Sigurdson, Leif A
Chiropractors regularly assess and provide treatment for a variety of neuromuscular complaints. Many of these respond well to conservative care however some represent conditions that must be referred for further evaluation. This article chronicles the management of a patient who presented with upper limb weakness and was subsequently diagnosed with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Chiropractors should be informed of the nature and presentation of this disease to facilitate early diagnosis and treatment.
Sigurdson, Leif A.
Chiropractors regularly assess and provide treatment for a variety of neuromuscular complaints. Many of these respond well to conservative care however some represent conditions that must be referred for further evaluation. This article chronicles the management of a patient who presented with upper limb weakness and was subsequently diagnosed with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Chiropractors should be informed of the nature and presentation of this disease to facilitate early diagnosis and treatment. PMID:21886282
Curtis Bay, R.
Purpose/Background: Anterior knee pain (AKP), also known as patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS), is believed to be common in young, active females. A prevalence rate of 25% has been commonly cited in the literature. However, this rate may be more anecdotal than empirical. The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of AKP in females 18 to 35 years of age. Methods: Three cohorts of females, totaling 724 participants between 18 and 35 years of age participated in this study. The mean age of participants was 24.17 years (SD: 2.34), mean height was 165.10 cm (SD: 7.26), mean weight was 65.46 kg (SD: 14.10), and mean BMI was 23.95 kg/m2 (SD: 4.86). Participants completed the Anterior Knee Pain Questionnaire (AKPQ), a functional outcome tool developed to document symptoms of AKP and progress in patients during rehabilitation. Results: The mean score on the AKPQ for the left lower extremity was 93.38 (SD: 10.00) and 93.16 (SD: 11.37) for the right lower extremity. Using a cutoff score of 83 on the AKPQ, 85 of 724 subjects were classified as having AKP in the left lower extremity for a prevalence of 12% (95% CI = 9%-14%) while 94 subjects were classified with AKP in the right lower extremity for a prevalence of 13% (95% CI = 11%-15%). Conclusion: The estimated prevalence of AKP in this sample of 18–35 year old females of 12–13% is much less than the commonly cited value of 25%. The results may provide a better representation of subjects with AKP. Level of Evidence: 3 PMID:22893859
Nelson, Matthew; Moorhead, Amy; Yost, Dana; Whorton, Adrian
We present a case of successful resuscitation from cardiac arrest after 25 minutes of ventricular fibrillation (VF) secondary to peripartum cardiomyopathy. This case highlights a rare disease, but also, more importantly, the successful use of the five links of survival: early access to 9-1-1, early cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), early defibrillation, early advanced life support, and postresuscitative care. We also demonstrate the importance of high-quality resuscitation practices in order to achieve a successful outcome. Manual compressions can be performed at a guidelines-compliant rate. With training, users are able to achieve high compression fractions. Pre/post shock delays can be minimized to further increase compression fraction. Nationally, CPR interruptions are often long. We recommend closer attention to uninterrupted 2-minute cycles of CPR, minimizing delays in CPR through training, and a focus on a closely choreographed approach. User review of transthoracic impedance feedback data should play a vital role in a cardiac arrest quality-improvement program.
Zabierek, Jakub; Kwapisz, Adam; Domzalski, Marcin E
Background and Purpose The patella plays an important role in knee biomechanics and provides anterior coverage of the knee joint. One to two percent of the population has an anatomical variant of patella called a bipartite patella that usually does not case pain. However, occasionally after injury or overuse during sport it can be a source of anterior knee pain. The purpose of this case report was to present a rare variant of bipartite patella and highlight conservative treatment of this condition. Study Design Case Report Case Description A 35-year-old female patient presented with persistent bilateral non-traumatic anterior knee pain of a six-year duration that was enhanced by strenuous kinds of sport activity. Standard radiographs and MRI revealed the presence of bipartite patella with medial pole cartilage edema bilaterally. Conservative care including physical therapy, extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT), and viscosupplementation was utilized. Outcome After treatment VAS decreased to 0/10 from 5/10 in the left knee and 1/10 from 5/10 in the right knee. The Kujala Scores improved after treatment to 100 and 95 for the left and right knees respectively. The subject returned to full sport activity and work as a fitness instructor without pain and limitations. Discussion This case describes a rare finding of bilateral medial bipartite patella and the successful use of physical therapy with viscosupplementation in patellar pain caused by bipartite patella. It also supports the use of Extra Corporeal Shock Wave Therapy in bipartite patella pain as a supplement for therapy. Level of Evidence 4 PMID:27757290
Morentin, Benito; Suárez-Mier, Maria Paz; Aguilera, Beatriz
Sudden unexplained death (SUD) on children and young people is unusual, although the real magnitude is unknown. The clinical and physiopathological characteristics are poorly defined. The aim of this work is to analyse the epidemiological, clinical and pathological characteristics of SUD on children and young people. In this population observational study, all sudden non-violent deaths between 1 and 35 years occurred in Bizkaia (north Spain) from 1991 to 1998 were investigated, analysing those diagnosed as SUD. Pathological records, circumstances of death and autopsy findings were obtained. Out of 107 cases of sudden death (SD), 19 were SUD. The mortality rate of SUD was 0.43/100,000 persons per year. Five had pathological antecedents: syncopal episodes in three cases and tachycardia and ventricular extrasystoles one each. The initial symptom was sudden collapse (N=13). In four cases, a precipitating factor was identified (two physical exercise and two emotional stress). Six cases died during sleep. Minimal pathological findings in coronary arteries, myocardium or conduction system was found in nine cases. Heart weight increased (under interval of confidence of 95%) was present in 12 cases. In conclusion, the SUD is very infrequent in children and young people. However, it has great clinical significance because it affects people in good health and occurs without warning symptoms. Some of these cases can be due to cardiac arrhythmias. In deaths in bed there is a high frequency of SUD. In the future, it may be possible that abnormalities at a molecular level will be detected in some of the cases identified today as SUD.
Malcolm, Elsa K; Lopes, M Beatriz S
The April 2002 Case of the Month (COM). 35-year-old healthy man developed a mass in the right parotid gland. A superifical parotidectomy was performed for a 4.5 x 1.5 x 1.5 cm mass involving the intraparotid facial nerve. Grossly the tumor was multinodular, smooth and yellow with normal surrounding salivary gland. Microscopically, the tumor showed expanding nodules composed of proliferating fibroblasts, Schwann cells, and perineural-like cells in a myxoid stroma. Normal peripheral nerve twigs were identified in the periphery of the tumor. There was no increased mitotic activity, cellularity or nuclear pleomorphism. S-100 immunohistochemical stain was positive. The tumor was diagnosed as a solitary plexiform neurofibroma. Plexiform neurofibromas in this area have been described in children with von Recklinghausen's disease or neurofibromatosis 1 (NF 1). Plexiform neurofibromas typically involve deep seated nerve trunks and is considered pathognomonic for NF 1. This unusual case represents a solitary variant of plexiform neurofibroma presenting as a parotid mass in an adult patient without a personal stigmata or family history of NF 1.
Office of Head Start, US Department of Health and Human Services, 2010
This report presents a revision of the Head Start Child Outcomes Framework (2000), renamed The Head Start Child Development and Learning Framework: Promoting Positive Outcomes in Early Childhood Programs Serving Children 3-5 Years Old. The Framework outlines the essential areas of development and learning that are to be used by Head Start programs…
Kelly, J; Ryan, DJ; O'Brien, N; Kirwan, WO
The HELLP syndrome (haemolysis, elevated liver blood tests and low platelets) is a serious complication in pregnancy characterized by haemolysis, elevated liver enzymes and low platelet count occurring in 0.5 to 0.9% of all pregnancies and in 10–20% of cases with severe preeclampsia. Hepatic capsular rupture is a rare yet dramatic complication of HELLP syndrome. The majority of cases occur in multiparous women over the age of 30. Classically it presents with acute onset right upper quadrant pain in the presence of constitutional symptoms such as vomiting and pyrexia. However, symptoms and signs are usually non specific. Spontaneous hepatic rupture can be preceded by signs of hypovolaemic shock; yet the diagnosis is infrequently made prior to emergent laparotomy. We present the case of a 35 year old nulliparous woman with a second trimester gestational hepatic rupture associated with HELLP syndrome. We briefly discuss the aetiology, diagnostic difficulties and treatment options associated with this rare presentation. PMID:19527504
Khan, Baber K.; Woolley, Josh D.; Chao, Steven; See, Tricia; Karydas, Anna M.; Miller, Bruce L.; Rankin, Katherine P.
Background Patients with early onset neurodegenerative disease can present with a clinical syndrome that overlaps with schizophrenia, and it is not uncommon for these patients to undergo long-term care in psychiatric settings rather than receiving more appropriate care by neurologists specializing in their disease. Case report A 35-year old woman who presented with new-onset delusions, eating abnormalities, disorganized behavior, lack of insight, disinhibition, and stereotypical motor behaviors was diagnosed with schizophrenia and institutionalized. Later she was found to have a MAPT tau S356T mutation and a focal pattern of brain atrophy consistent with frontotemporal dementia (FTD). Conclusion Physicians should be aware of the potential overlap in symptoms and age of onset between some forms of FTD and schizophrenia, and should include FTD in the diagnostic differential for adult patients with new onset, rapidly progressive personality changes or behavioral symptoms such as binge eating, high levels of social disinhibition, or progressive mutism. PMID:22284422
Ghorbnazadeh, Atefeh; Zirak, Nahid; Fazlinezhad, Afsoon; Moenipour, Aliasghar; Manshadi, Hamid Hoseinikhah; Teshnizi, Mohammad Abbasi
Situs inversus with levocardia and congenitally corrected transposition of the great arteries represents a relatively very rare congenital condition and most patients are diagnosed in infancy or early age. This case report describes a 35-year old man with congenitally corrected transposition of the great arteries which presented with a five month history of exertional dyspnea. A diagnosis was confirmed by transesophageal echocardiogram, showing situs inversus, levocardia, atrioventricular and ventriculoarterial discordance. He underwent physiologic repair, and was discharged thirty five days after the operation, in a good general condition. Although management of the corrected transposition of the great arteries patients remains controversial, the recommendation is that physiologic repair may be the procedure of choice for some patients, particularly complicated cases. PMID:28243408
Creel, Sarah C; Weng, Mengxing; Fu, Genyue; Heyman, Gail D; Lee, Kang
Young children learn multiple cognitive skills concurrently (e.g., language and music). Evidence is limited as to whether and how learning in one domain affects that in another during early development. Here we assessed whether exposure to a tone language benefits musical pitch processing among 3-5-year-old children. More specifically, we compared the pitch perception of Chinese children who spoke a tone language (i.e., Mandarin) with English-speaking American children. We found that Mandarin-speaking children were more advanced at pitch processing than English-speaking children but both groups performed similarly on a control music task (timbre discrimination). The findings support the Pitch Generalization Hypothesis that tone languages drive attention to pitch in nonlinguistic contexts, and suggest that language learning benefits aspects of music perception in early development. A video abstract of this article can be viewed at: https://youtu.be/UY0kpGpPNA0.
Franca, Maria Claudia; Simpson, Kenneth O.
The influence of body hydration and vocal acoustics was investigated in this study. Effects of two levels of hydration on objective measures of vocal acoustics were explored. In an attempt to reduce variability in the degree of systemic hydration and to induce a state of systemic dehydration, participants were instructed to refrain from ingestion…
Bhandari, H M; Gorecha, M; Woodman, J
A 35-year-old woman, a non-smoker with a normal body mass index, 'felt wheezy' and developed profound hypoxia 30 min after preterm vaginal delivery at 24+ weeks of gestation. She denied other symptoms, had no fever but was tachycardic and tachypnoeic with normal blood pressure. Pulmonary embolism, amniotic fluid embolism, cardiomyopathy, arrhythmias, sepsis and non-cardiogenic pulmonary oedema were considered as differential diagnoses. Chest X-ray showed an increased pulmonary vasculature, but the blood tests, ECG, echocardiogram and CT pulmonary angiogram were essentially normal. She was managed on a high dependency area with high-flow oxygen and intravenous antibiotics. She improved dramatically and the oxygen requirements dropped to 2 L over the next 4 h. It is plausible that this woman had acute non-cardiogenic pulmonary oedema secondary to a combination of risk factors. This case highlights the importance of a methodical and multidisciplinary approach for a prompt diagnosis and successful treatment of an acutely ill parturient.
Gupta, Devanand; Momin, Rizwan K; Mathur, Ayush; Srinivas, Kavuri Teja; Jain, Ankita; Dommaraju, Neelima; Dalai, Deepak Ranjan; Gupta, Rajendra Kumar
Background: Dental problems in the preschool children are neglected by their parents as the deciduous teeth are going to shed off, and hence considered to be of no importance and more of economic burden if attended to them. Aims: This study was to determine the caries prevalence in preschool children (3-5-year-old) of rural Moradabad district, to analyze the specific pattern of dental caries experience in this population and to assess the treatment needs among them. Material and Methods: Children within the age group of 3-5 years attending Anganwadi centers of rural Moradabad district were included in the study. Caries diagnosis was based on decayed, extracted, filled surface (defs) and the treatment needs were recorded using World Health Organization (WHO) oral health assessment form 1997. Results: Out of 1,500 children examined, 48.7% males and 52.6% females did not require any treatment. The mean decayed, extracted, filled teeth (deft) value was found to be significantly high in 5-year-old participants when compared to 3-year-old participants (P < 0.01). Majority of the children required one surface filling followed by two surface fillings, caries arresting sealant care, extraction, crown bridge element, pulp care, and space maintainer. Conclusion: The most common pattern was pit and fissure, then maxillary anterior pattern, posterior proximal pattern, and posterior buccal lingual smooth surface pattern. The mean deft value was higher in males as compared to females. There is a greater need for oral health education among parents and teachers. PMID:25973401
Scientists have solved the 35-year-old mystery of the origin of powerful, split-second flashes of light known as short gamma-ray bursts. These flashes, brighter than a billion galaxies, yet lasting only a few milliseconds, have been simply too fast to catch - until now. Through the unprecedented coordination of observations from several ground-based telescopes and NASA satellites, scientists determined the flashes arise from violent collisions in space. The clashes are either between a black hole and a neutron star or between two neutron stars. In either scenario, the impact creates a new black hole. In at least one burst, scientists saw tantalizing, first-time evidence of a black hole eating a neutron star. The neutron star was first stretched into a crescent, then swallowed by the black hole. Two recently detected bursts are featured in four papers in this week's Nature magazine. These observations could enable direct detection of exotic gravitational waves that have never before been seen. "Gamma-ray bursts in general are notoriously difficult to study, but the shortest ones have been next to impossible to pin down," said Dr. Neil Gehrels, principal investigator for the Swift satellite at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md. "All that has changed. We now have the tools in place to study these events," he said. Hubble Optical Image of GRB 050709 Hubble Optical Image of GRB 050709 Gamma-ray bursts, first detected in the 1960s, are the most powerful explosions known. They are random, fleeting and can occur from any region of the sky. Two years ago, scientists discovered longer bursts, lasting more than two seconds, arise from the explosion of very massive stars. About 30 percent of bursts are short and under two seconds. The Swift satellite detected a short burst on May 9, and NASA's High-Energy Transient Explorer (HETE) detected another on July 9. The May 9 event marked the first time scientists identified an afterglow for a short gamma-ray burst
Wincewicz, A; Lewitowicz, P; Adamczyk-Gruszka, O; Sulkowski, S; Kanczuga-Koda, L; Koda, M
Combined ovarian tumors are found in common pathologic practice due to amazing potential of ovarian tissue to copy almost every tissue of human body and imitate many neoplasms of various other organs in a very flexible way. A multicystic tumor is presented in this case report of 35-year-old woman. It consisted of a cyst with sebum and hair and cavities with papillomatous projections and mucus. The ovarian tumor was diagnosed a mature cystic teratoma presenting mainly as dermoid cyst and mucinous adenocarcinoma in situ, arising within atypical proliferative mucinous tumor. This report demonstrates how histoformative properties are reflected in ovarian tumorigenesis. Such a stunning histoformativity makes ovaries the possible site of primary origin for malignant tumors that mimic extra ovarian differentiation. In the authors' point of view, the diagnosis of primary ovarian mucinous tumor within cystic teratoma is firm, whenever simultaneous extraovarian involvement by mucinous neoplasm is excluded.
Freitag, Claudia; Schwarzer, Gudrun
Three experiments examined 3- and 5-year-olds' recognition of faces in constant and varied emotional expressions. Children were asked to identify repeatedly presented target faces, distinguishing them from distractor faces, during an immediate recognition test and during delayed assessments after 10 min and one week. Emotional facial expression…
Picardi, A; Navajas, F; De Iorio, F; Amicarelli, M; Spoto, S; De Galasso, L; Vespaciani Gentilucci, U; Scarlata, S; Zardi, E; Di Cuonzo, G
A thirty-five years old woman during her twelfth pregnancy presented fever and pain at the left thigh. After cesarean delivery dyspnea added to the first two symptoms and pulmonary embolism was suspected. A clinical history revaluation suggested a diagnosis of infectious endocarditis and femoural osteomielitis due to a septic embolus.
Qadir, Syed Nurul Rasool; Ejaz, Amer; Raza, Naeem
Introduction Dermatosis neglecta is an often misdiagnosed and under-diagnosed condition. In dermatosis neglecta, a progressive accumulation of sebum, sweat, keratin and other dirt and debris, occurs due to inadequate local hygiene resulting in a localized hyperpigmented patch or a verrucous plaque. Vigorous rubbing with alcohol-soaked gauze or soap and water results in a complete resolution of the lesion. This is the first case of dermatosis neglecta reported in a patient with multiple traumatic injuries. Case presentation We report a case of a 35-year-old male Caucasian of Pakistani origin, with multiple fractures, neurological deficit and immobility sustained in a fall, leading to the development of dermatosis neglecta of the left hand. Conclusion Early and prompt clinical recognition of this condition eliminates the need for aggressive diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. PMID:19014627
Bhuvaneswar, Chaya; Spiegel, David
Physiologic changes, including neurological or pseudo-neurological symptoms, occur across identity states in dissociative identity disorder DID) and can be objectively measured. The idea that dissociative phenomena might be associated with changes in brain function is consistent with research on the brain effects of hypnosis. The authors report a case of psycho-physiologic differences among 4 alter personalities manifested by a 35-year-old woman with DID. Differences in visual acuity, frequency of pendular nystagmus, and handedness were observed in this patient both when the alter personalities appeared spontaneously and when elicited under hypnosis. The authors consider several diagnostic possibilities for these findings and discuss whether prevailing treatment recommendations for DID patients could possibly be modified to ameliorate such visual and neurologic symptoms.
Jonely, Holly; Brismée, Jean-Michel; Desai, Mehul J; Reoli, Rachel
Background and purpose: Sacroiliac joint pain and dysfunction affect 15–25% of patients reporting low back pain, including reports of spontaneous, idiopathic, traumatic, and non-traumatic onsets. The poor reliability and validity associated with diagnostic clinical and imaging techniques leads to challenges in diagnosing and managing sacroiliac joint dysfunction. Case description: A 35-year-old nulliparous female with a 14-year history of right sacroiliac joint dysfunction was managed using a multimodal and multidisciplinary approach when symptoms failed to resolve after 2 months of physical therapy. The plan of care included four prolotherapy injections, sacroiliac joint manipulation into nutation, pelvic girdle belting, and specific stabilization exercises. Outcomes: The patient completed 20 physical therapy sessions over a 12-month period. At 6 months, the patient’s Oswestry Disability Questionnaire score was reduced from 34% to 14%. At 1-year follow-up, her score was 0%. The patient’s rating of pain on a numeric rating scale decreased to an average of 4/10 at 6 months and 0/10 at 1-year follow-up. Discussion: A multidisciplinary and multimodal approach for the management of chronic sacroiliac joint dysfunction appeared successful in a single-case design at 1-year follow-up. PMID:26309378
Vlamings, Petra H J M; Hare, Brian; Call, Josep
Inhibitory control has been suggested as a key predictive measure of problem-solving skills in human and nonhuman animals. However, there has yet to be a direct comparison of the inhibitory skills of the nonhuman apes and their development in human children. We compared the inhibitory skills of all great ape species, including 3-5-year-old children in a detour-reaching task, which required subjects to avoid reaching directly for food and instead use an indirect reaching method to successfully obtain the food. We tested 22 chimpanzees, 18 bonobos, 18 orangutans, 6 gorillas and 42 children. Our sample included chimpanzees, bonobos and orangutans housed in zoos (N = 27) and others housed in sanctuaries in their native habitats (N = 37). Overall, orangutans were the most skilful apes, including human children. As expected older children outperformed younger children. Sanctuary chimpanzees and bonobos outperformed their zoo counterparts whereas there was no difference between the two orangutan samples. Most zoo chimpanzees and bonobos failed to solve the original task, but improved their performance with additional training, although the training method determined to a considerable extent the level of success that the apes achieved in a transfer phase. In general, the performance of the older children was far from perfect and comparable to some of the nonhuman apes tested.
Houle, Sébastien; Descarreaux, Martin
Abstract Objective This article describes the chiropractic clinical management and therapeutic benefits accruing to a patient with temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disorder and spinal muscular atrophy type III. Clinical Features A 35-year-old white man presented at the university chiropractic outpatient clinic with a complaint of masseter muscle pain and mouth-opening restriction. Temporomandibular joint range of motion evaluation revealed restricted opening (11 mm interincisival), and pain was rated by the patient at an intensity of 5 on a pain scale of 0 to 10. Intervention and Outcome Chiropractic care was provided and included TMJ mobilization, myofascial therapy, trigger point therapy, and light spinal mobilizations of the upper cervical vertebrae. Final evaluation of TMJ range of motion showed active opening of 12 mm with absence of pain and muscle tenderness of the jaw. Conclusion This case suggests that a patient with musculoskeletal disorders related to underlying neurodegenerative pathologies may benefit from chiropractic management adapted to their condition. In the present case, chiropractic treatment of the TMJ represented a viable, low-cost approach with limited adverse effects compared with surgery. PMID:19948309
Ohlsen, Bahia A.
Objective The purpose of this case report is to describe the resolution of pain in a patient with chronic prostatitis and chronic pelvic pain syndrome after receiving a course of management using acupuncture and Chinese herbal medicine. Clinical features A 35-year-old man presented with chronic prostatitis with chronic pelvic pain syndrome. He scored 38 out of a possible 43 on the National Institutes of Health/Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index (NIH/CPSI) that rates pain, urinary symptoms, and quality of life impact, indicating severe symptoms. The patient had experienced recurrent episodes of nonbacterial prostatitis over a 3-year period, and this was the most severe. Intervention and outcome After 8 acupuncture treatments over an 8-week period and daily use of Ba Zheng San and Yi Guan Jian, the patient scored his symptoms 9 on the NIH/CPSI. The patient was then put on a supportive anti-inflammatory regimen of green tea. He rated his symptoms 4 on the NIH/CPSI 4 months later, 2 on the NIH/CPSI 8 months later, and 0 on the NIH/CPSI 1 year later. Conclusion This case demonstrated that the patient experienced long-lasting relief from chronic prostatitis with chronic pelvic pain syndrome after a course of 8 treatments of acupuncture and Chinese herbs. PMID:24396319
Cho, Yong Se; Chung, Bo Young; Park, Chun Wook; Kim, Hye One
A eutectic mixture of lidocaine and prilocaine (EMLA) is used topically to provide local anesthesia for a variety of painful superficial procedures. Although the side effects of EMLA are usually mild and transient local reactions, potentially life-threatening complications can occur. We report a case of generalized seizures and methemoglobinemia after topical application of EMLA for curettage of molluscum contagiosum lesions in a 3.5-year-old girl with atopic dermatitis.
Garg, Amit K.; Oh, Julia L. Oswald, Mary Jane; Huang, Eugene; Strom, Eric A.; Perkins, George H.; Woodward, Wendy A.; Yu, T. Kuan; Tereffe, Welela; Meric-Bernstam, Funda; Hahn, Karin; Buchholz, Thomas A.
Purpose: Postmastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT) improves locoregional control (LRC) in patients with high-risk features after mastectomy. Young age continues to evolve as a potentially important risk factor. The objective of this study was to assess the benefits of PMRT in patients <35 years old treated with doxorubicin-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy for Stage II-III breast cancer. Patients and Methods: We retrospectively analyzed 107 consecutive breast cancer patients <35 years old with Stage IIA-IIIC disease treated at our institution with doxorubicin-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy and mastectomy, with or without PMRT. The treatment groups were compared in terms of LRC and overall survival. Results: Despite more advanced disease stages, the patients who received PMRT (n = 80) had greater rates of LRC (5-year rate, 88% vs. 63%, p = 0.001) and better overall survival (5-year rate, 67% vs. 48%, p = 0.03) than patients who did not receive PMRT (n = 27). Conclusion: Among breast cancer patients <35 years old at diagnosis, the use of PMRT after doxorubicin-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy and mastectomy led to a statistically greater rate of LRC and overall survival compared with patients without PMRT. The benefit seen for PMRT in young patients provides valuable data to better tailor adjuvant, age-specific treatment decisions after mastectomy.
Williams, J H; Birrell, J; Van Wilpe, E
Lymphangiosarcoma is an extremely rare tumour in dogs with only 16 cases reported in the literature. Lymphoedema, which may be primary due to defects in the lymphatic system, or secondary to various other pathologies, often precedes malignancy. Of the 16 canine reports, only 1 dog was confirmed as having had prior primary lymphoedema due to aplasia of the popliteal lymph nodes. A case of lymphangiosarcoma is described in a 3.5-year-old purebred, Bullmastiff bitch which presented with vaginal blood 'spotting' for 3 weeks after cessation of oestrus, during which intromission by the male had been unsuccessful. During ovariohysterectomy a large multicystic, proliferative, spongy, fluid-filled, brownish-red mass surrounding the cervix and projecting into the abdominal space was removed with the cervix, and a diagnosis of lymphangiosarcoma made on histological and electron microscopic examination of the tissue. Ultrastructurally, no basement membrane or pericytes were found, only some of the neoplastic endothelial cells were linked by tight junctions while there were gaps between others, and neither micropinocytotic vesicles nor Weibel-Palade bodies occurred in the cells examined. Very few of the endothelial cells lining the many interlinking, tortuous maze of channels, stained slightly positive immunohistochemically for factor VIII-related antigen. The channels were filled mostly with serous fluid, and occasionally mixed leucocytes and some erythrocytes. The endothelium was often associated with underlying blocks of collagenous material, as well as loosely-arranged aggregates of lymphocytes, other mononuclear cells and occasional neutrophils in the connective tissue septae and more prominently perivascularly. The bitch was discharged on antibiotic treatment but returned 2 weeks later with apparent prolapsed vagina which failed to reduce over the next week. Laparotomy revealed the tumour to have spread extensively in the caudal abdomen to involve the broad ligament and
Tortolero-Luna, G; Glober, G A; Villarreal, R; Palos, G; Linares, A
A telephone survey was conducted among women 35 years old or older in Nueces County, Tex., to assess ethnic differences between Hispanic and non-Hispanic white women in self-reported cancer-screening practices and knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about cancer and to evaluate the effect of ethnicity as a predictor for screening practices. A total of 233 Hispanic and 332 non-Hispanic white women participated in the survey. Hispanics were younger and had lower educational and income levels. Overall, Hispanics had lower rates than did non-Hispanics of lifetime mammography (65% versus 79%), clinical breast examination (86% versus 96%), monthly performance of breast self-examination (37% versus 49%), and lifetime fecal occult blood testing (36% versus 69%). After control for confounding factors, Hispanics were still less likely to have ever had a clinical breast examination and fecal occult blood test. Our results suggest the need for more culturally sensitive health promotion efforts to improve knowledge about cancer and early detection practices among Hispanic women.
François, Clément; Ripollés, Pablo; Bosch, Laura; Garcia-Alix, Alfredo; Muchart, Jordi; Sierpowska, Joanna; Fons, Carme; Solé, Jorgina; Rebollo, Monica; Gaitán, Helena; Rodriguez-Fornells, Antoni
Brain imaging methods have contributed to shed light on the possible mechanisms of recovery and cortical reorganization after early brain insult. The idea that a functional left hemisphere is crucial for achieving a normalized pattern of language development after left perinatal stroke is still under debate. We report the case of a 3.5-year-old boy born at term with a perinatal ischemic stroke of the left middle cerebral artery, affecting mainly the supramarginal gyrus, superior parietal and insular cortex extending to the precentral and postcentral gyri. Neurocognitive development was assessed at 25 and 42 months of age. Language outcomes were more extensively evaluated at the latter age with measures on receptive vocabulary, phonological whole-word production and linguistic complexity in spontaneous speech. Word learning abilities were assessed using a fast-mapping task to assess immediate and delayed recall of newly mapped words. Functional and structural imaging data as well as a measure of intrinsic connectivity were also acquired. While cognitive, motor and language levels from the Bayley Scales fell within the average range at 25 months, language scores were below at 42 months. Receptive vocabulary fell within normal limits but whole word production was delayed and the child had limited spontaneous speech. Critically, the child showed clear difficulties in both the immediate and delayed recall of the novel words, significantly differing from an age-matched control group. Neuroimaging data revealed spared classical cortical language areas but an affected left dorsal white-matter pathway together with right lateralized functional activations. In the framework of the model for Social Communication and Language Development, these data confirm the important role of the left arcuate fasciculus in understanding and producing morpho-syntactic elements in sentences beyond two word combinations and, most importantly, in learning novel word-referent associations, a building block of language acquisition.
Trocha, Lidia K; Kałucka, Izabela; Stasińska, Małgorzata; Nowak, Witold; Dabert, Mirosława; Leski, Tomasz; Rudawska, Maria; Oleksyn, Jacek
Non-native tree species have been widely planted or have become naturalized in most forested landscapes. It is not clear if native trees species collectively differ in ectomycorrhizal fungal (EMF) diversity and communities from that of non-native tree species. Alternatively, EMF species community similarity may be more determined by host plant phylogeny than by whether the plant is native or non-native. We examined these unknowns by comparing two genera, native and non-native Quercus robur and Quercus rubra and native and non-native Pinus sylvestris and Pinus nigra in a 35-year-old common garden in Poland. Using molecular and morphological approaches, we identified EMF species from ectomycorrhizal root tips and sporocarps collected in the monoculture tree plots. A total of 69 EMF species were found, with 38 species collected only as sporocarps, 18 only as ectomycorrhizas, and 13 both as ectomycorrhizas and sporocarps. The EMF species observed were all native and commonly associated with a Holarctic range in distribution. We found that native Q. robur had ca. 120% higher total EMF species richness than the non-native Q. rubra, while native P. sylvestris had ca. 25% lower total EMF species richness than non-native P. nigra. Thus, across genera, there was no evidence that native species have higher EMF species diversity than exotic species. In addition, we found a higher similarity in EMF communities between the two Pinus species than between the two Quercus species. These results support the naturalization of non-native trees by means of mutualistic associations with cosmopolitan and novel fungi.
Popovic, Nusret; Zvizdic, Zlatan; Milišic, Emir; Karavdic, Kenan; Paddy, Dewan
Isolated female epispadias without bladder exstrophy is a rare congenital anomaly affecting 1 in 484,000 females. The presenting features of female epispadias are urinary incontinence and abnormal anatomical features. A 6-year-old girl presented with primary urinary incontinence who on physical examination had a bifid clitoris and labia minora. The vagina and hymen were normal. Voiding cystourethrogram showed no reflux and a funnel shaped proximal urethra. With the diagnosis of isolated female epispadias, one-stage reconstruction of the urethra, bladder neck, labia minora and clitoris was performed.
Jonuzi, Asmir; Popovic, Nusret; Zvizdic, Zlatan; Milišic, Emir; Karavdic, Kenan; Paddy, Dewan
Isolated female epispadias without bladder exstrophy is a rare congenital anomaly affecting 1 in 484,000 females. The presenting features of female epispadias are urinary incontinence and abnormal anatomical features. A 6-year-old girl presented with primary urinary incontinence who on physical examination had a bifid clitoris and labia minora. The vagina and hymen were normal. Voiding cystourethrogram showed no reflux and a funnel shaped proximal urethra. With the diagnosis of isolated female epispadias, one-stage reconstruction of the urethra, bladder neck, labia minora and clitoris was performed.
Daniels, Ellen R.
Noting that family members are a child's first teachers and set the course for future success, this activity book of "literacy learning parties" presents 10 activities that can be used at home to practice the skills and ideas learned at parent literacy workshops. Presented in English and Spanish versions, the activity book discusses the importance…
Matzkin, Elizabeth; Curry, Emily J; Whitlock, Kaitlyn
After the passage of Title IX in 1972, female sports participation skyrocketed. In 1992, the female athlete triad was first defined; diagnosis required the presence of an eating disorder, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis. However, many athletes remained undiagnosed because they did not meet all three of these criteria. In 2007, the definition was modified to a spectrum disorder involving low energy availability (with or without disordered eating), menstrual dysfunction, and low bone mineral density. With the new definition, all three components need not be present for a diagnosis of female athlete triad. Studies using the 1992 definition of the disorder demonstrated a prevalence of 1% to 4% in athletes. However, in certain sports, many female athletes may meet at least one of these criteria. The actual prevalence of athletes who fall under the "umbrella" diagnosis of the female athlete triad remains unknown.
This presentation, Effects of Phthalates on the Female Reproductive System, was given at the NIEHS/EPA Children's Centers 2015 Webinar Series: Phthalates in the Diet and in our Homes held on June 10, 2015.
Background: The families of a population sample of people with Down's syndrome (DS), and of their non-disabled controls, have been followed since early childhood, and the families have now been seen again as their sons and daughters reached age 30 and 35 years. Methods: A semi-structured interview schedule was used, including items from the…
Fukui, Shinji; Watanabe, Masato; Yoshino, Kaoru
Prophylactic gonadectomy is recommended in patients with 45,X mosaicism with the Y chromosome and presenting a female phenotype because of the risk of gonadoblastoma development. The characteristics of this disorder remain unclear because of its low incidence. We report 4 patients with 45,X mosaicism with the Y chromosome and presenting complete female external genitalia. We analyzed the characteristics and the macroscopic and histopathological findings of their gonads and performed hormonal assays of the 4 patients. All 4 patients were referred to us with short stature as the chief complaint. Chromosomal studies revealed 45,X/47,XYY in 1, and the others had a 45,X/46,XY karyotype. Three patients (6 gonads) underwent laparoscopic bilateral gonadectomy. The macroscopic appearance of gonads of 1 patient was similar to an ovary, whereas gonads of the rest appeared as streak gonads. The histopathological findings revealed bilateral gonadoblastoma in 1 patient, although the macroscopic findings did not show tumor characteristics. It is impossible to distinguish the histopathological findings of gonads according to their macroscopic appearance among patients with 45,X mosaicism with the Y chromosome and presenting a female phenotype.
Shukla, Piyush; Roy, Soumyajit; Tiwari, Vivek; Mohanti, Bidhu K
To report the first case of rare isolated breast metastasis from carcinoma gall bladder. Single patient case report. A 35-year-old pre-menopausal female presented with 2 * 2 cm right upper outer quadrant breast lump. Post-mastectomy, histology confirmed it to be metastatic adenocarcinoma positive for both Cytokeratin (CK) 7 and CK20. Past history as told by the patient revealed that 2 years back, cholecystectomy was performed for gall stones, of which no histology reports were present; she had a port site scar recurrence which showed it to be adenocarcinoma. Adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy was advised which the patient did not complete. This is probably the first case reported of isolated breast metastasis from gall bladder carcinoma, diagnosed retrospectively. It also highlights the importance of adjuvant treatment in gall bladder malignancy.
Egan, A J; Tazelaar, H D; Myers, J L; Abell-Aleff, P C
We describe a patient with self-induced inhalational pulmonary talcosis originally diagnosed as asthma. A 35-year-old female respiratory technologist developed severe asthma that was refractory to steroids and methotrexate. An open lung biopsy specimen showed scattered aggregates of refractile golden crystals within membranous and respiratory bronchioles. The particles ranged in size from 30 to 100 microm and were birefringent when viewed with polarized light. Following review of the lung biopsy specimen, the patient admitted to regularly inhaling large amounts of hospital baby powder. Analysis of the lung biopsy specimen and a sample of the hospital baby powder by x-ray energy dispersion showed identical spectroscopic peaks, including elemental peaks for magnesium silicate. Many patients with self-induced illness lack the picturesque symptomatology classically attributed to Munchausen syndrome. Awareness of these more subtle and varied patterns of presentation may aid in earlier recognition.
Introduction. Pseudohypertension is a condition which mainly occurs due to thickening-calcification of tunica intima of the arterial wall, leading to a faulty measurement of the intra-arterial blood pressure. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report in literature, of a pseudohypertension-like presentation in association with Morphea en plaque. Case Presentation. This is a rare presentation of a young athletic female and a professional tennis player, with pseudohypertension-like presentation. The patient had a traumatic injury to the right elbow joint; the injury occurred during a professional tennis match. The injury was managed by immobilization, physiotherapy, and Low-Level Laser Therapy. Soon after that, the patient had a circumscribed sclerotic ivory plaque affecting the skin of the right cubital fossa. The histopathology analysis, together with the serological-hematological tests and the clinical picture, along with positive Osler's signs, leads to the conclusive diagnosis of Morphea en plaque. The peculiar anatomic localization of the plaque anterior to the brachial artery leads to faulty blood pressure measurement as recorded by mercurial sphygmomanometer. Conclusion. This unique presentation of Morphea en plaque carries an important message in relation to the basic medical practice and in relation to the accurate measurement of the vital signs. PMID:28127475
Pandey, Divya; Divedi, Pragati; Mishra, Prashant Kumar; Mishra, Pallav
Human myiasis refers to parasitic infestation of body tissues by larvae of several fly species. The entity has a simple management. Human myiasis is well-documented in the literature however genital myiasis in females is scarcely reported in the literature. We hereby report this entity in an adolescent female who presented with urinary retention and concomitant urinary tract infection.
Pradhan, Manas Ranjan; Ranjan, Priyadarshi; Kapoor, Rakesh
Female urethral diverticulum is a rare entity with diverse spectrum of clinical manifestations. It is a very rare cause of bladder outlet obstruction and should be considered as a differential diagnosis in females presenting with acute urinary retention associated with a vaginal mass. Strong clinical suspicion combined with thorough physical examination and focused radiological investigations are vital for its diagnosis. Herein we report a case of giant urethral diverticulum presenting with acute urinary retention in a young female. It was managed by excision and urethral closure, and is the largest urethral diverticulum reported till date in the literature.
Alonso, Joaquín Valle; Del Pozo, Francisco Javier Fonseca; Álvarez, Manuel Vaquero; Pedraza, Jorge; Aguayo, Miguel Angel; Sanchez, Almudena
Acquired thrombotic and thromboembolic disorders may be presented initially with symptoms and signs of acute ischaemia or organ dysfunction that will lead many of these patients to seek care in the emergency department. We report a case of a 19-year-old female patient who developed catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome (CAPS syndrome or Asherson syndrome) 6 weeks post stillbirth with an initial presentation of acute vascular occlusion. The patient was immediately operated and anticoagulated with significant improvement.
Li, Xinning; Williams, Phillip; Curry, Emily J.; Hannafin, Jo A.
Two elite female athletes presented with anterior knee pain with range of motion and reproducible tenderness to palpation. Diagnostic arthroscopy was performed in both cases resulting in excision of a nodular pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS) in the first patient and scar tissue in the second patient. Correct diagnosis of anterior knee pain in the elite female athlete can present a challenge to clinicians. Although patellofe-moral pain is the most common diagnosis, other uncommon causes include PVNS and residual scar formation in patients with a history of surgery or trauma. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) images are helpful in confirming the diagnosis, however, in a subset of patients, the physician must rely on clinical suspicion and physical exam to make the proper diagnosis. Given the possibility of a false negative MRI images, patients with persistent anterior knee pain with a history of knee surgeries and focal tenderness reproducible on physical exam may benefit from a diagnostic arthroscopy. PMID:27114812
Montroy, Kaitlyn; Loranger, Michelle J; Bertram, Susan M
Communication in nature often occurs within a broad social network, as signals can be perceived by other individuals beyond the primary intended receiver. Because signals often contain information about the signaller's quality, receivers other than the primary intended receiver may use this information in future interactions with the signaller. As a result, individuals who adjust their behavior depending on who is present may experience a selective advantage. The social environment can therefore have an important influence on the evolution of communication signals. We examined how the presence of a female audience influenced male aggressive behavior and post-contest victory displays in the Jamaican field cricket, Gryllus assimilis. We found a significant effect of female audience on aggressive interactions. When there was a female audience present, males were more likely to initiate and escalate fights, but they spent less time producing victory displays, compared to when there was no audience present. Our experiment suggests that the social environment is important in shaping the behavior of individuals during aggressive interactions.
This study explores preschoolers' real life engagement with music in everyday life, examining the choices that they have over music listening and the engagement that they show in relation to music in different contexts. A total of 32 children from the United Kingdom aged 3.2-3.9 years participated with their families, nursery teachers and other…
Kyrios, Michael; Prior, Margot
Temperamental characteristics, especially low reactivity-high manageability, appeared to curtail the influence of adverse family factors on children's adjustment. Strength of relationships between temperament and children's behavioral adjustment differed as a function of time, temperamental characteristics, and the source of behavioral ratings.…
Bonawitz, Elizabeth; Fischer, Adina; Schulz, Laura
Previous research suggests that 3-year-olds fail to learn from statistical data when their prior beliefs conflict with evidence. Are children's beliefs entrenched in their folk theories, or can preschoolers rationally update their beliefs? Motivated by a Bayesian account, we conducted a training study to investigate this question. Children (45…
Tai, Yiping; Li, Zhian; Mcbride, Murray B
Toxic heavy metals persist in agricultural soils and ecosystem for many decades after their application as contaminants in sewage sludge and fertilizer products This study assessed the potential long-term risk of cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), and copper (Cu) in land-applied sewage sludge to food crop contamination. A sewage sludge-amended soil (SAS) aged in the field more than 35 years was used in a greenhouse pot experiment with leafy vegetables (lettuce and amaranth) having strong Cd and Zn accumulation tendencies. Soil media with variable levels of available Cd, Zn, and Cu (measured using 0.01 M CaCl2 extraction) were prepared by diluting SAS with several levels of uncontaminated control soil. Despite long-term aging in the field, the sludge site soil still retains large reserves of heavy metals, residual organic matter, phosphorus, and other nutrients, but its characteristics appear to have stabilized over time. Nevertheless, lettuce and amaranth harvested from the sludge-treated soil had undesirable contents of Cd and Zn. The high plant uptake efficiency for Cd and Zn raises a concern regarding the quality and safety of leafy vegetables in particular, when these crops are grown on soils that have been amended heavily with sewage sludge products at any time in their past.
Peterson, Paula J.
Intended for use in family day care, preschool centers, professional preparation institutions, and in homes, this comprehensive health education curriculum for 3- through 5-year-old children contains units designed to sequentially teach concepts about physical health, mental health, family living, and safety. Contents include the following…
Afrose, Ruquiya; Alam, Mohammad Feroz; Ahmad, Syed Shamshad; Naim, Mohammed
Microfilaria is a major public health problem in tropical and subtropical countries and is an endemic problem in India. Wuchereria bancrofti is the most common filarial infection. In some cases, microfilariae and adult filarial worm have been incidentally detected in fine-needle aspirates of various lesions; detection of microfilaria from subcutaneous site or from abscess site is even rarer. We here report an unusual case of Bancroftian microfilariasis in a 68-year-old female coming from endemic area presenting with right submandibular abscess. Our aim is to highlight the chances of finding microfilaria and adult worm in cytology of an unsuspected case at an unusual site. PMID:28182103
Afrose, Ruquiya; Alam, Mohammad Feroz; Ahmad, Syed Shamshad; Naim, Mohammed
Microfilaria is a major public health problem in tropical and subtropical countries and is an endemic problem in India. Wuchereria bancrofti is the most common filarial infection. In some cases, microfilariae and adult filarial worm have been incidentally detected in fine-needle aspirates of various lesions; detection of microfilaria from subcutaneous site or from abscess site is even rarer. We here report an unusual case of Bancroftian microfilariasis in a 68-year-old female coming from endemic area presenting with right submandibular abscess. Our aim is to highlight the chances of finding microfilaria and adult worm in cytology of an unsuspected case at an unusual site.
El-Nashar, Sherif A.; Singh, Ruchira; Bacon, Melissa M.; Kim-Fine, Shunaha; Occhino, John A.; Gebhart, John B.; Klingele, Christopher J.
Introduction and Hypothesis To report on clinical presentation, diagnosis, and outcomes after treatment of female urethral diverticulum (UD). Methods Using a record linkage system, women with a new diagnosis of UD at Mayo Clinic from January 1, 1980, through December 31, 2011, were identified. The presenting symptoms, clinical characteristics, diagnosis, and management of women presenting with UD were recorded. Outcomes after surgery were assessed using survival analysis. All statistical analyses were 2-sided and P values less than 0.05 were considered significant. Statistical analysis was done using SAS version 9.2 and JMP version 9.0 (SAS Institute Inc.). Results A total of 164 cases were identified. Median age at diagnosis was 46 years (range, 21–83). The most common presenting symptom was recurrent urinary tract infection (98, 59.8%), followed by urinary incontinence (81, 49.4%), dysuria (62, 37.8%), dyspareunia (37, 22.6%), and hematuria (15, 9.1%). Examination revealed vaginal mass in 55 (33.5%) of the women. A significant trend was noted toward an increase in use of both magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography (P < 0.001) along with a progressive decrease in use of urethrogram (P < 0.001) for diagnosis of UD over the years. Among 114 women who underwent surgical treatment for UD, 14(12.3%) women presented with recurrent UD and the 5-year recurrence rate after surgery for UD was 23.4% (95% confidence interval, 13.9–37.0) and a reoperation rate of 17.0% (95% confidence interval, 8.8–30.2) at 5 years. Conclusions Female UD is a rare and unique condition. Clinical presentation is usually nonspecific, and magnetic resonance imaging is commonly used for confirming the diagnosis. Recurrence is not uncommon, and repeat surgical intervention might be needed. PMID:27636213
Beerendonk, C C M; Braat, D D M
Fertility and sexuality are important aspects in the quality of life of long-term survivors of cancer. Adolescents in particular are in a very vulnerable period of their lives with respect to future fertility and sexuality. Special attention should be paid to preserve their fertility whenever possible. The gonadotoxic effect of chemotherapy is largely drug- and dosedependent and is related to age. The effect of radiotherapy is also dependent on dose and age and on the radiation therapy field. The prepubertal ovary is the least susceptible to gonadotoxicity. Ablative regimens for stem cell transplantation have an extremely high risk of ovarian failure. Alternative chemotherapy protocols can reduce long-term gonadotoxicity. Alkylating agents impose the highest risk in causing ovarian failure and should be avoided whenever possible. Up to now, the results of gonadoprotective hormonal therapy have been disappointing and contradictory. Transposition of the ovaries should be considered in each case of planned pelvic or whole body irradiation, where ovarian involvement is unlikely and chemotherapy not necessary. Cryopreservation of preimplantation embryos will seldom be possible in female adolescents due to the lack of a stable relationship with a male partner. Cryopreservation of mature and immature oocytes (necessitating in vitro maturation) is still assumed not to be safe for the offspring. Cryopreservation and transplantation of ovarian tissue seems to be the most promising way of future fertility preservation in female adolescents. At present, it is in its early experimental stage. Its safety and possibilities for fertility preservation in humans are not proven as yet. Additionally, technical and ethical issues need to be addressed. The counseling of female adolescents who are facing the threat of cancer needs careful consideration with regards to the psychosocial impact of the treatment and its consequences. Special attention should be paid to aspects of future
AL-Ammouri, Iyad; Alhourani, Ahmad
We present a case of persistent left superior caval vein in a univentricular heart presenting with progressive and disabling cyanosis in a 35-year-old man eighteen years after his Kawashima operation. The vein was successfully occluded using an atrial septal occluder with significant improvement of symptoms and oxygen saturation. PMID:25431683
Dosmukhambetova, Dina; Manstead, Antony S R
Research has demonstrated that humans engage in various self-presentational behaviours in the context of mate attraction. We build and expand on these efforts by showing that female facial behaviour also responds to the manipulation of romantic motivation in ways congruent with the logic of evolutionary theory. Given that childbearing is an important goal of human courtship, we hypothesized that during the initial stages of romantic encounters one way that women can advertize their quality is through their emotional reactions to children. Two studies were conducted to determine whether women would self-present in the context of romance by augmenting positive reactions (e.g., smiling more) or by attenuating negative reactions (e.g., frowning less). In both studies participants were undergraduate psychology students. Study 1 was an online study; it examined reported facial expressions towards and cognitive evaluations of infants. Study 2 was a laboratory study in which participants' spontaneous facial behavior was videotaped while they watched a video of infants (vs. a neutral film). In both studies we found support only for the hypothesis that, when in a romantic context, women attenuate negative reactions. Such attenuation was found for facial expressions, but not for cognitive or affective evaluations of infants.
Kowalczykiewicz, Dorota; Świercz, Aleksandra; Handschuh, Luiza; Leśniak, Katarzyna; Figlerowicz, Marek; Wrzesinski, Jan
Small non-coding RNAs (sncRNAs) are indispensable for proper germ cell development, emphasizing the need for greater elucidation of the mechanisms of germline development and regulation of this process by sncRNAs. We used deep sequencing to characterize three families of small non-coding RNAs (piRNAs, miRNAs, and tRFs) present in Sus scrofa gonads and focused on the small RNA fraction present in both male and female gonads. Although similar numbers of reads were obtained from both types of gonads, the number of unique RNA sequences in the ovaries was several times lower. Of the sequences detected in the testes, 2.6% of piRNAs, 9% of miRNAs, and 10% of tRFs were also present in the ovaries. Notably, the majority of the shared piRNAs mapped to ribosomal RNAs and were derived from clustered loci. In addition, the most abundant miRNAs present in the ovaries and testes are conserved and are involved in many biological processes such as the regulation of homeobox genes, the control of cell proliferation, and carcinogenesis. Unexpectedly, we detected a novel sncRNA type, the tRFs, which are 30-36-nt RNA fragments derived from tRNA molecules, in gonads. Analysis of S. scrofa piRNAs show that testes specific piRNAs are biased for 5' uracil but both testes and ovaries specific piRNAs are not biased for adenine at the 10th nucleotide position. These observations indicate that adult porcine piRNAs are predominantly produced by a primary processing pathway or other mechanisms and secondary piRNAs generated by ping-pong mechanism are absent.
Bush, Ruth A
The present study investigated whether moderate, organized physical activity during high school has a positive residual effect on bone mineral density (BMD) in 30-35-year-old females. Seventy-three female former high-school varsity athletes and 67 self-reported low-activity age-matched controls completed a collegiate women's health survey and participated in a one-time clinical visit with bone scan. Lumbar (L1-L4) spine BMD, total hip BMD, percentage body fat, age at menarche, history of amenorrhea, family history of osteoporosis, college alcohol consumption, number of high school varsity seasons, as well as current nutritional intake (including calcium), number of weekly weight training sessions, and caloric expenditure were assessed. Using a saturated linear regression model, current percentage body fat and number of high school seasons predicted 22% of the observed variation in total hip BMD and 25% of the observed variation of lumbar (L1-L4) spine BMD (P<0.001). High school athletes were more likely to be frequent adult exercisers (P<0.001). Athletic participants were more likely to have denser hip and spine bones than low-activity controls. Results suggest that participation in high school athletics is associated with greater BMD. Additionally, the varsity athletes continued to exercise frequently in their early 30s.
Figueroa-Jiménez, Luis A.; González-Márquez, Amy Lee; Alicea-Guevara, Ricardo; Santiago-Casiano, Mόnica; de la Paz-López, Maryknoll; Negrón-Garcia, Luis; Báez-Dίaz, Luis; Cáceres-Pérkins, William
Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) is a non-malignant, acquired clonal hematopoietic stem cell disease that can present with bone marrow failure, hemolytic anemia, smooth muscle dystonias, and thrombosis. We present a case of a 32 year-old-female, G2P2A0 with no past medical history of any systemic illnesses who refers approximately 2 months of progressively worsening constant heartburn with associated abdominal discomfort. CBC showed leukopenia (WBC 2.9 × 103 /μL) with neutropenia (segmented neutrophils 48%), macrocytic anemia (Hgb 6.1 g/dL, hematocrit 20%, MCV 113 fL) and thrombocytopenia (platelet count 59 × 109/L). Abdomino-pelvic CT scan revealed a superior mesenteric vein thrombosis, which was treated initially with low-molecular-weight heparin for full anticoagulation. Peripheral blood flow cytometry assays revealed diminished expression of CD55 and CD59 on the erythrocytes, granulocytes and monocytes. Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria is a rare, clonal, hematopoietic stem-cell disorder whose manifestations are almost entirely explained by complement-mediated intravascular hemolysis. The natural history of PNH is highly variable, ranging from indolent to life-threatening. The median survival is 10 to 15 years, but with a wide range. Thrombosis is the leading cause of death, but others may die of complications of bone marrow failure, renal failure, myelodysplastic syndrome, and leukemia. Anticoagulation is only partially effective in preventing thrombosis in PNH; thus, thrombosis is an absolute indication for initiating treatment with Eculizumab. Nevertheless, bone marrow transplantation (BMT) is still the only curative therapy for PNH but is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. PMID:26742189
Jacques, Karen; Taylor, Paul J
The authors examined the backgrounds and social experiences of female terrorists to test conflicting accounts of the etiology of this offending group. Data on 222 female terrorists and 269 male terrorists were examined across 8 variables: age at first involvement, educational achievement, employment status, immigration status, marital status, religious conversion, criminal activity, and activist connections. The majority of female terrorists were found to be single, young (<35 years old), native, employed, educated to at least secondary level, and rarely involved in criminality. Compared with their male counterparts, female terrorists were equivalent in age, immigration profile, and role played in terrorism, but they were more likely to have a higher education attainment, less likely to be employed, and less likely to have prior activist connections. The results clarify the myths and realities of female-perpetrated terrorism and suggest that the risk factors associated with female involvement are distinct from those associated with male involvement.
Osifo, David Osarumwese; Evbuomwan, Iyekoretin
This prospective study on female genital mutilation among Edo people was based on female children and parents who presented on account of it at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Nigeria, between January 2002 and December 2007. During the period, 51 female children aged 10 days and 18 years presented with complications following genital mutilation. Twenty-nine were brought by their parents for mutilation while 67 parents interviewed believed strongly on female genital mutilation with 47 mothers mutilated. Religio-cultural and superstitious beliefs were the main indications and the type of mutilation ranged from excision of clitoridal tip in 10 (19.6%) children to complete excision of the clitoris, labia minora and inner layer of majora in 7 (13.7%). Complications ranged from clitoridal cyst formation in 21 (41.2%) to life threatening infections with one mortality due to tetanus infection.
Shavers, Marjorie C.; Moore, James L., III
Drawing on a larger study, this qualitative investigation uses Black feminist thought as the interpretive lens to investigate perceptions and experiences of African American female doctoral students at predominately White institutions (PWIs). Semistructured interviews were used to gain an understanding of their experiences and how these…
Vengoechea, Jaime; David, Marjorie P; Yaghi, Shadi R; Carpenter, Lori; Rudnicki, Stacy A
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a degenerative motor neuron disease leading to progressive paralysis that is generally fatal. Only 10% of cases are familial, a subset of which overlaps with frontotemporal dementia (FTD). Up to half of ALS patients have cognitive impairment, with 15% meeting the criteria for FTD. Clinical sequencing of UBQLN2 in a family with X-linked FTD/ALS with suspected incomplete penetrance, manifesting in both genders, revealed a P506S mutation in. Affected individuals were diagnosed with various conditions including hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP), bulbar palsy and multiple sclerosis. The mutation in UBQLN2 was first identified in a 35-year-old female who presented with one year of progressive dysarthria, dyspnea, dysphagia, and cognitive decline. EMG suggested early motor neuron disease with prominent bulbar involvement. Her cognition declined rapidly and she developed extremity weakness. Her brother, initially diagnosed with HSP, and her second cousin, with primary lateral sclerosis, also have a P506S mutation in UBQLN2. In conclusion, the P506S mutation in UBQLN2 can affect both males and females and displays great phenotypic variability within the same family. Females can potentially have a more severe and rapidly progressive presentation than their male relatives. Additionally, the P506S mutation can also cause an FTD phenotype.
Bethell, George S; Johal, Navroop S; Cuckow, Peter M
This is the first reported case of rhabdomyosarcoma presenting as a mass protruding from the urethral meatus present at birth. A male neonate was transferred to a tertiary pediatric urology center on day 4 of life where the mass was surgically excised. Histology confirmed an embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma and chemotherapy commenced. The patient completed chemotherapy at the age of 8 months. The child is now 3.5 years old and well with no recurrence of disease.
Georgiou, Theodoros; Mavrikiou, Gavriella; Alexandrou, Angelos; Spanou-Aristidou, Elena; Savva, Isavella; Christodoulides, Theodoros; Krasia, Maria; Christophidou-Anastasiadou, Violetta; Sismani, Carolina; Drousiotou, Anthi; Tanteles, George A
Fabry disease is an X-linked lysosomal storage disorder resulting from a deficiency of the hydrolytic enzyme α-galactosidase A (α-Gal-A). It is characterized by progressive lysosomal accumulation of globotriaosylceramide (Gb3) and multisystem pathology, affecting the skin, nervous and cerebrovascular systems, kidneys, and heart. Heterozygous females typically exhibit milder symptoms and a later age of onset than males. Rarely, they may be relatively asymptomatic throughout a normal life span or may have symptoms as severe as those observed in males with the classic phenotype. We report on a 17-year-old female in whom cornea verticillata was found during a routine ophthalmological examination but with no other clinical symptoms. Leucocyte α-galactosidase activity was within the overlap range between Fabry heterozygotes and normal controls. Sanger sequencing of the GLA gene failed to reveal any pathogenic variants. Multiplex Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification (MLPA) analysis revealed a deletion of exon 7. Using a long-range PCR walking approach, we managed to identify the deletion breakpoints. The deletion spans 1182 bp, with its 5' end located within exon 6 of the GLA gene and its 3' end located 612 bp downstream of exon 7. This finding represents a novel deletion identified in the first reported Cypriot female carrier of Fabry disease.
Gupta, Ashok; Chanduka, Amit; Sundar, I. Vijay; Verma, Jitender; Chopra, Sanjeev
Granulocytic sarcomas (GSs) or myeloid sarcoma or chloroma are rare, destructive, extramedullary tumor masses that consist of immature granulocytic cells. We present case of a 35-year-old man presenting as monoparesis, diagnosed to have cervical intradural extramedullary mass lesion with an extradural extension. Although the history or physical examination had no symptoms and signs suggestive of leukemia, bone marrow study and blood picture indicated chronic myeloid leukemia. Surgical decompression was done, and histopathological examination was consistent with GS. GSs have been observed in patients with acute myelogenous leukemia, chronic myelogenous leukemia, and other myeloproliferative disorders, but rarely have been reported as first presentation of the disease. PMID:25685232
Brender, Teva; Wallerstein, Donna; Sum, John; Wallerstein, Robert
Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease (PMD) is neurodegenerative leukodystrophy caused by dysfunction of the proteolipid protein 1 (PLP1) gene on Xq22, which codes for an essential myelin protein. As an X-linked condition, PMD primarily affects males; however there have been a small number of affected females reported in the medical literature with a variety of different mutations in this gene. No affected females to date have a deletion like our patient. In addition to this, our patient has skewed X chromosome inactivation which adds to her presentation as her unaffected mother also carries the mutation.
Brender, Teva; Wallerstein, Donna; Sum, John; Wallerstein, Robert
Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease (PMD) is neurodegenerative leukodystrophy caused by dysfunction of the proteolipid protein 1 (PLP1) gene on Xq22, which codes for an essential myelin protein. As an X-linked condition, PMD primarily affects males; however there have been a small number of affected females reported in the medical literature with a variety of different mutations in this gene. No affected females to date have a deletion like our patient. In addition to this, our patient has skewed X chromosome inactivation which adds to her presentation as her unaffected mother also carries the mutation. PMID:25789183
Robles, Francisco E.; Selim, Maria A.; Warren, Warren S.
Melanoma of the vulva is the second most common type of malignancy afflicting that organ. This disease caries poor prognosis, and shows tendencies to recur locally and develop distant metastases through hematogenous dissemination. Further, there exists significant clinical overlap between early-stage melanomas and melanotic macules, benign lesions that are believed to develop in about 10% of the general female population. In this work we apply a novel nonlinear optical method, pump-probe microscopy, to quantitatively analyze female genitalia tract melanocytic lesions. Pump-probe microscopy provides chemical information of endogenous pigments by probing their electronic excited state dynamics, with subcellular resolution. Using unstained biopsy sections from 31 patients, we find significant differences between melanin type and structure in tissue regions with invasive melanoma, melanoma in-situ and non-malignant melanocytic proliferations (e.g., nevi, melanocytic macules). The molecular images of non-malignant lesion have a well-organized structure, with relatively homogenous pigment chemistry, most often consistent with that of eumelanin with large aggregate size or void of metals, such as iron. On the other hand, pigment type and structure observed in melanomas in-situ and invasive melanomas is typically much more heterogeneous, with larger contributions from pheomelanin, melanins with larger metal content, and/or melanins with smaller aggregate size. Of most significance, clear differences can be observed between melanocytic macules and vulvar melanoma in-situ, which, as discussed above, can be difficult to clinically distinguish. This initial study demonstrates pump-probe microscopy's potential as an adjuvant diagnostic tool by revealing systematic chemical and morphological differences in melanin pigmentation among invasive melanoma, melanoma in-situ and non-malignant melanocytic lesions.
Iyanda, A A; Adeniyi, F A A
This study was carried out to compare the hepatoprotective effect of methionine on paracetamol treated rats at both the peaks of toxicity and absorption. Female Wistar rats were divided into 17 groups consisting of eight rats per group and treated with different doses of paracetamol/methionine (5:1). Each control rat received 5 ml of physiologic saline. The study was terminated at two different end points -the 4th and 16th hours. Results show that rats administered with toxic doses (1000 mg/kg, 3000 mg/kg, 5000 mg/kg BW) of paracetamol exhibited significant increases in the levels of ALT, AST, γ- GT compared with controls. These increases were much higher at the 16th than 4th hour but serum total protein, albumin and globulin were significantly decreased by the end of the 16th hour. Histology results of rats in the 3000 and 5000 mg/kg (by the end of the 16th hour) confirmed hepatic damage, light microscopic evaluation of liver showed remarkable centrilobular necrosis. Moreover, the presence of mononuclear cells in liver section of rats intoxicated with APAP (5000 mg/kg) suggests a possible involvement of inflammatory process which resulted in regurgitation of bilirubin leading to its elevated level as well as increase activity of ALP. The hepatoprotective effect of methionine, on the other hand, was demonstrated in these rats at the 4th and 16th hours, and both results were comparable and therefore not significantly different but elevation in GGT level still persisted. In conclusion, data obtained from this study suggest that these agents may be capable of inducing GGT, although further study is required to establish a possible relationship between methionine and this enzyme in some other animal species.
Mishra, Jaya; Barman, Bhupen; Mondal, Sumantro; Sivam, Rondeep Kumar Nath
Scrub typhus, a rickettsial disease is endemic in several parts of India usually presenting with acute symptoms. Fever, maculopapular rash, eschar, history of tick exposure and supportive diagnostic tests usually leads to diagnosis. Scrub typhus should be included in the differential diagnosis in occasions when a patient presents with fever with or without eschar and isolated cranial nerve palsy. Here we are reporting a case of Scrub typhus who presented with fever and altered sensorium of short duration, eschar formation and bilateral lateral rectus palsy. Patient was treated with doxycycline with complete reversal of neurodeficit. PMID:27190871
Kasat, Gaurav Vinod; Pawar, Prakash W.; Sawant, Ajit S.; Tamhankar, Ashwin S.
We present a rare case of indirect vesicovaginal fistula (VVF) in a patient with small capacity bladder. The fistula was between abdominal pseudocyst (APC) arising from bladder and vagina – and hence, an indirect VVF. A 35-year-old female had a history of emergency obstetric hysterectomy with iatrogenic bladder injury. Postoperatively, the patient developed VVF and large APC. Patient's micturating cystourethrogram was suggestive of small capacity bladder with bilateral Grade IV vesicoureteral reflux with a well-defined APC arising from superior surface of bladder to L4–L5 lumbar vertebrae. Large APC arising from bladder and associated with an indirect VVF is very rare, and to the best of our knowledge, this is the first case reported in literature. The patient was successfully managed with exploratory laparotomy and excision of fistula tract and pseudocyst, adhesiolysis, and ileal augmentation cystoplasty. Multiple intraoperative adhesions should be suspected in APC. We would like to conclude that ileal augmentation cystoplasty is a safe procedure in a case of VVF with APC and small capacity bladder. PMID:28058000
Nguyen, A L; Nguyen, T C; Van, T L; Hoang, M H; Nguyen, S; Jonai, H; Villanueva, M B; Matsuda, S; Sotoyama, M; Sudo, A
Noise and hearing ability profiles were determined in a textile factory in Vietnam. Noise mapping done in the weaving section showed that the noise levels exceeded the Vietnamese standard of 90 dBA by as much as 9 dBA in some areas. Audiometric tests performed on 69 female workers from the weaving section revealed that workers with more than 10 years of noise exposure had the worst hearing threshold levels at 1,000 and 4,000 Hz. Similar findings were observed for workers greater than 35 years old. The 4,000 Hz notch, suggestive of exposure to intense noise, was noted in the audiograms of 26 subjects.
Mahajan, Kunal; Katyal, Virender; Arya, Suvrat; Shrama, Meha
The antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APS) is defined by the persistent presence of antiphospholipid antibodies in patients with recurrent venous or arterial thromboembolism or pregnancy morbidity. Antithrombotic therapy is the mainstay of treatment given the high risk of recurrent thromboembolism that characterizes this condition. Despite the prothrombotic nature of APS, thrombocytopenia is present in a proportion of patients, which can complicate management and limit the use of antithrombotic therapy. The mechanism of APS-associated thrombocytopenia is multifactorial and its relation to thrombotic risk is poorly characterized. The presence of thrombocytopenia does not appear to reduce thrombotic risk in patients with APS, who can develop thromboembolic complications necessitating antithrombotic treatment. In these cases, treatment of the thrombocytopenia may be necessary to facilitate administration of antithrombotic agents. We present such a pregnant lady with history of recurrent pregnancy losses who presented with severe thrombocytopenia and bleeding manifestations, who was subsequently diagnosed to have antiphospholipid antibody syndrome. She was initially managed with steroids and when her platelet counts improved, antithrombotic therapy was started. She delivered an uneventful and successful pregnancy outcome without any complications during follow-up. PMID:25722728
Mahajan, Kunal; Katyal, Virender; Arya, Suvrat; Shrama, Meha
The antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APS) is defined by the persistent presence of antiphospholipid antibodies in patients with recurrent venous or arterial thromboembolism or pregnancy morbidity. Antithrombotic therapy is the mainstay of treatment given the high risk of recurrent thromboembolism that characterizes this condition. Despite the prothrombotic nature of APS, thrombocytopenia is present in a proportion of patients, which can complicate management and limit the use of antithrombotic therapy. The mechanism of APS-associated thrombocytopenia is multifactorial and its relation to thrombotic risk is poorly characterized. The presence of thrombocytopenia does not appear to reduce thrombotic risk in patients with APS, who can develop thromboembolic complications necessitating antithrombotic treatment. In these cases, treatment of the thrombocytopenia may be necessary to facilitate administration of antithrombotic agents. We present such a pregnant lady with history of recurrent pregnancy losses who presented with severe thrombocytopenia and bleeding manifestations, who was subsequently diagnosed to have antiphospholipid antibody syndrome. She was initially managed with steroids and when her platelet counts improved, antithrombotic therapy was started. She delivered an uneventful and successful pregnancy outcome without any complications during follow-up.
Ricks Scott, Heather Inez
The purpose of this study was to examine the ascension patterns and experiences of past and present female board of trustee chairpersons at independent institutions in a southeastern state. Although females continue to account for more of the college student population and obtain more degrees than males, females are severely underrepresented in…
De Langhe, Ellen; Lories, Rik; Maenaut, Kristin; De Vlam, Kurt
Spondyloarthritis is a group of chronic joint diseases that share clinical, pathological and genetic features and is divided into distinct diagnostic entities, including ankylosing spondylitis, psoriatic arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease-associated spondyloarthritis, reactive arthritis, juvenile onset and undifferentiated spondyloarthritis. Since the spectrum of spondyloarthritides is wider than the sum of aforementioned disorders suggests, the term "Spondyloarthritis concept" might prove to be appropriate. Here, we present a case in which many features of the spondyloarthritis concept, but also unexpected osteitis in the skull and tibia, emerge during the disease course. A 45-year-old HLA-B27 positive woman with a family history of psoriasis, a former diagnosis of ankylosing spondylitis, reactive arthritis and fulminating acne, was referred to our department with a painful tibial swelling, symmetrical polyarthritis and severe headache. Conventional radiography and bone scintigraphy demonstrated large osteolytic lesions on the left parietal side of the skull and the right anterior tibia. She was treated with surgery and pamidronate. Etanercept treatment was initiated as the arthritis deteriorated and was replaced by infliximab when new onset Crohn's disease became apparent. This case is the illustration of spondyloarthritis as a disease concept, covering the entire spectrum, from ankylosing spondylitis, urogenital reactive arthritis and psoriatic arthritis to inflammatory bowel disease. Cases like this illustrate that the clinical classification of spondyloarthritis patients into distinct diagnostic entities is bypassing the value of the "concept" and provides support for the new classification criteria that were recently proposed.
Roland, Damian; Lewis, Gareth; Rowlands, Rachel; Davidson, Emmanuel; Davies, Ffion
This retrospective case series determined documentation quality and likelihood of safeguarding issues in girls aged 0-15 years with perineal and genital injuries presenting to a paediatric emergency department (ED). During the period between 2002 and 2010, cases were identified and clinical information was recorded. Cases were cross-referenced against the hospital's safeguarding unit's records up to 2011. In total, 181 case notes were available for review with 76.2% of patients discharged home from the ED. Fewer than 50% of case notes contained clear anatomical description of the injuries. In 51 (28.2%) cases, child safeguarding issues were considered, with specific referrals made to safeguarding services in 20 of these (11.0%). Only one case involved subsequent child safeguarding proceedings. Clear documentation of injury patterns by medical staff was poor, but medical and nursing staff should not be anxious about dealing with this cohort of patients as they are no different from other incidental injuries needing diligent levels of child safeguarding awareness.
A 30-year-old female with a history of anxiety, cannabis use, and Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder presented for residential treatment of a Cannabis Use Disorder. Upon arrival, she had not eaten for two days and was found to be hypotensive with electrolyte disturbances. She was admitted to a nearby hospital, where the Internist diagnosed her with Addison's disease. She was treated with corticosteroid therapy, with rapid normalization of her electrolytes, eating, and anxiety. This is the first published case of undiagnosed Addison's disease presenting as an eating disorder, with cannabis use likely contributing to symptoms. This case elucidates the importance of ruling out other biologic and psychologic causes of clinical presentations before an eating disorder diagnosis can be made. PMID:28348901
Renal infarction is a rare cause of acute kidney injury which could lead to permanent loss of renal function. A prompt diagnosis is necessary in order to achieve a successful revascularization of the occluded artery. Given the rarity of the disease and the paucity of the reported cases in the previous literature a high index of suspicion must be maintained not only in the classical cardiac sources of systemic emboli (atrial fibrillation, dilated cardiomyopathy, or endocarditis), but also in the situations when a hypercoagulable state is presumed. The unspecific presenting symptoms often mask the true etiology of the patient's complaints. We present here a rare case of renal infarction that occurred in the setting of a hypercoagulable state, in a female patient with a history of breast cancer and documented hepatic metastases. PMID:27293927
Nunes, Jairo; Mackie, John T; Kiupel, Matti
A 3.5-year-old Thoroughbred mare presented at necropsy with a large mass at the root of the mesentery and multiple smaller mesenteric masses. The mucosa of the small intestine contained numerous raised nodules. Histologic examination revealed severe granulomatous mesenteric lymphadenitis and enteritis. Epithelioid macrophages and multinucleated giant cells frequently contained numerous intracytoplasmic yeast organisms, which were strongly positive on immunohistochemical staining when using a polyclonal antibody against Histoplasma spp. A diagnosis of abdominal histoplasmosis was made based on the gross, microscopic, and immunohistochemical findings.
In 1976 the United States Department of Agriculture, Veterinary Services, granted the first veterinary product license for a biologic to be administered to fish. That license was issued for Enteric Redmouth Bacterin (Yerisina ruckeri) to the first commercial fish vaccine company, Wildlife Vaccines. ...
Creel, Sarah C.
Recent research has considered the phonological specificity of children's word representations, but few studies have examined the flexibility of those representations. Tolerating acoustic-phonetic deviations has been viewed as a negative in terms of discriminating minimally different word forms, but may be a positive in an increasingly…
This article examines the characteristic of affordances of different outdoor environments, related to the influences of children's physical activity levels. Qualitative observation studies in a Norwegian kindergarten were conducted of 3- to 5-year-olds into the natural environment and in the kindergarten's outdoor area. An ecological approach was important from both an analytical and theoretical point of view, using concepts from Gibson's (The ecological approach to visual perception. Houghton Mifflin Company, Bosten, 1979) theory of affordances. The concepts of affordances in an environment can explain children's movement behaviour. The findings reveal that situations with high physical activity levels among the children are more often created in natural environments than in the kindergarten's outdoor environment. Natural environments offer potential qualities that are a catalyst for physical activity. The study shows that certain characteristic of the physical outdoor environment are important for children's opportunities and inspiration for physical active play. The findings also show that social possibilities and opportunities, human interactions, in the environment have the greatest influence on the duration and intensity of physically active play. The need for knowledge on physical and social opportunities in outdoor environments, educational practice and the content of outdoor time in kindergartens should be given greater attention.
Auger, T A; Turley, P K
Numerous studies have emphasized the importance of the facial profile in orthodontic treatment planning, with some arguing that the esthetic ideal has remained unchanged for thousands of years. To evaluate changes in the white female facial profile, we measured 14 soft tissue variables on profile photographs presented in fashion magazines during the 1900s. Five time frames were studied, with a sample of 25 photographs from each period corrected for size and orientation. Between-group differences were examined by use of analysis of variance, using a P value corrected for a multivariable analysis. Significant between-group differences (P < 0.0001) were found for anteroposterior lip position, amount of visible lip tissue, and interlabial angle, with the more recent groups displaying fuller and more anteriorly positioned lips. No significant differences were found for measurements calculated superior to subnasale (frontonasal angle, nasal tip angle, and nasolabial angle) or in the relationship of the chin to the upper face (total facial angle). The results of this study suggest that standards for the esthetic white female facial profile are not static and show a trend in this century toward fuller and more anteriorly positioned lips.
Wood, Andrew; Young, Fiona; Morrison, James; Conn, Brendon I
We present a case of sclerosing odontogenic carcinoma (SOC) occurring on the hard palate of a 43-year-old female. The tumor presented as an asymptomatic firm swelling and histopathologically was characterized by widely dispersed nests and cords of bland cells infiltrating between hyalinized collagen fibers. Prominent perineural and intraneural invasion and erosion of bone was noted. The tumor cells showed staining with antibodies to pan-cytokeratin (PanCK), cytokeratin 19 (CK19), cytokeratin 5/6 (CK5/6), cytokeratin 14 (CK14), p63 and E-cadherin, but no staining with antibodies to carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), cytokeratin 7 (CK7), cytokeratin 20 (CK20), estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) or S100. Staining for mucin with alcian blue/periodic acid-Schiff with diastase was equivocal, with no definite evidence of mucin or muciphages. An initial diagnosis of adenocarcinoma NOS was made upon incisional biopsy, with the prominent filing pattern and cytoplasmic vacuolization prompting consideration of metastatic breast cancer in the first instance. The true nature of the tumor became clear after staging investigations and surgical resection. The patient was treated by surgery alone and is disease-free after 17 months.
Lejbak, Lisa; Vrbancic, Mirna; Crossley, Margaret
This study extends Duff and Hampson's [Duff, S., & Hampson, E. (2001). A sex difference on a novel spatial working memory task in humans. "Brain and Cognition, 47," 470-493] finding of a sex-related difference in favor of females for an object location memory task. Twenty female and 20 male undergraduate students performed both manual and…
DeCherney, A H; Berkowitz, G S
Studies have shown that fertility (defined as number of live births) declines with age in women. However, it is not known to what extent other factors, such as male reproductive capacity and coital patterns affect this decrease. Male fecundity may also decline with age, and coital frequency is believed to decline with length of marriage. All these factors are closely related to the woman's age. The effects of male fecundity and coital frequency can be eliminated in evaluating female fecundity by studying patients who have received artificial insemination and restricting the group to those with azoospermic husbands. In 2193 patients drawn from 11 centers in France that offer artificial insemination with frozen donor semen, women over 30 exhibited a marked decline in fecundity. The cumulative success rate after 12 cycles of insemination was 73% for those under 25, 74.1% for the 26-30 age group, 61.5% for those 31-35 years old, and 53.6% for those over 35 years. The difference in fecundity with age was consistent across the centers, an important factor to note since the mean success rate per cycle differed considerably among the participating centers. The decreased fecundity in women over 30 may be attributed to gynecologic diseases, or effects of age on the incidence of tubal deciliation and occurrence of ovulatory disorders. New guidelines for counseling on reproduction may be needed for women over 30. Currently, counseling regarding reproduction and maternal age is limited to increased risks of Down's syndrome and other genetic abnormalities and risks of spontaneous abortion and perinatal deaths. The age of a woman should be considered when deciding when to start an infertility workup or stop treatment for infertility, and in selecting appropriate candidates for tubal surgery and in vitro fertilization. There is also a need to reevaluate individual and societal goals regarding childbearing to accommodate women's desires to have both a family and a career.
Daga, Sudarshan Omprakash; Patwardhan, Sujata Kiran
Placenta percreta presents as life threatening complications with bladder invasion. A condition of placenta invading urinary bladder presented with differential diagnosis of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia on imaging and responded to chemotherapy. A 35-year-old primi-gravida presented at term with per vaginal bleeding. During caesarian section placental mass totally invading uterine myometrium was found. She was given single dose of Methotrexate. After 2 months she presented with gross haematuria with clot retention two times. Her MRI was suggestive of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia of size 19 X 10 X 13cm. Her beta-Human Chorionic Gonadotropin levels were 691.23 mIU/ml. She was given total four doses of methotrexate. At present size of mass was 1.6 X1.3X 1.1cm. Her beta Human Chorionic Gonadotropin level dropped down to 2mIU/ml. Patient was not willing for further intervention or for follow up. PMID:26816944
Eisele, Tom; Nunninger, Peter; Münz, Benedikt
Takotsubo cardiomyopathy is characterized by apical ballooning of the left ventricle (LV) in the absence of relevant coronary artery stenosis, which typically occurs in elderly women after emotional stress. Catecholamine cardiotoxicity, metabolic disturbance, and coronary microvascular impairment have previously been proposed as underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms of takotsubo cardiomyopathy, whereas myocardial stunning resulting from epicardial coronary artery vasospasm is not generally accepted as a cause of takotsubo cardiomyopathy. The prognosis of takotsubo cardiomyopathy is generally more favourable compared to myocardial infarction; however, severe complications such as rupture of the LV and life-threatening arrhythmias may occur. Herein, we describe a case of an 84-year-old female, who presented with aborted sudden cardiac death due to ventricular fibrillation. Echocardiography suggested LV apical ballooning with severely impaired LV-function, so that takotsubo cardiomyopathy was suspected. However, coronary angiography revealed epicardial spasm of the left anterior ascending, which resolved after intracoronary injection of 0.2 mg nitroglycerine. Cardiac magnetic resonance exhibited subendocardial late enhancement and echocardiography showed normalization of LV dysfunction during follow-up. The patient was put on conservative treatment with nitrates and calcium inhibitors and ICD implantation were deferred.
Zhang, Wei; Chen, Betty; Chen, Yongxin; Chamberland, Robin; Fider-Whyte, Alexa; Craig, Julia; Varma, Chintalapati; Befeler, Alex S.; Bisceglie, Adrian M. Di; Horton, Peter; Lai, Jin-Ping
Acute liver failure (ALF) is a rare illness with a high mortality rate. The only favorable management is emergent liver transplantation. About 13% of ALF cases have no clear etiology. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated ALF accounts for less than 1% of all ALF cases, and is seen mostly in adults younger than 40 years. There are only a few cases of EBV-associated ALF in elderly immunocompromised adults. We report a case of ALF in an immunocompetent 67-year-old woman caused by EBV infection that was treated by orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). The diagnosis of EBV-associated ALF was established by EBV-DNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and EBV-encoded RNA (EBER-RNA) in situ hybridization (EBER-RISH). The patient is currently doing well 6 months after transplantation without any evidence of clinical EBV infection. This case illustrates the importance of early recognition and diagnosis of EBV-associated ALF by detection of EBV from liver biopsy, especially when patients are immunocompetent and other causes are excluded. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of EBV-associated ALF present in an immunocompetent elderly female. PMID:27785330
Wright, Alexis A; Hegedus, Eric J
Previous researchers have reported on the use of augmented home exercise programs with potential carry-over effects from manual therapy treatment. While there is no direct evidence to support augmented manual therapy, tangential evidence demonstrates that specific, supervised, and adherent exercises result in improved outcomes. The purpose of this case report is to describe an augmented home program simulating the manual techniques provided by the therapist. A 37-year-old female presented with symptoms and signs consistent with femoroacetabular impingement (FAI). Grade III lateral and inferior femoral glides decreased reported pain from 5/10 to 0/10. Given the immediate response to hip mobilizations, the patient was prescribed standing lateral glides and supine inferior glides of the hip with the use of a belt. During this time, the patient's Lower Extremity Functional Scale score improved from 74 to 78 and she reported increased ability to self-manage her symptoms. The immediate report of decreased pain helped determine the specific home program selected for this individual patient. This case highlights the importance of a specific augmented home exercise program unique to the individual patient resulting in self-management of pain associated with FAI.
Ghafoor, Mohammed; Halsnad, Moorthy; Fowell, Christopher; Millar, Brian G
The authors present an unusual case of an acute swelling of the lower lip and septicemia in a 35-year-old, recent immigrant male arriving from India. The patient presented in our emergency department with a 48-hour history of a worsening, painful swelling of the lower lip. On presentation, he was pyrexial and the lip was found to be acutely inflamed with honey-colored crusting, pustular lesions, and induration . A diagnosis of impetigo leading to necrosis of the lip was established, a rare phenomenon potentially resulting in significant tissue destruction. Appropriate medical management achieved a good outcome and prevented disabling tissue loss of the orofacial region.
Zhai, Feifei; Mao, Jinmei; Liu, Junxiang; Peng, Xiangyong; Han, Lei; Sun, Zhenyuan
Dioecy distributed in 157 flowering plant families and 959 flowering plant genera. Morphological and physiological differences between male and female plants have been studied extensively, but studies of sex-specific genetic diversity are relatively scarce in dioecious plants. In this study, 20 SSR loci were employed to examine the genetic variance of male subpopulations and female subpopulations in Salix viminalis. The results showed that all of the markers were polymorphic (Na = 14.15, He = 0.7566) and workable to reveal the genetic diversity of S. viminalis. No statistically significant difference was detected between male and female subpopulations, but the average genetic diversity of male subpopulations (Na = 7.12, He = 0.7071) and female subpopulations (Na = 7.31, He = 0.7226) were high. Under unfavorable environments (West Liao basin), the genetic diversity between male and female subpopulations was still not significantly different, but the genetic diversity of sexual subpopulations were lower. The differentiation of the ten subpopulations in S. viminalis was moderate (FST = 0.0858), which was conformed by AMOVA that most of genetic variance (94%) existed within subpopulations. Pairwise FST indicated no differentiation between sexual subpopulations, which was accompanied by high long-term migrate between them (M = 0.73~1.26). However, little recent migration was found between sexual subpopulations. Therefore, artificial crossing or/and transplantation by cutting propagation should be carried out so as to increase the migration during the process of ex situ conservation. PMID:27047511
Saha, Mahimanjan; Gorai, Surajit; Madhab, Vaswatee
Drug rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) syndrome is a type of severe adverse cutaneous drug reaction characterized by fever, skin eruption, hematological abnormalities, and internal organ involvement. Although anticonvulsant drugs are mainly implicated in DRESS, newer anticonvulsants such as oxcarbazepine-induced definite cases of DRESS syndrome are rare and oxcarbazepine-induced DRESS syndrome presenting as exfoliative dermatitis is even rarer. We report a case of a 35-year-old male who developed DRESS syndrome presenting as exfoliative dermatitis after taking oxcarbazepine for 3 weeks.
Gibbs, M; Lace, L A; Jones, M J; Moore, A J
Once mated, the optimal strategy for females of the monandrous butterfly, Pararge aegeria, is to avoid male contact and devote as much time as possible to ovipositing, as there is little advantage for females to engage in multiple matings. In other butterfly species the presence of males during egg laying has been shown to affect aspects of oviposition behavior and it has been suggested that repeated interference from males has the potential to reduce reproductive output. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of male presence during oviposition on reproductive output and behavior of a population of P. aegeria obtained from Madeira Island, Portugal, and maintained in the laboratory. Two experiments were performed where females were housed individually in small cages. Experiment 1 examined how social factors influenced the egg laying behavior of females. To do this the presence or absence of males was manipulated and egg size and number was measured over the first 14 days of oviposition. It was observed that when males were present during oviposition females made a trade-off between egg size and number. Experiment 2 examined how social factors affected oviposition site choice. Again, male presence/absence was manipulated, but in this experiment where the female laid her egg in relation to host quality was scored, and the size of the egg laid was measured. In the absence of males females selectively positioned their larger eggs on good quality host plants. However, selective oviposition was no longer observed when females were in the presence of males. We suggest that P. aegeria females from the Madeira Island population are adapted for a flexible oviposition strategy, governed by external cues, allowing a trade-off between egg size and number when the time available for egg laying is limiting.
Kaur, Jasbir; Singh, Anantpreet; Chopra, Rohit
Oral squamous cell carcinoma is the most common “malignant neoplasm” of epithelial origin usually affecting individuals over 50 years of age. It is rare in patients aged <40 years old. This report describes a case of squamous cell carcinoma involving anterior mandibular alveolar region in a 17-year-old female patient, with no history of deleterious habits. This report focuses on etiological factors, diagnosis and prognosis related to the case. PMID:27194884
Suárez H, Felipe; Urrutia E, Daniela; Canales P, Felipe; Gutiérrez O, Camila
Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is a severe demyelinating disease of the central nervous system, which preferentially attacks the optic nerve and spinal cord. It is associated with antibodies against aquaporin 4. Morbidity and mortality are higher than in multiple sclerosis and its treatment focuses on immunosuppressive drugs. Immunomodulators are contraindicated. We report a previously healthy 35-year-old man, presenting with NMO concomitantly with systemic lupus erythematosus. His evolution was torpid with three outbreaks in the 10 months after the diagnosis, requiring a first-line therapy with methylprednisolone and cyclophosphamide and then a second-line therapy with rituximab.
Marote, Melissa A.
This heuristic study involving seven coresearchers, which included the author, explores the experiences of women from mother-present/father-absent homes and their ability to form and maintain close female friendships. The heuristic research model was chosen to provide the opportunity to conduct research in a very personalized, collaborative way…
Burger, Henry G; Papalia, Mary-Anne
The diagnosis of female androgen deficiency syndrome is suggested by complaints of a diminished sense of well being, persistent unexplained fatigue and decreased sexual desire, sexual receptivity and pleasure in a woman who is oestrogen-replete and in whom no other significant contributing factors can be identified. The diagnosis is supported by the finding of low circulating concentrations of free testosterone. Barriers to its recognition include the non-specificity of the symptoms and methodological problems due to insensitive testosterone assays. Barriers to its treatment include the unavailability of satisfactory forms of testosterone for administration to women and lack of data regarding long-term safety. Although several conditions lead to clear-cut androgen deficiency, such as hypopituitarism, adrenal and ovarian insufficiency, glucocorticoid therapy and use of oral contraceptives and oral oestrogens, it is important for clinicians to recognise that in normal women, androgen levels decline by 50% from the early 20s to the mid 40s, and hence age-related androgen insufficiency may occur in women in their late 30s and 40s, as well as postmenopausally. Satisfactory measurements of free testosterone requires a sensitive and reliable assay for total testosterone, and quantitation of sex hormone binding globulin, from which free testosterone is readily calculated. Adverse effects of testosterone treatment are few if replacement is monitored to achieve physiological circulating testosterone concentrations. Currently, available methods include testosterone implants and testosterone creams, and transdermal patches and sprays are in development.
Pearson, Erin S; Hall, Craig R; Gammage, Kimberley L
Self-presentational concerns, shown to influence exercise-related cognitions and behaviours, are evaluated frequently in the absence of exercise or following a single bout of physical activity. The purpose of the present study was to examine longitudinally, the extent to which participating in a structured 12-week cardiovascular exercise intervention elicited changes in self-presentational efficacy expectancy (SPEE) and social physique anxiety (SPA). Participants were 80 sedentary women with overweight or obesity (mean body mass index 29.02 kg/m(2), SD=4.71) between the ages of 19 and 45 wanting to begin an exercise programme (mean age 33.4 years, SD=7.6). The Self-Presentational Efficacy Scale (SPES) and the Social Physique Anxiety Scale (SPAS) were completed by each participant prior to commencing the study, and at the 6- and 12-week time points. For those who completed the programme, repeated measures ANOVAs indicated significant increases in SPEE between baseline and week 6 (P<0.001, η(2)=0.37), and week 6 to 12 (P<0.05, η(2)=0.10), while SPA decreased significantly between baseline and week 6 (P<0.01, η(2)=0.16). Bivariate correlation analyses revealed that length of participation in the study was positively related to SPEE and negatively related to SPA. Implications of focusing on these variables within a physical activity intervention are discussed with respect to exercise behaviour, programme development and adherence.
Tseng, Joseph; Poullos, Peter
Fournier's gangrene is a severe polymicrobial necrotizing fasciitis of the perineal, genital, or perianal regions. The classic presentation is severe pain and swelling with systemic signs. Crepitus and cutaneous necrosis are often seen. Characteristic CT findings include subcutaneous gas and inflammatory stranding. Unless treated aggressively, patients can rapidly become septic and die. Factitious Disorder is the falsification of one's own of medical or psychological signs and symptoms. Many deceptive methods have been described, from falsely reporting physical or psychological symptoms, to manipulating lab tests, or even injecting or ingesting foreign substances in order to induce illness. We present a case of a 35-year-old man with factitious disorder who attempted to simulate Fournier's gangrene by injecting his scrotum with air and fluid. We will review the clinical presentation and diagnosis of Factitious Disorder, as well as Fournier's gangrene.
Harper, Yenal; Agarwal, Manyoo; Gannamraj, Krishna; Parmar, Sneha; Hwang, Inyong; Alsafwah, Shadwan
Spontaneous coronary artery dissection is a poorly understood phenomenon that usually affects women during pregnancy or the immediate post-partum period. We present the case of a 60-year-old female with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease who presented with vague complaints of shortness of breath, dizziness, and weakness with a mildly elevated troponin. She denied any anginal symptoms. As part of her initial workup, a nuclear stress test revealed inferior wall reversible changes. Coronary angiography revealed spontaneous right coronary artery dissection which was treated with a drug-eluting stent. PMID:27802856
Beggan, James K; Vencill, Jennifer A; Garos, Sheila
The current research examined contested meanings of nudity by comparing images of nude men and women that appeared in Viva, a 1970s women's magazine founded with the intention of foregrounding male nudity, to corresponding issues of Playboy. A major difference was obtained between male models and Playboy Playmates regarding direction of gaze and nudity. Although gaze aversion is often interpreted as a sign of submission and direct gaze is seen as a dominance cue, men in Viva displayed a high level of gaze aversion and women in Playboy often gazed directly at the camera, especially when their pubic area was exposed. Additional content analysis examined the personality characteristics attributed to male models in Viva and Playmates in Playboy in their biographical sketches. In Viva, men were presented as possessing "bad boy" traits that may have been intended to compensate for the loss of power associated with male nudity. Playmates could be viewed as being naughty (by virtue of posing nude) and nice in the characterization of their personalities.
Abu Daia, J M
It is uncertain when female circumcision was first practiced, but it certainly preceded the founding of both Christianity and Islam. A review of past and current historical, popular and professional literature was undertaken, and 4 types of female circumcision were identified. Typically female circumcision is performed by a local village practitioner, lay person or by untrained midwives. Female genital mutilation is not accepted by any religious or medical opinion, and is a violation of human rights against helpless individuals who are unable to provide informed consent and who must therefore be protected through education and legislation. Complications of female circumcision can present after many years. Any medical practitioner (either for adult or pediatric) can be confronted with this issue of female circumcision, even in countries where this custom is not present, thus mandating the understanding of this complex issue.
Basman, Craig; Agrawal, Pratik R.; McRee, Chad; Saravolatz, Louis; Chen-Scarabelli, Carol; Scarabelli, Tiziano M.
We present a case of a 35-year-old male patient with a 12-hour history of sudden-onset, crushing chest pain and associated complaints of profuse diaphoresis, nausea and vomiting. The patient was transferred to our institution from an outside hospital for evaluation and possible emergent catheterization. Left heart catheterization was conclusive for normal coronary arteries and a ventriculogram revealed a left ventricular ejection fraction of approximately 45%. Due to a suspicion of myocarditis based on clinical history, pertinent serology tests were ordered, which were found to be negative. Cardiac magnetic resonance on delayed enhancement imaging showed typical sub-epicardial enhancement in a pattern most consistent with myocarditis. The patient was eventually diagnosed with myocarditis and discharged home later, without needing a myocardial biopsy. We present and discuss here the indications of myocardial biopsy and compare the relative utility of cardiac magnetic resonance imaging in formulating the diagnosis of myocarditis. PMID:28197294
Tewari, Sandeep; Singh, Saumya; Jaiswal, Vaibhav; Mishra, Anand Kumar
Muscular infestation with larval stage of Taenia solium is a well-recognised entity but cysticercosis of the head and neck region is a rarity. We present a case of 35-year-old young man with diffuse swelling of 3.5×4 cm in the parotid region on the right side of the face with signs of inflammation. Diagnosis was established on high-resolution ultrasonography which revealed it to be of parasitic origin. The patient was managed with antihelminthic pharmacotherapy and improved within a month. Thus cysticercosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of subcutaneous swellings of the head and neck region, especially in endemic zones and it must be investigated well with appropriate imaging modalities so that inadvertent surgery can be avoided. PMID:24842360
We report a case of mixed adenoneuroendocrine carcinoma (MANEC) of stomach with tubular adenoma and well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumor (WD-NET) in the primary tumor in the stomach giving rise to biphenotypic regional nodal metastases. A 35-year-old woman with abdominal pain was found to have a 1.8-cm gastric lesion, diagnosed as WD-NET (intermediate grade) on the biopsy. The resection specimen contained residual WD-NET; there was also a gastric adenoma adjacent to the NET and nodal metastasis with both adeno- and neuroendocrine components. The tumor was classified as MANEC. Of note, the entire gastric tissue was submitted and multiple deeper levels of the adenomatous lesion were examined; no adenocarcinoma was present in the primary lesion. While association of gastric adenoma with neuroendocrine neoplasm is rare, presence of biphenotypic metastasis originating from such a lesion is highly unusual and to the best of our knowledge has not been reported. PMID:27965908
Lewis, Eric M; Singla, Manav; Sergeant, Susan; Koty, Patrick P.; McPhail, Linda C.
Chronic Granulomatous Disease (CGD) is characterized by defects in the superoxide producing enzyme NADPH oxidase causing phagocytes to improperly clear invading pathogens. Here we report findings of a late presenting 16 year old female with X-linked CGD. The patient presented with community-acquired pneumonia, but symptoms persisted for 2 weeks during triple antimicrobial coverage. Cultures revealed Aspergillus fumigatus which was resolved through aggressive voriconazole treatment. Neutrophil studies revealed NADPH oxidase activity and flavocytochrome b558 levels that were 4–8% of controls and suggested carrier status of the mother. We found a null mutation in the CYBB gene (c.252insAG) predicting an aberrant gp91phox protein (p.Cys85fsX23) in the heterozygous state. Methylation analysis demonstrated extremely skewed X chromosome inactivation favoring the maternally inherited defective gene. In conclusion, a novel mutation in the CYBB gene and an extremely skewed X-inactivation event resulted in the rare expression of the CGD phenotype in a carrier female. PMID:18774749
Lewis, Eric M; Singla, Manav; Sergeant, Susan; Koty, Patrick P; McPhail, Linda C
Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is characterized by defects in the superoxide producing enzyme NADPH oxidase causing phagocytes to improperly clear invading pathogens. Here we report findings of a late presenting 16-year-old female with X-linked CGD. The patient presented with community-acquired pneumonia, but symptoms persisted for 2 weeks during triple antimicrobial coverage. Cultures revealed Aspergillus fumigatus which was resolved through aggressive voriconazole treatment. Neutrophil studies revealed NADPH oxidase activity and flavocytochrome b(558) levels that were 4-8% of controls and suggested carrier status of the mother. We found a null mutation in the CYBB gene (c.252insAG) predicting an aberrant gp91(phox) protein (p.Cys85fsX23) in the heterozygous state. Methylation analysis demonstrated extremely skewed X chromosome inactivation favoring the maternally inherited defective gene. In conclusion, a novel mutation in the CYBB gene and an extremely skewed X-inactivation event resulted in the rare expression of the CGD phenotype in a carrier female.
Haycock, David; Smith, Andy
In view of the persistence of health inequalities and declines in leisure-sport participation over the life course, several quantitative investigations have explored the links between participation and other leisure activities, which have their foundations in childhood and youth, as a means of understanding adults' health behaviours. This paper…
Hispanic pre-schoolers are less active than their non-Hispanic peers. As part of a feasibility study to assess environmental and parenting influences on pre-schooler physical activity (PA) (Ninos Activos), the aim of this study was to identify what parents do to encourage or discourage PA among Hisp...
Norlev, Jeanette; Davidsen, Michael; Sundaram, Vanita; Kjoller, Mette
In this study indicators associated with suicidal ideation and suicide attempts in a nationwide representative sample (N = 3,184) of Danes aged 16-35 years were examined. The study was cross-sectional and had three aims: (1) to draw a profile of persons with and without suicidal tendency established on a combined quartered variable on current…
This study is part of a longitudinal research project which investigated the cognitive and social development of rural children (ages 3-5, 6-8, and 9-11 years) in eight states of the U.S.A. This paper, however, reports only the cognitive development of 3- to 5-year-old subjects in rural Nebraska from 1976-1978. The longitudinal sample plus control…
Introduction Lateral meningocele is a very rare disorder. It has been reported in patients with neurofibromatosis or Marfan's syndrome. Previous reports have described lateral meningoceles in the thoracic or cervical region. Lateral meningocele in the sacral area was reported in the literature only once. Case presentation We describe a 3.5-year-old Iranian girl who presented with a lateral gluteal mass. Neuroimaging and intra-operative evaluation showed that the mass was a lateral sacral meningocele with spinal communication through the iliac bone. We also present a review of the literature about this entity. Conclusions Although lateral meningoceles especially in the sacral region are rare disorders, their possibility should always be considered in young patients presenting with a paravertebral or gluteal mass. PMID:20205707
Tseng, Joseph; Poullos, Peter
Fournier’s gangrene is a severe polymicrobial necrotizing fasciitis of the perineal, genital, or perianal regions. The classic presentation is severe pain and swelling with systemic signs. Crepitus and cutaneous necrosis are often seen. Characteristic CT findings include subcutaneous gas and inflammatory stranding. Unless treated aggressively, patients can rapidly become septic and die. Factitious Disorder is the falsification of one’s own of medical or psychological signs and symptoms. Many deceptive methods have been described, from falsely reporting physical or psychological symptoms, to manipulating lab tests, or even injecting or ingesting foreign substances in order to induce illness. We present a case of a 35-year-old man with factitious disorder who attempted to simulate Fournier’s gangrene by injecting his scrotum with air and fluid. We will review the clinical presentation and diagnosis of Factitious Disorder, as well as Fournier’s gangrene. PMID:27761196
Malzone, Maria Gabriella; Campanile, Anna Cipolletta; Gioioso, Antonella; Fucito, Alfredo; D'Aiuto, Giuseppe; Botti, Gerardo; Fulciniti, Franco
Silicone lymphadenopathy is a recognized complication of breast augmentation. It is thought to occur when silicone droplets migrate from breast implants to lymph nodes. We report the cytologic findings in axillary and inguinal lymph node aspirate smears from a 35-year-old Italian woman, who came to our observation 10 years after bilateral cosmetic breast augmentation. A fine-needle cytology of the axillary lymph node showed extensive granulomatous inflammation, numerous histiocytes, and multinucleated giant cells containing star-shaped structures known as "asteroid bodies." The inguinal lymph node aspirate simply showed an aspecific reactive hyperplasia. No evidence of malignancy was present in any of the smears as well as in the excised axillary lymph node.
Panigrahi, Souvagya; Mishra, Sudhansu S.; Mishra, Sanjib; Das, Srikant
Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST) is a rare soft tissue sarcoma. The most common anatomical sites include the upper and lower extremities and trunk and less commonly the head and neck. To our knowledge, few patients with a cranial or facial MPNST have been reported. We report such a lesion in a 35-year-old woman who presented with left sided rapidly progressive proptosis and visual loss due to an orbital lump extending up to the temporal lobe. Cranial imaging showed a huge mass invading the orbital wall and temporal bone. The presumptive diagnosis was a malignant orbital tumor. Preoperative fine needle aspiration cytology of the orbital mass came to be neurofibroma. Near total resection of the tumor was done. Histopathology revealed MPNST which was subsequently confirmed on the basis of immunopositivity for S-100. The patient recovered uneventfully and was discharged 8 days after surgery with an advice to attend cancer institute for possible radiotherapy. PMID:27057226
Sherman, Susan G; Srikrishnan, A K; Rivett, Katharine A; Liu, Su-Hsun; Solomon, Suniti; Celentano, David D
Female sex workers have been central in India's HIV epidemic since it was first diagnosed among them in 1989. Female sex workers' risk of HIV is primarily economically motivated. The Pi pilot study examined the feasibility and association of a microenterprise intervention, the tailoring of canvas bags, on sexual risk behaviors among female sex workers (N = 100) in Chennai. Women were randomized to an intervention or control arm. Between-group comparisons at baseline and at six-month follow-up were performed. Multivariate linear regression with bootstrapping was conducted to estimate the intervention effect. At baseline, women were a median of 35 years old, 61% were married and they had an average of two children. Intervention participants reported a significantly lower number of sex partners and significant increases in income at the 6-month follow-up compared to control participants. In a multivariate model, intervention participants had a significantly lower number of paying clients per month at follow-up compared to control participants. By graduation, 75% of intervention arm participants had made at least one sellable canvas bag and 6 months after the study's end, 60% have continued involvement in bag production. The pilot study demonstrated that microenterprise interventions are successful in both providing FSWs with licit income opportunities and was associated with reductions in HIV risk behaviors.
Roudi, Abdolghayyoum Movahhedi; Raeisalsadati, Seyedeh Sara
Background: Balantiosis, a rare zoonotic infection resulting in dysentery, is caused by the large ciliated protozoan parasite Balantioides coli. Humans acquire this organism via the faecal–oral route. Very rarely, extraintestinal infections can occur in the urinary tract system. There are very few case reports of urinary balantiosis in humans. Case presentation: Here, an interesting case of urinary balantiosis in a 35-year-old addicted woman with multiple health problems including spontaneous abortion and diabetes is reported. Her midstream urine sample, collected while all sterile precautions were being taken, demonstrated B. coli along with Trichomonas vaginalis and bacteria. B. coli was identified by its characteristic morphology and rapid rotary motility in the urinary tract, which is an abnormal site for invasion by this parasite. Conclusion: To the best of our knowledge, this is only the eighth case described in literature in which B. coli was detected in urine sediment; it is reported for its rarity and for future reference. PMID:28348744
Mushtaq, Raheel; Arif, Tasleem; Shah, Tabindah; Mushtaq, Sahil
Dissociative identity disorder (DID) is one of the most fascinating disorders in psychiatry. The arduous search to reveal the obscurity of this disorder has led to colossal research in this area over the years. Although drug-assisted interviews are not widely used, they may be beneficial for some patients that do not respond to conventional treatments such as supportive psychotherapy or psychopharmacotherapy. Drug-assisted interviews facilitate recall of memories in promoting integration of dissociative information. We report a case of a 16-year-old female with dissociative identity disorder (DID) that was treated with lorazepam-assisted interview and there was rapid improvement in symptoms after the interview. PMID:25161793
Mushtaq, Raheel; Shoib, Sheikh; Arif, Tasleem; Shah, Tabindah; Mushtaq, Sahil
Dissociative identity disorder (DID) is one of the most fascinating disorders in psychiatry. The arduous search to reveal the obscurity of this disorder has led to colossal research in this area over the years. Although drug-assisted interviews are not widely used, they may be beneficial for some patients that do not respond to conventional treatments such as supportive psychotherapy or psychopharmacotherapy. Drug-assisted interviews facilitate recall of memories in promoting integration of dissociative information. We report a case of a 16-year-old female with dissociative identity disorder (DID) that was treated with lorazepam-assisted interview and there was rapid improvement in symptoms after the interview.
Fantappie, Marcelo Rosado Furtado, Daniel Rodrigues; Rumjanek, Franklin David; LoVerde, Philip T.
The eggs produced by sexually mature female Schistosma mansoni are responsible for the pathogenesis of the disease. The eggshell precursor gene p14 is expressed only in the vitelline cells of sexually mature female worms in response to a yet unidentified male stimulus. Herein, we report the identification of a novel nuclear receptor response element in the upstream region of the p14 gene. This element contains the canonical hexameric DNA core motif, 5'-PuGGTCA, composed of an atypically spaced direct repeat (DR17). Schistosome nuclear receptors SmRXR1 and SmNR1 specifically bound to the p14-DR17 element as a heterodimer. SmRXR1, but not SmNR1, bound to the motif as a monomer. Introduction of mutations in the TCA core sequence completely abolished the binding by SmRXR1/SmNR1 heterodimer. This finding supports our hypothesis that the expression of Schistosoma mansonip14 gene is regulated through the nuclear receptor signaling pathway.
Condoms for women; Contraception - female condom; Family planning - female condom; Birth control - female condom ... care provider or pharmacy for information about emergency contraception (Plan B) if the condom tears or the ...
Ntumba, Alexis; Igumbor, Ehimario
Abstract Background Namibia bears a large burden of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), and the youth are disproportionately affected. Objectives To explore the current knowledge, attitudes and behaviour of female adolescents attending family planning to HIV prevention. Methods A cross-sectional study design was used on a sample 251 unmarried female adolescents aged from 13 years to 19 years accessing primary care services for contraception using an interviewer-administered questionnaire. Data were analysed using Epi Info 2002. Crude associations were assessed using cross-tabulations of knowledge, attitude and behaviour scores against demographic variables. Chi-square tests and odds ratios were used to assess associations from the cross-tabulations. All p-values < 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results A quarter of sexually active teenagers attending the family-planning services did not have adequate knowledge of HIV prevention strategies. Less than a quarter (23.9%) always used a condom. Most respondents (83.3%) started sexual intercourse when older than 16 years, but only 38.6% used a condom at their sexual debut. The older the girls were at sexual debut, the more likely they were to use a condom for the event (8% did so at age 13 years and 100% at age 19 years). Conclusions Knowledge of condom use as an HIV prevention strategy did not translate into consistent condom use. One alternate approach in family-planning facilities may be to encourage condom use as a dual protection method. Delayed onset of sexual activity and consistent use of condoms should be encouraged amongst schoolchildren, in the school setting.
Kshatriya, Ravish Manmohan; Khara, Nimit V; Paliwal, Rajiv P; Patel, Sateesh N
It is not so common to aspirate foreign body in normal adults without any predisposing factors as compared to children and those with the altered neurological state. Endobronchial foreign bodies are one of the causes of obstructive pneumonia and difficult to diagnose as signs and symptoms are often nonspecific. However, once they are diagnosed, they can generally be removed, leading to rapid and drastic resolution of symptoms. Bronchoscopy is the gold standard in the identification and localization of an airway foreign body and also for better management of the ailment. However with the help of virtual bronchoscopy one can decide the location of the foreign body before any invasive intervention and being noninvasive it can be performed in follow-up easily to check the patency of airways. It is not possible to detect the exact size of foreign body with the virtual bronchoscopy. In this article, we report a case of unnoticed foreign body aspiration in a 49-year-old female patient who was initially treated for pneumonia. However, due to nonresolution of opacity contrast enhanced computed tomography thorax with virtual and flexible bronchoscopy were performed, which revealed a foreign body in the right lower lobe bronchus that was removed with biopsy forceps in piecemeal. In her follow-up visit, she underwent virtual broncoscopy that revealed clear airways. Thus, detailed history and high index of suspicion is required for nonresolving pneumonias that may occur due to unnoticed foreign body/ies in an adult. PMID:27578936
Kshatriya, Ravish Manmohan; Khara, Nimit V; Paliwal, Rajiv P; Patel, Sateesh N
It is not so common to aspirate foreign body in normal adults without any predisposing factors as compared to children and those with the altered neurological state. Endobronchial foreign bodies are one of the causes of obstructive pneumonia and difficult to diagnose as signs and symptoms are often nonspecific. However, once they are diagnosed, they can generally be removed, leading to rapid and drastic resolution of symptoms. Bronchoscopy is the gold standard in the identification and localization of an airway foreign body and also for better management of the ailment. However with the help of virtual bronchoscopy one can decide the location of the foreign body before any invasive intervention and being noninvasive it can be performed in follow-up easily to check the patency of airways. It is not possible to detect the exact size of foreign body with the virtual bronchoscopy. In this article, we report a case of unnoticed foreign body aspiration in a 49-year-old female patient who was initially treated for pneumonia. However, due to nonresolution of opacity contrast enhanced computed tomography thorax with virtual and flexible bronchoscopy were performed, which revealed a foreign body in the right lower lobe bronchus that was removed with biopsy forceps in piecemeal. In her follow-up visit, she underwent virtual broncoscopy that revealed clear airways. Thus, detailed history and high index of suspicion is required for nonresolving pneumonias that may occur due to unnoticed foreign body/ies in an adult.
Matar, Hosam E; Elmetwally, Ashraf S; Salu, Iliya; Borgstein, Rudi; Oluwajobi, Olu
Krukenberg tumours arising from gastro-oesophageal adenocarcinomas prior to the fourth decade are extremely rare. The authors present the case of a 28-year-old patient who was then 4 years of age, residing close to the Chernobyl nuclear reactor at the time of the nuclear disaster in 1986, and was found to have late-stage Krukenberg tumours from a gastro-oesophageal primary. Her presentation with right groin pain initially raised a suspicion of an occult groin hernia. Clinicians are reminded to delve deeply into the social history in their enquiries with Eastern European patients who present with unusual clinical features and were in utero, young and living in proximity to the nuclear fallout zone at the time of the incident.
Matar, Hosam E; Elmetwally, Ashraf S; Salu, Iliya; Borgstein, Rudi; Oluwajobi, Olu
Krukenberg tumours arising from gastro-oesophageal adenocarcinomas prior to the fourth decade are extremely rare. The authors present the case of a 28-year-old patient who was then 4 years of age, residing close to the Chernobyl nuclear reactor at the time of the nuclear disaster in 1986, and was found to have late-stage Krukenberg tumours from a gastro-oesophageal primary. Her presentation with right groin pain initially raised a suspicion of an occult groin hernia. Clinicians are reminded to delve deeply into the social history in their enquiries with Eastern European patients who present with unusual clinical features and were in utero, young and living in proximity to the nuclear fallout zone at the time of the incident. PMID:22700347
Asogwa, Kenneth; Nisenoff, Carolina; Okudo, Jerome
Foreign Accent Syndrome (FAS) is a rare phenomenon where speech is characterized by a new accent to the patient's native language. More than 100 cases with the syndrome have been published, the majority of which were associated with observed insults of the speech center. Some other cases have been described without identifiable organic brain injury, especially in patients with psychiatric illness. This paper presents a patient with schizophrenia and FAS, without any evidence of organic brain injury. FAS recurred during psychotic exacerbation and did not reverse before transfer to a long-term psychiatric facility. The case is discussed in the context of a brief review of the syndrome. PMID:26925283
Darden, Safi K; Watts, Lauren
Male harassment of females to gain mating opportunities is a consequence of an evolutionary conflict of interest between the sexes over reproduction and is common among sexually reproducing species. Male Trinidadian guppies Poecilia reticulata spend a large proportion of their time harassing females for copulations and their presence in female social groups has been shown to disrupt female-female social networks and the propensity for females to develop social recognition based on familiarity. In this study, we investigate the behavioural mechanisms that may lead to this disruption of female sociality. Using two experiments, we test the hypothesis that male presence will directly affect social behaviours expressed by females towards other females in the population. In experiment one, we tested for an effect of male presence on female shoaling behaviour and found that, in the presence of a free-swimming male guppy, females spent shorter amounts of time with other females than when in the presence of a free-swimming female guppy. In experiment two, we tested for an effect of male presence on the incidence of aggressive behaviour among female guppies. When males were present in a shoal, females exhibited increased levels of overall aggression towards other females compared with female only shoals. Our work provides direct evidence that the presence of sexually harassing males alters female-female social behaviour, an effect that we expect will be recurrent across taxonomic groups.
This article makes a brief overview of the most frequent female sexual disorders seen in our clinical practice. It highlights the increasing number of women presenting with hypoactive sexual desire and the efforts practitioners put on helping these female patients. The article also shows the pharmacological strategies that are investigated to solve these dysfuntions.
Nasr, A M; Huaman, A M
A 35-year-old woman was referred to the Oculoplastics Clinic because of a left nasal swelling and intermittent tearing of 1 year's duration. The clinical examination and echographic and radiologic findings were consistent with an anterior venous anomaly. Complete surgical excision was performed and histopathology confirmed the diagnosis of a varix.
... Nov. 13, 2014. Hatcher RA, et al. Contraceptive Technology. 20th ed. New York, N.Y.: Ardent Media; 2011:391. FC2 female condom. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/ ...
Abstract The epidemics of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) have spread among older adults in the world, including China. This study addresses the deficiency of studies about the multiple contextual influences on condom use among mid-age female sex workers (FSWs) over 35 years old. A combination of an egocentric network design and multilevel modeling was used to investigate factors of condom use over mid-age FSWs (egos) particular relationships with sexual partners (alters). Of the 1245 mid-age FSWs interviewed, 73% (907) reported having at least one sexual partner who would provide social support to egos. This generated a total of 1300 ego–alter sex ties in egos' support networks. Condoms were consistently used among one-third of sex ties. At the ego level, condoms were more likely to be used consistently if egos received a middle school education or above, had stronger perceived behavioral control for condom use, or consistently used condoms with other sex clients who were not in their support networks. At the alter level, condoms were not consistently used over spousal ties compared to other ties. Condoms were less likely to be used among alters whom ego trusted and provided emotional support. Cross-level factors (egos' attitudes toward condom use and emotional support from alters) documented a significant positive interaction on consistent condom use. Given the low frequency of condom use, future interventions should focus on mid-age FSWs and their partners within and beyond their support networks. PMID:27028182
The epidemics of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) have spread among older adults in the world, including China. This study addresses the deficiency of studies about the multiple contextual influences on condom use among mid-age female sex workers (FSWs) over 35 years old. A combination of an egocentric network design and multilevel modeling was used to investigate factors of condom use over mid-age FSWs (egos) particular relationships with sexual partners (alters). Of the 1245 mid-age FSWs interviewed, 73% (907) reported having at least one sexual partner who would provide social support to egos. This generated a total of 1300 ego-alter sex ties in egos' support networks. Condoms were consistently used among one-third of sex ties. At the ego level, condoms were more likely to be used consistently if egos received a middle school education or above, had stronger perceived behavioral control for condom use, or consistently used condoms with other sex clients who were not in their support networks. At the alter level, condoms were not consistently used over spousal ties compared to other ties. Condoms were less likely to be used among alters whom ego trusted and provided emotional support. Cross-level factors (egos' attitudes toward condom use and emotional support from alters) documented a significant positive interaction on consistent condom use. Given the low frequency of condom use, future interventions should focus on mid-age FSWs and their partners within and beyond their support networks.
Rajebi, Hamid; Khodadad, Ahmad; Fahimi, Golshan; Abolhassani, Hassan
Vitamin D deficiency is one of the most preventable challenges worldwide. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among female nurses working at Children's Medical Center Hospital in Tehran, Iran, due to the risk factor of being a notably long period indoors and the fact that their health status may have consequences on the process of patients' treatment. A total of 114 female nurses who were at least 20 years old entered the study voluntarily, and a questionnaire was applied to collect information on lifestyle and other factors associated with vitamin D deficiency. A sample of blood was taken to measure 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) and cut off value to indicate deficiency was considered below 10 ng/ml, and the amounts of 10-29 ng/ml were declared insufficient. The mean of 25-OHD was 11.7±9.3 ng/ml. A total of 79 subjects (69.3%) had a deficient level of vitamin D, 28 subjects (24.6%) had an insufficient level and only 7 subjects (6.1%) had sufficient level of vitamin D. The deficiency was more noticeable in the age group of 26-35 years old. Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency had a significant correlation with younger subjects (P<0.001). There was no significant association among other factors such as body mass index (BMI), health status complications, regular exercise, and duration of sun exposure. High prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in the study population leads to emphasise the need to screen health care workers for vitamin D levels.
Rao, T S Sathyanarana; Nagaraj, Anil Kumar M
Sex is a motive force bringing a man and a woman into intimate contact. Sexuality is a central aspect of being human throughout life and encompasses sex, gender identities and roles, sexual orientation, eroticism, pleasure, intimacy, and reproduction. Sexuality is experienced and expressed in thoughts, fantasies, desires, beliefs, attitudes, values, behaviors, practices, roles and relationships. Though generally, women are sexually active during adolescence, they reach their peak orgasmic frequency in their 30 s, and have a constant level of sexual capacity up to the age of 55 with little evidence that aging affects it in later life. Desire, arousal, and orgasm are the three principle stages of the sexual response cycle. Each stage is associated with unique physiological changes. Females are commonly affected by various disorders in relation to this sexual response cycle. The prevalence is generally as high as 35-40%. There are a wide range of etiological factors like age, relationship with a partner, psychiatric and medical disorders, psychotropic and other medication. Counseling to overcome stigma and enhance awareness on sexuality is an essential step in management. There are several effective psychological and pharmacological therapeutic approaches to treat female sexual disorders. This article is a review of female sexuality.
Rao, T.S. Sathyanarana; Nagaraj, Anil Kumar M.
Sex is a motive force bringing a man and a woman into intimate contact. Sexuality is a central aspect of being human throughout life and encompasses sex, gender identities and roles, sexual orientation, eroticism, pleasure, intimacy, and reproduction. Sexuality is experienced and expressed in thoughts, fantasies, desires, beliefs, attitudes, values, behaviors, practices, roles and relationships. Though generally, women are sexually active during adolescence, they reach their peak orgasmic frequency in their 30 s, and have a constant level of sexual capacity up to the age of 55 with little evidence that aging affects it in later life. Desire, arousal, and orgasm are the three principle stages of the sexual response cycle. Each stage is associated with unique physiological changes. Females are commonly affected by various disorders in relation to this sexual response cycle. The prevalence is generally as high as 35–40%. There are a wide range of etiological factors like age, relationship with a partner, psychiatric and medical disorders, psychotropic and other medication. Counseling to overcome stigma and enhance awareness on sexuality is an essential step in management. There are several effective psychological and pharmacological therapeutic approaches to treat female sexual disorders. This article is a review of female sexuality. PMID:26330647
Garg, Naveen; Moorthy, Nagaraja; Agrawal, Surendra K; Pandey, Santanu; Kumari, Niraj
Malignant metastases to the heart and pericardium, which occur far more often than do primary cardiac neoplasms, typically lead to fatal outcomes. The phyllodes tumor is a rare, predominantly benign fibroepithelial breast neoplasm with variable malignancy potential. Herein, we describe the case of a 35-year-old woman who, 3 years after undergoing a simple mastectomy for a rapidly enlarging breast neoplasm, presented with cardiogenic shock and was found to have a large right ventricular tumor that obstructed the right ventricular outflow tract. Despite successful resection of the ventricular mass and a right atrial mass of organized thrombus, the patient died 8 days postoperatively of multiorgan failure due to severe right ventricular dysfunction. Histopathologic analysis determined that the right ventricular mass was a malignant, metastatic phyllodes tumor. To our knowledge, this is only the 2nd reported case of a phyllodes tumor that metastasized to the heart and presented as an intracavitary mass with cardiogenic shock. In addition to discussing our patient's case, we review the pertinent medical literature.
Loudig, Olivier; Wang, Tao; Ye, Kenny; Lin, Juan; Wang, Yihong; Ramnauth, Andrew; Liu, Christina; Stark, Azadeh; Chitale, Dhananjay; Greenlee, Robert; Multerer, Deborah; Honda, Stacey; Daida, Yihe; Spencer Feigelson, Heather; Glass, Andrew; Couch, Fergus J.; Rohan, Thomas; Ben-Dov, Iddo Z.
Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) specimens, when used in conjunction with patient clinical data history, represent an invaluable resource for molecular studies of cancer. Even though nucleic acids extracted from archived FFPE tissues are degraded, their molecular analysis has become possible. In this study, we optimized a laboratory-based next-generation sequencing barcoded cDNA library preparation protocol for analysis of small RNAs recovered from archived FFPE tissues. Using matched fresh and FFPE specimens, we evaluated the robustness and reproducibility of our optimized approach, as well as its applicability to archived clinical specimens stored for up to 35 years. We then evaluated this cDNA library preparation protocol by performing a miRNA expression analysis of archived breast ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) specimens, selected for their relation to the risk of subsequent breast cancer development and obtained from six different institutions. Our analyses identified six miRNAs (miR-29a, miR-221, miR-375, miR-184, miR-363, miR-455-5p) differentially expressed between DCIS lesions from women who subsequently developed an invasive breast cancer (cases) and women who did not develop invasive breast cancer within the same time interval (control). Our thorough evaluation and application of this laboratory-based miRNA sequencing analysis indicates that the preparation of small RNA cDNA libraries can reliably be performed on older, archived, clinically-classified specimens. PMID:28335433
Bakas, Panagiotis; Hassiakos, Dimitrios; Grigoriadis, Charalampos; Vlahos, Nikolaos F; Liapis, Angelos; Creatsas, George
This prospective study examines if pre-treatment with two different doses of an oral contraceptive pill (OCP) modifies significantly the hormonal profile and/or the IVF/ICSI outcome following COS with a GnRH antagonist protocol. Infertile patients were allocated to receive either OCP containing 0.03 mg of ethinylestradiol and 3 mg of drospirenone, or OCP containing 0.02 mg of ethinylestradiol and 3 mg of drospirenone prior to initiation of controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) with recombinant gonadotropins on a variable multi-dose antagonist protocol (Ganirelix), while the control group underwent COS without OCP pretreatment. Lower dose OCP was associated with recovery of FSH on day 3 instead of day 5, but the synchronization of the follicular cohort, the number of retrieved oocytes and the clinical pregnancy rate were similar to higher dose OCP.
Early versions of a female condom were available in the 1920s and 1960s, but they were little used and soon forgotten. It took the arrival of AIDS, and the urgent need for a wider range of female-controlled barrier techniques, to rekindle scientific interest in this method. In the 1980s, three groups in Europe and the USA began development of new female condom designs, comprising 'Femidom (Reality)', the 'Bikini Condom', and 'Women's Choice'. Apart from differences in their physical design, Femidom differs from the others in that it is made of a polyurethane membrane, which has several advantages over latex. Of the three, Femidom is the most advanced in terms of development and clinical testing, and it is the only one to have reached the marketing stage. Laboratory studies and clinical trials suggest that its contraceptive efficacy is similar to that documented for the male condom, though a direct comparison is not possible because no comparative clinical trials have, as yet, been undertaken. Reported 'typical-use' pregnancy rates range from 12.4 to 22.2% at 6 months of use in the USA and Latin America, respectively, while a study in the UK observed a rate of 15% at 12 months. As with all barrier methods, most failures appear to be associated with poor compliance or incorrect use. 'Perfect-use' pregnancy rates were substantially lower, indicating that Femidom can be very effective, if used consistently and correctly. Evidence for Femidom's effectiveness to protect against transmission of sexual disease-causing organisms, including HIV, is still very limited and based largely on laboratory studies. Whilst, in theory, the condom should confer reliable protection, its efficacy in clinical use will depend upon correct and consistent use and upon the product's ability to maintain an effective physical barrier throughout penetrative intercourse. In this respect, the results of recent and ongoing clinical studies are expected with much interest. How valuable Femidom will
Srinivasan, Ulagendra Perumal; Duraisamy, Appasamy Benet; Ilango, Sethu; Rathinasamy, Arunachalam; Chandramohan, Servarayan Murugesan
A 35-year-old woman presented with a history of vague epigastric pain which lasted for one day. She had no other gastrointestinal symptoms and had an unremarkable past history and physical examination. An ultrasound scan abdomen showed a 3×3.5 cm mass in the left lobe of liver. A CT scan showed an abnormal hypodense lesion with mild enhancement in the arterial phase, with a central calcification. Complete blood count, liver function test and alpha-fetoprotein were normal. A left lateral segmentectomy was performed after adequate pre-operative assessment. The specimen contained a 3 cm long fishbone. The post-operative period was uneventful. Histopathological examination revealed chronic non-specific inflammation with fibrosis. Inflammatory pseudotumor of liver is a rare benign tumor with uncertain etiopathogenesis. Suggested etiologies include a septic or a viral origin and it can occur after migration of sharp objects, including migrated fishbone. Inflammatory pseudotumor of liver can be a diagnostic challenge and may end up in major resection.
Kemmler, Wolfgang; Teschler, Marc; Goisser, Sabine; Bebenek, Michael; von Stengel, Simon; Bollheimer, Leo Cornelius; Sieber, Cornel C; Freiberger, Ellen
Background Although sarcopenia represents a challenging burden for health care systems around the world, its prevalence in the elderly population varies widely. The primary aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of sarcopenia in community-dwelling (CD) German women aged 70 years and older; the secondary aim was to assess the effect of osteoarthritis (OA) on sarcopenia prevalence in this cohort. Methods A total of 689 Caucasian females 18–35 years old and 1,325 CD females 70 years+ living in Northern Bavaria, Germany, were assessed during the initial phase of the FORMoSA research project. Anthropometry, total and regional muscle mass, were assessed by segmental multifrequency Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis. Further 10 m walking speed and handgrip strength were evaluated to apply the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People definition of sarcopenia. Covariates were determined by questionnaires and interviews. Results Applying the algorithm of the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People of two standard deviations below the mean value for appendicular skeletal muscle mass of a reference cohort of the young cohort (5.66 kg/m2), low gait speed (≤0.8 m/s), and low grip strength (<20 kg), the prevalence of sarcopenia in CD German females 70 years and older was 4.5% (70–79 years: 2.8% vs ≥80 years: 9.9%; P<0.001). Participants with OA at the hip and lower limbs (n=252) exhibited significantly higher rates of sarcopenia (OA: 9.1 vs non-OA: 3.5%). Of importance, anthropometric, demographic, health, and lifestyle parameters (except exercise participation) of our cohorts corresponded with Bavarian or German data for CD women 70 years+. Conclusion The prevalence of sarcopenia in CD German females 70 years+ is relatively low. However, participants with OA at the hip or lower limbs were at increased risk for sarcopenia. PMID:26491272
Tezcan, Kamer; Louie, Kristal T; Qu, Yong; Velasquez, Jorge; Zaldivar, Frank; Rioseco-Camacho, Natalia; Camacho, José Angel
The Hyperornithinemia-Hyperammonemia-Homocitrullinuria (HHH) syndrome is a disorder of the urea cycle and ornithine degradation pathway caused by mutations in the mitochondrial ornithine transporter, ORNT1 (SLC25A15). In general, the majority of patients with HHH syndrome come to medical attention during infancy or early school years with symptoms such as learning disabilities, changes in cognitive development, spasticity, or liver dysfunction. In this report, we describe a 35-year-old male of Indian descent who was diagnosed with HHH syndrome after he presented to the emergency room with gastroenteritis, disorientation, and slurred speech. Molecular analysis revealed that this patient was heterozygous for two ORNT1 mutations, p.[Gly220Arg(+)Arg275X] (c.[658G>A(+)823C>T]) that had been previously reported in homozygous probands who presented during the first year of life. Cellular studies revealed that the ORNT1 p.Gly220Arg mutation was nonfunctional but targeted to the mitochondria. Given that this patient was a successful college graduate on a vegetarian diet without a prior history of learning or neurological impairment, additional factors such as gene redundancy, environmental, and epigenetic factors may have contributed to the delay in onset of presentation and lack of any previous symptoms. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of an adult-onset HHH syndrome presentation without a prior history of neurological or cognitive deficiency.
Decker, Kerry A.; Lai, Jennifer C.; Gill, Ryan M.; Logan, Aaron C.; Fix, Oren K.
Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a syndrome of excessive immune activation that mimics and occurs with other systemic diseases. A 35-year-old female presented with signs of viral illness at 13 weeks of pregnancy and progressed to acute liver failure (ALF). We discuss the diagnosis of HLH and Kikuchi-Fujimoto (KF) lymphadenitis in the context of pregnancy and ALF. HLH may respond to comorbid disease-specific therapy, and more toxic treatment can be avoided. PMID:27921061
Giard, Jeanne-Marie; Decker, Kerry A; Lai, Jennifer C; Gill, Ryan M; Logan, Aaron C; Fix, Oren K
Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a syndrome of excessive immune activation that mimics and occurs with other systemic diseases. A 35-year-old female presented with signs of viral illness at 13 weeks of pregnancy and progressed to acute liver failure (ALF). We discuss the diagnosis of HLH and Kikuchi-Fujimoto (KF) lymphadenitis in the context of pregnancy and ALF. HLH may respond to comorbid disease-specific therapy, and more toxic treatment can be avoided.
Kasangari, Maruthi Devi; Jyothsna, Mandapati; Subash, Andy Venkata; Aravind, Kumbakonam
Ameloblastoma is a true benign odontogenic neoplasm with many classical histological variants, common being follicular and plexiform types. Hemangiomatous amelobalstoma is a very rare variant that shows unique histopathologic characteristics varying from conventional ameloblastoma. We present a rare variant of ameloblastoma in a 35-year-old female patient with a swelling over left mandibular region, showing mixed radiolucent-opacity, which on enucleation histopathologically revealed ameloblastomatous areas with extensive vascular component. PMID:26155577
Turan, Adil; Kose, Ozkan; Acar, Baver; Unal, Melih
Os subtibiale is a rare accessory ossicle located at the tip of the medial malleolus. Although this small ossicle usually has no clinical significance, in some cases it may be a source of ankle pain. Symptomatic os subtibiale is an extremely rare diagnosis, and few cases have been reported to date. The case presented is of a 35-year-old female patient with symptomatic os subtibiale, with a discussion of the diagnosis, clinical findings, and treatment options.
Nazem, Taraneh Gharib; Ackerman, Kathryn E.
Context: The female athlete triad (the triad) is an interrelationship of menstrual dysfunction, low energy availability (with or without an eating disorder), and decreased bone mineral density; it is relatively common among young women participating in sports. Diagnosis and treatment of this potentially serious condition is complicated and often requires an interdisciplinary team. Evidence Acquisition: Articles from 1981 to present found on PubMed were selected for review of major components of the female athlete triad as well as strategies for diagnosis and treatment of the conditions. Results: The main goal in treatment of young female athletes with the triad is a natural return of menses as well as enhancement of bone mineral density. While no specific drug intervention has been shown to consistently improve bone mineral density in this patient population, maximizing energy availability and optimizing vitamin D and calcium intake are recommended. Conclusions: Treatment requires a multidisciplinary approach involving health care professionals as well as coaches and family members. Prevention of this condition is important to minimize complications of the female athlete triad. PMID:23016101
El-Galaly, Tarec Christoffer; Cheah, Chan Y; Hutchings, Martin; Mikhaeel, Nabegh George; Savage, Kerry J; Sehn, Laurie H; Barrington, Sally; Hansen, Jakob W; Poulsen, Mette Ø; Smith, Daniel; Rady, Kirsty; Mylam, Karen J; Larsen, Thomas S; Holmberg, Staffan; Juul, Maja B; Cordua, Sabrina; Clausen, Michael R; Jensen, Kristina B; Bøgsted, Martin; Johnsen, Hans E; Seymour, John F; Connors, Joseph M; Brown, Peter D N; Villa, Diego
Involvement of the internal female reproductive organs by diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is uncommon, and there are sparse data describing the outcomes of such cases. In total, 678 female patients with DLBCL staged with positron emission tomography/computed tomography and treated with rituximab-containing chemotherapy were identified from databases in Denmark, Great Britain, Australia, and Canada. Overall, 27/678 (4%) had internal reproductive organ involvement: uterus (n = 14), ovaries (n = 10) or both (n = 3). In multivariate analysis, women with uterine DLBCL experienced inferior progression-free survival and overall survival compared to those without reproductive organ involvement, whereas ovarian DLBCL was not predictive of outcome. Secondary central nervous system (CNS) involvement (SCNS) occurred in 7/17 (41%) women with uterine DLBCL (two patients with concomitant ovarian DLBCL) and 0/10 women with ovarian DLBCL without concomitant uterine involvement. In multivariate analysis adjusted for other risk factors for SCNS, uterine involvement by DLBCL remained strongly associated with SCNS (Hazard ratio 14·13, 95% confidence interval 5·09-39·25, P < 0·001). Because involvement of the uterus by DLBCL appears to be associated with a high risk of SCNS, those patients should be considered for CNS staging and prophylaxis. However, more studies are needed to determine whether the increased risk of secondary CNS involvement also applies to women with localized reproductive organ DLBCL.
... practice of FGM. In 2010, WHO published a "Global strategy to stop health care providers from performing female ... practices Health risks of female genital mutilation (FGM) Global strategy to stop health-care providers from performing female ...
... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Reproductive System, Female, Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: ... Reproductive System, Female, Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the female reproductive system; drawing shows the uterus, myometrium (muscular outer layer ...
... bladder. You have signs of infection (a burning sensation when you urinate, fever, fatigue, or chills). Alternative Names Clean intermittent catheterization - female; CIC - female Images Bladder catheterization, female References Cepedes RD, Gerboc JL. Other therapies for storage ...
Wilczynski, Walter; Lynch, Kathleen S.
Rather than being a static, species specific trait, reproductive behavior in female amphibians is variable within an individual during the breeding season when females are capable of reproductive activity. Changes in receptivity coincide with changes in circulating estrogen. Estrogen is highest at the point when females are ready to choose a male and lay eggs. At this time female receptivity (her probability of responding to a male vocal signal) is highest and her selectivity among conspecific calls (measured by her probability of responding to a degraded or otherwise usually unattractive male signal) is lowest. These changes occur even though females retain the ability to discriminate different acoustic characteristics of various conspecific calls. After releasing her eggs, female amphibians quickly become less receptive and more choosy in terms of their responses to male sexual advertisement signals. Male vocal signals stimulate both behavior and estrogen changes in amphibian females making mating more probable. The changes in female reproductive behavior are the same as those generally accepted as indicative of a change in female sexual arousal leading to copulation. They are situationally triggered, gated by interactions with males, and decline with the consummation of sexual reproduction with a chosen male. The changes can be triggered by either internal physiological state or by the presence of stimuli presented by males, and the same stimuli change both behavior and physiological (endocrine) state in such a way as to make acceptance of a male more likely. Thus amphibian females demonstrate many of the same general characteristics of changing female sexual state that in mammals indicate sexual arousal. PMID:20816968
Introduction Testicular cancer is the most common malignancy in men 15- to 35-years-old. The North American standard classification divides testicular cancers into germ cell tumors and non-germ cell tumors. The lymphatic spread of germ cell tumors usually involves the retroperitoneal lymph nodes. However, this spread to the retroperitoneum rarely involves the hepatic hilum. We describe an unusual case of metastatic choriocarcinoma of the testis that was clinically mimicked by a cholestatic jaundice. This is an unusual presentation of testicular cancer and, to the best of our knowledge, the first report of this kind in the literature. Case presentation A 28-year-old Moroccan man presented with a four-week history of progressive obstructive jaundice, and weight loss to our emergency department. Abdominal ultrasound showed a dilatation of the biliary ducts due to pathologically enlarged lymph nodes of the hepatic hilum. A complete clinical and radiologic assessment to discover the primary tumor was negative except for pulmonary metastasis. In the laboratory findings at admission there were signs of cholestasis with an abnormal increase in the rate of testicular tumor markers (serum beta-human chorionic gonadotropin level was 11,000IU/ml), which subsequently led to the suspicion of a testicular tumor. Further evaluation included testicular palpation and ultrasound which revealed a testicular nodule. The patient underwent an inguinal orchidectomy of the right testis and histopathological examination confirmed a pure choriocarcinoma. The prognosis was poor due to lymph node involvement at the hepatic hilum. He died one month later, despite general chemotherapy. Conclusions The clinical presentation of the disease and the rarity of this entity are two remarkable characteristics described in this case report which are rarely reported in literature. PMID:22938171
Unuane, David; Tournaye, Herman; Velkeniers, Brigitte; Poppe, Kris
Female infertility occurs in about 37% of all infertile couples and ovulatory disorders account for more than half of these. The ovaries are in continuous interaction with the other endocrine organs. The interplay may account for infertility occurring at different levels and may render the diagnosis of infertility a difficult exercise for the involved physician. A hypothalamic cause of female infertility should be considered in an appropriate clinical context, with tests pointing to a hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. It can be functional, physiological or related to organic causes. Hyperprolactinemia has well characterized effects on the normal gonadal function and treatment is well established. Acromegaly and Cushing's disease may impair fertility at different levels, mechanisms involved however remain ill defined. Thyroid disorders, both hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism, can interact with the ovaries, through a direct effect on ovarian function, but autoimmunity may be involved, as well as alterations of the sex hormone binding protein levels. Primary ovarian disorders, such as the polycystic ovary syndrome and primary ovarian insufficiency are frequent diseases, for which novel treatments are currently being developed and discussed. We will propose an algorithm for the diagnosis and approach of the female patient presenting with infertility on the basis of the available evidence in literature.
... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Female Reproductive System KidsHealth > For Parents > Female Reproductive System A A ... the egg or sperm. continue Parts of the Female Reproductive System Unlike the male, the human female has a ...
Mohamed, Mohamed; Elghawy, Karim; Scholten, Donald; Wilson, Kenneth; McCann, Michael
Introduction Adult intussusception is rare. Lipoma is the second most common benign tumor of the colon and most common to cause colonic intussusception in adults, but rare. Presentation of case A 35-years-old male presented with a history of intermittent abdominal pain and bright red rectal bleeding, with symptoms waxing and waning for one month. On physical examination, the abdomen was distended with tenderness over the periumbilical, suprapubic, and left lower quadrant regions with guarding. CT demonstrated colo-colonic intussusception of the sigmoid colon with a 2.3 cm × 2.6 cm intra-mural lipoma of the rectosigmoid region. The patient underwent an exploratory laparotomy with partial reduction of the intussusception, sigmoid colon resection and end colostomy. Histopathology confirmed a 2.5 cm sub-mucosal lipoma without evidence of malignancy. Discussion Sixty–sixty five percent of cases with intussusception of the large bowel in adults are related to a malignant etiology and most cases of sigmoidorectal intussusception reported in the literature are secondary to underlying malignancy. Colo-colic intussusception is the most common type of intussusception in adults. The incidence of lipomas of the large intestine is reported to range from 0.035% to 4.4%. Ninety percent of colonic lipomas are submuscosal and are mostly located in the right hemicolon. Only 25% of patients with colonic lipoma develop symptoms. Colonic lipomas of the rectosigmoid region represent a very rare occurrence and subsequent etiology for sigmoidorectal intussusceptions in adults. Conclusion Colonic lipoma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of adults with intussusception, with reduction and resection leading to excellent results. PMID:25839433
Martinelli, M; Ollé-Goig, J E
The practice of female genital mutilation (we will use the latest definition adopted by WHO/UNFP: female genital mutilation/cutting or FGM/C) is still widespread in 28 African countries. The World Health Organisation (WHO) estimates that more than two million females undergo some form of genital mutilation every year. Its negative health impact and its ethical and human rights aspects have been discussed and attempts to eliminate it have been the objectives of several meetings promoted by national and international organisations thanks to an increased awareness related to FGM/C in those countries practicing it and also, maybe due to the number of Africans migrating to industrialized countries. We review the present situation in Djibouti, a small country in the Horn of Africa, where 98 % of the female population has suffered different forms of FGM/C.
Schechter, Rachel L.
This experimental investigation evaluated the impact of educational songs on a child's ability to recall scientific content from an educational television program. Preschoolers' comprehension of the educational content was examined by measuring children's ability to recall the featured science content (the function of a pulley and its parts) and their use of the precise scientific terms presented in the episode. A total of 91 preschoolers were included (3-5 years old). Clusters of children were randomly assigned to a control group or one of three video groups: (a) Dialogue Only, which did not include a song; (b) Dialogue Plus Lyrics, which included a song; or (c) Lyrics Only, which consisted of a song, played twice. Results from interviews suggested that children from all video groups (lyrics and/or dialogue) were able to explain the form and function of a pulley better than the control group. The data suggested that children from the Lyrics Only group understood the science content because of the visual imagery, not through the information provided in the lyrics. In terms of precise vocabulary terms, significantly more children in the Dialogue Only group recalled at least one precise term from the program compared to the Lyrics Only group. Looking at the interview as a whole, the children's responses suggested different levels of scientific understanding. Children would require additional teacher-led instruction to deepen their scientific understanding and to clarify any misconceptions. This paper discusses implications of these findings for teachers using multi-media tools in the science classroom and producers creating new educational programming for television and other platforms.
... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Female Reproductive System KidsHealth > For Teens > Female Reproductive System A A ... and female reproductive systems. continue What Is the Female Reproductive System? Most species have two sexes: male and female. ...
... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Female Reproductive System KidsHealth > For Teens > Female Reproductive System Print A ... and female reproductive systems. continue What Is the Female Reproductive System? Most species have two sexes: male and female. ...
Aulakh, Kamaldeep K; Brar, Ramandeep S; Azad, Anurag; Sharma, Swati; Anand, Abhishek; Jyoti, Bhuvan
A mucocele is a common salivary gland disorder that most commonly affects young adults. A 35-year-old female patient reported to the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, with the chief complaint of swelling on the left side of floor of mouth. The aim of this case report is to present the management of mucocele present in floor of the mouth in a young female patient using liquid nitrogen cryosurgery. The present case report has also discussed mechanism of action, current protocol of cryosurgery with emphasis on clinical pros and cons along with the clinical outcomes.
Aulakh, Kamaldeep K; Brar, Ramandeep S; Azad, Anurag; Sharma, Swati; Anand, Abhishek; Jyoti, Bhuvan
A mucocele is a common salivary gland disorder that most commonly affects young adults. A 35-year-old female patient reported to the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, with the chief complaint of swelling on the left side of floor of mouth. The aim of this case report is to present the management of mucocele present in floor of the mouth in a young female patient using liquid nitrogen cryosurgery. The present case report has also discussed mechanism of action, current protocol of cryosurgery with emphasis on clinical pros and cons along with the clinical outcomes. PMID:27843280
Teh, Yik Koon
This is a study on 422 female prisoners in peninsular Malaysia. More than half of the female prisoners are foreigners, mainly from Indonesia and Thailand. This study surveys the background of the respondents and identifies factors that may have influenced them to commit the offences. Female prisoners in Malaysia, particularly those who are…
Female sexual problems are common, frequently overlooked and have a significant impact on the lives of women. Research in the last decade has brought to the understanding and recognition of a number of standpoints, mainly the broad range of normative function. In 2003, the American Urological Association Foundation convened an international committee of experts in the field of women's sexuality, to reconsider the existing definitions of women's sexual dysfunction. Based on the circular response cycle developed by Basson, the group emphasized motivations that might move a woman from being sexually "neutral" to making a decision to be sexual with her partner, as a normative alternative to the need for spontaneous sexual desire as the trigger for sexual behavior. Etiology may stem from medical as well as psychological factors, thus assessment must include a complete evaluation. Treatment includes psycho-education, improvement of interpersonal communication, cognitive behavioral treatment and elucidation and treatment of medical problems, if necessary. Several pharmacological treatments are under investigation, with modest results and uncertainties about their long term safety. This review presents the female sexual response as it is understood today and the current diagnostic and therapeutic understandings and directions.
... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000621.htm Delivery presentations To use the sharing features on this page, ... baby by cesarean birth (C-section) . Less Common Presentations With the brow-first position, the baby's head ...
Shearer, Meagan K; Katz, Larry S
The hypothesis that female-female mounting is proceptivity in goats, in that male goats are aroused by the visual cues of this mounting behavior, was tested. Once a week, male goats were randomly selected and placed in a test pen in which they were allowed to observe one of six selected social or sexual stimulus conditions. The stimulus conditions were one familiar male with two estrous females (MEE); three estrous females that displayed female-female mounting (E(m)); three estrous females that did not mount (E(nm)); three non-estrous females (N(E)); three familiar males (M); and no animals in the pen (Empty). After 10 min, the stimulus animals were removed, and an estrous female was placed in the test pen with the male for a 20-min sexual performance test. During sexual performance tests, the frequencies and latencies of all sexual behaviors were recorded. This procedure was repeated so all males (n = 6) were tested once each test day, and all the stimulus conditions were presented each test day. This was repeated weekly until all males had been exposed to each stimulus condition. Viewing mounting behavior, whether male-female or female-female, increased the total number of sexual behaviors displayed, increased ejaculation frequency, and decreased latency to first mount and ejaculation, post-ejaculatory interval, and the interval between ejaculations. We conclude that male goats are aroused by the visual cues of mounting behavior, and that female-female mounting is proceptivity in goats.
Sampselle, C M; DeLancey, J O
Various muscle, connective tissue, and neurologic structures within the pelvic floor play critical roles in the maintenance of both urinary and fecal continence. Recent advances in technology, combined with greater precision during anatomic study, have expanded our understanding of the role played by the pelvic floor in maintaining continence. The goal of this article is to summarize recent research on female pelvic anatomy, with a particular emphasis on the evidence base related to urinary incontinence. The content is organized to accomplish three aims: (1) identify, within the context of pelvic floor anatomy, the structures that comprise the urinary continence system, (2) Describe the functional dynamics of urinary continence, including factors in resting urethral pressure and pressure transmission, and (3) Present the rationale, technique, and interpretation of various methods of measuring pelvic floor function.
Portmann, Luc; Giusti, Vittorio
The practitioner, as well as specialist such as gynecologist and endocrinologist, may face in their office women with eating disorders, abnormalities of menstrual cycles and low bone mass, which may be the first hints of the female athlete triad. In these situations, the practitioner may search other findings of these triad by looking at some particular physical findings and by using appropriate questionnaire. In some advanced forms of this triad specific abnormalities of eating disorders (anorexia and boulimia) may be present as well as amenorrhea and osteoporosis, which may disturb the well-being and cause health damages of women practising sport either as amateur or in a elite setting. An appropriate handling of such disorders has to be proposed to these women.
Hasanzadeh, Malihe; Naderi, Hamid Reza; Hoshyar, Azamossadat Hoseine; Shabane, Shima; Shahidsales, Soodabeh
Background: Tuberculosis (TB) is still a major worldwide concern. There is no pathognomonic clinical feature or imaging findings for definite diagnosis of extra pulmonary TB. Therefore, TB involvement of Gastrointestinal or Genitourinary tract can be easily confused with peritoneal carcinomatosis and advanced ovarian carcinoma. Our aim is to emphasize the importance of considering the disease based upon the epidemiologic clues of the patients, while interpreting the positive results for a suspicious ovarian malignancy. Cases: This paper illustrates 8 cases of ovarian or peritoneal tuberculosis, whose initial diagnoses were malignant processes of the GU tract. Conclusion: Tuberculosis (TB) should be always being considered in the differential diagnosis of advanced ovarian cancer, especially in the regions that are endemic for the disease. PMID:24778675
Loseth, Lexie; Moreau, Linda
Following a review of the literature on mature female students, this paper examines enrollment trends in a selection of colleges in Alberta (Canada) and presents the findings of a survey of returning women students at Red Deer College. The literature review highlights factors related to the personal and professional development of women graduates…
Holden, Kritina; Sandor, A.; Thompson, S. G.; McCann, R. S.; Kaiser, M. K.; Begault, D. R.; Adelstein, B. D.; Beutter, B. R.; Stone, L. S.
The goal of the Information Presentation Directed Research Project (DRP) is to address design questions related to the presentation of information to the crew on flight vehicles, surface landers and habitats, and during extra-vehicular activities (EVA). Designers of displays and controls for exploration missions must be prepared to select the text formats, label styles, alarms, electronic procedure designs, and cursor control devices that provide for optimal crew performance on exploration tasks. The major areas of work, or subtasks, within the Information Presentation DRP are: 1) Controls, 2) Displays, 3) Procedures, and 4) EVA Operations.
Huber, Bernhard A
Males of the Venezuelan pholcid spider Kaliana yuruani have unique genitalia, with the procursi about six times as long as usual in the family. The present article describes the previously unknown female, searching for a morphological correlate in the female genitalia to the male's exaggeration. Reconstruction of histological serial sections reveals an internal female complexity that is unequalled in pholcid spiders. An intricate system of ducts and folds is arranged in an asymmetric way, making this the third known case of genital asymmetry in spiders. The term "cryptic female exaggeration" is used in analogy to cryptic female choice, pointing to the fact that from the outside, the female genitalia do not appear unusual. I propose that cryptic female exaggeration may be relatively common in copulatory structures if male exaggerations need to be evaluated according to the female choice by mechanical fit model. Finally, the evolution of genital asymmetry in spiders is contrasted with that in insects.
Holden, Kritina L.; Thompson, Shelby G.; Sandor, Aniko; McCann, Robert S.; Kaiser, Mary K.; Adelstein, Barnard D.; Begault, Durand R.; Beutter, Brent R.; Stone, Leland S.; Godfroy, Martine
The goal of the Information Presentation Directed Research Project (DRP) is to address design questions related to the presentation of information to the crew. In addition to addressing display design issues associated with information formatting, style, layout, and interaction, the Information Presentation DRP is also working toward understanding the effects of extreme environments encountered in space travel on information processing. Work is also in progress to refine human factors-based design tools, such as human performance modeling, that will supplement traditional design techniques and help ensure that optimal information design is accomplished in the most cost-efficient manner. The major areas of work, or subtasks, within the Information Presentation DRP for FY10 are: 1) Displays, 2) Controls, 3) Procedures and Fault Management, and 4) Human Performance Modeling. The poster will highlight completed and planned work for each subtask.
Introduces a project in which students teach about the importance of recycling and conservation by presenting demonstrations. Includes demonstrations on water, plastic, and other recycling products such as steel. (YDS)
Brazdova, Andrea; Senechal, Helene; Peltre, Gabriel; Poncet, Pascal
Immune infertility, in terms of reproductive failure, has become a serious health issue involving approximately 1 out of 5 couples at reproductive age. Semen that is defined as a complex fluid containing sperm, cellular vesicles and other cells and components, could sensitize the female genital tract. The immune rejection of male semen in the female reproductive tract is explained as the failure of natural tolerance leading to local and/or systemic immune response. Present active immune mechanism may induce high levels of anti-seminal/sperm antibodies. It has already been proven that iso-immunization is associated with infertility. Comprehensive studies with regards to the identification of antibody-targets and the determination of specific antibody class contribute to the development of effective immuno-therapy and, on the other hand, potential immuno-contraception, and then of course to complex patient diagnosis. This review summarizes the aspects of female immune infertility. PMID:27123194
Holden, K.L.; Boyer, J.L.; Sandor, A.; Thompson, S.G.; McCann, R.S.; Begault, D.R.; Adelstein, B.D.; Beutter, B.R.; Stone, L.S.
The goal of the Information Presentation Directed Research Project (DRP) is to address design questions related to the presentation of information to the crew. The major areas of work, or subtasks, within this DRP are: 1) Displays, 2) Controls, 3) Electronic Procedures and Fault Management, and 4) Human Performance Modeling. This DRP is a collaborative effort between researchers at Johnson Space Center and Ames Research Center.
USAWC STRATEGY RESEARCH PROJECT FEMALE SUICIDE BOMBERS by Ms. Debra D. Zedalis Department of the Army Civilian Dr. Anna Waggener Project Advisor This... Female Suicide Bombers 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Debra Zedalis 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK...ii iii ABSTRACT AUTHOR: Debra D. Zedalis TITLE: Female Suicide Bombers FORMAT: Strategy Research Project DATE: 19 March 2004 PAGES: 43
Migaki, G.; Asher, D.M.; Casey, H.W.; Locke, L.N.; Gibbs, C.J.; Gajdusek, C.
Reports of nephritis in chimpanzees are relatively rare, compared with those in other nonhuman primates. McClure and Guilloud reported chronic pyelonephritis in a 35-year-old female chimpanzee; Schmidt and Butler reported glomerulonephritis in an 11-year-old female chimpanzee, and Kim reported on a 12-year-old male with subacute interstitial nephritis in a chimpanzee after the animal had recurrent hemolysis due to phenolic intoxication. The present report deals with supprative nephritis caused by Pseudomonas resulting in renal failure in a chimpanzee.
Burt, Lorna; And Others
This guide is intended for use in an eight-session course designed to develop the presentation skills required of persons employed in the manufacturing and service industries. The course is structured so that, upon its completion, students will be able to accomplish the following: identify the traits of good and bad speakers; research and organize…
Espejo, Lina María; de la Espriella, Ricardo; Hernández, José Fernando
Metachromatic leukodystrophy (MLD) is a rare demyelinating disease (prevalence 1:40 000), also called arylsulfatase A deficiency (ARS-A), which may present with neurological and psychiatric symptoms. Clinical assessment may be difficult, due to unspecific signs and symptoms. A case is presented of a 16 year-old female patient seen in psychiatry due to behavioural changes, psychosis, and with impaired overall performance. She was initially diagnosed with schizophrenia, but the Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) scan and laboratory tests lead to the diagnosis of MLD.
This report provides an overview presentation of the 2000 NPSS (Numerical Propulsion System Simulation) Review and Planning Meeting. Topics include: 1) a background of the program; 2) 1999 Industry Feedback; 3) FY00 Status, including resource distribution and major accomplishments; 4) FY01 Major Milestones; and 5) Future direction for the program. Specifically, simulation environment/production software and NPSS CORBA Security Development are discussed.
Sherman, Roberta Trattner; Thompson, Ron A.
The Female Athlete Triad is a syndrome of the interrelated components of disordered eating, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis. Sometimes inadvertently, but more often by willful dietary restriction, many female athletes do not ingest sufficient calories to adequately fuel their physical or sport activities, which can disrupt menstrual functioning,…
Describes constructions of sexuality that have occurred within social context in which language, culture, and behavior interact to reinforce male power. Against backdrop of these patriarchal examples of female sexual expression and experience, discusses difficulties of female clients. Addresses critical counseling concerns in terms of contextual…
Sherman, Roberta Trattner; Thompson, Ron A
The Female Athlete Triad is a syndrome of the interrelated components of disordered eating, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis. Sometimes inadvertently, but more often by willful dietary restriction, many female athletes do not ingest sufficient calories to adequately fuel their physical or sport activities, which can disrupt menstrual functioning, thereby increasing their risk of bone loss. Although its prevalence is unknown, the Female Athlete Triad is believed to affect many athletes at all ages and all sport competition levels. Even though the Triad affects athletes in all sports, girls and women in sports that emphasize a thin or small body size or shape appear to be most at risk. This article focuses on the risks of the Female Athlete Triad for middle- and high-school-age female athletes as well as the unique issues related to the identification, management, and treatment of the various components of the Triad in this special adolescent subpopulation.
Weiss Kelly, Amanda K; Hecht, Suzanne
The number of girls participating in sports has increased significantly since the introduction of Title XI in 1972. As a result, more girls have been able to experience the social, educational, and health-related benefits of sports participation. However, there are risks associated with sports participation, including the female athlete triad. The triad was originally recognized as the interrelationship of amenorrhea, osteoporosis, and disordered eating, but our understanding has evolved to recognize that each of the components of the triad exists on a spectrum from optimal health to disease. The triad occurs when energy intake does not adequately compensate for exercise-related energy expenditure, leading to adverse effects on reproductive, bone, and cardiovascular health. Athletes can present with a single component or any combination of the components. The triad can have a more significant effect on the health of adolescent athletes than on adults because adolescence is a critical time for bone mass accumulation. This report outlines the current state of knowledge on the epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment of the triad conditions.
Griffin, Garrett R; Kim, Jennifer C
The concept of the ideal female eyebrow has changed over time. Modern studies examining youthful brow aesthetics are reviewed. An analysis of ideal female brow characteristics as depicted in the Western print media between 1945 and 2011 was performed. This analysis provided objective evidence that the ideal youthful brow peak has migrated laterally over time to lie at the lateral canthus. There has been a nonstatistically significant trend toward lower and flatter brows. These findings are discussed in relation to current concepts of female brow aging, with repercussions regarding endoscopic brow lift and aesthetic forehead surgery.
Gurung, Regan A. R.; Kempen, Laura; Klemm, Kayla; Senn, Rebecca; Wysocki, Rosie
This study investigates the effects of formality of dress on ratings of classroom presentations. Participants (N = 65, 66% women) from a Midwestern university in the United States rated three female students giving a presentation designed for a health psychology class in one of four outfits: casual, party, business casual, or business formal.…
The female of Platycheirus troll Mutin is described. A preliminary key to the females of the Northern Palaearctic species of the Platycheirus clypeatus group is presented. The possibility to identify the undescribed female of Platycheirus magadanensis Mutin is discussed.
Hobart, J A; Smucker, D R
The female athlete triad is defined as the combination of disordered eating, amenorrhea and osteoporosis. This disorder often goes unrecognized. The consequences of lost bone mineral density can be devastating for the female athlete. Premature osteoporotic fractures can occur, and lost bone mineral density may never be regained. Early recognition of the female athlete triad can be accomplished by the family physician through risk factor assessment and screening questions. Instituting an appropriate diet and moderating the frequency of exercise may result in the natural return of menses. Hormone replacement therapy should be considered early to prevent the loss of bone density. A collaborative effort among coaches, athletic trainers, parents, athletes and physicians is optimal for the recognition and prevention of the triad. Increased education of parents, coaches and athletes in the health risks of the female athlete triad can prevent a potentially life-threatening illness.
... some competitive female athletes, problems such as low self-esteem, a tendency toward perfectionism, and family stress place ... pressure from coaches or family members, or low self-esteem and can help her find ways to deal ...
... New Program Application Process Resident Awards AOCD Residency Leadership Award A.P. Ulbrich Resident Research Award Daniel ... Favorite Name: Category: Share: Yes No, Keep Private Female Pattern Hair Loss Share | The most common type ...
Alopecia in women; Baldness - female; Hair loss in women; Androgenetic alopecia in women; Hereditary balding or thinning in women ... male hormones). For example, after reaching menopause , many women find that the hair on their head is ...
Hirschinger, Nancy B.; Grisso, Jeane Ann; Wallace, Donald B.; McCollum, Kelly Farley; Schwarz, Donald F.; Sammel, Mary D.; Brensinger, Colleen; Anderson, Elijah
Objectives. The aims of this study were to describe the characteristics surrounding female-to-female nonpartner violence and to identify independent factors associated with risk of female-to-female intentional injuries. Methods. A case–control investigation was conducted among women who resided in an urban, low-income community and presented for emergency department care for injuries inflicted by female nonpartners. Results. Women were typically victimized by women they knew (88%), in outdoor locations (60%), and in the presence of others (91%). Those found to be at risk for injury typically were young and socially active, used marijuana, and had experienced other kinds of violence. Conclusions. The present results showed that women injured by female nonpartners had limited resources, experienced disorder in their lives, and were the victims of violence within multiple relationships. (Am J Public Health. 2003;93:1098–1103) PMID:12835192
Majors, Jaqueline; Stoikes, Nathaniel F.; Nejati, Reza
Desmoid tumors are rare, musculoaponeurotic mesenchymal origin tumors arising from the proliferation of well-differentiated fibroblasts. Desmoid tumors may arise from any location with the abdominal cavity, abdominal wall and extremity locations being most frequent. We present the case of a 35-year-old female with a history of endometriosis who presented palpable abdominal mass and cyclic abdominal pain. Resection was performed for a presumed desmoid soft tissue tumor. Final pathology demonstrated desmoid histology admixed with abdominal wall endometriosis (endometrioma). This unique pathologic finding has only been rarely reported and is discussed with a brief review of the literature. PMID:27247824
Stevens, Jeroen M G; Vervaecke, Hilde; De Vries, Han; Van Elsacker, Linda
Based on previous research in captivity, bonobos, Pan paniscus, have been called a female-bonded species. However, genetic and behavioural data indicate that wild females migrate. Bonding between these unrelated females would then be in contradiction with socio-ecological models. It has been argued that female bonding has been overemphasized in captive bonobos. We examine patterns of proximity, grooming and support behaviour in six well established captive groups of bonobos. We find that female bonding was not a typical characteristic of all captive bonobo groups. In only two groups there was a trend for females to prefer proximity with other females over association with males. We found no evidence that following or grooming between females was more frequent than between males and unrelated females or between males. Only in coalitions, females supported each other more than male-female or male-male dyads. We also investigated five mother-son pairs. Grooming was more frequent among mothers and sons than in any other dyad, but sons did not groom their mothers more than males groomed unrelated females. Mothers groomed their sons, or provided more support to them than females groomed or supported unrelated males. Thus, while bonds between females were clearly present, intersexual relations between males and either unrelated females or their mothers are of more, or equal importance.
Ladjali, M; Rattray, T W; Walder, R J
Female genital mutilation, also misleadingly known as female circumcision, is usually performed on girls ranging in from 1 week to puberty. Immediate physical complications include severe pain, shock, infection, bleeding, acute urinary infection, tetanus, and death. Longterm problems include chronic pain, difficulties with micturition and menstruation, pelvic infection leading to infertility, and prolonged and obstructed labor during childbirth. An estimated 80 million girls and women have undergone female genital mutilation. In Britain alone an estimated 10,000 girls are currently at risk. Religious, cultural, medical, and moral grounds rationalize the custom which is practiced primarily in sub-Saharan Africa, the Arab world, Malaysia, Indonesia, and among migrant populations in Western countries. According to WHO it is correlated with poverty, illiteracy, and the low status of women. Women who escape mutilation are not sought in marriage. WHO, the UN Population Fund, the UN Children's Fund, the International Planned Parenthood Federation, and the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child have issued declarations on the eradication of female genital mutilation. In Britain, local authorities have intervened to prevent parents from mutilating their daughters. In 1984, the Inter-African Committee Against Harmful Traditional Practices Affecting Women and Children was established to work toward eliminating female genital mutilation and other damaging customs. National committees in 26 African countries coordinate projects run by local people using theater, dance, music, and storytelling for communication. In Australia, Canada, Europe, and the US women have organized to prevent the practice among vulnerable migrants and refugees.
Carabellese, F; La Tegola, D; Alfarano, E; Tamma, M; Candelli, C; Catanesi, R
The aim of this review was to study "female stalking" in the sense of the specific traits characterizing the phenomenon of stalking behaviour committed by women. The main medical databases were searched (Medline, Social Science Research Network, Apa Psyc Net), and 67 articles were selected, reporting studies conducted in clinical populations, case series, reports, reviews, retrospective studies and original articles. We outline a variety of different tactics adopted by female stalkers and a lesser propensity to pass on to physical violence. Nevertheless, female stalkers are more frequently affected by erotomania, and this condition generally increases the risk of violence. If there have previously been intimate relations between the stalker and her victim, this will increase the risk of violence. In a significant proportion of female stalkers, the behavior is carried out in the occupational setting, especially in the field of psychotherapy, where the male-female ratio is reversed. No significant differences emerged between the motivations of heterosexual or homosexual stalkers. In the category of crimes of harassment committed by women, stalking, at least in Italy, seems to be among the most prominent.
Horn, Elizabeth; Gergen, Nicole; McGarry, Kelly A
The female athlete triad is a spectrum of interrelated pathophysiologic consequences of low energy availability, menstrual dysfunction, and low bone mineral density. Components of the triad are not only counterproductive to athletic performance goals, but can lead to serious long-term negative health outcomes. Practitioners caring for female athletes play an important role detecting at-risk athletes early in their course along the disease spectrum. Importantly, women who are evaluated for one component of the triad should always be screened for the other two. Detecting the disorder early is the most important factor for preventing the potentially severe consequences, and requires heightened vigilance on the part of all those who work with this special patient population. In this article, we discuss the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, evaluation, and management of the female athlete triad.
Beals, Katherine A; Meyer, Nanna L
The passage of Title IX legislation in 1972 provided enormous opportunities for women to reap the benefits of sports participation. For most female athletes, sports participation is a positive experience, providing improved physical fitness, enhanced self-esteem, and better physical and mental health. Nonetheless, for a few female athletes, the desire for athletic success combined with the pressure to achieve a prescribed body weight may lead to the development of a triad of medical disorders including disordered eating, menstrual dysfunction, and low bone mineral density (BMD)--known collectively as the female athlete triad. Alone or in combination, the disorders of the triad can have a negative impact on health and impair athletic performance.
Thein, L A; Thein, J M
Since the passage of Title IX in 1972, women's participation in physical activity and sports has increased significantly. A concurrent expansion in the body of knowledge regarding women and sports has occurred. Questions regarding menstrual dysfunction and exercise continue, while new questions about menstrual dysfunction and its effect on bone mineral density have arisen. Physical and physiological differences between men and women not only guide treatment, but help fuel policy decisions regarding competition between males and females. It is essential for the physical therapist to remain current on issues related to women and sports in order to better advise and treat the female athlete.
Unger, Robin H
Female hair loss is a devastating issue for women that has only relatively recently been publicly acknowledged as a significant problem. Hair transplant surgery is extremely successful in correcting the most cosmetically problematic areas of alopecia. This article discusses the surgical technique of hair transplantation in women in detail, including pearls to reduce postoperative sequelae and planning strategies to ensure a high degree of patient satisfaction. A brief overview of some of the medical treatments found to be helpful in slowing or reversing female pattern hair loss is included, addressing the available hormonal and topical treatments.
Bognár, Gábor; Ledniczky, György; Palik, Eva; Zubek, László; Sugár, István; Ondrejka, Pál
Loss of retroperitoneal fatty tissue as a result of a variety of debilitating conditions and noxa is believed to be the etiologic factor of superior mesenteric artery syndrome. A case of a 35 years old female patient with severe malnutrition and weight loss is presented, who developed superior mesenteric artery syndrome. Various theories of etiology, clinical course and treatment options of this uncommon disease are discussed. In our case, conservative management was inefficient, while surgical treatment aiming to bypass the obstruction by an anastomosis between the jejunum and the proximal duodenum (duodenojejunostomy) was successful. An interdisciplinary teamwork provides the most beneficial diagnostic and therapeutic result in this often underestimated disease.
Hu, James; Ng, David
A 35-year-old female presented to the emergency room with severe upper leg and back pain, which began 3 days after low-intensity cycling and falling from a stationary bike. She developed rhabdomyolysis with a maximum serum creatine kinase level of 72,358 U/L. This case report demonstrates that rhabdomyolysis has a wide range and spectrum of causes and risk factors. Although uncommon, this condition can occur after low-intensity exercise despite absence of other significant risk factors. Thus, clinicians should maintain a high clinical suspicion when initial history, physical examination, and laboratory tests suggest this diagnosis. PMID:27540443
Patil, Amarjeet Dnyandeo; Bapat, Manasi; Patil, Sunita A.; Gogna, Roshan Lal
The case history of a 35-year-old female patient with short stature is presented. She was posted for rectopexy in view of rectal prolapse. She was a known case of bronchial asthma. She had crowding of intervertebral spaces, which made administration of spinal anesthesia via the normal route very difficult. Taylor's approach for administration of the same was tried and proved successful, thus saving the patient from receiving general anesthesia in the presence of bronchial asthma, for a perineal surgery. The possible cause for the difficulty in administration of spinal anesthesia and the Taylor's approach are discussed, and reports of similar cases reviewed. PMID:26543472
Vick, Jennifer; McRoy, Ruth; Matthews, Bobbie M.
Reviews the literature on female sex offenders and presents the results of a nationwide survey of mental health providers on approaches to diagnosing prior sexual abuse history and/or perpetration among juvenile females. Key findings include the lack of research, tools, and literature on young female sex offenders and perceived differences between…
Rust, Dawnella M.
Describes the Female Athlete Triad, an interrelated combination of disorders that can occur in girls and women who are physically active. Presents nine resources for the Female Athlete Triad. Concludes that as more young females become physically active, school personnel need to be aware of the importance of promoting healthy eating and training…
34AD-A268 946 Study l Report 93-04 Why Promotable Female Officers Leave the Army Alma G. Steinberg, Beverly C. Harris, and Jacquelyn Scarville U.S...DATE 3 REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED I 1993, July Final Jul 92 - Oct 92 4 TITLE AND SUBTITLE S. FUNDING NUMBERS ;T,’hy Promotable Female Officers Leave...13. ABSTRACT (Maximuhm 200 words) This paper presents the findings of a study designed to identify the reasons female Captains who were eligible for
Dabney, Katherine P.; Tai, Robert H.
The underrepresentation of women in physics doctorate programs and in tenured academic positions indicates a need to evaluate what may influence their career choice and persistence. This qualitative paper examines eleven females in physics doctoral programs and professional science positions in order to provide a more thorough understanding of why…
Offers advice from the upper echelon of females in the training profession: (1) learn the business; (2) get line experience; (3) stop thinking like a trainer; (4) educate executives; (5) partner with the powerful; (6) exceed expectations; (7) develop coping strategies; (8) be realistic; (9) align values; and (10) organize. (JOW)
Although boys engage in more delinquent and criminal acts than do girls, female delinquency is on the rise. In 1980, boys were four times as likely as girls to be arrested; today they are only twice as likely to be arrested. In this article, the author explores how the juvenile justice system is and should be responding to the adolescent female…
Deimel, Jay F; Dunlap, Bradley J
The Female Athlete Triad poses serious health risks, both short and long term, to the overall well-being of affected individuals. Sustained low energy availability can impair health, causing many medical complications within the skeletal, endocrine, cardiovascular, reproductive, and central nervous systems. With the surge of females participating in athletics within the past 10 to 15 years, it is both conceivable and likely that the prevalence of this syndrome will continue to grow. Therefore, it is imperative that appropriate screening and diagnostic measures are enacted by a multidisciplinary team of health care providers, counselors, teachers, and dieticians in order to provide the proper care to affected athletes. Initial awareness should take place within the educational confines of elementary and high schools. Screening for female athletes exhibiting risk factors for the triad should also take place at the time of sports physicals. If one component of the triad is identified, the clinician should take the time to effectively workup the other 2. Treatment for each component of the triad includes both pharmacological and nonpharmacological measures, with emphasis placed upon increased energy availability and overall improved nutritional health. Using this all-encompassing type of approach, sports medicine practitioners should feel empowered to continue to promote the lifelong well-being of female athletes in the years to come.
Sharma, J B; Kalra, Bharti
Female sexual dysfunction (FSD) is a common complex clinical condition, with multiple etiologies, association and pathophysiologic correlations. This review includes the definition, etiology, and diagnosis of FSD. It calls for a bio psychosocial approach to FSD management, which incorporates, but is not limited to, only the psychological aspects of FSD.
Hodge, N. J.
This autoinstructional lesson can be used with health education and/or biology classes in a high school curriculum. It deals with the study of human development with emphasis on the female reproductive organs and cycles. The behavioral objectives are given, and the materials and equipment needed to gain these objectives are itemized. Fifteen…
Vasey, Paul L
Whether animals ever exhibit a preference for same-sex sexual partners is a subject of debate. Japanese macaques represent excellent models for examining issues related to sexual preference in animals because females, in certain populations, routinely engage in both heterosexual and homosexual behavior over the course of their life spans. Multiple lines of evidence indicate that female homosexual behavior in Japanese macaques is a sexual behavior, not a sociosexual one. Additional evidence indicates that female Japanese macaques do not engage in homosexual behavior simply because acceptable male mates are unavailable or unmotivated to copulate. Patterns of sexual partner choice by female Japanese macaques that are the focus of intersexual competition indicate that females of this species choose same-sex sexual partners even when they are simultaneously presented with a motivated, opposite-sex alternative. Thus, in some populations of Japanese macaques, females prefer certain same-sex sexual partners relative to certain male mates, and vice versa. Taken together, this evidence suggests that female Japanese macaques are best characterized as bisexual in orientation, not preferentially homosexual or preferentially heterosexual.
This study is an examination of the process of female sexual maturation in the cotton-top tamarin, Saguinus oedipus oedipus, a South-American primate of the family, Callitrichidae. Two types of questions are addressed. The first question is whether the type of social grouping in which a young female lives affects the rate of her sexual maturation. Specifically, is there a difference between the maturation rate of a female housed with a strange adult male and a female housed with her natal group (i.e., her parents and various siblings). Second, the effect of sexual maturation on various social interactions is examined. Specifically are male-female interactions in mated pairs and mother-daughter interactions in natal groups changed by the sexual maturation of the young females. The mother's presence was not related to the daughter's maturation age. However, whether the natal group, as a whole, inhibited maturation, or unrelated males accelerated maturation, or both, remains unknown. Most of the behavioral interactions involving maturing females were unchanged by maturation. There was some indication that certain behaviors were affected by maturation, but only if a strange unrelated male was present.
Wignall, Anne E; Herberstein, Marie E
During courtship, individuals transfer information about identity, mating status and quality. However, male web-building spiders face a significant problem: how to begin courting female spiders without being mistaken for prey? Male Argiope spiders generate distinctive courtship vibrations (shudders) when entering a female's web. We tested whether courtship shudders delay female predatory behaviour, even when live prey is present in the web. We presented a live cricket to females during playbacks of shudder vibrations, or white noise, and compared female responses to a control in which we presented a live cricket with no playback vibrations. Females were much slower to respond to crickets during playback of shudder vibrations. Shudder vibrations also delayed female predatory behaviour in a related spider species, showing that these vibrations do not simply function for species identity. These results suggest that male web-building spiders employ a phylogenetically conserved vibratory signal to ameliorate the risk of pre-copulatory cannibalism.
A recent survey by the Inter-African Committee for Traditional Practices Affecting the Health of Women and Children found that 75-85 million women in Africa have undergone some form of female genital mutilation (FGM). FGM has long been practiced in Kenya. The ethnic groups which practice it, including the Kikuyu, Kamba, Kisii, Kalenjin, Maasai, and people of Somali origin, have a death rate of 170/1000 of their female populations. Approximately half of these deaths are the result of FGM, a practice which also contributes to the poor health of mutilated women. The adverse health consequences of FGM have led Kenya's President Daniel arap Moi to ban the practice in his country. In announcing the ban, President Moi advised Kenyans to discontinue cultural practices and customs which have no place in modern society and which will otherwise retard development. A number of prominent Kenyans have come forth in support of Moi's move.
Harrison, M E
A critical analysis of the role and status of female health workers in the primary health care service (PHC) of the Secretary of Health in the Federal District of Mexico is presented. Women are key workers in the health service; however, since the creation of the PHC service, women appear to have been kept in low-pay, low-status jobs. Data from questionnaires and in-depth interviews with female health workers in the Federal District illustrate the situation. Female health workers' status is determined by the structure and operation of the PHC system; by family and personal needs; by the cultural context of Mexican society; and by the fact that some female health workers view their job as a hobby, placing family considerations above career enhancement.
Kleindorfer, Sonia; Evans, Christine; Colombelli-Négrel, Diane
Superb fairy-wren (Malurus cyaneus) females use an incubation call to teach their embryos a vocal password to solicit parental feeding care after hatching. We previously showed that high call rate by the female was correlated with high call similarity in fairy-wren chicks, but not in cuckoo chicks, and that parent birds more often fed chicks with high call similarity. Hosts should be selected to increase their defence behaviour when the risk of brood parasitism is highest, such as when cuckoos are present in the area. Therefore, we experimentally test whether hosts increase call rate to embryos in the presence of a singing Horsfield's bronze-cuckoo (Chalcites basalis). Female fairy-wrens increased incubation call rate when we experimentally broadcast cuckoo song near the nest. Embryos had higher call similarity when females had higher incubation call rate. We interpret the findings of increased call rate as increased teaching effort in response to a signal of threat.
Kleindorfer, Sonia; Evans, Christine; Colombelli-Négrel, Diane
Superb fairy-wren (Malurus cyaneus) females use an incubation call to teach their embryos a vocal password to solicit parental feeding care after hatching. We previously showed that high call rate by the female was correlated with high call similarity in fairy-wren chicks, but not in cuckoo chicks, and that parent birds more often fed chicks with high call similarity. Hosts should be selected to increase their defence behaviour when the risk of brood parasitism is highest, such as when cuckoos are present in the area. Therefore, we experimentally test whether hosts increase call rate to embryos in the presence of a singing Horsfield's bronze-cuckoo (Chalcites basalis). Female fairy-wrens increased incubation call rate when we experimentally broadcast cuckoo song near the nest. Embryos had higher call similarity when females had higher incubation call rate. We interpret the findings of increased call rate as increased teaching effort in response to a signal of threat. PMID:24806422
There continues to be oppression among female athletes, even after the enactment of Title IX in 1972. Female athletes in secondary schools deal with low self-esteem, eating disorders such as anorexia and bulimia, and depression. Female athletes struggle with societal pressures to maintain a model-like figure, while trying to train and perform for…
Reindeer are either wild or kept under very extensive farming systems. They are seasonal breeders, with mating coinciding with the decreasing photoperiod in the autumn, and with calving in the spring. Little is known regarding the factors that influence reproduction in reindeer or of their reproductive physiology. Studies carried out to date have mainly focused on issues related to the population dynamics of wild populations and semi-domestic herds, and to a limited extent on the reproductive physiology of the female. Nor is much known about reproductive disorders and their medical treatment, or of the possibilities to manipulate or control reproduction by the use of hormones. Modern reproductive techniques such as artificial insemination and in vitro fertilisation, maturation and transfer of embryos have so far received scant attention.In the future, it is possible that reindeer under certain conditions might be kept in more intensive production systems. Limited access to high-quality winter pastures and increased demands for productivity have resulted in artificial feeding becoming a common practice in various reindeer herding areas in Scandinavia. In efforts to enhance the productivity of reindeer herds, attention has been focused on factors affecting reproduction in the female and survival of the offspring. Further knowledge on these issues seems necessary when developing strategies for optimalization of meat production in domestic herds and the harvesting of wild populations. This paper puts a broad focus on various aspects of reproduction, including factors influencing the fecundity of reproductively active females. In order to understand these effects it is important also to have a basic understanding of the reproductive physiology of these animals.
... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000134.htm Urinary incontinence surgery - female - discharge To use the sharing features on this ... Dmochowski RR, Blaivas JM, Gormley EA, et al; Female Stress Urinary Incontinence Update Panel of the American ...
... Schedules Nutrient Shortfall Questionnaire Genital Problems in Infants (Female)Any deformity or change in the genitals is ... and Children Foot Problems Genital Problems in Infants (Female) Genital Problems in Infants (Male) Genital Problems in ...
In October 1989 midwives and nurses held mass demonstrations in Benin city, the capital of Bendel State, Nigeria, to protest against female circumcision. This practice, which is firmly entrenched in the area, may involve cutting off the clitoris or more extensive removal of girls' genitalia, either in infancy or at puberty. Nigerian hospitals no longer perform circumcision, so people do it themselves or have traditional practitioners do so. Recent demonstrations reflect outrage on the part of Western-trained health care activists regarding aesthetic and obstetric complications, as well as added risk of spreading tetanus and AIDS by unsanitary procedures.
Alipanahi, Rakhshandeh; Sayyahmelli, Sima
Papillitis and complicating acute toxoplasma retinochoroiditis, are unusual and atypical features of toxoplasmosis. This report presents a female with unusual acute papillitis. This patient had an active toxoplasmic chorioretinitis lesion that appeared to involve the optic nerve head and a major blood vessel as well as central nervous systems (CNS). Papillitis may be secondary to juxtapapillary retinitis (Jensen choroiditis). Very rarely, the optic nerve head may be the primary site of involvement. This case report illustrates a rare presentation of acute papillitis in a young immunocompetent female. PMID:21887084
In this review, first a historical perspective of serotonin's (5-HT) involvement in female sexual behavior is presented. Then an overview of studies implicating 5-HT is presented. The effect of drugs that increase or decrease CNS levels of 5-HT is reviewed. Evidence is presented that drugs which increase 5-HT have negative effects on female sexual behavior while a decrease in 5-HT is associated with facilitation of sexual behavior. Studies with compounds that act on 5-HT₁, 5-HT₂ or 5-HT₃ receptors are discussed. Most evidence indicates that 5-HT₁A receptor agonists inhibit sexual behavior while 5-HT₂ or 5-HT₃ receptors may exert a positive influence. There is substantial evidence to support a role for 5-HT in the modulation of female consummatory sexual behavior, but studies on the role of 5-HT in other elements of female sexual behavior (e.g. desire, motivation, sexual appetite) are few. Future studies should be directed at determining if these additional components of female sexual behavior are also modulated by 5-HT.
In this review, first a historical perspective of serotonin’s (5-HT) involvement in female sexual behavior is presented. Then an overview of studies implicating 5-HT is presented. The effect of drugs that increase or decrease CNS levels of 5-HT is reviewed. Evidence is presented that drugs which increase 5-HT have negative effects on female sexual behavior while a decrease in 5-HT is associated with facilitation of sexual behavior. Studies with compounds that act on 5-HT1, 5-HT2 or 5-HT3 receptors are discussed. Most evidence indicates that 5-HT1A receptor agonists inhibit sexual behavior while 5-HT2 or 5-HT3 receptors may exert a positive influence. There is substantial evidence to support a role for 5-HT in the modulation of female consummatory sexual behavior, but studies on the role of 5-HT in other elements of female sexual behavior (e.g. desire, motivation, sexual appetite) are few. Future studies should be directed at determining if these additional components of female sexual behavior are also modulated by 5-HT. PMID:24239784
McBain, Ryan; Norton, Dan; Chen, Yue
Females are generally better than males at recognizing facial emotions. However, it is not entirely clear whether and in what way females may also excel at non-affective face recognition. Here, we tested males and females on two perceptual face recognition tasks that involved only neutral expressions: detection and identity discrimination. On face detection (Experiment 1), females were significantly more accurate than males in detecting upright faces. This gender difference was reduced during inverted face detection, and not present during tree detection, suggesting that the magnitude of the gender difference for performance co-varies with the extent to which face processing mechanisms are involved. On facial identity discrimination (Experiment 2), females again outperformed males, particularly when face images were masked by visual noise, or the delay between comparison face images was extended from 0.5 to 3s. These results reveal a female advantage in processing face-specific information and underscore the role of perceptual factors in socially relevant gender differences.
Whitsett, J.M.; Miller, L.L.
Female deer mice were exposed to a short day photoperiod beginning during 1 of 3 stages of life. In the first experiment, exposure to SD during adulthood resulted in a minimal disruption of reproductive condition; many females bore 2 litters after the onset of this treatment. In the second experiment, females reared on SD from weaning matured normally, as measured by vaginal introitus; however, vaginal closure occurred in approximately one-half of these females by 9 weeks of age. In the third experiment, females were born of mothers housed on either an SD or a long day photoperiod, and were continued on the maternal photoperiod until 6 weeks of postnatal age. The SD photoperiod markedly inhibited reproductive maturation as measured by vaginal patency, ovarian weight, and uterine weight. A comparison of reproductive organ weights and vaginal condition provided evidence for the validity of the latter measure as an index of reproductive state. As assayed by the present testing procedure, the sensitivity of the reproductive system to photoperiod decreases as a function of age in female deer mice.
Lester, Jaime; Bers, Trudy
Community colleges are generally more inclusive to female faculty as compared to four-year institutions. Women represent 49 percent of fulltime and 50 percent of part-time community college faculty, a stark contrast to the low numbers of female faculty in four-year institutions. Female faculty at community colleges also receive similar rates of…
Matsumoto-Oda, Akiko; Ihara, Yasuo
Estrous cycle asynchrony likely functions to elevate individual females' sexual attractiveness during female mate choice. Female chimpanzees show physiological estrus as anogenital swelling. Copulations are concentrated during the period of maximal tumescence, which is called the estrous period. A group of female chimpanzees in Mahale Mountains National Park, Tanzania, was shown to display asynchrony in both maximal tumescence and periovulatory periods. We tested the hypothesis that females establish asynchronous maximal tumescence or periovulatory periods with respect to other females to increase copulation frequency and birth opportunities (Hypothesis 1). We analyzed differences in birth rates between four asynchronous years and five nonasynchronous years. Counter to Hypothesis 1, females in periovulatory periods during asynchronous years showed significantly lower birth rates than those in nonasynchronous years. In addition, periovulatory females copulated more frequently on days on which no other female in a periovulatory period was present. These results suggest that birth rates tend to decrease when females experience nonoverlapping ovulation cycles, although copulation frequency is high. Such a decrease in the birth rate may have resulted from the cost associated with multiple copulations. We tested two other hypotheses: paternity confusion (Hypothesis 2) and sperm competition (Hypothesis 3). Both of these hypotheses were partially supported. The highest-ranking male most effectively monopolized access to receptive females when relatively few other males and receptive females from the party (or subgroup) were present. The viability of Hypotheses 2 and 3 requires that dominant males are able to hinder a female from mating with other males. Given that the male-biased operational sex ratio created by female asynchrony is likely to reduce the efficiency of mate guarding by dominant males, an asynchronous female may gain a fitness benefit by increasing the
Buster, John E
Female sexual dysfunctions (FSDs) range from short-term aggravations to major emotional disturbances adversely affecting family and workplace. This review highlights diagnosis and management of the four most widely diagnosed FSDs. It initially focuses on hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) as a driving force at the heart of all other FSDs; nothing happens without sexual desire. Successful resolution of HSDD frequently facilitates resolution of other disorders. Central to understanding HSDD is the impact of aging female sexual endocrinology and its effect on both prevalence and expression patterns of FSD. Advances in this field have enabled introduction of some the most effective treatments yet described for HSDD. Sexual arousal disorder, though commonly affected by the same factors as HSDD, is heavily associated with psychotropic drugs and mood elevators. Orgasmic disorder is frequently the downstream result of other sexual dysfunctions, particularly HSDD, or the result of a major psychosexual trauma. Successful management of the underlying disorder often resolves orgasmic disorder. Sexual pain disorder is frequently the result of a gynecologic disorder, such as endometriosis, that can be substantially managed through successful treatment of that disorder. This article ends with the article's most important note: how to initiate the conversation.
Hurvitz, Michal; Weiss, Ram
Participation of adolescents and young women in strenuous sports activity may lead to various metabolic and psychological derangements of clinical relevance to the endocrinologist. The most common manifestations encountered in practice are primary and secondary amenorrhea, reduced bone mineral density and eating disorders. The occurrence of all three together has been named "the athletic triad". The underlying hormonal drivers that lead to some of these manifestations are the reduced leptin level as well as the persistent low grade stress response commonly observed in such females. "Exercise-related female reproductive dysfunction" (ERFRD), can possibly include short-term (infertility) and long-term (osteoporosis) consequences. Functional hypothalamic amenorrhea, a manifestation of ERFRD in adolescence, is an integrated response to the combination of excessive physical and emotional stress, exercise, and/or reduced food intake characterized by decreased endogenous GNRH secretion. The primary aim of treating these athletes should be the prevention of the development of any component of the triad as well as the whole complex by educating athletes, trainers, parents and health care professionals about proper nutrition and safe training. The long term prognosis is good. However, significant long term morbidity may affect these young women later in life.
Levy, Lauren L; Emer, Jason J
Hair loss is a commonly encountered problem in clinical practice, with men presenting with a distinctive pattern involving hairline recession and vertex balding (Norwood-Hamilton classification) and women exhibiting diffuse hair thinning over the crown (increased part width) and sparing of the frontal hairline (Ludwig classification). Female pattern hair loss has a strikingly overwhelming psychological effect; thus, successful treatments are necessary. Difficulty lies in successful treatment interventions, as only two medications – minoxidil and finasteride – are approved for the treatment of androgenetic alopecia, and these medications offer mediocre results, lack of a permanent cure, and potential complications. Hair transplantation is the only current successful permanent option, and it requires surgical procedures. Several other medical options, such as antiandrogens (eg, spironolactone, oral contraceptives, cyproterone, flutamide, dutasteride), prostaglandin analogs (eg, bimatoprost, latanoprost), and ketoconazole are reported to be beneficial. Laser and light therapies have also become popular despite the lack of a profound benefit. Management of expectations is crucial, and the aim of therapy, given the current therapeutic options, is to slow or stop disease progression with contentment despite patient expectations of permanent hair regrowth. This article reviews current perspectives on therapeutic options for female pattern hair loss. PMID:24039457
Franklin, Karl A; Sahlin, Carin; Stenlund, Hans; Lindberg, Eva
Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is primarily regarded as a male disorder, presenting with snoring, daytime sleepiness and cardiovascular disease. We aimed to determine the frequency of sleep apnoea among females in the general population. We investigated 400 females from a population-based random sample of 10,000 females aged 20-70 yrs. They answered a questionnaire and performed overnight polysomnography. OSA (apnoea/hypopnoea index (AHI) ≥5) was found in 50% (95% CI 45-55%) of females aged 20-70 yrs. Sleep apnoea was related to age, obesity and hypertension, but not to daytime sleepiness. Severe sleep apnoea (AHI ≥30) was present in 14% (95% CI 8.1-21%) of females aged 55-70 yrs and in 31% (95% CI 12-50%) of obese females with a body mass index of ≥30 kg·m(-2) aged 55-70 yrs. Sleep apnoea with daytime sleepiness and sleep apnoea with hypertension were observed as two different phenotypes of OSA. OSA occurs in 50% of females aged 20-70 yrs. 20% of females have moderate and 6% severe sleep apnoea. Sleep apnoea in females is related to age, obesity and hypertension, but not to daytime sleepiness. When searching for sleep apnoea in females, females with hypertension or obesity should be investigated.
The gender gap of women in science is an important and unresolved issue in higher education and occupational opportunities. The present study was motivated by the fact that there are typically fewer females than males advancing in science, and therefore fewer female science instructor role models. This observation inspired the questions: Are female college students influenced in a positive way by female science teaching assistants (TAs), and if so how can their influence be measured? The study tested the hypothesis that female TAs act as role models for female students and thereby encourage interest and increase overall performance. To test this "role model" hypothesis, the reasoning ability and self-efficacy of a sample of 724 introductory college biology students were assessed at the beginning and end of the Spring 2010 semester. Achievement was measured by exams and course work. Performance of four randomly formed groups was compared: 1) female students with female TAs, 2) male students with female TAs, 3) female students with male TAs, and 4) male students with male TAs. Based on the role model hypothesis, female students with female TAs were predicted to perform better than female students with male TAs. However, group comparisons revealed similar performances across all four groups in achievement, reasoning ability and self-efficacy. The slight differences found between the four groups in student exam and coursework scores were not statistically significant. Therefore, the results did not support the role model hypothesis. Given that both lecture professors in the present study were males, and given that professors typically have more teaching experience, finer skills and knowledge of subject matter than do TAs, a future study that includes both female science professors and female TAs, may be more likely to find support for the hypothesis.
Bitzer, Johannes; Alder, Judith
Sexual medicine has become an integrated part of womens' health care. Physicians need therefore communication skills to talk about sexuality with their female patients and a knowledge about models of human sexuality, about classification systems, and diagnostic and therapeutic concepts and processes. The diagnostic reaches from a clear description of the sexual problem to an exploration of the conditioning factors. These can be differentiated into biological factors, intraindividual and interpersonal psychological factors and sociocultural factors. These factors can become effective as predisposing, precipitating and maintaining factors. The therapeutic process is based on several steps. The basic step consists in psychoeducation and basic counselling. Therapy usually includes the combination of pharmacologic intervention (hormones, PDE5) and specific psychotherapeutic techniques (sensate focus, cognitive techniques, couple counselling).
Talmor, Alon; Dunphy, Bruce
Infertility affects one in seven couples, and its rate is on the increase. Ovulatory defects and unexplained causes account for >50% of infertile aetiologies. It is postulated that a significant proportion of these cases are either directly or indirectly related to obesity. The prevalence of overweight and obese men and women has topped 50% in some developed countries. Obesity is on the increase worldwide; in turn, the consequences in terms of the associated morbidity and mortality have also been increasing. Obesity is associated with various reproductive sequelae including anovulation, subfertility and infertility, increased risk of miscarriage and poor neonatal and maternal pregnancy outcomes. Thus, the combination of infertility and obesity poses some very real challenges in terms of both the short- and long-term management of these patients. The mechanism with which obesity impacts female reproductive function is summarised in this review.
Beier, K M
Unlike the intrapsychic mechanism for self-esteem regulation in males as a basic component of perversion--extrapsychically (compensationally) culminating in an output of sexual impulses--a functional stabilization of the female self-concept seems more likely if conflict drives were to be focused on reproductional aspects and not on sexuality. It therefore seems more suitable to use a new expression in linguistic analogy to perversion: "reproversion." The case history gives an example of a clinical manifestation of "reproverse" symptom formation. The general survey describes the main points of view in regard to clinically oriented differentiation, i.e., intensity, ego-proximity in the personality structure, and one's own self-acceptance within "reproverse" symptom formation. Underlying personality disturbances are also discussed. The significance of reproversion is relevant to many different specialized medical fields. This is explained in conclusion, using the examples of denied pregnancy and infanticide at birth based on initial empirical results.
Brown, Janine L
Many felid species are endangered because of destructive human activities. As a result, zoos are being tasked with sustaining genetically healthy populations in case of catastrophic extinctions. Unfortunately, with the exception of a few species, most felids do not reproduce well in captivity. The ability to track reproductive activity via hormones is key to developing successful ex situ breeding programs. Through the development of noninvasive fecal hormone monitoring techniques, a high degree of variability in estrous cycle characteristics has been found to exist across the taxon, including the type of ovulation. For example, although all felids have induced ovulations, the occurrence of spontaneous ovulations varies across species, and even between individuals within a species. Clouded leopards, fishing cats and margays frequently have spontaneous ovulations, whereas these are rarely observed in the cheetah, tigrina and ocelot. There are marked species differences in the impact of season on reproductive function, with some being exquisitely sensitive to photoperiod (e.g., Pallas' cat), some moderately affected (tiger, clouded leopard, snow leopard), and others that are not influenced at all (e.g., ocelot, tigrina, margay, lion, leopard, fishing cat). One of the greatest challenges remaining is overcoming the problems associated with highly variable ovarian responses to ovulation induction therapies used with assisted reproductive procedures, like artificial insemination (AI). Success is relatively high in the cheetah and ocelot, but few pregnancies have resulted after AI in clouded leopard, fishing cat and tiger. Current knowledge of the reproductive physiology of nondomestic felids, including aspects of the anatomy, behavior and ovarian cycles will be presented, and how the rapidly growing endocrine database is aiding ex situ management efforts.
Wu, Zhongke; Goh, Shuang R.; Kluenkaew, Orapan; Tang, Ming L.; Prakash, Edmond C.
In this paper we present a new approach for apparel modeling based on voxel specifications that characterize control vertices and patch specifications. Our specification language is geared for robust apparel modeling by enforcing a strict control vertex coding via a combination of a static cross sectional slice and dynamic control polyhedron checking. Unlike most previous approach for apparel are not hard coded into the system. Instead we simply add suitable type definitions to the specification and define patterns to these types. We compile these specifications into a high performance volumetric apparel design system. Important components of our approach include efficient algorithms, for extraction of control vertices form slices of the volume and transformation of these vertices on sequences of such slices. Our system has been tested with the visible female system and we show a couple of examples generated using our approach.
Mertl-Millhollen, Anne S
Because ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta) are a female-dominant, female-philopatric species in which the females provide the majority of parental care and troop defense, resource defense is a possible function of female lemur scent marking. To test this hypothesis, I conducted three studies. First, I presented captive, individually housed females with a series of samples of female scent, each from a different female, to determine whether they would respond to those samples and discriminate between them. Second, I reanalyzed data from a focal animal study of four females in two adjacent troops in Berenty Reserve, Madagascar, to determine female marking rates before, during, and after the mating season, and to clarify the relationship among positions of feeding, intertroop defense, and scent marking. The third study was based on ad libitum observations of the sniffing and marking behavior of a troop in Berenty Reserve during a year when they traveled far out of their home range. The females in study 1 investigated female scent samples but provided no evidence that they discriminated between them. In study 2 the wild females marked throughout the study and did not limit their marking to the mating season. They deposited significantly more of their marks in a zone of confrontation with adjacent troops, where they also did the majority of their feeding, and they increased their rate of marking during agonistic intertroop confrontations. The females determined the positions of their scent marks and deposited the first mark in the majority of countermarking sequences. When the females traveled out of their defended range in study 3, they significantly decreased their rate of marking and increased their rate of sniffing spots but not marking them. All evidence gathered so far supports the hypothesis that one function of female ring-tailed lemur scent marking is to provide intergroup information that is then used to reinforce the border of the defended resource.
Osifo, Osarumwense D; Amusan, Taiwo I
Congenital aberrations of female children's external genitalia are common worldwide with varied mode of presentation especially in regions with poor awareness. This prospective experience between July 2004 and June 2008 at two Nigerian healthcare facilities is on the mode of presentation and challenges of management of female children with ambiguous genitalia. Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) 19 (47.5%), female pseudohermaphroditism 20 (50%) and vaginal atresia 1 (2.5%) manifested as aberrations of external genitalia of 40 female children who presented between the ages of 3 months and 16 years (average 9 years). Cultural influence, lack of awareness, inadequate examination of external genitalia at birth and lack of diagnostic facilities resulted in late presentation and diagnosis with all the cases of CAH and pseudohermaphroditism raised as males. Five cases who developed female secondary sexual characteristics at puberty attempted suicide before presentation. Gender reassignment and feminizing genitoplasty were major challenges, but outcomes were encouraging.
Oohashi, Eiji; Yamada, Kazutaka; Oohashi, Mirai; Ueda, Junji
Feline chronic progressive polyarthritis is a rare immune-mediated disease that has only previously been reported in male cats. A one-year-old female cat was presented with anorexia, lassitude and lameness. The tarsal, carpal and elbow joints revealed swelling, pain, stiffness, crepitus and regional lymphadenopathy, and fever was present. The cat was clinically diagnosed with chronic progressive polyarthritis based on the fever, swelling of joints, imaging of erosive proliferative periosteal polyarthritis, positivity for antinuclear antibody, synovial fluid analyses and urinalyses. Both feline leukemia virus antigen and feline immunodeficiency virus antibody were positive. Using hair root DNA, polymerase chain reaction amplification targeting the sex-determining region on the Y chromosome gene amplified the fragment of DNA from a normal male cat, but not amplified from a normal female cat or the present cat. Accordingly, the present cat was classified as genetically female. Cyclosporine treatment was started, and the general condition and movement quickly improved and continued for 8 months post-diagnosis. This is the first report of chronic progressive polyarthritis in a female cat.
Canavan, Margaret M.; And Others
Calls occurrence of sibling incest underrecognized. Presents four cases of females who experienced sibling incest to illustrate problem areas, including issues of enforced secrecy, interpersonal power differentials, influences on sexual development, individual after effects, disturbances in family dynamics, and gender-based differences in…
Watson, Nicola L; Simmons, Leigh W
Secondary sexual traits in females are a relatively rare phenomenon. Empirical studies have focused on the role of male mate choice in their evolution; however, recently it has been suggested that secondary sexual traits in females are more likely to be under selection via reproductive competition. We investigated female competition and the influence of female phenotype on fitness in Onthophagus sagittarius, a species of dung beetle that exhibits female-specific horns. We compared reproductive fitness when females were breeding in competition versus breeding alone and found that competition for breeding resources reduced fitness for all females, but that smaller individuals suffered a greater fitness reduction than larger individuals. When females were matched for body size, those with the longest horns gained higher reproductive fitness. The fitness function was positive and linear, favouring increased horn expression. Thus, we present evidence that female body size and horn size in O. sagittarius are under directional selection via competition for reproductive resources. Our study is a rare example of female contest competition selecting for female weaponry.
Evans, Jonathan P.
In many species, mating with multiple males confers benefits to females, but these benefits may be offset by the direct and indirect costs associated with elevated mating frequency. Although mating frequency (number of mating events) is often positively associated with the degree of multiple mating (actual number of males mated), most studies have experimentally separated these effects when exploring their implications for female fitness. In this paper I describe an alternative approach using the guppy Poecilia reticulata, a livebearing freshwater fish in which females benefit directly and indirectly from mating with multiple males via consensual matings but incur direct and indirect costs of mating as a consequence of male sexual harassment. In the present study, females were experimentally assigned different numbers of mates throughout their lives in order to explore how elevated mating frequency and multiple mating combine to influence lifetime reproductive success (LRS) and survival (i.e. direct components of female fitness). Under this mating design, survival and LRS were not significantly affected by mating treatment, but there was a significant interaction between brood size and reproductive cycle (a correlate of female age) because females assigned to the high mating treatment produced significantly fewer offspring later in life compared to their low-mating counterparts. This negative effect of mating treatment later in life may be important in these relatively long-lived fishes, and this effect may be further exacerbated by the known cross-generational fitness costs of sexual harassment in guppies. PMID:23071816
The cellular and molecular characteristics of female germ cells have primarily been studied in the mammalian ovary. In most female mammals, all primordial germ cells (PGCs) develop into oocytes early during ovary formation, and germline stem cells are few in number or absent in postnatal ovaries (Lei L, Spradling AC. Female mice lack adult germ-line stem cells but sustain oogenesis using stable primordial follicles. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2013, 110:8585-8590). Research efforts in the field have largely focused on meiosis and follicular development, but a fundamental question regarding establishment of femaleness, which is very important to understand the 'female' germline, has not been discussed sufficiently. Recent work has revealed the presence of germline stem cells in the vertebrate ovary, using the teleost fish, medaka (Oryzias latipes) (Nakamura S, Kobayashi K, Nishimura T, Higashijima S, Tanaka, M. Identification of germline stem cells in the ovary of teleost medaka. Science 2010, 328:1561-1563). This discovery allows direct comparison between female and male germline stem cells and raises an interesting and heretofore unaddressed issue regarding femaleness of germline stem cells. In this article, the germ cell behavior in the ovaries of different species is reviewed and compared, the molecular mechanisms underlying the generation of female germ cells are discussed, and the relationship between female germ cells and the surrounding somatic cells is examined.
Eckman, Ellen Wexler; Kelber, Sheryl Talcott
This paper presents a secondary analysis of survey data focusing on role conflict and job satisfaction of 102 female principals. Data were collected from 51 female traditional principals and 51 female co-principals. By examining the traditional and co-principal leadership models as experienced by female principals, this paper addresses the impact…
Dendas, W.; Cappelle, L.; Verguts, J.; Orye, G.
Metastases to the female genital tract are rare, with metastatic disease restricted to the uterus being even less frequent. The primary tumor is most often intragenital rather than extragenital. The diagnosis is usually made after occurrence of gynecological symptoms. We describe the case of a 26-year-old female, in whom a curettage for menorrhagia revealed a uterine malignancy, at first thought to be a carcinosarcoma. Biochemistry only showed iron deficiency anemia. Imaging showed discrepant results with liver lesions, suspect of neoplastic or inflammatory disease. She underwent an abdominal hysterectomy and, peroperatively, a frozen section of a mass in the liver hilus demonstrated a cholangiocarcinoma. The diagnosis of a uterine metastasized cholangiocarcinoma was made. We emphasize the fact that uterine metastases have to be excluded in every woman with abnormal uterine bleeding and a personal history of malignancy. However, our case also indicates that gynecological metastatic disease may be the first presentation of an extragenital primary neoplasm. PMID:25610676
Kheireddin, A S; Lubnin, A Yu; Kaftanov, A N; Akhvlediani, K N; Belousova, O B; Dmitriev, A V; Kuchina, O B
Hemorrhages from arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) in pregnant females are rare, but they are known to lead to high maternal and infant mortality. There are no standards for AVM treatment in pregnant females. Many authors believe that AVM resection before delivery improves the prognosis for life and health of the mother and fetus. In this paper, we present a case of successful surgical treatment of a female patient with AVM hemorrhage at 20 weeks and address management issues of these patients.
Weidemann, Frank; Niemann, Markus; Sommer, Claudia; Beer, Meinrad; Breunig, Frank; Wanner, Christoph
Fabry's disease is a rare genetic storage disorder leading to an accumulation of globotriaosylceramides in the lysosomes of various organs. Being X-chromosomal-linked, most studies in the past focused on involvement in male patients. However, it has been elucidated recently that female patients can present typical organ involvement and, thus, have to be treated respectively. This synopsis wants to systematically review the typical organ involvement in female Fabry patients. Moreover, therapy recommendations especially for female patients are discussed.
Harding, Kaitlyn M.; Lonstein, Joseph S.
Placentophagia is common in parturient mammals and offers physiological and behavioral advantages for mothers. In natural environments, weanlings are often present during the birth of younger siblings, but it is unknown if weanling rats are placentophagic or prefer placenta over other substances. To examine this, primiparous rats were remated during the postpartum estrus and weanling females remained in the nest during their mother’s next parturition. Continuous observation revealed that 58% of weanlings were placentophagic. To determine if this placentophagia occurs away from parturient mothers, weanling females still living in their natal nest were offered placenta, liver, or cake frosting in a novel chamber. They ingested more placenta and liver than frosting. Thus, many weanling female laboratory rats are placentophagic during birth of younger siblings but do not selectively prefer placenta when tested outside their natal nest. Consequences of placentophagia by weanlings are unknown, but it may promote their alloparenting or postpartum mothering. PMID:24604548
Krusinskiene, Viktorija; Krusinskie, Viktorija; Alvesalo, Lassi; Sidlauskas, Antanas
A study of the craniofacial complex in four 47, XXX Finnish females, or females with an extra X chromosome, was carried out using cephalometric analysis comprising linear and angular measurements. The lengths of the anterior and posterior cranial bases, the calvarium, mandibular ramus and posterior and upper anterior face heights were found to be significantly shorter than in female controls, while the angles between the foraminal and clival planes, the mandibular plane and cranial base, the maxillary and occlusal planes, the maxillary and mandibular planes and the foraminal and mandibular planes, and also the gonial angle, were significantly enlarged. The present findings of reduced linear measurements, together with the results of studies on the craniofacial complex of 47, XXY and 47, XYY males, suggest dimensional variation between these groups from the promoting effect of an extra Y chromosome and the retarding effect of an extra X chromosome on craniofacial growth.
Tamura, Hiroshi; Takasaki, Akihisa; Taketani, Toshiaki; Tanabe, Manabu; Lee, Lifa; Tamura, Isao; Maekawa, Ryo; Aasada, Hiromi; Yamagata, Yoshiaki; Sugino, Norihiro
Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) is secreted during the dark hours at night by the pineal gland. After entering the circulation, melatonin acts as an endocrine factor and a chemical messenger of light and darkness. It regulates a variety of important central and peripheral actions related to circadian rhythms and reproduction. It also affects the brain, immune, gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, renal, bone and endocrine functions and acts as an oncostatic and anti-aging molecule. Many of melatonin's actions are mediated through interactions with specific membrane-bound receptors expressed not only in the central nervous system, but also in peripheral tissues. Melatonin also acts through non-receptor-mediated mechanisms, for example serving as a scavenger for reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species. At both physiological and pharmacological concentrations, melatonin attenuates and counteracts oxidative stress and regulates cellular metabolism. Growing scientific evidence of reproductive physiology supports the role of melatonin in human reproduction. This review was conducted to investigate the effects of melatonin on female reproduction and to summarize our findings in this field.
Maheshwari, Anshul; Tiwari, Siddhi; Mathur, Deepak K; Bhargava, Puneet
Lupus vulgaris is the most common presentation of cutaneous tuberculosis in India and can present as papular, nodular, plaque, ulcerative, vegetating, and tumid forms. Unusual variants include the frambesiform, gangrenous, ulcerovegetating, lichen simplex chronicus, myxomatous, and sporotrichoid types. We describe a rare sporotrichoid presentation of lupus vulgaris on the leg of a 28-year-old female of 12 years duration.
ARMY TRAINING, *APPRENTICESHIP, * FEMALES , MILITARY TRAINING, MALES, AUSTRALIA, STRESS(PSYCHOLOGY), ATTITUDES(PSYCHOLOGY), ROLES(BEHAVIOR), ASSIMILATION, SCIENTIFIC LITERATURE, COMMERCE, INSTRUCTORS, WORK
Van Borsel, John; De Maesschalck, Dorothy
For clinicians treating transsexual clients it is important to address primarily those characteristics whose modification is most relevant to the creation of the desired gender presentation. The present study investigated the extent to which a modification of speech rate is warranted in male-to-female transsexuals. Comparison of speech rate…
Introduction Urachal diseases are rare and may develop from a congenital anomaly in which a persistent or partial reopening of the fetal communication between the bladder and the umbilicus persists. The most frequently reported urachal anomalies in adults are infected urachal cyst and urachal carcinoma. The diagnosis of this entity is not always easy because of the rarity of these diseases and the atypical symptoms at presentation. Imaging techniques, such as ultrasonography and computed tomography have a significant role in recognizing the presence of urachus-derived lesions. Cases presentations Case presentation 1: A 25-year-old Arab-Berber man presented with a 10-day history of progressive lower abdominal pain accompanied by fever, vomiting, and low urinary tract symptoms to our emergency department. Laboratory data revealed leucocytosis. The diagnosis of an acute peritonitis was made initially. Abdominal ultrasonography revealed a hypoechoic tract from the umbilicus to the abdominal wall, and the diagnosis was rectified (infected urachal remnants). The patient was initially treated with intravenous antibiotics in combination with a percutaneous drainage. Afterwards an extraperitoneal excision of the urachal remnant including a cuff of bladder was performed. The histological analysis did not reveal a tumor of the urachal remnant. Follow-up examinations a few months later showed no abnormality. Case presentation 2: A 35-year-old Arab-Berber man, without prior medical history with one week of abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting, associated with fever but without lower urinary tract symptoms visited our emergency department. Laboratory data revealed leucocytosis. Abdominal ultrasonography was not conclusive. Computed tomography of the abdomen was the key to the investigation and the diagnosis of an abscess of urachal remnants was made. The patient underwent the same choice of medical-surgical treatment as previously described for case one, with a good follow
Laframboise, Michelle A.; Borody, Cameron; Stern, Paula
Objective: To illustrate the varying presentations of the female athlete triad and to inform the practitioner of the potential sequelae of this common condition. Clinical Features: Four patients presented with a variety of signs and symptoms of the female athlete triad including low caloric intake, osteoporosis, amenorrhea and/or endothelial dysfunction. Intervention and Outcome: A conservative treatment approach was utilized in each case including education on the female athlete triad, education on increased caloric intake and a referral to the family physician. Conclusion: Health care practitioners should be aware of the different clinical presentations of the female athlete triad. A narrative review of the literature is provided to educate practitioners on the components of the female athlete triad, proper diagnosis and appropriate management. PMID:24302779
Gibbs, Jewelle Taylor
Although research has provided evidence to document a relation between parental psychopathology and female delinquency, the dimensions of that relationship are unclear. Adjudicated delinquent females (N=48) completed a general social history interview and three psychological instruments. Probation records were used to analyze subjects' delinquent…
Discussed are several myths and stereotypes about female physiology. Also included are new technical advances concerning the female reproduction physiology, new techniques in hormone measurement, hypotholomic-pituitary-ovarian axis, hormones and the monthly cycles, dysmenorrhea, menopause, infertility, and future areas for investigation about the…
Dutton, Donald G.; Nicholls, Tonia L.; Spidel, Alicia
A review is made of female intimate abuse. It is concluded that females are as abusive as males in intimate relationships according to survey and epidemiological studies. This is especially so for younger "cohort" community samples followed longitudinally. Predictors of intimate violence with women appear to be similar to those of men; including…
The purpose of this study was to investigate, through narrative inquiry (Clandinin & Connelly, 2000), the leadership evolution of five female superintendents in California with longevity of 5 or more years in their current school district positions. The research question addressed was, "How do California female superintendents evolve to…
Earle, Janice; Roach, Virginia
Early socialization, cognitive differences, treatment by teachers, and curricular choices have a negative effect on both the self-esteem and academic achievement of young females. Program designers and policymakers should incorporate the following approaches into female dropout prevention programs: (1) academic encouragement; (2) counseling to…
Dakin, Roslyn; Montgomerie, Robert
Theory holds that dishonest signaling can be stable if it is rare. We report here that some peacocks perform specialized copulation calls (hoots) when females are not present and the peacocks are clearly not attempting to copulate. Because these solo hoots are almost always given out of view of females, they may be dishonest signals of male mating attempts. These dishonest calls are surprisingly common, making up about a third of all hoot calls in our study populations. Females are more likely to visit males after they give a solo hoot call, and we confirm using a playback experiment that females are attracted to the sound of the hoot. Our findings suggest that both sexes use the hoot call tactically: females to locate potential mates and males to attract female visitors. We suggest that the solo hoot may be a deceptive signal that is acquired and maintained through reward-based learning.
Roberts, Jane; Mazzocco, Michele M. M.; Murphy, Melissa M.; Hoehn-Saric, Rudolf
The present study was carried out to examine physiological arousal modulation (heart activity and skin conductance), across baseline and cognitive tasks, in females with fragile X or Turner syndrome and a comparison group of females with neither syndrome. Relative to the comparison group, for whom a greater increase in skin conductance was…
Zacharias, Stephanie R. C.; Kelchner, Lisa N.; Creaghead, Nancy
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore teachers' attitudes toward, and perceptions of personality traits of, female adolescents who presented with voice disorders. Method: For this comparative study consisting of a 25-item web-based semantic differential survey, teachers rated voice recordings of 4 female adolescents (considered…
Mitts, Charles R.; Haynie, W. J., III
Arguably a major issue facing technology education (TE) since its inception has been its failure to attract and keep female students. This article explains one primary reason female students may be avoiding TE courses, presents a research-tested set of tools that TE teachers can use to help fix the problem, and offers a new realizable pathway…
Polo, Pablo; Colmenares, Fernando
The formation of bonds between strangers is an event that occurs routinely in many social animals, including humans, and, as social bonds in general, they affect the individuals' welfare and biological fitness. The present study was motivated by an interest in the behavioural processes that drive bond formation in a social context of hostility, in which the incumbent partners vary greatly in physical power and reproductive interests, a situation in which individuals of many group-living species find themselves often throughout their lives. We focused on the quantitative analysis of female abductions via male aggressive herding in a nonhuman primate, the hamadryas baboon, in which intersexual bonds are known to be strong. We tested three hypotheses informed by sexual conflict/sexual coercion theory (male herding-as-conditioning and female grooming-as-appeasement) and by socioecological theory (unit size and female competition). The results supported the predictions: males resorted to coercive tactics (aggressive herding) with abducted females, and abducted females elevated the amount of grooming directed at their new unit males; in fact, they escaped from the otherwise negative effect of unit size on female-to-male grooming. These findings reveal that conflicts of interest are natural ingredients underpinning social bonds and that resorting to coercive aggression may be an option especially when partners differ greatly in their physical power.
Mishra, Vineet V.; Nanda, Sakshi; Vyas, Bhumika; Aggarwal, Rohina; Choudhary, Sumesh; Saini, Suwa Ram
Background: Female sexual dysfunction (FSD) is described as difficulty experienced by a female during any stage of a normal sexual activity including physical pleasure, desire, arousal, or orgasm. There are various factors responsible for FSD including psychological status of a person, gynecological or medical problems, long use of certain drugs, and social beliefs. Objectives: To study the prevalence and various factors associated with FSD. Materials and Methods: Study Design - This study design was a cross-sectional observational study conducted at Tertiary Care Centre, in Ahmedabad from June 2015 to March 2016. Sample Size - One hundred and fifty-three fertile females in reproductive age group (20–47 years) were included in the study. Written and informed consent was obtained from all the females. Methods - FSD was assessed with a detailed 19-item female sexual function index questionnaire. All six domains of sexual dysfunction, i.e., desire, arousal, lubrication, orgasm, satisfaction, and pain were studied. Various associated factors such as gynecological or psychological problems were also studied. Exclusion - Infertile patients were excluded from the study. Results: The prevalence of FSD was 55.55% among 153 fertile females. FSD was more prevalent in the age group of 26–30 years and with duration of marriage >16 years. FSD was also more common in females with middle education and those belonging to upper middle socioeconomic status. Psychological stress was significantly associated with FSD. Conclusion: It is right of every female to lead healthy sexual life as it is key to happiness in marriage. Females with FSD can be managed with proper counseling and treating the underlying etiology. PMID:28096637
Devi, Parvathi; Bhavle, Radhika; Aggarwal, Avanti; Walia, Cherry
Esthesioneuroblastoma, also called olfactory neuroblastoma, is a rare malignant tumor originating in the olfactory epithelium in the upper nasal cavity with intracranial extension and may also be associated with secondary sinus diseases. Esthesioneuroblastoma has been observed to cause death by distant metastasis or by invasion through the cribriform plate and secondary meningitis. It usually produces nasal obstruction, epistaxis and less commonly anosmia, headache and pain. We report a case of esthesioneuroblastoma in a 50-year-old female who reported with tooth pain as a presenting symptom.
Mota, Renato Lains
Urinary incontinence is a common problem among women and it is estimated that between 15 and 55% of them complain of lower urinary symptoms. The most prevalent form of urinary incontinence is associated with stress, followed by mixed urinary incontinence and urge urinary incontinence. It is a symptom with several effects on quality of life of women mainly in their social, familiar and sexual domains. Female reproductive and urinary systems share anatomical structures, which promotes that urinary problems interfere with sexual function in females. This article is a review of both the concepts of female urinary incontinence and its impact on global and sexual quality of life. Nowadays, it is assumed that urinary incontinence, especially urge urinary incontinence, promotes anxiety and several self-esteem damages in women. The odour and the fear of incontinence during sexual intercourse affect female sexual function and this is related with the unpredictability and the chronicity of incontinence, namely urge urinary incontinence. Female urinary incontinence management involves conservative (pelvic floor muscle training), surgical and pharmacological treatment. Both conservative and surgical treatments have been studied about its benefit in urinary incontinence and also the impact among female sexual function. Unfortunately, there are sparse articles that evaluate the benefits of female sexual function with drug management of incontinence.
Power, D J; Holman, L
Multiple mating by females (polyandry) requires an evolutionary explanation, because it carries fitness costs in many species. When mated females disperse alone to a new habitat, their offspring may have no option but to mate with their siblings and incur inbreeding depression. However, some of the offspring of polyandrous females may only be half siblings, reducing inbreeding depression when isolated groups of siblings only have each other as mates. We investigated this putative benefit of polyandry over monandry by initiating multiple genetically isolated populations of Callosobruchus maculatus beetles, each founded by a single female, who received a complete ejaculate from either one or two males. The early generations had comparable fitness, but the F4 and F5 descendants of doubly inseminated females were more numerous and had higher egg-to-adult survival than the descendants of singly inseminated females. This fitness benefit was of similar magnitude whether beetles were reared on their standard food plant, or on a less favourable food source. Our results suggest that polyandrous females produce fitter descendants in inbred founder populations and therefore that polyandry may affect movement ecology and invasion biology.
Mota, Renato Lains
ABSTRACT Urinary incontinence is a common problem among women and it is estimated that between 15 and 55% of them complain of lower urinary symptoms. The most prevalent form of urinary incontinence is associated with stress, followed by mixed urinary incontinence and urge urinary incontinence. It is a symptom with several effects on quality of life of women mainly in their social, familiar and sexual domains. Female reproductive and urinary systems share anatomical structures, which promotes that urinary problems interfere with sexual function in females. This article is a review of both the concepts of female urinary incontinence and its impact on global and sexual quality of life. Nowadays, it is assumed that urinary incontinence, especially urge urinary incontinence, promotes anxiety and several self-esteem damages in women. The odour and the fear of incontinence during sexual intercourse affect female sexual function and this is related with the unpredictability and the chronicity of incontinence, namely urge urinary incontinence. Female urinary incontinence management involves conservative (pelvic floor muscle training), surgical and pharmacological treatment. Both conservative and surgical treatments have been studied about its benefit in urinary incontinence and also the impact among female sexual function. Unfortunately, there are sparse articles that evaluate the benefits of female sexual function with drug management of incontinence. PMID:28124522
Firman, Renée C; Gasparini, Clelia; Manier, Mollie K; Pizzari, Tommaso
Cryptic female choice (CFC) represents postmating intersexual selection arising from female-driven mechanisms at or after mating that bias sperm use and impact male paternity share. Although biologists began to study CFC relatively late, largely spurred by Eberhard's book published 20 years ago, the field has grown rapidly since then. Here, we review empirical progress to show that numerous female processes offer potential for CFC, from mating through to fertilization, although seldom has CFC been clearly demonstrated. We then evaluate functional implications, and argue that, under some conditions, CFC might have repercussions for female fitness, sexual conflict, and intersexual coevolution, with ramifications for related evolutionary phenomena, such as speciation. We conclude by identifying directions for future research in this rapidly growing field.
Srivastava, Shruti; Bhatia, Manjeet Singh; Gautam, Priyanka
Normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) is caused by aqueductal stenosis resulting in syndrome of gait disturbance, cognitive impairment, and urinary incontinence. Late onset psychosis should be evaluated thoroughly to rule out any organic cause. We present the case of a female patient presenting with delusions, gait disturbances, urinary incontinence in her 50s. PMID:26257493
Ivković, Alan; Franić, Miljenko; Bojanić, Ivan; Pećina, Marko
The last three decades have witnessed a tremendous increase in female sports participation at all levels. However, increased sports participation of female athletes has also increased the incidence of sport-related injuries, which can be either acute trauma or overuse injuries. Overuse injuries may be defined as an imbalance caused by overly intensive training and inadequate recovery, which subsequently leads to a breakdown in tissue reparative mechanisms. This article will review the most frequent overuse injuries in female athletes in the context of anatomical, physiological, and psychological differences between genders.
The issue of female circumcision takes on special significance as more women migrate to the United States from countries where the practice has religious and traditional underpinnings. Female circumcision is a problem unfamiliar to most Western health care practitioners. This article describes an ethnographic study of the types of female circumcision, the reasons for and against the practice, the health implications of this practice, and cultural attitudes of circumcised women both in Western Africa and as migrant refugees living in the United States. Ethical dilemmas in dealing with this practice and implications for nurses and health care providers are discussed.
Senegal has joined Burkina Faso, the Central African Republic, Djibouti, Ghana, and Togo in outlawing female genital mutilation and assigning penalties of up to five years imprisonment to those who order or perform the procedure. Currently, 20% of Senegalese women have undergone female genital mutilation, and many girls are thought to have died as a result. UN agencies have made their opposition to female genital mutilation clear and have argued that women attempting to avoid the procedure should be granted asylum in other countries.
From the child conception to the early years of life, couples generally present less sexual activity. Parenthood constraints are a burden for the couple's relationships. Generally, persistent sexual difficulties six months after delivery, despite those generated by depression or altered health raise the question of an alteration in the quality of the couple's relationships and lack of satisfaction of the mother with her partner's involvement in family life. Numerous parameters can be implied, especially with persistent trouble of desire, such as fatigue, body image problems and libido lessening of the partner due to modifications of his status. Women who presented sexual difficulties before pregnancy remain the same. In all cases, appropriate information can avoid the intimacy's difficulties and contribute to maintain pleasure and intimacy even when vaginal penetration remains difficult.
Fernández-Samos, R; Zorita, A; Ortega, J M; Morán, C; Morán, O; Vázquez, J; Vaquero, F
The varicocele is a disease recognized and studied in the man. Dilatation of the ovarian veins and the pelvic varicosities secondaries to a varicocele in the woman is a rarely described disease but, if it were researched, it could be more frequent. Diverse syndromes of chronic abdominal pain in the woman with unrecognized etiology and associated with urologic and/or gynecologic symptomatology could be caused by this pathology, but the absence of a clinical description difficult the diagnosis of the most part of cases. The practice of gonadal selective venographies shows a high percentage of dilatation of the gonadal veins associated to a dilatation of the pelvic veins and of the lower limbs veins. The study of the anatomy of the gonadal veins shows diverse anomalies respect to the classical descriptions. Furthermore, the varicocele could be the cause of a high part of the "essential" varicosities presents during the pregnancy. We present a case that instead of being treated by Services of Urology or Gynecology, it was treated by the Vascular Surgery Service. So, the literature about the respect was reviewed. We think that, some entities, like the feminine varicocele, ovarian vein syndrome, pelvic congestion syndrome chronic pelvic pain, pelvic varicosities, vulvar varicosities and some "essential" pregnant varicosities at the lower limbs could be enclosed into the same clinical entity (with a common etiology, physiopathology, clinical presentation and treatment). It should be intending to unify criteria (etiologic, diagnostic and therapeutics criteria) by the different Specialized Unities in such type of pathology.
Fürtbauer, Ines; Mundry, Roger; Heistermann, Michael; Schülke, Oliver; Ostner, Julia
Extended female sexuality in species living in multimale-multifemale groups appears to enhance benefits from multiple males. Mating with many males, however, requires a low female monopolizability, which is affected by the spatiotemporal distribution of receptive females. Ovarian cycle synchrony potentially promotes overlapping receptivity if fertile and receptive periods are tightly linked. In primates, however, mating is often decoupled from hormonal control, hence reducing the need for synchronizing ovarian events. Here, we test the alternative hypothesis that females behaviorally coordinate their receptivity while simultaneously investigating ovarian cycle synchrony in wild, seasonal Assamese macaques (Macaca assamensis), a promiscuous species with extremely extended female sexuality. Using fecal hormone analysis to assess ovarian activity we show that fertile phases are randomly distributed, and that dyadic spatial proximity does not affect their distribution. We present evidence for mating synchrony, i.e., the occurrence of the females' receptivity was significantly associated with the proportion of other females mating on a given day. Our results suggest social facilitation of mating synchrony, which explains (i) the high number of simultaneously receptive females, and (ii) the low male mating skew in this species. Active mating synchronization may serve to enhance the benefits of extended female sexuality, and may proximately explain its patterning and maintenance. PMID:22022541
Egwuatu, V E; Agugua, N E
An analysis is made of 43 children and 15 adult female patients who presented with post-circumcision complications at the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu, between January 1973 and December 1980; 57 patients had been circumcised within 21 days of birth and one patient in the seventh month of her first pregnancy. Age of presentation varied with the severity of the symptoms: 21 children and 11 adults presented with varying degrees of labial occlusion, while 9 children and 4 adults had implantation dermoids. Urinary retention was the problem in 12 children and one adult.
Shaw, Dorothy; Lefebvre, Guylaine; Bouchard, Celine; Shapiro, Jodi; Blake, Jennifer; Allen, Lisa; Cassell, Krista; Leyland, Nicholas; Wolfman, Wendy; Allaire, Catherine; Awadalla, Alaa; Best, Carolyn; Dunn, Sheila; Heywood, Mark; Lemyre, Madeleine; Marcoux, Violaine; Menard, Chantal; Potestio, Frank; Rittenberg, David; Singh, Sukhbir; Shapiro, Jodi; Akhtar, Saima; Camire, Bruno; Christilaw, Jan; Corey, Julie; Nelson, Erin; Pierce, Marianne; Robertson, Deborah; Simmonds, Anne
Objectif : Fournir aux gynécologues canadiens des directives factuelles en matière de chirurgie esthétique génitale chez la femme, en réponse au nombre grandissant de demandes (et d’interventions) de chirurgie vaginale et vulvaire se situant bien au-delà des reconstructions traditionnellement indiquées sur le plan médical. Résultats : La littérature publiée a été récupérée par l’intermédiaire de recherches menées dans PubMed ou MEDLINE, CINAHL et The Cochrane Library en 2011 et en 2012 au moyen d’un vocabulaire contrôlé et de mots clés appropriés (« female genital cosmetic surgery »). Les résultats ont été restreints aux analyses systématiques, aux essais comparatifs randomisés / essais cliniques comparatifs et aux études observationnelles. Aucune restriction n’a été appliquée en matière de date ou de langue. Les recherches ont été mises à jour de façon régulière et intégrées à la directive clinique jusqu’en mai 2012. La littérature grise (non publiée) a été identifiée par l’intermédiaire de recherches menées dans les sites Web d’organismes s’intéressant à l’évaluation des technologies dans le domaine de la santé et d’organismes connexes, dans des collections de directives cliniques, dans des registres d’essais cliniques et auprès de sociétés de spécialité médicale nationales et internationales. Valeurs : La qualité des résultats est évaluée au moyen des critères décrits dans le rapport du Groupe d’étude canadien sur les soins de santé préventifs (Tableau). Recommandations 1. Un des rôles importants des obstétriciens-gynécologues devrait consister à aider les femmes à comprendre leur anatomie et à en respecter les variantes qui leur sont propres. (III-A) 2. Lorsqu’une femme demande la tenue d’interventions esthétiques vaginales, une anamnèse médicale, sexuelle et gynécologique exhaustive devrait être obtenue et l’absence de tout dysfonctionnement
van Hoof, Joost
The temperature in many office buildings is set according to a method from the 1960s. Consideration of the different metabolic rates of male and females is necessary to increase comfort and reduce energy consumption.
Katz, Phyllis A.
This article explores some of the major influences affecting the development of female sex-role identity and the psychological and social consequences of this deveopment during childhood and adolescence. (Author/EB)
Gupta, Sanjay; Tiwari, Rajesh; Kumar, Vijoy; Singh, Mahendra
Female urethral duplication is a rare congenital anomaly. We report a case of complete urethral duplication along with horseshoe kidney in a four-years-old female child presenting with incontinence since childhood. PMID:24578937
Moulton, S.R.; Robison, Henry W.; Crump, B.G.
The female of Lepidostoma lescheni is described and illustrated for the first time and a female allotype specimen designated. Several new collection records are presented to help clarify its distribution and endemism in the Interior Highlands of North America.
Perron, Liette; Senikas, Vyta; Burnett, Margaret; Davis, Victoria
Objectif : Renforcer le cadre national des soins offerts aux adolescentes et aux femmes affectées par l’excision génitale féminine (EGF) au Canada en fournissant aux professionnels de la santé : (1) des renseignements ayant pour but d’approfondir leur compréhension de cette pratique et leurs connaissances à ce sujet; (2) des consignes quant aux aspects légaux liés à cette pratique; (3) des directives cliniques pour la gestion des soins obstétricaux et gynécologiques, y compris la prise en charge des complications liées à l’EGF; et (4) des conseils quant à l’offre de soins compétents au plan culturel aux adolescentes et aux femmes ayant subi une EGF. Résultats : La littérature publiée a été récupérée par l’intermédiaire de recherches menées dans PubMed, CINAHL et The Cochrane Library en septembre 2010 au moyen d’un vocabulaire contrôlé (p. ex. « Circumcision », « Female ») et de mots clés (p. ex. « female genital mutilation », « clitoridectomy », « infibulation ») appropriés. Nous avons également mené des recherches dans Social Science Abstracts, Sociological Abstracts, Gender Studies Database et ProQuest Dissertations and Theses en 2010 et en 2011. Aucune restriction n’a été appliquée en matière de date ou de langue. Les recherches ont été mises à jour de façon régulière et intégrées à la directive clinique jusqu’en décembre 2011. La littérature grise (non publiée) a été identifiée par l’intermédiaire de recherches menées dans les sites Web d’organismes s’intéressant à l’évaluation des technologies dans le domaine de la santé et d’organismes connexes, dans des collections de directives cliniques, dans des registres d’essais cliniques et auprès de sociétés de spécialité médicale nationales et internationales. Valeurs : La qualité des résultats a été évaluée au moyen des critères décrits dans le rapport du Groupe d’étude canadien sur les soins
Bahbahani, Hussain; Aljenaee, Khaled; Bella, Abdelhaleem
Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is usually seen in the setting of atherosclerosis and its associated risk factors. Myocardial infarction in the young poses a particular challenge, as the disease is less likely, due to atherosclerosis. We report the case of a 37-year-old female patient who presented with ST segment elevation anterolateral AMI. The only abnormality on routine blood investigation was raised hemoglobin and hematocrit. After further testing, she was diagnosed according to the World Health Organization (WHO) criteria with polycythemia vera. This case illustrates the importance of recognizing polycythemia vera as an important cause of thrombosis, which can present initially as AMI, and to emphasize the early recognition of the disease in order to initiate appropriate management strategies. PMID:25544823
Lewis, Sarah F; Travea, Laura; Fremouw, William J
Although many researchers have explored the topic of dating violence, limited attention has been paid to female perpetrators. Very little research has examined variables that facilitate aggression for females in dating relationships. In an effort to investigate distinct types of violent behavior, the present study separated females who experience dating violence into three categories (bi-directional aggression, perpetrator-only, and victim-only) and compared them with a control group not previously exposed to interpersonal violence. The purpose of this study was to examine variables that discriminate violent females from non-violent females. Variables that were hypothesized to be associated with aggressive behavior and investigated in the current study were interparental aggression, self-esteem, love attitudes, and alcohol use. Three hundred female college students responded to multiple self-report questionnaires examining psychological correlates of dating violence. Females in the bi-directional aggression group were more likely to have witnessed their father abuse their mother and scored significantly lower on a measure of self-esteem than non-violent controls. Females in the control group demonstrated higher scores on a measure of mature and selfless love style than did the victim or perpetrator-only participants. There were no significant group differences regarding general alcohol consumption. Implications for prevention and intervention are presented and discussed.
Dolgener, Forrest A.
The author presents an equation for predicting maximum aerobic power in untrained females from values of percent body fat, weight, and submaximal values of heart rate, respiratory quotient, and expired gas. (MJB)
Yang, Grace S; Huesmann, L Rowell; Bushman, Brad J
Previous research has shown that violent video games can increase aggression in players immediately after they play. The present research examines the effects of one subtle cue within violent video games that might moderate these effects-whether the avatar is male or female. One common stereotype is that males are more aggressive than females. Thus, playing a violent video game as a male avatar, compared to a female avatar, should be more likely to prime aggressive thoughts and inclinations in players and lead to more aggressive behavior afterwards. Male and female university students (N = 242) were randomly assigned to play a violent video game as a male or female avatar. After gameplay, participants gave an ostensible partner who hated spicy food hot sauce to eat. The amount of hot sauce given was used to measure aggression. Consistent with priming theory, results showed that both male and female participants who played a violent game as a male avatar behaved more aggressively afterwards than those who played as female avatar. The priming effects of the male avatar were somewhat stronger for male participants than for female participants, suggesting that male participants identified more with the male avatar than did the female participants. These results are particularly noteworthy because they are consistent with another recent experiment showing that playing a violent game as an avatar with a different stereotypically aggressive attribute (black skin color) stimulates more aggression than playing as an avatar without the stereotypically aggressive attribute (Yang et al., 2014, Social Psychological and Personality Science).
Female midwife toads (genus Alytes) emit highly variable reciprocal calls of unclear function prior to and during courtship. In some species, female-female competition, expressed as physical fighting, has been reported. Males of Majorcan midwife toads (Alytes muletensis) show phonotactic response to female calls, and females of Iberian midwife toads (Alytes cisternasii) respond differently according to the male call characteristics. In this study, I test the hypothesis of female-female acoustic competition as an additional function of female reciprocal calls. Playback tests indicate that female calls are not clearly involved in female acoustic competition in the Iberian midwife toad, therefore female calls could be directed at males rather than towards competitive females.
What possesses someone to volunteer and go through hoops and red tape to make a presentation at a conference? For that matter, why does anyone ever present anything to anyone? Actually, presentations are a fact of life and there are many reasons for doing a presentation and doing it well. New and existing staff need training and orientation to the way things are done here. Handing all of them a manual and hoping they read it is pretty much a waste of paper. On the other hand, an effective, entertaining and upbeat presentation on the relevant topics is more likely to stick with those people. They will even have a name and face to remember and seek out when they have an issue on or with that topic. This can be a very effective beginning for networking with new peers. The presenter is seen as knowledgeable, as a source of information on company topics and possibly evaluated as a potential mentor or future manager. Project staff and/or peers benefit from clear, concise, presentations of topical knowledge. This is one way that a group working on various aspects of the same project or program can stay in touch and in step with each other. Most importantly, presentations may be the best or only door into the minds (and budgets) of management and customers. These presentations are a wonderful opportunity to address legal and compliance issues, budget, staffing, and services. Here is a chance, maybe the only one, to demonstrate and explain the wonderfulness of a program and the benefit they get by using the services offered most effectively. An interactive presentation on legal and compliance issues can be an effective tool in helping customers and/or management make good risk management decisions.
Sexual experiences, rather than being neutral, are specifically male or female. Yet at present no conceptual framework exists for representing female sexual desire. This has resulted in frequent misrepresentations of female sexual experience. To correct this, a labial framework is proposed, not to replace or oppose a phallic framework, but to exist alongside it. The lips of the mouth and those of the genitals provide a felicitous doubling of sexuality and speech to represent female desire and sexual pleasure as labial. Phallic and labial rhythms are organized differently in sexual arousal and desire, since, as Simone de Beauvoir put it, "Man 'gets stiff,' but woman 'gets wet.'" The labial framework therefore represents female psychosexuality more in terms of "wetware" than of "hardware."
Zhang, Fang; Zhao, Juan; Feng, Albert S
Anuran vocalization is sexually dimorphic, with males doing the bulk of vocalizing. Female vocalization is rare and has been observed in a handful of species, including the concave-eared torrent frog (Odorrana tormota). Females O. tormota have been reported to emit moderate-level calls to attract males. In contrast to males, female's vocal signals show no evidence of nonlinear phenomena (NLP). However, with females emitting calls so infrequently that this conclusion must be considered tentative in light of the limited supporting data. The present study was undertaken to test the hypotheses that their vocalizations: 1. may not be purely linear, 2. may contain individual signatures, similar to their male counterparts. We recorded 671 calls from six captive gravid females and found that their vocalizations are as complex as male calls, with numerous calls exhibiting complex upward/downward frequency modulations, and 39% of female calls containing at least one component of the NLP, i.e., subharmonics, deterministic chaos, frequency jump, or biphonation. Furthermore, females in captivity tend to call in bouts throughout the day and night, and the call rate varies hourly with a maximum of >10 calls per minute matching the maximum call rate in males. Similar to males, female vocalizations carry individual signatures, and all sound parameters analyzed differ significantly between individuals. This represents the first report ever showing that vocalizations of female anurans: 1. contain NLP, 2. carry individual signatures. Presence of signatures in both the male and female vocalizations opens up the possibility for males (and females) to distinguish individual frogs in both sexes acoustically, and thus their sound communication ability may be more advanced than previously thought.
Bullock, M I
With the growth in popularity of skydiving as a sport has come an associated increase in parachuting accidents, some of them due to failure to deploy the main or reserve parachutes. The absence of appropriate strength data has prompted a study of the pull force capabilities of female parachutists on a ripcord release in varying positions. Pull forces exerted for periods of 0.25, 1, 1.5, 2, and 2.5 s during a 5-s pull are presented in percentile form. A substantial percentage of female parachutists could not exert the maximum ripcord release pull force permitted by the relevant parachute specification. The relatively low level of strength exhibited by the weakest groups of the population emphasizes the need for such basic information in equipment design.
Kuhn, F. E.; Max, S. R.
The effects of chronic treatment with testosterone propionate (TP) on compensatory muscle hypertropy in female rats are examined. The 48 female rats were placed in one of four test groups: (1) no overload (synergist removal), no TP, (2) overload, no TP, (3) no overload + TP, and (4) overload + TP. The technique used to administer the TP is described. The preparation of the plantaris muscle, the analysis of pyruvate oxidation and the determination of malate and lactate dehydrogenases and the noncollogen protein are explained. The results which reveal the effect of overload and TP on body weight, noncollogen protein concentration, lactate and malate dehydrogenase activities, and pyruvate oxidation are presented and discussed. It is concluded that in terms of body weight, protein content, pyruvate, glycolysis, and oxidative metabolisms chronic TP treatments do not change compensatory muscle hypertropy.
Shahrokhi, Seyedeh Zahra; Ghaffari, Firouzeh; Kazerouni, Faranak
Vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin that belongs to the family of steroid hormones. The biological actions of vitamin D are exerted through a soluble protein, the vitamin D receptor (VDR). VDR is a transcription factor located in the nuclei of target cells that mediates the genomic action of the active form of vitamin D (1,25(OH)2D3). This transcription factor is distributed in various tissues, including the reproductive system. The presence of VDR in female reproductive tissue suggests that vitamin D is involved in female reproduction. The present article reviews the impact of vitamin D on anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH), as an ovarian reserve marker, and ovarian steroidogenesis. This article also discusses the impact of vitamin D as a factor that influences infertility and the outcome of in vitro fertilization (IVF), insulin resistance (IR), hyperandrogenism, endometriosis and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).
Imbimbo, C; Verze, P; Arcaniolo, D; Mirone, M
The transsexual is a person who suffers from a deep identity disturbance caused by physical characteristics which do not correspond to mental traits and tendencies. The persistent sense of contradiction between his or her deceptive sexual appearance and his or her inner perception, causes a strong desire to achieve harmonization of the two. This aspiration, even if modification of chromosomal sex is impossible, can be fulfilled by undergoing SRS (Sex Reassignment Surgery). SRS represents the last major step of a clinical, therapeutic and diagnostic program involving skilled professionals in the physical and psychological sciences. Their assistance and counseling helps the patient to calmly and consciously decide to undergo SRS. A surgeon has the obligation not only to validate the operation outcome, but to also to maintain a long-term follow-up. A transsexual is not just like any other person; he or she should therefore be treated with sympathy and understanding. The surgeon should try his best to establish a relationship of mutual trust, taking into account the causes of anxiety and stress felt by the patient, and keeping in mind the ultimate objective, which is an improvement in the quality of life. At present, the most widely used surgical techniques are the Simple Penile Skin Inversion, the Penile-scrotal flap Inversion and the enterovaginoplasty. Each surgical technique has its own advantages and disadvantages, and it is up to the surgeon, in discussion with the patient, to make the appropriate choice. The surgical technique performing the Simple Penile Skin Inversion seems to ensure a better cosmetic appearance and an adequate lubrication, but a lower rate of satisfaction, in relation to the neocavity depth. On the contrary, the Penile-Scrotal Flap Inversion guarantees an adequate vaginal depth and lubrication, even though the cosmetic appearance is not always completely satisfactory. In our experience, a significant number of patients were satisfied with the
Albisetti, Walter; Pedretti, Leopoldo; De Bartolomeo, Omar; Verdoni, Fabio; Memeo, Antonio
Although in literature achondroplasia has been described profusely, reports on achondroplastic twins are limited. We present two cases of monozygotic female twins with achondroplasia, who underwent limb-lengthening surgical procedure with external fixation in the following five steps: tibia, femur, tibia; femur, homer. Both the cases presented a good limb length and an optimal correction of associated deformities after the treatment, fulfilling the indications. Surgical indications were mostly led by the axial deviations of the lower limbs, and the timing of the limb-lengthening procedures has been the same in both couples showing the importance of this aspect.
Indulski, J A; Szubert, Z
It is observed that the working activity period has recently been decreasing in Poland; this applies to both the male and female populations. Since women constitute 48% of all workers employed in the national economy, this tendency may pose an important problem for the community and public health. The main information source for the absenteeism analysis are medical certificates which in Poland obligatorily document every instance of a sick-leave from work, irrespective of the length of sickness. A 15% random sample of all sickness certificates constitutes a database for the monitoring system of sickness absence. The lost time rate is the main parameter analysed by the system. In 1994 the rate of female sickness absence in Poland amounted to 25.1 days per one employee. In Poland the main causes of female sickness absence are: respiratory diseases--18% of all sickness absence (in the 16-19 age group--49%), and disorders of female genital tract and complications of pregnancy, childbirth and puerperium (17% of all sickness absence and 48% in the 20-29 age group). The most important chronic diseases that substantially contribute to the level of sickness absence include: musculoskeletal diseases (15%), diseases of the circulatory system (15%) and the nervous system and sense organs (11%). Over the period of 1990-1994 the highest rate of the female sickness absence related to gynecological diseases and pregnancy complications (mean annual increase--22%), and the musculoskeletal diseases (mean annual increase--10%).
Lind, Cpt Christopher K; Carchedi, Cpt Lisa R; Staudenmeier, Ltc James J; Diebold, Ltc P Carroll J
The atypical antipsychotics have been touted by many as having minimal extrapyramidal symptoms. This case series from the Tripler Army Medical Center Psychiatry Graduate Medical Education Program presents the extrapyramidal symptoms observed with four different atypical antipsychotic medications. Also reviewed are the mechanisms of action that atypical antipsychotics and first-generation antipsychotics use to treat the symptoms of schizophrenia. Cases reviewed include a schizophrenic male patient whose dose of risperidone was doubled from 6mg to 12mg overnight and developed an acute dystonic reaction; a young male patient with a substance-induced psychosis who unintentionally doubled his ziprasidone dose in 24 hours, resulting in an acute dystonic reaction; a young female patient on paroxetine who also recently started olanzapine and had complaints consistent with akathisia that resolved with treatment; and an adolescent female patient on escitalopram for obsessive-compulsive disorder who after starting aripiprazole developed Parkinsonism. All four cases illustrate that even though atypical antipsychotics are less likely to cause extrapyramidal symptoms than their first generation cousins, the physician should be aware that these symptoms may still occur and need to be treated.
Carchedi, CPT. Lisa R.; Staudenmeier, LTC. James J.; Diebold, LTC(P). Carroll J.
The atypical antipsychotics have been touted by many as having minimal extrapyramidal symptoms. This case series from the Tripler Army Medical Center Psychiatry Graduate Medical Education Program presents the extrapyramidal symptoms observed with four different atypical antipsychotic medications. Also reviewed are the mechanisms of action that atypical antipsychotics and first-generation antipsychotics use to treat the symptoms of schizophrenia. Cases reviewed include a schizophrenic male patient whose dose of risperidone was doubled from 6mg to 12mg overnight and developed an acute dystonic reaction; a young male patient with a substance-induced psychosis who unintentionally doubled his ziprasidone dose in 24 hours, resulting in an acute dystonic reaction; a young female patient on paroxetine who also recently started olanzapine and had complaints consistent with akathisia that resolved with treatment; and an adolescent female patient on escitalopram for obsessive-compulsive disorder who after starting aripiprazole developed Parkinsonism. All four cases illustrate that even though atypical antipsychotics are less likely to cause extrapyramidal symptoms than their first generation cousins, the physician should be aware that these symptoms may still occur and need to be treated. PMID:21152153
Berger, David; Olofsson, Martin; Gotthard, Karl; Wiklund, Christer; Friberg, Magne
Although understanding female reproduction is crucial for population demography, determining how and to what relative extent it is constrained by different ecological factors is complicated by difficulties in studying the links between individual behavior, life history, and fitness in nature. We present data on females in a natural population of the butterfly Leptidea sinapis. These data were combined with climate records and laboratory estimates of life-history parameters to predict the relative impact of different ecological constraints on female fitness in the wild. Using simulation models, we partitioned effects of male courtship, host plant availability, and temperature on female fitness. Results of these models indicate that temperature is the most constraining factor on female fitness, followed by host plant availability; the short-term negative effects of male courtship that were detected in the field study were less important in models predicting female reproductive success over the entire life span. In the simulations, females with more reproductive reserves were more limited by the ecological variables. Reproductive physiology and egg-laying behavior were therefore predicted to be co-optimized but reach different optima for females of different body sizes; this prediction is supported by the empirical data. This study thus highlights the need for studying behavioral and life-history variation in orchestration to achieve a more complete picture of both demographic and evolutionary processes in naturally variable and unpredictable environments.
Acne is affecting an increasing number of adult females and so can no longer be considered as a disease of adolescence. The disease has a greater negative impact on the quality of life of adult females than their younger counterparts. Adult female acne may persist from adolescence or may have its first occurrence once adulthood has been reached. The clinical presentation and pathogenesis of adult female acne may be somewhat different to that of adolescent acne and this may require a different treatment approach. Genetic and hormonal factors are thought to play key roles in the pathogenesis of adult female acne and the disease is characterized by a chronic evolution with frequent relapses requiring long-term maintenance therapy. Fixed-dose retinoid/antimicrobial combinations may be of interest for the treatment of adult female acne given that subgroup analysis of clinical trials has indicated that they are effective against both inflammatory and non-inflammatory lesions in these patients. These treatments may also be of interest, given the chronic course of the disease in adult females, the high likelihood of the presence of antibiotic-resistant P. acnes and the poor adherence of patients to other long-term therapies. Oral hormonal treatment or isotretinoin may be required in patients with severe acne or disease that is refractory to other treatments. Additional clinical studies of acne treatments specifically conducted in adult female patients are required to increase the evidence base on which future treatment recommendations can be based.
Coetzee, Vinet; Faerber, Stella J; Greeff, Jaco M; Lefevre, Carmen E; Re, Daniel E; Perrett, David I
Little is known about mate choice preferences outside Western, educated, industrialised, rich and democratic societies, even though these Western populations may be particularly unrepresentative of human populations. To our knowledge, this is the first study to test which facial cues contribute to African perceptions of African female attractiveness and also the first study to test the combined role of facial adiposity, skin colour (lightness, yellowness and redness), skin homogeneity and youthfulness in the facial attractiveness preferences of any population. Results show that youthfulness, skin colour, skin homogeneity and facial adiposity significantly and independently predict attractiveness in female African faces. Younger, thinner women with a lighter, yellower skin colour and a more homogenous skin tone are considered more attractive. These findings provide a more global perspective on human mate choice and point to a universal role for these four facial cues in female facial attractiveness.
Different types of reproductive dysfunction with exposure of males and females during different stages of the reproductive process were correlated. It is a well-established principle that teratogenic exposure of the pregnant female, and thus of the embryo, during the organogenesis period of development can lead to birth defects in the offspring. The outcome of this exposure paradigm, as well as the outcomes associated with exposure during other stages of the reproductive process that have received less experimental attention are discussed. Insult to the germ cells of the male during spermatogenesis and to the female during oogenesis can also lead to reproductive dysfunction. The type of adverse outcome, however, is quite different from that occurring with embryonic exposure during the organogenesis period. An overview of this area will be given with the intent of focusing on those types of reproductive dysfunction that are most relevant to environmental exposure of men and women.
D'ujanga, Florence M.; Ssentongo, Grace Spencer; Ayugi, Gertrude; Akoba, Rashida; Saphina, Biira
For a long time, only one public university in Uganda had a department of physics. Several women graduated from this department, but not many showed much interest in pursuing higher degrees in physics. Currently, there are five public universities in Uganda with departments of physics, and there has been an increase in the number of female graduates in physics. At the same time, the number of women pursuing higher degrees in physics has increased, and the universities have registered an increase in female physics lecturers.
Bhattacharjee, Rana; Sharma, A; Rays, A; Thakur, I; Sarkar, D; Mandal, B; Mookerjee, S K; Chatterjee, S K; Chowdhury, Pradip Roy
Primary hypoadrenalism has various causes and protean manifestation. We report a young female patient who presented with severe muscle spasm as her primary complaint. On evaluation she was found to be a case of Addison's disease secondary to adrenal tuberculosis. Her muscle spasm disappeared rapidly with replacement dose of glucocorticoid.
Abitbol, J; Abitbol, P; Abitbol, B
In the following, the authors examine the relationship between hormonal climate and the female voice through discussion of hormonal biochemistry and physiology and informal reporting on a study of 197 women with either premenstrual or menopausal voice syndrome. These facts are placed in a larger historical and cultural context, which is inextricably bound to the understanding of the female voice. The female voice evolves from childhood to menopause, under the varied influences of estrogens, progesterone, and testosterone. These hormones are the dominant factor in determining voice changes throughout life. For example, a woman's voice always develops masculine characteristics after an injection of testosterone. Such a change is irreversible. Conversely, male castrati had feminine voices because they lacked the physiologic changes associated with testosterone. The vocal instrument is comprised of the vibratory body, the respiratory power source and the oropharyngeal resonating chambers. Voice is characterized by its intensity, frequency, and harmonics. The harmonics are hormonally dependent. This is illustrated by the changes that occur during male and female puberty: In the female, the impact of estrogens at puberty, in concert with progesterone, produces the characteristics of the female voice, with a fundamental frequency one third lower than that of a child. In the male, androgens released at puberty are responsible for the male vocal frequency, an octave lower than that of a child. Premenstrual vocal syndrome is characterized by vocal fatigue, decreased range, a loss of power and loss of certain harmonics. The syndrome usually starts some 4-5 days before menstruation in some 33% of women. Vocal professionals are particularly affected. Dynamic vocal exploration by televideoendoscopy shows congestion, microvarices, edema of the posterior third of the vocal folds and a loss of its vibratory amplitude. The authors studied 97 premenstrual women who were prescribed a
Minocha, A; Davis, M S; Wright, R A
A 35-year-old female presented with recurrent right lower quadrant pain, nausea, and vomiting. She was afebrile with diffuse abdominal tenderness. Plain x-ray of abdomen revealed small bowel obstruction. A barium x-ray of the small bowel showed stricture of the terminal ileum. A CT scan of the abdomen showed a 6-cm mass in right lower quadrant. She was empirically managed as having Crohn's disease. She underwent laparotomy after failure of medical management with high-dose steroids. There was ulceration and narrowing of terminal ileum. Frozen sections revealed endometriosis. Ileocecectomy was performed. Histopathology of resected specimen confirmed the diagnosis of endometriosis, and there was no evidence of chronic inflammatory bowel disease or neoplasia. Ileal endometriosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of Crohn's disease in menstruating females presenting with perimenstrual symptoms.
Males outperform females in the Mental Rotation Test (MRT) for biological, strategic and cultural reasons. The present research tested a motivational explanation with the hypothesis that females could do better when induced to have positive beliefs and expectations. All-female and all-male samples were divided into six groups, each having listened…
Patton, George C.; Olsson, Craig; Bond, Lyndal; Toumbourou, John W.; Carlin, John B.; Hemphill, Sheryl A.; Catalano, Richard F.
The connection between pubertal stage and the development and depressive symptoms among females is investigated. Findings reveal that advancing pubertal stage presents greater risks for the beginning and persistence of depressive symptoms among females. The impacts of social adversity on the persistence of symptoms for female depression.
Edens, Anna C.; Lyons, Michael J.; Duron, Reyna M.; DuPont, Barbara R.; Holden, Kenton R.
We present two phenotypically similar females with Xp duplication who have autism and epilepsy. Case 1 is a 14-year-old Honduran female with autism and medically refractory complex partial, secondarily generalized epilepsy. Case 2 is a 3-year-old Austrian female with autism and medically refractory complex partial epilepsy. Both patients also…
Malik, Sufiana K.
The present paper investigated the role of distance education in the expansion of educational facilities for females at higher levels of education in Pakistan. The findings of the study report that distance education is playing a vital role in the expansion of female education at higher level as such females who, due to some personal or social…
Introduction A female urethral diverticulum is an uncommon pathologic entity. It can manifest with a variety of symptoms involving the lower urinary tract. Our objective is to describe the various aspects of the diverticulum of the female urethra such as etiology, diagnosis and treatment. Cases presentation We report five female patients, without prior medical history. They had different symptoms: dysuria in four cases, recurrent urinary tract infection in three cases, stress incontinence in two cases and hematuria in two cases. All patients had dyspareunia. The physical exams found renitent mass located in the endovaginal side of urethra which drained pus in two cases. Urethrocystography found a diverticulum of urethra in all cases. Our five patients underwent diverticulotomy by endovaginal approach. The course after surgical treatment was favorable. The urinary catheter was withdrawn after ten days. Some recurrent symptoms were reported. Conclusion Evaluation of recurrent urinary complaints in young women can lead to the finding of a diverticulum of urethra. Urethrocystography can reveal this entity. Diverticulectomy by endovaginal approach is the best choice for treatment. PMID:24528809
Eisenbarth, Hedwig; Angrilli, Alessandro; Calogero, Antonio; Harper, Jeremy; Olson, Lacy A.; Bernat, Edward
Studies that investigate the differences between high and low psychopathic persons in brain activity during emotional facial expression processing are rare and commonly focus on males. The current study assessed whether previously reported behavioral differences would be reflected in differential brain activity in a sample of female offenders. The participants included 23 female forensic inpatients with high and low scores on the Psychopathy Checklist Revised (PCL-R). ERPs were recorded during presentation of emotional facial expressions (i.e., fear, angry, and happy). Results revealed no differences in N170, P3 and late positive potential components between groups, but a significant difference in N2 only for angry and fear facial expressions, with high psychopathic participants showing lower reactivity. This N2 effect was found to be related to Factor 2 but not Factor 1 of the PCL-R. In time frequency analysis, theta activity underlying N2 best reflected these differences. Findings in this female sample are consistent with a cortical deficit in processing facial expression of negative emotions in psychopathic men. In addition, differences in processing seem to appear relatively early. PMID:23896396
Lacreuse, Agnès; Russell, Jamie L; Hopkins, William D; Herndon, James G
We present the first longitudinal data on cognitive and motor aging in the chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes). Thirty-eight adult female chimpanzees (10-54 years old) were studied. The apes were tested longitudinally for 3 years in a modified Primate Cognition Test Battery, which comprised 12 tests of physical and social cognition. The chimpanzees were also administered a fine motor task requiring them to remove a steel nut from rods of various complexity. There was little evidence for an age-related decline in tasks of Physical Cognition: for most tasks, performance was either stable or improved with repeated testing across age groups. An exception was Spatial Memory, for which 4 individuals more than 50 years old experienced a significant performance decline across the 3 years of testing. Poorer performance with age was found in 2 tasks of Social Cognition, an attention-getting task and a gaze-following task. A slight motor impairment was also observed, with old chimpanzees improving less than younger animals with repeated testing on the simplest rod. Hormonal status effects were restricted to spatial memory, with non-cycling females outperforming cycling females independently of age. Unexpectedly, older chimpanzees were better than younger individuals in understanding causality relationships based on sound.
Kumar, Arinaganahalli Subbanna Praveen; Subrahmanyam, Dharanitragada Krishna Suri
Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is the most common helminthic infestation of the central nervous system (CNS) and a leading cause of acquired epilepsy worldwide. The common manifestations of NCC are seizures and headache. The NCC as a cause of pseudobulbar palsy is very unusual and not reported yet in the literature. A pseudobulbar palsy can occur in any disorder that causes bilateral corticobulbar disease. The common etiologies of pseudobulbar palsy are vascular, demyelinative, or motor neuron disease. We report a 38-year-old female patient who presented with partial seizures and pseudobulbar palsy. The MRI brain showed multiple small cysts with scolex in both the cerebral hemispheres and a giant intraparenchymal cyst. Our patient responded well to standard treatment of neurocysticercosis and antiepileptics. PMID:24741260
Odom, Karan J; Hall, Michelle L; Riebel, Katharina; Omland, Kevin E; Langmore, Naomi E
Bird song has historically been considered an almost exclusively male trait, an observation fundamental to the formulation of Darwin's theory of sexual selection. Like other male ornaments, song is used by male songbirds to attract females and compete with rivals. Thus, bird song has become a textbook example of the power of sexual selection to lead to extreme neurological and behavioural sex differences. Here we present an extensive survey and ancestral state reconstruction of female song across songbirds showing that female song is present in 71% of surveyed species including 32 families, and that females sang in the common ancestor of modern songbirds. Our results reverse classical assumptions about the evolution of song and sex differences in birds. The challenge now is to identify whether sexual selection alone or broader processes, such as social or natural selection, best explain the evolution of elaborate traits in both sexes.
Membership of the group is a balance between the benefits associated with group living and the cost of socially constrained growth and breeding opportunities, but the costs and benefits are seldom examined. The goal of the present study was to explore the trade-offs associated with group living for a sex-changing, potentially protogynous coral reef fish, the Ambon damselfish, Pomacentrus amboinensis. Extensive sampling showed that the species exhibits resource defence polygyny, where dominant males guard a nest site that is visited by females. P. amboinensis have a longevity of about 6.5 years on the northern Great Barrier Reef. While the species can change sex consistent with being a protogynous hermaphrodite, it is unclear the extent to which the species uses this capability. Social groups are comprised of one reproductive male, 1–7 females and a number of juveniles. Females live in a linear dominance hierarchy, with the male being more aggressive to the beta-female than the alpha-female, who exhibits lower levels of ovarian cortisol. Surveys and a tagging study indicated that groups were stable for at least three months. A passive integrated transponder tag study showed that males spawn with females from their own group, but also females from neighbouring groups. In situ behavioural observations found that alpha-females have priority of access to the nest site that the male guarded, and access to higher quality foraging areas. Male removal studies suggest that the alpha-females can change sex to take over from the male when the position becomes available. Examination of otolith microstructure showed that those individuals which change sex to males have different embryonic characteristics at hatching, suggesting that success may involve a component that is parentally endowed. The relative importance of parental effects and social organisation in affecting the importance of female queuing is yet to be studied, but will likely depend on the strength of social
Zhang, Fang; Zhao, Juan; Feng, Albert S.
Anuran vocalization is sexually dimorphic, with males doing the bulk of vocalizing. Female vocalization is rare and has been observed in a handful of species, including the concave-eared torrent frog (Odorrana tormota). Females O. tormota have been reported to emit moderate-level calls to attract males. In contrast to males, female’s vocal signals show no evidence of nonlinear phenomena (NLP). However, with females emitting calls so infrequently that this conclusion must be considered tentative in light of the limited supporting data. The present study was undertaken to test the hypotheses that their vocalizations: 1. may not be purely linear, 2. may contain individual signatures, similar to their male counterparts. We recorded 671 calls from six captive gravid females and found that their vocalizations are as complex as male calls, with numerous calls exhibiting complex upward/downward frequency modulations, and 39% of female calls containing at least one component of the NLP, i.e., subharmonics, deterministic chaos, frequency jump, or biphonation. Furthermore, females in captivity tend to call in bouts throughout the day and night, and the call rate varies hourly with a maximum of >10 calls per minute matching the maximum call rate in males. Similar to males, female vocalizations carry individual signatures, and all sound parameters analyzed differ significantly between individuals. This represents the first report ever showing that vocalizations of female anurans: 1. contain NLP, 2. carry individual signatures. Presence of signatures in both the male and female vocalizations opens up the possibility for males (and females) to distinguish individual frogs in both sexes acoustically, and thus their sound communication ability may be more advanced than previously thought. PMID:28358859
Dr. Glick describes the use of hypnosis in the treatment of primary and secondary frigidity, dyspareunia and psychosomatic symptoms in female sexual inadequacy. He uses case histories to show the various techniques used and the results that can be expected. PMID:20468741
Estébanez, P.; Fitch, K.; Nájera, R.
In this review of published findings on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and risk factors among female sex workers, we summarize the results of seroprevalence studies in different countries and discuss the different patterns of transmission among such workers in various geographical regions. The highest rates of HIV infection occur in sub-Saharan Africa, where the widespread existence of sexually transmitted diseases may play an important role in sustaining transmission. In Europe and North America injecting drug use continues to be the major factor associated with HIV infection among female sex workers, while in Latin America and parts of Asia there is a more mixed pattern of heterosexual and parenteral transmission from injecting drug use. Reviewed also are studies of the risk factors associated with HIV infection among female sex workers, such as drug use, sexual behaviour, the presence of sexually transmitted diseases, and condom use; in addition, we comment on some studies of the clients of sex workers. Finally, we propose directions that future research in this area might take and discuss various interventions that need to be undertaken to reduce HIV transmission among female sex workers. PMID:8324860
Sugar, Max, Ed.
This book emphasizes female adolescents' healthy development within a psychoanalytic frame of reference for what is normative, that also indicates the boundaries of and transitions to what is deviant. The book's 12 articles relate to 3 general topics. The two articles in part 1 of the book, which addresses biological issues, are "Female…
Ma'ayan, Hadar Dubowsky
The current literatures on girls, queer youth, and multicultural education have ignored a significant group of young people and their experiences in school. This research is a retrospective exploratory study of masculine female adolescent schooling experiences, focusing on the school experiences of adults aged 18-54 who were socially defined as…
Funk, Carole; Pankake, Anita; Schroth, Gwen
This report documents a study of women superintendents. Specifically, the study identified professional and personal characteristics and styles of leadership to develop archetypes of six outstanding female superintendents in Texas. The intent of the research was also to reveal similarities between and among these superintendents that could provide…
Mann, Denise, Ed.; Spigel, Lynn, Ed.
This special issue brings together an editorial, six articles, and three book reviews that focus on the relationship between television and the female audience. The articles are: (1) "Installing the Television Set: Popular Discourses on Television and Domestic Space, 1948-1955" (Lynn Spigel); (2) "The Spectacularization of Everyday Life: Recycling…
This research investigated the female adolescent view of leadership by giving voice to student leaders through focus group discussions. The questions: What is leadership? Where/how was leadership taught?, and How was leadership practised? were explored within the context of girls' schools located in Australia, with one school located in South…
Wilson, M. Lee
Most of the debate among the behavioral sciences about the interaction between choice of sexual object and personality characteristics has dealt with male homosexuality. To explore the personality variables of female homosexuals, 46 heterosexual and 46 homosexual women took the California Psychological Inventory. Comparison of the results…
Estébanez, P; Fitch, K; Nájera, R
In this review of published findings on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and risk factors among female sex workers, we summarize the results of seroprevalence studies in different countries and discuss the different patterns of transmission among such workers in various geographical regions. The highest rates of HIV infection occur in sub-Saharan Africa, where the widespread existence of sexually transmitted diseases may play an important role in sustaining transmission. In Europe and North America injecting drug use continues to be the major factor associated with HIV infection among female sex workers, while in Latin America and parts of Asia there is a more mixed pattern of heterosexual and parenteral transmission from injecting drug use. Reviewed also are studies of the risk factors associated with HIV infection among female sex workers, such as drug use, sexual behaviour, the presence of sexually transmitted diseases, and condom use; in addition, we comment on some studies of the clients of sex workers. Finally, we propose directions that future research in this area might take and discuss various interventions that need to be undertaken to reduce HIV transmission among female sex workers.
The female reproductive system provides multiple targets for environmental toxicants with the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis. Moreover, the functional impact of a chemical can differ, depending on the species involved and the parameters of exposure. While cross-species compa...
Some of the next generationâs future female explorers and problem solvers got a real-world look at what it takes to be a scientist or engineer. Through the Women in STEM High School Aerospace Sch...
Carvalho, Joana; Vieira, Armando Luís; Nobre, Pedro
For the last three decades, male and female sexual responses have been conceptualized as similar, based on separated and sequential phases as proposed by the models of Masters and Johnson (1966) and Kaplan (1979) model. However, there is a growing debate around the need to conceptualize female sexual response and the classification of sexual dysfunction in women, in view of the upcoming editions of the DSM and ICD. The aim of this study was to test, using structural equation modeling, five conceptual, alternative models of female sexual function, using a sample of women with sexual difficulties and a sample of women without sexual problems. A total of 1993 Portuguese women participated in the study and completed a modified version of the Female Sexual Function Index. Findings suggested a four-factor solution as the model that best fit the data regarding women presenting sexual difficulties: (1) desire/arousal; (2) lubrication; (3) orgasm; (4) pain/vaginismus. In relation to sexually healthy women, the best model was a five-factor solution comprising of (1) desire; (2) arousal; (3) lubrication; (4) orgasm; and (5) pain/vaginismus. Discriminant validity between factors was supported, suggesting that these dimensions measure distinct phenomena. Model fit to the data significantly decreased in both samples, as models began to successively consider greater levels of overlap among phases of sexual function, towards a single-factor solution. By suggesting the overlap between pain and vaginismus, results partially support the new classification that is currently being discussed regarding DSM-5. Additionally, results on the relationship between sexual desire and arousal were inconclusive as sexually healthy women were better characterized by a five-factor model that considered the structural independence among these factors, whereas women with sexual difficulties better fit with a four-factor model merging sexual desire and subjective sexual arousal.
The distinction between the ability to copulate and the desire to copulate is used to understand species differences in hormonal regulation of female sexual behavior. Evidence is presented demonstrating that ovarian hormones modulate female sexual motivation in both rodent and primate females. The thesis is developed that rodent females differ from primate females primarily in their dependence upon hormones for the ability to mate. Thus, apparent differences between the two groups of females in the extent to which hormones control copulatory behavior does not stem from differences in hormonal regulation of female sexual motivation but from the physical ability of primate, but not rodent, females to mate without hormonal stimulation. This emancipation of the ability to copulate from hormonal influence makes female sexual motivation the primary regulator of mating in primates. Dependence upon female sexual motivation means that the copulatory behavior of primate females is easily influenced by their physical and social environment. Because primate females can mate without hormonal input, female sexual initiation, not copulation, is argued to be the only valid indicator of female sexual motivation.
Gupta, Pankaj; Singh, Ramandeep; Gupta, Suruchi; Kumar, Abhiraj; Kakkar, Nandita
Panophthalmitis is one of rare manifestations of tuberculosis described in atypical situations such as children, immune compromised patients, or drug abuse. The present report describes the first case of tubercular panophthalmitis developing after trauma in an otherwise healthy adult patient. A 46-year-old female patient presented with corneal infiltrate and endophthalmitis that developed after an injury to right eye with wooden object. Corneal scrapings and vitreous tap were sterile. The patient did not improve with antibiotics and developed panophthalmitis. On evisceration of the painful blind eye, histopathology showed the presence of granulomatous inflammation and acid-fast bacilli. The patient had no other systemic focus of tubercular infection. The patient was managed with anti-tubercular therapy for 6 months. Atypical presentations of tuberculosis like panophthalmitis pose a difficult problem in diagnosis as well as treatment. Direct inoculation of bacilli during trauma is a rare source of infection. This case report presents unusual development of tubercular panophthalmitis following direct inoculation of bacilli during trauma. Ocular tuberculosis should be considered in differential diagnosis of posttraumatic endophthalmitis and panophthalmitis, especially in endemic regions like India. PMID:27013830
Baker, William H.; Thompson, Michael P.
Effective teaching of presentation skills focuses on the most important element of the presentation--the message itself. Some instructors place the heaviest emphasis on the messenger (the presenter) and focus their presentation feedback on all the presenter is doing wrong--saying "um," gesturing awkwardly, and so forth. When students receive this…
Bengston, Barbara; Baldwin, Cynthia
Describes the process and practice of female circumcision, the impact it may have on circumcised female international college students, and some counseling strategies for the college counselor who works with this population. Explains variety of reasons for performing female circumcision, different types of female circumcisions, and psychological…
Pleydon, Anne P.; Schner, Joseph G.
Young female offenders (n=29) and female high school students (n=47) were compared in terms of delinquent behavior and relationships with their best female friend and peer group. Results indicated friendships of delinquent and nondelinquent female adolescents are essentially similar despite higher levels of peer pressure among delinquents. (BF)
Kontula, Osmo; Miettinen, Anneli
Background The pursuit of sexual pleasure is a key motivating factor in sexual activity. Many things can stand in the way of sexual orgasms and enjoyment, particularly among women. These are essential issues of sexual well-being and gender equality. Objective This study presents long-term trends and determinants of female orgasms in Finland. The aim is to analyze the roles of factors such as the personal importance of orgasms, sexual desire, masturbation, clitoral and vaginal stimulation, sexual self-esteem, communication with partner, and partner’s sexual techniques. Design In Finland, five national sex surveys that are based on random samples from the central population register have been conducted. They are representative of the total population within the age range of 18–54 years in 1971 (N=2,152), 18–74 years in 1992 (N=2,250), 18–81 years in 1999 (N=1,496), 18–74 years in 2007 (N=2,590), and 18–79 years in 2015 (N=2,150). Another dataset of 2,049 women in the age group of 18–70 years was collected in 2015 via a national Internet panel. Results Contrary to expectations, women did not have orgasms that are more frequent by increasing their experience and practice of masturbation, or by experimenting with different partners in their lifetime. The keys to their more frequent orgasms lay in mental and relationship factors. These factors and capacities included orgasm importance, sexual desire, sexual self-esteem, and openness of sexual communication with partners. Women valued their partner’s orgasm more than their own. In addition, positive determinants were the ability to concentrate, mutual sexual initiations, and partner’s good sexual techniques. A relationship that felt good and worked well emotionally, and where sex was approached openly and appreciatively, promoted orgasms. Conclusion The findings indicate that women differ greatly from one another in terms of their tendency and capacity to experience orgasms. The improvements in gender
Koo, Martha B.
Little has been published regarding male patients' erotic transferences to female therapists. It has been suggested that male patients do not develop full erotic transferences and rarely experience erotized transferences. The author presents a case report documenting erotization in a male patient–female therapist dyad and reviews current theories on the etiology, therapeutic significance, and treatment strategies indicated for such a transference. PMID:11121005
EPA has produced the following training presentation(s) for reporters subject to this subpart. Generally, these presentations explain the rule or show how to use the reporting system e-GGRT to submit annual GHG reports to EPA.
EPA has produced the following training presentation(s) for reporters subject to this subpart. Generally, these presentations explain the rule or show how to use the reporting system e-GGRT to submit annual GHG reports to EPA.
EPA has produced the following training presentation(s) for reporters subject to this subpart. Generally, these presentations explain the rule or show how to use the reporting system e-GGRT to submit annual GHG reports to EPA.
EPA has produced the following training presentation(s) for reporters subject to this subpart. Generally, these presentations explain how to use the reporting system e-GGRT to submit annual GHG reports to EPA.
Banda, Giridhar Reddy; Boddu, Srikrishna Raghavendra; Belle, Jayaprakash
Presentation of scrub typhus associated with brachial neuritis is extremely rare with only a few cases reported so far. Here, we report a case of a 45-year-old female who presented with fever and right shoulder pain. Laboratory parameters showed leucocytosis with ELISA and PCR for scrub typhus positive. Electromyography (EMG) and Nerve Conduction Velocity (NCV) study was suggestive of brachial neuritis. She was given doxycycline therapy for 10 days following which her shoulder pain resolved. PMID:27790497
Gültekin, İsmail Burak; Altınboğa, Orhan; Dur, Rıza; Kara, Osman Fadıl; Küçüközkan, Tuncay
Female genital mutilation (FGM) is an unusual condition for our country. However, an increase in FGM in future days can be predicted with the increasing numbers of exchange students coming from African countries, migration of refugees and socioeconomic relations with the African countries. We want to share our experience of two FGM victims admitted to our clinic with the request of reconstructive vulvar surgery before their marriage. Both women had WHO Type III FGM. Physical examination findings and surgical reconstruction techniques were presented. PMID:27274899
Sein Anand, Jacek; Chodorowski, Zygmunt; Wiśniewski, Marek
A 31-year-old female bodybuilder who was admitted to the Clinic because of deep coma and hypoglycaemia was presented. For last six weeks she had been preparing for a competition doing aerobic and anaerobic exercises, ingesting rich-protein and low-carbohydrate diet and administering a low dose of somatotropin every day. Even for the regional competitions there is a need for exact doping check among young athletes. Growth hormone in a small dosage taken together with low-carbohydrate and rich-protein diet can provoke deep hypoglicemia among people who use it for doping purposes.
Brandvain, Yaniv; Coop, Graham
Genomic conflicts arise when an allele gains an evolutionary advantage at a cost to organismal fitness. Oögenesis is inherently susceptible to such conflicts because alleles compete for inclusion into the egg. Alleles that distort meiosis in their favor (i.e., meiotic drivers) often decrease organismal fitness, and therefore indirectly favor the evolution of mechanisms to suppress meiotic drive. In this light, many facets of oögenesis and gametogenesis have been interpreted as mechanisms of protection against genomic outlaws. That females of many animal species do not complete meiosis until after fertilization, appears to run counter to this interpretation, because this delay provides an opportunity for sperm-acting alleles to meddle with the outcome of female meiosis and help like alleles drive in heterozygous females. Contrary to this perceived danger, the population genetic theory presented herein suggests that, in fact, sperm nearly always evolve to increase the fairness of female meiosis in the face of genomic conflicts. These results are consistent with the apparent sperm dependence of the best characterized female meiotic driversin animals. Rather than providing an opportunity for sperm collaboration in female meiotic drive, the "fertilization requirement" indirectly protects females from meiotic drivers by providing sperm an opportunity to suppress drive.
Situs Inversus Totalis in Twins: A Brief Review and a Life History / Twin Research: Twin Studies of Trisomy 21; Monozygotic Twin Concordance for Bilateral Coronoid Hyperplasia; Prenatal Hormonal Effects in Mixed-Sex Non-Human Primate Litters; Insurance Mandates and Twinning After In Vitro Fertilization / News Reports: First Report of Identical Twin Puppies; Twins Sisters Turn 100; Remembering an Identical Twin Production Designer; New York City Marathon Quadruplets.
Segal, Nancy L
The presence of situs inversus totalis (full reversal of internal organs) in twins is briefly reviewed. Information gathered from 35-year-old monozygotic (MZ) female twin pair discordant for this condition is presented. This is followed by summaries of research on the frequency of trisomy 21 (Down syndrome) in twins, the first case of MZ twin concordance for bilateral coronoid hyperplasia, prenatal hormonal effects in mixed-sex non-human primate litters, and links between insurance mandates and twinning following in vitro fertilization. The final section of this article describes twin-related events reported in the news, namely, the first recorded birth of identical twin puppies; the 100th birthday celebration of a pair of fraternal female twins, the passing of an award-winning identical twin production designer, and the first running of the New York City Marathon by a set of quadruplets.
Zhang, Yanning; Cong, Yuxi; Teng, Yan
Acyclovir has been a frequently used antiviral agent in the clinical treatment of leukemia, acute encephalitis, malignant tumor and herpes simplex. The adverse effects of this drug have been widely described in clinical practice. In the present study, a case of a 35-year-old female patient diagnosed with herpes simplex, who developed acute renal injury following treatment with valacyclovir hydrochloride, is described. Kidney biopsy, light microscopy and laboratory examination were performed, and all findings revealed the signs of evident vacuolar degeneration of capillary endothelial and renal tubular epithelial cells, erythrocyte aggregation in partial renal tubule and microvilli exfoliation from epithelial cells. Renal interstitial edema was clearly identified. The clinical evidence observed from this female patient indicated that renal functions should be closely monitored during valacyclovir hydrochloride administration. A variety of effective measures, such as hydration, alkalizing urine, promoting the discharge of medication and the use of antagonists are recommended following the administration of antiviral agents. PMID:28101180
Documented cases of female circumcision are reported for Malaysia, Indonesia, East and West Africa. Infibulation is reported for East and West Africa. A specific village listing is provided. Female circumcision as practised in African villages is designed to reduce sexual enjoyment. Those girls who refuse the operation are often ostracized. Sunna circumcision, the cutting of the prepuce of the clitoris, is performed with razor blades and knives by old women. In some areas cuts in the vagina are made to make childbearing easier. The result is the opposite. Moslems perform infibulation (fastening the labia majora together) to insure virginity and paternity. In Kenya defenders of the practise of clitoridectomy say its opposers are viewing the situation emotionally from a Western perspective. Changes are typically resisted by men, especially if they are perceived as being determined by outsiders.
In Djibouti, the prevalence of female genital mutilations (FGMs) amounts to 98% and the practice is still in use. When I left, in 1999, I knew I would involve myself in the fight against FGMs and I describe here the outcome of an obstacle course of more than ten years duration. This paper is written on behalf of innumerable women, who could give you a similar account.
Villanueva Peña, A; De Diego Rodríguez, E
We report the case of a 26 years old female who presented, as a casual finding, a right complete ureteral triplicity (probably Campbell's tipe I) with no other associated abnormalities. Despite ureteral duplication is a frequent urological anomaly, the presence of three ureters occurring in the same side, in a complete or incomplete form, is a true rarity, with less than 100 cases publicated up to date. The present case is singular, not only because of its exceptional presentation but also because no other urological or extraurological anomalies were associated and no clinical manifestations were present. The most relevant literature is reviewed.
Discusses the advantages of using video presentations as marketing tools. Includes information about video news releases, public service announcements, and sales/marketing presentations. Describes the three stages in creating a marketing video: preproduction planning; production; and postproduction. (JOW)
This presentation summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. This presentation was presented in a Wind Powering America webinar on August 15, 2012 and is now available through the Wind Powering America website.
Winter, Carl K.
While the need to present food science information effectively is viewed as a critical competency for food scientists by the Institute of Food Technologists, most food scientists may not receive adequate training in this area. Effective presentations combine both scientific content and delivery mechanisms that demonstrate presenter enthusiasm for…
"I was planning on doing a lot of work today during your presentation, but I couldn't get anything done. I just had to pay attention!" The author received this unexpected feedback from a teacher at the end of a presentation he gave, and although he considered it a compliment, it made him reflect on the dire state of presentations in…
Landeta-Escamilla, Anais; Hernández, Emilio; Arredondo, José; Díaz-Fleischer, Francisco; Pérez-Staples, Diana
Female remating in target pest species can affect the efficacy of control methods such as the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) but very little is known about the postcopulatory mating behavior of these pests. In this study, we investigated the remating behavior of female Anastrepha serpentina (Diptera: Tephritidae), an oligophagous pest of Sapotaceae. First, we tested how long the sexual refractory period of females lasted after an initial mating. Second, we tested the effect of male and female sterility, female ovipositing opportunities and male density on female propensity to remate. Lastly, we tested if the amount of sperm stored by females was correlated to the likelihood of females to remate. We found that receptivity of mass-reared A. serpentina females had a bimodal response, with up to 16% of mass-reared A. serpentina females remating five days after the initial copulation, decreasing to 2% at 10 and 15 days and increasing to 13% after 20 days. Compared to fertile males, sterile males were less likely to mate and less likely to inhibit females from remating. Copula duration of sterile males was shorter compared to fertile males. Remating females were less likely to mate with a sterile male as a second mate. Sterile females were less likely to mate or remate compared to fertile females. Opportunity to oviposit and male density had no effect on female remating probability. Sperm numbers were not correlated with female likelihood to remate. Information on the post-copulatory behavior of mass-reared A. serpentina will aid fruit fly managers in improving the quality of sterile males. We discuss our results in terms of the differences this species presents in female remating behavior compared to other tephritids.
de Sainte Marie, B; Delord, M; Dubourg, G; Gautret, P; Parola, P; Brouqui, P; Lagier, J C
An increasing number of travelers from western countries visit tropical regions, questioning western physicians on the prophylaxis, the diagnosis and the therapeutic management of patients with travel-associated infection. In July 2014, a French couple stayed for an adventure-travel in Columbia without malaria prophylaxis. A week after their return the woman presented with fever, myalgia, and retro-orbital pain. Three days later, her husband presented similar symptoms. In both patients, testing for malaria, arboviruses and blood cultures remained negative. An empirical treatment with doxycycline and ceftriaxone was initiated for both patients. Serum collected from the female patient yielded positive IgM for leptospirosis but was negative for her husband. Positive Real-Time PCR were observed in blood and urine from both patients, confirming leptospirosis. Three lessons are noteworthy from this case report. First, after exclusion of malaria, as enteric fever, leptospirosis and rickettsial infection are the most prevalent travel-associated infections, empirical treatment with doxycycline and third generation cephalosporin should be considered. In addition, the diagnosis of leptospirosis requires both serology and PCR performed in both urine and blood samples. Finally, prophylaxis using doxycycline, also effective against leptospirosis, rickettsial infections or travellers' diarrhea should be recommended for adventure travelers in malaria endemic areas.
Rezaei, Abolhasan; Krishna, Mysore Siddaiah; Santhosh, Hassan T
For species in which mating is resource-independent and offspring do not receive parental care, theoretical models of age-based female mate preference predict that females should prefer to mate with older males as they have demonstrated ability to survive. Thus, females should obtain a fitness benefit from mating with older males. However, male aging is often associated with reductions in quantity of sperm. The adaptive significance of age-based mate choice is therefore unclear. Various hypotheses have made conflicting predictions concerning this issue, because published studies have not investigated the effect of age on accessory gland proteins and sperm traits. D. melanogaster exhibits resource-independent mating, and offspring do not receive parental care, making this an appropriate model for studying age-based mate choice. In the present study, we found that D. melanogaster females of all ages preferred to mate with the younger of two competing males. Young males performed significantly greater courtship attempts and females showed least rejection for the same than middle-aged and old males. Young males had small accessory glands that contained very few main cells that were larger than average. Nevertheless, compared with middle-aged or old males, the young males transferred greater quantities of accessory gland proteins and sperm to mated females. As a result, females that mated with young male produced more eggs and progeny than those that mated with older males. Furthermore, mating with young male reduced female's lifespan. These studies indicate that quantity of accessory gland proteins and sperm traits decreased with male age and females obtain direct fitness benefit from mating with preferred young males.
This article emphasises the importance of effective presentation skills. Such skills allow nurses to share knowledge and expertise and to communicate clearly in a range of workplace scenarios. Nurses are increasingly being asked to present in formal and informal situations, such as conferences, poster presentations, job interviews, case reports and ward-based teaching. This article explores the principles underpinning the development of these skills, discusses the situations in which they could be applied and demonstrates how nurses might improve and develop as presenters.
Bielert, C; van der Walt, L A
(1) The changes in masturbatory behavior for nine adult males exposed to, but not allowed to contact, naturally cycling stimulus females were quite similar to the changes in perineal swelling shown by these females. (2) Serum testosterone concentrations of seven adult males exposed to a cycling stimulus female were related to their masturbatory behavior, with high levels occurring during the females follicular phase, (3) Graded estradiol benzoate treatments of ovariectomized stimulus females revealed individual dosage levels below which there was no positive effect on the occurrence of visually stimulated male masturbation, (4) The present series of experiments documents the importance which visual cues have in the sexual interactions of this particular species.
Gunnarsdóttir, H; Rafnsson, V
STUDY OBJECTIVE--The aim was to determine whether female manual workers have higher mortality than other women. DESIGN--This was a retrospective cohort study in which mortality was compared with that of the general female population. Main outcome measures were standardised mortality ratio (SMR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). SETTING--Reykjavík region. PARTICIPANTS--Participants were 18,878 women, the cumulated members of a pension fund for manual workers between 1970 and 1986. MAIN RESULTS--A healthy worker effect was observed in the total cohort. The study was then restricted to those who had contributed to the pension fund any time after reaching 20 years of age, and a 10 year latency period was instituted. When analysing subcohorts by duration of employment the standardised mortality ratios for all causes of death and all cancers increased with longer employment time up to 10 years. However, the ratios were low in the group with over 10 years of employment. Those who began contributing to the fund in 1977 or later had higher mortality than those who began earlier. There was an excess of lung and bladder cancer in the total cohort and in all the subcohorts except in the group with over 10 years' employment. Mortality from accidents and suicides was in excess in all the groups. CONCLUSIONS--Mortality is high among some groups of female manual workers. A deficit was found among those with the longest employment. Differences in mortality have widened in recent years. An excess of suicides shows that women in this group have, for some reason, less will to live than other women. PMID:1494075
Pleydon, A P; Schner, J G
Young female offenders (n = 29) and female high school students (n = 47) were compared in terms of delinquent behavior and relationships with their best female friend and peer group. Young offenders exhibited significantly more delinquent behavior than did high school students in the past year. Delinquents and nondelinquents did not significantly differ in amount of companionship, conflict, help, security, and closeness with their best female friend, and amount of trust, alienation, and perceived intimacy in their peer group. Less communication and more perceived peer pressure in the peer group distinguished delinquent females from nondelinquent females. Perceived peer pressure significantly predicted delinquent behavior in female adolescents. In short, friendships of delinquent and nondelinquent female adolescents are essentially similar despite higher levels of peer pressure among delinquents.
Verna, Mary Ellen
An analysis of advertising on children's television programs shows that more than half were male-dominant ads and fewer than one-seventh were female dominated. Female roles were almost entirely dependent and passive. (LS)
Fantasia, Heidi Collins
Female hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) is one type of sexual problem that can affect women. It is characterized by low or absent sexual desire that cannot be attributed to another cause and results in difficulty in interpersonal relationships. HSDD is not well understood, and women may not report symptoms of difficulties to their health care providers. In August 2015, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved flibanserin, a nonhormonal oral medication for the treatment of HSDD in premenopausal women. Flibanserin is the only currently available pharmacologic treatment for HSDD. This article will provide an overview of flibanserin, including potential adverse reactions, special considerations for use, and implications for nursing practice.
Hand, M.; Mai, T.
This presentation library summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. It was presented in an Union of Concerned Scientists webinar on June 12, 2012.
Presentism is generally regarded as a necessary evil in historiography. This paper explores the upside of that inevitability. Using a philosophical approach to discourse analysis in the tradition of new cultural history, the paper distinguishes between a strategic use of presentism on the one hand, and a rationalistic approach to history on the…
This presentation library summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. It is being presented at the Utility Variable-Generation Integration Group Fall Technical Workshop on October 24, 2012.
This presentation summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. It was presented in a Power Systems Engineering Research Center webinar on September 4, 2012.
Hand, M. M.
This presentation library summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. It was presented in a webinar given by the California Energy Commission.
President Ronald Reagan presents astronaut John Young with the Congressional Space Medal of Honor as well as NASA's Distinguished Service Medal. Astronaut Robert C. Crippen also received the Distinguished Service Medal and Dr. Alan Lovelace was presented with the President's Citizens Medal. From left to right: President Ronald Reagan Astronaut, John Young Astronaut, Robert Crippen Dr. Alan Lovelace Vice President George Bush
Midgley, Thomas Keith
The use of display and presentation boards as tools to help teachers/trainers convey messages more clearly is briefly discussed, and 24 different types of display and presentation boards are described and illustrated; i.e., chalk, paste-up, hook-n-loop, electric, flannel, scroll, communication planning, acetate pocket, slot, pin-tack, preview,…
Vos, Cornelis G; Mollema, Robbert; Richir, Milan C
We present a case of a 78-year-old female patient with an uncommon presentation of acute appendicitis. She was found to have a perforated appendicitis which developed in a femoral hernia sack. An appendix present in a femoral hernia is called a De Garengeot Hernia, which is a rare form of femoral hernia. Clinical presentation, diagnosis and management are discussed.
Franco, Diana L.; Kale, Santosh; Lam-Himlin, Dora M.; Harrison, M. Edwyn
Herbal medicines have been used for the treatment of various ailments since time immemorial. Black cohosh (BC) is well known for the treatment of postmenopausal symptoms, with conflicting evidence supporting its safety and benefits. We present a rare case of BC-induced autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) with hepatotoxicity in a 69-year-old female. To our knowledge, this represents the third case of BC-induced AIH. PMID:28203134
Rezwan, Nivin; Basit, Anas Abdel; Andrews, Henry
Gender reassignment surgery is a form of treatment for gender dysphoria. It can be male-to-female or female-to-male. We present a patient who underwent male to female reassignment and had a vaginal reconstruction. She presented almost a year later with acute kidney injury and bilateral ureteric obstruction, subsequently ending up with nephrectomy for a non-functioning kidney. PMID:24813202
Hernandez-Quiceno, Sara; Ramírez-Jiménez, Juan Jose; Lopera-Cañaveral, Maria Victoria; Toro-Ramos, Martin; Usuga-Arcila, Yuri; Correa-Londoño, Luis; Martinez, Juan Camilo; Monroy, Jennifer; Alfaro, Juan Manuel
Becker's nevus syndrome is part of the epidermal nevus syndromes and has been described with a phenotype that includes Becker's nevus, ipsilateral breast hypoplasia, and variable skeletal malformations. It is more frequent in males than in females (5 : 1) but is more relevant in females. The diagnosis is clinically based and the skin lesion must be present and no other numbered criteria have been established, but with more criteria being present the possibility of the diagnosis is higher. Regarding the treatment of breast hypoplasia, the use of antiandrogen medication has demonstrated adequate clinical response in a dose of 50 mg/day of spironolactone. PMID:27891278
Cetin, Mustafa; Celik, Mustafa; Cakıcı, Musa; Polat, Mustafa; Suner, Arif
Aripiprazole is a second-generation antipsychotic drug with partial dopamine agonistic activity. Although the adverse cardiovascular effects of both typical and atypical antipsychotics are well known, similar data on aripiprazole, which was recently introduced, are scarce. Herein we report a 35-year-old female that presented to our emergency department with non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema. Chest X-ray and thoracic CT showed pulmonary edema and bilateral pleural effusion. Anamnesis showed that she had been taking sertraline 200 mg d-1 for obsessive-compulsive disorder for a long time and that aripiprazole10 mg d-1 was added for augmentation 2 months prior to presentation. We think that the CYP 2D6 inhibitor sertraline might have played a role in increasing the plasma concentration and toxicity of aripiprazole in the presented patient.
Reyes, Daniel; Villanueva, Julio; Espinosa, Sebastián; Cornejo, Marco
Odontogenic Calcificant Cystic Tumor (OCCT) is an infrequent injury. It arises from odontogenic epithelial rests present in the maxilla, jaw or gum. Gorlin and col. described the OCCT for first time as an own pathological entity in 1962. Clinically, the OCCT represents 1% of the odontogenic injuries. It is possible to be found from the first decade to the eighth decade. It affects in same proportion the maxilla and the jaw, being the most common in the dented zones, with greater incidence in the first molar area. Two case reports of OCCT in two different ages, both in female individuals, one at 5 years old and the other at 35 years old are presented. Enucleation of the tumor was the treatment chosen. The purpose of this article is to present a review of the literature related to these two cases of OCCT and its treatment, putting an emphasis on its aetiology, biological behaviour and treatment.
Duhamelle, Alexis; Langlois, Isabelle; Desmarchelier, Marion
A 3.5-year-old spayed female ferret, fed a diet high in refined sugar, was referred for lethargy, polyuria, polydipsia, and polyphagia. Diabetic ketoacidosis was diagnosed. Treatment included insulin therapy and a low carbohydrate diet. Diabetes mellitus resolved 54 d later, and insulin therapy was discontinued. There has been no recurrence of the diabetes mellitus.
Barboza Besada, Eduardo; Barboza Beraún, Aurelio; Castillo-Ángeles, Manuel; Málaga, Germán; Tan Kuong, Jesús; Valdivia Retamozo, José; Portugal Vivanco, José; Contardo Zambrano, Manuel; Montes, Martín; Kaemena, María Luisa
A 35 years old female with morbid obesity IMC 45 was referred because of a gastrobronchial fistula developed post sleeve gastrectomy initially treated with endoscopic techniques without improvement, reason why a total resection of the gastric remanent with a Roux en Y reconstruction was done as an option with successful result.
Azhough, Ramin; Barband, Ali Reza; Motayagheni, Negar; Niafar, Mitra; Pourfathi, Hojjat
Spontaneous rupture of an adrenal pheochromocytoma is extremely rare and can be lethal because of dramatic changes in the circulation. We describe a 35-year-old Iranian female with previously diagnosed von Recklinghausen's disease who suffered spontaneous rupture of an adrenal pheochromocytoma, misdiagnosed as renal colic followed by an extensive retroperitoneal hematoma, irreversible hemodynamic shock, and death. PMID:19881191
Rogers, Paul; Hirst, Lindsay; Davies, Michelle
In this study the authors examine the effect respondent gender, victim age, and offender treatment programs have upon public attitudes towards sex offenders. A community sample of 235 participants were asked to read a hypothetical vignette involving the sexual assault of a 10-, 15-, or 20-year-old female by a 35-year-old male who subsequently…
Hassan, Adil; Hassan, Anjum; Hassan, Tariq
We report a 35-year-old female receiving natalizumab as monotherapy for multiple sclerosis who subsequently developed severe cytomegalovirus gastritis. As cytomegalovirus gastritis has not been previously described during natalizumab treatment, we discuss the biological plausibility of this potential association and avenues for further study. PMID:28331881
Biswas, Rituparna; Halder, Anirban; Ramteke, Prashant P; Pandey, Rambha
Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) usually originates from the pleura because of abnormal proliferation of fibroblast cells. It is extremely rare for the tumor to originate from the spine. Here, we report the second case of malignant SFT of thoracic spine with distant metastases in a 35-years-old female. PMID:28250642
Deldicque, Louise; Francaux, Marc
The purpose of this review is to present the basic principles of a healthy nutrition in female endurance runner enriched by the latest scientific recommendations. Female endurance runners are a specific population of athletes who need to take specifically care of daily nutrition due to the high load of training and the necessity to keep a rather low body mass. This paradoxical situation can create some nutritional imbalances and deficiencies. Female endurance athletes should pay attention to their total energy intake, which is often lower than their energy requirement. The minimal energy requirement has been set to 45 kcal/kg fat free mass/day plus the amount of energy needed for physical activity. The usual recommended amount of 1.2–1.4 g protein/kg/day has recently been questioned by new findings suggesting that 1.6 g/kg/day would be more appropriate for female athletes. Although a bit less sensitive to carbohydrate loading than their male counterparts, female athletes can benefit from this nutritional strategy before a race if the amount of carbohydrates reaches 8 g/kg/day and if their daily total energy intake is sufficient. A poor iron status is a common issue in female endurance runners but iron-enriched food as well as iron supplementation may help to counterbalance this poor status. Finally, they should also be aware that they may be at risk for low calcium and vitamin D levels. PMID:26075206
Silk, Joan B.; Seyfarth, Robert M.
In many social mammals, females who form close, differentiated bonds with others experience greater offspring survival and longevity. We still know little, however, about how females' relationships are structured within the social group, or whether connections beyond the level of the dyad have any adaptive value. Here, we apply social network analysis to wild baboons in order to evaluate the comparative benefits of dyadic bonds against several network measures. Results suggest that females with strong dyadic bonds also showed high eigenvector centrality, a measure of the extent to which an individual's partners are connected to others in the network. Eigenvector centrality was a better predictor of offspring survival than dyadic bond strength. Previous results have shown that female baboons derive significant fitness benefits from forming close, stable bonds with several other females. Results presented here suggest that these benefits may be further augmented if a female's social partners are themselves well connected to others within the group rather than being restricted to a smaller clique. PMID:27493779
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Female condom. 884.5330 Section 884.5330 Food and... condom. (a) Identification. A female condom is a sheath-like device that lines the vaginal wall and is..., 2011, for any female condom that was in commercial distribution before May 28, 1976, or that has, on...
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Female condom. 884.5330 Section 884.5330 Food and... condom. (a) Identification. A female condom is a sheath-like device that lines the vaginal wall and is..., 2011, for any female condom that was in commercial distribution before May 28, 1976, or that has, on...
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Female condom. 884.5330 Section 884.5330 Food and... condom. (a) Identification. A female condom is a sheath-like device that lines the vaginal wall and is..., 2011, for any female condom that was in commercial distribution before May 28, 1976, or that has, on...
Fernald, Lloyd W., Jr.; Solomon, George T.
Comparison of the values of 86 male and 74 female entrepreneurs found males' highest terminal values being pleasure and true friendship while females' highest terminal values were health and self-respect. High instrumental values for males were ambition and broadmindedness; while for females high instrumental values were honesty and…
The embryonic development of the female reproductive system involves a progression of events that is conserved across vertebrate species. The early gonad progresses from a form that is undifferentiated in both genotypic males and females. Rudimentary male (Wolffian) and female (M...
Traub, Stuart H.
Examined female college students' (N=466) drug use, marihuana use in particular. Results indicated that the gap in marihuana usage patterns between females and males has substantially narrowed. Female marihuana users used other drugs quite extensively and had friends who use marihuana. Peer influence was a major factor in drug use. (JAC)
Taylor, Peggy; And Others
The most important characteristics for females judging the attractiveness of males, and for males judging females, were eyes, body build and facial complexion. Previously, females tended to place less importance on physical components of attraction for both themselves and men. Possible interpretations are: (1) women have become more egalitarian…
Lomniczi, Alejandro; Loche, Alberto; Castellano, Juan Manuel; Ronnekleiv, Oline K.; Bosch, Martha; Kaidar, Gabi; Knoll, J. Gabriel; Wright, Hollis; Pfeifer, Gerd. P.; Ojeda, Sergio R.
The timing of puberty is controlled by many genes. The elements coordinating this process have not, however, been identified. Here we show that an epigenetic mechanism of transcriptional repression times the initiation of female puberty in rats. We identify silencers of the Polycomb group (PcG) as major contributors to this mechanism, and show that PcG proteins repress Kiss1, a puberty-activating gene. Hypothalamic expression of two key PcG genes, Eed and Cbx7, decreases and methylation of their promoters increases preceding puberty. Inhibiting DNA methylation blocks both events and results in pubertal failure. The pubertal increase in Kiss1 is accompanied by EED loss from the Kiss1 promoter and enrichment of histone H3 modifications associated with gene activation. Preventing the eviction of EED from the Kiss1 promoter disrupts pulsatile GnRH release, delays puberty, and compromises fecundity. Our results identify epigenetic silencing as a novel mechanism underlying the neuroendocrine control of female puberty. PMID:23354331
Gray, Alan W; Boothroyd, Lynda G
The current study addressed whether rated femininity, attractiveness, and health in female faces are associated with numerous indices of self-reported health history (number of colds/stomach bugs/frequency of antibiotic use) in a sample of 105 females. It was predicted that all three rating variables would correlate negatively with bouts of illness (with the exception of rates of stomach infections), on the assumption that aspects of facial appearance signal mate quality. The results showed partial support for this prediction, in that there was a general trend for both facial femininity and attractiveness to correlate negatively with the reported number of colds in the preceding twelve months and with the frequency of antibiotic use in the last three years and the last twelve months. Rated facial femininity (as documented in September) was also associated with days of flu experienced in the period spanning the November-December months. However, rated health did not correlate with any of the health indices (albeit one marginal result with antibiotic use in the last twelve months). The results lend support to previous findings linking facial femininity to health and suggest that facial femininity may be linked to some aspects of disease resistance but not others.
Li, Chiao-Ching; Li, Chiao-Zhu; Yen, Ching-Heng; Tsai, Wen-Chuan; Wu, Sheng-Tang; Cha, Tai-Lung; Meng, En
Abstract Rationale: Urethral hemangiomas commonly occur in men or elderly women. We presented a rare case of urethral hemangioma in a prepubertal female patient. Patients concerns: An 8-year-old girl had the complaints of bloody staining of clothing, a foul perineal odor, and urethral pain. She was brought to our genitourinary outpatient department for survey and a single, 1-cm compressible reddish nodule at the 10-2 o’clock position in the distal urethra was found. Diagnoses: Urethral hemangioma in a prepubertal girl was diagnosed after excision of the urethral nodule. Interventions: Excision with 8 “stay” sutures in the protruding urethral mucosa was performed. Outcomes: Normal micturition without symptom recurrence was noted at the 3-month follow-up. Lessons: Urethral hemangioma is also found in prepubertal female patient. Increased physician awareness and early recognition of a urethral hemangioma can avoid unnecessary examinations and patient anxiety. The procedure of excision with 8 “stay” sutures in the protruding urethral mucosa facilitates mobilization from the distal urethra and provides a good surgical view of abnormal proliferative blood vessels. Therefore, the lesion can be removed as clean as possible. PMID:28353601
Introduction About 45% of women suffer from some form of sexual dysfunction. Despite its high prevalence, there are few studies that have systematically evaluated sex therapy in comparison with other interventions. Objective Review randomized clinical trials that present psychotherapeutic interventions for female sexual dysfunctions. Method Through a search in three databases (Medline, Web of Science and PsycInfo), 1419 references were found. After an analysis of the abstracts, twenty-seven articles met the inclusion criteria and composed this review. Results Sex therapy, as proposed by Masters and Johnson and Heiman and LoPiccolo, is still the most commonly used form of therapy for sexual dysfunctions; although it has shown results, the results do not consistently support that this is the best alternative in the treatment of sexual dysfunctions. Conclusion There is a lack of systematic study of many female sexual dysfunctions. Orgasmic disorder and sexual pain (vaginismus and dyspaurenia) are the most extensively studied disorders and those in which sex therapy seems to have better outcomes. PMID:24066697
Head, Megan L; Kozak, Genevieve M; Boughman, Janette W
Female mate preferences for ecologically relevant traits may enhance natural selection, leading to rapid divergence. They may also forge a link between mate choice within species and sexual isolation between species. Here, we examine female mate preference for two ecologically important traits: body size and body shape. We measured female preferences within and between species of benthic, limnetic, and anadromous threespine sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus species complex). We found that mate preferences differed between species and between contexts (i.e., within vs. between species). Within species, anadromous females preferred males that were deep bodied for their size, benthic females preferred larger males (as measured by centroid size), and limnetic females preferred males that were more limnetic shaped. In heterospecific mating trials between benthics and limnetics, limnetic females continued to prefer males that were more limnetic like in shape when presented with benthic males. Benthic females showed no preferences for size when presented with limnetic males. These results show that females use ecologically relevant traits to select mates in all three species and that female preference has diverged between species. These results suggest that sexual selection may act in concert with natural selection on stickleback size and shape. Further, our results suggest that female preferences may track adaptation to local environments and contribute to sexual isolation between benthic and limnetic sticklebacks. PMID:23919161
As power grid integration of renewables becomes ever more important and detailed, the need for a centralized place for solar-related resource data is needed. This presentation describes such a place and website.
Hand, M. M.
This presentation summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050.
This presentation summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050.
This presentation library summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050.
This presentation summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050.
This presentation is an interactive walk through of the Program's vision of advancing the biofuels and bioproducts industry and highlights the research and development activities that will help achieve it.
As an invited guest speaker, Michael Desmond presented on NREL's NWTC structural testing methods and capabilities at the 2014 Sandia Blade Workshop held on August 26-28, 2014 in Albuquerque, NM. Although dynamometer and field testing capabilities were mentioned, the presentation focused primarily on wind turbine blade testing, including descriptions and capabilities for accredited certification testing, historical methodology and technology deployment, and current research and development activities.
Hand, M. M.
This presentation library summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. It was presented to the 2012 Western Conference of Public Service Commissioners, during their June, 2012, meeting. The Western Conference of Public Service Commissioners is a regional association within the National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners (NARUC).
(Abstract only) The AAVSO is in the process of expanding its education, outreach and speakers bureau program. powerpoint presentations prepared for specific target audiences such as AAVSO members, educators, students, the general public, and Science Olympiad teams, coaches, event supervisors, and state directors will be available online for members to use. The presentations range from specific and general content relating to stellar evolution and variable stars to specific activities for a workshop environment. A presentation—even with a general topic—that works for high school students will not work for educators, Science Olympiad teams, or the general public. Each audience is unique and requires a different approach. The current environment necessitates presentations that are captivating for a younger generation that is embedded in a highly visual and sound-bite world of social media, twitter and U-Tube, and mobile devices. For educators, presentations and workshops for themselves and their students must support the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS), the Common Core Content Standards, and the Science Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) initiative. Current best practices for developing relevant and engaging powerpoint presentations to deliver information to a variety of targeted audiences will be presented along with several examples.
An overview of the traditional Hispanic family and male-female relationships is presented, with an emphasis on issues relevant to providing health care to Hispanic populations. Aspects of the family presented include visitation, decision making, self-care, and emotional problems. Male-female relationships stem from traditional gender roles. Machismo and patriarchal authority characterize the male role; the roles of a traditional woman are housewife and mother. Women are expected to defer to the authority of their husbands. The negative aspects of machismo can result in heavy drinking and the pursuit of high-risk activities, leading to domestic violence and HIV/AIDS. These health risks are exacerbated by such cultural factors as male dominance, female modesty, and the practice of keeping problems within the family. The importance of personalism in patient-provider encounters is emphasized.
Kay, Heather C.
Researchers examining clinically-relevant trends for sexual minority women have found evidence of psychological distress and greater utilization of mental health services compared to heterosexually-identified women. However, the results of many research studies with this population have methodological limitations surrounding recruitment of…
Israel, Nejla; Markova, Tsveti
Calciphylaxis is a lethal disorder seen in patients with end-stage renal disease and is characterized by painful necrotic skin lesions. The pathophysiology is still unknown. Elevated calcium, phosphorous and parathormone appear to play a role in causing small and medium sized vasculopathy. Diagnosis is delayed, prognosis is poor and mortality remains high. In this article we describe the case of calciphylaxis in a patient with chronic renal failure and multiple medical comorbidities, and discuss diagnostic management, prognosis and treatment options. PMID:19830094
Males typically gain fitness from multiple mating, whereas females often lose fitness from numerous mating, potentially leading to sexual conflict over mating. This conflict is expected to favour the evolution of female resistance to mating. However, females may incur male harassment if they refuse to copulate; thus, greater female resistance may increase costs imposed by males. Here, I show that the evolution of resistance to mating raises fitness disadvantages of interacting with males when mating is harmful in female adzuki bean beetles, Callosobruchus chinensis. Females that were artificially selected for higher and lower remating propensity evolved to accept and resist remating, respectively. Compared with females that evolved to accept remating, females that evolved to resist it suffered higher fitness costs from continuous exposure to males. The costs of a single mating measured by the effect on longevity did not differ among selection line females. This study indicates that receptive rather than resistant females mitigate the fitness loss resulting from sexual conflict, suggesting that even though mating is harmful, females can evolve to accept additional mating.
Madsen, C.; D'Odorico, S.
On November 8, ESO continued its series of presentations in memberstates with an event in Copenhagen. So far events have been organised in Belgium, Finland, Portugal, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. The purpose of these presentations is to raise the awareness of ESO amongst decision-makers, academia and the media. Over time, the scope and specific focus of the national events have varied, considering the particular circumstances and the wishes of the national hosts, and accordingly, the presentation in Denmark was primarily oriented towards industry. The meeting was initiated by the Royal Danish Consulate General in Munich in conjunction with the Confederation of Danish Industries and the Ministry for Science, Technology and Innovation. Leading up to the meeting, several articles about ESO had appeared in the Danish press and the 2nd TV Channel featured a report on the ESO projects also in connection with the event.
Saleh, Al-Jufout; Ziad, Abu-Hamatteh; Lama, Al-Qaisy
The current article presents an analytical study of female students' participation in the representative councils in various Jordanian Universities. The data-base applied in the present investigation has indicated a clear weak representation of female students in general. The possible reasons, behind this weakness, have been tracked using a…
Rezabek, Landra L.
This study examined the effects of gender, attitudes toward computers, and presentation of individual or paired female peer talent on adolescent learners' perceptions of talent credibility in the context of media presentations on computer utilization. Subjects were 96 eighth grade students (56 females, 40 males) enrolled in careers and…
van Doorn, Colette S; De Boo, Diederick W; Weersink, Els J M; van Delden, Otto M; Reekers, Jim A; van Lienden, Krijn P
A 35-year-old female with a known medical history of cystic fibrosis was admitted to our institution for massive hemoptysis. CTA depicted a hypertrophied bronchial artery to the right upper lobe and showed signs of recent bleeding at that location. Bronchial artery embolization (BAE) was performed with gelfoam slurry, because pronounced shunting to the pulmonary artery was present. Immediately after BAE, the patient developed bilateral cortical blindness. Control angiography showed an initially not opacified anastomosis between the embolized bronchial artery and the right subclavian artery, near to the origin of the right vertebral artery. Cessation of outflow in the bronchial circulation reversed the flow through the anastomosis and allowed for spill of embolization material into the posterior circulation. Unfortunately the cortical blindness presented was permanent.
Doorn, Colette S. van De Boo, Diederick W.; Weersink, Els J. M.; Delden, Otto M. van Reekers, Jim A. Lienden, Krijn P. van
A 35-year-old female with a known medical history of cystic fibrosis was admitted to our institution for massive hemoptysis. CTA depicted a hypertrophied bronchial artery to the right upper lobe and showed signs of recent bleeding at that location. Bronchial artery embolization (BAE) was performed with gelfoam slurry, because pronounced shunting to the pulmonary artery was present. Immediately after BAE, the patient developed bilateral cortical blindness. Control angiography showed an initially not opacified anastomosis between the embolized bronchial artery and the right subclavian artery, near to the origin of the right vertebral artery. Cessation of outflow in the bronchial circulation reversed the flow through the anastomosis and allowed for spill of embolization material into the posterior circulation. Unfortunately the cortical blindness presented was permanent.
Begly, John P; Lajam, Claudette M
A 35-year-old female presented to orthopaedic clinic with a chief complaint of chronic left hip pain, beginning 17 years prior when she had sustained a gunshot wound to her left buttock. Imaging demonstrated significant left hip arthritis with a retained projectile in the femoral head. Lead levels were also found to be significantly elevated. The patient underwent successful left total hip arthroplasty, with subsequent postoperative pain relief and consistent decrease in serum lead level. This report presents a rare case that emphasizes lead intoxication as a potentially dangerous complication of gunshot wounds and retained projectiles in the orthopaedic patient. Recognition of lead intoxication as a potential complication of retained gunshot projectiles allows for efficient diagnosis and treatment, which may prevent associated future morbidity.
Flamarique, Iñigo Novales; Bergstrom, Carolyn; Cheng, Christiana L; Reimchen, Thomas E
Many vertebrates exhibit prominent body colours that are used in courtship and territorial communication. Some fishes also have an eye whose iris becomes iridescent during the mating season, as in the threespine stickleback. Behavioural studies in this species have focused on the redness of the throat/jaw as the primary determinant of female mate choice. Unlike the iridescent eye, however, the red throat/jaw is not present in all stickleback populations, suggesting that the colour of the eye may be equally important for female mate choice. Here, we used data on photoreceptors and environmental light to assess body conspicuousness and the colour contrast of courtship signals for stickleback populations living in a range of waters, from clear (mesotrophic) to red light shifted (dystrophic). This analysis indicated that the redness of the throat/jaw is expressed to enhance the contrast of the eye. To test the importance of eye colour as a courtship signal, we carried out mate choice experiments in which females were presented with identical videos of a courting male but for the colour of the eye and/or the throat/jaw. Females did not choose based on differences in throat/jaw redness between videos, but preferred males with the highest contrast between the eye and the throat/jaw. This result points to the blue iridescent eye as a primary courtship signal in stickleback female mate choice.
Ditisheim, A; Boulvain, M; Irion, O; Pechère-Bertschi, A
Preeclampsia is a pregnancy-related syndrome, which still represents one of the major causes of maternal-fetal mortality and morbidity. Diagnosis can be made difficult due to the complexity of the disorder and its wide spectrum of clinical manifestations. In order to provide an efficient diagnostic tool to the clinician, medical societies regularly rethink the definition criteria. However, there are still clinical presentations of preeclampsia that escape the frame of the definition. The present review will address atypical forms of preeclampsia, such as preeclampsia without proteinuria, normotensive preeclampsia, preeclampsia before 20 weeks of gestation and post-partum preeclampsia.
Gelula, M H
Lectures are the most popular form of teaching in medical education. As much as preparation and organization are key to the lecture's success, the actual presentation also depends upon the presenter's ability to reach the audience. Teaching is a lively activity. It calls for more than just offering ideas and data to an audience. It calls for direct contact with the audience, effective use of language, capability to use limited time effectively, and the ability to be entertaining. This article offers a structure to effective lecturing by highlighting the importance of voice clarity and speaking speed, approaches to using audiovisual aids, effectively using the audience to the lecture, and ways to be entertaining.
This presentation library summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. It was presented at the 2012 RE AMP Annual Meeting. RE-AMP is an active network of 144 nonprofits and foundations across eight Midwestern states working on climate change and energy policy with the goal of reducing global warming pollution economy-wide 80% by 2050.
This presentation library summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. It was presented at Wind Powering America States Summit. The Summit, which follows the American Wind Energy Association's (AWEA's) annual WINDPOWER Conference and Exhibition, provides state Wind Working Groups, state energy officials, U.S. Energy Department and national laboratory representatives, and professional and institutional partners an opportunity to review successes, opportunities, and challenges for wind energy and plan future collaboration.
Usunova, I; Vladimirov, V
In clinical practice neoplasms of female urethra are found usually in adult women. They can also be found in adolescent girls and as rare congenital abnormality. Those conditions are most frequently detected during gynecological or urological examination. Symptoms are few. Lesions are situated at the outer orifice of urethra at the broad basis. Authors have diagnosed and treated 331 patients between 26 and 87 years. Electro coagulation has been performed in 185 patients. Surgical excision has been performed in 41 patients. Excision with following electrocoagulation has been performed in 18 patients. Conservative treatment has been performed in 87 patients. Histological sample analysis has provided diagnosis of urethral polyp, caruncle and mucosal prolaps. Second electrocoagulation after surgical excision has been performed in 5 patients. Collaboration between urologists and gynecologists is essential for early diagnosis, prophylaxis and successful treatment of above mentioned diseases.
Jiménez Ortega, Ana Isabel; González Iglesias, María José; Gimeno Pita, Patricia; Ortega, Rosa M
Feeding in infancy is necessary to allow proper growth and development. Health of these early stages of life may influence the development of many diseases in the future (atherosclerosis, osteoporosis, hypertension, obesity ...). Furthermore habits set in childhood will endure throughout life. Therefore, getting adequate dietary and health patterns in childhood is vital. In adolescence occur a number of changes: rapid growth, development of secondary sexual characteristics, changes in body composition, ... that will be a challenge when getting or keeping that adequate feeding and habits. In female population requirements of different micronutrients are increased (mainly iron) and also higher energy requirement than in later stages of life occurs. However, adolescents are the main population at risk for developing eating disorders, which can pose serious problems to meet these nutritional requirements to achieve optimal development. These features and others, such as pregnant adolescents, are what make them a population that should be taken special care from nutritional point of view.
Hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) is the most commonly described form of female sexual dysfunction. There is currently no pharmacological therapy approved to treat HSDD, and therefore, there is an unmet medical need for the development of efficacious treatment alternatives. Flibanserin is a novel, non-hormonal drug for the treatment of HSDD in pre- and postmenopausal women, although the application submitted to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration by Sprout Pharmaceuticals is only for premenopausal women. Flibanserin works by correcting an imbalance of the levels of the neurotransmitters that affect sexual desire. More specifically, flibanserin increases dopamine and norepinephrine, both responsible for sexual excitement, and decreases serotonin, responsible for sexual inhibition. Clinically, flibanserin has exhibited some encouraging results in terms of its ability to increase the frequency of satisfying sexual events, and the intensity of sexual desire. However, adverse events such as dizziness, nausea, fatigue and somnolence, typical of a centrally acting drug, are also frequently related to flibanserin treatment.
González-Ruiz de León, C; Pérez-Haro, M L; Jalón-Monzón, A; García-Rodríguez, J
The urinary incontinence is a highly prevalent symptom in the adult female population. It has important psychosocial and economic connotations, and affects the quality of life of these patients. As it is an under-diagnosed problem due to patients not always consulting for it, it is very important to keep this in mind and to provide an opportunistic screening from Primary Health Care. It is difficult to determine the costs of this, but it is estimated to be the 2% of the health budget. Because of all of this, it is very important to know how to make a correct diagnose of this condition, to determine the different types of incontinence, possible causes, and treatments available. The purpose of this review is to show the different diagnostic and therapeutic tools available, to show the Primary Health Care role in this condition, and when to refer to specialist care.
Most of Nigeria's estimated 50 million females have suffered female genital mutilation (FGM). Those who have escaped FGM either belong to nonmutilating tribes, are members of enlightened families, or have been overlooked for some reason. Nigerian girls who undergo FGM are told that the pain the suffer will be eased when they marry, but they are not told that this will likely occur because sexual intercourse will widen their vaginal opening or else it will be surgically widened. Many who submit their children to this mutilation have no clear idea about why it is called for except to claim that it protects a family's honor by proving virginity. A Yoruba scholar claims that FGM is used in that tribe to reduce a woman's sexual desires so that she will not engage in intercourse during the 18 months she breast feeds her baby (it is believed that sperm migrates to the mother's milk and can make the baby ill). Yoruba husbands have no curb on their sexual pleasure and may marry as many wives as they can afford. Yorubas mutilate girls when they are 2-8 years old. Ibos, on the other hand, mutilate young women when they are preparing for marriage as part of an initiation ceremony. Abohs mutilate women during their first pregnancy in the belief that this aids the safe delivery of the child by protecting it from contact with the "lethal" clitoris during delivery. While some argue for maintaining FGM because it is an African tradition, other harmful customs, such as facial scarification, have been eliminated.
The U.S. EPA held a three-day workshop including EPA presentations on MOVES 2010 algorithms and default data, information on ways to use MOVES more efficiently for various purposes, and discussion of ideas and plans for MOVES future development.
Hartman, Jackie L.; LeMay, Elaine
All business communication professors struggle with anxiety-ridden students when discussing public speaking. To alleviate students' fears of speaking in public a process was designed to allow business communication students to acknowledge, address, and annul their presentation fears. A six-year comparative study using qualitative methods and…
Rice, J A
Giving an effective poster presentation can be easy and rewarding with attention to a few proven concepts. Define your audience. Keep the words and graphics clear, concise, and eye-catching. Remember, you have three seconds to attract attention and 30 seconds to get your message across.
This viewgraph presentation reviews the experiences of a college student during a summer internship. The student involved in many projects, such as Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA), Acoustic Equipment Testing, Acoustic Test planing for the X-48B and Ikhana.
This article discusses three types of films and their use in the second language classroom. The description film is objective and static, and elicits adjectives and adverbs. This kind of film should be presented three times, each time followed by a different set of learning exercises. The culture film - characterized by descriptions, scenes from…
Magdin, Martin; Turcáni, Milan; Vrábel, Marek
In the paper we discus about design of universal environment for solution of creating effective multimedia applications with accent on the implementation of interactive elements with the possibility of using the adaptive systems (AS). We also discuss about possibilities of offline presentation of this interactive multimedia adaptive animations…
Journal of Chemical Education, 1983
Forty-five "poster session" papers presented at the Seventh Biennial Conference on Chemical Education (Stillwater, Oklahoma 1982) are highlighted. These papers focused on computers in chemistry and chemical education (emphasizing programs) and on instructional innovations (including courses, teaching methods, testing, experiments, and others). (JN)
Nair, Pragya A.; Kota, Rahul Krishna S.; Surti, Nishit K.; Diwan, Nilofar G.; Gandhi, Shailee S.
Chromhidrosis is a rare disorder in which there is pigmentation of sweat in a variety of colors. It can be classified into apocrine, pseudoeccrine, and true eccrine chromhidrosis. Pseudochromhidrosis is a condition in which the excreted sweat is colorless, but later acquires color due to contact with chromogenic chemicals. Systemic and topical antibiotics are the mainstay of treatment. Although it does not constitute a major health issue, it causes psychological stress and social embarrassment. A 20-year-old female presented to us with yellow-colored sweat and discoloration of clothes since 1 month. Routine laboratory investigations were normal. Skin scrapings were negative for fungus and bacteria. Skin biopsy was also normal. She was labelled as a case of pseudochromhidrosis, and oral and topical antibiotics were prescribed, to which she responded well. PMID:28217472
Nair, Pragya A; Kota, Rahul Krishna S; Surti, Nishit K; Diwan, Nilofar G; Gandhi, Shailee S
Chromhidrosis is a rare disorder in which there is pigmentation of sweat in a variety of colors. It can be classified into apocrine, pseudoeccrine, and true eccrine chromhidrosis. Pseudochromhidrosis is a condition in which the excreted sweat is colorless, but later acquires color due to contact with chromogenic chemicals. Systemic and topical antibiotics are the mainstay of treatment. Although it does not constitute a major health issue, it causes psychological stress and social embarrassment. A 20-year-old female presented to us with yellow-colored sweat and discoloration of clothes since 1 month. Routine laboratory investigations were normal. Skin scrapings were negative for fungus and bacteria. Skin biopsy was also normal. She was labelled as a case of pseudochromhidrosis, and oral and topical antibiotics were prescribed, to which she responded well.
PAVONE, Mary Ellen; CONFINO, Rafael; STEINBERG, Marissa
For patients with cancer, preserving the ability to start a family at a time of their choosing is especially important and may influence decisions pertaining to cancer treatment. For other women who have delayed childbearing for personal or professional reasons, fertility preservation offers the possibility of having a biological child regardless of age. Though these women may be interested in or benefit from fertility preservation, fertility preservation services remain underutilized. While embryo and oocyte cryopreservation remain the standard strategies for female fertility preservation recommended by the American Society of Reproductive Medicine, the American Society of Clinical Oncology and the European Society of Medical Oncology, other strategies (e.g. pharmacological protection of the ovaries and ovarian tissue cryopreservation) are the subject of increasing research. This review will present new data that have become available over the past few years pertaining to all available methods of fertility preservation. PMID:26847846
Banerji, Aleena; Riedl, Marc
Hereditary angioedema (HAE) is a rare disorder resulting from decreased functional levels of C1-inhibitor (C1-INH), which manifests as periodic episodes of localized edema which can be extremely painful, debilitating and even fatal if the swelling affects the larynx. HAE can complicate many aspects of obstetric/gynecologic care, and an awareness of the disease is critical for clinicians involved in the care of women because of potential HAE-related complications pertaining to pregnancy, labor and delivery, and other women's health issues. This article provides a review of published literature specific to HAE and its management in female patients, including important concerns regarding obstetric/gynecologic care. A growing body of relevant experience is presented to help guide the care of women with HAE.
Lone, Nazir A; Naikoo, Bashir A; Khan, Naseer A
Cystic lymphangioma usually confined to head and neck is a well-recognized tumor that occurs during childhood. However, a cardiac lymphangioma is exceptionally uncommon and a particularly rare form of disease. We report a case of cystic lymphangioma arising from the right ventricular wall, and presenting as pericardial mass in a young female, who presented with a history of exercise intolerance in the form of breathlessness on exertion and palpitations. The management of such a case was a difficult task; however, she underwent near total resection of the mass, and is doing well for the last 2 years.
Jha, Kunal Kishor; Gupta, Suresh Kumar
A 64-year-old African-American female presented with nonbloody nipple discharge. Clinical and cytological examination of the discharge was normal. The mammography suggested pleomorphic calcification in the left breast. A stereotactic biopsy showed ductal carcinoma in situ and her estrogen receptor/progesterone receptor/human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-neu receptor were negative. We removed the tumor tissue through lumpectomy and found that the mass was invasive ductal carcinoma. This case report highlights invasive ductal carcinoma, presenting with unilateral nipple discharge.
FUNDING NUMBERS A COMPARISON OF POWER PERCEPTIONS HELD BY FEMALE NURSE AND FEMALE BUSINESS EXECUTIVES W) 6. AUTHOR(S) Ln CHERYL A. FOTI 7. PERFORMING...POWER PERCEPTIONS I HELD BY FEMALE NURSE AND FEMALE BUSINESS EXECUTIVESI I Cheryl A. Foti I I A thesis submitted to the Faculty of the Graduate School...Program, School of Nursing, has successfully completed her research project entitled, A Comparison of Power Perceptions held by Female Nurse Executives
Reddy, K Ramesh; Srinivas, S; Kumar, Shiva; Reddy, Surweshwar; Prasad, Hari; Irfan, G M
We are presenting two cases of Sirenomelia (Mermaid Syndrome), which is an extreme example of the caudal regression syndrome. It invariably presents with lower limb fusion, sacral and pelvic bony anomalies, absent external genitalia, imperforate anus, and renal agenesis or dysgenesis. There are approximately 300 cases reported in the literature, 15% of which are associated with twinning, most often monozygotic. The syndrome of caudal regression is thought to be the result of injury to the caudal mesoderm early in gestation. One of our cases survived for 12 days after birth. This new born had an unusually high anorectal anomaly in which the colon was ending at the level of mid transverse colon, fused lower limbs and genital anomalies. Ultrasound of the abdomen revealed horseshoe kidney. Colostomy was performed on day 2 of life. The second case encountered was a stillborn baby on whom an autopsy was performed.
Mr. Jim Parker Associate Director Ground Vehicle Robotics Distribution Statement A. Approved for public release Report Documentation Page...Briefing 3. DATES COVERED 01-07-2012 to 01-08-2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Ground Vehicle Robotics Presentation 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT...ABSTRACT Provide Transition-Ready, Cost-Effective, and Innovative Robotics and Control System Solutions for Manned, Optionally-Manned, and Unmanned
Chatterjee, Seshadri Sekhar; Talapatra, Devlina; Acharya, Rudra; Sarkhel, Sujit
Psychiatric manifestation of pachygyria, a neuronal migration disorder is rare in literature; rarer if it is bipolar disorder specifically. Here, we report a case of mania and seizure who subsequently diagnosed as pachygyria. Proper literature about pathophysiology is discussed and recently discovered putative genetic role in bipolar disorder explained. This case also emphasis the importance of detailed history taking and imaging investigation even in a pure psychiatric presentation. PMID:26702182
Karandikar, Sharvari; Prospero, Moises
The present study explores intimate partner violence (IPV) among female sex workers from the red-light area based in Mumbai, India. Using a grounded theory approach, in-depth interviews were conducted with ten sex workers to explore their experiences of IPV in the context of commercial sex work. Narratives were analyzed and themes constructed. A…
Morrissey, Gabrielle; Higgs, Joy
This paper presents research in female first sexual intercourse in Australia. Previous research in adolescent sexual behavior, particularly issues around first sexual intercourse behavior, has mainly utilized quantitative methodology. Our research adopted a qualitative approach to provide unique insight into adolescent sexual behavior, attitudes,…
Ervin, Kelly S.; Jackson, Linda A.
Black females are infrequently represented in advertisements in leading fashion magazines and, when they are featured, their presentation may be designed to distance them from the product they advertise. All advertisements in the January and July issues of "Cosmopolitan,""Glamour," and "Vogue" magazines between 1986…
Abney, Robertha; Richey, Dorothy
Describes barriers encountered by Black women in sports and presents strategies to help them confront career obstacles while obtaining and remaining in athletic and administrative positions. Obstacles include inadequate salary, lack of support, being female and/or Black, low administrator expectations, and lack of cultural and social outlets. (SM)
Dorociak, Jeffery D.; Vincent, Murray L.
A survey was conducted in an attempt to assess the use and knowledge of diet pills and dietary patterns of female college students. Analysis of the data indicated that, while many students used diet pills, their knowledge of the effects of the pills was minimal. Conclusions are presented. (MT)
Presents ways female therapists may manifest co-dependent patterns in their work. Defines co-dependency as a pattern of beliefs, learned behaviors, and habitual feelings that make people more dependent on things outside themselves than they have to be. Offers suggestions for changing these behaviors. (Author/KS)
This study of numbers of female academic and administrative staff at universities in British Commonwealth nations was based on staff data collected during 1997-98 for the "Commonwealth Universities' Yearbook." The survey covers 30 nations. Survey results are presented separately for academic staff and administrative staff. For academic…
Wheeler, Karen J.; Tack, Martha W.
A study on differences between the leadership behaviors and attitudes of male and female college presidents is presented. Women are rarely represented in top academic administrative positions in higher education. Reasons include sex discrimination, negative perceptions of them as administrators, and negative evaluation of their administrative…
Little, Linda F.
This paper notes recent evidence suggesting that couples characterized by violent interactions respond best to therapy when seen first in individual therapy sessions. Clinicians are then presented with a Gestalt therapy approach to intervening in cases of intimate violence that goes beyond crisis intervention. The focus is on the female's roles in…
Reichelt, Paul A.
In order to better meet the needs of female adolescents coming to a Planned Parenthood League Teen Center for prescription contraceptives, a study was undertaken to understand their psychosexual history. The study focused on the past and present sexual and contraceptive behavior of 532 new clients under the age of 18. The data were collected…
Pollatou, Elisana; Bakali, Nikoleta; Theodorakis, Yannis; Goudas, Marios
Body image is considered to be an obscure, mental representation of body shape, size and form which is influenced by a variety of factors that operate over varying time spans. Research has shown that professional female dancers may face preoccupations with their body image and weight. The present study aimed to investigate how body image was…
Beals, Katherine A.; Brey, Rebecca A.; Gonyou, Julianna B.
Examines three disorders that can affect female athletes who focus on succeeding athletically and achieving a prescribed body weight: disordered eating, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis. The paper presents prevention and treatment suggestions for athletes with eating disorders, focusing on primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention. Recommends that…
Tsimis, M. E.; Al-Hamayel, N. Abu; Germaine, H.; Burd, I.
The study of preterm labor and prematurity, as with any medical science, has undergone a major transformation in its approach from an inevitable part of obstetrics with few answers to one in which science has led to knowledge and clinical intervention. Despite these advancements, understanding of preterm labor and prevention of prematurity is still limited. In the current review, we begin the discussion with fetal viability, first from a historical perspective and then from the understanding of this issue from a prospective of various professional organizations. We then present the scope of the problem of preterm birth from various countries including the discrepancy between the US and Europe. We continue with updates on extreme prematurity and outcomes with two longitudinal studies from the past 2 years. We further review available interventions for prematurity and discuss the use of antenatal corticosteroids. First, we examine their use in the context of professional recommendations and then examine the trajectory of their continued use in the late preterm period. We focus on a European-based trial with preliminary results and an ongoing American counterpart. The current knowledge of molecular mechanisms behind preterm labor is presented with a focus on the multiple etiologies of preterm labor, both known and presumed, with updates in the basic science realm. Furthermore, up-to-date studies on prediction of preterm birth and prematurity-related morbidity are presented. PMID:25300768
Wirmer, Andrea; Faustmann, Melanie; Heinrich, Ralf
Female grasshoppers of acoustically communicating species assume series of reproductive states that are associated with particular behaviours. Studies on laboratory populations of Chorthippus biguttulus (L.) revealed that females of this species lack the period of 'passive copulatory readiness', increase their attractiveness to males by sound production and mate multiple times before their first oviposition. In particular, female Ch. biguttulus display a period of 'primary rejection' after their imaginal moult during which they reject male mating attempts followed by a period of 'active copulatory readiness' in which they produce acoustic signals and may copulate with courting males. Female stridulation generally stimulated male mating activity and stridulating females attracted more male mating attempts than mute females in the same cage, indicating that males preferentially court females that signal 'active copulatory readiness'. After receipt of a spermatophore, Ch. biguttulus females displayed periods of 'secondary rejection' followed by re-establishment of 'active copulatory readiness'. Acoustic responses of females to male songs, an indicator of reproductive readiness, were significantly reduced until 2 days after mating and remained slightly reduced in comparison to pre-mating levels. Some females mated multiple times before their first oviposition and cycled between 'secondary rejection' and 'active copulatory readiness'.
The degree to which females are consistent in their mate preferences has implications for studies of sexual selection. Because choice of females for particular males may be affected by temporal changes in male characteristics, consistency of mate preferences of individual females of Poecilia reticulata was studied by presenting them with the same male pairs in consecutive trials under three experimental procedures: live males behind clear glass, live males behind one-way glass and images of males on videotape. Although females did not habituate to males in any of the experiments, they spent significantly more time in proximity to males behind clear glass than in the video and one-way glass presentations. Females preferred the bright male over the pale one in the video and the clear glass presentations, but not in the one-way glass experiment. Repeatability of preferences by individual females for a male was high in the video and one-way glass presentations but low in the clear-glass experiment. Behavioural interactions with the male in the clear-glass experiment affected both the time that females spent viewing males as well as female visual preferences. Results indicate that the video playback is not only useful for detecting differences between female preferences for morphological traits of male guppies, but is also much more effective in detecting preferences than the other two techniques, because it eliminates temporal variation in male behaviour.
Snekser, J L; McRobert, S P; Clotfelter, E D
While the social interactions of Betta splendens have been studied in the contexts of dominance hierarchies, mate choice and communication networks, the social partner preferences of Betta have been largely overlooked. In this study, we presented male and female Betta with a single male, a single female, and a group of three females in dichotomous choice tests in order to better understand basic social interactions in this largely nonsocial species. The highly territorial Betta preferred associating with conspecifics in nearly every configuration we tested, with exceptions noted when single females were given the choice between a lone male and an empty chamber, and when males were presented with a single female and an empty chamber. Also, in most tests, the fish chose to spend more time with the larger group of females. The motivation for this preference certainly varied from reproductive to anti-predator. While such behavior might not suggest true shoaling behavior, it does demonstrate a subtle degree of sociality.
Hosken, F P
Extensive research and field work have established that more than 74 million women and female children are mutilated by female genital operations in Africa alone. The operations are also practiced in many parts of the Middle East and, with Moslemization, were introduced into Indonesia and Malaysia where they are preformed at the present time in a less damaging form. This paper lists the countries where instances of excision and infibulation have been reported and includes case reports from Sudan, Egypt, Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia, Nigeria, Mali, Upper Volta, and Senegal. The ethical issues posed by genital mutilation are also discussed.
Fefferman, Nancy R; Pinkney, Lynne P; Rivera, Rafael; Popiolek, Dorota; Hummel-Levine, Pascale; Cosme, Jaqueline
Sclerosing stromal tumor (SST) is a rare benign ovarian neoplasm of stromal origin with less than 100 cases reported in the literature. Unlike the other stromal tumors, thecomas and fibromas, which tend to occur in the fifth and sixth decades, sclerosing stromal tumors predominantly affect females in the second and third decades. Computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and ultrasound findings have been described, but have not been reported previously in the pediatric literature. We present a case of SST of the ovary in a 10-year-old premenarchal female, the youngest patient to our knowledge reported in the literature, and describe the ultrasound and CT findings with pathologic correlation.
Lemaine, Valerie; Simmons, Patricia S
Congenital breast and genital tract anomalies are seen frequently in the care of children and adolescents. Breast and internal gynecologic anomalies more often present in adolescence than in early childhood. Management is best delivered through a multidisciplinary team approach. Carefully timed surgical intervention is of importance to optimize psychological, aesthetic and functional outcomes. An understanding of the female breast and genital tract embryology and anatomy is important for a meticulous clinical examination and appropriate surgical treatment. This article will review the normal embryology and anatomy of the adolescent female breast and genital tract.