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Sample records for 36-item short form

  1. The RAND 36-Item Health Survey 1.0.

    PubMed

    Hays, R D; Sherbourne, C D; Mazel, R M

    1993-10-01

    Recently, Ware and Sherbourne published a new short-form health survey, the MOS 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36), consisting of 36 items included in long-form measures developed for the Medical Outcomes Study. The SF-36 taps eight health concepts: physical functioning, bodily pain, role limitations due to physical health problems, role limitations due to personal or emotional problems, general mental health, social functioning, energy/fatigue, and general health perceptions. It also includes a single item that provides an indication of perceived change in health. The SF-36 items and scoring rules are distributed by MOS Trust, Inc. Strict adherence to item wording and scoring recommendations is required in order to use the SF-36 trademark. The RAND 36-Item Health Survey 1.0 (distributed by RAND) includes the same items as those in the SF-36, but the recommended scoring algorithm is somewhat different from that of the SF-36. Scoring differences are discussed here and new T-scores are presented for the 8 multi-item scales and two factor analytically-derived physical and mental health composite scores.

  2. Physical and Mental Health Status of Staff Working for People with Intellectual Disabilities in Taiwan: Measurement with the 36-Item Short-Form (SF-36) Health Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Jin-Ding; Lee, Tzong-Nan; Loh, Ching-Hui; Yen, Chia-Feng; Hsu, Shang-Wei; Wu, Jia-Ling; Tang, Chi-Chieh; Lin, Lan-Ping; Chu, Cordia M.; Wu, Sheng-Ru

    2009-01-01

    Little explicit attention has been given to the generic health profile of staff working for people with intellectual disability in institutions. This study aimed to provide a profile of physical and mental health of staff working in disability welfare institutions, and to examine the possible demographic and organizational factors that explain an…

  3. Short Form of the Developmental Behaviour Checklist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taffe, John R.; Gray, Kylie M.; Einfeld, Stewart L.; Dekker, Marielle C.; Koot, Hans M.; Emerson, Eric; Koskentausta, Terhi; Tonge, Bruce J.

    2007-01-01

    A 24-item short form of the 96-item Developmental Behaviour Checklist was developed to provide a brief measure of Total Behaviour Problem Score for research purposes. The short form Developmental Behaviour Checklist (DBC-P24) was chosen for low bias and high precision from among 100 randomly selected item sets. The DBC-P24 was developed from…

  4. A short-form measure of loneliness.

    PubMed

    Hays, R D; DiMatteo, M R

    1987-01-01

    The revised UCLA Loneliness Scale (ULS-20) and a four-item short form (ULS-4) are widely used in personality research (Russell, Peplau, & Cutrona, 1980). In an exploratory factor analysis of the ULS-20, we identified eight items that loaded substantially on the first factor. These items were combined to form an alternative short-form measure, the ULS-8. The results of this study indicate that the ULS-8 is reliable, valid, and a better substitute for the ULS-20 than is the ULS-4. Consistent with the previous research, the loneliness measures (ULS-20, ULS-8, ULS-4) were strongly related to socially undesirable personality characteristics, but loneliness was uncorrelated with the six different health-related behaviors (exercise, meal regularity, alcohol use, hard drug use, smoking, and hours of sleep) assessed in this study.

  5. Psychometric Properties of a 36-Item Version of the “Stress Management Competency Indicator Tool”

    PubMed Central

    Toderi, Stefano; Sarchielli, Guido

    2016-01-01

    The development of supervisors’ behaviours has been proposed as an innovative approach for the reduction of employees’ work stress. The UK Health and Safety Executive (HSE) developed the “Stress Management Competency Indicator Tool” (SMCIT), designed to be used within a learning and development intervention. However, its psychometric properties have never been evaluated, and the length of the questionnaire (66 items) limits its practical applicability. We developed a brief 36-item version of the questionnaire, assessed its psychometric properties and studied the relationship with the employees’ psychosocial work environment. 353 employees filled in the brief SMCIT and the “Stress Management Indicator Tool”. The latter is a self-report questionnaire developed by the UK HSE, measuring workers’ perceptions of seven dimensions of the psychosocial work environment that if not properly managed can lead to harm. Data were analysed with structural equation modelling and multiple regressions. The results confirmed the factorial structure of the brief SMCIT questionnaire and mainly supported the convergent validity and internal consistency of the scales. Furthermore, with few exceptions, the relations hypothesized between supervisors’ competencies and the psychosocial work environment were confirmed, supporting the criterion validity of the revised questionnaire and the UK HSE framework. We conclude that the brief 36-item version of the SMCIT represents an important step toward the development of interventions directed at supervisors and we discuss the practical implications for work stress prevention. PMID:27827940

  6. Psychometric Properties of a 36-Item Version of the "Stress Management Competency Indicator Tool".

    PubMed

    Toderi, Stefano; Sarchielli, Guido

    2016-11-07

    The development of supervisors' behaviours has been proposed as an innovative approach for the reduction of employees' work stress. The UK Health and Safety Executive (HSE) developed the "Stress Management Competency Indicator Tool" (SMCIT), designed to be used within a learning and development intervention. However, its psychometric properties have never been evaluated, and the length of the questionnaire (66 items) limits its practical applicability. We developed a brief 36-item version of the questionnaire, assessed its psychometric properties and studied the relationship with the employees' psychosocial work environment. 353 employees filled in the brief SMCIT and the "Stress Management Indicator Tool". The latter is a self-report questionnaire developed by the UK HSE, measuring workers' perceptions of seven dimensions of the psychosocial work environment that if not properly managed can lead to harm. Data were analysed with structural equation modelling and multiple regressions. The results confirmed the factorial structure of the brief SMCIT questionnaire and mainly supported the convergent validity and internal consistency of the scales. Furthermore, with few exceptions, the relations hypothesized between supervisors' competencies and the psychosocial work environment were confirmed, supporting the criterion validity of the revised questionnaire and the UK HSE framework. We conclude that the brief 36-item version of the SMCIT represents an important step toward the development of interventions directed at supervisors and we discuss the practical implications for work stress prevention.

  7. Feminist Short Fiction: New Forms and Styles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dean, Nancy

    This paper examines the stylistic changes that have occurred since 1850 in short fiction written by women. A shift is noted from the sentimental, romantic, "pretty" writing of the past to today's more realistic writing, with its characteristically vivid imagery. Discussion defines the term "feminist fiction" and shows how today's women writers are…

  8. Development of a Short Form: The Ball Aptitude Battery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neuman, George A.; Bolin, Aaron U.; Briggs, Thomas E.

    2000-01-01

    High school seniors (n=474), high school freshmen (n=1,153), salespersons (n=374), sheet metal workers (n=148), sheet metal applicants (n=424), and carpenter applicants (n=279) were used to test the short-form Ball Aptitude Battery (BAB). The development of the short-form BAB indicates comparable results to the long-form BAB in terms of…

  9. A critical evaluation of the Parenting Stress Index-Short Form (PSI-SF) in a head start population.

    PubMed

    Reitman, David; Currier, Rebecca O; Stickle, Timothy R

    2002-09-01

    Examines psychometric characteristics of the 36-item Parenting Stress Index-Short Form (PSI-SF) in a low-income, predominantly minority population. Relations between the PSI-SF, demographic, and psychosocial factors associated with parenting stress were examined. Internal consistencies for the PSI-SF were very good to excellent. However, confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) indicated that a 3-factor model comprised of Parental Distress, Difficult Child, and Parent-Child Dysfunctional Interaction subscales was only marginally superior to a single-factor model. A series of multiple regression analyses examining the relation of psychosocial and demographic measures to PSI-SF subscales were more supportive of the 3-factor model proposed by Abidin (1995). As anticipated, the PSI-SF Difficult Child subscale was most strongly associated with a measure of child oppositionality, and the Parental Distress subscale was most highly associated with self-reported psychological symptoms and low income. Parent-Child Dysfunctional Interaction was associated with parent reports of psychological symptoms as well as low income and education. The results appear to support the use of the PSI-SF with lower socioeconomic, primarily African American mothers. Additionally, the data provide indirect support for the generalizability of a 3-factor model of parenting stress.

  10. 28 CFR 5.202 - Short form registration statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Short form registration statement. 5.202... AGENTS REGISTRATION ACT OF 1938, AS AMENDED § 5.202 Short form registration statement. (a) Except as..., employee, and agent of a registrant is required to file a registration statement under the Act. Unless...

  11. Short-Form Philadelphia Naming Test: Rationale and Empirical Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Grant M.; Schwartz, Myrna F.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To create two matched short forms of the Philadelphia Naming Test (PNT; Roach, Schwartz, Martin, Grewal, & Brecher, 1996) that yield similar results to the PNT for measuring anomia. Method: In Study 1, archived naming data from 94 individuals with aphasia were used to identify which PNT items should be included in the short forms. The 2…

  12. Optimal Short Forms of the Spanish WAIS (EIWA).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demsky, Yvonne; Gass, Carlton; Edwards, William T.; Golden, Charles J.

    1998-01-01

    Investigated optimal two-, three-, four-, and five-test short forms of the Escala de Inteligencia Wechsler para Adultos (EIWA), the Spanish form of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (D. Wechsler, 1956). Results with 616 adults suggest that use of the EIWA should be limited to research and tracking cognitive changes over time. (SLD)

  13. The construct validity of the Short Form-36 Health Survey for patients with nonspecific chronic neck pain.

    PubMed

    de Vries, Grietje E; Jorritsma, Wim; Dijkstra, Pieter U; Geertzen, Jan H B; Reneman, Michiel F

    2015-06-01

    Self-reported disability related to neck pain can be measured using general health questionnaires. The validity of the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) in patients with nonspecific chronic neck pain (CNP) in a tertiary outpatient rehabilitation setting is unknown. This study investigates construct validity of the SF-36 in these patients using 16 a-priori formulated hypotheses. Ninety-one patients admitted for rehabilitation completed the SF-36 before the rehabilitation program. SF-36 domain scores of patients with CNP were compared with general population reference values and standardized differences were calculated. For both the SF-36 physical and the mental component summary (PCS and MCS), differences between primary and tertiary care setting, men and women, age groups, litigants and nonlitigants, patients with and without compensation, and with ≥3 versus≤2 concomitant complaints were analyzed using independent t-tests. Differences between PCS and MCS scores were analyzed using a paired t-test. Twelve hypotheses were not rejected and four were rejected. All SF-36 domain scores were significantly lower than the general population references values. The domain scores 'role physical', 'bodily pain', 'vitality', 'social functioning,' and 'role emotional' were relevantly (≥1 SD) lower. SF-36-PCS and SF-36-MCS scores were significantly lower in tertiary care. The SF-36-PCS score was significantly lower for patients with workers compensation and patients with at least three concomitant complaints. The SF-36-MCS score was significantly lower for the age group of at least 39 years. The SF-36 has good construct validity and can be used to measure self-reported general health in patients with nonspecific CNP in outpatient tertiary rehabilitation.

  14. NASA Safety and Health (Short Form). Final rule

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This final rule adopts with changes the interim rule published in the Federal Register on April 5, 2001 (65 FR 18051-18053), which amended the NASA FAR Supplement to implement a Safety and Health (Short Form) clause to address safety and occupational health in all NASA contracts above the micro-purchase threshold where the existing Safety and Health clause did not apply, and amended other safety and health clauses to be consistent with the new NASA Safety and Health (Short Form) clause.

  15. Automatic loudness control in short-form content for broadcasting.

    PubMed

    Pires, Leandro da S; Vieira, Maurílio N; Yehia, Hani C

    2017-03-01

    During the early years of the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) loudness calculation standard for sound broadcasting [ITU-R (2006), Rec. BS Series, 1770], the need for additional loudness descriptors to evaluate short-form content, such as commercials and live inserts, was identified. This work proposes a loudness control scheme to prevent loudness jumps, which can bother audiences. It employs short-form content audio detection and dynamic range processing methods for the maximum loudness level criteria. Detection is achieved by combining principal component analysis for dimensionality reduction and support vector machines for binary classification. Subsequent processing is based on short-term loudness integrators and Hilbert transformers. The performance was assessed using quality classification metrics and demonstrated through a loudness control example.

  16. Multicultural personality questionnaire: development of a short form.

    PubMed

    van der Zee, Karen; van Oudenhoven, Jan Pieter; Ponterotto, Joseph G; Fietzer, Alexander W

    2013-01-01

    This study reports on the development of the Multicultural Personality Questionnaire-Short Form among 511 participants. Using a split-sample scale validation design, Study 1 (N = 260) employed a principal component analysis and rigorous item selection criteria to extract a 40-item short form (MPQ-SF) from the original 91-item Multicultural Personality Questionnaire (MPQ; van der Zee & van Oudenhoven, 2000, 2001). In Study 2 (N = 251), the MPQ-SF was subjected to confirmatory factor analysis and resulted in a reasonably good fit to the data (comparative fit index = .94; root mean squared error of approximation = .066). Satisfactory coefficient alphas and high correlations with the original scales were found. Moreover, relationships with related scales were largely in the predicted direction. Specific directions for follow-up research are posited.

  17. Optimal short forms of the Spanish WAIS (EIWA).

    PubMed

    Demsky, Y; Gass, C; Edwards, W T; Golden, C J

    1998-12-01

    Although the Spanish version of the WAIS (Escala de Inteligencia Wechsler para Adultos, EIWA) is widely used as a measure of intelligence in Spanish-speaking populations, little is known about the psychometric characteristics of the test beyond the information given in the test manual. Despite this, users have assumed that the test functions clinically and statistically as does the original WAIS. This assumption has been applied to the area of short test forms which are assumed to be as valid as those used with the WAIS. The present study is an attempt to determine the optimal two-, three-, four-, and five-test short forms for estimation of Full Scale IQ based on the EIWA standardization test data. In addition, the relative amount of common and specific variance in the EIWA subtests was determined, along with the degree of measurement error. The study emphasizes the limitations of using the EIWA arising from its out-of-date norms, use of a restricted Spanish-speaking population, and failure to make updates since its introduction. These cautions suggest that the EIWA (long and short forms) should not be used for determining IQs; instead its use should be limited to research and to tracking cognitive changes over time.

  18. Use of Both the Short Musculoskeletal Function Assessment Questionnaire and the Short Form-36 among Tibial Fracture Patients was Redundant

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Objective To compare the Short Musculoskeletal Function Assessment Dysfunction Index and the Short Form-36 Physical Component Summary scores among patients undergoing operative management of tibial fractures. Study Design and Setting Between July 2000 and September 2005, we enrolled 1319 skeletally mature patients with open or closed fractures of the tibial shaft that were managed with intramedullary nailing. Patients were asked to complete the Short Musculoskeletal Function Assessment and Short Form-36 at discharge and 3, 6, and 12 months post surgical fixation. Results Short Musculoskeletal Function Assessment Dysfunction Index and Short Form-36 Physical Component Summary scores were highly correlated at 3, 6, and 12 months post surgical fixation. The difference in mean standardized change scores for the Short Musculoskeletal Function Assessment Dysfunction Index and the Short Form-36 Physical Component Summary, from 3 to 12 months post-surgical fixation, was not statistically significant. Both the Short Musculoskeletal Function Assessment Dysfunction Index and Short Form-36 Physical Component Summary scores were able to discriminate between healed and non-healed tibial fractures at 3, 6, and 12 months post surgery. Conclusion In patients with tibial shaft fractures, the Short Musculoskeletal Function Assessment Dysfunction Index offered no important advantages over the Short Form-36 Physical Component Summary score. These results, along with the usefulness of the Short Form-36 for comparing populations, recommends the Short Form-36 for assessing physical function in studies of patients with tibial fractures. PMID:19364637

  19. Classification Accuracy of Sequentially Administered WAIS-IV Short Forms.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Joseph J; Kreiner, David S; Gontkovsky, Samuel T; Glass Umfleet, Laura

    2015-01-01

    A Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) short form (SF) may be effective for ruling out subnormal intelligence. To create a useful SF, subtest administration should follow the order prescribed in the manual and, depending upon individual performance, be terminated after completion of 2, 3, 4, or 5 subtests. One hundred and twenty-two patients completed the WAIS-IV. In two analyses, Full-Scale IQs (FSIQs) ≤69 and ≤79 were classified as impairment. Classification accuracy statistics indicated that all SFs using both cutoff scores exceeded the base rate (i.e., 14% and 34%) of subnormal intelligence, with hit rates ranging from 84% to 95%. The FSIQ cutoff of ≤69 had poor sensitivity for detecting impaired intellectual functioning with the 2-, 3-, 4-, and 5-subtest SFs; specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) were excellent for each SF. With the FSIQ cutoff of ≤79, sensitivity was strong to excellent for the 3-, 4-, and 5-subtest SFs as were specificity, PPV, and NPV.

  20. Comparison of seven-subtest and Satz-Mogel short forms of the WAIS-III.

    PubMed

    Kulas, Joseph F; Axelrod, Bradley N

    2002-07-01

    Intellectual functioning remains an important domain of functioning to be measured. To reduce the lengthy administration time, numerous short forms of the WAIS-III have been devised. The present study aimed to compare two methods of applying short forms of the WAIS-III within a clinical population. The results revealed that both item-reduced and selected subtest short forms provide excellent predictions of full administration WAIS-III summary and index scores. The Satz-Mogel short form appeared to provide higher predictive power than the seven-subtest short forms and accounted for a higher number of cases within 6 points of the obtained scores from the full administration. However, the Satz-Mogel short form was inferior to the seven-subtest short forms in terms of the reliability of the index and summary IQ scores. As found in previous research, a trade-off occurs between the predictive power and the reliability of a short form.

  1. Note on Selection of WISC-R Short Forms for Different Uses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goh, David S.

    1980-01-01

    Examined the validity coefficients of all possible WISC-R short forms of several subtests. Comparisons were made between coefficients given by McNemar's and Silverstein's formulas to determine "best" short forms for different uses. Results indicated only a slight difference between short forms selected by the two methods. (Author)

  2. Short forms of the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale and the Social Phobia Scale.

    PubMed

    Fergus, Thomas A; Valentiner, David P; McGrath, Patrick B; Gier-Lonsway, Stephanie L; Kim, Hyun-Soo

    2012-01-01

    Mattick and Clarke's (1998) Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (SIAS) and Social Phobia Scale (SPS) are commonly used self-report measures that assess 2 dimensions of social anxiety. Given the need for short, readable measures, this research proposes short forms of both scales. Item-level analyses of readability characteristics of the SIAS and SPS items led to the selection of 6 items from each scale for use in the short forms. The SIAS and SPS short forms had reading levels at approximately the 6th and 5th grade level, respectively. Results using nonclinical (Study 1: N = 469) and clinical (Study 2: N = 145) samples identified these short forms as being factorially sound, possessing adequate internal consistency, and having strong convergence with their full-length counterparts. Moreover, these short forms showed convergence with other measures of social anxiety, showed divergence from measures assessing related constructs, and predicted concurrent interpersonal functioning. Recommendations for the use of these short forms are discussed.

  3. Social Anxiety Scale for Adolescents (SAS-A) Short Form.

    PubMed

    Nelemans, Stefanie A; Meeus, Wim H J; Branje, Susan J T; Van Leeuwen, Karla; Colpin, Hilde; Verschueren, Karine; Goossens, Luc

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we examined the longitudinal measurement invariance of a 12-item short version of the Social Anxiety Scale for Adolescents (SAS-A) in two 4-year longitudinal community samples ( Nsample 1 = 815, Mage T1 = 13.38 years; Nsample 2 = 551, Mage T1 = 14.82 years). Using confirmatory factor analyses, we found strict longitudinal measurement invariance for the three-factor structure of the SAS-A across adolescence, across samples, and across gender. Some developmental changes in social anxiety were found from early to mid-adolescence, as well as gender differences across adolescence. These findings suggest that the short version of the SAS-A is a developmentally appropriate instrument that can be used effectively to examine adolescent social anxiety development.

  4. Validity of the Ward seven-subtest WAIS-III short form in a neuropsychological population.

    PubMed

    Pilgrim, B M; Meyers, J E; Bayless, J; Whetstone, M M

    1999-01-01

    An investigation of the Ward 7-subtest short form of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III (WAIS-III) in a neuropsychological clinic sample finds that the short form retains equivalent psychometric properties to those previously reported for the same short form of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R). The correlations found for the 7-subtest form of the WAIS-III were .95 for Performance IQ, .97 for Verbal IQ, and .98 for Full Scale IQ. The 7-subtest short form of the WAIS-III was also found to perform similarly to its WAIS-R counterpart on other markers of test accuracy. These results support the continued use of the Ward 7-subtest short form of the WAIS-III in a neuropsychological population.

  5. A Comparison of Six MMPI Short Forms: Code Type Correspondence and Indices of Psychopathology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willcockson, James C.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Compared six Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) short forms with the full-length MMPI for ability to identify code-types and indices of psychopathology in renal dialysis patients (N=53) and paranoid schizophrenics (N=58). Results suggested that the accuracy of the short forms fluctuates for different patient populations and…

  6. Test-Retest Reproducibility of Two Short-Form Balance Measures Used in Individuals with Stroke

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liaw, Lih-Jiun; Hsieh, Ching-Lin; Hsu, Miao-Ju; Chen, Hui-Mei; Lin, Jau-Hong; Lo, Sing-Kai

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the test-retest reproducibility of the seven-item Short-Form Berg Balance Scale (SFBBS) and the five-item Short-Form Postural Assessment Scale for Stroke Patients (SFPASS) in individuals with chronic stroke. Fifty-two chronic stroke patients from two rehabilitation departments were included in the study. Both…

  7. The School Short-Form Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory: Revised and Improved

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hills, Peter R.; Francis, Leslie J.; Jennings, Penelope

    2011-01-01

    The school short form of the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory is a widely used measure of children's global self-esteem. Unlike the full-length scale, however, it has been generally understood that the short form does not allow differentiation between the major individual sources of self-esteem. The present study has examined the internal…

  8. Comparison of WAIS-III Short Forms for Measuring Index and Full-Scale Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Girard, Todd A.; Axelrod, Bradley N.; Wilkins, Leanne K.

    2010-01-01

    This investigation assessed the ability of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Third Edition (WAIS-III) short forms to estimate both index and IQ scores in a large, mixed clinical sample (N = 809). More specifically, a commonly used modification of Ward's seven-subtest short form (SF7-A), a recently proposed index-based SF7-C and eight-subtest…

  9. 48 CFR 1852.223-72 - Safety and Health (Short Form).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Safety and Health (Short Form). 1852.223-72 Section 1852.223-72 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND... following clause: Safety and Health (Short Form) (APR 2002) (a) Safety is the freedom from those...

  10. The Short Form Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery in Assessment of Dementia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCue, Michael; And Others

    This study sought to determine whether a short form of the Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery could discriminate between senile dementia of the Alzheimer's type and depression in a sample of elderly neuropsychiatric patients. The short form Luria-Nebraska includes 141 of the 269 items contained in the original version, with the Rhythm scale…

  11. Concurrent Validity of Three WAIS-R Short Forms in Psychiatric Inpatients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benedict, Ralph H. B.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    The concurrent validities of 3 short forms of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) were compared for their prediction of full-scale IQ for 145 male and 159 female psychiatric inpatients. Results support previous research showing better predictive accuracy for L. C. Ward's (1990) seven-subtest short form than the others. (SLD)

  12. Development and Validation of the Drinking Motive Questionnaire Revised Short Form (DMQ-R SF)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuntsche, Emmanuel; Kuntsche, Sandra

    2009-01-01

    A short form of the Drinking Motive Questionnaire Revised (DMQ-R; Cooper, 1994) was developed, using different item selection strategies based on a national representative sample of 5,617 12- to 18-year-old students in Switzerland. To confirm the concurrent validity of the short-form questionnaire, or DMQ-R SF, data from a second national sample…

  13. Item Selection for the Development of Short Forms of Scales Using an Ant Colony Optimization Algorithm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leite, Walter L.; Huang, I-Chan; Marcoulides, George A.

    2008-01-01

    This article presents the use of an ant colony optimization (ACO) algorithm for the development of short forms of scales. An example 22-item short form is developed for the Diabetes-39 scale, a quality-of-life scale for diabetes patients, using a sample of 265 diabetes patients. A simulation study comparing the performance of the ACO algorithm and…

  14. Reappraisal of the Validity of WAIS, WISC, and WPPSI Short Forms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silverstein, A. B.

    1970-01-01

    Data from the WAIS, WISC, and WPPSI Standardization samples were used to reappraise validity of all short forms of two, three, four, and five subtests. Results were compared with those given by McNemar's formula. The corrected formula gave lower values and selected "best short forms that differed from McNemar's formula. (Author)

  15. Development of a Short Form of the Boston Naming Test for Individuals with Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    del Toro, Christina M.; Bislick, Lauren P.; Comer, Matthew; Velozo, Craig; Romero, Sergio; Rothi, Leslie J. Gonzalez; Kendall, Diane L.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to develop a short form of the Boston Naming Test (BNT; Kaplan, Goodglass, & Weintraub, 2001) for individuals with aphasia and compare it with 2 existing short forms originally analyzed with responses from people with dementia and neurologically healthy adults. Method: Development of the new BNT-Aphasia Short…

  16. Short forms of the Texas Social Behavior Inventory /TSBI/, an objective measure of self-esteem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helmreich, R.; Stapp, J.

    1974-01-01

    Two short (16 item) forms of the Helmreich, Stapp, and Ervin (1974) Texas Social Behavior Inventory, a validated, objective measure of self-esteem or social competence are presented. Normative data and other statistics are described for males and females. Correlations between each short form and long (32-item) scale were .97. Factor analysis and part-whole correlations verified the similarity of the two forms. The utility of the scale in research is described.

  17. Development of an IRT-based Short Form to Assess Applied Cognitive Function in Outpatient Rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    McDonough, Christine M.; Ni, Pengsheng; Coster, Wendy J.; Haley, Stephen M.; Jette, Alan M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Item response theory (IRT) and computerized adaptive testing (CAT) methods allow the development of a large calibrated item bank from which different subsets of questions can be selected for administration and scored on a common scale. Our objective was to develop an outpatient rehabilitation self-report short form for the Activity Measure for Post-Acute Care Applied Cognition item bank. Design Using data from a convenience sample of 235 rehabilitation outpatients, item content and IRT-based test information function parameters were employed in item selection. Internal consistency reliability, Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC), and percent at the lowest (floor) and highest (ceiling) scores were evaluated for the short form and full item bank. Results A 15-item short form was developed. The internal consistency of the short form was 0.86. The ICC3,1 for the short form and item bank was 0.97 (95% CI: 0.94, 0.98). No floor effects were noted, and ceiling effects were 27.66 % (short form) and 26.38% (full item bank). Conclusions The Applied Cognition outpatient short form demonstrated acceptable psychometric properties and provides a bridge to IRT-based measurement for settings where point of care computing is not available. PMID:26135369

  18. Measuring the phenomenology of autobiographical memory: A short form of the Memory Experiences Questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Luchetti, Martina; Sutin, Angelina R

    2016-01-01

    The Memory Experiences Questionnaire (MEQ) is a theoretically driven and empirically validated 63-item self-report scale designed to measure 10 phenomenological qualities of autobiographical memories: Vividness, Coherence, Accessibility, Time Perspective, Sensory Details, Visual Perspective, Emotional Intensity, Sharing, Distancing and Valence. To develop a short form of the MEQ to use when time is limited, participants from two samples (N = 719; N = 352) retrieved autobiographical memories, rated the phenomenological experience of each memory and completed several scales measuring psychological distress. For each MEQ dimension, the number of items was reduced by one-half based on item content and item-total correlations. Each short-form scale had acceptable internal consistency (median alpha = .79), and, similar to the long-form version of the scales, the new short scales correlated with psychological distress in theoretically meaningful ways. The new short form of the MEQ has similar psychometric proprieties as the original long form and can be used when time is limited.

  19. Clinical validation of Canadian WAIS-III Index short forms in inpatient neuropsychiatry and forensic psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Lange, Rael T; Iverson, Grant L; Viljoen, Hendré; Brink, Johann

    2007-05-01

    Recent research has provided some support for the concurrent validity of two-subtest short forms for estimating Canadian WAIS-III Index scores in the standardization sample (Lange & Iverson, in press). The purpose of this study was to examine the efficacy of using various two-subtest short forms to estimate Canadian WAIS-III Index scores in a clinical population. Participants were 100 inpatients from two large psychiatric hospitals in British Columbia, Canada. Using all possible two-subtest combinations, estimated VCI, POI, and WMI scores were generated by prorating subtest scaled scores and using the Canadian normative data (Wechsler, 2001). The agreement rate between full form and short form index scores was very high for all subtest combinations (range = 90-98%). Two-subtest short forms were useful for estimating VCI, POI, and WMI scores in this population.

  20. A New Method for Estimating the Variance Overlap between the Short and the Long Form of a Psychological Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfeiffer, Nils; Hagemann, Dirk; Backenstrass, Matthias

    2011-01-01

    In response to the low standards in short form development, Smith, McCarthy, and Anderson (2000) introduced a set of guidelines for the construction and evaluation of short forms of psychological tests. One of their recommendations requires researches to show that the variance overlap between the short form and its long form is adequate. This…

  1. Texas Christian University (TCU) Short Forms for Assessing Client Needs and Functioning in Addiction Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, D. Dwayne; Joe, George W.; Knight, Kevin; Rowan-Szal, Grace A.; Gray, Julie S.

    2012-01-01

    The TCU Short Forms contain a revised and expanded set of assessments for planning and managing addiction treatment services. They are formatted as brief (one-page) forms to measure client needs and functioning, including drug use severity and history (TCUDS II), criminal thinking and cognitive orientation (CTSForm), motivation and readiness for…

  2. The Utility of Two Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale Short Forms with Prisoners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, W. M., III; And Others

    1978-01-01

    This study used 126 young adult black and white male inmates to test the comparability of the Pauker and Statz and Mogul short forms with the standard Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS). The Pauker form was superior with this population. Findings should not be generalized to other ages, races, or to women. (Author/CP)

  3. The Development and Validation of an Italian Short Form of the Adolescent Friendship Attachment Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baiocco, Roberto; Pallini, Susanna; Santamaria, Federica

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to validate a short form of the Adolescent Friendship Attachment Scale that evaluates best friend's attachment considering three styles: Secure, Anxious, and Avoidant. The scale demonstrated adequate internal consistency. Confirmatory factor analysis confirmed the three-factor structure as found in the long form.

  4. Short-Form Versions of the Spanish MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson-Maldonodo, Donna; Marchman, Virginia A.; Fernald, Lia C. H.

    2013-01-01

    The Spanish-language MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories (S-CDIs) are well-established parent report tools for assessing the language development of Spanish-speaking children under 3 years. Here, we introduce the short-form versions of the S-CDIs (SFI and SFII), offered as alternatives to the long forms for screening purposes or…

  5. Comparing Two Short Forms of the Hewitt-Flett Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale.

    PubMed

    Stoeber, Joachim

    2016-07-22

    Hewitt and Flett's 45-item Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale is a widely used instrument to assess self-oriented, other-oriented, and socially prescribed perfectionism. With 45 items, it is not overly lengthy, but there are situations where a short form is useful. Analyzing data from four samples, this article compares two frequently used 15-item short forms of the Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale-Cox et al.'s and Hewitt et al.'s-by examining to what degree their scores replicate the original version's correlations with various personality characteristics (e.g., traits, social goals, personal/interpersonal orientations). Regarding self-oriented and socially prescribed perfectionism, both short forms performed well. Regarding other-oriented perfectionism, however, Cox et al.'s short form (exclusively composed of negatively worded items) performed less well than Hewitt et al.'s (which contains no negatively worded items). It is recommended that researchers use Hewitt et al.'s short form to assess other-oriented perfectionism rather than Cox et al.'s.

  6. Validation of WAIS-III four-subtest short forms in patients with traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Reid-Arndt, Stephanie A; Allen, Brittany J; Schopp, Laura

    2011-10-01

    In an effort to identify four-subtest Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Third Edition (WAIS-III) short forms valid for estimating Full-Scale IQ (FSIQ) among individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI), seven tetrad versions of the WAIS-III were evaluated in a convenience sample of patients referred for neuropsychological assessment (n = 176). Estimated FSIQ scores were compared to actual FSIQ scores via correlation analyses, repeated-measures analyses of variance (ANOVAs), and frequency analyses. All short form-estimated FSIQ scores correlated highly with actual scores (all rs > .91, ps < .001). Repeated-measures ANOVAs identified no significant differences between actual and short form-estimated FSIQ scores for two of the seven short forms. These same two short forms had the highest percentage of scores within ±5 points of actual FSIQ scores (75.6% and 71.6%). Thus, two tetrad versions were consistently superior to others in accuracy of estimating FSIQ; these may be helpful when time constraints or other issues necessitate use of an abbreviated battery for estimating FSIQ among individuals with TBI.

  7. Developing brief fatigue short forms calibrated to a common mathematical metric: is content-balancing important?

    PubMed

    Cook, Karon F; Choi, Seung W; Johnson, Kurt L; Amtmann, Dagmar

    2010-08-01

    There are clinical and research settings in which concerns about respondent burden make the use of longer self-report measures impractical. Though computer adaptive testing provides an efficient strategy for measuring patient reported outcomes, the requirement of a computer interface makes it impractical for some settings. This study evaluated how well brief short forms, constructed from a longer measure of patient reported fatigue, reproduced scores on the full measure. When the items of an item bank are calibrated using an item response theory model, it is assumed that the items are fungible units. Theoretically, there should be no advantage to balancing the content coverage of the items. We compared short forms developed using a random item selection process to short forms developed with consideration of the items relation to subdomains of fatigue (ie, physical and cognitive fatigue). Scores on short forms developed using content balancing more successfully predicted full item bank scores than did scores on short forms developed by random selection of items.

  8. The Utility of Seven-Subtest Short Forms of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III in Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tam, Wai-Cheong Carl

    2004-01-01

    Along with ongoing research on the WAIS-R, short forms of the WAIS-III have attracted much attention. However, few studies of WAIS-III short forms are based on normal samples or on the validation of estimated indexes. This study examined the utility of two seven-subtest short forms in 81 healthy young adults in Taiwan with the administration of…

  9. Four Short-Form Linear Equation Estimates of Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale III IQs in an Elderly Sample.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clara, Ian P.; Huynh, Cam-Loi

    2003-01-01

    The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-3rd Edition (WAIS-III) was released in 1997. Short forms developed for previous versions have not yet been investigated for the WAIS-III in special populations. A 4-subtest short form by A. B. Silverstein emerged as the most promising short form in an elderly sample. (Contains 49 references, 4 tables, and 2…

  10. Dyadic Short Forms of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-IV.

    PubMed

    Denney, David A; Ringe, Wendy K; Lacritz, Laura H

    2015-08-01

    Full Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) administration can be time-consuming and may not be necessary when intelligence quotient estimates will suffice. Estimated Full Scale Intelligence Quotient (FSIQ) and General Ability Index (GAI) scores were derived from nine dyadic short forms using individual regression equations based on data from a clinical sample (n = 113) that was then cross validated in a separate clinical sample (n = 50). Derived scores accounted for 70%-83% of the variance in FSIQ and 77%-88% of the variance in GAI. Predicted FSIQs were strongly associated with actual FSIQ (rs = .73-.88), as were predicted and actual GAIs (rs = .80-.93). Each of the nine dyadic short forms of the WAIS-IV was a good predictor of FSIQ and GAI in the validation sample. These data support the validity of WAIS-IV short forms when time is limited or lengthier batteries cannot be tolerated by patients.

  11. Development of a short-form Learning Organization Survey: the LOS-27.

    PubMed

    Singer, Sara J; Moore, Scott C; Meterko, Mark; Williams, Sandra

    2012-08-01

    Despite urgent need for innovation, adaptation, and change in health care, few tools enable researchers or practitioners to assess the extent to which health care facilities perform as learning organizations or the effects of initiatives that require learning. This study's objective was to develop and test a short-form Learning Organization Survey to fill this gap. The authors applied exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis to data from Veterans Health Administration personnel to derive a short-form survey and then conducted further confirmatory factor analysis and factor invariance testing on additional Veterans Health Administration data to evaluate the short form. Results suggest that a 27-item, 7-factor survey (2 environmental factors, 1 on leadership, and 4 on concrete learning processes and practices) reliably measures key features of organizational learning, allowing researchers to evaluate theoretical propositions about organizational learning, its antecedents, and outcomes and enabling managers to assess and enhance organizations' learning capabilities and performance.

  12. Construction and factorial validation of a short form of the Self-Compassion Scale.

    PubMed

    Raes, Filip; Pommier, Elizabeth; Neff, Kristin D; Van Gucht, Dinska

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to construct and validate a short-form version of the Self-Compassion Scale (SCS). Two Dutch samples were used to construct and cross-validate the factorial structure of a 12-item Self-Compassion Scale-Short Form (SCS-SF). The SCS-SF was then validated in a third, English sample. The SCS-SF demonstrated adequate internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha ≥ 0.86 in all samples) and a near-perfect correlation with the long form SCS (r ≥ 0.97 all samples). Confirmatory factor analysis on the SCS-SF supported the same six-factor structure as found in the long form, as well as a single higher-order factor of self-compassion. The SCS-SF thus represents a reliable and valid alternative to the long-form SCS, especially when looking at overall self-compassion scores.

  13. Reliability and validity of the Korean version of the Short Musculoskeletal Function Assessment questionnaire for patients with musculoskeletal disorder.

    PubMed

    Jung, Kyoung-Sim; Jung, Jin-Hwa; In, Tae-Sung; Cho, Hwi-Young

    2016-09-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to establish the reliability and validity of the Short Musculoskeletal Function Assessment questionnaire, which was translated into Korean, for patients with musculoskeletal disorder. [Subjects and Methods] Fifty-five subjects (26 males and 29 females) with musculoskeletal diseases participated in the study. The Short Musculoskeletal Function Assessment questionnaire focuses on a limited range of physical functions and includes a dysfunction index and a bother index. Reliability was determined using the intraclass correlation coefficient, and validity was examined by correlating short musculoskeletal function assessment scores with the 36-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) score. [Results] The reliability was 0.97 for the dysfunction index and 0.94 for the bother index. Validity was established by comparison with Korean version of the SF-36. [Conclusion] This study demonstrated that the Korean version of the Short Musculoskeletal Function Assessment questionnaire is a reliable and valid instrument for the assessment of musculoskeletal disorders.

  14. Reliability and validity of the Korean version of the Short Musculoskeletal Function Assessment questionnaire for patients with musculoskeletal disorder

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Kyoung-Sim; Jung, Jin-Hwa; In, Tae-Sung; Cho, Hwi-Young

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to establish the reliability and validity of the Short Musculoskeletal Function Assessment questionnaire, which was translated into Korean, for patients with musculoskeletal disorder. [Subjects and Methods] Fifty-five subjects (26 males and 29 females) with musculoskeletal diseases participated in the study. The Short Musculoskeletal Function Assessment questionnaire focuses on a limited range of physical functions and includes a dysfunction index and a bother index. Reliability was determined using the intraclass correlation coefficient, and validity was examined by correlating short musculoskeletal function assessment scores with the 36-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) score. [Results] The reliability was 0.97 for the dysfunction index and 0.94 for the bother index. Validity was established by comparison with Korean version of the SF-36. [Conclusion] This study demonstrated that the Korean version of the Short Musculoskeletal Function Assessment questionnaire is a reliable and valid instrument for the assessment of musculoskeletal disorders. PMID:27799696

  15. A short form of the Pelvic Organ Prolapse/Urinary Incontinence Sexual Questionnaire (PISQ-12).

    PubMed

    Rogers, Rebecca G; Coates, Kimberly W; Kammerer-Doak, Dorothy; Khalsa, Satkirin; Qualls, Clifford

    2003-08-01

    The aim of this study was to develop the short form of a condition-specific, reliable, validated and self-administered instrument to evaluate sexual function in women with pelvic organ prolapse and/or urinary incontinence. The Pelvic Organ Prolapse/Urinary Incontinence Sexual Questionnaire -12 (PISQ-12) was developed from the data of 99 of 182 women surveyed to create the long form (PISQ-31). An additional 46 patients were recruited for further validation. All subsets regression analysis identified 12 items likely to predict PISQ-31 scores. Short form scores underwent correlation analysis with long form, Incontinence Impact Questionnaire - 7 (IIQ-7), Sexual History Form -12 (SHF-12) and Symptom Questionnaire (SQ) scores. Test-retest reliability was checked with a subset of 20 patients. All subsets regression analysis with R>0.92 identified 12 items that predicted PISQ-31 scores. Short form scores were highly correlated with long form scores ( R=0.75-0.95). Correlations of the PISQ-12 with SHF-12 ( R=-0.66 and -0.68) and IIQ-7 ( R=-0.38 and -0.54) scores were similar to correlation of the PISQ-31 with these other measures. Reliability was moderate to high, with weighted kappa values from 0.56 to 0.93. PISQ-12 scores were lower in patients with low sexual function as measured on the SHF-12 ( P <0.001), and lower in women with depression as measured on the SQ ( P <0.001). The PISQ-12 is a validated and reliable short form that evaluates sexual function in women with urinary incontinence and/or pelvic organ prolapse and predicts PISQ-31 scores. It is able to distinguish women with poor sexual function as measured on the SHF-12.

  16. Validation of the Short Form of the Career Development Inventory with an Iranian High School Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadeghi, Ahmad; Baghban, Iran; Bahrami, Fatemeh; Ahmadi, Ahmad; Creed, Peter

    2011-01-01

    A short 33-item form of the Career Development Inventory was validated on a sample of 310 Iranian high school students. Factor analysis indicated that attitude and cognitive subscale items loaded on their respective factors, and that internal reliability coefficients at all levels were satisfactory to good. Support for validity was demonstrated by…

  17. Factor Structure and Validity of the Parenting Stress Index-Short Form

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haskett, Mary E.; Ahern, Lisa S.; Ward, Caryn S.; Allaire, Jason C.

    2006-01-01

    The psychometric properties of the Parenting Stress Index-Short Form (PSI-SF) were examined in a sample of 185 mothers and fathers. Factor analysis revealed 2 reasonably distinct factors involving parental distress and dysfunctional parent-child interactions. Both scales were internally consistent, and these scales were correlated with measures of…

  18. Validity of the Short Form of the Parenting Stress Index for Fathers of Toddlers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKelvey, Lorraine M.; Whiteside-Mansell, Leanne; Faldowski, Richard A.; Shears, Jeffrey; Ayoub, Catherine; Hart, Andrea D.

    2009-01-01

    We examined the psychometric properties of two scales of the parenting stress index-short form (PSI-SF) in a low-income sample of fathers of toddlers. The factor structure, reliability, and validity of the parental distress and parent-child dysfunctional interaction subscales were assessed for 696 fathers in a multi-site study of Early Head Start.…

  19. Validation of the Parenting Stress Index--Short Form with Minority Caregivers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Sang Jung; Gopalan, Geetha; Harrington, Donna

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: There has been little examination of the structural validity of the Parenting Stress Index--Short Form (PSI-SF) for minority populations in clinical contexts in the Unites States. This study aimed to test prespecified factor structures (one-factor, two-factor, and three-factor models) of the PSI-SF. Methods: This study used…

  20. Psychometric Characteristics of the Korean Mental Health Continuum-Short Form in an Adolescent Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Young-Jin

    2014-01-01

    There have been few research studies to examine the positive mental health of Asian adolescents. The aim here is to examine the factorial structure, internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and convergent/discriminant validity of a Korean version of the Mental Health Continuum-short form (K-MHC-SF), a newly developed self-report scale for…

  1. The Short Form of the Five-Factor Narcissism Inventory: Psychometric Equivalence of the Turkish Version

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eksi, Füsun

    2016-01-01

    This study intends to examine the psychometric properties of the Turkish version of the short form of the Five-Factor Narcissism Inventory (FFNI-SF). The study group consists of a total of 526 university students (54% were female) whose ages range from 18 to 32. In the translational equivalence study made over a two-week interval, the FFNI-SF…

  2. Career Decision Self-Efficacy Scale-Short Form: A Rasch Analysis of the Portuguese Version

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miguel, Jose P.; Silva, Jose T.; Prieto, Gerardo

    2013-01-01

    The present study analyzes the psychometric properties of the Career Decision Self-Efficacy Scale-Short Form (CDSE-SF) in a sample of Portuguese secondary education students using the Rasch model. The results indicate that the 25 items of the CDSE-SF are well fitted to a latent unidimensional structure, as required by Rasch modeling. The response…

  3. A Short Synthesis of Aphanamol I in Both Racemic and Enantiopure Forms

    PubMed Central

    Ferrara, Steven J.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A short synthesis of the biologically active sesquiterpene natural product (+)‐aphanamol I in both racemic and enantiopure forms is reported. Key steps include: a catalytic enantioselective conjugate addition, an oxidative radical cyclization, and a ring‐expanding Claisen rearrangement. PMID:27389970

  4. Preliminary Evaluation of the Childhood Experiences of Violence Questionnaire Short Form

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanaka, Masako; Wekerle, Christine; Leung, Eman; Waechter, Randall; Gonzalez, Andrea; Jamieson, Ellen; MacMillan, Harriet L.

    2012-01-01

    Despite advances in child maltreatment research, accurate measurement of exposure remains a key issue. In this study, we evaluated a short form (CEVQ-SF) of the Childhood Experiences of Violence Questionnaire (CEVQ) in a sample of adolescents involved with child protection services in an urban city in Ontario, Canada. Focusing on the two most…

  5. Contrasting State-of-the-Art in the Machine Scoring of Short-Form Constructed Responses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shermis, Mark D.

    2015-01-01

    This study compared short-form constructed responses evaluated by both human raters and machine scoring algorithms. The context was a public competition on which both public competitors and commercial vendors vied to develop machine scoring algorithms that would match or exceed the performance of operational human raters in a summative high-stakes…

  6. Confirming the Structural Validity of the My Class Inventory -- Short Form Revised

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mariani, Melissa; Villares, Elizabeth; Sink, Christopher A.; Colvin, Kimberly; Kuba, Summer Perhay

    2015-01-01

    Researchers analyzed data collected from elementary school students (N = 893) to further establish the psychometric soundness of the My Class Inventory--Short Form Revised (MCI-SFR). A confirmatory factor analysis was conducted resulting in a good fit for a four-factor model, which corresponds to the instrument's four scales (Cohesion,…

  7. Factor Structure and Psychometric Properties of the Young Schema Questionnaire (Short Form) in Chinese Undergraduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cui, Lixia; Lin, Wenwen; Oei, Tian P. S.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated cross-cultural differences in the factor structure and psychometric properties of the Young Schema Questionnaire (short form; YSQ-SF). The participants were 712 Chinese undergraduate students. The total sample was randomly divided into two sub-samples. Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) was conducted on questionnaire results…

  8. 48 CFR 952.227-11 - Patent rights-retention by the contractor (short form).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...), insert the following clause: Patent Rights—Retention by the Contractor (Short Form) (MAR 1995) (a... Secretary of Commerce may review the Contractor's licensing program and decisions regarding small business applicants, and the Contractor will negotiate changes to its licensing policies, procedures, or...

  9. Multilevel Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Teacher My Class Inventory-Short Form

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villares, Elizabeth; Mariani, Melissa; Sink, Christopher A.; Colvin, Kimberly

    2016-01-01

    Researchers analyzed data from elementary teachers (N = 233) to further establish the psychometric soundness of the Teacher My Class Inventory-Short Form. Supporting previous psychometric research, confirmatory factor analyses findings supported the factorial validity of the hypothesized five-factor solution. Internal reliability estimates were…

  10. Validity of Verbal IQ as a Short Form of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wildman, Robert W.; Wildman, Robert W., II

    1977-01-01

    The validity of the Verbal IQ as a short form of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) was investigated using the criteria proposed by Resnick and Entin. The WAIS was administered to 100 psychiatric patients. There was no significant difference between the means of the Verbal and Full Scale IQs. (Author)

  11. Development of a Short Form of the Five-Factor Narcissism Inventory: the FFNI-SF.

    PubMed

    Sherman, Emily D; Miller, Joshua D; Few, Lauren R; Campbell, W Keith; Widiger, Thomas A; Crego, Cristina; Lynam, Donald R

    2015-09-01

    The Five-Factor Narcissism Inventory (FFNI; Glover, Miller, Lynam, Crego, & Widiger, 2012) is a 148-item self-report inventory of 15 traits designed to assess the basic elements of narcissism from the perspective of a 5-factor model. The FFNI assesses both vulnerable (i.e., cynicism/distrust, need for admiration, reactive anger, and shame) and grandiose (i.e., acclaim seeking, arrogance, authoritativeness, entitlement, exhibitionism, exploitativeness, grandiose fantasies, indifference, lack of empathy, manipulativeness, and thrill seeking) variants of narcissism. The present study reports the development of a short-form version of the FFNI in 4 diverse samples (i.e., 2 undergraduate samples, a sample recruited from MTurk, and a clinical community sample) using item response theory. The validity of the resultant 60-item short form was compared against the validity of the full scale in the 4 samples at both the subscale level and the level of the grandiose and vulnerable composites. Results indicated that the 15 subscales remain relatively reliable, possess a factor structure identical to the structure of the long-form scales, and manifest correlational profiles highly similar to those of the long-form scales in relation to a variety of criterion measures, including basic personality dimensions, other measures of grandiose and vulnerable narcissism, and indicators of externalizing and internalizing psychopathology. Grandiose and vulnerable composites also behave almost identically across the short- and long-form versions. It is concluded that the FFNI-Short Form (FFNI-SF) offers a well-articulated assessment of the basic traits comprising grandiose and vulnerable narcissism, particularly when assessment time is limited.

  12. Exploratory and Confirmatory Studies of the Structure of the Bem Sex Role Inventory Short Form with Two Divergent Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Namok; Fuqua, Dale R.; Newman, Jody L.

    2009-01-01

    The short form of the Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI) contains half as many items as the long form and yet has often demonstrated better reliability and validity. This study uses exploratory and confirmatory factor analytic methods to examine the structure of the short form of the BSRI. A structure noted elsewhere also emerged here, consisting of…

  13. Validity of the Parenting Stress Index-Short Form in a sample of Spanish fathers.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Herrero, Angela; López-Pina, José Antonio; Pérez-López, Julio; Brito de la Nuez, Alfredo G; Martínez-Fuentes, María Teresa

    2011-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the psychometric properties of the Spanish version of the Parenting Stress Index-Short Form in a sample of 115 fathers of infants aged between ten and thirty-nine months old. The exploratory factor analysis revealed three reasonably distinct factors, as in the original version of the instrument. The three extracted factors: Parental Distress, Parent-Child Dysfunctional Interaction and Difficult Child accounted for 47.48 % of the variance. The internal consistency coefficients were high in each factor or subscale. These results provided empirical evidence in favour of the reliability and validity of the Parenting Stress Index-Short Form in Spanish fathers, and can be useful to elucidate the mechanisms through which stress impacts parenting and permitting to develop more targeted interventions for infants and their families.

  14. Constructing a Short Form of the Smoking Consequences Questionnaire With Adolescents and Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Mark G.; McCarthy, Denis M.; MacPherson, Laura; Brown, Sandra A.

    2007-01-01

    The goal of the present studies was to construct and validate a short form of the 50-item Smoking Consequences Questionnaire (SCQ; T. H. Brandon & T. B. Baker, 1991), a measure of smoking outcome expectancies. In Study 1, a 21-item short form (S-SCQ) was derived from a sample of 107 young adults previously treated for substance abuse. In Study 2, the measure was cross-validated on 125 adolescents in treatment for substance abuse. Confirmatory factor analyses revealed good model fit and factorial invariance for the 4 S-SCQ subscales across both samples. Validation analyses on each sample found that subscale scores generally correlated significantly with smoking-related variables. The present studies provide initial evidence for the utility of the S-SCQ when used with young adults and adolescents. PMID:12847776

  15. Validity and Reliability of International Physical Activity Questionnaire-Short Form in Chinese Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Chao; Chen, Peijie; Zhuang, Jie

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The psychometric profiles of the widely used International Physical Activity Questionnaire-Short Form (IPAQ-SF) in Chinese youth have not been reported. The purpose of this study was to examine the validity and reliability of the IPAQ-SF using a sample of Chinese youth. Method: One thousand and twenty-one youth (M[subscript age] = 14.26 ±…

  16. The Behaviour Problems Inventory-Short Form: Reliability and Factorial Validity in Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mascitelli, Andréa N.; Rojahn, Johannes; Nicolaides, Vias C.; Moore, Linda; Hastings, Richard P.; Christian-Jones, Ceri

    2015-01-01

    Background: The Behaviour Problems Inventory-Short Form (BPI-S) is a spin-off of the BPI-01 that was empirically developed from a large BPI-01 data set. In this study, the reliability and factorial validity of the BPI-S was investigated for the first time on newly collected data from adults with intellectual disabilities. Methods: The sample…

  17. Comparison of WAIS-III short forms for measuring index and full-scale scores.

    PubMed

    Girard, Todd A; Axelrod, Bradley N; Wilkins, Leanne K

    2010-09-01

    This investigation assessed the ability of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Third Edition (WAIS-III) short forms to estimate both index and IQ scores in a large, mixed clinical sample (N = 809). More specifically, a commonly used modification of Ward's seven-subtest short form (SF7-A), a recently proposed index-based SF7-C and eight-subtest short form (SF8) were evaluated. All three SFs proved adequate for estimating verbal comprehension, perceptual organization, and full-scale intelligence within considerably less time relative to an SF11 that provides full measurement of WAIS index scores. The SF7-A provided the best combination overall in terms of psychometric performance and estimated time savings. However, SF8 best represents all four factors and allows measurement of processing speed. The SF7-C was most hampered by inclusion of the Block Design subtest in the current assessment, but may prove advantageous in future extensions to the WAIS-IV.

  18. Short form of the WAIS-III for use with patients with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Blyler, C R; Gold, J M; Iannone, V N; Buchanan, R W

    2000-12-15

    The recent publication of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS-III), the most widely used standard test of intelligence, requires the development of a new short form for use with patients with schizophrenia for many clinical and research purposes. We used regression analyses of complete WAIS-III data on 41 outpatients with schizophrenia and 41 education-, and age-matched healthy subjects to determine the best combination of subtests to use as a short form. Excluding three subtests that are time-consuming to administer, and requiring that the solution includes one subtest from each of the four WAIS index scores, the combination that most fully accounted for the variance in full-scale IQ (FSIQ) for both participants with schizophrenia (R(2)=0.90) and healthy controls (R(2)=0.86) included the information, block design, arithmetic, and digit symbol subtests. When the restrictions regarding which subtests could enter were relaxed, the best four-subtest solution included information, block design, comprehension, and similarities. Although the latter explained 95% of the variance in FSIQ for schizophrenia participants and 90% of the variance for healthy controls, it consistently overestimated FSIQ for the schizophrenia group. We recommend the four-factor short form for use in future research and clinical practice in which a quick, accurate IQ estimate is desired.

  19. An Overview on Short and Long Time Relaxations in Glass-forming Supercooled Liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karmakar, Smarajit

    2016-10-01

    Density fluctuations in supercooled liquids near the glass transition relax in multiple steps. The short time relaxation is known as β-relaxation and the final long time relaxation is called α-relaxation. It is believed that the long time α-relaxation is a cooperative phenomena associated with a growing length scales, whereas the short-time β-relaxation is often attributed to spatially local processes involving the rattling motion of a particle in the transient cage formed by its neighbors. Using molecular dynamics simulations of few model glass-forming liquids, we show that the β-relaxation is also cooperative in nature and the length scale extracted from the detailed finite-size scaling analysis of β-relaxation is found to be the same as that of the length scale that describes the spatial heterogeneity of local dynamics in the long-time α-relaxation regime. These results provide a clear connection between short-time dynamics and long-time structural relaxation in glass-forming liquids.

  20. [The late results of short-term chemotherapy in benign forms of tuberculosis in children].

    PubMed

    Anastasatu, C; Anastasatu, O; Murgoci, G; Dobre, M; Bîscă, N; Calciu, M; Popescu, E; Tifescu, R; Didilescu, C; Burdujan, M

    1991-01-01

    The study included 359 cases of primary tuberculosis (benign forms) in children aged 0-14 years, out of which 181 non-complicated and 178 complicated forms. The therapeutical regimens were: 3HEZ2/3HE2 (study subgroup) and 6HE2/3H2 (control) for non-complicated forms, and 3HRZ2/3HR2 (study subgroup) and 3HES2/3HE2/3H2 (control) for complicated ones. Late results (5 years after treatment end) were very good (from clinical, radiological, bacteriological points of view) in 100% of cases. Thus, short-course regimens are preferable to longer ones (over 6 months) in the chemotherapy of the benign forms of pulmonary tuberculosis in children.

  1. Validation of Portuguese version of Quality of Erection Questionnaire (QEQ) and comparison to International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) and RAND 36-Item Health Survey

    PubMed Central

    Reis, Ana Luiza; Reis, Leonardo Oliveira; Saade, Ricardo Destro; Santos, Carlos Alberto; de Lima, Marcelo Lopes; Fregonesi, Adriano

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To validate the Quality of Erection Questionnaire (QEQ) considering Brazilian social-cultural aspects. Materials and Methods To determine equivalence between the Portuguese and the English QEQ versions, the Portuguese version was back-translated by two professors who are native English speakers. After language equivalence had been determined, urologists considered the QEQ Portuguese version suitable. Men with self-reported erectile dysfunction (ED) and infertile men who had a stable sexual relationship for at least 6 months were invited to answer the QEQ, the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) and the RAND 36-Item Health Survey (RAND-36). The questionnaires were presented together and answered without help in a private room. Internal consistency (Cronbach’s α), test-retest reliability (Spearman), convergent validity (Spearman correlation) coefficients and known-groups validity (the ability of the QEQ Portuguese version to differentiate erectile dysfunction severity groups) were assessed. Results We recruited 197 men (167 ED patients and 30 non-ED patients), mean age of 53.3 and median of 55.5 years (23-82 years). The Portuguese version of the QEQ had high internal consistency (Cronbach α=0.93), high stability between test and retest (ICC 0.83, with IC 95%: 0.76-0.88, p<0.001) and Spearman correlation coefficient r=0.82 (p<0.001), which demonstrated the high correlation between the QEQ and IIEF results. The correlations between the QEQ and RAND-36 were significantly low in ED (r=0.20, p=0.01) and non-ED patients (r=0.37, p=0.04). Conclusion The QEQ Portuguese version presented good psychometric properties and high convergent validity in relation to IIEF. The low correlations between the QEQ and the RAND-36, as well as between the IIEF and the RAND-36 indicated IIEF and QEQ specificity, which may have resulted from the patients’ psychological adaptations that minimized the impact of ED on Quality of Life (QoL) and reestablished the well

  2. Development of a short form of the Treatment Evaluation Inventory for acceptability of psychological interventions.

    PubMed

    Newton, J T; Sturmey, P

    2004-04-01

    The Treatment Evaluation Inventory of Kazdin, French, and Sherick is a 19-item measure of the perceived acceptability of behavioural treatments. Development of two brief forms was based on data from two sources. For Study 1, data from 218 completed questionnaires were used to develop internally consistent brief scales. In Study 2 internal consistency and the validity of the brief forms were estimated for a set of 131 questionnaires. Item reduction was achieved by analysis of item-total minus item correlations. Brief forms with 3, 6, 9, and 12 items were proposed. Their internal consistency (Cronbach alpha) and construct validity were based on correlations of scores on each short form with the full scale scores and on comparing means of different forms. Discriminant validity was based on the difference between two groups (estimated effect size 0.7). Scores for all forms showed high internal consistency and correlated highly with total scale scores. Only the 12-item brief scale yielded mean scores similar to the full scale. The 3-item form could be used as a quick screen, and the 12-item form for more intensive purposes as it is most similar to the full-scale.

  3. [A short form of the positions on nursing diagnosis scale: development and psychometric testing].

    PubMed

    Romero-Sánchez, José Manuel; Paloma-Castro, Olga; Paramio-Cuevas, Juan Carlos; Pastor-Montero, Sonia María; O'Ferrall-González, Cristina; Gabaldón-Bravo, Eva Maria; González-Domínguez, Maria Eugenia; Castro-Yuste, Cristina; Frandsen, Anna J; Martínez-Sabater, Antonio

    2013-06-01

    The Positions on Nursing Diagnosis (PND) is a scale that uses the semantic differential technique to measure nurses' attitudes towards the nursing diagnosis concept. The aim of this study was to develop a shortened form of the Spanish version of this scale and evaluate its psychometric properties and efficiency. A double theoretical-empirical approach was used to obtain a short form of the PND, the PND-7-SV, which would be equivalent to the original. Using a cross-sectional survey design, the reliability (internal consistency and test-retest reliability), construct (exploratory factor analysis, known-groups technique and discriminant validity) and criterion-related validity (concurrent validity), sensitivity to change and efficiency of the PND-7-SV were assessed in a sample of 476 Spanish nursing students. The results endorsed the utility of the PND-7-SV to measure attitudes toward nursing diagnosis in an equivalent manner to the complete form of the scale and in a shorter time.

  4. The Turkish Version of the Family Sense of Coherence Scale-Short Form (FSOC-S): Initial Development and Validation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cecen, Ayse Rezan

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate validity and reliability of Short Form of The Family Sense of Coherence Scale's which was developed originally 26 items by Antonovsky and Sourani (1988) and 12 items short form by Sagy (1998). The scale measures individuals' perception of Family Sense of Coherence and it can be applied to adolescents and…

  5. Construction of a Danish CDI Short Form for Language Screening at the Age of 36 Months: Methodological Considerations and Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vach, Werner; Bleses, Dorthe; Jorgensen, Rune

    2010-01-01

    Several research groups have previously constructed short forms of the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories (CDI) for different languages. We consider the specific aim of constructing such a short form to be used for language screening in a specific age group. We present a novel strategy for the construction, which is applicable…

  6. Overcoming language barriers in the informed consent process: regulatory and compliance issues with the use of the "short form".

    PubMed

    Lad, Pramod M; Dahl, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    Language barriers in the informed consent process can be a significant impediment when recruiting non-English speaking subjects into clinical research studies. Regulatory guidelines indicate that the short form procedure be utilized in such circumstances. In this paper, we examine some of the ambiguities in the regulatory framework, the resulting need for institutional policy guidelines, and compliance issues with the short form process.

  7. Comparing short forms of the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale and the Social Phobia Scale.

    PubMed

    Carleton, R Nicholas; Thibodeau, Michel A; Weeks, Justin W; Teale Sapach, Michelle J N; McEvoy, Peter M; Horswill, Samantha C; Heimberg, Richard G

    2014-12-01

    The Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (SIAS) and the Social Phobia Scale (SPS; Mattick & Clarke, 1998) are companion scales developed to measure anxiety in social interaction and performance situations, respectively. The measures have strong discriminant and convergent validity; however, their factor structures remain debated, and furthermore, the combined administration length (i.e., 39 items) can be prohibitive for some settings. There have been 4 attempts to assess the factor structures of the scales and reduce the item content: the 14-item Social Interaction Phobia Scale (SIPS; Carleton et al., 2009), the 12-item SIAS-6/SPS-6 (Peters, Sunderland, Andrews, Rapee, & Mattick, 2012), the 21-item abbreviated SIAS/SPS (ASIAS/ASPS; Kupper & Denollet, 2012), and the 12-item Readability SIAS and SPS (RSIAS/RSPS; Fergus, Valentiner, McGrath, Gier-Lonsway, & Kim, 2012). The current study compared the short forms on (a) factor structure, (b) ability to distinguish between clinical and non-clinical populations, (c) sensitivity to change following therapy, and (d) convergent validity with related measures. Participants included 3,607 undergraduate students (55% women) and 283 patients with social anxiety disorder (43% women). Results of confirmatory factor analyses, sensitivity analyses, and correlation analyses support the robust utility of items in the SIPS and the SPS-6 and SIAS-6 relative to the other short forms; furthermore, the SIPS and the SPS-6 and SIAS-6 were also supported by convergent validity analyses within the undergraduate sample. The RSIAS/RSPS and the ASIAS/ASPS were least supported, based on the current results and the principle of parsimony. Accordingly, researchers and clinicians should consider carefully which of the short forms will best suit their needs.

  8. Factor structure and validity of the parenting stress index-short form.

    PubMed

    Haskett, Mary E; Ahern, Lisa S; Ward, Caryn S; Allaire, Jason C

    2006-06-01

    The psychometric properties of the Parenting Stress Index-Short Form (PSI-SF) were examined in a sample of 185 mothers and fathers. Factor analysis revealed 2 reasonably distinct factors involving parental distress and dysfunctional parent-child interactions. Both scales were internally consistent, and these scales were correlated with measures of parent psychopathology, parental perceptions of child adjustment, and observed parent and child behavior. PSI-SF scores were related to parent reports of child behavior 1 year later, and the Childrearing Stress subscale was a significant predictor of a parental history of abuse.

  9. Measurement Quality of the Caregiver Strain Questionnaire-Short Form 7 (CGSQ-SF7).

    PubMed

    Brannan, Ana María; Athay, Mary Michele; de Andrade, Ana Regina Vides

    2012-03-01

    This study examined the measurement quality of an abbreviated version of the Caregiver Strain Questionnaire. The CGSQ-Short Form 7 (CGSQ-SF7) is practical for routine assessment of objective and subjective internalized caregiver strain. The subjective externalized subscale is not included in the CGSQ-SF7. Findings indicate that the reliability and validity of the shortened objective and subjective internalized subscales are comparable to the original. Examination of construct validity suggested that caregiver, youth, and clinician ratings of child clinical severity were related to objective caregiver strain. However, youth and clinician ratings of child clinical severity were not related to subjective internalized caregiver strain.

  10. Validity of two selected-item short forms of the WAIS-III in an intellectually deficient sample.

    PubMed

    Alley, Pamala J; Allen, Ryan A; Leverett, J Patrick

    2007-12-01

    Various short forms of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Third Edition (WAIS-III; D. Wechsler, 1997) have been investigated, but limited information is available regarding the usefulness of any WAIS-III abbreviation with intellectually deficient individuals. Our study compared the validities of two WAIS-III selected-item short forms in a sample of 59 individuals with full scale IQs (FSIQs) of 79 or lower. The performance of both short forms was adequate, but the results gave a consistent edge to an adapted version of the Satz-Mogel (1962) short form in comparison to the abbreviated form by J. H. Wymer, K. Rayls, and M. T. Wagner (2003). The correlation (r = .98) of Satz-Mogel estimates with WAIS-III FSIQ scores was slightly higher than the correlation (r = .97) for estimates from Wymer et al.'s abbreviated form, and Satz-Mogel estimates did not differ significantly from actual FSIQs. In comparison to individual classification (FSIQ > 70 versus FSIQ < or = 70) obtained with the full WAIS-III, the misclassification rate was somewhat lower for the Satz-Mogel short form. Although both short forms performed reasonably well, practitioners should be cautious when utilizing any short form to make decisions about individuals.

  11. Psychometric properties of the revised UCLA Loneliness Scale and two short-form measures of loneliness in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Wilson, D; Cutts, J; Lees, I; Mapungwana, S; Maunganidze, L

    1992-08-01

    The cross-cultural reliability in Zimbabwe of the Revised University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA) Loneliness Scale and two short forms of the Revised UCLA Loneliness Scale were investigated. Subjects comprised a sample of 1,354 adolescents and another sample of 754 adults. The reliability of the Revised UCLA Loneliness Scale was acceptable. The internal consistency of an eight-item short form of the Revised UCLA Loneliness Scale was adequate, but the reliability of a four-item short form was low. Factor analysis of the Revised UCLA Loneliness Scale, which yielded two factors similar to those reported in North America by Zakahi and Duran (1982) supported the construct validity of the Revised UCLA Loneliness Scale in Zimbabwe. The Revised UCLA Loneliness Scale and the eight-item short form were highly correlated, but this association was spuriously elevated by the fact the eight-item short form is part of the full scale. Factor analysis of the eight-item short form suggested that this scale does not consistently reflect the factor structure of the full scale. We concluded that the Revised UCLA Loneliness Scale possesses acceptable reliability and factorial validity in Zimbabwe and that the eight-item version is superior to the four-item form of the Revised UCLA Loneliness Scale as a short loneliness measure. However, additional refinements may be needed to further improve the eight-item short version.

  12. Administration time estimates for Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-IV subtests, composites, and short forms.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Joseph J; Glass, Laura A; Brown, Cassandra N

    2007-04-01

    The administration times for Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-IV (WISC-IV) subtests, indexes, and the Full Scale IQ were recorded for 57 school children. Also determined were administration times for eight short forms and the General Ability Index (GAI). All eight short forms reduced testing time by >50%, but the GAI required approximately 56 minutes. The time to administer the 10 core subtests that yield the Full Scale IQ and index scores averaged 72 minutes (range = 42 to 100), but 31% of the administrations required 80 minutes or longer. These results indicate that administration times are quite variable and that D. Wechsler's (2003) guideline of 65 to 80 minutes can be misleading for certain settings and for specific examinees. The present research found administration time to be positively correlated with examinee age, grade placement, and Full Scale IQ. In addition, the extent of examiner experience is known to be positively related to administration speed. In the present research, as in many settings, the examiners were competent, but not highly experienced.

  13. Development of a short form of the driving anger expression inventory.

    PubMed

    Stephens, Amanda N; Sullman, Mark J M

    2014-11-01

    The present study developed a revised version of the driving anger expression inventory (25-items) and a short (15-item) version using data from 551 drivers. Split half factor analyses on both versions confirmed the original four factors; personal physical aggressive expression, use of a vehicle to express anger, verbal aggressive expression and adaptive/constructive expression. The two DAX versions were strongly correlated, demonstrating the suitability of both forms of the scale and the aggressive forms of expression were higher for drivers who reported initiating road rage interactions. Total aggressive expression was also higher for drivers who reported recent crash-related conditions, such as: loss of concentration, losing control of their vehicle, moving violations, near-misses and major crashes. The revised DAX and DAX-short provide shorter versions of the 49-item DAX that can more easily be combined with other questionnaires and require smaller sample sizes to analyse. Further research is required to validate these tools among different samples and populations.

  14. Construct distinctiveness and variance composition of multi-dimensional instruments: Three short-form masculinity measures.

    PubMed

    Levant, Ronald F; Hall, Rosalie J; Weigold, Ingrid K; McCurdy, Eric R

    2015-07-01

    Focusing on a set of 3 multidimensional measures of conceptually related but different aspects of masculinity, we use factor analytic techniques to address 2 issues: (a) whether psychological constructs that are theoretically distinct but require fairly subtle discriminations by survey respondents can be accurately captured by self-report measures, and (b) how to better understand sources of variance in subscale and total scores developed from such measures. The specific measures investigated were the: (a) Male Role Norms Inventory-Short Form (MRNI-SF); (b) Conformity to Masculine Norms Inventory-46 (CMNI-46); and (c) Gender Role Conflict Scale-Short Form (GRCS-SF). Data (N = 444) were from community-dwelling and college men who responded to an online survey. EFA results demonstrated the discriminant validity of the 20 subscales comprising the 3 instruments, thus indicating that relatively subtle distinctions between norms, conformity, and conflict can be captured with self-report measures. CFA was used to compare 2 different methods of modeling a broad/general factor for each of the 3 instruments. For the CMNI-46 and MRNI-SF, a bifactor model fit the data significantly better than did a hierarchical factor model. In contrast, the hierarchical model fit better for the GRCS-SF. The discussion addresses implications of these specific findings for use of the measures in research studies, as well as broader implications for measurement development and assessment in other research domains of counseling psychology which also rely on multidimensional self-report instruments.

  15. The Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (SIAS) and the Social Phobia Scale (SPS): a comparison of two short-form versions.

    PubMed

    Fergus, Thomas A; Valentiner, David P; Kim, Hyun-Soo; McGrath, Patrick B

    2014-12-01

    The widespread use of Mattick and Clarke's (1998) Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (SIAS) and Social Phobia Scale (SPS) led 2 independent groups of researchers to develop short forms of these measures (Fergus, Valentiner, McGrath, Gier-Lonsway, & Kim, 2012; Peters, Sunderland, Andrews, Rapee, & Mattick, 2012). This 3-part study examined the psychometric properties of Fergus et al.'s and Peters et al.'s short forms of the SIAS and SPS using an American nonclinical adolescent sample in Study 1 (N = 98), American patient sample with an anxiety disorder in Study 2 (N = 117), and both a South Korean college student sample (N = 341) and an American college student sample (N = 550) in Study 3. Scores on both sets of short forms evidenced adequate internal consistency, interitem correlations, and measurement invariance. Scores on Fergus et al.'s short forms, particularly their SIAS short form, tended to capture more unique variance in scores of criterion measures than did scores on Peters et al.'s short forms. Implications for the use of these 2 sets of short forms are discussed.

  16. Localization of type II collagen, long form alpha 1(IX) collagen, and short form alpha 1(IX) collagen transcripts in the developing chick notochord and axial skeleton.

    PubMed

    Swiderski, R E; Solursh, M

    1992-06-01

    In this study we compare, by in situ hybridization, the spatial and temporal expression patterns of transcripts of avian type II collagen and the long and short forms of the (alpha 1) chain of type IX collagen during the development of the notochord and axial skeleton. We observed type II collagen and short form type IX collagen transcripts in the developing (stage 25-28) nonchondrogenic notochord. Conversely, long form type IX transcripts were not detectable in the notochord or perinotochordal sheath. Interestingly, all three transcripts colocalized in the developing chondrogenic vertebrae of the axial skeleton as well as in the chondrocranium and Meckel's cartilage. The expression of the short form of type IX collagen in these regions was more restricted than that of the long form. This report provides additional support for a complex regulatory pathway of cartilage marker gene expression in chondrogenic vs. nonchondrogenic tissues during avian embryogenesis.

  17. Development of a short form and scoring algorithm from the validated actionable bladder symptom screening tool

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The majority of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients develop some form of lower urinary tract dysfunction, usually as a result of neurogenic detrusor overactivity (NDO). Patients identify urinary incontinence as one of the worst aspects of this disease. Despite the high prevalence of NDO, urological evaluation and treatment are significantly under-accessed in this population. The objectives of this study were: 1) to adapt the previously validated Actionable Bladder Symptom Screening Tool (ABSST) to a short form for ease and brevity of application in a clinical setting that is clinically meaningful; and 2) to develop a scoring algorithm that would be interpretable in terms of referring/considering precise diagnosis and treatment. Methods A US-based, non-randomized, multi-center, stand-alone observational study was conducted to assess the psychometric properties of the ABSST among patients who have MS with and without NDO. Mixed psychometric methods (e.g., classical statistics (Psychometric theory (3rd ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill; 1994) and item response methods (Applying the Rasch Model: Fundamental Measurement in the Human Sciences. New Jersey: Lawrence Earlbaum Associates; 2001)) were used to evaluate the predictive and clinical validity of the shortened form. The latter included clinicians flagging clinically meaningful items and associated response options which would indicate the need for further evaluation or treatment. Results A total of 151 patients, all with MS and with and without NDO, were recruited by 28 clinicians in various US geographical locations. Approximately 41% of patients reported a history of or currently having urinary incontinence and/or urinary urgency. The prediction model across the entire range of classification thresholds was evaluated, plotting the true positive identification rate against the false positive rate (1-Specificity) for various cut scores. In this study, the cut-point or total score of greater than or equal to 6 had

  18. Development and psychometric analysis of the student–teacher relationship scale – short form

    PubMed Central

    Settanni, Michele; Longobardi, Claudio; Sclavo, Erica; Fraire, Michela; Prino, Laura E.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is the construction and validation of an Italian Short Form version of the Student–Teacher Relationship Scale (STRS; Fraire et al., 2013). The analyses were conducted on 1256 students and 210 teachers. The STRS is a self-report measure assessing teachers’ perception of the quality of their relationship with students ranging from preschool to third grade. The items were selected from the original Italian adaptation of the regular STRS (Pianta, 2001) through Rasch (1960/1980) analysis, which allowed us to identify a subset of items with proven psychometric properties. The STRS-SF consists of two subscales: Conflict (eight items) and Closeness (six items). Results indicate that the 14-item instrument shows good internal consistency (α>0.80), high correlations with the scales from the regular STRS (r > 0.90) and equivalence across gender. PMID:26167156

  19. Accuracy of WISC-III and WAIS-IV short forms in patients with neurological disorders.

    PubMed

    van Ool, Jans S; Hurks, Petra P M; Snoeijen-Schouwenaars, Francesca M; Tan, In Y; Schelhaas, Helenius J; Klinkenberg, Sylvia; Aldenkamp, Albert P; Hendriksen, Jos G M

    2017-02-02

    The assessment of intellectual abilities is intensive, time-consuming, and might be considered burdensome for patients. We examined psychometric qualities of short forms (SFs) of the Wechsler Intelligence Scales for Children (WISC-third edition) and for adults (WAIS-fourth edition), in children (n = 986; Mage = 10.9) and adults (n = 324; Mage = 40.9) with neurological disorders. SF estimates were compared with Full Scale IQ (FSIQ), obtained by a complete administration, for the entire sample and for the subgroups FSIQ < 80 and FSIQ ≥ 80. The FSIQ was correctly identified within ± 7 points in 86% of children and 87% of adults. There were, however, some differences regarding the optimal SF subtest combination between subgroups. Although clinical inferences should not be made, SFs may be useful in research settings to obtain a global estimate of intelligence, and in clinical settings to screen periodically for possible intellectual deterioration.

  20. The short-form revised Eysenck personality questionnaire: A Hindi edition (EPQRS-H)

    PubMed Central

    Tiwari, Trayambak; Singh, Anju L.; Singh, Indramani L.

    2009-01-01

    Background: There is a growing consensus about the validity of human personality traits as important dispositions toward feelings and behaviors (Matthews, Deary, & Whiteman, 2003). Materials and Methods: Here we examine the reliability of the Hindi translation of the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-Revised Short Form (EPQR-S; Eysenck, Eysenck, & Barrett, 1985), which consists of 48 items that assess neuroticism, extraversion, psychoticism, and lying. The questionnaire was first translated into Hindi and then back translated. Subsequently, it was administered to 202 students (78 men and 124 women) from Banaras Hindu University. The internal consistency of the scale was evaluated. Results: The findings provide satisfactory psychometric properties of the extraversion, neuroticism and lie scales. The psychoticism scale, however, was found to be less satisfactory. Conclusion: It can be proposed that due to satisfactory internal consistency scores, the EPQRS-H is a reliable scale for the measurement of various personality traits. PMID:21234158

  1. Incremental Validity of the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire-Short Form (TEIQue-SF).

    PubMed

    Siegling, A B; Vesely, Ashley K; Petrides, K V; Saklofske, Donald H

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the incremental validity of the adult short form of the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (TEIQue-SF) in predicting 7 construct-relevant criteria beyond the variance explained by the Five-factor model and coping strategies. Additionally, the relative contributions of the questionnaire's 4 subscales were assessed. Two samples of Canadian university students completed the TEIQue-SF, along with measures of the Big Five, coping strategies (Sample 1 only), and emotion-laden criteria. The TEIQue-SF showed consistent incremental effects beyond the Big Five or the Big Five and coping strategies, predicting all 7 criteria examined across the 2 samples. Furthermore, 2 of the 4 TEIQue-SF subscales accounted for the measure's incremental validity. Although the findings provide good support for the validity and utility of the TEIQue-SF, directions for further research are emphasized.

  2. Validation of the Parenting Stress Index–Short Form With Minority Caregivers

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang Jung; Gopalan, Geetha; Harrington, Donna

    2014-01-01

    Objectives There has been little examination of the structural validity of the Parenting Stress Index–Short Form (PSI-SF) for minority populations in clinical contexts in the Unites States. This study aimed to test prespecified factor structures (one-factor, two-factor, and three-factor models) of the PSI-SF. Methods This study used confirmatory factor analysis in a sample of 240 predominantly Black and Latino caregivers of children with behavioral difficulties. Results The three-factor model fit was reasonable, and the criterion validity for the subscale and total scores was good supporting continued cautious use of the PSI-SF for clinical minority populations. Conclusions The PSI-SF could be integrated as part of screening and intake assessment procedures, which could allow social work practitioners to make more informed decisions about treatment planning, as well as facilitate conversations with caregivers around identifying sources of stress and developing healthy coping strategies. PMID:27616868

  3. Social and Emotional Competencies Evaluation Questionnaire-Teacher's Version: Validation of a Short Form.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Vitor A; Sousa, Vanda; Marchante, Marta

    2016-08-01

    The Social and Emotional Competencies Evaluation Questionnaire-Teacher's version, Short Form (QACSE-P-SF) allows teachers to assess their students' social and emotional competencies, having been designed for program evaluation. Thirty-nine teachers completed the QACSE-P-SF, regarding 657 students (fourth to ninth grades). Factor analyses supported a six-factor structure with acceptable internal consistency. Sex differences were found with teachers reporting girls as having higher scores on Self-Control, Social Awareness, Relationship Skills, and Responsible Decision Making. Developmental differences were also found with fourth-grade students presenting higher levels of Social Awareness and Relationship Skills than older students. The final version of the QACSE-P-SF is composed by 30 items, organized into six scales and less time consuming than the previous version for teachers who need to assess full classes.

  4. Development and psychometric analysis of the student-teacher relationship scale - short form.

    PubMed

    Settanni, Michele; Longobardi, Claudio; Sclavo, Erica; Fraire, Michela; Prino, Laura E

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is the construction and validation of an Italian Short Form version of the Student-Teacher Relationship Scale (STRS; Fraire et al., 2013). The analyses were conducted on 1256 students and 210 teachers. The STRS is a self-report measure assessing teachers' perception of the quality of their relationship with students ranging from preschool to third grade. The items were selected from the original Italian adaptation of the regular STRS (Pianta, 2001) through Rasch (1960/1980) analysis, which allowed us to identify a subset of items with proven psychometric properties. The STRS-SF consists of two subscales: Conflict (eight items) and Closeness (six items). Results indicate that the 14-item instrument shows good internal consistency (α>0.80), high correlations with the scales from the regular STRS (r > 0.90) and equivalence across gender.

  5. Secondary structure and zinc ligation of human recombinant short-form stromelysin by multidimensional heteronuclear NMR.

    PubMed

    Gooley, P R; Johnson, B A; Marcy, A I; Cuca, G C; Salowe, S P; Hagmann, W K; Esser, C K; Springer, J P

    1993-12-07

    Stromelysin-1, a member of the matrix metalloendoprotease family, is a zinc protease involved in the degradation of connective tissue in the extracellular matrix. As a step toward determining the structure of this protein, multidimensional heteronuclear NMR experiments have been applied to an inhibited truncated form of human stromelysin-1. Extensive 1H, 13C, and 15N sequential assignments have been obtained with a combination of three- and four-dimensional experiments. On the basis of sequential and short-range NOEs and 13C alpha chemical shifts, two helices have been delineated, spanning residues Asp-111 to Val-127 and Leu-195 to Ser-206. A third helix spanning residues Asp-238 to Gly-247 is characterized by sequential NOEs and 13C alpha chemical shifts, but not short-range NOEs. The lack of the latter NOEs suggests that this helix is either distorted or mobile. Similarly, sequential and interstrand NOEs and 13C alpha chemical shifts characterize a four-stranded beta-sheet with three parallel strands (Arg-100 to Ile-101, Ile-142 to Ala-147, Asp-177 to Asp-181) and one antiparallel strand (Ala-165 to Tyr-168). Two zinc sites have been identified in stromelysin [Salowe et al. (1992) Biochemistry 31, 4535-4540]. The NMR spectral properties, including chemical shift, pH dependence, and proton coupling of the imidazole nitrogens of six histidine residues (151, 166, 179, 201, 205, and 211), invariant in the matrix metalloendoprotease family, suggest that these residues are zinc ligands. NOE data indicate that these histidines form two clusters: one ligates the catalytic zinc (His-201, -205, and -211), and the other ligates a structural zinc (His-151, -166, and -179). Heteronuclear multiple quantum correlated spectra and specific labeling experiments indicate His-151, -179, -201, -205, and -211 are in the N delta 1H tautomer and His-166 is in the N epsilon 2H tautomer.

  6. Temporal stability of the Francis Scale of Attitude toward Christianity short-form: test-retest data over one week.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Christopher Alan; Cruise, Sharon Mary; McGuckin, Conor

    2005-04-01

    This study evaluated the test-retest reliability of the Francis Scale of Attitude toward Christianity short-form. 39 Northern Irish undergraduate students completed the measure on two occasions separated by one week. Stability across the two administrations was high, r = .92, and there was no significant change between Time 1(M = 25.2, SD = 5.4) and Time 2 (M = 25.7, SD = 6.2). These data support the short-term test-retest reliability of the Francis Scale of Attitude toward Christianity short-form.

  7. Effects of process variation in short cycle stretch forming in beverage can production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Matthias; Liewald, Mathias

    2016-10-01

    Short Cycle Stretch Forming (SCS) is an innovative stretch forming technology developed at the Institute for Metal Forming Technology (IFU) at the University of Stuttgart. The SCS technology combines plane pre-stretching and deep drawing operations within the same stroke of press ram. Material is yielding from the inner to the outer part of the sheet. The sheet thickness is reduced and denting resistance and yield stress are increased due to hardening effects. SCS-Technology is enhanced due to rotational-symmetrical bodies by applying this technology to a cupping process in tinplate can production. A process simulation for SCS-Cupping processes was conducted. Based on these results a tool was manufactured and commissioned. Experimental results showed that material yields from the middle of the blank to the outer area of the cup wall. Due to the volume of material, the initial diameter can be reduced and material costs can be saved. In this paper different process settings and their effect on the amount of material, which yielded from the middle of the blank to its outside, are observed in a number of experimental series. A blank holder is added to the process in order to avoid wrinkling. The influence of this additional blank holder is therefore investigated in a first experimental set-up by varying blank holder force. In a further investigation the effects of two materials with different thicknesses is observed. Finally, an experimental series is conducted to observe the effect of blank diameter on the SCS-Cupping process. The results of this paper show that SCS-Cupping offers a promising potential for material savings and outline main effects for this technology.

  8. Monkeys have a limited form of short-term memory in audition.

    PubMed

    Scott, Brian H; Mishkin, Mortimer; Yin, Pingbo

    2012-07-24

    A stimulus trace may be temporarily retained either actively [i.e., in working memory (WM)] or by the weaker mnemonic process we will call passive short-term memory, in which a given stimulus trace is highly susceptible to "overwriting" by a subsequent stimulus. It has been suggested that WM is the more robust process because it exploits long-term memory (i.e., a current stimulus activates a stored representation of that stimulus, which can then be actively maintained). Recent studies have suggested that monkeys may be unable to store acoustic signals in long-term memory, raising the possibility that they may therefore also lack auditory WM. To explore this possibility, we tested rhesus monkeys on a serial delayed match-to-sample (DMS) task using a small set of sounds presented with ~1-s interstimulus delays. Performance was accurate whenever a match or a nonmatch stimulus followed the sample directly, but it fell precipitously if a single nonmatch stimulus intervened between sample and match. The steep drop in accuracy was found to be due not to passive decay of the sample's trace, but to retroactive interference from the intervening nonmatch stimulus. This "overwriting" effect was far greater than that observed previously in serial DMS with visual stimuli. The results, which accord with the notion that WM relies on long-term memory, indicate that monkeys perform serial DMS in audition remarkably poorly and that whatever success they had on this task depended largely, if not entirely, on the retention of stimulus traces in the passive form of short-term memory.

  9. The Short-Form 36 (SF-36) Health Survey and its use in pharmacoeconomic evaluation.

    PubMed

    Brazier, J

    1995-05-01

    The Short-Form 36 (SF-36) Health Survey is a brief self-administered questionnaire that generates scores across 8 dimensions of health. It has been found to be reliable, and valid in terms of criteria such as agreement with clinical diagnosis and disease severity, but its underlying values have not been tested against patient preferences. The SF-36 was not devised for use in economic evaluation. The SF-36 may be used in cost-minimisation analyses, where the dimension scores can be shown to reflect people's values for health at an ordinal level, but it cannot be used in either cost-effectiveness or cost-utility analyses. The dimensions scores of zero to 100 do not provide a common currency and, where there is conflict between the dimension scores, there is no basis for establishing an overall health benefit. Furthermore, in clinical trials, the usual comparison is between mean or median scores, which assumes risk neutrality and does not take adequate account of the relationship between the value of health and time. Although they are under pressure to assess the cost effectiveness of healthcare interventions, researchers and policy analysts must resist short-cut methods of deriving a single index from the SF-36 that are based on arbitrary aggregation schemes, because these ignore people's preferences and the crucial quantity/quality trade-off, and therefore cannot be used in economic evaluations. However, the rich descriptive material and multidimensionality of the SF-36 may have potential for use in economic evaluation. Multi-attribute utility theory provides a way of deriving a single index based on elicited values, but it requires a major restructuring of the scales of the SF-36. Alternatively, SF-36 responses may provide material for constructing health scenarios that could then be valued on a holistic basis.

  10. The intra- and inter-rater reliabilities of the Short Form Berg Balance Scale in institutionalized elderly people.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seong-Gil; Kim, Myoung-Kwon

    2015-09-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the intra- and inter-rater reliabilities of the Short Form Berg Balance Scale in institutionalized elderly people. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 30 elderly people in a nursing facility in Y city, South Korea, participated in this study. Two examiners administered the Short Form Berg Balance Scale to one subject to investigate inter-rater reliability. After a week, the same examiners administered the Short Form Berg Balance Scale once more to investigate intra-rater reliability. [Results] The intra-rater reliability was 0.83. The inter-rater reliability was 0.79. Both reliabilities were high (more than 0.7). [Conclusion] The Short Form Berg Balance Scale is a version of the Berg Balance Scale shortened by reducing the number of items, but its reliabilities were not lower than those of the Berg Balance Scale. The Short Form Berg Balance Scale can be useful clinically due to its short measurement time.

  11. Life Satisfaction Index: Italian version and validation of a short form.

    PubMed

    Franchignoni, F; Tesio, L; Ottonello, M; Benevolo, E

    1999-01-01

    The Life Satisfaction Index-version A (LSIA) is a 20-item questionnaire providing a cumulative score acknowledged as a valid index of quality of life. In the present study, an Italian version was produced through validated procedures of repeated back-translations. The final Italian version (LSIA.it) was administered to 90 healthy subjects (55 women; aged 40-65 yr, median 51). Cronbach alpha was 0.74, in agreement with previous studies on English, Greek, and Spanish versions, suggesting satisfactory internal consistency of the scale. Also in agreement with previous studies, factor analysis identified three factors (mood tone, zest for life, and congruence between desired and achieved goals), with eigenvalues of 2.80, 1.72, and 1.34, respectively. Nine of the original 20 items were dropped because of inconsistency with the overall scale and/or because of ambiguous loading onto the extracted factors. The resulting 11-item short form (LSI-11) had alpha = 0.69 and Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin measure of sample adequacy = 0.65. In our sample, the mean score of LSIA.it was almost the same as that previously reported in the literature for LSIA, and the correlation between LSIA and LSI-11 was very high (r = 0.91). In a test-retest trial, the cumulative score of LSI-11 showed a percentage of agreement ranging from 73.9 to 100 and Cohen's k statistic for reliability ranging from 0.51 to 1. The individual items of the LSI-11 presented substantial (k > 0.6) to excellent (k > 0.8) levels of agreement. The responsiveness of LSIA and LSI-11 during a hospital stay for 30 consecutive inpatients for medical rehabilitation programs, as measured by effect size, was 0.57 and 0.63, respectively. The results suggest that (1) the LSIA it has cultural equivalence with the English LSIA and that (2) the 11-item short form of LSIA is not only simpler but also more valid from a psychometric standpoint.

  12. Intracellular membrane association of the Aplysia cAMP phosphodiesterase long and short forms via different targeting mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kun-Hyung; Jun, Yong-Woo; Park, Yongsoo; Lee, Jin-A; Suh, Byung-Chang; Lim, Chae-Seok; Lee, Yong-Seok; Kaang, Bong-Kiun; Jang, Deok-Jin

    2014-09-12

    Phosphodiesterases (PDEs) play key roles in cAMP compartmentalization, which is required for intracellular signaling processes, through specific subcellular targeting. Previously, we showed that the long and short forms of Aplysia PDE4 (ApPDE4), which are localized to the membranes of distinct subcellular organelles, play key roles in 5-hydroxytryptamine-induced synaptic facilitation in Aplysia sensory and motor synapses. However, the molecular mechanism of the isoform-specific distinct membrane targeting was not clear. In this study, we further investigated the molecular mechanism of the membrane targeting of the ApPDE4 long and short forms. We found that the membrane targeting of the long form was mediated by hydrophobic interactions, mainly via 16 amino acids at the N-terminal region, whereas the short form was targeted solely to the plasma membrane, mainly by nonspecific electrostatic interactions between their N termini and the negatively charged lipids such as the phosphatidylinositol polyphosphates PI4P and PI(4,5)P2, which are embedded in the inner leaflet of the plasma membrane. Moreover, oligomerization of the long or short form by interaction of their respective upstream conserved region domains, UCR1 and UCR2, enhanced their plasma membrane targeting. These results suggest that the long and short forms of ApPDE4 are distinctly targeted to intracellular membranes through their direct association with the membranes via hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions, respectively.

  13. Two- and Four-Subtest Short Forms of the WAIS-R: A Closer Look at Validity and Reliability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silverstein, A. B.

    1985-01-01

    Reports the validities and reliabilities of two short forms of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (Revised) (Vocabulary and Block Design, and Arithmetic and Picture Arrangement) for each of nine age groups, together with standard errors of estimate and measurement. Results support the use of these forms for their intended purpose. (BH)

  14. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Patient Version of the Working Alliance Inventory--Short Form Revised.

    PubMed

    Falkenström, Fredrik; Hatcher, Robert L; Holmqvist, Rolf

    2015-10-01

    The working alliance concerns the quality of collaboration between patient and therapist in psychotherapy. One of the most widely used scales for measuring the working alliance is the Working Alliance Inventory (WAI). For the patient-rated version, the short form developed by Hatcher and Gillaspy (WAI-SR) has shown the best psychometric properties. In two confirmatory factor analyses of the WAI-SR, approximate fit indices were within commonly accepted norms, but the likelihood ratio chi-square test showed significant ill-fit. The present study used Bayesian structural equations modeling with zero mean and small variance priors to test the factor structure of the WAI-SR in three different samples (one American and two Swedish; N = 235, 634, and 234). Results indicated that maximum likelihood confirmatory factor analysis showed poor model fit because of the assumption of exactly zero residual correlations. When residual correlations were estimated using small variance priors, model fit was excellent. A two-factor model had the best psychometric properties. Strong measurement invariance was shown between the two Swedish samples and weak factorial invariance between the Swedish and American samples. The most important limitation concerns the limited knowledge on when the assumption of residual correlations being small enough to be considered trivial is violated.

  15. Reliability of short form-36 in an Internet- and a pen-and-paper version.

    PubMed

    Basnov, Maja; Kongsved, Sissel Marie; Bech, Per; Hjollund, Niels Henrik

    2009-01-01

    Use of Internet versions of questionnaires may have several advantages in clinical and epidemiological research, but we know little about if Internet versions differ with respect to validity and reliability. We aimed to compare Internet- and pen-and-paper versions of short form-36 (SF-36) with respect to test-retest reliability and internal consistency. Women referred to mammography (n = 782) were randomised to receive either a paper version with a prepaid return envelope or a guideline on how to fill in the Internet version. A subgroup was asked to answer the questionnaire once again in the alternative version. Test-retest reliability was assessed by the intra-class correlation coefficient. Internal consistency was calculated as Cronbach's alpha. The between-version test-retest reliability for the eight subscales were between 0.63 and 0.92. Cronbach's alpha for the two versions were all between 0.75 and 0.93 with minor differences between the Internet- and the pen-and-paper version. We found little or no evidence of a difference in test-retest reliability and internal consistency when we compared an Internet- and a pen-and-paper version of SF-36.

  16. Spanish Adaptation and Validation of the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory-Short Form.

    PubMed

    Castro, Manuel Cárdenas; Delgado, Jaime Barrientos; Alvarado, Emilio Ricci; Rovira, Darío Páez

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to adapt and validate the short form of the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory (PTGI-SF) in Spanish. The scale consists of 10 items distributed in 5 posttraumatic growth dimensions measured in the original instrument. The psychometric properties and dimensionality of the scale are examined in a sample of college students (N = 681). Results lend support to the validity and reliability (α = .83) of the PTGI-SF. The dimensions of PTGI-SF show correlations ranging between .29 and .52. In addition, the inventory correlates significantly with deliberate rumination (r = .39) and the search for meaning in life (r = .32). The factor loadings of the items in the confirmatory factor analysis varied between .52 and .87, showing good fit indexes (comparative fit index = .97, Tucker-Lewis index = .93, relative fit index = .90, incremental fit index = .97, normed fit index = .96, and root mean square error of approximation = .05). Multi-group confirmatory factor analysis supported invariance of the PTGI-SF across the 2 groups. Finally, significantly higher PTGI-SF scores were observed in subjects who were actively looking for meaning in life, or had found it after a seeking process, than in subjects who had not looked for meaning in life or had given up because they had not been successful.

  17. Measurement Development and Validation of the Family Supportive Supervisor Behavior Short-Form (FSSB-SF)

    PubMed Central

    Hammer, Leslie B.; Kossek, Ellen Ernst; Bodner, Todd; Crain, Tori

    2013-01-01

    Recently, scholars have demonstrated the importance of Family Supportive Supervisor Behaviors (FSSB), defined as behaviors exhibited by supervisors that are supportive of employees’ family roles, in relation to health, well-being, and organizational outcomes. FSSB was originally conceptualized as a multidimensional, superordinate construct with four subordinate dimensions assessed with 14 items: emotional support, instrumental support, role modeling behaviors, and creative work-family management. Retaining one item from each dimension, two studies were conducted to support the development and use of a new FSSB-Short Form (FSSB-SF). Study 1 draws on the original data from the FSSB validation study of retail employees to determine if the results using the 14-item measure replicate with the shorter 4-item measure. Using data from a sample of 823 information technology professionals and their 219 supervisors, Study 2 extends the validation of the FSSB-SF to a new sample of professional workers and new outcome variables. Results from multilevel confirmatory factor analyses and multilevel regression analyses provide evidence of construct and criterion-related validity of the FSSB-SF, as it was significantly related to work-family conflict, job satisfaction, turnover intentions, control over work hours, obligation to work when sick, perceived stress, and reports of family time adequacy. We argue that it is important to develop parsimonious measures of work-family specific support to ensure supervisor support for work and family is mainstreamed into organizational research and practice. PMID:23730803

  18. News "Speed Dating" for Scientists and Journalists: Conveying geoscience news in haiku-short form

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dybas, C. L.

    2006-12-01

    As Rachel Carson wrote in her 1956 book, The Sense of Wonder, it's important for everyone to develop an appreciation of "land, sea and sky." One of the best ways of getting the word out to the public about these realms is through the media. How do scientists capture the interest of the press in a society with a seemingly shorter and shorter attention span? Studies show that as the amount of scientific jargon and number of complex concepts in a news story increase, "filter-feeding" by the public of that news declines. When scientific jargon/complex concepts are few, the public "consumes" much more news. These results also apply to news story headlines: shorter headlines get the most interest. Based on these findings, one organization has started an experiment in "scientific speed dating": giving presenters three minutes to discuss results. They may have discovered something: news coverage of the research has been excellent. In today's world, conveying news about the geosciences in haiku-short form may be the best way of relating the wonders of land, sea and sky.

  19. A Validated Seven-Subtest Short Form for the WAIS-IV.

    PubMed

    Meyers, John E; Zellinger, Margaret M; Kockler, Tim; Wagner, Mark; Miller, Ronald Mellado

    2013-03-26

    This study presents a short form of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV; Wechsler, 2008 ) using the subtests (Block Design, Similarities, Digit Span, Arithmetic, Information, Coding, and Picture Completion) suggested by Ward ( 1990 ). These seven subtests were used to predict the full WAIS-IV Full-Scale IQ, as well as the Verbal Comprehension, Perceptual Reasoning, Working Memory, and Processing Speed Index scores. Two different data sets were used: the first consisted of 70 subjects and the second consisted of 32 subjects. The first data set was used to create a linear regression and the second data set was used to validate the results and compare to the prorated score method from the WAIS-IV manual. The prorated estimated scores correlated significantly with their counterparts and proved to be a better method of estimating the Full-Scale IQ and most of the index scores, but the regression equation was better at predicting the Processing Speed Index. The current study is consistent with the Ward ( 1990 ) and Pilgrim, Meyers, Bayless, & Whetstone ( 1999 ) studies and represents a reliable and valid way of assessing intellectual functioning in an abbreviated format.

  20. Measurement development and validation of the Family Supportive Supervisor Behavior Short-Form (FSSB-SF).

    PubMed

    Hammer, Leslie B; Ernst Kossek, Ellen; Bodner, Todd; Crain, Tori

    2013-07-01

    Recently, scholars have demonstrated the importance of Family Supportive Supervisor Behaviors (FSSB), defined as behaviors exhibited by supervisors that are supportive of employees' family roles, in relation to health, well-being, and organizational outcomes. FSSB was originally conceptualized as a multidimensional, superordinate construct with four subordinate dimensions assessed with 14 items: emotional support, instrumental support, role modeling behaviors, and creative work-family management. Retaining one item from each dimension, two studies were conducted to support the development and use of a new FSSB-Short Form (FSSB-SF). Study 1 draws on the original data from the FSSB validation study of retail employees to determine whether the results using the 14-item measure replicate with the shorter 4-item measure. Using data from a sample of 823 information technology professionals and their 219 supervisors, Study 2 extends the validation of the FSSB-SF to a new sample of professional workers and new outcome variables. Results from multilevel confirmatory factor analyses and multilevel regression analyses provide evidence of construct and criterion-related validity of the FSSB-SF, as it was significantly related to work-family conflict, job satisfaction, turnover intentions, control over work hours, obligation to work when sick, perceived stress, and reports of family time adequacy. We argue that it is important to develop parsimonious measures of work-family specific support to ensure supervisor support for work and family is mainstreamed into organizational research and practice.

  1. A Portuguese version of the student-teacher relationship scale - short form.

    PubMed

    Patrício, Joana Nunes; Barata, M Clara; Calheiros, M Manuela; Graça, João

    2015-05-20

    Research consistently demonstrates that positive student-teacher relationships are fundamental to the healthy development of all students. However, we lack a Portuguese-validated measure of student-teacher relationships. In this article we present the adaptation procedures and the psychometric properties of a Portuguese version of the Student-Teacher Relationship Scale - Short Form (Pianta, 1992). Five hundred and thirty five teachers from 127 schools completed the STRS-SF. The results demonstrate that this adapted version of the STRS-SF has good psychometric properties, namely high reliability (α = .84 to .87) and expected construct validity, which were tested through exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses (χ2/df = 1.65, CFI = .96, GFI = .93, RMSEA = 0.05). This study also showed that the correlations of student-teacher relationship with students' demographic variables are consistent with the evidence in the literature about this construct. Finally, the study indicated that female teachers reported more closeness, t(530) = 4.06, p < .001 and better overall student-teacher relationships, t(530) = 4.90, p < .001. In the discussion, we analyze the implications of these results.

  2. Assessment of Cataract Surgery Outcome Using the Modified Catquest Short-Form Instrument in China

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Haisi; Chen, Chengwei; Gao, Rongrong; Bao, Fangjun; Zhang, Sifang; Wang, Qinmei; Pesudovs, Konrad

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To assess cataract surgery outcome using the Rasch scaled Chinese version of the Catquest short-form. Methods The Chinese translated and culturally adapted version of the Catquest-9SF was interviewer-administered to patients, pre and post cataract surgery. Rasch analysis was performed on the baseline data to revise the Catquest. For the surgical outcome assessment, we stacked pre- and post-surgical Catquest data to demonstrate improvement in visual function scores and responsiveness of the instrument to cataract surgery. Results A total of 247 cataract patients (median age, 70 yrs; male 51.0%) completed the Catquest 9SF at baseline.The Catquest-9SF possessed adequate measurement precision of 2.15. No disordering of response categories were observed and all the items perfectly fit to the Rasch model except item 7 (outfit >1.5). A slight reduction in precision was observed after removing misfitting item 7 (Catquest-8SF-CN), but the precision value was well above the acceptable value of 2.00. Notably, the instrument was well targeted (mean person location 0.30), demonstrated no evidence of multidimensionality and DIF. At 12 months post-surgery, 74 (30%) patients came for follow-up and completed the Catquest. There was a significant improvement in the Catquest scores post cataract surgery with a considerably large effect size. Conclusion The Catquest-8SF-CN demonstrated promising Rasch based psychometric properties and was highly responsive to cataract surgery. PMID:27736889

  3. Short-form Ron is a novel determinant of ovarian cancer initiation and progression

    PubMed Central

    Moxley, Katherine M.; Wang, Luyao; Welm, Alana L.; Bieniasz, Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    Short-form Ron (sfRon) is an understudied, alternative isoform of the full-length Ron receptor tyrosine kinase. In contrast to Ron, which has been shown to be an important player in many cancers, little is known about the role of sfRon in cancer pathogenesis. Here we report the striking discovery that sfRon expression is required for development of carcinogen-induced malignant ovarian tumors in mice. We also show that sfRon is expressed in several subtypes of human ovarian cancer including high-grade serous carcinomas, which is in contrast to no detectable expression in healthy ovaries. In addition, we report that introduction of sfRon into OVCAR3 cells resulted in epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, activation of the PI3K and PDK1 pathway, and inhibition of the MAPK pathway. We demonstrated that sfRon confers an aggressive cancer phenotype in vitro characterized by increased proliferation and migration, and decreased adhesion of ovarian cancer cells. Moreover, the in vivo studies show that OVCAR3 tumors expressing sfRon exhibit significantly more robust growth and spreading to the abdominal cavity when compared with the parental sfRon negative OVCAR3 cells. These data suggest that sfRon plays a significant role in ovarian cancer initiation and progression, and may represent a promising therapeutic target for ovarian cancer treatment. PMID:27551332

  4. Psychometric characteristics of the Emotional Quotient Inventory, Youth Version, Short Form, in Hungarian high school students.

    PubMed

    Kun, Bernadette; Urbán, Róbert; Paksi, Borbála; Csóbor, Lujza Vargáné; Oláh, Attila; Demetrovics, Zsolt

    2012-06-01

    Research on the psychometric characteristics, including factor structure, of measures assessing emotional intelligence improve our understanding of the manifest and latent dimensions of the construct. The factor structure of the Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory (Bar-On, 1997), despite the popularity of the measure, has been the subject of only a few studies, and there are no data available at all on its 30-item version. The aim of our study was the structural analysis of the Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory, Youth Version, Short Form (Bar-On & Parker, 2000). During the multiple-step statistical analysis, confirmatory and exploratory factor analyses and a combined method of these were executed on a sample of 2,380 adolescents (mean age: 17 years, 47.9 % male). The results confirmed the original 5-factor structure (Intrapersonal Emotional Quotient, Interpersonal Emotional Quotient, Stress Management, Adaptability, and Positive Impression). However, only 24 of the original 30 items could be considered as belonging to the scales. Elimination of 6 items resulted in a clearer and more coherent factorial structure, which makes the measure an adequate tool for the assessment of the emotional intelligence of adolescents and young adults in surveys of large-scale samples.

  5. Short form of the Changes in Outlook Questionnaire: Translation and validation of the Chinese version

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The Changes in Outlook Questionnaire (CiOQ) is a self-report instrument designed to measure both positive and negative changes following the experience of severely stressful events. Previous research has focused on the Western context. The aim of this study is to translate the short form of the measure (CiOQ-S) into simplified Chinese and examine its validity and reliability in a sample of Chinese earthquake survivors. Method The English language version of the 10-item CiOQ was translated into simplified Chinese and completed along with other measures in a sample of earthquake survivors (n = 120). Statistical analyses were performed to explore the structure of the simplified Chinese version of CiOQ-S (CiOQ-SCS), its reliability and validity. Results Principal components analysis (PCA) was conducted to test the structure of the CiOQ-SCS. The reliability and convergent validity were also assessed. The CiOQ-SCS demonstrated a similar factor structure to the English version, high internal consistency and convergent validity with measures of posttraumatic stress symptoms, anxiety and depression, coping and social support. Conclusion The data are comparable to those reported for the original version of the instrument indicating that the CiOQ-SCS is a reliable and valid measure assessing positive and negative changes in the aftermath of adversity. However, the sampling method cannot permit us to know how representative our samples were of the earthquake survivor population. PMID:22530984

  6. Validation of the short form of the Chinese Childbirth Self-Efficacy Inventory in Mainland China.

    PubMed

    Gao, Ling-Ling; Ip, Wan-Yim; Sun, Ke

    2011-02-01

    Self-efficacy increasingly has been reported as an important outcome measure in childbirth care. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the psychometrics of the short form of the Chinese Childbirth Self-Efficacy Inventory (CBSEI-C32) in mainland China. A convenience sample of 297 pregnant Chinese women who were attending the out-patient clinic of the study hospital in Guangzhou participated in the study. The participants were asked to complete the CBSEI-C32, the Chinese Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (CSAS), the Chinese Self-Efficacy Scale (CSE) and the socio-demographic questionnaire. A subgroup of 75 pregnant women was selected randomly from the total sample using a table of random numbers for test-retest reliability assessment. The findings demonstrate high internal consistency (Cronbach's α = .96) and test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient = .88) for the CBSEI-C32. Confirmatory factor analysis showed some support for a two-factor structure of the CBSEI-C32, and construct validity was further supported by a significant relationship with CSAS. The CBSEI-C32 has the potential to be used as a clinical and research instrument for measuring childbirth self-efficacy in women in mainland China.

  7. Collateral Report of Psychopathy: Convergent and Divergent Validity of the Psychopathic Personality Inventory-Short Form

    PubMed Central

    Iyican, Susan; Sommer, Johannah M.; Kini, Sheetal; Babcock, Julia C.

    2015-01-01

    Psychopathy is a personality syndrome comprised of interpersonal, affective, and behavioral features that has emerged as a correlate of intimate partner violence perpetration. One commonly used self-report measure of psychopathy is the Psychopathic Personality Inventory-Short Form. The current study employed a multi-trait, multi-method approach to test convergent and discriminant validity of the measure in partner-violent couples by comparing males’ self-report of psychopathy to the informant report of their female partner (N = 114). It was hypothesized that the female partner-report of the male’s psychopathy would be highly correlated with the male report of his own psychopathy, thus providing evidence for the construct validity and interrater reliability of the PPI-SF. Analyses found that male and female reports were correlated significantly on the two major factors of the PPI-SF. Furthermore, the female-report explained a significant amount of variance over and above men’s self-report on PAI scales designed to indicate antisocial personality traits. PMID:26213500

  8. Motor competence assessment in children: convergent and discriminant validity between the BOT-2 Short Form and KTK testing batteries.

    PubMed

    Fransen, Job; D'Hondt, Eva; Bourgois, Jan; Vaeyens, Roel; Philippaerts, Renaat M; Lenoir, Matthieu

    2014-06-01

    This study investigated convergent and discriminant validity between two motor competence assessment instruments in 2485 Flemish children: the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency 2 Short Form (BOT-2 Short Form) and the KörperKoördinationsTest für Kinder (KTK). A Pearson correlation assessed the relationship between BOT-2 Short Form total, gross and fine motor composite scores and KTK Motor Quotient in three age cohorts (6-7, 8-9, 10-11 years). Crosstabs were used to measure agreement in classification in children scoring below percentile 5 and 15 and above percentile 85 and 95. Moderately strong positive (r=0.44-0.64) associations between BOT-2 total and gross motor composite scores and KTK Motor Quotient and weak positive correlations between BOT-2 Short Form fine motor composite and KTK Motor Quotient scores (r=0.25-0.37) were found. Levels of agreement were fair to moderate. Therefore, some proof of convergent and discriminant validity between BOT-2 Short Form and KTK was established in this study, underlining the notion that the evaluation of motor competence should not be based upon a single assessment instrument.

  9. Genetic deletion of melanin-concentrating hormone neurons impairs hippocampal short-term synaptic plasticity and hippocampal-dependent forms of short-term memory.

    PubMed

    Le Barillier, Léa; Léger, Lucienne; Luppi, Pierre-Hervé; Fort, Patrice; Malleret, Gaël; Salin, Paul-Antoine

    2015-11-01

    The cognitive role of melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) neurons, a neuronal population located in the mammalian postero-lateral hypothalamus sending projections to all cortical areas, remains poorly understood. Mainly activated during paradoxical sleep (PS), MCH neurons have been implicated in sleep regulation. The genetic deletion of the only known MCH receptor in rodent leads to an impairment of hippocampal dependent forms of memory and to an alteration of hippocampal long-term synaptic plasticity. By using MCH/ataxin3 mice, a genetic model characterized by a selective deletion of MCH neurons in the adult, we investigated the role of MCH neurons in hippocampal synaptic plasticity and hippocampal-dependent forms of memory. MCH/ataxin3 mice exhibited a deficit in the early part of both long-term potentiation and depression in the CA1 area of the hippocampus. Post-tetanic potentiation (PTP) was diminished while synaptic depression induced by repetitive stimulation was enhanced suggesting an alteration of pre-synaptic forms of short-term plasticity in these mice. Behaviorally, MCH/ataxin3 mice spent more time and showed a higher level of hesitation as compared to their controls in performing a short-term memory T-maze task, displayed retardation in acquiring a reference memory task in a Morris water maze, and showed a habituation deficit in an open field task. Deletion of MCH neurons could thus alter spatial short-term memory by impairing short-term plasticity in the hippocampus. Altogether, these findings could provide a cellular mechanism by which PS may facilitate memory encoding. Via MCH neuron activation, PS could prepare the day's learning by increasing and modulating short-term synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus.

  10. Concurrent validity of WAIS-III short forms in a geriatric sample with suspected dementia: verbal, performance and full scale IQ scores.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Brian L; Weaver, Linda E

    2005-12-01

    Evaluation of intellectual abilities using the WAIS-III is a common component of neuropsychological assessments. However, clinicians might be interested in administering reliable and valid short forms due to practical and clinical reasons. The present study examined the concurrent validity of eight short forms of the WAIS-III with full form IQ scores in a sample (n=43) of geriatric outpatients referred for assessment of suspected dementia. There were no significant differences between the short and full form VIQ scores at P<.01, while half of the short form PIQ and FSIQ scores were significantly different from their respective full form scores at P<.01. Correlations between short and full form IQ scores ranged from .89 to .99. Seven-subtest short forms were able to accurately estimate over 80% of scores within +/-2 S.E.M.s. This study supports limited use of WAIS-III short forms when conducting evaluations of older adults with suspected dementia.

  11. Forming "Connections" and Awakening "Visions": Using Short Story Collections in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lesesne, Teri S.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses how some recent short story collections written for young adults can make studying the genre exciting and interesting for students. Describes how teachers can awaken new vision within students by using the short story in the literature classroom. Focuses on stories written especially for adolescents. (HB)

  12. Portuguese Validation of the Internet Gaming Disorder Scale-Short-Form.

    PubMed

    Pontes, Halley M; Griffiths, Mark D

    2016-04-01

    In the latest (fifth) edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD) was included as a tentative disorder worthy of future research. Since then, several psychometric instruments to assess IGD have emerged in the literature, including the nine-item Internet Gaming Disorder Scale-Short-Form (IGDS9-SF), the most brief tool available to date. Research on the effects of IGD in Portugal has been minimal and may be due to the lack of a psychometrically validated tool to assess this construct within this particular cultural background. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to develop and examine the psychometric properties of the Portuguese IGDS9-SF. A total of 509 adolescents were recruited to the present study. Construct validity of the IGDS9-SF was assessed in two ways. First, confirmatory factor analysis was performed to investigate the factorial structure of the IGDS9-SF in the sample, and the unidimensional structure of the IGDS9-SF fitted the data well. Second, nomological validation of the IGDS9-SF was carried out and the nomological network analyzed was replicated as expected, further supporting the construct validity of the IGDS9-SF. Criterion validity of the IGDS9-SF was also established using key criterion variables. Finally, the IGDS9-SF also showed satisfactory levels of reliability using several indicators of internal consistency. Based on the results found, the IGDS9-SF appears to be a valid and reliable instrument to assess IGD among Portuguese adolescents and further research on IGD in Portugal is warranted.

  13. Minimally Important Difference for the Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite Short Form

    PubMed Central

    Skolarus, Ted A.; Dunn, Rodney L.; Sanda, Martin G.; Chang, Peter; Greenfield, Thomas K.; Litwin, Mark S.; Wei, John T.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To establish a score threshold that constitutes a clinically relevant change for each domain of the Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite - Short Form (EPIC-26). While its use in clinical practice and clinical trials has increased worldwide, the clinical interpretation of this 26-item disease-specific patient-reported quality of life questionnaire for men with localized prostate cancer would be facilitated by characterization of score thresholds for clinically relevant change (the minimally important differences, or MID). Methods We used distribution- and anchor-based approaches to establish the MID range for each EPIC-26 domain (urinary, sexual, bowel, hormonal) based on a prospective, multi-institutional cohort of 1,201 men treated for prostate cancer between 2003 and 2006 and followed for 3 years after treatment. For the anchor-based approach, we compared within/between subject score changes for each domain to an external “anchor” measure of overall cancer treatment satisfaction. Results We found the bowel and vitality/hormonal domains to have the lowest MID range (a 4–6 point change should be considered clinically relevant), while the sexual domain had the greatest MID values (10–12). Urinary incontinence appeared to have a greater MID range (6–9) compared with the urinary irritation/obstruction domain (5–7). Conclusions Using two independent approaches, we established the minimally important differences for each EPIC-26 domain. Definition of these MID values is essential for the researcher or clinician to understand when changes in symptom burden among prostate cancer survivors are clinically relevant. PMID:25530370

  14. Analysis of the short form-36 (SF-36): the beta-binomial distribution approach.

    PubMed

    Arostegui, Inmaculada; Núñez-Antón, Vicente; Quintana, José M

    2007-03-15

    Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is an important indicator of health status and the Short Form-36 (SF-36) is a generic instrument to measure it. Multiple linear regression (MLR) is often used to study the relationship of HRQoL with patients' characteristics, though HRQoL outcomes tend to be not normally distributed, skewed and bounded (e.g. between 0 and 100). A sample of 193 patients with eating disorders has been analysed to assess the performance of the MLR under non-normality conditions. Normal distribution was rejected for seven out of the eight domains. A beta-binomial distribution is suggested to fit the SF-36 scores. The beta-binomial distribution is not rejected for five out of the eight domains. Thus, a beta-binomial regression (BBR) is suggested to analyse the SF-36 scores. Results using MLR and BBR have been compared for real and simulated data. Performance of the BBR is shown to be better than MLR in the HRQoL domains with few ordered categories and very similar to MLR in the more continuous domains. Moreover, the interpretation of the estimates obtained with BBR is clinically more meaningful. A common technique of statistical analysis is preferable for all the HRQoL dimensions. Therefore, the BBR approach is recommended not only to detect significant predictors of HRQoL when SF-36 is used, but also to analyse and interpret the effect of several explanatory variables on HRQoL. Further work is required to test the better performance of BBR against standard methods for other HRQoL outcomes, populations or interventions.

  15. Translation, cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Diabetes Empowerment Scale – Short Form

    PubMed Central

    Chaves, Fernanda Figueredo; Reis, Ilka Afonso; Pagano, Adriana Silvina; Torres, Heloísa de Carvalho

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To translate, cross-culturally adapt and validate the Diabetes Empowerment Scale – Short Form for assessment of psychosocial self-efficacy in diabetes care within the Brazilian cultural context. METHODS Assessment of the instrument’s conceptual equivalence, as well as its translation and cross-cultural adaptation were performed following international standards. The Expert Committee’s assessment of the translated version was conducted through a web questionnaire developed and applied via the web tool e-Surv. The cross-culturally adapted version was used for the pre-test, which was carried out via phone call in a group of eleven health care service users diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The pre-test results were examined by a group of experts, composed by health care consultants, applied linguists and statisticians, aiming at an adequate version of the instrument, which was subsequently used for test and retest in a sample of 100 users diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus via phone call, their answers being recorded by the web tool e-Surv. Internal consistency and reproducibility of analysis were carried out within the statistical programming environment R. RESULTS Face and content validity were attained and the Brazilian Portuguese version, entitled Escala de Autoeficácia em Diabetes – Versão Curta, was established. The scale had acceptable internal consistency with Cronbach’s alpha of 0.634 (95%CI 0.494– 0.737), while the correlation of the total score in the two periods was considered moderate (0.47). The intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.50. CONCLUSIONS The translated and cross-culturally adapted version of the instrument to spoken Brazilian Portuguese was considered valid and reliable to be used for assessment within the Brazilian population diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The use of a web tool (e-Surv) for recording the Expert Committee responses as well as the responses in the validation tests proved

  16. Psychometric Properties of Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) Original and Short Forms in an African American Community Sample

    PubMed Central

    Merz, Erin L.; Malcarne, Vanessa L.; Roesch, Scott C.; Ko, Celine M.; Emerson, Marc; Roma, Vincenzo G.; Sadler, Georgia Robins

    2014-01-01

    Background The Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) has been widely used as a self-report measure of affect in community and clinical contexts. However, evaluations of the psychometric properties of PANAS scores have been limited in diverse ethnic groups. Several short forms of the PANAS have also been proposed, but very little is known about the psychometric properties of these versions. Methods The present study investigated the psychometric properties, including the factor structure of the original PANAS and two short forms in an African American community sample (N = 239). Descriptive, internal consistency reliability, factorial validity, and measurement invariance analyses were conducted. Results All PANAS subscales from the original and short forms had adequate internal consistency. For the original PANAS, the model specifying three correlated factors (Positive Affect, Afraid, Upset) with correlated uniquenesses from redundant items provided the best fit to the data. However, the two-factor model (Positive Affect, Negative Affect) with correlated uniquenesses was also supported. For both short forms, the two-factor model with correlated uniquenesses fit the data best. Factors from all forms were generally invariant across age and gender, although there was some minor invariance at the item level. Limitations Participants were from a limited geographic area and one ethnic group. Indicators of anxiety, depression, and cultural characteristics were not measured. Conclusion The factor structure was replicated, suggesting no immediate concerns regarding the valid interpretation of PANAS scores. The results support the reliability and validity of the PANAS and its short forms for use among African Americans. PMID:24051099

  17. Psychometric Evaluation of the Children's Behavior Questionnaire-Very Short Form in Preschool Children Using Parent and Teacher Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allan, Nicholas P.; Lonigan, Christopher J.; Wilson, Shauna B.

    2013-01-01

    Temperament is a developmentally important construct, hierarchically comprised of several lower-order dimensions subsumed under effortful control, negative affectivity, and surgency. The Children's Behavior Questionnaire-Very Short Form (CBQ-VSF) was developed as a brief measure of the higher-order factors of temperament to aid researchers in…

  18. Infant Communicative Development Assessed with the European Portuguese MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories Short Forms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frota, Sónia; Butler, Joseph; Correia, Susana; Severino, Cátia; Vicente, Selene; Vigário, Marina

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the European Portuguese MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories short forms, the first published instruments for the assessment of language development in EP-learning infants and toddlers. Normative data from the EP population are presented, focusing on developmental trends for vocabulary learning, production…

  19. A Psychometric Evaluation of the Career Decision Self-Efficacy Scale-Short Form in Chinese High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hampton, Nan Zhang

    2006-01-01

    This study explores the reliability and validity of the Career Decision Self-Efficacy Scale-Short Form (CDSES-SF) in Chinese high school students. One hundred and eighty-three high school students from a city in northeastern China participated in the study. The results indicate that scores on the CDSES-SF are reliable (internal consistency…

  20. Testing for the Structure of the Career Decision Self-Efficacy Scale-Short Form among Chinese College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hampton, Nan Zhang

    2005-01-01

    This study examines the factor structure of the Career Decision Self-Efficacy Scale-Short Form (CDSES-SF) among Chinese college students. Two samples of college students from China were used. The original 25-item CDSES-SF was not supported by the data derived from a sample of 256 Chinese college students (Sample 1). However, a modified 13-item,…

  1. A Confirmatory Test of the Factor Structure of the Short Form of the Career Decision Self-Efficacy Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Matthew J.; Roy, Kerrin Sendrowitz; Brown, Steven D.; Thomas, James; McDaniel, Cyndi

    2009-01-01

    The present study tested a number of theoretically and empirically derived measurement models of the Career Decision Self-Efficacy Scale-Short Form (CDSES-SF) using confirmatory factor analysis. Betz's five-factor model of the CDSES-SF, along with a number of alternative models, demonstrated adequate model fit in two independent samples. Based on…

  2. A Psychometric Evaluation of the Career Decision Self-Efficacy Scale-Short Form among French University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaudron, Jean-Philippe

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the reliability and the factor structure of the Career Decision Self-Efficacy Scale-Short Form (CDSES-SF) among French university students. Based on a sample of 650 respondents, the alpha coefficients indicated high reliability for total scores but not for the subscale scores with values of 0.70 and…

  3. The Dimensionality of the Career Decision Self-Efficacy Scale-Short Form among Chinese Graduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jin, Leili; Ye, Shengquan; Watkins, David

    2012-01-01

    The factorial structure of the Career Decision Self-Efficacy Scale-Short Form (CDSES-SF) was examined in a sample of 796 Chinese graduate students recruited from five universities in Beijing. A single-factor model is recommended on the basis of two of this study's findings. First, confirmatory factor analyses revealed that the parsimonious…

  4. An Examination of the Structure of the Career Decision Self-Efficacy Scale (Short Form) among Italian High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Presti, Alessandro Lo; Pace, Francesco; Mondo, Marina; Nota, Laura; Casarubia, Provvidenza; Ferrari, Lea; Betz, Nancy E.

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the factor structure of Career Decision Self-Efficacy scale-short form in a sample of Italian high school adolescents. confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to test the degree to which a one-factor structure and a five-factor structure provided the best fit. In view of available research the five-factor structure…

  5. Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Third Edition Short Form for Index and IQ Scores in a Psychiatric Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Bruce K.; Girard, Todd A.; Bagby, R. Michael

    2007-01-01

    An eight-subtest short form (SF8) of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, Third Edition (WAIS-III), maintaining equal representation of each index factor, was developed for use with psychiatric populations. Data were collected from a mixed inpatient/outpatient sample (99 men and 101 women) referred for neuropsychological assessment. Psychometric…

  6. Balancing the Need for Reliability and Time Efficiency: Short Forms of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeyakumar, Sharon L. E.; Warriner, Erin M.; Raval, Vaishali V.; Ahmad, Saadia A.

    2004-01-01

    Tables permitting the conversion of short-form composite scores to full-scale IQ estimates have been published for previous editions of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS). Equivalent tables are now needed for selected subtests of the WAIS-III. This article used Tellegen and Briggs's formulae to convert the sum of scaled scores for four…

  7. [Development of a short form of the Japanese big-five scale, and a test of its reliability and validity].

    PubMed

    Namikawa, Tsutomu; Tani, Iori; Wakita, Takafumi; Kumagai, Ryuichi; Nakane, Ai; Noguchi, Hiroyuki

    2012-06-01

    Personality scales based on the five-factor model, especially the big-five scale of personality trait adjectives (Wada, 1996), are commonly used in Japan. In this study a short form of the Big-Five Scale was constructed. To avoid changes in the capacity dimension caused by the decrease in the number of items, item selection was conducted after item response theory (IRT) scales were constructed for all the items. In study 1 data was collected from 2099 participants. A generalized partial credit model was applied to the IRT model, and items were selected using the slope and location parameters for each item. Cronbach's alpha showed that the short form, as well as the five sub-scales, had sufficient reliability as a personality test. In study 2, we determined correlations with the NEO-FFI and tested the concurrent validity of the short form. The results indicate that the short form of big-five scale demonstrates sufficient reliability and validity despite the reduced number of items.

  8. Efficacy of the Satz-Mogel Short Form WAIS-R for Tumor Patients with Lateralized Lesions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattis, Paul J.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    The predictive power of the short-form Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale of P. Satz and S. Mogel to provide equivalent information about IQ scores and age-corrected scale scores was not differentially affected by the side of the lesion for 63 patients with brain tumors. (SLD)

  9. The Short-Form Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire (BPAQ-SF): A Validation Study with Federal Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diamond, Pamela M.; Magaletta, Philip R.

    2006-01-01

    The 12-item short form of the Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire (BPAQ-SF) was originally developed by Bryant and Smith (2001) and modified and confirmed using confirmatory factor analysis with mentally ill offenders by Diamond, Wang, and Buffington-Vollum (2005). In the current study, construct validity of the BPAQ-SF was assessed with a sample…

  10. Assessing the Validity of the Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire--Short Form in Adults with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mick, Eric; Faraone, Stephen V.; Spencer, Thomas; Zhang, Huabin F.; Biederman, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The authors assessed the psychometric properties of the Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire-Short Form (Q-LES-QSF) in adults with ADHD. Method: One hundred fifty ADHD and 134 non-ADHD adults from a case-control study and 173 adults randomized to placebo or methylphenidate were assessed with the Q-LES-QSF and the…

  11. Toward a Brief Multidimensional Assessment of Emotional Intelligence: Psychometric Properties of the Emotional Quotient Inventory-Short Form

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, James D. A.; Keefer, Kateryna V.; Wood, Laura M.

    2011-01-01

    Although several brief instruments are available for the emotional intelligence (EI) construct, their conceptual coverage tends to be quite limited. One notable exception is the short form of the Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-i:S), which measures multiple EI dimensions in addition to a global EI index. Despite the unique advantage offered by…

  12. A Comparison of the Psychometric Properties of the Psychopathic Personality Inventory Full-Length and Short-Form Versions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kastner, Rebecca M.; Sellbom, Martin; Lilienfeld, Scott O.

    2012-01-01

    The Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI) has shown promising construct validity as a measure of psychopathy. Because of its relative efficiency, a short-form version of the PPI (PPI-SF) was developed and has proven useful in many psychopathy studies. The validity of the PPI-SF, however, has not been thoroughly examined, and no studies have…

  13. Examining Concurrent Validity and Predictive Utility for the Addiction Severity Index and Texas Christian University (TCU) Short Forms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pankow, Jennifer; Simpson, D. Dwayne; Joe, George W.; Rowan-Szal, Grace A.; Knight, Kevin; Meason, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Treatment providers need tools that are designed to identify risk, treatment needs, and monitor client engagement. These are essential components in substance abuse treatment for offender populations. In this study, the authors evaluated a flexible set of one-page modular assessments known as the Texas Christian University (TCU) Short Forms and…

  14. A Validation Study of the Dutch Childhood Trauma Questionnaire-Short Form: Factor Structure, Reliability, and Known-Groups Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thombs, Brett D.; Bernstein, David P.; Lobbestael, Jill; Arntz, Arnoud

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The 28-item Childhood Trauma Questionnaire-Short Form (CTQ-SF) has been translated into at least 10 different languages. The validity of translated versions of the CTQ-SF, however, has generally not been examined. The objective of this study was to investigate the factor structure, internal consistency reliability, and known-groups…

  15. Development and Validation of a Short Form of the Alabama Parenting Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elgar, Frank J.; Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Dadds, Mark R.; Sigvaldason, Nadine

    2007-01-01

    Brief assessments of parenting practices can provide important information about the development of disruptive behavior disorders in children. We examined the factor structure of a widely used assessment of parenting practices, the Alabama Parenting Questionnaire, and produced a 9-item short scale around its three supported factors: Positive…

  16. Evaluation of the psychometric properties of two short forms of the social interaction anxiety scale and the social phobia scale.

    PubMed

    Le Blanc, Allura L; Bruce, Laura C; Heimberg, Richard G; Hope, Debra A; Blanco, Carlos; Schneier, Franklin R; Liebowitz, Michael R

    2014-06-01

    The Social Interaction Anxiety Scale and Social Phobia Scale are widely used measures of social anxiety. Using data from individuals with social anxiety disorder (n = 435) and nonanxious controls (n = 86), we assessed the psychometric properties of two independently developed short forms of these scales. Indices of convergent and discriminant validity, diagnostic specificity, sensitivity to treatment, and readability were examined. Comparisons of the two sets of short forms to each other and the original long forms were conducted. Both sets of scales demonstrated adequate internal consistency in the patient sample, showed expected patterns of correlation with measures of related and unrelated constructs, adequately discriminated individuals with social anxiety disorder from those without, and showed decreases in scores over the course of cognitive-behavioral therapy and/or pharmacotherapy. However, some significant differences in scale performance were noted. Implications for the clinical assessment of social anxiety are discussed.

  17. The African American Acculturation Scale II: Cross-Validation and Short Form.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landrine, Hope; Klonoff, Elizabeth A.

    1995-01-01

    Studied African American culture, using a new, shortened, 33-item African American Acculturation Scale (AAAS-33) to assess the scale's validity and reliability. Comparisons between the original form and AAAS-33 reveal high correlations, however, the longer form may be sensitive to some beliefs, practices, and attitudes not assessed by the short…

  18. Proposal of a short-form version of the Brazilian Food Insecurity Scale

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, Leonardo Pozza; Lindemann, Ivana Loraine; Motta, Janaína Vieira dos Santos; Mintem, Gicele; Bender, Eliana; Gigante, Denise Petrucci

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To propose a short version of the Brazilian Food Insecurity Scale. METHODS Two samples were used to test the results obtained in the analyses in two distinct scenarios. One of the studies was composed of 230 low income families from Pelotas, RS, Southern Brazil, and the other was composed of 15,575 women, whose data were obtained from the 2006 National Survey on Demography and Health. Two models were tested, the first containing seven questions, and the second, the five questions that were considered the most relevant ones in the concordance analysis. The models were compared to the Brazilian Food Insecurity Scale, and the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy parameters were calculated, as well as the kappa agreement test. RESULTS Comparing the prevalence of food insecurity between the Brazilian Food Insecurity Scale and the two models, the differences were around 2 percentage points. In the sensitivity analysis, the short version of seven questions obtained 97.8% and 99.5% in the Pelotas sample and in the National Survey on Demography and Health sample, respectively, while specificity was 100% in both studies. The five-question model showed similar results (sensitivity of 95.7% and 99.5% in the Pelotas sample and in the National Survey on Demography and Health sample, respectively). In the Pelotas sample, the kappa test of the seven-question version totaled 97.0% and that of the five-question version, 95.0%. In the National Survey on Demography and Health sample, the two models presented a 99.0% kappa. CONCLUSIONS We suggest that the model with five questions should be used as the short version of the Brazilian Food Insecurity Scale, as its results were similar to the original scale with a lower number of questions. This version needs to be administered to other populations in Brazil in order to allow for the adequate assessment of the validity parameters. PMID:25372169

  19. Short form of Spanish version of the WISC-IV for intelligence assessment in elementary school children.

    PubMed

    Dasi, Carmen; Soler, Maria J; Bellver, Vicente; Ruiz, Juan C

    2014-12-01

    In educational settings, quick assessments of intelligence are often required to screen children with potential special needs. The WISC-IV is administered individually and takes between one and two hours to complete. Given its widespread use in Spain, a short-form of the Spanish version is likely to be of use to professionals. The goal of this research was to develop a short form of the WISC-IV that can be performed in approximately half an hour. Data obtained in 100 elementary school children were analyzed following the criteria of Resnick and Entin (1971) . The results showed that the most accurate estimation of intelligence was achieved with a combination of the Vocabulary, Block Design, Letter-Number Sequencing, and Coding subtests.

  20. Relations of eye color to scores on Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency--Short Form.

    PubMed

    Beer, J; Fleming, P

    1989-06-01

    The Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency--Short Form (8 subtests and 15 motor skill activities) was administered individually to 28 students. Multivariate analysis of variance showed no association with differences in eye color. There were two significant sex differences on univariate F tests; boys scored better at standing broad jump than girls, while girls scored better at standing on one leg and drawing a straight line than boys.

  1. Psychometric Properties of the Chinese Version of the Conners' Parent and Teacher Rating Scales-Revised: Short Form

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gau, Susan Shur-Fen; Soong, Wei-Tsuen; Chiu, Yen-Nan; Tsai, Wen-Che

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This article examines the psychometric properties of the Chinese version of the Conners' Parent and Teacher Rating Scales-Revised: Short Forms (CPRS-R:S-C and CTRS-R:S-C) in a representative sample of 2,584 first to ninth graders in Taipei and 479 clinical participants (274 with ADHD). Method: The instruments include the CPRS-R:S-C,…

  2. The Children’s Behavior Questionnaire very short scale: Psychometric properties and development of a one-item temperament scale

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Little research has been conducted on the psychometrics of the very short scale (36 items) of the Children’s Behavior Questionnaire, and no one-item temperament scale has been tested for use in applied work. In this study, 237 United States caregivers completed a survey to define their child’s behav...

  3. A comparison of the psychometric properties of the psychopathic personality inventory full-length and short-form versions.

    PubMed

    Kastner, Rebecca M; Sellbom, Martin; Lilienfeld, Scott O

    2012-03-01

    The Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI) has shown promising construct validity as a measure of psychopathy. Because of its relative efficiency, a short-form version of the PPI (PPI-SF) was developed and has proven useful in many psychopathy studies. The validity of the PPI-SF, however, has not been thoroughly examined, and no studies have directly compared the validity of the short form with that of the full-length version. The current study was designed to compare the psychometric properties of both PPI versions, with an emphasis on convergent and discriminant validity in predicting external criteria conceptually relevant to psychopathy. We used both prison (n = 558) and college samples (n = 322) for this investigation. PPI scale scores were more reliable and more strongly correlated with the conceptually relevant criterion measures compared with the PPI-SF, particularly in the prison sample. There were no differences in relative discriminant validity. Thus, overall, the PPI full-length version showed more evidence of construct validity than did the short form, and the consequences of this psychometric difference should be considered when evaluating the clinical utility of each measure.

  4. Short loop length and high thermal stability determine genomic instability induced by G-quadruplex-forming minisatellites

    PubMed Central

    Piazza, Aurèle; Adrian, Michael; Samazan, Frédéric; Heddi, Brahim; Hamon, Florian; Serero, Alexandre; Lopes, Judith; Teulade-Fichou, Marie-Paule; Phan, Anh Tuân; Nicolas, Alain

    2015-01-01

    G-quadruplexes (G4) are polymorphic four-stranded structures formed by certain G-rich nucleic acids, with various biological roles. However, structural features dictating their formation and/or functionin vivo are unknown. InS. cerevisiae, the pathological persistency of G4 within the CEB1 minisatellite induces its rearrangement during leading-strand replication. We now show that several other G4-forming sequences remain stable. Extensive mutagenesis of the CEB25 minisatellite motif reveals that only variants with very short (≤ 4 nt) G4 loops preferentially containing pyrimidine bases trigger genomic instability. Parallel biophysical analyses demonstrate that shortening loop length does not change the monomorphic G4 structure of CEB25 variants but drastically increases its thermal stability, in correlation with thein vivo instability. Finally, bioinformatics analyses reveal that the threat for genomic stability posed by G4 bearing short pyrimidine loops is conserved inC. elegans and humans. This work provides a framework explanation for the heterogeneous instability behavior of G4-forming sequencesin vivo, highlights the importance of structure thermal stability, and questions the prevailing assumption that G4 structures with short or longer loops are as likely to formin vivo. PMID:25956747

  5. Forms of aggression and peer victimization during early childhood: a short-term longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Ostrov, Jamie M

    2008-04-01

    A multi-informant and multi-measure short-term longitudinal study of the association between subtypes of aggression and peer victimization was conducted in an early childhood sample (M = 44.36 months; SD = 11.07; N = 120). Observational and teacher report measures demonstrated appropriate reliability and validity as well as stability across an academic year. Concurrent associations revealed that observed relational aggression was uniquely associated with teacher reported relational victimization and observed physical aggression was uniquely associated with teacher reported physical victimization. Prospective findings indicated that observed relational aggression predicted increases in teacher reported relational victimization for girls only, controlling for the variance associated with physical aggression, prosocial behavior, physical victimization, and gender. Peer rejection partially mediated the association between observed relational aggression at time 1 and teacher reported relational victimization at time 2. Ways in which these and other prospective findings extend the extant literature are discussed.

  6. 77 FR 38061 - Mobility Fund Phase I Auction Supplemental Short-Form Instructions and Other Information

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-26

    ... Phase I Auction for completing FCC Form 180, announce the availability of certain updated files and..., please provide the appropriate FCC document number, for example, DA 12-947. The Supplemental Filing... site: http://wireless.fcc.gov/auctions/901/ or by using the search function for AU Docket No. 12-25...

  7. 48 CFR 1852.227-11 - Patent Rights-Retention by the Contractor (Short Form).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    .... Both the electronic and paper versions of NASA Form 1679 may be accessed at the electronic New Technology Reporting Web site http://invention.nasa.gov. (End of addition) (f)(5) The Contractor shall... subparagraph (c)(1). NASA prefers that the contractor use either the electronic or paper version of NASA...

  8. 48 CFR 1852.227-11 - Patent Rights-Retention by the Contractor (Short Form).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    .... Both the electronic and paper versions of NASA Form 1679 may be accessed at the electronic New Technology Reporting Web site http://invention.nasa.gov. (End of addition) (f)(5) The Contractor shall... subparagraph (c)(1). NASA prefers that the contractor use either the electronic or paper version of NASA...

  9. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Short and Standard-Length Consent Forms for a Genetic Cohort Study: Is Longer Better?

    PubMed Central

    Matsui, Kenji; Lie, Reidar K.; Turin, Tanvir C.; Kita, Yoshikuni

    2012-01-01

    Background Although the amount of detail in informed consent documents has increased over time and the documents have therefore become very long, there is little research on whether longer informed consent documents actually result in (1) better informed research subjects or (2) higher consent rates. We therefore conducted an add-on randomized controlled trial to the Takashima Study, a prospective Japanese population-based genetic cohort study, to test the hypothesis that a shorter informed consent form would satisfy both of the above goals. Methods Standard (10 459 words, 11 pages) and short (3602 words, 5 pages) consent forms in Japanese were developed and distributed using cluster-randomization to 293 potential cohort subjects living in 9 medico-social units and 288 subjects in 8 medico-social units, respectively. Results Few differences were found between the 2 groups with regard to outcome measures, including participants’ self-perceived understanding, recall of information, concerns, voluntariness, trust, satisfaction, sense of duty, and consent rates. Conclusions A short informed consent form was no less valid than a standard form with regard to fulfilling ethical requirements and securing the scientific validity of research. PMID:22447213

  10. An 8-Item Short Form of the Inventory of Dimensions of Emerging Adulthood (IDEA) Among Young Swiss Men.

    PubMed

    Baggio, Stéphanie; Iglesias, Katia; Studer, Joseph; Gmel, Gerhard

    2015-06-01

    Emerging adulthood is a period of life transition, in which youths are no longer adolescents but have not yet reached full adulthood. Measuring emerging adulthood is crucial because of its association with psychopathology and risky behaviors such as substance use. Unfortunately, the only validated scale for such measurement has a long format (Inventory of Dimensions of Emerging Adulthood [IDEA]-31 items). This study aimed to test whether a shorter form yields satisfactory results without substantial loss of information among a sample of young Swiss men. Data from the longitudinal Cohort Study on Substance Use Risk Factors were used (N = 5,049). IDEA, adulthood markers (e.g., parenthood or financial independence), and risk factors (i.e., substance use and mental health issues) were assessed. The results showed that an 8-item, short-form scale (IDEA-8) with four factors (experimentation, negativity, identity exploration, and feeling in between) returned satisfactory results, including good psychometric properties, high convergence with the initial scale, and strong empirical validity. This study was a step toward downsizing a measure of emerging adulthood. Indeed, this 8-item short form is a good alternative to the 31-item long form and could be more convenient for surveys with constraints on questionnaire length. Moreover, it should help health care practitioners in identifying at-risk populations to prevent and treat risky behaviors.

  11. [Short form of the WAIS-III for use with patients with schizophrenia].

    PubMed

    Fuentes Durá, Inmaculada; Romero Peris, María; Dasí Vivó, Carmen; Ruiz Ruiz, Juan Carlos

    2010-05-01

    The aim of this study is to obtain a sufficiently guaranteed, abridged, Spanish version of the WAIS-III and thereby reduce the time needed to administer the complete scale. Although the samples used were based both on normal individuals (41 participants with no known history of mental illness) as well as individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia (41 participants), the real focus of the study was the clinical group because this is where the greatest advantages can be obtained by shortening the time to administer the scale. The data demonstrates that the best combination of tests was: Similarities, Picture Completion, Digit Span and Digit Symbol-coding because, with this reduced form, it was possible to obtain a linear correlation between the IQ of the complete scale and that of the abridged form of .91 in the clinical and .86 in the control group. For both groups, the differences between the real IQ averages and the estimated ones were nonsignificant.

  12. Item Response Theory Analysis and Differential Item Functioning across Age, Gender and Country of a Short Form of the Advanced Progressive Matrices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiesi, Francesca; Ciancaleoni, Matteo; Galli, Silvia; Morsanyi, Kinga; Primi, Caterina

    2012-01-01

    Item Response Theory (IRT) models were applied to investigate the psychometric properties of the Arthur and Day's Advanced Progressive Matrices-Short Form (APM-SF; 1994) [Arthur and Day (1994). "Development of a short form for the Raven Advanced Progressive Matrices test." "Educational and Psychological Measurement, 54," 395-403] in order to test…

  13. [Factor structure and internal consistency of the Spanish version of the Parenting Stress Index-Short Form].

    PubMed

    Díaz-Herrero, Angela; Brito de la Nuez, Alfredo G; López Pina, José Antonio; Pérez-López, Julio; Martínez-Fuentes, María Teresa

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the psychometric properties of the Spanish version of Parenting Stress Index-Short Form. After translating the instrument from English into Spanish using the forward-backward translation method, it was administered to a sample of 129 mothers of children aged between 10 and 39 months olds. The exploratory factor analysis identified two factors: Childrearing Stress and Personal Distress, which accounted for 48.77% of the variance. The internal consistency of these factors was high (Childrearing Stress: .90 and Personal Distress: .87). Implications of these findings and suggestions for future research are discussed.

  14. Short-burst oxygen therapy for COPD patients: a 6-month randomised, controlled study.

    PubMed

    Eaton, T; Fergusson, W; Kolbe, J; Lewis, C A; West, T

    2006-04-01

    Short-burst oxygen therapy (SBOT) remains widely advocated for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), despite a lack of supporting evidence. The aim of this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group study was to determine whether SBOT improves health-related quality of life (HRQL) or reduces acute healthcare utilisation in patients discharged following an acute exacerbation of COPD. Consecutive patients were screened; 78 of 331 were eligible for randomisation to cylinder oxygen, cylinder air or usual care following discharge. Patients were elderly with high acute healthcare utilisation, forced expiratory volume in one second of <1 L and had dyspnoea limiting daily activity but were not hypoxaemic at rest. Over the 6-month study period, there were no significant differences between patient groups in HRQL (Chronic Respiratory Questionnaire (CRQ), 36-item Short-Form Health Survey, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale) except for CRQ emotion domain. There were no significant differences in acute healthcare utilisation. Time to readmission was greatest in the usual care group. Cylinder use was high initially, but rapidly fell to very low levels within weeks in both cylinder oxygen and air groups. In conclusion, the availability of short-burst oxygen therapy for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients discharged from hospital following an acute exacerbation did not improve health-related quality of life or reduce acute healthcare utilisation. These results provide no support for the widespread use of short-burst oxygen therapy.

  15. HD 140283: A STAR IN THE SOLAR NEIGHBORHOOD THAT FORMED SHORTLY AFTER THE BIG BANG

    SciTech Connect

    Bond, Howard E.; Nelan, Edmund P.; VandenBerg, Don A.; Schaefer, Gail H.; Harmer, Dianne E-mail: nelan@stsci.edu E-mail: schaefer@chara-array.org

    2013-03-01

    HD 140283 is an extremely metal-deficient and high-velocity subgiant in the solar neighborhood, having a location in the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram where absolute magnitude is most sensitive to stellar age. Because it is bright, nearby, unreddened, and has a well-determined chemical composition, this star avoids most of the issues involved in age determinations for globular clusters. Using the Fine Guidance Sensors on the Hubble Space Telescope, we have measured a trigonometric parallax of 17.15 {+-} 0.14 mas for HD 140283, with an error one-fifth of that determined by the Hipparcos mission. Employing modern theoretical isochrones, which include effects of helium diffusion, revised nuclear reaction rates, and enhanced oxygen abundance, we use the precise distance to infer an age of 14.46 {+-} 0.31 Gyr. The quoted error includes only the uncertainty in the parallax, and is for adopted surface oxygen and iron abundances of [O/H] = -1.67 and [Fe/H] = -2.40. Uncertainties in the stellar parameters and chemical composition, especially the oxygen content, now contribute more to the error budget for the age of HD 140283 than does its distance, increasing the total uncertainty to about {+-}0.8 Gyr. Within the errors, the age of HD 140283 does not conflict with the age of the Universe, 13.77 {+-} 0.06 Gyr, based on the microwave background and Hubble constant, but it must have formed soon after the big bang.

  16. Proteus virulence: involvement of the pore forming alpha-hemolysin (a short review).

    PubMed

    Tóth, V; Emódy, L

    2000-01-01

    The genus Proteus belongs to the tribe of Proteae in the family of Enterobacteriaceae, and consists of five species: P. mirabilis, P. vulgaris, P. morganii, P. penneri and P. myxofaciens. They are distinguished from the rest of Enterobacteriaceae by their ability to deaminate phenylalanine and tryptophane. They hydrolyze urea and gelatin and fail to ferment lactose, mannose, dulcitol and malonate; and do not form lysine and arginine decarboxylase or beta-galactosidase [1]. Colonies produce distinct "burned chocolate" odor and frequently show the characteristics of swarming motility on solid media. P. mirabilis, P. vulgaris and P. morganii are widely recognized human pathogens. They have been isolated from urinary tract infections, wounds, ear, and nosocomial bacteremic infections, often in immuncompromised patients [2-6]. P. myxofaciens has no clinical interest to this time. P. penneri as species nova was nominated by the recommendation of Hickman and co-workers [7]. Formerly it was recognized as P. vulgaris biogroup 1 or indole negative P. vulgaris [8, 9]. Although it has been less commonly isolated from clinical samples than the other three human pathogenic Proteus species, it has nevertheless been connected with infections of the urinary tract, wounds and has been isolated from the feces of both healthy and diarrheic individuals [10-12]. Potential virulence factors responsible for virulence of Proteae are: IgA protease, urease, type3 fimbriae associated with MR/K haemagglutinins of at least two antigenic types, endotoxin, swarming motility and HlyA and/or HpmA type hemolysins [for review see ref. 13]. In the followings we give a survey of accumulated concepts about the position and characteristics of HlyA type alpha-hemolysins both in general and with emphasis on virulence functions in the tribe of Proteae.

  17. Differential co-expression of long and short form type IX collagen transcripts during avian limb chondrogenesis in ovo.

    PubMed

    Swiderski, R E; Solursh, M

    1992-05-01

    Using RNA blot analysis of developmentally staged avian limb buds, we demonstrate that transcripts of several cartilage marker genes appear in limb tissue prior to overt chondrogenesis. Type II collagen mRNA, cartilage proteoglycan core protein mRNA, alpha 2(IX) collagen mRNA, and transcripts of the short form alpha 1(IX) collagen chain derived from the downstream promoter are co-expressed in limb tissue approximately 24-36 hours before the appearance of the respective polypeptides in differentiating cartilagenous tissue. Transcripts of the long form alpha 1(IX) collagen chain derived from the upstream promoter appear somewhat later in development; nearly coincident with the immunolocalization of type IX collagen in the cartilage elements of the limb. The spatial distribution of type II and type IX collagen transcripts was analyzed by in situ hybridization. Type II collagen and the long form alpha 1(IX) collagen transcripts co-localized in the chondrogenic elements of the developing forelimb. In contrast, short form alpha 1(IX) collagen transcripts which lack the 5' region encoding the NC4 globular amino-terminal domain were distributed throughout the non-chondrogenic, non-myogenic mesenchymal regions of the limb and were not detectable above background levels in the limb chondrogenic elements. The precocious appearance of several cartilage marker gene transcripts prior to chondrogenesis suggests that multiple levels of gene regulation including alternative promoter use, alternative RNA splicing, alternative polyadenylation, and other post-transcriptional as well as translational mechanisms are active prior to, and during avian limb chondrogenesis.

  18. Exploring issues of personality measurement and structure through the development of a short form of the Eysenck Personality Profiler .

    PubMed

    Petrides, K V; Jackson, Chris J; Furnham, Adrian; Levine, Stephen Z

    2003-12-01

    In this article, we develop a revised short form of the original Eysenck Personality Profiler (EPP; H. J. Eysenck & Wilson, 1991). In addition, we address topics of broad theoretical importance such as the recurrent empirical finding of correlations between conceptually orthogonal personality dimensions and the possibility that gender differences in these dimensions are partly spurious. In Study 1 (N = 227), we demonstrate that the existing short form of the EPP (EPP-SF; H. J. Eysenck, Wilson, & Jackson, 1996) provides a poor fit to the data and we develop a revised well-fitting version. In Study 2, we retest this version on an independent new sample (N = 3,374) where it is again found to fit the data well. We show that most of the structural and measurement parameters of the revised EPP-SF are invariant across genders. Structured means analysis indicated a significant gender difference in Psychoticism, with men scoring higher than women, but no differences in Extraversion or Neuroticism. Our discussion focuses on issues concerning personality measurement and structure, including an examination of the role of confirmatory factor analysis in personality research.

  19. The psychometric development and initial validation of the DCI-A short form for adolescent therapeutic community treatment process.

    PubMed

    Stucky, Brian D; Edelen, Maria Orlando; Vaughan, Christine A; Tucker, Joan S; Butler, Jennifer

    2014-04-01

    The 5-factor client-report Dimensions of Change in Therapeutic Communities Treatment Instrument-Adolescent (DCI-A) was developed to assess adolescent substance abuse treatment process in the therapeutic community (TC). The goal of this study was to use bifactor modeling to derive a unidimensional DCI-A short-form (DCI-A-SF) that would represent content from the original DCI-A factors. Data are from 442 adolescents receiving treatment at one of seven residential TC programs. Bifactor analyses suggested selection of seven DCI-A items to comprise the short form. Three items are from the treatment motivation factor, and one item was selected from each of the remaining four factors. Confirmatory factor analysis suggested that the 7-item DCI-A-SF is strongly unidimensional, and unidimensional IRT analysis of the items indicated good internal consistency. A structural equation model that demonstrates the mediating relationship of DCI-A-SF with other measures, including demographic and pre-treatment characteristics, and subsequent treatment completion, provides preliminary evidence of internal validity.

  20. Psychometric validation of the Brief Pain Inventory-Short Form in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus in the United States.

    PubMed

    Naegeli, A N; Tomaszewski, E L; Al Sawah, S

    2015-11-01

    This study evaluated the Brief Pain Inventory-Short Form (BPI-SF) in patients with moderate-to-severe systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Patients ≥18 years old who self-reported a physician diagnosis of SLE (confirmed by medical record review) and active SLE (Systemic Lupus Activity Questionnaire (SLAQ) score of ≥11) were included. The BPI-SF and Short Form Health Survey version 2 (SF-36v2) were administered electronically at baseline, week 2 and week 12. Psychometric properties of the BPI-SF were evaluated. Cronbach alphas were >0.9 for all BPI-SF items, domains and total score. Test-retest reliability correlations for responses between baseline and week 2 of the BPI-SF had intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) ≥0.5. The BPI-SF domains and total score were moderately positively correlated to the SLAQ score (r ≥ 0.4), but negatively correlated to the SF-36v2 bodily pain domain (r ≤ -0.6). The BPI-SF domains and total score were moderately negatively correlated to the SF-36v2 physical functioning domain and physical component summary (r ≤ -0.4), with low correlations between the BPI-SF severity domain and SF-36v2 mental component summary (r = -0.16). Assessment of pain, as measured by the BPI-SF, demonstrated validity and reliability in a sample of patients with moderate-to-severe SLE.

  1. Limits on radioactive powered emission associated with a short-hard GRB 070724A in a star-forming galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kocevski, Daniel; Thöne, Christina C.; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico; Bloom, Joshua S.; Granot, Jonathan; Butler, Nathaniel R.; Perley, Daniel A.; Modjaz, Maryam; Lee, William H.; Cobb, Bethany E.; Levan, Andrew J.; Tanvir, Nial; Covino, Stefano

    2010-05-01

    We present results of an extensive observing campaign of the short-duration, hard spectrum gamma-ray burst (GRB) 070724A, aimed at detecting the radioactively powered emission that might follow from a binary merger or collapse involving compact objects. Our multiband observations span the range in time over which this so-called Li-Paczyński mini-supernova (mini-SN) could be active, beginning within 3 h of the GRB trigger and represent some of the deepest and most comprehensive searches for such emission. We find no evidence for such activity and place limits on the abundances and the lifetimes of the possible radioactive nuclides that could form in the rapid decompression of nuclear density matter. Furthermore, our limits are significantly fainter than the peak magnitude of any previously detected broad-lined Type Ic SN associated with other GRBs, effectively ruling out a long GRB-like SN for this event. Given the unambiguous redshift of the host galaxy (z = 0.456), GRB 070724A represents one of a small, but growing, number of short-hard GRBs for which firm physical/rest-frame quantities currently exist. The host of GRB 070724A is a moderately star-forming galaxy with an older stellar population component and a relatively high metallicity of 12 + log(O/H)KD02 = 9.1. We find no significant evidence for large amounts of extinction along the line of sight that could mask the presence of an SN explosion and estimate a small probability for chance alignment with the putative host. We discuss how our derived constraints fit into the evolving picture of short-hard GRBs, their potential progenitors and the host environments in which they are thought to be produced.

  2. Structural transformation between long and short-chain form of liquid sulfur from ab initio molecular dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Plašienka, Dušan Martoňák, Roman; Cifra, Peter

    2015-04-21

    We present results of ab initio molecular dynamics study of the structural transformation occurring in hot liquid sulfur under high pressure, which corresponds to the recently observed chain-breakage phenomenon and to the electronic transition reported earlier. The transformation is temperature-induced and separates two distinct polymeric forms of liquid sulfur: high-temperature form composed of short chain-like fragments with open endings and low-temperature form with very long chains. We offer a structural description of the two liquid forms in terms of chain lengths, cross-linking, and chain geometry and investigate several physical properties. We conclude that the transformation is accompanied by changes in energy (but not density) as well as in diffusion coefficient and electronic properties—semiconductor-metal transition. We also describe the analogy of the investigated process to similar phenomena that take place in two other chalcogens selenium and tellurium. Finally, we remark that the behavior of heated liquid sulfur at ambient pressure might indicate a possible existence of a critical point in the low-pressure region of sulfur phase diagram.

  3. Assessing the external correlates of alternative factor models of the Psychopathic Personality Inventory-short form across three samples.

    PubMed

    Smith, Shannon Toney; Edens, John F; Vaughn, Michael G

    2011-05-01

    This study investigated various theoretically relevant correlates of a short form of the Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI; Lilienfeld & Andrews, 1996) using archival data from large undergraduate, foster care, and juvenile offender samples. External correlates of the 2 primary scales (PPI-I and PPI-II) and the Coldheartedness subscale were for the most part consistent with prior findings. Analyses for an alternate factor model in which the Fearlessness subscale loaded onto PPI-II (rather than PPI-I) resulted in relatively few substantial changes to the pattern of correlations with criterion measures, but a third factor that included the Coldheartedness and Carefree Nonplanfulness subscales functioned differently than Coldheartedness alone in these data.

  4. Initial validation of the Spanish childhood trauma questionnaire-short form: factor structure, reliability and association with parenting.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Ana; Gallardo-Pujol, David; Pereda, Noemí; Arntz, Arnoud; Bernstein, David P; Gaviria, Ana M; Labad, Antonio; Valero, Joaquín; Gutiérrez-Zotes, Jose Alfonso

    2013-05-01

    The present study examines the internal consistency and factor structure of the Spanish version of the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire-Short Form (CTQ-SF) and the association between the CTQ-SF subscales and parenting style. Cronbach's α and confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) were performed in a female clinical sample (n = 185). Kendall's ι correlations were calculated between the maltreatment and parenting scales in a subsample of 109 patients. The Spanish CTQ-SF showed adequate psychometric properties and a good fit of the 5-factor structure. The neglect and abuse scales were negatively associated with parental care and positively associated with overprotection scales. The results of this study provide initial support for the reliability and validity of the Spanish CTQ-SF.

  5. A psychometric analysis of the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire-Short Form (TEIQue-SF) using item response theory.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Andrew; Petrides, K V

    2010-09-01

    Trait emotional intelligence refers to a constellation of emotional self-perceptions located at the lower levels of personality hierarchies. In 2 studies, we sought to examine the psychometric properties of the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire-Short Form (TEIQue-SF; Petrides, 2009) using item response theory (IRT). Study 1 (N= 1,119, 455 men) showed that most items had good discrimination and threshold parameters and high item information values. At the global level, the TEIQue-SF showed very good precision across most of the latent trait range. Study 2 (N= 866, 432 men) used similar IRT techniques in a new sample based on the latest version of the TEIQue-SF (version 1.50). Results replicated Study 1, with the instrument showing good psychometric properties at the item and global level. Overall, the 2 studies suggest the TEIQue-SF can be recommended when a rapid assessment of trait emotional intelligence is required.

  6. Translation and validation of the Hong Kong Chinese version of the breastfeeding self-efficacy scale-short form.

    PubMed

    Ip, Wan-Yim; Yeung, Lai-Shan; Choi, Kai-Chow; Chair, Sek-Ying; Dennis, Cindy-Lee

    2012-10-01

    Healthcare providers do not have a validated instrument to measure breastfeeding self-efficacy among Hong Kong Chinese. In this study, we sought to translate the breastfeeding self-efficacy scale-short form (BSES-SF) into Hong Kong Chinese and to examine the psychometric properties in a sample of 185 breastfeeding mothers. The construct validity of the translated scale was supported by confirmatory factor analysis and known group analysis. The receiver operating characteristics analysis indicated that the total score of the translated scale at 48-72  hours after delivery could be a useful diagnostic tool for identifying mothers likely to discontinue breastfeeding prematurely, before 6 months postpartum. Further research to cross-validate the suggested cut-off value of the scale is recommended.

  7. An 8-item short form of the Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire adapted for children (ChEDE-Q8).

    PubMed

    Kliem, Sören; Schmidt, Ricarda; Vogel, Mandy; Hiemisch, Andreas; Kiess, Wieland; Hilbert, Anja

    2017-01-25

    Eating disturbances are common in children placing a vulnerable group of them at risk for full-syndrome eating disorders and adverse health outcomes. To provide a valid self-report assessment of eating disorder psychopathology in children, a short form of the child version of the Eating Disorder Examination (ChEDE-Q) was psychometrically evaluated. Similar to the EDE-Q, the ChEDE-Q provides assessment of eating disorder psychopathology related to anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge-eating disorder; however, the ChEDE-Q does not assess symptoms of avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder, pica, or rumination disorder. In 1,836 participants ages 7 to 18 years, recruited from two independent population-based samples, the factor structure of the recently established 8-item short form EDE-Q8 for adults was examined, including measurement invariance analyses on age, gender, and weight status derived from objectively measured weight and height. For convergent validity, the ChEDE-Q global score, body esteem scale, strengths and difficulties questionnaire, and sociodemographic characteristics were used. Item characteristics and age- and gender-specific norms were calculated. Confirmatory factor analysis revealed good model fit for the 8-item ChEDE-Q. Measurement invariance analyses indicated strict invariance for all analyzed subgroups. Convergent validity was provided through associations with well-established questionnaires and age, gender, and weight status, in expected directions. The newly developed ChEDE-Q8 proved to be a psychometrically sound and economical self-report assessment tool of eating disorder psychopathology in children. Further validation studies are needed, particularly concerning discriminant and predictive validity.

  8. Development and initial validation of a scale for detecting inconsistent responding on the personality assessment inventory-short form.

    PubMed

    Siefert, Caleb J; Stein, Michelle; Sinclair, Samuel Justin; Antonius, Daniel; Shiva, Andrew; Blais, Mark A

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this investigation was the development of an inconsistency scale (ICN-SF) for the personality assessment inventory-short form (PAI-SF). In Study 1, 503 inpatient profiles were randomly assigned to a derivation or cross-validation sample. Ten correlated item pairs were identified using the derivation sample and placed on the ICN-SF. Psychometric properties of the ICN-SF total scores were comparable in the derivation and cross-validation samples. Total ICN-SF scores in both samples were significantly lower than scores obtained from computer-generated random samples. Diagnostic efficiency statistics are reported using multiple cut-off scores at various base rate estimates. ICN-SF scores greater than 8 reasonably balanced sensitivity and specificity rates. This cutoff correctly classified 92% of the random protocols and inaccurately classified 9% of the patient protocols in study 1. In study 2, PAI-SF scores from 627 forensic and civil inpatients produced similar results, effectively identifying cases with elevated scores on the full-form inconsistency scale. Overall the results of both studies suggest that the ICN-SF can aid examiners in assessing for inconsistent responding.

  9. Development of short-form and screening cutoff point of the Smartphone Addiction Inventory (SPAI-SF).

    PubMed

    Lin, Yu-Hsuan; Pan, Yuan-Chien; Lin, Sheng-Hsuan; Chen, Sue-Huei

    2016-09-23

    Smartphone addiction is considered a form of technological addiction that has attracted increasing attention. The present study developed and validated the short-form Smartphone Addiction Inventory (SPAI-SF) and established cutoff point for screening smartphone addiction based on diagnostic criteria established by psychiatric interview. A total of 268 participants completed an online survey that collected demographic data, smartphone use behaviours, and responses to the 26-item SPAI. Each participant also completed a psychiatric interview. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) revealed that the 10-item SPAI-SF replicated the structure of original 26-item SPAI accurately, yielding a four-factor model consisting of compulsive behaviour, functional impairment, withdrawal, and tolerance. For maximal diagnostic accuracy, a cutoff point of 24/25 best discriminated cases of smartphone addiction from diagnostic negatives. The present findings suggest that both the 26-item SPAI and SPAI-SF manifest the four constructs of behavioural addiction and the characteristics of smartphone addiction. The cutoff point determined by psychiatrists' diagnostic interview will be useful for clinical screening and epidemiologic research.

  10. Constructing a short form of the hierarchical personality inventory for children (HiPIC): the HiPIC-30.

    PubMed

    Vollrath, Margarete E; Hampson, Sarah E; Torgersen, Svenn

    2016-05-01

    Children's personality traits are invaluable predictors of concurrent and later mental and physical health. Several validated longer inventories for assessing the widely recognized Five-Factor Model of personality in children are available, but short forms are scarce. This study aimed at constructing a 30-item form of the 144-item Hierarchical Personality Inventory for Children (HiPIC) (Mervielde & De Fruyt, ). Participants were 1543 children aged 6-12 years (sample 1) and 3895 children aged 8 years (sample 2). Sample 1 completed the full HiPIC, from which we constructed the HiPIC-30, and the Child Behaviour Checklist (Achenbach, ). Sample 2 completed the HiPIC-30. The HiPIC-30 personality domains correlated over r = .90 with the full HiPIC domains, had good Cronbach's alphas and correlated similarly with CBCL behaviour problems and gender as the full HiPIC. The factor structures of the HiPIC-30 were convergent across samples, but the imagination factor was not clear-cut. We conclude that the HiPIC-30 is a reliable and valid questionnaire for the Five-Factor personality traits in children. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Psychometric Evaluation and Cultural Correlates of the Mate Retention Inventory-Short Form (MRI-SF) in Iran.

    PubMed

    Atari, Mohammad; Barbaro, Nicole; Shackelford, Todd K; Chegeni, Razieh

    2017-01-01

    The current study investigated the psychometric properties of the Persian translation of the Mate Retention Inventory-Short Form (MRI-SF) in Iran. We also investigated sex differences in the use of mate retention tactics and investigated the relationships between mate retention behaviors and a number of related cultural constructs. Participants ( N = 308) ranged in age from 18 to 57 years. All participants were in a committed romantic relationship, with mean relationship length of 63.5 months ( SD = 73.8). Participants completed the Persian translation of the MRI-SF and measures of religiosity, relationship satisfaction, self-esteem, and socioeconomic status. Cultural measures specific to Iran were also included, such as Mahr (for married individuals), self-perceived Qeiratiness (for men), and self-perceived jealousy (for women). Mahr is a mandatory amount of money or possessions paid or promised to be paid by the groom to the bride at the time of the marriage contract. Qeirati is a male-specific adjective in Persian meaning protective against unwanted attention toward a man's romantic partner. Female jealousy is usually regarded the counterpart of male Qeiratiness in Iranian culture. The 19 mate retention tactics formed a two-component structure, consistent with previous research. Results demonstrate adequate internal consistency of 2-item assessments of mate retention tactics. Observed sex differences accorded with previous mate retention research and are discussed in reference to evolutionary perspectives on human mating. Several significant associations emerged between mate retention tactics and Iranian culture-specific variables and are discussed from a cross-cultural perspective.

  12. SHORT-LIVED STAR-FORMING GIANT CLUMPS IN COSMOLOGICAL SIMULATIONS OF z Almost-Equal-To 2 DISKS

    SciTech Connect

    Genel, Shy; Genzel, Reinhard; Foerster Schreiber, Natascha M.; Naab, Thorsten; Oser, Ludwig; Sternberg, Amiel; Johansson, Peter H.; Dave, Romeel; Oppenheimer, Benjamin D.; Burkert, Andreas E-mail: genzel@mpe.mpg.de E-mail: amiel@wise.tau.ac.il E-mail: oser@usm.lmu.de E-mail: phjohans@astro.helsinki.fi E-mail: oppenheimer@strw.leidenuniv.nl

    2012-01-20

    Many observed massive star-forming z Almost-Equal-To 2 galaxies are large disks that exhibit irregular morphologies, with Almost-Equal-To 1 kpc, Almost-Equal-To 10{sup 8}-10{sup 10}M{sub o-dot} clumps. We present the largest sample to date of high-resolution cosmological smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations that zoom-in on the formation of individual M{sub *} Almost-Equal-To 10{sup 10.5}M{sub o-dot} galaxies in Almost-Equal-To 10{sup 12}M{sub o-dot} halos at z Almost-Equal-To 2. Our code includes strong stellar feedback parameterized as momentum-driven galactic winds. This model reproduces many characteristic features of this observed class of galaxies, such as their clumpy morphologies, smooth and monotonic velocity gradients, high gas fractions (f{sub g} Almost-Equal-To 50%), and high specific star formation rates ({approx}>1 Gyr{sup -1}). In accord with recent models, giant clumps (M{sub clump} Almost-Equal-To (5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 8}-10{sup 9})M{sub o-dot}) form in situ via gravitational instabilities. However, the galactic winds are critical for their subsequent evolution. The giant clumps we obtain are short-lived and are disrupted by wind-driven mass loss. They do not virialize or migrate to the galaxy centers as suggested in recent work neglecting strong winds. By phenomenologically implementing the winds that are observed from high-redshift galaxies and in particular from individual clumps, our simulations reproduce well new observational constraints on clump kinematics and clump ages. In particular, the observation that older clumps appear closer to their galaxy centers is reproduced in our simulations, as a result of inside-out formation of the disks rather than inward clump migration.

  13. The Mental Health Continuum-Short Form (MHC-SF) in the Argentinean Context: Confirmatory Factor Analysis and Measurement Invariance.

    PubMed

    Lupano Perugini, María Laura; de la Iglesia, Guadalupe; Castro Solano, Alejandro; Keyes, Corey Lee M

    2017-03-01

    The present research aimed at studying the psychometric properties of the Mental Health Continuum-Short Form (MHC-SF; Keyes, 2005) in a sample of 1,300 Argentinean adults (50% males; 50% females). Their mean age was 40.28 years old (SD = 13.59). The MHC-SF is a 14 item test that assesses three components (i.e., emotional, social, and psychological) of well-being. Convergent and divergent evidence of construct validity was assessed by conducting confirmatory factor analysis, cross-validation, factorial invariance, and correlations with external criteria. Internal consistency was studied using Cronbach's alphas. Results indicated an adequate fit of a three-dimensional model. This structure was also confirmed, and was invariant throughout sex and age. The emotional well-being scores converged with life satisfaction and positive affect measures; the psychological well-being scale had a positive association with the presence of meaning in life; and the social well-being scores showed a positive and strong correlation with an external measure of well-being. Also, all scores were negatively associated with negative affect, search of meaning in life, and presence of depression symptoms. Internal consistency was .89 for the MHC-SF. Furthermore, the findings supported the two - continua model of mental health.

  14. Validation of the Internet Gaming Disorder Scale - Short-Form (IGDS9-SF) in an Italian-speaking sample.

    PubMed

    Monacis, Lucia; Palo, Valeria de; Griffiths, Mark D; Sinatra, Maria

    2016-12-01

    Background and aims The inclusion of Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD) in Section III of the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders has increased the interest of researchers in the development of new standardized psychometric tools for the assessment of such a disorder. To date, the nine-item Internet Gaming Disorder Scale - Short-Form (IGDS9-SF) has only been validated in English, Portuguese, and Slovenian languages. Therefore, the aim of this investigation was to examine the psychometric properties of the IGDS9-SF in an Italian-speaking sample. Methods A total of 757 participants were recruited to the present study. Confirmatory factor analysis and multi-group analyses were applied to assess the construct validity. Reliability analyses comprised the average variance extracted, the standard error of measurement, and the factor determinacy coefficient. Convergent and criterion validities were established through the associations with other related constructs. The receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was used to determine an empirical cut-off point. Results Findings confirmed the single-factor structure of the instrument, its measurement invariance at the configural level, and the convergent and criterion validities. Satisfactory levels of reliability and a cut-off point of 21 were obtained. Discussion and conclusions The present study provides validity evidence for the use of the Italian version of the IGDS9-SF and may foster research into gaming addiction in the Italian context.

  15. Factor analysis of the Parenting Stress Index-Short Form with parents of young children with autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Zaidman-Zait, Anat; Mirenda, Pat; Zumbo, Bruno D; Georgiades, Stelios; Szatmari, Peter; Bryson, Susan; Fombonne, Eric; Roberts, Wendy; Smith, Isabel; Vaillancourt, Tracy; Volden, Joanne; Waddell, Charlotte; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie; Duku, Eric; Thompson, Ann

    2011-10-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to examine the underlying factor structure of the Parenting Stress Index-Short Form (PSI-SF) in a large cohort of parents of young children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). A secondary goal was to examine relationships between PSI-SF factors and autism severity, child behavior problems, and parental mental health variables that have been shown to be related to parental stress in previous research. A confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to examine the three-factor structure described in the PSI-SF manual [Abidin, 1995]: parental distress, parent-child dysfunctional interaction, and difficult child. Results of the CFA indicated that the three-factor structure was unacceptable when applied to the study sample. Thus, an exploratory factor analysis was conducted and suggested a six-factor model as the best alternative for the PSI-SF index. Spearman's correlations revealed significant positive correlations with moderate to large effect sizes between the revised PSI-SF factors and autism severity, externalizing and internalizing child behaviors, and an index of parent mental health. The revised factors represent more narrowly defined aspects of the three original subscales of the PSI-SF and might prove to be advantageous in both research and clinical applications. Autism Res 2011,4:336-346. © 2011 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Toward a brief multidimensional assessment of emotional intelligence: psychometric properties of the Emotional Quotient Inventory-Short Form.

    PubMed

    Parker, James D A; Keefer, Kateryna V; Wood, Laura M

    2011-09-01

    Although several brief instruments are available for the emotional intelligence (EI) construct, their conceptual coverage tends to be quite limited. One notable exception is the short form of the Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-i:S), which measures multiple EI dimensions in addition to a global EI index. Despite the unique advantage offered by the inventory, psychometric properties of the EQ-i:S scores have not yet been systematically evaluated. Such an evaluation was the main goal of the present investigation. Using data from 2,508 undergraduates, the authors conducted 2 studies involving factor structure, internal reliability, 6-month temporal stability, and construct validity of the EQ-i:S responses, both for the total EQ scale and for each constituent dimension. The results supported the multidimensional measurement structure of the EQ-i:S, with each dimension producing internally consistent, temporally stable, and theoretically meaningful responses. Scores on the EQ-i:S were associated more strongly with performance on an ability test of EI and with a conceptually similar construct of alexithymia than with the broader dimensions of basic personality and explained nontrivial amounts of incremental variance in the criterion symptoms of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Moreover, scores on each EQ-i:S dimension exhibited unique patterns of associations with the validation variables. The discussion highlights the advantages of the multidimensional approach in the assessment and study of EI.

  17. Factor structure and item level psychometrics of the Social Problem Solving Inventory-Revised: Short Form in traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Li, Chih-Ying; Waid-Ebbs, Julia; Velozo, Craig A; Heaton, Shelley C

    2016-01-01

    Social problem-solving deficits characterise individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI), and poor social problem solving interferes with daily functioning and productive lifestyles. Therefore, it is of vital importance to use the appropriate instrument to identify deficits in social problem solving for individuals with TBI. This study investigates factor structure and item-level psychometrics of the Social Problem Solving Inventory-Revised: Short Form (SPSI-R:S), for adults with moderate and severe TBI. Secondary analysis of 90 adults with moderate and severe TBI who completed the SPSI-R:S was performed. An exploratory factor analysis (EFA), principal components analysis (PCA) and Rasch analysis examined the factor structure and item-level psychometrics of the SPSI-R:S. The EFA showed three dominant factors, with positively worded items represented as the most definite factor. The other two factors are negative problem-solving orientation and skills; and negative problem-solving emotion. Rasch analyses confirmed the three factors are each unidimensional constructs. It was concluded that the total score interpretability of the SPSI-R:S may be challenging due to the multidimensional structure of the total measure. Instead, we propose using three separate SPSI-R:S subscores to measure social problem solving for the TBI population.

  18. Validity and reliability of the Very Short form of the Physical Self-Inventory among Turkish adolescents.

    PubMed

    Aşçi, F Hülya; Maïano, Christophe; Morin, Alexandre J S; Çağlar, Emine; Bilgili, Naile

    2016-11-25

    The study aimed to test the validity and reliability of the Very Short form of the Physical Self-Inventory (PSI-VS) among a sample of 635 Turkish adolescents. These adolescents have completed the 12 original items of the PSI-VS, plus a positively worded reformulation of the single reverse-keyed item of the physical attractiveness subscale. A series of confirmatory factor analyses was used to examine the psychometric properties of the original and modified versions of the PSI-VS. Findings revealed superior psychometric properties with the modified version than with the original set of items. The modified version was thus subsequently used to examine its factor structure invariance across sexes, age groups and sport practice involvement. Results not only report that this version was fully invariant across, but also that latent means were significantly different across sexes and sport practice involvement. In sum, the Turkish modified version of the PSI-VS presents acceptable psychometric properties and may be used to repeatedly and/or intensively assess participants' physical self-perceptions in the context of sport and exercise interventions.

  19. Validation of the Internet Gaming Disorder Scale – Short-Form (IGDS9-SF) in an Italian-speaking sample

    PubMed Central

    Monacis, Lucia; de Palo, Valeria; Griffiths, Mark D.; Sinatra, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims The inclusion of Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD) in Section III of the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders has increased the interest of researchers in the development of new standardized psychometric tools for the assessment of such a disorder. To date, the nine-item Internet Gaming Disorder Scale – Short-Form (IGDS9-SF) has only been validated in English, Portuguese, and Slovenian languages. Therefore, the aim of this investigation was to examine the psychometric properties of the IGDS9-SF in an Italian-speaking sample. Methods A total of 757 participants were recruited to the present study. Confirmatory factor analysis and multi-group analyses were applied to assess the construct validity. Reliability analyses comprised the average variance extracted, the standard error of measurement, and the factor determinacy coefficient. Convergent and criterion validities were established through the associations with other related constructs. The receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was used to determine an empirical cut-off point. Results Findings confirmed the single-factor structure of the instrument, its measurement invariance at the configural level, and the convergent and criterion validities. Satisfactory levels of reliability and a cut-off point of 21 were obtained. Discussion and conclusions The present study provides validity evidence for the use of the Italian version of the IGDS9-SF and may foster research into gaming addiction in the Italian context. PMID:27876422

  20. The Mental Health Continuum–Short Form (MHC–SF) in the Argentinean Context: Confirmatory Factor Analysis and Measurement Invariance

    PubMed Central

    Lupano Perugini, María Laura; de la Iglesia, Guadalupe; Castro Solano, Alejandro; Keyes, Corey Lee M.

    2017-01-01

    The present research aimed at studying the psychometric properties of the Mental Health Continuum–Short Form (MHC–SF; Keyes, 2005) in a sample of 1,300 Argentinean adults (50% males; 50% females). Their mean age was 40.28 years old (SD = 13.59). The MHC–SF is a 14 item test that assesses three components (i.e., emotional, social, and psychological) of well-being. Convergent and divergent evidence of construct validity was assessed by conducting confirmatory factor analysis, cross-validation, factorial invariance, and correlations with external criteria. Internal consistency was studied using Cronbach’s alphas. Results indicated an adequate fit of a three-dimensional model. This structure was also confirmed, and was invariant throughout sex and age. The emotional well-being scores converged with life satisfaction and positive affect measures; the psychological well-being scale had a positive association with the presence of meaning in life; and the social well-being scores showed a positive and strong correlation with an external measure of well-being. Also, all scores were negatively associated with negative affect, search of meaning in life, and presence of depression symptoms. Internal consistency was .89 for the MHC–SF. Furthermore, the findings supported the two - continua model of mental health. PMID:28344677

  1. The Internal Structure of Responses to the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire-Short Form: An Exploratory Structural Equation Modeling Approach.

    PubMed

    Perera, Harsha N

    2015-01-01

    Notwithstanding the wide use of the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire-Short Form (TEIQue-SF) as a brief assessment of trait emotional intelligence (TEI), the psychometric properties of this measure have not been systematically examined. This article reports on research conducted to evaluate the latent structure underlying TEIQue-SF item data and test the gender invariance of scores as critical initial steps in determining the psychometric robustness of the inventory. In doing so, the article demonstrates an application of exploratory structural equation modeling as an alternative to the more restrictive independent clusters model of confirmatory factor analysis for examining factorially complex personality data. On the basis of 476 responses to the TEIQue-SF, evidence was obtained for the multidimensionality of the inventory reflected in a retained correlated traits solution. Tests of gender invariance revealed equivalence of item factor loadings, intercepts, uniquenesses, correlated uniquenesses, and the factor variance-covariance matrix, but not latent means. Men were found to be moderately higher on self-control and sociability than women, whereas women scored marginally higher on emotionality than men. No significant gender differences were found on mean levels of well-being. The benefits of the multidimensionality of the TEIQue-SF, limitations of the study, and directions for future research are discussed.

  2. Psychometric properties of the Social Problem Solving Inventory-Revised Short-Form in a South African population.

    PubMed

    Sorsdahl, Katherine; Stein, Dan J; Myers, Bronwyn

    2017-04-01

    The Social Problem Solving Inventory-Revised Short-Form (SPSI-R:SF) has been used in several countries to identify problem-solving deficits among clinical and general populations in order to guide cognitive-behavioural interventions. Yet, very few studies have evaluated its psychometric properties. Three language versions of the questionnaire were administered to a general population sample comprising 1000 participants (771 English-, 178 Afrikaans- and 101 Xhosa-speakers). Of these participants, 210 were randomly selected to establish test-retest reliability (70 in each language). Principal component analysis was performed to examine the applicability of the factor structure of the original questionnaire to the South African data. Supplementary psychometric analyses were performed, including internal consistency and test-retest reliability. Collectively, results provide initial evidence of the reliability and validity of the SPSI-R:SF for the assessment of problem solving deficits in South Africa. Further studies that explore how the Afrikaans language version of the SPSI-R:SF can be improved and that establish the predictive validity of scores on the SPSI-R:SF are needed.

  3. Psychometrics Properties of Early Trauma Inventory Self Report – Short Form (ETISR-SR) for the Brazilian Context

    PubMed Central

    Osório, Flávia L.; Salum, Giovanni Abrahão; Donadon, Mariana Fortunata; Forni-dos-Santos, Larissa; Loureiro, Sonia Regina; Crippa, José Alexandre S.

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to translate and validate Early Trauma Inventory Self Report -Short Form (ETISR-SF) to Brazilian Portuguese. 253 adult subjects answered the ETISR-SF, Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND), Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and Fast Alcohol Screening Test (FAST). The instrument showed good internal consistency (0.83). Correlations with the PHQ-9 and BAI were moderate (r=0.26-0.47) and showed the expected associations with psychiatric constructs. No associations were found for FTND and FAST. Confirmatory Factor Analysis revealed that a correlated four-factor model as well as a second order model subsuming four lower order components presented the best model fit. Test-retest reliability was also excellent (ICC=0.78-0.90). ETISR-SF is suitable for assessing traumatic experiences in a Brazilian community sample. Given the importance of trauma as a public health problem, tools such as ETISR-SF may help clinicians/ researchers to better evaluate and measure such events and further advance clinical care of trauma victims. PMID:24098478

  4. Development of a Short-Form Measure of Science and Technology Self-efficacy Using Rasch Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamb, Richard L.; Vallett, David; Annetta, Leonard

    2014-10-01

    Despite an increased focus on science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) in U.S. schools, today's students often struggle to maintain adequate performance in these fields compared with students in other countries (Cheek in Thinking constructively about science, technology, and society education. State University of New York, Albany, 1992; Enyedy and Goldberg 2004; Mandinach and Lewis 2006). In addition, despite considerable pressure to promote the placement of students into STEM career fields, U.S. placement is relatively low (Sadler et al. in Sci Educ 96(3):411-427, 2012; Subotnik et al. in Identifying and developing talent in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM): an agenda for research, policy and practice. International handbook, part XII, pp 1313-1326, 2009). One explanation for the decline of STEM career placement in the U.S. rests with low student affect concerning STEM concepts and related content, especially in terms of self-efficacy. Researchers define self-efficacy as the internal belief that a student can succeed in learning, and that understanding student success lies in students' externalized actions or behaviors (Bandura in Psychol Rev 84(2):191-215, 1977). Evidence suggests that high self-efficacy in STEM can result in student selection of STEM in later educational endeavors, culminating in STEM career selection (Zeldin et al. in J Res Sci Teach 45(9):1036-1058, 2007). However, other factors such as proficiency play a role as well. The lack of appropriate measures of self-efficacy can greatly affect STEM career selection due to inadequate targeting of this affective trait and loss of opportunity for early intervention by educators. Lack of early intervention decreases selection of STEM courses and careers (Valla and Williams in J Women Minor Sci Eng 18(1), 2012; Lent et al. in J Couns Psychol 38(4), 1991). Therefore, this study developed a short-form measure of self-efficacy to help identify students in need of

  5. Age and education corrected older adult normative data for a short form version of the Financial Capacity Instrument.

    PubMed

    Gerstenecker, Adam; Eakin, Amanda; Triebel, Kristen; Martin, Roy; Swenson-Dravis, Dana; Petersen, Ronald C; Marson, Daniel

    2016-06-01

    Financial capacity is an instrumental activity of daily living (IADL) that comprises multiple abilities and is critical to independence and autonomy in older adults. Because of its cognitive complexity, financial capacity is often the first IADL to show decline in prodromal and clinical Alzheimer's disease and related disorders. Despite its importance, few standardized assessment measures of financial capacity exist and there is little, if any, normative data available to evaluate financial skills in the elderly. The Financial Capacity Instrument-Short Form (FCI-SF) is a brief measure of financial skills designed to evaluate financial skills in older adults with cognitive impairment. In the current study, we present age- and education-adjusted normative data for FCI-SF variables in a sample of 1344 cognitively normal, community-dwelling older adults participating in the Mayo Clinic Study of Aging (MCSA) in Olmsted County, Minnesota. Individual FCI-SF raw scores were first converted to age-corrected scaled scores based on position within a cumulative frequency distribution and then grouped within 4 empirically supported and overlapping age ranges. These age-corrected scaled scores were then converted to age- and education-corrected scaled scores using the same methodology. This study has the potential to substantially enhance financial capacity evaluations of older adults through the introduction of age- and education-corrected normative data for the FCI-SF by allowing clinicians to: (a) compare an individual's performance to that of a sample of similar age and education peers, (b) interpret various aspects of financial capacity relative to a normative sample, and (c) make comparisons between these aspects. (PsycINFO Database Record

  6. Application of the World Health Organization Quality of Life Instrument, Short Form (WHOQOL-BREF) to patients with cataract

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Cataract is a prevalent disease in the elderly, and negatively influences patients’ quality of life. This study was conducted to study the application of the World Health Organization Quality of Life Instrument, Short Form (WHOQOL-BREF) to patients with cataract. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, 300 patients with cataract were studied in Neyshabur, Iran from July to October 2014. The Iranian version of the WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire was used to measure their quality of life. Cronbach’s alpha coefficient, Pearson’s correlation coefficient, the paired t-test, the independent t-test, and a linear regression model were used to analyze the data in SPSS version 16.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). RESULTS: The mean age of the participants was 68.11±11.98 years, and most were female (53%). The overall observed Cronbach’s alpha coefficient for the WHOQOL-BREF was 0.889, ranging from 0.714 to 0.810 in its four domains. The total mean score of the respondents on the WHOQOL-BREF was 13.19. The highest and lowest mean scores were observed in the social relationship domain (14.11) and the physical health domain (12.29), respectively. A backward multiple linear regression model found that duration of disease and marital status were associated with total WHOQOL scores, while age, duration of disease, marital status, and income level were associated with domains one through four, respectively (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The reliability analysis conducted in this study indicated that the WHOQOL-BREF scale exhibited an acceptable degree of internal consistency in the measurement of the quality of life of patients with cataract. It was also found that the patients with cataract who were surveyed reported a relatively moderate quality of life. PMID:26883738

  7. Development of the Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Affirmative Counseling Self-Efficacy Inventory – Short Form (LGB-CSI-SF)

    PubMed Central

    Dillon, Frank R.; Alessi, Edward J.; Craig, Shelley; Eber-sole, Ryan C.; Kumar, Snehal M.; Spadola, Christine

    2015-01-01

    The Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Affirmative Counseling Self-Efficacy Inventory – Short Form (LGB-CSI-SF) was developed to facilitate LGB-affirmative counseling training, as well as process and outcome research, by offering a brief psychometrically supported version of the original LGB-CSI measure to researchers and clinicians. Five hundred seventy-five participants (435 licensed mental health professionals and 140 graduate students/trainees) constituted the sample. Confirmatory factor analyses of the 32 items from the original LGB-CSI yielded a new 15-item version of the measure composed of 5 factors (consisting of 3 items each) that assess counselor self-efficacy to perform lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) affirmative counseling behaviors (Application of Knowledge, Advocacy Skills, Self-Awareness, Relationship, and Assessment). The LGB-CSI-SF evidenced high internal consistency and adequate test–retest stability. Convergent validity was supported by correlations between LGB-CSI-SF total scores and Application of Knowledge, Advocacy Skills, Relationship, and Assessment subscales and instruction in LGB issues, as well as personal/professional relations with LGB individuals. More affirmative attitudes toward LGB persons positively related with total scores and Advocacy Skills, Self-Awareness, and Relationship subscales. Discriminant validity was evidenced by an absence of relations between LGB-CSI-SF subscales and a measure of impression management. We found no associations between Advocacy Skills, Assessment, and Relationship subscales and a measure of Self-Deception. Recommendations for implementing the LGB-CSI-SF in future LGB-affirmative counseling self-efficacy based research and training interventions are discussed. PMID:25992391

  8. Validity and reliability of the Short Form 36 Health Surveys (SF-36) among patients with spondyloarthritis in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Kwan, Yu Heng; Fong, Warren Weng Seng; Lui, Nai Lee; Yong, Si Ting; Cheung, Yin Bun; Malhotra, Rahul; Østbye, Truls; Thumboo, Julian

    2016-12-01

    The Short Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36) is a popular health-related quality of life (HrQoL) tool. However, few studies have assessed its psychometric properties in patients with spondyloarthritis (SpA). We therefore aimed to assess the reliability and validity of the SF-36 in patients with SpA in Singapore. Cross-sectional data from a registry of 196 SpA patients recruited from a dedicated tertiary referral clinic in Singapore from 2011 to 2014 was used. Analyses were guided by the COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments framework. Internal consistency reliability was assessed using Cronbach's alpha. Construct validity was assessed through 33 a priori hypotheses by correlations of the eight subscales and two summary scores of SF-36 with other health outcomes. Known-group construct validity was assessed by comparison of the means of the subscales and summary scores of the SF-36 of SpA patients and the general population of Singapore using student's t tests. Among 196 patients (155 males (79.0 %), median (range) age: 36 (17-70), 166 Chinese (84.6 %)), SF-36 scales showed high internal consistency ranging from 0.88 to 0.90. Convergent construct validity was supported as shown by fulfillment of all hypotheses. Divergent construct validity was supported, as SF-36 MCS was not associated with PGA, pain and HAQ. Known-group construct validity showed SpA patients had lower scores of 3.8-12.5 when compared to the general population at p < 0.001. This study supports the SF-36 as a valid and reliable measure of HrQoL for use in patients with SpA at a single time point.

  9. Screening for depressive symptoms in adolescents at school: New validity evidences on the short form of the Reynolds Depression Scale

    PubMed Central

    Aritio-Solana, Rebeca; Inchausti, Félix; Chocarro de Luis, Edurne; Lucas Molina, Beatriz; Pérez de Albéniz, Alicia

    2017-01-01

    The main purpose of the present study was to assess the depressive symptomatology and to gather new validity evidences of the Reynolds Depression Scale-Short form (RADS-SF) in a representative sample of youths. The sample consisted of 2914 adolescents with a mean age of 15.85 years (SD = 1.68). We calculated the descriptive statistics and internal consistency of the RADS-SF scores. Also, confirmatory factor analyses (CFAs) at the item level and successive multigroup CFAs to test measurement invariance, were conducted. Latent mean differences across gender and educational level groups were estimated, and finally, we studied the sources of validity evidences with other external variables. The level of internal consistency of the RADS-SF Total score by means of Ordinal alpha was .89. Results from CFAs showed that the one-dimensional model displayed appropriate goodness of-fit indices with CFI value over .95, and RMSEA value under .08. In addition, the results support the strong measurement invariance of the RADS-SF scores across gender and age. When latent means were compared, statistically significant differences were found by gender and age. Females scored 0.347 over than males in Depression latent variable, whereas older adolescents scored 0.111 higher than the younger group. In addition, the RADS-SF score was associated with the RADS scores. The results suggest that the RADS-SF could be used as an efficient screening test to assess self-reported depressive symptoms in adolescents from the general population. PMID:28222193

  10. Effect of stereochemistry, chain length and sequence pattern on antimicrobial properties of short synthetic β-sheet forming peptide amphiphiles.

    PubMed

    Ong, Zhan Yuin; Cheng, Junchi; Huang, Yuan; Xu, Kaijin; Ji, Zhongkang; Fan, Weimin; Yang, Yi Yan

    2014-01-01

    In the face of mounting global antibiotics resistance, the identification and development of membrane-active antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) as an alternative class of antimicrobial agent have gained significant attention. The physical perturbation and disruption of microbial membranes by the AMPs have been proposed to be an effective means to overcome conventional mechanisms of drug resistance. Recently, we have reported the design of a series of short synthetic β-sheet folding peptide amphiphiles comprised of recurring (X1Y1X2Y2)n-NH2 sequences where X: hydrophobic amino acids, Y: cationic amino acids and n: number of repeat units. In efforts to investigate the effects of key parameters including stereochemistry, chain length and sequence pattern on antimicrobial effects, systematic d-amino acid substitutions of the lead peptides (IRIK)2-NH2 (IK8-all L) and (IRVK)3-NH2 (IK12-all L) were performed. It was found that the corresponding D-enantiomers exhibited stronger antimicrobial activities with minimal or no change in hemolytic activities, hence translating very high selectivity indices of 407.0 and >9.8 for IK8-all D and IK12-all D respectively. IK8-all D was also demonstrated to be stable to degradation by broad spectrum proteases trypsin and proteinase K. The membrane disrupting bactericidal properties of IK8-all D effectively prevented drug resistance development and inhibited the growth of various clinically isolated MRSA, VRE, Acinetobacter baumanni, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Cryptococcus. neoformans and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Significant reduction in intracellular bacteria counts was also observed following treatment with IK8-all D in the Staphylococcus. aureus infected mouse macrophage cell line RAW264.7 (P < 0.01). These results suggest that the d-amino acids substituted β-sheet forming peptide IK8-all D with its enhanced antimicrobial activities and improved protease stability, is a promising therapeutic candidate with potential to combat

  11. Age and Education Corrected Older Adult Normative Data for a Short Form Version of the Financial Capacity Instrument

    PubMed Central

    Gerstenecker, Adam; Eakin, Amanda; Triebel, Kristen; Martin, Roy; Swenson-Dravis, Dana; Petersen, Ronald C.; Marson, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Financial capacity is an instrumental activity of daily living (IADL) that comprises multiple abilities and is critical to independence and autonomy in older adults. Due to its cognitive complexity, financial capacity is often the first IADL to show decline in prodromal and clinical Alzheimer’s disease and related disorders. Despite its importance, few standardized assessment measures of financial capacity exist and there is little, if any, normative data available to evaluate financial skills in the elderly. The Financial Capacity Instrument – Short Form (FCI-SF) is a brief measure of financial skills designed to evaluate financial skills in older adults with cognitive impairment. In the current study, we present age- and education-adjusted normative data for FCI-SF variables in a sample of 1344 cognitively normal, community-dwelling older adults participating in the Mayo Clinic Study of Aging (MCSA) in Olmsted County, Minnesota. Individual FCI-SF raw scores were first converted to age-corrected scaled scores based on position within a cumulative frequency distribution and then grouped within four empirically supported and overlapping age ranges. These age-corrected scaled scores were then converted to age- and education-corrected scaled scores using the same methodology. This study has the potential to substantially enhance financial capacity evaluations of older adults through the introduction of age- and education-corrected normative data for the FCI-SF by allowing clinicians to: 1) compare an individual’s performance to that of a sample of similar age and education peers, 2) interpret various aspects of financial capacity relative to a normative sample, and 3) make comparisons between these aspects. PMID:26168311

  12. Psychometric properties of the Swedish version of the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire-Short Form (CTQ-SF).

    PubMed

    Gerdner, Arne; Allgulander, Christer

    2009-01-01

    Childhood maltreatment is delicate to assess both in clinical work and in research. There is a need for assessment tools that can be easily administered in an ethical and non-intrusive way that meets requirements of conceptual validity for various types of maltreatment and is sensitive to levels of severity. This study explores the psychometric properties of the Swedish translation of one such tool-the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire-Short Form (CTQ-SF; Bernstein and Fink, 1998). The CTQ-SF was administered to seven samples (total n=659)-five clinical samples and two non-clinical student samples. The factor structure supports the construct validity of the global maltreatment scale, four of the five maltreatment subscales (emotional abuse, physical abuse, sexual abuse and emotional neglect) and the minimization/denial (MD) scale, but not the physical neglect (PN) subscale. All items are highly correlated with their respective subscale. The discriminant validity is satisfactory. Highly significant correlation with social desirability gives further support for the MD-scale and to the recommendation of how to apply it. Internal consistency of PN is acceptable and for all other scales satisfactory. Swedish norm groups tend to score lower than similar American norm groups on abuse scales but higher on the neglect scales. Percentiles for seven gender-specific norm groups are presented. The weaknesses of the PN-scale are discussed and new constructs are proposed. The Swedish version of the CTQ-SF has the same construct validity and internal consistency as the original, including less homogeneity of the PN scale.

  13. Development of an eight-subtest short form of the WISC-IV and evaluation of its clinical utility in children with traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Donders, Jacobus; Elzinga, Brianne; Kuipers, David; Helder, Emily; Crawford, John R

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the degree to which an 8-subtest short form of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children--Fourth Edition would yield acceptable estimates of the long-form Full-Scale IQ index while clarifying the underlying factor structure in a sample of 100 children and adolescents with traumatic brain injury. The short-form Full-Scale IQ had sufficient (i.e., at least two thirds) nonerror covariance with its full-length counterpart. In addition, a sufficient proportion (i.e., > 80%) of these short-form estimates fell within the 90% confidence interval of the respective full-length scores. Importantly, the elimination of 2 subtests, and in particular the Picture Concepts subtest, resulted in a factor structure where each remaining subtest was fairly specifically associated with its intended scale. It is concluded that this short form can be used clinically in children with traumatic brain injury without sacrificing reliability and with more straightforward interpretability at the level of the factor index scores.

  14. Validation of the Spanish versions of the long (26 items) and short (12 items) forms of the Self-Compassion Scale (SCS)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Self-compassion is a key psychological construct for assessing clinical outcomes in mindfulness-based interventions. The aim of this study was to validate the Spanish versions of the long (26 item) and short (12 item) forms of the Self-Compassion Scale (SCS). Methods The translated Spanish versions of both subscales were administered to two independent samples: Sample 1 was comprised of university students (n = 268) who were recruited to validate the long form, and Sample 2 was comprised of Aragon Health Service workers (n = 271) who were recruited to validate the short form. In addition to SCS, the Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS), the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory–Trait (STAI-T), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the Perceived Stress Questionnaire (PSQ) were administered. Construct validity, internal consistency, test-retest reliability and convergent validity were tested. Results The Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) of the long and short forms of the SCS confirmed the original six-factor model in both scales, showing goodness of fit. Cronbach’s α for the 26 item SCS was 0.87 (95% CI = 0.85-0.90) and ranged between 0.72 and 0.79 for the 6 subscales. Cronbach’s α for the 12-item SCS was 0.85 (95% CI = 0.81-0.88) and ranged between 0.71 and 0.77 for the 6 subscales. The long (26-item) form of the SCS showed a test-retest coefficient of 0.92 (95% CI = 0.89–0.94). The Intraclass Correlation (ICC) for the 6 subscales ranged from 0.84 to 0.93. The short (12-item) form of the SCS showed a test-retest coefficient of 0.89 (95% CI: 0.87-0.93). The ICC for the 6 subscales ranged from 0.79 to 0.91. The long and short forms of the SCS exhibited a significant negative correlation with the BDI, the STAI and the PSQ, and a significant positive correlation with the MAAS. The correlation between the total score of the long and short SCS form was r = 0.92. Conclusion The Spanish versions of the long (26-item) and short

  15. Correlation between Karnofsky Performance Status Scale and Short-Form Health Survey in patients on maintenance hemodialysis.

    PubMed Central

    Arogundade, Fatiu A.; Zayed, Bahaa; Daba, Maryam; Barsoum, Rashad S.

    2004-01-01

    Karnofsky performance status scale and the short-form (SF36) health survey in this Egyptian population. Age, serum creatinine and hemoglobin significantly influence quality of life in this HD patient population. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:15622699

  16. Use of the short form 36 in a primary care based disease management program for patients with congestive heart failure.

    PubMed

    Sidorov, Jaan; Shull, Robert D; Girolami, Sabrina; Mensch, Debra

    2003-01-01

    While disease management has been described as an important strategy for the care of patients with congestive heart failure (CHF) in the managed care setting, little is known about the impact of this approach on overall health-related quality of life. In this study the Short Form 36 (SF-36) was administered to all patients entering CHF disease management at the time of program entry and at 1 year following entry. Scores on the eight subscales and the two composite scales were calculated and compared before and after. Patients were enrolled from a mixed-model health maintenance organization (HMO) with 34,740 Medicare + Choice enrollees residing in 38 counties in central and northeastern Pennsylvania. Two hundred sixty-eight continuously enrolled patients in an HMO-sponsored CHF disease state management program with completed baseline and follow-up SF-36 surveys were sampled. All patients entered into disease management received primary care based, nurse-directed education about CHF self-management including instruction on etiology of CHF, the importance of medication compliance, home care services if indicated, monitoring weight gain, increased understanding of the warning signs of worsening CHF, and coaching on strategies to contact a physician in a timely manner when CHF worsens. Nurses also facilitated for CHF guidelines among primary care physicians, including the need to obtain a baseline assessment of cardiac function, prescribe angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and beta blockers when appropriate, and initiated appropriate specialist referral. Compared with enrollees who did not complete a pair of SF-36 surveys, the 268 respondents were younger and had a significantly higher rate of cardiac imaging as well as use of ACE inhibitors and beta blocker medications. Analysis of the SF-36 data revealed that three of the eight (Role Physical, General Health Perceptions, and Role Emotional) subscales increased in a statistically significant manner, as

  17. Closed form expressions for crack mouth displacements and stress intensity factors for chevron notched short bar and short rod specimens based on experimental compliance measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bubsey, R. T.; Orange, T. W.; Pierce, W. S.; Shannon, J. L., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    A set of equations are presented describing certain fracture mechanics parameters for chevron notch bar and rod specimens. They are developed by fitting compliance calibration data reported earlier. The equations present the various parameters in their most useful forms. The data encompass the entire range of the specimen geometries most commonly used. Their use will facilitate the testing and analysis of brittle metals, ceramics, and glasses.

  18. Short-term outcome and patient satisfaction after sialendoscopy.

    PubMed

    Kroll, Tobias; Finkensieper, Mira; Sharma, Shachi Jenny; Guntinas-Lichius, Orlando; Wittekindt, Claus

    2013-11-01

    Sialendoscopy is an established, minimally invasive technique to diagnose and treat obstructive disorders of major salivary glands. Knowledge about patient satisfaction and quality of life is limited. All patients who underwent sialendoscopy were prospectively followed and evaluated. To determine the quality of life after sialendoscopy, an established questionnaire was evaluated (Short-Form-36 Health Survey-SF-36). To determine patient satisfaction, a self-made questionnaire was applied and evaluated. Furthermore, postoperative follow-up examination and the amount of patients who could be saved from sialadenectomy were determined. Main reasons for sialendoscopy were recurrent or permanent swelling of the affected salivary gland. 46 patients were included, 52 sialendoscopies were performed. Immediately after sialendoscopy operative ablation of the respective gland was averted in 98.1 % of the patients. After the follow-up period of 225.4 ± 79.0 days operative ablation of the respective gland was avoided in 89.9 % of the patients. Overall, 85.2 % reported an improvement of symptoms during follow-up, however, values for role-physical functioning (p = 0.025) and bodily pain (p = 0.011) still showed a significant difference when compared to a matched reference group of healthy individuals. Significant negative influence factors towards the outcome were younger age, long-term duration of symptoms and selected SF-36 items (vitality, social functioning, and mental health). Operative ablation of major salivary glands can be avoided by means of sialendoscopy in high percentages during short-term. There seems to be a high patient satisfaction in these selected cases. The duration of preoperative symptoms appears to be an important factor predisposing towards poor satisfaction.

  19. Cross-Cultural Equivalence of the Career Decision-Making Self-Efficacy Scale-Short Form: An Australian and South African Comparison.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creed, Peter A.; Patton, Wendy; Watson, Mark B.

    2002-01-01

    The Career Decision-Making Self-Efficacy Scale-Short Form was completed by 416 South African and 563 Australian high school students. Analysis found three factors in each sample, but the factors differed between samples and from those of a U.S. sample, suggesting cultural differences in self-efficacy and lack of cultural equivalence for the…

  20. Examination of Measurement Invariance across Culture and Gender on the RCMAS-2 Short Form among Singapore and U.S. Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowe, Patricia A.; Ang, Rebecca P.

    2016-01-01

    Tests of measurement invariance were conducted across culture and gender on the Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale-Second Edition (RCMAS-2) Short Form in a sample of 1,003 Singapore and U.S. adolescents. The results of multi-group confirmatory factor analyses across culture and gender supported at least partial measurement invariance. ANOVA…

  1. Measuring Teacher-Child Relationships in the Greek Kindergarten Setting: A Validity Study of the Student-Teacher Relationship Scale-Short Form

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsigilis, Nikolaos; Gregoriadis, Athanasios

    2008-01-01

    Research Findings: The present study was designed to examine the factorial validity of the Student-Teacher Relationship Scale-Short Form (STRS-SF; R. C. Pianta, 2001) and its invariance across gender in the Greek educational context. The STRS-SF comprises 15 items that measure 2 dimensions of teacher-child relationships: Closeness and Conflict.…

  2. An Item Response Theory Analysis of the Parenting Stress Index-Short Form with Parents of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaidman-Zait, Anat; Mirenda, Pat; Zumbo, Bruno D.; Wellington, Stephen; Dua, Vikram; Kalynchuk, Karen

    2010-01-01

    Background: The Parenting Stress Index-Short Form (PSI-SF) is one of the most widely used instruments for measuring parenting stress in families of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). However, no research to date has examined the psychometric properties of the PSI-SF in a sample of parents of young children with ASD. In this regard,…

  3. Assessing the Discriminant Ability, Reliability, and Comparability of Multiple Short Forms of the Boston Naming Test in an Alzheimer’s Disease Center Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Katsumata, Yuriko; Mathews, Melissa; Abner, Erin L.; Jicha, Gregory A.; Caban-Holt, Allison; Smith, Charles D.; Nelson, Peter T.; Kryscio, Richard J.; Schmitt, Frederick A.; Fardo, David W.

    2015-01-01

    Background The Boston Naming Test (BNT) is a commonly used neuropsychological test of confrontation naming that aids in determining the presence and severity of dysnomia. Many short versions of the original 60-item test have been developed and are routinely administered in clinical/research settings. Because of the common need to translate similar measures within and across studies, it is important to evaluate the operating characteristics and agreement of different BNT versions. Methods We analyzed longitudinal data of research volunteers (n = 681) from the University of Kentucky Alzheimer’s Disease Center longitudinal cohort. Conclusions With the notable exception of the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer’s Disease (CERAD) 15-item BNT, short forms were internally consistent and highly correlated with the full version; these measures varied by diagnosis and generally improved from normal to mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to dementia. All short forms retained the ability to discriminate between normal subjects and those with dementia. The ability to discriminate between normal and MCI subjects was less strong for the short forms than the full BNT, but they exhibited similar patterns. These results have important implications for researchers designing longitudinal studies, who must consider that the statistical properties of even closely related test forms may be quite different. PMID:25613081

  4. Assessment of Physical Self-Concept in Adolescents with Intellectual Disability: Content and Factor Validity of the Very Short Form of the Physical Self-Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maiano, Christophe; Begarie, Jerome; Morin, Alexandre J. S.; Ninot, Gregory

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the factor validity and reliability of the Very Short Form of the Physical Self-Inventory- (PSI-VSF) within a sample of adolescents with mild to moderate Intellectual Disability (ID). A total of 362 ID adolescents were involved in two studies. In Study 1, the content and format scale response of the PSI-VSF…

  5. Male Role Norms Inventory--Short Form (MRNI-SF): Development, Confirmatory Factor Analytic Investigation of Structure, and Measurement Invariance across Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levant, Ronald F.; Hall, Rosalie J.; Rankin, Thomas J.

    2013-01-01

    The current study reports the development from the Male Role Norms Inventory-Revised (MRNI-R; Levant, Rankin, Williams, Hasan, & Smalley, 2010) of the 21-item MRNI-Short Form (MRNI-SF). Confirmatory factor analysis of MRNI-SF responses from a sample of 1,017 undergraduate participants (549 men, 468 women) indicated that the best fitting "bifactor"…

  6. A Long-Term Predictive Validity Study: Can the CDI Short Form be Used to Predict Language and Early Literacy Skills Four Years Later?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Can, Dilara Deniz; Ginsburg-Block, Marika; Golinkoff, Roberta Michnick; Hirsh-Pasek, Kathryn

    2013-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the predictive validity of the MacArthur Communicative Developmental Inventories-Short Form (CDI-SF), a parent report questionnaire about children's language development (Fenson, Pethick, Renda, Cox, Dale & Reznick, 2000). Data were first gathered from parents on the CDI-SF vocabulary scores for seventy-six…

  7. The Psychometric Properties and Factor Structure of a Welsh Translation of the School Short Form of the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hills, Peter R.; Francis, Leslie J.; Thomas, Enlli

    2007-01-01

    The psychometric properties and factor structure of a Welsh translation of the school short form of the Coopersmith Self-esteem Inventory (SEI-SSF), which is widely used as a measure of children's global self-esteem, was investigated among a sample of 681 pupils attending Welsh-medium primary schools in Wales. It has generally been assumed that…

  8. A Comparison of the Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test (K-BIT) with the Stanford-Binet, a Two-Subtest Short Form, and the Kaufman Test of Educational Achievement (K-TEA) Brief Form.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prewett, Peter N.; McCaffery, Lucy K.

    1993-01-01

    Examined relationship between Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test (K-BIT), Stanford-Binet, two-subtests short form, and Kaufman Test of Educational Achievement (K-TEA) with population of 75 academically referred students. K-BIT correlated significantly with Stanford-Binet and K-TEA Math, Reading, and Spelling scores. Results support use of K-BIT as…

  9. The Comparison of M-B CDI-K Short Form and K-ASQ as Screening Test for Language Development

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the usefulness of the communication domain in the Korean version of Ages and Stages Questionnaire (K-ASQ), and short form of the Korean version of MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories (M-B CDI-K), as screening tests for language developmental delay. Methods Data was collected between April 2010 and December 2013, from children who visited either the Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation or the Developmental Delay Clinic, presenting with language development delay as their chief complaint. All the children took the short form of M-B CDI-K and K-ASQ as screening tests, and received diagnostic language assessments including Sequenced Language Scale for Infants (SELSI) or Preschool Receptive-Expressive Language Scale (PRES). Results A total of 206 children, mean age 29.7 months, were enrolled. The final diagnoses were developmental language disorder, global developmental delay, autism spectrum disorder, cerebral palsy, etc. The M-B CDI-K short form and the communication domain of the K-ASQ had 95.9% and 76.7% sensitivity, and 82.4% and 85.3% specificity, with regards to diagnostic language assessments. The M-B CDI-K short form showed higher negative predictive value and better accuracy than the communication domain of the K-ASQ. Conclusion The screening ability of K-ASQ was not sufficient for children with language development delay, and the M-B CDI-K short form should be implemented for additional screening. PMID:28119842

  10. The validity and relative precision of MOS short- and long-form health status scales and Dartmouth COOP charts. Results from the Medical Outcomes Study.

    PubMed

    McHorney, C A; Ware, J E; Rogers, W; Raczek, A E; Lu, J F

    1992-05-01

    This study estimated the validity and relative precision (RP) of four methods (MOS long- and short-form scales, global items, and COOP Poster Charts) in measuring six general health concepts. The authors also tested whether and how precisely each method discriminated relatively well adult patients (N = 638) from those with only severe chronic medical (N = 168) and only psychiatric conditions (N = 163), as clinically defined. For comparisons between the well group and both medical and psychiatric groups, RP estimates favored long-form over short-form, multi-item scales, and favored multi-item scales over single-item global measures and poster charts. In relation to long forms, short-form multi-item scales achieved a median RP of .93; RP estimates for global items and poster charts were .81 and .67, respectively. Variations in RP across methods and concepts were linked to differences in the coarseness of measurement scales, reliability, and content (including the effects of chart illustrations). These variations in RP have implications for the interpretation of scores, the statistical power of comparisons between clinical groups, and the size of confidence intervals around individual patient scores.

  11. Development and Validation of a Short Form of the Index of Race-Related Stress (IRRS)--Brief Version.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Utsey, Shawn O.

    1999-01-01

    This article describes the development and validation of a short version of the Index of Race-Related Stress - Brief Version (IRSS-B). The IRRS-B is a 22-item, multidimensional measure of the race-related stress experienced by African Americans as a result of their encounters with racism. (Author/MKA)

  12. Psychometric Evaluation of the Symptoms and Functioning Severity Scale (SFSS) Short Forms with Out-of-Home Care Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Thomas J.; Duppong Hurley, Kristin; Lambert, Matthew C.; Epstein, Michael H.; Stevens, Amy L.

    2015-01-01

    Background: There is a need for brief progress monitoring measures of behavioral and emotional symptoms for youth in out-of-home care. The Symptoms and Functioning Severity Scale (SFSS; Bickman et al. in Manual of the peabody treatment progress battery. Vanderbilt University, Nashville, 2010) is one measure that has clinician and youth short forms…

  13. Automatic Short Essay Scoring Using Natural Language Processing to Extract Semantic Information in the Form of Propositions. CRESST Report 831

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerr, Deirdre; Mousavi, Hamid; Iseli, Markus R.

    2013-01-01

    The Common Core assessments emphasize short essay constructed-response items over multiple-choice items because they are more precise measures of understanding. However, such items are too costly and time consuming to be used in national assessments unless a way to score them automatically can be found. Current automatic essay-scoring techniques…

  14. Assessing Positive and Negative Changes in the Aftermath of Adversity: A Short Form of the Changes in Outlook Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joseph, Stephen; Linley, P. Alex; Shevlin, Mark; Goodfellow, Barbara; Butler, Lisa D.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was the preliminary development of a short 10-item version of the CiOQ. First, 10 items were selected on the basis of their high factor loadings in previously published work. Two studies are then reported. In Study 1, the 10 items were subjected to confirmatory factor analysis using data from a sample of college students…

  15. An international quality of life instrument to assess wellbeing in adults who are HIV-positive: a short form of the WHOQOL-HIV (31 items).

    PubMed

    O'Connell, Kathryn Ann; Skevington, Suzanne M

    2012-02-01

    Few cross-cultural measures are available to assess quality of life (QoL) in HIV/AIDS. A short form of the WHOQOL-HIV-the WHOQOL-HIV BREF-was developed and tested. Survey data from 1,923 HIV-positive adults (selected for age, gender and disease stage) were collected in 8 culturally diverse centres. The 'best' HIV-specific item was extracted from five HIV facets of the WHOQOL-HIV long form using information about item correlations with QoL, health and domains, item discriminant validity and centre problems. The five identified items were then integrated with the WHOQOL-BREF to complete the 31 item WHOQOL-HIV BREF. This short form shows good internal consistency reliability and discriminant validity for 'known' disease stages. Confirmatory Factor Analysis showed an overall good fit for a six domains model (Comparative Fit Index = 0.97), supporting scoring. Quality of life in different cultures is reported. A value of the WHOQOL-HIV short form is in monitoring QoL in multi-national clinical trials, and in clinical practice.

  16. Universal-diverse orientation in Asian international students: confirmatory factor analysis of the Miville-Guzman universality-diversity scale, short form.

    PubMed

    Kegel, Karen; DeBlaere, Cirleen

    2014-07-01

    Despite apparent relevance to Asian international students, universal-diverse orientation (UDO) has not been psychometrically validated with this population. The current study investigated the most researched UDO measure, the Miville-Guzman Universality-Diversity Scale, Short Form (M-GUDS-S; Fuertes, Miville, Mohr, Sedlacek, & Gretchen, 2000), with 333 Asian international college students. The M-GUDS-S evidenced good reliability and convergent validity, and analyses confirmed a three-factor structure, supporting expanded use of the scale.

  17. Assessing the accuracy of the WISC-IV seven-subtest short form and the child and adolescent intellectual disability screening questionnaire in identifying intellectual disability in children.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, Karen; Murray, Aja L; Murray, Kara R; Murray, George C

    2014-01-01

    Little research has been conducted into the accuracy of abbreviated assessments in identifying children and young people with an intellectual disability (ID). The present study compared two such methods in a clinical population of individuals with (n = 106) and without (n = 170) ID: a 7-subtest short form of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scales for Children--fourth edition (WISC-IV) proposed by Crawford and colleagues and the Child and Adolescent Intellectual Disability Screening Questionnaire (CAIDS-Q). Both the CAIDS-Q and the WISC-IV short form had high and comparable levels of predicting group classification (88% and 91% correct classification, respectively). Both methods would appear to offer clinicians and researchers an efficient and accurate means of identifying those who are likely to have ID. The WISC-IV short form was slightly more accurate, but the CAIDS-Q may offer the advantages of being shorter to administer and having no requirement for the user to have a particular qualification or training.

  18. Short, Synthetic Cationic Peptides Have Antibacterial Activity against Mycobacterium smegmatis by Forming Pores in Membrane and Synergizing with Antibiotics

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Kajal; Singh, Sameer; van Hoek, Monique L.

    2015-01-01

    Multicellular organisms are constantly exposed to a multitude of pathogenic microbes. Infection is inhibited in vivo by the innate and adaptive immune system. Mycobacterium species have emerged that are resistant to most antibiotics. We identified several naturally occurring cationic antimicrobial peptides that were active at low micromolar concentrations against Mycobacterium smegmatis. Human-derived cathelicidin LL-37 is well characterized and studied against M. smegmatis; we compared LL-37 with Chinese cobra-derived cathelicidin NA-CATH and mouse cathelicidin (mCRAMP). Two synthetic 11-residue peptides (ATRA-1A and ATRA-2) containing variations of a repeated motif within NA-CATH were tested for their activity against M. smegmatis along with a short synthetic peptide derivative from the human beta-defensin hBD3 (hBD3-Pep4). We hypothesized that these smaller synthetic peptides may demonstrate antimicrobial effectiveness with shorter length (and at less cost), making them strong potential candidates for development into broad-spectrum antimicrobial compounds or use in combination with antibiotics. These peptides have antimicrobial activity with EC50 ranging from 0.05 to 1.88 μg/mL against Mycobacterium smegmatis. The ATRA-1A short peptide was found to be the most effective antimicrobial peptide (AMP) (EC50 = 0.05 μg/mL). High bactericidal activity correlated with bacterial membrane depolarization and permeabilization activities. The efficacy of the peptides was further analyzed through Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) assays. The MICs were determined by the microdilution method. The peptide mCRAMP showed the best MIC activity at 15.6 μg/mL. Neither of the effective short synthetic peptides demonstrated synergy with the antibiotic rifampicin, although both demonstrated synergy with the cyclic peptide antibiotic polymyxin B. The peptides LL-37 and mCRAMP displayed synergism with rifampicin in MIC assays, whereas antibiotic polymyxin B displayed synergism

  19. Letting the CAT out of the Bag: Comparing Computer Adaptive Tests and an Eleven-Item Short Form of the Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Karon F.; Choi, Seung W.; Crane, Paul K.; Deyo, Richard A.; Johnson, Kurt L.; Amtmann, Dagmar

    2009-01-01

    Study Design A post-hoc simulation of a computer adaptive administration of the items of a modified version of the Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire. Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of adaptive administration of back pain-related disability items compared to a fixed 11-item short form. Summary of Background Data Short form versions of the Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire have been developed. An alternative to paper-and -pencil short forms is to administer items adaptively so that items are presented based on a person’s responses to previous items. Theoretically, this allows precise estimation of back pain disability with administration of only a few items. Materials and Methods Data were gathered from two previously conducted studies of persons with back pain. An item response theory model was used to calibrate scores based on all items, items of a paper-and-pencil short form, and several computer adaptive tests (CATs). Results Correlations between each CAT condition and scores based on a 23-item version of the Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire ranged from 0.93 to 0.98. Compared to an 11-item short form, an 11-item CAT produced scores that were significantly more highly correlated with scores based on the 23-item scale. CATs with even fewer items also produced scores that were highly correlated with scores based on all items. For example, scores from a five-item CAT had a correlation of 0.93 with full scale scores. Seven- and nine-item CATs correlated at 0.95 and 0.97, respectively. A CAT with a standard-error-based stopping rule produced scores that correlated at 0.95 with full scale scores. Conclusions A CAT-based back pain-related disability measure may be a valuable tool for use in clinical and research contexts. Use of CAT for other common measures in back pain research, such as other functional scales or measures of psychological distress, may offer similar advantages. PMID:18496352

  20. Measuring Global Perceptions of the Research Training Environment Using a Short Form of the RTES-R.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahn, Jeffrey H.; Miller, Steven A.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the development and cross validation of a brief measure of the Research Training Environment Scale-Revised (RTES-R) in counseling graduate programs. Results indicate that the new RTES-R-S total scores correlate strongly with the original form and show good internal consistency. Recommends this new instrument when efficient measurement is…

  1. Development and Psychometric Validation of the EDE-QS, a 12 Item Short Form of the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q)

    PubMed Central

    Gideon, Nicole; Hawkes, Nick; Mond, Jonathan; Saunders, Rob; Tchanturia, Kate; Serpell, Lucy

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to develop and validate a short form of the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q) for routine, including session by session, outcome assessment. Method The current, 28-item version (6.0) of the EDE-Q was completed by 489 individuals aged 18–72 with various eating disorders recruited from three UK specialist eating disorder services. Rasch analysis was carried out on factors identified by means of principal component analysis, which in combination with expert ratings informed the development of an EDE-Q short form. The shortened questionnaire’s reliability, validity and sensitivity was assessed based on online data collected from students of a UK university and volunteers with a history of eating disorders recruited from a national eating disorders charity aged 18–74 (N = 559). Results A 12-item short form, the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire Short (EDE-QS) was derived. The new measure showed high internal consistency (Cronbach’s α = .913) and temporal stability (ICC = .93; p < .001). It was highly correlated with the original EDE-Q (r = .91 for people without ED; r = .82 for people with ED) and other measures of eating disorder and comorbid psychopathology. It was sufficiently sensitive to distinguish between people with and without eating disorders. Discussion The EDE-QS is a brief, reliable and valid measure of eating disorder symptom severity that performs similarly to the EDE-Q and that lends itself for the use of sessional outcome monitoring in treatment and research. PMID:27138364

  2. Short-range ordered photonic structures of lamellae-forming diblock copolymers for excitation-regulated fluorescence enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Se Hee; Kim, Ki-Se; Char, Kookheon; Yoo, Seong Il; Sohn, Byeong-Hyeok

    2016-05-01

    Photonic crystals can be represented by periodic nanostructures with alternating refractive indices, which create artificial stop bands with the appearance of colors. In this regard, nanodomains of block copolymers and the corresponding structural colors have been intensively studied in the past. However, the practical application of photonic crystals of block copolymers has been limited to a large degree because of the presence of large defects and grain boundaries in the nanodomains of block copolymers. The present study focuses on the alternative opportunity of short-range ordered nanodomains of block copolymers for fluorescence enhancement, which also has a direct relevance to the development of fluorescence sensors or detectors. The enhancement mechanism was found to be interconnected with the excitation process rather than the alternation of the decay kinetics. In particular, we demonstrate that randomly oriented, but regular grains of lamellae of polystyrene-block-polyisoprene, PS-b-PI, diblock copolymers and their blend with PS homopolymers can behave as Bragg mirrors to induce multiple reflections of the excitation source inside the photonic structures. This process in turn significantly increases the effective absorption of the given fluorophores inside the polymeric photonic structures to amplify the fluorescence signal.Photonic crystals can be represented by periodic nanostructures with alternating refractive indices, which create artificial stop bands with the appearance of colors. In this regard, nanodomains of block copolymers and the corresponding structural colors have been intensively studied in the past. However, the practical application of photonic crystals of block copolymers has been limited to a large degree because of the presence of large defects and grain boundaries in the nanodomains of block copolymers. The present study focuses on the alternative opportunity of short-range ordered nanodomains of block copolymers for fluorescence

  3. Dual silencing of long and short Amblyomma americanum acidic chitinase forms weakens the tick cement cone stability

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae K.; Curran, Janet; Mulenga, Albert

    2014-01-01

    This study demonstrates that Amblyomma americanum (Aam) constitutively and ubiquitously expresses the long (L) and short (S) putative acidic chitinases (Ach) that are distinguished by a 210 base pair (bp) deletion in AamAch-S. Full-length AamAch-L and AamAch-S cDNA are 1959 and 1718 bp long, containing 1332 and 1104 bp open reading frames that code for 443 and 367 amino acid residues proteins with the former predicted to be extracellular and the latter intracellular. Both AamAch-L and AamAch-S mRNA are expressed in multiple organs as revealed by qualitative RT-PCR analysis. Furthermore, quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed that AamAch-L mRNA was downregulated in the mid-gut, but was unchanged in the salivary gland and in other organs in response to feeding. Of significant interest, AamAch-L and/or AamAch-S functions are probably associated with formation and/or maintenance of stability of A. americanum tick cement cone. Dual RNA interference silencing of AamAch-L and/or AamAch-S mRNA caused ticks to loosely attach onto host skin as suggested by bleeding around tick mouthparts and ticks detaching off host skin with a light touch. AamAch-L may apparently encode an inactive chitinase as indicated by Pichia pastoris-expressed recombinant AamAch-L failing to hydrolyse chitinase substrates. Unpublished related work in our laboratory, and published work by others that found AamAch-L in tick saliva, suggest that native AamAch-L is a non-specific immunoglobulin binding tick saliva protein in that rAamAch-L non-specifically bound rabbit, bovine and chicken non-immune sera. We discuss findings in this study with reference to advancing knowledge on tick feeding physiology. PMID:25189365

  4. Development and Validation of a Short Form of the Valued Life Activities Disability Questionnaire for Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Patricia P.; Radvanski, Diane C.; Allen, Diane; Buyske, Steven; Schiff, Samuel; Nadkarni, Anagha; Rosenblatt, Lisa; Maclean, Ross; Hassett, Afton L.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Develop and validate a shortened version of the Valued Life Activities disability and accommodations scale (VLA) for individuals with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods To shorten the existing VLA measure, item response theory analyses were conducted using data from 449 patients with RA. Next, the resulting 14-item shortened version of the VLA scale (S-VLA) was evaluated by structured interviews among 20 RA patients. Lastly, the S-VLA was administered to 150 RA patients along with other measures including the Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) and SF-36. A random sample of 50 patients completed the S-VLA two weeks later to assess reliability. Item statistics were calculated to evaluate correlations between individual items and S-VLA total score. Correlations between the S-VLA and other measures were used to evaluate validity. Results Test–retest reliability was 0.91, while Cronbach’s alpha for the S-VLA was 0.95. None of the 14 items were associated with improved alpha coefficients when omitted. All items were strongly correlated with the S-VLA total score. S-VLA scores were highly positively correlated with HAQ (r=0.81; p≤0.001), patient-reported disease activity (r=0.71; p≤0.001), satisfaction with abilities (r=0.82; p≤0.001), and number of days with activity limitations (r=0.65; p≤0.001). In addition, as hypothesized, the S-VLA was inversely correlated with SF-36 Physical Component Summary score (r=−0.78; p≤0.001) and subscales: Physical Functioning (r=−0.80; p≤0.001), Role Physical (r=−0.67; p≤0.001) and Social Functioning (r=−0.72; p≤0.001). Conclusions The S-VLA is a short, valid, and reliable instrument that may prove useful for monitoring disability among individuals with RA. PMID:21905253

  5. Generation of short gamma-ray pulses on electron bunches formed in intense interfering laser beams with tilted fronts

    SciTech Connect

    Korobkin, V V; Romanovskiy, M Yu; Trofimov, V A; Shiryaev, O B

    2014-05-30

    It is shown that in the interference of multiple laser pulses with a relativistic intensity, phase and amplitude fronts of which are tilted at an angle with respect to their wave vector, effective traps of charged particles, which are moving at the velocity of light, are formed. Such traps are capable of capturing and accelerating the electrons produced in the ionisation of low-density gas by means of laser radiation. The accelerated electrons in the traps form a bunch, whose dimensions in all directions are much smaller than the laser radiation wavelength. Calculations show that the energy of accelerated electrons may amount to several hundred GeV at experimentally accessible relativistic laser intensities. As a result of the inverse Compton scattering, gamma-quanta with a high energy and narrow radiation pattern are emitted when these electrons interact with a laser pulse propagating from the opposite direction. The duration of emitted gamma-ray pulses constitutes a few attoseconds. The simulation is performed by solving the relativistic equation of motion for an electron with a relevant Lorentz force. (interaction of radiation with matter)

  6. Vitrified sheep isolated secondary follicles are able to grow and form antrum after a short period of in vitro culture.

    PubMed

    Lunardi, Franciele Osmarini; Chaves, Roberta Nogueira; de Lima, Laritza Ferreira; Araújo, Valdevane Rocha; Brito, Ivina Rocha; Souza, Carlos Eduardo Azevedo; Donato, Mariana Aragão Matos; Peixoto, Christina Alves; Dinnyes, Andras; Campello, Cláudio Cabral; de Figueiredo, José Ricardo; Rodrigues, Ana Paula Ribeiro

    2015-10-01

    The risk of reintroducing malignant cells after ovarian graft into patients following post-cancer treatment is an obstacle for clinical applications (autotransplantation). In this context, in vitro follicle culture would be an alternative to transplantation in order to minimize such risks. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare the development of secondary follicles after vitrification in isolated form (without stroma) with vitrification in in situ form (within fragments of ovarian tissue). Follicles were first isolated from ovarian fragments from mixed-breed ewes and then vitrified; these comprised the Follicle-Vitrification group (Follicle-Vit), or fragments of ovarian tissue were first vitrified, followed by isolation of the follicles, resulting in the Tissue-Vitrification group (Tissue-Vit). Control and vitrified groups were submitted to in vitro culture (6 days) and follicular morphology, viability, antrum formation, follicle and oocyte diameter, growth rate, ultrastructural characteristics and cell proliferation were evaluated. The percentages of morphologically normal follicles and antrum formation were similar among groups. Follicular viability and oocyte diameter were similar between Follicle-Vit and Tissue-Vit. The follicular diameter and growth rate of Follicle-Vit were similar to the Control, while those of Tissue-Vit were significantly lower compared to the Control. Both vitrified groups had an augmented rate of granulosa cellular proliferation compared to Control. Secondary follicles can be successfully vitrified before or after isolation from the ovarian tissue without impairing their ability to survive and grow during in vitro culture.

  7. Physical enviroment of 2-D animal cell aggregates formed in a short pathlength ultrasound standing wave trap.

    PubMed

    Bazou, Despina; Kuznetsova, Larisa A; Coakley, W Terence

    2005-03-01

    2-D mammalian cell aggregates can be formed and levitated in a 1.5 MHz single half wavelength ultrasound standing wave trap. The physical environment of cells in such a trap has been examined. Attention was paid to parameters such as temperature, acoustic streaming, cavitation and intercellular forces. The extent to which these factors might be intrusive to a neural cell aggregate levitated in the trap was evaluated. Neural cells were exposed to ultrasound at a pressure amplitude of 0.54 MPa for 30 s; a small aggregate had been formed at the center of the trap. The pressure amplitude was then decreased to 0.27 MPa for 2 min, at which level the aggregation process continued at a slower rate. The pressure amplitude was then decreased to 0.06 MPa for 1 h. Temperature measurements that were conducted in situ with a 200 microm thermocouple over a 30 min period showed that the maximum temperature rise was less than 0.5 K. Acoustic streaming was measured by the particle image velocimetry method (PIV). It was shown that the hydrodynamic stress imposed on cells by acoustic streaming is less than that imposed by gentle preparative centrifugation procedures. Acoustic spectrum analysis showed that cavitation activity does not occur in the cell suspensions sonicated at the above pressures. White noise was detected only at a pressure amplitude of 1.96 MPa. Finally, it was shown that the attractive acoustic force between ultrasonically agglomerated cells is small compared with the normal attractive van der Waals force that operates at close cell surface separations. It is concluded that the standing wave trap operates only to concentrate cells locally, as in tissue, and does not modify the in vitro expression of surface receptor interactions.

  8. Murine hematopoietic stem cell dormancy controlled by induction of a novel short form of PSF1 by histone deacetylase inhibitors

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Yinglu; Gong, Zhi-Yuan; Takakura, Nobuyuki

    2015-06-10

    Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) can survive long-term in a state of dormancy. Little is known about how histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) affect HSC kinetics. Here, we use trichostatin A (TSA), a histone deacetylase inhibitor, to enforce histone acetylation and show that this suppresses cell cycle entry by dormant HSCs. Previously, we found that haploinsufficiency of PSF1, a DNA replication factor, led to attenuation of the bone marrow (BM) HSC pool size and lack of acute proliferation after 5-FU ablation. Because PSF1 protein is present in CD34{sup +} transiently amplifying HSCs but not in CD34{sup −} long-term reconstituting-HSCs which are resting in a dormant state, we analyzed the relationship between dormancy and PSF1 expression, and how a histone deacetylase inhibitor affects this. We found that CD34{sup +} HSCs produce long functional PSF1 (PSF1a) but CD34{sup −} HSCs produce a shorter possibly non-functional PSF1 (PSF1b, c, dominantly PSF1c). Using PSF1a-overexpressing NIH-3T3 cells in which the endogenous PSF1 promoter is suppressed, we found that TSA treatment promotes production of the shorter form of PSF1 possibly by inducing recruitment of E2F family factors upstream of the PSF1 transcription start site. Our data document one mechanism by which histone deacetylase inhibitors affect the dormancy of HSCs by regulating the DNA replication factor PSF1. - Highlights: • Hematopoetic stem cell dormancy is controlled by histone deacetylation inhibitors. • Dormancy of HSCs is associated with a shorter form of non-functional PSF1. • Histone deacetylase inhibitors suppress PSF1 promoter activity.

  9. Designing of an artificial light energy converter in the form of short-chain dyad when combined with core-shell gold/silver nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Dutta Pal, Gopa; Paul, Somnath; Bardhan, Munmun; De, Asish; Ganguly, Tapan

    2017-06-05

    UV-vis absorption, steady state and time resolved fluorescence and absorption spectroscopic investigations demonstrate that the short chain dyad MNTMA when combined with gold-silver core-shell (Au@Ag) nanocomposite , forms elongated conformers in the excited state whereas for the dyad - Ag (spherical) system the majority of dyads remains in a folded conformation. In the dyad-core-shell nanocomposite system, energy wasting charge recombination rate slows down primarily due to elongated conformation and thus it may be anticipated that this hybrid nanocomposite system may serve as a better light energy conversion device.

  10. Measuring psychological trauma after spinal cord injury: Development and psychometric characteristics of the SCI-QOL Psychological Trauma item bank and short form

    PubMed Central

    Kisala, Pamela A.; Victorson, David; Pace, Natalie; Heinemann, Allen W.; Choi, Seung W.; Tulsky, David S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To describe the development and psychometric properties of the SCI-QOL Psychological Trauma item bank and short form. Design Using a mixed-methods design, we developed and tested a Psychological Trauma item bank with patient and provider focus groups, cognitive interviews, and item response theory based analytic approaches, including tests of model fit, differential item functioning (DIF) and precision. Setting We tested a 31-item pool at several medical institutions across the United States, including the University of Michigan, Kessler Foundation, Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago, the University of Washington, Craig Hospital and the James J. Peters/Bronx Veterans Administration hospital. Participants A total of 716 individuals with SCI completed the trauma items Results The 31 items fit a unidimensional model (CFI=0.952; RMSEA=0.061) and demonstrated good precision (theta range between 0.6 and 2.5). Nine items demonstrated negligible DIF with little impact on score estimates. The final calibrated item bank contains 19 items Conclusion The SCI-QOL Psychological Trauma item bank is a psychometrically robust measurement tool from which a short form and a computer adaptive test (CAT) version are available. PMID:26010967

  11. Measuring resilience after spinal cord injury: Development, validation and psychometric characteristics of the SCI-QOL Resilience item bank and short form

    PubMed Central

    Victorson, David; Tulsky, David S.; Kisala, Pamela A.; Kalpakjian, Claire Z.; Weiland, Brian; Choi, Seung W.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To describe the development and psychometric properties of the Spinal Cord Injury - Quality of Life (SCI-QOL) Resilience item bank and short form. Design Using a mixed-methods design, we developed and tested a resilience item bank through the use of focus groups with individuals with SCI and clinicians with expertise in SCI, cognitive interviews, and item-response theory based analytic approaches, including tests of model fit and differential item functioning (DIF). Setting We tested a 32-item pool at several medical institutions across the United States, including the University of Michigan, Kessler Foundation, the Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago, the University of Washington, Craig Hospital and the James J. Peters/Bronx Department of Veterans Affairs medical center. Participants A total of 717 individuals with SCI completed the Resilience items. Results A unidimensional model was observed (CFI = 0.968; RMSEA = 0.074) and measurement precision was good (theta range between −3.1 and 0.9). Ten items were flagged for DIF, however, after examination of effect sizes we found this to be negligible with little practical impact on score estimates. The final calibrated item bank resulted in 21 retained items. Conclusion This study indicates that the SCI-QOL Resilience item bank represents a psychometrically robust measurement tool. Short form items are also suggested and computer adaptive tests are available. PMID:26010971

  12. Cross-linguistic validity of the French and Dutch versions of the Very Short form of the Physical Self-Inventory among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Maïano, Christophe; Morin, Alexandre J S; Probst, Michel

    2015-09-01

    The study tested the cross-linguistic validity of the Very Short form of the Physical Self-Inventory (PSI-VS) among 1115 Flemish (Dutch version) adolescents, and a comparison sample of 1103 French adolescents (French version; from Morin & Maïano, 2011a). Flemish adolescents also completed a positively worded reformulation of the reverse-keyed item of the physical attractiveness (PA) subscale. Confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) supported the factor validity and reliability (except for the Dutch PA subscale) of the PSI-VS, and its partial measurement invariance across samples. CFA conducted on the modified version of the Dutch PSI-VS (11 original items plus the positively worded replacement), presented satisfactory reliability (ω=.67-.89), and was fully invariant across sexes, age groups, and body mass index categories. Additionally, results revealed latent mean differences across sexes and body mass index categories. Therefore, the modified Dutch PSI-VS can be used whenever there is a need for a very short physical self-concept questionnaire.

  13. Intricate interactions between the bloom-forming cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa and foreign genetic elements, revealed by diversified clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) signatures.

    PubMed

    Kuno, Sotaro; Yoshida, Takashi; Kaneko, Takakazu; Sako, Yoshihiko

    2012-08-01

    Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) confer sequence-dependent, adaptive resistance in prokaryotes against viruses and plasmids via incorporation of short sequences, called spacers, derived from foreign genetic elements. CRISPR loci are thus considered to provide records of past infections. To describe the host-parasite (i.e., cyanophages and plasmids) interactions involving the bloom-forming freshwater cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa, we investigated CRISPR in four M. aeruginosa strains and in two previously sequenced genomes. The number of spacers in each locus was larger than the average among prokaryotes. All spacers were strain specific, except for a string of 11 spacers shared in two closely related strains, suggesting diversification of the loci. Using CRISPR repeat-based PCR, 24 CRISPR genotypes were identified in a natural cyanobacterial community. Among 995 unique spacers obtained, only 10 sequences showed similarity to M. aeruginosa phage Ma-LMM01. Of these, six spacers showed only silent or conservative nucleotide mutations compared to Ma-LMM01 sequences, suggesting a strategy by the cyanophage to avert CRISPR immunity dependent on nucleotide identity. These results imply that host-phage interactions can be divided into M. aeruginosa-cyanophage combinations rather than pandemics of population-wide infectious cyanophages. Spacer similarity also showed frequent exposure of M. aeruginosa to small cryptic plasmids that were observed only in a few strains. Thus, the diversification of CRISPR implies that M. aeruginosa has been challenged by diverse communities (almost entirely uncharacterized) of cyanophages and plasmids.

  14. Short-term oral administration of several manganese compounds in mice: Physiological and behavioral alterations caused by different forms of manganese

    SciTech Connect

    Komura, Junko; Sakamoto, Michiko )

    1991-06-01

    In Kanazawa, Japan, air pollution from a Mn treatment factory was found to affect local junior high school students, who showed reduced respiratory function relative to their exposure to Mn. The use of Mn as an antiknock ingredient in automobile fuels has recently been introduced, placing the general population at risk of chronic low-level exposure. There are few animal studies on the effects of compounds other than manganese chloride (MnCl{sub 2}). In the case of environmental pollution by Mn, the differing physiological effects of the various chemical forms of Mn must be considered. The present study therefore examined the differences in the effects of several Mn compounds on the physiology and behavior of mice by short-term oral administration.

  15. The Satz-Mogel short form of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale--revised: effects of global mental status and age on test-retest reliability.

    PubMed

    McPherson, S; Buckwalter, G J; Tingus, K; Betz, B; Back, C

    2000-10-01

    Abbreviated versions of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R) have been developed as time saving devices that provide accurate estimates of overall level of general intellectual functioning while decreasing test administration time. The Satz-Mogel short form of the WAIS-R has received substantial attention in the literature as an accurate measure of intellectual functions when compared with the Full WAIS-R. However, most studies comparing the Satz-Mogel version to the Full WAIS-R have only provided correlational analyses. Our study was an attempt to apply a more rigorous statistical methodology in determining if the Full WAIS-R and abbreviated versions are equivalent. We explored the impact of level of global mental status and age on the Satz-Mogel version. Although the two forms of the test correlated highly, repeated measures design indicated significant differences between Satz-Mogel and Full WAIS-R when participants were divided into groups based on level of global impairment and age. Our results suggest that the Satz-Mogel version of the test may not be equivalent to the full WAIS-R and is likely to misrepresent a patient's level of intellectual functioning, particularly for patients with progressive degenerative conditions. The implications of applying Satz-Mogel scoring to the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III (WAIS-III) are discussed.

  16. Distinguishing Dispositional and Cultivated Forms of Mindfulness: Item-Level Factor Analysis of Five-Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire and Construction of Short Inventory of Mindfulness Capability

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Wenjie; Li, Jinxia

    2016-01-01

    The widely used Five-Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ) mixes the dispositional and cultivated forms of mindfulness, thereby resulting in factor issues in previous studies. The present study distinguished the two forms of mindfulness and developed a Short Inventory of Mindfulness Capability at the item level of FFMQ. Three facets of mindfulness, namely, Describing, Acting with Awareness, and Non-judging of Experience, were assessed using community (n = 433) and student (n = 347) samples. Both meditators and non-meditators participated. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) revealed a three-factor model of mindfulness with 12 items (four items per subscale). Psychometric evaluation demonstrated the solid factor structure of the measurement with high factor loadings, good internal consistency, and convergent validities. Longitudinal analysis indicated that the Acting with Awareness facet was a significant predictor of depression and anxiety symptoms 6 months later. Discussions focused on the roles of mindfulness capability on mental health as well as the relationship between them. A higher-order factor of mindfulness should be used to examine the efficacy of intervention or monitor the changes. Researchers who need to study the specific role or efficacy of each facet should calculate the scores of different facets. PMID:27667978

  17. GRB 060505: A Possible Short-Duration Gamma-Ray Burst in a Star Forming Region at Redshift of 0.09

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ofek, E. O.; Cenko, S. B.; Gal-Yam, A.; Fox, D. B.; Nakar, E.; Rau, A.; Frail, D. A.; Kullkarni, S. R.; Price, P. A.; Schmidt, B. P.; Soderberg, A. M.; Peterson, B.; Berger, E.; Sharon, K.; Shemmer, O.; Penprase, B. E.; Chevalier, R. A.; Brown, P. J.; Burrows, D. N.; Gehrels, N.; Harrison, F.; Holland, S. T.

    2007-01-01

    On May 5, 2006 a four-second duration, low-energy, approximately 10(exp 59) erg, Gamma-Ray Burst (GRB) was observed, spatially associated with a z=0.0894 galaxy. Here, we report the discovery of the GRB optical afterglow and observations of its environment using gemini-south, Hubble Space Telescope (HST), Chandra, Swift and the Very Large Array. The optical afterglow of this GRB is spatially associated with a prominent star forming region in the Sc-type galaxy 2dFGRS S173Z112. Its proximity to a star forming region suggests that the progenitor delay time, from birth to explosion, is smaller than about 10 Myr. Our HST deep imaging rules out the presence of a supernova brighter than an absolute magnitude of about -11 (or -126 in case of 'maximal' extinction) at about two weeks after the burst, and limits the ejected mass of radioactive Nickel 56 to be less than about 2x10(exp -4) solar mass (assuming no extinction). Although it was suggested that GRB 060505 may belong to a new class of long-duration GRBs with no supernova, we argue that the simplest interpretation is that the physical mechanism for this burst is the same as for short-duration GRBs.

  18. A dearth of short-period massive binaries in the young massive star forming region M 17. Evidence for a large orbital separation at birth?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sana, H.; Ramírez-Tannus, M. C.; de Koter, A.; Kaper, L.; Tramper, F.; Bik, A.

    2017-03-01

    Aims: The formation of massive stars remains poorly understood and little is known about their birth multiplicity properties. Here, we aim to quantitatively investigate the strikingly low radial-velocity dispersion measured for a sample of 11 massive pre- and near-main-sequence stars (σ1D= 5.6 ± 0.2 km s-1) in the very young massive star forming region M 17, in order to obtain first constraints on the multiplicity properties of young massive stellar objects. Methods: We compute the radial-velocity dispersion of synthetic populations of massive stars for various multiplicity properties and we compare the obtained σ1D distributions to the observed value. We specifically investigate two scenarios: a low binary fraction and a dearth of short-period binary systems. Results: Simulated populations with low binary fractions () or with truncated period distributions (Pcutoff > 9 months) are able to reproduce the low σ1D observed within their 68%-confidence intervals. Furthermore, parent populations with fbin > 0.42 or Pcutoff < 47 d can be rejected at the 5%-significance level. Both constraints are in stark contrast with the high binary fraction and plethora of short-period systems in few Myr-old, well characterized OB-type populations. To explain the difference in the context of the first scenario would require a variation of the outcome of the massive star formation process. In the context of the second scenario, compact binaries must form later on, and the cut-off period may be related to physical length-scales representative of the bloated pre-main-sequence stellar radii or of their accretion disks. Conclusions: If the obtained constraints for the M 17's massive-star population are representative of the multiplicity properties of massive young stellar objects, our results may provide support to a massive star formation process in which binaries are initially formed at larger separations, then harden or migrate to produce the typical (untruncated) power-law period

  19. The psychometric properties of the Socio-Moral Reflection Measure--Short Form and the Moral Theme Inventory for men with and without intellectual disabilities.

    PubMed

    Langdon, Peter E; Murphy, Glynis H; Clare, Isabel C H; Palmer, Emma J

    2010-01-01

    Drawing conclusions from the literature regarding the moral development of people with intellectual disabilities (IDs) is difficult because of the use of unstandardised and idiosyncratic measures. In order to address this short-coming, a moral reasoning production measure (the Socio-Moral Reflection Measure--Short Form; SRM-SF) and a recognition measure (the Moral Theme Inventory; MTI) were presented to men with and without IDs who had no known history of engaging in illegal behaviour. The instruments were completed on two occasions, separated by a two-week interval, in order to investigate their basic psychometric properties. The results indicated that there was a strong relationship between the MTI and the SRM-SF, suggesting that the MTI has convergent validity. The internal consistency of the MTI and the SRM-SF ranged from moderate to substantial for both men with and without IDs. However, the test-retest reliability of the MTI was poor for men with IDs, while it was good for men without IDs. The test-retest reliability of the SRM-SF was good for both men with and without IDs. Comparison of the moral reasoning abilities of men with and without IDs suggested that many of the differences between the two groups could be accounted for by general intellectual functioning. The exception was overall score on the SRM-SF and moral reasoning in relation to the law, where men with IDs scored at stage 2(1), when intelligence was controlled. The results were interpreted by suggesting that the relationship between moral reasoning and illegal behaviour may take an inverted U curve shape, moderated by intelligence.

  20. Comparison of the Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviour Assessment Questionnaire and the Short-Form International Physical Activity Questionnaire: An Analysis of Health Survey for England Data

    PubMed Central

    Scholes, Shaun; Bridges, Sally; Ng Fat, Linda; Mindell, Jennifer S.

    2016-01-01

    Background The Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviour Assessment Questionnaire (PASBAQ), used within the Health Survey for England (HSE) at 5-yearly intervals, is not included annually due to funding and interview-length constraints. Policy-makers and data-users are keen to consider shorter instruments such as the Short-form International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) for the annual survey. Both questionnaires were administered in HSE 2012, enabling comparative assessment in a random sample of 1252 adults. Methods Relative agreement using prevalence-adjusted bias-adjusted Kappa (PABAK) statistics was estimated for: sufficient aerobic activity (moderate-to-vigorous physical activity [MVPA] ≥150minutes/week); inactivity (MVPA<30minutes/week); and excessive sitting (≥540minutes/weekday). Cross-sectional associations with health outcomes were compared across tertiles of MVPA and tertiles of sitting time using logistic regression with tests for linear trend. Results Compared with PASBAQ data, IPAQ-assessed estimates of sufficient aerobic activity and inactivity were higher and lower, respectively; estimates of excessive sitting were higher. Demographic patterns in prevalence were similar. Agreement using PABAK statistics was fair-to-moderate for sufficient aerobic activity (0.32–0.49), moderate-to-substantial for inactivity (0.42–0.74), and moderate-to-substantial for excessive sitting (0.49–0.75). As with the PASBAQ, IPAQ-assessed MVPA and sitting each showed graded associations with mental well-being (women: P for trend = 0.003 and 0.004, respectively) and obesity (women: P for trend = 0.007 and 0.014, respectively). Conclusions Capturing habitual physical activity and sedentary behaviour through brief questionnaires is complex. Differences in prevalence estimates can reflect differences in questionnaire structure and content rather than differences in reported behaviour. Treating all IPAQ-assessed walking as moderate-intensity contributed to the

  1. Validation of the Kidney Disease Quality of Life Short Form 36 (KDQOL-36™) US Spanish and English Versions in a Cohort of Hispanics with Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ricardo, Ana C.; Hacker, Eileen; Lora, Claudia M.; Ackerson, Lynn; DeSalvo, Karen B.; Go, Alan; Kusek, John W.; Nessel, Lisa; Ojo, Akinlolu; Townsend, Raymond R.; Xie, Dawei; Ferrans, Carol E.; Lash, James P.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Evaluate the reliability and validity of the Kidney Disease Quality of Life Short Form 36 (KDQOL-36™) in Hispanics with mild-to-moderate chronic kidney disease (CKD). Design Cross-sectional Setting Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort Study Participants 420 Hispanic (150 English- and 270 Spanish-speakers), and 409 non-Hispanic White individuals, matched by age (mean 57 years), sex (60% male), kidney function (mean estimated glomerular filtration rate 36ml/min/1.73m2), and diabetes (70%). Methods To measure construct validity, we selected instruments, comorbidities, and laboratory tests related to at least one KDQOL-36™ subscale. Reliability was determined by calculating Cronbach’s alpha. Results Reliability of each KDQOL-36™ subscale [SF-12 Physical Component Summary (PCS) and Mental Component Summary (MCS), Symptoms/Problems, Burden of Kidney Disease and Effects of Kidney Disease] was very good (Cronbach’s alpha >0.8). Construct validity was supported by expected negative correlation between MCS scores and the Beck Depression Inventory in all three subgroups (r= −0.56 to −0.61, P<.0001). There was inverse correlation between the Symptoms/Problems subscale and the Patient Symptom Form (r= −0.70 to −0.77, P<.0001). We also found significant, positive correlation between the PCS score and a physical activity survey (r= +0.29 to +0.38, P≤.003); and between the PCS and MCS scores and the Kansas City Questionnaire (r= +0.31 to +0.64, P<.0001). Reliability and validity were similar across all racial/ethnic groups analyzed separately. Conclusion Our findings support the use of the KDQOL-36™ as a measure of HRQOL in this cohort of US Hispanics with CKD. PMID:23530302

  2. Physical and mental impact of psoriasis severity as measured by the compact Short Form-12 Health Survey (SF-12) quality of life tool.

    PubMed

    Grozdev, Ivan; Kast, Douglas; Cao, Lauren; Carlson, Diana; Pujari, Prasad; Schmotzer, Brian; Babineau, Denise; Kern, Elizabeth; McCormick, Thomas; Cooper, Kevin D; Korman, Neil J

    2012-04-01

    The Short Form-12 Health Survey (SF-12) is used to assess the patient's quality of life (QoL) using the physical component score (PCS) and the mental component score (MCS). The purpose of this study was to determine whether the SF-12 PCS and MCS are associated with psoriasis severity and to compare QoL between Murdough Family Center for Psoriasis (MFCP) patients and patients with other major chronic diseases included in the National Survey of Functional Health Status data. We used data from 429 adult patients enrolled in MFCP. Psoriasis Area Severity Index (PASI) was used to assess psoriasis severity at the time of completion of the SF-12 questionnaire. Other variables included age, sex, body mass index, psoriatic arthritis, psychiatric disorders, and comorbidities. Linear regression models were used to estimate effect sizes ± 95% confidence intervals. For every 10-point increase in PASI, there was a 1.1 ± 1.3 unit decrease in MCS (P=0.100) and a 2.4 ± 1.3 unit decrease in PCS (P<0.001). Psoriasis severity was associated with PCS and MCS after adjusting for variables, although the strength of the relationship was attenuated in some models. Psoriasis severity is associated with decreased QoL. SF-12 may be a useful tool for assessing QoL among psoriasis patients.

  3. Psychometric properties of the French version of the short form of the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory among adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    Potard, Catherine; Amoura, Camille; Kubiszewski, Violaine; Le Samedy, Mathieu; Moltrecht, Brigitte; Courtois, Robert

    2015-06-01

    We examined the psychometric qualities of the Short Form of the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory (SF-CSEI) in a large sample of French adolescents and young adults. A 25-item French version was administered to 1,362 participants (561 aged below 16 years and 801 aged 16-25 years). Participants also completed other scales to measure construct validity (e.g., Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and General Health Questionnaire). Factorial analysis yielded evidence for a structure with three first-order factors for the SF-CSEI: personal, social, and family-derived self-esteem. The internal consistency of the questionnaire's different dimensions was satisfactory (Cronbach's α = .68-.77). Pearson's correlation coefficients showed that the SF-CSEI had moderate to high correlations with convergent measures (r = .19-.73) and constructs related to self-esteem (r = -.23-.65). Psychiatric patients (n = 67) scored significantly lower than a control group. Test-retest reliability was good for some of the factors, especially at 5 weeks and 1 year (r = .29-.79). The French version of the SF-CSEI appears to be a useful instrument, with a cross-culturally stable factorial structure.

  4. Measuring grief and loss after spinal cord injury: Development, validation and psychometric characteristics of the SCI-QOL Grief and Loss item bank and short form

    PubMed Central

    Kalpakjian, Claire Z.; Tulsky, David S.; Kisala, Pamela A.; Bombardier, Charles H.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To develop an item response theory (IRT) calibrated Grief and Loss item bank as part of the Spinal Cord Injury – Quality of Life (SCI-QOL) measurement system. Design A literature review guided framework development of grief/loss. New items were created from focus groups. Items were revised based on expert review and patient feedback and were then field tested. Analyses included confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), graded response IRT modeling and evaluation of differential item functioning (DIF). Setting We tested a 20-item pool at several rehabilitation centers across the United States, including the University of Michigan, Kessler Foundation, Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago, the University of Washington, Craig Hospital and the James J. Peters/Bronx Department of Veterans Affairs hospital. Participants A total of 717 individuals with SCI answered the grief and loss questions. Results The final calibrated item bank resulted in 17 retained items. A unidimensional model was observed (CFI = 0.976; RMSEA = 0.078) and measurement precision was good (theta range between −1.48 to 2.48). Ten items were flagged for DIF, however, after examination of effect sizes found this to be negligible with little practical impact on score estimates. Conclusions This study indicates that the SCI-QOL Grief and Loss item bank represents a psychometrically robust measurement tool. Short form items are also suggested and computer adaptive tests are available. PMID:26010969

  5. Measuring self-esteem after spinal cord injury: Development, validation and psychometric characteristics of the SCI-QOL Self-esteem item bank and short form

    PubMed Central

    Kalpakjian, Claire Z.; Tate, Denise G.; Kisala, Pamela A.; Tulsky, David S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To describe the development and psychometric properties of the Spinal Cord Injury-Quality of Life (SCI-QOL) Self-esteem item bank. Design Using a mixed-methods design, we developed and tested a self-esteem item bank through the use of focus groups with individuals with SCI and clinicians with expertise in SCI, cognitive interviews, and item-response theory- (IRT) based analytic approaches, including tests of model fit, differential item functioning (DIF) and precision. Setting We tested a pool of 30 items at several medical institutions across the United States, including the University of Michigan, Kessler Foundation, the Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago, the University of Washington, Craig Hospital, and the James J. Peters/Bronx Department of Veterans Affairs hospital. Participants A total of 717 individuals with SCI completed the self-esteem items. Results A unidimensional model was observed (CFI = 0.946; RMSEA = 0.087) and measurement precision was good (theta range between −2.7 and 0.7). Eleven items were flagged for DIF; however, effect sizes were negligible with little practical impact on score estimates. The final calibrated item bank resulted in 23 retained items. Conclusion This study indicates that the SCI-QOL Self-esteem item bank represents a psychometrically robust measurement tool. Short form items are also suggested and computer adaptive tests are available. PMID:26010972

  6. Establishing the Measurement Invariance of the Very Short Form of the Infant Behavior Questionnaire Revised for Mothers Who Vary on Race and Poverty Status.

    PubMed

    Leerkes, Esther M; Su, Jinni; Reboussin, Beth A; Daniel, Stephanie S; Payne, Chris C; Grzywacz, Joseph G

    2017-01-01

    We examined the measurement invariance of the Infant Behavior Questionnaire Revised-Very Short Form (IBQR-VSF; Putnam, Helbig, Gartstein, Rothbart, & Leerkes, 2014 ) in a sample of 470 racially (185 White, 285 African American) and socioeconomically diverse mothers (158 below federal poverty threshold, 296 above federal poverty threshold) of infants. Using multigroup confirmatory factor analysis, we demonstrated configural, full metric, and full scalar invariance demonstrating that the 3-factor structure (negative emotionality, positive affectivity/surgency, orienting/regulatory capacity), pattern of item loadings, and item means were comparable for White and African American mothers, and for poor and not poor mothers. In addition, we demonstrated full error invariance across racial groups and partial error variance invariance across poverty status, demonstrating that item reliability was comparable for White and African American mothers, and both those above and below the poverty line (with the exception of a subset of items). Thus, the IBQR-VSF appears appropriate for use in racially and socioeconomically diverse samples.

  7. Effectively Coping With Task Stress: A Study of the Validity of the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire-Short Form (TEIQue-SF).

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Peter; Nguyen, Jessica; Anglim, Jeromy

    2016-10-03

    In this study, we investigated the validity of the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire-Short Form (TEIQue-SF; Petrides, 2009) in the context of task-induced stress. We used a total sample of 225 volunteers to investigate (a) the incremental validity of the TEIQue-SF over other predictors of coping with task-induced stress, and (b) the construct validity of the TEIQue-SF by examining the mechanisms via which scores from the TEIQue-SF predict coping outcomes. Results demonstrated that the TEIQue-SF possessed incremental validity over the Big Five personality traits in the prediction of emotion-focused coping. Results also provided support for the construct validity of the TEIQue-SF by demonstrating that this measure predicted adaptive coping via emotion-focused channels. Specifically, results showed that, following a task stressor, the TEIQue-SF predicted low negative affect and high task performance via high levels of emotion-focused coping. Consistent with the purported theoretical nature of the trait emotional intelligence (EI) construct, trait EI as assessed by the TEIQue-SF primarily enhances affect and performance in stressful situations by regulating negative emotions.

  8. Are autistic traits measured equivalently in individuals with and without an autism spectrum disorder? An invariance analysis of the Autism Spectrum Quotient Short Form.

    PubMed

    Murray, Aja L; Booth, Tom; McKenzie, Karen; Kuenssberg, Renate; O'Donnell, Michael

    2014-01-01

    It is common to administer measures of autistic traits to those without autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) with, for example, the aim of understanding autistic personality characteristics in non-autistic individuals. Little research has examined the extent to which measures of autistic traits actually measure the same traits in the same way across those with and without an ASD. We addressed this question using a multi-group confirmatory factor invariance analysis of the Autism Quotient Short Form (AQ-S: Hoekstra et al. in J Autism Dev Disord 41(5):589-596, 2011) across those with (n = 148) and without (n = 168) ASD. Metric variance (equality of factor loadings), but not scalar invariance (equality of thresholds), held suggesting that the AQ-S measures the same latent traits in both groups, but with a bias in the manner in which trait levels are estimated. We, therefore, argue that the AQ-S can be used to investigate possible causes and consequences of autistic traits in both groups separately, but caution is due when combining or comparing levels of autistic traits across the two groups.

  9. Psychometric Properties of the Parenting Stress Index-Short Form (PSI-SF) in a High-Risk Sample of Mothers and their Infants

    PubMed Central

    Barroso, Nicole E.; Hungerford, Gabriela M.; Garcia, Dainelys; Graziano, Paulo A.; Bagner, Daniel M.

    2015-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the English and Spanish versions of the Parenting Stress Index-Short Form (PSI-SF) with mothers of 12- to 15-month-old infants with elevated levels of behavior problems and from predominately Hispanic, low-income backgrounds. Mothers of 58 infants were assessed as part of a larger study examining a brief home-based intervention for infants with elevated behavior problems. Internal consistency was good for all three subscales (i.e., Parental Distress, Parent-Child Dysfunctional Interaction, and Difficult Child) and the Total Stress scale. Convergent validity of subscales was supported by correlations with measures of theoretically related constructs, including maternal depressive symptoms, maternal parenting practices, and infant behavior. Furthermore, examination of the optimal clinical cutoff by examining sensitivity and specificity suggested that for this high-risk sample lower percentile scores (73rd – 77th), relative to the published 85th percentile cutoff, were sufficient for identifying mothers with clinically elevated depressive symptoms and infants with clinically elevated behavioral and emotional difficulties. The current results provide psychometric support for the PSI-SF as an effective and appropriate measure for use with high-risk families that have been underrepresented in previous research, including mothers of very young children with behavior problems, Hispanic and Spanish-speaking populations, and low-income families. PMID:26595220

  10. Psychometric properties of the Parenting Stress Index-Short Form (PSI-SF) in a high-risk sample of mothers and their infants.

    PubMed

    Barroso, Nicole E; Hungerford, Gabriela M; Garcia, Dainelys; Graziano, Paulo A; Bagner, Daniel M

    2016-10-01

    The goal of the present study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the English and Spanish versions of the Parenting Stress Index-Short Form (PSI-SF) with mothers of 12- to 15-month-old infants with elevated levels of behavior problems and from predominately Hispanic, low-income backgrounds. Mothers of 58 infants were assessed as part of a larger study examining a brief home-based intervention for infants with elevated behavior problems. Internal consistency was good for all 3 subscales (i.e., Parental Distress, Parent-Child Dysfunctional Interaction, and Difficult Child) and the Total Stress scale. Convergent validity of subscales was supported by correlations with measures of theoretically related constructs, including maternal depressive symptoms, maternal parenting practices, and infant behavior. Furthermore, examination of the optimal clinical cutoff by examining sensitivity and specificity suggested that for this high-risk sample lower percentile scores (73rd-77th), relative to the published 85th percentile cutoff, were sufficient for identifying mothers with clinically elevated depressive symptoms and infants with clinically elevated behavioral and emotional difficulties. The current results provide psychometric support for the PSI-SF as an effective and appropriate measure for use with high-risk families that have been underrepresented in previous research, including mothers of very young children with behavior problems, Hispanic and Spanish-speaking populations, and low-income families. (PsycINFO Database Record

  11. Preliminary investigation of the psychometric properties of the Korean version of the brief cognitive assessment tool-short form for Korean American nursing home residents.

    PubMed

    Mansbach, William E; Mace, Ryan A; Clark, Kristen M

    2015-01-01

    The authors of the current article developed and investigated the psychometric properties of a Korean version of the Brief Cognitive Assessment Tool-Short Form (BCAT-SF-K) to better understand cognitive functioning of Korean American nursing home residents. In Step I, normative values were established for the BCAT-SF-K based on a sample of Korean American community-dwelling older adults (n = 34). In Step II, the authors confirmed construct validity for the BCAT-SF-K in a sample of Korean American nursing home residents (n = 26), described cognitive levels, and reported key demographics. In the nursing home sample, 84.6% of individuals had severe cognitive impairment, 7.7% had mild impairment, and 7.7% had normal cognition. The BCAT-SF-K appears to be a reliable cognitive screening measure for Korean American nursing home residents. Based on the current study's findings, Korean American nursing home residents are both older and more cognitively impaired than their American-born nursing home counterparts. Study findings are discussed in relation to improving care for these vulnerable nursing home residents.

  12. Measuring stigma after spinal cord injury: Development and psychometric characteristics of the SCI-QOL Stigma item bank and short form

    PubMed Central

    Kisala, Pamela A.; Tulsky, David S.; Pace, Natalie; Victorson, David; Choi, Seung W.; Heinemann, Allen W.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To develop a calibrated item bank and computer adaptive test (CAT) to assess the effects of stigma on health-related quality of life in individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI). Design Grounded-theory based qualitative item development methods, large-scale item calibration field testing, confirmatory factor analysis, and item response theory (IRT)-based psychometric analyses. Setting Five SCI Model System centers and one Department of Veterans Affairs medical center in the United States. Participants Adults with traumatic SCI. Main Outcome Measures SCI-QOL Stigma Item Bank Results A sample of 611 individuals with traumatic SCI completed 30 items assessing SCI-related stigma. After 7 items were iteratively removed, factor analyses confirmed a unidimensional pool of items. Graded Response Model IRT analyses were used to estimate slopes and thresholds for the final 23 items. Conclusions The SCI-QOL Stigma item bank is unique not only in the assessment of SCI-related stigma but also in the inclusion of individuals with SCI in all phases of its development. Use of confirmatory factor analytic and IRT methods provide flexibility and precision of measurement. The item bank may be administered as a CAT or as a 10-item fixed-length short form and can be used for research and clinical applications. PMID:26010973

  13. The RNase P RNA from cyanobacteria: short tandemly repeated repetitive (STRR) sequences are present within the RNase P RNA gene in heterocyst-forming cyanobacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Vioque, A

    1997-01-01

    The RNase P RNA gene (rnpB) from 10 cyanobacteria has been characterized. These new RNAs, together with the previously available ones, provide a comprehensive data set of RNase P RNA from diverse cyanobacterial lineages. All heterocystous cyanobacteria, but none of the non-heterocystous strains analyzed, contain short tandemly repeated repetitive (STRR) sequences that increase the length of helix P12. Site-directed mutagenesis experiments indicate that the STRR sequences are not required for catalytic activity in vitro. STRR sequences seem to have recently and independently invaded the RNase P RNA genes in heterocyst-forming cyanobacteria because closely related strains contain unrelated STRR sequences. Most cyanobacteria RNase P RNAs lack the sequence GGU in the loop connecting helices P15 and P16 that has been established to interact with the 3'-end CCA in precursor tRNA substrates in other bacteria. This character is shared with plastid RNase P RNA. Helix P6 is longer than usual in most cyanobacteria as well as in plastid RNase P RNA. PMID:9254706

  14. Biopsychosocial predictors of short-term success among people with low back pain referred to a physiotherapy spinal triage service

    PubMed Central

    Bath, Brenna; Lovo Grona, Stacey

    2015-01-01

    Background A spinal triage assessment service may impact a wide range of patient outcomes. Investigating potential predictors of success or improvement may reveal why some people improve and some do not, as well as help to begin to explain potential mechanisms for improvements. The objective of this study was to determine which factors were associated with improved short-term self-reported pain, function, general health status, and satisfaction in people undergoing a spinal triage assessment performed by physiotherapists. Methods Participants with low back-related complaints were recruited from people referred to a spinal triage assessment program (N=115). Participants completed baseline questionnaires covering a range of sociodemographic, clinical, and psychological features. Self-reported measures of pain, function, quality of life, and satisfaction were completed at 4 weeks following the assessment. Determination of “success” was based on minimal important change scores of select outcome measures. Multivariate logistic regression was used to explore potential predictors of success for each outcome. Results Despite the complex and chronic presentation of most participants, some reported improvements in outcomes at 4 weeks post assessment with the highest proportion of participants demonstrating improvement (according to the minimal important change scores) in the Medical Outcomes Survey 36-item short-form version 2 physical component summary score (48.6%) and the lowest proportion of participants having improvements in the Numeric Pain Rating Scale (11.5%). A variety of different sociodemographic, psychological, clinical, and other variables were associated with success or improvement in each respective outcome. Conclusion There may be a potential mechanism of reassurance that occurs during the spinal triage assessment process as those with higher psychological distress (measured by the Fear Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire and the Distress and Risk Assessment

  15. A physiotherapy triage assessment service for people with low back disorders: evaluation of short-term outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Bath, Brenna; Pahwa, Punam

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the short-term effects of physiotherapy triage assessments on self-reported pain, functioning, and general well-being and quality of life in people with low back-related disorders. Methods: Participants with low back–related complaints were recruited from those referred to a spinal triage assessment program delivered by physiotherapists (PTs). Before undergoing the triage assessment, the participants completed a battery of questionnaires covering a range of sociodemographic, clinical, and psychosocial features. The study used the Numeric Pain Rating Scale (NPRS), the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), and the Medical Outcomes Survey 36-item short-form version 2 (SF-36v2) to assess self-reported pain, function, and quality of life. Baseline measures and variables were analyzed using a descriptive analysis method (ie, proportions, means, medians). Paired samples t-tests or Wilcoxon matched-pair signed-rank tests were used to analyze the overall group differences between the pretest and posttest outcome measures where appropriate. Results: A total of 108 out of 115 (93.9%) participants completed the posttest survey. The Physical Component Summary of the SF36v2 was the only measure that demonstrated significant improvement (P < 0.001). Conclusion: A spinal triage assessment program delivered by PTs can be viewed as a complex intervention that may have the potential to affect a wide range of patient-related outcomes. Further research is needed to examine the long-term outcomes and explore potential mechanisms of improvement using a biopsychosocial framework. PMID:22915980

  16. Short- and long-term effects of mud-bath treatment on hand osteoarthritis: a randomized clinical trial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fioravanti, Antonella; Tenti, Sara; Giannitti, Chiara; Fortunati, Nicola Angelo; Galeazzi, Mauro

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate both the short-term and the long-term effectiveness of spa therapy in patients with primary hand osteoarthritis (OA). This was a prospective randomized, single blind controlled trial. Sixty outpatients with primary bilateral hand OA were included in the study and randomized to one of two groups. One group ( n = 30) was treated with 12 daily local mud packs and generalized thermal baths with a sulfate-calcium-magnesium-fluorides mineral water added to usual treatment. The control group ( n = 30) continued regular outpatient care routine (exercise, NSAIDs and/or analgesics). Each patient was examined at baseline, after 2 weeks, and after 3, 6, 9 and 12 months. Primary outcome measures were global spontaneous hand pain on a visual analogue scale (VAS) and the functional index for hand osteoarthritis (FIHOA) score; secondary outcomes were health assessment questionnaire (HAQ), duration of morning stiffness, medical outcomes study 36-item short form (SF-36) and symptomatic drugs consumption. Our results demonstrated that the efficacy of spa therapy was significant in all the assessed parameters, both at the end of therapy and after 3 months; the values of FIHOA, HAQ and drugs consumption continued to be significantly better after 6 months in comparison with baseline. There were no significant modifications of the parameters throughout the follow-up in the control group. Differences between the two groups were significant for all parameters at the 15th day and at 3 months follow-up; regarding FIHOA, HAQ, and symptomatic drugs consumption, the difference between the two groups persisted and was significant at 6month follow-up. Tolerability of spa therapy seemed to be good. In conclusion, our results confirm that the beneficial effects of spa therapy in patients with hand OA last over time.

  17. Validity of a short form of the Achievement-Motive Grid (AMG-S): evidence for the three-factor structure emphasizing active and passive forms of fear of failure.

    PubMed

    Schmalt, Heinz-Dieter

    2005-04-01

    My primary objective in this research was to examine diverse validity aspects of a short form of the Achievement-Motive Grid (AMG-S; Schmalt, 1999). The AMG is a picture-based measure that combines features of the Thematic Apperception Test (TAT; Murray, 1943) with features of self-report questionnaires. Similar to the TAT, the motive gets aroused by presenting a set of pictured achievement situations. Similar to a questionnaire, the motive is measured with a set of statements representing characteristic components of the achievement motive. Quite in line with the original version, factor analyses of the AMG-S all recommend the adoption of a 3-factor solution in which 1 hope-of-success (HS) and 2 fear-of-failure (FF) concepts are differentiated. The HS and passive FF factor (FFp) are based on positive and negative efficacy evaluations, respectively. The active FF factor (FFa) describes anticipations of impending failure. FFp is clearly a "withdrawal" factor, whereas FFa is clearly an "invigoration" factor. In the construct validity section of this research, I focus on classical and recent elaborations of approach and avoidance motivation in which I show that HS, FFp, and FFa play a substantial role in a motive-goals-outcomes framework of achievement motivation.

  18. Construct validity evidence for the Male Role Norms Inventory-Short Form: A structural equation modeling approach using the bifactor model.

    PubMed

    Levant, Ronald F; Hall, Rosalie J; Weigold, Ingrid K; McCurdy, Eric R

    2016-10-01

    The construct validity of the Male Role Norms Inventory-Short Form (MRNI-SF) was assessed using a latent variable approach implemented with structural equation modeling (SEM). The MRNI-SF was specified as having a bifactor structure, and validation scales were also specified as latent variables. The latent variable approach had the advantages of separating effects of general and specific factors and controlling for some sources of measurement error. Data (N = 484) were from a diverse sample (38.8% men of color, 22.3% men of diverse sexualities) of community-dwelling and college men who responded to an online survey. The construct validity of the MRNI-SF General Traditional Masculinity Ideology factor was supported for all 4 of the proposed latent correlations with: (a) Male Role Attitudes Scale; (b) general factor of Conformity to Masculine Norms Inventory-46; (c) higher-order factor of Gender Role Conflict Scale; and (d) Personal Attributes Questionnaire-Masculinity Scale. Significant correlations with relevant other latent factors provided concurrent validity evidence for the MRNI-SF specific factors of Negativity toward Sexual Minorities, Importance of Sex, Restrictive Emotionality, and Toughness, with all 8 of the hypothesized relationships supported. However, 3 relationships concerning Dominance were not supported. (The construct validity of the remaining 2 MRNI-SF specific factors-Avoidance of Femininity and Self-Reliance through Mechanical Skills was not assessed.) Comparisons were made, and meaningful differences noted, between the latent correlations emphasized in this study and their raw variable counterparts. Results are discussed in terms of the advantages of an SEM approach and the unique characteristics of the bifactor model. (PsycINFO Database Record

  19. A Community-Based Validation Study of the Short-Form 36 Version 2 Philippines (Tagalog) in Two Cities in the Philippines

    PubMed Central

    Castillo-Carandang, Nina T.; Sison, Olivia T.; Grefal, Mary Lenore; Sy, Rody G.; Alix, Oliver C.; Llanes, Elmer Jasper B.; Reganit, Paul Ferdinand M.; Gumatay, Allan Wilbert G.; Punzalan, Felix Eduardo R.; Velandria, Felicidad V.; Tai, E. Shyong; Wee, Hwee-Lin

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the validity and reliability of the Philippines (Tagalog) Short Form 36 Health Survey version 2 (SF-36v2®) standard questionnaire among Filipinos residing in two cities. Study Design and Setting The official Philippines (Tagalog) SF-36v2 standard (4-week recall) version was pretested on 30 participants followed by formal and informal cognitive debriefing. To obtain the feedback on translation by bilingual respondents, each SF-36v2 question was stated first in English followed by Tagalog. No revisions to the original questionnaire were needed except that participants thought it was appropriate to incorporate "po" in the instructions to make it more polite. Face-to-face interviews of 562 participants aged 20-50 years living in two barangays (villages) in the highly urbanized city of Makati City (Metro Manila) and in urban and rural barangays in Tanauan City (province of Batangas) were subsequently conducted. Content validity, item level validity, reliability and factor structure of the SF-36v2 (Tagalog) were examined. Results Content validity of the SF-36v2 was assessed to be adequate for assessing health status among Filipinos. Item means of Philippines (Tagalog) SF-36v2 were similar with comparable scales in the US English, Singapore (English and Chinese) and Thai SF-36 version 1. Item-scale correlation exceeded 0.4 for all items except the bathing item in PF (correlation: 0.31). In exploratory factor analysis, the US two-component model was supported. However, in confirmatory factor analysis, the Japanese three-component model fit the Tagalog data better than the US two-component model. Conclusions The Philippines (Tagalog) SF-36v2 is a valid and reliable instrument for measuring health status among residents of Makati City (Metro Manila) and Tanauan City (Province of Batangas). PMID:24386281

  20. Initial construct cross-cultural validation of the Short Form 36 for quality of life assessment of systemic lupus erythematosus patients in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Thumboo, J; Fong, K Y; Ng, T P; Leong, K H; Feng, P H; Boey, M L

    1997-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if the Short Form 36 (SF-36) Health Survey Questionnaire measures differences in quality of life between lupus patients and healthy controls in Singapore. A cross-sectional pilot study was conducted on consecutive English-speaking, female Chinese lupus patients seen at a Rheumatology unit. Healthy volunteers were recruited as controls during the same time period. All subjects completed the United Kingdom version of the SF-36. Lupus disease activity was assessed using the British Isles Lupus Assessment Group (BILAG) index and converted to a global score. Lupus-related damage was measured using the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics/American College of Rheumatology Damage Index (SLICC/ACRDI). The main outcomes measured were the mean SF-36 scale scores for lupus patients and healthy controls. Thirty-six lupus patients and 76 controls were included in the study. All subjects were English-speaking, Chinese female between 21 and 53 years of age. The mean age of patients and controls was 31.9 and 29.0 years respectively. Lupus patients had lower mean scale scores than controls for physical functioning (73.0 versus 89.7, P < 0.0027), bodily pain (71.0 versus 81.4, P < 0.027), physical role functioning (55.7 versus 89.5, P < 0.0001) and general health (47.4 versus 51.8, P < 0.05). Mean scale scores for vitality, social and emotional role function and mental health were similar in both groups. Ten patients had active disease (BILAG global scores of 3 to 14) and 13 patients had lupus-related damage (Damage Index scores of 1 to 7). These preliminary data suggest that the SF-36 Health Survey may be able to measure differences in quality of life between lupus patients and healthy controls in Singapore.

  1. Psychometric properties of the problematic online gaming questionnaire short-form and prevalence of problematic online gaming in a national sample of adolescents.

    PubMed

    Pápay, Orsolya; Urbán, Róbert; Griffiths, Mark D; Nagygyörgy, Katalin; Farkas, Judit; Kökönyei, Gyöngyi; Felvinczi, Katalin; Oláh, Attila; Elekes, Zsuzsanna; Demetrovics, Zsolt

    2013-05-01

    The rise and growing popularity of online games has led to the appearance of excessive gaming that in some cases can lead to physical and psychological problems. Several measures have been developed to explore the nature and the scale of the phenomenon. However, few measures have been validated psychometrically. The aim of the present study was to test the psychometric properties of the 12-item Problematic Online Gaming Questionnaire Short-Form (POGQ-SF) and to assess the prevalence of problematic online gaming. Data collection was carried out to assess the prevalence of problematic online gaming in a national representative adolescent sample by using an offline (pen and pencil) method. A total of 5,045 secondary school students were assessed (51% male, mean age 16.4 years, SD=0.9 years) of which 2,804 were gamers (65.4% male, mean age 16.4 years, SD=0.9 years). Confirmatory factor analysis was applied to test the measurement model of problematic online gaming, and latent profile analysis was used to identify the proportion of gamers whose online game use can be considered problematic. Results showed that the original six-factor model yielded appropriate fit to the data, and thus the POGQ-SF has appropriate psychometric properties. Latent profile analysis revealed that 4.6% of the adolescents belong to a high risk group and an additional 13.3% to a low risk group. Due to its satisfactory psychometric characteristics, the 12-item POGQ-SF appears to be an adequate tool for the assessment of problematic online gaming.

  2. Low level postnatal methylmercury exposure in vivo alters developmental forms of short-term synaptic plasticity in the visual cortex of rat

    SciTech Connect

    Dasari, Sameera; Yuan, Yukun

    2009-11-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) has been previously shown to affect neurotransmitter release. Short-term synaptic plasticity (STP) is primarily related to changes in the probability of neurotransmitter release. To determine if MeHg affects STP development, we examined STP forms in the visual cortex of rat following in vivo MeHg exposure. Neonatal rats received 0 (0.9% NaCl), 0.75 or 1.5 mg/kg/day MeHg subcutaneously for 15 or 30 days beginning on postnatal day 5, after which visual cortical slices were prepared for field potential recordings. In slices prepared from rats treated with vehicle, field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (fEPSPs) evoked by paired-pulse stimulation at 20-200 ms inter-stimulus intervals showed a depression (PPD) of the second fEPSP (fEPSP2). PPD was also seen in slices prepared from rats after 15 day treatment with 0.75 or 1.5 mg/kg/day MeHg. However, longer duration treatment (30 days) with either dose of MeHg resulted in paired-pulse facilitation (PPF) of fEPSP2 in the majority of slices examined. PPF remained observable in slices prepared from animals in which MeHg exposure had been terminated for 30 days after completion of the initial 30 day MeHg treatment, whereas slices from control animals still showed PPD. MeHg did not cause any frequency- or region-preferential effect on STP. Manipulations of [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub e} or application of the GABA{sub A} receptor antagonist bicuculline could alter the strength and polarity of MeHg-induced changes in STP. Thus, these data suggest that low level postnatal MeHg exposure interferes with the developmental transformation of STP in the visual cortex, which is a long-lasting effect.

  3. Radiofrequency Catheter Ablation Improves the Quality of Life Measured with a Short Form-36 Questionnaire in Atrial Fibrillation Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jong-Il; Kim, Young-Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Background The main purpose of performing radiofrequency catheter ablation (RFCA) in atrial fibrillation (AF) patients is to improve the quality of life (QoL) and alleviate AF-related symptoms. We aimed to determine the qualitative and quantitative effects of RFCA on the QoL in AF patients. Methods We performed a systemic review and meta-analysis using a random effects model. We searched for the studies that reported the physical component summary score (PCS) and mental component summary score (MCS) of the short form-36, a validated system to assess and quantify the QoL, before and after RFCA in AF patients. PCS and MCS are T-scores with a mean of 50 and standard deviation of 10. Results Of the 470 studies identified through systematic search, we included 13 studies for pre-RFCA vs. the post-RFCA analysis and 5 studies for treatment success vs. AF recurrence analyses. In the pre-RFCA vs. post-RFCA analysis, RFCA was associated with a significant increase in both the PCS (weighted mean difference [WMD] = 6.33 [4.81–7.84]; p < 0.001) and MCS (WMD = 7.80 [6.15–9.44]; p < 0.001). The ΔPCS (post-RFCA PCS–pre-RFCA PCS) and ΔMCS values were used for the treatment success vs. AF recurrence analysis. Patients with successful ablation had a higher ΔPCS (WMD = 7.46 [4.44–10.49]; p < 0.001) and ΔMCS (WMD = 7.59 [4.94–10.24]; p < 0.001). Conclusions RFCA is associated with a significant increase in the PCS and MCS in AF patients. Patients without AF recurrence after RFCA had a better improvement in the PCS and MCS than patients who had AF recurrence. PMID:27681507

  4. Population-specific short-form mini nutritional assessment with body mass index or calf circumference can predict risk of malnutrition in community-living or institutionalized elderly people in taiwan.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Alan C; Chang, Tsui-Lan; Wang, Yi-Chen; Liao, Chiu-Ying

    2010-09-01

    A simple, reliable, noninvasive, and easy-to-use instrument is important for successful monitoring of emerging nutrition problems in elderly people. The objectives of this study were to determine whether adoption of population-specific body mass index (BMI) cutpoints would improve the predictive ability of the short-form Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) and whether calf circumference could be an acceptable alternative to BMI in the short-form MNA without compromising its predictive ability. Using convenience sampling, the study recruited 301 community-living, 109 care center-living, and 68 nursing home-living elderly people, 65 years or older, as subjects. Subjects were evaluated with the short-form MNA in three versions: (a) the original, (b) Taiwan version 1 (T1), that adopted population-specific BMI cutpoints, and (c) Taiwan version 2 (T2), which substituted calf circumference for BMI, and with the long-form MNA-T2 as a reference. The ability of the short forms to predict the long-form MNA-T2 was evaluated with binary classification and analysis of receiver operating characteristic curves. Results were analyzed with an SPSS for Windows 12.0 software package (version 12.0.1C, 2000, SPSS Inc, Chicago, IL). Results showed that adoption of population-specific anthropometric BMI cutpoints improved the predictive ability of the short-form MNA, whereas replacement of BMI with calf circumference further improved the predictive ability of the scale (kappa values of the binary classification tests were 0.596, 0.742, and 0.843 for community-living; 0.560, 0.683, and 0.839 for care center-living; and 0.346, 0.454, and 0.522 for nursing home-living elderly for the original, T1, and T2 MNA short-form versions, respectively). These results suggest that modification of a measurement tool according to cultural or anthropometric features of the target population is necessary. The study also shows that calf circumference can be an acceptable alternative to BMI in the short-form

  5. Measuring health-related quality of life in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: properties of the EQ-5D-5L and PROMIS-43 short form

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System 43-item short form (PROMIS-43) and the five-level EQ-5D (EQ-5D-5L) are recently developed measures of health-related quality of life (HRQL) that have potentially broad application in evaluating treatments and capturing burden of respiratory-related diseases. The aims of this study were: (1) to examine their psychometric properties in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and (2) to identify dimensions of HRQL that differ and do not differ by lung function. Methods We conducted a multi-center, cross-sectional study (“COPD Outcomes-based Network for Clinical Effectiveness & Research Translation” [CONCERT]). We analyzed patients who met spirometric criteria for COPD, and completed EQ-5D-5L and PROMIS questionnaires. Disease severity was graded based on the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) classification. Pulmonary function test, PROMIS-43, EQ-5D (index score and EQ-Visual Analog Scale [EQ-VAS]), six minute walk test (6MWT), and three dyspnea scales (mMRC, Borg, FACIT-Dyspnea) were administered. Validity and reliability of EQ-5D-5L and PROMIS-43 were examined, and differences in HRQL by GOLD grade were assessed. Results Data from 670 patients with COPD were analyzed (mean age 68.5 years; 58% male). More severe COPD was associated with more problems with mobility, self-care and usual activities (all p-values <0.01) according to EQ-5D-5L. Related domains on EQ-5D-5L, PROMIS and clinical measures were moderately (r = 0.30-0.49) to strongly (r ≥ 0.50) correlated. A statistically significant trend of decreasing HRQL with more severe lung functions was observed for EQ-5D-5L index scores, EQ-VAS scores, and PROMIS physical function and social roles. Conclusions Results supported the validity of EQ-5D-5L and PROMIS-43 in COPD patients, and indicate that physical function and social activities decrease with level of lung function by GOLD

  6. Translation, adaptation, validation and performance of the American Weight Efficacy Lifestyle Questionnaire Short Form (WEL-SF) to a Norwegian version: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, John R.; Nielsen, Hans J.; Natvig, Gerd K.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Researchers have emphasized a need to identify predictors that can explain the variability in weight management after bariatric surgery. Eating self-efficacy has demonstrated predictive impact on patients’ adherence to recommended eating habits following multidisciplinary treatment programs, but has to a limited extent been subject for research after bariatric surgery. Recently an American short form version (WEL-SF) of the commonly used Weight Efficacy Lifestyle Questionnaire (WEL) was available for research and clinical purposes. Objectives. We intended to translate and culturally adapt the WEL-SF to Norwegian conditions, and to evaluate the new versions’ psychometrical properties in a Norwegian population of morbidly obese patients eligible for bariatric surgery. Design. Cross-sectional Methods. A total of 225 outpatients selected for Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) were recruited; 114 non-operated and 111 operated patients, respectively. The questionnaire was translated through forward and backward procedures. Structural properties were assessed performing principal component analysis (PCA), correlation and regression analysis were conducted to evaluate convergent validity and sensitivity, respectively. Data was assessed by mean, median, item response, missing values, floor- and ceiling effect, Cronbach’s alpha and alpha if item deleted. Results. The PCA resulted in one factor with eigenvalue > 1, explaining 63.0% of the variability. The WEL-SF sum scores were positively correlated with the Self-efficacy and quality of life instruments (p < 0.001). The WEL-SF was associated with body mass index (BMI) (p < 0.001) and changes in BMI (p = 0.026). A very high item response was obtained with only one missing value (0.4%). The ceiling effect was in average 0.9 and 17.1% in the non-operated and operated sample, respectively. Strong internal consistency (r = 0.92) was obtained, and Cronbach’s alpha remained high (0.86–0.92) if single items

  7. Development of a brief measure of intimate partner violence experiences: the Composite Abuse Scale (Revised)—Short Form (CASR-SF)

    PubMed Central

    Ford-Gilboe, Marilyn; Wathen, C Nadine; Varcoe, Colleen; MacMillan, Harriet L; Scott-Storey, Kelly; Mantler, Tara; Hegarty, Kelsey; Perrin, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Approaches to measuring intimate partner violence (IPV) in populations often privilege physical violence, with poor assessment of other experiences. This has led to underestimating the scope and impact of IPV. The aim of this study was to develop a brief, reliable and valid self-report measure of IPV that adequately captures its complexity. Design Mixed-methods instrument development and psychometric testing to evolve a brief version of the Composite Abuse Scale (CAS) using secondary data analysis and expert feedback. Setting Data from 5 Canadian IPV studies; feedback from international IPV experts. Participants 31 international IPV experts including academic researchers, service providers and policy actors rated CAS items via an online survey. Pooled data from 6278 adult Canadian women were used for scale development. Primary/secondary outcome measures Scale reliability and validity; robustness of subscales assessing different IPV experiences. Results A 15-item version of the CAS has been developed (Composite Abuse Scale (Revised)—Short Form, CASR-SF), including 12 items developed from the original CAS and 3 items suggested through expert consultation and the evolving literature. Items cover 3 abuse domains: physical, sexual and psychological, with questions asked to assess lifetime, recent and current exposure, and abuse frequency. Factor loadings for the final 3-factor solution ranged from 0.81 to 0.91 for the 6 psychological abuse items, 0.63 to 0.92 for the 4 physical abuse items, and 0.85 and 0.93 for the 2 sexual abuse items. Moderate correlations were observed between the CASR-SF and measures of depression, post-traumatic stress disorder and coercive control. Internal consistency of the CASR-SF was 0.942. These reliability and validity estimates were comparable to those obtained for the original 30-item CAS. Conclusions The CASR-SF is brief self-report measure of IPV experiences among women that has demonstrated initial reliability and validity

  8. A cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the short-form McGill Pain Questionnaire-2: Chinese version in patients with chronic visceral pain

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jiang-Lin; Zhang, Wei-Jun; Gao, Min; Zhang, Shengfa; Tian, Dong-Hua; Chen, Jun

    2017-01-01

    Objective The present study aimed to develop a culturally appropriate and functional Standard Mandarin Chinese translation of the short-form McGill Pain Questionnaire-2 (SF-MPQ-2) and to assess its reliability and validity for characterizing chronic visceral pain in Chinese patients. Background The SF-MPQ-2 has been widely used in studies of pain epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment, and even pathophysiologic mechanisms to assess the major symptoms of clinical pain. Previous reports have shown favorable reliability, validity, and responsiveness of the SF-MPQ-2 in diverse samples of patients with chronic and acute pain. However, a culturally appropriate, functional Chinese version of the scale has never been developed. Methods Beaton’s guidelines were used for the translation and back-translation procedures. Patients (n=145) with chronic visceral pain were recruited to complete the Standard Mandarin Chinese version of the SF-MPQ-2 (SF-MPQ-2-CN), of which 41 were asked to complete the SF-MPQ-2-CN a second time, 3 days after the initial visit. The test–retest reliability was quantified using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), and Cronbach’s alpha was calculated to assess internal consistency. Possible components were determined by exploratory factor analysis with varimax rotation, and a value of 0.4 was considered requisite for the loading of each factor. Results The ICC for subscales ranged from 0.909 to 0.952, and that of the total scale was 0.927, suggesting excellent reliability and validity of the SF-MPQ-2-CN. Cronbach’s alpha for subscales ranged from 0.896 to 0.916, and that of the total scale was 0.836 and 0.831 for primary and secondary visits, respectively. The factor loading matrix of the SF-MPQ-2-CN ranged from 0.734 to 0.901 for each of the following subscales: continuous, intermittent, neuropathic, and affective, revealing four components similar to the original scale. Conclusion The reliability and validity of the SF-MPQ-2-CN scale

  9. Profile of Two Cohorts: UK and US Prospective Studies of Military Health

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-29

    Health Questionnaire. JAMA 1999;282: 1737–44. 30 Ware JE Jr. SF - 36 health survey update . Spine 2000;25: 3130–39. 31...Outcomes Study Short Form 36 -Item Health Survey for Veterans.30 Broad comparison between the GHQ and PHQ may be pos- sible28 via comparison of baseline...administered Primary Care Evalua- tion of Mental Disorders, PRIME-MD)29 Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 36 -Item Health Survey for Veterans30 BMI

  10. An Exemplar-Familiarity Model Predicts Short-Term and Long-Term Probe Recognition across Diverse Forms of Memory Search

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nosofsky, Robert M.; Cox, Gregory E.; Cao, Rui; Shiffrin, Richard M.

    2014-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to test a modern exemplar-familiarity model on its ability to account for both short-term and long-term probe recognition within the same memory-search paradigm. Also, making connections to the literature on attention and visual search, the model was used to interpret differences in probe-recognition performance across…

  11. Variation in the coding and 3’ untranslated regions of the porcine prolactin receptor short form modifies protein expression and function

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The actions of prolactin (PRL) are mediated by both long (LF) and short isoforms (SF) of the PRL receptor (PRLR). Here, we report on a genetic and functional analysis of the porcine PRLR (pPRLR) SF. Three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within exon 11 of the pPRLR-SF give rise to four amino a...

  12. Short time dynamics determine glass forming ability in a glass transition two-level model: A stochastic approach using Kramers' escape formula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toledo-Marín, J. Quetzalcóatl; Naumis, Gerardo G.

    2017-03-01

    The relationship between short and long time relaxation dynamics is obtained for a simple solvable two-level energy landscape model of a glass. This is done through means of the Kramers' transition theory, which arises in a very natural manner to calculate transition rates between wells. Then the corresponding stochastic master equation is analytically solved to find the population of metastable states. A relation between the cooling rate, the characteristic relaxation time, and the population of metastable states is found from the solution of such equation. From this, a relationship between the relaxation times and the frequency of oscillation at the metastable states, i.e., the short time dynamics, is obtained. Since the model is able to capture either a glass transition or a crystallization depending on the cooling rate, this gives a conceptual framework in which to discuss some aspects of rigidity theory, for example.

  13. Relationships between salinity and short-term soil carbon accumulation rates form marsh types across a landscape in the Mississippi River Delta

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baustian, Melissa M.; Stagg, Camille L.; Perry, Carey L; Moss, Leland C; Carruthers, Tim J.B.; Allison, Mead

    2017-01-01

    Salinity alterations will likely change the plant and environmental characteristics in coastal marshes thereby influencing soil carbon accumulation rates. Coastal Louisiana marshes have been historically classified as fresh, intermediate, brackish, or saline based on resident plant community and position along a salinity gradient. Short-term total carbon accumulation rates were assessed by collecting 10-cm deep soil cores at 24 sites located in marshes spanning the salinity gradient. Bulk density, total carbon content, and the short-term accretion rates obtained with feldspar horizon markers were measured to determine total carbon accumulation rates. Despite some significant differences in soil properties among marsh types, the mean total carbon accumulation rates among marsh types were not significantly different (mean ± std. err. of 190 ± 27 g TC m−2 year−1). However, regression analysis indicated that mean annual surface salinity had a significant negative relationship with total carbon accumulation rates. Based on both analyses, the coastal Louisiana total marsh area (1,433,700 ha) accumulates about 2.7 to 3.3 Tg C year−1. Changing salinities due to increasing relative sea level or resulting from restoration activities may alter carbon accumulation rates in the short term and significantly influence the global carbon cycle.

  14. Assessing public speaking fear with the short form of the Personal Report of Confidence as a Speaker scale: confirmatory factor analyses among a French-speaking community sample

    PubMed Central

    Heeren, Alexandre; Ceschi, Grazia; Valentiner, David P; Dethier, Vincent; Philippot, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Background: The main aim of this study was to assess the reliability and structural validity of the French version of the 12-item version of the Personal Report of Confidence as Speaker (PRCS), one of the most promising measurements of public speaking fear. Methods: A total of 611 French-speaking volunteers were administered the French versions of the short PRCS, the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale, the Fear of Negative Evaluation scale, as well as the Trait version of the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and the Beck Depression Inventory-II, which assess the level of anxious and depressive symptoms, respectively. Results: Regarding its structural validity, confirmatory factor analyses indicated a single-factor solution, as implied by the original version. Good scale reliability (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.86) was observed. The item discrimination analysis suggested that all the items contribute to the overall scale score reliability. The French version of the short PRCS showed significant correlations with the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (r = 0.522), the Fear of Negative Evaluation scale (r = 0.414), the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (r = 0.516), and the Beck Depression Inventory-II (r = 0.361). Conclusion: The French version of the short PRCS is a reliable and valid measure for the evaluation of the fear of public speaking among a French-speaking sample. These findings have critical consequences for the measurement of psychological and pharmacological treatment effectiveness in public speaking fear among a French-speaking sample. PMID:23662060

  15. Short stature

    MedlinePlus

    Idiopathic short stature; Non-growth hormone deficient short stature ... syndrome Turner syndrome Williams syndrome Other reasons include: Growth hormone deficiency Infections of the developing baby before birth ...

  16. ATP and magnesium promote cotton short-form ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) activase hexamer formation at low micromolar concentrations.

    PubMed

    Kuriata, Agnieszka M; Chakraborty, Manas; Henderson, J Nathan; Hazra, Suratna; Serban, Andrew J; Pham, Tuong V T; Levitus, Marcia; Wachter, Rebekka M

    2014-11-25

    We report a fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) study of the assembly pathway of the AAA+ protein ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) activase (Rca), a ring-forming ATPase responsible for activation of inhibited Rubisco complexes for biological carbon fixation. A thermodynamic characterization of simultaneously populated oligomeric states appears critical in understanding Rca structure and function. Using cotton β-Rca, we demonstrate that apparent diffusion coefficients vary as a function of concentration, nucleotide, and cation. Using manual fitting procedures, we provide estimates for the equilibrium constants for the stepwise assembly and find that in the presence of ATPγS, the Kd for hexamerization is 10-fold lower than with ADP (∼0.1 vs ∼1 μM). Hexamer fractions peak at 30 μM and dominate at 8-70 μM Rca, where they comprise 60-80% of subunits with ATPγS, compared with just 30-40% with ADP. Dimer fractions peak at 1-4 μM Rca, where they comprise 15-18% with ATPγS and 26-28% with ADP. At 30 μM Rca, large aggregates begin to form that comprise ∼10% of total protein with ATPγS and ∼25% with ADP. FCS data collected on the catalytically impaired WalkerB-D173N variant in the presence of ATP provided strong support for these results. Titration with free magnesium ions lead to the disaggregation of larger complexes in favor of hexameric forms, suggesting that a second magnesium binding site with a Kd value of 1-3 mM mediates critical subunit contacts. We propose that closed-ring toroidal hexameric forms are stabilized by binding of Mg·ATP plus Mg2+, whereas Mg·ADP promotes continuous assembly to supramolecular aggregates such as spirals.

  17. The association of ranitidine and sucralfate in the short-term treatment of duodenal ulcers, as compared to other forms of treatment.

    PubMed

    Magnanelli, M; Belvisi, A; Toninelli, A; Matergi, M; Camarri, E

    1984-01-01

    Results of the treatment of duodenal ulcer with ranitidine (150 mg X 2/die) and sucralfate (1 gr X 2/die) have been compared with other common schemes of therapy. Administration of the drugs was carried out for 8 weeks, and the evolution of the ulcer lesion was followed with endoscopic controls at the beginning and end of the treatment. Ulcer healing occurred in 92% of 25 patients, as compared with 83,3% of 30 cases treated with ranitidine only; 80% of 30 cases with cimetidine 1 g/day; 80% of 20 cases with cimetidine 800 mg/b.i.d.; 75% of 20 cases with sucralfate 3 g/day; 73,3% of 30 patients with pirenzepine 150 mg/day; 60% of 20 cases with sulglycotide 0.5-1 g/day; and 50% of 40 ulcerous patients treated with placebo. From these results it is concluded that the association of sucralfate with an H2-antagonist improves the possibility of short-term healing of duodenal ulcer.

  18. Modification of water, aqueous solutions, and dielectric films in diffuse discharge formed by fast electron preionization at the short front of a voltage pulse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlovskii, V. M.; Panarin, V. A.; Shulepov, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    Formation of a diffuse discharge at a short front of voltage pulse (less than 1 ns), as well as when placing water, water solutions, and dielectric film inside the discharge, is studied. A volumetric discharge was observed in water on the anode when placing dielectric film (polyethylene, vinyl chloride-methyl methacrylate (VCMMA), etc.), water, or aqueous solutions of 3% hydrogen dioxide or 18% KMgO4 inside the discharge. The change in the absorption spectrum of substance was found after multiple discharge switching on. Fourier analysis of the infrared absorption spectra showed the difference between the spectra of exposed and unexposed polyethylene film. The changes in the absorption spectra of water, 3% hydrogen dioxide and 18% KMgO4 aqueous solutions are related with expansion of the band of valence oscillations of OH-groups without clearly expressed maxima (for the studied liquids). Therefore, volumetric diffuse discharge in molecular and atomic gases can be used in modifying dielectrics, water and aqueous solutions.

  19. Current density and catalyst-coated membrane resistance distribution of hydro-formed metallic bipolar plate fuel cell short stack with 250 cm2 active area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haase, S.; Moser, M.; Hirschfeld, J. A.; Jozwiak, K.

    2016-01-01

    An automotive fuel cell with an active area of 250 cm2 is investigated in a 4-cell short stack with a current and temperature distribution device next to the bipolar plate with 560 current and 140 temperature segments. The electrical conductivities of the bipolar plate and gas diffusion layer assembly are determined ex-situ with this current scan shunt module. The applied fuel cell consists of bipolar plates constructed of 75-μm-thick, welded stainless-steel foils and a graphitic coating. The electrical conductivities of the bipolar plate and gas diffusion layer assembly are determined ex-situ with this module with a 6% deviation in in-plane conductivity. The current density distribution is evaluated up to 2.4 A cm-2. The entire cell's investigated volumetric power density is 4.7 kW l-1, and its gravimetric power density is 4.3 kW kg-1 at an average cell voltage of 0.5 V. The current density distribution is determined without influencing the operating cell. In addition, the current density distribution in the catalyst-coated membrane and its effective resistivity distribution with a finite volume discretisation of Ohm's law are evaluated. The deviation between the current density distributions in the catalyst-coated membrane and the bipolar plate is determined.

  20. Understanding the meaning of short-term, yiyeqing relationships and how they are formed: Implications for condom use in Liuzhou, China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Nan; Abler, Laurie; Bao, Yu; Pan, Suiming

    2014-01-01

    Yiyeqing (“one night love”, i.e., having sex only once with a non-commercial partner) has increased in China, concomitant with the increase in heterosexual transmission of STI/HIV. Our study explored how participants who had experienced yiyeqing (YYQ) understood these relationships and characterized YYQ’s links to sexual risk behaviors. We conducted in-depth interviews with 45 adults in Liuzhou, a city in southwest China, who had YYQ experience. We analyzed the findings using social construction to interpret the participants’ understandings of YYQ. Participants reported that they tend to select YYQ partners whom they trust, which is built through introductions from social connections and within entertainment venues, resulting in the belief that their partners are free of STI/HIV and do not require protected sex. As YYQ relationships become more common, understanding the nature of these relationships is critical for developing public health messages that convey the risks associated with sex in short-term relationships and the need for condoms. PMID:23632897

  1. Assessing Appearance-Related Disturbances in HIV-Infected Men Who have Sex with Men (MSM): Psychometrics of the Body Change and Distress Questionnaire—Short Form (ABCD-SF)

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Johannes M.; Baker, Joshua S.; Mayer, Kenneth H.; Safren, Steven A.

    2013-01-01

    Appearance-related disturbances are common among HIV-infected MSM; however, to date, there have been limited options in the valid assessment of this construct. The aim of the current study was to assess the structural, internal, and convergent validity of the assessment of body change distress questionnaire (ABCD) and its short version. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses indicated that both versions fit the data well. Four sub-factors were revealed measuring the following body disturbance constructs: (1) negative affect about appearance, (2) HIV health-related outcomes and stigma, (3) eating and exercise confusion, and (4) ART non-adherence. The subfactors and total scores revealed bivariate associations with salient health outcomes, including depressive symptoms, HIV sexual transmission risk behaviors, and ART non-adherence. The ABCD and its short form, offer valid means to assess varied aspects of body image disturbance among HIV-infected MSM, and require modest participant burden. PMID:24057934

  2. Psychometric Properties of the Problematic Internet Use Questionnaire Short-Form (PIUQ-SF-6) in a Nationally Representative Sample of Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Demetrovics, Zsolt; Király, Orsolya; Koronczai, Beatrix; Griffiths, Mark D; Nagygyörgy, Katalin; Elekes, Zsuzsanna; Tamás, Domokos; Kun, Bernadette; Kökönyei, Gyöngyi; Urbán, Róbert

    2016-01-01

    Despite the large number of measurement tools developed to assess problematic Internet use, numerous studies use measures with only modest investigation into their psychometric properties. The goal of the present study was to validate the short (6-item) version of the Problematic Internet Use Questionnaire (PIUQ) on a nationally representative adolescent sample (n = 5,005; mean age 16.4 years, SD = 0.87) and to determine a statistically established cut-off value. Data were collected within the framework of the European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs project. Results showed an acceptable fit of the original three-factor structure to the data. In addition, a MIMIC model was carried out to justify the need for three distinct factors. The sample was divided into users at-risk of problematic Internet use and those with no-risk using a latent profile analysis. Two latent classes were obtained with 14.4% of adolescents belonging to the at-risk group. Concurrent and convergent validity were tested by comparing the two groups across a number of variables (i.e., time spent online, academic achievement, self-esteem, depressive symptoms, and preferred online activities). Using the at-risk latent profile analysis class as the gold standard, a cut-off value of 15 (out of 30) was suggested based on sensitivity and specificity analyses. In conclusion, the brief version of the (6-item) PIUQ also appears to be an appropriate measure to differentiate between Internet users at risk of developing problematic Internet use and those not at risk. Furthermore, due to its brevity, the shortened PIUQ is advantageous to utilize within large-scale surveys assessing many different behaviors and/or constructs by reducing the overall number of survey questions, and as a consequence, likely increasing completion rates.

  3. Psychometric Properties of the Problematic Internet Use Questionnaire Short-Form (PIUQ-SF-6) in a Nationally Representative Sample of Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Demetrovics, Zsolt; Király, Orsolya; Koronczai, Beatrix; Griffiths, Mark D.; Nagygyörgy, Katalin; Elekes, Zsuzsanna; Tamás, Domokos; Kun, Bernadette; Kökönyei, Gyöngyi; Urbán, Róbert

    2016-01-01

    Despite the large number of measurement tools developed to assess problematic Internet use, numerous studies use measures with only modest investigation into their psychometric properties. The goal of the present study was to validate the short (6-item) version of the Problematic Internet Use Questionnaire (PIUQ) on a nationally representative adolescent sample (n = 5,005; mean age 16.4 years, SD = 0.87) and to determine a statistically established cut-off value. Data were collected within the framework of the European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs project. Results showed an acceptable fit of the original three-factor structure to the data. In addition, a MIMIC model was carried out to justify the need for three distinct factors. The sample was divided into users at-risk of problematic Internet use and those with no-risk using a latent profile analysis. Two latent classes were obtained with 14.4% of adolescents belonging to the at-risk group. Concurrent and convergent validity were tested by comparing the two groups across a number of variables (i.e., time spent online, academic achievement, self-esteem, depressive symptoms, and preferred online activities). Using the at-risk latent profile analysis class as the gold standard, a cut-off value of 15 (out of 30) was suggested based on sensitivity and specificity analyses. In conclusion, the brief version of the (6-item) PIUQ also appears to be an appropriate measure to differentiate between Internet users at risk of developing problematic Internet use and those not at risk. Furthermore, due to its brevity, the shortened PIUQ is advantageous to utilize within large-scale surveys assessing many different behaviors and/or constructs by reducing the overall number of survey questions, and as a consequence, likely increasing completion rates. PMID:27504915

  4. A short splice form of Xin-actin binding repeat containing 2 (XIRP2) lacking the Xin repeats is required for maintenance of stereocilia morphology and hearing function.

    PubMed

    Francis, Shimon P; Krey, Jocelyn F; Krystofiak, Evan S; Cui, Runjia; Nanda, Sonali; Xu, Wenhao; Kachar, Bechara; Barr-Gillespie, Peter G; Shin, Jung-Bum

    2015-02-04

    Approximately one-third of known deafness genes encode proteins located in the hair bundle, the sensory hair cell's mechanoreceptive organelle. In previous studies, we used mass spectrometry to characterize the hair bundle's proteome, resulting in the discovery of novel bundle proteins. One such protein is Xin-actin binding repeat containing 2 (XIRP2), an actin-cross-linking protein previously reported to be specifically expressed in striated muscle. Because mutations in other actin-cross-linkers result in hearing loss, we investigated the role of XIRP2 in hearing function. In the inner ear, XIRP2 is specifically expressed in hair cells, colocalizing with actin-rich structures in bundles, the underlying cuticular plate, and the circumferential actin belt. Analysis using peptide mass spectrometry revealed that the bundle harbors a previously uncharacterized XIRP2 splice variant, suggesting XIRP2's role in the hair cell differs significantly from that reported in myocytes. To determine the role of XIRP2 in hearing, we applied clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/Cas9-mediated genome-editing technology to induce targeted mutations into the mouse Xirp2 gene, resulting in the elimination of XIRP2 protein expression in the inner ear. Functional analysis of hearing in the resulting Xirp2-null mice revealed high-frequency hearing loss, and ultrastructural scanning electron microscopy analyses of hair cells demonstrated stereocilia degeneration in these mice. We thus conclude that XIRP2 is required for long-term maintenance of hair cell stereocilia, and that its dysfunction causes hearing loss in the mouse.

  5. A short form of the General Self-Efficacy Scale (GSE-6): Development, psychometric properties and validity in an intercultural non-clinical sample and a sample of patients at risk for heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Romppel, Matthias; Herrmann-Lingen, Christoph; Wachter, Rolf; Edelmann, Frank; Düngen, Hans-Dirk; Pieske, Burkert; Grande, Gesine

    2013-01-01

    Objective: General self-efficacy has been found to be an influential variable related to the adaptation to stress and chronic illness, with the General Self-Efficacy (GSE) Scale by Jerusalem and Schwarzer being a reliable and valid instrument to assess this disposition. The aim of this study was to construct and test a short form of this scale to allow for a more economical assessment of the construct. Methods: The item characteristics of the original scale were assessed using an intercultural non-clinical sample (n=19,719). Six items with the highest coefficient of variation and good discrimination along the range of the trait were selected to build a short form of the instrument (GSE-6). Subsequently, the psychometric properties and the concurrent and predictive validity of the GSE-6 were tested in a longitudinal design with three measurements using a sample of patients with risk factors for heart failure (n=1,460). Results: Cronbach’s alpha for the GSE-6 was between .79 and .88. We found negative associations with symptoms of depression (–.35 and –.45), anxiety (–.35), and vital exhaustion (–.38) and positive associations with social support (.30), and mental health (.36). In addition, the GSE-6 score was positively associated with active problem-focused coping (.26) and distraction/self-encouragement (.25) and negatively associated with depressive coping (–.34). The baseline GSE-6 score predicted mental health and physical health after 28 months, even after controlling for the respective baseline score. The relative stability over twelve and 28 months was r=.50 and r=.60, respectively, while the mean self-efficacy score did not change over time. Conclusions: The six item short form of the GSE scale is a reliable and valid instrument that is useful for the economical assessment of general self-efficacy in large multivariate studies and for screening purposes. PMID:23429426

  6. Development of a short form Social Interaction Anxiety (SIAS) and Social Phobia Scale (SPS) using nonparametric item response theory: the SIAS-6 and the SPS-6.

    PubMed

    Peters, Lorna; Sunderland, Matthew; Andrews, Gavin; Rapee, Ronald M; Mattick, Richard P

    2012-03-01

    Shortened forms of the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (SIAS) and the Social Phobia Scale (SPS) were developed using nonparametric item response theory methods. Using data from socially phobic participants enrolled in 5 treatment trials (N = 456), 2 six-item scales (the SIAS-6 and the SPS-6) were developed. The validity of the scores on the SIAS-6 and the SPS-6 was then tested using traditional methods for their convergent validity in an independent clinical sample and a student sample, as well as for their sensitivity to change and diagnostic sensitivity in the clinical sample. The scores on the SIAS-6 and the SPS-6 correlated as well as the scores on the original SIAS and SPS, with scores on measures of related constructs, discriminated well between those with and without a diagnosis of social phobia, providing cutoffs for diagnosis and were as sensitive to measuring change associated with treatment as were the SIAS and SPS. Together, the SIAS-6 and the SPS-6 appear to be an efficient method of measuring symptoms of social phobia and provide a brief screening tool.

  7. Influence of short-term drought conditions and subsequent re-watering on the physiology and proteome of Lolium multiflorum/Festuca arundinacea introgression forms, with contrasting levels of tolerance to long-term drought.

    PubMed

    Perlikowski, D; Kosmala, A; Rapacz, M; Kościelniak, J; Pawłowicz, I; Zwierzykowski, Z

    2014-03-01

    Festuca arundinacea is a drought tolerant species. Lolium multiflorum has better forage quality but lower tolerance to abiotic stresses. Their hybrids offer an opportunity to perform research on the molecular basis of tolerance to drought. The aim of this work was to recognise the mechanisms of response to short-term drought (11 days) in a glasshouse in two L. multiflorum/F. arundinacea introgression forms with distinct levels of tolerance to long-term drought (14 weeks) in the field. Measurements of physiological parameters, analyses of protein accumulation profiles using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, and mass spectrometry identification of proteins, which were accumulated differentially between the selected genotypes during short-term drought, were performed. Genotype 7/6, with lower yield potential during 14 weeks of drought, and lower ability to re-grow after watering, had a higher capacity for photosynthesis during 11 days of drought. Genotype 4/10, more tolerant to long-term drought, was able to repair damaged cell membranes after watering and was also characterised by lower transpiration during short-term drought. A total of 455 proteins were analysed, and the 17 that were differentially accumulated between the two genotypes were identified. The results of physiological and proteomic research led to a hypothesis that the higher photosynthetic capacity of genotype 7/6 could be due to a more efficient Calvin cycle, supported by higher accumulation of crucial proteins involving chloroplast aldolase.

  8. Emittance of short-pulsed high-current ion beams formed from the plasma of the electron cyclotron resonance discharge sustained by high-power millimeter-wave gyrotron radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razin, S.; Zorin, V.; Izotov, I.; Sidorov, A.; Skalyga, V.

    2014-02-01

    We present experimental results on measuring the emittance of short-pulsed (≤100 μs) high-current (80-100 mA) ion beams of heavy gases (Nitrogen, Argon) formed from a dense plasma of an ECR source of multiply charged ions (MCI) with quasi-gas-dynamic mode of plasma confinement in a magnetic trap of simple mirror configuration. The discharge was created by a high-power (90 kW) pulsed radiation of a 37.5-GHz gyrotron. The normalized emittance of generated ion beams of 100 mA current was (1.2-1.3) π mm mrad (70% of ions in the beams). Comparing these results with those obtained using a cusp magnetic trap, it was concluded that the structure of the trap magnetic field lines does not exert a decisive influence on the emittance of ion beams in the gas-dynamic ECR source of MCI.

  9. Comparison of the Effect of Dry Cupping Therapy and Acupressure at BL23 Point on Intensity of Postpartum Perineal Pain Based on the Short Form of McGill Pain Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Akbarzade, Marzieh; Ghaemmaghami, Mehrnoush; Yazdanpanahi, Zahra; Zare, Najaf; Mohagheghzadeh, Abdolali; Azizi, Amir

    2016-01-01

    Background: Perineal pain is a major morbidity in the first few days after delivery. This study aimed to investigate the effect of dry cupping therapy and acupressure at BL23 point on the intensity of postpartum perineal pain based on the short-form of McGill pain questionnaire (SMPQ). Methods: The present clinical trial was conducted on 150 subjects in 3 groups of 50 cases. After at least 4–8 hr of delivery, cupping therapy was performed for 15–20 min up to 3 times a week (once a day) and acupressure was performed for 15–20 min based on clockwise model. The short-form of McGill pain questionnaire was completed both before and after the intervention. The SPSS statistical software was used to analyze the data using repeated measures ANOVA. Besides, p<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: In the cupping therapy group, mean of the perineal pain intensity reduced from 37.5±6.8 before the intervention to 11.1±6.1, 6.9±4.7, and 3.8±3.6 immediately, 24 hr, and 2 weeks after the intervention, respectively. The results of study showed that the differences between the intervention and control groups were statistically significant (p<0.01). Mean difference of the perineal pain intensity in the acupressure group reached from 35.6±8.1 before the intervention to 10.4±5.5 two weeks after the intervention, so the variation between intervention and control groups was statistically significant. Conclusion: The study findings showed that cupping therapy and acupressure reduced perineal pain. Therefore, they may be considered as effective treatments for reducing pain intensity of allowing delivery. PMID:26962482

  10. Short philtrum

    MedlinePlus

    ... caused by: Chromosome 18q deletion syndrome Cohen syndrome DiGeorge syndrome Oral-facial-digital syndrome (OFD) Home Care ... short philtrum, you may want to note that diagnosis in your personal medical record. Images The face ...

  11. The short form of the fear survey schedule for children-revised (FSSC-R-SF): an efficient, reliable, and valid scale for measuring fear in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Muris, Peter; Ollendick, Thomas H; Roelofs, Jeffrey; Austin, Kristin

    2014-12-01

    The present study examined the psychometric properties of the Short Form of the Fear Survey Schedule for Children-Revised (FSSC-R-SF) in non-clinical and clinically referred children and adolescents from the Netherlands and the United States. Exploratory as well as confirmatory factor analyses of the FSSC-R-SF yielded support for the hypothesized five-factor structure representing fears in the domains of (1) failure and criticism, (2) the unknown, (3) animals, (4) danger and death, and (5) medical affairs. The FSSC-R-SF showed satisfactory reliability and was capable of assessing gender and age differences in youths' fears and fearfulness that have been documented in previous research. Further, the convergent validity of the scale was good as shown by substantial and meaningful correlations with the full-length FSSC-R and alternative childhood anxiety measures. Finally, support was found for the discriminant validity of the scale. That is, clinically referred children and adolescents exhibited higher scores on the FSSC-R-SF total scale and most subscales as compared to their non-clinical counterparts. Moreover, within the clinical sample, children and adolescents with a major anxiety disorder generally displayed higher FSSC-R-SF scores than youths without such a diagnosis. Altogether, these findings indicate that the FSSC-R-SF is a brief, reliable, and valid scale for assessing fear sensitivities in children and adolescents.

  12. Differential treatment response of subtypes of patients with borderline personality organization, as assessed with theory-driven profiles of the Dutch short form of the MMPI: a naturalistic follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Eurelings-Bontekoe, Elisabeth H M; Peen, Jaap; Noteboom, Annemieke; Alkema, Marieke; Dekker, Jack

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the validity of different subtypes of borderline personality organization (BPO) as assessed by theory-driven profiles of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Disorder (MMPI; Hathaway & McKinley, 1943 ) Dutch Short Form (DSFM; Eurelings-Bontekoe, Onnink, Williams, & Snellen, 2008 ) in a naturalistic follow-up study among 2,062 psychiatric outpatients who received 6 months of ambulatory treatment. Patients were assessed at intake (T1) and 6 months later (T2). At T2, both patients and therapists rated the level of improvement, using the Global Assessment of Improvement. Patients with the high-level BPO profile showed the largest increase in well-being and the largest decrease in severity of symptomatology, whereas severity of symptomatology and well-being of patients with psychotic BPO profiles did not change over time. Agreement between patients and therapists about improvement was good for the internalizing immature BPO and high-level BPO patients, but poor for the externalizing low-level BPO and narcissistic patients.

  13. Advanced Electrochemical Waste Forms

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, Brian J.; Crum, Jarrod V.; McCloy, John S.; Matyas, Josef

    2011-12-01

    This is a brief description of PNNL's efforts in FY2011 towards developing advanced electrochemical waste forms. This is a short section that will become part of a larger document being put together by INL.

  14. Development and psychometric characteristics of the SCI-QOL Bladder Management Difficulties and Bowel Management Difficulties item banks and short forms and the SCI-QOL Bladder Complications scale

    PubMed Central

    Tulsky, David S.; Kisala, Pamela A.; Tate, Denise G.; Spungen, Ann M.; Kirshblum, Steven C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To describe the development and psychometric properties of the Spinal Cord Injury – Quality of Life (SCI-QOL) Bladder Management Difficulties and Bowel Management Difficulties item banks and Bladder Complications scale. Design Using a mixed-methods design, a pool of items assessing bladder and bowel-related concerns were developed using focus groups with individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) and SCI clinicians, cognitive interviews, and item response theory (IRT) analytic approaches, including tests of model fit and differential item functioning. Setting Thirty-eight bladder items and 52 bowel items were tested at the University of Michigan, Kessler Foundation Research Center, the Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago, the University of Washington, Craig Hospital, and the James J. Peters VA Medical Center, Bronx, NY. Participants Seven hundred fifty-seven adults with traumatic SCI. Results The final item banks demonstrated unidimensionality (Bladder Management Difficulties CFI = 0.965; RMSEA = 0.093; Bowel Management Difficulties CFI = 0.955; RMSEA = 0.078) and acceptable fit to a graded response IRT model. The final calibrated Bladder Management Difficulties bank includes 15 items, and the final Bowel Management Difficulties item bank consists of 26 items. Additionally, 5 items related to urinary tract infections (UTI) did not fit with the larger Bladder Management Difficulties item bank but performed relatively well independently (CFI = 0.992, RMSEA = 0.050) and were thus retained as a separate scale. Conclusion The SCI-QOL Bladder Management Difficulties and Bowel Management Difficulties item banks are psychometrically robust and are available as computer adaptive tests or short forms. The SCI-QOL Bladder Complications scale is a brief, fixed-length outcomes instrument for individuals with a UTI. PMID:26010964

  15. Psychometric evaluation of the Short Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36) and the World Health Organization Quality of Life Scale Brief Version (WHOQOL-BREF) for patients with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Su, Chia-Ting; Ng, Hong-Son; Yang, Ai-Lun; Lin, Chung-Ying

    2014-09-01

    Quality-of-life (QoL) instruments measure the overall health status of people with schizophrenia, for whom the activities of daily life are often difficult. However, information on the psychometric properties of scores from the Short Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36) and the World Health Organization Quality of Life Scale Brief Version (WHOQOL-BREF), 2 commonly used generic QoL instruments in this population, is limited. Thus, we used a multitrait-multimethod analysis plus confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) to examine their psychometric properties. To test the reliability of their scores, we used methods of absolute reliability (standard error of measurement [SEM] and smallest real difference [SRD]) and relative reliability (i.e., intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC]). We recruited 100 patients with schizophrenia from a psychiatric hospital in southern Taiwan. All participants filled out the SF-36 and the WHOQOL-BREF at baseline and 2 weeks later. The participants' QoL scores were lower than those of the Taiwan general population (ps < .01), and CFA indicated that the constructs of QoL scores for the SF-36 (comparative fit index [CFI] = .918; incremental fit index [IFI] = .919; Tucker-Lewis index [TLI] = .885) and the WHOQOL-BREF (CFI = .967; IFI = .967; TLI = .900) were acceptable. The SEM and SRD analyses suggested that the total scores of the SF-36 (SEM% = 10.03%; SRD% = 27.80%) and of the WHOQOL-BREF (SEM% = 5.55%; SRD% = 15.40%) were reliable. Also, our results demonstrated that the WHOQOL-BREF scores were more reliable and valid than the SF-36 scores for assessing people with schizophrenia. The scores of both questionnaires were valid and reliable and detected different aspects of QOL in the population with schizophrenia.

  16. Food security of older adults requesting Older Americans Act Nutrition Program in Georgia can be validly measured using a short form of the U.S. Household Food Security Survey Module.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung Sun; Johnson, Mary Ann; Brown, Arvine; Nord, Mark

    2011-07-01

    Food security is a newly recommended outcome measure for the Older Americans Act Nutrition Program (OAANP); however, it is unknown how best to evaluate the need for this program and assess its impact on a large scale. Therefore, we measured food security in all new OAANP participants and waitlisted applicants in Georgia between July and early November, 2008 (n = 4731) with the self-administered mail survey method used in the ongoing Georgia Performance Outcomes Measures project. We used a modified 6-item U.S. Household Food Security Survey Module (HFSSM) with a 30-d reference period and 2 reminder postcards. Approximately 33% of those identified completed the survey (n = 1594, mean age 74.6 ± 9.5 y, 68.6% female, 30.6% black). Most of the respondents (91%) completed all 6 food security questions, whereas 26 did not respond to any question. Infit and outfit statistics for each of the 6 questions were within an acceptable range. Psychometric properties observed in our food security data were generally similar to those in the nationally representative survey conducted by the Census Bureau and suggest that our food security statistics may be meaningfully compared with national food security statistics published by the USDA. Our findings suggest that food security can be reasonably measured by a short form of HFSSM in older adults requesting OAANP. Such methodology also can be used to estimate the extent of food insecurity and help guide program and policy decisions to meet the nutrition assistance needs of vulnerable older adults.

  17. Enhancing Discussion through Short Stories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcus, Sybil

    A teacher of English in a college-level intensive English language program describes a method for stimulating speech in high-intermediate and advanced students, using short stories. It is argued that in short stories, the themes are universal, and even shy students are willing to discuss this form of literature in class. Criteria for selecting…

  18. Short stature with congenital ichthyosis.

    PubMed

    Lakhani, Som J; Lakhani, Om J

    2015-12-09

    PIBIDS syndrome (photosensitivity, ichthyosis, brittle hair, intellectual impairment, decreased fertility and short stature) is a variant of trichothiodystrophy. It is a rare form of autosomal recessive congenital ichthyosis. Short stature is a vital component of PIBIDS syndrome. We present the cases of two siblings in whom we diagnosed PIBIDS syndrome. On evaluation for short stature, they were found to have severe vitamin D deficiency, which on correction led to the patients having considerable gain in stature. With this case, we would also like to propose that vitamin D deficiency could be one of the treatable causes of short stature in PIBIDS syndrome.

  19. Science Grade 7, Long Form.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Bureau of Curriculum Development.

    The Grade 7 Science course of study was prepared in two parallel forms. A short form designed for students who had achieved a high measure of success in previous science courses; the long form for those who have not been able to maintain the pace. Both forms contain similar content. The Grade 7 guide is the first in a three-year sequence for…

  20. Quality of Life in College Students with and without Social Phobia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghaedi, Gholam Hossein; Tavoli, Azadeh; Bakhtiari, Maryam; Melyani, Mahdieh; Sahragard, Mahdi

    2010-01-01

    Prior studies demonstrating quality of life impairment in phobia and anxiety disorders have relied upon epidemiological samples or clinical data. Using the same quality of life scale, the Short Form 36-item Health Survey (SF-36), in Iranian college students allowed us to study the impact of social phobia (SP) on quality of life among the college…

  1. The Brief Problem Monitor-Parent Form (BPM-P), a Short Version of the Child Behavior Checklist: Psychometric Properties in Spanish 6- to 8-Year-Old Children.

    PubMed

    Penelo, Eva; de la Osa, Núria; Navarro, José Blas; Domènech, Josep Maria; Ezpeleta, Lourdes

    2017-01-12

    We provide the first validation data on the Spanish version of the Brief Problem Monitor-Parent form (BPM-P), a recently developed abbreviated version of the 120-item Child Behavior Checklist for Ages 6 to 18 (CBCL/6-18) in young schoolchildren. Parents of a community sample of 521 children aged 6-8 answered the CBCL/6-18 yearly, and the 19 BPM-P items were examined; parents also provided different measures of psychopathology. Confirmatory factor analysis of the expected 3-factor model (attention, externalizing, and internalizing) showed adequate fit (root mean square error of approximation, RMSEA ≤ .057), and measurement invariance across sex and age was observed. Internal consistency for the derived scores was satisfactory (ω ≥ .83). Concurrent validity with the equivalent scale scores of the original full CBCL/6-18 (r ≥ .84) and convergent validity with parents' ratings of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire scores (r ≥ .52) were good. BPM-P scores at age 7 showed good predictive accuracy for discriminating the use of mental health services (OR ≥ 1.12), functional impairment (B ≤ -1.25), and the presence of the corresponding disorders diagnosed with an independent clinical interview, both cross-sectionally at age 7 and longitudinally at age 8 (OR ≥ 1.24). The BPM-P provides reliable and valid scores as a very brief follow-up and screening tool for assessing behavioral and emotional problems in young schoolchildren. (PsycINFO Database Record

  2. Evaluation of the Relative Validity of the Short Diet Questionnaire for Assessing Usual Consumption Frequencies of Selected Nutrients and Foods.

    PubMed

    Shatenstein, Bryna; Payette, Hélène

    2015-08-04

    A 36-item Short Diet Questionnaire (SDQ) was developed to assess usual consumption frequencies of foods providing fats, fibre, calcium, vitamin D, in addition to fruits and vegetables. It was pretested among 30 community-dwelling participants from the Québec Longitudinal Study on Nutrition and Successful Aging, "NuAge" (n = 1793, 52.4% women), recruited in three age groups (70 ± 2 years; 75 ± 2 years; 80 ± 2 years). Following revision, the SDQ was administered to 527 NuAge participants (55% female), distributed among the three age groups, both sexes and languages (French, English) prior to the second of three non-consecutive 24 h diet recalls (24HR) and validated relative to the mean of three 24HR. Full data were available for 396 participants. Most SDQ nutrients and fruit and vegetable servings were lower than 24HR estimates (p < 0.05) except calcium, vitamin D, and saturated and trans fats. Spearman correlations between the SDQ and 24HR were modest and significant (p < 0.01), ranging from 0.19 (cholesterol) to 0.45 (fruits and vegetables). Cross-classification into quartiles showed 33% of items were jointly classified into identical quartiles of the distribution, 73% into identical and contiguous quartiles, and only 7% were frankly misclassified. The SDQ is a reasonably accurate, rapid approach for ranking usual frequencies of selected nutrients and foods. Further testing is needed in a broader age range.

  3. Evaluation of the Relative Validity of the Short Diet Questionnaire for Assessing Usual Consumption Frequencies of Selected Nutrients and Foods

    PubMed Central

    Shatenstein, Bryna; Payette, Hélène

    2015-01-01

    A 36-item Short Diet Questionnaire (SDQ) was developed to assess usual consumption frequencies of foods providing fats, fibre, calcium, vitamin D, in addition to fruits and vegetables. It was pretested among 30 community-dwelling participants from the Québec Longitudinal Study on Nutrition and Successful Aging, “NuAge” (n = 1793, 52.4% women), recruited in three age groups (70 ± 2 years; 75 ± 2 years; 80 ± 2 years). Following revision, the SDQ was administered to 527 NuAge participants (55% female), distributed among the three age groups, both sexes and languages (French, English) prior to the second of three non-consecutive 24 h diet recalls (24HR) and validated relative to the mean of three 24HR. Full data were available for 396 participants. Most SDQ nutrients and fruit and vegetable servings were lower than 24HR estimates (p < 0.05) except calcium, vitamin D, and saturated and trans fats. Spearman correlations between the SDQ and 24HR were modest and significant (p < 0.01), ranging from 0.19 (cholesterol) to 0.45 (fruits and vegetables). Cross-classification into quartiles showed 33% of items were jointly classified into identical quartiles of the distribution, 73% into identical and contiguous quartiles, and only 7% were frankly misclassified. The SDQ is a reasonably accurate, rapid approach for ranking usual frequencies of selected nutrients and foods. Further testing is needed in a broader age range. PMID:26247965

  4. Permission Forms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zirkel, Perry A.

    2005-01-01

    The prevailing practice in public schools is to routinely require permission or release forms for field trips and other activities that pose potential for liability. The legal status of such forms varies, but they are generally considered to be neither rock-solid protection nor legally valueless in terms of immunity. The following case and the…

  5. Short bowel syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Small intestine insufficiency; Short gut syndrome; Necrotizing enterocolitis - short bowel ... The small intestine absorbs much of the nutrients found in foods we eat. When one half or more of our small ...

  6. Shortness-of-Breath

    MedlinePlus

    ... can lead to shortness of breath include anxiety, panic attacks, anemia and even constipation. The experience of shortness ... are used to treat patients with anxiety or panic attacks. Other commonly used drugs include bronchodilators to widen ...

  7. Short-range communication system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alhorn, Dean C. (Inventor); Howard, David E. (Inventor); Smith, Dennis A. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A short-range communication system includes an antenna, a transmitter, and a receiver. The antenna is an electrical conductor formed as a planar coil with rings thereof being uniformly spaced. The transmitter is spaced apart from the plane of the coil by a gap. An amplitude-modulated and asynchronous signal indicative of a data stream of known peak amplitude is transmitted into the gap. The receiver detects the coil's resonance and decodes same to recover the data stream.

  8. Development of the Work Intention Inventory Short-Form

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nimon, Kim; Zigarmi, Drea

    2015-01-01

    The Work Intention Inventory (WII: Zigarmi, Nimon, Houson, Witt, & Diehl, 2012) was designed to assess five measures of work intention. Measuring employee intentions is important to consider when evaluating outcomes associated with employee engagement or work passion as research indicates intentions are strong predictors of behavior. Following…

  9. A Short Form of the Career Futures Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIlveen, Peter; Burton, Lorelle J.; Beccaria, Gavin

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the international transferability and structural validity of the Career Futures Inventory (CFI) in a sample of Australian university students (N = 1,566). Exploratory factor analysis of the data from a random half-split of the sample supported a three-factor solution equivalent to the original CFI subscales,…

  10. Bipolar pulse forming line

    DOEpatents

    Rhodes, Mark A.

    2008-10-21

    A bipolar pulse forming transmission line module for linear induction accelerators having first, second, third, fourth, and fifth planar conductors which form an interleaved stack with dielectric layers between the conductors. Each conductor has a first end, and a second end adjacent an acceleration axis. The first and second planar conductors are connected to each other at the second ends, the fourth and fifth planar conductors are connected to each other at the second ends, and the first and fifth planar conductors are connected to each other at the first ends via a shorting plate adjacent the first ends. The third planar conductor is electrically connectable to a high voltage source, and an internal switch functions to short a high voltage from the first end of the third planar conductor to the first end of the fourth planar conductor to produce a bipolar pulse at the acceleration axis with a zero net time integral. Improved access to the switch is enabled by an aperture through the shorting plate and the proximity of the aperture to the switch.

  11. Paediatric short case examination.

    PubMed

    Isaacs, David

    2014-11-01

    The short case is a highly artificial scenario, in which the examination candidate is given little or no history and instructed to examine one system or one aspect of a patient and draw conclusions. Despite their artificiality, short cases test clinical skills which senior paediatricians value and consider essential qualities of a competent physician. This article presents some general suggestions on an approach to doing short case examinations.

  12. Shortness of Breath

    MedlinePlus

    Symptoms Shortness of breath By Mayo Clinic Staff Few sensations are as frightening as not being able to get enough air. Shortness of breath — known medically as dyspnea — is often described as an intense tightening in the chest, air hunger or a ...

  13. Reading and Teaching Irony in Poetry: Giving Short People a Reason To Live.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Michael W.

    Because so little research has been conducted on methods of teaching literature, two separate but related studies were conducted to (1) examine what it means to understand stable irony, and (2) to compare two methods, direct and tacit, of teaching stable irony. A 36-item test, comprised of questions about 7 ironic poems and 2 nonironic poems,…

  14. High Power Short Wavelength Laser Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-11-01

    Unlimited güä^äsjäsiiiüüü X NRTC-77-43R P I High Power Short Wavelength Laser Development November 1977 D. B. Cohn and W. B. Lacina...NO NRTC-77-43R, «. TITLE fana »uetjjitj BEFORE COMPLETING FORM CIPIENT’S CATALOO NUMBER KIGH.POWER SHORT WAVELENGTH LASER DEVELOPMENT , 7...fWhtn Data Enterte NRTC-77-43R HIGH POWER SHORT WAVELENGTH LASER DEVELOPMENT ARPA Order Number: Program Code Number: Contract Number: Principal

  15. Short pulse test set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1990-11-01

    This report discusses the construction and operation of the Short Pulse Test Set that has been built for the U.S. Army Missile Command for the purpose of applying short (25 to 100 nanosecond), high voltage pulses to electronic explosive devices (EEDs) in both the pin-to-pin and pins-to-case mode. The test set employs the short pulse generating techniques first described in the Franklin Institute Research Laboratories (now Franklin Research Center) Report I-C3410, 'Pins-to-Case Short Pulse Sensitivity Studies for the Atlas DC Switch', December 1974. This report, authored by Ramie H. Thompson, was prepared for Picatinny Arsenal under contract DAAA21-72C-0766. The test set described herein utilizes a computer controlled high speed digitizer to monitor the pulse voltage and current and provides software to process and display these data.

  16. Unsplit bipolar pulse forming line

    DOEpatents

    Rhodes, Mark A.

    2011-05-24

    A bipolar pulse forming transmission line module and system for linear induction accelerators having first, second, third, and fourth planar conductors which form a sequentially arranged interleaved stack having opposing first and second ends, with dielectric layers between the conductors. The first and second planar conductors are connected to each other at the first end, and the first and fourth planar conductors are connected to each other at the second end via a shorting plate. The third planar conductor is electrically connectable to a high voltage source, and an internal switch functions to short at the first end a high voltage from the third planar conductor to the fourth planar conductor to produce a bipolar pulse at the acceleration axis with a zero net time integral. Improved access to the switch is enabled by an aperture through the shorting plate and the proximity of the aperture to the switch.

  17. SHORT PULSE STRETCHER

    DOEpatents

    Branum, D.R.; Cummins, W.F.

    1962-12-01

    >A short pulse stretching circuit capable of stretching a short puise to enable it to be displayed on a relatively slow sweeping oscilloscope is described. Moreover, the duration of the pulse is increased by charging a capacitor through a diode and thereafter discharging the capacitor at such time as is desired. In the circuit the trigger pulse alone passes through a delay line, whereas the main signal passes through the diode only, and results in over-all circuit losses which are proportional to the low losses of the diode only. (AEC)

  18. Short wavelength FELS

    SciTech Connect

    Sheffield, R.L.

    1991-01-01

    The generation of coherent ultraviolet and shorter wavelength light is presently limited to synchrotron sources. The recent progress in the development of brighter electron beams enables the use of much lower energy electron rf linacs to reach short-wavelengths than previously considered possible. This paper will summarize the present results obtained with synchrotron sources, review proposed short- wavelength FEL designs and then present a new design which is capable of over an order of magnitude higher power to the extreme ultraviolet. 17 refs., 10 figs.

  19. Troubling Practices: Short Responses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Gary; Simic, Lena; Haley, David; Svendsen, Zoe; Neal, Lucy; Samba, Emelda Ngufor

    2012-01-01

    In this "RiDE" themed edition on environmentalism, some short pieces are chosen where practitioners describe their own specific environmental practices. Zoe Svendsen and Lucy Neal point to the positives in two commissioned works ("The Trashcatchers' Carnival" and "3rd Ring Out"), underlining the importance of…

  20. Short wavelength laser

    DOEpatents

    Hagelstein, P.L.

    1984-06-25

    A short wavelength laser is provided that is driven by conventional-laser pulses. A multiplicity of panels, mounted on substrates, are supported in two separated and alternately staggered facing and parallel arrays disposed along an approximately linear path. When the panels are illuminated by the conventional-laser pulses, single pass EUV or soft x-ray laser pulses are produced.

  1. "Short Courses Shouldn't Be Short-Lived!" Enhancing Longer-Term Impact of Short English as a Foreign Language INSET Initiatives in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yan, Chunmei; He, Chuanjun

    2015-01-01

    Short in-service teacher development (INSET) programmes have been globally used as a form of teacher development, but their impact has been under question. This study sought to examine teacher participants' perceptions of short INSET programmes to come up with better solutions to enhancing their effect on teachers' professional learning. A…

  2. Shapeable short circuit resistant capacitor

    DOEpatents

    Taylor, Ralph S.; Myers, John D.; Baney, William J.

    2015-10-06

    A ceramic short circuit resistant capacitor that is bendable and/or shapeable to provide a multiple layer capacitor that is extremely compact and amenable to desirable geometries. The capacitor that exhibits a benign failure mode in which a multitude of discrete failure events result in a gradual loss of capacitance. Each event is a localized event in which localized heating causes an adjacent portion of one or both of the electrodes to vaporize, physically cleaning away electrode material from the failure site. A first metal electrode, a second metal electrode, and a ceramic dielectric layer between the electrodes are thin enough to be formed in a serpentine-arrangement with gaps between the first electrode and the second electrode that allow venting of vaporized electrode material in the event of a benign failure.

  3. Short bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wilmore, D W; Robinson, M K

    2000-12-01

    The short bowel syndrome is a symptom complex that occurs in adults who have less than 200 cm of jejunum-ileum remaining after intestinal resection. Similar symptoms are observed in infants and children following massive bowel resection or congenital anomalies and in individuals with longer segments of intestine with severe mucosal disease. Initial care should focus on a thorough excision of nonviable bowel, an exact measurement of the remaining viable bowel, placing all intestine in continuity at the initial or subsequent operation, and controlling initial food intake. With time, adaptation of the remnant intestine occurs, and absorptive function may be maximized by enhancing the enteral diet and minimizing parenteral nutrition. Growth factors and specialized nutrients may also enhance this process. Intestinal transplantation should be considered in selected individuals with the short bowel syndrome who fail intestinal rehabilitation protocols.

  4. Short pulse neutron generator

    SciTech Connect

    Elizondo-Decanini, Juan M.

    2016-08-02

    Short pulse neutron generators are described herein. In a general embodiment, the short pulse neutron generator includes a Blumlein structure. The Blumlein structure includes a first conductive plate, a second conductive plate, a third conductive plate, at least one of an inductor or a resistor, a switch, and a dielectric material. The first conductive plate is positioned relative to the second conductive plate such that a gap separates these plates. A vacuum chamber is positioned in the gap, and an ion source is positioned to emit ions in the vacuum chamber. The third conductive plate is electrically grounded, and the switch is operable to electrically connect and disconnect the second conductive plate and the third conductive plate. The at least one of the resistor or the inductor is coupled to the first conductive plate and the second conductive plate.

  5. Short wavelength laser

    DOEpatents

    Hagelstein, Peter L.

    1986-01-01

    A short wavelength laser (28) is provided that is driven by conventional-laser pulses (30, 31). A multiplicity of panels (32), mounted on substrates (34), are supported in two separated and alternately staggered facing and parallel arrays disposed along an approximately linear path (42). When the panels (32) are illuminated by the conventional-laser pulses (30, 31), single pass EUV or soft x-ray laser pulses (44, 46) are produced.

  6. Short Pulse Laser Applications Design

    SciTech Connect

    Town, R J; Clark, D S; Kemp, A J; Lasinski, B F; Tabak, M

    2008-02-11

    We are applying our recently developed, LDRD-funded computational simulation tool to optimize and develop applications of Fast Ignition (FI) for stockpile stewardship. This report summarizes the work performed during a one-year exploratory research LDRD to develop FI point designs for the National Ignition Facility (NIF). These results were sufficiently encouraging to propose successfully a strategic initiative LDRD to design and perform the definitive FI experiment on the NIF. Ignition experiments on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) will begin in 2010 using the central hot spot (CHS) approach, which relies on the simultaneous compression and ignition of a spherical fuel capsule. Unlike this approach, the fast ignition (FI) method separates fuel compression from the ignition phase. In the compression phase, a laser such as NIF is used to implode a shell either directly, or by x rays generated from the hohlraum wall, to form a compact dense ({approx}300 g/cm{sup 3}) fuel mass with an areal density of {approx}3.0 g/cm{sup 2}. To ignite such a fuel assembly requires depositing {approx}20kJ into a {approx}35 {micro}m spot delivered in a short time compared to the fuel disassembly time ({approx}20ps). This energy is delivered during the ignition phase by relativistic electrons generated by the interaction of an ultra-short high-intensity laser. The main advantages of FI over the CHS approach are higher gain, a lower ignition threshold, and a relaxation of the stringent symmetry requirements required by the CHS approach. There is worldwide interest in FI and its associated science. Major experimental facilities are being constructed which will enable 'proof of principle' tests of FI in integrated subignition experiments, most notably the OMEGA-EP facility at the University of Rochester's Laboratory of Laser Energetics and the FIREX facility at Osaka University in Japan. Also, scientists in the European Union have recently proposed the construction of a new FI

  7. Short-Range Structure of Nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Higinbotham, Douglas W.

    2008-10-13

    The nucleons in a nucleus can form short-range correlated pairs. A recent Jefferson Lab electron scattering experiment, where a proton was knocked-out of the nucleus with high momentum transfer and high missing momentum, has shown that in {sup 12}C the neutron-proton pairs are nearly twenty times as prevalent as proton-proton pairs and, by inference, neutron-neutron pairs. This difference between the types of pairs has been shown to be due to the short-range tensor part of the nucleon-nucleon interaction.

  8. Theoretical models of synaptic short term plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Hennig, Matthias H.

    2013-01-01

    Short term plasticity is a highly abundant form of rapid, activity-dependent modulation of synaptic efficacy. A shared set of mechanisms can cause both depression and enhancement of the postsynaptic response at different synapses, with important consequences for information processing. Mathematical models have been extensively used to study the mechanisms and roles of short term plasticity. This review provides an overview of existing models and their biological basis, and of their main properties. Special attention will be given to slow processes such as calcium channel inactivation and the effect of activation of presynaptic autoreceptors. PMID:23626536

  9. Long-term assessment of health-related quality of life in patients with culture-confirmed early Lyme disease.

    PubMed

    Wormser, Gary P; Weitzner, Erica; McKenna, Donna; Nadelman, Robert B; Scavarda, Carol; Molla, Irida; Dornbush, Rhea; Visintainer, Paul; Nowakowski, John

    2015-07-15

    The health-related quality of life of 100 subjects with culture-confirmed early Lyme disease enrolled in a prospective study with annual follow-up visits was evaluated using the 36-Item Short Form General Health Survey version 2 (SF-36v2) questionnaire at 11-20 years after diagnosis. The mean summary scores of physical and mental health were similar to those of the general population.

  10. Densified waste form and method for forming

    DOEpatents

    Garino, Terry J.; Nenoff, Tina M.; Sava Gallis, Dorina Florentina

    2016-05-17

    Materials and methods of making densified waste forms for temperature sensitive waste material, such as nuclear waste, formed with low temperature processing using metallic powder that forms the matrix that encapsulates the temperature sensitive waste material. The densified waste form includes a temperature sensitive waste material in a physically densified matrix, the matrix is a compacted metallic powder. The method for forming the densified waste form includes mixing a metallic powder and a temperature sensitive waste material to form a waste form precursor. The waste form precursor is compacted with sufficient pressure to densify the waste precursor and encapsulate the temperature sensitive waste material in a physically densified matrix.

  11. Densified waste form and method for forming

    SciTech Connect

    Garino, Terry J.; Nenoff, Tina M.; Sava Gallis, Dorina Florentina

    2015-08-25

    Materials and methods of making densified waste forms for temperature sensitive waste material, such as nuclear waste, formed with low temperature processing using metallic powder that forms the matrix that encapsulates the temperature sensitive waste material. The densified waste form includes a temperature sensitive waste material in a physically densified matrix, the matrix is a compacted metallic powder. The method for forming the densified waste form includes mixing a metallic powder and a temperature sensitive waste material to form a waste form precursor. The waste form precursor is compacted with sufficient pressure to densify the waste precursor and encapsulate the temperature sensitive waste material in a physically densified matrix.

  12. A Short-Term Delivery Model for Counseling Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knott, J. Eugene

    The author discusses a short-term delivery model which forms the essential mode of operation at the counseling center at Rhode Island College. He prefaces his discription of the model by indicating that not all clients, problems or counselors are amenable to this short-term approach. There are three steps or elements in the delivery model: 1)…

  13. An integrable coupled short pulse equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Bao-Feng

    2012-03-01

    An integrable coupled short pulse (CSP) equation is proposed for the propagation of ultra-short pulses in optical fibers. Based on two sets of bilinear equations to a two-dimensional Toda lattice linked by a Bäcklund transformation, and an appropriate hodograph transformation, the proposed CSP equation is derived. Meanwhile, its N-soliton solutions are given by the Casorati determinant in a parametric form. The properties of one- and two-soliton solutions are investigated in detail. Same as the short pulse equation, the two-soliton solution turns out to be a breather type if the wave numbers are complex conjugate. We also illustrate an example of soliton-breather interaction.

  14. Scottish Short Stone Rows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruggles, Clive L. N.

    Short stone rows received a good deal of attention during the 1980s and 1990s, at a time when archaeoastronomy in prehistoric Britain and Ireland was moving beyond reassessments of Alexander Thom's "megalithic observatories" by identifying coherent groups of similar monuments with clear orientation trends. Many such rows are found in western Scotland, with the main concentration in Argyll and the island of Mull. Systematic analyses of their orientations produced credible evidence of an awareness of the 18.6-year lunar node cycle, within a "primary-secondary" pattern whereby isolated rows were oriented close to moonrise or moonset at the southern major standstill limit, while others oriented in this way were accompanied by a second row oriented in a declination range that could be interpreted either as lunar or solar. A detailed investigation of the landscape situation of the sites in northern Mull, accompanied by excavations at two of the sites, suggested that they were deliberately placed in locations where critical moonsets would be seen against prominent distant landscape features, but where the distant horizon in most or all other directions was hidden from view. A lack of independent archaeological evidence may help to explain why archaeoastronomical investigations at short stone rows have never progressed beyond "data-driven" studies of orientations and landscape situation. Nonetheless, the work that was done at these sites raised important general methodological issues, and pioneered techniques, that remain relevant across archaeoastronomy today.

  15. Short bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Donohoe, Claire L; Reynolds, John V

    2010-10-01

    The short bowel syndrome (SBS) is a state of malabsorption following intestinal resection where there is less than 200 cm of intestinal length. The management of short bowel syndrome can be challenging and is best managed by a specialised multidisciplinary team. A good understanding of the pathophysiological consequences of resection of different portions of the small intestine is necessary to anticipate and prevent, where possible, consequences of SBS. Nutrient absorption and fluid and electrolyte management in the initial stages are critical to stabilisation of the patient and to facilitate the process of adaptation. Pharmacological adjuncts to promote adaptation are in the early stages of development. Primary restoration of bowel continuity, if possible, is the principle mode of surgical treatment. Surgical procedures to increase the surface area of the small intestine or improve its function may be of benefit in experienced hands, particularly in the paediatric population. Intestinal transplant is indicated at present for patients who have failed to tolerate long-term parenteral nutrition but with increasing experience, there may be a potentially expanded role for its use in the future.

  16. Short-Lived Climate Pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierrehumbert, R. T.

    2014-05-01

    Although carbon dioxide emissions are by far the most important mediator of anthropogenic climate disruption, a number of shorter-lived substances with atmospheric lifetimes of under a few decades also contribute significantly to the radiative forcing that drives climate change. In recent years, the argument that early and aggressive mitigation of the emission of these substances or their precursors forms an essential part of any climate protection strategy has gained a considerable following. There is often an implication that such control can in some way make up for the current inaction on carbon dioxide emissions. The prime targets for mitigation, known collectively as short-lived climate pollution (SLCP), are methane, hydrofluo-rocarbons, black carbon, and ozone. A re-examination of the issues shows that the benefits of early SLCP mitigation have been greatly exaggerated, largely because of inadequacies in the methodologies used to compare the climate effects of short-lived substances with those of CO2, which causes nearly irreversible climate change persisting millennia after emissions cease. Eventual mitigation of SLCP can make a useful contribution to climate protection, but there is little to be gained by implementing SLCP mitigation before stringent carbon dioxide controls are in place and have caused annual emissions to approach zero. Any earlier implementation of SLCP mitigation that substitutes to any significant extent for carbon dioxide mitigation will lead to a climate irreversibly warmer than will a strategy with delayed SLCP mitigation. SLCP mitigation does not buy time for implementation of stringent controls on CO2 emissions.

  17. Cell short circuit, preshort signature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lurie, C.

    1980-01-01

    Short-circuit events observed in ground test simulations of DSCS-3 battery in-orbit operations are analyzed. Voltage signatures appearing in the data preceding the short-circuit event are evaluated. The ground test simulation is briefly described along with performance during reconditioning discharges. Results suggest that a characteristic signature develops prior to a shorting event.

  18. Short QT syndrome.

    PubMed

    Schimpf, Rainer; Wolpert, Christian; Gaita, Fiorenzo; Giustetto, Carla; Borggrefe, Martin

    2005-08-15

    The short QT syndrome constitutes a new clinical entity that is associated with a high incidence of sudden cardiac death, syncope, and/or atrial fibrillation even in young patients and newborns. Patients with this congenital electrical abnormality are characterized by rate-corrected QT intervals<320 ms. Missense mutations in KCNH2 (HERG) linked to a gain-of-function of the rapidly activating delayed-rectifier current I(Kr) have been identified in the first two reported families with familial sudden cardiac death. Recently, two further gain-of-function mutations in the KCNQ1 gene encoding the alpha-subunit of the KvLQT1 (I(Ks)) channel and in the KCNJ2 gene encoding the strong inwardly rectifying channel protein Kir2.1 confirmed a genetically heterogeneous disease. The possible substrate for the development of ventricular tachyarrhythmias may be a significant transmural dispersion of the repolarisation due to a heterogeneous abbreviation of the action potential duration. The implantable cardioverter defibrillator is the therapy of choice in patients with syncope and a positive family history of sudden cardiac death. However, ICD therapy in patients with a short QT syndrome has an increased risk for inappropriate shock therapies due to possible T wave oversensing. The impact of sotalol, ibutilide, flecainide, and quinidine on QT prolongation has been evaluated, but only quinidine effectively suppressed gain-of-function in I(Kr) with prolongation of the QT interval. In patients with a mutation in HERG, it rendered ventricular tachycardias/ventricular fibrillation non-inducible and restored the QT interval/heart rate relationship towards a normal range. It may serve as an adjunct to ICD therapy or as a possible alternative treatment, especially for children and newborns.

  19. Unlocking Short Read Sequencing for Metagenomics

    SciTech Connect

    Rodrigue, Sébastien; Materna, Arne C.; Timberlake, Sonia C.; Blackburn, Matthew C.; Malmstrom, Rex R.; Alm, Eric J.; Chisholm, Sallie W.; Gilbert, Jack Anthony

    2010-07-28

    We describe an experimental and computational pipeline yielding millions of reads that can exceed 200 bp with quality scores approaching that of traditional Sanger sequencing. The method combines an automatable gel-less library construction step with paired-end sequencing on a short-read instrument. With appropriately sized library inserts, mate-pair sequences can overlap, and we describe the SHERA software package that joins them to form a longer composite read.

  20. Short-wave Diathermy

    PubMed Central

    1935-01-01

    It is submitted that the thermal action of short-wave therapy does not account for the therapeutic results obtained. The theory is put forward that many of the results obtained can be better explained by the disruptive and dispersive action of the impact of the electromagnetic vibrations. An analogy, indicating such disruptive effects at high frequency, is drawn from the molecular vibrations—transmitted through transformer oil, and excited by the application of high frequency currents to the layers of quartz in the piezo-electric oscillator of quartz. It is submitted that these disruptive and dispersive effects will be greatest where the conductivity of the tissues is low, such as in bones and fat, and it is shown that it is in these regions that the therapeutic action of these currents is most obvious. It is also pointed out that, if effects, comparable to those obtained in the subcutaneous area, are obtained in the deeper tissues and organs, the application of deep-wave therapy would be attended by serious risk. PMID:19990107

  1. Careers (A Course of Study). Unit V: Forms, Forms, Forms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turley, Kay

    Designed to enable special needs students to understand and complete various job-related forms, this set of activities devoted to forms encountered before and after one obtains a job is the fifth in a nine-unit secondary level careers course intended to provide handicapped students with the knowledge and tools necessary to succeed in the world of…

  2. Elevated temperature envelope forming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burg, Bruce M. (Inventor); Gane, David H. (Inventor); Starowski, Robert M. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    Elevated temperature envelope forming includes enclosing a part blank and form tool within an envelope sealed against the atmosphere, heat treating the combination while forming pressure holds the envelope and part against the form tool, and allowing part cool down to occur in an inert atmosphere with forming pressure removed. The forming pressure is provided by evacuating the envelope and may be aided by differential force applied between the envelope and the form tool.

  3. Transient nanobubbles in short-time electrolysis.

    PubMed

    Svetovoy, Vitaly B; Sanders, Remco G P; Elwenspoek, Miko C

    2013-05-08

    Water electrolysis in a microsystem is observed and analyzed on a short-time scale of ∼10 μs. The very unusual properties of the process are stressed. An extremely high current density is observed because the process is not limited by the diffusion of electroactive species. The high current is accompanied by a high relative supersaturation, S > 1000, that results in homogeneous nucleation of bubbles. On the short-time scale only nanobubbles can be formed. These nanobubbles densely cover the electrodes and aggregate at a later time to microbubbles. The effect is significantly intensified with a small increase of temperature. Application of alternating polarity voltage pulses produces bubbles containing a mixture of hydrogen and oxygen. Spontaneous reaction between gases is observed for stoichiometric bubbles with sizes smaller than ∼150 nm. Such bubbles disintegrate violently affecting the surfaces of the electrodes.

  4. Short Stories in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Carole L., Ed.; Kratzke, Peter, Ed.

    Examining how teachers help students respond to short fiction, this book presents 25 essays that look closely at "teachable" short stories by a diverse group of classic and contemporary writers. The approaches shared by the contributors move from readers' first personal connections to a story, through a growing facility with the structure of…

  5. The effect of multiple encounters on short period comet orbits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowrey, B. E.

    1972-01-01

    The observed orbital elements of short period comets are found to be consistent with the hypothesis of derivation from long period comets as long as two assumptions are made. First, the distribution of short period comets has been randomized by multiple encounters with Jupiter and second, the short period comets have lower velocities of encounter with Jupiter than is generally expected. Some 16% of the observed short period comets have lower encounter velocities than is allowed mathematically using Laplace's method. This may be due to double encounter processes with Jupiter and Saturn, or as a result of prolonged encounters. The distribution of unobservable short period comets can be inferred in part from the observed comets. Many have orbits between Jupiter and Saturn with somewhat higher inclinations than those with perihelions near the earth. Debris from those comets may form the major component of the zodiacal dust.

  6. Short-pulse laser interactions with disordered materials and liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Phinney, L.M.; Goldman, C.H.; Longtin, J.P.; Tien, C.L.

    1995-12-31

    High-power, short-pulse lasers in the picosecond and subpicosecond range are utilized in an increasing number of technologies, including materials processing and diagnostics, micro-electronics and devices, and medicine. In these applications, the short-pulse radiation interacts with a wide range of media encompassing disordered materials and liquids. Examples of disordered materials include porous media, polymers, organic tissues, and amorphous forms of silicon, silicon nitride, and silicon dioxide. In order to accurately model, efficiently control, and optimize short-pulse, laser-material interactions, a thorough understanding of the energy transport mechanisms is necessary. Thus, fractals and percolation theory are used to analyze the anomalous diffusion regime in random media. In liquids, the thermal aspects of saturable and multiphoton absorption are examined. Finally, a novel application of short-pulse laser radiation to reduce surface adhesion forces in microstructures through short-pulse laser-induced water desorption is presented.

  7. The Tuckman Teacher Feedback Form (TTFF)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuckman, Bruce W.

    1976-01-01

    The Tuckman Teacher Feedback Form is a short, 28-item semantic differential which generates four scores, based on a factor structure described by Tuckman (1974), in the areas of creativity, dynamism (energy plus dominance), organized demeaner (organization plus control), and warmth and acceptance. (Author/MV)

  8. In the Shortness of a Breath...Haiku And Nature Interpretation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabauer, George

    1985-01-01

    Defines the form, subject, structure, language, and feeling of haiku, a Japanes verse form in which a short poem captures the essence of natural events. Provides guidelines for using haiku in nature education. (LFL)

  9. Genetic Evaluation of Short Stature

    PubMed Central

    Rosenfeld, Ron G.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Genetics plays a major role in determining an individual's height. Although there are many monogenic disorders that lead to perturbations in growth and result in short stature, there is still no consensus as to the role that genetic diagnostics should play in the evaluation of a child with short stature. Evidence Acquisition: A search of PubMed was performed, focusing on the genetic diagnosis of short stature as well as on specific diagnostic subgroups included in this article. Consensus guidelines were reviewed. Evidence Synthesis: There are a multitude of rare genetic causes of severe short stature. There is no high-quality evidence to define the optimal approach to the genetic evaluation of short stature. We review genetic etiologies of a number of diagnostic subgroups and propose an algorithm for genetic testing based on these subgroups. Conclusion: Advances in genomic technologies are revolutionizing the diagnostic approach to short stature. Endocrinologists must become facile with the use of genetic testing in order to identify the various monogenic disorders that present with short stature. PMID:24915122

  10. Form 5-Mining venture agreement model form

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    This text acts as a reference of the basic terms and conditions for a negotiated mining venture agreement. Alternative clauses and provisions, along with extensive commentary, are supplied. The model form contains many articles which define and detail the process.

  11. Bacteria form tellurium nanocrystals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oremland, R.S.

    2007-01-01

    A team of researchers have found two bacterial species that produce tellurium oxyanions as respiratory electron acceptors for growth, leaving elemental tellurium in the form of nanoparticles. The crystals from the two organisms exhibit distinctively different structures. Bacillus selenitireducens initially forms nanorods that cluster together to form rosettes. Sulfurospirillum barnesii forms irregularly-shaped nanospheres that coalesce into larger composite aggregates.

  12. Handbook of Poetic Forms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padgett, Ron, Ed.

    Intended for secondary teachers and student writers but useful for anyone interested in poetic forms, this book defines 74 basic poetic forms, summarizes their histories, quotes examples from noted poets, and offers professional tricks of the trade on how to use each form. The book covers the following poetic forms: abstract poem, acrostic,…

  13. Narrow resonances and short-range interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelman, Boris A.

    2009-09-01

    Narrow resonances in systems with short-range interactions are discussed in an effective field theory (EFT) framework. An effective Lagrangian is formulated in the form of a combined expansion in powers of a momentum Q≪Λ—a short-distance scale—and an energy difference δɛ=|E-ɛ0|≪ɛ0—a resonance peak energy. At leading order in the combined expansion, a two-body scattering amplitude is the sum of a smooth background term of order Q0 and a Breit-Wigner term of order Q2(δɛ)-1 which becomes dominant for δɛ≲Q3. Such an EFT is applicable to systems in which short-distance dynamics generates a low-lying quasistationary state. The EFT is generalized to describe a narrow low-lying resonance in a system of charged particles. It is shown that in the case of Coulomb repulsion, a two-body scattering amplitude at leading order in a combined expansion is the sum of a Coulomb-modified background term and a Breit-Wigner amplitude with parameters renormalized by Coulomb interactions.

  14. The Long and the Short of It

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    Gamma-Ray bursts, the extreme explosions that mark the birth of black holes, come in two flavors, long bursts lasting a few seconds or more, and short bursts lasting for less than a second. The mechanisms giving rise to these two types of bursts were, for a long time, unknown to astronomers. But a series of breakthroughs starting with BeppoSAX, HETE, and Swift gave astronomers some clues and confidence about the nature of long and short bursts. Long bursts mark the collapse of a young, extremely massive star into a black hole; short bursts mark the formation of a black hole by a merger of neutron stars (or perhaps a neutron star with a black hole to form a larger black hole). But a new observation has clouded this clear dichotomy. The picture above is an X-ray image of a gamma-ray burst, GRB 060614, taken by Swift's X-ray Telescope. This burst lasted more than 100 seconds, clearly showing that it's a long burst. But follow-up observations of the burst did not show the tell-tale signatures of a supernova explosion which should be produced by the collapse of a large star. Furthermore this burst occurred in a galaxy which has very few extremely massive stars. Does this hybrid burst represent an entirely new mechanism behind these titanic explosions? The hunt is on.

  15. Narrow resonances and short-range interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Gelman, Boris A.

    2009-09-15

    Narrow resonances in systems with short-range interactions are discussed in an effective field theory (EFT) framework. An effective Lagrangian is formulated in the form of a combined expansion in powers of a momentum Q<<{lambda}--a short-distance scale--and an energy difference {delta}{epsilon}=|E-{epsilon}{sub 0}|<<{epsilon}{sub 0}--a resonance peak energy. At leading order in the combined expansion, a two-body scattering amplitude is the sum of a smooth background term of order Q{sup 0} and a Breit-Wigner term of order Q{sup 2}({delta}{epsilon}){sup -1} which becomes dominant for {delta}{epsilon} < or approx. Q{sup 3}. Such an EFT is applicable to systems in which short-distance dynamics generates a low-lying quasistationary state. The EFT is generalized to describe a narrow low-lying resonance in a system of charged particles. It is shown that in the case of Coulomb repulsion, a two-body scattering amplitude at leading order in a combined expansion is the sum of a Coulomb-modified background term and a Breit-Wigner amplitude with parameters renormalized by Coulomb interactions.

  16. Dechirper wakefields for short bunches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bane, Karl; Stupakov, Gennady

    2016-06-01

    In previous work (Bane and Stupakov, 2015 [1]) general expressions, valid for arbitrary bunch lengths, were derived for the wakefields of corrugated structures with flat geometry, such as is used in the RadiaBeam/LCLS dechirper. However, the bunch at the end of linac-based X-ray FELs-like the LCLS-is extremely short, and for short bunches the wakes can be considerably simplified. In this work, we first derive analytical approximations to the short-range wakes. These are generalized wakes, in the sense that their validity is not limited to a small neighborhood of the symmetry axis, but rather extends to arbitrary transverse offsets of driving and test particles. The validity of these short-bunch wakes holds not only for the corrugated structure, but rather for any flat structure whose beam-cavity interaction can be described by a surface impedance. We use these wakes to obtain, for a short bunch passing through a dechirper: estimates of the energy loss as function of gap, the transverse kick as a function of beam offset, the slice energy spread increase, and the emittance growth. In the Appendix, a more accurate derivation-than that is found in Bane and Stupakov (2015) [1]-of the arbitrary bunch length wakes is performed; we find full agreement with the earlier results, provided the bunches are short compared to the dechirper gap, which is normally the regime of interest.

  17. Magnet Coil Shorted Turn Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Dinkel, J.A.; Biggs, J.E.

    1994-03-01

    The Magnet Coil Shorted Turn Detector has been developed to facilitate the location of shorted turns in magnet coils. Finding these shorted turns is necessary to determine failure modes that are a necessary step in developing future production techniques. Up to this point, coils with shorted turns had the insulation burned off without the fault having been located. This disassembly process destroyed any chance of being able to find the fault. In order to maintain a flux balance in a coupled system such as a magnet coil, the current in a shorted turn must be opposed to the incident current. If the direction of the current in each conductor can be measured relative to the incident current, then the exact location of the short can be determined. In this device, an AC voltage is applied to the magnet under test. A small hand held B-dot pickup coil monitors the magnetic field produced by current in the individual magnet conductors. The relative phase of this pickup coil voltage is compared to a reference signal derived from the input current to detect a current reversal as the B-dot pickup coil is swept over the conductors of the coil under test. This technique however, is limited to only those conductors that are accessible to the hand held probe.

  18. Forms and functions of human SDR enzymes.

    PubMed

    Oppermann, U C; Filling, C; Jörnvall, H

    2001-01-30

    Short-chain dehydrogenases/reductases (SDR) are defined by distinct, common sequence motifs but constitute a functionally heterogenous superfamily of enzymes. At present, well over 1600 members from all forms of life are annotated in databases. Using the defined sequence motifs as queries, 37 distinct human members of the SDR family can be retrieved. The functional assignments of these forms fall minimally into three main groups, enzymes involved in intermediary metabolism, enzymes participating in lipid hormone and mediator metabolism, and open reading frames (ORFs) of yet undeciphered function. This overview, prepared just before completion of the human genome project, gives the different human SDR forms and relates them to human diseases.

  19. RY 2004 Reporting Forms

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The TRI reporting forms on this page are for reference only. Do not submit these forms to EPA. All facilities are required to submit their TRI data electronically using the TRI-MEweb application, per the TRI Electronic Reporting Rule.

  20. RY 2009 Reporting Forms

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The TRI reporting forms on this page are for reference only. Do not submit these forms to EPA. All facilities are required to submit their TRI data electronically using the TRI-MEweb application, per the TRI Electronic Reporting Rule.

  1. RY 2003 Reporting Forms

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The TRI reporting forms on this page are for reference only. Do not submit these forms to EPA. All facilities are required to submit their TRI data electronically using the TRI-MEweb application, per the TRI Electronic Reporting Rule.

  2. Forms of Arthritis

    MedlinePlus

    ... stiffness, inflammation, swelling and, sometimes, destruction of joints. Gout — a form of arthritis that occurs when uric ... the joints. Some 2.1 million Americans have gout. Lupus — a form of arthritis, like rheumatoid arthritis, ...

  3. Method for forming ammonia

    DOEpatents

    Kong, Peter C.; Pink, Robert J.; Zuck, Larry D.

    2008-08-19

    A method for forming ammonia is disclosed and which includes the steps of forming a plasma; providing a source of metal particles, and supplying the metal particles to the plasma to form metal nitride particles; and providing a substance, and reacting the metal nitride particles with the substance to produce ammonia, and an oxide byproduct.

  4. Forms in Space.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Paula

    1998-01-01

    Uses the work of M. C. Escher to instruct upper elementary students in the transformation of flat shape into three-dimensional form. Outlines the lesson as a series of sections: (1) reviewing form drawing; (2) creating three-dimensional effects; (3) imagining the forms in an inhabited world; and (4) using color and shading. (DSK)

  5. Methods of forming steel

    DOEpatents

    Branagan, Daniel J.; Burch, Joseph V.

    2001-01-01

    In one aspect, the invention encompasses a method of forming a steel. A metallic glass is formed and at least a portion of the glass is converted to a crystalline steel material having a nanocrystalline scale grain size. In another aspect, the invention encompasses another method of forming a steel. A molten alloy is formed and cooled the alloy at a rate which forms a metallic glass. The metallic glass is devitrified to convert the glass to a crystalline steel material having a nanocrystalline scale grain size. In yet another aspect, the invention encompasses another method of forming a steel. A first metallic glass steel substrate is provided, and a molten alloy is formed over the first metallic glass steel substrate to heat and devitrify at least some of the underlying metallic glass of the substrate.

  6. Short-range Fundamental forces

    SciTech Connect

    Antoniadis, I; Baessler, Stefan; Buechner, M; Fedorov, General Victor; Hoedl, S.; Lambrecht, A; Nesvizhevsky, V.; Pignol, G; Reynaud, S.; Sobolev, Yu.

    2011-01-01

    We consider theoretical motivations to search for extra short-range fundamental forces as well as experiments constraining their parameters. The forces could be of two types: (1) spin-independent forces; and (2) spin-dependent axion-like forces. Different experimental techniques are sensitive in respective ranges of characteristic distances. The techniques include measurements of gravity at short distances, searches for extra interactions on top of the Casimir force, precision atomic and neutron experiments. We focus on neutron constraints, thus the range of characteristic distances considered here corresponds to the range accessible for neutron experiments.

  7. Long Swarms and Short Swarms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNutt, S. R.

    2011-12-01

    Many earthquake swarms at volcanoes last several months, then have a sharp uptick in rate in the hours before eruption. Examples include 2006 Augustine, 8.5 months then 10 hours; 1992 Spurr, 10 months then 4 hours; 1994 Rabaul, ~1 year then 27 hours; 2008 Kasatochi, 6 weeks then 2 days; and 2011 Puyuehue Cordon Caulle, 5 weeks then 2 days. For the well studied Augustine case, broadband data showed that very long period (VLP) energy accompanied 221 of 722 located earthquakes in the 10 hours before the first explosive eruption on 11 January 2006. This was revealed by low-pass filtering and the period of the VLP signal was 50 sec. The Augustine broadband stations were campaign instruments at distances of 2-3 km from the vent. No similar VLP energy has been found in events during the 8.5 month long swarm. Okmok volcano had a short swarm only lasting 5 hours prior to its 12 July 2008 eruption. Low-pass filtering of data from broadband station OKSO, 10 km from the vent, showed that 23 of 42 located events had VLP energy with a period of 30-40 sec. Events from Kasatochi volcano were scanned on station ATKA. Here the broadband station is much farther away at 88 km but the earthquakes in the short swarm 7 August 2008 were much larger with many M>3 events. The station suffered data gaps so only a few hours of data were scanned but numerous events were observed with VLP energy starting just after the P phase. Low-pass filtering showed VLP energy with a period of 10-12 sec. No VLP energy has been found in events of the preceding 6 week long swarm. These observations at three different volcanoes suggest that the short swarms represent a different process than the long swarms. The long swarms likely reflect pressure increases in the surrounding country rock caused by increasing magma pressure. The short swarms in contrast, appear to represent discrete pulses of magma injection at shallow depths. For all three volcanoes the earthquakes looked like typical volcano-tectonic (VT

  8. Ultra-short ion and neutron pulse production

    DOEpatents

    Leung, Ka-Ngo; Barletta, William A.; Kwan, Joe W.

    2006-01-10

    An ion source has an extraction system configured to produce ultra-short ion pulses, i.e. pulses with pulse width of about 1 .mu.s or less, and a neutron source based on the ion source produces correspondingly ultra-short neutron pulses. To form a neutron source, a neutron generating target is positioned to receive an accelerated extracted ion beam from the ion source. To produce the ultra-short ion or neutron pulses, the apertures in the extraction system of the ion source are suitably sized to prevent ion leakage, the electrodes are suitably spaced, and the extraction voltage is controlled. The ion beam current leaving the source is regulated by applying ultra-short voltage pulses of a suitable voltage on the extraction electrode.

  9. Short-term energy outlook

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-11-07

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) presents future scenarios of quarterly short-term energy supply, demand, and prices for publication in February, May, August, and November in the Short-Term Energy Outlook (Outlook). An annual supplement analyzes previous estimate errors, compares recent scenarios with those of other forecasting services, and discusses current topics of the short-term energy markets. (See Short-Term Energy Outlook: Annual Supplement, DOE/EIA-0202.) The principal users of the Outlook are managers and energy analysts in private industry and government. The scenario period for this issue of the Outlook extends from the fourth quarter of 1990 through the fourth quarter of 1991. Some data for the third quarter of 1990 are preliminary EIA estimates of actual data (for example, some petroleum estimates are based on statistics from the Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are derived from internal model simulations using the latest exogenous information available (for example, some electricity demand estimates are based on recent weather data). 11 figs., 13 tabs.

  10. Pick of the (Short) Flicks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaughlin, Frank, Ed.

    1967-01-01

    Five experts suggest a list of 50 short motion pictures which are inexpensive and fit easily within a normal class period. These films, not narrowly related to specific disciplines, range from visual poems inducing creative responses, to films analyzing the problems of maturing in an irrelevant society. Twenty of the film entries have annotations…

  11. Development of Short Versions for the WHOQOL-OLD Module

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fang, Jiqian; Power, Mick; Lin, Yueqing; Zhang, Jinxin; Hao, Yuantao; Chatterji, Somnath

    2012-01-01

    Purpose of the study: To explore short-form versions of World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL-OLD) with acceptable psychometric properties, which was developed for older adults by the WHOQOL research group, containing 24 items initially. Design and Methods: We randomly sampled two-thirds of respondents from the data of WHOQOL-OLD field…

  12. SHORT STORIES. LITERATURE CURRICULUM IV, REVISED TEACHER AND STUDENT VERSIONS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KITZHABER, ALBERT R.

    THE INTERRELATIONSHIP OF SUBJECT, FORM, AND POINT OF VIEW, WITH EMPHASIS ON THE LAST, IS THE CONCERN OF THIS 10TH-GRADE LITERATURE UNIT. BACKGROUND INFORMATION, STUDY AND DISCUSSION QUESTIONS, AND SUGGESTED ACTIVITIES AND WRITING ASSIGNMENTS ARE PROVIDED FOR SIX SHORT STORIES REPRESENTING VARIED POINTS OF VIEW--(1) H.G. WELLS'"THE COUNTRY OF…

  13. A Short Analysis of the Nature of Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Feng

    2010-01-01

    This paper gives a short analysis of the nature of reading. Though it is generally believed that reading involves perceiving the written form of language, the term reading has not been clearly defined up to date. It is possible to see reading as a process, or to examine the product of that process. Three reading models, namely Bottom-up Model,…

  14. A Single Brief Burst Induces GluR1-Dependent Associative Short-Term Potentiation: A Potential Mechanism for Short-Term Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erickson, Martha A.; Maramara, Lauren A.; Lisman, John

    2010-01-01

    Recent work showed that short-term memory (STM) is selectively reduced in GluR1 knockout mice. This raises the possibility that a form of synaptic modification dependent on GluR1 might underlie STM. Studies of synaptic plasticity have shown that stimuli too weak to induce long-term potentiation induce short-term potentiation (STP), a phenomenon…

  15. Crystal forms of naproxen.

    PubMed

    Song, Jung-Soon; Sohn, Young-Taek

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this work was to investigate the existence of polymorphs and pseudopolymorphs of naproxen and the transformation of crystal forms. Four crystal forms of naproxen have been isolated by recrystallization and characterized by differential scanning calorimetry, powder X-ray diffractometry and thermogravimetric analysis. The differential scanning calorimetry and powder X-ray diffractometry patterns of the four crystal forms were different respectively. In the dissolution studies in pH 6.8 ± 0.05 buffer equilibrated at 37 ± 0.5°C, the solubility of four crystal forms was similar (within the error range). After storage of 1 month at 0% RH (silica gel, 20°C), 52% RH (saturated solution of Na(2)Cr(2)O(7.2)H(2)O/20°C) and 95% RH (saturated solution of Na(2)HPO(4)/20°C), Form 2 and Form 4 were transformed to Form 1, but Form 3 and Form 1 were not transformed and they were shown to have a good physical stability at room temperature for 1 month.

  16. "Short, Hard Gamma-Ray Bursts - Mystery Solved?????"

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parsons, A.

    2006-01-01

    After over a decade of speculation about the nature of short-duration hard-spectrum gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), the recent detection of afterglow emission from a small number of short bursts has provided the first physical constraints on possible progenitor models. While the discovery of afterglow emission from long GRBs was a real breakthrough linking their origin to star forming galaxies, and hence the death of massive stars, the progenitors, energetics, and environments for short gamma-ray burst events remain elusive despite a few recent localizations. Thus far, the nature of the host galaxies measured indicates that short GRBs arise from an old (> 1 Gyr) stellar population, strengthening earlier suggestions and providing support for coalescing compact object binaries as the progenitors. On the other hand, some of the short burst afterglow observations cannot be easily explained in the coalescence scenario. These observations raise the possibility that short GRBs may have different or multiple progenitors systems. The study of the short-hard GRB afterglows has been made possible by the Swift Gamma-ray Burst Explorer, launched in November of 2004. Swift is equipped with a coded aperture gamma-ray telescope that can observe up to 2 steradians of the sky and can compute the position of a gamma-ray burst to within 2-3 arcmin in less than 10 seconds. The Swift spacecraft can slew on to this burst position without human intervention, allowing its on-board x ray and optical telescopes to study the afterglow within 2 minutes of the original GRB trigger. More Swift short burst detections and afterglow measurements are needed before we can declare that the mystery of short gamma-ray burst is solved.

  17. Method of forming nanodielectrics

    DOEpatents

    Tuncer, Enis [Knoxville, TN; Polyzos, Georgios [Oak Ridge, TN

    2014-01-07

    A method of making a nanoparticle filled dielectric material. The method includes mixing nanoparticle precursors with a polymer material and reacting the nanoparticle mixed with the polymer material to form nanoparticles dispersed within the polymer material to form a dielectric composite.

  18. The "Energy" of Form.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blankenship, Jane; Sweeney, Barbara

    1980-01-01

    Examines three types of "energy" of form as form relates to content: "dynamos," potential energy; "energeia," that energy which sustains movement toward an end; and "ergon," that energy which is associated with perfected habit. Uses some examples from contemporary political rhetoric to illustrate this analysis. (JMF)

  19. Method for forming materials

    DOEpatents

    Tolle, Charles R.; Clark, Denis E.; Smartt, Herschel B.; Miller, Karen S.

    2009-10-06

    A material-forming tool and a method for forming a material are described including a shank portion; a shoulder portion that releasably engages the shank portion; a pin that releasably engages the shoulder portion, wherein the pin defines a passageway; and a source of a material coupled in material flowing relation relative to the pin and wherein the material-forming tool is utilized in methodology that includes providing a first material; providing a second material, and placing the second material into contact with the first material; and locally plastically deforming the first material with the material-forming tool so as mix the first material and second material together to form a resulting material having characteristics different from the respective first and second materials.

  20. Origin of Short-Perihelion Comets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guliyev, A. S.

    2011-01-01

    New regularities for short-perihelion comets are found. Distant nodes of cometary orbits of Kreutz family are concentrated in a plane with ascending node 76 and inclination 267 at the distance from 2 up to 3 a.u. and in a very narrow interval of longitudes. There is a correlation dependence between q and cos I concerning the found plane (coefficient of correlation 0.41). Similar results are received regarding to cometary families of Meyer, Kracht and Marsden. Distant nodes of these comets are concentrated close three planes (their parameters are discussed in the article) and at distances 1.4; 0.5; 6 a.u. accordingly. It is concluded that these comet groups were formed as a result of collision of parent bodies with meteoric streams. One more group, consisting of 7 comets is identified. 5 comet pairs are selected among sungrazers.

  1. Brain Connectivity Analysis: A Short Survey

    PubMed Central

    Lang, E. W.; Tomé, A. M.; Keck, I. R.; Górriz-Sáez, J. M.; Puntonet, C. G.

    2012-01-01

    This short survey the reviews recent literature on brain connectivity studies. It encompasses all forms of static and dynamic connectivity whether anatomical, functional, or effective. The last decade has seen an ever increasing number of studies devoted to deduce functional or effective connectivity, mostly from functional neuroimaging experiments. Resting state conditions have become a dominant experimental paradigm, and a number of resting state networks, among them the prominent default mode network, have been identified. Graphical models represent a convenient vehicle to formalize experimental findings and to closely and quantitatively characterize the various networks identified. Underlying these abstract concepts are anatomical networks, the so-called connectome, which can be investigated by functional imaging techniques as well. Future studies have to bridge the gap between anatomical neuronal connections and related functional or effective connectivities. PMID:23097663

  2. Short range effective potentials for ionic fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, J. H. R.; Smith, W.; Woodcock, L. V.

    1986-02-01

    It is shown that the structure of a simple ionic liquid, potassium chloride, can be reproduced in computer simulations using short range effective pair (SHREP) potentials of a simple form. Aside from the balance between like and unlike particle interactions, the important parameters determining the structure are the depth ɛ and the position r0 of the unlike particle pair energy minimum. The results demonstrate that the long range ordering characteristic of ionic liquids is not a consequence of the long range of Coulomb interactions. It is further shown that first order perturbation theory can be used accurately to calculate the thermodynamic properties of an ionic liquid from a corresponding reference liquid generated using a SHREP potential. These results can be generalized to explain deviations from the Reiss-Mayer-Katz corresponding states law for alkali halides and suggest an alternative scheme, effective depth reduction (EDR), based on values of ɛ for the gas phase ion pairs.

  3. Geometrical and FEA study on Millipede Forming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Lingran; Tang, Di; Ding, Shichao; Zhang, Yuankun

    2013-12-01

    Millipede Forming is an innovative sheet metal forming approach that has been proposed and developed in Australia. U-channels, Z-channels or tubular products can be made by Millipede Forming. While a strip moves through an optimal transitional surface between the entry to exit of a forming stand, the redundant longitudinal membrane strain can be significantly reduced compared to the conventional roll forming, which is the essential principle to obtaining high quality products. The incremental forming process studied has demonstrated major advantages on space efficiency, power consumption and materials sensitivities. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of main geometrical parameters and their optimization, in order to minimize the redundant longitudinal strains into elastic to avoid the redundant plastic deformations at flange during forming. In this study, a mild-steel U-channel sample with 10 mm flange width, fabricated by Millipede Forming in a forming length of 200 mm has been studied. Theoretical longitudinal membrane strains at profile's edge of different transitional surfaces and downhill pass are also analyzed. The results showed that obtaining an optimal transitional surface is essential and necessary in controlling the peak longitudinal strain to an acceptable amount and that by increasing downhill pass, longitudinal strain can be significantly reduced. The optimized transitional surface and downhill pass flow were simulated by Abaqus, and the peak longitudinal strain was finally less than 0.2% through a very short forming length of 200 mm. The results prove that Millipede Forming can achieve a better product quality in a much shorter forming distance than conventional roll forming.

  4. Syndromic Disorders with Short Stature

    PubMed Central

    Şıklar, Zeynep; Berberoğlu, Merih

    2014-01-01

    Short stature is one of the major components of many dysmorphic syndromes. Growth failure may be due to a wide variety of mechanisms, either related to the growth hormone (GH)/insulin-like growth factor axis or to underlying unknown pathologies. In this review, the relatively more frequently seen syndromes with short stature (Noonan syndrome, Prader-Willi syndrome, Silver-Russell syndrome and Aarskog-Scott syndrome) were discussed. These disorders are associated with a number of endocrinopathies, as well as with developmental, systemic and behavioral issues. At present, GH therapy is used in most syndromic disorders, although long-term studies evaluating this treatment are insufficient and some controversies exist with regard to GH dose, optimal age to begin therapy and adverse effects. Before starting GH treatment, patients with syndromic disorders should be evaluated extensively. PMID:24637303

  5. [Australian short-beaked echidna].

    PubMed

    Rismiller, P

    1995-12-01

    The Australian short-beaked echidna, a monotreme, is one of the oldest living mammals on earth. It is recorded to be the most widely distributed native mammal on the island continent and classed as 'common'. Yet, little is known about its natural history and biology in the wild. What science has learned about the echidna in the past 200 years and why there are still large gaps is reported here.

  6. Deeper look into short strings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gromov, Nikolay; Valatka, Saulius

    2012-03-01

    Using a recent conjecture of Basso we compute three leading nontrivial coefficients in the strong coupling expansion of the anomalous dimensions of short operators in the [InlineMediaObject not available: see fulltext.] sector of AdS/CFT. We show that our results are consistent with the numerical results obtained using the Y-system and TBA approach earlier thus providing further support to the Y-system conjecture.

  7. (Short articles on energy conservation)

    SciTech Connect

    Hodges, L.

    1985-01-01

    The following short articles are reprinted after being published in the Tri-County Times, Slater, Iowa, by Laurent Hodges of the Iowa State University Energy Extension Service: water power; small hydroelectric plants; condensation problems (three parts); energy quiz and answers; the airtight drywall approach; benefits of natural lighting; energy and Iowa's building code; heating, water heating and cooling costs in Iowa; the cost of keeping cool; and reducing the cost of keeping cool. (DLC)

  8. Spin forming development

    SciTech Connect

    Gates, W.G.

    1982-05-01

    Bendix product applications require the capability of fabricating heavy gage, high strength materials. Five commercial sources have been identified that have the capability of spin forming metal thicknesses greater than 9.5 mm and four equiment manufacturers produce machines with this capability. Twelve assemblies selected as candidates for spin forming applications require spin forming of titanium, 250 maraging steel, 17-4 pH stainless steel, Nitronic 40 steel, 304 L stainless steel, and 6061 aluminum. Twelve parts have been cold spin formed from a 250 maraging steel 8.1 mm wall thickness machine preform, and six have been hot spin formed directly from 31.8-mm-thick flat plate. Thirty-three Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy parts and 26 17-4 pH stainless steel parts have been hot spin formed directly from 31.8-mm-thick plate. Hot spin forming directly from plate has demonstrated the feasibility and favorable economics of this fabrication technique for Bendix applications.

  9. Tilt changes of short duration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McHugh, Stuart

    1976-01-01

    Section I of this report contains a classification scheme for short period tilt data. For convenience, all fluctuations in the local tilt field of less than 24 hours duration will be designated SP (i.e., short period) tilt events. Three basic categories of waveshape appearance are defined, and the rules for naming the waveforms are outlined. Examples from tilt observations at four central California sites are provided. Section II contains some coseismic tilt data. Fourteen earthquakes in central California, ranging in magnitude from 2.9 to 5.2, were chosen for study on four tiltmeters within 10 source dimensions of the epicenters. The raw records from each of the four tiltmeters at the times of the earthquakes were photographed and are presented in this section. Section III contains documentation of computer programs used in the analysis of the short period tilt data. Program VECTOR computes the difference vector of a tilt event and displays the sequence of events as a head-to-tail vector plot. Program ONSTSP 1) requires two component digitized tilt data as input, 2) scales and plots the data, and 3) computes and displays the amplitude, azimuth, and normalized derivative of the tilt amplitude. Program SHARPS computes the onset sharpness, (i.e., the normalized derivative of the tilt amplitude at the onset of the tilt event) as a function of source-station distance from a model of creep-related tilt changes. Program DSPLAY plots the digitized data.

  10. Orogeny can be very short

    PubMed Central

    Dewey, John F.

    2005-01-01

    In contrast to continent/continent collision, arc–continent collision generates very short-lived orogeny because the buoyancy-driven impedance of the subduction of continental lithosphere, accompanied by arc/suprasubduction-zone ophiolite obduction, is relieved by subduction polarity reversal (flip). This tectonic principle is illustrated by the early Ordovician Grampian Orogeny in the British and Irish Caledonides, in which a wealth of detailed sedimentologic, heavy mineral, and geochronologic data pin the Orogeny to a very short Arenig/Llanvirn event. The Orogeny, from the initial subduction of continental margin sediments to the end of postflip shortening, lasted ≈18 million years (my). The collisional shortening, prograde-metamorphic phase of the Orogeny lasted 8 my, extensional collapse and exhumation of midcrustal rocks lasted 1.5 my, and postflip shortening lasted 4.5 my. Strain rates were a typical plate-boundary-zone 10-15. Metamorphism, to the second sillimanite isograd, with extensive partial melting, occurred within a few my after initial collision, indicating that conductive models for metamorphic heat transfer in Barrovian terrains are incorrect and must be replaced by advective models in which large volumes of mafic/ultramafic magma are emplaced, syn-tectonically, below and into evolving nappe stacks. Arc/continent collision generates fast and very short orogeny, regional metamorphism, and exhumation. PMID:16126898

  11. Handprinted Forms and Characters

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    NIST Handprinted Forms and Characters (PC database for purchase)   NIST Special Database 19 contains NIST's entire corpus of training materials for handprinted document and character recognition. It supersedes NIST Special Databases 3 and 7.

  12. Image forming apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Satoh, Hisao; Haneda, Satoshi; Ikeda, Tadayoshi; Morita, Shizuo; Fukuchi, Masakazu

    1996-01-01

    In an image forming apparatus having a detachable process cartridge in which an image carrier on which an electrostatic latent image is formed, and a developing unit which develops the electrostatic latent image so that a toner image can be formed, both integrally formed into one unit. There is provided a developer container including a discharge section which can be inserted into a supply opening of the developing unit, and a container in which a predetermined amount of developer is contained, wherein the developer container is provided to the toner supply opening of the developing unit and the developer is supplied into the developing unit housing when a toner stirring screw of the developing unit is rotated.

  13. Electromagnetic nucleon form factors

    SciTech Connect

    Bender, A.; Roberts, C.D.; Frank, M.R.

    1995-08-01

    The Dyson-Schwinger equation framework is employed to obtain expressions for the electromagnetic nucleon form factor. In generalized impulse approximation the form factor depends on the dressed quark propagator, the dressed quark-photon vertex, which is crucial to ensuring current conservation, and the nucleon Faddeev amplitude. The approach manifestly incorporates the large space-like-q{sup 2} renormalization group properties of QCD and allows a realistic extrapolation to small space-like-q{sup 2}. This extrapolation allows one to relate experimental data to the form of the quark-quark interaction at small space-like-q{sup 2}, which is presently unknown. The approach provides a means of unifying, within a single framework, the treatment of the perturbative and nonperturbative regimes of QCD. The wealth of experimental nucleon form factor data, over a large range of q{sup 2}, ensures that this application will provide an excellent environment to test, improve and extend our approach.

  14. Topological forms of information

    SciTech Connect

    Baudot, Pierre; Bennequin, Daniel

    2015-01-13

    We propose that entropy is a universal co-homological class in a theory associated to a family of observable quantities and a family of probability distributions. Three cases are presented: 1) classical probabilities and random variables; 2) quantum probabilities and observable operators; 3) dynamic probabilities and observation trees. This gives rise to a new kind of topology for information processes. We discuss briefly its application to complex data, in particular to the structures of information flows in biological systems. This short note summarizes results obtained during the last years by the authors. The proofs are not included, but the definitions and theorems are stated with precision.

  15. [Improved treatment options for a short bowel syndrome patient].

    PubMed

    Pakarinen, Mikko

    2014-01-01

    Short bowel syndrome necessitates long-term parenteral nutrition, which exposes to decreased quality of life and increased morbidity. In recent years the understanding of short bowel pathophysiology and related complications has expanded, forming the basis for improved treatment options. In addition to evolving nutritional therapy, new pharmacological and surgical therapies have emerged, enhancing the patients' possibilities to achieve intestinal autonomy. Increasingly efficient prevention of intestinal failure-associated liver disease and central line-associated septic episodes improves patient survival. Bowel function can be restored by intestinal transplantation in those developing life-threatening complications.

  16. Forming techniques and procedures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ronde-Oustau, F.

    1980-09-01

    Several forming techniques are discussed including: (1) cooling stamping and swaging tools by the "Caloduc' methods; (2) non-burr stamping (stamping in a closed die); (3) continuous casting; (4) orbital forging; and (5) plastic deformation and spheroidal graphite iron. In addition, the subject of superplasticity is discussed in some detail, and brief consideration is given to precision forging, forging die castings, sintered forging, squeeze casting, ausforming, magnetoforming, and ultrasonic forming.

  17. Shell forming system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kendall, Jr., James M. (Inventor); Wang, Taylor G. (Inventor); Elleman, Daniel D. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    Hollow shells of high uniformity are formed by emitting liquid through an outer nozzle and gas through an inner nozzle, to form a hollow extrusion, by flowing the gas at a velocity between about 1.3 and 10 times the liquid velocity. The natural breakup rate of the extrusion can be increased to decrease shell size by applying periodic perturbations to one of the materials prior to exiting the nozzles, to a nozzle, or to the extrusion.

  18. Short Rotation Woody Crops Program: Project summaries

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-11-01

    This document is a compilation of summaries describing research efforts in the US Department of Energy's Short Rotation Woody Crops Program (SRWCP). The SRWCP is sponsored by DOE's Biofuels and Municipal Waste Technology Division and is field-managed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The SRWCP is an integrated basic research program with 18 field research projects throughout the United States. The overall objective of the program is to improve the productivity and increase the cost efficiency of growing and harvesting woody trees and shrubs. In a competitive technical review, 25 projects were chosen to form a new research program. Although some of the original projects have ended and new ones have begun, many of the long-term research projects still form the core of the SRWCP. This document contains individual summaries of each of the 18 research projects in the SRWCP from October 1985 to October 1986. Each summary provides the following information: name and address of the contracting institution, principal investigator, project title, current subcontract or grant number, period of performance, and annual funding through fiscal year 1986. In addition, each summary contains a brief description of the project rationale, objective, approach, status, and future efforts. A list of publications that have resulted from DOE-sponsored research follows many of the summaries.

  19. Ultra-short pulse generator

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, T.E.

    1993-12-28

    An inexpensive pulse generating circuit is disclosed that generates ultra-short, 200 picosecond, and high voltage 100 kW, pulses suitable for wideband radar and other wideband applications. The circuit implements a nonlinear transmission line with series inductors and variable capacitors coupled to ground made from reverse biased diodes to sharpen and increase the amplitude of a high-voltage power MOSFET driver input pulse until it causes non-destructive transit time breakdown in a final avalanche shock wave diode, which increases and sharpens the pulse even more. 5 figures.

  20. Conduction in short semiconductor structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinkkonen, J.

    1983-12-01

    Low field mobility in short semiconductor structures decreases as a result of finite sample length. According to Kastalsky and Shur [1] the mobility scales down by a factor 1 - exp ( {-3η}/{2}) where η is the sample length divided by the mean free path. From a solution of Boltzmann equation we show that the scaling factor is more accurately given by {η}/{(η + α)} where α is between {4}/{3} and 2. Mobility decrease can be simply interpreted in terms of a finite contact resistance.

  1. Recycler short kicker beam impedance

    SciTech Connect

    Crisp, Jim; Fellenz, Brian; /Fermilab

    2009-07-01

    Measured longitudinal and calculated transverse beam impedance is presented for the short kicker magnets being installed in the Fermilab Recycler. Fermi drawing number ME-457159. The longitudinal impedance was measured with a stretched wire and the Panofsky equation was used to estimate the transverse impedance. The impedance of 3319 meters (the Recycler circumference) of stainless vacuum pipe is provided for comparison. Although measurements where done to 3GHz, impedance was negligible above 30MHz. The beam power lost to the kicker impedance is shown for a range of bunch lengths. The measurements are for one kicker assuming a rotation frequency of 90KHz. Seven of these kickers are being installed.

  2. Ultra-short pulse generator

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, Thomas E.

    1993-01-01

    An inexpensive pulse generating circuit is disclosed that generates ultra-short, 200 picosecond, and high voltage 100 kW, pulses suitable for wideband radar and other wideband applications. The circuit implements a nonlinear transmission line with series inductors and variable capacitors coupled to ground made from reverse biased diodes to sharpen and increase the amplitude of a high-voltage power MOSFET driver input pulse until it causes non-destructive transit time breakdown in a final avalanche shockwave diode, which increases and sharpens the pulse even more.

  3. Accuracy issues in modeling superplastic metal forming

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, K.I.; Khaleel, M.A.; Lavender, C.A.; Smith, M.T.

    1995-02-01

    The utility of finite element modeling in optimizing superplastic metal forming is dependent on accurate representation of the material constitutive behavior and the frictional response of the sheet against the die surface. This paper presents work conducted to estimate the level of precision that is necessary in constitutive relations for finite element analysis to accurately predict the deformation history of actual SPF components. Previous work identified errors in SPF testing methods that use short tensile specimens with gauge length-to-width ratios of 2:1 or less. The analysis of the present paper was performed to estimate the error in predicted stress that results from using the short specimens. Stress correction factors were developed and an improved constitutive relation was implemented in the MARC finite element code to simulate the forming of a long, rectangular tray. The coefficient of friction in a Coulomb friction model was adjusted to reproduce the amount of material draw-in observed in the forming experiments. Comparisons between the finite element predictions and the forming experiments are presented.

  4. UltraForm finishing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fess, E.; Schoen, J.; Bechtold, M.; Mohring, D.

    2005-05-01

    A new compliant sub-aperture optical finishing technique is being investigated for the removal of mid-spatial frequency artifacts and smoothing of hard polycrystalline infrared ceramics for aspheric applications and conformal shaped optics. The UltraForm concept was developed by OptiPro Systems, Ontario, NY, and is a joint process development effort with the Center for Optics manufacturing (COM). The UltraForm tool is a pressurized, elastomeric bladder in the shape of a toroid. Finishing pads are attached to the periphery, allowing the use of a wide variety of pad materials and abrasive selections. Experimentation has been conducted using both slurry mixes and fixed abrasive pads. The toroidal tool is rotated while the compliant tool is compressed into contact with the surface. Currently this process has specific interest for the finishing of conformal ALON Domes. Also to be discussed will be new versions of the UltraForm Tools which are currently be developed and tested.

  5. Microbicide dosage forms.

    PubMed

    Rohan, L C; Devlin, B; Yang, H

    2014-01-01

    Microbicides are topically applied, user controlled dosage forms that are being developed to prevent the transmission of HIV during coitus. Early candidates focused on coitally dependent dosage forms such as gels and creams. More recent development has focused on broadening the coitally dependent options through the introduction of films and fast dissolving tablets. Additionally, it has become important to have longer acting products to minimize the burden of user compliance and thus vaginal rings have been developed providing sustained delivery of antiretroviral drugs. This chapter discusses the history of microbicides along with a detailed description of coitally dependent products, gels, films, tablets diaphragms, as well as coitally independent dosage forms such as vaginal rings and the introduction of a new technology, electrospun fibers.

  6. Physical forms of MIPs.

    PubMed

    Biffis, Andrea; Dvorakova, Gita; Falcimaigne-Cordin, Aude

    2012-01-01

    The current state of the art in the development of methodologies for the preparation of MIPs in predetermined physical forms is critically reviewed, with particular attention being paid to the forms most widely employed in practical applications, such as spherical beads in the micro- to nanometer range, microgels, monoliths, membranes. Although applications of the various MIP physical forms are mentioned, the focus of the paper is mainly on the description of the various preparative methods. The aim is to provide the reader with an overview of the latest achievements in the field, as well as with a mean for critically evaluating the various proposed methodologies towards an envisaged application. The review covers the literature up to early 2010, with special emphasis on the developments of the last 10 years.

  7. Short-Termed Integrated Forecasting System: 1993 Model documentation report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    The purpose of this report is to define the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) and describe its basic properties. The Energy Information Administration (EIA) of the US Energy Department (DOE) developed the STIFS model to generate short-term (up to 8 quarters), monthly forecasts of US supplies, demands, imports exports, stocks, and prices of various forms of energy. The models that constitute STIFS generate forecasts for a wide range of possible scenarios, including the following ones done routinely on a quarterly basis: A base (mid) world oil price and medium economic growth. A low world oil price and high economic growth. A high world oil price and low economic growth. This report is written for persons who want to know how short-term energy markets forecasts are produced by EIA. The report is intended as a reference document for model analysts, users, and the public.

  8. The Turkish Adaptation of the Burnout Measure-Short Version (BMS) and Couple Burnout Measure-Short Version (CBMS) and the Relationship between Career and Couple Burnout Based on Psychoanalytic-Existential Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capri, Burhan

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to carry out the Turkish adaptation, validity, and reliability studies of Burnout Measure-Short Form (BMS) and Couple Burnout Measure-Short Form (CBMS) and also to analyze the correlation between the careers and couple burnout scores of the participants from the psychoanalytic-existential perspective. This research…

  9. Hydrogen forming reaction process

    SciTech Connect

    Marianowski, L.G.; Fleming, D.K.

    1989-03-07

    A hydrogen forming process is described, comprising: conducting in a hydrogen production zone a chemical reaction forming mixed gases comprising molecular hydrogen; contacting one side of a hydrogen ion porous and molecular gas nonporous metallic foil with the mixed gases in the hydrogen production zone; dissociating the molecular hydrogen to ionic hydrogen on the one side of the metallic foil; passing the ionic hydrogen through the metallic foil to its other side; and withdrawing hydrogen from the other side of the metallic foil, thereby removing hydrogen from the hydrogen production zone.

  10. Emotions: form follows function.

    PubMed

    Farb, Norman A S; Chapman, Hanah A; Anderson, Adam K

    2013-06-01

    Emotion research has been divided by debate as to whether emotions are universal in form or cognitively constructed. We review an emerging approach that focuses on function rather than form. Functional affective science suggests that the particular origin of an emotion is relatively unimportant; instead, emotions can be understood in terms of a rapidly deployed set of mechanisms that structure perception, cognition and behavior to facilitate goal fulfillment. Evidence from this approach suggests at least three major functions of emotion: sensory gating, embodying affect, and integrating knowledge toward goal resolution. These functions appear to be universal and automatically activated, yet also moderated by conscious representation and regulatory efforts.

  11. Short rotation Wood Crops Program

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, L.L.; Ehrenshaft, A.R.

    1990-08-01

    This report synthesizes the technical progress of research projects in the Short Rotation Woody Crops Program for the year ending September 30, 1989. The primary goal of this research program, sponsored by the US Department of Energy's Biofuels and Municipal Waste Technology Division, is the development of a viable technology for producing renewable feedstocks for conversion to biofuels. One of the more significant accomplishments was the documentation that short-rotation woody crops total delivered costs could be $40/Mg or less under optimistic but attainable conditions. By taking advantage of federal subsidies such as those offered under the Conservation Reserve Program, wood energy feedstock costs could be lower. Genetic improvement studies are broadening species performance within geographic regions and under less-than-optimum site conditions. Advances in physiological research are identifying key characteristics of species productivity and response to nutrient applications. Recent developments utilizing biotechnology have achieved success in cell and tissue culture, somaclonal variation, and gene-insertion studies. Productivity gains have been realized with advanced cultural studies of spacing, coppice, and mixed-species trials. 8 figs., 20 tabs.

  12. Dyadosphere formed in gravitational collapse

    SciTech Connect

    Ruffini, Remo; Xue Shesheng

    2008-10-10

    We first recall the concept of Dyadosphere (electron-positron-photon plasma around a formed black holes) and its motivation, and recall on (i) the Dirac process: annihilation of electron-positron pairs to photons; (ii) the Breit-Wheeler process: production of electron-positron pairs by photons with the energy larger than electron-positron mass threshold; the Sauter-Euler-Heisenberg effective Lagrangian and rate for the process of electron-positron production in a constant electric field. We present a general formula for the pair-production rate in the semi-classical treatment of quantum mechanical tunneling. We also present in the Quantum Electro-Dynamics framework, the calculations of the Schwinger rate and effective Lagrangian for constant electromagnetic fields. We give a review on the electron-positron plasma oscillation in constant electric fields, and its interaction with photons leading to energy and number equipartition of photons, electrons and positrons. The possibility of creating an overcritical field in astrophysical condition is pointed out. We present the discussions and calculations on (i) energy extraction from gravitational collapse; (ii) the formation of Dyadosphere in gravitational collapsing process, and (iii) its hydrodynamical expansion in Reissner Nordstroem geometry. We calculate the spectrum and flux of photon radiation at the point of transparency, and make predictions for short Gamma-Ray Bursts.

  13. The form factors of the nucleons

    SciTech Connect

    Petratos, G.G.

    1993-12-01

    The study of the electromagnetic form factors of the nucleons are of fundamental importance in understanding nucleon structure. The form factors contain all the information about the deviation from pointlike structure of the charge and magnetization current distributions of the nucleons. The hope is that measurements at sufficiently large momentum transfers can provide a microscopic understanding of the nucleon wave functions in terms of their constituent quark amplitudes. Recent measurements of the electric G{sub E}(Q{sup 2}) and magnetic G{sub M}(Q{sup 2}) form factors of the nucleons are reviewed and compared to theoretical calculations based on non-perturbative QCD sum rules, diquark, relativistic constituent quark, and vector meson dominance (VMD) models. A short summary of ongoing and future measurements is also presented.

  14. Sixth Form Examining Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schools Council, London (England).

    The methods of examining in the sixth form of secondary education in England and Wales is the basis for discussion by subject committees of the Schools Council. Special reference is made to internal examinations, oral assessments, teacher's assessments, the relaxing of the time limits for examination, and the use of aids during examinations. The…

  15. Many Forms of Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Adam B.

    2009-01-01

    Psychologists interested in culture have focused primarily on East-West differences in individualism-collectivism, or independent-interdependent self-construal. As important as this dimension is, there are many other forms of culture with many dimensions of cultural variability. Selecting from among the many understudied cultures in psychology,…

  16. Geodiversity and land form

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gray, Murray

    2014-05-01

    The Earth's surface has a dynamic and topographically varied natural landscape. In some cases the resulting landforms are given generic names reflecting their form and/or origin, (e.g. sand dunes, eskers, ox-bow lakes) but in many cases the land surface has a more amorphous form and is less easily categorized other than at a landscape scale (e.g. dissected plateau, Chalk downland). Across much of Europe, while the natural vegetation has been removed or radically modified, the natural land form/topography remains in tact. In this context and in terms of geoconservation we ought to be: • allowing the dynamic natural processes that create, carve and modify landscapes to continue to operate; and • retaining natural topographic character and geomorphological authenticity in the face of human actions seeking to remodel the land surface. In this presentation examples of this approach to geoconservation of land form will be given from the UK and other parts of the world. This will include examples of both appropriate and inappropriate topographic modifications.

  17. Literature: Internal Forms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regional Curriculum Project, Atlanta, GA.

    This curriculum guide in literature, developed as part of a total English curriculum for pre-kindergarten through grade 10, suggests that students can best understand literature by recognizing its internal forms (i.e., characteristics that recur in settings, characters, and narrative patterns). Materials cover (1) an overview for teachers on the…

  18. Bristol Stool Form Scale

    MedlinePlus

    ... Stool Form Scale Type Description Type 1 Separate hard lumps, like nuts Image Type 2 Sausage-shaped but lumpy Type 3 Like a sausage or snake but with cracks on its surface Type 4 Like a sausage or snake, smooth and soft ...

  19. Forms of Soft Sculpture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Dorothy

    1978-01-01

    For the past several years, students at Madison Senior High School in San Diego have responded to the tactile texture and draping quality of soft materials. They experimented enthusiastically with three-dimensional forms made out of foam rubber. Here is the result of their efforts and experimentation. (Author/RK)

  20. Apparatus for forming targets

    DOEpatents

    Woerner, Robert L.

    1980-01-01

    Apparatus and method for cryoinduced uniform deposition of cryogenic materials, such as deuterium-tritium (DT) mixtures, on the inner surface of hollow spherical members, such as inertially imploded targets. By vaporizing and quickly refreezing cryogenic materials contained within a hollow spherical member, a uniform layer of the materials is formed on the inner surface of the spherical member. Heating of the cryogenic material, located within a non-isothermal compact freezing cell, is accomplished by an electrical heat pulse, whereafter the material is quickly frozen forming a uniform layer on the inner surface of the spherical member. The method is not restricted to producing a frozen layer on only the inner surface of the innermost hollow member, but where multiple concentric hollow spheres are involved, such as in multiple shell targets for lasers, electron beams, etc., layers of cryogenic material may also be formed on the inner surface of intermediate or outer spherical members, thus providing the capability of forming targets having multiple concentric layers or shells of frozen DT.

  1. Method for forming targets

    DOEpatents

    Woerner, Robert L.

    1979-01-01

    Method for cryoinduced uniform deposition of cryogenic materials, such as deuterium-tritium (DT) mixtures, on the inner surface of hollow spherical members, such as inertially imploded targets. By vaporizing and quickly refreezing cryogenic materials contained within a hollow spherical member, a uniform layer of the materials is formed on the inner surface of the spherical member. Heating of the cryogenic material, located within a non-isothermal compact freezing cell, is accomplished by an electrical heat pulse, whereafter the material is quickly frozen forming a uniform layer on the inner surface of the spherical member. The method is not restricted to producing a frozen layer on only the inner surface of the innermost hollow member, but where multiple concentric hollow spheres are involved, such as in multiple shell targets for lasers, electron beams, etc., layers of cryogenic material may also be formed on the inner surface of intermediate or outer spherical members, thus providing the capability of forming targets having multiple concentric layers or shells of frozen DT.

  2. High energy forming facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ciurlionis, B.

    1967-01-01

    Watertight, high-explosive forming facility, 25 feet in diameter and 15 feet deep, withstands repeated explosions of 10 pounds of TNT equivalent. The shell is fabricated of high strength steel and allows various structural elements to deform or move elastically and independently while retaining structural integrity.

  3. Nucleon electromagnetic form factors

    SciTech Connect

    Kees de Jager

    2000-01-01

    A review of data on the nucleon electromagnetic form factors in the space-like region is presented. Recent results from experiments using polarized beams and polarized targets or nucleon recoil polarimeters have yielded a significant improvement on the precision of the data obtained with the traditional Rosenbluth separation. Future plans for extended measurements are outlined.

  4. Nucleon Magnetic Form Factors

    SciTech Connect

    Kees de Jager

    2001-12-01

    A review of data on the nucleon electromagnetic form factors in the space-like region is presented. Recent results from experiments using polarized beams and polarized targets or nucleon recoil polarimeters have yielded a significant improvement on the precision of the data obtained with the traditional Rosenbluth separation. Future plans for extended measurements are outlined.

  5. Nucleon Form Factors

    SciTech Connect

    Kees de Jager

    2002-10-01

    A review of data on the nucleon electro-weak form factors in the space-like region is presented. Recent results from experiments using polarized beams and either polarized targets or nucleon recoil polarimeters have yielded a significant improvement on the precision of the electromagnetic data obtained with the traditional Rosenbluth separation. An outlook is presented of planned experiments.

  6. Formed photovoltaic module busbars

    DOEpatents

    Rose, Douglas; Daroczi, Shan; Phu, Thomas

    2015-11-10

    A cell connection piece for a photovoltaic module is disclosed herein. The cell connection piece includes an interconnect bus, a plurality of bus tabs unitarily formed with the interconnect bus, and a terminal bus coupled with the interconnect bus. The plurality of bus tabs extend from the interconnect bus. The terminal bus includes a non-linear portion.

  7. Inductively Shorted Bicone Fed Tapered Dipole Antenna

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-23

    Switching from a balun feed to a coaxial cable feed showed expected similar impedances for the shorted antenna with number 14 wire shorts. Switching ...possibility is to add broadband ferrite core chokes placed about the shorts 70 near their ends 50, 52, 54, 56, 58, 60 ,62, 64 to prevent antenna...currents from flowing onto the shorts. Some problems with this method are that ferrites have loss and limited bandwidth, and the resulting floating

  8. Preferred Hosts for Short-Period Exoplanets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2015-12-01

    In an effort to learn more about how planets form around their host stars, a team of scientists has analyzed the population of Kepler-discovered exoplanet candidates, looking for trends in where theyre found.Planetary OccurrenceSince its launch in 2009, Kepler has found thousands of candidate exoplanets around a variety of star types. Especially intriguing is the large population of super-Earths and mini-Neptunes planets with masses between that of Earth and Neptune that have short orbital periods. How did they come to exist so close to their host star? Did they form in situ, or migrate inwards, or some combination of both processes?To constrain these formation mechanisms, a team of scientists led by Gijs Mulders (University of Arizona and NASAs NExSS coalition) analyzed the population of Kepler planet candidates that have orbital periods between 2 and 50 days.Mulders and collaborators used statistical reconstructions to find the average number of planets, within this orbital range, around each star in the Kepler field. They then determined how this planet occurrence rate changed for different spectral types and therefore the masses of the host stars: do low-mass M-dwarf stars host more or fewer planets than higher-mass, main-sequence F, G, or K stars?Challenging ModelsAuthors estimates for the occurrence rate for short-period planets of different radii around M-dwarfs (purple) and around F, G, and K-type stars (blue). [Mulders et al. 2015]The team found that M dwarfs, compared to F, G, or K stars, host about half as many large planets with orbital periods of P 50 days. But, surprisingly, they host significantly more small planets, racking up an average of 3.5 times the number of planets in the size range of 12.8 Earth-radii.Could it be that M dwarfs have a lower total mass of planets, but that mass is distributed into more, smaller planets? Apparently not: the authors show that the mass of heavy elements trapped in short-orbital-period planets is higher for M

  9. Growth hormone, enhancement and the pharmaceuticalisation of short stature.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Michael

    2015-04-01

    This paper takes the biological drug human Growth Hormone (hGH) as a case study to investigate processes of pharmaceuticalisation and medicalisation in configuring childhood short stature as a site for pharmaceutical intervention. Human growth hormone is considered to have legitimate applications in treating childhood growth hormone deficiency and short stature associated with other recognised conditions. It is also regarded by bioethicists and others as a form of human biomedical enhancement when applied to children with idiopathic or 'normal' short stature. The purpose of this study is not to evaluate whether treatment of idiopathic short stature is enhancement or not, but to evaluate how some applications of hGH in treating short stature have come to be accepted and stabilised as legitimate 'therapies' while others remain contested as 'enhancements'. A comparative, historical approach is employed, drawing on approaches from medical sociology and Science and Technology Studies (STS) to set out a socio-technical history of hGH in the US and UK. Through this history the relative influence and interplay of drivers of pharmaceuticalisation, including industry marketing and networks of drug distribution, and processes of medicalisation will be employed to address this question and simultaneously query the value of enhancement as a sociological concept.

  10. Analytic pion form factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lomon, Earle L.; Pacetti, Simone

    2016-09-01

    The pion electromagnetic form factor and two-pion production in electron-positron collisions are simultaneously fitted by a vector dominance model evolving to perturbative QCD at large momentum transfer. This model was previously successful in simultaneously fitting the nucleon electromagnetic form factors (spacelike region) and the electromagnetic production of nucleon-antinucleon pairs (timelike region). For this pion case dispersion relations are used to produce the analytic connection of the spacelike and timelike regions. The fit to all the data is good, especially for the newer sets of timelike data. The description of high-q2 data, in the timelike region, requires one more meson with ρ quantum numbers than listed in the 2014 Particle Data Group review.

  11. Waste-form development

    SciTech Connect

    Neilson, R.M. Jr.; Colombo, P.

    1982-01-01

    Contemporary solidification agents are being investigated relative to their applications to major fuel cycle and non-fuel cycle low-level waste (LLW) streams. Work is being conducted to determine the range of conditions under which these solidification agents can be applied to specific LLW streams. These studies are directed primarily towards defining operating parameters for both improved solidification of problem wastes and solidification of new LLW streams generated from advanced volume reduction technologies. Work is being conducted to measure relevant waste form properties. These data will be compiled and evaluated to demonstrate compliance with waste form performance and shallow land burial acceptance criteria and transportation requirements (both as they exist and as they are modified with time).

  12. Formed HIP Can Processing

    SciTech Connect

    Clarke, Kester Diederik

    2015-07-27

    The intent of this report is to document a procedure used at LANL for HIP bonding aluminum cladding to U-10Mo fuel foils using a formed HIP can for the Domestic Reactor Conversion program in the NNSA Office of Material, Management and Minimization, and provide some details that may not have been published elsewhere. The HIP process is based on the procedures that have been used to develop the formed HIP can process, including the baseline process developed at Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The HIP bonding cladding process development is summarized in the listed references. Further iterations with Babcock & Wilcox (B&W) to refine the process to meet production and facility requirements is expected.

  13. How Stars Form

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKee, Christopher F.

    2017-01-01

    Stars are the atoms of the universe. The process by which stars form is at the nexus of astrophysics since they are believed to be responsible for the re-ionization of the universe, they created the heavy elements, they play a central role in the formation and evolution of galaxies, and their formation naturally leads to the formation of planets. Whereas early work on star formation was based on the assumption that it is a quiescent process, it is now believed that turbulence plays a dominant role. In this overview, I shall discuss the evolution of our understanding of how stars form and current ideas about the stellar initial mass function and the rate of star formation.

  14. Tube-Forming Assays.

    PubMed

    Brown, Ryan M; Meah, Christopher J; Heath, Victoria L; Styles, Iain B; Bicknell, Roy

    2016-01-01

    Angiogenesis involves the generation of new blood vessels from the existing vasculature and is dependent on many growth factors and signaling events. In vivo angiogenesis is dynamic and complex, meaning assays are commonly utilized to explore specific targets for research into this area. Tube-forming assays offer an excellent overview of the molecular processes in angiogenesis. The Matrigel tube forming assay is a simple-to-implement but powerful tool for identifying biomolecules involved in angiogenesis. A detailed experimental protocol on the implementation of the assay is described in conjunction with an in-depth review of methods that can be applied to the analysis of the tube formation. In addition, an ImageJ plug-in is presented which allows automatic quantification of tube images reducing analysis times while removing user bias and subjectivity.

  15. VERNIER CHRONOTRON UTILIZING AT LEAST TWO SHORTED DELAY LINES

    DOEpatents

    Rufer, R.P.

    1964-02-25

    An improved vernier chronotron featuring pulse-forming circuits of a ringing'' or back and forth'' oscillatory type is described. A delay line shorted at both ends together with transistor circuitry to introduce a pulse into that line and also to provide reinforcement of the pulse as it oscillates between the pulse-reflective extremities is provided. A transistorized coincidence circuit is also provided. Enhanced measurement of time intervals in the nanosecond range is afforded. (AEC)

  16. Raman Scattering at Plasmonic Junctions Shorted by Conductive Molecular Bridges

    SciTech Connect

    El-Khoury, Patrick Z.; Hu, Dehong; Apkarian, V. Ara; Hess, Wayne P.

    2013-04-10

    Intensity spikes in Raman scattering, accompanied by switching between line spectra and band spectra, can be assigned to shorting the junction plasmon through molecular conductive bridges. This is demonstrated through Raman trajectories recorded at a plasmonic junction formed by a gold AFM tip in contact with a silver surface coated either with biphenyl-4,4’-dithiol or biphenyl-4-thiol. The fluctuations are absent in the monothiol. In effect, the making and breaking of chemical bonds is tracked.

  17. Correlated states of a quantum oscillator acted by short pulses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manko, O. V.

    1993-01-01

    Correlated squeezed states for a quantum oscillator are constructed based on the method of quantum integrals of motion. The quantum oscillator is acted upon by short duration pulses. Three delta-kickings of frequency are used to model the pulses' dependence upon the time aspects of the frequency of the oscillator. Additionally, the correlation coefficient and quantum variances of operations of coordinates and momenta are written in explicit form.

  18. Stability of barrier buckets with short barrier separations

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, K.Y.; /Fermilab

    2005-04-01

    A barrier bucket with very short or zero rf-barrier separation (relative to the barrier widths) has its synchrotron tune decreasing from a very large value towards the bucket boundary. As a result, chaotic region may form near the bucket center and extends outward under increasing modulation of rf voltage and/or rf phase. Application is made to those barrier buckets used in momentum mining at the Fermilab Recycler Ring.

  19. Evoked Cultural Forms

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-01

    individual (1) pathological behaviors (such as those exhibited by Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) patients) and (2) non-pathological precautionary...McClelland, J., et al. (2001). Compulsive Checking Behavior of Quinpirole-Sensitized Rats as an Animal Model of Obsessive - Compulsive Disorder (OCD...Form and Control. BMC Neuroscience, 2(1), 4. Szechtman, H., & Woody, E. (2004). Obsessive - Compulsive disorder as a disturbance of security Motivation

  20. GlassForm

    SciTech Connect

    2011-09-16

    GlassForm is a software tool for generating preliminary waste glass formulas for a given waste stream. The software is useful because it reduces the number of verification melts required to develop a suitable additive composition. The software includes property models that calculate glass properties of interest from the chemical composition of the waste glass. The software includes property models for glass viscosity, electrical conductivity, glass transition temperature, and leach resistance as measured by the 7-day product consistency test (PCT).

  1. Nucleon Electromagnetic Form Factors

    SciTech Connect

    Kees de Jager

    2004-08-01

    Although nucleons account for nearly all the visible mass in the universe, they have a complicated structure that is still incompletely understood. The first indication that nucleons have an internal structure, was the measurement of the proton magnetic moment by Frisch and Stern (1933) which revealed a large deviation from the value expected for a point-like Dirac particle. The investigation of the spatial structure of the nucleon, resulting in the first quantitative measurement of the proton charge radius, was initiated by the HEPL (Stanford) experiments in the 1950s, for which Hofstadter was awarded the 1961 Nobel prize. The first indication of a non-zero neutron charge distribution was obtained by scattering thermal neutrons off atomic electrons. The recent revival of its experimental study through the operational implementation of novel instrumentation has instigated a strong theoretical interest. Nucleon electro-magnetic form factors (EMFFs) are optimally studied through the exchange of a virtual photon, in elastic electron-nucleon scattering. The momentum transferred to the nucleon by the virtual photon can be selected to probe different scales of the nucleon, from integral properties such as the charge radius to scaling properties of its internal constituents. Polarization instrumentation, polarized beams and targets, and the measurement of the polarization of the recoiling nucleon have been essential in the accurate separation of the charge and magnetic form factors and in studies of the elusive neutron charge form factor.

  2. Microwave interferometry of laser induced air plasmas formed by short laser pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Jungwirth, P.W.

    1993-08-01

    Applications for the interaction of laser induced plasmas with electromagnetic probes requires time varying complex conductivity data for specific laser/electromagnetic probe geometries. Applications for this data include plasma switching (Q switching) and the study of ionization fronts. The plasmas were created in laboratory air by 100 ps laser pulses at a wavelength of 1 {mu}m. A long focal length lens focused the laser pulse into WR90 (X band) rectangular waveguide. Two different laser beam/electromagnetic probe geometries were investigated. For the longitudinal geometry, the laser pulse and the microwave counterpropagated inside the waveguide. For the transverse geometry, the laser created a plasma ``post`` inside the waveguide. The effects of the laser beam deliberately hitting the waveguide were also investigated. Each geometry exhibits its own characteristics. This research project focused on the longitudinal geometry. Since the laser beam intensity varies inside the waveguide, the charge distribution inside the waveguide also varies. A 10 GHz CW microwave probe traveled through the laser induced plasma. From the magnitude and phase of the microwave probe, a spatially integrated complex conductivity was calculated. No measurements of the temporal or spatial variation of the laser induced plasma were made. For the ``plasma post,`` the electron density is more uniform.

  3. A Critical Item Analysis of the QABF: Development of a Short Form Assessment Instrument

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Ashvind N.; Matson, Johnny L.; Mouttapa, Michelle; Pella, Russell D.; Hill, B. D.; Thorson, Ryan

    2009-01-01

    Due to the relative inability of individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID) to provide an accurate and reliable self-report, assessment in this population is more difficult than with individuals in the general population. As a result, assessment procedures must be adjusted to compensate for the relative lack of information that the individual…

  4. Early Mathematics Assessment: Validation of the Short Form of a Prekindergarten and Kindergarten Mathematics Measure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiland, Christina; Wolfe, Christopher B.; Hurwitz, Michael D.; Clements, Douglas H.; Sarama, Julie H.; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, there has been increased interest in improving early mathematics curricula and instruction. Subsequently, there has also been a rise in demand for better early mathematics assessments, as most current measures are limited in their content and/or their sensitivity to detect differences in early mathematics development among young…

  5. Short Synthetic α-Helical-Forming Peptide Amphiphiles for Fungal Keratitis Treatment In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hong; Liu, Shaoqiong; Wiradharma, Nikken; Ong, Zhan Yuin; Li, Yan; Yang, Yi Yan; Ying, Jackie Y

    2017-03-01

    The emergence of fungal keratitis is on the rise globally. However, current antifungal therapeutics are ineffective in severe keratomycosis. Previously reported α-helical peptides comprising 8-14 amino acids demonstrate broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity both in vitro and in vivo. Here, α-helical peptides of the optimized sequences are investigated for antifungal biofilm in vitro and in vivo using a fungal biofilm-caused mouse keratitis model. The peptides with the optimal composition demonstrate higher α-helical propensity and improve antifungal activity in dispersing Candida albicans biofilm in vitro. Moreover, the optimized α-helical peptides are not only effective in treating C. albicans biofilm-induced keratitis in mice, they are also nontoxic to the mice eyes. These peptides have the potential to be developed as antifungal agents for the treatment of C. albicans biofilm-caused keratitis.

  6. Short- and Long-Term Memories Formed upon Backward Conditioning in Honeybees ("Apis Mellifera")

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felsenberg, Johannes; Plath, Jenny Aino; Lorang, Steven; Morgenstern, Laura; Eisenhardt, Dorothea

    2014-01-01

    In classical conditioning, the temporal sequence of stimulus presentations is critical for the association between the conditioned stimulus (CS) and the unconditioned stimulus (US). In forward conditioning, the CS precedes the US and is learned as a predictor for the US. Thus it acquires properties to elicit a behavioral response, defined as…

  7. Emotion-Related Parenting Styles (ERPS): A Short Form for Measuring Parental Meta-Emotion Philosophy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paterson, Ashley D.; Babb, Kimberley A.; Camodeca, Amy; Goodwin, Jacqueline; Hakim-Larson, Julie; Voelker, Sylvia; Gragg, Marcia

    2012-01-01

    Research Findings: Parents' meta-emotion philosophy guides their approach to teaching their children about emotions (J. M. Gottman, L. F. Katz, & C. Hooven, 1997) and is measured with the Emotion-Related Parenting Styles Self-Test-Likert (Gottman et al., 1997, modified by J. Hakim-Larson, A. Parker, C. Lee, J. Goodwin, & S. Voelker, 2006).…

  8. 48 CFR 1852.227-11 - Patent Rights-Retention by the Contractor (Short Form).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 1679, Disclosure of Invention and New Technology (Including Software) to disclose subject inventions... of tier, for experimental, developmental, research, design, or engineering work to be performed...

  9. 48 CFR 1852.227-11 - Patent Rights-Retention by the Contractor (Short Form).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Technology Reporting Web site http://invention.nasa.gov. (End of addition) (f)(5) The Contractor shall... of tier, for experimental, developmental, research, design, or engineering work to be performed...

  10. 48 CFR 1852.227-11 - Patent Rights-Retention by the Contractor (Short Form).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Technology Reporting Web site http://invention.nasa.gov. (End of addition) (f)(5) The Contractor shall... of tier, for experimental, developmental, research, design, or engineering work to be performed...

  11. Validation of the Spanish version of the borderline symptom list, short form (BSL-23)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The Borderline Symptom List-23 (BSL-23) is a reliable and valid self-report instrument for assessing Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) severity. The psychometric properties of the original version have proven to be adequate. The aim of the present study was to validate the Spanish language version of the BSL-23. Methods The BSL-23 was administered to 240 subjects with BPD diagnosis. Factor structure, reliability, test-retest stability, convergent validity, and sensitivity to change were analyzed. Results The Spanish version of the BSL-23 replicates the one-factor structure of the original version. The scale has high reliability (Cronbach’s alpha=.949), as well as good test-retest stability, which was checked in a subsample (n=74; r=.734; p<.01). The Spanish BSL-23 shows moderate to high correlations with depressive symptomatology, state and trait anxiety, hostility and impulsivity scores and BPD measures. The Spanish BSL-23 is able to discriminate among different levels of BPD severity and shows satisfactory sensitivity to change after treatment, which was verified by assessing change before and after 12 group sessions of Dialectical Behavioral Therapy in a subgroup of 31 subjects. Conclusions Similar to the original BSL-23, the Spanish BSL-23 is a reliable and valid instrument for assessing BPD severity and sensitivity to change. PMID:23672691

  12. 48 CFR 952.227-11 - Patent rights-retention by the contractor (short form).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... process or method; or to operate, in the case of a machine or system; and, in each case, under such... understanding to the extent known at the time of the disclosure, of the nature, purpose, operation, and the... 60 days after learning of the failure of the Contractor to disclose or elect within the...

  13. 48 CFR 952.227-11 - Patent rights-retention by the contractor (short form).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... process or method; or to operate, in the case of a machine or system; and, in each case, under such... understanding to the extent known at the time of the disclosure, of the nature, purpose, operation, and the... 60 days after learning of the failure of the Contractor to disclose or elect within the...

  14. 48 CFR 952.227-11 - Patent rights-retention by the contractor (short form).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... process or method; or to operate, in the case of a machine or system; and, in each case, under such... understanding to the extent known at the time of the disclosure, of the nature, purpose, operation, and the... 60 days after learning of the failure of the Contractor to disclose or elect within the...

  15. 48 CFR 1852.223-72 - Safety and Health (Short Form).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... damage to the environment. NASA's safety priority is to protect: (1) The public, (2) astronauts and... the public, astronauts and pilots, the NASA workforce (including Contractor employees working on...

  16. 48 CFR 1852.223-72 - Safety and Health (Short Form).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... damage to the environment. NASA's safety priority is to protect: (1) The public, (2) astronauts and... the public, astronauts and pilots, the NASA workforce (including Contractor employees working on...

  17. 48 CFR 1852.223-72 - Safety and Health (Short Form).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... damage to the environment. NASA's safety priority is to protect: (1) The public, (2) astronauts and... the public, astronauts and pilots, the NASA workforce (including Contractor employees working on...

  18. 48 CFR 1852.223-72 - Safety and Health (Short Form).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... damage to the environment. NASA's safety priority is to protect: (1) The public, (2) astronauts and... the public, astronauts and pilots, the NASA workforce (including Contractor employees working on...

  19. Salt-specific stability and denaturation of a short salt-bridge-forming alpha-helix.

    PubMed

    Dzubiella, Joachim

    2008-10-22

    The structure of a single alanine-based Ace-AEAAAKEAAAKA-Nme peptide in explicit aqueous electrolyte solutions (NaCl, KCl, NaI, and KF) at large salt concentrations (3-4 M) is investigated using approximately 1 mus molecular dynamics (MD) computer simulations. The peptide displays 71% alpha-helical structure without salt and destabilizes with the addition of NaCl in agreement with experiments of a somewhat longer version. It is mainly stabilized by direct and indirect (" i + 4")EK salt bridges between the Lys and Glu side chains and a concomitant backbone shielding mechanism. NaI is found to be a stronger denaturant than NaCl, while the potassium salts hardly show influence. Investigation of the molecular structures reveals that consistent with recent experiments Na (+) has a much stronger affinity to side chain carboxylates and backbone carbonyls than K (+), thereby weakening salt bridges and secondary structure hydrogen bonds. At the same time, the large I (-) has a considerable affinity to the nonpolar alanine in line with recent observations of a large propensity of I (-) to adsorb to simple hydrophobes, and thereby "assists" Na (+) in its destabilizing action. In the denatured states of the peptide, novel long-lived (10-20 ns) "loop" configurations are observed in which single Na (+) ions and water molecules are hydrogen-bonded to multiple backbone carbonyls. In an attempt to analyze the denaturation behavior within the preferential interaction formalism, we find indeed that for the strongest denaturant, NaI, the protein is least hydrated. Additionally, a possible indication for protein denaturation might be a preferential solvation of the peptide backbone by the destabilizing cosolute (sodium). The mechanisms found in this work may be of general importance to understand salt effects on protein secondary structure stability.

  20. 48 CFR 952.227-11 - Patent rights-retention by the contractor (short form).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...) Nonprofit organization means a university or other institution of higher education or an organization of the... subcontracting at 13 CFR 121.3-8 and 13 CFR 121.3-12, respectively, will be used. (6) Subject invention means any... breach of such agreement. (k) Special provisions for contracts with nonprofit organizations. If...

  1. Psychometric Characteristics of the Emotional Quotient Inventory, Youth Version, Short Form, in Hungarian High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kun, Bernadette; Urban, Robert; Paksi, Borbala; Csobor, Lujza Vargane; Olah, Attila; Demetrovics, Zsolt

    2012-01-01

    Research on the psychometric characteristics, including factor structure, of measures assessing emotional intelligence improve our understanding of the manifest and latent dimensions of the construct. The factor structure of the Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory (Bar-On, 1997), despite the popularity of the measure, has been the subject of only…

  2. Electromagnetic pion form factor

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, C.D.

    1995-08-01

    A phenomenological Dyson-Schwinger/Bethe-Salpeter equation approach to QCD, formalized in terms of a QCD-based model field theory, the Global Color-symmetry Model (GCM), was used to calculate the generalized impulse approximation contribution to the electromagnetic pion form factor at space-like q{sup 2} on the domain [0,10] GeV{sup 2}. In effective field theories this form factor is sometimes understood as simply being due to Vector Meson Dominance (VMD) but this does not allow for a simple connection with QCD where the VMD contribution is of higher order than that of the quark core. In the GCM the pion is treated as a composite bound state of a confined quark and antiquark interacting via the exchange of colored vector-bosons. A direct study of the quark core contribution is made, using a quark propagator that manifests the large space-like-q{sup 2} properties of QCD, parameterizes the infrared behavior and incorporates confinement. It is shown that the few parameters which characterize the infrared form of the quark propagator may be chosen so as to yield excellent agreement with the available data. In doing this one directly relates experimental observables to properties of QCD at small space-like-q{sup 2}. The incorporation of confinement eliminates endpoint and pinch singularities in the calculation of F{sub {pi}}(q{sup 2}). With asymptotic freedom manifest in the dressed quark propagator the calculation yields q{sup 4}F{sub {pi}}(q{sup 2}) = constant, up to [q{sup 2}]- corrections, for space-like-q{sup 2} {approx_gt} 35 GeV{sup 2}, which indicates that soft, nonperturbative contributions dominate the form factor at presently accessible q{sup 2}. This means that the often-used factorization Ansatz fails in this exclusive process. A paper describing this work was submitted for publication. In addition, these results formed the basis for an invited presentation at a workshop on chiral dynamics and will be published in the proceedings.

  3. Drop short control of electrode gap

    DOEpatents

    Fisher, Robert W.; Maroone, James P.; Tipping, Donald W.; Zanner, Frank J.

    1986-01-01

    During vacuum consumable arc remelting the electrode gap between a consumable electrode and a pool of molten metal is difficult to control. The present invention monitors drop shorts by detecting a decrease in the voltage between the consumable electrode and molten pool. The drop shorts and their associated voltage reductions occur as repetitive pulses which are closely correlated to the electrode gap. Thus, the method and apparatus of the present invention controls electrode gap based upon drop shorts detected from the monitored anode-cathode voltage. The number of drop shorts are accumulated, and each time the number of drop shorts reach a predetermined number, the average period between drop shorts is calculated from this predetermined number and the time in which this number is accumulated. This average drop short period is used in a drop short period electrode gap model which determines the actual electrode gap from the drop short. The actual electrode gap is then compared with a desired electrode gap which is selected to produce optimum operating conditions and the velocity of the consumable error is varied based upon the gap error. The consumable electrode is driven according to any prior art system at this velocity. In the preferred embodiment, a microprocessor system is utilized to perform the necessary calculations and further to monitor the duration of each drop short. If any drop short exceeds a preset duration period, the consumable electrode is rapidly retracted a predetermined distance to prevent bonding of the consumable electrode to the molten remelt.

  4. Job stress, burnout, depression symptoms, and physical health among Chinese university teachers.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Jie; You, Jianing; Gan, Yiqun; Zhang, Yiwen; Lu, Changqin; Wang, Hongbo

    2009-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationships among job stress, burnout, depression, and health among university teachers in China. Using a stratified random sampling method, a sample of 300 university teachers completed the Occupational Stress Indicator-2 (OSI-2), Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey (MBI-GS), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and 36-item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36). Path analysis showed that burnout was a mediator among job stress, the occurrence and exacerbation of depressive symptoms, and poor physical health.

  5. Quality of life in short adults.

    PubMed

    Busschbach, J J; Rikken, B; Grobbee, D E; De Charro, F T; Wit, J M

    1998-01-01

    The use of (costly) growth hormone (GH) treatment in short children is often justified by the assumption that short stature considerably reduces quality of life in adults. We tested this assumption in 5 groups of short adults: 25 patients with isolated GH deficiency; 17 male patients with childhood onset renal failure; 25 women with Turner syndrome and 26 patients who were presented as a child to a paediatrician for idiopathic short stature. A group of 44 short individuals with presumably idiopathic short stature, who had not been presented to a paediatrician for short stature, was sampled from the general population ('normal shorts'). We measured quality of life in terms of socio-economic variables, the Nottingham Health Profile and time trade-off. The mean height of most groups was close to the 3rd percentile. The chance of having a partner was low for all groups, except for the normal shorts. Problems with job application were only reported in Turner syndrome. The scores on the Nottingham Health Profile were all within the normal range, but GH-deficient adults had a higher score on the domain energy than normal shorts. Women with Turner syndrome, individuals with renal failure, and those with idiopathic short stature had a wish to be taller, with an estimated reduction in quality of life of 2-4% (time trade-off). As the normal shorts did not show any sign of a reduced quality of life, we falsify the assumption of a direct relation between short stature and quality of life. The complaints of patients with idiopathic short stature around the 3rd percentile seem to be the result of unsuccessful coping strategies.

  6. Process for forming retrograde profiles in silicon

    DOEpatents

    Weiner, K.H.; Sigmon, T.W.

    1996-10-15

    A process is disclosed for forming retrograde and oscillatory profiles in crystalline and polycrystalline silicon. The process consisting of introducing an n- or p-type dopant into the silicon, or using prior doped silicon, then exposing the silicon to multiple pulses of a high-intensity laser or other appropriate energy source that melts the silicon for short time duration. Depending on the number of laser pulses directed at the silicon, retrograde profiles with peak/surface dopant concentrations which vary are produced. The laser treatment can be performed in air or in vacuum, with the silicon at room temperature or heated to a selected temperature.

  7. Process for forming retrograde profiles in silicon

    DOEpatents

    Weiner, Kurt H.; Sigmon, Thomas W.

    1996-01-01

    A process for forming retrograde and oscillatory profiles in crystalline and polycrystalline silicon. The process consisting of introducing an n- or p-type dopant into the silicon, or using prior doped silicon, then exposing the silicon to multiple pulses of a high-intensity laser or other appropriate energy source that melts the silicon for short time duration. Depending on the number of laser pulses directed at the silicon, retrograde profiles with peak/surface dopant concentrations which vary from 1-1e4 are produced. The laser treatment can be performed in air or in vacuum, with the silicon at room temperature or heated to a selected temperature.

  8. Short-fiber-reinforced thermoplastics

    SciTech Connect

    Tekkanat, B.

    1987-01-01

    One of the objectives of this study was to explore the simplest predictive theories for composite stiffness and strength in injection-molded SFRTP materials which would be easy to use and would be accurate over a wide range of materials. The intention was also to try to understand the predicted dependence of stiffness and strength on fiber length for SFRTP's. The effects of matrix ductility on the mechanical properties and failure mechanisms of SFRTP's were investigated by controlling the matrix ductility via composition in PS-PPO system. In addition to matrix ductility, consideration was given to the following parameters: fiber-length distribution (FLD), fiber-orientation distribution (FOD), fiber-volume fraction, aspect ratio, and fiber-end configuration to understand the role they play on the mechanical properties, efficiency of reinforcement, and failure mechanisms of SFRTP's. Sub-surface analysis by transmission optical microscopy under polarized light was utilized along with fracture surface analysis and found to be a useful technique in determining the detailed microdeformation mechanisms of both matrix and short-fiber-reinforced systems. Fiber-reinforcement efficiency in terms of both stiffness and strength was found to be strongly dependent on the fiber length and fiber-volume fraction.

  9. Onboard Short Term Plan Viewer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Tim; LeBlanc, Troy; Ulman, Brian; McDonald, Aaron; Gramm, Paul; Chang, Li-Min; Keerthi, Suman; Kivlovitz, Dov; Hadlock, Jason

    2011-01-01

    Onboard Short Term Plan Viewer (OSTPV) is a computer program for electronic display of mission plans and timelines, both aboard the International Space Station (ISS) and in ISS ground control stations located in several countries. OSTPV was specifically designed both (1) for use within the limited ISS computing environment and (2) to be compatible with computers used in ground control stations. OSTPV supplants a prior system in which, aboard the ISS, timelines were printed on paper and incorporated into files that also contained other paper documents. Hence, the introduction of OSTPV has both reduced the consumption of resources and saved time in updating plans and timelines. OSTPV accepts, as input, the mission timeline output of a legacy, print-oriented, UNIX-based program called "Consolidated Planning System" and converts the timeline information for display in an interactive, dynamic, Windows Web-based graphical user interface that is used by both the ISS crew and ground control teams in real time. OSTPV enables the ISS crew to electronically indicate execution of timeline steps, launch electronic procedures, and efficiently report to ground control teams on the statuses of ISS activities, all by use of laptop computers aboard the ISS.

  10. Inertial Rise in Short Capillaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shardt, Orest; Waghmare, Prashant; Mitra, Sushanta; Derksen, Jos

    2013-11-01

    We investigate the primarily inertial rise of liquid in vertical glass capillaries that are shorter than the equilibrium rise height (Jurin height). We focus on the behavior of the liquid upon reaching the top of the capillary and use high-speed imaging to observe the motion of the liquid-air interface with high spatial and temporal resolution. We examine the dependence of the interface behavior on the meniscus speed and capillary height and describe a new phenomenon. Upon reaching the upper edge of a sufficiently short capillary, the meniscus inverts, rises upward, and bulges out radially. The bulging liquid then wets the external surface of the capillary and slides down. The meniscus inside the capillary retracts, falling below the upper edge, and then oscillates vertically with decaying amplitude, inverting several times before reaching a steady shape. A theoretical analysis is used to interpret the conditions required for this phenomenon to occur. A key assumption in the analysis is that the transient flow is inertial and therefore the capillary driving force is balanced by the weight and inertia of the rising liquid column while viscous forces are comparatively small. The analysis points to the possibility of obtaining previously-unseen behavior under reduced gravity.

  11. Child Dental Neglect: A Short Review

    PubMed Central

    Ramazani, Nahid

    2014-01-01

    Context: Child dental neglect is a terrible tragedy with a high prevalence. Dealing with this issue is important regarding psychological and physical health policies. The current review was conducted to provide health professionals insight into the different aspects of child dental neglect as reported in previous literature. Evidence Acquisition: Our review was prepared through an electronic search using Pub Med, Science Direct, Medline, Google, Cochran Library, Google Scholar and EMBASE databases. Relevant papers published since 2000 until now in English, discussing child dental neglect were retrieved. Both original and review papers were included. Eligible articles were fully read by the author. A data form was used to record useful findings. Results: Distinguishing the direct and indirect signs of dental neglect is the first step for improvement of this matter. The dental team are the main professionals who can improve parental knowledge about the consequences of child dental neglect. Victims suffer from short and long-term adverse outcomes. Collaborative attempts need to be made by different health professionals to deal with this problem. Conclusions: Child dental neglect has many long-term impacts. The main professionals who are responsible for identification, intervention and treatment of child dental neglect are dental practitioners. However, other professionals cannot ignore this task. Finally, child dental neglect, despite its derivative outcomes, may be a presentation of a broader maltreatment. PMID:25741483

  12. Nucleon form factors '99

    SciTech Connect

    Kees de Jager; B. Pire

    1999-06-01

    The authors review recent progress in the experimental knowledge of and theoretical speculations about nucleon form factors, with special emphasis on the large Q{sup 2} region. There is now a long history of continuous progress in the understanding of electromagnetic form factors at large momentum transfer. After the pioneering works leading to the celebrated quark counting rules, the understanding of hard scattering exclusive processes has been solidly founded. A perturbative QCD subprocess is factorized from a wave function-like distribution amplitude {var_phi}(x{sub i},Q{sup 2}) (x{sub i} being the light cone fractions of momentum carried by valence quarks), the Q{sup 2} dependence of which is analyzed in the renormalization group approach. Although an asymptotic expression emerges from this analysis for the x dependence of the distribution, it was quickly understood that the evolution to the asymptotic Q{sub 2} is very slow and that indeed some non perturbative input is required to get reliable estimates of this distribution amplitude at measurable Q{sup 2}.

  13. Thermal Processing of Solids though the Short Circuit Instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNally, C. P.; Hubbard, A.; Mac Low, M.-M.; Ebel, D. S.; D'Alessio, P.

    2013-07-01

    The turbulent magnetohydrodynamic flow in the inner regions of a protoplanetary disk forms thin current sheets. These sheets are sites of magnetic reconnection and dissipate the magnetic fields amplified by the disk dynamo. In our own solar system, meteorites record a history of intermittent heating events: meteoritic chondrules were formed in the early Solar System by brief heating of silicate dust to melting temperatures. We suggest that our recently described short-circuit instability concentrates the heating in current sheets enough heat precursor grains for chondrules and other high-temperature minerals. By including the effects of radiative cooling, taking into account the extremely sharp temperature dependency of the opacity, we find two classes of short-circuit event with peak temperatures of ~1600K and ~2100K, set by the dust destruction temperature and the saturation of potassium ionization. The volume-filling nature of turbulent magnetic reconnection is compatible with constraints from formation of high temperature minerals: continuous processing over millions of years in the early solar system, the occurrence of igneous rims, compound chondrules, chondrule-matrix complementarity, and chondrule-chondrule complementarity. The same short-circuit mechanism may perform high-temperature mineral processing continuously in protoplanetary disks, producing not just chondrules but also crystalline silicates and CAIs. As the mechanism is most efficient at the lowest temperatures where the disk is magnetically active, the inner edge of a dead zone is a particularly important region for short-circuit heating events. As the edge of the dead zone moves, both secularly and during outbursts (such as FU Ori), large regions of the inner disk may experience short-circuit heating events.

  14. Pion form factor

    SciTech Connect

    Ryong Ji, C.; Pang, A.; Szczepaniak, A.

    1994-04-01

    It is pointed out that the correct criterion to define the legal PQCD contribution to the exclusive processes in the lightcone perturbative expansion should be based on the large off-shellness of the lightcone energy in the intermediate states. In the lightcone perturbative QCD calculation of the pion form factor, the authors find that the legal PQCD contribution defined by the lightcone energy cut saturates in the smaller Q{sup 2} region compared to that defined by the gluon four-momentum square cut. This is due to the contribution by the highly off-energy-shell gluons in the end point regions of the phase space, indicating that the gluon four-momentum-square cut may have cut too much to define the legal PQCD.

  15. Nucleon Electromagnetic Form Factors

    SciTech Connect

    Marc Vanderhaeghen; Charles Perdrisat; Vina Punjabi

    2007-10-01

    There has been much activity in the measurement of the elastic electromagnetic proton and neutron form factors in the last decade, and the quality of the data has greatly improved by performing double polarization experiments, in comparison with previous unpolarized data. Here we review the experimental data base in view of the new results for the proton, and neutron, obtained at JLab, MAMI, and MIT-Bates. The rapid evolution of phenomenological models triggered by these high-precision experiments will be discussed, including the recent progress in the determination of the valence quark generalized parton distributions of the nucleon, as well as the steady rate of improvements made in the lattice QCD calculations.

  16. Shell forming apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Taylor G. (Inventor); Granett, Dan (Inventor); Akutagawa, Wesley M. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A nozzle assembly is described for use in a system that forms small gas-filled shells, which avoids the need for holding a miniature inner nozzle precisely concentric with a miniature outer nozzle. The outer nozzle has a diameter which is less than about 0.7 millimeter, which results in fluid passing through the nozzle having a progressively greater velocity at locations progressively further from the walls of the outer nozzle across most of the nozzle. This highly variable velocity profile automatically forces gas to the center of the outer nozzle. The end of the inner nozzle, which emits gas, is spaced upstream from the tip of the outer nozzle, to provide a distance along which to center the gas. This self-centering characteristic permits the inner nozzle to be positioned so its axis is not concentric with the axis of the outer nozzle.

  17. Shell forming system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kendall, Jr., James M. (Inventor); Wang, Taylor G. (Inventor); Elleman, Daniel D. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    An apparatus is provided for forming gas-filled spheres of metal, glass or other material, which produces spheres (12) of uniform size and wall thickness in a relatively simple system. The system includes concentric nozzles, including an inner nozzle (18) through which gas flows and and an outer nozzle (20), which jointly define an annular passageway (50) through which a liquid flows. The flow rates are adjusted so that the gas flows at greater velocity than does the liquid, out of their respective nozzles, e.g. three times as great, in order to produce an extrusion (30) which undergoes axisymmetric oscillations resulting in the pinch off into hollow spheres with very uniform spacing. The system is useful not only where gas-filled spheres are required, but also is useful to accurately control the dispensing of solid, liquid, or gaseous materials.

  18. 78 FR 58605 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Form 8453-EMP, Form 8453-F, Form 8453-FE, Form 8879-F...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-24

    ... Internal Revenue Service Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Form 8453-EMP, Form 8453-F, Form 8453-FE, Form 8879-F, and 8879-EMP. AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice and request... comments concerning Form 8453-F, U.S. Estate of Trust Income Tax Declaration and Signature for...

  19. Forming Spirals From Shadows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-07-01

    What causes the large-scale spiral structures found in some protoplanetary disks? Most models assume theyre created by newly-forming planets, but a new study suggests that planets might have nothing to do with it.Perturbations from Planets?In some transition disks protoplanetary disks with gaps in their inner regions weve directly imaged large-scale spiral arms. Many theories currently attribute the formation of these structures to young planets: either the direct perturbations of a planet embedded in the disk cause the spirals, or theyre indirectly caused by the orbit of a planetary body outside of the arms.Another example of spiral arms detected in a protoplanetary disk, MWC 758. [NASA/ESA/ESO/M. Benisty et al.]But what if you could get spirals without any planets? A team of scientists led by Matas Montesinos (University of Chile) have recently published a study in which they examine what happens to a shadowed protoplanetary disk.Casting Shadows with WarpsIn the teams setup, they envision a protoplanetary disk that is warped: the inner region is slightly tilted relative to the outer region. As the central star casts light out over its protoplanetary disk, this disk warping would cause some regions of the disk to be shaded in a way that isnt axially symmetric with potentially interesting implications.Montesinos and collaborators ran 2D hydrodynamics simulations to determine what happens to the motion of particles within the disk when they pass in and out of the shadowed regions. Since the shadowed regions are significantly colder than the illuminated disk, the pressure in these regions is much lower. Particles are therefore accelerated and decelerated as they pass through these regions, and the lack of axial symmetry causes spiral density waves to form in the disk as a result.Initial profile for the stellar heating rate per unit area for one of the authors simulations. The regions shadowed as a result of the disk warp subtend 0.5 radians each (shown on the left

  20. Short GRB Prompt and Afterglow Correlations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gehrels, Neil

    2007-01-01

    The Swift data set on short GRBs has now grown large enough to study correlations of key parameters. The goal is to compare long and short bursts to better understand similarities and differences in the burst origins. In this study we consider the both prompt and afterglow fluxes. It is found that the optical, X-ray and gamma-ray emissions are linearly correlated - stronger bursts tend to have brighter afterglows, and bursts with brighter X-ray afterglow tend to have brighter optical afterglow. Both the prompt and afterglow fluxes are, on average, lower for short bursts than for long. Although there are short GRBs with undetected optical emission, there is no evidence for "dark" short bursts with anomalously low opt/X ratios. The weakest short bursts have a low X-ray/gamma-ray ratio.