaluated mid-term functional results of the Grammont inverted prosthesis for the treatment of shoulder osteoarthritis associated with massive cuff rupture. Twenty-eight patients with a minimum of 6 years of follow-up were evaluated. Clinical evaluation was performed on all patients preoperatively and at follow-up using the Constant score. Radiologic assessment included radiographs and magnetic resonance imaging preoperatively and radiographs at follow-up. Constant score improved from 27.4 preoperatively to 64.6 postoperatively. The inverted prosthesis is attractive and remains one of the options for treating cuff tear arthropathy. However, glenoid loosening remains a serious problem.

  4. The role of tendon and subacromial bursa in rotator cuff tear pain: a clinical and histopathological study.

    PubMed

    Chillemi, Claudio; Petrozza, Vincenzo; Franceschini, Vincenzo; Garro, Luca; Pacchiarotti, Alberto; Porta, Natale; Cirenza, Mirko; Salate Santone, Francesco; Castagna, Alessandro

    2016-12-01

    To evaluate a possible association of shoulder pain with the clinical features and the histopathological changes occurring in the ruptured tendon and subacromial bursa of patients with rotator cuff tear. One hundred and eighty patients were clinically evaluated with the constant score and the visual analogue pain scale. Radiographs and MRI were performed. The chronology of the rupture, the muscle fatty degeneration according to Goutallier's scale and the tear size were evaluated. For each patient, a biopsy of the supraspinatus tendon and subacromial bursa was performed during arthroscopic rotator cuff tear repair and the specimens were histopathologically analysed. Clinically, the shoulder was more painful in females, in the presence of a chronic cuff lesion and a low Goutallier's grade (P < 0.05). No association was found between pain and age of the patient and between pain and tear size. Histologically, hypertrophy and inflammation of the tendon and hypertrophy, inflammation, oedema and necrosis of the subacromial bursa were directly associated with pain (P < 0.05). Pain decreased significantly in the presence of fatty metaplasia and necrosis of the tendon (P < 0.05). This study defines the main clinical and histopathological features of painful rotator cuff tear. In particular, a greater association of pain was observed with the histopathological changes in the bursa compared with those in the rotator cuff. Considering that the bursa plays also an essential role during the healing process, this "new" role of the subacromial bursa as pain generator has important repercussions in both pharmacological and surgical treatments of rotator cuff tears. IV.

  5. Reduction in ulnar pressure distribution when walking with forearm crutches with a novel cuff design: Cross-sectional intervention study on the biomechanical efficacy of an ulnar recess.

    PubMed

    Molteni, Pascal; Hügle, Thomas; Hügle, Maria; Nüesch, Corina; Mündermann, Annegret

    2016-10-07

    Walking with crutches is an effective way of reducing the load on the lower extremity and is often indicated after injury or surgery. However, walking with forearm crutches with conventional cuffs can trigger symptoms including tenosynovitis in the biceps tendon, ulnar neuropraxia at the wrist, pain, or skin hematoma. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that a crutch cuff design with an ulnar recess reduces ulnar pressure during walking with forearm crutches. The pressure distribution between the forearm and crutch cuff was measured in 15 healthy participants for crutch walking with conventional and novel cuffs, respectively. Relative peak pressure in the proximal medial region compared to the overall peak pressure was reduced by 8.6% when walking with crutches with the novel cuff design compared to conventional cuffs (p < 0.001). Relative peak pressure in the distal intermediate and lateral regions were increased by 3.3% and 3.7% for the novel compared with conventional cuffs, respectively (p < 0.001 for both). Hence, the novel crutch cuffs shifted regions of high pressure away from the proximal ulnar region towards more distal regions that are covered by more soft tissue.

  6. The UroCuff test: a non-invasive alternative to pressure flow studies in adult males with lower urinary tract symptoms secondary to bladder outlet obstruction.

    PubMed

    Matulewicz, Richard S; Hairston, John C

    2015-08-01

    To assure that patients with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) benefit from interventions, urologists must practice careful selection of surgical candidates. Currently, 15%-30% of men do not benefit optimally from these invasive and potentially morbid procedures. Success rates following transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) are higher if bladder outlet obstruction (BOO) is confirmed prior to the procedure by invasive pressure flow studies (PFS). However, PFS may not be performed because of many reasons. We report a study of a non-invasive method of assessing BOO. The UroCuff test was compared to invasive urodynamic studies in adult males with lower urinary tract symptoms. Patients undergoing PFS for LUTS presumed to be due to BOO were recruited from a single site to perform a penile cuff test (UroCuff) at the same time as PFS. Standard PFS were performed followed immediately by a penile cuff test in the same test setting. The results were compared using basic statistical analysis. A total of 19 men were evaluated by both PFS and UroCuff evaluation. Using PFS as the gold standard, the positive predictive value of the UroCuff penile cuff test to diagnose BOO was found to be 92%. The sensitivity of the UroCuff test for detecting BOO was 75%. When compared to PFS, patients preferred the UroCuff 100% of the time. The UroCuff test is accurate in predicting BOO when compared to conventional invasive pressure flow studies in men with LUTS. It is well tolerated and preferred over invasive pressure flow studies.

  7. Subcutaneous gentamicin injection around the cuff in treatment of resistant exit site infection in peritoneal dialysis patients: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Dizdar, Oguzhan Sıtkı; Ozer, Ozerhan; Erdem, Selahattin; Gunal, Ali Ihsan

    2017-01-01

    One of the most common complications of the peritoneal dialysis (PD) is the infection of the exit site of the peritoneal catheter. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of the subcutaneous gentamicin injection around the cuff as a part of routine treatment of the resistant exit site infection (ESI). If the exit site remains infected after a 2-week systemic antibiotics treatment, it is defined as resistant ESI. In these cases, systemic antibiotics were discontinued and a subcutaneous 40-mg gentamicin injection was administered around the external cuff of the PD catheter every 3 days. A total of three or four injections were given to each patient. A subcutaneous gentamicin injection was administered around the cuff in thirteen patients for the treatment of resistant ESI over a 2-year period. The median follow-up time in cured patients was 12 months. Eleven of the thirteen patients had been apparently cured of their resistant ESI, with no recurrence. None of the patients had a gentamicin-resistant species. Subcutaneous gentamicin-related adverse effect was not observed in any patient. Subcutaneous gentamicin injection around the cuff is a well-tolerated and effective strategy for treating resistant ESI. To gain widespread approval of this therapy and reach a consensus about ESI management, additional studies are needed.

  8. Subcutaneous gentamicin injection around the cuff in treatment of resistant exit site infection in peritoneal dialysis patients: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Dizdar, Oguzhan Sıtkı; Ozer, Ozerhan; Erdem, Selahattin; Gunal, Ali Ihsan

    2017-01-01

    Background/purpose One of the most common complications of the peritoneal dialysis (PD) is the infection of the exit site of the peritoneal catheter. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of the subcutaneous gentamicin injection around the cuff as a part of routine treatment of the resistant exit site infection (ESI). Methods If the exit site remains infected after a 2-week systemic antibiotics treatment, it is defined as resistant ESI. In these cases, systemic antibiotics were discontinued and a subcutaneous 40-mg gentamicin injection was administered around the external cuff of the PD catheter every 3 days. A total of three or four injections were given to each patient. Results A subcutaneous gentamicin injection was administered around the cuff in thirteen patients for the treatment of resistant ESI over a 2-year period. The median follow-up time in cured patients was 12 months. Eleven of the thirteen patients had been apparently cured of their resistant ESI, with no recurrence. None of the patients had a gentamicin-resistant species. Subcutaneous gentamicin-related adverse effect was not observed in any patient. Conclusion Subcutaneous gentamicin injection around the cuff is a well-tolerated and effective strategy for treating resistant ESI. To gain widespread approval of this therapy and reach a consensus about ESI management, additional studies are needed. PMID:28790835

  9. Long head BIceps TEnodesis or tenotomy in arthroscopic rotator cuff repair: BITE study protocol.

    PubMed

    van Deurzen, Derek Friedrich Petrus; Scholtes, Vanessa Antoinet Bernice; Willigenburg, Nienke Willemien; Gurnani, Navin; Verweij, Lukas Pieter Eduard; van den Bekerom, Michel Pieter Jozef

    2016-08-30

    Optimal treatment of the diseased long head of the biceps (LHB) tendon during rotator cuff repair remains a topic of debate: tenotomy or tenodesis. A recent meta analysis revealed no difference in strength or functional outcome between treatments. The included studies varied in methodological quality, and only two were randomized controlled trials (RCTs). As strong evidence in favor of either tenotomy or tenodesis is still lacking, we designed this randomized controlled trial to compare functional outcomes after tenotomy and tenodesis when performed in adjunct to arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. Patients older than 50 years with a supraspinatus and/or infraspinatus tendon rupture sized smaller than 3 cm, who are encountered with LHB pathology, will be randomized to either LHB tenotomy or LHB tenodesis. Clinical and patient-reported data will be collected pre-operatively, 6 weeks, 3 months and 1 year after surgery. Primary outcome is overall shoulder function evaluated with the Constant score at 1 year after surgery. As additional measures of shoulder function, two patient reported outcomes (the Dutch Oxford Shoulder Test and the Disabilities of the Arm Shoulder and Hand questionnaire) will be assessed. Other evaluations include cosmetic appearance evaluated by the "Popeye" deformity, elbow flexion strength, arm cramping pain, MRI-based location of the biceps tendon, quality of life, and duration of surgery. To detect non-inferiority with a one-sided, two-sample t-test with 80 % power and a significance level (alpha) of 0.025, the required sample size is 98 patients. Treatment of LHB tendon lesions is performed differently around the world and meta analyses do not provide conclusive evidence in favor of one of these treatments. This study will strengthen evidence on the risks and benefits of LHB tenotomy and tenodesis in adjunct to a rotator cuff repair, which is important for managing patient expectations. Dutch Trial Register ( NTR3255 ) January 12, 2012

  10. Rotator Cuff Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... cuff are common. They include tendinitis, bursitis, and injuries such as tears. Rotator cuff tendons can become ... cuff depends on age, health, how severe the injury is, and how long you've had the ...

  11. Reliability of Magnetic Resonance Imaging Assessment of Rotator Cuff: The ROW Study

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Nitin B.; Collins, Jamie; Newman, Joel S.; Katz, Jeffrey N.; Losina, Elena; Higgins, Laurence D.

    2014-01-01

    Background Physiatrists encounter patients with rotator cuff disorders and imaging is frequently an important component of their diagnostic assessment. However, there is paucity of literature on reliability of MRI assessment between shoulder specialists and musculoskeletal radiologists. Objective We assessed inter- and intra-rater reliability of MRI characteristics of the rotator cuff. Design Cross-sectional secondary analyses in a prospective cohort study Setting Academic tertiary care centers Patients Subjects with shoulder pain recruited from orthopedic and physiatry clinics Methods Two shoulder fellowship trained physicians (a physiatrist and a shoulder surgeon) jointly performed a blinded composite MRI review by consensus on 31 subjects with shoulder pain. Subsequently, MRI was reviewed by one fellowship trained musculoskeletal radiologist. Main Outcome Measures We calculated Cohen’s kappa coefficients and percent agreement among the two reviews (composite review of two shoulder specialists versus that of the musculoskeletal radiologist). Intra-rater reliability was assessed among the shoulder specialists by performing a repeat blinded composite MRI review. In addition to this repeat composite review, only one of the physiatry shoulder specialists performed an additional review. Results Inter-rater reliability (shoulder specialists versus musculoskeletal radiologist) was substantial for the presence or absence of tear (kappa=0.90; 95% CI=0.72, 1.00), tear-thickness (kappa=0.84;95% CI=0.70, 0.99), longitudinal size of tear (kappa=0.75;95% CI=0.44, 1.00), fatty infiltration (kappa=0.62; 95% CI=0.45, 0.79), and muscle atrophy (kappa=0.68; 95% CI=0.50, 0.86). There was only fair inter-rater reliability of transverse size of tear (kappa=0.20; 95% CI=0.00, 0.51). The kappa for intra-rater reliability was high for tear thickness (0.88; 95% CI=0.72, 1.00), longitudinal tear size (0.61; 95% CI=0.22, 0.99), fatty infiltration (0.89; 95% CI=0.80, 0.98), and muscle

  12. Effects of horizontal vs vertical vaginal cuff closure techniques on vagina length after vaginal hysterectomy: a prospective randomized study.

    PubMed

    Cavkaytar, Sabri; Kokanali, Mahmut Kuntay; Topcu, Hasan Onur; Aksakal, Orhan Seyfi; Doganay, Melike

    2014-01-01

    To compare the effects of horizontal and vertical vaginal cuff closure techniques on vagina length after vaginal hysterectomy. Prospective randomized study (Canadian Task Force classification I). Teaching and research hospital, a tertiary center. Fifty-two women with POP-Q stage 0 or 1 uterine prolapse were randomized into 2 groups using vertical (n = 26) or horizontal (n = 26) vaginal cuff closure. All patients underwent vaginal hysterectomy. Vagina length in the 2 groups was compared preoperatively, immediately after surgery, and at 6 weeks postoperatively. Mean (SD) preoperative vagina length in the horizontal and vertical groups was similar (7.87 [0.92] cm vs 7.99 [0.78] cm; p = .41). Immediately postoperatively, the vagina was significantly shorter in the horizontal group than in the vertical group (6.61 [0.89] cm vs 7.51 [0.74] cm; p < .001). At 6 weeks postoperatively, the vagina was still significantly shorter in the horizontal group (6.55 [0.89] cm vs 7.42 (0.73) cm; p < .001). The mean difference in vagina length before and after surgery was also significantly higher in the horizontal group than in the vertical group (-1.26 [0.12] cm vs 0.49 [0.11] cm; p < .001). Vertical cuff closure during vaginal hysterectomy seems to preserve vagina length better than does horizontal cuff closure. Copyright © 2014 AAGL. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Structural Characteristics Are Not Associated With Pain and Function in Rotator Cuff Tears: The ROW Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Curry, Emily J; Matzkin, Elizabeth E; Dong, Yan; Higgins, Laurence D; Katz, Jeffrey N; Jain, Nitin B

    2015-05-01

    Structural characteristics of rotator cuff tears are used in surgical decision making. However, data on the association of tear size with patient-reported pain and function are sparse. To assess the association of tear size, fatty infiltration, and muscle atrophy with shoulder pain/function in patients with cuff tears undergoing operative and nonoperative treatment. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. A total of 67 patients with rotator cuff tears were recruited for this longitudinal cohort study. Patients were determined to have a cuff tear using clinical assessment and blinded magnetic resonance imaging review. The Shoulder Pain and Disability Index (SPADI) was used as a measure of shoulder pain and function. Tear size and thickness were not significantly associated with pain (SPADI pain score, 60.6 [95% CI, 49.8-71.5] for partial-thickness tear; 56.8 [95% CI, 42.8-70.7] for <2 cm full-thickness tear; 60.4 [95% CI, 51.7-69.0] for ≥2 cm full-thickness tear). Tear size and thickness were not associated with function (SPADI disability score, 42.7 [95% CI, 29.8-55.6] for partial-thickness tear; 37.6 [95% CI, 23.9-51.4] for <2 cm full-thickness tear; 45.1 [95% CI, 35.4-54.8] for ≥2 cm full-thickness tear). Fatty infiltration, muscle atrophy, and tendon retraction were also not significantly associated with SPADI pain and disability scores. A Mental Health Index score of <68 as well as age ≥60 years were significantly associated with a higher SPADI pain score. Female sex, increased number of comorbidities, Mental Health Index score of <68, and age <60 years were significantly associated with a higher SPADI disability score. In patients with rotator cuff tears undergoing operative and nonoperative treatment, pain and functional status were not associated with tear size and thickness, fatty infiltration, and muscle atrophy. Conversely, factors unrelated to cuff anatomy such as mental health, comorbidities, age, and sex were associated with pain

  14. The use of DMSO in tennis elbow and rotator cuff tendonitis: a double-blind study.

    PubMed

    Percy, E C; Carson, J D

    1981-01-01

    Over a 1-yr period, 102 patients with a clinical diagnosis of either medial or lateral epicondylitis (tennis elbow) or rotator cuff tendonitis were treated with topical applications of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). A double-blind controlled study was carried out on these patients in the private practice of an orthopaedic surgeon to determine the efficacy of this material in the treatment of these two common clinical conditions. Beneficial effects were assessed with respect to improvement in pain, tenderness or swelling, and increase in the range of motion. Forty patients were treated for each of the two ailments; patients treated with the 70% DMSO aqueous solution did not receive any more beneficial effect from the drug than patients who received 5% DMSO aqueous placebo solution.

  15. Prospective randomized study of arthroscopic rotator cuff repair using an early versus delayed postoperative physical therapy protocol.

    PubMed

    Cuff, Derek J; Pupello, Derek R

    2012-11-01

    This study evaluated patient outcomes and rotator cuff healing after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair using a postoperative physical therapy protocol with early passive motion compared with a delayed protocol that limited early passive motion. The study enrolled 68 patients (average age, 63.2 years) who met inclusion criteria. All patients had a full-thickness crescent-shaped tear of the supraspinatus that was repaired using a transosseous equivalent suture-bridge technique along with subacromial decompression. In the early group, 33 patients were randomized to passive elevation and rotation that began at postoperative day 2. In the delayed group, 35 patients began the same protocol at 6 weeks. Patients were monitored clinically for a minimum of 12 months, and rotator cuff healing was assessed using ultrasound imaging. Both groups had similar improvements in preoperative to postoperative American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons scores (early group: 43.9 to 91.9, P < .0001; delayed group: 41.0 to 92.8, P < .0001) and Simple Shoulder Test scores (early group: 5.5 to 11.1, P < .0001; delayed group: 5.1 to 11.1, P < .0001). There were no significant differences in patient satisfaction, rotator cuff healing, or range of motion between the early and delayed groups. Patients in the early group and delayed group both demonstrated very similar outcomes and range of motion at 1 year. There was a slightly higher rotator cuff healing rate in the delayed passive range of motion group compared with the early passive range of motion group (91% vs 85%). Copyright © 2012 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Cuff compliance of pediatric and adult cuffed tracheal tubes: an experimental study.

    PubMed

    Devys, J-M; Schauvliège, F; Taylor, G; Plaud, B

    2004-08-01

    Tracheal mucosal damage related to tracheal intubation has been widely described in pediatric and adult patients. High volume-low pressure cuffs (HVLPC) are being advertised as safe to avoid this particularly unpleasant complication. Compliances of these supposed pediatric and adult HVLPC are not mentioned by manufacturers and still remain unknown. The compliance of HVLPC was measured in vitro and defined as the straight portion of the pressure-volume curve. Cuff pressure was measured after incremental 0.1 ml filling volumes of air for sizes 3.0-8.0 of internal diameter of Rüsch and Mallinckrodt tracheal tubes. Compliances were assessed in air and in a rigid tube. The filling volume to achieve a 25-mmHg intracuff pressure was also measured. In air, each 0.1 ml step almost linearly increased cuff pressure by 1 mmHg (size 8.0) to 9 mmHg (size 3). In air, the volume needed to maintain a cuff pressure < 25 mmHg was small for sizes 3-5.5 (0.35-2 ml). The 25 mmHg inflated cuff volume and compliance were decreased within a rigid tube, especially for adult sizes. In a rigid tube simulating a trachea, the compliances of almost every Rüsch tracheal tube were statistically higher than those of the Mallinckrodt. We conclude that the tested tracheal tube cuffs have low compliance and cannot be defined as high volume-low pressure.

  17. A randomised controlled feasibility study investigating the use of eccentric and concentric strengthening exercises in the treatment of rotator cuff tendinopathy.

    PubMed

    Bateman, Marcus; Adams, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    To conduct a feasibility study to compare concentric and eccentric rotator cuff strengthening exercises for rotator cuff tendinopathy. A total of 11 patients with rotator cuff tendinopathy who were on the waiting list for arthroscopic subacromial decompression surgery were randomised to perform eccentric rotator cuff strengthening exercises, concentric strengthening exercises or no exercises. Patients were evaluated in terms of levels of pain and function using the Oxford Shoulder Score and a Visual Analogue Scale initially, at 4 weeks and at 8 weeks. The study design was found to be acceptable to patients and achieved a high level of 86% compliance. The drop-out rate was 0%. Two patients performing eccentric strengthening exercises improved sufficiently to cancel their planned surgery. Further research in this area is recommended. The study design was feasible and power calculations have been conducted to aid future research planning.

  18. Symptoms of pain do not correlate with rotator cuff tear severity: a cross-sectional study of 393 patients with a symptomatic atraumatic full-thickness rotator cuff tear.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Warren R; Kuhn, John E; Sanders, Rosemary; An, Qi; Baumgarten, Keith M; Bishop, Julie Y; Brophy, Robert H; Carey, James L; Holloway, G Brian; Jones, Grant L; Ma, C Benjamin; Marx, Robert G; McCarty, Eric C; Poddar, Sourav K; Smith, Matthew V; Spencer, Edwin E; Vidal, Armando F; Wolf, Brian R; Wright, Rick W

    2014-05-21

    For many orthopaedic disorders, symptoms correlate with disease severity. The objective of this study was to determine if pain level is related to the severity of rotator cuff disorders. A cohort of 393 subjects with an atraumatic symptomatic full-thickness rotator-cuff tear treated with physical therapy was studied. Baseline pretreatment data were used to examine the relationship between the severity of rotator cuff disease and pain. Disease severity was determined by evaluating tear size, retraction, superior humeral head migration, and rotator cuff muscle atrophy. Pain was measured on the 10-point visual analog scale (VAS) in the patient-reported American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) score. A linear multiple regression model was constructed with use of the continuous VAS score as the dependent variable and measures of rotator cuff tear severity and other nonanatomic patient factors as the independent variables. Forty-eight percent of the patients were female, and the median age was sixty-one years. The dominant shoulder was involved in 69% of the patients. The duration of symptoms was less than one month for 8% of the patients, one to three months for 22%, four to six months for 20%, seven to twelve months for 15%, and more than a year for 36%. The tear involved only the supraspinatus in 72% of the patients; the supraspinatus and infraspinatus, with or without the teres minor, in 21%; and only the subscapularis in 7%. Humeral head migration was noted in 16%. Tendon retraction was minimal in 48%, midhumeral in 34%, glenohumeral in 13%, and to the glenoid in 5%. The median baseline VAS pain score was 4.4. Multivariable modeling, controlling for other baseline factors, identified increased comorbidities (p = 0.002), lower education level (p = 0.004), and race (p = 0.041) as the only significant factors associated with pain on presentation. No measure of rotator cuff tear severity correlated with pain (p > 0.25). Anatomic features defining the severity of

  19. The duration of symptoms does not correlate with rotator cuff tear severity or other patient-related features: a cross-sectional study of patients with atraumatic, full-thickness rotator cuff tears.

    PubMed

    Unruh, Kenneth P; Kuhn, John E; Sanders, Rosemary; An, Qi; Baumgarten, Keith M; Bishop, Julie Y; Brophy, Robert H; Carey, James L; Holloway, Brian G; Jones, Grant L; Ma, Benjamin C; Marx, Robert G; McCarty, Eric C; Poddar, Souray K; Smith, Matthew V; Spencer, Edwin E; Vidal, Armando F; Wolf, Brian R; Wright, Rick W; Dunn, Warren R

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of this cross-sectional study is to determine whether the duration of symptoms influences the features seen in patients with atraumatic, full-thickness rotator cuff tears. Our hypothesis is that an increasing duration of symptoms will correlate with more advanced findings of rotator cuff tear severity on magnetic resonance imaging, worse shoulder outcome scores, more pain, decreased range of motion, and less strength. We enrolled 450 patients with full-thickness rotator cuff tears in a prospective cohort study to assess the effectiveness of nonoperative treatment and factors predictive of success. The duration of patient symptoms was divided into 4 groups: 3 months or less, 4 to 6 months, 7 to 12 months, and greater than 12 months. Data collected at patient entry into the study included (1) demographic data, (2) history and physical examination data, (3) radiographic imaging data, and (4) validated patient-reported measures of shoulder status. Statistical analysis included a univariate analysis with the Kruskal-Wallis test and Pearson test to identify statistically significant differences in these features for different durations of symptoms. A longer duration of symptoms does not correlate with more severe rotator cuff disease. The duration of symptoms was not related to weakness, limited range of motion, tear size, fatty atrophy, or validated patient-reported outcome measures. There is only a weak relationship between the duration of symptoms and features associated with rotator cuff disease. Copyright © 2014 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Interface Pressure Behavior During Painful Cuff Algometry.

    PubMed

    Manafi Khanian, Bahram; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Kjær Petersen, Kristian; Samani, Afshin; Graven-Nielsen, Thomas

    2016-05-01

    Cuff algometry is used for the psychophysical assessment of deep-tissue pain sensitivity. The cuff pressure homogeneity may affect the pain sensitivity assessment and potentially be improved by alternative cuff designs optimizing the pressure distribution. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between pain sensitivity, inflation pressure, and distribution of interface pressure between the skin and cuff during stimulation with a conventional air tourniquet and a novel tourniquet including a water tube interfacing the air cuff with the skin. Air and water cuff stimulations were applied separately on the right lower leg of 12 subjects until the tolerance pain threshold. The inflation pressure was controlled and recorded by a computer-control program, while the interface pressure distribution was measured by a flexible pressure sensor mat located between the cuff and skin. The mean interface pressure across the entire stimulation surface was not significantly different from inflating pressure during air-cuff algometry. For the water cuff there was a significant reduction in the mean interface pressure compared with the inflating pressure at both the detection and tolerance pain levels (P < 0.002). The interface pressure distribution of the water cuff around the limb was significantly more homogeneous compared with the air cuff (P < 0.03). This homogeneity showed a significant correlation with pain sensitivity (P < 0.008). Cuff systems with a liquid medium optimize the homogeneity of the interface pressure distribution. However, the deviation of the interface pressure from the inflating pressure is crucial as it counteracts the effects of pressure homogeneity on pain sensitivity in water-cuff algometry. © 2016 American Academy of Pain Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Effect of surgeon-sonographer interaction on ultrasound diagnosis of rotator cuff tears: a five-year cohort study in 775 shoulders.

    PubMed

    Kurz, Adrian Z; Kelly, Matthew J; Hackett, Lisa; Murrell, George A C

    2016-09-01

    Ultrasonography for the diagnosis of rotator cuff tears has been a topic of debate for years. The literature shows promising results for the diagnostic utility of ultrasonography for rotator cuff tears. This study assessed the effect of a surgeon-sonographer interaction on the ability of ultrasonography to predict the presence or absence of rotator cuff tears. This study was a temporal cohort analysis of 775 patients to detect the diagnostic accuracy of ultrasonography at predicting a rotator cuff tear. The surgeon-sonographer interaction had three components: (1) presence of an ultrasound machine and ultrasonographer within a shoulder clinic, (2) the ultrasonographer attends shoulder operations, (3) and the ultrasonographer reviews patients preoperatively and postoperatively. Comparisons of 2 variables-presence and size of a tear-were made between the preoperative ultrasonographic findings with arthroscopic findings (gold standard). The diagnostic utility for the detection of rotator cuff tears by ultrasonography at the start of the study was 93% sensitive and 68% specific, and at the end of the study was 99% sensitive and 93% specific. There was an improvement in the correlation of the ability to estimate the size of rotator cuff tears from ultrasonography to surgery in both full- and partial-thickness tears. The surgeon-sonographer interaction improved the diagnostic utility of an office-based ultrasonographer over time, particularly with respect to the overall accuracy of ultrasonography for the detection of rotator cuff tears and for the ability to predict the size of full- and partial-thickness rotator cuff tears. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Prolotherapy for Refractory Rotator Cuff Disease: Retrospective Case-Control Study of 1-Year Follow-Up.

    PubMed

    Lee, Doo-Hyung; Kwack, Kyu-Sung; Rah, Ueon Woo; Yoon, Seung-Hyun

    2015-11-01

    To determine the efficacy of prolotherapy for refractory rotator cuff disease. Retrospective case-control study. University-affiliated tertiary care hospital. Patients with nontraumatic refractory rotator cuff disease (N=151) who were unresponsive to 3 months of aggressive conservative treatment. Of the patients, 63 received prolotherapies with 16.5% dextrose 10-ml solution (treatment group), and 63 continued conservative treatment (control group). Not applicable. Visual analog scale (VAS) score of the average shoulder pain level for the past 1 week, Shoulder Pain and Disability Index (SPADI) score, isometric strength of the shoulder abductor, active range of motion (AROM) of the shoulder, maximal tear size on ultrasonography, and number of analgesic ingestions per day. Over 1-year follow-up, 57 patients in the treatment group and 53 in the control group were analyzed. There was no significant difference between the 2 groups in age, sex, shoulder dominance, duration of symptoms, and ultrasonographic findings at pretreatment. The average number of injections in the treatment group is 4.8±1.3. Compared with the control group, VAS score, SPADI score, isometric strength of shoulder abductor, and shoulder AROM of flexion, abduction, and external rotation showed significant improvement in the treatment group. There were no adverse events. To our knowledge, this is the first study to assess the efficacy of prolotherapy in rotator cuff disease. Prolotherapy showed improvement in pain, disability, isometric strength, and shoulder AROM in patients with refractory chronic rotator cuff disease. The results suggest positive outcomes, but one should still take caution in directly interpreting it as an effective treatment option, considering the limitations of this nonrandomized retrospective study. To show the efficacy of prolotherapy, further studies on prospective randomized controlled trials will be required. Copyright © 2015 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine

  3. Early Incorporation of an Evidence-Based Aquatic-Assisted Approach to Arthroscopic Rotator Cuff Repair Rehabilitation: Prospective Case Study.

    PubMed

    Burmaster, Chris; Eckenrode, Brian J; Stiebel, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Both traditional and progressive rotator cuff repair rehabilitation protocols often delay active motion of the shoulder for 6 weeks or more. The early inclusion of a comprehensive aquatic-assisted exercise program presents a unique approach to postoperative management. The purpose of this case study is to describe a comprehensive evidence-based, aquatic-assisted rehabilitation program following arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. A 73-year-old woman with a nonretracted, medium-size, full-thickness tear (2.5 cm) of the supraspinatus tendon underwent arthroscopic rotator cuff repair and was referred for postoperative physical therapy. The rehabilitation program was initiated at 2 weeks postoperatively and consisted of concurrent land- and aquatic-based interventions over 6 weeks for a total of 18 physical therapy visits. Improvements were made in all 5 patient-reported outcome measures that were recorded weekly over the course of care. Improvements reached or exceeded minimal detectable change levels for the Shoulder Pain and Disability Index and the Penn Shoulder Score. Her numeric pain rating scale score at rest decreased from 4/10 at the initial evaluation to 2/10 at 8 weeks postoperatively and with activity decreased from 9/10 to 6/10. Shoulder strength and range of motion values also exhibited improvement over the course of care. No adverse events occurred during the case study. This case study illustrates the safe inclusion of low-stress aquatic exercises as an early adjunct to traditional land-based rotator cuff repair rehabilitation programs in small- to medium-size repairs. Further studies are needed to determine the long-term effectiveness of adding aquatic therapy to traditional postoperative programs. © 2016 American Physical Therapy Association.

  4. Retrospective study of sonographic findings in bone involvement associated with rotator cuff calcific tendinopathy: preliminary results of a case series*

    PubMed Central

    Nogueira-Barbosa, Marcello H.; Gregio-Junior, Everaldo; Lorenzato, Mario Muller

    2015-01-01

    Objective The present study was aimed at investigating bone involvement secondary to rotator cuff calcific tendonitis at ultrasonography. Materials and Methods Retrospective study of a case series. The authors reviewed shoulder ultrasonography reports of 141 patients diagnosed with rotator cuff calcific tendonitis, collected from the computer-based data records of their institution over a four-year period. Imaging findings were retrospectively and consensually analyzed by two experienced musculoskeletal radiologists looking for bone involvement associated with calcific tendonitis. Only the cases confirmed by computed tomography were considered for descriptive analysis. Results Sonographic findings of calcific tendinopathy with bone involvement were observed in 7/141 (~ 5%) patients (mean age, 50.9 years; age range, 42-58 years; 42% female). Cortical bone erosion adjacent to tendon calcification was the most common finding, observed in 7/7 cases. Signs of intraosseous migration were found in 3/7 cases, and subcortical cysts in 2/7 cases. The findings were confirmed by computed tomography. Calcifications associated with bone abnormalities showed no acoustic shadowing at ultrasonography, favoring the hypothesis of resorption phase of the disease. Conclusion Preliminary results of the present study suggest that ultrasonography can identify bone abnormalities secondary to rotator cuff calcific tendinopathy, particularly the presence of cortical bone erosion. PMID:26811551

  5. Retrospective study of sonographic findings in bone involvement associated with rotator cuff calcific tendinopathy: preliminary results of a case series.

    PubMed

    Nogueira-Barbosa, Marcello H; Gregio-Junior, Everaldo; Lorenzato, Mario Muller

    2015-01-01

    The present study was aimed at investigating bone involvement secondary to rotator cuff calcific tendonitis at ultrasonography. Retrospective study of a case series. The authors reviewed shoulder ultrasonography reports of 141 patients diagnosed with rotator cuff calcific tendonitis, collected from the computer-based data records of their institution over a four-year period. Imaging findings were retrospectively and consensually analyzed by two experienced musculoskeletal radiologists looking for bone involvement associated with calcific tendonitis. Only the cases confirmed by computed tomography were considered for descriptive analysis. Sonographic findings of calcific tendinopathy with bone involvement were observed in 7/141 (~ 5%) patients (mean age, 50.9 years; age range, 42-58 years; 42% female). Cortical bone erosion adjacent to tendon calcification was the most common finding, observed in 7/7 cases. Signs of intraosseous migration were found in 3/7 cases, and subcortical cysts in 2/7 cases. The findings were confirmed by computed tomography. Calcifications associated with bone abnormalities showed no acoustic shadowing at ultrasonography, favoring the hypothesis of resorption phase of the disease. Preliminary results of the present study suggest that ultrasonography can identify bone abnormalities secondary to rotator cuff calcific tendinopathy, particularly the presence of cortical bone erosion.

  6. Safety and reliability of the sealing cuff pressure of the Microcuff pediatric tracheal tube for prevention of post-extubation morbidity in children: A comparative study.

    PubMed

    Al-Metwalli, Roshdi Roshdi; Sadek, Sayed

    2014-10-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of sealing pressure as an inflation technique of the Microcuff pediatric tracheal cuffed tube. A total of 60 children were enrolled in this study. After induction of anesthesia and intubation with Microcuff pediatric tracheal tube, patients were randomly assigned, to one of the three groups. Control group (n = 20) the cuff was inflated to a cuff pressure of 20 cm H2O; sealing group (n = 20) the cuff was inflated to prevent the air leak at peak airway pressure of 20 cm H2O and the finger group (n = 20) the cuff was inflated to a suitable pressure using the finger estimation. Tracheal leak, incidence and severity of post-extubation cough, stridor, sore throat and hoarseness were recorded. The cuff pressure as well as the volume of air to fill the cuff was significantly low in the sealing group when compared with the control group (P < 0.001); however, their values were significantly high in the finger group compared with both the control and the sealing group (P < 0.001). The incidence and severity of sore throat were significantly high in the finger group compared with both the control and the sealing group (P = 0.0009 and P = 0.0026). Three patients in the control group developed air leak around the endotracheal tube cuff. The incidence and severity of other complications were similar in the three groups. In pediatric N2O, free general anesthesia using Microcuff pediatric tracheal tub, sealing cuff pressure is safer than finger palpation technique regarding post-extubation morbidities and more reliable than recommended safe pressure in prevention of the air leak.

  7. A prospective, multicenter study to evaluate clinical and radiographic outcomes in primary rotator cuff repair reinforced with a xenograft dermal matrix.

    PubMed

    Lederman, Evan S; Toth, Alison P; Nicholson, Gregory P; Nowinski, Robert J; Bal, George K; Williams, Gerald R; Iannotti, Joseph P

    2016-12-01

    Minimal information is currently available on the outcome of rotator cuff repair reinforced with an extracellular matrix (ECM) graft. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the clinical and radiographic outcome of repair of large rotator cuff tears with ECM graft reinforcement. This was a prospective study of 61 shoulders with large repairable rotator cuff tears (3 to 5 cm). The rotator cuff tears were surgically repaired and reinforced with a xenograft ECM graft. The average patient age was 56 years (range, 40-69 years). The average tear size was 3.8 cm. Follow-up was obtained at 6, 12, and 24 months in 58, 54, and 50 of the 61 patients, respectively. Functional outcome scores, isometric muscle strength, and active range of motion were significantly improved compared with baseline. Magnetic resonance imaging at 12 months showed retorn rotator cuff repairs in 33.9% of shoulders, using the criteria of a tear of at least 1 cm, and tears in 14.5% of the shoulders using the criteria of retear >80% of the original tear size. Three patients underwent surgical revision. Complications included 1 deep infection. Repair of large rotator cuff tears structurally reinforced with xenograft ECM resulted in improved functional outcomes scores and strength. Adverse events were uncommon, and the rate of revision surgery was low. Copyright © 2016 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Secondary rotator cuff dysfunction following total shoulder arthroplasty for primary glenohumeral osteoarthritis: results of a multicenter study with more than five years of follow-up.

    PubMed

    Young, Allan A; Walch, Gilles; Pape, Guido; Gohlke, Frank; Favard, Luc

    2012-04-18

    this study, rates of secondary rotator cuff dysfunction with moderate or severe superior subluxation of the prosthetic humeral head increased with the duration of follow-up and significantly influenced the clinical and radiographic outcome of total shoulder arthroplasty performed for primary glenohumeral osteoarthritis. Preoperative fatty infiltration of the infraspinatus muscle and implantation of the glenoid component with superior tilt were prognostic factors.

  9. Motion control of the ankle joint with a multiple contact nerve cuff electrode: a simulation study.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyun-Joo; Durand, Dominique M

    2014-08-01

    The flat interface nerve electrode (FINE) has demonstrated significant capability for fascicular and subfascicular stimulation selectivity. However, due to the inherent complexity of the neuromuscular skeletal systems and nerve-electrode interface, a trajectory tracking motion control algorithm of musculoskeletal systems for functional electrical stimulation using a multiple contact nerve cuff electrode such as FINE has not yet been developed. In our previous study, a control system was developed for multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) musculoskeletal systems with little prior knowledge of the system. In this study, more realistic computational ankle/subtalar joint model including a finite element model of the sciatic nerve was developed. The control system was tested to control the motion of ankle/subtalar joint angles by modulating the pulse amplitude of each contact of a FINE placed on the sciatic nerve. The simulation results showed that the control strategy based on the separation of steady state and dynamic properties of the system resulted in small output tracking errors for different reference trajectories such as sinusoidal and filtered random signals. The proposed control method also demonstrated robustness against external disturbances and system parameter variations such as muscle fatigue. These simulation results under various circumstances indicate that it is possible to take advantage of multiple contact nerve electrodes with spatial selectivity for the control of limb motion by peripheral nerve stimulation even with limited individual muscle selectivity. This technology could be useful to restore neural function in patients with paralysis.

  10. Rotator cuff repair using a decellularized tendon slices graft: an in vivo study in a rabbit model.

    PubMed

    Pan, Juan; Liu, Guo-Ming; Ning, Liang-Ju; Zhang, Yi; Luo, Jing-Cong; Huang, Fu-Guo; Qin, Ting-Wu

    2015-05-01

    Although varieties of surgical repair techniques and materials have been used to repair rotator cuff defects, re-tearing frequently occurs. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the postoperative outcomes of rotator cuff repairs with a decellularized tendon slices (DTSs) graft in a rabbit model. Large defects in the infraspinatus tendons were created bilaterally in 21 rabbits. The graft group underwent reconstruction of the defects with the DTSs grafts, while the defect group did not undergo any treatment. The specimens underwent histological observation, biomechanical testing, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) detection at 4, 8, and 12 weeks after surgery. In addition, 2 rabbits that were not operated on were used for MRI detection as a normal reference. Histological analysis revealed that the graft promoted host cell ingrowth and tissue integration, and a tendon-like structure developed at 12 weeks. The ultimate tensile load had a significant difference between specimens at 4 and 12 weeks in the graft group, but there was no significant difference between the graft group and the defect group. In the graft group, the stiffness at 12 weeks was significantly greater than that at 4 or 8 weeks, and it was also greater than the stiffness in the defect group at 12 weeks. MRI demonstrated that the signal strength of the regenerative tissue from the graft group at 12 weeks was similar to that of normal infraspinatus tendon. The DTSs graft allowed for incorporation of host tendon and improved the biomechanical performance of the regenerative tendon. Therefore, the graft could be a promising bioscaffold to enhance the surgical repair of large rotator cuff defects and consequently improve the clinical outcome of rotator cuff tears.

  11. Outcome of Large to Massive Rotator Cuff Tears Repaired With and Without Extracellular Matrix Augmentation: A Prospective Comparative Study.

    PubMed

    Gilot, Gregory J; Alvarez-Pinzon, Andres M; Barcksdale, Leticia; Westerdahl, David; Krill, Michael; Peck, Evan

    2015-08-01

    To compare the results of arthroscopic repair of large to massive rotator cuff tears (RCTs) with or without augmentation using an extracellular matrix (ECM) graft and to present ECM graft augmentation as a valuable surgical alternative used for biomechanical reinforcement in any RCT repair. We performed a prospective, blinded, single-center, comparative study of patients who underwent arthroscopic repair of a large to massive RCT with or without augmentation with ECM graft. The primary outcome was assessed by the presence or absence of a retear of the previously repaired rotator cuff, as noted on ultrasound examination. The secondary outcomes were patient satisfaction evaluated preoperatively and postoperatively using the 12-item Short Form Health Survey, the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons shoulder outcome score, a visual analog scale score, the Western Ontario Rotator Cuff index, and a shoulder activity level survey. We enrolled 35 patients in the study: 20 in the ECM-augmented rotator cuff repair group and 15 in the control group. The follow-up period ranged from 22 to 26 months, with a mean of 24.9 months. There was a significant difference between the groups in terms of the incidence of retears: 26% (4 retears) in the control group and 10% (2 retears) in the ECM graft group (P = .0483). The mean pain level decreased from 6.9 to 4.1 in the control group and from 6.8 to 0.9 in the ECM graft group (P = .024). The American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons score improved from 62.1 to 72.6 points in the control group and from 63.8 to 88.9 points (P = .02) in the treatment group. The mean Short Form 12 scores improved in the 2 groups, with a statistically significant difference favoring graft augmentation (P = .031), and correspondingly, the Western Ontario Rotator Cuff index scores improved in both arms, favoring the treatment group (P = .0412). The use of ECM for augmentation of arthroscopic repairs of large to massive RCTs reduces the incidence of retears

  12. Ultrasound determination of rotator cuff tear repairability

    PubMed Central

    Tse, Andrew K; Lam, Patrick H; Walton, Judie R; Hackett, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Background Rotator cuff repair aims to reattach the torn tendon to the greater tuberosity footprint with suture anchors. The present study aimed to assess the diagnostic accuracy of ultrasound in predicting rotator cuff tear repairability and to assess which sonographic and pre-operative features are strongest in predicting repairability. Methods The study was a retrospective analysis of measurements made prospectively in a cohort of 373 patients who had ultrasounds of their shoulder and underwent rotator cuff repair. Measurements of rotator cuff tear size and muscle atrophy were made pre-operatively by ultrasound to enable prediction of rotator cuff repairability. Tears were classified following ultrasound as repairable or irreparable, and were correlated with intra-operative repairability. Results Ultrasound assessment of rotator cuff tear repairability has a sensitivity of 86% (p < 0.0001) and a specificity of 67% (p < 0.0001). The strongest predictors of rotator cuff repairability were tear size (p < 0.001) and age (p = 0.004). Sonographic assessments of tear size ≥4 cm2 or anteroposterior tear length ≥25 mm indicated an irreparable rotator cuff tear. Conclusions Ultrasound assessment is accurate in predicting rotator cuff tear repairability. Tear size or anteroposterior tear length and age were the best predictors of repairability. PMID:27582996

  13. The optimum tension for bridging sutures in transosseous-equivalent rotator cuff repair: a cadaveric biomechanical study.

    PubMed

    Park, Ji Soon; McGarry, Michelle H; Campbell, Sean T; Seo, Hyuk Jun; Lee, Yeon Soo; Kim, Sae Hoon; Lee, Thay Q; Oh, Joo Han

    2015-09-01

    Transosseous-equivalent (TOE) rotator cuff repair can increase contact area and contact pressure between the repaired cuff tendon and bony footprint and can show higher ultimate loads to failure and smaller gap formation compared with other repair techniques. However, it has been suggested that medial rotator cuff failure after TOE repair may result from increased bridging suture tension. To determine optimum bridging suture tension in TOE repair by evaluating footprint contact and construct failure characteristics at different tensions. Controlled laboratory study. A total of 18 fresh-frozen cadaveric shoulders, randomly divided into 3 groups, were constructed with a TOE configuration using the same medial suture anchor and placing a Tekscan sensing pad between the repaired rotator cuff tendon and footprint. Nine of the 18 shoulders were used to measure footprint contact characteristics. With use of the Tekscan measurement system, the contact pressure and area between the rotator cuff tendon and greater tuberosity were quantified for bridging suture tensions of 60, 90, and 120 N with glenohumeral abduction angles of 0° and 30° and humeral rotation angles of 30° (internal), 0°, and 30° (external). TOE constructs of all 18 shoulders then underwent construct failure testing (cyclic loading and load to failure) to determine the yield load, ultimate load, stiffness, hysteresis, strain, and failure mode at 60 and 120 N of tension. As bridging suture tension increased, contact force, contact pressure, and peak pressure increased significantly at all positions (P < .05 for all). Regarding contact area, no significant differences were found between 90 and 120 N at all positions, although there were significant differences between 60 and 90 N. The construct failure test demonstrated no significant differences in any parameters according to various tensions (P > .05 for all). Increasing bridging suture tension to over 90 N did not improve contact area but did increase

  14. The Delta III reverse shoulder replacement for cuff tear arthropathy: a single-centre study of 50 consecutive procedures.

    PubMed

    Naveed, M A; Kitson, J; Bunker, T D

    2011-01-01

    The combination of an irreparable tear of the rotator cuff and destructive arthritis of the shoulder joint may cause severe pain, disability and loss of independence in the aged. Standard anatomical shoulder replacements depend on a functioning rotator cuff, and hence may fail in the presence of tears in the cuff. Many designs of non-anatomical constrained or semi-constrained prostheses have been developed for cuff tear arthropathy, but have proved unsatisfactory and were abandoned. The DePuy Delta III reverse prosthesis, designed by Grammont, medialises and stabilises the centre of rotation of the shoulder joint and has shown early promise. This study evaluated the mid-term clinical and radiological results of this arthroplasty in a consecutive series of 50 shoulders in 43 patients with a painful pseudoparalysis due to an irreparable cuff tear and destructive arthritis, performed over a period of seven years by a single surgeon. A follow-up of 98% was achieved, with a mean duration of 39 months (8 to 81). The mean age of the patients at the time of surgery was 81 years (59 to 95). The female to male ratio was 5:1. During the seven years, six patients died of natural causes. The clinical outcome was assessed using the American Shoulder and Elbow score, the Oxford Shoulder Score and the Short-form 36 score. A radiological review was performed using the Sirveaux score for scapular notching. The mean American Shoulder and Elbow score was 19 (95% confidence interval (CI) 14 to 23) pre-operatively, and 65 (95% CI 48 to 82) (paired t-test, p < 0.001) at final follow-up. The mean Oxford score was 44 (95% CI 40 to 51) pre-operatively and 23 (95% CI 18 to 28) (paired t-test, p < 0.001) at final follow-up. The mean maximum elevation improved from 55° pre-operatively to 105° at final follow-up. There were seven complications during the whole series, although only four patients required further surgery.

  15. Management of irreparable rotator cuff tears and glenohumeral arthritis.

    PubMed

    Laudicina, Laurence; D'Ambrosia, Robert

    2005-04-01

    Glenohumeral arthritis with irreparable rotator cuff tears remain a difficult entity to treat. Varied causes include rotator cuff tear arthropathy, osteoarthritis, or rheumatoid arthritis with irreparable cuff tear. Common symptoms are progressive pain and dysfunction. Physical examination may reveal pain, crepitance, rotator cuff weakness, and loss of motion and function. Radiographs may reveal varying degrees of osteophyte formation, sclerotic bone, superior humeral head migration, and bony erosion. Additional imaging modalities may reveal cuff tear size, retraction, atrophy, and fatty infiltration. Failure of nonoperative management may lead to operative intervention. Rotator cuff repair or reconstruction may help prevent progression of tears and future arthritic changes. In patients with moderate to severe glenohumeral arthritis and irreparable rotator cuff tears, hemiarthroplasty is currently the procedure of choice. For patients with severe cuff dysfunction or loss of coracoacromial arch, or for patients who require revision, the reverse shoulder prosthesis may offer a treatment option. Future management continues to be defined with additional study.

  16. Outer diameter and shape of paediatric tracheal tube cuffs at higher inflation pressures.

    PubMed

    Bernet, V; Dullenkopf, A; Maino, P; Weiss, M

    2005-11-01

    Cuffed tracheal tubes are becoming increasingly popular in paediatric anaesthesia and intensive care medicine. To avoid cuff related complications and airway morbidity, a thorough understanding of cuff volume/pressure behaviour and management is required. In this study, the outer cuff diameter and form stability of the cuff at high cuff pressure were assessed in a series of different paediatric cuffed tracheal tubes with internal diameter of between 3.0 and 5.0 mm. The main findings were that small amounts of inflated air led to a rapid increase in cuff pressure and volume and that the outer cuff diameters increased to 2-2.5 times the age-corresponding internal tracheal diameter following inadvertent syringe inflation. Careful cuff inflation under cuff pressure monitoring and/or automatic cuff pressure release is recommended in paediatric tracheal tube cuffs to prevent airway damage caused by manual inflation, pilot balloon compression and nitrous oxide diffusion.

  17. Rotator cable: MRI study of its appearance in the intact rotator cuff with anatomic and histologic correlation.

    PubMed

    Gyftopoulos, Soterios; Bencardino, Jenny; Nevsky, Gregory; Hall, Gregory; Soofi, Yousef; Desai, Panna; Jazrawi, Laith; Recht, Michael P

    2013-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to define and correlate the appearance of the rotator cable on MRI with arthroscopy, band-saw cadaveric sections, and histology. Two cadaveric shoulders underwent 3-T MRI, band-sawing, and histologic evaluation. Three readers evaluated the MRI for the presence of the cable, and the same readers and a pathologist reviewed the macroscopic and microscopic specimens for a structure that corresponded to the cable. Cadaver 1 underwent arthroscopic evaluation to evaluate for the presence of a cable. Seventy consecutive shoulders that underwent 1.5- or 3-T MRI were also reviewed for the presence of the cable and evaluation of its characteristics (location, thickness, and width). A linear band of hypointense signal intensity was found along the undersurface of the supraspinatus and infraspinatus tendons on both cadaveric MR images, which correlated to a linear band of tissue in the same location on macroscopic and microscopic evaluation and linear thickening along the cuff articular surface on arthroscopy consistent with the cable. The cable was seen in 74.3% of the MRI studies in both sagittal and coronal planes with a mean (± SD) distance of the cable from the medial margin of the enthesis of 1.33 ± 0.27 cm, a mean width of the cable of 1.24 ± 0.31 cm, and a mean thickness of 0.19 ± 0.05 cm. The rotator cable is a structure that can be consistently seen on gross anatomic and histologic analysis, arthroscopy, and MRI in the intact rotator cuff. Familiarity with the typical location and morphology of the cable may allow easier characterization of disease that can involve the cable, such as rotator cuff tears.

  18. Efficacy of direct arthroscopy-guided suprascapular nerve block after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair: a prospective randomized study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae Jun; Yoo, Yon-Sik; Hwang, Jung-Taek; Kim, Do-Young; Jeon, Seong-Jae; Hwang, Sung Mi; Jang, Ji Su

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the outcomes of arthroscopy-guided direct suprascapular nerve block performed after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. In the present prospective, randomized, double-blinded clinical study, 30 patients were divided into two groups: 15 patients (group I) were treated with arthroscopy-guided suprascapular nerve block using 10 mL 0.5 % ropivacaine with 1:200,000 epinephrine, and 15 patients (group II) were treated with placebo using 10 mL 0.9 % saline after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. Patient pain levels were measured using the visual analog scale (VAS) at 1, 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 h post-operatively. Additionally, the number of boluses and total amount of fentanyl dispensed by patient-controlled analgesia administration during the 24-h post-operative period were evaluated. VAS scores did not differ significantly between groups I and II during the 24-h post-operative period, but mean fentanyl bolus consumption was significantly less in group I compared with group II (p = 0.015). Arthroscopy-guided suprascapular nerve block at the end of a rotator cuff repair was safe and less time-consuming than expected. Although this procedure did not significantly reduce the post-operative pain, the post-operative need for fentanyl boluses as analgesia was reduced significantly, and it would be beneficial if this procedure involved a sensory branch of axillary nerve block or was performed at the beginning of the arthroscopic procedure. Prospective, randomized, double-blinded clinical trial, Level I.

  19. Effectiveness of Physical Therapy in Treating Atraumatic Full Thickness Rotator Cuff Tears. A Multicenter Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Kuhn, John E.; Dunn, Warren R.; Sanders, Rosemary; An, Qi; Baumgarten, Keith M.; Bishop, Julie Y.; Brophy, Robert H.; Carey, James L.; Holloway, Brian G.; Jones, Grant L.; Ma, C. Benjamin; Marx, Robert G.; McCarty, Eric C.; Poddar, Sourav K.; Smith, Matthew V.; Spencer, Edwin E.; Vidal, Armando F.; Wolf, Brian R.; Wright, Rick W.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To assess the effectiveness of a specific non-operative physical therapy program in treating atraumatic full thickness rotator cuff tears using a multicenter prospective cohort study design. Methods Patients with atraumatic full thickness rotator cuff tears who consented to enroll provided data via questionnaire on demographics, symptom characteristics, co-morbidities, willingness to undergo surgery, and patient related outcome assessments (SF-12, ASES, WORC, SANE score, Shoulder Activity Scale). Physicians recorded physical examination and imaging data. Patients began a physical therapy program developed from a systematic review of the literature and returned for evaluation at 6 and 12 weeks. At those visits patients could chose one of three courses: 1.) Cured (no formal follow up scheduled), 2.) Improved (continue therapy with scheduled reassessment in 6 weeks), or 3.) No better (offered surgery). Patients were contacted by telephone at 1 and 2 years to determine if they had undergone surgery since their last visit. A Wilcoxon signed rank test with continuity correction was used to compare initial, 6 week, and 12 week outcome scores. Results The cohort consists of 452 patients. Patient reported outcomes improved significantly at 6 and 12 weeks. Patients elected to undergo surgery less than 25% of the time. Patients who decided to have surgery generally did so between 6 and 12 weeks, and few had surgery between 3 and 24 months. Conclusion Non-operative treatment using this physical therapy protocol is effective for treating atraumatic full thickness rotator cuff tears in approximately 75% of patients followed for two years. Level of evidence Level IV, Case Series, Treatment Study PMID:23540577

  20. Correlations between controlled endotracheal tube cuff pressure and postprocedural complications: a multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jianhui; Zhang, Xiaoqing; Gong, Wei; Li, Shitong; Wang, Fen; Fu, Shukun; Zhang, Mazhong; Hang, Yannan

    2010-11-01

    Postoperative respiratory complications related to endotracheal intubation usually present as cough, sore throat, hoarseness, and blood-streaked expectorant. In this study, we investigated the short-term (hours) impact of measuring and controlling endotracheal tube cuff (ETTc) pressure on postprocedural complications. Five hundred nine patients from 4 tertiary care university hospitals in Shanghai, China scheduled for elective surgery under general anesthesia were assigned to a control group without measuring ETTc pressure, and a study group with ETTc pressure measured and adjusted. The duration of the procedure and duration of endotracheal intubation were recorded. Twenty patients whose duration of endotracheal intubation was between 120 and 180 minutes were selected from each group and examined by fiberoptic bronchoscopy immediately after removing the endotracheal tube. Endotracheal intubation-related complications including cough, sore throat, hoarseness, and blood-streaked expectorant were recorded at 24 hours postextubation. There was no significant difference in sex, age, height, weight, procedure duration, and duration of endotracheal intubation between the 2 groups. The mean ETTc pressure measured after estimation by palpation of the pilot balloon of the study group was 43 ± 23.3 mm Hg before adjustment (the highest was 210 mm Hg), and 20 ± 3.1 mm Hg after adjustment (P < 0.001). The incidence of postprocedural sore throat, hoarseness, and blood-streaked expectoration in the control group was significantly higher than in the study group. As the duration of endotracheal intubation increased, the incidence of sore throat and blood-streaked expectoration in the control group increased. The incidence of sore throat in the study group also increased with increasing duration of endotracheal intubation. Fiberoptic bronchoscopy in the 20 patients showed that the tracheal mucosa was injured in varying degrees in both groups, but the injury was more severe in the

  1. [Nonoperative management of rotator cuff defects].

    PubMed

    Heers, H; Heers, G

    2007-09-01

    Rotator cuff defects are common disorders of the shoulder. Although the outcome of surgical treatment of rotator cuff tears is well documented in the literature, less is known about the efficacy of physical therapy for symptomatic rotator cuff tears. Clear therapeutic standards are still missing. This article presents the nonoperative treatment options as well as a literature review. The results of most studies show that patients with rotator cuff defects do benefit from both physical therapy and simple home exercises independent from the size of the defect. However, due to the heterogeneity of outcome measures used, it is difficult to compare the results published. There is still a need for well-planned randomised controlled studies investigating the efficacy of exercise in the management of rotator cuff tears.

  2. Effective ways of restoring muscular imbalances of the rotator cuff muscle group: a comparative study of various training methods

    PubMed Central

    Malliou, P; Giannakopoulos, K; Beneka, A; Gioftsidou, A; Godolias, G

    2004-01-01

    Background: Many studies have compared different training methods for improving muscular performance, but more investigations need to be directed to the restoration of muscular imbalances. Objective: To determine the most effective training for altering strength ratios in the shoulder rotator cuff. Methods: Forty eight physical education students were randomly assigned to four groups (12 per group): (a) experimental group who carried out multijoint dynamic resistance training for shoulder internal and external rotation movement (pull ups or lat pull downs, overhead press, reverse pull ups, push ups) (MJDR group); (b) experimental group who exercised the same muscle group using dumbbells weighing 2 kg (isolated group); (c) experimental group who followed an isokinetic strengthening programme for the rotator cuff muscle group (isokinetic group); (d) control group who had no strength training. Testing was performed in the supine position with the glenohumeral joint in 90° of abduction in the coronal plane, with a range of motion of 0–90° of external rotation and 0–65° of internal rotation at angular velocities of 60, 120, and 180°/s. The test procedure was performed before and after the exercise period of six weeks. Results: One way analysis of variance found no differences between the groups for the initial tests. Analysis of variance with repeated measures showed that the strength ratios in all the experimental groups had altered after the exercise period, with the isokinetic group showing the most significant improvement. Conclusions: Isokinetic strengthening is the most effective method of altering strength ratios of the rotator cuff muscle. PMID:15562178

  3. Fluoroquinolones impair tendon healing in a rat rotator cuff repair model: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Fox, Alice J S; Schär, Michael O; Wanivenhaus, Florian; Chen, Tony; Attia, Erik; Binder, Nikolaus B; Otero, Miguel; Gilbert, Susannah L; Nguyen, Joseph T; Chaudhury, Salma; Warren, Russell F; Rodeo, Scott A

    2014-12-01

    Recent studies suggest that fluoroquinolone antibiotics predispose tendons to tendinopathy and/or rupture. However, no investigations on the reparative capacity of tendons exposed to fluoroquinolones have been conducted. Fluoroquinolone-treated animals will have inferior biochemical, histological, and biomechanical properties at the healing tendon-bone enthesis compared with controls. Controlled laboratory study. Ninety-two rats underwent rotator cuff repair and were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 groups: (1) preoperative (Preop), whereby animals received fleroxacin for 1 week preoperatively; (2) pre- and postoperative (Pre/Postop), whereby animals received fleroxacin for 1 week preoperatively and for 2 weeks postoperatively; (3) postoperative (Postop), whereby animals received fleroxacin for 2 weeks postoperatively; and (4) control, whereby animals received vehicle for 1 week preoperatively and for 2 weeks postoperatively. Rats were euthanized at 2 weeks postoperatively for biochemical, histological, and biomechanical analysis. All data were expressed as mean ± standard error of the mean (SEM). Statistical comparisons were performed using either 1-way or 2-way ANOVA, with P < .05 considered significant. Reverse transcriptase quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RTqPCR) analysis revealed a 30-fold increase in expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-3, a 7-fold increase in MMP-13, and a 4-fold increase in tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMP)-1 in the Pre/Postop group compared with the other groups. The appearance of the healing enthesis in all treated animals was qualitatively different than that in controls. The tendons were friable and atrophic. All 3 treated groups showed significantly less fibrocartilage and poorly organized collagen at the healing enthesis compared with control animals. There was a significant difference in the mode of failure, with treated animals demonstrating an intrasubstance failure of the supraspinatus tendon during testing

  4. Partial Thickness Rotator Cuff Tears: Current Concepts

    PubMed Central

    Matthewson, Graeme; Beach, Cara J.; Nelson, Atiba A.; Woodmass, Jarret M.; Ono, Yohei; Boorman, Richard S.; Lo, Ian K. Y.; Thornton, Gail M.

    2015-01-01

    Partial thickness rotator cuff tears are a common cause of pain in the adult shoulder. Despite their high prevalence, the diagnosis and treatment of partial thickness rotator cuff tears remains controversial. While recent studies have helped to elucidate the anatomy and natural history of disease progression, the optimal treatment, both nonoperative and operative, is unclear. Although the advent of arthroscopy has improved the accuracy of the diagnosis of partial thickness rotator cuff tears, the number of surgical techniques used to repair these tears has also increased. While multiple repair techniques have been described, there is currently no significant clinical evidence supporting more complex surgical techniques over standard rotator cuff repair. Further research is required to determine the clinical indications for surgical and nonsurgical management, when formal rotator cuff repair is specifically indicated and when biologic adjunctive therapy may be utilized. PMID:26171251

  5. The impact of blood pressure cuff location on the accuracy of noninvasive blood pressure measurements in obese patients: an observational study.

    PubMed

    Anast, Nicholas; Olejniczak, Megan; Ingrande, Jerry; Brock-Utne, John

    2016-03-01

    Obesity presents many challenges to the anesthesiologist, including poorly fitting blood pressure (BP) cuffs due to the conical shape of the upper arm. The aim of this study was to determine the accuracy of noninvasive BP readings, obtained from a noninvasive BP cuff using various cuff locations and wrapping techniques, compared with invasive intra-arterial BP readings. Thirty American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status I-III obese (body mass index > 30 kg·m(-2)) individuals undergoing non-cardiac surgery were enrolled in this observational study. Serial oscillometric noninvasive BP (NIBP) measurements were taken in the patients' forearm and upper arm with two different wrapping formations (one following the contour of the upper arm, the other keeping cuff edges parallel). These NIBP measurements were compared with invasive arterial blood pressure (ABP) measurements taken from the ipsilateral radial artery. The precision and bias of the NIBP and ABP measurements were determined using Bland-Altman analysis. Analysis of variance and Welch's t test were used to determine between-group differences in bias. There was poor agreement between the ABP measurements and all types of NIBP measurements. Each of our study participants had a least one NIBP parameter (mean arterial pressure, systolic BP, or diastolic BP) that was > 10 mmHg different than the corresponding ABP parameter. Upper arm BP measurements showed a statistically insignificant trend toward underestimating ABP. For all cuff positions and wrapping techniques, systolic BP offered the best agreement between NIBP and ABP measurements. All the forms of NIBP cuff orientation studied had unacceptable precision and bias compared with invasive ABP measurements. When patient and/or surgical conditions necessitate accurate BP monitoring, direct arterial measurement should be considered over NIBP measurements in obese patients.

  6. Composition of Muscle Fiber Types in Rat Rotator Cuff Muscles.

    PubMed

    Rui, Yongjun; Pan, Feng; Mi, Jingyi

    2016-10-01

    The rat is a suitable model to study human rotator cuff pathology owing to the similarities in morphological anatomy structure. However, few studies have reported the composition muscle fiber types of rotator cuff muscles in the rat. In this study, the myosin heavy chain (MyHC) isoforms were stained by immunofluorescence to show the muscle fiber types composition and distribution in rotator cuff muscles of the rat. It was found that rotator cuff muscles in the rat were of mixed fiber type composition. The majority of rotator cuff fibers labeled positively for MyHCII. Moreover, the rat rotator cuff muscles contained hybrid fibers. So, compared with human rotator cuff muscles composed partly of slow-twitch fibers, the majority of fast-twitch fibers in rat rotator cuff muscles should be considered when the rat model study focus on the pathological process of rotator cuff muscles after injury. Gaining greater insight into muscle fiber types in rotator cuff muscles of the rat may contribute to elucidate the mechanism of pathological change in rotator cuff muscles-related diseases. Anat Rec, 299:1397-1401, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. PROSPECTIVE AND COMPARATIVE STUDY ON FUNCTIONAL OUTCOMES AFTER OPEN AND ARTHROSCOPIC REPAIR OF ROTATOR CUFF TEARS

    PubMed Central

    de Castro Veado, Marco Antônio; Castilho, Rodrigo Simões; Maia, Philipe Eduardo Carvalho; Rodrigues, Alessandro Ulhôa

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To prospectively assess the surgical results from patients undergoing repairs to rotator cuff injuries via open and arthroscopic procedures, with regard to functional and clinical features, and by means of ultrasound examinations, and to compare occurrences of renewed tearing. Methods: Sixty patients underwent operations performed by the same surgeon (29 via open surgery and 31 via arthroscopy), to repair complete rotator cuff tears. The procedures were performed at Hospital Governor Israel Pinheiro (HGIP) and Mater Dei Hospital in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, between August 2007 and February 2009. The patients were assessed functionally by means of the UCLA score before and after the operation, and magnetic resonance imaging was done before the operation. All the patients were reassessed at least 12 months after the operation, and an ultrasound examination was also performed at this time. Results: Out of the 29 patients who underwent open surgery, 27 (93.1%) presented good or excellent results, with a mean UCLA score of 32 after the operation. Their mean follow-up was 14 months. Three patients presented renewed tearing on ultrasound, of whom one remained asymptomatic. Out of the 31 patients who underwent arthroscopic procedures, 29 (93.5%) presented good or excellent results, with a mean UCLA score of 33 after the operation. Their mean follow-up was 19 months. Two patients presented renewed tearing, of whom one remained asymptomatic and one evolved with loosening of an anchor, with an unsatisfactory result. Conclusion: The repairs on rotator cuff injuries presented good results by means of both open surgery and arthroscopy, with similar functional results in the two groups and similar rates of renewed tearing. PMID:27027052

  8. Single-point but not tonic cuff pressure pain sensitivity is associated with level of physical fitness--a study of non-athletic healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Lemming, Dag; Börsbo, Björn; Sjörs, Anna; Lind, Eva-Britt; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Graven-Nielsen, Thomas; Gerdle, Björn

    2015-01-01

    Exercise is often used for pain rehabilitation but the link between physical activity level and pain sensitivity is still not fully understood. Pressure pain sensitivity to cuff algometry and conditioned pain modulation (CPM) were evaluated in highly active men (n=22), normally active men (n=26), highly active women (n=27) and normally active women (n=23) based on the Godin Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire. Cuff pressure pain sensitivity was assessed at the arm and lower leg. The subjects scored the pain intensity on an electronic Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) during ten minutes with 25 kPa constant cuff pressure and two minutes with zero pressure. The maximal VAS score and area under the VAS-curve were extracted. Pressure pain thresholds (PPT) were recorded by manual pressure algometry on the ipsilateral tibialis anterior muscle before, during and after the tonic arm stimulation. Tonic cuff stimulation of the arm and leg resulted in higher VAS peak scores in women compared with men (p<0.04). In all groups the PPTs were reduced during and after the cuff stimulation compared with baseline (p=0.001). PPT were higher in men compared with women (p=0.03) and higher in highly physical active compared with normal active (p=0.048). Besides the well-known gender difference in pressure pain sensitivity this study demonstrates that a high physical fitness degree in non-athletic subjects is associated with increased pressure pain thresholds but does not affect cuff pressure pain sensitivity in healthy people.

  9. A prospective multi-site registry study of a specific protocol of autologous bone marrow concentrate for the treatment of shoulder rotator cuff tears and osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Centeno, Christopher J; Al-Sayegh, Hasan; Bashir, Jamil; Goodyear, Shaun; Freeman, Michael D

    2015-01-01

    Shoulder pain is a common musculoskeletal complaint in the general population. Bone marrow concentrate (BMC) injections offer promising potential as a minimally invasive approach for treatment of shoulder pain in degenerative disease. In this study, we investigated the clinical outcomes of the BMC injections for treatment of shoulder pain and disability due to osteoarthritis (OA) and rotator cuff tears in a treatment registry population. A total of 115 shoulders in 102 patients were treated with autologous BMC injections for symptomatic OA at the glenohumeral joint and/or rotator cuff tears. Data were collected for factors potentially influencing outcome, including age, sex, body mass index, and the type of condition treated (ie, OA or rotator cuff tear). Clinical outcomes were assessed serially over time using the disabilities of the arm, shoulder and hand score (DASH), the numeric pain scale (NPS), and a subjective improvement rating scale. Baseline scores were compared to the most recent outcome scores at the time of the analysis and adjusted for demographic differences. We reported comparisons of pre- and post-treatment scores, the differences between osteoarthritis and rotator cuff groups, and the predictive effects on the clinical outcomes. At the most current follow-up assessment after treatment, the average DASH score decreased (improved) from 36.1 to 17.1 (P<0.001) and the average numeric pain scale value decreased (improved) from 4.3 to 2.4 (P<0.001). These changes were associated with an average subjective improvement of 48.8%. No differences were observed between outcomes among the shoulders treated for OA versus rotator cuff tears, nor did age, sex, or body mass index influence pain or functional outcomes. There were no significant treatment-related adverse events reported. We observed preliminarily encouraging results following BMC injections for shoulder OA and rotator cuff tears. These results serve as basis for the design of an adequately powered

  10. A prospective multi-site registry study of a specific protocol of autologous bone marrow concentrate for the treatment of shoulder rotator cuff tears and osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Centeno, Christopher J; Al-Sayegh, Hasan; Bashir, Jamil; Goodyear, Shaun; Freeman, Michael D

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Shoulder pain is a common musculoskeletal complaint in the general population. Bone marrow concentrate (BMC) injections offer promising potential as a minimally invasive approach for treatment of shoulder pain in degenerative disease. In this study, we investigated the clinical outcomes of the BMC injections for treatment of shoulder pain and disability due to osteoarthritis (OA) and rotator cuff tears in a treatment registry population. Methods A total of 115 shoulders in 102 patients were treated with autologous BMC injections for symptomatic OA at the glenohumeral joint and/or rotator cuff tears. Data were collected for factors potentially influencing outcome, including age, sex, body mass index, and the type of condition treated (ie, OA or rotator cuff tear). Clinical outcomes were assessed serially over time using the disabilities of the arm, shoulder and hand score (DASH), the numeric pain scale (NPS), and a subjective improvement rating scale. Baseline scores were compared to the most recent outcome scores at the time of the analysis and adjusted for demographic differences. We reported comparisons of pre- and post-treatment scores, the differences between osteoarthritis and rotator cuff groups, and the predictive effects on the clinical outcomes. Results At the most current follow-up assessment after treatment, the average DASH score decreased (improved) from 36.1 to 17.1 (P<0.001) and the average numeric pain scale value decreased (improved) from 4.3 to 2.4 (P<0.001). These changes were associated with an average subjective improvement of 48.8%. No differences were observed between outcomes among the shoulders treated for OA versus rotator cuff tears, nor did age, sex, or body mass index influence pain or functional outcomes. There were no significant treatment-related adverse events reported. Discussion We observed preliminarily encouraging results following BMC injections for shoulder OA and rotator cuff tears. These results serve as basis

  11. Expression of matrix metalloproteinases 1, 3, and 9 in degenerated long head biceps tendon in the presence of rotator cuff tears: an immunohistological study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Long head biceps (LHB) degeneration, in combination with rotator cuff tears, can be a source of chronic shoulder pain. LHB tenotomy reduces pain and improves joint function although the pathophysiological context is not well understood. Tendon integrity depends on the extracellular matrix (ECM), which is regulated by matrix metalloproteinases (MMP). It is unclear which of these enzymes contribute to LHB but we chose to study MMP 1, 3, and 9 and hypothesized that one or more of them may be altered in LHB, whether diagnosed preoperatively or intraoperatively. We compared expression of these MMPs in both LHB and healthy tendon samples. Methods LHB samples of 116 patients with degenerative rotator cuff tears were harvested during arthroscopic tenotomy. Patients were assigned to 4 groups (partial thickness tear, full thickness tear, cuff arthropathy, or control) based upon intraoperative findings. Partial and full thickness tears were graded according to Ellman and Bateman's classifications, respectively. MMP expression was determined by immunohistochemistry. Results MMP 1 and 9 expression was significantly higher in the presence of rotator cuff tears than in controls whereas MMP 3 expression was significantly decreased. MMP 1 and 9 expression was significantly higher in articular-sided than bursal-sided partial thickness tears. No significant association was found between MMP 1 and 9 expression and full thickness tears, and the extent of the cuff tear by Bateman's classification. Conclusion Increased MMP 1 and 9 expression, and decreased MMP 3 expression are found in LHB degeneration. There is a significant association between the size and location of a rotator cuff tear and MMP expression. PMID:21108787

  12. Effect of highly purified capsaicin on articular cartilage and rotator cuff tendon healing: An in vivo rabbit study.

    PubMed

    Friel, Nicole A; McNickle, Allison G; DeFranco, Michael J; Wang, FanChia; Shewman, Elizabeth F; Verma, Nikhil N; Cole, Brian J; Bach, Bernard R; Chubinskaya, Susan; Kramer, Susan M; Wang, Vincent M

    2015-12-01

    Highly purified capsaicin has emerged as a promising injectable compound capable of providing sustained pain relief following a single localized treatment during orthopedic surgical procedures. To further assess its reliability for clinical use, the potential effect of highly purified capsaicin on articular cartilage metabolism as well as tendon structure and function warrants clarification. In the current study, rabbits received unilateral supraspinatus transection and repair with a single 1 ml injection of capsaicin (R+C), PEG-only placebo (R+P), or saline (R+S) into the glenohumeral joint (GHJ). An additional group received 1 ml capsaicin onto an intact rotator cuff (I+C). At 18 weeks post-op, cartilage proteoglycan (PG) synthesis and content as well as cell viability were similar (p>0.05) across treatment groups. Biomechanical testing revealed no differences (p>0.05) among tendon repair treatment groups. Similarly, histologic features of both cartilage and repaired tendons showed minimal differences across groups. Hence, in this rabbit model, a single injection of highly purified capsaicin into the GHJ does not induce a deleterious response with regard to cartilage matrix metabolism and cell viability, or rotator cuff healing. These data provide further evidence supporting the use of injectable, highly purified capsaicin as a safe alternative for management of postoperative pain following GHJ surgery. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Clinical outcomes of rotator cuff repair with arthroscopic capsular release and manipulation for rotator cuff tear with stiffness: a matched-pair comparative study between patients with and without stiffness.

    PubMed

    Cho, Chul-Hyun; Jang, Hyung-Kyu; Bae, Ki-Cheor; Lee, Si Wook; Lee, Young-Kuk; Shin, Hong-Kwan; Hwang, Ilseon

    2015-03-01

    To compare clinical outcomes after surgical treatment between rotator cuff tears with and without shoulder stiffness and evaluate the serial changes in pain intensity, functional scores, and range of motion (ROM). The study comprised 26 patients with preoperative stiffness (stiff group) and 26 patients without stiffness (non-stiff group). The stiff group underwent arthroscopic or mini-open rotator cuff repair with arthroscopic capsular release and manipulation. The non-stiff group with rotator cuff repair only was matched for age and sex with the stiff group. The visual analog scale (VAS) pain score; University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) score; American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) score; and ROM were evaluated preoperatively; 3, 6, and 12 months after surgery; and at final follow-up. Both groups had significant improvements in the VAS pain score, UCLA score, ASES score, and ROM at final follow-up. There were no significant differences between the 2 groups regarding VAS pain score, UCLA score, and ASES score at any period after surgery. In the stiff group, mean forward flexion was significantly lower than that in the non-stiff group at 3 months after surgery (143.1° v 154.2°, P = .003). Mean external rotation and internal rotation were significantly lower than those in the non-stiff group at 3 months after surgery (37.9° v 44.2°, P = .043, and 15.8 v 13.9, P < .001, respectively) and 6 months after surgery (49.1° v 57.3°, P = .002, and 13.2 v 12.0, P = .033, respectively). Overall satisfactory clinical outcomes could be achieved in both the stiff and non-stiff groups, although the stiff group had slower postoperative recovery of ROM until 6 months after surgery. Level III, retrospective comparative study, prognosis study. Copyright © 2015 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The minimal leak test technique for endotracheal cuff maintenance.

    PubMed

    Harvie, D A; Darvall, J N; Dodd, M; De La Cruz, A; Tacey, M; D'Costa, R L; Ward, D

    2016-09-01

    Endotracheal tube (ETT) cuff pressure management is an essential part of airway management in intubated and mechanically ventilated patients. Both under- and over-inflation of the ETT cuff can lead to patient complications, with an ideal pressure range of 20-30 cmH2O defined. A range of techniques are employed to ensure adequate ETT cuff inflation, with little comparative data. We performed an observational cross-sectional study in a tertiary metropolitan ICU, assessing the relationship between the minimal leak test and cuff manometry. Forty-five mechanically ventilated patients, over a three-month period, had ETT cuff manometry performed at the same time as their routine cuff maintenance (minimal leak test). Bedside nurse measurements were compared with investigator measurements. At the endpoint of cuff inflation, 20 of 45 patients (44%) had cuff pressures between 20 and 30 cmH2O; 11 of 45 patients (24%) had cuff pressures <20 cmH2O; 14 of 45 patients (31%) had cuff pressures ≥30 cmH2O. Univariate analysis demonstrated an association between both patient obesity and female gender requiring less ETT cuff volume (P=0.008 and P <0.001 respectively), though this association was lost on multivariate analysis. No association was demonstrated between any measured variables and cuff pressures. Inter-operator reliability in performing the minimal leak test showed no evidence of bias between nurse and investigators (Pearson coefficient = 0.897). We conclude the minimal leak test for maintenance of ETT cuffs leads to both over- and under-inflation, and alternative techniques, such as cuff manometry, should be employed.

  15. Current Biomechanical Concepts for Rotator Cuff Repair

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    For the past few decades, the repair of rotator cuff tears has evolved significantly with advances in arthroscopy techniques, suture anchors and instrumentation. From the biomechanical perspective, the focus in arthroscopic repair has been on increasing fixation strength and restoration of the footprint contact characteristics to provide early rehabilitation and improve healing. To accomplish these objectives, various repair strategies and construct configurations have been developed for rotator cuff repair with the understanding that many factors contribute to the structural integrity of the repaired construct. These include repaired rotator cuff tendon-footprint motion, increased tendon-footprint contact area and pressure, and tissue quality of tendon and bone. In addition, the healing response may be compromised by intrinsic factors such as decreased vascularity, hypoxia, and fibrocartilaginous changes or aforementioned extrinsic compression factors. Furthermore, it is well documented that torn rotator cuff muscles have a tendency to atrophy and become subject to fatty infiltration which may affect the longevity of the repair. Despite all the aforementioned factors, initial fixation strength is an essential consideration in optimizing rotator cuff repair. Therefore, numerous biomechanical studies have focused on elucidating the strongest devices, knots, and repair configurations to improve contact characteristics for rotator cuff repair. In this review, the biomechanical concepts behind current rotator cuff repair techniques will be reviewed and discussed. PMID:23730471

  16. Rotator cuff muscles lose responsiveness to anabolic steroids after tendon tear and musculotendinous retraction: an experimental study in sheep.

    PubMed

    Gerber, Christian; Meyer, Dominik C; Von Rechenberg, Brigitte; Hoppeler, Hans; Frigg, Robert; Farshad, Mazda

    2012-11-01

    Long-standing rotator cuff tendon tearing is associated with retraction, loss of work capacity, irreversible fatty infiltration, and atrophy of the rotator cuff muscles. Although continuous musculotendinous relengthening can experimentally restore muscular architecture, restoration of atrophy and fatty infiltration is hitherto impossible. Continuous relengthening with pharmacological stimulation of muscle growth using an anabolic steroid or insulin-like growth factor (IGF) can reverse atrophy and fatty infiltration as well as improve the work capacity of chronically retracted rotator cuff muscles in sheep. Controlled laboratory study. Sixteen weeks after tenotomy of the infraspinatus (ISP) tendon, atrophy and fatty infiltration had developed in the retracted ISP muscle. The musculotendinous unit was continuously relengthened in 14 sheep during 6 weeks: Four sheep were treated without pharmacological stimulation, 4 with intramuscular administration of an anabolic steroid, and 6 with IGF before final repair and rehabilitation (12 weeks). Changes were documented by intraoperative measurements of muscle work capacity, histology, and computed tomography/magnetic resonance imaging. Musculotendinous relengthening by continuous traction resulted in gains of length ranging from 0.7 cm in the IGF group to 1.3 cm in the control group. Fatty infiltration progressed in all groups, and the muscle's cross-sectional area ranged from 71% to 74% of the contralateral side at sacrifice and did not show any differences between groups in weight, volume, histological composition, or work capability of the muscle. The contralateral muscles in the anabolic steroid group, however, showed significantly higher (mean ± standard deviation) muscle work capacity of 10 ± 0.9 N·m than the contralateral muscles of the control group (6.8 ± 2.4 N·m) (P < .05). This was accompanied by an increased mean muscle fiber area as well as by an unusual gain in the animals' weight after injection of the

  17. Efficacy of coaxial ventilation with a novel endotracheal catheter equipped with a functional cuff: A swine model study.

    PubMed

    Oto, Jun; Su, Zhenbo; Duggan, Michael; Wang, Jingwen; King, David R; Kacmarek, Robert M; Jiang, Yandong

    2016-04-01

    We have developed an endotracheal catheter with a functional cuff (ECFC) that inflates during inspiration and deflates during expiration. This catheter, together with a regular ICU ventilator, can provide coaxial ventilation. The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of ventilation in adult human-sized swine using an ECFC and a regular ICU ventilator. A prospective animal study. Experimental, Trauma Transplant Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA. Eight adult Yorkshire swine, weighing 45 to 50  kg, were studied. To create the ECFC, a 5  cm long latex cuff was placed over the distal side ports of either a 14 or 19-Fr gauge endotracheal catheter and a 1  cm long piece of plastic tube was inserted into the tip of the endotracheal catheter to create an internal resistance. The ECFC was placed into the trachea and the proximal end of the ECFC was connected to an ICU ventilator in pressure-control mode, with peak pressures set at either 25, 50 or 70  cmH2O. Tidal volume was calculated using plethysmography. During pressure control ventilation with the 14-Fr gauge ECFC at set inspiratory pressures of 25, 50 and 75  cmH2O, the tidal volumes generated were 209 ± 36, 309 ± 61 and 367 ± 85  ml, respectively, and with the 19-Fr gauge ECFC these were 277 ± 51, 442 ± 91 and 538 ± 123  ml, respectively. No complications were observed. An ECFC combined with a regular pressure-controlled ICU ventilator can produce adequate tidal volumes in adult human-sized swine. Our results establish the feasibility of ventilation with this new alternative technique. The safety and advantages of such a technique remain to be determined in humans.

  18. Treatment of the calcific tendinopathy of the rotator cuff by ultrasound-guided percutaneous needle lavage. Two years prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Del Castillo-González, Federico; Ramos-Álvarez, Juan José; Rodríguez-Fabián, Guillermo; González-Pérez, José; Calderón-Montero, Javier

    2014-01-01

    Summary Purpose: to evaluate the short and long term effectiveness of ultrasonography (US)-guided percutaneous needle lavage in calcific tendinopathy of the rotator cuff. To study the evolution of the size of calcifications and pain in the two years after treatment. Methods: a 2 year longitudinal prospective study is carried out after applying the UGPL technique on a number of patients diagnosed with calcific tendinitis of the rotator cuff. Clinical, ultrasound and radiology follow-up controls were performed, 3 months, 6 months, one year and two years after the treatment. The Visual Analog Scale (VAS) was used to assess the pain. The degree and point of pain is selected on a 10cm line, arranged horizontally or vertically. The “0” represents no pain and “10” represents worst pain. The population studied was made up of 121 patients that required our service as a result of suffering from a painful shoulder. Results: the pain (VAS) and the size of the calcification significantly decreased with the application of the technique (p< 0,001 in both cases) and regardless of the sex (p: 0.384 for pain and p: 0.578 for the size of the calcification). This occurred from the first check-up (3 months) and was maintained for two year. Conclusion: we consider this technique to be a valid alternative as a first-choice treatment of calcific tendinitis of the shoulder. The intervention is simple, cost-effective, does not require hospitalization, involves no complications, rehabilitation treatment is not required and it shows very few side effects without sequelae, significantly reducing the size of the calcification and pain in the majority of patients. PMID:25767776

  19. Patients with rotator cuff tendinopathy can successfully self-manage, but with certain caveats: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Littlewood, Chris; Malliaras, Peter; Mawson, Sue; May, Stephen; Walters, Stephen

    2014-03-01

    Evidence has emerged supporting the value of loaded exercises for rotator cuff tendinopathy but there are barriers that might prevent implementation of this intervention in the real-world. The purpose of this study was to explore these potential barriers with participants involved in a pilot randomised controlled trial (RCT) investigating a self-managed loaded exercise intervention. A qualitative study within the framework of a mixed methods design. Data were collected using individual interviews and analysed using the framework method. One private physiotherapy clinic in northern England. Six patients and two physiotherapists were purposively sampled from those allocated to the self-managed exercise group within the RCT. Three themes were generated: (1) Expectations and preferences, (2) characteristics of an unsuccessful outcome, (3) characteristics of a successful outcome. Most patients expressed expectations contrary to the philosophy of a self-managed approach. But this did not serve as a barrier when the intervention was offered within a positive and supporting environment where patients understood the reasons for undertaking the exercise, effectively self-monitored and engaged with pro-active follow-up. An early and appreciable response to therapy was also a key factor influencing continuing engagement with the exercise programme. With certain caveats including the need to recognise and respond to individual characteristics, implement effective knowledge translation strategies and the need to engage with appropriately timed pro-active follow-up, the potential to implement programmes of self-managed loaded exercise for patients with rotator cuff tendinopathy in the real-world and in further research studies appears feasible but challenging. Copyright © 2013 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of high- and low-energy radial shock waves therapy combined with physiotherapy in the treatment of rotator cuff tendinopathy: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Su, Xiangzheng; Li, Zhongli; Liu, Zhengsheng; Shi, Teng; Xue, Chao

    2017-06-09

    The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of high- and low-energy radial shock waves combined with physiotherapy for rotator cuff tendinopathy patients. Data from rotator cuff tendinopathy patients received high- or low-energy radial shock waves combined with physiotherapy or physiotherapy alone were collected. The Constant and Murley score and visual analog scale score were collected to assess the effectiveness of treatment in three groups at 4, 8, 12, and 24 weeks. In total, 94 patients were involved for our retrospective study. All groups showed remarkable improvement in the visual analog scale and Constant and Murley score compared to baseline at 24 weeks. The high-energy radial shock waves group had more marked improvement in the Constant and Murley score compared to the physiotherapy group at 4 and 8 weeks and at 4 weeks when compared with low-energy group. Furthermore, high-energy radial shock waves group had superior results on the visual analog scale at 4, 8, and 12 weeks compared to low-energy and physiotherapy groups. This retrospective study supported the usage of high-energy radial shock waves as a supplementary therapy over physiotherapy alone for rotator cuff tendinopathy by relieving the symptoms rapidly and maintaining symptoms at a satisfactory level for 24 weeks. Implications for Rehabilitation High-energy radial shock waves can be a supplemental therapy to physiotherapy for rotator cuff tendinopathy. We recommend the usage of high-energy radial shock waves during the first 5 weeks, at an interval of 7 days, of physiotherapy treatment. High-energy radial shock waves treatment combined with physiotherapy can benefit rotator cuff tendinopathy by relieving symptoms rapidly and maintain these improvements at a satisfactory level for quite a long time.

  1. V-Loc™ 180 suture in total laparoscopic hysterectomy: a retrospective study comparing Polysorb to barbed suture used for vaginal cuff closure.

    PubMed

    Cong, Lin; Li, Congqing; Wei, Bing; Zhan, Lei; Wang, Wenyan; Xu, Youjiang

    2016-12-01

    Sutures in laparoscopy have been extensively developed in recent years. In this study, we assessed differences between Polysorb™ braided absorbable suture (CL-914) and V-Loc™ barbed suture (V-Loc 180) used in vaginal cuff closure during laparoscopic hysterectomy from various aspects. This paper presented a prospective cohort study of 490 consecutive women underwent total laparoscopic hysterectomy (TLH) performed between January 2013 and September 2015 applying identical procedure technique, with cuff closure approaches selected by surgeons. Data collected included operative time, estimated blood loss, postoperative changes in body temperature, perioperative routine blood parameters changes, total average hospital stay, and postoperative hospital stay. In addition, short-term (at least 6 months) outcomes of vaginal cuff granulomatous (VCG) between the two suture approaches were compared. Between groups, statistical differences were detected in operative duration, estimated blood loss, total and postoperative hospital stay, WBC, neutrophil counts and Hb in postoperative routine blood parameters; while there were no significant differences in other data (all P>0.05). Postoperative routine blood parameters in each group: compared to preoperative baseline, in Group 1, WBC, N increased (P<0.05), while RBC, Hb decreased (P<0.05). In Group 2, same tendency in WBC, N and Hb was indicated, but RBC increased with no significant difference. In both groups, vaginal cuff healing was well, with no dehiscence. VCG occurred more often in women used CL-914 than women applied V-Loc 180. V-Loc barbed suture can be used for vaginal cuff closure during TLH due to advantages such as less operative duration and blood loss, shorter postoperative and total hospital stay, and reduced VCG formation six months after TLH. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Interrupting gel layer between Double cuffs prevents fluid leakage past tracheal tube cuffs.

    PubMed

    Hwang, J Y; Han, S H; Park, S H; Park, S J; Park, S; Oh, S H; Kim, J H

    2013-09-01

    Current tracheal tubes (TTs) cannot guarantee a perfect seal against pulmonary aspiration of upper airway secretions. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether a gel layer between the tracheal tube with double cuffs (Double cuffs) prevents fluid leakage past TT cuffs. In vitro fluid leakage tests were performed using the Double cuff with or without a gel layer between the two cuffs and four commercially available TTs (Euromedical Standard TT, Mallinckrodt Hi-Lo™, Microcuff, and Mallinckrodt TaperGuard™) when placed in artificial tracheas with three-different internal diameters (ID; 16, 20, and 22 mm). Blue-dyed water (5 ml) was placed above the cuff, and the extent of fluid leakage was observed for 48 h. Each test was repeated five times with new tubes at six different intracuff pressures (15, 20, 25, 30, 40, and 50 cm H2O). In all of the conventional TTs and the Double cuff without a gel layer, fluid leakage was observed even at clinically acceptable intracuff pressures (25-30 cm H2O). However, in the Double cuff with a gel layer, no fluid leakage was observed for 48 h at all intracuff pressures in three-different sized artificial tracheas. At an intracuff pressure of 20 cm H2O in a 20 mm ID trachea, the average volume of injected gel was 2.0 ml. After removal of the TT, the mean volume of the remaining gel in the trachea was 0.10 ml. A prototype TT with gel-layered Double cuffs completely blocked fluid leakage past the cuffs for 48 h in a bench-top model. Clinical studies are required to determine whether this TT reduces the risk of ventilator-associated pneumonia.

  3. Relation Between Subacromial Bursitis on Ultrasonography and Efficacy of Subacromial Corticosteroid Injection in Rotator Cuff Disease: A Prospective Comparison Study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Doo-Hyung; Hong, Ji Yeon; Lee, Michael Young; Kwack, Kyu-Sung; Yoon, Seung-Hyun

    2017-05-01

    To evaluate the correlations between subacromial bursitis (bursal thickening and effusion) on ultrasonography and its response to subacromial corticosteroid injection in patients with rotator cuff disease. Prospective, longitudinal comparison study. University-affiliated tertiary care hospital. Patients with rotator cuff disease (N=69) were classified into 3 groups based on ultrasonographic findings; (1) normative bursa group (group 1, n=23): bursa and effusion thickness <1mm; (2) bursa thickening group (group 2, n=22): bursa thickness >2mm and effusion thickness <1mm; and (3) bursa effusion group (group 3, n=24): bursa thickness <1mm and effusion thickness >2mm. A single subacromial injection with 20mg of triamcinolone acetonide. Visual analog scale (VAS) of shoulder pain, Shoulder Disability Questionnaire (SDQ), angles of active shoulder range of motion (flexion, abduction, external rotation, and internal rotation), and bursa and effusion thickness at pre- and posttreatment at week 8. There were no significant differences between the 3 groups in demographic characteristics pretreatment. Groups 2 and 3 showed a significant difference compared with group 1 in changes on the VAS and abduction; group 3 showed a significant difference compared with group 1 in changes of the SDQ, internal rotation, and external rotation; and all groups showed significant differences when compared with each other (groups 1 and 3, 2 and 3, and 1 and 2) in changes of thickness. A patient with ultrasonographic observation of subacromial bursitis, instead of normative bursa, can expect better outcome with subacromial corticosteroid injection. Therefore, we recommend a careful selection of patients using ultrasonography prior to injection. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Evaluation of cartilage degeneration in a rat model of rotator cuff tear arthropathy.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Erik J; Bodendorfer, Blake M; Laron, Dominique; Wong, Jason; Kim, Hubert T; Liu, Xuhui; Feeley, Brian T

    2013-12-01

    Rotator cuff tears are the most common injury seen by shoulder surgeons. Glenohumeral osteoarthritis develops in many late-stage rotator cuff tear patients as a result of torn cuff tendons, termed "cuff tear arthropathy." However, the mechanisms of cuff tear arthropathy have not been fully established. It has been hypothesized that a combination of synovial and mechanical factors contribute equally to the development of cuff tear arthropathy. The goal of this study was to assess the utility of this model in investigating cuff tear arthropathy. We used a rat model that accurately reflects rotator cuff muscle degradation after massive rotator cuff tears through either infraspinatus and supraspinatus tenotomy or suprascapular nerve transection. Using a modified Mankin scoring system, we found significant glenohumeral cartilage damage after both rotator cuff tenotomy and suprascapular nerve transection after only 12 weeks. Cartilage degeneration was similar between groups and was present on both the humeral head and the glenoid. Denervation of the supraspinatus and infraspinatus muscles without opening the joint capsule caused cartilage degeneration similar to that found in the tendon transection group. Our results suggest that altered mechanical loading after rotator cuff tears is the primary factor in cartilage degeneration after rotator cuff tears. Clinically, understanding the process of cartilage degeneration after rotator cuff injury will help guide treatment decisions in the setting of rotator cuff tears. Basic science study, animal model. Copyright © 2013 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Delaminated rotator cuff tear: extension of delamination and cuff integrity after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair.

    PubMed

    Gwak, Heui-Chul; Kim, Chang-Wan; Kim, Jung-Han; Choo, Hye-Jeung; Sagong, Seung-Yeob; Shin, John

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the extension of delamination and the cuff integrity after arthroscopic repair of delaminated rotator cuff tears. Sixty-five patients with delaminated rotator cuff tears were retrospectively reviewed. The delaminated tears were divided into full-thickness delaminated tears and partial-thickness delaminated tears. To evaluate the medial extension, we calculated the coronal size of the delaminated portion. To evaluate the posterior extension, we checked the tendon involved. Cuff integrity was evaluated by computed tomography arthrography. The mean medial extension in the full-thickness and partial-thickness delaminated tears was 18.1 ± 6.0 mm and 22.7 ± 6.3 mm, respectively (P = .0084). The posterior extension into the supraspinatus and the infraspinatus was 36.9% and 32.3%, respectively, in the full-thickness delaminated tears, and it was 27.7% and 3.1%, respectively, in the partial-thickness delaminated tears (P = .0043). With regard to cuff integrity, 35 cases of anatomic healing, 10 cases of partial healing defects, and 17 cases of retear were detected. Among the patients with retear and partial healing of the defect, all the partially healed defects showed delamination. Three retear patients showed delamination, and 14 retear patients did not show delamination; the difference was statistically significant (P = .0001). The full-thickness delaminated tears showed less medial extension and more posterior extension than the partial-thickness delaminated tears. Delamination did not develop in retear patients, but delamination was common in the patients with partially healed defects. Copyright © 2015 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Electrosurgical Settings and Vaginal Cuff Complications

    PubMed Central

    Lawlor, Megan L.; Rao, Rama; Manahan, Kelly J.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives: After being encouraged to change the technique for opening the vaginal cuff during robotic surgery, this study was performed to determine the correlation between vaginal cuff complications and electrosurgical techniques. Methods: The study group consisted of patients who had their vaginal cuffs opened with a cutting current compared to the group of patients having their vaginal cuff opened with a coagulation current. Data were collected on 150 women who underwent robotic surgery for endometrial cancer. All patients received preoperative antibiotics. Data, including operative time, type of electrosurgery used, estimated blood loss, transfusion rate, and complications, were collected from the patients' records. Results: Surgeries in 150 women and the associated complications were studied. The mean age of the patients was not significantly different between the groups (P = .63). The mean body mass index was 38 kg/m2 in the coagulation arm and 36 kg/m2 in the cutting arm (P = .03). Transfusion was not required. Estimated blood loss and operative time were not significantly different in the coagulation versus the cutting arms (P = .29 and .5; respectively). No patients in the cutting arm and 4 patients (with 5 complications) in the coagulation arm had cuff complications (P = .02). Conclusions: Complications involving the vaginal cuff appear to occur more frequently when the vagina is entered by using electrosurgery with coagulation versus cutting in this cohort of patients undergoing robot-assisted surgery for endometrial cancer.. PMID:26681912

  7. The effect of in vivo rotator cuff muscle contraction on glenohumeral joint translation: An ultrasonographic and electromyographic study.

    PubMed

    Rathi, Sangeeta; Taylor, Nicholas F; Green, Rodney A

    2016-12-08

    The proposed stabilizing mechanism of rotator cuff muscles is to limit excessive humeral head translation. However, an accurate measurement of glenohumeral joint translation in vivo has been challenging. We aimed to measure the effect of rotator cuff muscle contraction on glenohumeral joint translation using real time ultrasound (RTUS) and electromyography. Twenty healthy adults with no history of shoulder pathology were recruited. Six intramuscular electrodes were inserted in the rotator cuff muscles (supraspinatus, upper and lower infraspinatus, teres minor, upper and lower subscapularis). Anterior and posterior glenohumeral translations were measured in testing conditions (with and without translation force, with and without isometric internal and external rotation), in two positions (shoulder neutral, abduction) and views (anterior, posterior). There was reduced glenohumeral translation with rotator cuff muscle contraction in the neutral anterior (F2,38=17.8, p<0.01), neutral posterior (F1.6,31.0=44.3, p<0.01) and abducted posterior (F1.5,28.8=5.2, p<0.02) positions. There were also differences between the amount of translation limited by anterior and posterior rotator cuff muscles in response to anterior and posterior translation forces (p<0.05), indicating that their activity was, to a certain extent, direction specific. For example, in both neutral and abducted positions, contraction of the posterior rotator cuff muscles, infraspinatus and teres minor, appeared to tether anterior translation of the humeral head. Our results confirm that the rotator cuff functions as a stabilizer of the glenohumeral joint by limiting humeral head translation and this is likely to be in a direction-specific manner. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Rotator cuff problems

    MedlinePlus

    Miller RH III, Azar FM, Throckmorton TW. Shoulder and elbow injuries. In: Canale ST, Beaty JH, eds. ... Krishnan SG. Rotator cuff and impingement lesions. In: Miller MD, Thompson SR, eds. DeLee and Drez's Orthopaedic ...

  9. Rotator cuff repair - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... presentations/100229.htm Rotator cuff repair - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing features on this page, ... Bethesda, MD 20894 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health Page last updated: ...

  10. Clinical application of radial magnetic resonance imaging for evaluation of rotator cuff tear.

    PubMed

    Honda, H; Morihara, T; Arai, Y; Horii, M; Ito, H; Furukawa, R; Kida, Y; Sukenari, T; Ikoma, K; Oda, R; Yamada, Y; Fujiwara, H; Kubo, T

    2015-10-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging is useful for evaluating the rotator cuff, but some tendinous insertions cannot be assessed using oblique sagittal, oblique coronal, and axial magnetic resonance (MR) images because of the presence of the partial volume effect. The purpose of this study was to determine whether radial-slice MR images could reveal normal rotator cuff insertions and rotator cuff tears more clearly than conventional MR images. The study included 18 subjects with normal rotator cuffs and 30 with rotator cuff tears. MR images of rotator cuff insertions sliced into radial, oblique coronal, and axial sections were obtained. The extent to which normal rotator cuff insertions and rotator cuff tears were visualized in each of the three MR images was evaluated. The top to posterior portions of the rotator cuff insertions from 0° to 120° could be visualized in the radial MR images. In comparison, the posterior portions of the rotator cuff insertions could not be visualized around 45° in both the oblique coronal and axial MR images. These findings demonstrate that radial MR images are superior to the oblique coronal and axial MR images regarding their ability to accurately visualize rotator cuff insertions. Radial MR images also revealed greater detail around 45° in the posterior area of the rotator cuff tears than the oblique coronal and axial MR images. Radial MR images are particularly useful for visualizing clinically important posterosuperior rotator cuff tears. Level III - Diagnostic study. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Comparison of heart rate variability between resting state and external-cuff-inflation-and-deflation state: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Ji, Lizhen; Liu, Chengyu; Li, Peng; Wang, Xinpei; Yan, Chang; Liu, Changchun

    2015-10-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV) has been widely used in clinical research to provide an insight into the autonomic control of the cardiovascular system. Measurement of HRV is generally performed under a relaxed resting state. The effects of other conditions on HRV measurement, such as running, mountaineering, head-up tilt, etc, have also been investigated. This study aimed to explore whether an inflation-and-deflation process applied to a unilateral upper arm cuff would influence the HRV measurement. Fifty healthy young volunteers aged between 21 and 30 were enrolled in this study. Electrocardiogram (ECG) signals were recorded for each subject over a five minute resting state followed by a five minute external-cuff-inflation-and-deflation state (ECID state). A one minute gap was scheduled between the two measurements. Consecutive RR intervals in the ECG were extracted automatically to form the HRV data for each of the two states. Time domain (SDNN, RMSSD and PNN50), frequency domain (LFn, HFn and LF/HF) and nonlinear (VLI, VAI and SampEn) HRV indices were analyzed and compared between the two states. In addition, the effects of mean artery pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) on the aforementioned HRV indices were assessed for the two states, respectively, by Pearson correlation analysis. The results showed no significant difference in all aforementioned HRV indices between the resting and the ECID states (all p  >  0.05). The corresponding HRV indices had significant positive correlation (all p  <  0.01) between the two states. None of the indices showed MAP-related change (all p  >  0.05) for either state. Besides, none of the indices showed HR-related change (all p  >  0.05) for either state except the index of VLI in the resting state. To conclude, this pilot study suggested that the applied ECID process hardly influenced those commonly used HRV indices. It would thus be applicable to simultaneously measure both blood pressure and HRV

  12. Rotator cuff tendinopathy.

    PubMed

    Lewis, J S

    2009-04-01

    A review was conducted to synthesise the available research literature on the pathogenesis of rotator cuff tendinopathy. Musculoskeletal disorders of the shoulder are extremely common, with reports of prevalence ranging from one in three people experiencing shoulder pain at some stage of their lives to approximately half the population experiencing at least one episode of shoulder pain annually. Pathology of the soft tissues of the shoulder, including the musculotendinous rotator cuff and subacromial bursa, is a principal cause of pain and suffering. The pathoaetiology of rotator cuff failure is multifactorial and results from a combination of intrinsic, extrinsic and environmental factors. The specialised morphology of the rotator cuff, together with the effects of stress shielding, may contribute to the development of rotator cuff tendinopathy. Profound changes within the subacromial bursa are strongly related to the pathology and resulting symptoms. A considerable body of research is necessary to more fully understand the aetiology and pathohistology of rotator cuff tendinopathy and its relationship with bursal pathology. Once this knowledge exists more effective management will become available.

  13. Grammont inverted total shoulder arthroplasty in the treatment of glenohumeral osteoarthritis with massive rupture of the cuff. Results of a multicentre study of 80 shoulders.

    PubMed

    Sirveaux, F; Favard, L; Oudet, D; Huquet, D; Walch, G; Molé, D

    2004-04-01

    We reviewed 80 shoulders (77 patients) at a mean follow-up of 44 months after insertion of a Grammont inverted shoulder prosthesis. Three implants had failed and had been revised. The mean Constant score had increased from 22.6 points pre-operatively to 65.6 points at review. In 96% of these shoulders there was no or only minimal pain. The mean active forward elevation increased from 73 degrees to 138 degrees. The integrity of teres minor is essential for the recovery of external rotation and significantly influenced the Constant score. Five cases of aseptic loosening of the glenoid and seven of dissociation of the glenoid component were noted. This study confirms the promising early results obtained with the inverted prosthesis in the treatment of a cuff-tear arthropathy. It should be considered in the treatment of osteoarthritis with a massive tear of the cuff but should be reserved for elderly patients.

  14. Icariin Promotes Tendon-Bone Healing during Repair of Rotator Cuff Tears: A Biomechanical and Histological Study

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Chenyi; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Shengdong; Jiang, Shuai; Yu, Yuanbin; Chen, Erman; Xue, Deting; Chen, Jianzhong; He, Rongxin

    2016-01-01

    To investigate whether the systematic administration of icariin (ICA) promotes tendon-bone healing after rotator cuff reconstruction in vivo, a total of 64 male Sprague Dawley rats were used in a rotator cuff injury model and underwent rotator cuff reconstruction (bone tunnel suture fixation). Rats from the ICA group (n = 32) were gavage-fed daily with ICA at 0.125 mg/g, while rats in the control group (n = 32) received saline only. Micro-computed tomography, biomechanical tests, serum ELISA (calcium; Ca, alkaline phosphatase; AP, osteocalcin; OCN) and histological examinations (Safranin O and Fast Green staining, type I, II and III collagen (Col1, Col2, and Col3), CD31, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)) were analyzed two and four weeks after surgery. In the ICA group, the serum levels of AP and OCN were higher than in the control group. More Col1-, Col2-, CD31-, and VEGF-positive cells, together with a greater degree of osteogenesis, were detected in the ICA group compared with the control group. During mechanical testing, the ICA group showed a significantly higher ultimate failure load than the control group at both two and four weeks. Our results indicate that the systematic administration of ICA could promote angiogenesis and tendon-bone healing after rotator cuff reconstruction, with superior mechanical strength compared with the controls. Treatment for rotator cuff injury using systematically-administered ICA could be a promising strategy. PMID:27792147

  15. Icariin Promotes Tendon-Bone Healing during Repair of Rotator Cuff Tears: A Biomechanical and Histological Study.

    PubMed

    Ye, Chenyi; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Shengdong; Jiang, Shuai; Yu, Yuanbin; Chen, Erman; Xue, Deting; Chen, Jianzhong; He, Rongxin

    2016-10-25

    To investigate whether the systematic administration of icariin (ICA) promotes tendon-bone healing after rotator cuff reconstruction in vivo, a total of 64 male Sprague Dawley rats were used in a rotator cuff injury model and underwent rotator cuff reconstruction (bone tunnel suture fixation). Rats from the ICA group (n = 32) were gavage-fed daily with ICA at 0.125 mg/g, while rats in the control group (n = 32) received saline only. Micro-computed tomography, biomechanical tests, serum ELISA (calcium; Ca, alkaline phosphatase; AP, osteocalcin; OCN) and histological examinations (Safranin O and Fast Green staining, type I, II and III collagen (Col1, Col2, and Col3), CD31, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)) were analyzed two and four weeks after surgery. In the ICA group, the serum levels of AP and OCN were higher than in the control group. More Col1-, Col2-, CD31-, and VEGF-positive cells, together with a greater degree of osteogenesis, were detected in the ICA group compared with the control group. During mechanical testing, the ICA group showed a significantly higher ultimate failure load than the control group at both two and four weeks. Our results indicate that the systematic administration of ICA could promote angiogenesis and tendon-bone healing after rotator cuff reconstruction, with superior mechanical strength compared with the controls. Treatment for rotator cuff injury using systematically-administered ICA could be a promising strategy.

  16. Arginine L-alpha-ketoglutarate, methylsulfonylmethane, hydrolyzed type I collagen and bromelain in rotator cuff tear repair: a prospective randomized study.

    PubMed

    Gumina, S; Passaretti, D; Gurzì, M D; Candela, V

    2012-11-01

    Arthroscopic rotator cuff repair generally provides satisfactory result, in terms of decreasing shoulder pain, resulting in improvement in range of motion. Unfortunately, imaging studies have shown that after surgical repair re-rupture rate is potentially high. Literature data indicate that each of the components present in a commercial supplement sold in Italy as Tenosan * (arginine L-alpha-ketoglutarate, methylsulfonylmethane, hydrolyzed type I collagen and bromelain) have a potential role in tendon healing and mitigating the pain due to tendonitis. We evaluated the clinical and MRI results of rotator cuff repair with and without the employment of this oral supplement in patients with a large, postero-superior rotator cuff tear (RCT). We enrolled 90 consecutive patients who had a large, postero-superior RCT. All the lesions were managed with an arthroscopic repair. Patients were randomized and treated either with (Group I) or without (Group II) the supplement. The primary outcomes were the difference between the pre- and post-operative Constant score and repair integrity assessed by MRI according to Sugaya's classification. The secondary outcome was the pre- and post-operative Simple Shoulder Test. No statistically significant differences were identified between the two groups for each considered variable, except for shoulder pain (follow-up: 6 months) and repair integrity (final follow-up). Intensity of shoulder pain was lower in the Group I patients (p < 0.001). Analogously, in Group I, the percentage of patients with a better repair integrity result was significantly higher than Group II. The use of the supplement for 3 months after cuff repair decreases shoulder post-operative pain and leads to a slight improvement in repair integrity. This improvement does not seem to correlate with an better objective functional outcome. However, these effects could facilitate and abbreviate the post-operative rehabilitation program and reduce re-rupture rate. The main

  17. Progressive high-load strength training compared with general low-load exercises in patients with rotator cuff tendinopathy: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Ingwersen, Kim G; Christensen, Robin; Sørensen, Lilli; Jørgensen, Hans Ri; Jensen, Steen Lund; Rasmussen, Sten; Søgaard, Karen; Juul-Kristensen, Birgit

    2015-01-27

    Shoulder pain is the third most common musculoskeletal disorder, often affecting people's daily living and work capacity. The most common shoulder disorder is the subacromial impingement syndrome (SIS) which, among other pathophysiological changes, is often characterised by rotator cuff tendinopathy. Exercise is often considered the primary treatment option for rotator cuff tendinopathy, but there is no consensus on which exercise strategy is the most effective. As eccentric and high-load strength training have been shown to have a positive effect on patella and Achilles tendinopathy, the aim of this trial is to compare the efficacy of progressive high-load exercises with traditional low-load exercises in patients with rotator cuff tendinopathy. The current study is a randomised, participant- and assessor-blinded, controlled multicentre trial. A total of 260 patients with rotator cuff tendinopathy will be recruited from three outpatient shoulder departments in Denmark, and randomised to either 12 weeks of progressive high-load strength training or to general low-load exercises. Patients will receive six individually guided exercise sessions with a physiotherapist and perform home-based exercises three times a week. The primary outcome measure will be change from baseline to 12 weeks in the patient-reported outcome Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) questionnaire. Previous studies of exercise treatment for SIS have not differentiated between subgroups of SIS and have often had methodological flaws, making it difficult to specifically design target treatment for patients diagnosed with SIS. Therefore, it was considered important to focus on a subgroup such as tendinopathy, with a specific tailored intervention strategy based on evidence from other regions of the body, and to clearly describe the intervention in a methodologically strong study. The trial was registered with Clinicaltrials.gov ( NCT01984203 ) on 31 October 2013.

  18. Compressive cryotherapy versus ice-a prospective, randomized study on postoperative pain in patients undergoing arthroscopic rotator cuff repair or subacromial decompression.

    PubMed

    Kraeutler, Matthew J; Reynolds, Kirk A; Long, Cyndi; McCarty, Eric C

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of compressive cryotherapy (CC) vs. ice on postoperative pain in patients undergoing shoulder arthroscopy for rotator cuff repair or subacromial decompression. A commercial device was used for postoperative CC. A standard ice wrap (IW) was used for postoperative cryotherapy alone. Patients scheduled for rotator cuff repair or subacromial decompression were consented and randomized to 1 of 2 groups; patients were randomized to use either CC or a standard IW for the first postoperative week. All patients were asked to complete a "diary" each day, which included visual analog scale scores based on average daily pain and worst daily pain as well as total pain medication usage. Pain medications were then converted to a morphine equivalent dosage. Forty-six patients completed the study and were available for analysis; 25 patients were randomized to CC and 21 patients were randomized to standard IW. No significant differences were found in average pain, worst pain, or morphine equivalent dosage on any day. There does not appear to be a significant benefit to use of CC over standard IW in patients undergoing shoulder arthroscopy for rotator cuff repair or subacromial decompression. Further study is needed to determine if CC devices are a cost-effective option for postoperative pain management in this population of patients. Copyright © 2015 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. A Prospective Comparative Study of High Resolution Ultrasound and MRI in the Diagnosis of Rotator Cuff Tears in a Tertiary Hospital of North India

    PubMed Central

    Chauhan, Narvir Singh; Ahluwalia, Ajay; Sharma, Yash Paul; Thakur, Lokesh

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background To evaluate the accuracy of high resolution ultrasound (USG) and MRI in the diagnosis of rotator cuff tears (RCT) and to determine if high resolution USG compares favorably in sensitivity and specificity to MRI in the diagnosis of rotator cuff injury. Material/Methods In this prospective comparative study, 40 patients with clinically suspected rotator cuff tears underwent both ultrasound and MRI of the shoulder. Out of these 40 patients, 31 patients who had positive findings for rotator cuff tears on ultrasound and/or MRI were finally included in the study while the remaining 9 patients with negative or unrelated findings were excluded. The USG and MRI were interpreted by two radiologists experienced in musculoskeletal radiology and blinded to findings of each other. Comparison was done using MRI as a standard reference. Results The agreement between USG and MRI for diagnosis of RCTs was statistically excellent; USG showed a sensitivity of 86.7% and a specificity of 100% for full-thickness tears, and a sensitivity of 89.7% and a specificity of 98.8% for partial-thickness tears; observed accuracy for full thickness tears was 98.4% and 95.9% for partial thickness tears. The Kappa coefficient of association was 0.91 for full thickness tears and 0.90 for partial thickness tears. Conclusions Considering the comparable diagnostic accuracy of USG and MRI, the former modality can be used as a first-line investigation for diagnosis of RCT. MRI should be used secondarily as a problem-solving tool either following an equivocal shoulder USG or for delineation of anatomy in cases where surgical correction is needed. PMID:27800039

  20. Relationship between the critical shoulder angle and the development of rotator cuff lesions: a retrospective epidemiological study.

    PubMed

    Gomide, Leandro Cardoso; Carmo, Thiago Correa do; Bergo, Guilherme Henrique Moreira; Oliveira, Glauber Araújo; Macedo, Igor Severino

    2017-01-01

    To perform a retrospective epidemiological study of radiographs in order to evaluate the relationship between the anatomy of the scapula and the development of rotator cuff injuries (RCIs). This study retrospectively evaluated the relation of the critical shoulder angle (CSA) and RCIs from January 2011 to November 2013; patients were examined in the Orthopedics and Traumatology Department of a university hospital. The CSA was measured by radiographic standardization of two groups: a control group of 34 asymptomatic shoulders and a study group of 44 shoulders with complete RCIs. The mean age in the control group was 59.97 years (45-84) and the mean age in the group with RCIs was 59.75 years (45-84). Regarding the CSA, the control group had a mean angle of 33.59° (±3.37) and the group with RCIs had a mean angle of 39.75° (±5.35; p < 0.007). There is an association between CSA and RCIs.

  1. Proposal and Evaluation of a Telerehabilitation Platform Designed for Patients With Partial Rotator Cuff Tears: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objective To propose and evaluate the effectiveness of a telerehabilitation platform designed for patients with rotator cuff (RC) tears. Methods During the first study phase, a virtual service platform that included information on RC tear pathology, joint care, and a series of instructions regarding therapeutic exercise was designed and created. Subsequently, in the clinical phase, a quasi-experimental study was performed. The platform was tested on patients and evaluated at baseline and at 1, 2, 3, and 6 months with respect to their pain levels and functionality on the Constant-Murley (CM) scale. Results Eleven patients were included, 5 women and 6 men, with a median age of 55 years (range, 42–68 years). Pain diminished from a baseline value of 64 mm (range, 40–80 mm) to 16 mm (range, 0–30 mm) at 6 months (p<0.001). Points on the CM scale rose from a baseline value of 54 points (range, 51–66 points) to 85 points (range, 70–100 points) at 6 months (p=0.001). Functionality in daily living and work activities, movement, and strength exhibited significant changes at 6 months (p<0.05). Conclusion Significant changes were observed in pain and functionality in this group of participants who used a telerehabilitation platform. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that included a specific program for RC tears. PMID:27606278

  2. Does an Injection of Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Loaded in Fibrin Glue Influence Rotator Cuff Repair Outcomes? A Clinical and Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong Sang; Sung, Chang Hun; Chung, Sung Hoon; Kwak, Sang Joon; Koh, Yong Gon

    2017-07-01

    The mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-based tissue engineering approach has been developed to improve the treatment of rotator cuff tears. Hypothesis/Purpose: The purpose was to determine the effect of an injection of adipose-derived MSCs loaded in fibrin glue during arthroscopic rotator cuff repair on clinical outcomes and to evaluate its effect on structural integrity using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The hypothesis was that the application of adipose-derived MSCs would improve outcomes after the surgical repair of a rotator cuff tear. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Among 182 patients treated with arthroscopic surgery for a rotator cuff tear, 35 patients treated with arthroscopic rotator cuff repair alone (conventional group) were matched with 35 patients who underwent arthroscopic rotator cuff repair with an injection of adipose-derived MSCs loaded in fibrin glue (injection group) based on sex, age, and lesion size. Outcomes were assessed with respect to the visual analog scale (VAS) for pain, range of motion (ROM) (including forward flexion, external rotation at the side, and internal rotation at the back), and functional measures of the Constant score and University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) shoulder rating scale. Repaired tendon structural integrity was assessed by using MRI at a minimum of 12 months after surgery, and the mean clinical follow-up was 28.8 ± 4.2 months in the conventional group and 28.3 ± 3.8 months in the injection group. The mean VAS score at rest and during motion improved significantly in both groups after surgery. However, there were no significant differences between the groups at the final follow-up ( P = .256 and .776, respectively). Compared with preoperative measurements, forward flexion and external rotation at the side significantly improved at the final follow-up in both groups (all P < .05). However, no significant improvements in internal rotation at the back were observed in either group ( P = .625 and .834 for

  3. Effects of one-month continuous passive motion after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair: results at 1-year follow-up of a prospective randomized study.

    PubMed

    Garofalo, Raffaele; Conti, Marco; Notarnicola, Angela; Maradei, Leonardo; Giardella, Antonio; Castagna, Alessandro

    2010-05-01

    The study included 100 patients who underwent an arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. All patients suffered about a rotator cuff tear that was repaired arthroscopically with a suture anchor technique. Immediately postoperatively, patients were randomly allocated to one of two different postoperative physiotherapy regimens: passive self-assisted range of motion exercise (controls: 46 patients) versus passive self-assisted range of motion exercise associated with use of continuous passive motion (CPM) for a total of 2 h per day (experimental group: 54 patients), for 4 weeks. After this time, all the patients of both groups underwent the same physical therapy protocol. An independent examiner assessed the patients at 2.5, 6 and 12 months particularly about pain with the VAS scale (0-10) and the range of motion (ROM). Our findings show that postoperative treatment of an arthroscopic rotator cuff repair with passive self-assisted exercises associated with 2-h CPM a day provides a significant advantage in terms of ROM improvement and pain relief when compared to passive self-assisted exercise alone, at the short-term follow-up. No significant differences between the two groups were observed at 1 year postoperatively.

  4. Rotator Cuff Injuries - Multiple Languages

    MedlinePlus

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Rotator Cuff Injuries URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Rotator Cuff Injuries - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features ...

  5. Measurement of endotracheal tube cuff pressure: Instrumental versus conventional method

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Mueen Ullah; Khokar, Rashid; Qureshi, Sadia; Al Zahrani, Tariq; Aqil, Mansoor; Shiraz, Motasim

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the conventional practice of endotracheal tube (ETT) cuff inflation and pressure measurement as compared to the instrumental method. Study Design: Prospective observational study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Anaesthesia, King Saud University Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia (June 2014–July 2014). Methods: A total of 100 adult patients were observed according to the syringe size used Group-1 (10 ml) and Group-2 (20 ml) for ETT cuff inflation in general anesthesia. Patients with anticipated difficult intubation, risk for aspiration, known anatomical laryngotracheal abnormalities, and emergency cases were excluded. Trachea was intubated with size 8 or 8.5 mm and 7.0 or 7.5 mm ETT in male and female patients respectively. The ETT cuff was inflated with air by one of the anesthesia technician. Cuff pressures were measured using aneroid manometer. ETT cuff pressure of 20–30 cm of water was considered as standard. Results: In 69% of the patients, the cuff pressure measurements were above the standard. Age (P = 0.806), weight (P = 0.527), height (P = 0.850), and gender (P = 1.00) were comparable in both groups. The mean cuff pressure in Group-1 and Group-2 was 32.52 ± 6.39 and 38.90 ± 6.60 cm of water (P = 0.001). The cuff inflation with 20 ml syringe resulted in higher cuff pressure as compared to 10cc syringe 37.73 ± 4.23 versus 40.74 ± 5.01 (86% vs. 52%, P = 0.013). Conclusion: The conventional method for ETT cuff inflation and pressure measuring is unreliable. As a routine instrumental cuff pressure, monitoring is suggested. PMID:27833487

  6. Augmentation techniques for rotator cuff repair.

    PubMed

    Papalia, Rocco; Franceschi, Francesco; Zampogna, Biagio; D'Adamio, Stefano; Maffulli, Nicola; Denaro, Vincenzo

    2013-01-01

    There is a high rate of recurrence of tear and failed healing after rotator cuff repair. Several strategies have proposed to augment rotator cuff repairs to improve postoperative outcome and shoulder performance. We systematically review the literature on clinical outcome following rotator cuff augmentation. We performed a comprehensive search of Medline, CINAHL, Embase and the Cochrane Central Registry of Controlled Trials, from inception of the database to 20 June 2012, using various combinations of keywords. The reference lists of the previously selected articles were then examined by hand. Only studies focusing on clinical outcomes of human patients who had undergone augmented rotator cuff repair were selected. We then evaluated the methodological quality of each article using the Coleman methodology score (CMS), a 10 criteria scoring list assessing the methodological quality of the selected studies (CMS). Thirty-two articles were included in the present review. Two were retrospective studies, and 30 were prospective. Biologic, synthetic and cellular devices were used in 24, 7 and 1 studies, respectively. The mean modified Coleman methodology score was 64.0. Heterogeneity of the clinical outcome scores makes it difficult to compare different studies. None of the augmentation devices available is without problems, and each one presents intrinsic weaknesses. There is no dramatic increase in clinical and functional assessment after augmented procedures, especially if compared with control groups. More and better scientific evidence is necessary to use augmentation of rotator cuff repairs in routine clinical practice.

  7. Biologic augmentation of rotator cuff repair with mesenchymal stem cells during arthroscopy improves healing and prevents further tears: a case-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Hernigou, Philippe; Flouzat Lachaniette, Charles Henri; Delambre, Jerome; Zilber, Sebastien; Duffiet, Pascal; Chevallier, Nathalie; Rouard, Helene

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of biologic augmentation of rotator cuff repair with iliac crest bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). The prevalence of healing and prevention of re-tears were correlated with the number of MSCs received at the tendon-to-bone interface. Forty-five patients in the study group received concentrated bone marrow-derived MSCs as an adjunct to single-row rotator cuff repair at the time of arthroscopy. The average number of MSCs returned to the patient was 51,000 ± 25,000. Outcomes of patients receiving MSCs during their repair were compared to those of a matched control group of 45 patients who did not receive MSCs. All patients underwent imaging studies of the shoulder with iterative ultrasound performed every month from the first postoperative month to the 24th month. The rotator cuff healing or re-tear was confirmed with MRI postoperatively at three and six months, one and two years and at the most recent follow up MRI (minimum ten-year follow-up). Bone marrow-derived MSC injection as an adjunctive therapy during rotator cuff repair enhanced the healing rate and improved the quality of the repaired surface as determined by ultrasound and MRI. Forty-five (100 %) of the 45 repairs with MSC augmentation had healed by six months, versus 30 (67 %) of the 45 repairs without MSC treatment by six months. Bone marrow concentrate (BMC) injection also prevented further ruptures during the next ten years. At the most recent follow-up of ten years, intact rotator cuffs were found in 39 (87 %) of the 45 patients in the MSC-treated group, but just 20 (44 %) of the 45 patients in the control group. The number of transplanted MSCs was determined to be the most relevant to the outcome in the study group, since patients with a loss of tendon integrity at any time up to the ten-year follow-up milestone received fewer MSCs as compared with those who had maintained a successful repair during the same interval. This

  8. Correlation between penile cuff test and pressure-flow study in patients candidates for trans-urethral resection of prostate.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, Daniele; Di Santo, Angelo; Gaziev, Gabriele; Miano, Roberto; Musco, Stefania; Vespasiani, Giuseppe; Finazzi Agrò, Enrico

    2014-12-19

    Aim of this study was to make a comparison between penile cuff test (PCT) and standard pressure-flow study (PFS) in the preoperative evaluation of patients candidates for trans-urethral resection of prostate (TURP) for benign prostatic obstruction (BPO). We enrolled male patients with lower urinary tract symptoms candidates for TURP. Each of them underwent a PCT and a subsequent PFS. A statistical analysis was performed: sensitivity (SE), specificity (SP), positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), likelihood ratio and ratio of corrected classified were calculated. Fisher exact test was used to evaluate relationships between PCT and maximal urine flow (Qmax): a p-value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. We enrolled 48 consecutive patients. Overall, at PCT 31 patients were diagnosed as obstructed and 17 patients as unobstructed. At the subsequent PFS, 21 out of 31 patients diagnosed as obstructed at PCT were confirmed to be obstructed; one was diagnosed as unobstructed; the remaining 9 patients appeared as equivocal. Concerning the 17 patients unobstructed at PCT, all of them were confirmed not to be obstructed at PFS, with 10 equivocal and 7 unobstructed. The rate of correctly classified patients at PCT was 79% (95%-CI 65%-90%). About detecting obstructed patients, PCT showed a SE of 100% and a SP of 63%. The PPV was 68%, while the NPV was 100%. PCT can be an efficient tool in evaluating patients candidates for TURP. In particular, it showed good reliability in ruling out BPO because of its high NPV, with a high rate of correctly classified patients overall. Further studies on a huger number of patients are needed, including post-operative follow-up as well.

  9. The factors affecting stiffness occurring with rotator cuff tear.

    PubMed

    Seo, Seung-Suk; Choi, Jang-Seuk; An, Ki-Chan; Kim, Jung-Han; Kim, Sang-Bum

    2012-03-01

    Stiffness after a rotator cuff tear is common, and it affects postoperative prognosis. This study aims to define the factors affecting stiffness that accompanies rotator cuff tear. From June 2002 to May 2009 (84 months), 143 patients underwent arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. Of these, 119 were enrolled as subjects in this study. Preoperative range of motion was measured in all patients. Stiffness of the shoulder was defined as restriction of active and passive motion of 100° of elevation or less, less than 50% of external rotation, and internal rotation only to the sacrum. Factors that can affect stiffness were evaluated, including the type, size, and direction of rotator cuff; duration of symptoms; gender; age; presence of accompanying medical disease; degenerative factors (Goutallier classification); and presence of trauma. Retrospective analysis was conducted accordingly. A statistically significantly higher degree of stiffness was seen for full-thickness tears than for partial-thickness tears (P = .0187). Between 2 groups that were divided by direction of rotator cuff tear, posterosuperior cuff tears showed a statistically significantly higher prevalence of stiffness (P = .0415). Patients with trauma had a statistically higher prevalence of stiffness (P = .0264). The other factors did not show significant differences. In patients with rotator cuff tear, the type and direction of rotator cuff tear and the presence of trauma seem to increase the limitation of preoperative joint range of motion. Copyright © 2012 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Comparison of blood pressure measurements of anesthetized dogs obtained noninvasively with a cylindrical blood pressure cuff and an anatomically modified conical blood pressure cuff.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Sara J; da Cunha, Anderson F; Domingues, Michelle; Shelby, Amanda M; Stout, Rhett W; Acierno, Mark J

    2016-01-01

    To compare blood pressure measured noninvasively with an oscillometric device that involved use of a novel conical cuff and a traditional cylindrical blood pressure cuff. 17 adult hound-type dogs. Dogs were anesthetized, and a 20-gauge, 1.5-inch catheter was inserted in the median sacral artery. The catheter was attached to a pressure transducer via fluid-filled noncompliant tubing, and direct blood pressure was recorded with a multifunction monitor. A specially fabricated conical cuff was placed on the antebrachium. Four sets of direct and indirect blood pressure measurements were simultaneously collected every 2 minutes. Four sets of measurements were then obtained by use of a cylindrical cuff. The cylindrical cuff met American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine consensus guidelines for validation of indirect blood pressure measurements for mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), systolic arterial blood pressure (SAP), and diastolic arterial blood pressure (DAP). The conical cuff met the consensus guidelines for difference of paired measurements, SD, and percentages of measurements within 10 and 20 mm Hg of the value for the reference method, but it failed a correlation analysis. In addition, although bias for the conical cuff was less than that for the cylindrical cuff for SAP, MAP, and DAP measurements, the limits of agreement for the conical cuff were wider than those for the cylindrical cuff for SAP and MAP measurements. On the basis of results of this study, use of a conical cuff for oscillometric blood pressure measurement cannot be recommended.

  11. Outcomes following arthroscopic transosseous equivalent suture bridge double row rotator cuff repair: a prospective study and short-term results

    PubMed Central

    Imam, Mohamed Abdelnabi; Abdelkafy, Ashraf

    2016-01-01

    Background: The transosseous-equivalent cross bridge double row (TESBDR) rotator cuff (RC) repair technique has been developed to optimize healing biology at a repaired RC tendon insertion. It has been shown in the laboratory to improve pressurized contact area and mean foot print pressure when compared with a double row anchor technique. Pressure has been shown to influence healing between tendon and bone, and the tendon compression vector provided by the transosseous-equivalent suture bridges may enhance healing. The purpose was to prospectively evaluate the outcomes of arthroscopic TESBDR RC repair. Methods: Single center prospective case series study. Sixty-nine patients were selected to undergo arthroscopic TESBDR RC repair and were included in the current study. Primary outcome measures included the Oxford Shoulder Score (OSS), the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) score, the Constant-Murley (CM) Score and Range of motion (ROM). Secondary outcome measures included a Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) for pain, another VAS for patient satisfaction from the operative procedure, EuroQoL 5-Dimensions Questionnaire (EQ-5D) for quality of life assessment. Results: At 24 months post-operative, average OSS score was 44, average UCLA score was 31, average CM score was 88, average forward flexion was 145°, average internal rotation was 35°, average external rotation was 79°, average abduction was 150°, average EQ-5D score was 0.73, average VAS for pain was 2.3, and average VAS for patient satisfaction was 9.2. Conclusion: Arthroscopic TESBDR RC repair is a procedure with good post-operative functional outcome and low re-tear rate based on a short term follow-up. PMID:27163096

  12. Tendon Collagen Crosslinking Offers Potential to Improve Suture Pullout in Rotator Cuff Repair: An Ex Vivo Sheep Study.

    PubMed

    Camenzind, Roland S; Wieser, Karl; Fessel, Gion; Meyer, Dominik C; Snedeker, Jess G

    2016-08-01

    The suture-tendon interface is often the weakest link in tendon to bone repair of massive rotator cuff tears. Genipin is a low-toxicity collagen crosslinker derived from the gardenia fruit that has been shown to augment collagen tissue strength and mechanically arrest tendon-tear progression. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate whether genipin crosslinking can sufficiently augment the suture-tendon interface to improve suture pullout strength using simple single-loop sutures and the modified Mason-Allen technique. The study also aimed to assess whether time of genipin treatment is a relevant factor in efficacy. In an ex vivo (cadaveric) sheep rotator cuff tendon model, a total of 142 suture pullout tests were performed on 32 infraspinatus tendons. Each tendon was prepared with three single-loop stitches. Two groups were pretreated by incubation in genipin solution for either 4 hours or 24 hours. Two corresponding control groups were incubated in phosphate buffered saline for the same periods. The same test protocol was applied to tendons using modified Mason-Allen technique stitch patterns. Each suture was loaded to failure on a universal materials testing machine. Suture pullout force, stiffness, and work to failure were calculated from force-displacement data, and then compared among the groups. Median single-loop pullout force on tendons incubated for 24 hours in genipin yielded an approximately 30% increase in maximum pullout force for single-loop stitches with a median of 73 N (range, 56-114 N) compared with 56 N (range, 40-69 N; difference of medians = 17 N; p = 0.028), with corresponding increases in the required work to failure but not stiffness. Genipin treatment for 4 hours showed no added benefit for suture-pullout behavior (46 N, [range, 35-95 N] versus 45 N, [range, 28-63 N]; difference of medians, 1 N; p = 1). No tested genipin crosslinking conditions indicated benefit for tendons grasped using the modified Mason-Allen technique after 4

  13. High-resolution ultrasound of rotator cuff and biceps reflection pulley in non-elite junior tennis players: anatomical study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Tennis is believed to be potentially harmful for the shoulder, therefore the purpose of this study is to evaluate the anatomy of the rotator cuff and the coraco-humeral ligament (CHL) in a-symptomatic non-elite junior tennis players with high-resolution ultrasound (US). Methods From August 2009 to September 2010 n = 90 a-symptomatic non-elite junior tennis players (mean age ± standard deviation: 15 ± 3) and a control group of age- and sex- matched subjects were included. Shoulder assessment with a customized standardized protocol was performed. Body mass index, dominant arm, years of practice, weekly hours of training, racket weight, grip (Eastern, Western and semi-Western), kind of strings were recorded. Results Abnormalities were found at ultrasound in 14/90 (15%) players. Two players had supraspinatus tendinosis, two had subacromial impingement and ten had subacromial bursitis. CHL thickness resulted comparable in the dominant and non-dominant arms (11.3 ± 4.4 mm vs. 13 ± 4.2, p > 0.05). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that no association was present among CHL thickness and the variables evaluated. In the control group, abnormalities were found at ultrasound in 6/60 (10%) subjects (sub-acromial bursitis). No statistically significant differences between players and control group were found (p = 0.71). Conclusion In a-symptomatic non-elite junior tennis players only minor shoulder abnormalities were found. PMID:25034864

  14. Rotator Cuff Injuries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connors, G. Patrick

    Many baseball players suffer from shoulder injuries related to the rotator cuff muscles. These injuries may be classified as muscular strain, tendonitis or tenosynovitis, and impingement syndrome. Treatment varies from simple rest to surgery, so it is important to be seen by a physician as soon as possible. In order to prevent these injuries, the…

  15. Rotator Cuff Injuries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connors, G. Patrick

    Many baseball players suffer from shoulder injuries related to the rotator cuff muscles. These injuries may be classified as muscular strain, tendonitis or tenosynovitis, and impingement syndrome. Treatment varies from simple rest to surgery, so it is important to be seen by a physician as soon as possible. In order to prevent these injuries, the…

  16. Effect of the thigh-cuffs on the carotid artery diameter jugular vein section and facial skin edema: HDT study.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roumy, Jerome; Diridillou, Stephane; Herault, Stephane; Fomina, Galina; Alferova, Irina; Arbeille, Philippe

    2001-08-01

    Objective: To evaluate the distal arterial, venous and skin changes in a group using thigh cuffs during daytime and in a control group. Method: Cardiac, arterial, venous parameters were measured by echography and Doppler. Skin thickness was measured by high frequency echography. Results & discussion: Head down position induced plasma volume reduction, increased cerebral resistance, reduced lower limb resistance. The jugular vein increased whereas the femoral and popliteal veins decreased. All these changes were already observed in previous HDT. Common carotid diameter decreased, Front head skin thickness increased and Tibial skin thickness decreased. Eight hours with thigh cuffs increased the cardiac and carotid sizes which is in agreement with the plasma volume increase. Conversely they reduced the cerebral vascular resistance, jugular section and front head edema which may explain the sensation of comfort reported by the subjects. At the lower limb level the thigh cuffs restored the skin thickness to pre-HDT level but enlarged markedly the femoral and popliteal veins. HR, BP, CO, TPR did not change.

  17. Fatty replacement of rotator cuff in brain-injured patients is associated with hemiplegic arm function, but not with tendon tear: A multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Beom, Jaewon; Jang, Hye Jin; Han, Tai Ryoon; Oh, Byung-Mo; Paik, Nam-Jong; Yang, Eun Joo; Lee, Shi-Uk

    2015-01-01

    The association between fatty replacement of rotator cuff and hemiplegic upper extremity function has not been defined yet. Moreover, the relationships among rotator cuff tears, shoulder pain, spasticity, and fatty replacement were not clearly studied. We investigated the association of fatty replacement of the supraspinatus and infraspinatus muscles with tendon tear in stroke or brain-injured patients. A total of 72 hemiplegic patients were enrolled in 3 hospitals, and ultrasonography of both shoulders was performed once. Fatty replacement of the supraspinatus and infraspinatus was graded by the visibility of outer contours, pennate pattern, central tendon, and echogenicity. Fatty replacement was observed in 22 (30.6%) out of the 72 patients (in 18 supraspinatus muscles and 12 infraspinatus). Inter-rater agreement (kappa value) between the 2 physiatrists was 0.530 for the supraspinatus, and 0.411 for the infraspinatus. The Fugl-Meyer assessment score, Brunnstrom stage, and modified Barthel index were significantly lower in patients with fatty replacement of the supraspinatus or infraspinatus (group 1) than in those without (group 2). The motor power of both shoulders, the pain-free range of motion, spasticity, and hemiplegic shoulder pain were comparable between the two groups. The tear rate of the supraspinatus, infraspinatus, or subscapularis tendon at the hemiplegic side was higher than that at the contralesional side in each group, although there was no significant difference between group 1 and group 2. Disuse leading to muscle atrophy rather than rotator cuff tear might be the cause of fatty replacement of these muscles, which may be associated with decreased function of the hemiplegic upper extremities.

  18. Comparative study between benzydamine hydrochloride gel, lidocaine 5% gel and lidocaine 10% spray on endotracheal tube cuff as regards postoperative sore throat.

    PubMed

    Mekhemar, Nashwa Abdallah; El-Agwany, Ahmed Samy; Radi, Wafaa Kamel; El-Hady, Sherif Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    Postoperative sore throat is a common complication after endotracheal intubation. After tracheal intubation, the incidence of sore throat varies from 14.4% to 50%. The aim of the study was to compare between benzydamine hydrochloride gel, lidocaine 5% gel and lidocaine 10% spray on the endotracheal tube cuff as regards postoperative sore throat. The present study was carried out on 124 patients admitted to Alexandria university hospitals for lumbar fixation surgery requiring general anesthesia. Patients were randomly allocated into 4 groups. Benzydamine hydrochloride gel, 5% lidocaine hydrochloride gel, 10% lidocaine hydrochloride spray, or normal saline were applied on endotracheal tube cuffs before endotracheal intubation. The patients were examined for sore throat (none, mild, moderate, or severe) at 0, 1, 6, 12, and 24h after extubation. The results were collected, analyzed and presented in table and figure. The highest incidence of postoperative sore throat occurred at 6h after extubation in all groups. There was a significantly lower incidence of postoperative sore throat in the benzydamine group than 5% lidocaine gel, 10% lidocaine spray, and normal saline groups. The benzydamine group had significantly decreased severity of postoperative sore throat compared with the 10% lidocaine, 5% lidocaine, and normal saline groups at observation time point. Compared with the 5% lidocaine the 10% lidocaine group had significantly increased incidence and severity of postoperative sore throat after extubation. Compared with normal saline the 10% lidocaine group had increased incidence of postoperative sore throat. There were no significant differences among groups in local or systemic side effects. So in conclusion, benzydamine hydrochloride gel on the endotracheal tube cuff is a simple and effective method to reduce the incidence and severity of postoperative sore throat. Application of 10% lidocaine spray should be avoided because of worsening of postoperative sore

  19. [Comparative study between benzydamine hydrochloride gel, lidocaine 5% gel and lidocaine 10% spray on endotracheal tube cuff as regards postoperative sore throat].

    PubMed

    Mekhemar, Nashwa Abdallah; El-Agwany, Ahmed Samy; Radi, Wafaa Kamel; El-Hady, Sherif Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    Postoperative sore throat is a common complication after endotracheal intubation. After tracheal intubation, the incidence of sore throat varies from 14.4% to 50%. The aim of the study was to compare between benzydamine hydrochloride gel, lidocaine 5% gel and lidocaine 10% spray on the endotracheal tube cuff as regards postoperative sore throat. The present study was carried out on 124 patients admitted to Alexandria university hospitals for lumbar fixation surgery requiring general anesthesia. Patients were randomly allocated into 4 groups. Benzydamine hydrochloride gel, 5% lidocaine hydrochloride gel, 10% lidocaine hydrochloride spray, or normal saline were applied on endotracheal tube cuffs before endotracheal intubation. The patients were examined for sore throat (none, mild, moderate, or severe) at 0, 1, 6, 12, and 24h after extubation. The results were collected, analyzed and presented in table and figure. The highest incidence of postoperative sore throat occurred at 6h after extubation in all groups. There was a significantly lower incidence of postoperative sore throat in the benzydamine group than 5% lidocaine gel, 10% lidocaine spray, and normal saline groups. The benzydamine group had significantly decreased severity of postoperative sore throat compared with the 10% lidocaine, 5% lidocaine, and normal saline groups at observation time point. Compared with the 5% lidocaine the 10% lidocaine group had significantly increased incidence and severity of postoperative sore throat after extubation. Compared with normal saline the 10% lidocaine group had increased incidence of postoperative sore throat. There were no significant differences among groups in local or systemic side effects. So in conclusion, benzydamine hydrochloride gel on the endotracheal tube cuff is a simple and effective method to reduce the incidence and severity of postoperative sore throat. Application of 10% lidocaine spray should be avoided because of worsening of postoperative sore

  20. Comparison of functional gains after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair in patients over 70 years of age versus patients under 50 years of age: a prospective multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Moraiti, Constantina; Valle, Pablo; Maqdes, Ali; Boughebri, Omar; Dib, Chourky; Giakas, Giannis; Kany, Jean; Elkholti, Kamil; Garret, Jérôme; Katz, Denis; Leclère, Franck Marie; Valenti, Philippe

    2015-02-01

    To assess rotator cuff rupture characteristics and evaluate healing and the functional outcome after arthroscopic repair in patients older than 70 years versus patients younger than 50 years. We conducted a multicenter, prospective, comparative study of 40 patients younger than 50 years (group A) and 40 patients older than 70 years (group B) treated with arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. Patients older than 70 years were operated on only if symptoms persisted after 6 months of conservative treatment, whereas patients younger than 50 years were operated on regardless of any persistent symptoms. Imaging consisted of preoperative magnetic resonance imaging and postoperative ultrasound. Preoperative and postoperative function was evaluated with Constant and modified Constant scores. Patient satisfaction was also assessed. The evaluations were performed at least 1 year postoperatively. No patient was lost to follow-up. The incidence of both supraspinatus and infraspinatus tears was greater in group B. Greater retraction in the frontal plane and greater fatty infiltration were observed in group B. The Constant score was significantly improved in both groups (51 ± 12.32 preoperatively v 77.18 ± 11.02 postoperatively in group A and 48.8 ± 10.97 preoperatively v 74.6 ± 12.02 postoperatively in group B, P < .05). The improvement was similar in both groups. The modified Constant score was also significantly improved in both groups (57.48 ± 18.23 preoperatively v 81.35 ± 19.75 postoperatively in group A and 63.09 ± 14.96 preoperatively v 95.62 ± 17.61 postoperatively in group B, P < .05). The improvement was greater for group B (P < .05). Partial rerupture of the rotator cuff occurred in 2 cases in group A and 5 cases in group B. Complete rerupture was observed in 2 patients in group B. In group A, 29 patients (72.5%) were very satisfied, 8 (20%) were satisfied, and 3 (7.5%) were less satisfied. In group B, 33 patients (82.5%) were very satisfied, 6 (15%) were

  1. A randomized clinical trial to compare the effectiveness of rotator cuff repair with or without augmentation using porcine small intestine submucosa for patients with moderate to large rotator cuff tears: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Bryant, Dianne; Holtby, Richard; Willits, Kevin; Litchfield, Robert; Drosdowech, Darren; Spouge, Alison; White, David; Guyatt, Gordon

    2016-10-01

    The rate of rotator cuff repair failure is between 13% and 67%. Porcine small intestine submucosa (SIS) may be suitable to augment the repair. There were 62 patients with moderate and large cuff tears randomized to repair alone (control) or augmentation with SIS (Restore Orthobiologic Implant; DePuy, Warsaw, IN, USA). Primary outcome was repair failure using magnetic resonance arthrography. Randomization occurred on completion of the repair. Patients and assessors were blind to group. Assessments occurred preoperatively and postoperatively at 2 and 6 weeks and 3, 6, 12, and 24 months. There were 62 patients randomized (34 SIS, 28 control). Patient demographics, rotator cuff tear characteristics, and repair details were similar between groups. At 1 year, risk of failure was 52.9% (18/34) in the SIS group and 65.4% (17/26) in the control group for a risk difference of 12% (80% confidence interval, -7% to 32%) or relative risk of 0.81 (95% confidence interval, 0.53-1.24, P = .33) in favor of SIS. At 1 and 2 years, the mean difference between groups for patient-reported outcomes was small and consistent with chance but did not exclude the possibility of a clinically important difference. There was no statistically significant difference (P = .50) between the SIS group (59.6 ± 38.9; range, 3-112) and the control group (52.7 ± 38.6; range, 5-112) in number of days to being narcotic and pain free (<20 mm on a 100-mm visual analog scale). We found no evidence that SIS-augmented rotator cuff repair provides superior outcomes in patients with moderate rotator cuff tears. Copyright © 2016 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Saline soaked pledgets prevent carbon dioxide laser-induced endotracheal tube cuff ignition.

    PubMed

    Sosis, M B

    1995-08-01

    To determine whether saline soaked pledgets would protect the cuffs of polyvinylchloride (PVC) endotracheal tubes from carbon dioxide (CO2) laser-induced combustion. 12 PVC endotracheal tubes were studied. The cuffed end of each was placed in a graduated cylinder and flushed with 5 L/min of oxygen for 5 minutes. The endotracheal tube's cuff was then inflated with air and the system pressure set to 20 cm H2O. Research laboratory of a university hospital. Six of the endotracheal tube cuffs were protected with 1 inch by 3 inch saline soaked pledgets and six were left unprotected. A CO2 laser set to 40 watts was then fired at the cuffs. All six unprotected cuffs were ignited in less than 1 second. No significant combustion occurred at the six pledget protected endotracheal tube cuffs after 1 minute of laser fire. Under the conditions of this experiment, saline soaked pledgets protected PVC endotracheal tube cuffs from the CO2 laser.

  3. Tracheal tube cuff inflation guided by pressure volume loop closure associated with lower postoperative cuff-related complications: Prospective, randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Almarakbi, Waleed A.; Kaki, Abdullah M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The main function of an endotracheal tube (ETT) cuff is to prevent aspiration. High cuff pressure is usually associated with postoperative complications. We tried to compare cuff inflation guided by pressure volume loop closure (PV-L) with those by just to seal technique (JS) and assess the postoperative incidence of sore throat, cough and hoarseness. Materials and Methods: In a prospective, randomized clinical trial, 100 patients’ tracheas were intubated. In the first group (n = 50), ETT cuff inflation was guided by PV-L, while in the second group (n. = 50) the ETT cuff was inflated using the JS technique. Intracuff pressures and volumes were measured. The incidence of postoperative cuff-related complications was reported. Results: Demographic data and durations of intubation were comparable between the groups. The use of PV-L was associated with a lesser amount of intracuff air [4.05 (3.7-4.5) vs 5 (4.8-5.5), P < 0.001] and lower cuff pressure than those in the JS group [18.25 (18-19) vs 33 (32-35), P ≤ 0.001]. The incidence of postextubation cuff-related complications was significantly less frequent among the PV-L group patients as compared with the JS group patients (P ≤ 0.009), except for hoarseness of voice, which was less frequent among the PV-L group, but not statistically significant (P ≤ 0.065). Multiple regression models for prediction of intra-cuff pressure after intubation and before extubation revealed a statistically significant association with the technique used for cuff inflation (P < 0.0001). Conclusions: The study confirms that PV-L-guided ETT cuff inflation is an effective way to seal the airway and associates with a lower ETT cuff pressure and lower incidence of cuff-related complications. PMID:25191181

  4. 3.5 cm artificial urinary sphincter cuff erosion occurs predominantly in irradiated patients.

    PubMed

    Simhan, Jay; Morey, Allen F; Singla, Nirmish; Tausch, Timothy J; Scott, J Francis; Lemack, Gary E; Roehrborn, Claus G

    2015-02-01

    We analyzed our initial 100-case experience with the 3.5 cm artificial urinary sphincter cuff to identify risk factors for cuff erosion. We reviewed the records of a single surgeon, consecutive series of patients treated with 3.5 cm artificial urinary sphincter cuff placement from September 2009 to August 2013. Each patient underwent single perineal cuff placement via standardized technique. Preoperative characteristics, technical considerations and postoperative outcomes were analyzed and compared to those in a cohort of patients in whom a larger (4.0 cm or greater) artificial urinary sphincter cuff was placed during the same period. We identified clinical factors associated with an increased risk of 3.5 cm artificial urinary sphincter cuff erosion. Of the 176 men who met study inclusion criteria during the 4-year period 100 (57%) received the 3.5 cm artificial urinary sphincter cuff and 76 (43%) received a larger cuff (4.0 cm or greater). The continence rate (83% vs 80%, p = 0.65) and mean followup (32 vs 25 months, p = 0.14) were similar in the 2 groups. Erosion developed in 16 of the 176 patients (9%) during the study period, of whom 13 had the 3.5 cm cuff. Of the 100 patients with the 3.5 cm cuff 52 (52%) had a history of radiation, including 11 (21%) with erosion. Cuff erosion developed only rarely in nonirradiated men (2 of 48 or 4%, p = 0.01). A history of radiation was the only significant risk factor associated with 3.5 cm cuff erosion (OR 6.2, 95% CI 1.3-29.5). Men with a history of radiation who underwent placement of a 3.5 cm artificial urinary sphincter cuff experienced an increased (21%) risk of cuff erosion. Copyright © 2015 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Vaginal Cuff Dehiscence in Robotic-Assisted Total Hysterectomy

    PubMed Central

    Kashani, Shabnam; Gallo, Taryn; Sargent, Anita; ElSahwi, Karim; Silasi, Dan-Arin

    2012-01-01

    Study Objective: The aim of this study was to estimate the cumulative incidence of vaginal cuff dehiscence in robotic-assisted total hysterectomies in our patients and to provide recommendations to decrease the incidence of vaginal cuff dehiscence. Methods: This was an observational case series, Canadian Task Force Classification II-3 conducted at an academic and community teaching hospital. A total of 654 patients underwent robotic-assisted total laparoscopic hysterectomy for both malignant and benign reasons from September 1, 2006 to March 1, 2011 performed by a single surgeon. The da Vinci Surgical System was used for robotic-assisted total laparoscopic hysterectomy. Results: There were 3 cases of vaginal cuff dehiscence among 654 robotic-assisted total laparoscopic hysterectomies, making our cumulative incidence of vaginal cuff dehiscence 0.4%. The mean time between the procedures and vaginal cuff dehiscence was 44.3 d (6.3 wk). All patients were followed up twice after surgery, at 3 to 4 wk and 12 to 16 wk. Conclusion: In our study, the incidence of vaginal cuff dehiscence after robotic-assisted total laparoscopic hysterectomy compares favorably to that of total abdominal and vaginal hysterectomy. Our study suggests that the incidence of vaginal cuff dehiscence is more likely related to the technique of colpotomy and vaginal cuff suturing than to robotic-assisted total hysterectomy per se. With proper technique and patient education, our vaginal dehiscence rate has been 0.4%, which is 2.5 to 10 times less than the previously reported vaginal cuff dehiscence rate in the literature. PMID:23484559

  6. Influence of fixation point of latissimus dorsi tendon transfer for irreparable rotator cuff tear on glenohumeral external rotation: A cadaver study.

    PubMed

    Bargoin, K; Boissard, M; Kany, J; Grimberg, J

    2016-12-01

    Latissimus dorsi tendon transfer is a surgical option for treating irreparable posterosuperior rotator cuff tears, notably when attempting to reconstruct active external rotation. We hypothesized that the positioning of the transfer's point of fixation would differ depending on the desired elbow-to-body external rotation or external rotation with the elbow abducted. Seven shoulders from four whole frozen cadavers were used. We created two systems to install the subject in a semi-seated position to allow external rotation elbow to body and the arm abducted 90°. Traction sutures were positioned on the latissimus dorsi muscle and a massive tear of the rotator cuff was created. We tested six different transfer positions. Muscle contraction of the latissimus dorsi was stimulated using 10-N and 20-N suspended weights. The point of fixation of the latissimus dorsi on the humeral head had an influence on the elbow-to-body external rotation and with 90° abduction (P<0.001). The fixation point for a maximum external rotation with the elbow to the body was the anterolateral position (P<0.016). The fixation point for a maximum external rotation at 90° abduction was the position centered on the infraspinatus footprint (P<0.078). The optimal point of fixation differs depending on whether external rotation is restored at 0° or 90° abduction. Fundamental study, anatomic study. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Association of Strength Measurement with Rotator Cuff Tear in Patients with Shoulder Pain: The ROW Study

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Jennifer Earle; Higgins, Laurence D.; Dong, Yan; Collins, Jamie E.; Bean, Jonathan F.; Seitz, Amee L.; Katz, Jeffrey N.; Jain, Nitin B.

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study examines the association between strength measurements and supraspinatus tear in patients with shoulder pain. This study characterized determinants of abduction strength among patients with tears. Design Two-hundred and eight patients with shoulder pain (69 with and 110 without tear) were recruited. Strength was tested using hand-held dynamometer. Supraspinatus tears were diagnosed by combination of clinical assessment and blinded MRI review. Associations of supraspinatus tear with patient characteristics and strength measurements (abduction, internal rotation and external rotation) were assessed using multivariable logistic regression models. Results Patients with supraspinatus tear had decreased abduction strength (p=0.02) and decreased external rotation strength (p<0.01). When adjusted for age, sex, tear laterality, and BMI, decreased abduction strength (OR= 1.18 per kg, 95% C.I.=1.06–1.32) and decreased external rotation strength (OR=1.29 per kg, 95% C.I.=1.14–1.48) were associated with supraspinatus tear. In patients with tear, age ≥60 years, female sex, and VAS pain score were significantly associated with decreased abduction strength but tear size, fatty infiltration, and atrophy were not. Conclusions Decreased abduction and external rotation strength were associated with supraspinatus tear in patients with shoulder pain. In this cohort, the abduction strength of patients with tears, was influenced by demographic factors but not tear characteristics. PMID:26098921

  8. Metalloproteases and rotator cuff disease.

    PubMed

    Del Buono, Angelo; Oliva, Francesco; Longo, Umile Giuseppe; Rodeo, Scott A; Orchard, John; Denaro, Vincenzo; Maffulli, Nicola

    2012-02-01

    The molecular changes occurring in rotator cuff tears are still unknown, but much attention has been paid to better understand the role of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) in the development of tendinopathy. These are potent enzymes that, once activated, can completely degrade all components of the connective tissue, modify the extracellular matrix (ECM), and mediatethe development of painful tendinopathy and tendon rupture. To control the local activity of activated proteinases, the same cells produce tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMP) that bind to the enzymes and prevent degradation. The balance between the activities of MMPs and TIMPs regulates tendon remodeling, whereas an imbalance produces a collagen dis-regulation and disturbances intendons. ADAMs (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase) are cell membrane-linked enzymes with proteolytic and cell signaling functions. ADAMTSs (ADAM with thrombospondin motifs) are secreted into the circulation, and constitute a heterogenous family of proteases with both anabolic and catabolic functions. Biologic modulation of endogenous MMP activity to basal levels may reduce pathologic tissue degradation and favorably influence healing after rotator cuff repair. Further studies are needed to better define the mechanism of action, and whether these new strategies are safe and effective in larger models. Copyright © 2012 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Preventing cuff rupture during tracheostomy: importance of endotracheal tube positioning.

    PubMed

    Sood, Amit; Taheri, M Reza; Joshi, Arjun S

    2014-09-01

    The objective of our study is to describe the technique of distal endotracheal tube (ETT) positioning for avoiding cuff rupture and validate the technique in a virtual tracheostomy model. A prospective nonrandomized case series of 129 patients who had undergone tracheostomy using the senior author's technique were evaluated. Primary outcome was ETT cuff rupture. One hundred normal patient computed tomography (CT) scans were used to generate a virtual tracheostomy model, and the probability of cuff rupture, among other values, was obtained. One hundred twenty-three of 129 patients underwent tracheostomy without cuff rupture when the distal tip of the ETT was placed just proximal to the carina. After analysis of 100 3-dimensional CT scans, the average distance from the tracheotomy to the superior aspect of the cuff was 54.6 mm in men and 39.87 mm in women when a 6.5-size ETT was used, and 44.8 mm in men and 30.07 mm in women when a 7.5-size ETT was used. Virtual tracheotomy between the second and third tracheal rings resulted in no probability of inadvertent ETT cuff rupture. Distal ETT positioning during tracheostomy should be considered for avoiding inadvertent ETT cuff rupture. © The Author(s) 2014.

  10. Regenerative Medicine in Rotator Cuff Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Randelli, Pietro; Ragone, Vincenza; Menon, Alessandra; Cabitza, Paolo; Banfi, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Rotator cuff injuries are a common source of shoulder pathology and result in an important decrease in quality of patient life. Given the frequency of these injuries, as well as the relatively poor result of surgical intervention, it is not surprising that new and innovative strategies like tissue engineering have become more appealing. Tissue-engineering strategies involve the use of cells and/or bioactive factors to promote tendon regeneration via natural processes. The ability of numerous growth factors to affect tendon healing has been extensively analyzed in vitro and in animal models, showing promising results. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is a whole blood fraction which contains several growth factors. Controlled clinical studies using different autologous PRP formulations have provided controversial results. However, favourable structural healing rates have been observed for surgical repair of small and medium rotator cuff tears. Cell-based approaches have also been suggested to enhance tendon healing. Bone marrow is a well known source of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Recently, ex vivo human studies have isolated and cultured distinct populations of MSCs from rotator cuff tendons, long head of the biceps tendon, subacromial bursa, and glenohumeral synovia. Stem cells therapies represent a novel frontier in the management of rotator cuff disease that required further basic and clinical research. PMID:25184132

  11. Pressure Infusion Cuff and Blood Warmer during Massive Transfusion: An Experimental Study About Hemolysis and Hypothermia

    PubMed Central

    Pruneau, Denise; Dorval, Josée; Thibault, Louis; Fisette, Jean-François; Bédard, Suzanne K.; Jacques, Annie; Beauregard, Patrice

    2016-01-01

    Background Blood warmers were developed to reduce the risk of hypothermia associated with the infusion of cold blood products. During massive transfusion, these devices are used with compression sleeve, which induce a major stress to red blood cells. In this setting, the combination of blood warmer and compression sleeve could generate hemolysis and harm the patient. We conducted this study to compare the impact of different pressure rates on the hemolysis of packed red blood cells and on the outlet temperature when a blood warmer set at 41.5°C is used. Methods Pressure rates tested were 150 and 300 mmHg. Ten packed red blood cells units were provided by Héma-Québec and each unit was sequentially tested. Results We found no increase in hemolysis either at 150 or 300 mmHg. By cons, we found that the blood warmer was not effective at warming the red blood cells at the specified temperature. At 150 mmHg, the outlet temperature reached 37.1°C and at 300 mmHg, the temperature was 33.7°C. Conclusion To use a blood warmer set at 41.5°C in conjunction with a compression sleeve at 150 or 300 mmHg does not generate hemolysis. At 300 mmHg a blood warmer set at 41.5°C does not totally avoid a risk of hypothermia. PMID:27711116

  12. Pressure Infusion Cuff and Blood Warmer during Massive Transfusion: An Experimental Study About Hemolysis and Hypothermia.

    PubMed

    Poder, Thomas G; Pruneau, Denise; Dorval, Josée; Thibault, Louis; Fisette, Jean-François; Bédard, Suzanne K; Jacques, Annie; Beauregard, Patrice

    2016-01-01

    Blood warmers were developed to reduce the risk of hypothermia associated with the infusion of cold blood products. During massive transfusion, these devices are used with compression sleeve, which induce a major stress to red blood cells. In this setting, the combination of blood warmer and compression sleeve could generate hemolysis and harm the patient. We conducted this study to compare the impact of different pressure rates on the hemolysis of packed red blood cells and on the outlet temperature when a blood warmer set at 41.5°C is used. Pressure rates tested were 150 and 300 mmHg. Ten packed red blood cells units were provided by Héma-Québec and each unit was sequentially tested. We found no increase in hemolysis either at 150 or 300 mmHg. By cons, we found that the blood warmer was not effective at warming the red blood cells at the specified temperature. At 150 mmHg, the outlet temperature reached 37.1°C and at 300 mmHg, the temperature was 33.7°C. To use a blood warmer set at 41.5°C in conjunction with a compression sleeve at 150 or 300 mmHg does not generate hemolysis. At 300 mmHg a blood warmer set at 41.5°C does not totally avoid a risk of hypothermia.

  13. Knotless single-row rotator cuff repair: a comparative biomechanical study of 2 knotless suture anchors.

    PubMed

    Efird, Chad; Traub, Shaun; Baldini, Todd; Rioux-Forker, Dana; Spalazzi, Jeffrey P; Davisson, Twana; Hawkins, Monica; McCarty, Eric

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the gap formation during cyclic loading, maximum repair strength, and failure mode of single-row full-thickness supraspinatus repairs performed using 2 knotless suture anchors with differing internal suture-retention mechanisms in a human cadaver model. Nine matched pairs of cadaver shoulders were used. Full-thickness tears were induced by detaching the supraspinatus tendon from the greater tuberosity. Single-row repairs were performed with either type I (Opus Magnum PI; ArthroCare, Austin, Texas) or type II (ReelX STT; Stryker, Mahwah, New Jersey) knotless suture anchors. The repaired tendon was cycled from 10 to 90 N for 500 cycles, followed by load to failure. Gap formation was measured at 5, 100, 200, 300, 400, and 500 cycles with a video digitizing system. Anchor type or location (anterior or posterior) had no effect on gap formation during cyclic loading regardless of position (anterior, P=.385; posterior, P=.389). Maximum load to failure was significantly greater (P=.018) for repairs performed with type II anchors (288±62 N) compared with type I anchors (179±39 N). Primary failure modes were anchor pullout and tendon tearing for type II anchors and suture slippage through the anchor for type I anchors. The internal ratcheting suture-retention mechanism of type II anchors may have helped this anchor outperform the suture-cinching mechanism of type I anchors by supporting significantly higher loads before failure and minimizing suture slippage, potentially leading to stronger repairs clinically. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  14. Rotator cuff tears in young patients: a different disease than rotator cuff tears in elderly patients.

    PubMed

    Lazarides, Alexander L; Alentorn-Geli, Eduard; Choi, J H James; Stuart, Joseph J; Lo, Ian K Y; Garrigues, Grant E; Taylor, Dean C

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a systematic review of the literature to evaluate the characteristics of injury and treatment outcomes of rotator cuff tears in young patients. A systematic electronic search was performed for clinical studies evaluating rotator cuff tears in patients younger than 40 years with special emphasis on reporting of injury characteristics and treatment outcomes with a minimum 1-year follow-up. Twelve studies (involving 336 patients) met inclusion criteria. The mean age of the patients was 28 years (range, 16-40 years), with a mean follow-up of 39 months. There were 2 distinct subgroups. The majority of studies (7 of 10) showed that patients typically had a full-thickness tear with an acute traumatic etiology. However, within the subgroup of elite throwers, 5 of 6 studies demonstrated a majority of tears that were partial thickness stemming from chronic overuse. Rotator cuff repair improved pain and strength in almost all studies reporting on these parameters. Eighty-seven percent of patients reported they were satisfied. However, all studies examining elite throwers showed significant difficulty in returning to play (25%-97%). In young patients with rotator cuff tears, there are 2 primary groups. (1) A majority group with rotator cuff tears of traumatic origin responded well to both arthroscopic and open rotator cuff repair in terms of pain relief and self-reported outcomes postoperatively. These patients reported high levels of satisfaction and return to preinjury level of play. (2) A unique subpopulation composed of elite throwers had improved outcomes but suboptimal return to play. Copyright © 2015 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Rotator cuff strength balance in glovebox workers

    DOE PAGES

    Lawton, Cindy M.; Weaver, Amelia M.; Chan, Martha Kwan Yi; ...

    2016-11-23

    Gloveboxes are essential to the pharmaceutical, semi-conductor, nuclear, and biochemical industries. While gloveboxes serve as effective containment systems, they are often difficult to work in and present a number of ergonomic hazards. One such hazard is injury to the rotator cuff, a group of tendons and muscles in the shoulder, connecting the upper arm to the shoulder blade. Rotator cuff integrity is critical to shoulder health. This study compared the rotator cuff muscle strength ratios of glovebox workers to the healthy norm. Descriptive statistics were collected using a short questionnaire. Handheld dynamometry was used to quantify the ratio of forcesmore » produced for shoulder internal and external rotation. Results showed this population to have shoulder strength ratios significantly different from the healthy norm. Strength ratios were found to be a sound predictor of symptom incidence. The deviation from the normal ratio demonstrates the need for solutions designed to reduce the workload on the rotator cuff musculature in order to improve health and safety. Assessment of strength ratios can be used to screen for risk of symptom development. As a result, this increases technical knowledge and augments operational safety.« less

  16. Rotator cuff strength balance in glovebox workers

    SciTech Connect

    Lawton, Cindy M.; Weaver, Amelia M.; Chan, Martha Kwan Yi; Cournoyer, Michael Edward

    2016-11-23

    Gloveboxes are essential to the pharmaceutical, semi-conductor, nuclear, and biochemical industries. While gloveboxes serve as effective containment systems, they are often difficult to work in and present a number of ergonomic hazards. One such hazard is injury to the rotator cuff, a group of tendons and muscles in the shoulder, connecting the upper arm to the shoulder blade. Rotator cuff integrity is critical to shoulder health. This study compared the rotator cuff muscle strength ratios of glovebox workers to the healthy norm. Descriptive statistics were collected using a short questionnaire. Handheld dynamometry was used to quantify the ratio of forces produced for shoulder internal and external rotation. Results showed this population to have shoulder strength ratios significantly different from the healthy norm. Strength ratios were found to be a sound predictor of symptom incidence. The deviation from the normal ratio demonstrates the need for solutions designed to reduce the workload on the rotator cuff musculature in order to improve health and safety. Assessment of strength ratios can be used to screen for risk of symptom development. As a result, this increases technical knowledge and augments operational safety.

  17. Cytokines in rotator cuff degeneration and repair.

    PubMed

    Bedi, Asheesh; Maak, Travis; Walsh, Christopher; Rodeo, Scott A; Grande, Dan; Dines, David M; Dines, Joshua S

    2012-02-01

    The pathogenesis of rotator cuff degeneration remains poorly defined, and the incidence of degenerative tears is increasing in the aging population. Rates of recurrent tear and incomplete tendon-to-bone healing after repair remain significant for large and massive tears. Previous studies have documented a disorganized, fibrous junction at the tendon-to-bone interface after rotator cuff healing that does not recapitulate the organization of the native enthesis. Many biologic factors have been implicated in coordinating tendon-to-bone healing and maintenance of the enthesis after rotator cuff repair, including the expression and activation of transforming growth factor-β, basic fibroblast growth factor, platelet-derived growth factor-β, matrix metalloproteinases, and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases. Future techniques to treat tendinopathy and enhance tendon-to-bone healing will be driven by our understanding of the biology of this healing process after rotator cuff repair surgery. The use of cytokines to provide important signals for tissue formation and differentiation, the use of gene therapy techniques to provide sustained cytokine delivery, the use of stem cells, and the use of transcription factors to modulate endogenous gene expression represent some of these possibilities. Copyright © 2012 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. National Trends in Surgery for Rotator Cuff Disease in Korea.

    PubMed

    Jo, Young Hoon; Lee, Kwang Hyun; Kim, Sung Jae; Kim, Jaedong; Lee, Bong Gun

    2017-02-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the national trends in rotator cuff surgery in Korea and analyze hospital type-specific trends. We analyzed a nationwide database acquired from the Korean Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service (HIRA) from 2007 to 2015. International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision (ICD-10) codes, procedure codes, and arthroscopic device code were used to identify patients who underwent surgical treatment for rotator cuff disease. A total of 383,719 cases of rotator cuff surgeries were performed from 2007 to 2015. The mean annual percentage change in the age-adjusted rate of rotator cuff surgery per population of 100,000 persons rapidly increased from 2007 to 2012 (53.3%, P < 0.001), while that between 2012 to 2015 remained steady (2.3%, P = 0.34). The proportion of arthroscopic surgery among all rotator cuff surgeries steadily rose from 89.9% in 2007 to 96.8% in 2015 (P < 0.001). In terms of hospital types, the rate of rotator cuff surgery increased to the greatest degree in hospitals with 30-100 inpatient beds, and isolated acromioplasty procedure accounted for a larger proportion of the rotator cuff surgeries in small hospitals and clinics compared to large hospitals. Overall, our findings indicate that cases of rotator cuff surgery have increased rapidly recently in Korea, of which arthroscopic surgeries account for the greatest proportion. While rotator cuff surgery is a popular procedure that is commonly performed even in small hospitals, there was a difference in the component ratio of the procedure code in accordance with hospital type.

  19. National Trends in Surgery for Rotator Cuff Disease in Korea

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the national trends in rotator cuff surgery in Korea and analyze hospital type-specific trends. We analyzed a nationwide database acquired from the Korean Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service (HIRA) from 2007 to 2015. International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision (ICD-10) codes, procedure codes, and arthroscopic device code were used to identify patients who underwent surgical treatment for rotator cuff disease. A total of 383,719 cases of rotator cuff surgeries were performed from 2007 to 2015. The mean annual percentage change in the age-adjusted rate of rotator cuff surgery per population of 100,000 persons rapidly increased from 2007 to 2012 (53.3%, P < 0.001), while that between 2012 to 2015 remained steady (2.3%, P = 0.34). The proportion of arthroscopic surgery among all rotator cuff surgeries steadily rose from 89.9% in 2007 to 96.8% in 2015 (P < 0.001). In terms of hospital types, the rate of rotator cuff surgery increased to the greatest degree in hospitals with 30–100 inpatient beds, and isolated acromioplasty procedure accounted for a larger proportion of the rotator cuff surgeries in small hospitals and clinics compared to large hospitals. Overall, our findings indicate that cases of rotator cuff surgery have increased rapidly recently in Korea, of which arthroscopic surgeries account for the greatest proportion. While rotator cuff surgery is a popular procedure that is commonly performed even in small hospitals, there was a difference in the component ratio of the procedure code in accordance with hospital type. PMID:28049250

  20. Intense focused ultrasound stimulation of the rotator cuff: evaluation of the source of pain in rotator cuff tears and tendinopathy.

    PubMed

    Gellhorn, Alfred C; Gillenwater, Cody; Mourad, Pierre D

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this preliminary study was to evaluate the ability of individual 0.1-s long pulses of intense focused ultrasound (iFU) emitted with a carrier frequency of 2 MHz to evoke diagnostic sensations when applied to patients whose shoulders have rotator cuff tears or tendinopathy. Patients were adults with painful shoulders and clinical and imaging findings consistent with rotator cuff disease. iFU stimulation of the shoulder was performed using B-mode ultrasound coupled with a focused ultrasound transducer that allowed image-guided delivery of precisely localized pulses of energy to different anatomic areas around the rotator cuff. The main outcome measure was iFU spatial average-temporal average intensity (I_SATA), and location required to elicit sensation. In control patients, iFU produced no sensation throughout the range of stimulation intensities (≤2000 W/cm(2) I_SATA). In patients with rotator cuff disease, iFU was able to induce sensation in the tendons of the rotator cuff, the subacromial bursa, and the subchondral bone in patients with chronic shoulder pain and rotator cuff disease, with an average ± standard deviation intensity equaling 680 ± 281 W/cm(2) I_SATA. This result suggests a primary role for these tissues in the pathogenesis of shoulder pain related to rotator cuff tendinopathy.

  1. Special report: Occlusive cuff controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, J. T.

    1975-01-01

    A mechanical occlusive cuff controller suitable for blood flow experiments in space shuttle flights is described. The device requires 115 volt ac power and a pressurized gas source. Two occluding cuff pressures (30 and 50 mmHg) are selectable by a switch on the front panel. A screw driver adjustment allows accurate cuff pressurization levels for under or oversized limbs. Two pressurization cycles (20 second and 2 minutes) can be selected by a front panel switch. Adjustment of the timing cycles is also available through the front panel. A pushbutton hand switch allows remote start of the cuff inflation cycle. A stop/reset switch permits early termination of the cycle and disabling of the controller to prevent inadvertent reactivation. Pressure in the cuff is monitored by a differential aneroid barometer. In addition, an electrocardiogram trigger circuit permits the initiation of the pressurization cycle by an externally supplied ECG cycle.

  2. Rolling cuff flexible bellows

    DOEpatents

    Lambert, Donald R.

    1985-01-01

    A flexible connector apparatus used to join two stiff non-deformable members, such as piping. The apparatus is provided with one or more flexible sections or assemblies each utilizing a bellows of a rolling cuff type connected between two ridge members, with the bellows being supported by a back-up ring, such that only the curved end sections of the bellows are unsupported. Thus, the bellows can be considered as being of a tube-shaped configuration and thus have high pressure resistance. The components of the flexible apparatus are sealed or welded one to another such that it is fluid tight.

  3. Comparison of the effects of room air and N2O + O2 used for ProSeal LMA cuff inflation on cuff pressure and oropharyngeal structure.

    PubMed

    Tekin, Murat; Kati, Ismail; Tomak, Yakup; Yuca, Koksal

    2008-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of different inflating gases used for ProSeal LMA (PLMA) cuff inflation on cuff pressure, oropharyngeal structure, and the incidence of sore throat. Eighty patients (American Society of Anesthesiologists; ASA I-II) were randomly divided into two groups. PLMA cuff inflation was achieved with appropriate volumes of 50% N2O + 50% O2 in group I and room air in group II, respectively. When the PLMA was removed, oropharyngeal examination was carried out immediately, using a rigid optical telescope. Patients were asked about sore throat symptoms postoperatively. Cuff pressures were significantly lower in group I, except at the initial pressure measurement. Cuff pressure was positively correlated with the length of the operation in group II, and negatively correlated in group I. PLMA cuff inflation with room air led to increased cuff pressure during the operation, possibly due to the diffusion of N2O into the cuff. We consider that a PLMA cuff inflated with an N2O-O2 mixture is convenient, especially in operations in which N2O has been used.

  4. Retraction pattern of delaminated rotator cuff tears: dual-layer rotator cuff repair.

    PubMed

    Cha, Sang-Won; Lee, Choon-Key; Sugaya, Hiroyuki; Kim, Taegyun; Lee, Su-Chan

    2016-07-06

    There has been no report to date regarding retraction patterns of delaminated rotator cuff tears. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the incidence and tearing patterns of delamination and repair integrity after the dual-layer repair of delaminated cuff tears. A consecutive series of 64 patients with posterosuperior rotator cuff tears underwent arthroscopic rotator cuff repair from August 2011 to September 2012. Among the patients, 53 who received either dual-layer double-row (DLDR) repair or dual-layer suture bridge (DLSB) repair and 11 who received a single-layer repair were evaluated. The mean follow-up period after surgery was 26.5 months. The retraction direction of the deep and superficial layers was analyzed, and the integrity of the repaired constructs was determined in 37 patients through magnetic resonance imaging at a mean of 12.1 months after surgery. The incidence of delamination was 82.8 %. Posteromedial retraction of the deep and superficial layers was observed in 98.1 and 88.5 % of cases, respectively. The Constant score and UCLA score increased preoperatively to postoperatively, showing no significant differences between the dual-layer repair group and single-layer repair group. Retear was found in two (7.6 %) patients in the dual-layer repair group and three (27.2 %) patients in the single-layer repair group (p = 0.016). Differential rotator cuff repair strategies are needed to address rotator cuff tears, since recent studies have changed our concept of rotator cuff tears. We have focused on three areas: incidence, retraction patterns, and clinical outcomes. The incidence of delamination was extremely high. Both the superficial layer and deep layer were mainly retracted posteromedially. The retraction of the deep layer and superficial layer may be affected by the infraspinatus. Dual-layer rotator cuff repair based on the retraction pattern of delamination is recommended for improvement of repair integrity and of clinical outcomes.

  5. LB03.04: SPHYGMOMANOMETER CUFF CONSTRUCTION AND MATERIALS AFFECT TRANSMISSION OF PRESSURE FROM CUFF TO ARTERIAL WALL. FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF HUMAN PRESSURE MEASUREMENTS AND DICOM DATA.

    PubMed

    Lewis, P; Naqvi, S; Mandal, P; Potluri, P

    2015-06-01

    Sphygmomanometer cuff pressure during deflation is assumed to equal systolic arterial pressure at the point of resumption of flow. Previous studies demonstrated that pressure decreases with increasing depth of soft tissues whilst visco-elastic characteristics of the arm tissue cause spatial and temporal variation in pressure magnitude. These generally used non-anatomical axisymmetrical arm simulations without incorporating arterial pressure variation. We used data from a volunteer's Magnetic Resonance (MR) arm scan and investigated the effect of variations in cuff materials and construction on the simulated transmission of pressure from under the cuff to the arterial wall under sinusoidal flow conditions. Pressure was measured under 8 different cuffs using Oxford Pressure Monitor Sensors placed at 90 degrees around the mid upper arm of a healthy male. Each cuff was inflated 3 times to 155 mmHg and then deflated to zero with 90 seconds between inflations. Young's modulus, flexural rigidity and thickness of each cuff was measured.Using DICOM data from the MR scan of the arm, a 3D model was derived using ScanIP and imported into Abaqus for Finite Element Analysis (FEA). Published mechanical properties of arm tissues and geometric non-linearity were assumed. The measured sub-cuff pressures were applied to the simulated arm and pressure was calculated around the brachial arterial wall. which was loaded with a sinusoidal pressure of 125/85 mmHg. FEA estimates of pressure around the brachial artery cuffs varied by up to 27 mmHg SBP and 17 mmHg DBP with different cuffs. Pressures within the cuffs varied up to 27 mmHg. Pressure transmission from the cuff to the arterial surface achieved a 95% transmission ratio with one rubber-bladdered cuff but varied between 76 and 88% for the others. Non-uniform pressure distribution around the arterial wall was strongly related to cuff fabric elastic modulus. Identical size cuffs with a separate rubber bladder produced peri

  6. [Transanal endorectal pull-through with short muscular cuff in the treatment of Hirschsprung disease. Preliminary study with 37 patients].

    PubMed

    Rintala, R J; Wester, T

    2003-10-01

    Totally transanal operation for classic Hirschsprung's disease has gained increasing popularity during the last few years. The procedure leaves no scars, is associated with less postoperative pain and discomfort and shortens hospital stay. The most commonly used technique for transanal pull-through is long endorectal dissection leaving a long muscular cuff, which is usually split posteriorly. We present our preliminary results following transanal endorectal operation with a short unsplit muscular cuff. Thirty-seven patients underwent short-cuff transanal endorectal operation for Hirchsprung's disease between years 2000 and 2002. Patients' hospital records were analysed retrospectively. The collected data included age at the operation, associated conditions, hospital stay and time to full enteral feeds, occurrence of pre- and postoperative enterocolitis and preoperative stoma, operative complications, need for postoperative anal dilatations, postoperative perianal skin problems and preliminary data on bowel function. The median age at operation was 5 months (range 0-60 months), 13 patients were operated in the neonatal period. Six patients had Down's syndrome, 1 had cartilage-hair hypoplasia and one Ondine's syndrome. Six patients had preoperative enterocolitis. Thirteen patients had undergone levelling stoma formation for unremitting obstruction or enterocolitis, two of these had a long segment aganglionosis. The proximal ganglionic stoma was concomitantly pulled-through and anastomosed to the anus in all 13 patients with a stoma. Complications related to surgery occurred in 3 patients, 2 had prolapse of the pulled-through bowel (reduced immediately without later sequels) and 1 infection in the stoma closure wound. Median postoperative hospital stay was 4 days (range 2-21 days) and median time to full enteral feeds 3 (range 1-14) days. The median follow-up time was 6 months (range 1-22 months). Postoperative enterocolitis occurred in 1 patient, further 3 patients

  7. Tendon repair compared with physiotherapy in the treatment of rotator cuff tears: a randomized controlled study in 103 cases with a five-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Moosmayer, Stefan; Lund, Gerty; Seljom, Unni S; Haldorsen, Benjamin; Svege, Ida C; Hennig, Toril; Pripp, Are H; Smith, Hans-Jørgen

    2014-09-17

    There is limited Level-I evidence that compares operative and nonoperative treatment of rotator cuff tears. We compared outcomes of patients treated with primary tendon repair with outcomes of those treated with physiotherapy and optional secondary tendon repair if needed. A single-center, pragmatic, randomized controlled study with follow-ups after six months and one, two, and five years was conducted in a secondary-care institution. One hundred and three patients with a rotator cuff tear not exceeding 3 cm were randomized to primary tendon repair (n = 52) or physiotherapy (n = 51). The primary outcome measure was the Constant score. Secondary outcome measures included the self-report section of the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons score; the physical component summary measure of the Short Form 36 Health Survey; the measurement of pain, strength, and shoulder motion; patient satisfaction; and findings from magnetic resonance imaging and sonography. Analysis was by intention to treat. The five-year follow-up rate was 98%. Twelve of the fifty-one patients in the physiotherapy group were treated with secondary tendon repair. The results from primary tendon repair were superior to those from physiotherapy plus secondary repair, with between-group mean differences of 5.3 points on the Constant score (p = 0.05), 9.0 points on the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons score (p < 0.001), 1.1 cm on a 10-cm visual analog scale for pain (p < 0.001), and 1.0 cm on a 10-cm visual analog scale for patient satisfaction (p = 0.03). In 37% of tears treated with physiotherapy only, there were increasing tear sizes on ultrasound of >5 mm, over five years, associated with an inferior outcome. Although primary repair of small and medium-sized rotator cuff tears was associated with better outcome than physiotherapy treatment, the differences were small and may be below clinical importance. In the physiotherapy treatment group, there were increasing tear sizes and inferior outcomes

  8. Postoperative Pharyngolaryngeal Adverse Events with Laryngeal Mask Airway (LMA Supreme) in Laparoscopic Surgical Procedures with Cuff Pressure Limiting 25 cmH2O: Prospective, Blind, and Randomised Study

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Joo-Eun; Choi, Jae Won; Son, Il Soon

    2014-01-01

    To reduce the incidence of postoperative pharyngolaryngeal adverse events, laryngeal mask airway (LMA) manufacturers recommend maximum cuff pressures not exceeding 60 cmH2O. We performed a prospective randomised study, comparing efficacy and adverse events among patients undergoing laparoscopic surgical procedures who were allocated randomly into low (limiting 25 cmH2O, L group) and high (at 60 cmH2O, H group) LMA cuff pressure groups with LMA Supreme. Postoperative pharyngolaryngeal adverse events were evaluated at discharge from postanaesthetic care unit (PACU) (postoperative day 1, POD 1) and 24 hours after discharge from PACU (postoperative day 2, POD 2). All patients were well tolerated with LMA without ventilation failure. Before pneumoperitoneum, cuff volume and pressure and oropharyngeal leak pressure (OLP) showed significant differences. Postoperative sore throat at POD 2 (3 versus 12 patients) and postoperative dysphagia at POD 1 and POD 2 (0 versus 4 patients at POD 1; 0 versus 4 patients at POD 2) were significantly lower in L group, compared with H group. In conclusion, LMA with cuff pressure limiting 25 cmH2O allowed both efficacy of airway management and lower incidence of postoperative adverse events in laparoscopic surgical procedures. This clinical trial is registered with KCT0000334. PMID:24778598

  9. Postoperative pharyngolaryngeal adverse events with laryngeal mask airway (LMA Supreme) in laparoscopic surgical procedures with cuff pressure limiting 25 cmH₂O: prospective, blind, and randomised study.

    PubMed

    Kang, Joo-Eun; Oh, Chung-Sik; Choi, Jae Won; Son, Il Soon; Kim, Seong-Hyop

    2014-01-01

    To reduce the incidence of postoperative pharyngolaryngeal adverse events, laryngeal mask airway (LMA) manufacturers recommend maximum cuff pressures not exceeding 60 cmH₂O. We performed a prospective randomised study, comparing efficacy and adverse events among patients undergoing laparoscopic surgical procedures who were allocated randomly into low (limiting 25 cmH₂O, L group) and high (at 60 cmH₂O, H group) LMA cuff pressure groups with LMA Supreme. Postoperative pharyngolaryngeal adverse events were evaluated at discharge from postanaesthetic care unit (PACU) (postoperative day 1, POD 1) and 24 hours after discharge from PACU (postoperative day 2, POD 2). All patients were well tolerated with LMA without ventilation failure. Before pneumoperitoneum, cuff volume and pressure and oropharyngeal leak pressure (OLP) showed significant differences. Postoperative sore throat at POD 2 (3 versus 12 patients) and postoperative dysphagia at POD 1 and POD 2 (0 versus 4 patients at POD 1; 0 versus 4 patients at POD 2) were significantly lower in L group, compared with H group. In conclusion, LMA with cuff pressure limiting 25 cmH₂O allowed both efficacy of airway management and lower incidence of postoperative adverse events in laparoscopic surgical procedures. This clinical trial is registered with KCT0000334.

  10. Augmentation of Rotator Cuff Repair With Soft Tissue Scaffolds

    PubMed Central

    Thangarajah, Tanujan; Pendegrass, Catherine J.; Shahbazi, Shirin; Lambert, Simon; Alexander, Susan; Blunn, Gordon W.

    2015-01-01

    Background Tears of the rotator cuff are one of the most common tendon disorders. Treatment often includes surgical repair, but the rate of failure to gain or maintain healing has been reported to be as high as 94%. This has been substantially attributed to the inadequate capacity of tendon to heal once damaged, particularly to bone at the enthesis. A number of strategies have been developed to improve tendon-bone healing, tendon-tendon healing, and tendon regeneration. Scaffolds have received considerable attention for replacement, reconstruction, or reinforcement of tendon defects but may not possess situation-specific or durable mechanical and biological characteristics. Purpose To provide an overview of the biology of tendon-bone healing and the current scaffolds used to augment rotator cuff repairs. Study Design Systematic review; Level of evidence, 4. Methods A preliminary literature search of MEDLINE and Embase databases was performed using the terms rotator cuff scaffolds, rotator cuff augmentation, allografts for rotator cuff repair, xenografts for rotator cuff repair, and synthetic grafts for rotator cuff repair. Results The search identified 438 unique articles. Of these, 214 articles were irrelevant to the topic and were therefore excluded. This left a total of 224 studies that were suitable for analysis. Conclusion A number of novel biomaterials have been developed into biologically and mechanically favorable scaffolds. Few clinical trials have examined their effect on tendon-bone healing in well-designed, long-term follow-up studies with appropriate control groups. While there is still considerable work to be done before scaffolds are introduced into routine clinical practice, there does appear to be a clear indication for their use as an interpositional graft for large and massive retracted rotator cuff tears and when repairing a poor-quality degenerative tendon. PMID:26665095

  11. Neoinnervation in rotator cuff tendinopathy.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yinghua; Bonar, Fiona; Murrell, George A C

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether there are more nerves in tendinopathic human tendon, and if so, where are they located. Tendon biopsies were collected from normal, tendinopathic, and torn human rotator cuff tendons and then analyzed using immunohistochemistry and antibodies against a general nerve marker (protein gene product 9.5, PGP9.5), a nerve regeneration marker (growth-associated protein 43, GAP43), and an endothelial cell marker (CD34). Nerve fibers exhibiting PGP9.5 or GAP43 immunoreactivity were often observed intimately in association with tiny blood vessels in the endotendineum of tendinopathic tendons. The expression of PGP9.5 and GAP43 were significantly higher in tendinopathic tendon compared with control tendon and torn tendon. These data support the hypothesis that early tendinopathy is associated with increases of newly grown nerve fibers and blood vessels inside and around tendinopathic tendon, and these may be the source of pain in tendinopathy.

  12. Humeral head cysts: association with rotator cuff tears and age.

    PubMed

    Suluova, Fatih; Kanatli, Ulunay; Ozturk, Burak Yagmur; Esen, Erdinc; Bolukbasi, Selcuk

    2014-07-01

    The objective of this study was to retrospectively evaluate the prevalence of the cystic changes at rotator cuff footprint on proximal humeral tuberosities and investigate their relationship with rotator cuff tears and patient age. Magnetic resonance (MR) images of 657 patients who underwent shoulder arthroscopy for treatment of rotator cuff disorders were reviewed to localize the cystic changes at anterior (supraspinatus insertion) and posterior (infraspinatus insertion) aspects of greater tuberosity (GT) and lesser tuberosity (subscapularis insertion). Preoperative MR reports as well as cyst size and locations on MR images were correlated with arthroscopic records of rotator cuff pathology (tear type, size, location and tendon involvement) and patient age. The prevalence of cystic changes was 9.1% (60 patients) in the study population. Anterior GT cysts were found in 56% of patients and were strongly associated with full-thickness (p<.001) and articular-sided partial-thickness rotator cuff tears (p=.02). Posterior GT and lesser tuberosity cysts were found in 27 and 17% of patients, respectively, and were not significantly related to rotator cuff tears, although there was an increased trend of posterior cysts in patients with infraspinatus tears (p=.09). A significant relation was found between patient age and the cyst size (p=.01), while none of the cyst localizations were statistically related to age. Anterior GT cysts were more common in this patient group and demonstrated a strong association with rotator cuff disorders regardless of age. Posterior GT and lesser tuberosity cysts were less common and showed no association with rotator cuff pathology or patient age.

  13. Advances in biology and mechanics of rotator cuff repair.

    PubMed

    Lorbach, Olaf; Baums, Mike H; Kostuj, Tanja; Pauly, Stephan; Scheibel, Markus; Carr, Andrew; Zargar, Nasim; Saccomanno, Maristella F; Milano, Giuseppe

    2015-02-01

    High initial fixation strength, mechanical stability and biological healing of the tendon-to-bone interface are the main goals after rotator cuff repair surgery. Advances in the understanding of rotator cuff biology and biomechanics as well as improvements in surgical techniques have led to the development of new strategies that may allow a tendon-to-bone interface healing process, rather than the formation of a fibrovascular scar tissue. Although single-row repair remains the most cost-effective technique to address a rotator cuff tear, some biological intervention has been recently introduced to improve tissue healing and clinical outcome of rotator cuff repair. Animal models are critical to ensure safety and efficacy of new treatment strategies; however, although rat shoulders as well as sheep and goats are considered the most appropriate models for studying rotator cuff pathology, no one of them can fully reproduce the human condition. Emerging therapies involve growth factors, stem cells and tissue engineering. Experimental application of growth factors and platelet-rich plasma demonstrated promising results, but has not yet been transferred into standardized clinical practice. Although preclinical animal studies showed promising results on the efficacy of enhanced biological approaches, application of these techniques in human rotator cuff repairs is still very limited. Randomized controlled clinical trials and post-marketing surveillance are needed to clearly prove the clinical efficacy and define proper indications for the use of combined biological approaches. The following review article outlines the state of the art of rotator cuff repair and the use of growth factors, scaffolds and stem cells therapy, providing future directions to improve tendon healing after rotator cuff repair. Expert opinion, Level V.

  14. Rotator Cuff Repair: Is there any role for acromioplasty?

    PubMed

    Mardani-Kivi, Mohsen; Karimi, Ali; Keyhani, Sohrab; Hashemi-Motlagh, Keyvan; Saheb-Ekhtiari, Khashayar

    2016-09-01

    Acromioplasty has been one of the most common techniques amongst orthopedic surgeries in the past decade. However, its efficacy in arthroscopic surgeries of rotator cuff repair is still debatable. The purpose of this study is to compare the arthroscopic rotator cuff repair with or without acromioplasty in patients with complete rotator cuff tear. In this prospective cohort study, patients with complete rotator cuff tear (acromion type II or III Bigliani) and a history of failure to the conservative treatment for at least 6 months were evaluated for eligibility. Patients, based on the time interval, were placed in one of two groups: arthroscopic rotator cuff repair with (RCR-A group) and without acromioplasty (RCR group). Patients were assessed for two years in term of pain intensity by VAS criteria and shoulder functional status by Quick-DASH, Constant score and simple shoulder test criteria. In the baseline assessment, RCR-A group (34 patients) and RCR group (33 patients) were similar. Comparing patients in two groups in relation to SST, Quick-DASH and VAS scores preoperatively showed there is no significant difference between the two groups. The SST, Quick-DASH and VAS scores improved significantly in both groups at both the 6-month and 2-year follow-ups (all P < 0.001). The extent of progress in the functional scores was similar in both groups (P > 0.05). Arthroscopic rotator cuff repair without acromioplasty may be as reliable and useful as conventional rotator cuff repair with acromioplasty. Thus, acromioplasty cannot be recommended as a routine technique in every rotator cuff repair.

  15. The Role of Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP) and Other Biologics for Rotator Cuff Repair

    PubMed Central

    Greenspoon, Joshua A.; Moulton, Samuel G.; Millett, Peter J.; Petri, Maximilian

    2016-01-01

    Background: Surgical treatment of rotator cuff tears has consistently demonstrated good clinical and functional outcomes. However, in some cases, the rotator cuff fails to heal. While improvements in rotator cuff constructs and biomechanics have been made, the role of biologics to aid healing is currently being investigated. Methods: A selective literature search was performed and personal surgical experiences are reported. Results: Biologic augmentation of rotator cuff repairs can for example be performed wtableith platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Clinical results on PRP application have been controversial. Application of MSCs has shown promise in animal studies, but clinical data on its effectiveness is presently lacking. The role of Matrix Metalloproteinase (MMP) inhibitors is another interesting field for potential targeted drug therapy after rotator cuff repair. Conclusions: Large randomized clinical studies need to confirm the benefit of these approaches, in order to eventually lower retear rates and improve clinical outcomes after rotator cuff repair. PMID:27708732

  16. Influence of prosthetic humeral head size and medial offset on the mechanics of the shoulder with cuff tear arthropathy: a numerical study.

    PubMed

    Lemieux, P O; Tétreault, P; Hagemeister, N; Nuño, N

    2013-02-22

    This numerical study assesses the influence of an oversized humeral hemiprosthesis with a larger medial offset on the mechanics of the shoulder with cuff tear arthropathy (CTA). Shoulder elevation in the scapular plane is performed, and a Seebauer Type IIa CTA is simulated: a massive rotator cuff tear, a proximal and static migration of the humeral head, and two contacts with friction (glenohumeral and acromiohumeral). The CTA model without a prosthesis (friction coefficient 0.3) is evaluated first as a reference model. Then, three humeral head prosthetic geometries (friction coefficient 0.15) are evaluated: anatomical head, oversized head, and oversized head with a large medial offset. The function of the middle deltoid (i.e. moment arm, applied force, and strength), the contact forces, and the range of motion are studied. The anatomical head, which reduces friction by half, decreases the middle deltoid force (25%) and the contact forces (glenoid 7%; acromion 25%), and increases the range of motion from 41 to 54°. The oversized head increases the moment arm (15%) and the middle deltoid strength (13%), which further decreases the deltoid force (7%) and the contact forces (glenoid 7%; acromion 17%), and increases the range of motion from 54° to 69°. The oversized head with a large medial offset enhances these effects: the moment arm increases by another 3.1%, the deltoid force decreases by another 5% and the acromiohumeral contact force by another 12%, and the range of motion increases from 69° to 84°. These results suggest that increasing the medial offset and oversizing the hemiprosthetic head improve the function of the deltoid, reduce acromial solicitation, and restore elevation to almost 90°.

  17. PARot – assessing platelet-rich plasma plus arthroscopic subacromial decompression in the treatment of rotator cuff tendinopathy: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is an autologous platelet concentrate. It is prepared by separating the platelet fraction of whole blood from patients and mixing it with an agent to activate the platelets. In a clinical setting, PRP may be reapplied to the patient to improve and hasten the healing of tissue. The therapeutic effect is based on the presence of growth factors stored in the platelets. Current evidence in orthopedics shows that PRP applications can be used to accelerate bone and soft tissue regeneration following tendon injuries and arthroplasty. Outcomes include decreased inflammation, reduced blood loss and post-treatment pain relief. Recent shoulder research indicates there is poor vascularization present in the area around tendinopathies and this possibly prevents full healing capacity post surgery (Am J Sports Med36(6):1171–1178, 2008). Although it is becoming popular in other areas of orthopedics there is little evidence regarding the use of PRP for shoulder pathologies. The application of PRP may help to revascularize the area and consequently promote tendon healing. Such evidence highlights an opportunity to explore the efficacy of PRP use during arthroscopic shoulder surgery for rotator cuff pathologies. Methods/Design PARot is a single center, blinded superiority-type randomized controlled trial assessing the clinical outcomes of PRP applications in patients who undergo shoulder surgery for rotator cuff disease. Patients will be randomized to one of the following treatment groups: arthroscopic subacromial decompression surgery or arthroscopic subacromial decompression surgery with application of PRP. The study will run for 3 years and aims to randomize 40 patients. Recruitment will be for 24 months with final follow-up at 1 year post surgery. The third year will also involve collation and analysis of the data. This study will be funded through the NIHR Biomedical Research Unit at the Oxford University Hospitals NHS Trust. Trial

  18. High altitude is an independent risk factor for venous thromboembolism following arthroscopic rotator cuff repair: a matched case-control study in Medicare patients.

    PubMed

    Cancienne, Jourdan M; Burrus, M Tyrrell; Diduch, David R; Werner, Brian C

    2017-01-01

    Although the risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) following elective shoulder arthroscopy is low, the large volume of procedures performed each year yields a significant annual burden of patients with thromboembolic complications. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association of high procedural altitude with the incidence of postoperative VTE following arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. A Medicare database was queried for all patients undergoing arthroscopic rotator cuff repair from 2005 to 2012. All patients with procedures performed at an altitude of 4000 feet or higher were grouped into the "high-altitude" study cohort. Patients with procedures performed at an altitude of 100 feet or lower were then matched to patients in the high-altitude cohort on the basis of age, gender, and medical comorbidities. The rate of VTE was then assessed for both the high-altitude and matched low-altitude cohorts within 90 days postoperatively. The rates of combined VTE (odds ratio [OR], 2.6; P < .0001), pulmonary embolism (OR, 4.3; P < .0001), and lower extremity deep venous thrombosis within 90 days (OR, 2.2; P = .029) were all significantly higher in patients with procedures performed at high altitude compared with matched patients with the same procedures performed at low altitude. Procedural altitude >4000 feet is associated with significantly increased rates of postoperative VTE, including deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism, compared with age-, gender-, and comorbidity-matched patients undergoing the same procedures at altitudes <100 feet. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Local rhBMP-12 on an Absorbable Collagen Sponge as an Adjuvant Therapy for Rotator Cuff Repair - A Phase 1, Randomized, Standard of Care Control, Multicenter Study: Safety and Feasibility.

    PubMed

    Greiner, Stefan; Ide, Junji; Van Noort, Arthur; Mochizuki, Yu; Ochi, Hiroshi; Marraffino, Shannon; Sridharan, Sudhakar; Rudicel, Sally; Itoi, Eiji

    2015-08-01

    Recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-12 (rhBMP-12) has been shown to induce tendon and ligament formation in rats and to improve tendon healing; however, the safety and feasibility of implanting rhBMP-12/absorbable collagen sponge (ACS) in humans are not known. To investigate the safety and feasibility of rhBMP-12 on an ACS as an adjuvant therapy in open rotator cuff repair. Randomized controlled trial; Level of evidence, 2. This study consisted of 20 patients with full-thickness rotator cuff tears. Patients were randomized either to standard of care (SOC) treatment (open rotator cuff repair) or to receive 0.015 mg/mL rhBMP-12/ACS and SOC treatment during their open rotator cuff repair (rhBMP-12/ACS group) at a rate of 1/4 SOC/rhBMP-12/ACS. The feasibility of implanting the product and the safety of the product were evaluated during the 1-year follow-up period. The evaluation involved up to 10 postoperative visits, which included physical examinations, radiographs, computed tomography (CT) scans, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans with an emphasis on heterotopic ossification (HO), pharmacokinetics, immunogenicity, laboratory evaluations, and local and systemic adverse events at specified time points. Small amounts of HO were seen on follow-up CT scans in 10 of 16 patients in the rhBMP-12/ACS group and in 2 of 3 patients in the SOC group. HO did not increase at 26 weeks and was not associated with any adverse events or unsatisfactory clinical outcomes. Pharmacokinetics demonstrated that circulating levels of rhBMP-12 were not detectable after administration. Five of 16 patients showed a postoperative immunogenic response but did not show any correlating adverse events. Complete healing of the rotator cuff was observed in 14 of 16 patients; 2 of 16 imaging results could not be analyzed because of artifacts in the rhBMP-12 group on MRI scans. In the SOC group, 1 of 4 patients showed a retear at 12 weeks after surgery. The use of rhBMP-12/ACS has been shown

  20. Epidemiology, genetics and biological factors of rotator cuff tears.

    PubMed

    Longo, Umile Giuseppe; Berton, Alessandra; Papapietro, Nicola; Maffulli, Nicola; Denaro, Vincenzo

    2012-01-01

    Rotator cuff disease is among the most common musculoskeletal disorders with high direct and indirect costs in industrialized countries. Not all rotator cuff tears are symptomatic. Genetics has recently been investigated as a factor involved in the pathogenesis of rotator cuff pathology. Genetic factors seem to be involved in symptom presentation and tear progression. As rotator cuff disease is multifactorial, no single gene is directly involved in the pathology. Phenotypic expression of genetic susceptibility manifests at the level of ultrastructure of the tendon. Predisposing genes may also operate through apoptosis and regenerative capacity. Studies on cellular and molecular biology are more numerous, but still incomplete, and recently have focussed on the role of apoptosis in tendinopathy, analyzing its key mediators and cellular changes. Oxidative stress is responsible for reduction of collagen synthesis. Biological investigations have identified recently new risk factors. Preliminary reports introduced the possible role of glucose as a risk factor for rotator cuff tear. Further studies are required to fully clarify the genetic and biological factors involved in rotator cuff tears. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. The benefit of synthetic versus biological patch augmentation in the repair of posterosuperior massive rotator cuff tears: a 3-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Ciampi, Pietro; Scotti, Celeste; Nonis, Alessandro; Vitali, Matteo; Di Serio, Clelia; Peretti, Giuseppe M; Fraschini, Gianfranco

    2014-05-01

    Rotator cuff repair typically results in a satisfactory, although variable, clinical outcome. However, anatomic failure of the repaired tendon often occurs. Patch augmentation can improve the results of open rotator cuff repair by supporting the healing process, protecting the suture, and reducing friction in the subacromial space. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. A total of 152 patients with a posterosuperior massive rotator cuff tear were treated by open repair only (control group; n = 51; mean age, 67.06 ± 4.42 years), open repair together with collagen patch augmentation (collagen group; n = 49; mean age, 66.53 ± 5.17 years), or open repair together with polypropylene patch augmentation (polypropylene group; n = 52; mean age, 66.17 ± 5.44 years) and were retrospectively studied. Patients were evaluated preoperatively and after 36 months with a visual analog scale (VAS) and the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) shoulder rating scale and by measuring elevation of the scapular plane and strength with a dynamometer. The VAS and UCLA scores were also obtained 2 months postoperatively. Tendon integrity was assessed after 1 year by ultrasound. Patients were homogeneous as per the preoperative assessment. After 2 months, results (mean ± standard deviation) for the control, collagen, and polypropylene groups, respectively, were as follows: VAS scores were 6.96 ± 1.11, 6.46 ± 1.02, and 4.92 ± 0.90, while UCLA scores were 11.29 ± 1.46, 11.40 ± 1.51, and 19.15 ± 1.99. After 36 months, the mean scores for the respective groups were 3.66 ± 1.05, 4.06 ± 1.02, and 3.28 ± 1.10 for the VAS and 14.88 ± 1.98, 14.69 ± 1.99, and 24.61 ± 3.22 for the UCLA scale. In addition, after 36 months, elevation on the scapular plane was 140.68° ± 9.84°, 140.61° ± 12.48°, and 174.71° ± 8.18°, and abduction strength was 8.73 ± 0.54 kg, 9.03 ± 0.60 kg, and 13.79 ± 0.64 kg for the control, collagen, and polypropylene groups, respectively. The retear rate

  2. Treatment of lesions of the rotator cuff.

    PubMed

    Saggini, R; Cavezza, T; Di Pancrazio, L; Pisciella, V; Saladino, G; Zuccaro, M C; Bellomo, R G

    2010-01-01

    The impingement syndrome and tendinopathy of the rotator cuff are the most common causes (complaints) of pain and disability of the shoulder. The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of a specific rehabilitative protocol, integrated with the administration of a nutritional supplement, in the conservative rehabilitative treatment, as well as in post-surgery, of patients with lesions of the rotator cuff. Two groups with syndrome of the rotator cuff were formed to follow different therapeutic courses, in relation to the choice of each subject to undergo the conservative treatment (Arm A) or the surgical one (Arm B). In Arm A the study included the association of therapy with ESWT (shock waves) with the proprioceptive Multi Joint System, for rehabilitating joint movement and muscle strength of the shoulder, and a specific nutritional supplement to reduce the pain and conserve the cartilage tissue. Between February 2009 and June 2009, we enrolled 30 subjects (randomized into three homogenous groups A1, A2, A3), average age 45±10 years, with rotator cuff syndrome with calcification of the shoulder, diagnosed through clinical examination and investigative instruments (X-ray, echography or NMR). In Arm B, from September 2009 to January 2010, we enrolled 50 patients (randomized into two groups, B1 and B2), 24 male (average age 58.4: min 28 and max 78) and 26 females (average age 59.5: min 30 and max 80), who had undergone rotator cuff operations and acromionplasty for non-massive lesions without important gleno-humeral instability, with either open or arthroscopic procedures. The analysis of the results of Arm A highlights that in terms of reducing pain the main benefits were found in Group A1 where the supplement was given. From the analysis of the data of Arm B, in both groups an improvement of the first 4 items evaluated was evident. In Group B1, 84 percent of the patients declared to be satisfied and improved and 16 percent were dissatisfied; in Group B2

  3. A self-managed single exercise programme versus usual physiotherapy treatment for rotator cuff tendinopathy: a randomised controlled trial (the SELF study).

    PubMed

    Littlewood, Chris; Bateman, Marcus; Brown, Kim; Bury, Julie; Mawson, Sue; May, Stephen; Walters, Stephen J

    2016-07-01

    To evaluate the clinical effectiveness of a self-managed single exercise programme versus usual physiotherapy treatment for rotator cuff tendinopathy. Multi-centre pragmatic unblinded parallel group randomised controlled trial. UK National Health Service. Patients with a clinical diagnosis of rotator cuff tendinopathy. The intervention was a programme of self-managed exercise prescribed by a physiotherapist in relation to the most symptomatic shoulder movement. The control group received usual physiotherapy treatment. The primary outcome measure was the Shoulder Pain & Disability Index (SPADI) at three months. Secondary outcomes included the SPADI at six and twelve months. A total of 86 patients (self-managed loaded exercise n=42; usual physiotherapy n=44) were randomised. Twenty-six patients were excluded from the analysis because of lack of primary outcome data at the 3 months follow-up, leaving 60 (n=27; n=33) patients for intention to treat analysis. For the primary outcome, the mean SPADI score at three months was 32.4 (SD 20.2) for the self-managed group, and 30.7 (SD 19.7) for the usual physiotherapy treatment group; mean difference adjusted for baseline score: 3.2 (95% Confidence interval -6.0 to +12.4 P = 0.49).By six and twelve months there remained no significant difference between the groups. This study does not provide sufficient evidence of superiority of one intervention over the other in the short-, mid- or long-term and hence a self-management programme based around a single exercise appears comparable to usual physiotherapy treatment. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. Below-knee popliteal and distal bypass with PTFE and vein cuff.

    PubMed

    Jakobsen, H L; Baekgaard, N; Christoffersen, J K

    1998-04-01

    To determine the value of PTFE grafts with a distal vein cuff as a conduit for below-knee (BK) popliteal and distal bypass in the absence of autologous vein. Retrospective study. Forty below BK popliteal and distal bypass procedures in 39 patients with PTFE and distal vein cuff (Miller cuff n = 31, Wolfe cuff and adjuvant arteriovenous fistula n = 9). Nineteen primary and 21 secondary reconstruction procedures. The primary patency rate was 62.5% at 1 year falling to 50% at 2 years. The secondary patency rates were very similar owing to poor outcome of thrombectomy. Ten cases (25%) resulted in major amputation postoperatively. There was a tendency towards better outcome for primary procedures compared to secondary/redo procedures. BK popliteal and distal bypass with PTFE and distal vein cuff is a worthwhile procedure in the absence of autologous vein. The value of thrombectomy following thrombosis of a secondary bypass procedure with PTFE and distal vein cuff is questionable.

  5. Gel lubrication of the tracheal tube cuff reduces pulmonary aspiration.

    PubMed

    Blunt, M C; Young, P J; Patil, A; Haddock, A

    2001-08-01

    Leakage of fluid occurs along the longitudinal folds within the wall of an inflated high-volume, low-pressure cuff. Theoretically, lubrication of the cuff with a water-soluble gel might prevent aspiration by plugging the channels in the cuff wall. Pulmonary aspiration during anesthesia has been linked with postoperative pneumonia and during critical illness causes ventilator-associated pneumonia. Lubricated cuffs were compared with nonlubricated cuffs for leakage of dye placed in the subglottic space to the tracheobronchial tree in a benchtop model (n = 5) and in a prospective double-blinded randomized controlled trial of anesthetized patients (n = 36). The duration of the efficacy of the lubricant was determined in a prospective open observational study of critically ill patients with tracheostomies (n = 9). Dye was detected clinically by dye coloration of secretions during tracheal suctioning. In the benchtop model the incidence of leakage was 0% in the lubrication group and 100% in the nonlubrication group (P < 0.01). Dye leakage in anesthetized patients was 11% in the lubrication group and 83% in the nonlubrication group (P < 0.0001). In the critically ill patients with lubricated cuffed tracheostomy tubes, leakage first occurred after a median period of 48 h (range, 24-120 h). Cuff lubrication with a water-soluble gel reduces pulmonary aspiration in anesthetized patients. In the critically ill patient with a tracheostomy the protective effect is lost after 24-120 h.

  6. Internal impingement in the etiology of rotator cuff tendinosis revisited.

    PubMed

    Budoff, Jeffrey E; Nirschl, Robert P; Ilahi, Omer A; Rodin, Dennis M

    2003-10-01

    The theory of internal impingement holds that, in overhead athletes, repeated contact between the undersurface of the rotator cuff and the posterosuperior glenoid rim leads to articular-sided partial-thickness rotator cuff tears and superior labral lesions. However, we have noted this same constellation of lesions in our general patient population. These recreational athletic patients do not routinely assume the position of extreme abduction and external rotation, and thus are unlikely to experience significant internal impingement forces. The goal of this study was to document the prevalence of superior labral lesions in patients being treated for partial-thickness undersurface rotator cuff tears. Retrospective case series. We retrospectively reviewed the records of 75 shoulders arthroscopically treated for partial-thickness articular-sided rotator cuff tears. With the exception of one professional tennis player, no patients were playing sports at a professional or major college level. No professional or collegiate throwing athletes were included. The prevalence of these lesions and their association with recreational athletics was noted. We found that 55 of 75 (73.3%) shoulders with articular-sided partial-thickness rotator cuff tears also had superior labral lesions. A statistically significant increased prevalence of superior labral lesions in the dominant shoulder was seen (P =.03). In addition, our patients who engaged in overhand throwing had significantly fewer superior labral lesions in the dominant shoulders than did nonthrowers (P =.017). The "kissing lesions" of undersurface rotator cuff tears and posterosuperior labral damage may be explained by mechanisms other than "internal impingement."

  7. Improved apparatus for predictive diagnosis of rotator cuff disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pillai, Anup; Hall, Brittany N.; Thigpen, Charles A.; Kwartowitz, David M.

    2014-03-01

    Rotator cuff disease impacts over 50% of the population over 60, with reports of incidence being as high as 90% within this population, causing pain and possible loss of function. The rotator cuff is composed of muscles and tendons that work in tandem to support the shoulder. Heavy use of these muscles can lead to rotator cuff tear, with the most common causes is age-related degeneration or sport injuries, both being a function of overuse. Tears ranges in severity from partial thickness tear to total rupture. Diagnostic techniques are based on physical assessment, detailed patient history, and medical imaging; primarily X-ray, MRI and ultrasonography are the chosen modalities for assessment. The final treatment technique and imaging modality; however, is chosen by the clinician is at their discretion. Ultrasound has been shown to have good accuracy for identification and measurement of full-thickness and partial-thickness rotator cuff tears. In this study, we report on the progress and improvement of our method of transduction and analysis of in situ measurement of rotator cuff biomechanics. We have improved the ability of the clinician to apply a uniform force to the underlying musculotendentious tissues while simultaneously obtaining the ultrasound image. This measurement protocol combined with region of interest (ROI) based image processing will help in developing a predictive diagnostic model for treatment of rotator cuff disease and help the clinicians choose the best treatment technique.

  8. Tapered-cuff Endotracheal Tube Does Not Prevent Early Postoperative Pneumonia Compared with Spherical-cuff Endotracheal Tube after Major Vascular Surgery: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Monsel, Antoine; Lu, Qin; Le Corre, Marine; Brisson, Hélène; Arbelot, Charlotte; Vezinet, Corinne; Fléron, Marie-Hélène; Ibanez-Estève, Christina; Zerimech, Farid; Balduyck, Malika; Dexheimer, Felippe; Wang, Chunyao; Langeron, Olivier; Rouby, Jean-Jacques; Bodin, Liliane; Deransy, Romain; Garçon, Pierre; Douiri, Hatem; Khalifa, Ismael; Pons, Antoine; Gu, Wen-Jie; Koskas, Fabien; Gaudric, Julien

    2016-05-01

    Patients undergoing major vascular surgery often develop postoperative pneumonia that impacts their outcomes. Conflicting data exist concerning the potential benefit of tapered-shaped cuffs on tracheal sealing. The primary objective of this study was to assess the efficiency of a polyvinyl chloride tapered-cuff endotracheal tube at reducing the postoperative pneumonia rate after major vascular surgery. Secondary objectives were to determine its impact on microaspiration, ventilator-associated pneumonia rate, and inner cuff pressure. This prospective randomized controlled study included 109 patients who were randomly assigned to receive either spherical- (standard cuff) or taper-shaped (tapered cuff) endotracheal tubes inserted after anesthesia induction and then admitted to the intensive care unit after major vascular surgery. Cuff pressure was continuously recorded over 5 h. Pepsin and α-amylase concentrations in tracheal aspirates were quantified on postoperative days 1 and 2. The primary outcome was the early postoperative pneumonia frequency. Comparing the tapered-cuff with standard-cuff group, respectively, postoperative pneumonia rates were comparable (42 vs. 44%, P = 0.87) and the percentage (interquartile range) of cuff-pressure time with overinflation was significantly higher (16.1% [1.5 to 50] vs. 0.6% [0 to 8.3], P = 0.01), with a 2.5-fold higher coefficient of variation (20.2 [10.6 to 29.4] vs. 7.6 [6.2 to 10.2], P < 0.001). Although microaspiration frequencies were high, they did not differ between groups. For major vascular surgery patients, polyvinyl chloride tapered-cuff endotracheal tubes with intermittent cuff-pressure control did not lower the early postoperative pneumonia frequency and did not prevent microaspiration.

  9. Rehabilitation after Rotator Cuff Repair

    PubMed Central

    Nikolaidou, Ourania; Migkou, Stefania; Karampalis, Christos

    2017-01-01

    Background: Rotator cuff tears are a very common condition that is often incapacitating. Whether non-surgical or surgical, successful management of rotator cuff disease is dependent on appropriate rehabilitation. If conservative management is insufficient, surgical repair is often indicated. Postsurgical outcomes for patients having had rotator cuff repair can be quite good. A successful outcome is much dependent on surgical technique as it is on rehabilitation. Numerous rehabilitation protocols for the management of rotator cuff disease are based primarily on clinical experience and expert opinion. This article describes the different rehabilitation protocols that aim to protect the repair in the immediate postoperative period, minimize postoperative stiffness and muscle atrophy. Methods: A review of currently available literature on rehabilitation after arthroscopic rotator cuff tear repair was performed to illustrate the available evidence behind various postoperative treatment modalities. Results: There were no statistically significant differences between a conservative and an accelerated rehabilitation protocol . Early passive range of motion (ROM) following arthroscopic cuff repair is thought to decrease postoperative stiffness and improve functionality. However, early aggressive rehabilitation may compromise repair integrity. Conclusion: The currently available literature did not identify any significant differences in functional outcomes and relative risks of re-tears between delayed and early motion in patients undergoing arthroscopic rotator cuff repairs. A gentle rehabilitation protocol with limits in range of motion and exercise times after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair would be better for tendon healing without taking any substantial risks. A close communication between the surgeon, the patient and the physical therapy team is important and should continue throughout the whole recovery process. PMID:28400883

  10. Rehabilitation after Rotator Cuff Repair.

    PubMed

    Nikolaidou, Ourania; Migkou, Stefania; Karampalis, Christos

    2017-01-01

    Rotator cuff tears are a very common condition that is often incapacitating. Whether non-surgical or surgical, successful management of rotator cuff disease is dependent on appropriate rehabilitation. If conservative management is insufficient, surgical repair is often indicated. Postsurgical outcomes for patients having had rotator cuff repair can be quite good. A successful outcome is much dependent on surgical technique as it is on rehabilitation. Numerous rehabilitation protocols for the management of rotator cuff disease are based primarily on clinical experience and expert opinion. This article describes the different rehabilitation protocols that aim to protect the repair in the immediate postoperative period, minimize postoperative stiffness and muscle atrophy. A review of currently available literature on rehabilitation after arthroscopic rotator cuff tear repair was performed to illustrate the available evidence behind various postoperative treatment modalities. There were no statistically significant differences between a conservative and an accelerated rehabilitation protocol . Early passive range of motion (ROM) following arthroscopic cuff repair is thought to decrease postoperative stiffness and improve functionality. However, early aggressive rehabilitation may compromise repair integrity. The currently available literature did not identify any significant differences in functional outcomes and relative risks of re-tears between delayed and early motion in patients undergoing arthroscopic rotator cuff repairs. A gentle rehabilitation protocol with limits in range of motion and exercise times after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair would be better for tendon healing without taking any substantial risks. A close communication between the surgeon, the patient and the physical therapy team is important and should continue throughout the whole recovery process.

  11. Revision Rotator Cuff Reconstruction for Large Tears With Retraction: A Novel Technique Using Autogenous Tendon and Autologous Marrow.

    PubMed

    Skoff, Hillel D

    2015-07-01

    Revision rotator cuff reconstruction for large tears with retraction results in a high rate of recurrent cuff tearing. To try to obtain more consistent results, I conducted a study of a technique that addresses the potential factors involved. Ten patients (7 men, 3 women) were enrolled. Mean age was 58 years. Mean follow-up was 24 months. Mean time between primary and revision cuff surgery was 36 months. The cardinal inclusion criterion was a symptomatic, full-thickness rotator cuff tear with at least 3 cm of retraction in a shoulder that previously underwent rotator cuff repair. Ultrasound was used for postoperative radiographic assessment of cuff integrity. Validated Constant, American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES), and University of California Los Angeles (UCLA) shoulder scoring systems were used. Surgical technique included mini-open incision, adequate débridement and mobilization of remaining cuff, reconstitution of cuff defect with autogenous biceps tendon incubated in concentrated autologous bone marrow, and sewing under zero tissue tension. Constant, ASES, and UCLA scores improved significantly (standard error at .001). Ultrasound revealed 0% incidence of full-thickness rotator cuff retearing. In patients with large recurrent retracted rotator cuff tears the technique presented in the current study consistently yields satisfactory clinical results and promotes rotator cuff tissue healing without full-thickness retearing.

  12. Immobilization After Rotator Cuff Repair: What Evidence Do We Have Now?

    PubMed

    Hsu, Jason E; Horneff, John G; Gee, Albert O

    2016-01-01

    Recurrent tears after rotator cuff repair are common. Postoperative rehabilitation after rotator cuff repair is a modifiable factor controlled by the surgeon that can affect re-tear rates. Some surgeons prefer early mobilization after rotator cuff repair, whereas others prefer a period of immobilization to protect the repair site. The tendon-healing process incorporates biochemical and biomechanical responses to mechanical loading. Healing can be optimized with controlled loading. Complete load removal and chronic overload can be deleterious to the process. Several randomized clinical studies have also characterized the role of postoperative mobilization after rotator cuff repair.

  13. Early postoperative fluoroquinolone use is associated with an increased revision rate after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair.

    PubMed

    Cancienne, Jourdan M; Brockmeier, Stephen F; Rodeo, Scott A; Young, Chris; Werner, Brian C

    2017-07-01

    To evaluate the association of postoperative fluoroquinolone use following arthroscopic primary rotator cuff repair with failure requiring revision rotator cuff repair. An insurance database was queried for patients undergoing rotator cuff repair from 2007 to 2015. These patients were divided into three groups: (1) patients prescribed fluoroquinolones within 6 months postoperatively (divided into 0-2, 2-4, and 4-6 months), (2) a matched negative control cohort of patients not prescribed fluoroquinolones, and (3) a matched positive control cohort of patients prescribed fluoroquinolones between 6 and 18 months following rotator cuff repair. Rates of failure requiring revision rotator cuff repair were compared within 2 years. A total of 1292 patients were prescribed fluoroquinolones within 6 months after rotator cuff repair, including 442 within 2 months, 433 within 2 to 4 months, and 417 within 4 to 6 months, and were compared to 5225 matched negative controls and 1597 matched positive controls. The rate of revision rotator cuff repair was significantly higher in patients prescribed fluoroquinolones within 2 months (6.1 %) compared to matched negative (2.2 %, P = 0.0009) and positive controls (2.4 %, P = 0.0026). There were no significant differences in the rate of revision rotator cuff repair when fluoroquinolones were prescribed >2 months after rotator cuff repair. Early use of fluoroquinolones following rotator cuff repair was independently associated with significantly increased rates of failure requiring revision rotator cuff repair. This is the first clinical study examining the association of postoperative fluoroquinolone use with failure following arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. III.

  14. Biceps tendon sheath effusion as a diagnostic clue to rotator cuff pathology.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Pankaj K; Shah, Bhavin; Shende, Amol; Rajesh, S

    2014-02-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the role of biceps tendon sheath effusion detected on ultrasound as a diagnostic clue to rotator cuff pathology. Despite being the most common cause of shoulder pain in adults early sonographic changes of rotator cuff tendinopathy are easy to miss. A total of 31 patients out of whom 27 had unilateral shoulder pain and 4 had bilateral complaints under- went ultrasonographic examination of shoulder joint using high frequency linear array transducer. Any fluid surrounding the long head of biceps tendon was noted followed by a careful search for any associated sonographic abnormality involving the rotator cuff. Eighteen out of the 35 had presence of fluid in their biceps tendon sheath. Twelve had presence of both biceps tendon sheath effusion and rotator cuff pathologies. Among 17 patients, who had no fluid in their biceps tendon sheath, only 2 had rotator cuff involvement whereas rest 15 had neither biceps tendon sheath fluid nor rotator cuff pathologies. A significant association was found between presence of fluid in long head of biceps tendon sheath and rotator cuff pathologies. Thus the most common finding observed in association with the presence of fluid around the long head of biceps tendon sheath in this study was tendinosis of rotator cuff. On ultrasonography simple presence of fluid around the long head of biceps tendon sheath demands careful examination of rotator cuff.

  15. Comparison of endotracheal tube cuff pressure values before and after training seminar.

    PubMed

    Özcan, Ayça Tuba Dumanlı; Döğer, Cihan; But, Abdülkadir; Kutlu, Işık; Aksoy, Şemsi Mustafa

    2017-07-22

    It is recommended that endotracheal cuff (ETTc) pressure be between 20 and 30 cm H2O. In this present study, we intend to observe average cuff pressure values in our clinic and the change in these values after the training seminar. The cuff pressure values of 200 patients intubated following general anesthesia induction in the operating theatre were measured following intubation. One hundred patients whose values were measured before the training seminar held for all physician assistants, and 100 patients whose values were measured after the training seminar were regarded as Group 1 and Group 2, respectively. Cuff pressures of both groups were recorded, and the difference between them was shown. Moreover, cuff pressure values were explored according to the working period of the physician assistants. There was no significant difference between the groups in terms of age, gender and tube diameters. Statistically significant difference was found between cuff pressure values before and after the training (p < 0.001). Average pressure measure for Group I was 54 cm H2O, while average pressure in Group II declined to 33 cm H2O. It was observed that as the working period and experience of physician assistants increased, cuff pressure values decreased, however no statistically significant different was found (p < 0.375). We believe that clinical experience does not have significant effects on cuff pressure and that training seminars held at intervals would prevent high cuff pressure values and potential complications.

  16. Scanning electron-microscopic evaluation of cuff shoulders in pediatric tracheal tubes.

    PubMed

    Moehrlen, Ueli; Ziegler, Urs; Weiss, Markus

    2008-03-01

    Technical and conceptual shortcomings of cuffed pediatric tracheal tubes have been pointed out in the past, all representing a potential risk for mucosal damage of the pediatric airway. In this study, cuffed pediatric tracheal tubes from different manufacturers were investigated with regard to the cuff shoulder design using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Cuffed pediatric tracheal tubes with the smallest internal diameter available were ordered from five manufacturers. SEM scans were performed from the tube shaft - cuff shoulder - tube cuff assembly and from the cuff shoulder alone. Each investigation was repeated in four samples of each tube brand. In addition, thickness of cuff membrane was measured. Major differences were found among the cuff shoulders investigated ranging from smooth transitions, softened borders to very sharp steps. There was also considerable difference in the thickness among the cuff membranes between the different tube brands ranging from 18 microm in polyurethane cuffs up to 90 microm in polyvinylchloride cuffs. Because the gap between the outer tracheal tube and the internal mucosal layer of the pediatric airway is often very narrow, some of the observed irregularities have the potential to injure the airway mucosa in pediatric patients, particularly during long-term use and firm fit of the tracheal tube in the airway. As cuffed tubes are increasingly used in small children, the observed irregularities in some tracheal tube brands may need to be improved and their safety should be proved by the manufacturers.

  17. Status of the contralateral rotator cuff in patients undergoing rotator cuff repair.

    PubMed

    Ro, Kyung-Han; Park, Jong-Hoon; Lee, Soon-Hyuck; Song, Dong-Ik; Jeong, Ha-Joon; Jeong, Woong-Kyo

    2015-05-01

    Although the prevalence of rotator cuff tear (RCT) in the general population has been analyzed, little information is available on the status of the opposite-side rotator cuff in patients who have undergone arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. To identify the characteristics of the contralateral shoulder and to identify factors associated with RCT of the contralateral shoulder in patients who underwent surgery for symptomatic RCT. The hypothesis was that the prevalence of RCT in the contralateral shoulder would be higher in patients with increasingly larger cuff tears requiring surgical intervention. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. The study cohort consisted of 140 patients with RCT who underwent arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. Opposite-shoulder rotator cuff tendons of all patients were evaluated by ultrasonography. Demographic information and factors related to contralateral RCT were investigated, and risk factors associated with contralateral RCT were assessed. Of the 140 patients who underwent arthroscopic rotator cuff repair, 54 (38.6%) had an RCT of the contralateral shoulder. Of 51 patients with partial-thickness and small-sized full-thickness tears of the operated shoulder, 35 (68.6%) had no tears; 14 (27.5%) had partial-thickness tears; and 2 (3.9%) had small-sized full-thickness tears of the contralateral shoulder. Of 75 patients with medium-sized full-thickness tears, 43 (57.3%) had no tears; 12 (16%) had partial-thickness tears; and 20 (26.7%) had full-thickness tears of the contralateral shoulder. Of 14 patients with large to massive full-thickness tears, 8 (57.1%) had no tears; 1 (7.1%) had a partial-thickness tear; and 5 (35.7%) had full-thickness tears of the contralateral shoulder. The prevalence of RCT of the contralateral shoulder differed significantly among groups classified by tear size (P=.007). The mean American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons score was significantly lower in the RCT than in the nontear group (55.8±16.9 vs 61.6±13.3; P=.03

  18. The Societal and Economic Value of Rotator Cuff Repair

    PubMed Central

    Mather, Richard C.; Koenig, Lane; Acevedo, Daniel; Dall, Timothy M.; Gallo, Paul; Romeo, Anthony; Tongue, John; Williams, Gerald

    2013-01-01

    Background: Although rotator cuff disease is a common musculoskeletal problem in the United States, the impact of this condition on earnings, missed workdays, and disability payments is largely unknown. This study examines the value of surgical treatment for full-thickness rotator cuff tears from a societal perspective. Methods: A Markov decision model was constructed to estimate lifetime direct and indirect costs associated with surgical and continued nonoperative treatment for symptomatic full-thickness rotator cuff tears. All patients were assumed to have been unresponsive to one six-week trial of nonoperative treatment prior to entering the model. Model assumptions were obtained from the literature and data analysis. We obtained estimates of indirect costs using national survey data and patient-reported outcomes. Four indirect costs were modeled: probability of employment, household income, missed workdays, and disability payments. Direct cost estimates were based on average Medicare reimbursements with adjustments to an all-payer population. Effectiveness was expressed in quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). Results: The age-weighted mean total societal savings from rotator cuff repair compared with nonoperative treatment was $13,771 over a patient’s lifetime. Savings ranged from $77,662 for patients who are thirty to thirty-nine years old to a net cost to society of $11,997 for those who are seventy to seventy-nine years old. In addition, surgical treatment results in an average improvement of 0.62 QALY. Societal savings were highly sensitive to age, with savings being positive at the age of sixty-one years and younger. The estimated lifetime societal savings of the approximately 250,000 rotator cuff repairs performed in the U.S. each year was $3.44 billion. Conclusions: Rotator cuff repair for full-thickness tears produces net societal cost savings for patients under the age of sixty-one years and greater QALYs for all patients. Rotator cuff repair is cost

  19. Location and Initiation of Degenerative Rotator Cuff Tears

    PubMed Central

    Kim, H. Mike; Dahiya, Nirvikar; Teefey, Sharlene A.; Middleton, William D.; Stobbs, Georgia; Steger-May, Karen; Yamaguchi, Ken; Keener, Jay D.

    2010-01-01

    Background: It has been theorized that degenerative rotator cuff tears most commonly involve the supraspinatus tendon, initiating at the anterior portion of the supraspinatus insertion and propagating posteriorly. The purposes of this study were to determine the most common location of degenerative rotator cuff tears and to examine tear location patterns associated with various tear sizes. Methods: Ultrasonograms of 360 shoulders with either a full-thickness rotator cuff tear (272) or a partial-thickness rotator cuff tear (eighty-eight) were obtained to measure the width and length of the tear and the distance from the biceps tendon to the anterior margin of the tear. Tears were grouped on the basis of their size (anteroposterior width) and extent (partial or full-thickness). Each tear was represented numerically as a column of consecutive numbers representing the tear width and distance posterior to the biceps tendon. All tears were pooled to graphically represent the width and location of the tears within groups. Frequency histograms of the pooled data were generated, and the mode was determined for each histogram representing various tear groups. Results: The mean age (and standard deviation) of the 233 subjects (360 shoulders) was 64.7 ± 10.2 years. The mean width and length of the tears were 16.3 ± 12.1 mm and 17.0 ± 13.0 mm, respectively. The mean distance from the biceps tendon to the anterior tear margin was 7.8 ± 5.7 mm (range, 0 to 26 mm). Histograms of the various tear groups invariably showed the location of 15 to 16 mm posterior to the biceps tendon to be the most commonly torn location within the posterior cuff tendons. The histograms of small tears (a width of <10 mm) and partial-thickness tears showed similar distributions of tear locations, indicating that the region approximately 15 mm posterior to the biceps tendon may be where rotator cuff tears most commonly initiate. Conclusions: Degenerative rotator cuff tears most commonly involve a

  20. Arthroscopic treatment of rotator cuff disease.

    PubMed

    Jarrett, Claudius D; Schmidt, Christopher C

    2011-09-01

    The goal of this article is to summarize the current concepts on rotator cuff disease with an emphasis on arthroscopic treatment. Most rotator cuff tears are the result of an ongoing attritional process. Once present, a tear is likely to gradually increase in size. Partial-thickness and subscapularis tears can both be successfully treated arthroscopically if conservative management fails. Partial tears involving greater than 50% of tendon thickness should be repaired. Articular-sided partial tears involving less than 50% of the rotator cuff can reliably be treated with debridement. A more aggressive approach should be considered for low-grade tears (<50%) if they occur on the bursal side. Biomechanical and anatomic studies have shown clear superiority with dual-row fixation compared with single-row techniques. However, current studies have yet to show clear clinical advantage with dual-row over single-row repairs. Biceps tenotomy or tenodesis can reliably provide symptomatic improvement in patients with irreparable massive tears. True pseudoparalysis of the shoulder is a contraindication to this procedure alone and other alternatives should be considered.

  1. Biological Augmentation of Rotator Cuff Tendon Repair

    PubMed Central

    Kovacevic, David

    2008-01-01

    A histologically normal insertion site does not regenerate following rotator cuff tendon-to-bone repair, which is likely due to abnormal or insufficient gene expression and/or cell differentiation at the repair site. Techniques to manipulate the biologic events following tendon repair may improve healing. We used a sheep infraspinatus repair model to evaluate the effect of osteoinductive growth factors and BMP-12 on tendon-to-bone healing. Magnetic resonance imaging and histology showed increased formation of new bone and fibrocartilage at the healing tendon attachment site in the treated animals, and biomechanical testing showed improved load-to-failure. Other techniques with potential to augment repair site biology include use of platelets isolated from autologous blood to deliver growth factors to a tendon repair site. Modalities that improve local vascularity, such as pulsed ultrasound, have the potential to augment rotator cuff healing. Important information about the biology of tendon healing can also be gained from studies of substances that inhibit healing, such as nicotine and antiinflammatory medications. Future approaches may include the use of stem cells and transcription factors to induce formation of the native tendon-bone insertion site after rotator cuff repair surgery. PMID:18264850

  2. Topical glyceryl trinitrate for rotator cuff disease.

    PubMed

    Cumpston, Miranda; Johnston, Renea V; Wengier, Lainie; Buchbinder, Rachelle

    2009-07-08

    Rotator cuff disease is a common cause of shoulder pain. Topical glyceryl trinitrate is a possible new treatment. To determine the effectiveness and safety of topical glyceryl trinitrate for rotator cuff disease. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus, PEDro, the Australian Clinical Trials Registry, Current Controlled Trials (to October 2007) and the references and citations of included studies. We included randomised controlled trials and controlled clinical trials of people with rotator cuff disease who received topical glyceryl trinitrate, alone or in combination, compared to placebo or active therapy. Two authors independently assessed risk of bias and extracted data. Three small studies, one at moderate risk of bias and two at high risk of bias, were included. Meta-analysis was precluded due to different interventions and outcome measures. Study participants also had differing durations of symptoms and data for pain and function could only be extracted from one study. One placebo-controlled trial (20 participants) tested 5 mg glyceryl trinitrate patches, used daily for three days, among participants with 'acute supraspinatus tendinitis' of less than seven days duration. Treatment resulted in reduced pain intensity (adjusted MD -3.50, 95% CI -3.96 to -3.04). Function was not measured. One trial (53 participants) compared one quarter of a 5 mg glyceryl trinitrate patch used daily for up to 24 weeks combined with rehabilitation to placebo patches and rehabilitation among participants with 'supraspinatus tendinopathy' for longer than six months. A third trial (48 participants) tested 5 mg glyceryl trinitrate patches, used daily for three days, compared to corticosteroid injection among participants with 'rotator cuff tendinitis' of less than six-weeks duration. Fifteen out of 24 participants in the glyceryl trinitrate treatment reported headache (RR 0.11, 95% CI 0.01 to 1.96). There is some

  3. Relationship of ABO Blood Type on Rotator Cuff Tears.

    PubMed

    Lee, Doo-Hyung; Lee, Han-Dong; Yoon, Seung-Hyun

    2015-11-01

    ABO blood groups are associated with various diseases. A relationship between Achilles tendon ruptures and blood type O has been reported, although its pathogenesis was not clear. To the best of our knowledge, there is no published study describing the relationship between blood type and rotator cuff tendon tears. To determine whether patients with rotator cuff tear had a greater prevalence of blood type O than those without rotator cuff tear. A cross-sectional study. Research hospital outpatient evaluation. A total of 316 subjects with shoulder pain were included and divided into "tear" and "no-tear" groups according to ultrasonographic examination. ABO blood group, gender, dominant arm, smoking history, trauma history, and age were compared between the 2 groups and the odds ratios of these factors were evaluated by logistic regression. The tear group (38.6%) had more instances of blood type O than the healthy population (27.2%; P = .002). The adjusted odds ratio for rotator cuff tear for blood type O to non-O was 2.38 (95% confidence interval 1.28-4.42). The odds ratios for rotator cuff tears for smoking, major trauma history, minor trauma history, and age were 2.08, 3.11, 2.29, and 1.06, respectively. Patients with rotator cuff tears were more likely to have blood type O. The odds ratios of factors for rotator cuff tears were high in the following order: major trauma history, blood type O, minor trauma history, and age. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Predicting rotator cuff tears using data mining and Bayesian likelihood ratios.

    PubMed

    Lu, Hsueh-Yi; Huang, Chen-Yuan; Su, Chwen-Tzeng; Lin, Chen-Chiang

    2014-01-01

    Rotator cuff tear is a common cause of shoulder diseases. Correct diagnosis of rotator cuff tears can save patients from further invasive, costly and painful tests. This study used predictive data mining and Bayesian theory to improve the accuracy of diagnosing rotator cuff tears by clinical examination alone. In this retrospective study, 169 patients who had a preliminary diagnosis of rotator cuff tear on the basis of clinical evaluation followed by confirmatory MRI between 2007 and 2011 were identified. MRI was used as a reference standard to classify rotator cuff tears. The predictor variable was the clinical assessment results, which consisted of 16 attributes. This study employed 2 data mining methods (ANN and the decision tree) and a statistical method (logistic regression) to classify the rotator cuff diagnosis into "tear" and "no tear" groups. Likelihood ratio and Bayesian theory were applied to estimate the probability of rotator cuff tears based on the results of the prediction models. Our proposed data mining procedures outperformed the classic statistical method. The correction rate, sensitivity, specificity and area under the ROC curve of predicting a rotator cuff tear were statistical better in the ANN and decision tree models compared to logistic regression. Based on likelihood ratios derived from our prediction models, Fagan's nomogram could be constructed to assess the probability of a patient who has a rotator cuff tear using a pretest probability and a prediction result (tear or no tear). Our predictive data mining models, combined with likelihood ratios and Bayesian theory, appear to be good tools to classify rotator cuff tears as well as determine the probability of the presence of the disease to enhance diagnostic decision making for rotator cuff tears.

  5. Predicting Rotator Cuff Tears Using Data Mining and Bayesian Likelihood Ratios

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Hsueh-Yi; Huang, Chen-Yuan; Su, Chwen-Tzeng; Lin, Chen-Chiang

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Rotator cuff tear is a common cause of shoulder diseases. Correct diagnosis of rotator cuff tears can save patients from further invasive, costly and painful tests. This study used predictive data mining and Bayesian theory to improve the accuracy of diagnosing rotator cuff tears by clinical examination alone. Methods In this retrospective study, 169 patients who had a preliminary diagnosis of rotator cuff tear on the basis of clinical evaluation followed by confirmatory MRI between 2007 and 2011 were identified. MRI was used as a reference standard to classify rotator cuff tears. The predictor variable was the clinical assessment results, which consisted of 16 attributes. This study employed 2 data mining methods (ANN and the decision tree) and a statistical method (logistic regression) to classify the rotator cuff diagnosis into “tear” and “no tear” groups. Likelihood ratio and Bayesian theory were applied to estimate the probability of rotator cuff tears based on the results of the prediction models. Results Our proposed data mining procedures outperformed the classic statistical method. The correction rate, sensitivity, specificity and area under the ROC curve of predicting a rotator cuff tear were statistical better in the ANN and decision tree models compared to logistic regression. Based on likelihood ratios derived from our prediction models, Fagan's nomogram could be constructed to assess the probability of a patient who has a rotator cuff tear using a pretest probability and a prediction result (tear or no tear). Conclusions Our predictive data mining models, combined with likelihood ratios and Bayesian theory, appear to be good tools to classify rotator cuff tears as well as determine the probability of the presence of the disease to enhance diagnostic decision making for rotator cuff tears. PMID:24733553

  6. Rotator Cuff and Shoulder Conditioning Program

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cuff and Shoulder Conditioning Program Stretching Exercises 1. Pendulum_________________________________________________________________________ Repetitions Main muscles worked: Deltoids, supraspinatus, infraspinatus, subscapularis ...

  7. Arthroscopic Transosseous Rotator Cuff Repair: Technical Note, Outcomes, and Complications

    PubMed Central

    Black, Eric M.; Lin, Albert; Srikumaran, Uma; Jain, Nitin; Freehill, Michael T.

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study was to review the authors’ initial experience with arthroscopic transosseous rotator cuff repair. Thirty-one patients with full-thickness rotator cuff tears underwent arthroscopic transosseous rotator cuff repair over a 15-month period. Preoperatively, demographics and subjective scores were recorded. Postoperatively, pain levels, subjective shoulder values, satisfaction scores, American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) scores, complications, and reoperations were noted with a minimum 2-year follow-up. The relationships between pre- and intraoperative variables and outcome scores were determined with univariate analysis. Average patient age was 56 years, and 23 patients (74%) were men. Twenty patients (65%) underwent primary rotator cuff repair, and 11 patients (35%) underwent revision repair. Average time to follow-up was 26 months. Average preoperative pain level and subjective shoulder value were 5.1 of 10 and 35%, respectively. Average postoperative scores included pain level of 0.9 of 10, subjective shoulder value of 84%, satisfaction score of 90.6 of 100, and ASES score of 86.3 of 100. There were 3 (9.7%) major and 2 (6%) minor complications. Patients undergoing revision rotator cuff repair had significantly worse outcomes (pain level, subjective shoulder value, ASES score; P<.05) compared with those undergoing primary repair, and cortical augmentation did not significantly affect outcome. Overall, outcomes after arthroscopic transosseous rotator cuff repair are good, although patients undergoing revision repair do not have the same outcomes as those undergoing primary cuff repair. The procedure is not without complications (9.7% major, 6% minor complications). Cortical augmentation may be used to supplement fixation, although it does not necessarily affect outcomes. Patients without such augmentation may be at increased risk for suture cutout through the bone. PMID:25970360

  8. Evaluation of an Intervention to Maintain Endotracheal Tube Cuff Pressure Within Therapeutic Range

    PubMed Central

    Sole, Mary Lou; Su, Xiaogang; Talbert, Steve; Penoyer, Daleen Aragon; Kalita, Samar; Jimenez, Edgar; Ludy, Jeffery E.; Bennett, Melody

    2012-01-01

    Background Endotracheal tube cuff pressure must be kept within an optimal range that ensures ventilation and prevents aspiration while maintaining tracheal perfusion. Objectives To test the effect of an intervention (adding or removing air) on the proportion of time that cuff pressure was between 20 and 30 cm H2O and to evaluate changes in cuff pressure over time. Methods A repeated-measure crossover design was used to study 32 orally intubated patients receiving mechanical ventilation for two 12-hour shifts (randomized control and intervention conditions). Continuous cuff pressure monitoring was initiated, and the pressure was adjusted to a minimum of 22 cm H2O. Caregivers were blinded to cuff pressure data, and usual care was provided during the control condition. During the intervention condition, cuff pressure alarm or clinical triggers guided the intervention. Results Most patients were men (mean age, 61.6 years). During the control condition, 51.7% of cuff pressure values were out of range compared with 11.1% during the intervention condition (P < .001). During the intervention, a mean of 8 adjustments were required, mostly to add air to the endotracheal tube cuff (mean 0.28 [SD, 0.13] mL). During the control condition, cuff pressure decreased over time (P < .001). Conclusions The intervention was effective in maintaining cuff pressure within an optimal range, and cuff pressure decreased over time without intervention. The effect of the intervention on outcomes such as ventilator-associated pneumonia and tracheal damage requires further study. PMID:21362715

  9. Natural History of Rotator Cuff Disease and Implications on Management

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Jason

    2015-01-01

    Degenerative rotator cuff disease is commonly associated with ageing and is often asymptomatic. The factors related to tear progression and pain development are just now being defined through longitudinal natural history studies. The majority of studies that follow conservatively treated painful cuff tears or asymptomatic tears that are monitored at regular intervals show slow progression of tear enlargement and muscle degeneration over time. These studies have highlighted greater risks for disease progression for certain variables, such as the presence of a full-thickness tear and involvement of the anterior aspect supraspinatus tendon. Coupling the knowledge of the natural history of degenerative cuff tear progression with variables associated with greater likelihood of successful tendon healing following surgery will allow better refinement of surgical indications for rotator cuff disease. In addition, natural history studies may better define the risks of nonoperative treatment over time. This article will review pertinent literature regarding degenerative rotator cuff disease with emphasis on variables important to defining appropriate initial treatments and refining surgical indications. PMID:26726288

  10. 21 CFR 882.5275 - Nerve cuff.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nerve cuff. 882.5275 Section 882.5275 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Therapeutic Devices § 882.5275 Nerve cuff. (a) Identification. A nerve cuff...

  11. 21 CFR 882.5275 - Nerve cuff.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Nerve cuff. 882.5275 Section 882.5275 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Therapeutic Devices § 882.5275 Nerve cuff. (a) Identification. A nerve cuff...

  12. 21 CFR 882.5275 - Nerve cuff.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Nerve cuff. 882.5275 Section 882.5275 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Therapeutic Devices § 882.5275 Nerve cuff. (a) Identification. A nerve cuff...

  13. 21 CFR 882.5275 - Nerve cuff.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Nerve cuff. 882.5275 Section 882.5275 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Therapeutic Devices § 882.5275 Nerve cuff. (a) Identification. A nerve cuff...

  14. 21 CFR 882.5275 - Nerve cuff.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Nerve cuff. 882.5275 Section 882.5275 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Therapeutic Devices § 882.5275 Nerve cuff. (a) Identification. A nerve cuff...

  15. Autologous blood products in rotator cuff repair.

    PubMed

    Mei-Dan, Omer; Carmont, Michael R

    2012-01-01

    We review the management of rotator cuff tears, the mechanism of action of autologous blood products, principally platelet-rich plasma, and the current evidence for effective use of platelet-rich plasma, particularly in relation to the shoulder and chronic rotator cuff tears, for biological augmentation of rotator cuff repair.

  16. 21 CFR 868.5760 - Cuff spreader.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cuff spreader. 868.5760 Section 868.5760 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5760 Cuff spreader. (a) Identification. A cuff spreader is...

  17. 21 CFR 868.5760 - Cuff spreader.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cuff spreader. 868.5760 Section 868.5760 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5760 Cuff spreader. (a) Identification. A cuff spreader is...

  18. Symptomatic Progression of Asymptomatic Rotator Cuff Tears

    PubMed Central

    Mall, Nathan A.; Kim, H. Mike; Keener, Jay D.; Steger-May, Karen; Teefey, Sharlene A.; Middleton, William D.; Stobbs, Georgia; Yamaguchi, Ken

    2010-01-01

    Background: The purposes of this study were to identify changes in tear dimensions, shoulder function, and glenohumeral kinematics when an asymptomatic rotator cuff tear becomes painful and to identify characteristics of individuals who develop pain compared with those who remain asymptomatic. Methods: A cohort of 195 subjects with an asymptomatic rotator cuff tear was prospectively monitored for pain development and examined annually for changes in various parameters such as tear size, fatty degeneration of the rotator cuff muscle, glenohumeral kinematics, and shoulder function. Forty-four subjects were found to have developed new pain, and the parameters before and after pain development were compared. The forty-four subjects were then compared with a group of fifty-five subjects who remained asymptomatic over a two-year period. Results: With pain development, the size of a full-thickness rotator cuff tear increased significantly, with 18% of the full-thickness tears showing an increase of >5 mm, and 40% of the partial-thickness tears had progressed to a full-thickness tear. In comparison with the assessments made before the onset of pain, the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons scores for shoulder function were significantly decreased and all measures of shoulder range of motion were decreased except for external rotation at 90° of abduction. There was an increase in compensatory scapulothoracic motion in relation to the glenohumeral motion during early shoulder abduction with pain development. No significant changes were found in external rotation strength or muscular fatty degeneration. Compared with the subjects who remained asymptomatic, the subjects who developed pain were found to have significantly larger tears at the time of initial enrollment. Conclusions: Pain development in shoulders with an asymptomatic rotator cuff tear is associated with an increase in tear size. Larger tears are more likely to develop pain in the short term than are smaller

  19. A tale of three cuffs: the hemodynamics of blood flow restriction.

    PubMed

    Mouser, J Grant; Dankel, Scott J; Jessee, Matthew B; Mattocks, Kevin T; Buckner, Samuel L; Counts, Brittany R; Loenneke, Jeremy P

    2017-07-01

    The blood flow response to relative levels of blood flow restriction (BFR) across varying cuff widths is not well documented. With the variety of cuff widths and pressures reported in the literature, the effects of different cuffs and pressures on blood flow require investigation. To measure blood pressure using three commonly used BFR cuffs, examine possible venous/arterial restriction pressures, and measure hemodynamic responses to relative levels of BFR using these same cuffs. 43 participants (Experiment 1, brachial artery blood pressure assessed) and 38 participants (Experiment 2, brachial artery blood flow assessed using ultrasound, cuff placed at proximal portion of arm) volunteered for this study. Blood pressure measurement was higher in the 5 cm cuff than in the 10 and 12 cm cuffs. Sub-diastolic relative pressures appear to occur predominantly at <60% of arterial occlusion pressure (AOP). Blood flow under relative levels of restriction decreases in a non-linear fashion, with minimal differences between cuffs [resting: 50.3 (44.2) ml min(-1); 10% AOP: 42.0 (36.8); 20%: 33.6 (28.6); 30%: 23.6 (20.4); 40%: 17.1 (15.9); 50%: 12.5 (9.4); 60%: 11.5 (8.1); 70%: 11.4 (7.0); 80%: 10.3 (6.3); 90%: 7.9 (4.8); 100%: 1.5 (2.9)]. Peak blood velocity remains relatively constant until higher levels (>70% of AOP) are surpassed. Calculated mean shear rate decreases in a similar fashion as blood flow. Under relative levels of restriction, pressures from 40 to 90% of AOP appear to decrease blood flow to a similar degree in these three cuffs. Relative pressures appear to elicit a similar blood flow stimulus when accounting for cuff width and participant characteristics.

  20. Assessment of the rotator cable in various rotator cuff conditions using indirect MR arthrography.

    PubMed

    Choo, Hye Jung; Lee, Sun Joo; Kim, Dong Wook; Park, Young-Mi; Kim, Jung-Han

    2014-11-01

    The rotator cable is an important structure providing stress shield to the rotator cuff, similar to the mechanism of suspension bridge. To evaluate the visibility and appearance of the rotator cable in various conditions of the rotator cuff, using indirect magnetic resonance (MR) arthrography. Indirect MR arthrography images from 27 patients (age range, 20-63 years) with normal rotator cuffs, and 47 (age range, 20-73 years) with tendinosis, 32 (age range, 49-71 years) with partial-thickness tears, and 55 (age range, 44-75 years) with full-thickness tears in the supraspinatus and infraspinatus tendons (SST-ISTs) were included in this study. In these various rotator cuff conditions, the visibility and appearance (thickness and width) of the rotator cable and the relationships between the rotator cable appearance, rotator cuff tear size, rotator cuff thickness, and patient's age were assessed. On the sagittal MR images, all rotator cables were visible in the normal rotator cuffs and tendinosis/partial-thickness tears of SST-ISTs. In the order of normal cuff, tendinosis, partial-thickness tear, and full-thickness tear of SST-ISTs, the rotator cable tended to become thicker (1.07, 1.27, 1.32, and 1.59 mm, respectively) and narrower (12.1, 10.68, 10.90, and 8.55 mm, respectively). The thickness of the rotator cable was significantly positively correlated with the rotator cuff thickness in the normal rotator cuffs (coefficient, 0.49; P = 0.010) and tendinosis of SST-ISTs (coefficient, 0.53; P < 0.001), but was not correlated with patients' age. On sagittal plane of indirect MR arthrography, most rotator cables were visible. The appearance of the rotator cable changed according to the rotator cuff condition. © The Foundation Acta Radiologica 2013 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  1. Comparison between Two Endotracheal Tube Cuff Inflation Methods; Just-Seal Vs. Stethoscope-Guided

    PubMed Central

    Harde, Minal; Bhadade, Rakesh; Dave, Sona; Aswar, Swapnil Ganeshrao

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The Endotracheal Tube (ETT) cuff performs a critical function of sealing the airway during positive pressure ventilation. There is a narrow range of cuff pressure required to maintain a functionally safe seal without exceeding capillary blood pressure. Aim We aimed to compare Just-Seal (JS) and Stethoscope-Guided (SG) method of ETT cuff inflation with respect to the volume of air required to inflate the cuff, the manometric cuff pressure achieved and also to assess for the occurrence of postoperative sore throat after extubation in both the groups. Materials and Methods It was a prospective observational study done in a Tertiary Teaching Public Hospital over a period of 1½ years on 100 patients with 50 each in two groups; JS or SG method of cuff inflation. SPSS Version 17 was used for data analysis. Results Statistically significant difference (p-value of less than 0.05) was noted between the two methods based on the volume of air injected into the cuff {the mean volume injected in JS was 6.79 ml and in the SG was 4.95 ml with p=5.71E-16 (< 0.05)} and cuff pressure achieved {mean cuff pressure achieved was 38.80 cm H2O in the JS and 29.64 cm H2O in SG with p=2.29E-14 (< 0.05)}. The incidence of post extubation sore throat was 54% (27 in 50) in the JS group and only 12% (6 in 50) in the SG; p= 0.00000797. Conclusion ETT cuff inflation guided by a stethoscope is an effective technique for ensuring appropriate cuff pressures thus accomplishing the objective of providing safe and superior quality care of the patient both during and after anaesthesia and reducing the likelihood of even minimal risk complications that may still have legal implications. PMID:28764268

  2. Gene expression profiles of changes underlying different-sized human rotator cuff tendon tears.

    PubMed

    Chaudhury, Salma; Xia, Zhidao; Thakkar, Dipti; Hakimi, Osnat; Carr, Andrew J

    2016-10-01

    Progressive cellular and extracellular matrix (ECM) changes related to age and disease severity have been demonstrated in rotator cuff tendon tears. Larger rotator cuff tears demonstrate structural abnormalities that potentially adversely influence healing potential. This study aimed to gain greater insight into the relationship of pathologic changes to tear size by analyzing gene expression profiles from normal rotator cuff tendons, small rotator cuff tears, and large rotator cuff tears. We analyzed gene expression profiles of 28 human rotator cuff tendons using microarrays representing the entire genome; 11 large and 5 small torn rotator cuff tendon specimens were obtained intraoperatively from tear edges, which we compared with 12 age-matched normal controls. We performed real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry for validation. Torn rotator cuff tendons demonstrated upregulation of a number of key genes, such as matrix metalloproteinase 3, 10, 12, 13, 15, 21, and 25; a disintegrin and metalloproteinase (ADAM) 12, 15, and 22; and aggrecan. Amyloid was downregulated in all tears. Small tears displayed upregulation of bone morphogenetic protein 5. Chemokines and cytokines that may play a role in chemotaxis were altered; interleukins 3, 10, 13, and 15 were upregulated in tears, whereas interleukins 1, 8, 11, 18, and 27 were downregulated. The gene expression profiles of normal controls and small and large rotator cuff tear groups differ significantly. Extracellular matrix remodeling genes were found to contribute to rotator cuff tear pathogenesis. Rotator cuff tears displayed upregulation of a number of matrix metalloproteinase (3, 10, 12, 13, 15, 21, and 25), a disintegrin and metalloproteinase (ADAM 12, 15, and 22) genes, and downregulation of some interleukins (1, 8, and 27), which play important roles in chemotaxis. These gene products may potentially have a role as biomarkers of failure of healing or therapeutic targets to improve tendon

  3. Muscle atrophy and fatty infiltration after an acute rotator cuff repair in a sheep model

    PubMed Central

    Luan, Tammy; Liu, Xuhui; Easley, Jeremiah T.; Ravishankar, Bharat; Puttlitz, Christian; Feeley, Brian T.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Introduction rotator cuff tears (RCTs) are the most common tendon injury seen in orthopedic patients. Muscle atrophy and fatty infiltration of the muscle are crucial factors that dictate the outcome following rotator cuff surgery. Though less studied in humans, rotator cuff muscle fibrosis has been seen in animal models as well and may influence outcomes as well. The purpose of this study was to determine if the rotator cuff would develop muscle changes even in the setting of an acute repair in a sheep model. We hypothesized that fatty infiltration and fibrosis would be present even after an acute repair six months after initial surgery. Methods twelve female adult sheep underwent an acute rotator cuff tear and immediate repair on the right shoulder. The left shoulder served as a control and did not undergo a tear or a repair. Six months following acute rotator cuff repairs, sheep muscles were harvested to study atrophy, fatty infiltration, and fibrosis by histological analysis, western blotting, and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Results the repair group demonstrated an increase expression of muscle atrophy, fatty infiltration, and fibrosis related genes. Significantly increased adipocytes, muscle fatty infiltration, and collagen deposition was observed in rotator cuff muscles in the tendon repair group compared to the control group. Conclusions rotator cuff muscle undergoes degradation changes including fatty infiltration and fibrosis even after the tendons are repair immediately after rupture. Level of Evidence Basic Science Study. PMID:26261789

  4. Simulation of flow through a Miller cuff bypass graft.

    PubMed

    Henry, F S; Küpper, C; Lewington, N P

    2002-06-01

    Unnatural temporal and spatial distributions of wall shear stress in the anastomosis of distal bypass grafts have been identified as possible factors in the development of anastomotic intimal hyperplasia in these grafts. Distal bypass graft anastomoses with an autologus vein cuff (a Miller cuff) interposed between the graft and artery have been shown to alleviate the effects of intimal hyperplasia. In this study, pulsatile flow through models of a standard end-to-side anastomosis and a Miller cuff anastomosis are computed and the resulting wall shear stress and pressure distributions analysed. The results are inconclusive, and could be taken to suggest that the unnatural distributions of shear stress that do occur along the anastomosis floor may not be particularly important in the development of intimal hyperplasia. However, it seems more likely that the positive effects of the biological and material properties of the vein cuff, which are not considered in this study, somehow outweigh the negative effects of the shear stress distributions predicted to occur on the floor of the Miller-cuff graft.

  5. Clinical features of patients diagnosed with degenerative rotator cuff tendon disease: a 6-month prospective-definitive clinical study from turkey.

    PubMed

    Koca, Tuba Tülay; Arslan, Aydın; Özdemir, Filiz; Acet, Günseli

    2017-08-01

    [Purpose] In rotator cuff tendon disease (RCTD), anamnesis is as important as clinical findings and anatomic/radio diagnostic examination. This study aimed to investigate the clinical features of patients diagnosed with RCTD using clinical and radiological methods between March 2015 and August 2015 at Malatya Research and Training Hospital Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation department. [Subjects and Methods] The study included 178 patients who were diagnosed with RCTD (128 females and 50 males). A questionnaire comprising 33 questions was given to each patient. [Results] Eighty-eight of the patients (49.9%) had an involvement on their right side, eighty-four (47.1%) had an involvement on their left side, and 6 had bilateral involvement. Mean visual analog scale (VAS) score was found to be statistically significant in favor of female patients. A statistically significant correlation was found between educational status and VAS. The body mass index (BMI) of the female patients was found to be higher than that of the male patients. Statistically significant correlation between doing risky work and gender showed that males were at a higher risk. [Conclusion] RCDT is more seen in people who have high BMI and are at their 50s. Pain complaint and BMI were found higher in female patients. DM, thyroid and cardiac diseases were seen more in the patients who are diagnosed with RCTD relative to the healthy population.

  6. Pull-out stability of anchors for rotator cuff repair is also increased by bio-absorbable augmentation: a cadaver study.

    PubMed

    Postl, L K; Ahrens, P; Beirer, M; Crönlein, M; Imhoff, A B; Foehr, P; Burgkart, R; Braun, C; Kirchhoff, Chlodwig

    2016-08-01

    Osteoporosis is a highly focused issue in current scientific research and clinical treatment. Especially in rotator cuff repair, the low bone quality of patients suffering from osteoporosis is an important issue. In this context, non-biological solutions using PMMA for anchor augmentation have been developed in the recent past. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether augmentation of suture anchors using bio-absorbable osteoconductive fiber-reinforced calcium phosphate results in improved failure load of suture anchors as well. Altogether 24 suture anchors (Corkscrew FT 1 Suture Anchors, Arthrex, Naples, FL, USA) were evaluated by applying traction until pullout in 12 paired fresh frozen human cadaver humeri using a servo-hydraulic testing machine. Inclusion criteria were an age of more than 64 years, a macroscopically intact RC and an intact bone. The anchors were evaluated at the anterolateral and posteromedial aspect of the greater tuberosity. 12 suture anchors were augmented and 12 suture anchors were conventionally inserted. The failure load was significantly enhanced by 66.8 % by the augmentation method. The fiber-reinforced calcium phosphate could be easily injected and applied. The bio-absorbable cement in this study could be a promising augmentation material for RC reconstructions, but further research is necessary-the material has to be evaluated in vivo.

  7. A pilot study to assess Fatty infiltration of the supraspinatus in patients with rotator cuff tears: comparison with magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Tsuneo; Terabayashi, Nobuo; Fukuoka, Daisuke; Murakami, Hiroki; Ito, Hiroyasu; Matsuoka, Toshio; Seishima, Mitsuru

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to quantitatively assess the echo intensity of the supraspinatus muscle and compare magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound findings for 27 patients (12 women, 15 men, 65.8 ± 11.5 y). Tear size and fatty infiltration were determined by magnetic resonance imaging; five stages were assigned based on Goutallier's classification. Gray-scale histogram analysis was used for ultrasound assessment, which was performed in both subcutaneous fat and supraspinatus muscle in three different regions; the echo intensity ratio was the ratio of echo intensity in subcutaneous fat to that in the supraspinatus muscle. Sonograms of 27 shoulders revealed 3 shoulders with a partial tear, and 4 with a small tear, 6 with a medium tear, 6 with a large tear and 4 with a massive tear; 4 shoulders had no tear. Supraspinatus muscle echo intensity and echo intensity ratio were significantly lower in the stage 0 and 1 than in stages 2-4. Our study suggests that ultrasound can quantitatively and objectively assess fatty infiltration in the rotator cuff muscle.

  8. Rat rotator cuff muscle responds differently from hindlimb muscle to a combined tendon-nerve injury.

    PubMed

    Davies, Michael R; Ravishankar, Bharat; Laron, Dominique; Kim, Hubert T; Liu, Xuhui; Feeley, Brian T

    2015-07-01

    Rotator cuff tears (RCTs) are among the most common musculoskeletal injuries seen by orthopaedic surgeons. Clinically, massive cuff tears lead to unique pathophysiological changes in rotator cuff muscle, including atrophy, and massive fatty infiltration, which are rarely seen in other skeletal muscles. Studies in a rodent model for RCT have demonstrated that these histologic findings are accompanied by activation of the Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) pathways following combined tendon-nerve injury. The purpose of this study was to compare the histologic and molecular features of rotator cuff muscle and gastrocnemius muscle--a major hindlimb muscle, following combined tendon-nerve injury. Six weeks after injury, the rat gastrocnemius did not exhibit notable fatty infiltration compared to the rotator cuff. Likewise, the adipogenic markers SREBP-1 and PPARγ as well as the TGF-β canonical pathway were upregulated in the rotator cuff, but not the gastrocnemius. Our study suggests that the rat rotator cuff and hindlimb muscles differ significantly in their response to a combined tendon-nerve injury. Clinically, these findings highlight the unique response of the rotator cuff to injury, and may begin to explain the poor outcomes of massive RCTs compared to other muscle-tendon injuries.

  9. Ultrasound evaluation of arthroscopic full-thickness supraspinatus rotator cuff repair: single-row versus double-row suture bridge (transosseous equivalent) fixation. Results of a prospective, randomized study.

    PubMed

    Gartsman, Gary M; Drake, Gregory; Edwards, T Bradley; Elkousy, Hussein A; Hammerman, Steven M; O'Connor, Daniel P; Press, Cyrus M

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the structural outcomes of a single-row rotator cuff repair and double-row suture bridge fixation after arthroscopic repair of a full-thickness supraspinatus rotator cuff tear. We evaluated with diagnostic ultrasound a consecutive series of ninety shoulders in ninety patients with full-thickness supraspinatus tears at an average of 10 months (range, 6-12) after operation. A single surgeon at a single hospital performed the repairs. Inclusion criteria were full-thickness supraspinatus tears less than 25 mm in their anterior to posterior dimension. Exclusion criteria were prior operations on the shoulder, partial thickness tears, subscapularis tears, infraspinatus tears, combined supraspinatus and infraspinatus repairs and irreparable supraspinatus tears. Forty-three shoulders were repaired with single-row technique and 47 shoulders with double-row suture bridge technique. Postoperative rehabilitation was identical for both groups. Ultrasound criteria for healed repair included visualization of a tendon with normal thickness and length, and a negative compression test. Eighty-three patients were available for ultrasound examination (40 single-row and 43 suture-bridge). Thirty of 40 patients (75%) with single-row repair demonstrated a healed rotator cuff repair compared to 40/43 (93%) patients with suture-bridge repair (P = .024). Arthroscopic double-row suture bridge repair (transosseous equivalent) of an isolated supraspinatus rotator cuff tear resulted in a significantly higher tendon healing rate (as determined by ultrasound examination) when compared to arthroscopic single-row repair. Copyright © 2013 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Volumetric evaluation of the rotator cuff musculature in massive rotator cuff tears with pseudoparalysis.

    PubMed

    Rhee, Yong Girl; Cho, Nam Su; Song, Jong Hoon; Park, Jung Gwan; Kim, Tae Yong

    2017-09-01

    If the balance of the rotator cuff force couple is disrupted, pseudoparalysis may occur, but the exact mechanism remains unknown. This study investigated the effect of rotator cuff force couple disruption on active range of motion in massive rotator cuff tear (mRCT) by rotator cuff muscle volume analysis. The study included 53 patients with irreparable mRCT: 22 in the nonpseudoparalysis group and 31 in the pseudoparalysis group. The volumes of the subscapularis (SBS), infraspinatus (ISP), and teres minor (TM) muscles were measured using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and the ratios of each muscle volume to the anatomic external rotator (aER) volume were calculated. A control group of 25 individuals with normal rotator cuffs was included. Anterior-to-posterior cuff muscle volume ratio (SBS/ISP + TM) was imbalanced in both mRCT groups (1.383 nonpseudoparalysis and 1.302 pseudoparalysis). Between the 2 groups, the ISP/aER ratio (0.277 vs. 0.249) and the inferior SBS/aER ratio (0.426 vs. 0.390) were significantly decreased in the pseudoparalysis group (P= .022 and P= .040, respectively). However, neither the TM/aER ratio (0.357 vs. 0.376) nor the superior SBS/aER ratio (0.452 vs. 0.424) showed a significant difference between the two groups (P= .749 and P= .068, respectively). If the inferior SBS was torn, a high frequency of pseudoparalysis was noted (81.0%, P= .010). The disruption of transverse force couple was noted in both irreparable mRCT groups, although no significant difference was found between the nonpseudoparalysis and pseudoparalysis groups. ISP and inferior SBS muscle volumes showed a significant decrease in pseudoparalysis group and, therefore, were considered to greatly influence the loss of active motion in mRCT. The TM did not exert significant effect on the incidence of pseudoparalysis. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Proximal Biceps Tendon and Rotator Cuff Tears.

    PubMed

    Virk, Mandeep S; Cole, Brian J

    2016-01-01

    The long head of biceps tendon (LHBT) is frequently involved in rotator cuff tears and can cause anterior shoulder pain. Tendon hypertrophy, hourglass contracture, delamination, tears, and tendon instability in the bicipital groove are common macroscopic pathologic findings affecting the LHBT in the presence of rotator cuff tears. Failure to address LHBT disorders in the setting of rotator cuff tear can result in persistent shoulder pain and poor satisfaction after rotator cuff repair. Tenotomy or tenodesis of the LHBT are effective options for relieving pain arising from the LHBT in the setting of reparable and selected irreparable rotator cuff tears.

  12. The effect of glenoid cavity depth on rotator cuff tendinitis.

    PubMed

    Malkoc, Melih; Korkmaz, Ozgur; Ormeci, Tugrul; Sever, Cem; Kara, Adna; Mahirogulları, Mahir

    2016-03-01

    Some of the most important causes of shoulder pain are inflammation and degenerative changes in the rotator cuff (RC). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a noninvasive and safe imaging modality. MRI can be used for the evaluation of cuff tendinopathy. In this study, we evaluated the relationship between glenoid cavity depth and cuff tendinopathy and we investigated glenoid cavity depth on the pathogenesis of cuff tendinopathy. We retrospectively evaluated 215 patients who underwent MRI. Of these, 60 patients showed cuff tendinopathy (group A) and 54 patients showed no pathology (group B). Glenoid cavity depth was calculated in the coronal and transverse planes. The mean axial depth was 1.7 ± 0.9 and the mean coronal depth 3.8 ± 0.9, for group A. The mean axial depth was 3.5 ± 0.7 and the mean coronal depth 1.5 ± 0.8, for group B. There were significant differences in the axial and coronal depths between the two groups. High coronal and low axial depth of the glenoid cavity can be used to diagnose RC tendinitis.

  13. Rotator cuff disease: opinion regarding surgical criteria and likely outcome.

    PubMed

    Thorpe, Alison; Hurworth, Mark; O'Sullivan, Peter; Mitchell, Tim; Smith, Anne

    2017-04-01

    Clinical guidelines for the management of rotator cuff disease are not clear. Surgeon surveys in the USA and UK lack agreement regarding surgical indications. Physical examination tests aid surgical decision-making but also lack robust evidence. Study aims were to evaluate: Western Australian orthopaedic surgeons' perceptions about surgical indications; utility of physical examination tests; findings at surgery predictive of outcome and surgeon opinion of a successful surgical outcome. An anonymous rotator cuff survey, previously reported by the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, was emailed to all surgeons listed with the Australian Orthopaedic Association in Western Australian. Surgeons who treated patients for rotator cuff disease during the previous 12 months were invited to complete the rotator cuff survey and five additional questions were included to capture the above criteria of interest. Within a close community of surgeons based in Western Australia (n = 23) considerable heterogeneity exists in surgical decision-making criteria. A successful surgical outcome was considered to include reduced pain levels, restoration of movement and function and gains in muscle strength. Research is required to inform robust clinical practice guidelines for rotator cuff surgery. Identification of prognostic factors for successful surgical outcome is imperative. © 2017 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  14. Rotator cuff repair in spinal cord injury patients.

    PubMed

    Popowitz, Richard L; Zvijac, John E; Uribe, John W; Hechtman, Keith S; Schürhoff, Matthias R; Green, Jeremy B

    2003-01-01

    Previous studies on the treatment of rotator cuff tears in wheelchair-bound patients have concentrated on nonsurgical management. We conducted a retrospective review to determine the effectiveness of surgical repair of rotator cuff tears in spinal cord-injured patients. Five male patients with rotator cuff tears confirmed by physical examination and magnetic resonance imaging underwent rotator cuff repair. Two of eight shoulders were revisions. The patients were evaluated postoperatively with the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons Scoring System. These results were compared with preoperative functional assessment. Patients were given a subjective questionnaire to assess their overall experience. Postoperative range of motion improved in 6 of 8 shoulders. Strength was increased in 6 of 8 shoulders. Patients reported satisfaction with the results in 7 of 8 shoulders, and all 5 patients would recommend the procedure to other spinal cord injury patients. At recent follow-up, 7 of 8 shoulders returned to their preinjury level of function. Surgery for spinal cord injury patients with rotator cuff tears can improve their functional capability and autonomy while reducing their pain. Compliance with the demanding postoperative rehabilitation is essential; therefore proper patient selection is crucial for optimal results.

  15. A pilot study comparison of a new method for aortic pulse wave velocity measurements using transthoracic bioimpedance and thigh cuff oscillometry with the standard tonometric method.

    PubMed

    Brinkmann, Julia; Jordan, Jens; Tank, Jens

    2015-04-01

    Aortic pulse wave velocity (aPWV) can be measured with different methodologies, including applanation tonometry. These pilot study findings suggest that impedance cardiography combined with thigh oscillometry provides comparable results. Intra- and inter-observer variability was tested by two observers in two subjects. We instrumented 41 patients and 12 healthy normotensive controls for impedance cardiography and consecutive applanation tonometry and compared methods using the Bland-Altman method. Observer variability for the impedance-thigh cuff method (range, 3.61%-7.77%) was comparable with the tonometric method (range, 2.93%-7.37%). Comparison of the two methods based on the Bland-Altman plot revealed a good agreement between methods. The bias between impedance and tonometric measurements was -0.28 ± 0.37 m/s. Both measurements were significantly correlated (r(2) = 0.94; P < .0001; slope = 1.038).Impedance cardiography combined with thigh oscillometry is an easy to use approach which, in addition to providing hemodynamic information, yields aPWV measurements comparable to applanation tonometry. Following full validation according to current guidelines, the methodology could prove useful in cardiovascular risk stratification. Copyright © 2015 American Society of Hypertension. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Comparison of Pressure Changes by Head and Neck Position between High-Volume Low-Pressure and Taper-Shaped Cuffs: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Komasawa, Nobuyasu; Mihara, Ryosuke; Imagawa, Kentaro; Hattori, Kazuo; Minami, Toshiaki

    2015-01-01

    The present study compared changes in cuff pressure by head and neck position between high-volume low-pressure (HVLP) and taper-shaped (taper) cuffs in a prospective randomized clinical trial. Methods. Forty patients were intubated using tracheal tubes with either HVLP (n = 20; HVLP group) or taper-shaped (n = 20; Taper group) cuffs. Initial cuff pressure was adjusted to 15, 20, or 25 cmH2O in the neutral position. Cuff pressure was evaluated after changing the head and neck positions to flexion, extension, and rotation. Results. Cuff pressure significantly increased with flexion in both HVLP and Taper groups at all initial cuff pressures. It significantly increased with extension in the HVLP group, but not in the Taper group. Cuff pressure did not significantly differ with rotation in either group and was significantly smaller in the Taper group during flexion and extension than in the HVLP group, regardless of initial cuff pressure. Conclusion. Cuff pressure changes with head and neck flexion and extension were smaller in the Taper group than in the HVLP group. Our results highlight the potential for taper cuffs to prevent excessive cuff pressure increases with positional changes in the head and neck. This trial is registered with UMIN000016119.

  17. Evaluation of Repair Tension in Arthroscopic Rotator Cuff Repair: Does It Really Matter to the Integrity of the Rotator Cuff?

    PubMed

    Kim, Do Hoon; Jang, Young Hoon; Choi, Young Eun; Lee, Hwa-Ryeong; Kim, Sae Hoon

    2016-11-01

    Repair tension of a torn rotator cuff can affect healing after repair. However, a measurement of the actual tension during arthroscopic rotator cuff repair is not feasible. The relationship between repair tension and healing of a rotator cuff repair remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of repair tension on healing at the repair site. The hypothesis was that repair tension would be a major factor in determining the anatomic outcome of rotator cuff repair. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. Arthroscopic rotator cuff repairs (132 patients) for full-thickness rotator cuff tears were analyzed. An intraoperative model was designed for the estimation of repair tension using a tensiometer. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed approximately 1 year (mean [±SD], 12.7 ± 3.2 months) postoperatively for the evaluation of healing at the repair site. Multivariable analysis was performed for tear size, amount of retraction, and fatty degeneration (FD) of rotator cuff muscles. The mean repair tension measured during the arthroscopic procedure was 28.5 ± 23.1 N. There was a statistically significant correlation between tension and tear size (Pearson correlation coefficient [PCC], 0.529; P < .001), amount of retraction (PCC, 0.619; P < .001), and FD of the supraspinatus (Spearman correlation coefficient [SCC], 0.308; P < .001) and infraspinatus (SCC, 0.332; P < .001). At the final follow-up (12.7 ± 3.2 months), healing failure was observed in 18.2% (24/132), and repair tension also showed a significant inverse correlation with healing at the repair site (SCC, 0.195; P = .025). However, when sex, age, tear size, amount of retraction, tendon quality, and FD of rotator cuff muscles were included for multivariable logistic regression analysis, only FD of the infraspinatus showed an association with the anatomic outcome of repair (Exp(B) = 0.596; P = .010). Our intraoperative model for the estimation of rotator cuff repair tension showed an

  18. Tripolar-cuff deviation from ideal model: assessment by bioelectric field simulations and saline-bath experiments.

    PubMed

    Triantis, Iasonas F; Demosthenous, Andreas

    2008-06-01

    Ideally, interference in neural measurements due to signals from nearby muscles can be completely eliminated with the use of tripolar cuffs, in combination with appropriate amplifier configurations, such as the quasi-tripole (QT) and the true-tripole (TT). The operation of these amplifiers, is based on the theoretical property of the nerve cuff to produce a linear relationship of potential versus distance along its length, internally, when external potentials appear between its ends. Thus, in principle, electroneurogram (ENG) recordings from an ideal tripolar cuff would be free from electromyogram (EMG) interference generated by nearby muscles. However, in practice the cuff exhibits non-ideal behaviour leading to "cuff imbalance". The main focus of this paper is to investigate the causes of cuff imbalance, to demonstrate that it should be incorporated as a main parameter in the theoretical ENG-recording cuff electrode model. In addition to cuff asymmetry and tissue growth, the proximity of the interference source to the cuff is shown to result in cuff imbalance. The influence of proximity imbalance on the performance of the QT and TT amplifiers is also considered. Proximity imbalance is studied using bioelectric field simulations and saline-bath experiments. Variation is observed with both distance (40 mm and 70 mm was examined) and orientation (0-180 degrees), with the latter causing a more severe effect especially when the source dipole and the cuff are vertical to each other. The simulations and measurements are in close agreement. Tissue growth imbalance and asymmetry imbalance are also investigated in vitro. Finally, the signal-to-interference ratio (SIR; ENG/EMG) of the QT and TT amplifiers is examined in the presence of cuff imbalance. It is shown that proximity imbalance results in their SIR to peak only at certain cuff orientation values. This important finding offers an insight as to why in practice ENG recordings using these amplifiers have been widely

  19. Conservative treatment of rotator cuff injuries.

    PubMed

    Bytomski, Jeffrey R; Black, Douglass

    2006-01-01

    Across all ages and activity levels, rotator cuff injuries are one of the most common causes of shoulder pain. The anatomy and biomechanics of the shoulder guide the history and physical exam toward the appropriate treatment of rotator cuff injuries. Rotator cuff tears are rare under the age of 40 unless accompanied by acute trauma. Throwing athletes are prone to rotator cuff injury from various causes of impingement (subacromial, internal, or secondary) and flexibility deficits, strength deficits, or both along the kinetic chain. Most rotator cuff injuries may be treated conservatively by using regimens of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), corticosteroid injections, and functional rehabilitation therapy. Injury prevention programs are essential for the long-term care of patients with rotator cuff disease, for primary prevention, and for prevention of recurrent injuries, unless a traumatically torn rotator cuff is present. Surgical management is reserved for refractory cases that have exhausted conservative measures.

  20. Preexisting Rotator Cuff Tears as a Predictor of Outcomes in National Football League Athletes.

    PubMed

    Gibbs, Daniel B; Lynch, T Sean; Gombera, M Mustafa; Saltzman, Matthew D; Nuber, Gordon W; Schroeder, Gregory D; Labelle, Mark; Hollett, Brian P

    A preexisting rotator cuff tear may affect the draft status and career performance of National Football League (NFL) players. Preexisting rotator cuff tears decrease a player's draft status, performance, and longevity in the NFL. Retrospective cohort study. Level 3. Medical reports of prospective NFL players during the NFL Scouting Combine from 2003 to 2011 were evaluated to identify players with a previous rotator cuff tear. Athletes were matched to control draftees without documented shoulder pathology by age, position, year drafted, and round drafted. Career statistics and performance scores were calculated. Between 2003 and 2011, 2965 consecutive athletes were evaluated. Forty-nine athletes had preexisting rotator cuff tears: 22 athletes underwent surgical intervention for their tear and 27 were treated nonoperatively. Those with a rotator cuff tear were significantly less likely to be drafted than those without a previous injury (55.1% vs 77.5%, P = 0.002). The 27 drafted athletes with preexisting rotator cuff tears started significantly fewer games (23.7 vs 43.0, P = 0.02) and played significantly fewer years (4.3 vs 5.7, P = 0.04) and significantly fewer games (47.1 vs 68.4, P = 0.04) than matched control athletes without rotator cuff tears. Athletes with a preexisting rotator cuff tear were less likely to be drafted and had decreased career longevity.

  1. Local rhBMP-12 on an Absorbable Collagen Sponge as an Adjuvant Therapy for Rotator Cuff Repair-A Phase 1, Randomized, Standard of Care Control, Multicenter Study: Part 2-A Pilot Study of Functional Recovery and Structural Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Ide, Junji; Mochizuki, Yu; van Noort, Arthur; Ochi, Hiroshi; Sridharan, Sudhakar; Itoi, Eiji; Greiner, Stefan

    2017-09-01

    as adjuvant therapy in rotator cuff repair justify conducting future, larger, multicenter, prospective studies. NCT00936559, NCT01122498 (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier).

  2. What do standard radiography and clinical examination tell about the shoulder with cuff tear arthropathy?

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background This study evaluates the preoperative conventional anteroposterior radiography and clinical testing in non-operated patients with cuff tear arthropathy. It analyses the radiological findings in relation to the status of the rotator cuff and clinical status as also the clinical testing in relation to the rotator cuff quality. The aim of the study is to define the usefulness of radiography and clinical examination in cuff tear arthropathy. Methods This study analyses the preoperative radiological (AP-view, (Artro-)CT-scan or MRI-scan) and clinical characteristics (Constant-Murley-score plus active and passive mobility testing) and the peroperative findings in a cohort of 307 patients. These patients were part of a multicenter, retrospective, consecutive study of the French Orthopaedic Society (SOFCOT-2006). All patients had no surgical antecedents and were all treated with prosthetic shoulder surgery for a painful irreparable cuff tear arthropathy (reverse-(84%) or hemi-(8%) or double cup-bipolar prosthesis (8%)). Results A positive significancy could be found for the relationship between clinical testing and the rotator cuff quality; between acromiohumeral distance and posterior rotator cuff quality; between femoralization and posterior rotator cuff quality. Conclusion A conventional antero-posterior radiograph can not provide any predictive information on the clinical status of the patient. The subscapular muscle can be well tested by the press belly test and the teres minor muscle can be well tested by the hornblower' sign and by the exorotation lag signs. The upward migration index and the presence of femoralization are good indicators for the evaluation of the posterior rotator cuff. An inferior coracoid tip positioning suggests rotator cuff disease. PMID:21208449

  3. Response shift of the Western Ontario Rotator Cuff index in patients undergoing arthroscopic rotator cuff repair.

    PubMed

    Hollman, Freek; Wessel, Ronald N; Wolterbeek, Nienke

    2016-12-01

    This study determined the response shift in patients undergoing rotator cuff repair using the Western Ontario Rotator Cuff index (WORC), a disease-specific quality of life questionnaire. We hypothesized there would be a response shift with a positive recalibration (overestimated their preoperative disability) on the WORC and increases over time. The study prospectively included 36 patients undergoing arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. At baseline, 3 months (T1), and 1 year (T2) after surgery the WORC, EuroQol (EQ)-5D-3L, and the patient's level of satisfaction after surgery were scored. To evaluate the response shift, patients also completed the WORC at 3 months (Pre-T1) and 1 year (Pre-T2) as how they perceived themselves to have been before surgery. The result on Pre-T1 and Pre-T2 results revealed that patients retrospectively rated their overall WORC score comparable with the baseline WORC score (Pre-T0; T0 = 40.5 ± 18.4, Pre-T1 = 45.0 ± 22.7, Pre-T2 = 34.3 ± 21.3). No response shift was observed on all domains except a negative recalibrated response shift for emotional disability on T1 (P = .04). No significant group-level response shift was observed using the WORC, except for the subdomain emotional disability at 3 months after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. With the absence of any shift in patient's perception on the self-administered quality of life-related WORC questionnaire, this study suggests one could retrospectively reliably conduct group-level preoperative baseline information on quality of life up to 1 year after surgery. Copyright © 2016 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Rotator Cuff Strength Ratio and Injury in Glovebox Workers

    SciTech Connect

    Weaver, Amelia M.

    2014-01-30

    Rotator cuff integrity is critical to shoulder health. Due to the high workload imposed upon the shoulder while working in an industrial glovebox, this study investigated the strength ratio of the rotator cuff muscles in glovebox workers and compared this ratio to the healthy norm. Descriptive statistics were collected using a short questionnaire. Handheld dynamometry was used to quantify the ratio of forces produced in the motions of shoulder internal and external rotation. Results showed this population to have shoulder strength ratios that were significantly different from the healthy norm. The deviation from the normal ratio demonstrates the need for solutions designed to reduce the workload on the rotator cuff musculature of glovebox workers in order to improve health and safety. Assessment of strength ratios can be used to screen for risk of symptom development.

  5. Risk Factors, Pathobiomechanics and Physical Examination of Rotator Cuff Tears

    PubMed Central

    Moulton, Samuel G.; Greenspoon, Joshua A.; Millett, Peter J.; Petri, Maximilian

    2016-01-01

    Background: It is important to appreciate the risk factors for the development of rotator cuff tears and specific physical examination maneuvers. Methods: A selective literature search was performed. Results: Numerous well-designed studies have demonstrated that common risk factors include age, occupation, and anatomic considerations such as the critical shoulder angle. Recently, research has also reported a genetic component as well. The rotator cuff axially compresses the humeral head in the glenohumeral joint and provides rotational motion and abduction. Forces are grouped into coronal and axial force couples. Rotator cuff tears are thought to occur when the force couples become imbalanced. Conclusion: Physical examination is essential to determining whether a patient has an anterosuperior or posterosuperior tear. Diagnostic accuracy increases when combining a series of examination maneuvers. PMID:27708731

  6. Macroscopic and histologic evaluation of a rat model of chronic rotator cuff tear.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Eiko; Ochiai, Nobuyasu; Kenmoku, Tomonori; Sasaki, Yu; Yamaguchi, Takeshi; Kijima, Takehiro; Sasaki, Yasuhito; Ohtori, Seiji; Takahashi, Kazuhisa

    2016-12-01

    The major cause of rotator cuff tears in humans is thought to be tendon degeneration. Although some studies have reported chronic rotator cuff tear models in animals, few studies of chronic rat models have demonstrated persistent defects for a relatively long time. The purpose of this study was to establish a chronic rotator cuff tear model in the rat and to evaluate the model macroscopically and histologically. Sixty Sprague Dawley rats were divided into 2 groups: tendon detachment only (tear group) and tendon detachment plus figure resin (chronic group). The contralateral shoulder served as a sham-operated control (sham group). In the tear group, the supraspinatus and infraspinatus tendons were completely detached. In addition to cuff detachment, figure resin was placed on the greater tuberosity to prevent cuff reattachment and scar formation in the chronic group. Macroscopic and histologic changes were assessed at 4 and 12 weeks after surgery. A full-thickness cuff defect was observed in all chronic-group rats at both 4 and 12 weeks after surgery, and it could be repaired secondarily by traction in lower tension. However, no cuff defects were observed in the tear group because of obvious scar tissue formation. On histologic evaluation, progressive tendon degeneration, muscle atrophy, and fatty infiltration were observed in the chronic model at 12 weeks after surgery. We established a rat model of chronic rotator cuff tears using figure resin. This chronic rotator cuff tear model might be useful for further clinical investigations of rotator cuff repair. Copyright © 2016 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The effect of lidocaine jelly on a taper-shaped cuff of an endotracheal tube on the postoperative sore throat: a prospective randomized study: A CONSORT compliant article.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jiwon; Lee, Yong-Cheol; Son, Je-Do; Lee, Jae-Yoon; Kim, Hyun-Chang

    2017-09-01

    Postoperative sore throat (POST) following general anesthesia with endotracheal intubation is a common complication. We hypothesized that lidocaine jelly applied to the tapered cuff of the endotracheal tube (ETT) might decrease the incidence of POST most commonly arising from endotracheal intubation. A total of 208 patients under general anesthesia were randomly assigned into 1 of 2 groups. In the lidocaine group (n = 104), the distal part of ETTs with tapered-shaped cuff was lubricated with lidocaine jelly. In the control group (n = 104), the distal part of ETTs with tapered-shaped cuff was lubricated with normal saline. The incidence of POST, hoarseness, and cough in the postanesthesia patients was compared. The overall incidence of POST was higher in the lidocaine group than in the normal saline group [60 (58%) vs 40 (39%), P = .006]. The incidence of POST at 1 hour postoperatively was higher in the lidocaine group than in the normal saline group [53 (51%) vs 32 (31%), P = .003]. The overall incidence of hoarseness for 24 hours postoperatively was comparable (P = .487). The overall incidence of cough for 24 hours postoperatively is higher in the lidocaine group (P = .045). The lidocaine jelly applied at the distal part of ETT with tapered-shaped cuff increased the overall incidence of POST in patients undergoing general anesthesia.

  8. The effect of lidocaine jelly on a taper-shaped cuff of an endotracheal tube on the postoperative sore throat: a prospective randomized study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jiwon; Lee, Yong-Cheol; Son, Je-Do; Lee, Jae-Yoon; Kim, Hyun-Chang

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: Postoperative sore throat (POST) following general anesthesia with endotracheal intubation is a common complication. We hypothesized that lidocaine jelly applied to the tapered cuff of the endotracheal tube (ETT) might decrease the incidence of POST most commonly arising from endotracheal intubation. Methods: A total of 208 patients under general anesthesia were randomly assigned into 1 of 2 groups. In the lidocaine group (n = 104), the distal part of ETTs with tapered-shaped cuff was lubricated with lidocaine jelly. In the control group (n = 104), the distal part of ETTs with tapered-shaped cuff was lubricated with normal saline. The incidence of POST, hoarseness, and cough in the postanesthesia patients was compared. Results: The overall incidence of POST was higher in the lidocaine group than in the normal saline group [60 (58%) vs 40 (39%), P = .006]. The incidence of POST at 1 hour postoperatively was higher in the lidocaine group than in the normal saline group [53 (51%) vs 32 (31%), P = .003]. The overall incidence of hoarseness for 24 hours postoperatively was comparable (P = .487). The overall incidence of cough for 24 hours postoperatively is higher in the lidocaine group (P = .045). Conclusion: The lidocaine jelly applied at the distal part of ETT with tapered-shaped cuff increased the overall incidence of POST in patients undergoing general anesthesia. PMID:28906414

  9. Neovascularization prevalence in the supraspinatus of patients with rotator cuff tendinopathy.

    PubMed

    Kardouni, Joseph R; Seitz, Amee L; Walsworth, Matthew K; Michener, Lori A

    2013-11-01

    A high prevalence of neovascularity in lower extremity tendinopathies has been reported. Neovascularity in those with rotator cuff tendinopathy exclusively has not been examined. The objective was to determine the prevalence of neovascularization in patients with rotator cuff tendinopathy compared with asymptomatic controls. Single-blind cross-sectional study. Research laboratory. Participants (n = 40; age = 44.9 years, 23-62 years; 20 females) with rotator cuff tendinopathy (n = 20) but without full-thickness rotator cuff tears, and asymptomatic controls that were age, gender, and hand dominance matched (n = 20) to the patients. The participants laying in supine had their shoulder positioned in internal rotation and extension. Ultrasound images were collected of the supraspinatus tendon and subacromial bursae in the transverse and longitudinal planes using a linear transducer in color Doppler mode. Images were assessed for neovascularization by 2 trained raters who were blinded to group (rotator cuff tendinopathy or asymptomatic group). No statistically significant difference in neovascularization was identified between participants with and without rotator cuff tendinopathy (χ = 0.13, df = 1, P = 0.72). Neovascularization was identified in 6 of 20 patients with rotator cuff tendinopathy (30%) and 5 of 20 asymptomatic control participants (25%). The authors found no differences in neovascularization rate in patients with rotator cuff tendinopathy (30%) and asymptomatic controls (25%). The study indicates that neovascularization is not related to presence of symptomatic tendinopathy in those with rotator cuff tendinopathy. Neovascularization may not be a relevant sonographic finding to aid the clinical assessment of those with rotator cuff tendinopathy.

  10. Detection of endobronchial intubation by monitoring the CO2 level above the endotracheal cuff.

    PubMed

    Efrati, Shai; Deutsch, Israel; Weksler, Nathan; Gurman, Gabriel M

    2015-02-01

    Early detection of accidental endobronchial intubation (EBI) is still an unsolved problem in anesthesia and critical care daily practice. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of monitoring above cuff CO2 to detect EBI (the working hypothesis was that the origin of CO2 is from the unventilated, but still perfused, lung). Six goats were intubated under general anesthesia and the ETT positioning was verified by a flexible bronchoscope. The AnapnoGuard system, already successfully used to detect air leak around the ETT cuff, was used for continuous monitoring of above-the-cuff CO2 level. When the ETT distal tip was located in the trachea, with an average cuff pressure of 15 mmHg, absence of CO2 above the cuff was observed. The ETT was then deliberately advanced into one of the main bronchi under flexible bronchoscopic vision. In all six cases the immediate presence of CO2 above the cuff was identified. Further automatic inflation of the cuff, up to a level of 27 mmHg, did not affect the above-the-cuff measured CO2 level. Withdrawal of the ETT and repositioning of its distal tip in mid-trachea caused the disappearance of CO2 above the cuff in a maximum of 3 min, confirming the absence of air leak and the correct positioning of the ETT. Our results suggest that measurement of the above-the-cuff CO2 level could offer a reliable, on-line solution for early identification of accidental EBI. Further studies are planned to validate the efficacy of the method in a clinical setup.

  11. Risk Factors for Infection After Rotator Cuff Repair.

    PubMed

    Vopat, Bryan G; Lee, Bea J; DeStefano, Sherilyn; Waryasz, Gregory R; Kane, Patrick M; Gallacher, Stacey E; Fava, Joseph; Green, Andrew G

    2016-03-01

    To identify risk factors for infection after rotator cuff repair. We hypothesized that patient characteristics and surgical technique would affect the rate of infection. The records of 1,824 rotator cuff repairs performed by a single surgeon from 1995 to 2010 were reviewed retrospectively. Fourteen patients had an early deep postoperative wound infection that was treated with surgical irrigation and debridement. One hundred eighty-five control patients who were treated with rotator cuff repair and did not develop an infection were selected randomly for comparison and statistical analysis. Data regarding preoperative and intraoperative risk factors for infection were recorded, and a multiple logistic regression was conducted to investigate predictors of infection. The infection rate was 0.77% (14/1,822). On average 2.1 (range 1 to 4) surgical debridements were performed in addition to treatment with intravenous antibiotics. Patients who had open or miniopen rotator cuff repair had a significantly greater risk of acute postoperative infection (odds ratio [OR] = 8.63, P = .002). Seventy-nine percent of the patients in the infection group had an open or miniopen repair, whereas only 28% of the control group had an open or miniopen repair. Male patients also had a significantly greater risk of acute postoperative infection (OR = 9.52, P = .042). A total of 92% of the infection patients were male compared with 58% of the control group. In addition, as body mass index increased there was a reduction in the odds of infection (OR = 0.81, P = .023). The results of this case control study demonstrate that open or miniopen surgical technique and male sex are significant risk factors for infection after rotator cuff repair. In our study, arthroscopic rotator cuff repair reduced the risk of infection compared with open techniques. Level IV. Copyright © 2016 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Decision-making in massive rotator cuff tear.

    PubMed

    Thès, André; Hardy, Philippe; Bak, Klaus

    2015-02-01

    Treatment of massive rotator cuff tears has developed over many years ranging from conservative treatment to open and arthroscopic repair, muscle transfers and reversed arthroplasty. The evolution of more advanced techniques in arthroscopic repair has changed the treatment approach and improved the prognosis for functional outcome despite low healing rates. Due to this rapid development, our evidence-based knowledge today is mainly founded in Level 3 and Level 4 studies. Based on the literature, the current knowledge on treatment of symptomatic massive rotator cuff tears is proposed in an algorithm. Level of evidence V.

  13. Arthroscopic Rotator Cuff Repair: Indication and Technique.

    PubMed

    Gilotra, Mohit; O'Brien, Michael J; Savoie, Felix H

    2016-01-01

    Shoulder arthroscopy and rotator cuff repair techniques are frequently used by most practicing orthopaedic surgeons. A thorough patient history and physical examination can often confirm the presence of a rotator cuff tear, and imaging can be used to evaluate the extent of the injury. The indication for rotator cuff repair is a painful shoulder refractory to nonsurgical management. Arthroscopic techniques, including capsular and coracohumeral ligament releases to decrease tension on the repair, facilitate successful rotator cuff repair. Biomechanically, a double-row transosseous-equivalent rotator cuff repair provides excellent results for medium-size rotator cuff tears. Larger, retracted rotator cuff tears may be better repaired with oblique convergence sutures and a medial single-row rotator cuff repair. The biology of healing, the preservation of blood supply, and the trephination of the bony healing bed are essential parts of all rotator cuff repair procedures. Protection of the rotator cuff repair with an abduction sling for 4 to 8 weeks postoperatively and the delay of active motion until early healing has occurred will improve outcomes.

  14. Impact of laryngeal mask airway cuff pressures on the incidence of sore throat in children.

    PubMed

    Wong, Justin Gin Leong; Heaney, Mairead; Chambers, Neil A; Erb, Thomas O; von Ungern-Sternberg, Britta S

    2009-05-01

    Hyperinflation of laryngeal mask airway cuffs can cause harm to the upper airway mainly by exerting high pressures on pharyngeal and laryngeal structures thus impairing mucosal perfusion. Although cuff manometers can be used to guide the monitoring of cuff pressures, their use is not routine in many institutions. In a prospective audit, we assessed the incidence of sore throat following day-case-surgery in relation to the intracuff pressure within the laryngeal mask airway. Four hundred children (3-21 years) were consecutively included in this study. The laryngeal mask airway was inflated as deemed necessary by the attending anesthetist. Cuff pressures were measured using a calibrated cuff manometer (Portex Limited, Hythe, Kent, UK, 0-120 cm H2O, pressures exceeding the measurement range were set at 140 cm H2O for statistical purposes) at induction of anesthesia. Forty-five children (11.25%) developed sore throat, 32 (8%) sore neck and 17 (4.25%) sore jaw. Of those that developed sore throat, 56.5% had cuff pressures exceeding >100 cm H2O. In contrast, when cuff pressures were <40 cm H2O, there were no episodes of sore throat, whilst there was only a 4.6% occurrence of sore throat if cuff pressures were between 40-60 cm H2O. We have demonstrated that intra cuff pressure in laryngeal mask airways is closely related to the development of sore throat with higher pressures increasing its likelihood. Hence, cuff pressures should be measured routinely using a manometer to minimize the incidence of sore throat.

  15. Effects of asymptomatic rotator cuff pathology on in vivo shoulder motion and clinical outcomes.

    PubMed

    Baumer, Timothy G; Dischler, Jack; Mende, Veronica; Zauel, Roger; van Holsbeeck, Marnix; Siegal, Daniel S; Divine, George; Moutzouros, Vasilios; Bey, Michael J

    2017-06-01

    The incidence of asymptomatic rotator cuff tears has been reported to range from 15% to 39%, but the influence of asymptomatic rotator cuff pathology on shoulder function is not well understood. This study assessed the effects of asymptomatic rotator cuff pathology on shoulder kinematics, strength, and patient-reported outcomes. A clinical ultrasound examination was performed in 46 asymptomatic volunteers (age: 60.3 ± 7.5 years) with normal shoulder function to document the condition of their rotator cuff. The ultrasound imaging identified the participants as healthy (n = 14) or pathologic (n = 32). Shoulder motion was measured with a biplane x-ray imaging system, strength was assessed with a Biodex (Biodex Medical Systems, Inc., Shirley, NY, USA), and patient-reported outcomes were assessed using the Western Ontario Rotator Cuff Index and visual analog scale pain scores. Compared with healthy volunteers, those with rotator cuff pathology had significantly less abduction (P = .050) and elevation (P = .041) strength, their humerus was positioned more inferiorly on the glenoid (P = .018), and the glenohumeral contact path length was longer (P = .007). No significant differences were detected in the Western Ontario Rotator Cuff Index, visual analog scale, range of motion, or acromiohumeral distance. The differences observed between the healthy volunteers and those with asymptomatic rotator cuff pathology lend insight into the changes in joint mechanics, shoulder strength, and conventional clinical outcomes associated with the early stages of rotator cuff pathology. Furthermore, these findings suggest a plausible mechanical progression of kinematic and strength changes associated with the development of rotator cuff pathology. Copyright © 2016 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Establishing Maximal Medical Improvement After Arthroscopic Rotator Cuff Repair.

    PubMed

    Zuke, William A; Leroux, Timothy S; Gregory, Bonnie P; Black, Austin; Forsythe, Brian; Romeo, Anthony A; Verma, Nikhil N

    2017-06-01

    As health care transitions from a pay-for-service to a pay-for-performance infrastructure, the value of orthopaedic care must be defined accurately. Significant efforts have been made in defining quality and cost in arthroplasty; however, there remains a lag in ambulatory orthopaedic care. Two-year follow-up has been a general requirement for reporting outcomes after rotator cuff repair. However, this time requirement has not been established scientifically and is of increasing importance in the era of value-based health care. Given that arthroscopic rotator cuff repair is a common ambulatory orthopaedic procedure, the purpose of this study was to establish a time frame for maximal medical improvement (the state when improvement has stabilized) after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. Systematic review. A systematic review of the literature was conducted, identifying studies reporting sequential patient-reported outcomes up to a minimum of 2 years after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. The primary clinical outcome was patient-reported outcomes at 3-month, 6-month, 1-year, and 2-year follow-up. Secondary clinical outcomes included range of motion, strength, retears, and complications. Clinically significant improvement was determined between various time intervals by use of the minimal clinically important difference. The review included 19 studies including 1370 patients who underwent rotator cuff repair. Clinically significant improvement in patient-reported outcomes was seen up to 1 year after rotator cuff repair, but no clinical significance was noted from 1 year to 2 years. The majority of improvement in strength and range of motion was seen up to 6 months, but no clinically meaningful improvement was seen thereafter. All reported complications and the majority of retears occurred within 6 months after rotator cuff repair. After rotator cuff repair, a clinically significant improvement in patient-reported outcomes, range of motion, and strength was seen up to 1

  17. Perivascular fluid cuffs decrease lung compliance by increasing tissue resistance

    PubMed Central

    Lowe, Kevin; Alvarez, Diego F.; King, Judy A.; Stevens, Troy

    2010-01-01

    Objective Lung inflammation causes perivascular fluid cuffs to form around extra-alveolar blood vessels; however, the physiologic consequences of such cuffs remain poorly understood. Herein, we tested the hypothesis that perivascular fluid cuffs, without concomitant alveolar edema, are sufficient to decrease lung compliance. Design Prospective, randomized, controlled study. Setting Research laboratory. Subjects One hundred twenty male CD40 rats. Interventions To test this hypothesis, the plant alkaloid thapsigargin was used to activate store-operated calcium entry and increase cytosolic calcium in endothelium. Thapsigargin was infused into a central venous catheter of intact, sedated, and mechanically ventilated rats. Measurements Static and dynamic lung mechanics and hemodynamics were measured continuously. Main Results Thapsigargin produced perivascular fluid cuffs along extra-alveolar vessels but did not cause alveolar flooding or blood gas abnormalities. Lung compliance dose-dependently decreased after thapsigargin infusion, attributable to an increase in tissue resistance that was attributed to increased tissue damping and tissue elastance. Airway resistance was not changed. Neither central venous pressure nor left ventricular end diastolic pressure was altered by thapsigargin. Heart rate did not change, although thapsigargin decreased pressure over time sufficient to reduce cardiac output by 50%. Infusion of the type 4 phosphodiesterase inhibitor, rolipram, prevented thapsigargin from inducing perivascular cuffs and decreasing lung compliance. Rolipram also normalized pressure over time and corrected the deficit in cardiac output. Conclusions Our findings resolve for the first time that perivascular cuff formation negatively impacts mechanical coupling between the bronchovascular bundle and the lung parenchyma, decreasing lung compliance without impacting central venous pressure. PMID:20400904

  18. Arthroscopic rotator cuff repair in the weight-bearing shoulder.

    PubMed

    Kerr, Jacek; Borbas, Paul; Meyer, Dominik C; Gerber, Christian; Buitrago Téllez, Carlos; Wieser, Karl

    2015-12-01

    In wheelchair-dependent individuals, pain often develops because of rotator cuff tendon failure and/or osteoarthritis of the glenohumeral joint. The purposes of this study were to investigate (1) specific rotator cuff tear patterns, (2) structural healing, and (3) clinical outcomes after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair in a cohort of wheelchair-dependent patients. Forty-six shoulders with a mean follow-up of 46 months (range, 24-82 months; SD, 13 months) from a consecutive series of 61 shoulders in 56 patients (46 men and 10 women) undergoing arthroscopic rotator cuff repair were available for analysis. Clinical outcome analysis was performed using the Constant-Murley score, the Subjective Shoulder Value, and the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons score. The integrity of the repair was analyzed by ultrasound. Of the shoulders, 87% had supraspinatus involvement, 70% had subscapularis involvement, and 57% had an anterosuperior lesion involving both the supraspinatus and subscapularis. Despite an overall structural failure rate of 33%, the patients showed improvements in the Constant-Murley score from 50 points (range, 22-86 points; SD, 16 points) preoperatively to 80 points (range, 40-98 points; SD, 12 points) postoperatively and in the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons score from 56 points (range, 20-92 points; SD, 20 points) preoperatively to 92 points (range, 53-100 points; SD, 10 points) postoperatively, with a mean postoperative Subjective Shoulder Value of 84% (range, 25%-100%; SD, 17%). Failure of the rotator cuff in weight-bearing shoulders occurs primarily anterosuperiorly. Arthroscopic rotator cuff repair leads to a structural failure rate of 33% but satisfactory functional results with high patient satisfaction at midterm follow-up. Copyright © 2015 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Rotator cuff tendon connections with the rotator cable.

    PubMed

    Rahu, Madis; Kolts, Ivo; Põldoja, Elle; Kask, Kristo

    2017-07-01

    The literature currently contains no descriptions of the rotator cuff tendons, which also describes in relation to the presence and characteristics of the rotator cable (anatomically known as the ligamentum semicirculare humeri). The aim of the current study was to elucidate the detailed anatomy of the rotator cuff tendons in association with the rotator cable. Anatomic dissection was performed on 21 fresh-frozen shoulder specimens with an average age of 68 years. The rotator cuff tendons were dissected from each other and from the glenohumeral joint capsule, and the superior glenohumeral, coracohumeral, coracoglenoidal and semicircular (rotator cable) ligaments were dissected. Dissection was performed layer by layer and from the bursal side to the joint. All ligaments and tendons were dissected in fine detail. The rotator cable was found in all specimens. It was tightly connected to the supraspinatus (SSP) tendon, which was partly covered by the infraspinatus (ISP) tendon. The posterior insertion area of the rotator cable was located in the region between the middle and inferior facets of the greater tubercle of the humerus insertion areas for the teres minor (TM), and ISP tendons were also present and fibres from the SSP extended through the rotator cable to those areas. The connection between the rotator cable and rotator cuff tendons is tight and confirms the suspension bridge theory for rotator cuff tears in most areas between the SSP tendons and rotator cable. In its posterior insertion area, the rotator cable is a connecting structure between the TM, ISP and SSP tendons. These findings might explain why some patients with relatively large rotator cuff tears can maintain seamless shoulder function.

  20. Functional outcomes after bilateral arthroscopic rotator cuff repair.

    PubMed

    Aleem, Alexander W; Syed, Usman Ali M; Wascher, Jocelyn; Zoga, Adam C; Close, Koby; Abboud, Joseph A; Cohen, Steven B

    2016-10-01

    Arthroscopic repair of rotator cuff tears is a common procedure performed by orthopedic surgeons. There is a well-known incidence of up to 35% of bilateral rotator cuff tear disease in patients who have a known unilateral tear. The majority of the literature focuses on outcomes after unilateral surgery. The purpose of this study was to determine if there are clinical differences in shoulders of patients who underwent staged bilateral rotator cuff repairs during their lifetime. A retrospective review of all patients who underwent staged bilateral arthroscopic rotator cuff surgery at our institution was performed. All patients had at least 2 years of follow-up. Clinical outcome scores including the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES), Single Assessment Numeric Evaluation, and Rowe measures were obtained. A subset of patients returned for clinical and ultrasound evaluation performed by an independent fellowship-trained musculoskeletal radiologist. Overall, 110 shoulders in 55 patients, representing 68% of all eligible patients, participated. No clinical or statistical difference was found in any outcome measure. ASES scores averaged 86.5 (36.7-100) in the dominant shoulder compared with 89.6 (23.3-100) in the nondominant shoulder (P = .42). Ultrasound was available on 34 shoulders and showed complete healing rate of 88%. The shoulders with retearing of the rotator cuff (12%) demonstrated clinically relevant lower ASES scores (72.5) compared with shoulders with confirmed healed repairs (86.2; P = .2). Patients who undergo staged bilateral rotator cuff repair can expect to have similarly good clinical outcomes regardless of hand dominance or chronologic incidence with excellent healing rates in both shoulders. Copyright © 2016 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Rotator cuff tear and sarcopenia: are these related?

    PubMed

    Chung, Seok Won; Yoon, Jong Pil; Oh, Kyung-Soo; Kim, Hyung Sup; Kim, Young Gun; Lee, Hyun-Joo; Jeong, Won-Ju; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Lee, Jong Soo; Yoon, Jee Wook

    2016-09-01

    Sarcopenia is the loss of muscle mass and consequent loss of muscle function with aging. Its prevalence among the general population is 12% to 30% in those aged >60 years. We evaluated (1) the difference in the prevalence of sarcopenia between patients with rotator cuff tear and controls and (2) the sarcopenia severity according to the size of the rotator cuff tear. Group 1 included 48 consecutive patients with chronic symptomatic full-thickness rotator cuff tears (mean age, 60.1 ± 6.5 years; range, 46-76 years), and group 2 included 48 age- and sex-matched patients. The sarcopenic index was evaluated by using the grip strength of the asymptomatic contralateral side and the skeletal muscle mass. No significant differences were found in the baseline data and demographic factors between the groups. The sarcopenic index was significantly inferior in the rotator cuff tear group than in the age- and sex-matched control groups (P = .041, .007, and .05, respectively). Patients with large to massive tears had a significantly inferior sarcopenic index than those with small and medium tears. The results showed that sarcopenia was more severe in patients with a chronic symptomatic full-thickness rotator cuff tear than in the age- and sex-matched control population and was correlated with the size of the tear, with the numbers available. Despite the individual variance in the underlying medical condition and physical activities, this study suggests that clinicians should consider the sarcopenic condition of patients with a rotator cuff tear, especially in elderly patients with large to massive tears. Copyright © 2016 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. CURRENT CONCEPTS ON THE GENETIC FACTORS IN ROTATOR CUFF PATHOLOGY AND FUTURE IMPLICATIONS FOR SPORTS PHYSICAL THERAPISTS

    PubMed Central

    Paré, Jessica; Froehlich, John E

    2017-01-01

    Context Recent advances within the field of genetics are currently changing many of the methodologies in which medicine is practiced. These advances are also beginning to influence the manner in which physical therapy services are rendered. Rotator cuff pathology is one of the most common diagnoses treated by the sports physical therapist. The purpose of this commentary is to educate sports physical therapists on the recent advances regarding how genetics influences rotator cuff pathology, including rotator cuff tears, and provide a perspective on how this information will likely influence post-operative shoulder rehabilitation in the near future. Evidence Acquisition A comprehensive review of the literature was completed using the Medline database along with individual searches of relevant physical therapy, surgical, cell biology, and sports medicine journals. Search terms included: shoulder, rotator cuff pathology, genetics, apoptosis, and physical therapy. Search results were compiled and evaluated; relevant primary studies and review articles were gathered; the results from this comprehensive review are summarized here. Study Design Clinical Commentary, Review of the Literature Results Recent advances within the understanding of rotator cuff pathology have further elucidated the cellular and molecular mechanisms associated with rotator cuff tears. There appears to be a hypoxic-induced apoptotic cellular pathway that contributes to rotator cuff tears. Activation of specific proteins termed matrix metalloproteinases appear to be involved in not only primary rotator cuff tears, but also may influence the re-tear rate after surgical intervention. Further advancements in the understanding of the cellular mechanisms contributing to rotator cuff tears and postoperative techniques to help prevent re-tears, may soon influence the methodology in which physical therapy services are provided to patients sustaining a rotator cuff injury. Conclusions At this time continued

  3. Medialized repair for retracted rotator cuff tears.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Kyu; Jung, Kyu-Hak; Won, Jun-Sung; Cho, Seung-Hyun

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the functional outcomes of medialized rotator cuff repair and the continuity of repaired tendon in chronic retracted rotator cuff tears. Thirty-five consecutive patients were selected from 153 cases that underwent arthroscopic rotator cuff repair for more than medium-sized posterosuperior rotator cuff tears between July 2009 and July 2012 performed with the medialized repair. All cases were available for at least 2 years of postoperative follow-up. The visual analog scale of pain, muscle strength, Constant score, American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) score, and University of California-Los Angeles score were evaluated. At the final follow-up, all clinical outcomes were significantly improved. The visual analog scale score for pain improved from 6 ± 1 preoperatively to 2 ± 1 postoperatively. The range of motion increased from preoperatively to postoperatively: active forward elevation, from 134° ± 49° to 150° ± 16°; active external rotation at the side, from 47° ± 15° to 55° ± 10°; and active internal rotation, from L3 to L1. The shoulder score also improved: Constant score, from 53.5 ± 16.7 to 79 ± 10; American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons score, from 51 ± 15 to 82 ± 8; and University of California-Los Angeles score, from 14 ± 4 to 28 ± 4. The retear cases at the final follow-up were 6 (17%). Medialized repair may be useful in cases in which anatomic bone-to-tendon repair would be difficult because of the excessive tension of the repaired tendon and a torn tendon that does not reach the anatomic insertion. Copyright © 2016 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. CURRENT CONCEPTS ON THE GENETIC FACTORS IN ROTATOR CUFF PATHOLOGY AND FUTURE IMPLICATIONS FOR SPORTS PHYSICAL THERAPISTS.

    PubMed

    Orth, Travis; Paré, Jessica; Froehlich, John E

    2017-04-01

    Recent advances within the field of genetics are currently changing many of the methodologies in which medicine is practiced. These advances are also beginning to influence the manner in which physical therapy services are rendered. Rotator cuff pathology is one of the most common diagnoses treated by the sports physical therapist. The purpose of this commentary is to educate sports physical therapists on the recent advances regarding how genetics influences rotator cuff pathology, including rotator cuff tears, and provide a perspective on how this information will likely influence post-operative shoulder rehabilitation in the near future. A comprehensive review of the literature was completed using the Medline database along with individual searches of relevant physical therapy, surgical, cell biology, and sports medicine journals. Search terms included: shoulder, rotator cuff pathology, genetics, apoptosis, and physical therapy. Search results were compiled and evaluated; relevant primary studies and review articles were gathered; the results from this comprehensive review are summarized here. Clinical Commentary, Review of the Literature. Recent advances within the understanding of rotator cuff pathology have further elucidated the cellular and molecular mechanisms associated with rotator cuff tears. There appears to be a hypoxic-induced apoptotic cellular pathway that contributes to rotator cuff tears. Activation of specific proteins termed matrix metalloproteinases appear to be involved in not only primary rotator cuff tears, but also may influence the re-tear rate after surgical intervention. Further advancements in the understanding of the cellular mechanisms contributing to rotator cuff tears and postoperative techniques to help prevent re-tears, may soon influence the methodology in which physical therapy services are provided to patients sustaining a rotator cuff injury. At this time continued research is required to more fully develop a comprehensive

  5. THE EFFECT OF TEAR SIZE AND NERVE INJURY ON ROTATOR CUFF MUSCLE FATTY DEGENERATION IN A RODENT ANIMAL MODEL

    PubMed Central

    Kim, H. Mike; Galatz, Leesa M.; Lim, Chanteak; Havlioglu, Necat; Thomopoulos, Stavros

    2011-01-01

    Background Irreversible muscle changes following rotator cuff tears is a well-known negative prognostic factor after shoulder surgery. Currently, little is known about the pathomechanism of fatty degeneration of the rotator cuff muscles after chronic cuff tears. Hypothesis/Purpose The purposes of this study were: 1) to develop a rodent animal model of chronic rotator cuff tears that can reproduce fatty degeneration of the cuff muscles seen clinically, 2) to describe the effects of tear size and concomitant nerve injury on muscle degeneration, and 3) to evaluate the changes in gene expression of relevant myogenic and adipogenic factors following rotator cuff tears using the animal model. Methods Rotator cuff tears were created in rodents with and without transection of the suprascapular nerve. The supraspinatus and infraspinatus muscles were examined 2, 8, and 16 weeks after injury for histological evidence of fatty degeneration and expression of myogenic and adipogenic genes. Results Histological analysis revealed adipocytes, intramuscular fat globules, and intramyocellular fat droplets in the tenotomized and neurotomized supraspinatus and infraspinatus muscles. Changes increased with time and were most severe in the muscles with combined tenotomy and neurotomy. Adipogenic and myogenic transcription factors and markers were upregulated in muscles treated with tenotomy or tenotomy combined with neurotomy compared to normal muscles. Conclusions The present study describes a rodent animal model that produces fatty degeneration of the rotator cuff muscles similar to human muscles after chronic cuff tears. The severity of changes was associated with tear size and concomitant nerve injury. PMID:21831663

  6. Evaluation and treatment of rotator cuff tears.

    PubMed

    Lansdown, Drew A; Feeley, Brian T

    2012-05-01

    Rotator cuff injuries are common problems and a frequent reason for patients to present to primary care physicians. These injuries are seen more frequently now with the aging population. These muscles allow for movement of the arm in overhead activities and controlled movements through space. A thorough physical examination can lead to the diagnosis of rotator cuff pathology. Radiographic imaging may offer some insight into the underlying pathology, and magnetic resonance imaging provides for excellent visualization of the rotator cuff. Many rotator cuff tears, especially partial tears, will symptomatically improve with conservative management. Surgical treatment may offer improved pain relief and function in those patients for whom nonoperative care is insufficient. In cases in which rotator cuff repair is not possible, the reverse total shoulder arthroplasty is a possibility. New technologies are also under investigation that allow for biological augmentation of rotator cuff tears.

  7. Effect of tracheal suctioning on aspiration past the tracheal tube cuff in mechanically ventilated patients

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background This clinical study evaluated the effect of a suctioning maneuver on aspiration past the cuff during mechanical ventilation. Methods Patients intubated for less than 48 hours with a PVC-cuffed tracheal tube, under mechanical ventilation with a PEEP ≥5 cm H2O and under continuous sedation, were included in the study. At baseline the cuff pressure was set at 30 cm H2O. Then 0.5ml of blue dye diluted with 3 ml of saline was instilled into the subglottic space just above the cuff. Tracheal suctioning was performed using a 16-French suction catheter with a suction pressure of – 400 mbar. A fiberoptic bronchoscopy was performed before and after the suctioning maneuver, looking for the presence of blue dye in the folds within the cuff wall or in the trachea under the cuff. The sealing of the cuff was defined by the absence of leakage of blue dye either in the cuff wall or in the trachea under the cuff. Results Twenty-five patients were included. The size of the tracheal tube was 7-mm ID for 5 patients, 7.5-mm ID for 16 patients, and 8-mm ID for four patients. Blue dye was never seen in the trachea under the cuff before suctioning and only in one patient (4%) after the suctioning maneuver. Blue dye was observed in the folds within the cuff wall in 6 of 25 patients before suctioning and 11 of 25 after (p = 0.063). Overall, the incidence of sealing of the cuff was 76% before suctioning and 56% after (p = 0.073). Conclusions In patients intubated with a PVC-cuffed tracheal tube and under mechanical ventilation with PEEP ≥5 cm H2O and a cuff pressure set at 30 cm H2O, a single tracheal suctioning maneuver did not increase the risk of aspiration in the trachea under the cuff. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01170156 PMID:23134813

  8. The science of rotator cuff tears: translating animal models to clinical recommendations using simulation analysis.

    PubMed

    Mannava, Sandeep; Plate, Johannes F; Tuohy, Christopher J; Seyler, Thorsten M; Whitlock, Patrick W; Curl, Walton W; Smith, Thomas L; Saul, Katherine R

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this article is to review basic science studies using various animal models for rotator cuff research and to describe structural, biomechanical, and functional changes to muscle following rotator cuff tears. The use of computational simulations to translate the findings from animal models to human scale is further detailed. A comprehensive review was performed of the basic science literature describing the use of animal models and simulation analysis to examine muscle function following rotator cuff injury and repair in the ageing population. The findings from various studies of rotator cuff pathology emphasize the importance of preventing permanent muscular changes with detrimental results. In vivo muscle function, electromyography, and passive muscle-tendon unit properties were studied before and after supraspinatus tenotomy in a rodent rotator cuff injury model (acute vs chronic). Then, a series of simulation experiments were conducted using a validated computational human musculoskeletal shoulder model to assess both passive and active tension of rotator cuff repairs based on surgical positioning. Outcomes of rotator cuff repair may be improved by earlier surgical intervention, with lower surgical repair tensions and fewer electromyographic neuromuscular changes. An integrated approach of animal experiments, computer simulation analyses, and clinical studies may allow us to gain a fundamental understanding of the underlying pathology and interpret the results for clinical translation.

  9. The Role of Acromioplasty for Management of Rotator Cuff Problems: Where Is the Evidence?

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Lewis L.; Edwards, T. Bradley

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of acromioplasty has increased dramatically in recent decades, but its role in rotator cuff surgery has been debated. Neer popularized the extrinsic theory of rotator cuff pathology, where mechanical compression of the coracoacromial arch leads to tearing of the rotator cuff. Under this theory, acromioplasty is advocated to modify acromial morphology as an essential part of rotator cuff surgery. Proponents of the intrinsic theory suggest rotator cuff tendons undergo degeneration through aging and overuse, and that bursectomy alone without acromioplasty is sufficient. There exist cadaveric studies, expert opinions, and numerous case series espousing both sides of the argument. Recently, however, numerous high-quality prospective randomized controlled trials have been published examining the role of acromioplasty. They have similar study design and randomization protocols, including groups of arthroscopic rotator cuff repair with bursectomy and acromioplasty versus isolated bursectomy. The results have been consistent across all studies, with no difference in the outcomes of the acromioplasty and isolated bursectomy groups. Current evidence does not support the routine use of acromioplasty in the treatment of rotator cuff disease. PMID:23316375

  10. Rotator cuff and subacromial pathology.

    PubMed

    Yablon, Corrie M; Jacobson, Jon A

    2015-07-01

    Both MRI and ultrasound (US) demonstrate equivalent accuracy in the evaluation of the rotator cuff. Both modalities have their advantages, disadvantages, and pitfalls. Radiography is an important complementary modality in that it can demonstrate occult sources of shoulder pain. MRI is recommended for the evaluation of shoulder pain in patients < 40 years of age because labral pathology is frequently identified. However, in patients > 40 years, US should be the first-line modality because the incidence of rotator cuff pathology increases with age. US is useful to guide procedures such as subacromial injection and calcific tendinosis lavage. Radiologists should be knowledgeable of both MRI and US of the shoulder to tailor these examinations to the specific needs of their patients. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  11. The biology of rotator cuff healing.

    PubMed

    Zumstein, M-A; Lädermann, A; Raniga, S; Schär, M-O

    2017-02-01

    Despite advances in surgical reconstruction of chronic rotator cuff (RC) tears leading to improved clinical outcomes, failure rates of 13-94% have been reported. Reasons for this rather high failure rate include compromised healing at the bone-tendon interface, as well as the musculo-tendinous changes that occur after RC tears, namely retraction and muscle atrophy, as well as fatty infiltration. Significant research efforts have focused on gaining a better understanding of these pathological changes in order to design effective therapeutic solutions. Biological augmentation, including the application of different growth factors, platelet concentrates, cells, scaffolds and various drugs, or a combination of the above have been studied. It is important to note that instead of a physiological enthesis, an abundance of scar tissue is formed. Even though cytokines have demonstrated the potential to improve rotator cuff healing in animal models, there is little information about the correct concentration and timing of the more than 1500 cytokines that interact during the healing process. There is only minimal evidence that platelet concentrates may lead to improvement in radiographic, but not clinical outcome. Using stem cells to biologically augment the reconstruction of the tears might have a great potential since these cells can differentiate into various cell types that are integral for healing. However, further studies are necessary to understand how to enhance the potential of these stem cells in a safe and efficient way. This article intends to give an overview of the biological augmentation options found in the literature.

  12. Measurement of Contact Behavior Including Slippage of Cuff When Using Wearable Physical Assistant Robot.

    PubMed

    Akiyama, Yasuhiro; Okamoto, Shogo; Yamada, Yoji; Ishiguro, Kenji

    2016-07-01

    Continuous use of wearable robots can cause skin injuries beneath the cuffs of robots. To prevent such injuries, understanding the contact behavior of the cuff is important. Thus far, this contact behavior has not been studied because of the difficulty involved in measuring the slippage under the cuff. In this study, for the first time, the relative displacement, slippage, and interaction force and moment at the thigh cuff of a robot during sit-to-stand motion were measured using an instrumented cuff, which was developed for this purpose. The results indicated that the slippage and relative displacement under the cuff was uneven because of the rotation of the cuff, which suggests that the risk of skin injuries is different at different positions. Especially, the skin closer to the hip showed larger dynamism, with a maximum slippage of approximately 10 mm and a displacement of 20 mm during motion. Another important phenomenon was the individual difference among subjects. During motion, the interaction force, moment, and slippage of some subjects suddenly increased. Such behavior results in stress concentration, which increases the risk of skin injuries. These analyses are intended to understand how skin injuries are caused and to design measures to prevent such injuries.

  13. The global percutaneous shuttling technique tip for arthroscopic rotator cuff repair.

    PubMed

    Vopat, Bryan G; Murali, Jothi; Gowda, Ashok L; Kaback, Lee; Blaine, Theodore

    2014-04-22

    Most arthroscopic rotator cuff repairs utilize suture passing devices placed through arthroscopic cannulas. These devices are limited by the size of the passing device where the suture is passed through the tendon. An alternative technique has been used in the senior author's practice for the past ten years, where sutures are placed through the rotator cuff tendon using percutaneous passing devices. This technique, dubbed the global percutaneous shuttling technique of rotator cuff repair, affords the placement of sutures from nearly any angle and location in the shoulder, and has the potential advantage of larger suture bites through the tendon edge. These advantages may increase the area of tendon available to compress to the rotator cuff footprint and improve tendon healing and outcomes. The aim of this study is to describe the global percutaneous shuttling (GPS) technique and report our results using this method. The GPS technique can be used for any full thickness rotator cuff tear and is particularly useful for massive cuff tears with poor tissue quality. We recently followed up 22 patients with an average follow up of 32 months to validate its usefulness. American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons scores improved significantly from 37 preoperatively to 90 postoperatively (P<0.0001). This data supports the use of the GPS technique for arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. Further biomechanical studies are currently being performed to assess the improvements in tendon footprint area with this technique.

  14. Delivered growth factor therapy to improve healing after rotator cuff repair

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Emilie V; Silverio, Luz; Yao, Jeffrey

    2010-01-01

    Background Degenerative rotator cuff tears are a significant cause of shoulder pain in the aging population. Rotator cuff repair surgery may be more successful when growth factors are delivered to the repair site. This study was designed to determine the cellular processes involved in normal bone-to-tendon healing and the current approaches used for biologic augmentation of rotator cuff repair. Methods This review focuses on animal studies of rotator cuff repair and early human trials. Results Regular bone-to-tendon healing forms a fibrous junction between tendon and bone that is markedly different from the original bone-to-tendon junction. Tendon augmentation with cellular components serves as scaffolding for endogenous fibroblastic cells and a possible source of growth factors and fibroblastic cells. Extracellular matrices provide a scaffold for incoming fibroblastic cells. However, research in extracellular matrices is not conclusive due to intermanufacturer variation and the lack of human subject research. Growth factors and platelet-rich plasma are established in other fields of research and show promise, but have not yet been rigorously tested in rotator cuff repair augmentation. Conclusions Rotator cuff repair can benefit from biologic augmentation. However, research in this field is still young and has not yet demonstrated that the benefits in healing rates are significant enough to merit regular clinical use. Randomized controlled trials will elucidate the use of biologic augmentation in rotator cuff repairs. PMID:24198519

  15. Acromion Index in Korean Population and Its Relationship with Rotator Cuff Tears.

    PubMed

    Kum, Dong Ho; Kim, Jun Ho; Park, Keun Min; Lee, Eun Su; Park, Yong Bok; Yoo, Jae Chul

    2017-06-01

    Among the many causes of rotator cuff tears, scapular morphology is associated with the accelerating degenerative process of the rotator cuff. Acromion index (AI) was previously introduced and compared in two populations. We enrolled 100 Korean patients diagnosed with full-thickness rotator cuff tears by magnetic resonance imaging and intraoperative arthroscopic findings between January and December 2013. Another 100 Korean patients with an intact rotator cuff tendon identified on magnetic resonance imaging and other shoulder diseases, such as frozen shoulder and instability, were enrolled as controls. We retrospectively compared these 100 rotator cuff tear patients (mean age, 63 years) and 100 controls (mean age, 51 years) in this study. Two independent orthopedic surgeons assessed the AI on radiographs. We performed an interobserver reliability test of the AI assessment, and then compared the AI between two groups. The measurement of the AI showed excellent reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient, 0.82). The mean AI in the rotator cuff tear group was 0.68 and it was significantly different between groups (p<0.001, 95% confidence interval). The AI was not related to tear size. Our study showed that the AI was an effective predictive factor for rotator cuff tears in a Korean population.

  16. Barbed Suture for Vaginal Cuff Closure in Laparoscopic Hysterectomy

    PubMed Central

    Medina, Byron Cardoso; Riaño, Giovanni; Hoyos, Luis R.; Otalora, Camila

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Our aim was to evaluate whether the use of barbed suture for vaginal cuff closure is associated with a decrease in postoperative vaginal bleeding compared with cuff closure with polyglactin 910 in patients who have undergone laparoscopic hysterectomy. Methods: We performed a cohort study of patients who underwent laparoscopic hysterectomy between January 2008 and July 2012 by the minimally invasive gynecologic surgery division of the Gynecology, Obstetrics and Human Reproduction Department at Fundación Santa Fe de Bogotá University Hospital, Bogotá, Colombia. Results: A total of 232 women were studied: 163 were in the polyglactin 910 group, and 69 were in the barbed suture group. The main outcome, postoperative vaginal bleeding, was documented in 53 cases (32.5%) in the polyglactin 910 group and in 13 cases (18.8%) in the barbed suture group (relative risk, 0.57; 95% confidence interval, 0.34–0.9; P = .03). No statistically significant differences were found in other postoperative outcomes, such as emergency department admission, vaginal cuff dehiscence, infectious complications, and the presence of granulation tissue. Conclusion: In this study an inverse association was observed between the use of barbed suture for vaginal cuff closure during laparoscopic hysterectomy and the presence of postoperative vaginal bleeding. PMID:24680149

  17. Barbed suture for vaginal cuff closure in laparoscopic hysterectomy.

    PubMed

    Medina, Byron Cardoso; Giraldo, Cristian Hernández; Riaño, Giovanni; Hoyos, Luis R; Otalora, Camila

    2014-01-01

    Our aim was to evaluate whether the use of barbed suture for vaginal cuff closure is associated with a decrease in postoperative vaginal bleeding compared with cuff closure with polyglactin 910 in patients who have undergone laparoscopic hysterectomy. We performed a cohort study of patients who underwent laparoscopic hysterectomy between January 2008 and July 2012 by the minimally invasive gynecologic surgery division of the Gynecology, Obstetrics and Human Reproduction Department at Fundación Santa Fe de Bogotá University Hospital, Bogotá, Colombia. A total of 232 women were studied: 163 were in the polyglactin 910 group, and 69 were in the barbed suture group. The main outcome, postoperative vaginal bleeding, was documented in 53 cases (32.5%) in the polyglactin 910 group and in 13 cases (18.8%) in the barbed suture group (relative risk, 0.57; 95% confidence interval, 0.34-0.9; P = .03). No statistically significant differences were found in other postoperative outcomes, such as emergency department admission, vaginal cuff dehiscence, infectious complications, and the presence of granulation tissue. In this study an inverse association was observed between the use of barbed suture for vaginal cuff closure during laparoscopic hysterectomy and the presence of postoperative vaginal bleeding.

  18. Ultrasound-guided myofascial trigger point injection into brachialis muscle for rotator cuff disease patients with upper arm pain: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Suh, Mi Ri; Chang, Won Hyuk; Choi, Hyo Seon; Lee, Sang Chul

    2014-10-01

    To assess the efficacy of trigger point injection into brachialis muscle for rotator cuff disease patients with upper arm pain. A prospective, randomized, and single-blinded clinical pilot trial was performed at university rehabilitation hospital. Twenty-one patients clinically diagnosed with rotator cuff disease suspected of having brachialis myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) were randomly allocated into two groups. Effect of ultrasound (US)-guided trigger point injection (n=11) and oral non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) (n=10) was compared by visual analog scale (VAS). US-guided trigger point injection of brachialis muscle resulted in excellent outcome compared to the oral NSAID group. Mean VAS scores decreased significantly after 2 weeks of treatment compared to the baseline in both groups (7.3 vs. 4.5 in the injection group and 7.4 vs. 5.9 in the oral group). The decrease of the VAS score caused by injection (ДVAS=-2.8) was significantly larger than caused by oral NSAID (ДVAS=-1.5) (p<0.05). In patients with rotator cuff disease, US-guided trigger point injection of the brachialis muscle is safe and effective for both diagnosis and treatment when the cause of pain is suspected to be originated from the muscle.

  19. Ultrasound-Guided Myofascial Trigger Point Injection Into Brachialis Muscle for Rotator Cuff Disease Patients With Upper Arm Pain: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Suh, Mi Ri; Chang, Won Hyuk; Choi, Hyo Seon

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess the efficacy of trigger point injection into brachialis muscle for rotator cuff disease patients with upper arm pain. Methods A prospective, randomized, and single-blinded clinical pilot trial was performed at university rehabilitation hospital. Twenty-one patients clinically diagnosed with rotator cuff disease suspected of having brachialis myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) were randomly allocated into two groups. Effect of ultrasound (US)-guided trigger point injection (n=11) and oral non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) (n=10) was compared by visual analog scale (VAS). Results US-guided trigger point injection of brachialis muscle resulted in excellent outcome compared to the oral NSAID group. Mean VAS scores decreased significantly after 2 weeks of treatment compared to the baseline in both groups (7.3 vs. 4.5 in the injection group and 7.4 vs. 5.9 in the oral group). The decrease of the VAS score caused by injection (ДVAS=-2.8) was significantly larger than caused by oral NSAID (ДVAS=-1.5) (p<0.05). Conclusion In patients with rotator cuff disease, US-guided trigger point injection of the brachialis muscle is safe and effective for both diagnosis and treatment when the cause of pain is suspected to be originated from the muscle. PMID:25379497

  20. Influence of cuff material on blood flow restriction stimulus in the upper body.

    PubMed

    Buckner, Samuel L; Dankel, Scott J; Counts, Brittany R; Jessee, Matthew B; Mouser, J Grant; Mattocks, Kevin T; Laurentino, Gilberto C; Abe, Takashi; Loenneke, Jeremy P

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the acute skeletal muscle and perceptual responses to blood flow restriction (BFR) exercise to failure between narrow nylon and elastic inflatable cuffs at rest and during exercise. Torque and muscle thickness was measured pre, post, and 5, 20, 40, and 60 min post-exercise with muscle activation being measured throughout exercise. Resting arterial occlusion pressure was different between the nylon [139 (14) mmHg] and elastic [246 (71) mmHg, p < 0.001] cuffs. However, when exercising at 40 % of each cuff's respective arterial occlusion pressure [nylon: 57 (7) vs. elastic: 106 (38) mmHg, p < 0.001], there were no differences in repetitions to failure, torque, muscle thickness, or muscle activation between the cuffs. Exercising with cuffs of different material but similar width resulted in the same acute muscular response when the cuffs were inflated to a pressure relative to each individual cuff.

  1. Incidence and severity of biceps long head tendon lesion in patients with complete rotator cuff tears.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chih-Hwa; Hsu, Kuo-Yaw; Chen, Wen-Jer; Shih, Chun-Hsiung

    2005-06-01

    Biceps long head tendon lesion is commonly associated with rotator cuff tendon pathology. This study is to determine the pathologic spectrum of biceps long head tendon in surgical cases with complete full thickness rotator cuff tear. Between 1993 and 2002, 122 complete rotator cuff tears with surgery were included for the analysis. During surgery, biceps long head tendon was grossly examined or evaluated via arthroscopy. A simplified classification was used to describe the biceps lesion. 50 (41%) patients had type 1 lesion (tendinitis), 10 (8%) patients had type 2 lesion (subluxation), 12 (10%) patients had type 3 (dislocation), 15 (12%) patients had type 4 (partial tear), and 6 patients (5%) had type 5 (complete rupture). The remaining 29 patients (24%) did not have obvious pathology. All chronic rotator cuff tear (> 3 months) were associated with biceps tendon pathology. A rotator cuff tear greater than 5 cm as determined at surgery was strongly associated with an advanced biceps lesion. Biceps tendon injuries are associated with complete rotator cuff tears and there may be a causal relationship due to the impingement that occurs. Early identification and repair of rotator cuff lesions may prevent further deterioration of the biceps tendon.

  2. Pulley lesions in rotator cuff tears: prevalence, etiology, and concomitant pathologies.

    PubMed

    Hawi, Nael; Liodakis, Emmanouil; Garving, Christina; Habermeyer, Peter; Tauber, Mark

    2017-08-01

    This study aimed to demonstrate the prevalence of lesions in the biceps pulley complex in a representative, consecutive series of rotator cuff tears and rotator cuff interval treatments. We also analyzed associated tear pattern of rotator cuff injuries and superior labrum anterior-posterior (SLAP) lesions. We evaluated the relationships of these lesions to traumatic genesis and the prevalence of pulley lesions in revision cases. This retrospective study analyzed all pre- and intra-operative documentation on arthroscopic rotator cuff reconstructions and isolated pulley lesion treatments performed by a single surgeon over 2 consecutive years. According to Habermeyer et al., we classified cases into four groups, based on the presence of additional or related complete or partial rotator cuff tears, SLAP lesions, trauma, and primary or revision surgery. Among 382 patients with rotator cuff tears, 345 (90.3%) had an injured pulley system; 151 (43.8%) had partial tears of the rotator cuff; out of these, 106 (30.6%) were articular-sided. All of these articular-sided partial tears showed extension into the pulley complex. In 154 cases (44.6%), history of shoulder trauma was associated with the beginning of symptoms. In addition, concomitant SLAP lesions occurred in 25-62% of pulley lesions, correlating with the severity of pulley lesions. Among the 345 cases, there have been 32 (9.3%) revision cases where a pulley lesion was intra-operatively identified and addressed. Pulley complex lesions are present in 90.3% of surgically treated rotator cuff lesions, particularly in articular-sided injuries. In addition, we found a significant relationship between the incidence of SLAP lesions and the severity of pulley lesions. It seems reasonable to assume an important role of pulley system injuries in the pathogenesis of rotator cuff lesions.

  3. Preliminary Results of a Consecutive Series of Large & Massive Rotator Cuff Tears Treated with Arthroscopic Rotator Cuff Repairs Augmented with Extracellular Matrix

    PubMed Central

    Consigliere, Paolo; Polyzois, Ioannis; Sarkhel, Tanaya; Gupta, Rohit; Levy, Ofer; Narvani, A. Ali

    2017-01-01

    Background: Recurrence rate of rotator cuff tears is still high despite the improvements of surgical techniques, materials used and a better knowledge of the healing process of the rotator cuff tendons. Large to massive rotator cuff tears are particularly associated with a high failure rate, especially in elderly. Augmentation of rotator cuff repairs with extracellular matrix or synthetic patches has gained popularity in recent years with the aim of reducing failure. The aim of this study was to investigate the outcome of rotator cuff repairs augmented with denatured extracellular matrix in a series of patients who underwent arthroscopic rotator cuff repair for large to massive tears. Methods: Ten consecutive patients, undergoing arthroscopic rotator cuff repair with extracellular matrix augment for large and massive tears, were prospectively enrolled into this single surgeon study. All repairs were performed arthroscopically with a double row technique augmented with extracellular matrix. Oxford Shoulder Score, Constant Score and pain visual analogue scale (VAS) were used to monitor the shoulder function and outcome pre-operatively and at three, six and 12-month follow-up. Minimum follow up was three months. Mean follow up was 7 months. Results: Mean Constant score improved from 53 (SD=4) pre-operatively to 75 (SD=11) at final follow up. Mean Oxford score also increased from 30 (SD=8) pre-operatively to 47 (SD=10) at the final follow up. The visual analogue scale (VAS) improved from seven out of 10 (SD=2) preoperatively to 0.6 (SD=0.8) at final follow up. Additionally, there was significant improvement at three months mark in Constant score. Conclusion: Arthroscopic repair and augmentation of large and massive rotator cuff tears with extracellular matrix patch has good early outcome. PMID:28271082

  4. Preliminary Results of a Consecutive Series of Large & Massive Rotator Cuff Tears Treated with Arthroscopic Rotator Cuff Repairs Augmented with Extracellular Matrix.

    PubMed

    Consigliere, Paolo; Polyzois, Ioannis; Sarkhel, Tanaya; Gupta, Rohit; Levy, Ofer; Narvani, A Ali

    2017-01-01

    Recurrence rate of rotator cuff tears is still high despite the improvements of surgical techniques, materials used and a better knowledge of the healing process of the rotator cuff tendons. Large to massive rotator cuff tears are particularly associated with a high failure rate, especially in elderly. Augmentation of rotator cuff repairs with extracellular matrix or synthetic patches has gained popularity in recent years with the aim of reducing failure. The aim of this study was to investigate the outcome of rotator cuff repairs augmented with denatured extracellular matrix in a series of patients who underwent arthroscopic rotator cuff repair for large to massive tears. Ten consecutive patients, undergoing arthroscopic rotator cuff repair with extracellular matrix augment for large and massive tears, were prospectively enrolled into this single surgeon study. All repairs were performed arthroscopically with a double row technique augmented with extracellular matrix. Oxford Shoulder Score, Constant Score and pain visual analogue scale (VAS) were used to monitor the shoulder function and outcome pre-operatively and at three, six and 12-month follow-up. Minimum follow up was three months. Mean follow up was 7 months. Mean Constant score improved from 53 (SD=4) pre-operatively to 75 (SD=11) at final follow up. Mean Oxford score also increased from 30 (SD=8) pre-operatively to 47 (SD=10) at the final follow up. The visual analogue scale (VAS) improved from seven out of 10 (SD=2) preoperatively to 0.6 (SD=0.8) at final follow up. Additionally, there was significant improvement at three months mark in Constant score. Arthroscopic repair and augmentation of large and massive rotator cuff tears with extracellular matrix patch has good early outcome.

  5. The effect of shoulder manipulation on rotator cuff integrity.

    PubMed

    Atoun, Ehud; Funk, Lennard; Copland, Stephen A; Even, Tirtza; Levy, Ofer; Rath, Ehud

    2013-06-01

    The use of shoulder manipulation in the treatment of frozen shoulder remains controversial. Humeral fractures and neurological damage are the risks associated with the procedure. A concern of causing a rotator cuff tear exists but the incidence of iatrogenic rotator cuff tears is not reported. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of shoulder manipulation for frozen shoulder on the integrity of the rotator cuff. In a prospective study, 32 consecutive patients (33 shoulders) with the diagnosis of frozen shoulder underwent manipulation of the shoulder under anaesthesia (MUA), 18 female and 15 males with mean age at manipulation of 503 years (range: 42-63). The average duration of symptoms before treatment was 6.2 months (range: 2-18 months). The patients were examined prior to the manipulation and at follow-up for combined shoulder range of motion, external and internal rotation and strength. All patients had an ultrasound assessment of the rotator cuff before and at 3 weeks after manipulation of the shoulder. Mean time between manipulation and last follow-up was 133 weeks. None of the patients had ultrasound findings of a rotator cuff tear, prior to the manipulation. In all patients the rotator cuff remained undamaged on ultrasound examination at 3 weeks after the procedure. The mean improvement in motion was 81.2 degrees (from 933 degrees pre-op to 174.5 degrees at last follow-up) for forward flexion; 102.6 degrees (from 68.8 degrees pre-op to 171.4 degrees at last follow-up) for abduction, 49.4 degrees (from 8.8 degrees pre-op to 58.2 degrees at last follow-up) for external rotation and 3.5 levels of internal rotation (range: 2 to 5 levels). These gains in motion were all highly significant (p < 0.0001). No fractures, dislocations or nerve palsies were observed. In this study, manipulation of the shoulder has not been associated with rotator cuff tears. If done properly the procedure appeared to be safe and to result in a marked improvement of range

  6. MR Imaging of Rotator Cuff Tears: Correlation with Arthroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Bhandary, Sudarshan; Khandige, Ganesh; Kabra, Utkarsh

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Rotator cuff tears are quite common and can cause significant disability. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) has now emerged as the modality of choice in the preoperative evaluation of patients with rotator cuff injuries, in view of its improved inherent soft tissue contrast and resolution. Aim To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of routine MRI in the detection and characterisation of rotator cuff tears, by correlating the findings with arthroscopy. Materials and Methods This prospective study was carried out between July 2014 and August 2016 at the AJ Institute of Medical Sciences, Mangalore, Karnataka, India. A total of 82 patients were diagnosed with rotator cuff injury on MRI during this period, out of which 45 patients who underwent further evaluation with arthroscopy were included in this study. The data collected was analysed for significant correlation between MRI diagnosis and arthroscopic findings using kappa statistics. The sensitivity, specificity, predictive value and accuracy of MRI for the diagnosis of full and partial thickness tears were calculated using arthroscopic findings as the reference standard. Results There were 27 males and 18 females in this study. The youngest patient was 22 years and the oldest was 74 years. Majority of rotator cuff tears (78%) were seen in patients above the age of 40 years. MRI showed a sensitivity of 89.6%, specificity of 100%, positive predictive value of 100% and negative predictive value of 83.3% for the diagnosis of full thickness rotator cuff tears. For partial thickness tears, MRI showed a sensitivity of 100%, specificity of 86.6%, positive predictive value of 78.9% and negative predictive value of 100%. The accuracy was 93.1% for full thickness tears and 91.1% for partial thickness tears. The p-value was less than 0.01 for both full and partial thickness tears. There was good agreement between the MRI and arthroscopic findings, with kappa value of 0.85 for full thickness tears and 0.81 for partial

  7. The Factors Affecting Pain Pattern after Arthroscopic Rotator Cuff Repair

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Chang-Wan; Kim, Dong-Gyun

    2014-01-01

    Background We evaluated the factors that affect pain pattern after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. Methods From June 2009 to October 2010, 210 patients underwent arthroscopic rotator cuff repair operations. Of them, 84 patients were enrolled as subjects of the present study. The evaluation of postoperative pain was conducted by visual analog scale (VAS) scores during postoperative outpatient interviews at 6 weeks, 3 months, 6 months, and 12 months. The factors that were thought to affect postoperative pain were evaluated by dividing into three categories: preoperative, operative, and postoperative. Results Pain after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair surgery showed a strictly decreasing pain pattern. In single analysis and multiple regression tests for factors influencing the strictly decreasing pain pattern, initial VAS and pain onset were shown to be statistically significant factors (p = 0.012, 0.012, 0.044 and 0.028, respectively). With regard to the factors influencing lower than average intensity pain pattern for each period, the stiffness of internal rotation at 3 months postoperatively was shown to be a statistically significant factor in single and multiple regression tests (p = 0.017 and p = 0.004, respectively). Conclusions High initial VAS scores and the acute onset of pain affected the strictly decreasing postoperative pain pattern. Additionally, stiffness of internal rotation at postoperative 3 months affected the higher than average intensity pain pattern for each period after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. PMID:25436062

  8. [Sources of error in sonographic diagnosis of the rotator cuff].

    PubMed

    Casser, H R; Sulimma, H; Straub, A; Paus, R

    1991-12-01

    Sonography of the shoulder joint has developed into an established examination technique in the diagnosis of periarticular lesions of the shoulder. Sonographic diagnosis of the rotator cuff in particular contains a multitude of possible errors, which are gone into by this study by means of 149 clinically, radiologically and sonographically examined shoulder patients with an average age of 50.5 years. Besides errors made by wrong examination technique such of the transducer as incorrect adjustment of the equipment, insufficient contact of the transducer with the skin and unsuitable choice of the examination plane, there are sources of errors in the interpretation of the sonogram caused by lack of knowledge about physically caused artifacts and sonoanatomical qualities of the shoulder joint. Calcification inside the rotator cuff and the so-called "sonographic inhomogeneity of the rotator cuff" are numbered among the sources of error particular to the shoulder joint. Most errors in sonographic diagnosis of the rotator cuff can be avoided by careful examination of both shoulder joints with an exactly tuned ultrasound device, taking into account the sonoanatomical and ultrasonic qualities. Radiological examination of the affected shoulder joint cannot be replaced by ultrasound.

  9. Correlation between Rotator Cuff Tears and Systemic Atherosclerotic Disease

    PubMed Central

    Donovan, Andrea; Schweitzer, Mark; Bencardino, Jenny; Petchprapa, Catherine; Cohen, Jodi; Ciavarra, Gina

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the association of aortic arch calcification, a surrogate marker of atherosclerosis, with rotator cuff tendinosis and tears given the hypothesis that decreased tendon vascularity is a contributing factor in the etiology of tendon degeneration. A retrospective review was performed to identify patients ages 50 to 90 years who had a shoulder MRI and a chest radiograph performed within 6 months of each other. Chest radiographs and shoulder MRIs from 120 patients were reviewed by two sets of observers blinded to the others' conclusions. Rotator cuff disease was classified as tendinosis, partial thickness tear, and full thickness tear. The presence or absence of aortic arch calcification was graded and compared with the MRI appearance of the rotator cuff. The tendon tear grading was positively correlated with patient age. However, the tendon tear grading on MRI was not significantly correlated with the aorta calcification scores on chest radiographs. Furthermore, there was no significant correlation between aorta calcification severity and tendon tear grading. In conclusion, rotator cuff tears did not significantly correlate with aortic calcification severity. This suggests that tendon ischemia may not be associated with the degree of macrovascular disease. PMID:22091372

  10. Evaluation of indirect blood pressure monitoring in awake and anesthetized red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis): effects of cuff size, cuff placement, and monitoring equipment.

    PubMed

    Zehnder, Ashley M; Hawkins, Michelle G; Pascoe, Peter J; Kass, Philip H

    2009-09-01

    To compare Doppler and oscillometric methods of indirect arterial blood pressure (IBP) with direct arterial measurements in anesthetized and awake red-tailed hawks. Prospective, randomized, blinded study. Six, sex unknown, adult red-tailed hawks. Birds were anesthetized and IBP measurements were obtained by oscillometry (IBP-O) and Doppler (IBP-D) on the pectoral and pelvic limbs using three cuffs of different width based on limb circumference: cuff 1 (20-30% of circumference), cuff 2 (30-40%), and cuff 3 (40-50%). Direct arterial pressure measurements were obtained from the contralateral superficial ulnar artery. Indirect blood pressure measurements were compared to direct systolic arterial pressure (SAP) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) during normotension and induced states of hypotension and hypertension. Measurements were also obtained in awake, restrained birds. Three-way anova, linear regression and Bland-Altman analyses were used to evaluate the IBP-D data. Results are reported as mean bias (95% confidence intervals). The IBP-O monitor reported errors during 54% of the measurements. Indirect blood pressure Doppler measurements were most accurate with cuff 3 and were comparable to MAP with a bias of 2 (-9, 13 mmHg). However, this cuff consistently underestimated SAP with a bias of 33 (19, 48 mmHg). Variability in the readings within and among birds was high. There was no significant difference between sites of cuff placement. Awake birds had SAP, MAP and diastolic arterial pressure that were 56, 43, and 38 mmHg higher than anesthetized birds. Indirect blood pressure (oscillometric) measurements were unreliable in red-tailed hawks. Indirect blood pressure (Doppler) measurements were closer to MAP measurements than SAP measurements. There was slightly better agreement with the use of cuff 3 on either the pectoral or pelvic limbs. Awake, restrained birds have significantly higher arterial pressures than those under sevoflurane anesthesia.

  11. Differences of RNA Expression in the Tendon According to Anatomic Outcomes in Rotator Cuff Repair.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Jin-Ok; Chung, Jin-Young; Kim, Do Hoon; Im, Wooseok; Kim, Sae Hoon

    2017-06-01

    Despite increased understanding of the pathophysiology of rotator cuff tears and the evolution of rotator cuff repair, healing failure remains a substantial problem. The critical roles played by biological factors have been emphasized, but little is known of the implications of gene expression profile differences at the time of repair. To document the relationship between the perioperative gene expression of healed and unhealed rotator cuffs by RNA microarray analysis. Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. Superior (supraspinatus involvement) and posterosuperior (supraspinatus and infraspinatus involvement) tears were included in the study. Samples of rotator cuff tendons were prospectively collected during rotator cuff surgery. Three samples were harvested at the tendon ends of tears from the anterior, middle (apex), and posterior parts using an arthroscopic punch. Seven patients with an unhealed rotator cuff were matched one-to-one with patients with a healed rotator cuff by sex, age, tear size, and fatty degeneration of rotator cuff muscles. mRNA microarray analysis was used to identify genetic differences between healed and unhealed rotator cuff tendons. Gene ontology and gene association files were obtained from the Gene Ontology Consortium, and the Gene Ontology system in DAVID was used to identify enhanced biological processes. Microarray analyses identified 262 genes that were differentially expressed by at least 1.5-fold between the healed and unhealed groups. Overall, in the healed group, 103 genes were significantly downregulated, and 159 were significantly upregulated. DAVID Functional Annotation Cluster analysis showed that in the healed group, the genes most upregulated were related to the G protein-coupled receptor protein signaling pathway and to the neurological system. On the other hand, the genes most downregulated were related to immune and inflammatory responses. BMP5 was the gene most upregulated in the healed group, and the majority of

  12. Multicentre randomised controlled trial to investigate the usefulness of continuous pneumatic regulation of tracheal cuff pressure for reducing ventilator-associated pneumonia in mechanically ventilated severe trauma patients: the AGATE study protocol.

    PubMed

    Marjanovic, Nicolas; Frasca, Denis; Asehnoune, Karim; Paugam, Catherine; Lasocki, Sigismond; Ichai, Carole; Lefrant, Jean-Yves; Leone, Marc; Dahyot-Fizelier, Claire; Pottecher, Julien; Falcon, Dominique; Veber, Benoit; Constantin, Jean-Michel; Seguin, Sabrina; Guénézan, Jérémy; Mimoz, Olivier

    2017-08-07

    Severe trauma represents the leading cause of mortality worldwide. While 80% of deaths occur within the first 24 hours after trauma, 20% occur later and are mainly due to healthcare-associated infections, including ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). Preventing underinflation of the tracheal cuff is recommended to reduce microaspiration, which plays a major role in the pathogenesis of VAP. Automatic devices facilitate the regulation of tracheal cuff pressure, and their implementation has the potential to reduce VAP. The objective of this work is to determine whether continuous regulation of tracheal cuff pressure using a pneumatic device reduces the incidence of VAP compared with intermittent control in severe trauma patients. This multicentre randomised controlled and open-label trial will include patients suffering from severe trauma who are admitted within the first 24 hours, who require invasive mechanical ventilation to longer than 48 hours. Their tracheal cuff pressure will be monitored either once every 8 hours (control group) or continuously using a pneumatic device (intervention group). The primary end point is the proportion of patients that develop VAP in the intensive care unit (ICU) at day 28. The secondary end points include the proportion of patients that develop VAP in the ICU, early (≤7 days) or late (>7 days) VAP, time until the first VAP diagnosis, the number of ventilator-free days and antibiotic-free days, the length of stay in the ICU, the proportion of patients with ventilator-associated events and that die during their ICU stay. This protocol has been approved by the ethics committee of Poitiers University Hospital, and will be carried out according to the principles of the Declaration of Helsinki and the Good Clinical Practice guidelines. The results of this study will be disseminated through presentation at scientific conferences and publication in peer-reviewed journals. Clinical Trials NCT02534974. © Article author(s) (or

  13. A Comparison of Conventional Ultrasonography and Arthrosonography in the Assessment of Cuff Integrity after Rotator Cuff Repair

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kwang Won; Chun, Tong Jin; Bae, Kyoung Wan; Choy, Won Sik; Park, Hyeon Jong

    2014-01-01

    Background This study was designed to perform conventional ultrasonography, magnetic resonance arthrography (MRA) and arthrosonography exams after rotator cuff repair to compare the results of conventional ultrasonography and arthrosonography with those of MRA as the gold standard. Methods We prospectively studied 42 consecutive patients (14 males, 28 females; average age, 59.4 years) who received arthroscopic rotator cuff repair due to full-thickness tears of the supraspinatus tendon from 2008 to 2010. The integrity assessment of the repaired rotator cuff was performed 6 months postoperatively using conventional ultrasonography, MRA, and arthrosonography. Results The diagnostic accuracy of the conventional ultrasonography compared to MRA was 78.6% and the McNemar test results were 0.016 in full-thickness tear and 0.077 in partial-thickness tear. The diagnostic accuracy of arthrosonography compared to MRA was 92.9% and the McNemar test results were 0.998 in full-thickness tear and 0.875 in partial-thickness tear. Conclusions It was found that the integrity assessment of the repaired rotator cuff by ultrasonography must be guarded against and that arthrosonography is an effective alternative method in the postoperative integrity assessment. Also, an arthrosonography seems to be a suitable modality to replace the conventional ultrasonography. PMID:25177461

  14. Surgeon-Directed Cost Variation in Isolated Rotator Cuff Repair

    PubMed Central

    Terhune, E. Bailey; Cannamela, Peter C.; Johnson, Jared S.; Saad, Charles D.; Barnes, John; Silbernagel, Janette; Faciszewski, Thomas; Shea, Kevin G.

    2016-01-01

    Background: As value becomes a larger component of heath care decision making, cost data can be evaluated for regional and physician variation. Value is determined by outcome divided by cost, and reducing cost increases value for patients. “Third-party spend” items are individual selections by surgeons used to perform procedures. Cost data for third-party spend items provide surgeons and hospitals with important information regarding care value, potential cost-saving opportunities, and the total cost of ownership of specific clinical decisions. Purpose: To perform a cost review of isolated rotator cuff repair within a regional 7-hospital system and to document procedure cost variation among operating surgeons. Study Design: Economic and decision analysis; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) codes were used to retrospectively identify subjects who received an isolated rotator cuff repair within a 7-hospital system. Cost data were collected for clinically sensitive third-party spend items and divided into 4 cost groups: (1) suture anchors, (2) suture-passing devices and needles, (3) sutures used for cuff repair, and (4) disposable tools or instruments. Results: A total of 62 isolated rotator cuff repairs were performed by 17 surgeons over a 13-month period. The total cost per case for clinically sensitive third-party spend items (in 2015 US dollars) ranged from $293 to $3752 (mean, $1826). Four surgeons had a mean procedure cost that was higher than the data set mean procedure cost. The cost of an individual suture anchor ranged from $75 to $1775 (mean, $403). One disposable suture passer was used, which cost $140. The cost of passing needles ranged from $140 to $995 (mean, $468). The cost per repair suture (used to repair cuff tears) varied from $18 to $298 (mean, $61). The mean suture (used to close wounds) cost per case was $81 (range, $0-$454). A total of 316 tools or disposable instruments were used, costing $1 to $1573 per

  15. National Trends in Rotator Cuff Repair

    PubMed Central

    Colvin, Alexis Chiang; Egorova, Natalia; Harrison, Alicia K.; Moskowitz, Alan; Flatow, Evan L.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Recent publications suggest that arthroscopic and open rotator cuff repairs have had comparable clinical results, although each technique has distinct advantages and disadvantages. National hospital and ambulatory surgery databases were reviewed to identify practice patterns for rotator cuff repair. Methods: The rates of medical visits for rotator cuff pathology, and the rates of open and arthroscopic rotator cuff repair, were examined for the years 1996 and 2006 in the United States. The national incidence of rotator cuff repairs and related data were obtained from inpatient (National Hospital Discharge Survey, NHDS) and ambulatory surgery (National Survey of Ambulatory Surgery, NSAS) databases. These databases were queried with use of International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9) procedure codes for arthroscopic (ICD-9 codes 83.63 and 80.21) and open (code 83.63 without code 80.21) rotator cuff repair. We also examined where the surgery was performed (inpatient versus ambulatory surgery center) and characteristics of the patients, including age, sex, and comorbidities. Results: The unadjusted volume of all rotator cuff repairs increased 141% in the decade from 1996 to 2006. The unadjusted number of arthroscopic procedures increased by 600% while open repairs increased by only 34% during this time interval. There was a significant shift from inpatient to outpatient surgery (p < 0.001). Conclusions: The increase in national rates of rotator cuff repair over the last decade has been dramatic, particularly for arthroscopic assisted repair. PMID:22298054

  16. Ultrasound dimensions of the rotator cuff in young healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Karthikeyan, Shanmugam; Rai, Santosh B; Parsons, Helen; Drew, Steve; Smith, Christopher D; Griffin, Damian R

    2014-08-01

    No studies have looked at the rotator cuff dimensions in the young healthy population using ultrasonography. Our aim is to define the ultrasound dimensions of the rotator cuff in the healthy young adult population and explore correlations with other patient characteristics. Thirty male and 30 female healthy volunteers (aged 18-40 years), with no shoulder problems, underwent ultrasound assessment of both shoulders by a musculoskeletal radiologist. The dimensions of the rotator cuff, deltoid, and biceps were measured in a standardized manner. A total of 120 shoulders were scanned. The mean maximum width of the supraspinatus footprint was 14.9 mm in men and 13.5 mm in women (P < .001). The mean thickness of the supraspinatus tendon was 4.9 mm in women and 5.6 mm in men. The mean thickness of the subscapularis was 4.4 in men and 3.8 mm in women and for the infraspinatus was 4.9 mm in men and 4.4 mm in women. There was no correlation between height, weight, biceps, or deltoid thickness with any tendon measurements. Apart from supraspinatus tendon thickness, the difference between dominant and nondominant shoulders in the same sex was not significant for any other tendon dimensions. This study has defined the dimensions of the rotator cuff in the young healthy adult, which has not been previously published. This is important for the documentation of normal ultrasound anatomy of the rotator cuff and also demonstrates that the asymptomatic contralateral shoulder can and should be used to estimate the expected dimensions. Copyright © 2014 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Clinical Assessment of Physical Examination Maneuvers for Rotator Cuff Lesions.

    PubMed

    Somerville, Lyndsay E; Willits, Kevin; Johnson, Andrew M; Litchfield, Robert; LeBel, Marie-Eve; Moro, Jaydeep; Bryant, Dianne

    2014-08-01

    Shoulder pain and disability pose a diagnostic challenge for clinicians owing to the numerous causes that exist. Unfortunately, the evidence in support of most clinical tests is weak or absent. To determine the diagnostic validity of physical examination maneuvers for rotator cuff lesions. Cohort study (diagnosis); Level of evidence, 1. Consecutive shoulder patients recruited for this study were referred to 2 tertiary orthopaedic clinics. A surgeon took a thorough history and indicated his or her certainty about each possible diagnosis. A clinician performed the physical examination for diagnoses where uncertainty remained. Arthroscopy was considered the reference standard for patients who underwent surgery, and MRI with arthrogram was considered the reference for patients who did not. The sensitivity, specificity, and likelihood ratios were calculated to investigate whether combinations of the top tests provided stronger predictions of the presence or absence of disease. There were 139 participants. None of the tests were highly sensitive for diagnosing rotator cuff tears or tendinosis. Tests for subscapularis tears were all highly specific. No optimal combination of tests improved the ability to correctly diagnose rotator cuff tears. Closer analysis revealed the internal rotation and lateral rotation lag sign did not improve the ability to diagnose subscapularis or supraspinatus tears, respectively, although the lateral rotation lag sign demonstrated a discriminatory ability for tear size. No test in isolation is sufficient to diagnose a patient with rotator cuff damage. A combination of tests improves the ability to diagnose damage to the rotator cuff. It is recommended that the internal rotation and lateral rotation lag signs be removed from the gamut of physical examination tests for supraspinatus and subscapularis tears. © 2014 The Author(s).

  18. Muscle Gene Expression Patterns in Human Rotator Cuff Pathology

    PubMed Central

    Choo, Alexander; McCarthy, Meagan; Pichika, Rajeswari; Sato, Eugene J.; Lieber, Richard L.; Schenk, Simon; Lane, John G.; Ward, Samuel R.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Rotator cuff pathology is a common source of shoulder pain with variable etiology and pathoanatomical characteristics. Pathological processes of fatty infiltration, muscle atrophy, and fibrosis have all been invoked as causes for poor outcomes after rotator cuff tear repair. The aims of this study were to measure the expression of key genes associated with adipogenesis, myogenesis, and fibrosis in human rotator cuff muscle after injury and to compare the expression among groups of patients with varied severities of rotator cuff pathology. Methods: Biopsies of the supraspinatus muscle were obtained arthroscopically from twenty-seven patients in the following operative groups: bursitis (n = 10), tendinopathy (n = 7), full-thickness rotator cuff tear (n = 8), and massive rotator cuff tear (n = 2). Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was performed to characterize gene expression pathways involved in myogenesis, adipogenesis, and fibrosis. Results: Patients with a massive tear demonstrated downregulation of the fibrogenic, adipogenic, and myogenic genes, indicating that the muscle was not in a state of active change and may have difficulty responding to stimuli. Patients with a full-thickness tear showed upregulation of fibrotic and adipogenic genes; at the tissue level, these correspond to the pathologies most detrimental to outcomes of surgical repair. Patients with bursitis or tendinopathy still expressed myogenic genes, indicating that the muscle may be attempting to accommodate the mechanical deficiencies induced by the tendon tear. Conclusions: Gene expression in human rotator cuff muscles varied according to tendon injury severity. Patients with bursitis and tendinopathy appeared to be expressing pro-myogenic genes, whereas patients with a full-thickness tear were expressing genes associated with fatty atrophy and fibrosis. In contrast, patients with a massive tear appeared to have downregulation of all gene programs except inhibition of

  19. WITHDRAWN: Interventions for tears of the rotator cuff in adults.

    PubMed

    Ejnisman, Benno; Andreoli, Carlos V; Soares, Bernardo; Peccin, Maria Stella; Abdalla, Rene J; Faloppa, Flávio; Cohen, Moisés

    2009-01-21

    Tears of the rotator cuff tendons, which surround the joints of the shoulder, are one of the most common causes of pain and disability in the upper extremity. To review the efficacy and safety of common interventions for tears of the rotator cuff in adults. We searched the Cochrane Bone, Joint and Muscle Trauma Group specialised trail register (July 2002), the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register (The Cochrane Library issue 2, 2002), MEDLINE (1966 to December 2001), EMBASE (1974 to December 2001), Biological Abstracts (1980 to December 2001), LILACS (1982 to December 2001), CINAHL (November 1982 to December 2001), Science Citation Index and reference lists of articles. We also contacted authors and handsearched conference proceedings focusing on shoulder conditions. Randomised or quasi-randomised clinical trials involving tears of the rotator cuff were the focus of this review. All trials involving conservative interventions or surgery were included (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, intra-articular or subacromial glucocorticosteroid injection, oral glucocorticosteroid treatment, physiotherapy, and open or arthroscopic surgery). Two reviewers independently assessed suitability for inclusion, methodological quality and extracted data. Dichotomous data were presented as relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), using the fixed effects model. Eight trials involving 455 people were included and 393 patients analysed. Trials were grouped in eight categories of conservative or surgical treatment. The median quality score of all trials combined was 16 out of a possible 24 points, with a range of 12-18. In general, included trials differed on diagnostic criteria for rotator cuff tear, there was no uniformity in reported outcome measures, and data which could be summarised were rarely reported. Only results from two studies comparing open repair to arthroscopic debridement could be pooled. There is weak evidence for the superiority of open repair of rotator

  20. Interventions for tears of the rotator cuff in adults.

    PubMed

    Ejnisman, B; Andreoli, C V; Soares, B G O; Fallopa, F; Peccin, M S; Abdalla, R J; Cohen, M

    2004-01-01

    Tears of the rotator cuff tendons, which surround the joints of the shoulder, are one of the most common causes of pain and disability in the upper extremity. To review the efficacy and safety of common interventions for tears of the rotator cuff in adults. We searched the Cochrane Musculoskeletal Injuries Group specialised trail register (July 2002), the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register (The Cochrane Library issue 2, 2002), MEDLINE (1966 to December 2001), EMBASE (1974 to December 2001), Biological Abstracts (1980 to December 2001), LILACS (1982 to December 2001), CINAHL (November 1982 to December 2001), Science Citation Index and reference lists of articles. We also contacted authors and handsearched conference proceedings focusing on shoulder conditions. Randomised or quasi-randomised clinical trials involving tears of the rotator cuff were the focus of this review. All trials involving conservative interventions or surgery were included (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, intra-articular or subacromial glucocorticosteroid injection, oral glucocorticosteroid treatment, physiotherapy, and open or arthroscopic surgery). Two reviewers independently assessed suitability for inclusion, methodological quality and extracted data. Dichotomous data were presented as relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), using the fixed effects model. Eight trials involving 455 people were included and 393 patients analysed. Trials were grouped in eight categories of conservative or surgical treatment. The median quality score of all trials combined was 16 out of a possible 24 points, with a range of 12-18. In general, included trials differed on diagnostic criteria for rotator cuff tear, there was no uniformity in reported outcome measures, and data which could be summarised were rarely reported. Only results from two studies comparing open repair to arthroscopic debridement could be pooled. There is weak evidence for the superiority of open repair of rotator cuff

  1. Surgeon-Directed Cost Variation in Isolated Rotator Cuff Repair.

    PubMed

    Terhune, E Bailey; Cannamela, Peter C; Johnson, Jared S; Saad, Charles D; Barnes, John; Silbernagel, Janette; Faciszewski, Thomas; Shea, Kevin G

    2016-12-01

    As value becomes a larger component of heath care decision making, cost data can be evaluated for regional and physician variation. Value is determined by outcome divided by cost, and reducing cost increases value for patients. "Third-party spend" items are individual selections by surgeons used to perform procedures. Cost data for third-party spend items provide surgeons and hospitals with important information regarding care value, potential cost-saving opportunities, and the total cost of ownership of specific clinical decisions. To perform a cost review of isolated rotator cuff repair within a regional 7-hospital system and to document procedure cost variation among operating surgeons. Economic and decision analysis; Level of evidence, 4. Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) codes were used to retrospectively identify subjects who received an isolated rotator cuff repair within a 7-hospital system. Cost data were collected for clinically sensitive third-party spend items and divided into 4 cost groups: (1) suture anchors, (2) suture-passing devices and needles, (3) sutures used for cuff repair, and (4) disposable tools or instruments. A total of 62 isolated rotator cuff repairs were performed by 17 surgeons over a 13-month period. The total cost per case for clinically sensitive third-party spend items (in 2015 US dollars) ranged from $293 to $3752 (mean, $1826). Four surgeons had a mean procedure cost that was higher than the data set mean procedure cost. The cost of an individual suture anchor ranged from $75 to $1775 (mean, $403). One disposable suture passer was used, which cost $140. The cost of passing needles ranged from $140 to $995 (mean, $468). The cost per repair suture (used to repair cuff tears) varied from $18 to $298 (mean, $61). The mean suture (used to close wounds) cost per case was $81 (range, $0-$454). A total of 316 tools or disposable instruments were used, costing $1 to $1573 per case (mean, $624). This study demonstrates significant cost

  2. Muscle gene expression patterns in human rotator cuff pathology.

    PubMed

    Choo, Alexander; McCarthy, Meagan; Pichika, Rajeswari; Sato, Eugene J; Lieber, Richard L; Schenk, Simon; Lane, John G; Ward, Samuel R

    2014-09-17

    Rotator cuff pathology is a common source of shoulder pain with variable etiology and pathoanatomical characteristics. Pathological processes of fatty infiltration, muscle atrophy, and fibrosis have all been invoked as causes for poor outcomes after rotator cuff tear repair. The aims of this study were to measure the expression of key genes associated with adipogenesis, myogenesis, and fibrosis in human rotator cuff muscle after injury and to compare the expression among groups of patients with varied severities of rotator cuff pathology. Biopsies of the supraspinatus muscle were obtained arthroscopically from twenty-seven patients in the following operative groups: bursitis (n = 10), tendinopathy (n = 7), full-thickness rotator cuff tear (n = 8), and massive rotator cuff tear (n = 2). Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was performed to characterize gene expression pathways involved in myogenesis, adipogenesis, and fibrosis. Patients with a massive tear demonstrated downregulation of the fibrogenic, adipogenic, and myogenic genes, indicating that the muscle was not in a state of active change and may have difficulty responding to stimuli. Patients with a full-thickness tear showed upregulation of fibrotic and adipogenic genes; at the tissue level, these correspond to the pathologies most detrimental to outcomes of surgical repair. Patients with bursitis or tendinopathy still expressed myogenic genes, indicating that the muscle may be attempting to accommodate the mechanical deficiencies induced by the tendon tear. Gene expression in human rotator cuff muscles varied according to tendon injury severity. Patients with bursitis and tendinopathy appeared to be expressing pro-myogenic genes, whereas patients with a full-thickness tear were expressing genes associated with fatty atrophy and fibrosis. In contrast, patients with a massive tear appeared to have downregulation of all gene programs except inhibition of myogenesis. These data highlight the

  3. Logic-controlled occlusive cuff system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, J. T.; Hoffler, G. W. (Inventor); Hursta, W. N.

    1981-01-01

    An occlusive cuff system comprises a pressure cuff and a source of regulated compressed gas feeding the cuff through an electrically operated fill valve. An electrically operated vent valve vents the cuff to the ambient pressure. The fill valve is normally closed and the vent valve is normally open. In response to an external start signal, a logic network opens the fill valve and closes the vent valve, thereby starting the pressurization cycle and a timer. A pressure transducer continuously monitors the pressure in the cuff. When the transducer's output equals a selected reference voltage, a comparator causes the logic network to close the fill valve. The timer, after a selected time delay, opens the vent valve to the ambient pressure, thereby ending the pressurization cycle.

  4. [Analysis on risk factors of endotracheal cuff under inflation in mechanically ventilated patients].

    PubMed

    Fu, You; Xi, Xiuming

    2014-12-01

    To investigate the prevalent condition of endotracheal cuff pressure and risk factors for under inflation. A prospective cohort study was conducted. Patients admitted to the Department of Critical Care Medicine of Fuxing Hospital Affiliated to Capital Medical University, who were intubated with a high-volume low-pressure endotracheal tube, and had undergone mechanical ventilation for at least 48 hours, were enrolled. The endotracheal cuff pressure was determined every 8 hours by a manual manometer connected to the distal edge of the valve cuff at 07 : 00, 15 : 00, and 23 : 00. Measurement of the endotracheal cuff pressure was continued until the extubation of endotracheal or tracheostomy tube, or death of the patient. According to the incidence of under inflation of endotracheal cuff, patients were divided into the incidence of under inflation lower than 25% group (lower low cuff pressure group) and higher than 25% group (higher low cuff pressure group). The possible influencing factors were evaluated in the two groups, including body mass index (BMI), size of endotracheal tube, duration of intubation, use of sedative or analgesic, number of leaving from intensive care unit (ICU), the number of turning over the patients, and aspiration of sputum. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine risk factors for under-inflation of the endotracheal cuff. During the study period, 53 patients were enrolled. There were 812 measurements, and 46.3% of them was abnormal, and 204 times (25.1%) of under inflation of endotracheal cuff were found. There were 24 patients (45.3%) in whom the incidence of under inflation rate was higher than 25%. The average of under inflation was 7 (4, 10) times. Compared with the group with lower rate of low cuff pressure, a longer time for intubation was found in group with higher rate of low cuff pressure [hours: 162 (113, 225) vs. 118 (97, 168), Z=-2.034, P=0.042]. There were no differences between the two groups in other factors

  5. Dose-Response Evaluation of Braslet-M Occlusion Cuffs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ebert, Douglas; Garcia, Kathleen; Sargsyan, Ashot E.; Ham, David; Hamilton, Douglas; Dulchavsky, Scott A.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Braslet-M is a set of special elasticized thigh cuffs used by the Russian space agency to reduce the effects of the head-ward fluid shift during early adaptation to microgravity by sequestering fluid in the lower extremities. Currently, no imaging modalities are used in the calibration of the device, and the pressure required to produce a predictable physiological response is unknown. This investigation intends to relate the pressure exerted by the cuffs to the extent of fluid redistribution and commensurate physiological effects. Materials and Methods: Ten healthy subjects with standardized fluid intake participated in the study. Data collection included femoral and internal jugular vein imaging in two orthogonal planes, pulsed Doppler of cervical and femoral vessels and middle cerebral artery, optic nerve imaging, and echocardiography. Braslet-M cuff pressure was monitored at the skin interface using pre-calibrated pressure sensors. Using 6 and 30 head-down tilt in two separate sessions, the effect of Braslet-M was assessed while incrementally tightening the cuffs. Cuffs were then simultaneously released to document the resulting hemodynamic change. Results: Preliminary analysis shows correlation between physical pressure exerted by the Braslet-M device and several parameters such as jugular and femoral vein cross-sections, resistivity of the lower extremity vascular bed, and others. A number of parameters reflect blood redistribution and will be used to determine the therapeutic range of the device and to prevent unsafe application. Conclusion: Braslet-M exerts a physical effect that can be measured and correlated with many changes in central and peripheral hemodynamics. Analysis of the full data set will be required to make definitive recommendations regarding the range of safe therapeutic application. Objective data and subjective responses suggest that a safer and equally effective use of Braslet can be achieved when compared with the current

  6. The 50 Most Cited Articles in Rotator Cuff Repair Research.

    PubMed

    Kraeutler, Matthew J; Freedman, Kevin B; MacLeod, Robert A; Schrock, John B; Tjoumakaris, Fotios P; McCarty, Eric C

    2016-11-01

    Analysis of the number of citations within a given specialty provides information on the classic publications of that specialty. The goals of this study were to identify the 50 most cited articles on rotator cuff repair and to analyze various characteristics of these articles. The ISI Web of Science (Thomson Reuters, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania) was used to conduct a search for the term rotator cuff repair. The 50 most cited articles were retrieved, and the following objective characteristics of each article were recorded: number of times cited, citation density, journal, country of origin, and language. The following subjective characteristics of each article were also recorded: article type (clinical vs basic science), article subtype, and level of evidence for clinical articles. Of the 50 most cited articles on rotator cuff repair, the number of citations ranged from 138 to 677 (mean, 232±133 citations) and citation density ranged from 3.8 to 53.5 citations per year (mean, 16.9±9.2 citations per year). The articles were published between 1974 and 2011, with most of the articles published in the 2000s (29 articles), followed by the 1990s (16 articles). The articles originated from 8 countries, with the United States accounting for 30 articles (60%). Overall, 66% of the articles were clinical and 34% were basic science. The most common article subtype was the clinical case series (48%). Of the 33 clinical articles, 24 (73%) were level IV. Among the 50 most cited articles on rotator cuff repair, the case series was the most common article subtype, showing the effect that publication of preliminary outcomes and new surgical techniques has had on surgeons performing rotator cuff repair. [Orthopedics. 2016; 39(6):e1045-e1051.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  7. Imaging of the Rotator Cuff With Optical Coherence Tomography.

    PubMed

    Hartshorn, Timothy; Ren, Jian; Vangsness, C Thomas

    2015-09-01

    This study evaluated the utility of optical coherence tomography (OCT) in imaging porcine and human rotator cuff (RTC) tissue, analyzed its effectiveness in identifying clinical pathology, and correlated these findings with histologic examination. Twelve human cadaveric and 6 porcine shoulders were evaluated. Six-millimeter-wide bone sections were harvested from the proximal humerus of each specimen, with each containing the entire enthesis of the respective RTC tendon, as well as 2 cm of tendon medial to the enthesis. Only the supraspinatus tendon was evaluated in the human specimens, whereas the enthesis of multiple RTC tendons were evaluated in the porcine model. All specimens were imaged using OCT and correlated with histologic evaluation. Optical coherence tomography evaluation of macroscopically healthy tissue consistently showed an easily identifiable banding pattern (birefringence) in contrast to a disorganized, homogeneous appearance in grossly diseased tissue. Optical coherence tomography was more effective for qualitative evaluation of RTC tissue, identification of bursal-sided RTC tears, and localization of calcific deposits, whereas intrasubstance tendon delaminations and partial articular-sided tendon avulsion lesions were relatively more difficult to identify. Optical coherence tomography correlated well with histologic evaluation in all specimens. Optical coherence tomography provides high-resolution, subsurface imaging of rotator cuff tissue in real-time to a depth of up to 4 mm with excellent correlation to histology in a cadaveric model. Optical coherence tomography could be an effective adjunctive tool for the identification and localization of rotator cuff pathology. The use of OCT in arthroscopic shoulder surgery potentially provides a minimally invasive modality for qualitative assessment of rotator cuff pathology. This may allow for a decrease in soft tissue dissection, improved qualitative assessment of cuff tissue, and improved patient

  8. Hypertrophy of the extra-articular tendon of the long head of biceps correlates with the location and size of a rotator cuff tear.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, N; Sugaya, H; Matsuki, K; Miyauchi, H; Matsumoto, M; Tokai, M; Onishi, K; Hoshika, S; Ueda, Y

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess hypertrophy of the extra-articular tendon of the long head of biceps (LHB) in patients with a rotator cuff tear. The study involved 638 shoulders in 334 patients (175 men, 159 women, mean age 62.6 years; 25 to 81) with unilateral symptomatic rotator cuff tears. The cross-sectional area (CSA) of the LHB tendon in the bicipital groove was measured pre-operatively in both shoulders using ultrasound. There were 154 asymptomatic rotator cuff tears in the contralateral shoulder. Comparisons were made between those with a symptomatic tear, an asymptomatic tear and those with no rotator cuff tear. In the affected shoulders, the CSAs were compared in relation to the location and size of the rotator cuff tear. The mean CSA was 21.0 mm(2) (4 to 71) in those with a symptomatic rotator cuff tear, 19.9 mm(2) (4 to 75) in those with an asymptomatic rotator cuff tear and 14.1 mm(2) (5 to 43) in those with no rotator cuff tear. The mean CSA in patients with both symptomatic and asymptomatic rotator cuff tears was significantly larger than in those with no rotator cuff tear (p < 0.001). In the affected shoulders, there were significant differences between patients with more than a medium sized posterosuperior cuff tear and those with an antero-superior cuff tear. Regardless of the symptoms, there was significant hypertrophy of the extra-articular LHB tendon in patients with a rotator cuff tear. The values were significantly related to the size of the tear. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2017;99-B:806-11. ©2017 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.

  9. Rolling-cuff flexible bellows

    DOEpatents

    Lambert, D.R.

    1982-09-27

    A flexible connector apparatus used to join two stiff non-deformable members, such as piping, is described. The apparatus is provided with one or more flexible sections or assemblies each utilizing a bellows of a rolling cuff type connected between two ridge members, with the bellows being supported by a back-up ring, such that only the curved end sections of the bellows are unsupported. Thus, the bellows can be considered as being of a tube-shaped configuration and thus have high pressure resistance. The components of the flexible apparatus are sealed or welded one to another such that it is fluid tight.

  10. Effect of continuous cuff pressure regulator in general anaesthesia with laryngeal mask airway.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Y-S; Choi, J-W; Jung, H-S; Kim, Y-S; Kim, D-W; Kim, J-H; Lee, J-A

    2011-01-01

    Postoperative pharyngolaryngeal complications (PPLC) occur during anaesthesia due to increased cuff pressure following the insertion of laryngeal mask airways. The use of a pressure regulator to prevent PPLC was evaluated in a prospective, randomized study. Sixty patients scheduled to receive general anaesthesia were randomly assigned to two equal groups of 30, either with or without the regulator. The 'just seal' cuff pressure (JSCP), cuff pressure at 5-min intervals during anaesthesia, incidence of pharyngeal sore throat (PST), dysphagia, dysphonia and other complications were evaluated at 1 and 24 h postoperatively. The combined mean ± SD JSCP of both groups was 20.3 ± 3.2 mmHg. In the group with the regulator, cuff pressure was maintained at a constant level during anaesthesia. This study demonstrated that the regulator is a simple, functional device that can reduce the incidence of PST significantly at 1 h postoperatively, following general anaesthesia.

  11. After rotator cuff tears, the remaining (intact) tendons are mechanically altered.

    PubMed

    Perry, Stephanie M; Getz, Charles L; Soslowsky, Louis J

    2009-01-01

    Although presumed, damage in the remaining (intact) rotator cuff tendons in the presence of an isolated supraspinatus tendon tear or multiple tendon tear has not been well studied. This study used an animal model of multiple rotator cuff tendon tears to investigate alterations in the remaining (intact) tendon mechanical properties at 4 and 8 weeks after injury. Twenty-four rats served as uninjured controls, whereas 72 were divided among 3 tendon detachment groups: supraspinatus tendon detachment, supraspinatus + infraspinatus tendon detachment, and supraspinatus + subscapularis tendon detachment. The remaining (intact) rotator cuff tendons had decreased mechanical properties in the presence of rotator cuff tears. The remaining (intact) subscapularis and infraspinatus tendon cross-sectional areas increased, whereas tendon modulus decreased after tears of both 1 and 2 tendons. The remaining (intact) tendon cross-sectional areas continued to increase with time after injury. These alterations could potentially lead to further tendon damage and tear progression.

  12. Comparison of effects of ProSeal LMA™ laryngeal mask airway cuff inflation with air, oxygen, air:oxygen mixture and oxygen:nitrous oxide mixture in adults: A randomised, double-blind study

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Mona; Sinha, Renu; Trikha, Anjan; Ramachandran, Rashmi; Chandralekha, C

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: Laryngeal mask airway (LMA) cuff pressure increases when the air is used for the cuff inflation during oxygen: nitrous oxide (O2:N2O) anaesthesia, which may lead to various problems. We compared the effects of different gases for ProSeal LMA™ (PLMA) cuff inflation in adult patients for various parameters. Methods: A total of 120 patients were randomly allocated to four groups, according to composition of gases used to inflate the PLMA cuff to achieve 40 cmH2 O cuff pressure, air (Group A), 50% O2 :air (Group OA), 50% O2:N2O (Group ON) and 100% O2 (Group O). Cuff pressure, cuff volume and ventilator parameters were monitored intraoperatively. Pharyngolaryngeal parameters were assessed at 1, 2 and 24 h postoperatively. Statistical analysis was performed using ANOVA, Fisher's exact test and step-wise logistic regression. Results: Cuff pressure significantly increased at 10, 15 and 30 min in Group A, OA and O from initial pressure. Cuff pressure decreased at 5 min in Group ON (36.6 ± 3.5 cmH2 O) (P = 0.42). PLMA cuff volume increased in Group A, OA, O, but decreased in Group ON (6.16 ± 2.8 ml [P < 0.001], 4.7 ± 3.8 ml [P < 0.001], 1.4 ± 3.19 ml [P = 0.023] and − 1.7 ± 4.9 ml [P = 0.064], respectively), from basal levels. Ventilatory parameters were comparable in all four groups. There was no significant association between sore throat and cuff pressure, with odds ratio 1.002. Conclusion: Cuff inflation with 50% O2:N2O mixture provided more stable cuff pressure in comparison to air, O2 :air, 100% O2 during O2:N2O anaesthesia. Ventilatory parameters did not change with variation in PLMA cuff pressure. Post-operative sore throat had no correlation with cuff pressure. PMID:27601739

  13. Tissue Engineering for Rotator Cuff Repair: An Evidence-Based Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Maffulli, Nicola; Longo, Umile Giuseppe; Loppini, Mattia; Berton, Alessandra; Spiezia, Filippo; Denaro, Vincenzo

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this systematic review was to address the treatment of rotator cuff tears by applying tissue engineering approaches to improve tendon healing, specifically platelet rich plasma (PRP) augmentation, stem cells, and scaffolds. Our systematic search was performed using the combination of the following terms: “rotator cuff”, “shoulder”, “PRP”, “platelet rich plasma”, “stemcells”, “scaffold”, “growth factors”, and “tissue engineering”. No level I or II studies were found on the use of scaffolds and stem cells for rotator cuff repair. Three studies compared rotator cuff repair with or without PRP augmentation. All authors performed arthroscopic rotator cuff repair with different techniques of suture anchor fixation and different PRP augmentation. The three studies found no difference in clinical rating scales and functional outcomes between PRP and control groups. Only one study showed clinical statistically significant difference between the two groups at the 3-month follow up. Any statistically significant difference in the rates of tendon rerupture between the control group and the PRP group was found using the magnetic resonance imaging. The current literature on tissue engineering application for rotator cuff repair is scanty. Comparative studies included in this review suggest that PRP augmented repair of a rotator cuff does not yield improved functional and clinical outcome compared with non-augmented repair at a medium and long-term followup. PMID:25098365

  14. [Analysis of compliance of 2 prevention measures for ventilator-associated pneumonia (raised head of bed and cuff pressure control)].

    PubMed

    del Cotillo Fuente, M; Valls Matarín, J

    2014-01-01

    To quantify the hours of mechanical ventilation in patients with head of bed elevation≥30°. Determining compliance of cuff measurement every 6h. Descriptive longitudinal study. Measured: time head of bed elevation≥30°, <30° and reasons for non compliance, as well as cuff control every 6h. One hundred and seventy-two records of head of bed elevation and 584 of cuff pressure. Daily average head<30° for care or procedures: 2h (1h19'). The theoretical average number of hours that patients should remain at≥30° was 21h15' (3h) and actual 14h (5h) (P<.001). Registration of cuff was 76,7%. Cuffs between 20-30cmH2O were 75.9%. The 20% of cuff pressure were measured every 6h<20cmH2O and 33.7% when the interval was higher (P=.04). A third of the day patients are<30° without justification. Cuff pressure registration and percentage of therapeutic range are high. Control every 6h decreases the cuff with pressure<20cmH2O. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEEIUC. All rights reserved.

  15. [Continuous cuff pressure measurement during laryngeal mask anesthesia : An obligatory measure to avoid postoperative complications].

    PubMed

    Hensel, M; Güldenpfennig, T; Schmidt, A; Krumm, M

    2016-05-01

    Inflation of laryngeal masks is often performed only with regard to the clinical impression and without any objective measurement of cuff pressure. As a result the use of laryngeal masks frequently leads to postoperative complications, such as sore throat, dysphonia, dysphagia and nerve palsy. In this study the influence of continuous measurement of cuff pressure on the incidence of postoperative sore throat was investigated in patients who underwent laryngeal mask anesthesia. In the context of a retrospective audit all patients who underwent laryngeal mask anesthesia were asked to complete a questionnaire on anesthesia. The primary endpoint of the study was the postoperative occurrence of a sore throat. For analysis the patients were divided into two groups. In the first group the cuff pressure was controlled only by clinical means and in the second group the cuff pressure was controlled using continuous manometry. The study covered a 10-month period of observation for each group. During the observation period laryngeal mask anesthesia was performed in 4169 patients. Of these 917 patients (manometry group n = 433 and control group n = 484) voluntarily completed the questionnaire. In the group without cuff pressure measurement 36 % of patients complained of sore throat postoperatively but only 12 % of the patients in the group with cuff pressure measurement (p < 0.001). Postoperative nausea and vomiting occurred in 16 % of the patients and 13 % complained of severe pain in the area of the operation. No differences between the two groups were found. While 97 % of patients in the group with continuous measurement of cuff pressure were satisfied with the anesthesia, this applied to only 79 % of patients in the control group (p = 0.006). In terms of the results of this study and with respect to data from the literature, measurement of cuff pressure should be compulsory during laryngeal mask anesthesia.

  16. Rotator cuff tears after total shoulder arthroplasty in primary osteoarthritis: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Levy, David M.; Abrams, Geoffrey D.; Harris, Joshua D.; Bach, Bernard R.; Nicholson, Gregory P.; Romeo, Anthony A.

    2016-01-01

    Rotator cuff tears have been reported to be uncommon following total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA). Postoperative rotator cuff tears can lead to pain, proximal humeral migration, and glenoid component loosening. The purpose of this paper was to evaluate the incidence of post-TSA rotator cuff tears or dysfunction in osteoarthritic patients. A systematic review of multiple databases was performed using preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses guidelines. Levels I-IV evidence clinical studies of patients with primary osteoarthritis with a minimum 2-year follow-up were included. Fifteen studies with 1259 patients (1338 shoulders) were selected. Student's t-tests were used with a significant alpha value of 0.05. All patients demonstrated significant improvements in motion and validated clinical outcome scores (P < 0.001). Radiographic humeral head migration was the most commonly reported data point for extrapolation of rotator cuff integrity. After 6.6 ± 3.1 years, 29.9 ± 20.7% of shoulders demonstrated superior humeral head migration and 17.9 ± 14.3% migrated a distance more than 25% of the head. This was associated with an 11.3 ± 7.9% incidence of postoperative superior cuff tears. The incidence of radiographic anterior humeral head migration was 11.9 ± 15.9%, corresponding to a 3.0 ± 13.6% rate of subscapularis tears. We found an overall 1.2 ± 4.5% rate of reoperation for cuff injury. Nearly all studies reported indirect markers of rotator cuff dysfunction, such as radiographic humeral head migration and clinical exam findings. This systematic review suggests that rotator cuff dysfunction following TSA may be more common than previously reported. IV, systematic review of Levels I-IV studies. PMID:27186060

  17. In Vivo Shoulder Function After Surgical Repair of a Torn Rotator Cuff

    PubMed Central

    Bey, Michael J.; Peltz, Cathryn D.; Ciarelli, Kristin; Kline, Stephanie K.; Divine, George W.; van Holsbeeck, Marnix; Muh, Stephanie; Kolowich, Patricia A.; Lock, Terrence R.; Moutzouros, Vasilios

    2015-01-01

    Background Surgical repair of a torn rotator cuff is based on the belief that repairing the tear is necessary to restore normal glenohumeral joint (GHJ) mechanics and achieve a satisfactory clinical outcome. Hypothesis Dynamic joint function is not completely restored by rotator cuff repair, thus compromising shoulder function and potentially leading to long-term disability. Study Design Controlled laboratory study and Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Methods Twenty-one rotator cuff patients and 35 control participants enrolled in the study. Biplane radiographic images were acquired bilaterally from each patient during coronal-plane abduction. Rotator cuff patients were tested at 3, 12, and 24 months after repair of a supraspinatus tendon tear. Control participants were tested once. Glenohumeral joint kinematics and joint contact patterns were accurately determined from the biplane radiographic images. Isometric shoulder strength and patient-reported outcomes were measured at each time point. Ultrasound imaging assessed rotator cuff integrity at 24 months after surgery. Results Twenty of 21 rotator cuff repairs appeared intact at 24 months after surgery. The humerus of the patients’ repaired shoulder was positioned more superiorly on the glenoid than both the patients’ contralateral shoulder and the dominant shoulder of control participants. Patient-reported outcomes improved significantly over time. Shoulder strength also increased over time, although strength deficits persisted at 24 months for most patients. Changes over time in GHJ mechanics were not detected for either the rotator cuff patients’ repaired or contralateral shoulders. Clinical outcome was associated with shoulder strength but not GHJ mechanics. Conclusion Surgical repair of an isolated supraspinatus tear may be sufficient to keep the torn rotator cuff intact and achieve satisfactory patient-reported outcomes, but GHJ mechanics and shoulder strength are not fully restored with current

  18. Endotracheal Tube Cuff Pressures in Patients Intubated Prior to Helicopter EMS Transport

    PubMed Central

    Tennyson, Joseph; Ford-Webb, Tucker; Weisberg, Stacy; LeBlanc, Donald

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Endotracheal intubation is a common intervention in critical care patients undergoing helicopter emergency medical services (HEMS) transportation. Measurement of endotracheal tube (ETT) cuff pressures is not common practice in patients referred to our service. Animal studies have demonstrated an association between the pressure of the ETT cuff on the tracheal mucosa and decreased blood flow leading to mucosal ischemia and scarring. Cuff pressures greater than 30 cmH2O impede mucosal capillary blood flow. Multiple prior studies have recommended 30 cmH2O as the maximum safe cuff inflation pressure. This study sought to evaluate the inflation pressures in ETT cuffs of patients presenting to HEMS. Methods We enrolled a convenience sample of patients presenting to UMass Memorial LifeFlight who were intubated by the sending facility or emergency medical services (EMS) agency. Flight crews measured the ETT cuff pressures using a commercially available device. Those patients intubated by the flight crew were excluded from this analysis as the cuff was inflated with the manometer to a standardized pressure. Crews logged the results on a research form, and we analyzed the data using Microsoft Excel and an online statistical analysis tool. Results We analyzed data for 55 patients. There was a mean age of 57 years (range 18–90). The mean ETT cuff pressure was 70 (95% CI= [61–80]) cmH2O. The mean lies 40 cmH2O above the maximum accepted value of 30 cmH2O (p<0.0001). Eighty-four percent (84%) of patients encountered had pressures above the recommended maximum. The most frequently recorded pressure was >120 cmH2O, the maximum pressure on the analog gauge. Conclusion Patients presenting to HEMS after intubation by the referral agency (EMS or hospital) have ETT cuffs inflated to pressures that are, on average, more than double the recommended maximum. These patients are at risk for tracheal mucosal injury and scarring from decreased mucosal capillary blood flow

  19. Endotracheal Tube Cuff Pressures in Patients Intubated Prior to Helicopter EMS Transport.

    PubMed

    Tennyson, Joseph; Ford-Webb, Tucker; Weisberg, Stacy; LeBlanc, Donald

    2016-11-01

    Endotracheal intubation is a common intervention in critical care patients undergoing helicopter emergency medical services (HEMS) transportation. Measurement of endotracheal tube (ETT) cuff pressures is not common practice in patients referred to our service. Animal studies have demonstrated an association between the pressure of the ETT cuff on the tracheal mucosa and decreased blood flow leading to mucosal ischemia and scarring. Cuff pressures greater than 30 cmH2O impede mucosal capillary blood flow. Multiple prior studies have recommended 30 cmH2O as the maximum safe cuff inflation pressure. This study sought to evaluate the inflation pressures in ETT cuffs of patients presenting to HEMS. We enrolled a convenience sample of patients presenting to UMass Memorial LifeFlight who were intubated by the sending facility or emergency medical services (EMS) agency. Flight crews measured the ETT cuff pressures using a commercially available device. Those patients intubated by the flight crew were excluded from this analysis as the cuff was inflated with the manometer to a standardized pressure. Crews logged the results on a research form, and we analyzed the data using Microsoft Excel and an online statistical analysis tool. We analyzed data for 55 patients. There was a mean age of 57 years (range 18-90). The mean ETT cuff pressure was 70 (95% CI= [61-80]) cmH2O. The mean lies 40 cmH2O above the maximum accepted value of 30 cmH2O (p<0.0001). Eighty-four percent (84%) of patients encountered had pressures above the recommended maximum. The most frequently recorded pressure was >120 cmH2O, the maximum pressure on the analog gauge. Patients presenting to HEMS after intubation by the referral agency (EMS or hospital) have ETT cuffs inflated to pressures that are, on average, more than double the recommended maximum. These patients are at risk for tracheal mucosal injury and scarring from decreased mucosal capillary blood flow. Hospital and EMS providers should use ETT cuff

  20. Identification of a genetic variant associated with rotator cuff repair healing.

    PubMed

    Tashjian, Robert Z; Granger, Erin K; Zhang, Yue; Teerlink, Craig C; Cannon-Albright, Lisa A

    2016-06-01

    A familial and genetic predisposition for the development of rotator cuff tearing has been identified. The purpose of this study was to determine if a familial predisposition exists for healing after rotator cuff repair and if the reported significant association with a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the ESRRB gene is present in patients who fail to heal. The study recruited 72 patients undergoing arthroscopic rotator cuff repair for a full-thickness posterosuperior tear. Magnetic resonance imaging studies were performed at a minimum of 1 year postoperatively (average, 2.6 years). Healing failures were classified as lateral or medial. Self-reported family history of rotator cuff tearing data and genome-wide genotypes were available. Characteristics of cases with and without a family history of rotator cuff tearing were compared, and a comparison of the frequency of SNP 1758384 (in ESRRB) was performed between patients who healed and those who failed to heal. Of the rotator cuff repairs, 42% failed to heal; 42% of patients reported a family history of rotator cuff tear. Multivariate regression analysis showed a significant association between familiality and overall healing failure (medial and lateral failures) (P = .036) and lateral failures independently (P = .006). An increased risk for the presence of a rare allele for SNP rs17583842 was present in lateral failures compared with those that healed (P = .005). Individuals with a family history of rotator cuff tearing were more likely to have repair failures. Significant association of a SNP variant in the ESRRB gene was also observed with lateral failure. Copyright © 2016 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of sodium hyaluronate/carboxymethyl cellulose (Guardix-sol) on retear rate and postoperative stiffness in arthroscopic rotator cuff repair patients: A prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Jeung Yeol; Chung, Pill Ku; Yoo, Jae Chul

    2017-01-01

    Hyaluronate-based anti-adhesive agents are expected to enhance rotator cuff healing; however, their effect on the incidence and extent of postoperative complications such as stiffness and retears has not been investigated. From July 2012 to February 2013, 80 patients undergoing arthroscopic rotator cuff repair surgery were prospectively enrolled. Forty patients were assigned to the control group, while the other 40 were assigned to the injection group and received a Guardix-sol injection immediately after surgery. Passive range of motion, pain visual analog scale, and functional score were assessed at 8 weeks, 6 months, and 24 months postoperatively. Gliding motion between the deltoid muscle and the greater tuberosity of the proximal humerus was evaluated using ultrasonography at 2 and 8 weeks postoperatively, and tendon integrity was evaluated using magnetic resonance imaging at 6 months postoperatively. We found no significant difference between the groups regarding gliding motion at 2 weeks postoperatively. However, at 8 weeks, the incidence of poor gliding motion was 2.5% and 15% for the injected patients and control group, respectively, which was statistically significant. At 6 months after surgery, the retear rate between the two groups was not statistically significant. We found no statistically significant difference between the two groups regarding retear rate and clinical score throughout the follow-up period. We noted no complications related to the use of Guardix-sol. Patients who received the Guardix-sol injection showed improved gliding motion between the deltoid muscle and the greater tuberosity in the early postoperative period.

  2. PARot--assessing platelet-rich plasma plus arthroscopic subacromial decompression in the treatment of rotator cuff tendinopathy: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Carr, Andrew; Cooper, Cushla; Murphy, Richard; Watkins, Bridget; Wheway, Kim; Rombach, Ines; Beard, David

    2013-06-11

    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is an autologous platelet concentrate. It is prepared by separating the platelet fraction of whole blood from patients and mixing it with an agent to activate the platelets. In a clinical setting, PRP may be reapplied to the patient to improve and hasten the healing of tissue. The therapeutic effect is based on the presence of growth factors stored in the platelets. Current evidence in orthopedics shows that PRP applications can be used to accelerate bone and soft tissue regeneration following tendon injuries and arthroplasty. Outcomes include decreased inflammation, reduced blood loss and post-treatment pain relief. Recent shoulder research indicates there is poor vascularization present in the area around tendinopathies and this possibly prevents full healing capacity post surgery (Am J Sports Med36(6):1171-1178, 2008). Although it is becoming popular in other areas of orthopedics there is little evidence regarding the use of PRP for shoulder pathologies. The application of PRP may help to revascularize the area and consequently promote tendon healing. Such evidence highlights an opportunity to explore the efficacy of PRP use during arthroscopic shoulder surgery for rotator cuff pathologies. PARot is a single center, blinded superiority-type randomized controlled trial assessing the clinical outcomes of PRP applications in patients who undergo shoulder surgery for rotator cuff disease. Patients will be randomized to one of the following treatment groups: arthroscopic subacromial decompression surgery or arthroscopic subacromial decompression surgery with application of PRP. Current Controlled Trials: ISRCTN10464365.

  3. [Cuff pressure control at the intersinve care unit: influence of nursing professionals' training].

    PubMed

    Velasco Sanz, T R; Ronda Delgado de la Fuente, M; Sánchez de la Ventana, A B; Reyes Merino Martínez, M

    2015-01-01

    To analyze proper control of endotracheal cuff pressure in an intensive care unit. The specific objective is to verify whether training of nursing professionals improves monitoring endotracheal cuff pressure. the study type is descriptive, observational and retrospective. All patients were admitted to the Critical Unit II of the Clínico San Carlos Hospital between May 2010-November 2011, requiring either a tracheal tube or tracheal cannula. Studied variables were: number of in range measures, number of intubated patients, or with tracheal cannula and register. Four cuts were made on all admitted patients admitted during the study period in order to measure endotracheal cuff pressure. Two cuts were performed before the professional nurses training and the other two cuts after a specific training with respect to endotracheal cuff pressure and Zero pneumonia. There were 74 measurements. The first cut obtained 40.74% of measures in range. In the second cut 61.90% of measures were identified in range. In the third cut, it was found that 85.7% of measures were in range and in the fourth court, it was noted the 89.47% of measures were in range. Monitoring of the endotracheal cuff pressure was inadequate before specific training of professionals. Nursing professionals training facilitates the correct measurement of the endotracheal cuff pressure, which improves patient safety. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEEIUC. All rights reserved.

  4. Relationship between massive chronic rotator cuff tear pattern and loss of active shoulder range of motion.

    PubMed

    Collin, Philippe; Matsumura, Noboru; Lädermann, Alexandre; Denard, Patrick J; Walch, Gilles

    2014-08-01

    Management of massive chronic rotator cuff tears remains controversial, with no clearly defined clinical presentation as yet. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effect of tear size and location on active motion in patients with chronic and massive rotator cuff tears with severe muscle degeneration. One hundred patients with massive rotator cuff tears accompanied by muscle fatty infiltration beyond Goutallier stage 3 were prospectively included in this study. All patients were divided into 5 groups on the basis of tear pattern (supraspinatus, superior subscapularis, inferior subscapularis, infraspinatus, and teres minor). Active range of shoulder motion was assessed in each group and differences were analyzed. Active elevation was significantly decreased in patients with 3 tear patterns involved. Pseudoparalysis was found in 80% of the cases with supraspinatus and complete subscapularis tears and in 45% of the cases with tears involving the supraspinatus, infraspinatus, and superior subscapularis. Loss of active external rotation was related to tears involving the infraspinatus and teres minor; loss of active internal rotation was related to tears of the subscapularis. This study revealed that dysfunction of the entire subscapularis and supraspinatus or 3 rotator cuff muscles is a risk factor for pseudoparalysis. For function to be preserved in patients with massive chronic rotator cuff tears, it may be important to avoid fatty infiltration with anterior extension into the lower subscapularis or involvement of more than 2 rotator cuff muscles. Copyright © 2014 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Evaluation of the Risk Factors for a Rotator Cuff Retear After Repair Surgery.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yeong Seok; Jeong, Jeung Yeol; Park, Chan-Deok; Kang, Seung Gyoon; Yoo, Jae Chul

    2017-07-01

    A retear is a significant clinical problem after rotator cuff repair. However, no study has evaluated the retear rate with regard to the extent of footprint coverage. To evaluate the preoperative and intraoperative factors for a retear after rotator cuff repair, and to confirm the relationship with the extent of footprint coverage. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Data were retrospectively collected from 693 patients who underwent arthroscopic rotator cuff repair between January 2006 and December 2014. All repairs were classified into 4 types of completeness of repair according to the amount of footprint coverage at the end of surgery. All patients underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) after a mean postoperative duration of 5.4 months. Preoperative demographic data, functional scores, range of motion, and global fatty degeneration on preoperative MRI and intraoperative variables including the tear size, completeness of rotator cuff repair, concomitant subscapularis repair, number of suture anchors used, repair technique (single-row or transosseous-equivalent double-row repair), and surgical duration were evaluated. Furthermore, the factors associated with failure using the single-row technique and transosseous-equivalent double-row technique were analyzed separately. The retear rate was 7.22%. Univariate analysis revealed that rotator cuff retears were affected by age; the presence of inflammatory arthritis; the completeness of rotator cuff repair; the initial tear size; the number of suture anchors; mean operative time; functional visual analog scale scores; Simple Shoulder Test findings; American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons scores; and fatty degeneration of the supraspinatus, infraspinatus, and subscapularis. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed patient age, initial tear size, and fatty degeneration of the supraspinatus as independent risk factors for a rotator cuff retear. Multivariate logistic regression analysis of the single-row group

  6. Optimizing the design of bipolar nerve cuff electrodes for improved recording of peripheral nerve activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabetian, Parisa; Popovic, Milos R.; Yoo, Paul B.

    2017-06-01

    Objective. Differential measurement of efferent and afferent peripheral nerve activity offers a promising means of improving the clinical utility of implantable neuroprostheses. The tripolar nerve cuff electrode has historically served as the gold standard for achieving high signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) of the recordings. However, the symmetrical geometry of this electrode array (i.e. electrically-shorted side contacts) precludes it from measuring electrical signals that can be used to obtain directional information. In this study, we investigated the feasibility of using a bipolar nerve cuff electrode to achieve high-SNR of peripheral nerve activity. Approach. A finite element model was implemented to investigate the effects of electrode design parameters—electrode length, electrode edge length (EEL), and a conductive shielding layer (CSL)—on simulated single fiber action potentials (SFAP) and also artifact noise signals (ANS). Main results. Our model revealed that the EEL was particularly effective in increasing the peak-to-peak amplitude of the SFAP (319%) and reducing the common mode ANS (67%) of the bipolar cuff electrode. By adding a CSL to the bipolar cuff electrode, the SNR was found to be 65.2% greater than that of a conventional tripolar cuff electrode. In vivo experiments in anesthetized rats confirmed that a bipolar cuff electrode can achieve a SNR that is 38% greater than that achieved by a conventional tripolar cuff electrode (p  <  0.05). Significance. The current study showed that bipolar nerve cuff electrodes can be designed to achieve SNR levels that are comparable to that of tripolar configuration. Further work is needed to confirm that these bipolar design parameters can be used to record bi-directional neural activity in a physiological setting.

  7. Changes in pennation angle in rotator cuff muscles with torn tendons.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Jianlin; Sano, Hirotaka; Itoi, Eiji

    2012-01-01

    Although several authors have reported on the pennation angles of intact rotator cuff muscles, the relationship between their alteration and rotator cuff tears has not been fully clarified. The purpose of this study was to measure the pennation angles of human cadaveric rotator cuff muscles with torn tendons. Twenty embalmed cadaveric shoulders were studied. Ten shoulders with various types of rotator cuff tears (tear group) were compared with ten shoulders that had intact rotator cuff tendons (control group). In seven shoulders with full-thickness tears, the area of the tear was determined by multiplying its length and width. After removing the muscles from the scapula, the superficial muscle fibers of each muscle were removed layer by layer until the entire intramuscular tendon was exposed. Photographs were taken and the pennation angles were then measured on digital images. The correlation between the size of the tear and the pennation angles of the supraspinatus and the infraspinatus muscles were determined statistically. The pennation angles of the supraspinatus and infraspinatus muscles in the tear group were significantly greater than those in the control group (P = 0.027 and 0.007, respectively). In seven shoulders with full-thickness rotator cuff tears, a positive correlation was found between the pennation angle of the supraspinatus muscle and the tear length (r = 0.854, P = 0.014). Moreover, a positive correlation was found between the pennation angle of the infraspinatus muscle and the tear area (r = 0.759, P = 0.048). On the other hand, the pennation angle was not affected by the presence of the partial-thickness tears in the remaining three shoulders. In rotator cuff tears, the pennation angles of the involved rotator cuff muscles increased with increasing size of the tear.

  8. Bone density of the greater tuberosity is decreased in rotator cuff disease with and without full-thickness tears.

    PubMed

    Waldorff, Erik I; Lindner, James; Kijek, Theresa G; Downie, Brian K; Hughes, Richard E; Carpenter, James E; Miller, Bruce S

    2011-09-01

    Despite the high prevalence of rotator cuff disease in the aging adult population, the basic mechanisms initiating the disease are not known. It is known that changes occur at both the bone and tendon after rotator cuff tears. However, no study has focused on early or "pretear" rotator cuff disease states. The purpose of this study was to compare the bone mineral density of the greater tuberosity in normal subjects with that in subjects with impingement syndrome and full-thickness rotator cuff tears. Digital anteroposterior shoulder radiographs were obtained for 3 sex- and age-matched study groups (men, 40-70 years old): normal asymptomatic shoulders (control), rotator cuff disease without full-thickness tears (impingement), and full-thickness rotator cuff tears (n = 39 per group). By use of imaging software, bone mineral densities were determined for the greater tuberosity, the greater tuberosity cortex, the greater tuberosity subcortex, and the cancellous region of the humeral head. The bone mineral density of the greater tuberosity was significantly higher for the normal control subjects compared with subjects with impingement or rotator cuff tears. No differences were found between the two groups of patients with known rotator cuff disease. The greater tuberosity cortex and greater tuberosity subcortex outcome measures were similar. Bone mineral changes are present in the greater tuberosity of shoulders with rotator cuff disease both with and without full-thickness tears. The finding of focal diminished bone mineral density of the greater tuberosity in the absence of rotator cuff tears warrants further investigation. Copyright © 2011 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The effect of diabetes, hyperlipidemia, and statins on the development of rotator cuff disease: a nationwide, 11-year, longitudinal, population-based follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Lin, Tony Tung-Liang; Lin, Ching-Heng; Chang, Chia-Li; Chi, Chun-Han; Chang, Shin-Tsu; Sheu, Wayne Huey-Herng

    2015-09-01

    The intrinsic risk factors of rotator cuff disease (RCD) include degeneration, inflammation, oxidative stress, and circulation impairment. Both diabetes and hyperlipidemia are thought to increase these risk factors and therefore potentially enhance RCD development. However, few studies, and few longitudinal follow-up studies in particular, exist to prove this. Both diabetes and hyperlipidemia can increase a patient's risk of developing RCD. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. A total of 498,678 participants, including 28,391 diagnosed with diabetes and 25,621 with hyperlipidemia in the year 2000, were followed for an 11-year period. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards models were used to explore the effect of (1) diabetes, (2) hyperlipidemia, (3) diabetes with/without insulin use, and (4) hyperlipidemia with/without statin use on the development of RCD. In the subgroup of patients with hyperlipidemia, multivariate Cox proportional hazards models were also performed to explore the relationship between statin use and RCD development. During an 11-year follow-up period, 26,664 patients developed RCD. The crude hazard ratio (HR) for RCD in patients with diabetes as compared with those without diabetes was 2.11 (95% CI, 2.02-2.20; P < .0001). The crude HR for RCD in patients with hyperlipidemia as compared with those without hyperlipidemia was 2.00 (95% CI, 1.92-2.08; P < .0001). Multivariate Cox proportional hazards analysis revealed that, in addition to older age and female sex, both diabetes and hyperlipidemia increased the risk of RCD (diabetes: HR, 1.47 [95% CI, 1.41-1.54]; P < .0001) (hyperlipidemia: HR, 1.48 [95% CI, 1.42-1.55]; P < .0001). An elevated risk still existed in patients with diabetes with/without insulin use (diabetes with insulin use: HR, 1.43 [95% CI, 1.35-1.51]; P < .0001) (diabetes without insulin use: HR, 1.64 [95% CI, 1.53-1.75]; P < .0001). An increased risk also existed in patients with hyperlipidemia with/without statin use (hyperlipidemia

  10. Correlation Between Endotracheal Tube Cuff Pressure and Tracheal Wall Pressure Using Air and Saline Filled Cuffs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-01-31

    AFRL-SA-WP-SR-2017-0004 Correlation Between Endotracheal Tube Cuff Pressure and Tracheal Wall Pressure Using Air - and Saline-Filled... Air Force Research Laboratory 711th Human Performance Wing U.S. Air Force School of Aerospace Medicine Aeromedical Research Department 2510 Fifth...Correlation Between Endotracheal Tube Cuff Pressure and Tracheal Wall Pressure Using Air - and Saline-Filled Cuffs 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA8650-14

  11. [Rotator cuff repair: single- vs double-row. Clinical and biomechanical results].

    PubMed

    Baums, M H; Kostuj, T; Klinger, H-M; Papalia, R

    2016-02-01

    The goal of rotator cuff repair is a high initial mechanical stability as a requirement for adequate biological recovery of the tendon-to-bone complex. Notwithstanding the significant increase in publications concerning the topic of rotator cuff repair, there are still controversies regarding surgical technique. The aim of this work is to present an overview of the recently published results of biomechanical and clinical studies on rotator cuff repair using single- and double-row techniques. The review is based on a selective literature research of PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Database on the subject of the clinical and biomechanical results of single- and double-row repair. In general, neither the biomechanical nor the clinical evidence can recommend the use of a double-row concept for the treatment for every rotator cuff tear. Only tears of more than 3 cm seem to benefit from better results on both imaging and in clinical outcome studies compared with the use of single-row techniques. Despite a significant increase in publications on the surgical treatment of rotator cuff tears in recent years, the clinical results were not significantly improved in the literature so far. Unique information and algorithms, from which the optimal treatment of this entity can be derived, are still inadequate. Because of the cost-effectiveness and the currently vague evidence, the double-row techniques cannot be generally recommended for the repair of all rotator cuff tears.

  12. Preoperative and post-operative sleep quality evaluation in rotator cuff tear patients.

    PubMed

    Serbest, Sancar; Tiftikçi, Uğur; Askın, Aydogan; Yaman, Ferda; Alpua, Murat

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the potential relationship between subjective sleep quality and degree of pain in patients with rotator cuff repair. Thirty-one patients who underwent rotator cuff repair prospectively completed the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, the Western Ontario Rotator Cuff Index, and the Constant and Murley shoulder scores before surgery and at 6 months after surgery. Preoperative demographic, clinical, and radiologic parameters were also evaluated. The study analysed 31 patients with a median age of 61 years. There was a significant difference preoperatively versus post-operatively in terms of all PSQI global scores and subdivisions (p < 0.001). A statistically significant improvement was determined by the Western Ontario Rotator Cuff Scale and the Constant and Murley shoulder scores (p ˂ 0.001). Sleep disorders are commonly seen in patients with rotator cuff tear, and after repair, there is an increase in the quality of sleep with a parallel improvement in shoulder functions. However, no statistically significant correlation was determined between arthroscopic procedures and the size of the tear and sleep quality. It is suggested that rotator cuff tear repair improves the quality of sleep and the quality of life. IV.

  13. Outcomes assessment in rotator cuff pathology: what are we measuring?

    PubMed

    Makhni, Eric C; Steinhaus, Michael E; Morrow, Zachary S; Jobin, Charles M; Verma, Nikhil N; Cole, Brian J; Bach, Bernard R

    2015-12-01

    Assessments used to measure outcomes associated with rotator cuff pathology and after repair are varied. This lack of standardization leads to difficulty drawing comparisons across studies. We hypothesize that this variability in patient-reported outcome measures and objective metrics used in rotator cuff studies persists even in high-impact, peer reviewed journals. All studies assessing rotator cuff tear and repair outcomes in 6 orthopedic journals with a high impact factor from January 2010 to December 2014 were reviewed. Cadaveric and animal studies and those without outcomes were excluded. Outcome measures included range of motion (forward elevation, abduction, external rotation, and internal rotation), strength (in the same 4 planes), tendon integrity imaging, patient satisfaction, and functional assessment scores. Of the 156 included studies, 63% documented range of motion measurements, with 18% reporting range of motion in all 4 planes. Only 38% of studies reported quantitative strength measurements. In 65% of studies, tendon integrity was documented with imaging (38% magnetic resonance imaging/magnetic resonance anrhrogram, 31% ultrasound, and 8% computed tomography arthrogram). Finally, functional score reporting varied significantly, with the 5 most frequently reported scores ranging from 16% to 61% in studies, and 15 of the least reported outcomes were each reported in ≤6% of studies. Significant variability exists in outcomes reporting after rotator cuff tear and repair, making comparisons between clinical studies difficult. Creating a uniformly accepted, validated outcomes tool that assesses pain, function, patient satisfaction, and anatomic integrity would enable consistent outcomes assessment after operative and nonoperative management and allow comparisons across the literature. Copyright © 2015 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The development of confocal arthroscopy as optical histology for rotator cuff tendinopathy.

    PubMed

    Wu, J-P; Walton, M; Wang, A; Anderson, P; Wang, T; Kirk, T B; Zheng, M H

    2015-09-01

    MRI, ultrasound and video arthroscopy are traditional imaging technologies for noninvasive or minimal invasive assessment of the rotator cuff tendon pathology. However, these imaging modalities do not have sufficient resolution to demonstrate the pathology of rotator cuff tendons at a microstructural level. Therefore, they are insensitive to low-level tendon diseases. Although traditional histology can be used to analyze the physiology of rotator cuff tendons, it requires biopsy that traumatizes the rotator cuff, thus, potentially comprising the mechanical properties of tendons. Besides, it cannot offer real-time histological information. Confocal endoscopy offers a way to assess the microstructural disorder in tissues without biopsy. However, the application of this useful technique for detecting low-level tendon diseases has been restricted by using clinical grade fluorescent contrast agent to acquire high-resolution microstructural images of tendons. In this study, using a clinical grade sodium fluorescein contrast agent, we have reported the development of confocal arthroscopy for optical histological assessment without biopsy. The confocal arthroscopic technique was able to demonstrate rotator cuff tendinopathy in human cadavers, which appeared macroscopically normal under video arthroscopic examinations. The tendinopathy status of the rotator cuff tendons was confirmed by corresponding traditional histology. The development of confocal arthroscopy may provide a minimally invasive imaging technique for real-time histology of rotator cuff without the need for tissue biopsy. This technique has the potential for surgeons to gain in real time the histological information of rotator cuff tendons, which may assist planning repair strategies and potentially improve intervention outcomes. © 2015 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2015 Royal Microscopical Society.

  15. The impact of faulty posture on rotator cuff tears with and without symptoms.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Atsushi; Takagishi, Kenji; Kobayashi, Tsutomu; Shitara, Hitoshi; Ichinose, Tsuyoshi; Takasawa, Eiji; Shimoyama, Daisuke; Osawa, Toshihisa

    2015-03-01

    We hypothesized that the prevalence of rotator cuff tears would be higher among individuals with poor posture, regardless of the presence of symptoms. The study initially comprised 525 residents of a mountain village who participated in an annual health check. Participants completed a background questionnaire, and physical examinations were performed to evaluate shoulder function. Ultrasonographic examinations were also performed to identify rotator cuff tears, and participants were grouped according to the presence or absence of tears. Posture was classified by 2 observers into 4 types according to the classification of Kendall, as follows: ideal alignment, kyphotic-lordotic posture, flat-back posture, and sway-back posture. Univariate analyses were performed to compare differences in background characteristics between groups, then multivariate analysis was performed to identify those factors associated with rotator cuff tears. Final analysis was performed for 379 participants (135 men, 244 women; mean age, 62.0 years; range, 31-94 years) showing the same posture classification from both observers. Of these, 93 (24.5%) showed rotator cuff tear in one shoulder and 45 (11.9%) showed tears in both. Prevalence of rotator cuff tears was 2.9% with ideal alignment, 65.8% with kyphotic-lordotic posture, 54.3% with flat-back posture, and 48.9% with sway-back posture. Logistic regression analysis identified increased age, abnormal posture, and past pain as factors associated with rotator cuff tears. Postural abnormality represented an independent predictor of both symptomatic and asymptomatic rotator cuff tears. These results may help define preventive measures for rotator cuff tears and in design ing rehabilitation therapies for shoulder disease. Copyright © 2015 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Diagnostic accuracy of clinical examination features for identifying large rotator cuff tears in primary health care

    PubMed Central

    Cadogan, Angela; McNair, Peter; Laslett, Mark; Hing, Wayne; Taylor, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Rotator cuff tears are a common and disabling complaint. The early diagnosis of medium and large size rotator cuff tears can enhance the prognosis of the patient. The aim of this study was to identify clinical features with the strongest ability to accurately predict the presence of a medium, large or multitendon (MLM) rotator cuff tear in a primary care cohort. Methods: Participants were consecutively recruited from primary health care practices (n = 203). All participants underwent a standardized history and physical examination, followed by a standardized X-ray series and diagnostic ultrasound scan. Clinical features associated with the presence of a MLM rotator cuff tear were identified (P<0.200), a logistic multiple regression model was derived for identifying a MLM rotator cuff tear and thereafter diagnostic accuracy was calculated. Results: A MLM rotator cuff tear was identified in 24 participants (11.8%). Constant pain and a painful arc in abduction were the strongest predictors of a MLM tear (adjusted odds ratio 3.04 and 13.97 respectively). Combinations of ten history and physical examination variables demonstrated highest levels of sensitivity when five or fewer were positive [100%, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.86–1.00; negative likelihood ratio: 0.00, 95% CI: 0.00–0.28], and highest specificity when eight or more were positive (0.91, 95% CI: 0.86–0.95; positive likelihood ratio 4.66, 95% CI: 2.34–8.74). Discussion: Combinations of patient history and physical examination findings were able to accurately detect the presence of a MLM rotator cuff tear. These findings may aid the primary care clinician in more efficient and accurate identification of rotator cuff tears that may require further investigation or orthopedic consultation. PMID:24421626

  17. Outpatient vaginal cuff brachytherapy for endometrial cancer.

    PubMed

    Petereit, D. G.; Tannehill, S. P.; Grosen, E. A.; Hartenbach, E. M.; Schink, J. C.

    1999-11-01

    Petereit DG, Tannehill SP, Grosen EA, Hartenbach EM, Schink JC. Outpatient vaginal cuff brachytherapy for endometrial cancer. The objective of this study was to determine the efficacy and complications of postoperative high-dose-rate (HDR) vaginal-cuff brachytherapy (VCB) in patients with endometrial carcinoma. Between August 1989 to September 1997, 191 patients were treated postoperatively after a total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (TAH/BSO) with outpatient adjuvant HDR VCB for low-risk endometrial cancer (IB-84%, grade 1 or 2-96%). Patients were treated with 2 HDR fractions, delivered one week apart while under conscious sedation (16.2 Gy X 2 to the vaginal surface). All clinical endpoints were calculated using the Kaplan Meier method. The median time in the brachytherapy suite was 60 min in which no acute complications were observed. The 30-day morbidity and mortality rates were both 0%. With a median follow-up of 38 months (12-82 months), the 4-year survival, relapse-free survival, and vaginal-control rates were 95%, 98%, and 100%, respectively. One patient developed a colo-vaginal fistula at 5 years. Adjuvant HDR VCB in 2 outpatient insertions produced 100% vaginal control rates with minimal morbidity. The advantages of high dose-rate compared to low dose-rate vaginal brachytherapy include patient convenience, markedly shorter treatment times (1 h per insertion), and reduction in the cost and potential morbidity of hospitalization. HDR brachytherapy approach is a cost-effective alternative to either low-dose-rate brachytherapy or whole pelvic radiotherapy in carefully selected patients.

  18. Ultrasound-guided subacromial injections of sodium hyaluronate for the management of rotator cuff tendinopathy: a prospective comparative study with rehabilitation therapy.

    PubMed

    Merolla, G; Bianchi, P; Porcellini, G

    2013-06-01

    Rotator cuff (RC) tendinopathy is a common cause of pain and shoulder dysfunction. The literature evidence suggests that a combination of overuse and extrinsic compression may induce chronic RC tendinopathy. Aim of the current study was to compare the results of subacromial sodium hyaluronate injections with rehabilitation therapy. We enrolled 48 patients (M/F: 26/22; mean age: 50 years; shoulder right/left: 29/19) with persistent shoulder pain for at least 4 months. Exclusion criteria were as follows: RC tear, calcifying tendinitis, glenohumeral instability, osteoarthritis, rheumatic diseases, physical therapy and/or injection in the previous 4 months, shoulder surgery, anesthetic nerve block, trauma, and severe medical diseases. The included subjects received either two ultrasound-guided subacromial hyaluronic acid (HA) injections (25 patients, HA group) at baseline and 14 days, or underwent rehabilitation therapy (23 patients, Physio group) including active shoulder mobilization, soft tissue stretching and humeral head positioner and propeller muscles strengthening for 30 days (3 sessions every week). Clinical assessment of shoulder function was performed with visual analog scale score for pain (0-100), Oxford Shoulder Score (OSS), and Constant-Murley Score (CS). Overall, patients were examined at baseline, week 2, week 4, week 12, and week 24. Statistical significance was set at 5 % (p < 0.05). Reduction in overall pain in the HA group was statistically significant at week 2 (p < 0.05) week 4 (p < 0.05), week 12 comparing to baseline. Similarly, pain subscores (at night and with activity) were significantly lower at week 2 (p < 0.05), week 4 (p < 0.05), and week 12 (p < 0.05), respectively. In the Physio group, pain decreased significantly at week 2 (p < 0.05) but not maintained at week 4 (p > 0.05), week 12 (p > 0.05), and week 24 (p > 0.05). CS and OSS in the HA group increased significantly at week 2 (p < 0.05), week 4 (p < 0

  19. Functional status and failed rotator cuff repair predict outcomes after arthroscopic-assisted latissimus dorsi transfer for irreparable massive rotator cuff tears.

    PubMed

    Castricini, Roberto; De Benedetto, Massimo; Familiari, Filippo; De Gori, Marco; De Nardo, Pasquale; Orlando, Nicola; Gasparini, Giorgio; Galasso, Olimpio

    2016-04-01

    Arthroscopic-assisted latissimus dorsi tendon transfer (LDTT) has been recently introduced for treatment of irreparable, posterosuperior massive rotator cuff tears. We sought to evaluate the functional outcomes of this technique and to check for possible outcome predictors. The study reviewed 86 patients (aged 59.8 ± 5.9 years) who underwent an arthroscopic-assisted latissimus dorsi tendon transfer after 36.4 ± 9 months of follow-up. Of these, 14 patients (16.3%) sustained an irreparable massive rotator cuff tear after a failed arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. The Constant and Murley score (CMS) was used to assess patients' functionality preoperatively and at follow-up. As a group, the CMS improved with surgery from 35.5 ± 6.1 to 69.5 ± 12.3 (P < .001). A lower preoperative CMS and a previous failed rotator cuff repair resulted in lower postoperative range of motion (P = .044 and P = .007, respectively) and CMS (P = .042 and P = .018, respectively). A previous rotator cuff repair resulted in lower satisfaction with surgery (P = .009). Gender and age did not affect the clinical outcomes. Our results support the effectiveness of arthroscopic-assisted LDTT in the treatment of patients with an irreparable, posterosuperior massive rotator cuff tears in pain relief, functional recovery, and postoperative satisfaction. Patients with lower preoperative CMS and a history of failed rotator cuff repair have a greater likelihood of having a lower clinical result. However, the favorable values of summary postoperative scores do not exclude these patients as candidates for arthroscopic-assisted LDTT. Copyright © 2016 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Accuracy of a new wrist cuff oscillometric blood pressure device: comparisons with intraarterial and mercury manometer measurements.

    PubMed

    Watson, S; Wenzel, R R; di Matteo, C; Meier, B; Lüscher, T F

    1998-12-01

    Accurate measurement of arterial blood pressure is of great importance for the diagnosis and treatment of hypertension. Because of the chronic nature of antihypertensive drug therapy, the involvement of the patient in blood pressure control is desirable. Such an involvement, however, is only feasible if simple, user-friendly, and precise blood pressure measurement devices are available. In this study we tested a new wrist cuff oscillometric blood pressure measurement device in 100 consecutive patients undergoing cardiac catheterization. Blood pressures were simultaneously taken intraarterially (axillary artery) and with a mercury manometer and stethoscope or noninvasive measurement device (OMRON R3). Intraarterial measurements were directly compared with two measurements taken in random order with either an arm cuff mercury manometer or the wrist cuff device. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure as assessed with the mercury manometer was higher, especially when compared with the intraarterial and the wrist cuff values, which were comparable. Correlations of blood pressure values with intraarterial measurement were 0.86 systolic and 0.75 diastolic (P < .01) for the wrist cuff and 0.84 systolic (P < .01) and 0.59 diastolic (P < .05) for the mercury manometer measurements. Reproducibility of both measurements was good for the wrist cuff device ([systolic/diastolic]: r = 0.94/0.92; P < .01) and the mercury manometer (r = 0.97/0.88; P < .01). Both methods overestimated high diastolic values, whereas only the wrist cuff underestimated high systolic values. Thus, the new oscillometric wrist cuff blood pressure measurement device measures arterial blood pressure with great accuracy and reproducibility. As compared with intraarterial values, the wrist cuff device overestimated high diastolic and underestimated high systolic blood pressure values. Blood pressure values as measured by the mercury manometer were higher than intraarterial values and those of the wrist cuff

  1. A new tear pattern of the rotator cuff and its treatment: Fosbury flop tears

    PubMed Central

    Lädermann, Alexandre; Denard, Patrick J.; Kolo, Frank C.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this report is to describe a new full-thickness tear pattern of the posterosuperior rotator cuff with reversal healing. We describe the specific radiologic signs associated with this tear pattern and the arthroscopic rotator cuff repair technique. Materials and Methods: A prospective radiologic and clinical study collected all patients with a magnetic resonance imaging arthrogram that underwent an arthroscopic rotator cuff repair over a 1 year period. Results: Among 97 patients, five demonstrated a tear of the posterosuperior rotator cuff with reversal healing. Characteristic radiographic findings included a thicker tendon than normal, the presence of a stump and accumulation of liquid in the superior-medial part of the subacromial bursa, and adhesions between the supraspinatus tendon and the wall of the subacromial bursa. Conclusion: Avulsion of the posterosuperior rotator cuff with reversal healing on its bursal-side is a less common condition. This type of lesion and distinct radiographic signs that can be recognized to facilitate anatomic repair of the rotator cuff. Level of evidence: Level IV. PMID:25709239

  2. EGR1 induces tenogenic differentiation of tendon stem cells and promotes rabbit rotator cuff repair.

    PubMed

    Tao, Xu; Liu, Junpeng; Chen, Lei; Zhou, You; Tang, Kanglai

    2015-01-01

    The rate of healing failure after surgical repair of chronic rotator cuff tears is considerably high. The aim of this study was to investigate the function of the zinc finger transcription factor early growth response 1 (EGR1) in the differentiation of tendon stem cells (TSCs) and in tendon formation, healing, and tendon tear repair using an animal model of rotator cuff repair. Tenocyte, adipocyte, osteocyte, and chondrocyte differentiation as well as the expression of related genes were determined in EGR1-overexpressing TSCs (EGR1-TSCs) using tissue-specific staining, immunofluorescence staining, quantitative PCR, and western blotting. A rabbit rotator cuff repair model was established, and TSCs and EGR1-TSCs in a fibrin glue carrier were applied onto repair sites. The rabbits were sacrificed 8 weeks after repair operation, and tissues were histologically evaluated and tenocyte-related gene expression was determined. EGR1 induced tenogenic differentiation of TSCs and inhibited non-tenocyte differentiation of TSCs. Furthermore, EGR1 promoted tendon repair in a rabbit model of rotator cuff injury. The BMP12/Smad1/5/8 signaling pathway was involved in EGR1-induced tenogenic differentiation and rotator cuff tendon repair. EGR1 plays a key role in tendon formation, healing, and repair through BMP12/Smad1/5/8 pathway. EGR1-TSCs is a promising treatment for rotator cuff tendon repair surgeries. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Is the Supraspinatus Muscle Atrophy Truly Irreversible after Surgical Repair of Rotator Cuff Tears?

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Seok Won; Kim, Sae Hoon; Tae, Suk-Kee; Yoon, Jong Pil; Choi, Jung-Ah

    2013-01-01

    Background Atrophy of rotator cuff muscles has been considered an irreversible phenomenon. The purpose of this study is to evaluate whether atrophy is truly irreversible after rotator cuff repair. Methods We measured supraspinatus muscle atrophy of 191 patients with full-thickness rotator cuff tears on preoperative magnetic resonance imaging and postoperative multidetector computed tomography images, taken at least 1 year after operation. The occupation ratio was calculated using Photoshop CS3 software. We compared the change between pre- and postoperative occupation ratios after modifying the preoperative occupation ratio. In addition, possible relationship between various clinical factors and the change of atrophy, and between the change of atrophy and cuff integrity after surgical repair were evaluated. Results The mean occupation ratio was significantly increased postoperatively from 0.44 ± 0.17 to 0.52 ± 0.17 (p < 0.001). Among 191 patients, 81 (42.4%) showed improvement of atrophy (more than a 10% increase in occupation ratio) and 33 (17.3%) worsening (more than a 10% decrease). Various clinical factors such as age tear size, or initial degree of atrophy did not affect the change of atrophy. However, the change of atrophy was related to repair integrity: cuff healing failure rate of 48.5% (16 of 33) in worsened atrophy; and 22.2% (18 of 81) in improved atrophy (p = 0.007). Conclusions The supraspinatus muscle atrophy as measured by occupation ratio could be improved postoperatively in case of successful cuff repair. PMID:23467404

  4. Midterm clinical outcomes following arthroscopic transosseous rotator cuff repair

    PubMed Central

    Flanagin, Brody A.; Garofalo, Raffaele; Lo, Eddie Y.; Feher, LeeAnne; Castagna, Alessandro; Qin, Huanying; Krishnan, Sumant G.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Arthroscopic transosseous (TO) rotator cuff repair has recently emerged as a new option for surgical treatment of symptomatic rotator cuff tears. Limited data is available regarding outcomes using this technique. This study evaluated midterm clinical outcomes following a novel arthroscopic TO (anchorless) rotator cuff repair technique. Materials and Methods: A consecutive series of 107 patients and 109 shoulders underwent arthroscopic TO (anchorless) rotator cuff repair for a symptomatic full-thickness tear. Pre and postoperative range of motion (ROM) was compared at an average of 11.8 months. Postoperative outcome scores were obtained at an average of 38.0 months. Statistical analysis was performed to compare pre and postoperative ROM data. Univariate analysis was performed using Student's t-test to compare the effect of other clinical characteristics on final outcome. Results: Statistically significant improvements were noted in forward flexion, external rotation and internal rotation (P < 0.0001). Average postoperative subjective shoulder value was 93.7, simple shoulder test 11.6, and American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) score 94.6. According to ASES scores, results for the 109 shoulders available for final follow-up were excellent in 95 (87.1%), good in 8 (7.3%), fair in 3 (2.8%), and poor in 3 (2.8%). There was no difference in ROM or outcome scores in patients who underwent a concomitant biceps procedure (tenodesis or tenotomy) compared with those who did not. Furthermore, there was no significant difference in outcome between patients who underwent either biceps tenodesis or tenotomy. Age, history of injury preceding the onset of pain, tear size, number of TO tunnels required to perform the repair, and presence of fatty infiltration did not correlate with postoperative ROM or subjective outcome measures at final follow-up. Two complications and four failures were noted. Conclusions: Arthroscopic TO rotator cuff repair technique leads to

  5. Optimizing the management of rotator cuff problems.

    PubMed

    Pedowitz, Robert A; Yamaguchi, Ken; Ahmad, Christopher S; Burks, Robert T; Flatow, Evan L; Green, Andrew; Iannotti, Joseph P; Miller, Bruce S; Tashjian, Robert Z; Watters, William C; Weber, Kristy; Turkelson, Charles M; Wies, Janet L; Anderson, Sara; St Andre, Justin; Boyer, Kevin; Raymond, Laura; Sluka, Patrick; McGowan, Richard

    2011-06-01

    Of the 31 recommendations made by the work group, 19 were determined to be inconclusive because of the absence of definitive evidence. Of the remaining recommendations, four were classified as moderate grade, six as weak, and two as consensus statements of expert opinion. The four moderate-grade recommendations include suggestions that exercise and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs be used to manage rotator cuff symptoms in the absence of a full-thickness tear, that routine acromioplasty is not required at the time of rotator cuff repair, that non-cross-linked, porcine small intestine submucosal xenograft patches not be used to manage rotator cuff tears, and that surgeons can advise patients that workers' compensation status correlates with less favorable outcomes after rotator cuff surgery.

  6. Combined arthroscopic tenodesis of the long head of biceps and rotator cuff repair in antero-superior cuff tears.

    PubMed

    Uschok, S; Herrmann, S; Pauly, S; Perka, C; Greiner, S

    2016-09-01

    This study evaluates the functional and cosmetic results following fixation of the long head of the biceps (LHB) tendon at the antero-medial footprint anchor of a rotator cuff reconstruction, using the "lasso-loop" technique. 39 patients with a mean age of 62 years with a rotator cuff tear and associated lesion of the LHB tendon were included in this study. Besides rotator cuff repair in an arthroscopic anchor technique, all patients received additional LHB tenodeses using the lasso-loop technique. Clinical follow-up consisted of the Constant score (CS), LHB score, DASH score, and WORC index. Relevant sub-items, such as elbow flexion strength and cosmesis, were compared to the contralateral arm. At an average follow-up of 22 months (11-39 months), the CS resulted in an average of 81 points. The biceps-specific LHB score showed a mean value of 89 points. The analysis of the DASH score showed an average of 16.9 points and the analysis of the WORC index showed an average result of 79.7 %. Distalization of the biceps muscle was objectively in three cases (7.7 %) (as observed by the examiner) and subjectively in one of those cases (as noted by the patient). There was a loss in elbow flexion strength compared to the contralateral side; however, this loss was not statistically significant and not associated with clinical apparent re-tear or insufficiency of the tenodesis. The arthroscopic lasso-loop tenodesis of the LHB tendon is a time and cost-efficient technique. No additional anchor is needed when included in the rotator cuff repair. Functional and cosmetical results as well as results from the biceps-specific LHB score were good to excellent. The loss in elbow flexion strength is most likely associated with concomitant rotator cuff lesion. The lasso-loop fixation technique of the LHB tendon using the antero-medial footprint anchor in rotator cuff tears is a reliable and cost-efficient procedure. III.

  7. Patient self-assessed shoulder comfort and function and active motion are not closely related to surgically documented rotator cuff tear integrity.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Jason E; Tang, Anna; Matsen, Frederick A

    2017-07-06

    The rationale for rotator cuff repair surgery is that better integrity of the cuff should be associated with better comfort and function. However, in patients with cuff disease, there is not good evidence that the degree of rotator cuff integrity is closely associated with the shoulder's comfort, function, or active motion. The goal of this study was to explore these relationships in shoulders with surgically documented cuff disease. In 55 shoulders having surgery for cuff-related symptoms, we correlated the preoperative Simple Shoulder Test score with the objectively measured preoperative active shoulder motion and with the integrity of the cuff observed at surgery. The 16 shoulders with tendinosis or partial-thickness tears had an average Simple Shoulder Test score of 3.7 ± 3.3, active abduction of 111° ± 38°, and active flexion of 115° ± 36°. The corresponding values were 3.6 ± 2.8, 94° ± 47°, and 94° ± 52° for the 22 full-thickness supraspinatus tears and 3.9 ± 2.7, 89° ± 39°, and 100° ± 39° for the 17 supraspinatus and infraspinatus tears. In this study, surgically observed cuff integrity was not strongly associated with the shoulder's comfort or function. Whereas surgeons often seek to improve the integrity of the rotator cuff, the management of patients with rotator cuff disorders needs to be informed by a better understanding of the factors other than cuff integrity that influence the comfort and functioning of shoulders with cuff disease. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Exercise for rotator cuff tendinopathy: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Littlewood, Chris; Ashton, Jon; Chance-Larsen, Ken; May, Stephen; Sturrock, Ben

    2012-06-01

    Shoulder pain due to rotator cuff tendinopathy is a common problem. Exercise is one intervention used to address this problem but conclusions from previous reviews have been mixed. To systematically review the effectiveness of exercise, incorporating loaded exercise (against gravity or resistance), for rotator cuff tendinopathy. An electronic search of AMED, CiNAHL, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, PEDro and SPORTDiscus was undertaken from their inception to November 2010 and supplemented by hand searching related articles and contact with topic experts. Randomised controlled trials evaluating the effectiveness of exercise, incorporating loaded exercise, in participants with rotator cuff tendinopathy. Included studies were appraised for risk of bias using the tool developed by the Cochrane Back review Group. Due to heterogeneity of studies, a narrative synthesis was undertaken based upon levels of evidence. Five articles detailing four studies were included, all of which were regarded as presenting a low risk of bias. Overall, the literature was supportive of the use of exercise in terms of pain and functional disability. The results should be regarded with some degree of caution due to limitations associated with the studies including lack of blinding, no intervention control groups and limitations of the outcome measures used. CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS OF KEY FINDINGS: The available literature is supportive of the use of exercise but due to the paucity of research and associated limitations further study is indicated. Copyright © 2011 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. [Surgical treatment of ruptures of the rotator cuff].

    PubMed

    Franceschi, J P; Curvale, G; Acquaviva, P; Lafforgue, P; Mattei, J P; Roux, H

    1991-06-01

    This study analyses the results of 30 surgical repairs of the rotator cuff. The basic problem was degenerative pathology in which medical treatment had been tried previously in all cases. The type of treatment was based upon preoperative evaluation and arthro-CT scan in particular. Results were invariably good, with regression of pain and recovery of activity. Muscle power was significantly correlated with the value of the tendon repaired, this being reflected overall by incomplete recovery.

  10. Fabrication of an α-lipoic acid-eluting poly-(D,L-lactide-co-caprolactone) cuff for the inhibition of neointimal formation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyo Jeong; Choi, Seung Hee; Nah, Mun Hee

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a novel polymer cuff for the local delivery of α-lipoic acid (ALA) to inhibit neointimal formation in vivo. The polymer cuff was fabricated by incorporating the ALA into poly-(D,L-lactide-co-caprolactone) 40:60 (PLC), with or without methoxy polyethylene glycol (MethoxyPEG). The release kinetics of ALA and in vitro degradation by hydrolysis were analyzed by HPLC and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), respectively. In vivo evaluation of the effect of the ALA-containing polymer cuff was carried out using a rat femoral artery cuff injury model. At 24 h, 48% or 87% of the ALA was released from PCL cuffs with or without MethoxyPEG. FE-SEM results indicated that ALA was blended homogenously in the PLC with MethoxyPEG, whereas ALA was distributed on the surface of the PLC cuff without MethoxyPEG. The PLC cuff with MethoxyPEG showed prolonged and controlled release of ALA in PBS, in contrast to the PLC cuff without MethoxyPEG. Both ALA-containing polymer cuffs had a significant effect on the inhibition of neointimal formation in rat femoral artery. Novel ALA-containing polymer cuffs made of PLC were found to be biocompatible and effective in inhibiting neointimal formation in vivo. Polymer cuffs containing MethoxyPEG allowed the release of ALA for one additional week, and the rate of drug release from the PLC could be controlled by changing the composition of the polymer. These findings demonstrate that polymer cuffs may be an easy tool for the evaluation of anti-restenotic agents in animal models. PMID:19287197

  11. Clinical Examination of the Rotator Cuff

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Nitin B.; Wilcox, Reginald; Katz, Jeffrey N.; Higgins, Laurence D.

    2013-01-01

    Rotator cuff tears are the leading cause of shoulder pain and shoulder-related disability accounting for 4.5 million physician visits in the United States annually. A careful history and structured physical examination are often sufficient for diagnosing rotator cuff disorders. We are not aware of a clinical review article that presents a structured physical examination protocol of the rotator cuff for the interested clinician. To fill this void, we present a physical examination protocol developed on the basis of review of prior literature and our clinical experience from dedicated shoulder practices. Our protocol includes range of motion testing using a goniometer, strength testing using a dynamometer, and select special tests. Among the many tests for rotator cuff disorders that have been described, we chose ones that have been more thoroughly assessed for sensitivity and specificity. This protocol can be used to isolate the specific rotator cuff tendon involved. The protocol can be typically completed in 15 minutes. We also discuss the clinical implications and limitations of the physical examination maneuvers described in our protocol. This protocol is thorough yet time-efficient for a busy clinical practice. It is useful in diagnosis of rotator cuff tears, impingement syndrome, and biceps pathology. PMID:23332909

  12. Wearable PWV technologies to measure Blood Pressure: eliminating brachial cuffs.

    PubMed

    Solá, J; Proença, M; Chételat, O

    2013-01-01

    The clinical demand for technologies to monitor Blood Pressure (BP) in ambulatory scenarios with minimal use of inflation cuffs is strong: new generation of BP monitors are expected to be not only accurate, but also non-occlusive. In this paper we review recent advances on the use of the so-called Pulse Wave Velocity (PWV) technologies to estimate BP in a beat-by-beat basis. After introducing the working principle and underlying methodological limitations, two implementation examples are provided. Pilot studies have demonstrated that novel PWV-based BP monitors depict accuracy scores falling within the limits of the British Hypertensive Society (BHS) Grade A standard. The reported techniques pave the way towards ambulatory-compliant, continuous and non-occlusive BP monitoring devices, where the use of inflation cuffs is drastically reduced.

  13. [Rotator cuff ruptures with predominant involvement of the subscapular tendon].

    PubMed

    Nérot, C; Jully, J L; Gérard, Y

    Among the all rotator cuff tears, the subscapularis lesions are quite rare. But a careful analysis leads to recognize them specially in case of antero-medial impingement between the coracoid process and the head of the humerus. This study of 25 observations where the rupture of the subscapularis was the predominant lesion, allows to emphasize some characteristics of them. The patients are often younger than for the other ruptures, a traumatic experience is not rare at the beginning of the history, the pain is usually the first symptom before the functional disability, the alterations of the rotator-interval and of the biceps tendon are very frequent, the arthroscanner is a very good help for the diagnosis and satisfying stitches are possible in case of early diagnoses. Lastly, the prognosis of these limited lesions is quite different than the one of very large cuff tears including the suscapularis tendon.

  14. Calcific tendinitis of the rotator cuff: management options.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Kentaro; Potts, Aaron; Anakwenze, Oke; Singh, Anshu

    2014-11-01

    Calcific tendinitis of the rotator cuff tendons is a common cause of shoulder pain in adults and typically presents as activity-related shoulder pain. It is thought to be an active, cell-mediated process, although the exact pathophysiology remains unclear. Nonsurgical management continues to be the mainstay of treatment; most patients improve with modalities such as oral anti-inflammatory medication, physical therapy, and corticosteroid injections. Several options are available for patients who fail nonsurgical treatment, including extracorporeal shock wave therapy, ultrasound-guided needle lavage, and surgical débridement. These modalities alleviate pain by eliminating the calcific deposit, and several recent studies have demonstrated success with the use of these treatment options. Surgical management options include arthroscopic procedures to remove calcific deposits and subacromial decompression; however, the role of subacromial decompression and repair of rotator cuff defects created by removing these deposits remains controversial. Copyright 2014 by the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons.

  15. Biceps tendinitis in chronic rotator cuff tears: a histologic perspective.

    PubMed

    Singaraju, Vamsi M; Kang, Richard W; Yanke, Adam B; McNickle, Allison G; Lewis, Paul B; Wang, Vincent M; Williams, James M; Chubinskaya, Susan; Romeo, Anthony A; Cole, Brian J

    2008-01-01

    Patients with chronic rotator cuff tears frequently have anterior shoulder pain attributed to the long head of the biceps brachii (LHBB) tendon. In this study, tenodesis or tenotomy samples and cadaveric controls were assessed by use of immunohistochemical and histologic methods to quantify inflammation, vascularity, and neuronal plasticity. Patients had moderate pain and positive results on at least 1 clinical test of shoulder function. The number of axons in the distal LHBB was significantly less in patients with biceps tendinitis. Calcitonin gene-related peptide and substance P immunostaining was predominantly within nerve roots and blood vessels. A moderate correlation (R = 0.5) was identified between LHBB vascularity and pain scores. On the basis of these results, we conclude that, in the context of rotator cuff disease, the etiology of anterior shoulder pain with macroscopic changes in the biceps tendon is related to the complex interaction of the tendon and surrounding soft tissues, rather than a single entity.

  16. Management of failed rotator cuff repair: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Lädermann, Alexandre; Denard, Patrick J; Burkhart, Stephen S

    2016-01-01

    Importance Recurrent tear after rotator cuff repair (RCR) is common. Conservative, and open and arthroscopic revisions, have been advocated to treat these failures. Aim or objective The purpose of this systematic review was to evaluate the different options for managing recurrent rotator cuff tears. Evidence review A search was conducted of level I through 4 studies from January 2000 to October 2015, to identify studies reporting on failed RCR. 10 articles were identified. The overall quality of evidence was very low. Findings Mid-term to long-term follow-up of patients treated conservatively revealed acceptable results; a persistent defect is a well-tolerated condition that only occasionally requires subsequent surgery. Conservative treatment might be indicated in most patients, particularly in case of posterosuperior involvement and poor preoperative range of motion. Revision surgery might be indicated in a young patient with a repairable lesion, a 3 tendon tear, and in those with involvement of the subscapularis. Conclusions and relevance The current review indicates that arthroscopic revision RCR can lead to improvement in functional outcome despite a high retear rate. Further studies are needed to develop specific rehabilitation in the case of primary rotator cuff failure, to better understand the place of each treatment option, and, in case of repair, to optimise tendon healing. PMID:27134759

  17. Non-Operative Management of Rotator Cuff Tears

    PubMed Central

    Petri, M.; Ettinger, M.; Brand, S.; Stuebig, T.; Krettek, C.; Omar, M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The role of nonoperative management for rotator cuff tears remains a matter of debate. Clinical results reported in the literature mainly consist of level IV studies, oftentimes combining a mixed bag of tear sizes and configurations, and are contradictory to some extent. Methods: A selective literature search was performed and personal surgical experiences are reported. Results: Most studies show an overall success rate of around 75% for nonoperative treatment. However, the majority of studies also present a progression of tear size and fatty muscle infiltration over time, with however debatable clinical relevance for the patient. Suggested factors associated with progression of a rotator cuff tear are an age of 60 years or older, full-thickness tears, and fatty infiltration of the rotator cuff muscles at the time of initial diagnosis. Conclusion: Non-operative management is indicated for patients with lower functional demands and moderate symptoms, and/or of course for those refusing to have surgery. Close routinely monitoring regarding development of tear size should be performed, especially in patients that remain symptomatic during nonoperative treatment. To ensure judicious patient counseling, it has to be taken into account that 1) tears that are initially graded as reparable may become irreparable over time, and 2) results after secondary surgical therapy after failed nonoperative treatment are usually reported to be inferior to those who underwent primary tendon repair. PMID:27708737

  18. Management of rotator cuff calcific tendinosis guided by ultrasound elastography.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yen-Huai; Chiou, Hong-Jen; Wang, Hsin-Kai; Lai, Yi-Chen; Chou, Yi-Hong; Chang, Cheng-Yen

    2015-10-01

    Ultrasound (US) elastography can provide information about the hardness of calcification and might help decide treatment strategy. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the hardness of the calcific area within rotator cuffs by US elastography as an aid for the selection of aspiration or fine-needle repeated puncture for the treatment of rotator cuff calcific tendinosis. This prospective study included 39 patients (32 males, 7 females; mean age, 52.9 years) who received US elastography and gray-scale ultrasonography before US-guided treatment for rotator cuff calcific tendinosis. The morphology of the calcifications was classified as arc, fragmented, nodular, and cystic types. US elastography using virtual touch imaging (acoustic radiation force impulse) technique was performed to examine the calcified region to obtain an elastogram that was graded dark, intermediate, or bright. The hardness of the calcifications were recorded, and graded as hard, sand-like, or fluid-like tactile patterns during the US-guided treatment, and the tactile patterns were compared with the results of US elastography and gray-scale ultrasonography. Though the morphologies of the calcifications were significantly related to the tactile pattern of the needle punctures (p < 0.001), gray-scale US could not accurately demonstrate the hardness of the calcifications. With the aid of elastography, the fluid-like tactile pattern could be predicted well as a nondark pattern by elastography (p < 0.001). Ultrasound elastography is a useful modality for evaluation of rotator cuff calcific tendinosis, and as an aid to guide management. If elastography shows the calcified area as a non-dark pattern, then fine-needle aspiration should be performed. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Taiwan.

  19. Four-week exercise program does not change rotator cuff muscle activation and scapular kinematics in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yin-Liang; Karduna, Andrew

    2016-12-01

    Rotator cuff and scapular muscle strengthening exercises are an essential part of shoulder rehabilitation and sports training. Although the effect of exercise training on pain and function have been widely investigated, few studies have focused on the changes in shoulder kinematics and muscle activity after exercise training. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of rotator cuff and scapular strengthening exercises on shoulder kinematics and the activation of rotator cuff and scapular muscles in healthy subjects. Thirty-six healthy subjects were recruited and randomly assigned into either a training or control group. Subjects in the training group were trained with rotator cuff and scapular strengthening exercises for 4 weeks. Scapular kinematics and shoulder muscle activity during arm elevation were measured before and after exercise training. After the 4-week training protocol, there was an increase in strength and a decrease in upper trapezius activation in the training group, which is consistent with previous studies. However, no difference was found in scapular kinematics and activation of rotator cuff muscles between the control and training groups after the training protocol. Although the exercise protocol resulted in strength gains for the rotator cuff, these gains did not transfer to an increase in muscle activation during motion. These results demonstrate the difficulty in changing activation patterns of the rotator cuff muscles. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 34:2079-2088, 2016. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Four-week exercise program does not change rotator cuff muscle activation and scapular kinematics in healthy subjects

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yin-Liang; Karduna, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Rotator cuff and scapular muscle strengthening exercises are an essential part of shoulder rehabilitation and sports training. Although the effect of exercise training on pain and function have been widely investigated, few studies have focused on the changes in shoulder kinematics and muscle activity after exercise training. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of rotator cuff and scapular strengthening exercises on shoulder kinematics and the activation of rotator cuff and scapular muscles in healthy subjects. Thirty-six healthy subjects were recruited and randomly assigned into either a training or control group. Subjects in the training group were trained with rotator cuff and scapular strengthening exercises for four weeks. Scapular kinematics and shoulder muscle activity during arm elevation were measured before and after exercise training. After the four-week training protocol, there was an increase in strength and a decrease in upper trapezius activation in the training group, which is consistent with previous studies. However, no difference was found in scapular kinematics and activation of rotator cuff muscles between the control and training groups after the training protocol. Although the exercise protocol resulted in strength gains for the rotator cuff, these gains did not transfer to an increase in muscle activation during motion. These results demonstrate the difficulty in changing activation patterns of the rotator cuff muscles. PMID:26996811

  1. Characterization of Rotator Cuff Tears: Ultrasound Versus Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    PubMed

    Okoroha, Kelechi R; Mehran, Nima; Duncan, Jonathan; Washington, Travis; Spiering, Tyler; Bey, Michael J; Van Holsbeeck, Marnix; Moutzouros, Vasilios

    2017-01-01

    Ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are both capable of diagnosing full-thickness rotator cuff tears. However, it is unknown which imaging modality is more accurate and precise in evaluating the characteristics of full-thickness rotator cuff tears in a surgical population. This study reviewed 114 patients who underwent arthroscopic repair of a full-thickness rotator cuff tear over a 1-year period. Of these patients, 61 had both preoperative MRI and ultrasound for review. Three musculoskeletal radiologists evaluated each ultrasound and MRI in a randomized and blinded fashion on 2 separate occasions. Tear size, retraction status, muscle atrophy, and fatty infiltration were analyzed and compared between the 2 modalities. Ultrasound measurements were statistically smaller in both tear size (P=.001) and retraction status (P=.001) compared with MRI. The 2 image modalities showed comparable intraobserver reliability in assessment of tear size and retraction status. However, MRI showed greater interobserver reliability in assessment of tear size, retraction status, and atrophy. Independent observers are more likely to agree on measurements of the characteristics of rotator cuff tears when using MRI compared with ultrasound. As tear size increases, the 2 image modalities show greater differences in measurement of tear size and retraction status. Additionally, compared with MRI, ultrasound shows consistently low reliability in detecting subtle, but clinically important, degeneration of the soft tissue envelope. Although it is inexpensive and convenient, ultrasound may be best used to identify a tear, and MRI is superior for use in surgical planning for larger tears. [Orthopedics. 2017; 40(1):e124-e130.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  2. [Therapy of degenerative and posttraumatic rotator cuff lesions].

    PubMed

    Stein, T; Mehling, A P; Welsch, F

    2014-02-01

    The prevalence of rotator cuff lesions is age-dependent and up to 19-32 % for full-thickness ruptures and 13-32 % for partial-thickness lesions respectively. The therapy of partial-thickness ruptures should be considered in accordance with the articular, bursal or intratendinous location of the lesion. The therapy of full-thickness ruptures should be applied in accordance with topography and area of defect, retraction, atrophy and fatty infiltration. These parameters are considered to be important prognostic factors for the intraoperative repairability and the success of the surgery. Symptomatic or chronically progredient partial-thickness lesions as well as full-thickness lesions should generally be treated by means of surgical reconstruction. No current scientific consensus exists regarding improved clinical outcome data after the surgical approach in mini-open or arthroscopic technique. Both procedures should meet the requirements of the Gerber criteria for rotator cuff reconstruction: high primary stability, reduction of micro-movements, minimized approach associated morbidity and persisting stability to enable the fibroblastic tendon-to-bone healing. Current studies revealed a potential improvement of the tendon-to-bone healing by the application of several biologic augmentations. At the moment, these additive procedures can be applied in revision situations and for complex rotator cuff lesions with low tendon quality. No high-level in-vivo investigations concerning the human shoulder exist in the current literature that show evidence-based improvements by the additively applied biologic augmentations for rotator cuff repair. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. Patterns of Tear Progression for Asymptomatic Degenerative Rotator Cuff Tears

    PubMed Central

    Keener, Jay D; Hsu, Jason E; Steger-May, Karen; Teefey, Sharlene A; Chamberlain, Aaron M; Yamaguchi, Ken

    2017-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study is to examine patterns of rotator cuff tear size progression in degenerative rotator cuff tears and to compare tear progression risks for tears with and without anterior supraspinatus tendon disruption. Methodology Asymptomatic full-thickness rotator cuff tears with minimum 2-year follow-up were examined with annual shoulder ultrasounds. Integrity of the anterior 3mm of the supraspinatus tendon determined classification of cable-intact versus disrupted tears. Tear enlargement was defined as an increase of 5mm or greater in width. Tear propagation direction was calculated from measured changes in tear width in reference to the biceps tendon on serial ultrasounds. Results The cohort included 139 full-thickness tears with a mean subject age of 63.3 years and follow-up duration of 6.0 years. Ninety-six (69.1%) of the tears were considered cable-intact. Cable-disrupted tears were larger at baseline (median 19.0mm vs. 10.0mm, p<0.0001) than cable-intact tears. There was no difference in the risk of enlargement (52.1% vs. 67.4%, p=0.09) or time to enlargement (3.2 vs. 2.2 years, p=0.37) for cable-intact compared to cable-disrupted tears. There was no difference in the magnitude of enlargement for cable-intact and cable-disrupted tears (median 7.0mm vs.9.0mm, p=0.18). Cable-intact tears propagated a median of 5mm anteriorly and 4mm posteriorly, whereas cable-disrupted tears propagated posteriorly. Conclusions The majority of degenerative rotator cuff tears spare the anterior supraspinatus tendon. Although tears classified as cable-disrupted are larger at baseline than cable-intact tears, tear enlargement risks are similar for each tear type. PMID:26589385

  4. Patterns of tear progression for asymptomatic degenerative rotator cuff tears.

    PubMed

    Keener, Jay D; Hsu, Jason E; Steger-May, Karen; Teefey, Sharlene A; Chamberlain, Aaron M; Yamaguchi, Ken

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine patterns of rotator cuff tear size progression in degenerative rotator cuff tears and to compare tear progression risks for tears with and without anterior supraspinatus tendon disruption. Asymptomatic full-thickness rotator cuff tears with minimum 2-year follow-up were examined with annual shoulder ultrasound examinations. Integrity of the anterior 3 mm of the supraspinatus tendon determined classification of cable-intact vs. cable-disrupted tears. Tear enlargement was defined as an increase of 5 mm or more in width. Tear propagation direction was calculated from measured changes in tear width in reference to the biceps tendon on serial ultrasound examinations. The cohort included 139 full-thickness tears with a mean subject age of 63.3 years and follow-up duration of 6.0 years. Ninety-six (69.1%) of the tears were considered cable intact. Cable-disrupted tears were larger at baseline (median, 19.0 mm vs. 10.0 mm; P < .0001) than cable-intact tears. There was no difference in the risk of enlargement (52.1% vs. 67.4%; P = .09) or time to enlargement (3.2 vs. 2.2 years; P = .37) for cable-intact compared with cable-disrupted tears. There was no difference in the magnitude of enlargement for cable-intact and cable-disrupted tears (median, 7.0 mm vs.9.0 mm; P = .18). Cable-intact tears propagated a median of 5 mm anteriorly and 4 mm posteriorly, whereas cable-disrupted tears propagated posteriorly. The majority of degenerative rotator cuff tears spare the anterior supraspinatus tendon. Although tears classified as cable disrupted are larger at baseline than cable-intact tears, tear enlargement risks are similar for each tear type. Copyright © 2015 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Evaluation of Internet Information About Rotator Cuff Repair.

    PubMed

    Lawson, Kevin A; Codella, Stephen; Ciccotti, Michael G; Kane, Patrick W; Duncan, Ian C; Cohen, Steven B

    2016-01-01

    The content and quality of Internet websites are not governed or regulated. Therefore, patients who consult the Internet may receive outdated or incorrect medical information. Researchers have analyzed the quality of web information about various orthopedic surgeries, but no such analysis has been performed on websites covering rotator cuff repair. We conducted a study to evaluate and analyze rotator cuff repair information available to the general public through the Internet; to assess changes in the quality of information over time; to determine if sites sponsored by academic institutions offered higher-quality information; and to assess whether the readability of the material varied according to DISCERN scores. Two Internet searches were conducted, in 2011 and 2014. The 3 most commonly used search engines were used to search for rotator cuff repair. The first 50 websites from each search engine were evaluated for authorship and content. The DISCERN instrument was used to analyze the quality of each website's health information. The 2011 search revealed 21% of websites were associated with an academic institution, 38% were authored by a hospital or physician group, and 11.5% were industry-sponsored. The 2014 search revealed a similar distribution of contributors. The highest DISCERN scores were given to academic institution websites (51.6) and public education websites (49). There was no correlation between readability and DISCERN scores. Websites associated with academic institutions produced the highest-quality medical information. Over the past few years, authorship and content have changed little with respect to Internet information about rotator cuff repair.

  6. Arthroscopic subacromial decompression in the treatment of full thickness rotator cuff tears: a 3- to 6-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Zvijac, J E; Levy, H J; Lemak, L J

    1994-10-01

    Arthroscopic subacromial decompression has become an accepted treatment for patients with impingement syndrome; however, its use for full thickness rotator cuff tears continues to be controversial. The purpose of this study is to determine if the results of arthroscopic subacromial decompression alone for full thickness rotator cuff tears deteriorate at long-term follow-up. We reevaluated all 25 patients with full thickness rotator cuff tears who underwent arthroscopic subacromial decompression from our original study group. Based on the University of California at Los Angeles shoulder rating, 68% of patients were rated as excellent or good at the present mean follow-up of 45.8 months (range 36-72 months). This represents a significant decrease from our initial report of 84% satisfactory results at a mean follow-up of 24.6 months. There was a significant decrease in ratings with regard to pain and function; however, no significant deterioration was noted with regard to motion and strength. Two additional patients required open rotator cuff repair since the time of initial follow-up for a total of six. Large and massive rotator cuff tears fared worse over time as compared with small and moderate size tears. Although 1- to 3-year results of arthroscopic subacromial decompression and rotator cuff debridement were favorable, the long-term follow-up demonstrates deterioration of results. We therefore cannot support the use of decompression and debridement alone in the treatment of repairable full thickness rotator cuff tears.

  7. Graft Utilization in the Bridging Reconstruction of Irreparable Rotator Cuff Tears: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Lewington, Matthew R; Ferguson, Devin P; Smith, T Duncan; Burks, Robert; Coady, Catherine; Wong, Ivan Ho-Bun

    2017-03-01

    Rotator cuff tears are one of the most common conditions affecting the shoulder. Because of the difficulty in managing massive rotator cuff tears and the inability of standard techniques to prevent arthropathy, surgeons have developed several novel techniques to improve outcomes and ideally alter the natural history. To systematically review the existing literature and analyze reported outcomes to evaluate the effectiveness of using a bridging graft reconstruction technique to treat large to massive irreparable rotator cuff tears. Systematic review. A systematic search of PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, and CENTRAL was employed with the key terms "tear," "allograft," and "rotator cuff." Eligibility was determined by a 3-phase screening process according to the outlined inclusion/exclusion criteria. Data in relation to the primary and secondary outcomes were summarized. The results were synthesized according to the origin of the graft and the level of evidence. Fifteen studies in total were included in this review: 2 comparative studies and 13 observational case series. Both the biceps tendon and the fascia lata autograft groups had significantly superior structural integrity rates on magnetic resonance imaging at 12-month minimum follow-up when compared with their partial primary repair counterparts (58% vs 26%, P = .036; 79% vs 58%, P < .05), respectively. Multiple noncomparative case series investigating allografts, xenografts, and synthetic materials for bridging reconstruction of large to massive rotator cuff tears demonstrated high structural healing rates (74%-90%, 73%-100%, and 60%-90%, respectively). Additionally, both comparative studies and case series demonstrated a general improvement of patients' functional outcome scores. Using a graft for an anatomic bridging rotator cuff repair results in improved function on objective testing and may be functionally better than nonanatomic or partial repair of large to massive rotator cuff tears. Allograft or xenograft

  8. EXTENSIVE ROTATOR CUFF INJURIES: AN EVALUATION OF ARTHROSCOPIC REPAIR OUTCOMES

    PubMed Central

    Miyazaki, Alberto Naoki; Fregoneze, Marcelo; Santos, Pedro Doneux; Silva, Luciana Andrade; Eduardo, Cesar Moreira Mariz Pinto Rodrigo Tormin Ortiz; Checchia, Sergio Luiz

    2015-01-01

    To assess the outcomes of the surgical treatment of extensive rotator cuff injuries through arthroscopy. Methods: Between June 1998 and October 2006, 61 patients with extensive rotator cuff injuries and submitted to surgical arthroscopy technique by the Shoulder and Elbow Group of the Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Santa Casa de Misericórdia Medical School were reassessed. The study included all patients with at least two tendons affected or with retraction at least on two tendons up to the glenoidal cavity edge and with at least 12 months of follow-up. Results: According to UCLA's evaluation criteria, 54 (89%) patients showed excellent or good outcomes; no fair outcome in none of the patients; and seven (11%) poor outcomes. A satisfaction rate of 92% was reported. Postoperative joint motion went from a mean lifting value of 93° to 141°, the mean lateral rotation went from 32° to 48° and the mean medial rotation went from L1 to T10. These differences were regarded as statistically significant. Conclusion: The arthroscopic repair of extensive rotator cuff injuries leads to satisfactory outcomes for most of the patients, with a high satisfaction degree. PMID:26998466

  9. EXTENSIVE ROTATOR CUFF INJURIES: AN EVALUATION OF ARTHROSCOPIC REPAIR OUTCOMES.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, Alberto Naoki; Fregoneze, Marcelo; Santos, Pedro Doneux; Silva, Luciana Andrade; Eduardo, Cesar Moreira Mariz Pinto Rodrigo Tormin Ortiz; Checchia, Sergio Luiz

    2009-01-01

    To assess the outcomes of the surgical treatment of extensive rotator cuff injuries through arthroscopy. Between June 1998 and October 2006, 61 patients with extensive rotator cuff injuries and submitted to surgical arthroscopy technique by the Shoulder and Elbow Group of the Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Santa Casa de Misericórdia Medical School were reassessed. The study included all patients with at least two tendons affected or with retraction at least on two tendons up to the glenoidal cavity edge and with at least 12 months of follow-up. According to UCLA's evaluation criteria, 54 (89%) patients showed excellent or good outcomes; no fair outcome in none of the patients; and seven (11%) poor outcomes. A satisfaction rate of 92% was reported. Postoperative joint motion went from a mean lifting value of 93° to 141°, the mean lateral rotation went from 32° to 48° and the mean medial rotation went from L1 to T10. These differences were regarded as statistically significant. The arthroscopic repair of extensive rotator cuff injuries leads to satisfactory outcomes for most of the patients, with a high satisfaction degree.

  10. Disability and satisfaction after Rotator Cuff decompression or repair: a sex and gender analysis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Rotator-cuff pathology is the most common cause of pain and disability in the shoulder. Examining the combined effect of biological and societal factors on disability would potentially identify existing differences between men and women with rotator cuff pathology which would help to provide suggestions for better models of care. Purpose of this study was to determine the overall differences in disability between men and women and to examine the relationship between factors that represent sex (biological factors) and gender (non-biological factors) with disability and satisfaction with surgical outcome 6 months after rotator cuff surgery. Methods Patients with impingement syndrome and/or rotator cuff tear who underwent rotator cuff surgery completed the Western Ontario Rotator Cuff (WORC) index, the American Shoulder & Elbow Surgeons (ASES) assessment form, and the Quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (QuickDASH) outcome measures prior to surgery and 6 months post-operatively. They also rated their satisfaction with surgery at their follow-up appointment. Results and Discussion One hundred and seventy patients entered into the study (85 men and 85 women). One hundred and sixty patients (94%) completed the 6-month assessment. Women reported more disability both prior to and after surgery. Disability at 6 months was associated with pain-limited range of motion, participation limitation, age and strength. Satisfaction with surgery was associated with level of reported disability, expectations for improved pain, pain-limited range of motion and strength. Conclusions The results of this study indicate that women with rotator cuff pathology suffer from higher levels of pre- and post-operative disability and sex and gender qualities contribute to these differences. Gender-sensitive approach will help to identify existing differences between men and women which will help to promote more effective and tailored care by health professionals. PMID

  11. Degree of tendon degeneration and stage of rotator cuff disease.

    PubMed

    Jo, Chris Hyunchul; Shin, Won Hyoung; Park, Ji Wan; Shin, Ji Sun; Kim, Ji Eun

    2017-07-01

    While tendon degeneration has been known to be an important cause of rotator cuff disease, few studies have objectively proven the association of tendon degeneration and rotator cuff disease. The purpose of this study was to investigate changes of tendon degeneration with respect to the stage of rotator cuff disease. A total of 48 patients were included in the study: 12 with tendinopathy, 12 with a partial-thickness tear (pRCT), 12 with a full-thickness tear (fRCT), and 12 as the control. A full-thickness supraspinatus tendon sample was harvested en bloc from the middle portion between the lateral edge and the musculotendinous junction of the tendon using a biopsy punch with a diameter of 3 mm. Harvested samples were evaluated using a semi-quantitative grading scale with 7 parameters after haematoxylin and eosin staining. There was no significant difference in age, gender, symptom duration, and Kellgren-Lawrence grade between the groups except for the global fatty degeneration index. All of the seven parameters were significantly different between the groups and could be categorized as follows: early responders (fibre structure and arrangement), gradual responder (rounding of the nuclei), after-tear responders (cellularity, vascularity, and stainability), and late responder (hyalinization). The total degeneration scores were not significantly different between the control (6.08 ± 1.16) and tendinopathy (6.67 ± 1.83) (n.s.). However, the score of pRCT group (10.42 ± 1.31) was greater than that of tendinopathy (P < 0.001), and so was the score of fRCT (12.33 ± 1.15) than that of pRCT (p = 0.009). This study showed that the degeneration of supraspinatus tendon increases as the stage of rotator cuff disease progresses from tendinopathy to pRCT, and then to fRCT. The degree of degeneration of tendinopathy was not different from that of normal but aged tendons, and significant tendon degeneration began from the stage of pRCT. The clinical relevance of

  12. Use of a monoclonal antibody to sucrase-isomaltase for evaluation of the columnar cuff after stapled restorative proctocolectomy.

    PubMed

    Thompson-Fawcett, Mark W; McC Mortensen, Neil J; Jewel, Derek P; Warren, Bryan F

    2007-09-01

    Restorative proctocolectomy with a double-stapled pouch-anal anastomosis retains a cuff of diseased columnar mucosa (columnar cuff) in the upper anal canal that may require biopsy. Biopsying this can be difficult and colonic phenotypic change in the pouch can lead to errors interpreting the histology. This study was designed to investigate the use of a monoclonal antibody to sucrase-isomaltase for differentiating ileal pouch from columnar cuff mucosa. Then, by using this antibody, the ability to accurately take and report biopsies from the anal canal was examined. The technique of staining for sucrase-isomaltase was developed. From 113 patients who had a double-stapled pouch-anal anastomosis, 467 formalin-fixed biopsies and 177 fresh-frozen biopsies were taken from the ileal pouch, columnar cuff, or anal transitional zone. Biopsies were stained with a monoclonal antibody to sucrase-isomaltase, and fixed biopsies were routinely reported after staining with hematoxylin and eosin. A monoclonal antibody to sucrase-isomaltase reliably discriminated between ileal from rectal mucosa. A biopsy of columnar cuff mucosa as reported by routine histology was obtained during 72 percent of attempted outpatient examinations. Sucrase-isomaltase staining of reported columnar cuff biopsies showed that biopsies were of pouch rather than columnar cuff in 4.4 percent (95 percent confidence interval, 2-8) of outpatient examinations. The monoclonal antibody to sucrase-isomaltase used in this study may have a clinical role when interpreting columnar cuff biopsies from patients being investigated for pouch dysfunction, or in patients having surveillance biopsies to exclude neoplasia in the columnar cuff.

  13. Rotator cuff healing after needling of a calcific deposit using platelet-rich plasma augmentation: a randomized, prospective clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Verhaegen, Filip; Brys, Peter; Debeer, Philippe

    2016-02-01

    Arthroscopic needling of a rotator cuff calcification is a highly reliable operation in terms of pain relief and return of function. However, during the needling process, a cuff defect is created. Little is known about the evolution of this defect. We conducted a prospective, randomized controlled clinical trial to investigate the evolution of the aforementioned defect and the role of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) augmentation in this healing process. Patients were randomized to either group 1 (PRP, n = 20) or group 2 (no PRP [control group], n = 20). Patients in group 1 received a perioperative PRP infiltration at the rotator cuff defect, whereas the control group did not. Patients were assessed clinically preoperatively and postoperatively at 6 weeks, 3 and 6 months, and 1 year. The Constant score, Simple Shoulder Test, and QuickDASH (short version of Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand questionnaire) were used as outcome measures. The evolution of the cuff defect was evaluated on sonography at 3 and 6 months and with magnetic resonance imaging after 1 year. All patients improved significantly after surgery (P < .05). There was no difference in clinical outcome or rotator cuff healing between groups. We observed a high rate of persistent rotator cuff defects after 1 year in both groups. The presence of residual cuff defects did not influence the clinical outcome. Arthroscopic needling is an operation with a predictive, good clinical outcome. We found a high rate of persistent rotator cuff defects after 1 year. This study could not identify any beneficial effect of the addition of PRP on rotator cuff healing. Level II; Randomized Controlled Trial; Treatment Study. Copyright © 2015 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Reduced levels of mesenchymal stem cells at the tendon-bone interface tuberosity in patients with symptomatic rotator cuff tear.

    PubMed

    Hernigou, Philippe; Merouse, Guillaume; Duffiet, Pascal; Chevalier, Nathalie; Rouard, Helene

    2015-06-01

    While the use of bone marrow concentrate (BMC) has been described in the treatment of rotator cuff tears, the impact of a rotator cuff injury on the mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) content present in the human shoulder has not been determined, especially with regard to changes in the levels of MSCs at the tendon-bone interface. With the hypothesis that there was a decreased level of MSCs at the tendon-bone interface tuberosity in patients with rotator cuff tear, we assessed the level of MSCs in the tuberosity of the shoulder of patients undergoing a rotator cuff repair. We analysed the data of 125 patients with symptomatic rotator cuff tears and of 75 control patients without rotator cuff injury. We recorded the following data: size of tear, number of torn tendons, aetiology of the tear, lag time between onset of shoulder symptoms/injury and repair, and also fatty infiltration of muscles. Mesenchymal stem cell content at the tendon-bone interface tuberosity was evaluated by bone marrow aspiration collected in the humeral tuberosities of patients at the beginning of surgery. A significant reduction in MSC content (from moderate, 30-50 %, to severe >70 %) at the tendon-bone interface tuberosity relative to the MSC content of the control was observed in all rotator cuff repair study patients. Severity of the decrease was statistically correlated to a number of factors, including the delay between onset of symptoms and surgery, number of involved tendons, fatty infiltration stage and increasing patient age. This study demonstrates that the level of MSCs present in the greater tuberosity of patients with a rotator cuff tear decreases as a function of a number of clinical factors, including lag time from tear onset to treatment, tear size, number of tears and stage of fatty infiltration, among others. This information may help the practices in using biologic augmentation of a rotator cuff repair.

  15. The effect of tear size and nerve injury on rotator cuff muscle fatty degeneration in a rodent animal model.

    PubMed

    Kim, H Mike; Galatz, Leesa M; Lim, Chanteak; Havlioglu, Necat; Thomopoulos, Stavros

    2012-07-01

    Irreversible muscle changes after rotator cuff tears is a well-known negative prognostic factor after shoulder surgery. Currently, little is known about the pathomechanism of fatty degeneration of the rotator cuff muscles after chronic cuff tears. The purposes of this study were to (1) develop a rodent animal model of chronic rotator cuff tears that can reproduce fatty degeneration of the cuff muscles seen clinically, (2) describe the effects of tear size and concomitant nerve injury on muscle degeneration, and (3) evaluate the changes in gene expression of relevant myogenic and adipogenic factors after rotator cuff tears using the animal model. Rotator cuff tears were created in rodents with and without transection of the suprascapular nerve. The supraspinatus and infraspinatus muscles were examined at 2, 8, and 16 weeks after injury for histologic evidence of fatty degeneration and expression of myogenic and adipogenic genes. Histologic analysis revealed adipocytes, intramuscular fat globules, and intramyocellular fat droplets in the tenotomized and neurotomized supraspinatus and infraspinatus muscles. Changes increased with time and were most severe in the muscles with combined tenotomy and neurotomy. Adipogenic and myogenic transcription factors and markers were upregulated in muscles treated with tenotomy or tenotomy combined with neurotomy compared with normal muscles. The rodent animal model described in this study produces fatty degeneration of the rotator cuff muscles similar to human muscles after chronic cuff tears. The severity of changes was associated with tear size and concomitant nerve injury. Copyright © 2012 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Urethral Stricture Outcomes After Artificial Urinary Sphincter Cuff Erosion: Results From a Multicenter Retrospective Analysis.

    PubMed

    Gross, Martin S; Broghammer, Joshua A; Kaufman, Melissa R; Milam, Douglas F; Brant, William O; Cleves, Mario A; Dum, Travis W; McClung, Christopher; Jones, LeRoy A; Brady, Jeffrey D; Pryor, Michael B; Henry, Gerard D

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate the influence of both repair type and degree of cuff erosion on postoperative urethral stricture rate. Sparse literature exists regarding patient outcomes after artificial urinary sphincter (AUS) cuff erosion. Surgeons from 6 high-volume male continence centers compiled a comprehensive database of post-erosion patients to examine outcomes. This retrospective multi-institution study included 80 patients treated for AUS cuff erosions. Seventy-eight patients had specific information regarding post-cuff erosion urethral strictures. Erosion patients were categorized into 1 of 3 repair types at the time of explant surgery: catheter only, single-layer capsule-to-capsule repair (urethrorrhaphy), and formal urethroplasty. Operative notes and available medical records were extensively reviewed to collect study data. Twenty-five of 78 patients manifested a urethral stricture after AUS cuff erosion (32%). More strictures occurred among patients who underwent urethrorrhaphy (40% vs 29% for catheter only and 14% for urethroplasty). Stricture rates did not vary significantly by repair type (P = .2). Strictures occurred significantly more frequently in patients with complete cuff erosions (58%) as compared to partial erosions (25%, P = .037). A trend was detected regarding increased percentage of erosion correlating with increased stricture rate, but this did not reach statistical significance (P = .057). Partially eroded patients were more likely to undergo urethrorrhaphy repair (60%, P = .002). Urethral stricture was more likely to occur after complete cuff erosion as opposed to partial erosion in this multicenter retrospective population. Repair type, whether catheter only, urethrorrhaphy, or formal urethroplasty, did not appear to influence postoperative stricture rate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Reversal of suprascapular neuropathy following arthroscopic repair of massive supraspinatus and infraspinatus rotator cuff tears.

    PubMed

    Costouros, John G; Porramatikul, Mason; Lie, Denny T; Warner, Jon J P

    2007-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to study the prevalence of suprascapular neuropathy (SSN) in the setting of massive rotator cuff tears and to determine if arthroscopic rotator cuff repair, even if partial, was associated with reversal of SSN and clinical improvement in pain and function. Over a 13-month period, 26 of 216 patients with rotator cuff tears treated operatively were identified to have massive tears associated with retraction and moderate to severe fatty infiltration of the supraspinatus and infraspinatus muscles. All patients had pain and marked weakness in abduction and external rotation which did not improve with conservative treatment. Electrodiagnostic electromyographic/nerve conduction velocity (EMG/NCV) evaluation, as well as pre- and postoperative questionnaire and physical examination, were performed. An arthroscopic repair, either partial or complete, was performed on patients identified to have a massive rotator cuff tear in association with SSN. Fourteen of 26 patients with massive rotator cuff tears (54%) were identified to have a peripheral nerve injury. Seven of these 26 (38%) had isolated suprascapular nerve injury, 4 had axillary nerve injury, 2 had an associated upper trunk brachial plexus injury, and 1 had a cervical radiculopathy. All 7 patients with isolated suprascapular injury underwent arthroscopic treatment, 1 of which was not technically reparable at the time of surgery. In the 6 patients who underwent either partial or complete arthroscopic repair, follow-up EMG/NCV after 6 months demonstrated partial or full recovery of the suprascapular nerve palsy that correlated with complete pain relief and marked improvement in function. SSN is found in a significant proportion of patients with massive rotator cuff tears, and is associated with pain and dysfunction. Arthroscopic rotator cuff repair can result in reversal of SSN, which may correlate with substantial improvement in pain and function. Level IV, case series.

  18. The effect of tear size on the treatment outcome of operatively treated rotator cuff tears.

    PubMed

    Kukkonen, Juha; Kauko, Tommi; Virolainen, Petri; Äärimaa, Ville

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the tear size and the short-term clinical outcome of rotator cuff reconstruction. The hypothesis was that the size of the rotator cuff tear has a direct negative correlation with post-operative clinical outcome. Five hundred and seventy-six consecutive shoulders with a primarily arthroscopically treated full-thickness rotator cuff tear were followed up. Rotator cuff tear size (anteroposterior dimension) was measured intraoperatively with an arthroscopic measuring probe. The Constant score was used as an outcome measure and was measured pre-operatively and 1-year post-operatively. Five hundred and sixty-nine patients (99 %) were available for 1-year follow-up. The mean age of patients was 59.6 (SD 9.6) years. There were 225 (40 %) female and 344 (60 %) male patients. The mean size of the rotator cuff tear was 25 mm (SD 18). The mean pre- and post-operative Constant score was 52.3 (SD 17.4) and 74.2 (SD 15.5), respectively (p < 0.0001). The intraoperatively detected tear size correlated significantly with the pre-operative Constant score (r = -0.20, p < 0.0001). Furthermore, there was even stronger and significant correlation between the tear size and the final post-operative Constant score (r = -0.36, p < 0.0001). The correlation was similar between the genders, but the Constant scores were significantly lower in women (p < 0.0001). The lowest scores were detected in tears with infraspinatus tendon involvement. The size of the rotator cuff tear linearly correlates with the Constant scores both pre- and post-operatively. The outcome of rotator cuff reconstruction is strongly related to the intraoperatively detected tear size. Retrospective comparative register study, Level III.

  19. Pulse Arrival Time Based Cuff-Less and 24-H Wearable Blood Pressure Monitoring and its Diagnostic Value in Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yali; Poon, Carmen C Y; Yan, Bryan P; Lau, James Y W

    2016-09-01

    Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) has become an essential tool in the diagnosis and management of hypertension. Current standard ABPM devices use an oscillometric cuff-based method which can cause physical discomfort to the patients with repeated inflations and deflations, especially during nighttime leading to sleep disturbance. The ability to measure ambulatory BP accurately and comfortably without a cuff would be attractive. This study validated the accuracy of a cuff-less approach for ABPM using pulse arrival time (PAT) measurements on both healthy and hypertensive subjects for potential use in hypertensive management, which is the first of its kind. The wearable cuff-less device was evaluated against a standard cuff-based device on 24 subjects of which 15 have known hypertension. BP measurements were taken from each subject over a 24-h period by the cuff-less and cuff-based devices every 15 to 30 minutes during daily activities. Mean BP of each subject during daytime, nighttime and over 24-h were calculated. Agreement between mean nighttime systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) measured by the two devices evaluated using Bland-Altman plot were -1.4 ± 6.6 and 0.4 ± 6.7 mmHg, respectively. Receiver operator characteristics (ROC) statistics was used to assess the diagnostic accuracy of the cuff-less approach in the detection of BP above the hypertension threshold during nighttime (>120/70 mmHg). The area under ROC curves were 0.975/0.79 for nighttime. The results suggest that PAT-based approach is accurate and promising for ABPM without the issue of sleep disturbances associated with cuff-based devices.

  20. The effect of a rotator cuff tear and its size on three-dimensional shoulder motion.

    PubMed

    Kolk, Arjen; Henseler, Jan Ferdinand; de Witte, Pieter Bas; van Zwet, Erik W; van der Zwaal, Peer; Visser, Cornelis P J; Nagels, Jochem; Nelissen, Rob G H H; de Groot, Jurriaan H

    2017-06-01

    Rotator cuff-disease is associated with changes in kinematics, but the effect of a rotator cuff-tear and its size on shoulder kinematics is still unknown in-vivo. In this cross-sectional study, glenohumeral and scapulothoracic kinematics of the affected shoulder were evaluated using electromagnetic motion analysis in 109 patients with 1) subacromial pain syndrome (n=34), 2) an isolated supraspinatus tear (n=21), and 3) a massive rotator cuff tear involving the supraspinatus and infraspinatus (n=54). Mixed models were applied for the comparisons of shoulder kinematics between the three groups during abduction and forward flexion. In the massive rotator cuff-tear group, we found reduced glenohumeral elevation compared to the subacromial pain syndrome (16°, 95% CI [10.5, 21.2], p<0.001) and the isolated supraspinatus tear group (10°, 95% CI [4.0, 16.7], p=0.002) at 110° abduction. Reduced glenohumeral elevation in massive rotator cuff tears coincides with an increase in scapulothoracic lateral rotation compared to subacromial pain syndrome (11°, 95% CI [6.5, 15.2], p<0.001) and supraspinatus tears (7°, 95% CI [1.8, 12.1], p=0.012). Comparable differences were observed for forward flexion. No differences in glenohumeral elevation were found between the subacromial pain syndrome and isolated supraspinatus tear group during arm elevation. The massive posterosuperior rotator cuff-tear group had substantially less glenohumeral elevation and more scapulothoracic lateral rotation compared to the other groups. These observations suggest that the infraspinatus is essential to preserve glenohumeral elevation in the presence of a supraspinatus tear. Shoulder kinematics are associated with rotator cuff-tear size and may have diagnostic potential. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of age and pathology on shear wave speed of the human rotator cuff.

    PubMed

    Baumer, Timothy G; Dischler, Jack; Davis, Leah; Labyed, Yassin; Siegal, Daniel S; van Holsbeeck, Marnix; Moutzouros, Vasilios; Bey, Michael J

    2017-06-28

    Rotator cuff tears are common and often repaired surgically, but post-operative repair tissue healing, and shoulder function can be unpredictable. Tear chronicity is believed to influence clinical outcomes, but conventional clinical approaches for assessing tear chronicity are subjective. Shear wave elastography (SWE) is a promising technique for assessing soft tissue via estimates of shear wave speed (SWS), but this technique has not been used extensively on the rotator cuff. Specifically, the effects of age and pathology on rotator cuff SWS are not well known. The objectives of this study were to assess the association between SWS and age in healthy, asymptomatic subjects, and to compare measures of SWS between patients with a rotator cuff tear and healthy, asymptomatic subjects. SWE images of the supraspinatus muscle and intramuscular tendon were acquired from 19 asymptomatic subjects and 11 patients with a rotator cuff tear. Images were acquired with the supraspinatus under passive and active (i.e., minimal activation) conditions. Mean SWS was positively associated with age in the supraspinatus muscle and tendon under passive and active conditions (p ≤ 0.049). Compared to asymptomatic subjects, patients had a lower mean SWS in their muscle and tendon under active conditions (p ≤ 0.024), but no differences were detected under passive conditions (p ≥ 0.783). These findings identify the influences of age and pathology on SWS in the rotator cuff. These preliminary findings are an important step toward evaluating the clinical utility of SWE for assessing rotator cuff pathology. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Surgery or conservative treatment for rotator cuff tear: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Ryösä, Anssi; Laimi, Katri; Äärimaa, Ville; Lehtimäki, Kaisa; Kukkonen, Juha; Saltychev, Mikhail

    2017-07-01

    Comparative evidence on treating rotator cuff tear is inconclusive. The objective of this review was to evaluate the evidence on effectiveness of tendon repair in reducing pain and improving function of the shoulder when compared with conservative treatment of symptomatic rotator cuff tear. Search on CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Web of Science and Pedro databases. Randomised controlled trials (RCT) comparing surgery and conservative treatment of rotator cuff tear. Study selection and extraction based on the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic reviews of Interventions. Random effects meta-analysis. Three identified RCTs involved 252 participants (123 cases and 129 controls). The risk of bias was considered low for all three RCTs. For Constant score, statistically insignificant effect size was 5.6 (95% CI -0.41 to 11.62) points in 1-year follow up favouring surgery and below the level of minimal clinically important difference. The respective difference in pain reduction was -0.93 (95% CI -1.65 to -0.21) cm on a 0-10 pain visual analogue scale favouring surgery. The difference was statistically significant (p = 0.012) in 1-year follow up but below the level of minimal clinically important difference. There is limited evidence that surgery is not more effective in treating rotator cuff tear than conservative treatment alone. Thus, a conservative approach is advocated as the initial treatment modality. Implications for Rehabilitation There is limited evidence that surgery is not more effective in treating rotator cuff tear than conservative treatment alone. There was no clinically significant difference between surgery and active physiotherapy in 1-year follow-up in improving Constant score or reducing pain caused by rotator cuff tear. As physiotherapy is less proneness to complications and less expensive than surgery, a conservative approach is advocated as the initial treatment modality to rotator cuff tears.

  3. Transverse thickening along the articular surface of the rotator cuff consistent with the rotator cable: identification with MR arthrography and relevance in rotator cuff evaluation.

    PubMed

    Sheah, Kenneth; Bredella, Miriam A; Warner, Jon J P; Halpern, Elkan F; Palmer, William E

    2009-09-01

    The purposes of this study were to describe the imaging appearance of transverse thickening along the articular surface of the supraspinatus and infraspinatus tendons presumed to represent the rotator cable on MR arthrographic images obtained with the shoulder in abduction and external rotation (ABER) and in the non-ABER position and to assess the role of the rotator cable in the diagnosis of rotator cuff tears. The study group comprised 54 patients who underwent arthroscopy of the shoulder and preoperative MR arthrography in which ABER images were obtained. Two blinded reviewers independently examined the ABER and non-ABER images for the presence of the rotator cable and rotator cuff tears. In intact rotator cuffs, the presumed rotator cable was not well visualized on non-ABER images. In one case of prominent rotator cable, MR arthrography showed no tear on non-ABER images, but at arthroscopy, a partial-thickness undersurface tear was found. On non-ABER images, both readers readily visualized the rotator cable in eight and 10 of 18 cases (44% and 56%) of partial-thickness undersurface tear and four of five cases (80%) of full-thickness tear. On ABER images, both readers readily visualized the rotator cable in 15 and 17 of 31 cases (48% and 55%) of intact cuff, 14 and 15 of 18 cases (78% and 83%) of undersurface tear, and four and five cases (80% and 100%) of full-thickness tear. Interobserver agreement on cable visualization was almost perfect (kappa = 0.86). On non-ABER MR arthrographic images, thickening along the articular side of the supraspinatus and infraspinatus tendons presumed to represent the rotator cable suggests the presence of a partial-thickness rotator cuff tear. On ABER images, the cable is well defined in intact and torn rotator cuffs.

  4. Vitamin D and the immunomodulation of rotator cuff injury

    PubMed Central

    Dougherty, Kaitlin A; Dilisio, Matthew F; Agrawal, Devendra K

    2016-01-01

    Tendon-to-bone healing after rotator cuff repair surgery has a failure rate of 20%–94%. There has been a recent interest to determine the factors that act as determinants between successful and unsuccessful rotator cuff repair. Vitamin D level in patients is one of the factors that have been linked to bone and muscle proliferation and healing, and it may have an effect on tendon-to-bone healing. The purpose of this article is to critically review relevant published research that relates to the effect of vitamin D on rotator cuff tears and subsequent healing. A review of the literature was conducted to identify all studies that investigate the relationship between vitamin D and tendon healing, in addition to its mechanism of action. The data were then analyzed in order to summarize what is currently known about vitamin D, rotator cuff pathology, and tendon-to-bone healing. The activated metabolite of vitamin D, 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, affects osteoblast proliferation and differentiation. Likewise, vitamin D plays a significant role in the tendon-to-bone healing process by increasing the bone mineral density and strengthening the skeletal muscles. The 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 binds to vitamin D receptors on myocytes to stimulate growth and proliferation. The form of vitamin D produced by the liver, calcifediol, is a key initiator of the myocyte healing process by moving phosphate into myocytes, which improves function and metabolism. Investigation into the effect of vitamin D on tendons has been sparse, but limited studies have been promising. Matrix metalloproteinases play an active role in remodeling the extracellular matrix (ECM) of tendons, particularly deleterious remodeling of the collagen fibers. Also, the levels of transforming growth factor-β3 positively influence the success of the surgery for rotator cuff repair. In the tendon-to-bone healing process, vitamin D has been shown to successfully influence bone and muscle healing, but more research is

  5. Partial rotator cuff tears in adolescents: factors affecting outcomes.

    PubMed

    Eisner, Eric A; Roocroft, Joanna H; Moor, Molly A; Edmonds, Eric W

    2013-01-01

    In the adult population, rotator cuff tears are common and established treatment methods yield satisfactory results. In adolescents, however, these injuries are uncommon and few treatment methods and outcome reports exist. The purpose of this study was to examine a series of adolescent rotator cuff tears, identify associated pathology, and report treatment outcomes. A retrospective comparative analysis of adolescent patients treated for rotator cuff tears diagnosed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or arthroscopy between 2008 and 2010 was performed. Patients were divided by treatment rendered: nonoperative or operative. Demographic and diagnostic variables were compared between the 2 groups. After release to full activity, 3 patient outcome measures were obtained: QuickDASH (Disability of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand), QuickDASH Sports module, and the Single Assessment Numerical Evaluation (SANE). Fifty-three adolescents (38 boys and 15 girls) with a mean age of 15.8 years (8.8 to 18.8 y) met the inclusion criteria. All rotator cuff tears were partial articular-sided tendon avulsions, and surgical treatment (when required) consisted of debridement to stable edges. All patients underwent a trial of at least 6 weeks of physical therapy, with 57% failing to improve and requiring subsequent surgery. In the patients that were treated nonoperatively, 39% were diagnosed with associated pathology based on MRI findings, whereas operative patients exhibited an associated pathology rate of 70%. Patients with MRI-diagnosed associated pathology were 1.8 times more likely (95% confidence interval, 1.02-3.13, P=0.025) to require surgery compared with those without MRI-identified associated pathology. Nineteen patients (13 operative, 6 nonoperative) completed the outcome questionnaires at a mean 16.9 months after treatment. QuickDASH, SANE, and QuickDASH Sports module scores were not statistically different between nonoperative and operative treatment groups (7.5 vs. 8.1, P=0

  6. Systematic Review: What Surgical Technique Provides the Best Outcome for Symptomatic Partial Articular-Sided Rotator Cuff Tears?

    PubMed Central

    Bollier, Matthew; Shea, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    Purpose There is no consensus in the literature regarding the optimal surgical treatment of symptomatic partial rotator cuff tears. We attempted to determine the optimal surgical treatment for partial articular-sided rotator cuff tears through a systematic review of appropriate studies. Methods Medline®, PubMed, Ovid, and the cochrane register of controlled trials were searched for all studies published between January 1991 to March 2010 that used the key words “shoulder”, “partial rotator cuff tear”, “PASTA”, “articularsided rotator cuff tear”, “incomplete rotator cuff tear”, “arthroscopic” and “repair”. Inclusion criteria were studies (Level I to IV) that reported clinical outcomes in patients who had arthroscopic evaluation and arthroscopic or mini-open treatment of a symptomatic partial articular-sided rotator cuff tear. One of three surgical treatments was used: debridement with or without acromioplasty; transtendon arthroscopic repair; or tear completion with repair. Exclusion criteria included studies with over 50% overhead throwers or athletes, studies that involved an open approach to the rotator cuff without arthroscopy, and data presented in technical notes or review papers. Data abstracted from the studies included patient demographics, tear characteristics, surgical procedure(s), and clinical outcomes. Results Of 588 studies involving partial rotator cuff tears, 14 studies were identified which met our inclusion and exclusion criteria. All studies were Level IV retrospective case-series studies. Seven studies reported outcomes after rotator cuff debridement. Tear completion and repair was performed in three studies. Transtendon repair of a partial articular-sided rotator cuff tear was performed in three studies. Although different outcome measures were used, each study reported subjective and objective improvement postoperatively. One study compared outcomes in patients who underwent arthroscopic debridement versus another

  7. 21 CFR 870.1120 - Blood pressure cuff.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Blood pressure cuff. 870.1120 Section 870.1120...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1120 Blood pressure cuff. (a) Identification. A blood pressure cuff is a device that has an inflatable bladder in an...

  8. 21 CFR 868.5750 - Inflatable tracheal tube cuff.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Inflatable tracheal tube cuff. 868.5750 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5750 Inflatable tracheal tube cuff. (a) Identification. An inflatable tracheal tube cuff is a device used to provide an airtight...

  9. 21 CFR 868.5800 - Tracheostomy tube and tube cuff.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Tracheostomy tube and tube cuff. 868.5800 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5800 Tracheostomy tube and tube cuff. (a) Identification. A tracheostomy tube and tube cuff is a device intended to be placed into...

  10. 21 CFR 868.5750 - Inflatable tracheal tube cuff.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Inflatable tracheal tube cuff. 868.5750 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5750 Inflatable tracheal tube cuff. (a) Identification. An inflatable tracheal tube cuff is a device used to provide an airtight...

  11. 21 CFR 868.5800 - Tracheostomy tube and tube cuff.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Tracheostomy tube and tube cuff. 868.5800 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5800 Tracheostomy tube and tube cuff. (a) Identification. A tracheostomy tube and tube cuff is a device intended to be placed into...

  12. 21 CFR 868.5800 - Tracheostomy tube and tube cuff.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Tracheostomy tube and tube cuff. 868.5800 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5800 Tracheostomy tube and tube cuff. (a) Identification. A tracheostomy tube and tube cuff is a device intended to be placed into...

  13. 21 CFR 868.5750 - Inflatable tracheal tube cuff.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Inflatable tracheal tube cuff. 868.5750 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5750 Inflatable tracheal tube cuff. (a) Identification. An inflatable tracheal tube cuff is a device used to provide an airtight...

  14. 21 CFR 868.5750 - Inflatable tracheal tube cuff.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Inflatable tracheal tube cuff. 868.5750 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5750 Inflatable tracheal tube cuff. (a) Identification. An inflatable tracheal tube cuff is a device used to provide an airtight...

  15. 21 CFR 868.5750 - Inflatable tracheal tube cuff.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Inflatable tracheal tube cuff. 868.5750 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5750 Inflatable tracheal tube cuff. (a) Identification. An inflatable tracheal tube cuff is a device used to provide an airtight...

  16. 21 CFR 870.1120 - Blood pressure cuff.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Blood pressure cuff. 870.1120 Section 870.1120...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1120 Blood pressure cuff. (a) Identification. A blood pressure cuff is a device that has an inflatable bladder in an...

  17. 21 CFR 870.1120 - Blood pressure cuff.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Blood pressure cuff. 870.1120 Section 870.1120...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1120 Blood pressure cuff. (a) Identification. A blood pressure cuff is a device that has an inflatable bladder in an...

  18. 21 CFR 870.1120 - Blood pressure cuff.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Blood pressure cuff. 870.1120 Section 870.1120...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1120 Blood pressure cuff. (a) Identification. A blood pressure cuff is a device that has an inflatable bladder in an...

  19. 21 CFR 870.1120 - Blood pressure cuff.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Blood pressure cuff. 870.1120 Section 870.1120...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1120 Blood pressure cuff. (a) Identification. A blood pressure cuff is a device that has an inflatable bladder in an...

  20. Failed healing of rotator cuff repair correlates with altered collagenase and gelatinase in supraspinatus and subscapularis tendons.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Catherine M; Chen, Christopher T; Shindle, Michael K; Cordasco, Frank A; Rodeo, Scott A; Warren, Russell F

    2012-09-01

    Despite improvements in arthroscopic rotator cuff repair technique and technology, a significant rate of failed tendon healing persists. Improving the biology of rotator cuff repairs may be an important focus to decrease this failure rate. The objective of this study was to determine the mRNA biomarkers and histological characteristics of repaired rotator cuffs that healed or developed persistent defects as determined by postoperative ultrasound. Increased synovial inflammation and tendon degeneration at the time of surgery are correlated with the failed healing of rotator cuff tendons. Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. Biopsy specimens from the subscapularis tendon, supraspinatus tendon, glenohumeral synovium, and subacromial bursa of 35 patients undergoing arthroscopic rotator cuff repair were taken at the time of surgery. Expression of proinflammatory cytokines, tissue remodeling genes, and angiogenesis factors was evaluated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Histological characteristics of the affected tissue were also assessed. Postoperative (>6 months) ultrasound was used to evaluate the healing of the rotator cuff. General linear modeling with selected mRNA biomarkers was used to predict rotator cuff healing. Thirty patients completed all analyses, of which 7 patients (23%) had failed healing of the rotator cuff. No differences in demographic data were found between the defect and healed groups. American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons shoulder scores collected at baseline and follow-up showed improvement in both groups, but there was no significant difference between groups. Increased expression of matrix metalloproteinase 1 (MMP-1) and MMP-9 was found in the supraspinatus tendon in the defect group versus the healed group (P = .006 and .02, respectively). Similar upregulation of MMP-9 was also found in the subscapularis tendon of the defect group (P = .001), which was consistent with the loss of collagen organization as determined by

  1. Influence of Rotator Cuff Tear Size and Repair Technique on the Creation and Management of Dog Ear Deformities in a Transosseous-Equivalent Rotator Cuff Repair Model

    PubMed Central

    Redler, Lauren H.; Byram, Ian R.; Luchetti, Timothy J.; Tsui, Ying Lai; Moen, Todd C.; Gardner, Thomas R.; Ahmad, Christopher S.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Redundancies in the rotator cuff tissue, commonly referred to as “dog ear” deformities, are frequently encountered during rotator cuff repair. Knowledge of how these deformities are created and their impact on rotator cuff footprint restoration is limited. Purpose: The goals of this study were to assess the impact of tear size and repair method on the creation and management of dog ear deformities in a human cadaveric model. Study Design: Controlled laboratory study. Methods: Crescent-shaped tears were systematically created in the supraspinatus tendon of 7 cadaveric shoulders with increasing medial to lateral widths (0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 cm). Repair of the 1.5-cm tear was performed on each shoulder with 3 methods in a randomized order: suture bridge, double-row repair with 2-mm fiber tape, and fiber tape with peripheral No. 2 nonabsorbable looped sutures. Resulting dog ear deformities were injected with an acrylic resin mixture, digitized 3-dimensionally (3D), and photographed perpendicular to the footprint with calibration. The volume, height, and width of the rotator cuff tissue not in contact with the greater tuberosity footprint were calculated using the volume injected, 3D reconstructions, and calibrated photographs. Comparisons were made between tear size, dog ear measurement technique, and repair method utilizing 2-way analysis of variance and Student-Newman-Keuls multiple-comparison tests. Results: Utilizing 3D digitized and injection-derived volumes and dimensions, anterior dog ear volume, height, and width were significantly smaller for rotator cuff repair with peripheral looped sutures compared with a suture bridge (P < .05) or double-row repair with 2-mm fiber tape alone (P < .05). Similarly, posterior height and width were significantly smaller for repair with looped peripheral sutures compared with a suture bridge (P < .05). Dog ear volumes and heights trended larger for the 1.5-cm tear, but this was not statistically significant

  2. Torn human rotator cuff tendons have reduced collagen thermal properties on differential scanning calorimetry.

    PubMed

    Chaudhury, Salma; Holland, Christopher; Porter, David; Tirlapur, Uday K; Vollrath, Fritz; Carr, Andrew J

    2011-12-01

    The cause of the high failure rates often observed following rotator cuff tendon repairs, particularly massive tears, is not fully understood. Collagen structural changes have been shown to alter tendon thermal and mechanical properties. This study aimed to form a quantitative rather than qualitative assessment, of whether differences in collagen structure and integrity existed between small biopsies of normal, small, and massive rotator cuff tears using differential scanning calorimetry. Thermal properties were measured for 28 human biopsies taken intra-operatively from normal, small, and massive rotator cuff tendon tears in this powered study. Denaturation temperatures are represented by T(onset) (°C) and T(peak) (°C). The T(onset) is proposed to represent water-amide hydrogen bond breakage and resulting protein backbone mobility. T(peak) reportedly corresponds to the temperature at which the majority of proteins fall out of solution. Denaturation enthalpy (ΔH) should correlate with the amount of triple helical structure that is denatured. Fluorescence and confocal microscopy allowed quantitative validation. Small and massive rotator cuff tears had significantly higher T(onset), T(peak), and ΔH compared to controls. Polarized light microscopy of torn tendons confirmed greater collagen structural disruption compared to controls. These novel findings suggest greater quantifiable collagen structural disruption in rotator cuff tears, compared to controls. This study offers insight into possible mechanisms for the reduced strength of torn tendons and may explain why repaired tendons fail to heal.

  3. Use of stem cells and growth factors in rotator cuff tendon repair.

    PubMed

    Akyol, Engin; Hindocha, Sandip; Khan, Wasim S

    2015-01-01

    In this review, we analysed the role of stem cell and growth factor therapy on rotator cuff tendon repair. The injury to the rotator cuff tendons can be sustained in numerous ways and generally causes significant pain and disability to the affected individual. Following surgical repair of ruptured rotator cuff tendons re-rupture rates can be as high as 20-60%. In order to augment this repair process and to decrease the re-rupture rates tissue engineering methods can be used. These include the use of stem cells and growth factors. Mesenchymal stem cells are stem cells which can differentiate into a variety of connective tissue cell types and can therefore be utilised in repairing tendons. So far there has only been one human study using stem cells in rotator cuff tendon repair. This study has produced a positive result but consisted of only 14 patients and lacks a control group for comparison. Similar work has also been done using growth factors. Both individual and combination growth factor therapy have been used to improve rotator cuff tendon repair. However, the results so far have been disappointing with growth factors. For the purpose of future studies better techniques should be explored with regards to the delivery of stem cells and growth factors as well as the possibility of combining growth factor and stem cell therapy to improve repair rates.

  4. Cuff Pressure Pain Detection Is Associated with Both Sex and Physical Activity Level in Nonathletic Healthy Subjects.

    PubMed

    Lemming, Dag; Börsbo, Björn; Sjörs, Anna; Lind, Eva-Britt; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Graven-Nielsen, Thomas; Gerdle, Björn

    2017-01-04

    PURPOSE : The aim of this study was to evaluate pressure pain sensitivity on leg and arm in 98 healthy persons (50 women) using cuff algometry. Furthermore, associations with sex and physical activity level were investigated.

  5. Glucocorticoids induce specific ion-channel-mediated toxicity in human rotator cuff tendon: a mechanism underpinning the ultimately deleterious effect of steroid injection in tendinopathy?

    PubMed

    Dean, Benjamin John Floyd; Franklin, Sarah Louise; Murphy, Richard J; Javaid, Muhammad K; Carr, Andrew Jonathan

    2014-12-01

    Glucocorticoid injection (GCI) and surgical rotator cuff repair are two widely used treatments for rotator cuff tendinopathy. Little is known about the way in which medical and surgical treatments affect the human rotator cuff tendon in vivo. We assessed the histological and immunohistochemical effects of these common treatments on the rotator cuff tendon. Controlled laboratory study. Supraspinatus tendon biopsies were taken before and after treatment from 12 patients undergoing GCI and 8 patients undergoing surgical rotator cuff repair. All patients were symptomatic and none of the patients undergoing local GCI had full thickness tears of the rotator cuff. The tendon tissue was then analysed using histological techniques and immunohistochemistry. There was a significant increase in nuclei count and vascularity after rotator cuff repair and not after GCI (both p=0.008). Hypoxia inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) and cell proliferation were only increased after rotator cuff repair (both p=0.03) and not GCI. The ionotropic N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor 1 (NMDAR1) glutamate receptor was only increased after GCI and not rotator cuff repair (p=0.016). An increase in glutamate was seen in both groups following treatment (both p=0.04), while an increase in the receptor metabotropic glutamate receptor 7 (mGluR7) was only seen after rotator cuff repair (p=0.016). The increases in cell proliferation, vascularity and HIF-1α after surgical rotator cuff repair appear consistent with a proliferative healing response, and these features are not seen after GCI. The increase in the glutamate receptor NMDAR1 after GCI raises concerns about the potential excitotoxic tendon damage that may result from this common treatment. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  6. Role of metalloproteinases in rotator cuff tear.

    PubMed

    Garofalo, Raffaele; Cesari, Eugenio; Vinci, Enzo; Castagna, Alessandro

    2011-09-01

    The role of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their inhibitors (TIMPS) in the pathophysiology of rotator cuff tears has not been established yet. Recent advances empathize about the role of MMPs and TIMPS in extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling and degradation in rotator cuff tears pathogenesis and healing after surgical repair. An increase in MMPs synthesis and the resulting MMPs mediated alterations in the ECM of tendons have been implicated in the etiopathogenesis of tendinopathy, and there is an increase in the expression of MMPs and a decrease in TIMP messenger ribonucleic acid expression in tenocytes from degenerative or ruptured tendons. Importantly, MMPs are amenable to inhibition by cheap, safe, and widely available drugs such as the tetracycline antibiotics and bisphosphonates. A better understanding of relationship and activity of these molecules could provide better strategies to optimize outcomes of rotator cuff therapy.

  7. Cuff Cath: an initial experience of cuffed polyurethane central venous catheters in children.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, R A; Griffiths, D M

    1992-01-01

    The tendency of medium- and long-term silicone central venous catheters (CVCs) to block, fracture, and become displaced has led to the evaluation of a polyurethane CVC, Cuff Cath (Viggo Spectramed, Swindon, Wilts, United Kingdom) as a possible alternative because polyurethane is smoother and stronger. We report the first prospective study of polyurethane cuffed CVCs in children. Sixty Cuff Caths were placed in 53 children, mean age 4.7 years (range, 4 days to 16.3 years), mean weight 15.6 kg (range, 3.1 to 58 kg). All CVCs were tunnelled (mean tunnel length, 12 cm; range, 5 to 20 cm) and inserted either into the subclavian vein (n = 28) or internal jugular vein (n = 32). In a total of 6363 catheter days (mean, 111 days per patient; range, 15 to 364 days), three (5%) CVCs had to be removed because of sepsis and one (2%) because of blockage. All other Cuff Caths remained patent to infusion and blood sampling. No Cuff Caths were pulled or fell out, fractured, or migrated. This study demonstrates significant advantages of polyurethane compared with previous series using silicone CVCs with respect to blockage, fragmentation, and dislodgement. A prospective, randomized, controlled trial of Cuff Cath compared with a silicone CVCs in children is required.

  8. Proposed definition of the vaginal cuff and paracolpium clinical target volume in postoperative uterine cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Naoya; Norihisa, Yoshiki; Isohashi, Fumiaki; Murofushi, Keiko; Ariga, Takuro; Kato, Tomoyasu; Inaba, Koji; Okamoto, Hiroyuki; Ito, Yoshinori; Toita, Takafumi; Itami, Jun

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop an appropriate definition for vaginal cuff and paracolpium clinical target volume (CTV) for postoperative intensity modulated radiation therapy in patients with uterine cervical cancer. A working subgroup was organized within the Radiation Therapy Study Group of the Japan Clinical Oncology Group to develop a definition for the postoperative vaginal cuff and paracolpium CTV in December 2013. The group consisted of 5 radiation oncologists who specialized in gynecologic oncology and a gynecologic oncologist. A comprehensive literature review that included anatomy, surgery, and imaging fields was performed and was followed by multiple discreet face-to-face discussions and e-mail messages before a final consensus was reached. Definitions for the landmark structures in all directions that demarcate the vaginal cuff and paracolpium CTV were decided by consensus agreement of the working group. A table was created that showed boundary structures of the vaginal cuff and paracolpium CTV in each direction. A definition of the postoperative cervical cancer vaginal cuff and paracolpium CTV was developed. It is expected that this definition guideline will serve as a template for future radiation therapy clinical trial protocols, especially protocols involving intensity modulated radiation therapy. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Radiation Oncology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Creatinine and nonprotein nitrogen plasma levels: possible etiopathogenetic factors in rotator cuff tears.

    PubMed

    Papalia, Rocco; Del Buono, Angelo; Leonardi, Francesco; Osti, Leonardo; Maffulli, Nicola; Denaro, Vincenzo

    2011-05-01

    To determine the plasma levels of nonprotein nitrogen (NPN) and creatinine in healthy patients with rotator cuff tears. The study included 400 subjects. The study group included 200 patients (93 men and 107 women; mean age, 56.8 years; range, 23-81 years) who underwent arthroscopic repair of a rotator cuff tear from 2004 to 2007. The control group included 200 patients (93 men and 107 women; mean age, 53.9 years; range, 20-81 years) who underwent arthroscopy for management of a meniscal tear, with or without articular cartilage damage, in the same period. The 2 groups were frequency-matched by age and sex. Measurement of plasma levels of NPN and creatinine were performed in all patients. Patients with rotator cuff tears showed higher plasma NPN levels within the normal range (P = 0.035) than patients with knee disorders (control group). Creatinine levels were comparable (P = 0.66) in both groups. There appears to be an association between plasma NPN levels and rotator cuff tears. On the basis of our findings, plasma NPN could be involved in the pathogenesis of rotator cuff tears, although we advocate further research to draw more definitive conclusions.

  10. Epidemiology of the rotator cuff tears: a new incidence related to thyroid disease

    PubMed Central

    Oliva, Francesco; Osti, Leonardo; Padulo, Johnny; Maffulli, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background: in the last years the incidence of rotator cuff tears increased and one main cause still waiting to be clarified. Receptors for thyroid hormones in rotator cuff tendons suggest possible effects on tendons metabolism and status. We undertook a retrospective, observational cohort study of 441 patients who underwent arthroscopic and mini-open repair for non traumatic degenerative rotator cuff tears. Methods: all the patients, predominantly females (63%), were interview to assess the relationship (frequency for class age “20 yrs” and factor analysis) between lesions of the rotator cuff with the following variables: gender, thyroid disease, smoker, taking medications for diabetes, hypertension or high cholesterol; presence of associated conditions (diabetes, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia). Results: thyroid disease is highly frequently (until 63% for 60<80 yrs) in females group independent to the age. Conversely, males showed a high frequency for smoker 37<62% until 80 yrs and 50% hypercholesterolemia over 80 yrs for the clinical variable studied. Conclusions: this is the first clinical report that shown a relationship between thyroid pathologies and non-traumatic rotator cuff tear as increased risk factors. PMID:25489548

  11. Gender, ethnicity and smoking affect pain and function in patients with rotator cuff tears.

    PubMed

    Maher, Anthony; Leigh, Warren; Brick, Matt; Young, Simon; Millar, James; Walker, Cameron; Caughey, Michael

    2017-09-01

    This study is a collation of baseline demographic characteristics of those presenting for rotator cuff repair in New Zealand, and exploration of associations with preoperative function and pain. Data were obtained from the New Zealand Rotator Cuff Registry; a multicentre, nationwide prospective cohort of rotator cuff repairs undertaken from 1 March 2009 until 31 December 2010. A total of 1383 patients were included in the study. This required complete demographic information, preoperative Flex-SF (functional score) and pain scores. Following univariate analysis, a multivariate model was used. The average age was 58 years (69% males and 11% smokers). New Zealand Europeans made up 90% and Maori 5%. The average preoperative Flex-SF was significantly lower (poorer function) in those over 65 years, females, smokers and Maori, in the non-dominant patients, using a multivariate model. Average preoperative pain scores were significantly worse (higher scores) in females, Maori, Polynesians, smokers, using a multivariate model. This is the largest reported prospective cohort of patients presenting for rotator cuff surgery. Results can be used to understand the effect of rotator cuff tears on the different patients, for example Maori patients who are under-represented, present younger, with more pain and poorer function. © 2017 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  12. Simvastatin reduces fibrosis and protects against muscle weakness after massive rotator cuff tear

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Max E; Korn, Michael A; Gumucio, Jonathan P; Harning, Julie A; Saripalli, Anjali L; Bedi, Asheesh; Mendias, Christopher L

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic rotator cuff tears are a common source of shoulder pain and disability, and patients with chronic cuff tears often have substantial weakness, fibrosis, inflammation and fat accumulation. Identifying therapies to prevent the development of these pathologies will likely have a positive impact on clinical outcomes. Simvastatin is a drug with demonstrated anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic effects in many tissues, but had not previously been studied in the context of rotator cuff tears. We hypothesized that following the induction of a massive supraspinatus tear, simvastatin would protect muscles from a loss of force production and fibrosis. Methods We measured changes in muscle fiber contractility, histology and biochemical markers of fibrosis and fatty infiltration in rats that received a full-thickness supraspinatus tear and were treated with either carrier alone or simvastatin. Results Compared to vehicle treated controls, simvastatin did not have an appreciable effect on muscle fiber size, but treatment did increase muscle fiber specific force by 20%. Simvastatin also reduced collagen accumulation by 50%, but did not effect triglyceride content of muscles. Several favorable changes in the expression of genes and other markers of inflammation, fibrosis and regeneration were also observed. Conclusions Simvastatin partially protected muscles from the weakness that occurs as a result of chronic rotator cuff tear. Fibrosis was also markedly reduced in simvastatin treated animals. While further studies are necessary, statin medication could potentially help to improve outcomes for patients with rotator cuff tears. PMID:25213828

  13. Full thickness tears: retaining the cuff.

    PubMed

    Osti, Leonardo; Rizzello, Giacomo; Panascì, Manlio; Denaro, Vincenzo; Maffulli, Nicola

    2011-12-01

    Repair of rotator cuff tears is technically challenging. Full thickness rotator cuff tears have no potential for spontaneous healing, no reliable tendons substitutes are available, and their management is only partially understood. Many factors seem to contribute to the final outcome, and considerable variations in the decision-making process exist. For these reasons, decisions are often taken on the basis of surgeon's clinical experience. Accurate and prompt diagnosis is fundamental to guide correct management, and the tear pattern should be carefully evaluated to planning the most appropriate repair.

  14. Challenges and Controversies in Treating Massive Rotator Cuff Tears.

    PubMed

    Burkhart, Stephen S; Ricchetti, Eric T; Levine, William N; Galatz, Leesa M

    2016-01-01

    Massive rotator cuff tears present several challenges for orthopaedic surgeons. Many rotator cuff tears can be repaired; however, some chronic rotator cuff tears require advanced reconstructive techniques. Repair, if possible, is the optimal treatment for rotator cuff tears. In general, muscle transfers are an option for patients younger than 60 years who do not have pseudoparalysis. Arthroplasty is an option for older patients who have concomitant arthritis and for patients who have pseudoparalysis. Biologic augmentation in the setting of rotator cuff tears continues to evolve, and the application of biologic products should be guided by sound evidence and cost-benefit considerations.

  15. Clinical and biological aspects of rotator cuff tears

    PubMed Central

    Giai Via, Alessio; De Cupis, Mauro; Spoliti, Marco; Oliva, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    Summary Rotator cuff tears are common and are a frequent source of shoulder pain and disability. A wide variation in the prevalence of rotator cuff tears has been reported. The etiology of rotator cuff tear remains multifactorial and attempts to unify intrinsic and extrinsic theories tried to explain the etiopathogenesis of rotator cuff tears. Knowledge of the etiopathogenesis of rotator cuff tears is important to improve our therapies, surgical techniques and promote tendon repair. Several strategies have been proposed to enhance tendon healing and recently research has focused on regenerative therapies, such as Growth Factors (GFs) and Plasma Rich Platelet (PRP), with high expectations of success. PMID:23888289

  16. Rotator Cuff Tears in the Elderly Patients

    PubMed Central

    Geary, Michael B.

    2015-01-01

    Rotator cuff tears (RCT) are a common clinical problem in the geriatric population, and debate exists over how to best provide pain relief and restore shoulder function. Treatment options can be broadly divided into nonsurgical and surgical, with the majority of patients initially placed on a trial of conservative therapy. For those with irreparable RCT, low functional demand, or interest in nonoperative management, there are a number of nonsurgical treatments to consider, including rehabilitation and injections of corticosteroids, hyaluronate, and platelet-rich plasma. Surgical treatment is increasingly common, as geriatric patients remain active with high functional demands. Studies in elderly populations have demonstrated satisfactory healing and clinical results following surgical repair. Predictors of poor outcome after repair are large tear size as well as higher stages of fatty infiltration. Decompression is a less invasive surgical option that has been shown to provide short-term pain relief, though the lasting effects may deteriorate over time. A number of factors must be weighed when considering which patients are likely to benefit from surgical intervention. PMID:26328240

  17. Possibilities offered by implantable miniaturized cuff-electrodes for insect neurophysiology

    PubMed Central

    Hartbauer, Manfred; Krüger, Thilo B.; Stieglitz, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Recent advances in microsystems technology led to a miniaturization of cuff-electrodes, which suggests these electrodes not just for long-term neuronal recordings in mammalians, but also in medium-sized insects. In this study we investigated the possibilities offered by cuff-electrodes for neuroethology using insects as a model organism. The implantation in the neck of a tropical bushcricket resulted in high quality extracellular nerve recordings of different units responding to various acoustic, vibratory, optical and mechanical stimuli. In addition, multi-unit nerve activity related to leg movements was recorded in insects walking on a trackball. A drawback of bi-polar nerve recordings obtained during tethered flight was overlay of nerve activity with large amplitude muscle potentials. Interestingly, cuff-electrode recordings were robust to withstand walking and flight activity so that good quality nerve recordings were possible even three days after electrode implantation. Recording multi-unit nerve activity in intact insects required an elaborate spike sorting algorithm in order to discriminate neuronal units responding to external stimuli from background activity. In future, a combination of miniaturized cuff-electrodes and light-weight amplifiers equipped with a wireless transmitter will allow the investigation of neuronal processes underlying natural behavior in freely moving insects. By this means cuff-electrodes may contribute to the development of realistic neuronal models simulating neuronal processes underlying natural insect behavior, such like mate choice and predator avoidance. PMID:23576843

  18. Analysis of a Standardized Technique for Laparoscopic Cuff Closure following 1924 Total Laparoscopic Hysterectomies

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Alfred; Sten, Margaret S.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To review the vaginal cuff complications from a large series of total laparoscopic hysterectomies in which the laparoscopic culdotomy closure was highly standardized. Methods. Retrospective cohort study (Canadian Task Force Classification II-3) of consecutive total and radical laparoscopic hysterectomy patients with all culdotomy closures performed laparoscopically was conducted using three guidelines: placement of all sutures 5 mm deep from the vaginal edge with a 5 mm interval, incorporation of the uterosacral ligaments with the pubocervical fascia at each angle, and, whenever possible, suturing the bladder peritoneum over the vaginal cuff edge utilizing two suture types of comparable tensile strength. Four outcomes are reviewed: dehiscence, bleeding, infection, and adhesions. Results. Of 1924 patients undergoing total laparoscopic hysterectomy, 44 patients (2.29%) experienced a vaginal cuff complication, with 19 (0.99%) requiring reoperation. Five patients (0.26%) had dehiscence after sexual penetration on days 30–83, with 3 requiring reoperation. Thirteen patients (0.68%) developed bleeding, with 9 (0.47%) requiring reoperation. Twenty-three (1.20%) patients developed infections, with 4 (0.21%) requiring reoperation. Three patients (0.16%) developed obstructive small bowel adhesions to the cuff requiring laparoscopic lysis. Conclusion. A running 5 mm deep × 5 mm apart culdotomy closure that incorporates the uterosacral ligaments with the pubocervical fascia, with reperitonealization when possible, appears to be associated with few postoperative vaginal cuff complications. PMID:27579179

  19. Clinical evidence in the treatment of rotator cuff tears with hyaluronic acid

    PubMed Central

    Osti, Leonardo; Buda, Matteo; Buono, Angelo Del; Osti, Raffaella; Massari, Leo

    2015-01-01

    Summary Purpose the aim of this quantitative review is to document potential benefit and adverse effects of hyaluronic acid (HA) injection into the shoulder with rotator cuff tears. Methods a systematic literature search was performed in english PubMed, Medline, Ovid, Google Scholar and Embase databases using the combined key words “hyaluronic acid”, “rotator cuff tear”, “hyaluronate”, “shoulder”, “viscosupplementation”, with no limit regarding the year of publication. Articles were included if they reported data on clinical and functional outcomes, complications in series of patients who had undergone HA injection for management of rotator cuff tears. Two Authors screened the selected articles for title, abstract and full text in accordance with predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria. The papers were accurately analyzed focusing on objective rating scores reported. Results a total of 11 studies, prospective, 7 were randomized were included by full text. A total of 1102 patients were evaluated clinically after different HA injection compare with corticosteroid injection, physically therapies, saline solution injection and control groups. The use of HA in patients with rotator cuff tears improve VAS and functional score in all trials that we have analyzed. Conclusion intra-articular injection with HA is effective in reducing pain and improving function in shoulder with rotator cuff tears and without severe adverse reaction. Level of evidence Level I. PMID:26958534

  20. Clinical evidence in the treatment of rotator cuff tears with hyaluronic acid.

    PubMed

    Osti, Leonardo; Buda, Matteo; Buono, Angelo Del; Osti, Raffaella; Massari, Leo

    2015-01-01

    the aim of this quantitative review is to document potential benefit and adverse effects of hyaluronic acid (HA) injection into the shoulder with rotator cuff tears. a systematic literature search was performed in english PubMed, Medline, Ovid, Google Scholar and Embase databases using the combined key words "hyaluronic acid", "rotator cuff tear", "hyaluronate", "shoulder", "viscosupplementation", with no limit regarding the year of publication. Articles were included if they reported data on clinical and functional outcomes, complications in series of patients who had undergone HA injection for management of rotator cuff tears. Two Authors screened the selected articles for title, abstract and full text in accordance with predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria. The papers were accurately analyzed focusing on objective rating scores reported. a total of 11 studies, prospective, 7 were randomized were included by full text. A total of 1102 patients were evaluated clinically after different HA injection compare with corticosteroid injection, physically therapies, saline solution injection and control groups. The use of HA in patients with rotator cuff tears improve VAS and functional score in all trials that we have analyzed. intra-articular injection with HA is effective in reducing pain and improving function in shoulder with rotator cuff tears and without severe adverse reaction. Level I.