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Sample records for 3683 2631 1578

  1. 10 CFR 36.83 - Reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reports. 36.83 Section 36.83 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR IRRADIATORS Records § 36.83 Reports. (a) In addition to the reporting requirements in other parts of NRC regulations, the licensee shall report...

  2. 10 CFR 36.83 - Reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Reports. 36.83 Section 36.83 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR IRRADIATORS Records § 36.83 Reports. (a) In addition to the reporting requirements in other parts of NRC regulations, the licensee shall report...

  3. 12 CFR 368.3 - Business conduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Business conduct. 368.3 Section 368.3 Banks and... SECURITIES SALES PRACTICES § 368.3 Business conduct. A bank that is a government securities broker or dealer... conduct of its business as a government securities broker or dealer....

  4. 12 CFR 368.3 - Business conduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Business conduct. 368.3 Section 368.3 Banks and... SECURITIES SALES PRACTICES § 368.3 Business conduct. A bank that is a government securities broker or dealer... conduct of its business as a government securities broker or dealer....

  5. 12 CFR 368.3 - Business conduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Business conduct. 368.3 Section 368.3 Banks and... SECURITIES SALES PRACTICES § 368.3 Business conduct. A bank that is a government securities broker or dealer... conduct of its business as a government securities broker or dealer....

  6. 12 CFR 368.3 - Business conduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Business conduct. 368.3 Section 368.3 Banks and... SECURITIES SALES PRACTICES § 368.3 Business conduct. A bank that is a government securities broker or dealer... conduct of its business as a government securities broker or dealer....

  7. 20 CFR 368.3 - Vending machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vending machines. 368.3 Section 368.3 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD INTERNAL ADMINISTRATION, POLICY AND PROCEDURES PROHIBITION OF CIGARETTE SALES TO MINORS § 368.3 Vending machines. The sale of tobacco products in vending machines...

  8. 20 CFR 368.3 - Vending machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Vending machines. 368.3 Section 368.3 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD INTERNAL ADMINISTRATION, POLICY AND PROCEDURES PROHIBITION OF CIGARETTE SALES TO MINORS § 368.3 Vending machines. The sale of tobacco products in vending machines...

  9. 20 CFR 368.3 - Vending machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Vending machines. 368.3 Section 368.3 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD INTERNAL ADMINISTRATION, POLICY AND PROCEDURES PROHIBITION OF CIGARETTE SALES TO MINORS § 368.3 Vending machines. The sale of tobacco products in vending machines...

  10. 20 CFR 368.3 - Vending machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Vending machines. 368.3 Section 368.3 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD INTERNAL ADMINISTRATION, POLICY AND PROCEDURES PROHIBITION OF CIGARETTE SALES TO MINORS § 368.3 Vending machines. The sale of tobacco products in vending machines...

  11. 20 CFR 368.3 - Vending machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Vending machines. 368.3 Section 368.3 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD INTERNAL ADMINISTRATION, POLICY AND PROCEDURES PROHIBITION OF CIGARETTE SALES TO MINORS § 368.3 Vending machines. The sale of tobacco products in vending machines...

  12. 12 CFR 368.3 - Business conduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Business conduct. 368.3 Section 368.3 Banks and... SECURITIES SALES PRACTICES § 368.3 Business conduct. A bank that is a government securities broker or dealer... conduct of its business as a government securities broker or dealer....

  13. 32 CFR 263.1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions. 263.1 Section 263.1 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS TRAFFIC AND VEHICLE CONTROL ON CERTAIN DEFENSE MAPPING AGENCY SITES § 263.1 Definitions. As used in...

  14. 43 CFR 2631.4 - Patents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Patents. 2631.4 Section 2631.4 Public... OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) RAILROAD GRANTS Patents for Lands Sold by Railroad Carriers (Transportation Act of 1940) § 2631.4 Patents. If all be found regular and in conformity with...

  15. 43 CFR 2631.4 - Patents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Patents. 2631.4 Section 2631.4 Public... OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) RAILROAD GRANTS Patents for Lands Sold by Railroad Carriers (Transportation Act of 1940) § 2631.4 Patents. If all be found regular and in conformity with...

  16. 43 CFR 2631.4 - Patents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Patents. 2631.4 Section 2631.4 Public... OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) RAILROAD GRANTS Patents for Lands Sold by Railroad Carriers (Transportation Act of 1940) § 2631.4 Patents. If all be found regular and in conformity with...

  17. 43 CFR 2631.4 - Patents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Patents. 2631.4 Section 2631.4 Public... OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) RAILROAD GRANTS Patents for Lands Sold by Railroad Carriers (Transportation Act of 1940) § 2631.4 Patents. If all be found regular and in conformity with...

  18. 50 CFR 26.31 - General provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false General provisions. 26.31 Section 26.31 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM PUBLIC ENTRY AND USE Public Use and Recreation § 26.31 General provisions. Public recreation will be permitted...

  19. 50 CFR 26.31 - General provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General provisions. 26.31 Section 26.31 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM PUBLIC ENTRY AND USE Public Use and Recreation § 26.31 General provisions. Public recreation will be permitted...

  20. 27 CFR 26.31 - Formula.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formula. 26.31 Section 26... States From Areas Other Than Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands § 26.31 Formula. (a) The amount of excise.... The formula shall be as follows: (1) Multiply the total excise taxes collected on rum brought into...

  1. 37 CFR 263.1 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General. 263.1 Section 263.1 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT ARBITRATION ROYALTY... payments for the public performance of sound recordings in certain digital transmissions by...

  2. 37 CFR 263.1 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false General. 263.1 Section 263.1 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT ARBITRATION ROYALTY... payments for the public performance of sound recordings in certain digital transmissions by...

  3. 37 CFR 263.1 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false General. 263.1 Section 263.1 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT ARBITRATION ROYALTY... payments for the public performance of sound recordings in certain digital transmissions by...

  4. 37 CFR 263.1 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false General. 263.1 Section 263.1 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights U.S. COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT ARBITRATION... payments for the public performance of sound recordings in certain digital transmissions by...

  5. 24 CFR 26.31 - Time computations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Time computations. 26.31 Section 26... HEARING PROCEDURES Hearings Pursuant to the Administrative Procedure Act § 26.31 Time computations. (a) General. In computing any period of time under subpart B of this part, the time period begins the...

  6. 24 CFR 26.31 - Time computations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Time computations. 26.31 Section 26... HEARING PROCEDURES Hearings Pursuant to the Administrative Procedure Act § 26.31 Time computations. (a) General. In computing any period of time under subpart B of this part, the time period begins the...

  7. 37 CFR 263.1 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false General. 263.1 Section 263.1 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT ARBITRATION ROYALTY... payments for the public performance of sound recordings in certain digital transmissions by...

  8. 24 CFR 26.31 - Time computations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Time computations. 26.31 Section 26... HEARING PROCEDURES Hearings Pursuant to the Administrative Procedure Act § 26.31 Time computations. (a) General. In computing any period of time under subpart B of this part, the time period begins the...

  9. 24 CFR 26.31 - Time computations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Time computations. 26.31 Section 26... HEARING PROCEDURES Hearings Pursuant to the Administrative Procedure Act § 26.31 Time computations. (a) General. In computing any period of time under subpart B of this part, the time period begins the...

  10. 24 CFR 26.31 - Time computations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Time computations. 26.31 Section 26... HEARING PROCEDURES Hearings Pursuant to the Administrative Procedure Act § 26.31 Time computations. (a) General. In computing any period of time under subpart B of this part, the time period begins the...

  11. 50 CFR 26.31 - General provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM PUBLIC ENTRY AND USE Public Use and Recreation § 26.31 General provisions. Public recreation will be permitted on national wildlife refuges as an appropriate incidental or... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false General provisions. 26.31 Section...

  12. 50 CFR 26.31 - General provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM PUBLIC ENTRY AND USE Public Use and Recreation § 26.31 General provisions. Public recreation will be permitted on national wildlife refuges as an appropriate incidental or... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false General provisions. 26.31 Section...

  13. 50 CFR 26.31 - General provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM PUBLIC ENTRY AND USE Public Use and Recreation § 26.31 General provisions. Public recreation will be permitted on national wildlife refuges as an appropriate incidental or... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false General provisions. 26.31 Section...

  14. 43 CFR 2631.0-3 - Authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Authority. 2631.0-3 Section 2631.0-3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) RAILROAD GRANTS Patents for Lands Sold by Railroad Carriers (Transportation Act of 1940) §...

  15. 7 CFR 51.1578 - Off-Grade potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Off-Grade potatoes. 51.1578 Section 51.1578... (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Consumer Standards for Potatoes Off-Grade § 51.1578 Off-Grade potatoes. Potatoes which fail to meet the requirements of any of the foregoing grades...

  16. 7 CFR 51.1578 - Off-Grade potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Off-Grade potatoes. 51.1578 Section 51.1578... STANDARDS) United States Consumer Standards for Potatoes Off-Grade § 51.1578 Off-Grade potatoes. Potatoes which fail to meet the requirements of any of the foregoing grades shall be Off-Grade...

  17. 7 CFR 51.1578 - Off-Grade potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Off-Grade potatoes. 51.1578 Section 51.1578... STANDARDS) United States Consumer Standards for Potatoes Off-Grade § 51.1578 Off-Grade potatoes. Potatoes which fail to meet the requirements of any of the foregoing grades shall be Off-Grade...

  18. 7 CFR 51.1578 - Off-Grade potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Off-Grade potatoes. 51.1578 Section 51.1578... (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Consumer Standards for Potatoes Off-Grade § 51.1578 Off-Grade potatoes. Potatoes which fail to meet the requirements of any of the foregoing grades...

  19. 7 CFR 51.1578 - Off-Grade potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Off-Grade potatoes. 51.1578 Section 51.1578... STANDARDS) United States Consumer Standards for Potatoes Off-Grade § 51.1578 Off-Grade potatoes. Potatoes which fail to meet the requirements of any of the foregoing grades shall be Off-Grade...

  20. 39 CFR 263.1 - Purpose and scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Purpose and scope. 263.1 Section 263.1 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION RECORDS RETENTION AND DISPOSITION § 263.1 Purpose and scope. This part contains the policy and general regulations pertaining to...

  1. 39 CFR 263.1 - Purpose and scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Purpose and scope. 263.1 Section 263.1 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION RECORDS RETENTION AND DISPOSITION § 263.1 Purpose and scope. This part contains the policy and general regulations pertaining to...

  2. 39 CFR 263.1 - Purpose and scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Purpose and scope. 263.1 Section 263.1 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION RECORDS RETENTION AND DISPOSITION § 263.1 Purpose and scope. This part contains the policy and general regulations pertaining to...

  3. 39 CFR 263.1 - Purpose and scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Purpose and scope. 263.1 Section 263.1 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION RECORDS RETENTION AND DISPOSITION § 263.1 Purpose and scope. This part contains the policy and general regulations pertaining to...

  4. 43 CFR 2631.2 - Publication of notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Publication of notice. 2631.2 Section 2631... Carriers (Transportation Act of 1940) § 2631.2 Publication of notice. The authorizing officer shall direct the publication of notice of the application. The notice will be published at the carrier's expense...

  5. 43 CFR 2631.2 - Publication of notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Publication of notice. 2631.2 Section 2631... Carriers (Transportation Act of 1940) § 2631.2 Publication of notice. The authorizing officer shall direct the publication of notice of the application. The notice will be published at the carrier's expense...

  6. 21 CFR 26.31 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE QUALITY SYSTEM AUDIT REPORTS, AND CERTAIN MEDICAL DEVICE PRODUCT EVALUATION REPORTS: UNITED STATES AND THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITY Specific Sector Provisions for Medical Devices § 26.31 Purpose. (a) The purpose of this subpart is to specify the...

  7. 21 CFR 26.31 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE QUALITY SYSTEM AUDIT REPORTS, AND CERTAIN MEDICAL DEVICE PRODUCT EVALUATION REPORTS: UNITED STATES AND THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITY Specific Sector Provisions for Medical Devices § 26.31 Purpose. (a) The purpose of this subpart is to specify the...

  8. 21 CFR 26.31 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE QUALITY SYSTEM AUDIT REPORTS, AND CERTAIN MEDICAL DEVICE PRODUCT EVALUATION REPORTS: UNITED STATES AND THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITY Specific Sector Provisions for Medical Devices § 26.31 Purpose. (a) The purpose of this subpart is to specify the...

  9. 43 CFR 2631.3 - Surveying and conveyance fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Surveying and conveyance fees. 2631.3... by Railroad Carriers (Transportation Act of 1940) § 2631.3 Surveying and conveyance fees. The carrier must pay the cost of the survey of the land, paying also one-half the cost of any segregation survey...

  10. 43 CFR 2631.3 - Surveying and conveyance fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Surveying and conveyance fees. 2631.3... by Railroad Carriers (Transportation Act of 1940) § 2631.3 Surveying and conveyance fees. The carrier must pay the cost of the survey of the land, paying also one-half the cost of any segregation survey...

  11. 43 CFR 2631.3 - Surveying and conveyance fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Surveying and conveyance fees. 2631.3... by Railroad Carriers (Transportation Act of 1940) § 2631.3 Surveying and conveyance fees. The carrier must pay the cost of the survey of the land, paying also one-half the cost of any segregation survey...

  12. 49 CFR 193.2631 - Internal corrosion control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Internal corrosion control. 193.2631 Section 193... GAS FACILITIES: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Maintenance § 193.2631 Internal corrosion control. Each component that is subject to internal corrosive attack must be protected from internal corrosion by—...

  13. 49 CFR 193.2631 - Internal corrosion control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Internal corrosion control. 193.2631 Section 193... GAS FACILITIES: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Maintenance § 193.2631 Internal corrosion control. Each component that is subject to internal corrosive attack must be protected from internal corrosion by—...

  14. 49 CFR 193.2631 - Internal corrosion control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Internal corrosion control. 193.2631 Section 193... GAS FACILITIES: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Maintenance § 193.2631 Internal corrosion control. Each component that is subject to internal corrosive attack must be protected from internal corrosion by—...

  15. 49 CFR 193.2631 - Internal corrosion control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Internal corrosion control. 193.2631 Section 193... GAS FACILITIES: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Maintenance § 193.2631 Internal corrosion control. Each component that is subject to internal corrosive attack must be protected from internal corrosion by—...

  16. 49 CFR 193.2631 - Internal corrosion control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Internal corrosion control. 193.2631 Section 193... GAS FACILITIES: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Maintenance § 193.2631 Internal corrosion control. Each component that is subject to internal corrosive attack must be protected from internal corrosion by—...

  17. Heat transfer in a fuel pin shipping container. [IDENT 1578

    SciTech Connect

    Ingham, J.G.

    1980-11-11

    Maximum cladding temperatures occur when the IDENT 1578 fuel pin shipping container is installed in the T-3 Cask. The maximum allowable cladding temperature of 800/sup 0/F is reached when the rate of energy deposited in the 19-pin basket reaches 400 watts. Since 45% of the energy which is generated in the fuel escapes the 19-pin basket without being deposited, mostly gamma energy, the maximum allowable rate of heat generation is 400/.55 = 727 watts. Similarly, the maximum allowable cladding temperature of 800/sup 0/F is reached when the rate of energy deposited in the 40-pin basket reaches 465 watts. Since 33% of the energy which is generated in the fuel escapes the 40-pin basket without being deposited, mostly gamma energy, the maximum allowable rate of heat generation is 465/.66 = 704 watts. The IDENT 1578 fuel pin shipping container therefore meets its thermal design criteria. IDENT 1578 can handle fuel pins with a decay heat load of 600 watts while maintaining the maximum fuel pin cladding temperature below 800/sup 0/F. The emissivities which were determined from the test results for the basket tubes and container are relatively low and correspond to new, shiny conditions. As the IDENT 1578 container is exposed to high temperatures for extended periods of time during the transportation of fuel pins, the emissivities will probably increase. This will result in reduced temperatures.

  18. Thermal analysis of the IDENT 1578 fuel pin shipping container

    SciTech Connect

    Ingham, J.G.

    1980-01-01

    The IDENT 1578 container, which is a 110-in. long 5.5-in. OD tube, is designed for shipping FFTF fuel elements in T-3 casks between HEDL, HFEF, and other laboratories. The thermal analysis was conducted to evaluate whether or not the container satisfies its thermal design criteria (handle a decay heat load of 600 watts, max fuel pin cladding temperature not exceeding 800/sup 0/F).

  19. 18 CFR 157.8 - Acceptance for filing or rejection of applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... or rejection of applications. 157.8 Section 157.8 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL... Acceptance for filing or rejection of applications. Applications will be docketed when received and the... chapter. This rejection is without prejudice to an applicant's refiling a complete application....

  20. 18 CFR 157.8 - Acceptance for filing or rejection of applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... or rejection of applications. 157.8 Section 157.8 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL... Acceptance for filing or rejection of applications. Applications will be docketed when received and the... chapter. This rejection is without prejudice to an applicant's refiling a complete application....

  1. 18 CFR 157.8 - Acceptance for filing or rejection of applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... or rejection of applications. 157.8 Section 157.8 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL... Acceptance for filing or rejection of applications. Applications will be docketed when received and the... chapter. This rejection is without prejudice to an applicant's refiling a complete application....

  2. 75 FR 58350 - Endangered Species; Permit No. 1578-01; and Permit No. 1595-04

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-24

    ...Notice is hereby given the following applicants have applied in due form for modifications to permits (Permit Nos. 1578 and 1595-03) to take shortnose sturgeon for purposes of scientific research:Maine Department of Marine Resources (MDMR) (Gail S. Wippelhauser, Principal Investigator), 21 State House Station, Augusta, ME, 04333 (Permit No. 1578); and Michael M. Hastings, University of Maine,......

  3. 18 CFR 157.8 - Acceptance for filing or rejection of applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Acceptance for filing or rejection of applications. 157.8 Section 157.8 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER NATURAL GAS ACT APPLICATIONS FOR CERTIFICATES OF PUBLIC CONVENIENCE AND...

  4. 34 CFR 263.1 - What is the Professional Development program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is the Professional Development program? 263.1... Development Program § 263.1 What is the Professional Development program? (a) The Professional Development... Professional Development program requires individuals who receive training to— (1) Perform work related to...

  5. 34 CFR 263.1 - What is the Professional Development program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What is the Professional Development program? 263.1... Development Program § 263.1 What is the Professional Development program? (a) The Professional Development... Professional Development program requires individuals who receive training to— (1) Perform work related to...

  6. 34 CFR 263.1 - What is the Professional Development program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What is the Professional Development program? 263.1... Development Program § 263.1 What is the Professional Development program? (a) The Professional Development... Professional Development program requires individuals who receive training to— (1) Perform work related to...

  7. 34 CFR 263.1 - What is the Professional Development program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What is the Professional Development program? 263.1... Development Program § 263.1 What is the Professional Development program? (a) The Professional Development... Professional Development program requires individuals who receive training to— (1) Perform work related to...

  8. 34 CFR 263.1 - What is the Professional Development program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What is the Professional Development program? 263.1... Development Program § 263.1 What is the Professional Development program? (a) The Professional Development... Professional Development program requires individuals who receive training to— (1) Perform work related to...

  9. 43 CFR 2631.0-8 - Lands for which applications may be made.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Lands for which applications may be made. 2631.0-8 Section 2631.0-8 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) RAILROAD GRANTS Patents for Lands Sold by Railroad Carriers...

  10. Biochemical Characterization and Validation of a Catalytic Site of a Highly Thermostable Ts2631 Endolysin from the Thermus scotoductus Phage vB_Tsc2631

    PubMed Central

    Plotka, Magdalena; Kaczorowska, Anna-Karina; Morzywolek, Agnieszka; Makowska, Joanna; Kozlowski, Lukasz P.; Thorisdottir, Audur; Skírnisdottir, Sigurlaug; Hjörleifsdottir, Sigridur; Fridjonsson, Olafur H.; Hreggvidsson, Gudmundur O.; Kristjansson, Jakob K.; Dabrowski, Slawomir; Bujnicki, Janusz M.; Kaczorowski, Tadeusz

    2015-01-01

    Phage vB_Tsc2631 infects the extremophilic bacterium Thermus scotoductus MAT2631 and uses the Ts2631 endolysin for the release of its progeny. The Ts2631 endolysin is the first endolysin from thermophilic bacteriophage with an experimentally validated catalytic site. In silico analysis and computational modelling of the Ts2631 endolysin structure revealed a conserved Zn2+ binding site (His30, Tyr58, His131 and Cys139) similar to Zn2+ binding site of eukaryotic peptidoglycan recognition proteins (PGRPs). We have shown that the Ts2631 endolysin lytic activity is dependent on divalent metal ions (Zn2+ and Ca2+). The Ts2631 endolysin substitution variants H30N, Y58F, H131N and C139S dramatically lost their antimicrobial activity, providing evidence for the role of the aforementioned residues in the lytic activity of the enzyme. The enzyme has proven to be not only thermoresistant, retaining 64.8% of its initial activity after 2 h at 95°C, but also highly thermodynamically stable (Tm = 99.82°C, ΔHcal = 4.58 × 104 cal mol-1). Substitutions of histidine residues (H30N and H131N) and a cysteine residue (C139S) resulted in variants aggregating at temperatures ≥75°C, indicating a significant role of these residues in enzyme thermostability. The substrate spectrum of the Ts2631 endolysin included extremophiles of the genus Thermus but also Gram-negative mesophiles, such as Escherichia coli, Salmonella panama, Pseudomonas fluorescens and Serratia marcescens. The broad substrate spectrum and high thermostability of this endolysin makes it a good candidate for use as an antimicrobial agent to combat Gram-negative pathogens. PMID:26375388

  11. Biochemical Characterization and Validation of a Catalytic Site of a Highly Thermostable Ts2631 Endolysin from the Thermus scotoductus Phage vB_Tsc2631.

    PubMed

    Plotka, Magdalena; Kaczorowska, Anna-Karina; Morzywolek, Agnieszka; Makowska, Joanna; Kozlowski, Lukasz P; Thorisdottir, Audur; Skírnisdottir, Sigurlaug; Hjörleifsdottir, Sigridur; Fridjonsson, Olafur H; Hreggvidsson, Gudmundur O; Kristjansson, Jakob K; Dabrowski, Slawomir; Bujnicki, Janusz M; Kaczorowski, Tadeusz

    2015-01-01

    Phage vB_Tsc2631 infects the extremophilic bacterium Thermus scotoductus MAT2631 and uses the Ts2631 endolysin for the release of its progeny. The Ts2631 endolysin is the first endolysin from thermophilic bacteriophage with an experimentally validated catalytic site. In silico analysis and computational modelling of the Ts2631 endolysin structure revealed a conserved Zn2+ binding site (His30, Tyr58, His131 and Cys139) similar to Zn2+ binding site of eukaryotic peptidoglycan recognition proteins (PGRPs). We have shown that the Ts2631 endolysin lytic activity is dependent on divalent metal ions (Zn2+ and Ca2+). The Ts2631 endolysin substitution variants H30N, Y58F, H131N and C139S dramatically lost their antimicrobial activity, providing evidence for the role of the aforementioned residues in the lytic activity of the enzyme. The enzyme has proven to be not only thermoresistant, retaining 64.8% of its initial activity after 2 h at 95°C, but also highly thermodynamically stable (Tm = 99.82°C, ΔHcal = 4.58 × 10(4) cal mol(-1)). Substitutions of histidine residues (H30N and H131N) and a cysteine residue (C139S) resulted in variants aggregating at temperatures ≥75°C, indicating a significant role of these residues in enzyme thermostability. The substrate spectrum of the Ts2631 endolysin included extremophiles of the genus Thermus but also Gram-negative mesophiles, such as Escherichia coli, Salmonella panama, Pseudomonas fluorescens and Serratia marcescens. The broad substrate spectrum and high thermostability of this endolysin makes it a good candidate for use as an antimicrobial agent to combat Gram-negative pathogens. PMID:26375388

  12. Health risk evaluation of whole-body vibration by ISO 2631-5 and ISO 2631-1 for operators of agricultural tractors and recreational vehicles.

    PubMed

    Park, Min-Soo; Fukuda, Takabumi; Kim, Tae-Gu; Maeda, Setsuo

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents experimental research evaluation of the vibration exposure for the health risk prediction during vehicle operation. The vibration measurements were carried out on a recreational vehicle and two types of agricultural tractors. The vibration levels were measured for different surfaces and vehicle speed conditions. Based on the analysis of the results in the small agricultural tractor operated in the workplace (frameworks), Sed exceeded 0.80 MPa by ISO2631-5:2004, and Av exceeded 0.89 m/s(2) by ISO2631-1:1997. That means that operators driving small agricultural tractors more than 8 h a day have a high probability of adverse health effects. However, the exposure value for the recreational vehicle had Sed < 0.5 MPa by ISO2631-5:2004 and Av < 0.5 m/s(2) by ISO2631-1:1997 on highways and local roads. That means Recreational Vehicle operators driving more than 8 h a day, have a low probability of adverse health effects. Also, for the recreational vehicle, vibration was taken at different speeds (40-60 km/h, 80 km/h, 100-120 km/h). However, the speed change did not appear to affect the vibration dose variation while driving a vehicle on the highway and road. Finally, the health effect index of ISO2631-5:2004 are almost the same as assessment of health effect by ISO2631-1:1997. PMID:23558167

  13. 40 CFR 721.1578 - 1,4-Benzenedicarboxylic acid, bis[[4-[(ethenyloxy)methyl] cyclohexyl] methyl] ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... cyclohexyl] methyl] ester. 721.1578 Section 721.1578 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...] methyl] ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as 1,4-benzenedicarboxylic acid, bis cyclohexyl] methyl] ester (PMN P-98-1164; CAS...

  14. 40 CFR 721.1578 - 1,4-Benzenedicarboxylic acid, bis[[4-[(ethenyloxy)methyl] cyclohexyl] methyl] ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... cyclohexyl] methyl] ester. 721.1578 Section 721.1578 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...] methyl] ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as 1,4-benzenedicarboxylic acid, bis cyclohexyl] methyl] ester (PMN P-98-1164; CAS...

  15. NQRS Data for C24H20BRb (Subst. No. 1578)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chihara, H.; Nakamura, N.

    This document is part of Subvolume B 'Substances Containing C10H16 … Zn' of Volume 48 'Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance Spectroscopy Data' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group III 'Condensed Matter'. It contains an extract of Section '3.2 Data tables' of the Chapter '3 Nuclear quadrupole resonance data' providing the NQRS data for C24H20BRb (Subst. No. 1578)

  16. 40 CFR 63.1578 - Who implements and enforces this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Who implements and enforces this... National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Petroleum Refineries: Catalytic Cracking Units, Catalytic Reforming Units, and Sulfur Recovery Units Other Requirements and Information § 63.1578...

  17. 40 CFR 63.1578 - Who implements and enforces this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Who implements and enforces this... National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Petroleum Refineries: Catalytic Cracking Units, Catalytic Reforming Units, and Sulfur Recovery Units Other Requirements and Information § 63.1578...

  18. A historical case of amelogenesis imperfecta: Giovanna of Austria, Grand Duchess of Tuscany (1547-1578).

    PubMed

    Giuffra, Valentina; Panetta, Daniele; Salvadori, Piero A; Fornaciari, Gino

    2014-02-01

    The skeletal remains of Giovanna of Austria (1547-1578), daughter of the Emperor Ferdinand I of Habsburg (1503-1564) and first wife of the Grand Duke of Tuscany, Francesco I (1541-1587), exhumed from the Basilica of San Lorenzo in Florence, were submitted to paleopathological study. Examination of the dentition, which was in a good state of preservation, showed maxillary retrognathism, together with a caries lesion, moderate periodontal disease, malposition of the upper second premolars and tooth wear. Furthermore, several horizontal grooves were observed in both the buccal and the lingual crown surfaces of almost all teeth, especially the anterior ones. The orthopantomogram showed hypomineralized enamel and alveolar bone loss. Two third-molar teeth were investigated using micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) analysis, revealing highly irregular enamel caps with reduced average thickness. The observed features suggest a diagnosis of hypoplastic amelogenesis imperfecta, a developmental condition affecting enamel formation. PMID:24405030

  19. Simultaneous detection of CO and CO2 using a semiconductor DFB diode laser at 1.578 µm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabrysch, M.; Corsi, C.; Pavone, F. S.; Inguscio, M.

    1997-07-01

    One single semiconductor distributed-feedback (DFB) laser is used to demonstrate the possibility of simultaneous detection of two different molecular species. Direct absorption and low-wavelength modulation (LWM) spectroscopy were employed to investigate weak overtone transitions of CO2 and CO at a wavelength of 5=1578 nm. Sensitivity measurements under different conditions have been performed and the detection limit of the apparatus was measured to be less than 10 mTorr over a 1-m path length. In addition, we measured for the first time environmentally and spectroscopically relevant self-broadening and nitrogen-broadening coefficients for CO2 and CO in this spectral region and we discuss different possibilities for increasing the sensitivity of the apparatus.

  20. Sensitive absorption measurements of hydrogen sulfide at 1.578 μm using wavelength modulation spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Hua; Dong, Feng-Zhong; Wu, Bian; Zhang, Zhi-Rong; Pang, Tao; Sun, Peng-Shuai; Cui, Xiao-Juan; Han, Luo; Wang, Yu

    2015-03-01

    Sensitive detection of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has been performed by means of wavelength modulation spectroscopy (WMS) near 1.578 μm. With the scan amplitude and the stability of the background baseline taken into account, the response time is 4 s for a 0.8 L multi-pass cell with a 56.7 m effective optical path length. Moreover, the linearity has been tested in the 0-50 ppmv range. The detection limit achievable by the Allan variance is 224 ppb within 24 s under room temperature and ambient pressure conditions. This tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) system for H2S detection has the feasibility of real-time online monitoring in many applications. Project supported by the Special Fund for Basic Research on Scientific Instruments of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (Grant No. YZ201315) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11204320, 41405034, and 11204319).

  1. Shouldice inguinal hernia repair in the male adult: the gold standard? A multicenter controlled trial in 1578 patients.

    PubMed Central

    Hay, J M; Boudet, M J; Fingerhut, A; Poucher, J; Hennet, H; Habib, E; Veyrières, M; Flamant, Y

    1995-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hernia repair is the second most frequently performed operation in France and in the United States, the prevalence being 36 for every 1000 males. Lowering the recurrence rate by 1% would mean 1000 fewer operations for hernia repair per year in France. METHODS: Between 1983 and 1989, 1578 adult males with a total of 1706 nonrecurrent inguinal hernias were prospectively and randomly allotted to undergo either a Bassini's repair, Cooper's ligament, or Shouldice repair with polypropylene or a Shouldice repair with stainless steel for determination of which technique was associated with the lowest recurrence rate. Fifty-nine hernia repairs were withdrawn after inclusion. Of the 1647 remaining hernias, 52.2% were indirect, 25.6% were direct, and 23.2% were combined. Patients were seen every 6 months for 3 years and then every year. Median follow-up was 5 years 8 months (range, 3 months-8.5 years). RESULTS: At 8.5 years, 5.6% of hernias were lost to follow-up. Ninety-seven hernia repairs failed, 50% during the first 2 years. The actuarial recurrence rate was 7.94% at 8.5 years. The Shouldice repair (stainless steel or polypropylene) was associated with fewer recurrences (6.1%) than either the Bassini's (8.6%) or Cooper's ligament repair (11.2%) technique (p < 0.001). This difference remained significant even when the maximal bias test was used. Fewer recurrences (5.9%) were observed with the stainless steel wire Shouldice repair than with polypropylene version (6.5%), but the difference was not significant. CONCLUSIONS: Shouldice hernia repair provides the patient with the best chances of nonrecurrence regardless of the anatomical type of hernia. The Shouldice hernia repair should be the gold standard for inguinal hernia repair in men and serves as the basis for comparison with all other techniques, be they prosthetic or laparoscopic. PMID:8526578

  2. KSC-03PD-1578

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. Workers in the Payload Hazardous Servicing Facility prepare to lift and move the backshell that will cover the Mars Exploration Rover 1 (MER-1) and its lander. NASA's twin Mars Exploration Rovers are designed to study the history of water on Mars. These robotic geologists are equipped with a robotic arm, a drilling tool, three spectrometers, and four pairs of cameras that allow them to have a human-like, 3D view of the terrain. Each rover could travel as far as 100 meters in one day to act as Mars scientists' eyes and hands, exploring an environment where humans can't yet go. MER-1 is scheduled to launch June 25 as MER-B aboard a Delta II rocket from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station.

  3. Arsenic-related skin lesions and glutathione S-transferase P1 A1578G (lle105Val) polymorphism in two ethnic clans exposed to indoor combustion of high arsenic coal in one village

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, G.F.; Du, H.; Chen, J.G.; Lu, H.C.; Guo, W.C.; Meng, H.; Zhang, T.B.; Zhang, X.J.; Lu, D.R.; Golka, K.; Shen, J.H.

    2006-12-15

    A total of 2402 patients with arsenic-related skin lesions, such as hyperkeratosis, hyperpigmentation or hypopigmentation, or even skin cancer in a few villages in Southwest Guizhou Autonomous Prefecture, China represent a unique case of endemic arsenism related with indoor combustion of high arsenic coal. This study aimed to investigate the cluster of arsenism cases and the possible relevant factors including GSTP1 polymorphism in two clans of different ethnic origin living in one village for generations. Arsenism morbidity in Miao clan P was significantly lower than in the neighbouring Han clan G1 (5.9 vs. 32.7%, odds ratio (OR)=0.13, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.06-0.27, P < 0.0001). No sex differences were confirmed inside both clans. Analyses of the environmental samples indicated that Miao clan P members were exposed to higher amounts of arsenic via inhalation and food ingestion. Hair and urine samples also proved a higher arsenic body burden in ethnic Miao individuals. No corresponding differences by sex were found. Higher frequencies of combined mutant genotype G/G1578 and A/G1578 (OR=4.72, 95% CI: 2.34-9.54, P < 0.0001) and of mutant allele G1578 (OR=3.22, 95% CI: 2.00-5.18, P < 0.0001) were detected in diagnosed arsenism patients than in non-diseased individuals. The Miao individuals showed a lower percentage of combined mutant genotypes (30.6 vs. 52.7%, OR=0.40, 95% CI: 0.19-0.84, P=0.015) as well as of mutant allele G1578 (OR=0.46, 95% CI: 0.24-0.88, P=0.017) than their Han neighbours. Conclusions Genetic predisposition influences dermal arsenism toxicity. The GSTP1 A1578G (IIe105Val) status might be a susceptibility factor for arsenic-related skin lesions.

  4. Evidence for formation of KS0p resonances with masses near 1532, 1578, and 1659 MeV in neutrino interactions with nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asratyan, A. E.; Dolgolenko, A. G.; Kubantsev, M. A.

    2005-05-01

    Three baryon resonances with masses of 1532.2±1.3, 1577.7±1.9, and 1658.6±4.4MeV are observed in invariant mass of the KS0p system formed in neutrino and antineutrino collisions with deuterons and neon nuclei. Observed widths of the 1532-MeV and 1578-MeV resonances are consistent with being entirely due to apparatus smearing, and their intrinsic widths are restricted to Γ<12 and 23 MeV, respectively. For the 1659-MeV resonance, the data suggest a nonvanishing intrinsic width of Γ˜20MeV. Significance levels of the three signals are near 7.1 σ, 5.0 σ, and 4.5 σ, respectively. The Σ hypothesis for either of these three resonances is disfavored by the data on associated Λ hyperons and on formation of the Λ π system. These resonant states are tentatively interpreted as the recently discovered pentaquark baryon Θ(1530) and its spin/isospin partners. The analysis is based on neutrino data collected by past bubble-chamber experiments.

  5. Molecular cytogenetic characterisation of a mosaic add(12)(p13.3) with an inv dup(3)(q26.31 → qter) detected in an autistic boy

    PubMed Central

    Carreira, Isabel M; Melo, Joana B; Rodrigues, Carlos; Backx, Liesbeth; Vermeesch, Joris; Weise, Anja; Kosyakova, Nadezda; Oliveira, Guiomar; Matoso, Eunice

    2009-01-01

    Background Inverted duplications (inv dup) of a terminal chromosome region are a particular subset of rearrangements that often results in partial tetrasomy or partial trisomy when accompanied by a deleted chromosome. Associated mosaicism could be the consequence of a post-zygotic event or could result from the correction of a trisomic conception. Tetrasomies of distal segments of the chromosome 3q are rare genetic events and their phenotypic manifestations are diverse. To our knowledge, there are only 12 cases reported with partial 3q tetrasomy. Generally, individuals with this genomic imbalance present mild to severe developmental delay, facial dysmorphisms and skin pigmentary disorders. Results We present the results of the molecular cytogenetic characterization of an unbalanced mosaic karyotype consisting of mos 46,XY,add(12)(p13.3) [56]/46,XY [44] in a previously described 11 years old autistic boy, re-evaluated at adult age. The employment of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and multicolor banding (MCB) techniques identified the extra material on 12p to be derived from chromosome 3, defining the additional material on 12p as an inv dup(3)(qter → q26.3::q26.3 → qter). Subsequently, array-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) confirmed the breakpoint at 3q26.31, defining the extra material with a length of 24.92 Mb to be between 174.37 and 199.29 Mb. Conclusion This is the thirteenth reported case of inversion-duplication 3q, being the first one described as an inv dup translocated onto a non-homologous chromosome. The mosaic terminal inv dup(3q) observed could be the result of two proposed alternative mechanisms. The most striking feature of this case is the autistic behavior of the proband, a characteristic not shared by any other patient with tetrasomy for 3q26.31 → 3qter. The present work further illustrates the advantages of the use of an integrative cytogenetic strategy, composed both by conventional and molecular techniques, on

  6. Castelli, Benedetto (1578-1643)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Mathematician, born in Brescia, Italy, Benedictine monk, professor at Padua. GALILEO's closest scientific collaborator, he defended, and edited Galileo, he helped his sunspot research, inventing the method of projection so as to view safely the Sun's image with a telescope. His book on hydraulics, Della Misura dell'Acque Correnti, or On the Measurement of Running Waters, founded modern hydrodynam...

  7. Characterization of the MSMEG_2631 gene (mmp) encoding a multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE) family protein in Mycobacterium smegmatis and exploration of its polyspecific nature using biolog phenotype microarray.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Mukti Nath; Daniels, Lacy

    2013-04-01

    In Mycobacterium, multidrug efflux pumps can be associated with intrinsic drug resistance. Comparison of putative mycobacterial transport genes revealed a single annotated open reading frame (ORF) for a multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE) family efflux pump in all sequenced mycobacteria except Mycobacterium leprae. Since MATE efflux pumps function as multidrug efflux pumps by conferring resistance to structurally diverse antibiotics and DNA-damaging chemicals, we studied this gene (MSMEG_2631) in M. smegmatis mc(2)155 and determined that it encodes a MATE efflux system that contributes to intrinsic resistance of Mycobacterium. We propose that the MSMEG_2631 gene be named mmp, for mycobacterial MATE protein. Biolog Phenotype MicroArray data indicated that mmp deletion increased susceptibility for phleomycin, bleomycin, capreomycin, amikacin, kanamycin, cetylpyridinium chloride, and several sulfa drugs. MSMEG_2619 (efpA) and MSMEG_3563 mask the effect of mmp deletion due to overlapping efflux capabilities. We present evidence that mmp is a part of an MSMEG_2626-2628-2629-2630-2631 operon regulated by a strong constitutive promoter, initiated from a single transcription start site. All together, our results show that M. smegmatis constitutively encodes an Na(+)-dependent MATE multidrug efflux pump from mmp in an operon with putative genes encoding proteins for apparently unrelated functions. PMID:23292779

  8. 10 CFR 36.83 - Reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... position. (2) Any fire or explosion in a radiation room. (3) Damage to the source racks. (4) Failure of the cable or drive mechanism used to move the source racks. (5) Inoperability of the access control...

  9. 10 CFR 36.83 - Reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... position. (2) Any fire or explosion in a radiation room. (3) Damage to the source racks. (4) Failure of the cable or drive mechanism used to move the source racks. (5) Inoperability of the access control...

  10. 10 CFR 36.83 - Reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... position. (2) Any fire or explosion in a radiation room. (3) Damage to the source racks. (4) Failure of the cable or drive mechanism used to move the source racks. (5) Inoperability of the access control...

  11. Low-level radioactive waste disposal. Joint hearing before the Subcommittee on Energy Research and Development of the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources and the Subcommittee on Nuclear Regulation of the Committee on Environment and Public Works, United States Senate, Ninety-Ninth Congress, First Session on S. 1517 and S. 1578, October 8, 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    Two Senate bills, S. 1517 and S. 1578, were the subject of joint hearings on the issue of the disposal of low-level wastes. At issue was the inability to meet the January 1 deadline for the states to develop regional compacts. Witnesses discussed interim measures until the compacts are in place as proposed in the two bills. S. 1517 continues DOE financial and technical assistance, and revises the guidelines for regional compacts. S. 1578 focuses on improving the procedures for establishing and implementing the compacts. The witnesses presented the views of several states, the nuclear and electric power industries, environmental and safety groups, and others. Two appendices with additional responses and material submitted for the record follow the text of the two bills and the statements and testimony of 24 witnesses.

  12. 21 CFR 26.31 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE QUALITY SYSTEM AUDIT REPORTS, AND CERTAIN... under which a party will accept the results of quality system-related evaluations and inspections...

  13. 21 CFR 26.31 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE QUALITY SYSTEM AUDIT REPORTS, AND CERTAIN... under which a party will accept the results of quality system-related evaluations and inspections...

  14. 12 CFR 263.1 - Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... or regulation issued thereunder; (13) Section 5 of the Home Owners' Loan Act (“HOLA”) or any... HOLA or any regulation or order issued thereunder, pursuant to 12 U.S.C. 1467(d); and (15) Section 10 of the HOLA, pursuant to 12 U.S.C. 1467a (i) and (r); (f) Remedial action under section 102(g) of...

  15. 12 CFR 263.1 - Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... or regulation issued thereunder; (13) Section 5 of the Home Owners' Loan Act (“HOLA”) or any... HOLA or any regulation or order issued thereunder, pursuant to 12 U.S.C. 1467(d); and (15) Section 10 of the HOLA, pursuant to 12 U.S.C. 1467a (i) and (r); (f) Remedial action under section 102(g) of...

  16. 12 CFR 263.1 - Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... or regulation issued thereunder; (13) Section 5 of the Home Owners' Loan Act (“HOLA”) or any... HOLA or any regulation or order issued thereunder, pursuant to 12 U.S.C. 1467(d); and (15) Section 10 of the HOLA, pursuant to 12 U.S.C. 1467a (i) and (r); (f) Remedial action under section 102(g) of...

  17. 10 CFR 26.31 - Drug and alcohol testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... hospital or other organization that meets the requirements of 49 CFR Part 40, “Procedures for Department of... contained in 29 CFR 1904.7, “General Recording Criteria,” and subsequent amendments thereto, and results in death, days away from work, restricted work, transfer to another job, medical treatment beyond first...

  18. 10 CFR 26.31 - Drug and alcohol testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... hospital or other organization that meets the requirements of 49 CFR Part 40, “Procedures for Department of... contained in 29 CFR 1904.7, “General Recording Criteria,” and subsequent amendments thereto, and results in death, days away from work, restricted work, transfer to another job, medical treatment beyond first...

  19. 10 CFR 26.31 - Drug and alcohol testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... hospital or other organization that meets the requirements of 49 CFR Part 40, “Procedures for Department of... contained in 29 CFR 1904.7, “General Recording Criteria,” and subsequent amendments thereto, and results in death, days away from work, restricted work, transfer to another job, medical treatment beyond first...

  20. 10 CFR 26.31 - Drug and alcohol testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... hospital or other organization that meets the requirements of 49 CFR Part 40, “Procedures for Department of... contained in 29 CFR 1904.7, “General Recording Criteria,” and subsequent amendments thereto, and results in death, days away from work, restricted work, transfer to another job, medical treatment beyond first...

  1. 10 CFR 26.31 - Drug and alcohol testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... hospital or other organization that meets the requirements of 49 CFR Part 40, “Procedures for Department of... contained in 29 CFR 1904.7, “General Recording Criteria,” and subsequent amendments thereto, and results in death, days away from work, restricted work, transfer to another job, medical treatment beyond first...

  2. The Fashion Show; Home and Family Education: 2631.17.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierce, Jean

    The course described in this pamphlet will help the student construct his or her own garments and participate in the planning, preparation, production, and presentation of a show which will include modeling the garment and other variety-type acts. Designed for junior or senior year high school students, it is recommended that he or she…

  3. 18 CFR 368.3 - Schedule of records and periods of retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 2005... commissions served upon the company 6 years after final non-appealable order. (1) Certificates of... property (including contracts for the construction of property by others for the company and...

  4. 18 CFR 368.3 - Schedule of records and periods of retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 2005... commissions served upon the company 6 years after final non-appealable order. (1) Certificates of... property (including contracts for the construction of property by others for the company and...

  5. 18 CFR 368.3 - Schedule of records and periods of retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 2005... commissions served upon the company 6 years after final non-appealable order. (1) Certificates of... property (including contracts for the construction of property by others for the company and...

  6. 18 CFR 368.3 - Schedule of records and periods of retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... incorporation, or equivalent agreements and amendments thereto Life of corporation. (2) Deeds, leases and other... records of contracts, leases, and agreements made, showing dates of expirations and of renewals, memoranda... natural gas companies. (c) Operating equipment records 3 years after disposition, termination of lease,...

  7. 18 CFR 368.3 - Schedule of records and periods of retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...-analysis sheets showing detailed distribution of charges on individual vouchers and other supporting papers... additions 5 years after clearance to property account. (f) Analysis or cost reports showing quantities of... computation of expense: (a) Detailed records or analysis sheets segregating the accumulated...

  8. 49 CFR 368.3 - Applying for a certificate of registration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... payable to the FMCSA in the amount set forth in 49 CFR 360.3(f)(1); and (5) The application must be signed... paragraph (a) of this section from any FMCSA Division Office or download it from the FMCSA web site at:...

  9. 49 CFR 368.3 - Applying for a certificate of registration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... payable to the FMCSA in the amount set forth in 49 CFR 360.3(f)(1); and (5) The application must be signed... paragraph (a) of this section from any FMCSA Division Office or download it from the FMCSA web site at:...

  10. 49 CFR 368.3 - Applying for a certificate of registration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... payable to the FMCSA in the amount set forth in 49 CFR 360.3(f)(1); and (5) The application must be signed... paragraph (a) of this section from any FMCSA Division Office or download it from the FMCSA web site at:...

  11. 76 FR 1578 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; New Mexico; Federal Implementation Plan for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-11

    ... College Boulevard, Computer Science Building, Room 7103, Farmington, New Mexico 87402, (505) 326-3311. The... document whenever ``we'', ``us'', or ``our'' is used, we mean the EPA. On January 5, 2011 (76 FR 491), we..., 2011, at San Juan College, 4601 College Boulevard, Computer Science Building, Room 7103,...

  12. Papillary and follicular thyroid cancer: impact of treatment in 1578 patients

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, W.J.; Panzarella, T.; Carruthers, J.S.; Gospodarowicz, M.K.; Sutcliffe, S.B.

    1988-06-01

    We report the experience from 13 Canadian radiotherapy centers concerning the treatment and outcome for 1074 papillary and 504 follicular thyroid cancer patients followed for 4-24 years. Surgical resection was carried out in almost all patients; there was no correlation between the type of operation and recurrence or survival. Treatment with external irradiation (201 patients) radioiodine (214 patients), or both (107 patients) was used more often in poor prognosis patients than in those with good prognostic factors, and was effective in reducing local recurrences and improving survival, especially in patients with microscopic residual disease postoperatively. Treatment complications were common but rarely fatal. Thyroid cancer was the cause of death in over half of the papillary cancer deaths and in two-thirds of the follicular cancer deaths.

  13. 18 CFR 157.8 - Acceptance for filing or rejection of applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., the Director of the Office of Energy Projects or the Director of the Office of Energy Market... Projects or the Director of the Office of Energy Market Regulation may also reject an application after it... ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER NATURAL GAS ACT APPLICATIONS...

  14. 76 FR 3092 - Endangered Species Permit No. 1578-01 and Permit No. 1595-04

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-19

    ... 24, 2010, notice was published in the Federal Register (75 FR 58350) that a request for an amendment... River mouth to Lockwood Dam; (2) the Androscoggin River mouth to Brunswick Dam; (3) the Sheepscot River mouth to Reversing Falls; (4) the Sasanoa River, the Back River, and Sagadahoc Bay; (5) Tottman...

  15. 40 CFR 63.1578 - Who implements and enforces this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Cracking Units, Catalytic Reforming Units, and Sulfur Recovery Units Other Requirements and Information... implementation and enforcement authority of this subpart to a State, local, or tribal agency under 40 CFR part 63... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Who implements and enforces...

  16. 40 CFR 63.1578 - Who implements and enforces this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Cracking Units, Catalytic Reforming Units, and Sulfur Recovery Units Other Requirements and Information... implementation and enforcement authority of this subpart to a State, local, or tribal agency under 40 CFR part 63... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Who implements and enforces...

  17. 40 CFR 63.1578 - Who implements and enforces this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Cracking Units, Catalytic Reforming Units, and Sulfur Recovery Units Other Requirements and Information... implementation and enforcement authority of this subpart to a State, local, or tribal agency under 40 CFR part 63... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Who implements and enforces...

  18. 76 FR 2631 - Certification; Importation of Vehicles and Equipment Subject to Federal Safety, Bumper, and Theft...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-14

    ..., take the following steps: (1) Go to the Federal Docket Management System (``FDMS'') Web page http://www... to ensure that Docket Management receives them by February 28, 2011. ADDRESSES: Comments should refer.... Mail: Docket Management Facility: U.S. Department of Transportation, 1200 New Jersey Avenue, SE.,...

  19. Health Hazard Evaluation Report HETA 85-065-1578, United Hospital, Grand Forks, North Dakota. [Ethylene oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Gunter, B.J.

    1985-04-01

    Environmental and breathing zone samples were analyzed for ethylene-oxide at United Hospital, Grand Forks, North Dakota in January, 1985. The survey was requested by the management to determine if using ethylene-oxide for sterilization purposes posed a health risk. All employees (number not specified) in the central supply department were interviewed. These concentrations originated from an old sterilizer. The sterilizer was not normally used, but was operated on the day of the survey to stimulate a worst-case situation. None of the workers had any medical complaints. The author concludes that a health hazard due to ethylene-oxide does not exist at the facility. He recommends not using the old sterilizer until it has been refurbished and conducting periodic monitoring for ethylene/oxide with an infrared analyzer.

  20. PREFACE: Selected invited contributions from the International Conference on Magnetism (Karlsruhe, Germany, 26-31 July 2009) Selected invited contributions from the International Conference on Magnetism (Karlsruhe, Germany, 26-31 July 2009)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goll, Gernot; Löhneysen, Hilbert v.; Loidl, Alois; Pruschke, Thomas; Richter, Manuel; Schultz, Ludwig; Sürgers, Christoph; Wosnitza, Jochen

    2010-04-01

    The International Conference on Magnetism 2009 (ICM 2009) was held in Karlsruhe, Germany, from 26 to 31 July 2009. Previous conferences in this series were organized in Edinburgh, UK (1991), Warsaw, Poland (1994), Cairns, Australia (1997), Recife, Brazil (2000), Rome, Italy (2003), and Kyoto, Japan (2006). As with previous ICM conferences, the annual Conference on Strongly Correlated Electron Systems (SCES) was integrated into ICM 2009. The topics presented at ICM 2009 were strongly correlated electron systems, quantum and classical spin systems, magnetic structures and interactions, magnetization dynamics and micromagnetics, spin-dependent transport, spin electronics, magnetic thin films, particles and nanostructures, soft and hard magnetic materials and their applications, novel materials and device applications, magnetic recording and memories, measuring techniques and instrumentation, as well as interdisciplinary topics. We are grateful to the International Advisory Committee for their help in coordinating an attractive program encompassing practically all aspects of magnetism, both experimentally and theoretically. The Program Committee comprised A Loidl, Germany (Chair), M A Continentino, Brazil, D E Dahlberg, USA, D Givord, France, G Güntherodt, Germany, H Mikeska, Germany, D Kaczorowski, Poland, Ching-Ray Chang, South Korea, I Mertig, Germany, D Vollhardt, Germany, and E F Wassermann, Germany. E F Wassermann was also head of the National Organizing Committee. His help is gratefully acknowledged. The scientific program started on Monday 27 July 2009 with opening addresses by the Conference Chairman, the Deputy Mayor of Karlsruhe, Ms M Mergen and the Chairman of the Executive Board of Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, E Umbach. ICM 2009 was attended by the Nobel Laureates P W Anderson, A Fert and P Grünberg who gave plenary talks. A special highlight was the presentation of the Magnetism Award and Néel Medal to S S P Parkin who also presented his newest results in a plenary talk. The IUPAP Young Scientist Award on Magnetism was presented to S O Valenzuela, E Saitoh and T Kimura. The sessions were held in the Stadthalle Karlsuhe operated by the Karlsruher Messe- und Kongress-GmbH (KMK). We are grateful to Ms M Mäkelburg (KMK) for organizing the conference site impeccably. The conference was attended by 1552 participants from 48 countries, with approximately 50 per cent from overseas. The program entailed six plenary talks (40 min each), with 16 half-plenary and 41 invited talks (30 min) and 298 contributed talks (15 min). Extended lunch breaks and evenings were devoted to poster sessions, with a total of 1632 posters presented. All submitted papers were reviewed in order to meet the standards of Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter and Journal of Physics: Conference Series. The referees made every effort to ensure that the manuscripts submitted for publication in the proceedings reached a high standard. The tremendous work in organizing the paper classification and refereeing procedures was carried out by the Publication Committee which was headed by J Wosnitza, and comprised, in addition, Th Pruschke, M Richter and L Schultz. We also thank G Douglas, IOP Publishing, for his support with the preparation of these proceedings. We gratefully acknowledge the help of L Behrens, E Maass and B Schelske in preparing the conference. The conference would not have been possible without G Goll (conference secretary) and C Sürgers (finances). I thank them for their help. Thanks also go to the many students in blue t-shirts who helped to manage the conference. We are grateful for the financial support of Universität Karlsruhe (TH) and Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (both institutions merged to form the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) as of 1 October 2009), the International Union of Pure and Applied Physics (IUPAP), the City of Karlsruhe, Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (German National Science Foundation), and the European Commission through COST MPNS Action P16. Hilbert v Löhneysen Conference Chairman of ICM 2009 Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Germany

  1. Ride quality and international standard ISO 2631 (Guide for the evaluation of human exposure to whole-body vibration)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, G. R.

    1975-01-01

    The evolution of the standard, which is aimed at promoting research and production of more data, and providing some design guidance, is outlined and its contents summarized. Some of the assumptions and information on which it is based are analyzed. Its application to vehicle ride quality is considered in the context of the safety, efficiency and comfort of crew and passengers. The importance of establishing the precise criteria against which vibration limits are required is underlined, particularly the difficulties of first defining comfort and then postulating appropriate levels. Some current and future work related to improving the standard is outlined and additional suggestions offered.

  2. 25 CFR 36.83 - How many hours can a student be taken out of the academic setting to receive behavioral health...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How many hours can a student be taken out of the academic..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR EDUCATION MINIMUM ACADEMIC STANDARDS FOR THE BASIC EDUCATION OF INDIAN CHILDREN... a student be taken out of the academic setting to receive behavioral health services? A student...

  3. 25 CFR 36.83 - How many hours can a student be taken out of the academic setting to receive behavioral health...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false How many hours can a student be taken out of the academic..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR EDUCATION MINIMUM ACADEMIC STANDARDS FOR THE BASIC EDUCATION OF INDIAN CHILDREN... a student be taken out of the academic setting to receive behavioral health services? A student...

  4. The response of 1578 school leavers to a campaign combining commercial, Health Boards' and GDPs' sponsorship in an effort to improve dental attendance.

    PubMed

    Craven, R; Blinkhorn, A S; Schou, L

    1993-03-20

    A dental health promotion campaign was developed by Forth Valley Health Board in conjunction with the Scottish Health Education Group and the Department of Marketing at Strathclyde University. The aim was to encourage dental attendance among early school leavers. The emphasis was on the contribution of dental care to appearance and attractiveness. To highlight the importance of appearance, a major clothing retailer offered discounts on clothes to participants who made a dental visit. The impact of the campaign was evaluated by a questionnaire 3 months after its close. Recall of the campaign was high at 62% and 16% actually initiated a dental visit. However, only 2% claimed that the campaign was their main reason for attending. The project demonstrated the feasibility of collaboration between a commercial company and a health board in a health promotion effort. The results underline the difficulties in initiating a behaviour change, overcoming apathy and modifying the lack of felt need for dental care among the age group concerned. It does, however, suggest that there is potential for a more prolonged marketing effort. PMID:8448061

  5. ERRATUM: "SDSS J1254+0846: A Binary Quasar Caught in the Act of Merging" (2010, ApJ, 710, 1578)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, Paul J.; Myers, Adam D.; Barkhouse, Wayne A.; Mulchaey, John S.; Bennert, Vardha N.; Cox, Thomas J.; Aldcroft, Thomas L.; Wrobel, Joan M.

    2010-03-01

    Author Joan M. Wrobel, who contributed substantially to the paper (primarily the section on radio observations and their implications) was inadvertently left off the author list in the original version.

  6. S. 1578: a Bill to amend the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act. Introduced in the Senate of the United States, Ninety-Ninth Congress, First Session, August 1, 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 amends the current act to provide regional facilities established through compacts between two or more states. The Act defines the responsibilities of the federal government and the participating states, and provides for inspection by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and review by Congress. It also establishes procedures for siting and allocation of facilities during the transition period and the requirements for access to regional facilities, which will have a three-year licensing and construction period. There is a graduated ceiling on surcharges until 1992, when the limit is $40 per cubic foot. The Act lists six compacts which are subject to consent.

  7. Erratum: "Detection of a Companion Lens Galaxy Using the Mid-Infrared Flux Ratios of the Gravitationally Lensed Quasar H1413+117" (2009, ApJ, 699, 1578)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacLeod, Chelsea L.; Kochanek, Christopher S.; Agol, Eric

    2009-09-01

    In the original article, an error was found in Figure 1. The image labels for images B and C should be switched, and the cardinal directions indicated are wrong. This error has no effect on the results or models presented in the article. The corrected version is presented in Figure 1.

  8. Questions of testing rate and flexibility of rocket test benches, discussed on the basis of the test benches of Nitrochemie GMBH in Aschau

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LEGRAND

    1987-01-01

    The rocket test benches are used to study burnup behavior by various methods. In the first ten months of 1966, 1578 shots were performed to test propellants, and 920 to test 14 thrust and pressure measurement projects.

  9. 38 CFR 21.3135 - Reduction or discontinuance dates for awards of educational assistance allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... divorce, the eligibility ending date is as follows: (i) If the child ceases to be the veteran's stepchild..., 3683, 3690, 5112, 5113, 6103, 6104, 6105) (d) Divorce. If the veteran and eligible spouse divorce, the... or semester if the school is operated on a quarter or semester system, and the divorce was...

  10. 38 CFR 21.3135 - Reduction or discontinuance dates for awards of educational assistance allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... divorce, the eligibility ending date is as follows: (i) If the child ceases to be the veteran's stepchild..., 3683, 3690, 5112, 5113, 6103, 6104, 6105) (d) Divorce. If the veteran and eligible spouse divorce, the... or semester if the school is operated on a quarter or semester system, and the divorce was...

  11. 38 CFR 21.3135 - Reduction or discontinuance dates for awards of educational assistance allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... divorce, the eligibility ending date is as follows: (i) If the child ceases to be the veteran's stepchild..., 3683, 3690, 5112, 5113, 6103, 6104, 6105) (d) Divorce. If the veteran and eligible spouse divorce, the... or semester if the school is operated on a quarter or semester system, and the divorce was...

  12. 38 CFR 21.3135 - Reduction or discontinuance dates for awards of educational assistance allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... divorce, the eligibility ending date is as follows: (i) If the child ceases to be the veteran's stepchild..., 3683, 3690, 5112, 5113, 6103, 6104, 6105) (d) Divorce. If the veteran and eligible spouse divorce, the... or semester if the school is operated on a quarter or semester system, and the divorce was...

  13. 76 FR 72694 - Combined Notice of Filings #1

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-25

    ...; ER10-2631-002; ER10-2632-002. Applicants: Rumford Power Inc., Bridgeport Energy, LLC, CP Energy....ferc.gov/docs-filing/efiling/filing-req.pdf . For other information, call (866) 208-3676 (toll...

  14. 36 CFR 1235.4 - What publications are incorporated by reference in this part?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Director of the Federal Register under 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. To enforce any edition other than..., College Park, MD 20740, phone number (301) 837-1578. (c) International Organization for Standards (ISO). The following ISO standards are available from the American National Standards Institute, 25 West...

  15. Moral and Political Identity and Civic Involvement in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Tenelle J.

    2013-01-01

    In the USA, civic involvement in adolescence includes political and nonpolitical activities. Given that identities can motivate behavior, how do political and moral identities relate to civic activity choices? In this study, high school students ("N" = 1578) were surveyed about their political and nonpolitical civic actions and their…

  16. 75 FR 68181 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Model A318, A319, A320, and A321 Series Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-05

    ... (75 FR 16689). That NPRM proposed to correct an unsafe condition for the specified products. The MCAI... Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and ] 3. Will not have a significant economic impact, positive...-1570 D554 71001 000 00 TS-1573 D554 71001 000 00 TS-1575 D554 71001 000 00 TS-1578 D554 71001 000 00...

  17. 75 FR 11997 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Regulation Project

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-12

    ...-1578. Regulation Project Number: REG-106542-98, T.D. 9032. Abstract: This regulation describes the...-106542-98, T.D. 9032, Election to Treat Trust as Part of an Estate (Sec. 1.645-1). DATES: Written... written comments to R. Joseph Durbala, Internal Revenue Service, room 6129, 111 Constitution Avenue,...

  18. 76 FR 12305 - Extension of Public Comment Period for Proposed Action on Interstate Transport of Pollution...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-07

    ... determination for New Mexico (76 FR 492). In the proposal we requested comment by March 7, 2011. On January 11... held in Farmington, New Mexico on February 17, 2011, at San Juan College, beginning at 6 p.m. (76 FR 1578). The proposal, notice of public hearing, and supporting documentation for our proposal can...

  19. Studies at high frequencies of the 30 Doradus and RCW 57 regions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabalisck, N. S. P.; Abraham, Z.

    1990-11-01

    The authors present maps of the 30 Dor region at 22 GHz and of the RCW 57 region at 43 GHz. The data are compared with maps at lower frequencies and similar resolutions. In the 30 Dor region 3 supernova remnants of plerionic type were detected: N 1578, MC 78 and MC 89.

  20. The Relations of Stressful Events and Nonacademic Future Expectations in African American Adolescents: Gender Differences in Parental Monitoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Michael; Mars, Dustin E.; Burns, Lateela J.

    2012-01-01

    Urban African American high school students (N = 206) completed a study to examine gender differences in parental monitoring and the effect on the relationship between exposure to stressful life events and nonacademic future expectations. Participant's ages range from 13 to 18 (M = 15.78, SD = 1.19). Participants reported high exposure to…

  1. Controlling Robots with Personal Computers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, Andrew; Rony, Peter

    1983-01-01

    Discusses new robots that are mechanical arms small enough to sit on a desktop. They offer scaled-down price and performance, but are able to handle light production tasks such as spray painting or part orientation. (Available from W. C. Publications Inc., P.O. Box 1578, Montclair, NJ 07042.) (JOW)

  2. Alauddin Qarshi: a commentator of many classical treatises.

    PubMed

    Husain, S A

    2000-01-01

    This article deals with the life and work of a commentator of six authentic works. He was a discoverer of pulmonary circulation of blood. He described it more or less accurately, almost three centuries before Harvey (1578-1657). The views of medical historians about this scholar have been given in this article. PMID:12577988

  3. Comments on the papers recently published by M.M. Khandpekar et al.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrosyan, A. M.; Ghazaryan, V. V.; Fleck, M.

    2011-09-01

    It is argued that the existence of the new compounds of glycine recently reported by M.M. Khandpekar et al. (Optics Commun. 284(2011) 1583 and Optics Commun. 284(2011) 1578) is dubious. We argue that these compounds are not what the authors propose. In addition, two more similar cases are indicated.

  4. Family Perspectives on End-of-Life Care Experiences in Nursing Homes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wetle, Terrie; Shield, Renee; Teno, Joan; Miller, Susan C.; Welch, Lisa

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to expand knowledge regarding end-of-life care received in nursing homes through the use of narrative interviews with family members close to the decedents. Design and Methods: We conducted follow-up qualitative interviews with 54 respondents who had participated in an earlier national survey of 1,578

  5. The Impact of Gender, Perceived Female Isolation and Beliefs in Traditional Roles for Women on Job Satisfaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barclay, Lizabeth A.; And Others

    Past research has detailed conflicting results in investigations of sex differences and job satisfaction. To explain sex differences and job satisfaction within the framework of subtle treatment discrimination (a situation variable) and beliefs about roles for women (a person variable), 1578 employees of a large corporation completed demographic…

  6. 36 CFR 1235.46 - What electronic media may be used for transferring records to the National Archives of the United...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Division (NWCS), 8601 Adelphi Road, College Park, MD 20740, phone number (301) 837-2903, or the National... Adelphi Road, College Park, MD 20740, phone number (301) 837-1578, to initiate the transfer discussions... to the National Archives of the United States. (See 36 CFR 1236.28 for the requirements governing...

  7. 36 CFR 1235.4 - What publications are incorporated by reference in this part?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Director of the Federal Register under 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. To enforce any edition other than... NARA's Archives Library Information Center (NWCCA), Room 2380, 8601 Adelphi Road, College Park, MD..., College Park, MD 20740, phone number (301) 837-1578. (c) International Organization for Standards...

  8. 36 CFR 1235.4 - What publications are incorporated by reference in this part?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Director of the Federal Register under 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. To enforce any edition other than... NARA's Archives Library Information Center (NWCCA), Room 2380, 8601 Adelphi Road, College Park, MD..., College Park, MD 20740, phone number (301) 837-1578. (c) International Organization for Standards...

  9. Gut content examination of the citrus predator assemblage for the presence of Homalodisca vitripennis remains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A two-year study was conducted in a citrus orchard, Citrus sinensis L., to determine predation rates on glassy-winged sharpshooter (GWSS), Homalodisca vitripennis (Germar). A total of 1,578 arthropod predators, representing 18 taxa, were collected and assayed for the presence of GWSS egg protein by...

  10. Adolescent Moral Motivations for Civic Engagement: Clues to the Political Gender Gap?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malin, Heather; Tirri, Kirsi; Liauw, Indrawati

    2015-01-01

    This study explored gender differences in moral motivations and civic engagement among adolescents to add to existing explanations for the gender gap in political engagement in the US. We examined moral motivations for civic engagement in a sample of 1578 high school seniors, using a mixed-methods analysis of survey and interview data. Multiple…

  11. The New Brunswick Graduate Follow-Up for the 1987 and 1988 Surveys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Martha

    In 1987 and 1988, the New Brunswick (Canada) Department of Advanced Education and Training conducted follow-up surveys of graduates of full-time training programs to determine their labor market success. In 1987, of the 2,319 graduates surveyed, 1,574 (68%) responded, while in 1988, 1,578 (69%) of the 2,302 graduates surveyed responded. In both…

  12. Bimodel Perception of Color and Temperature in Six-Month-Old Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rolfe, Sharne A.; Lloyd-Smith, Janice I.

    Two experiments were conducted to explore infant responsiveness to color and temperature novelty under bimodal conditions. In experiment 1, a total of 48 infants of 26-31 weeks were familiarized with a warm-red, warm-blue, cool-red, or cool-blue object, and assigned to one of three experimental groups. Each group was stimulated by a novel test…

  13. Cation-π vs anion-π interactions: a complete π-orbital analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garau, Carolina; Frontera, Antonio; Quiñonero, David; Ballester, Pablo; Costa, Antoni; Deyà, Pere M.

    2004-11-01

    A complete orbital analysis of two isoelectronic complexes of trifluorobenzene (TFB), TFB ⋯ F - and TFB ⋯ Na +, as models for anion-π and cation-π interactions, respectively, has been performed at the MP2/6-31++G** level of theory. There are important orbital differences between both interactions, which are discussed in detail herein.

  14. Modern Chemical Technology, Volume 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pecsok, Robert L., Ed.; Chapman, Kenneth, Ed.

    This volume contains chapters 26-31 for the American Chemical Society (ACS) "Modern Chemical Technology" (ChemTeC) instructional material intended to prepare chemical technologists. Chapter 26 reviews oxidation and reduction, including applications in titrations with potassium permanganate and iodometry. Coordination compounds are described in the…

  15. Wnt signaling: the β-cat(enin)'s meow.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Matthieu; Willert, Karl

    2012-01-15

    In a study in the December 15, 2011, issue of Genes & Development, Valenta and colleagues (pp. 2631-2643) constructed a series of β-catenin mutants that allowed them to separate β-catenin's activity as a mediator of Wnt signaling from its activity as cell adhesion component. In doing so, they uncovered some surprising properties of Wnt signaling. PMID:22279043

  16. Biotechnology Process Engineering Center at MIT Home

    Science.gov Websites

    ... &22; )&25;&2;tt &6; - &8; &22; )&28; p:www.w3. &6; - &8; &22; (&2;&6;&3;&1;o &6; - &8; &22; )&25; rgTRREC )&1;- &6; &1; - &8; &22; Q )&17;&1;h &6; - &8; &22; )&25;&1;t &6; &2; - &8; &1; &22; )&14;&1;m &6; &1; - ...

  17. A subtle point about Bohr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dotson, Allen

    2013-07-01

    Jon Cartwright's interesting and informative article on quantum philosophy ("The life of psi", May pp26-31) mischaracterizes Niels Bohr's stance as anti-realist by suggesting (in the illustration on p29) that Bohr believed that "quantum theory [does not] describe an objective reality, independent of the observer".

  18. 10 CFR 26.133 - Cutoff levels for drugs and drug metabolites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cutoff levels for drugs and drug metabolites. 26.133... § 26.133 Cutoff levels for drugs and drug metabolites. Subject to the provisions of § 26.31(d)(3)(iii), licensees and other entities may specify more stringent cutoff levels for drugs and drug metabolites...

  19. 10 CFR 26.133 - Cutoff levels for drugs and drug metabolites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cutoff levels for drugs and drug metabolites. 26.133... § 26.133 Cutoff levels for drugs and drug metabolites. Subject to the provisions of § 26.31(d)(3)(iii), licensees and other entities may specify more stringent cutoff levels for drugs and drug metabolites...

  20. 48 CFR 12.504 - Applicability of certain laws to subcontracts for the acquisition of commercial items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...., Drug-Free Workplace Act of 1988 (see subpart 23.5). (11) 46 U.S.C. Appx 1241(b), Transportation in... items or commercial components at any tier: (1) 10 U.S.C. 2631, Transportation of Supplies by Sea (except for the types of subcontracts listed at 47.504(d)). (2) 15 U.S.C. 644(d), Requirements relative...

  1. 48 CFR 236.604 - Performance evaluation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Architect-Engineer Services 236.604 Performance evaluation. (a) Preparation of performance reports. Use DD Form 2631, Performance Evaluation (Architect-Engineer), instead of SF 1421. (2) Prepare a...

  2. Affordable comfort 95 - investing in our energy future

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    This report describes the topics from the conference on Affordable Comfort, held March 26-31, 1995. Topics are concerned with energy efficiency in homes, retrofitting, weatherization, and monitoring of appliances, heating, and air conditioning systems for performance, as well as topics on electric utilities.

  3. 77 FR 58985 - Combined Notice of Filings #1

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-25

    .... Comments Due: 5 p.m. ET 10/5/12. Docket Numbers: ER12-2631-000. Applicants: Pacific Wind Lessee, LLC, Catalina Solar, LLC. Description: Shared Transmission Facilities Agreement of Pacific Wind Lessee LLC... following electric rate filings: Docket Numbers: ER12-2310-001. Applicants: Zephyr Wind, LLC....

  4. A QUANTUM MECHANICAL STUDY OF THE PROTONATION AND COVALENT HYDRATION OF QUINAZOLINE IN THE PRESENCE OF METAL CATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    We have investigated the protonation and reversible covalent hydration of quinazoline in the presence of Li+, Na+, and Ca2+ ions using ab initio quantum mechanical calculations at the MP2/6-31G**//HF/6-31G*level of theory. Proton affinities, enthalpies of hydration at 298.15K (DH...

  5. 10 CFR 26.83 - Specimens to be collected.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Specimens to be collected. 26.83 Section 26.83 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.83 Specimens to be collected. Except as permitted under § 26.31(d)(5), licensees and other entities who...

  6. 10 CFR 26.83 - Specimens to be collected.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Specimens to be collected. 26.83 Section 26.83 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.83 Specimens to be collected. Except as permitted under § 26.31(d)(5), licensees and other entities who...

  7. 10 CFR 26.211 - Fatigue assessments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fatigue assessments. 26.211 Section 26.211 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Managing Fatigue § 26.211 Fatigue assessments. (a) Licensees... addition to any other test or determination of fitness that may be required under §§ 26.31(c) and 26.77,...

  8. 10 CFR 26.83 - Specimens to be collected.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Specimens to be collected. 26.83 Section 26.83 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.83 Specimens to be collected. Except as permitted under § 26.31(d)(5), licensees and other entities who...

  9. 10 CFR 26.211 - Fatigue assessments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fatigue assessments. 26.211 Section 26.211 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Managing Fatigue § 26.211 Fatigue assessments. (a) Licensees... addition to any other test or determination of fitness that may be required under §§ 26.31(c) and 26.77,...

  10. 10 CFR 26.83 - Specimens to be collected.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Specimens to be collected. 26.83 Section 26.83 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.83 Specimens to be collected. Except as permitted under § 26.31(d)(5), licensees and other entities who...

  11. 10 CFR 26.211 - Fatigue assessments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fatigue assessments. 26.211 Section 26.211 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Managing Fatigue § 26.211 Fatigue assessments. (a) Licensees... addition to any other test or determination of fitness that may be required under §§ 26.31(c) and 26.77,...

  12. 10 CFR 26.211 - Fatigue assessments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fatigue assessments. 26.211 Section 26.211 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Managing Fatigue § 26.211 Fatigue assessments. (a) Licensees... addition to any other test or determination of fitness that may be required under §§ 26.31(c) and 26.77,...

  13. 10 CFR 26.211 - Fatigue assessments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fatigue assessments. 26.211 Section 26.211 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Managing Fatigue § 26.211 Fatigue assessments. (a) Licensees... addition to any other test or determination of fitness that may be required under §§ 26.31(c) and 26.77,...

  14. 10 CFR 26.83 - Specimens to be collected.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Specimens to be collected. 26.83 Section 26.83 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.83 Specimens to be collected. Except as permitted under § 26.31(d)(5), licensees and other entities who...

  15. Notice to fruit growers and nurserymen of the release of augustprince peach

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, announces the release of Augustprince peach. Augustprince, previously tested as BY96P2631, is being released to provide an attractive, very firm peach ripening with or just before Jefferson, that is well-adapted to the Southeastern ...

  16. 10 CFR 26.133 - Cutoff levels for drugs and drug metabolites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cutoff levels for drugs and drug metabolites. 26.133... § 26.133 Cutoff levels for drugs and drug metabolites. Subject to the provisions of § 26.31(d)(3)(iii), licensees and other entities may specify more stringent cutoff levels for drugs and drug metabolites...

  17. 10 CFR 26.133 - Cutoff levels for drugs and drug metabolites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cutoff levels for drugs and drug metabolites. 26.133... § 26.133 Cutoff levels for drugs and drug metabolites. Subject to the provisions of § 26.31(d)(3)(iii), licensees and other entities may specify more stringent cutoff levels for drugs and drug metabolites...

  18. 10 CFR 26.133 - Cutoff levels for drugs and drug metabolites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cutoff levels for drugs and drug metabolites. 26.133... § 26.133 Cutoff levels for drugs and drug metabolites. Subject to the provisions of § 26.31(d)(3)(iii), licensees and other entities may specify more stringent cutoff levels for drugs and drug metabolites...

  19. 78 FR 73169 - Registered Importers of Vehicles Not Originally Manufactured To Conform to the Federal Motor...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-05

    ... in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-78) or you may visit http://Docket.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Introduction NHTSA published a final rule on August 25, 2011 (76 FR 53072) amending... January 14, 2011 proposed rulemaking that preceded the final rule (76 FR 2631), NHTSA proposed...

  20. Optically tunable optical filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, Robert T. B.; Wah, Christopher; Iizuka, Keigo; Shimotahira, Hiroshi

    1995-12-01

    We experimentally demonstrate an optically tunable optical filter that uses photorefractive barium titanate. With our filter we implement a spectrum analyzer at 632.8 nm with a resolution of 1.2 nm. We simulate a wavelength-division multiplexing system by separating two semiconductor laser diodes, at 1560 nm and 1578 nm, with the same filter. The filter has a bandwidth of 6.9 nm. We also use the same filter to take 2.5-nm-wide slices out of a 20-nm-wide superluminescent diode centered at 840 nm. As a result, we experimentally demonstrate a phenomenal tuning range from 632.8 to 1578 nm with a single filtering device.

  1. Gender Differences in Adolescents' Choice of Heroes and Admired Adults in Five Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estrada, Juan Diego; García-Ael, Cristina; Martorell, José Luis

    2015-01-01

    Seven hundred and sixty-eight adolescents from five countries and regions (USA, Spain, Hong Kong, Qatar, and Malaysia), aged 13-19 (M?=?15.78; SD?=?1.28) years, responded to a questionnaire designed to determine who was their most admired famous adult or hero. Male heroes clearly outnumbered admired females (73.3% vs. 26.7%). There was a pattern…

  2. Period changes of 7 bright RR Lyrae variables included in the BAV standard program.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wunder, E.

    1995-11-01

    On the basis of 1578 times of maxima historical and present period changes of the RR Lyrae stars SW And, SW Aqr, AA Aql, X Ari, RS Boo, RR Cet and XZ Cyg are analysed. In tables the period jumps and the quadratic terms of the elements are quantified and timed; elements are given to describe the historical O-C-curves; instant elements are listed to support nowadays observations.

  3. Pedro Nuñez and the first printed treatise on twilight observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadsden, M.

    Pedro Nuñez (the name is also written variously as Nunes, Nonius, Nonnius, and Nunnius) was born at Alcacer do Sol, Portugal, in 1502, and died in 1578. In that period and in that country, it was inevitable that his interests were in cosmography and navigation. His principal claim to fame is as author of the major treatise De Arte Atque Ratione Navigandi, which was published in 1546.

  4. Evaluation of vehicle ride comfort based on neural network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Yinhan; Tang, Rongjiang; Liang, Jie; Shen, Shen; Liang, Jie; Sun, Huihui

    2010-08-01

    The relationship between subjective ride comfort in a vehicle seat and human whole-body vibration can be modeled using frequency weightings and rms(root mean square) averaging as specified in ISO2631. However, recent studies indicate that, there are some flaws in the relationship between subjective response and objective vibration given by the ISO2631.This paper presents an alternative approach based on neural network model. Time-domain vibration acceleration signals are processed as neural network inputs, subjective evaluation results are quantified as outputs, and the weights of neural networks are used as frequency weighting coefficients to evaluate the vehicle ride comfort. The method has been used to evaluate the ride comfort on a number of conditions with good results achieved.

  5. Editorial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avasthi, D. K.; Tripathi, A.; Som, T.; Kanjilal, D.; Trautmann, C.

    2016-07-01

    The Eighteenth International Conference on Radiation Effects in Insulators (REI-18) was held during October 26-31, 2015 in Jaipur, India. The conference was organized jointly by Inter-University Accelerator Centre, New Delhi, Malviya National Institute of Technology, Jaipur, Vivekanand Global University, Jaipur in cooperation with the International Atomic Energy Agency, IAEA, Vienna and was supported by the Ion Beam Society of India.

  6. Theoretical and Experimental Determination of the Proton Affinity of (CF3CH2)2O

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zehe, Michael J.; Ball, David W.

    1998-01-01

    We report the experimental determination of the proton affinity of the molecule (CF3CH2)2O using chemical ionization mass spectrometry, and we compare it to the theoretical value obtained for protonation at the oxygen atom using the calculational methodology (MP2/6-31G**//MP2/3-21G). The proton affinity for this molecule as measured by bracketing experiments was between 724 kJ/mole and 741 kJ/mole. Ab initio (MP2/6-31G**//MP2/3-21G) calculations yield a value of about 729 kJ/mole, in agreement with the chemical ionization experiments. The results of these and related calculations suggest that the (MP2/6-31G**//MP2/3-21G) methodology is acceptable for estimating the proton affinities of partially-and fully-fluorinated methyl and ethyl ethers. We submit that any conclusions about the chemistry of fluoroether polymer lubricants based on their basicity can also be predicted reliably with such calculations.

  7. Salmonella Bacterial Monotherapy Reduces Autochthonous Prostate Tumor Burden in the TRAMP Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Kazmierczak, Robert A.; Gentry, Bettina; Mumm, Tyler; Schatten, Heide; Eisenstark, Abraham

    2016-01-01

    Attenuated Salmonella typhimurium injected in the circulatory system of mammals selectively targets tumors. Using weekly intraperitoneal injections of attenuated Salmonella strain CRC2631, we tested for regression and/or inhibition of tumor development in the TRAMP prostate tumor mouse model, which utilizes SV40 early region expression for autochthonous formation of prostate tumors that progress into metastatic, poorly differentiated prostatic carcinomas in an immunocompetent murine model. Thirteen weekly intraperitoneal administrations of 105–107 CFU CRC2631 into 10 week old mice were well tolerated by the TRAMP model. Sacrifice and histological analysis of TRAMP prostates at 22 weeks indicated that Salmonella monotherapy at administrated levels decrease visible tumor size (>29%) but did not significantly inhibit previously described SV40 expression-driven TRAMP tumor progression to undifferentiated carcinomas when histologically examined. In conclusion, this work demonstrates baseline results for CRC2631 Salmonella monotherapy using the immunocompetent TRAMP prostate tumor model in preparation for study of combination therapies that resolve autochthonously generated TRAMP prostate tumors, further reduce tumor size, or inhibit prostate tumor progression. PMID:27504973

  8. Salmonella Bacterial Monotherapy Reduces Autochthonous Prostate Tumor Burden in the TRAMP Mouse Model.

    PubMed

    Kazmierczak, Robert A; Gentry, Bettina; Mumm, Tyler; Schatten, Heide; Eisenstark, Abraham

    2016-01-01

    Attenuated Salmonella typhimurium injected in the circulatory system of mammals selectively targets tumors. Using weekly intraperitoneal injections of attenuated Salmonella strain CRC2631, we tested for regression and/or inhibition of tumor development in the TRAMP prostate tumor mouse model, which utilizes SV40 early region expression for autochthonous formation of prostate tumors that progress into metastatic, poorly differentiated prostatic carcinomas in an immunocompetent murine model. Thirteen weekly intraperitoneal administrations of 105-107 CFU CRC2631 into 10 week old mice were well tolerated by the TRAMP model. Sacrifice and histological analysis of TRAMP prostates at 22 weeks indicated that Salmonella monotherapy at administrated levels decrease visible tumor size (>29%) but did not significantly inhibit previously described SV40 expression-driven TRAMP tumor progression to undifferentiated carcinomas when histologically examined. In conclusion, this work demonstrates baseline results for CRC2631 Salmonella monotherapy using the immunocompetent TRAMP prostate tumor model in preparation for study of combination therapies that resolve autochthonously generated TRAMP prostate tumors, further reduce tumor size, or inhibit prostate tumor progression. PMID:27504973

  9. Vibration and shock exposure of maintenance-of-way vehicles in the railroad industry.

    PubMed

    Johanning, Eckardt

    2011-05-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate and compare vibration and shock measurements of maintenance-of-way vehicles used in the railroad industry for track maintenance and construction. Following international standards (i.e., ISO 2631-1: 1997) and professional guidelines the frequency weighted root-mean-square (r.m.s.) acceleration for each measurement axis, the vector sum, the seat effective amplitude transmissibility (SEAT), the crest factor (CF), the maximum transient vibration value (MTVV), the vibration dose value (VDV), the ratio and the newly proposed shock risk estimation factor 'R' for spinal injury according to ISO 2631-5:2004 were measured and calculated for seven different maintenance-of-way vehicles during revenue service. Furthermore, a proposed alternative spinal injury prediction method, the VibRisk model, which incorporates different typical driver postures and operator physical characteristics was included for comparison with the ISO 2631-5 risk prediction. The results of the vibration exposure measurements depended on vehicle type, track/surface conditions and seat properties, with the tamper and bulldozer showing the highest r.m.s. vibration values. The vector sum (a(v)) results ranged from 0.37 to 0.99 (m/s(2)). Five of seven track maintenance vehicles would exceed the current Whole-body Vibration ACGIH-TLV(®) guideline for an 8 h exposure duration in the vertical axis recommended by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH). The measured CF, MTVV/a(w) and VDV/(a(w)·T(1/4)) ratios were at or above the critical ratios in the majority of measurements given by the ISO 2631-1 (1997) and American industry guidelines by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH-TLV). Comparing both prediction models for vibration shock risk for parts of the lumbar spine, different risk predictions and inconsistencies were found. The VibRisk model generally suggests different and higher risk of vertebral

  10. Detection of lead in soil with excimer laser fragmentation fluorescence spectroscopy (ELFFS)

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, J.H.; Damm, C.J.; O'Donovan, N.J.; Sawyer, R.F.; Koshland, C.P.; Lucas, D.

    2004-03-01

    Excimer laser fragmentation fluorescence spectroscopy (ELFFS) is used to monitor lead in soil sample and investigate laser-solid interactions. Pure lead nitrate salt and soil doped with lead nitrate are photolyzed with 193 nm light from an ArF excimer at fluences from 0.4 to 4 J/cm{sup 2}. Lead emission is observed at 357.2, 364.0, 368.3, 373.9 and 405.8 nm. Time-resolved data show the decay time of the lead emission at 405.8 nm grows with increasing fluence, and a plasma is formed above fluences of 2 J/cm{sup 2}, where a strong continuum emission interferes with the analyte signal. Fluences below this threshold allow us to achieve a detection limit of approximately 200 ppm in soil.

  11. Operationalisation of the European Protocol for Autism Prevalence (EPAP) for Autism Spectrum Disorder Prevalence Measurement in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Boilson, A M; Staines, A; Ramirez, A; Posada, M; Sweeney, M R

    2016-09-01

    The European Autism Information System project highlighted the lack of systematic and reliable data relating to the prevalence of autism spectrum disorders in Europe. A protocol for the study of ASD prevalence at European level was developed to facilitate a common format for screening and diagnosing children across the EU. This is the first study to operationalise and screen national school children for ASDs using this protocol. National school children 6-11 years (N = 7951) were screened males 54 % (N = 4268) females 46 % (N = 3683). Screening children for ASD implementing the EAIS protocol using the Social Communication Questionnaire (Rutter et al. in Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ). Western Psychological Services, Los Angeles, ) as a first level screening instrument in a non-clinical setting of Irish national schools was demonstrated. PMID:27364514

  12. Review of ASME code criteria for control of primary loads on nuclear piping system branch connections and recommendations for additional development work

    SciTech Connect

    Rodabaugh, E.C.; Gwaltney, R.C.; Moore, S.E.

    1993-11-01

    This report collects and uses available data to reexamine the criteria for controlling primary loads in nuclear piping branch connections as expressed in Section III of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. In particular, the primary load stress indices given in NB-3650 and NB-3683 are reexamined. The report concludes that the present usage of the stress indices in the criteria equations should be continued. However, the complex treatment of combined branch and run moments is not supported by available information. Therefore, it is recommended that this combined loading evaluation procedure be replaced for primary loads by the separate leg evaluation procedure specified in NC/ND-3653.3(c) and NC/ND-3653.3(d). No recommendation is made for fatigue or secondary load evaluations for Class 1 piping. Further work should be done on the development of better criteria for treatment of combined branch and run moment effects.

  13. (2E)-3-(2-Bromo-phen-yl)-1-(4,4''-difluoro-5'-meth-oxy-1,1':3',1''-terphenyl-4'-yl)prop-2-en-1-one.

    PubMed

    Fun, Hoong-Kun; Chia, Tze Shyang; Samshuddin, S; Narayana, B; Sarojini, B K

    2012-05-01

    In the title compound, C(28)H(19)BrF(2)O(2), the central benzene ring makes dihedral angles of 62.51 (18), 46.23 (18) and 48.19 (18)° with the bromo-substituted benzene ring and two terminal fluoro-substituted benzene rings, respectively. In the crystal, mol-ecules are linked by C-H⋯F hydrogen bonds into infinite chains along [110]. Weak C-H⋯π and π-π inter-actions [centroid-centroid distance = 3.683 (2) Å] also occur and short inter-molecular F⋯F contacts [2.833 (4) Å] are observed. PMID:22590218

  14. A new species of Lophophysema (Porifera, Hexactinellida, Hyalonematidae) from the South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Gong, Lin; Li, Xinzheng; Qiu, Jian-Wen

    2014-01-01

    We describe Lophophysema eversa sp. nov. (Porifera, Hexactinellida, Hyalonematidae) based on a single specimen collected from the South China Sea at a depth of 3683 m. The new species can be distinguished from the three known congeners by its unusual body shape with basalia on the side of the body, the lack of macramphidiscs, the combination of the pinular pentactins having spiny tangential rays and the pinular ray of atrialia longer than dermalia and canalaria. This is the first record of the genus Lophophysema from the South China Sea. We also use a partial sequence of the 16S rRNA gene to confirm the family assignment of the new specimen. PMID:25543807

  15. The complete mitochondria genome of Parasarcophaga similis (Diptera: Sarcophagidae).

    PubMed

    Yan, Jie; Liao, Huidan; Zhu, Zhenyu; Xie, Kai; Guo, Yadong; Cai, Jifeng

    2016-05-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of Parasarcophaga similis collected from China was determined using PCR reactions. The mitogenome was 15,158 bp in length with a total A + T content of 76.4%, consisting of 22 transfer RNA genes, 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes and a control region. The gene contents of the mitogenome were identical to those observed in other insects. The overall base compositions of A, G, C and T were 39.54%, 9.43%, 14.20% and 36.83%, respectively. This paper aimed to improve and perfect dipteran mitochondrial genomes and provided the first complete mitochondrial genome of Parasarcophaga similis for entomologists as a potential tool for application of phylogenetic analysis and forensic entomology. PMID:25211091

  16. Isolation and identification among cockle isolates of Vibrio vulnificus isolated from Selangor, Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurdi Al-Dulaimi, Mohammed M.; Mutalib, Sahilah Abd.; Ghani, Ma`aruf Abd.

    2014-09-01

    Vibrio vulnificus infections are worldwide public health problems associated with illnesses resulting from consumption of raw or partially cooked seafood. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence and identification of V. vulnificus in cockles from local wet (40) and supermarkets (38) from Selangor, Malaysia from July 2013 to February 2014. A total of 78(n=78) cockle were examined for the presence of V. vulnificus and at about 32% (25/78) cockle samples were positive to this bacterium. Colonies morphological observation and biochemical characterization for those isolates showed 60% (15/78) of isolates were classified as biotype 1 and 40% (10/78) belong to biotype 2.

  17. Decay of the neutron-rich isotope sup 171 Ho and the identification of sup 169 Dy

    SciTech Connect

    Chasteler, R.M.; Nitschke, J.M.; Firestone, R.B.; Vierinen, K.S.; Wilmarth, P.A. )

    1990-10-01

    Neutron-rich rare-earth isotopes were produced in multinucleon transfer reactions between {sup 170}Er ions and {sup nat}W targets. On-line mass separation was used together with {beta}- and {gamma}-ray spectroscopy in these studies. At mass {ital A}=169, the heaviest known dysprosium isotope, 39(8) s,{sup 169}Dy, was identified. It was observed to {beta}{sup {minus}} decay to the ground state of {sup 169}Ho or through a level at 1578 keV. In the {ital A}=171 mass chain, a partial decay scheme for 55(3)-s {sup 171}Ho was determined.

  18. Resonance Raman spectroscopy and density functional theory study of the photodissociation dynamics of acetophenone in cyclohexane solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Yufang; Pei, Kemei; Zheng, Xuming; Li, Haiyang

    2007-11-01

    Resonance Raman spectra were acquired for acetophenone using 228.7, 239.5, and 245.9 nm excitations in cyclohexane solution. The spectra display overtones of the benzene ring C-C stretch (1578 cm -1) and the carbonyl C dbnd O stretch (1671 cm -1) modes and their combination bands with other five vibrational modes. A preliminary resonance Raman intensity analysis was done and these results for acetophenone were compared to the those previously reported for 2-hydroxyacetophenone. The differences between the vibrational reorganizational energies for acetophenone relative to those of 2-hydroxyacetophenone were briefly discussed.

  19. Rediscovery of Polish meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tymiński, Z.; Stolarz, M.; Żołądek, P.; Wiśniewski, M.; Olech, A.

    2016-01-01

    The total number of Polish registered meteorites (by July 2016) including the meteoritical artifacts as Czestochowa Raków I and II is 22. Most of them are described by the pioneer of Polish Meteoritics Jerzy Pokrzywnicki who also identified the meteorite fall locations. In recent years prospectors found impressive specimens of known Polish meteorites such as Morasko: 34 kg, 50 kg, 164 kg, 174 kg and 261 kg or Pultusk: 1578 g, 1576 g, 1510 g, 610 g and 580 g expanding and determining precisely the known meteorite strewn fields.

  20. The Mysterious Transient ROTSE3 J115649.1+542726 is an Extremely Luminous Type II SN at z = 0.21

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chornock, R.; Miller, A. A.; Perley, D. A.; Bloom, J. S.

    2008-08-01

    We report on further spectroscopic observations of the transient ROTSE3 J115649.1+542726 discovered by Yuan et al. (ATEL #1515) and followed up by several groups (ATEL #1524, ATEL #1576, ATEL #1578, and ATEL #1593). We observed the object for 840 s using the Low-Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (LRIS; Oke et al. 1995) on the Keck I 10-m telescope on 2008 Aug 3.25 UT. Our initial observations of this object (ATEL #1576) showed a blue and largely featureless spectrum, but at later epochs several unidentified weak spectral features appeared (ATEL #1576 and ATEL #1593).

  1. Thermophysical properties of substantially undercooled liquid Ti-Al-Nb ternary alloy measured by electromagnetic levitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, K.; Wang, H. P.; Wei, B.

    2013-03-01

    The thermophysical properties of undercooled liquid alloys at high temperature are usually difficult to measure by experiment. Here, we report the specific heat of liquid Ti45Al45Nb10 ternary alloy in the undercooled state. By using electromagnetic levitation technique, a maximum undercooling of 287 K (0.15 T L) is achieved for this alloy. Its specific heat is determined to be 32.72 ± 2.51 J mol-1 K-1 over a broad temperature range of 1578-2010 K.

  2. Helium-induced one-neutron transfer to levels in 162Dy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersen, E.; Helstrup, H.; Løvhøiden, G.; Thorsteinsen, T. F.; Guttormsen, M.; Messelt, S.; Tveter, T. S.; Hofstee, M. A.; Schippers, J. M.; van der Werf, S. Y.

    1992-12-01

    Levels in 162Dy have been studied in the 161Dy(α, 3He) and 163Dy( 3He, α) reactions with 50 MeV α- and 3He-beams from the KVI cyclotron in Groningen. The reaction products were analyzed in the QMG/2 magnetic spectrograph and registered in a two-dimensional detector system. The observed levels and cross sections are well described by the Nilsson model with the exception of the three levels at 1578, 1759 and 1990 keV. The present data combined with previous results strongly indicate that these levels are the spin-4, -6, and -8 members of the S-band.

  3. Decay of the neutron-rich isotope 171Ho and the identification of 169Dy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chasteler, R. M.; Nitschke, J. M.; Firestone, R. B.; Vierinen, K. S.; Wilmarth, P. A.

    1990-10-01

    Neutron-rich rare-earth isotopes were produced in multinucleon transfer reactions between 170Er ions and natW targets. On-line mass separation was used together with β- and γ-ray spectroscopy in these studies. At mass A=169, the heaviest known dysprosium isotope, 39(8) s,169Dy, was identified. It was observed to β- decay to the ground state of 169Ho or through a level at 1578 keV. In the A=171 mass chain, a partial decay scheme for 55(3)-s 171Ho was determined.

  4. Vibrational structure of the S 2 (1B u) excited state of diphenyloctatetraene observed by femtosecond stimulated Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukura, Philipp; McCamant, David W.; Davis, Paul H.; Mathies, Richard A.

    2003-11-01

    Femtosecond time-resolved stimulated Raman spectroscopy (FSRS) is used to study the vibrational structure and dynamics of the S 2 state of diphenyloctatetraene. Strong vibrational features at 1184, 1259 and 1578 cm -1 whose linewidths are determined by the S 2 electronic lifetime are observed at early times after photoexcitation at 397 nm. Kinetic analysis of the integrated Raman intensities as well as the transient absorption reveals an exponential decay of the S 2 state on the order of 100 fs. These results demonstrate the ability of FSRS to study the vibrational structure of excited state and chemical reaction dynamics on the femtosecond timescale.

  5. a Comparison of Evaluations and Assessments Obtained Using Alternative Standards for Predicting the Hazards of Whole-Body Vibration and Repeated Shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, C. H.; Griffin, M. J.

    1998-08-01

    There are three current standards that might be used to assess the vibration and shock transmitted by a vehicle seat with respect to possible effects on human health: ISO 2631/1 (1985), BS 6841 (1987) and ISO 2631-1 (1997). Evaluations have been performed on the seat accelerations measured in nine different transport environments (bus, car, mobile crane, fork-lift truck, tank, ambulance, power boat, inflatable boat, mountain bike) in conditions that might be considered severe. For each environment, limiting daily exposure durations were estimated by comparing the frequency weighted root mean square (i.e., r.m.s.) accelerations and the vibration dose values (i.e.,VDV), calculated according to each standard with the relevant exposure limits, action level and health guidance caution zones. Very different estimates of the limiting daily exposure duration can be obtained using the methods described in the three standards. Differences were observed due to variations in the shapes of the frequency weightings, the phase responses of the frequency weighting filters, the method of combining multi-axis vibration, the averaging method, and the assessment method. With the evaluated motions, differences in the shapes of the weighting filters results in up to about 31% difference in r.m.s. acceleration between the “old” and the “new” ISO standard and up to about 14% difference between BS 6841 and the “new” ISO 2631. There were correspondingly greater differences in the estimates of safe daily exposure durations. With three of the more severe motions there was a difference of more than 250% between estimated safe daily exposure durations based on r.m.s. acceleration and those based on fourth power vibration dose values. The vibration dose values provided the more cautious assessments of the limiting daily exposure duration.

  6. Analysis of proposed criteria for human response to vibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janeway, R. N.

    1975-01-01

    The development of criteria for human vibration response is reviewed, including the evolution of the ISO standard 2631. The document is analyzed to show why its application to vehicle ride evaluation is strongly opposed. Alternative vertical horizontal limits for comfort are recommended in the ground vehicle ride frequency range above 1 Hz. These values are derived by correlating the absorbed power findings of Pradko and Lee with other established criteria. Special emphasis is placed on working limits in the frequency range of 1 to 10 Hz since this is the most significant area in ground vehicle ride evaluation.

  7. The Reactions of Methanimine and Cyanogen with Carbon Monoxide in Prebiotic Molecular Evolution on Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aylward, Nigel; Bofinger, Neville

    2001-12-01

    A primeval atmosphere is proposed containing simple molecules such as formaldehyde, ammonia, carbon monoxide, cyanogen and hydrogen cyanide, which have been detected in space. Chemical reactions are described for the formation of aziridine-2-one and di-azirine-3-one derivatives as potential precursors for the original synthesesis of amino-acids, proteins, pyrimidines, purines, nicotinamide and flavin. The reactions have been shown to be kinetically feasible from the overall enthalpy changes in the ZKE approximation at the MP2/6-31G^* level.

  8. Solvent effects on ozonolysis reaction intermediates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    del Rio, Emma; Aplincourt, Philippe; Ruiz-López, Manuel F.

    1997-12-01

    Solvent effects on relative stability, electronic and molecular structure of ozonolysis reaction intermediates are analyzed with the help of ab initio MP2/6-31+G ** calculations. A continuum model is employed to account for solute-solvent electrostatic interactions. The results show that there are large effects on the structure and relative stability of carbonyl oxide by substantially favoring its zwitterionic character. A complex formed by carbonyl oxide and formaldehyde is shown to be stable in the gas phase and in solution. This complex can be involved in solvent cage reactions leading to secondary ozonides. Thermodynamically, primary ozonide decomposition is favored by the solvent.

  9. Theoretical study of the OH addition to the endocyclic and exocyclic double bonds of the d-limonene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramírez-Ramírez, Víctor M.; Nebot-Gil, Ignacio

    2005-06-01

    The initial step of the d-limonene + OH gas-phase reaction mechanism was investigated by means of ab initio calculations. We have considered eight different possibilities for the OH addition, corresponding to the two C-C double bonds, the two C atoms of each double bond, and the syn or anti orientation, with respect to the isopropenyl group (endocyclic attack) or the ring cycle (exocyclic attack). Activation energies calculated at the QCISD(T)/6-31G(d)//UMP2/6-31G(d) level, show that there are preferred orientations for the OH addition under atmospheric conditions of temperature and pressure.

  10. All-optical pseudorandom bit sequences generator based on TOADs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Zhenchao; Wang, Zhi; Wu, Chongqing; Wang, Fu; Li, Qiang

    2016-03-01

    A scheme for all-optical pseudorandom bit sequences (PRBS) generator is demonstrated with optical logic gate 'XNOR' and all-optical wavelength converter based on cascaded Tera-Hertz Optical Asymmetric Demultiplexer (TOADs). Its feasibility is verified by generation of return-to-zero on-off keying (RZ-OOK) 263-1 PRBS at the speed of 1 Gb/s with 10% duty radio. The high randomness of ultra-long cycle PRBS is validated by successfully passing the standard benchmark test.

  11. Potential primary pyrolysis processes for disilane

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, M.S.; Truong, T.N.; Bonderson, E.K.

    1986-04-02

    Four competing unimolecular decomposition pathways for disilane are considered with use of MP4 energies obtained with an extended basis set and geometries obtained at the MP2/6-31G** computational level. The 1,1- and 1,2-eliminations of H/sub 2/ and the elimination of silylene to form silane all have similar endothermicities, but the very high activation energy for the 1,2-elimination eliminates this process as a significant contributor at low energies. If disilene is formed in the thermal decomposition of disilane, the more likely source is its higher energy isomer silylsilylene via a relatively low energy 1,2-hydrogen shift.

  12. Theoretical prediction of vibrational and rotational spectra. Formyl cyanide, HCOCN, and thioformyl cyanide, HCSCN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Császár, Attila G.

    1989-10-01

    Optimized geometries and complete, scaled quadratic force fields of HCOCN and HCSCN have been determined at different theoretical levels (HF/4-21, HF/6-31G **; geometries also at MP2/6-31G ** and MP2/6-311G **). Frequencies calculated from the force fields confirm, with one exception, the assignment of the vibrational spectrum of HCOCN. The vibrational fundamentals calculated for HCSCN (accurate within about 50 cm -1) could direct a spectroscopy study aimed at determining them. Calculated rotational and quartic centrifugal distortion (QCD) constants are in good agreement with the experimental data for both molecules, but QCD constants only after scaling of the force fields.

  13. Solvent effects on the first hyperpolarizability of retinal derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Junior, L. A.; Colherinhas, G.; Fonseca, T. L.; Castro, M. A.

    2014-04-01

    Monte Carlo simulation (MC) and quantum mechanics (QM) calculations based on the MP2 method were used to study the first hyperpolarizability (βHRS) of retinal and retinoic acid isomers in protic and aprotic solvents. It is found that the first hyperpolarizability of the isomers can be considerably affected by the nature of solvent. For the all-trans retinal and retinoic acid isomers in methanol, the S-MC/MP2/6-31+G(d) approach predicts for βHRS static values of 56 × 10-30 and 36 × 10-30 esu, respectively, which are in good agreement with the available experimental results.

  14. Characterization of the complete mitochondrial genome of the Hainan giant flying squirrel Petaurista hainana (Rodentia: Sciuridae).

    PubMed

    Kong, Lingming; Wang, Yanlu; Cong, Haiyan; Wang, Wenquan; Li, Yuchun

    2015-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of Petaurista hainana from Hainan Island of China is 16,502 bp in length. Similar to most other mammals, it contains 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNAs, 22 tRNAs and 2 non-coding regions. The overall base composition of the H-strand is 31.77% A, 26.31% C, 13.31% G and 28.61% T. The base composition clearly showed the A-T skew. The mitochondrial genome of P. hainana presented in this report will be useful for species designation, conservation and phylogenetic study in Sciuridae. PMID:24409919

  15. 2-(4-Dimethyl­amino-2-hydroxy­benzoyl)benzoic acid methanol solvate

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Jin-Chun; Liu, Qing-Hao; Guo, Jin-Ying; Chen, Mei-Zhu; Zhang, Rui-Wang

    2008-01-01

    In the title compound, C16H15NO4·CH4O, the dihedral angle between the benzene rings is 75.21 (5)°. The structure is stabilized by an intra­molecular O—H⋯O inter­action [O⋯O = 2.589 (2) Å]. The solvent mol­ecule links symmetry-related mol­ecules of the complex via hydrogen bonds with O⋯O separations of 2.631 (2) and 2.815 (2) Å. C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds are also present. PMID:21581387

  16. The application of non-Saccharomyces yeast in fermentations with limited aeration as a strategy for the production of wine with reduced alcohol content.

    PubMed

    Contreras, A; Hidalgo, C; Schmidt, S; Henschke, P A; Curtin, C; Varela, C

    2015-07-16

    High alcohol concentrations reduce the complexity of wine sensory properties. In addition, health and economic drivers have the wine industry actively seeking technologies that facilitate the production of wines with lower alcohol content. One of the simplest approaches to achieve this aim would be the use of wine yeast strains which are less efficient at transforming grape sugars into ethanol, however commercially available wine yeasts produce very similar ethanol yields. Non-conventional yeast, in particular non-Saccharomyces species, have shown potential for producing wines with lower alcohol content. These yeasts are naturally present in the early stages of fermentation but in general are not capable of completing alcoholic fermentation. We have evaluated 48 non-Saccharomyces isolates to identify strains that, with limited aeration and in sequential inoculation regimes with S. cerevisiae, could be used for the production of wine with lower ethanol concentration. Two of these, Torulaspora delbrueckii AWRI1152 and Zygosaccharomyces bailii AWRI1578, enabled the production of wine with reduced ethanol concentration under limited aerobic conditions. Depending on the aeration regime T. delbrueckii AWRI1152 and Z. bailii AWRI1578 showed a reduction in ethanol concentration of 1.5% (v/v) and 2.0% (v/v) respectively, compared to the S. cerevisiae anaerobic control. PMID:25866906

  17. Typical whole body vibration exposure magnitudes encountered in the open pit mining industry.

    PubMed

    Howard, Bryan; Sesek, Richard; Bloswick, Don

    2009-01-01

    According to recent research, a causal link has been established between occupational exposure to whole body vibration and an increased occurrence of low back pain. To aid in the further development of an in-house health and safety program for a large open pit mining facility interested in reducing back pain among its operators, whole body vibration magnitudes were characterized for a range of jobs. Specifically, thirty-five individual jobs from five different areas across the facility were evaluated for tri-axial acceleration levels during normal operating conditions. Tri-axial acceleration magnitudes were categorized into thirteen job groups. Job groups were ranked according to exposure and compared to the ISO 2631-1 standard for health risk assessment. Three of the thirteen job groups produced tri-axial acceleration magnitudes below the ISO 2631-1 low/moderate health caution limit for a twelve hour exposure. Six of the thirteen job groups produced exposures within the moderate health risk range. Four job groups were found to subject operators to WBV acceleration magnitudes above the moderate/high health caution limit. PMID:20037244

  18. Whole-body vibration and health effects in the agricultural machinery drivers.

    PubMed

    Futatsuka, M; Maeda, S; Inaoka, T; Nagano, M; Shono, M; Miyakita, T

    1998-04-01

    Recently farm mechanization has been widespread and developing rapidly, in particular riding farm machines are increasingly used in paddy fields in Japan. We have no information available on the actual situation regarding whole-body vibration on the seats of these farm machines from the standpoint of labour protection. Measurement and evaluation of whole-body vibration was performed on the seats of popular riding agricultural machineries. Whole-body vibration on the seats of combine harvesters and wheel tractors exceeded exposure limits and the fatigue-decreased proficiency boundary limit of 8 hr and also shortened the reduced comfort boundary limits of ISO 2631 (1985). Some combines, tractors and carieers had only less than one hour exposure duration as compared with the ISO 2631-1 standard (1997). On the other hand a questionnaire was also performed on the subject of agricultural machine operators. Any specific injury or other effects, i.e. low back injuries were not found among the group of operators as compared with those in non-operator farmers. It seems to be difficult to find out the health effects of whole-body vibration itself, because there may be a lot of causes, i.e. working posture, operating heavy materials, in farm working conditions. PMID:9583309

  19. CHARMM Additive All-Atom Force Field for Phosphate and Sulfate Linked to Carbohydrates

    PubMed Central

    Mallajosyula, Sairam S.; Guvench, Olgun; Hatcher, Elizabeth; MacKerell, Alexander D.

    2012-01-01

    Presented is an extension of the CHARMM additive all-atom carbohydrate force field to enable the modeling of phosphate and sulfate linked to carbohydrates. The parameters are developed in a hierarchical fashion using model compounds containing the key atoms in the full carbohydrates. Target data for parameter optimization included full two-dimensional energy surfaces defined by the glycosidic dihedral angle pairs in the phosphate/sulfate model compound analogs of hexopyranose monosaccharide phosphates and sulfates, as determined by quantum mechanical (QM) MP2/cc-pVTZ single point energies on MP2/6-31+G(d) optimized structures. In order to achieve balanced, transferable dihedral parameters for the dihedral angles, surfaces for all possible anomeric and conformational states were included during the parametrization process. In addition, to model physiologically relevant systems both the mono- and di-anionic charged states were studied for the phosphates. This resulted in over 7000 MP2/cc-pVTZ//MP2/6-31G+(d) model compound conformational energies which, supplemented with QM geometries, were the main target data for the parametrization. Parameters were validated against crystals of relevant monosaccharide derivatives obtained from the Cambridge Structural Database (CSD) and larger systems, namely inositol-(tri/tetra/penta) phosphates non-covalently bound to the pleckstrin homology (PH) domain and oligomeric chondroitin sulfate in solution and in complex with cathepsin K protein. PMID:22685386

  20. Parameters optimisation of a vehicle suspension system using a particle swarm optimisation algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Centeno Drehmer, Luis Roberto; Paucar Casas, Walter Jesus; Martins Gomes, Herbert

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this paper is to determine the lumped suspension parameters that minimise a multi-objective function in a vehicle model under different standard PSD road profiles. This optimisation tries to meet the rms vertical acceleration weighted limits for human sensitivity curves from ISO 2631 [ISO-2631: guide for evaluation of human exposure to whole-body vibration. Europe; 1997] at the driver's seat, the road holding capability and the suspension working space. The vehicle is modelled in the frequency domain using eight degrees of freedom under a random road profile. The particle swarm optimisation and sequential quadratic programming algorithms are used to obtain the suspension optimal parameters in different road profile and vehicle velocity conditions. A sensitivity analysis is performed using the obtained results and, in Class G road profile, the seat damping has the major influence on the minimisation of the multi-objective function. The influence of vehicle parameters in vibration attenuation is analysed and it is concluded that the front suspension stiffness should be less stiff than the rear ones when the driver's seat relative position is located forward the centre of gravity of the car body. Graphs and tables for the behaviour of suspension parameters related to road classes, used algorithms and velocities are presented to illustrate the results. In Class A road profile it was possible to find optimal parameters within the boundaries of the design variables that resulted in acceptable values for the comfort, road holding and suspension working space.

  1. Selective boron delivery to murine tumors by lipophilic species incorporated in the membranes of unilamellar liposomes

    SciTech Connect

    Feakes, D.A.; Shelly, K.; Hawthorne, M.F.

    1995-02-28

    The nido-carborane species K[nido-7-CH{sub 3}(CH{sub 2}){sub 15}-7,8-C{sub 2}B{sub 9}H{sub 11}] has been synthesized for use as an addend for the bilayer membrane of liposomes. Small unilamellar vesicles, composed of distearoylphosphatidylcholine/cholesterol, 1:1, and incorporating K[nido-7-CH{sub 3}(CH{sub 2}){sub 15}-7,8-C{sub 2}B{sub 9}H{sub 11}] in the bilayer, have been investigated in vivo. The time-course biodistribution of boron delivered by these liposomes was determined by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy analyses after the injection of liposomal suspensions in BALB/c mice bearing EMT6 mammary adenocarcinomas. At the low injected doses normally used ({approx}5-10 mg of boron per kg of body weight), peak tumor boron concentrations of {approx}35 {mu}g of boron per g of tissue and tumor/blood boron ratios of {approx}8 were achieved. These values are sufficiently high for the successful application of boron neutron capture therapy. The bilayer-embedded boron compound may provide the sole boron source or, alternatively, a concentrated aqueous solution of a hydrophilic boron compound may also be encapsulated within the liposomes to provide a dose enhancement. Thus, the incorporation of both K[nido-7-CH{sub 3}(CH{sub 2}){sub 15}-7,8-C{sub 2}B{sub 9}H{sub 11}] and the hydrophilic species, Na{sub 3}[1-(2{prime}-B{sub 10}H{sub 9})-2-NH{sub 3}B{sub 10}H{sub 8}], within the same liposomes demonstrated significantly enhanced biodistribution characteristics, exemplified by maximum tumor boron concentrations of {approx} 50 {mu}g of boron per g of tissue and tumor/blood boron ratios of {approx} 6. 18 refs., 1 fig.

  2. Thermodynamic properties of bromomethanes and bromomethyl radicals: An ab initio study

    SciTech Connect

    Paddison, S.J.; Tschuikow-Roux, E.

    1998-05-01

    Thermochemical data on volatile organic compounds containing bromine are needed for atmospheric modeling, in view of their ozone depletion potential upon photodissociation and the release of atomic bromine. Yet even for the bromomethane series, with the exception of CH{sub 3}Br, thermodynamic properties are not well established. Similarly, structural and thermochemical information on brominated methyl radicals is incomplete or not available. In this paper the authors have adopted a computational approach to obtain this needed information. Equilibrium geometries for the molecules CH{sub 4{minus}n}Br{sub n} (n = 0--4) and radicals CH{sub 3{minus}m}Br{sub m} (m = 0--3) were optimized at both HF/6-31G{sup *} and MP2/6-31G{sup *} levels of theory. Moments of inertia, harmonic vibrational frequencies, and thermodynamic functions were determined at the HF/6-31G{sup *} level. Electron correlation contributions were performed by single-point calculations at both second- and fourth-order Moeller-Plesset perturbation theory for derived MP2/6-31G{sup *} geometries. Enthalpies of formation were obtained from a consideration of applicable isodesmic reactions using the derived MP4/6-31G{sup **}//MP2/6-31G{sup *} total energies in conjunction with experimentally established enthalpies of formation for CH{sub 3}Br, CH{sub 4}, and CH{sub 3}. These data were then used in the determination of {Delta}H{degree}{sub f,T}, {Delta}G{degree}{sub f,T}, and K{sub f,T} for all species over the temperature range 0 to 1500 K. A comparison was made to the existing standard enthalpies of formation at 298 K, both experimentally measured and theoretically estimated, for CH{sub 2}Br{sub 2}, CHBr{sub 3}, CBr{sub 4}, CH{sub 2}Br{sm_bullet}, CHBr{sub 2}{sm_bullet}, and CBr{sub 3}{sm_bullet}.

  3. Structure and electronic properties of Dy@C 82 studied by UV-VIS absorption, X-ray powder diffraction and XAFS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iida, S.; Kubozono, Y.; Slovokhotov, Y.; Takabayashi, Y.; Kanbara, T.; Fukunaga, T.; Fujiki, S.; Emura, S.; Kashino, S.

    2001-04-01

    Two isomers of Dy@C 82 were separated by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and their UV-VIS absorption spectra were measured to characterize these isomers. The crystalline powder of Dy@C 82 was obtained by removing the solvent (toluene) at 250°C under vacuum. The X-ray diffraction pattern can be indexed with fcc crystal lattice, as that in La@C 82. The lattice constant a at 298 K, 15.86(1) Å, is close to that of La@C 82, 15.78 Å. The distances between Dy and the first and second nearest C atoms are determined to be 2.52(2) and 2.86(2) Å, respectively, on the basis of Dy L III-edge EXAFS. The XANES shows that the valence of the Dy atom in Dy@C 82 is +3.

  4. [Harvey and his theory of circulation].

    PubMed

    Wolters, Frank J

    2013-01-01

    In 1628 the English physician William Harvey (1578-1657) published his revolutionary theory that blood circulates through the body driven by the heart. This challenged the long-standing teachings of Hippocrates and Galen concerning 4 different bodily fluids or 'humours' that flowed through separate arterial and venous vascular systems. Harvey gained considerable influence in society as a member of the prestigious Royal College of Physicians in London and as personal physician to King James I and King Charles I. He strove for a more empirical foundation of medicine by means of anatomic demonstrations and vivisections. Despite enduring considerable criticism he managed to disseminate his ideas around the influential universities of Europe in the course of his lifetime. However, consequent changes in practice would not be brought about until decades after Harvey's death, when Galenist treatments such as blood-letting were gradually abandoned. PMID:24279953

  5. Blood pressure measurement: lessons learned from our ancestors.

    PubMed

    Karamanou, Marianna; Papaioannou, Theodore G; Tsoucalas, Gregory; Tousoulis, Dimitris; Stefanadis, Christodoulos; Androutsos, George

    2015-01-01

    The profound observations of William Harvey (1578-1657), in blood circulation and the progress of physical science laid the foundation for the development of the Iatrophysical School that contributed to the evolution of clinical sphygmomanometry. The pioneer work of Reverend Stephen Hales (1677-1761) demonstrated the dynamics of the vascular system. One century later the French physician Jean-Léonard-Marie Poiseuille (1797-1867) invented a U-tube mercury manometer and in 1860 the physiologist Etienne- Jules Marey (1830-1904) devised the first portable sphygmograph for recording the pulse wave. The non-invasive techniques of blood pressure measurement were completed by Scipione Riva-Rocci (1896-1937) sphygmomanometer and the description of "Korotkov sounds" by the Russian surgeon Nikolai- Sergeyevich Korotkov (1874-1920). PMID:25341864

  6. Integration of both dense wavelength-division multiplexing and coarse wavelength-division multiplexing demultiplexer on one photonic crystal chip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Huiping; Shen, Guansheng; Liu, Weijia; Ji, Yuefeng

    2013-07-01

    An integrated model of photonic crystal (PC) demultiplexer that can be used to combine dense wavelength-division multiplexing (DWDM) and coarse wavelength-division multiplexing (CWDM) systems is first proposed. By applying the PC demultiplexer, dense channel spacing 0.8 nm and coarse channel spacing 20 nm are obtained at the same time. The transmission can be improved to nearly 90%, and the crosstalk can be decreased to less than -18 dB by enlarging the width of the bus waveguide. The total size of the device is 21×42 μm2. Four channels on one side of the demultiplexer can achieve DWDM in the wavelength range between 1575 and 1578 nm, and the other four channels on the other side can achieve CWDM in the wavelength range between 1490 and 1565 nm, respectively. The demonstrated demultiplexer can be applied in the future CWDM and DWDM system, and the architecture costs can be significantly reduced.

  7. Detection of reactive canines to Leptospira in Campeche City, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Blum Domínguez, Selene Del C; Chi Dzib, María Y; Maldonado Velázquez, María G; Nuñez Oreza, Luis A; Gómez Solano, Mónica I; Caballero Poot, Rebeca I; Tamay Segovia, Paulino

    2013-01-01

    Leptospira reactivity in stray and household dogs in Campeche as well as associated risk factors to the seropositivity in household dogs have been herein determined. The survey included 323 dogs, 142 of which were stray dogs and 181 household dogs. Nine Leptospira interrogans serovars were tested by the microagglutination test. Reactivity was 21.3 % (69/323), 17.2 % corresponded to household dogs and 26.7 % to stray dogs. Leptospira Canicola (29 %), Leptospira Hardjo (22.58 %), and Leptospira Icterohaemorrhagiae (16.12 %) were the most common serovars reacting against the serum of household animals, while Leptospira Canicola (15.78 %), Leptospira icterohaemorrhagiae (13.15 %), and Leptospira Pomona (7.89 %) were those reacting in stray dogs. Results showed that all dogs have been in contact with different Leptospira serovars and outdoor exposure is the main infection risk factor. PMID:23560786

  8. Atomic and electronic structure of Mo6S9-xIx nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meden, A.; Kodre, A.; Padeznik Gomilsek, J.; Arcon, I.; Vilfan, I.; Vrbanic, D.; Mrzel, A.; Mihailovic, D.

    2005-09-01

    Moybdenum-based subnanometre diameter nanowires are easy to synthesize and disperse, and they exhibit a variety of functional properties in which they are superior to other one-dimensional materials. However, further progress in the understanding of physical properties and the development of new and specific applications have so far been impeded by the fact that their structure was not accurately known. Here we report on a combination of systematic x-ray diffraction and extended x-ray absorption fine structure experiments, and first-principles theoretical structure calculations, which are used to determine the atomic skeletal structure of individual Mo6S9-xIx (MoSIx) nanowires, their packing arrangement within bundles and their electronic band structure. From this work we conclude that the variations in functional properties appear to arise from different stoichiometry, not skeletal structure. A supplementary data file is available from http://stacks.iop.org/0957-4484/16/1578

  9. Experimental demonstration of fiber optical parametric chirped-pulse amplification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yue; Cheung, Kim K. Y.; Chui, P. C.; Wong, Kenneth K. Y.

    2010-02-01

    A fiber optical parametric chirped-pulse amplifier (FOPCPA) is experimentally demonstrated. A 1.76 ps signal at 1542 nm with a peak power of 20 mW is broadened to 40 ps, and then amplified by a 100-ps pulsed pump at 1560 nm. The corresponding idler at 1578 nm is generated as the FOPCPA output. The same medium used to stretch the signal is deployed to compress the idler to 3.8 ps, and another spool of fiber is deployed to further compress the idler to 1.87 ps. The peak power of the compressed idler is 2 W, which corresponds to a gain of 20 dB.

  10. Implementing the SU(2) Symmetry for the DMRG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez, Gonzalo

    2010-03-01

    In the Density Matrix Renormalization Group (DMRG) algorithm (White, 1992), Hamiltonian symmetries play an important role. Using symmetries, the matrix representation of the Hamiltonian can be blocked. Diagonalizing each matrix block is more efficient than diagonalizing the original matrix. This talk will explain how the DMRG++ codefootnotetextarXiv:0902.3185 or Computer Physics Communications 180 (2009) 1572-1578. has been extended to handle the non-local SU(2) symmetry in a model independent way. Improvements in CPU times compared to runs with only local symmetries will be discussed for typical tight-binding models of strongly correlated electronic systems. The computational bottleneck of the algorithm, and the use of shared memory parallelization will also be addressed. Finally, a roadmap for future work on DMRG++ will be presented.

  11. Thermodynamic Properties of the Gaseous Gallium Molybdates and Tungstates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopatin, S. I.; Shugurov, S. M.; Gunina, A. O.

    2009-10-01

    A number of gaseous oxyacid salts have been identified by Knudsen effusion mass spectrometry by vaporizing Ga2O3 from molybdenum and tungsten cells. The stability of gaseous molecules Ga2MoO4, Ga2WO4, Ga2Mo2O7, and Ga2W2O7 was deduced from the measurements. The structures and molecular parameters of all salts investigated were obtained using quantum chemical calculations. On the basis of equilibrium constants measured for gas-phase reactions, the standard formation enthalpies were determined to be -827 ± 26, -843 ± 26, -1578 ± 32, and -1525 ± 34 kJ·mol-1 for Ga2MoO4, Ga2WO4, Ga2Mo2O7, and Ga2W2O7, respectively.

  12. High-power supercontinuum generation using high-repetition-rate ultrashort-pulse fiber laser for ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography in 1600 nm spectral band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamanaka, Masahito; Kawagoe, Hiroyuki; Nishizawa, Norihiko

    2016-02-01

    We describe the generation of a high-power, spectrally smooth supercontinuum (SC) in the 1600 nm spectral band for ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography (UHR-OCT). A clean SC was achieved by using a highly nonlinear fiber with normal dispersion properties and a high-quality pedestal-free pulse obtained from a passively mode-locked erbium-doped fiber laser operating at 182 MHz. The center wavelength and spectral width were 1578 and 172 nm, respectively. The output power of the SC was 51 mW. Using the developed SC source, we demonstrated UHR-OCT imaging of biological samples with a sensitivity of 109 dB and an axial resolution of 4.9 µm in tissue.

  13. Cosmological Distance Scale to Gamma-Ray Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azzam, W. J.; Linder, E. V.; Petrosian, V.

    1993-05-01

    The source counts or the so-called log N -- log S relations are the primary data that constrain the spatial distribution of sources with unknown distances, such as gamma-ray bursts. In order to test galactic, halo, and cosmological models for gamma-ray bursts we compare theoretical characteristics of the log N -- log S relations to those obtained from data gathered by the BATSE instrument on board the Compton Observatory (GRO) and other instruments. We use a new and statistically correct method, that takes proper account of the variable nature of the triggering threshold, to analyze the data. Constraints on models obtained by this comparison will be presented. This work is supported by NASA grants NAGW 2290, NAG5 2036, and NAG5 1578.

  14. Upcoming hearings in Congress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The following hearings and markups have been tentatively scheduled for the coming weeks by the Senate and House of Representatives. Dates and times should be verified with the committee or subcommittee holding the hearing or markup; all offices on Capitol Hill may be reached by telephoning 202-224-3121. For guidelines on contacting a member of Congress, see AGU's Guide to Legislative Information and Contacts (Eos, August 28, 1984, p. 669).October 8: A joint hearing by the Energy Research & Development Subcommittee of the Senate Energy and Natural Resources Committee and the Nuclear Regulation Subcommittee of the Senate Environment and Public Works Committee on low-level radioactive waste (S. 1517 and S. 1578). Room SD-366, Dirksen Building, 9:30 A.M.

  15. Magnetic moments, E3 transitions and the structure of high-spin core excited states in 211Rn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poletti, A. R.; Dracoulis, G. D.; Byrne, A. P.; Stuchbery, A. E.; Poletti, S. J.; Gerl, J.; Lewis, P. M.

    1985-05-01

    The results of g-factor measurements of high-spin states in 211Rn are: Ex = 8856 + Δ' keV (Jπ = 63/2-), g = 0.626(7); 6101 + Δ' KeV (49/2+), 0.766(8); 5347 + Δ' KeV (43/2-), 0.74(2); 3927 + Δ KeV (35/2+), 1.017(12); 1578 + Δ KeV (17/2-), 0.912(9). These results together with measured E3 transition strengths and shell model calculations are used to assign configurations to the core excited states in 211Rn. Mixed configurations are required to explain the g-factors and enhanced E3 strengths simultaneously.

  16. The Anari and Tapirapua Jurassic formations, western Brazil: Paleomagnetism, geochemistry and geochronology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montes-Lauar, C. R.; Pacca, I. G.; Melfi, A. J.; Piccirillo, E. M.; Bellieni, G.; Petrini, R.; Rizzieri, R.

    1994-12-01

    The Anari and Tapirapua formations are very similar from the point of view of paleomagnetic, geochronological and geochemical results. They date from around 197 Ma and the flows are mainly tholeiitic basalts with a low TiO2 and incompatible element content. The magnetic carriers in rocks from these two formations were highly oxidized titanomagnetites, maghemites and, probably, titanomaghemites. Paleomagnetic analysis has shown that the magnetizations are all normal in polarity and virtual geomagnetic poles obtained for both formations are indistinguishable at the 95% confidence level. The calculated mean for these poles is 250.3 deg E, 65.5 deg S (N = 15; A95 = 3.6 deg; KSC = 1578). This pole is compatible with Jurassic poles which have been determined for South America or transposed from Africa.

  17. Groundwater resources of the Birim basin in Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asomaning, G.

    1992-11-01

    An attempt to assess ground water resources of a medium size (4775 km 2) drainage basin located on the Crystalline Complex in southern Ghana is presented. Mean annual rainfall 1578 mm, total river discharge 1,886,588 064 m 3 a -1, surface runoff 1,320,611,645 m 3 a -1, base flow 565,976,419 m 3 a -1, were determined from 13 meteorological and 1 river gauging stations located within the basin. From these data, the total runoff coefficient was 36%, surface runoff coefficient was 25% and the base flow coefficient was 11%. Then, Permanent Water Reserve, Qt = 5,333.20 × 106 m 3 and Recoverable Water Reserve, 2,133.28 × 10 6 m 3 a -1 for the aquifer of the basement complex aquifer of the basin were calculated from 42 boreholes.

  18. Synthesis and properties of graphene oxide/graphene nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapitanova, O. O.; Panin, G. N.; Baranov, A. N.; Kang, T. W.

    2012-05-01

    We report preparation of graphene oxide (GO)/graphene (G) nanostructures and their structural, optical and electrical properties. GO was synthesized through oxidation of graphite by using the modified Hummer's method, in which a long oxidation time was combined with a highly effective method for purifying the reaction products. The obtained GO was partially reduced (r-GO) by adding ascorbic acid and thermal annealing. An electrical reduction/oxidation process in r-GO under an electric field was used to form and control the GO/G nanostructures and the potential barrier at the interface. After the treatment, the ratio of the intensity of peak G (1578 cm-1) to that of peak D (1357 cm-1) in Raman spectra of the samples is increased, which is attributed to an increase in the ratio between the sp2 and sp3 regions. The electrical and the luminescence characteristics of the GO/G nanostructures were investigated.

  19. Raman spectrum of bacteriochlorophyll a in the S1 state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishizawa, Ei-ichi; Hashimoto, Hideki; Koyama, Yasushi

    1991-07-01

    The S 1 Raman spectrum of bacteriochlorophyll a is reported for the first time. A one-color experiment using the 351 nm picosecond pulses (duration 50 ps and repetition 1 kHz) for tetrahydrofuran solution detected a transient species, which showed distinct Raman lines at 1567, 1409 and 1320 cm -1 and weak profiles around 1169, 1092, 1051 and 794 cm -1. The other one-color experiment using the 355 nm nanosecond pulses (duration 12 ns and repetition 10 Hz) detected the T 1 species reported previously showing Raman lines at 1578 and 1330 cm -1. Thus, the newly identified transient species, which was pumped and probed within 50 ps, is assigned to S 1.

  20. Reusable fluorescent sensor for captopril based on energy transfer from photoluminescent graphene oxide self-assembly multilayers to silver nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xiangying; Liu, Bin; Li, Shuchun; Li, Fang

    2016-05-01

    In this work we designed a self-assembly multilayers, in which photoluminescent graphene oxide was employed as a fluorescence probe. This multilayers film can effectively recognize captopril by resonance energy transfer from graphite oxide to silver nanoparticles. A new interfacial sensing method for captopril with high signal to noise ratio was established, by means of that multilayers was quenched by silver nanoparticles and subsequently recovered by adding captopril. The linear relation between intensity and captopril concentration was good, and the detection limit was found to be 0.1578 μM. Also, this novel detection platform demonstrated intriguing reusable properties, and the sensor could be repeated more than ten times without obviously losing its sensing performance.

  1. The complete mitochondrial genome of the Youxian duck.

    PubMed

    Lin, Qian; Qiu, Lei; Cao, Rong; Jiang, Gui-Tao; Dai, Qiu-Zhong; Zhang, Shi-Rui; Hou, De-Xing; He, Xi

    2016-01-01

    Youxian duck is one of the famous native breed in China. In this work we reported the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the Youxian duck in Human Province for the first time. The total length of the mitogenome is 16,606 bp, with the base composition of 29.21% for A, 22.18% for T, 32.83% for C, 15.78% for G, in the order C > A > T > G feature occurring in the Youxian duck. It is made up of two ribosomal RNA genes, 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes and one non-coding control region (D-loop region). The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Youxian duck will be useful for the phylogenetics of poultry, and be available as basic data for the genetics and breeding. PMID:24938109

  2. Reusable fluorescent sensor for captopril based on energy transfer from photoluminescent graphene oxide self-assembly multilayers to silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiangying; Liu, Bin; Li, Shuchun; Li, Fang

    2016-05-15

    In this work we designed a self-assembly multilayers, in which photoluminescent graphene oxide was employed as a fluorescence probe. This multilayers film can effectively recognize captopril by resonance energy transfer from graphite oxide to silver nanoparticles. A new interfacial sensing method for captopril with high signal to noise ratio was established, by means of that multilayers was quenched by silver nanoparticles and subsequently recovered by adding captopril. The linear relation between intensity and captopril concentration was good, and the detection limit was found to be 0.1578 μM. Also, this novel detection platform demonstrated intriguing reusable properties, and the sensor could be repeated more than ten times without obviously losing its sensing performance. PMID:26945122

  3. Failure of HA coating on a gritblasted acetabular cup: 155 patients followed for 7-10 years.

    PubMed

    Reikerås, Olav; Gunderson, Ragnhild B

    2002-01-01

    We report the outcome of 191 acetabular gritblasted titanium cups with a hemispherical design for press-fit insertion and coated with hydroxyapatite. The prosthesis was made of gritblasted titanium entirely coated with hydroxyapatite. 155 patients aged 15-78 years were operated on during the years 1991-1993 and followed for 7-10 years. During this period, 39 cups were revised because of mechanical loosening, a further 9 had radiolucent lines and 2 focal osteolysis. None of these 11 patients had clinical symptoms. Failure was associated with age, wear and radiolucency/osteolysis. At revision, we found that the soft tissues were discolored, and that most of the coating had disappeared. This design of hydroxyapatite-coated cups has a high rate of debonding and failure. PMID:11928902

  4. Molecular epidemiological and phylogenetic analyses of canine parvovirus in domestic dogs and cats in Beijing, 2010-2013.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jing; Gao, Xin-Tao; Hou, Shao-Hua; Guo, Xiao-Yu; Yang, Xue-Shong; Yuan, Wei-Feng; Xin, Ting; Zhu, Hong-Fei; Jia, Hong

    2015-10-01

    Fifty-five samples (15.62%) collected from dogs and cats were identified as canine parvovirus (CPV) infection in Beijing during 2010-2013. The nucleotide identities and aa similarities were 98.2-100% and 97.7-100%, respectively, when compared with the reference isolates. Also, several synonymous and non-synonymous mutations were also recorded for the first time. New CPV-2a was dominant, accounting for 90.90% of the samples. Two of the 16 samples collected from cats were identified as new CPV-2a (12.5%), showing nucleotide identities of 100% with those from dogs. Twelve samples (15.78%) collected from completely immunized dogs were found to be new CPV-2a, which means CPV-2 vaccines may not provide sufficient protection for the epidemic strains. PMID:26028021

  5. Theodoricus Gravius (fl. 1600-1661): some biographical notes on a German chymist and scribe working in seventeenth-century England.

    PubMed

    Poole, William

    2009-11-01

    This article establishes the career of Theodoricus Gravius (fl. 1600-1661), a German refugee who worked in Great Linford as a laboratory assistant and scribe to the cleric and practitioner of astrological medicine, Richard Napier (1559-1634). Gravius was the first transmitter to England of the texts of the mystic Jacob Böhme, and although he settled in England, he undertook subsequent foreign visits to attempt the recovery of his property and to learn more about chymical matters. He also visited the Oxonian George Hakewill (1578-1649), and is responsible for scribing one of the manuscripts of the revisions to Hakewill's celebrated Apologie or Declaration Concerning the Power and Providence of God (1635). PMID:20506704

  6. Synthesis and crystal structure of 3-ammonium-4-hydroxyphenyl sulfonate hemihydrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belhouchet, M.; Mhiri, T.

    2013-01-01

    The crystal structure of 3-ammonium-4-hydroxyphenyl sulfonate hemihydrate C6H3(NH3)(OH)SO3 · 0.5H2O is determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The unit cell parameters are as follows: a = 11.2395(3), b = 10.3814(3), c = 13.7509(4) Å, β = 100.326(1)°, V = 1578.49(8) Å3, space group P21/ n, Z = 4. The crystal structure can be described us a succession of infinite corrugated layers parallel to ab plane. These layers consist of rings formed by four sulfonate molecules located around a center of symmetry. The rings are connected to each other and to water molecules via O-H...O hydrogen bonds. The structure is further stabilized by π-π interactions between phenyl rings of organic entities of successive layers.

  7. 500(th) anniversary of the birth of the precursor of modern cardiology: Josephus Struthius Polonus (1510-1568).

    PubMed

    Grzybowski, Andrzej; Sak, Jarosław; Pawlikowski, Jakub

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the authors take a closer look at the figure of Josephus Struthius Polonus (1510- -1568), one of the most famous physicians of the European Renaissance, on the 500(th) anniversary of his birth. Struthius became famous for his critical analysis of Galen's works and his own research into the circulatory system. The analysis of Struthius's scientific achievements leads to a conclusion that he was one of the pioneers of modern cardiology. He was a precursor of William Harvey (1578-1657) in studying the cardiovascular system, and the first person in the history of European medicine to present the pulse in a graphic form. He also presented similar ideas to those proposed in the 19(th) century by the inventor of the sphygmograph Karl von Vierodt (1818-1884), and the inventor of the polygraph Sir James Mackenzie (1853-1925). PMID:21948000

  8. Structural environments of carboxyl groups in natural organic molecules from terrestrial systems. Part 1: Infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hay, Michael B.; Myneni, Satish C. B.

    2007-07-01

    Carboxyls play an important role in the chemistry of natural organic molecules (NOM) in the environment, and their behavior is dependent on local structural environment within the macromolecule. We studied the structural environments of carboxyl groups in dissolved NOM from the Pine Barrens (New Jersey, USA), and IHSS NOM isolates from soils and river waters using attenuated total reflection Fourier-transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy. It is well established that the energies of the asymmetric stretching vibrations of the carboxylate anion (COO -) are sensitive to the structural environment of the carboxyl group. These energies were compiled from previous infrared studies on small organic acids for a wide variety of carboxyl structural environments and compared with the carboxyl spectral features of the NOM samples. We found that the asymmetric stretching peaks for all NOM samples occur within a narrow range centered at 1578 cm -1, suggesting that all NOM samples examined primarily contain very similar carboxyl structures, independent of sample source and isolation techniques employed. The small aliphatic acids containing hydroxyl (e.g., D-lactate, gluconate), ether/ester (methoxyacetate, acetoxyacetate), and carboxylate (malonate) substitutions on the α-carbon, and the aromatic acids salicylate ( ortho-OH) and furancarboxylate ( O-heterocycle), exhibit strong overlap with the NOM range, indicating that similar structures may be common in NOM. The width of the asymmetric peak suggests that the structural heterogeneity among the predominant carboxyl configurations in NOM is small. Changes in peak area with pH at energies distant from the peak at 1578 cm -1, however, may be indicative of a small fraction of other aromatic carboxyls and aliphatic structures lacking α-substitution. This information is important in understanding NOM-metal and mineral-surface complexation, and in building appropriate structural and mechanistic models of humic materials.

  9. Correlation between Raman spectroscopy and electrical conductivity of graphite/polyaniline composites reacted with hydrogen peroxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aymen, Mannai; Sami, Saidi; Ahmed, Souissi; Fethi, Gmati; Abdellatif, Belhadj Mohamed

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this work is to correlate the Raman spectroscopic studies to the electrical properties of graphite/polyaniline composites (G/PANI) reacted with hydrogen peroxide. Raman spectroscopic studies have been performed for G/PANI composites with different graphite weight concentrations (y% = 0, 10, 20, 50). As expected, Raman bands situated at 1350 and 1580 cm-1 coming from graphite lattice appear, and their intensity increases with increasing graphite concentrations. The measured Raman region (1170-1800 cm-1) of PANI reacted with hydrogen peroxide was convoluted and fitted with seven Lorentzian curves. Three Lorentzian curves centred at 1609, 1578 and 1336 cm-1 are investigated. We find that the band at 1578 cm-1 attributed to the C=C stretching vibration in the quinonoid ring (Q) is slightly shifted to 1584 cm-1 and its intensity increases during the reaction with hydrogen peroxide. However, the peaks at 1609 and 1336 cm-1 attributed respectively to the C-C stretching of the benzenoid ring (B) and C-N+. vibration of delocalized polaronic structures (protonation band—PB), keep the same position and their intensities decrease. This could be interpreted as a deprotonation of imines nitrogen atoms in PANI. These results were correlated with the electrical percolation behaviour which occurs in the composite. Indeed, the electrical conductivity of G/PANI composites treated with H2O2 increases with increasing G weight concentration, only when this later becomes higher than a critical concentration yc known as the percolation threshold. We find that the percolation behaviour is linked to the intensity decrease of B and PB bands and to the intensity increase of Q band.

  10. Effect of supplementation of crystalline lysine on the performance of WL layers in tropics during summer.

    PubMed

    Kumari, K Naga Raja; Reddy, V Ravinder; Preetham, V Chinni; Kumar, D Srinivas; Sen, Arup Ratan; Rao, S Venkata Rama

    2016-04-01

    A trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of lysine concentration in the diet of WL layers with constant ratio of other essential amino acids to lysine. Pullets (528) aged 25 to 36 weeks were fed with test diet containing two protein levels (13.36 and 15.78 %) each with 5 % concentration of lysine (0.50, 0.55, 0.60, 0.65, and 0.70) and a control with 17 % CP and 0.70 %, lysine. Each test diet was fed ad libitum to six replicates of eight birds for a period of 12 weeks. Egg production (EP), egg weight (EW), egg mass (EM), feed efficiency (g/g) (FE), body weight gain (BWG), Haugh unit (HU) and yolk colour (YC) were measured. Increased (P ≤ 0.05) EP, EW, EM, FE and BWG were obtained with increasing lysine concentration in diets. Whereas, feed intake/h/day, feed intake/egg, egg shell defects (ESD), mortality and shell thickness were not affected (P ≥ 0.05) by the concentration of lysine in diet. However, higher (P ≤ 0.05) HU score and YC were noticed at low lysine (0.50 %) concentrations. Based on this, it was concluded that WL layers (25-36 weeks) reared in open-sided houses in the tropics require approximately 0.70 % lysine (597.90 vs. 584.39 mg/h/day) in low (13.36 % CP) and high (15.78 % CP) protein groups in diets containing approximately 2700 kcal of ME/kg in summer. PMID:26922742

  11. Patient specific guides for total knee arthroplasty are ready for primetime

    PubMed Central

    Schotanus, Martijn GM; Boonen, Bert; Kort, Nanne P

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To present the radiological results of total knee arthroplasty (TKA) with use of patient specific matched guides (PSG) from different manufacturer in patients suffering from severe osteoarthritis of the knee joint. METHODS: This study describes the results of 57 knees operated with 4 different PSG systems and a group operated with conventional instrumentation (n = 60) by a single surgeon. The PSG systems were compared with each other and subdivided into cut- and pin PSG. The biomechanical axis [hip-knee-ankle angle (HKA)], varus/valgus of the femur [frontal femoral component (FFC)] and tibia (frontal tibial component) component, flexion/extension of the femur [flexion/extension of the femur component (LFC)] and posterior slope of the tibia [lateral tibial component (LTC)] component were evaluated on long-leg standing and lateral X-rays. A percentage of > 3° deviation was seen as an outlier. RESULTS: The inter class correlation coefficient (ICC) revealed that radiographic measurements between both assessors were reliable (ICC > 0.8). Fisher exact test was used to test differences of proportions. The percentage of outliers of the HKA-axis was comparable between both the PSG and conventional groups (12.28% vs 18.33%, P < 0.424) and the cut- and pin PSG groups (14.3% vs 10.3%, P < 1.00). The percentage of outliers of the FFC (0% vs 18.33%, P < 0.000), LFC (15.78% vs 58.33%, P < 0.000) and LTC (15.78% vs 41.67%, P < 0.033) were significant different in favour of the PSG group. There were no significant differences regarding the outliers between the individual PSG systems and the PSG group subdivided into cut- and pin PSG. CONCLUSION: PSG for TKA show significant less outliers compared to the conventional technique. These single surgeon results suggest that PSG are ready for primetime. PMID:26807358

  12. Research and Recovery of Snake River Sockeye Salmon, 1994 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Kline, Paul A.

    1995-08-01

    On November 20, 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed Snake River sockeye salmon oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. In 1991, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribe and the Idaho Department of Fish and Game initiated the Snake River Sockeye Salmon Sawtooth Valley Project to conserve and rebuild populations in Idaho. In 1994, the authors estimated the total September Redfish Lake O. nerka population at 51,529 fish (95% CI, {+-} 33,179). The Alturas Lake O. nerka population was estimated at 5,785 fish ({+-} 6,919). The total density and biomass of Alturas Lake was estimated at 27 fish/hectare ({+-} 33) and 0.7 kg/hectare, respectively. The total O. nerka population estimate for Pettit Lake was 14,743 fish ({+-} 3,683). Stanley Lake O. nerka total population size, density, and biomass was estimated at 2,695 fish ({+-} 963), 37 fish/hectare ({+-} 13), and 0.5 kg/hectare, respectively. Estimated numbers of O. nerka outmigrant smolts passing Redfish Lake Creek and Salmon River trapping sites increased in 1994. The authors estimated 1,820 (90% CI 1,229--2,671) and 945 (90% CI 331--13,000) smolts left Redfish and Alturas lakes, respectively. The total PIT tag detection rate at mainstem dams for Redfish Lake outmigrants was 21% in 1994. No Alturas Lake outmigrants were detected at any of the downstream facilities with detection capabilities (zero of 50 fish).

  13. Iodine-129: Sample preparation, quality control and analyses of pre-nuclear materials and of natural waters from Lower Saxony, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szidat, S.; Schmidt, A.; Handl, J.; Jakob, D.; Botsch, W.; Michel, R.; Synal, H.-A.; Schnabel, C.; Suter, M.; López-Gutiérrez, J. M.; Städe, W.

    2000-10-01

    Sample preparation procedures for AMS measurements of 129I and 127I in environmental materials and some methodological aspects of quality assurance are discussed. Measurements from analyses of some pre-nuclear soil and thyroid gland samples and of a systematic investigation of natural waters in Lower Saxony, Germany, are described. Although the up-to-now lowest 129I/ 127I ratios in soils and thyroid glands were observed, they are still suspect to contamination since they are significantly higher than the pre-nuclear equilibrium ratio in the marine hydrosphere. A survey on all available 129I/ 127I isotopic ratios in precipitation shows a dramatic increase until the middle of the 1980s and a stabilization since 1987 at high isotopic ratios of about (3.6-8.3)×10 -7. In surface waters, ratios of (57-380)×10 -10 are measured while shallow ground waters show with ratios of (1.3-200)×10 -10 significantly lower values with a much larger spread. The data for 129I in soils and in precipitation are used to estimate pre-nuclear and modern 129I deposition densities.

  14. Extraction, purification and anti-fatigue activity of γ-aminobutyric acid from mulberry (Morus alba L.) leaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hengwen; He, Xuanhui; Liu, Yan; Li, Jun; He, Qingyong; Zhang, Cuiying; Wei, Benjun; Zhang, Ye; Wang, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Mulberry (Morus alba L.) is a tree species of Moraceae widely distributed in Southern China. In the present study, the white crystal of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) was purified from mulberry leaves, and its bioactivity was also investigated. The main results were as follows: first, the crude GABA was extracted from mulberry leaves by using biochemical methods. Then, the crude was purified by chromatography over an S-8 macroporous resin, Sephadex G-10, and 732 cation exchange resin to yield a white crystal. Lavage administration and exposure of GABA to male NIH mice showed no adverse effects on their growth and development. In an endurance capacity test, the average loaded-swimming time of medium dose was 111.60% longer than the control (P < 0.01). Further investigations showed that relative to that of model control, the respective blood lactate (BL) concentrations of low- and medium-dose were 28.52% and 28.81% lower (P < 0.05), whereas the levels of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) were 36.83% and 40.54% lower (P < 0.05), and that of liver glycogen (LG) levels were 12.81% and 17.22% lower (P < 0.05). The results indicated that GABA has an advantage over taurine of anti-fatigue effect. These findings were indicative of the anti-fatigue activity of GABA.

  15. Drilling of three horizontal hole pattern Fort McMurray, Alberta

    SciTech Connect

    Pugh, G.E.

    1982-01-01

    Between Oct. 1980 and Feb. 1981, Texaco Canada Resources Ltd. drilled 3 horizontal holes in soft, shallow, unconsolidated Athabasca tar sands at their Fort McMurray Pilot Plant, Alberta, Can. Objectives of the project were to produce bitumen at very shallow depths with minimum drilling cost, lease cost, and environmental impact. The accomplishment is believed unique in that all 3 wells were drilled from the same drilling pad, each well being spudded in at a vertical angle of 45, and a horizontal attitude was achieved at a true vertical depth from surface of ca 125 m (410 ft). Over 350 m (1,000 ft) of horizontal hole was drilled to complete each well. A new, innovative, hydraulically operated drilling rig was built for this project with a 110,000 kg. (240,000 lb) hoist and 22,700 kg (50,000 lb) push-down capacity. New techniques were developed to drill, enlarge, and underream the horizontal hole up to 368.3 mm (14-1/2 in.) diameter. Mud motors were used to power the bit and the force on the bit was accomplished by pushing down on the drill pipe.

  16. Extraction, purification and anti-fatigue activity of γ-aminobutyric acid from mulberry (Morus alba L.) leaves

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hengwen; He, Xuanhui; Liu, Yan; Li, Jun; He, Qingyong; Zhang, Cuiying; Wei, Benjun; Zhang, Ye; Wang, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Mulberry (Morus alba L.) is a tree species of Moraceae widely distributed in Southern China. In the present study, the white crystal of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) was purified from mulberry leaves, and its bioactivity was also investigated. The main results were as follows: first, the crude GABA was extracted from mulberry leaves by using biochemical methods. Then, the crude was purified by chromatography over an S-8 macroporous resin, Sephadex G-10, and 732 cation exchange resin to yield a white crystal. Lavage administration and exposure of GABA to male NIH mice showed no adverse effects on their growth and development. In an endurance capacity test, the average loaded-swimming time of medium dose was 111.60% longer than the control (P < 0.01). Further investigations showed that relative to that of model control, the respective blood lactate (BL) concentrations of low- and medium-dose were 28.52% and 28.81% lower (P < 0.05), whereas the levels of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) were 36.83% and 40.54% lower (P < 0.05), and that of liver glycogen (LG) levels were 12.81% and 17.22% lower (P < 0.05). The results indicated that GABA has an advantage over taurine of anti-fatigue effect. These findings were indicative of the anti-fatigue activity of GABA. PMID:26743028

  17. Mapping the Iranian Research Literature in the Field of Traditional Medicine in Scopus Database 2010-2014

    PubMed Central

    GhaedAmini, Hossein; Okhovati, Maryam; Zare, Morteza; Saghafi, Zahra; Bazrafshan, Azam; GhaedAmini, Alireza; GhaedAmini, Mohammadreza

    2016-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to provide research and collaboration overview of Iranian research efforts in the field of traditional medicine during 2010-2014. Methods: This is a bibliometric study using the Scopus database as data source, using search affiliation address relevant to traditional medicine and Iran as the search strategy. Subject and geographical overlay maps were also applied to visualize the network activities of the Iranian authors. Highly cited articles (citations >10) were further explored to highlight the impact of research domains more specifically. Results: About 3,683 articles were published by Iranian authors in Scopus database. The compound annual growth rate of Iranian publications was 0.14% during 2010-2014. Tehran University of Medical Sciences (932 articles), Shiraz University of Medical Sciences (404 articles) and Tabriz Islamic Medical University (391 articles), were the leading institutions in the field of traditional medicine. Medicinal plants (72%), digestive system’s disease (21%), basics of traditional medicine (13%), mental disorders (8%) were the major research topics. United States (7%), Netherlands (3%), and Canada (2.6%) were the most important collaborators of Iranian authors. Conclusion: Iranian research efforts in the field of traditional medicine have been increased slightly over the last years. Yet, joint multi-disciplinary collaborations are needed to cover inadequately described areas of traditional medicine in the country.

  18. Blood lead levels of the battery and exhaust workers and their pulmonary function tests.

    PubMed

    Bagci, C; Bozkurt, A I; Cakmak, E A; Can, S; Cengiz, B

    2004-06-01

    In an attempt to understand the impact of inhaled lead on the pulmonary functions, we assessed the blood lead levels and pulmonary functions of the battery and exhaust workers who are potential candidates for lead inhalation. The hospital staff served as control group. The measurements of lead levels were performed using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Pulmonary function tests (PFTs) were performed using a portable spirometer. The blood lead levels of the battery workers, exhaust workers and controls were found to be 36.83, 26.94 and 14.81 microg/dl, respectively. The values of the workers were significantly higher than the controls (p < 0.001). The lead levels of the battery workers were also significantly higher than the exhaust workers (p < 0.001). PFT results (maximum voluntary ventilation, forced expiration flow and first forced expiration volume values of the workers) were significantly worse than the controls, and their pulmonary function test results were consistent with restrictive problems in the airways. PMID:15311556

  19. The adeno-associated virus rep gene suppresses herpes simplex virus-induced DNA amplification.

    PubMed Central

    Heilbronn, R; Bürkle, A; Stephan, S; zur Hausen, H

    1990-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) induces within the host cell genome DNA amplification which can be suppressed by coinfection with adeno-associated virus (AAV). To characterize the AAV functions mediating this effect, cloned AAV type 2 wild-type or mutant genomes were transfected into simian virus 40 (SV40)-transformed hamster cells together with the six HSV replication genes (encoding UL5, UL8, major DNA-binding protein, DNA polymerase, UL42, and UL52) which together are necessary and sufficient for the induction of SV40 DNA amplification (R. Heilbronn and H. zur Hausen, J. Virol. 63:3683-3692, 1989). The AAV rep gene was identified as being responsible for the complete inhibition of HSV-induced SV40 DNA amplification. Likewise, rep inhibited origin-dependent HSV replication. rep neither killed the transfected host cells nor interfered with gene expression from the cotransfected amplification genes. This points to a specific interference with HSV-induced DNA amplification. Images PMID:2159559

  20. Analysis of genetic diversity and population structure of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) from China and Malaysia based on species-specific simple sequence repeat markers.

    PubMed

    Zhou, L X; Xiao, Y; Xia, W; Yang, Y D

    2015-01-01

    Genetic diversity and patterns of population structure of the 94 oil palm lines were investigated using species-specific simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. We designed primers for 63 SSR loci based on their flanking sequences and conducted amplification in 94 oil palm DNA samples. The amplification result showed that a relatively high level of genetic diversity was observed between oil palm individuals according a set of 21 polymorphic microsatellite loci. The observed heterozygosity (Ho) was 0.3683 and 0.4035, with an average of 0.3859. The Ho value was a reliable determinant of the discriminatory power of the SSR primer combinations. The principal component analysis and unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic averaging cluster analysis showed the 94 oil palm lines were grouped into one cluster. These results demonstrated that the oil palm in Hainan Province of China and the germplasm introduced from Malaysia may be from the same source. The SSR protocol was effective and reliable for assessing the genetic diversity of oil palm. Knowledge of the genetic diversity and population structure will be crucial for establishing appropriate management stocks for this species. PMID:26662418

  1. Environmental influences on helminthiasis and nutritional status among Pacific schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Hughes, R G; Sharp, D S; Hughes, M C; Akau'ola, S; Heinsbroek, P; Velayudhan, R; Schulz, D; Palmer, K; Cavalli-Sforza, T; Galea, G

    2004-06-01

    This paper describes a study undertaken to: (1) determine the prevalence of Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and hookworm infections and nutritional status among Pacific Island school children; (2) identify factors influencing helminthiasis; (3) identify interventions to improve school health. A total of 3,683 children aged 5-12 years attending 27 primary schools in 13 Pacific Island countries were surveyed along with school environmental data. Stool samples were collected from 1996 children (54.2%) and analysed for ova and helminths. Total prevalence of helminthiasis was 32.8%. Anaemia prevalence was 12.4%. Children with helminthiasis and anaemia were found to be 8.7 times more likely to be stunted and 4.3 times more likely to be underweight than non-anaemic and non-infected children. Four significant environmental influences on helminthiasis were identified: (1) an inadequate water supply; (2); availability of a school canteen; (3) regular water/sanitation maintenance regimes; and (4) overcrowded classrooms. Helminthiasis was found to be strongly associated with anaemia, stunting and underweight and environmental influences identified. Although mass anti-helminthic drug administrations (MDA) have been taking place, reinfection is common as drug therapy alone is not enough. Programme effectiveness depends upon upgrading school environments to include an adequate water supply, controlled food preparation/provision, well-maintained water/sanitation facilities and class sizes of 30 students or less. PMID:15203448

  2. A highly unradiogenic lead isotopic signature revealed by volcanic rocks from the East Pacific Rise.

    PubMed

    Mougel, Berengere; Agranier, Arnaud; Hemond, Christophe; Gente, Pascal

    2014-01-01

    Radiogenic isotopes in oceanic basalts provide a window into the different geochemical components defining the composition of Earth's mantle. Here we report the discovery of a novel geochemical signature in volcanic glasses sampled at a sub-kilometre scale along the East Pacific Rise between 15°37'N and 15°47'N. The most striking aspect of this signature is its unradiogenic lead ((206)Pb/(204)Pb=17.49, (207)Pb/(204)Pb=15.46 and (208)Pb/(204)Pb=36.83). In conjunction with enriched Sr, Nd and Hf signatures, Pb isotopes depict mixing lines that trend away from any known mantle end-members. We suggest that this unradiogenic lead component sampled by magmatic melts corresponds to a novel upper mantle reservoir that should be considered in the Pb isotope budget of the bulk silicate Earth. Major, trace element and isotope compositions are suggestive of an ancient and lower continental origin for this unradiogenic lead component, possibly sulphide-bearing pyroxenites that were preserved even after prolonged stirring within the ambient upper mantle. PMID:25027032

  3. Enrichment of the Glycyrrhizic Acid from Licorice Roots (Glycyrrhiza glabra L.) by Isoelectric Focused Adsorptive Bubble Chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Karaoğul, Eyyüp; Parlar, Perihan; Parlar, Harun; Alma, M. Hakkı

    2016-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to enrich glycyrrhizic acid ammonium salt known as one of the main compounds of licorice roots (Glycyrrhiza glabra L.) by isoelectric focused adsorptive bubble separation technique with different foaming agents. In the experiments, four bubble separation parameters were used with β-lactoglobulin, albumin bovine, and starch (soluble) preferred as foaming agents and without additives. The enrichment of glycyrrhizic acid ammonium salt into the foam was influenced by different additive substances. The results showed that highest enrichment values were obtained from β-lactoglobulin as much as 368.3 times. The lowest enrichment values (5.9 times) were determined for the application without additive. After enrichment, each experiment of glycyrrhizic acid ammonium salt confirmed that these substances could be quantitatively enriched into the collection vessel with isoelectric focused adsorptive bubble separation technique. The transfer of glycyrrhizic acid ammonium salt into the foam from standard solution in the presence of additive was more efficient than aqueous licorice extract. PMID:26949562

  4. Characteristics of natural infections of the stomach worm, Obeliscoides cuniculi (Graybill), in lagomorphs and woodchucks in Canada.

    PubMed

    Measures, L N; Anderson, R C

    1983-07-01

    Wild lagomorphs and woodchucks collected predominantly in southern Ontario, Canada were examined for subspecies of Obeliscoides cuniculi (Graybill). Obeliscoides cuniculi multistriatus was found in snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus). Obeliscoides cuniculi cuniculi was found in cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus), European hares (Lepus capensis) and woodchucks (Marmota monax). Prevalence of Obeliscoides cuniculi multistriatus in snowshoe hares was 100% and mean intensity (and range of intensity) was 760 (9-4, 198) in Lindsay, Ontario in 1980. Mean intensity in hares varied trimonthly. The highest mean intensity of worms occurred in spring when most worms were adult. Transmission occurred mainly in spring. Most worms present in fall (70%) and winter (54%) were fourth stage. Immature fifth-stage and gravid females were present in hares during fall and winter. Prevalence and mean intensity of O. c. cuniculi in cottontails was 15% and 29 (1-118). Prevalence and mean intensity of O. c. cuniculi in woodchucks was 6% and 56 (16-118). European hares were infected with O. c. cuniculi, prevalence was 10% and mean intensity was 60 (36-83). In Ontario woodchucks and European hares were common in areas frequented by cottontail rabbits and probably acquired sporadic infections of O. c. cuniculi from infected cottontails. PMID:6644920

  5. The effects of a newsletter on bedding control on house dust mite allergen concentrations in childcare centers in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jeonghoon; Jeong, Kyoung Yong; Kwon, Ho-Jang; Yang, Heasuk; Yum, Hye Yung; Lee, Seon Ah; Kim, Chae-Bong; Kim, Hyunjung; Lim, Wan Ryung; Hong, Soyoung; Kim, Kyoosang

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Bedding in childcare centers (CCCs) can hold house dust mite (HDM) allergens. This study examined whether HDM allergen levels can be reduced through the distribution of an educational newsletter on bedding control to parents of CCC children in Korea. Methods All 38 CCCs were measured for Der 1 (sum of Der f 1 and Der p 1) concentrations on classroom floors and bedding before the intervention. Educational newsletters on children’s bedding control were sent to 21 CCCs by mail, and teachers were asked to distribute the newsletters to the parents of the children (intervention group). The remaining 17 CCCs were not sent newsletters (control group). The measurement of Der 1 concentrations in 38 CCCs was repeated after the intervention. Dust samples were collected with a vacuum cleaner and analyzed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay methods. Results The Der 1 concentrations on the bedding were significantly higher than those on the floors in 38 CCCs at baseline (p<0.05). Although changes of the Der 1 concentrations for the control group (n=17) were not significant, Der 1 concentrations for the intervention group (n=21) decreased significantly from 2077.9 ng/g dust to 963.5 ng/g dust on the floors and from 3683.9 ng/g dust to 610.4 ng/g dust on bedding (p<0.05). Conclusions The distribution of educational newsletters on bedding control to parents may be an effective means of controlling HDMs in CCCs. PMID:26602559

  6. Self-assembled monolayer based impedimetric platform for food borne mycotoxin detection.

    PubMed

    Solanki, Pratima Rathee; Kaushik, Ajeet; Manaka, T; Pandey, Manoj Kumar; Iwamoto, M; Agrawal, Ved Varun; Malhotra, Bansi Dhar

    2010-12-01

    A self-assembled monolayer (SAM) of 11-amino-1-undecanethiol (AUT) has been fabricated onto a gold (Au) substrate to co-immobilize anti-ochratoxin-A antibodies (AO-IgGs) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) to detect food borne mycotoxin [i.e., ochratoxin-A (OTA)]. AUT/Au electrode, AO-IgGs/AUT/Au immunoelectrode and BSA/IgGs/AUT/Au immunoelectrode have been characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electrochemical studies such as cyclic voltammetry (CV), differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Electrochemical studies reveal that the AUT-SAM with NH2 groups provide favorable conditions to immobilize AO-IgGs with better orientation, resulting in enhanced electron transport to obtain improved sensing characteristics. The EIS response studies of the BSA/AO-IgGs/AUT/Au immunoelectrode obtained as a function of OTA concentration reveal that the value of the charge transfer resistance (RCT) increases with increased OTA concentration. The BSA/AO-IgGs/AUT/Au immunoelectrode exhibits linearity over 0.5-6.0 ng/dl, detection limit of 0.08 ng/dl using 3σb/m criteria, response time of 30 s and sensitivity of ∼36.83 Ω/ng dl(-1) cm(-2) with a regression coefficient of 0.999. Attempts have been made to monitor the change in RCT of BSA/AO-IgGs/AUT/Au immunoelectrode on addition of coffee samples. PMID:20953508

  7. Effect of supplementary carbon addition in the treatment of low C/N high-technology industrial wastewater by MBR.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Mathava; Lee, Pei-Yun; Fukusihma, Toshikazu; Whang, Liang-Ming; Lin, Jih-Gaw

    2012-06-01

    The effect of supplementary carbon addition for the treatment of high-technology industrial wastewater in a membrane bioreactor (MBR) was investigated. The MBR was operated for 302 days under different C/N (BOD(L)/NH(4)(+)-N) ratios, i.e. 0.9-1 to 20 days, 1.6-21 to 42 days, 2.9-43 to 82 days, 3.6-83 to 141 days, 4.8-165 to 233 days and 9.3-240 to 302 days. Irrespective of the C/N ratios investigated, SS and BOD(5) removal efficiencies were above 95% and above 80% COD removal efficiency was observed. In addition, complete nitrification was observed throughout the investigation. However, denitrification and total nitrogen removal efficiencies reached their maximum values at the highest C/N ratio (9.3) investigated. Real-time PCR analysis revealed 10 times higher ammonia oxidizing bacteria to total bacteria ratio under the highest C/N ratio condition (9.3) compared to the low C/N ratio condition (1.6). PMID:22300636

  8. Developmental change in social responsibility during adolescence: An ecological perspective.

    PubMed

    Wray-Lake, Laura; Syvertsen, Amy K; Flanagan, Constance A

    2016-01-01

    Social responsibility can be defined as a set of prosocial values representing personal commitments to contribute to community and society. Little is known about developmental change-and predictors of that change-in social responsibility during adolescence. The present study used an accelerated longitudinal research design to investigate the developmental trajectory of social responsibility values and ecological assets across family, school, community, and peer settings that predict these values. Data come from a 3-year study of 3,683 U.S. adolescents enrolled in upper-level elementary, middle, and high schools in rural, semiurban, and urban communities. Social responsibility values significantly decreased from age 9 to 16 before leveling off in later adolescence. Family compassion messages and democratic climate, school solidarity, community connectedness, and trusted friendship, positively predicted within-person change in adolescents' social responsibility values. These findings held after accounting for other individual-level and demographic factors and provide support for the role of ecological assets in adolescents' social responsibility development. In addition, fair society beliefs and volunteer experience had positive between- and within-person associations with social responsibility values. The manuscript discusses theoretical and practical implications of the conclusion that declines in ecological assets may partly explain age-related declines in social responsibility values. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26619322

  9. Laser Welded versus Resistance Spot Welded Bone Implants: Analysis of the Thermal Increase and Strength

    PubMed Central

    Fornaini, Carlo; Meleti, Marco; Bonanini, Mauro; Lagori, Giuseppe; Vescovi, Paolo; Merigo, Elisabetta; Nammour, Samir

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. The first aim of this “ex vivo split mouth” study was to compare the thermal elevation during the welding process of titanium bars to titanium implants inserted in pig jaws by a thermal camera and two thermocouples. The second aim was to compare the strength of the joints by a traction test with a dynamometer. Materials and Methods. Six pigs' jaws were used and three implants were placed on each side of them for a total of 36 fixtures. Twelve bars were connected to the abutments (each bar on three implants) by using, on one side, laser welding and, on the other, resistance spot welding. Temperature variations were recorded by thermocouples and by thermal camera while the strength of the welded joint was analyzed by a traction test. Results. For increasing temperature, means were 36.83 and 37.06, standard deviations 1.234 and 1.187, and P value 0.5763 (not significant). For traction test, means were 195.5 and 159.4, standard deviations 2.00 and 2.254, and P value 0.0001 (very significant). Conclusion. Laser welding was demonstrated to be able to connect titanium implant abutments without the risk of thermal increase into the bone and with good results in terms of mechanical strength. PMID:25110731

  10. Using satellite data to estimate partial pressure of CO2 in the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parard, Gaëlle; Charantonis, Anastase Alexandre; Rutgersson, Anna

    2016-03-01

    In this study we focused on estimating the pressure partial of CO2 (pCO2) in the entire Baltic Sea which can be considered a coastal area in its entirety. We used the self-organizing multiple linear output (SOMLO) method to estimate the ocean surface pCO2 in the Baltic Sea from the remotely sensed sea surface temperature, chlorophyll a, colored dissolved organic matter, net primary production, and mixed-layer depth. Uncertainties in the estimates include sparsity of in situ data used to train the algorithms, in particular, for some sectors and seasons. For this application we divided the Baltic Sea in four basins. When comparing the results obtained with this division to those obtained in previous studies, we notice a decrease in the root-mean-square error (<40 μatm) between the reconstruction of the pCO2 and their corresponding in situ measurements, as well as an increase of the correlation coefficient (> 0.96) between them. The outputs of this research have a horizontal resolution of 4 km and cover the 1998-2011 period. For the first time, a climatological mean distribution of surface water pCO2 over the Baltic Sea was calculated based on the SOMLO method with a mean pCO2 of 368.3 ± 100 μatm, and a range of 234-514 μatm. The seasonal variability is similar throughout the Baltic Sea, being high in winter and low in summer.

  11. Methanogen Population of an Oil Production Skimmer Pit and the Effects of Environmental Factors and Substrate Availability on Methanogenesis and Corrosion Rates.

    PubMed

    Conlette, Okoro Chuma; Emmanuel, Nwezza Elebe; Chijoke, Okpokwasili Gideon

    2016-07-01

    Assessment of microbial communities from an oil production skimmer pit using 16S rRNA gene sequencing technique revealed massive dominance of methanogenic archaea in both the skimmer pit water and sediment samples. The dominant genera of methanogens involved are mostly the acetotrophic Methanosaeta (36-83 %), and the hydrogenotrophic Methanococcus (49 %) indicating that methanogenesis is the dominant terminal metabolic process in the skimmer pit. Further studies showed that the methanogens had their optimal activity at pH 6-6.5, salinity of 100 mM, and temperature of 35-45 °C. When appropriate substrates are available and utilized by methanogens, methane production correlates with general corrosion rates (r = +0.927; p < 0.01), and under different conditions of pH, salinity and temperature, methane production showed significantly strong positive correlations (r = +0.824, +0.827, and +0.805; p < 0.01, respectively) with general corrosion rates. To the best of our knowledge, this research work was the first to assess microbial community composition of an oil production skimmer pit at Escravos facility in Nigeria. PMID:27075654

  12. Self-assembled monolayer based impedimetric platform for food borne mycotoxin detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solanki, Pratima Rathee; Kaushik, Ajeet; Manaka, T.; Pandey, Manoj Kumar; Iwamoto, M.; Agrawal, Ved Varun; Malhotra, Bansi Dhar

    2010-12-01

    A self-assembled monolayer (SAM) of 11-amino-1-undecanethiol (AUT) has been fabricated onto a gold (Au) substrate to co-immobilize anti-ochratoxin-A antibodies (AO-IgGs) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) to detect food borne mycotoxin [i.e., ochratoxin-A (OTA)]. AUT/Auelectrode, AO-IgGs/AUT/Au immunoelectrode and BSA/IgGs/AUT/Au immunoelectrode have been characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electrochemical studies such as cyclic voltammetry (CV), differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Electrochemical studies reveal that the AUT-SAM with NH2groups provide favorable conditions to immobilize AO-IgGs with better orientation, resulting in enhanced electron transport to obtain improved sensing characteristics. The EIS response studies of the BSA/AO-IgGs/AUT/Au immunoelectrode obtained as a function of OTA concentration reveal that the value of the charge transfer resistance (RCT) increases with increased OTA concentration. The BSA/AO-IgGs/AUT/Au immunoelectrode exhibits linearity over 0.5-6.0 ng/dl, detection limit of 0.08 ng/dl using 3σb/m criteria, response time of 30 s and sensitivity of ~36.83 Ω/ng dl-1 cm-2 with a regression coefficient of 0.999. Attempts have been made to monitor the change in RCT of BSA/AO-IgGs/AUT/Au immunoelectrode on addition of coffee samples.

  13. Counting the costs of accreditation in acute care: an activity-based costing approach

    PubMed Central

    Mumford, Virginia; Greenfield, David; Hogden, Anne; Forde, Kevin; Westbrook, Johanna; Braithwaite, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To assess the costs of hospital accreditation in Australia. Design Mixed methods design incorporating: stakeholder analysis; survey design and implementation; activity-based costs analysis; and expert panel review. Setting Acute care hospitals accredited by the Australian Council for Health Care Standards. Participants Six acute public hospitals across four States. Results Accreditation costs varied from 0.03% to 0.60% of total hospital operating costs per year, averaged across the 4-year accreditation cycle. Relatively higher costs were associated with the surveys years and with smaller facilities. At a national level these costs translate to $A36.83 million, equivalent to 0.1% of acute public hospital recurrent expenditure in the 2012 fiscal year. Conclusions This is the first time accreditation costs have been independently evaluated across a wide range of hospitals and highlights the additional cost burden for smaller facilities. A better understanding of the costs allows policymakers to assess alternative accreditation and other quality improvement strategies, and understand their impact across a range of facilities. This methodology can be adapted to assess international accreditation programmes. PMID:26351190

  14. Microbial side-chain cleavage of phytosterols by mycobacteria in vegetable oil/aqueous two-phase system.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yang-Guang; Guan, Yi-Xin; Wang, Hai-Qing; Yao, Shan-Jing

    2014-09-01

    Microbial side-chain cleavage of natural sterols to 4-androstene-3,17-dione (AD) and 1,4-androstadiene-3,17-dione (ADD) by Mycobacteria has received much attention in pharmaceutical industry, while low yield of the reaction owing to the strong hydrophobicity of sterols is a tough problem to be solved urgently. Eight kinds of vegetable oils, i.e., sunflower, peanut, corn, olive, linseed, walnut, grape seed, and rice oil, were used to construct oil/aqueous biphasic systems in the biotransformation of phytosterols by Mycobacterium sp. MB 3683 cells. The results indicated that vegetable oils are suitable for phytosterol biotransformation. Specially, the yield of AD carried out in sunflower biphasic system (phase ratio of 1:9, oil to aqueous) was greatly increased to 84.8 % with 10 g/L feeding concentration after 120-h transformation at 30 °C and 200 rpm. Distribution coefficients of AD in different oil/aqueous systems were also determined. Because vegetable oils are of low cost and because of their eco-friendly characters, there is a great potential for the application of oil/aqueous two-phase systems in bacteria whole cell biocatalysis. PMID:25082765

  15. Effects of using relaxation breathing training to reduce music performance anxiety in 3rd to 6th graders.

    PubMed

    Su, Yu-Huei; Luh, Jer-Junn; Chen, Hsin-I; Lin, Chao-Chen; Liao, Miin-Jiun; Chen, Heng-Shuen

    2010-06-01

    The current study examined the effects of applying relaxation breathing training (RBT) as a means to reduce music performance anxiety (MPA) in young, talented musicians. A group of 59 young musicians from 3rd to 6th grade participated in this study, and all of them started RBT twice a week for 2 months prior to the examination. Four tests--2 mos, 1 mos, half an hour and 5 min before the examination--were conducted to examine the level of MPA after the application of RBT. Results show that the degree of MPA 5 min before the trial was lower than the degree of performance anxiety half an hour before the jury (t = -3.683, p < 0.01), which indicated that the RBT was associated with a decrease in MPA. Although a series of RBT exercises was applied, results indicated that when approaching the date of examination, the degree of performance anxiety still increased and reached its maximum half an hour before the jury. The recommendation for future studies is to combine the application of RBT with other methods to expand its effect in reducing MPA. PMID:20795337

  16. Classical swine fever virus: recovery of infectious viruses from cDNA constructs and generation of recombinant cytopathogenic defective interfering particles.

    PubMed Central

    Meyers, G; Thiel, H J; Rümenapf, T

    1996-01-01

    The 5'- and 3'-terminal sequences of the genomic RNA from classical swine fever virus (CSFV) were determined, and the resulting information was used for construction of full-length CSFV cDNA clones. After transfection of in vitro-transcribed RNA derived from a cDNA construct, infectious CSFV was recovered from porcine cells. To confirm the de novo generation of infectious CSFV from cloned DNA, a genetically tagged CSFV was constructed. In comparison with parental CSFV, the recombinant viruses were retarded in growth by about 1 order of magnitude. Introduction of a deletion by exchange of part of the full-length construct for corresponding cDNA fragments derived from the genomes of cytopathogenic CSFV defective interfering particles (DIs) (G. Meyers and H.-J. Thiel, J. Virol. 69:3683-3689. 1995) resulted in recovery of cytopathogenic DIs in the DI genomes is responsible for their cytopathogenicity. The established system will allow novel approaches to analysis of pestiviral molecular biology and in particular to elucidation of the molecular basis of attenuation and cytopathogenicity of these viruses. PMID:8627678

  17. Extraction, purification and anti-fatigue activity of γ-aminobutyric acid from mulberry (Morus alba L.) leaves.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hengwen; He, Xuanhui; Liu, Yan; Li, Jun; He, Qingyong; Zhang, Cuiying; Wei, Benjun; Zhang, Ye; Wang, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Mulberry (Morus alba L.) is a tree species of Moraceae widely distributed in Southern China. In the present study, the white crystal of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) was purified from mulberry leaves, and its bioactivity was also investigated. The main results were as follows: first, the crude GABA was extracted from mulberry leaves by using biochemical methods. Then, the crude was purified by chromatography over an S-8 macroporous resin, Sephadex G-10, and 732 cation exchange resin to yield a white crystal. Lavage administration and exposure of GABA to male NIH mice showed no adverse effects on their growth and development. In an endurance capacity test, the average loaded-swimming time of medium dose was 111.60% longer than the control (P < 0.01). Further investigations showed that relative to that of model control, the respective blood lactate (BL) concentrations of low- and medium-dose were 28.52% and 28.81% lower (P < 0.05), whereas the levels of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) were 36.83% and 40.54% lower (P < 0.05), and that of liver glycogen (LG) levels were 12.81% and 17.22% lower (P < 0.05). The results indicated that GABA has an advantage over taurine of anti-fatigue effect. These findings were indicative of the anti-fatigue activity of GABA. PMID:26743028

  18. HyspIRI Intelligent Payload Module(IPM) and Benchmarking Algorithms for Upload

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mandl, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Features: Hardware: a) Xilinx Virtex-5 (GSFC Space Cube 2); b) 2 x 400MHz PPC; c) 100MHz Bus; d) 2 x 512MB SDRAM; e) Dual Gigabit Ethernet. Support Linux kernel 2.6.31 (gcc version 4.2.2). Support software running in stand alone mode for better performance. Can stream raw data up to 800 Mbps. Ready for operations. Software Application Examples: Band-stripping Algiotrhmsl:cloud, sulfur, flood, thermal, SWIL, NDVI, NDWI, SIWI, oil spills, algae blooms, etc. Corrections: geometric, radiometric, atmospheric. Core Flight System/dynamic software bus. CCSDS File Delivery Protocol. Delay Tolerant Network. CASPER /onboard planning. Fault monitoring/recovery software. S/C command and telemetry software. Data compression. Sensor Web for Autonomous Mission Operations.

  19. Industrial process models of electricity demand. Volume 2. The pulp and paper industry. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, B.L.; Pilati, D.A.; Chang, J.; Sparrow, F.T.

    1984-05-01

    The National Center for Analysis of Energy Systems at Brookhaven National Laboratory has developed a process model of the US pulp and paper industry. The model is based on data from economic and engineering analyses of the major manufacturing processes in pulp and papermaking and includes Standard Industrial Classifications 2611, 2621, 2631, and 2661. Energy conserving alternatives to conventional technologies are included. The pulp and paper model is a dynamic and regional process optimization model incorporating the Bureau of Census defined regions of the Northeast, North Central, South and West. It is dynamic in that it analyzes a 25-year time horizon. Given fuel prices and product demand projections, the model selects modes of operation and energy consumption characteristics that minimize the cost of meeting the projected demands. With a projected average annual growth rate of 3.3% for paper products, model results show a decline in the energy intensity of paper production and an increase in the demand for electricity.

  20. A study on aromatic C-H⋯X (X = N, O) hydrogen bonds in 1,2,4,5-tetrafluorobenzene clusters using infrared spectroscopy and ab initio calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkatesan, V.; Fujii, A.; Mikami, N.

    2005-06-01

    The (1:1) clusters of 1,2,4,5-tetrafluorobenzene (TFB) with CH 3CN, CH 3OCH 3, and NH 3 were studied both experimentally and computationally. Using fluorescence-detected infrared (FDIR) spectroscopy, the aromatic C-H⋯X (X = N, O) hydrogen bond formation in the clusters was directly evidenced by a low-frequency shift and intensity enhancement of the aromatic C-H stretching vibration in the TFB moiety. The molecular structures, stabilization energies, and vibrational frequencies of the clusters were computed at the MP2/6-31+G* level. The observed low-frequency shifts of the aromatic C-H stretch in the clusters correlate with the proton affinities of the acceptor molecules.

  1. Theoretical evaluation of new nucleic acid bases. II. Ab initio study on tautomerism of pyrazolo[4,3-d]pyrimidine-5,7 (4H,6H)-dione

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leszczyński, Jerzy

    1991-06-01

    The four most important tautomers of the title compound were studied by the ab initio LCAO-MO method at the MP2/ 6-31G**//HF/3-21G level. All calculated structures are minima at the HF/3-21G potential energy surface with the dioxo tautomer 1 being the global minimum. Also in a polar environment 1 is predicted to be a predominant form. The second most stable species, oxo—hydroxy tautomer 2 has a relative energy of 38.7 kJ mol -1 MP2/6-31G** + 0.9 ZPE). For the 1→ 2 transition the calculated energy gap corresponds to an equilibrium constant of 10 -1 which is only one order larger than the estimated frequency threshold of spontaneous mutations and it strongly suggests that π is a new purine base with reduced probability of spontaneous mutations.

  2. Coordinates of features on the Galilean satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merton, E. D.; Katayama, F. Y.

    1980-01-01

    Control nets of the four Galilean satellites, established photogrammetrically from pictures taken by the two Voyager spacecraft during their flybys of Jupiter in 1979, are discussed. Coordinates of 504 points on Io, 112 points on Europa, 1547 points on Ganymede, and 439 points on Callisto are listed. Selected points are identified on maps of the satellites. Measurements of these points were made on 234 pictures of Io, 115 pictures of Europa, 282 pictures of Ganymede, and 200 pictures of Callisto. The systems of longitude were defined by craters on Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto. Preliminary solutions are found for the directions of the axes of rotation of the Galilean satellites. Mean radii are determined as 1815 + or - 5 km for Io, 1569 + or - 10 km for Europa, 2631 + or - km for Ganymede, and 2400 + or - 10 km for Callisto.

  3. Low temperature heat capacity of water clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hongshan; Hansen, Klavs

    2014-08-01

    Geometry optimization and vibrational frequency calculation are carried out at the MP2/6-31G(d,p) level for 35 low-energy isomers of (H2O)n clusters in the size range n = 6-21. The heat capacities of the clusters are calculated using quantum statistical theories based on the harmonic approximation. The specific heat capacity increases with the cluster size but the difference diminishes gradually with increasing size. The heat capacities divided by the number of intermolecular vibrational modes are very close for all the clusters. The overall picture of the heat capacity of the clusters is bulk-like and it agrees well with the experimental results of size-selected clusters.

  4. Cryogenic neon matrix-isolation FTIR spectroscopy of evaporated ionic liquids: geometrical structure of cation-anion 1:1 pair in the gas phase.

    PubMed

    Akai, Nobuyuki; Parazs, David; Kawai, Akio; Shibuya, Kazuhiko

    2009-04-01

    Low-temperature infrared spectra of thermally evaporated ionic liquids, 1-ethyl- and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide and bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)amide have been measured in a cryogenic Ne matrix. The experimental IR spectrum of bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)amide can be reproduced theoretically by not B3LYP/6-31G* but MP2/6-31G* calculation, which suggests that the vibrational analysis for ionic liquids composed of bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide anion would be more successfully performed using the MP2 calculation. By comparison of the matrix-isolation spectra of the ionic liquids with the MP2 calculation, their geometrical structures in the gas phase are determined to be of C(2-position)-H(+)...N(-) interaction structure, which corresponds to the geometry of the energetically second-lowest ion-pair structure. The present study may provide a valuable clue to understand a vaporization mechanism of ionic liquid. PMID:19281187

  5. Hydrogen bonding in the benzene-ammonia dimer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodham, David A.; Suzuki, Sakae; Suenram, Richard D.; Lovas, Frank J.; Dasgupta, Siddharth; Goddard, William A., III; Blake, Geoffrey A.

    1993-01-01

    High-resolution optical and microwave spectra of the gas-phase benzene-ammonia dimer were obtained, showing that the ammonia molecule resides above the benzene plane and undergoes free, or nearly free, internal rotation. To estimate the binding energy (De) and other global properties of the intermolecular potential, theoretical calculations were performed for the benzene-ammonia dimer, using the Gaussian 92 (Fritsch, 1992) program at the MP2/6-31G** level. The predicted De was found to be at the lowest end of the range commonly accepted for hydrogen bonding and considerably below that of C6H6-H2O, consistent with the gas-phase acidities of ammonia and water. The observed geometry greatly resembles the amino-aromatic interaction found naturally in proteins.

  6. Contribution of individual components of a job cycle on overall severity of whole-body vibration exposure: a study in Indian mines.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Bibhuti B; Mansfield, Neil J

    2016-01-01

    Drivers of earth-moving machines are exposed to whole-body vibration (WBV). In mining operations there can be a combination of relatively high magnitudes of vibration and long exposure times. Effective risk mitigation requires understanding of the main aspects of a task that pose a hazard to health. There are very few published studies of WBV exposure from India. This paper reports on a study that considered the contribution of the component phases of dumper operations, on the overall vibration exposure of the drivers. It shows that vibration magnitudes are relatively high, and that haulage tasks are the main contributor to the exposure. It is recommended that driver speed, haul road surfaces and vehicle maintenance/selection are optimized to ensure minimization of vibration. If this is not sufficient, operation times might need to be reduced in order to ensure that the health guidance caution zone from Standard No. ISO 2631-1:1997 is not exceeded. PMID:26652833

  7. A comparative study of isoelectronic and isogyric reactions: Molecular orbital calculations of diatomic hydrides and halides

    SciTech Connect

    Deakyne, C.A. ); Liebman, J.F. ); Frenking, G. ); Koch, W. )

    1990-03-22

    MP4/6-311G(2df,2pd)//MP2/6-31G{sup **} and MPn/6-31G{sup **}//ClD/6-31G{sup **} (n = 2-4) calculations have been carried out for HeF{sup +}, NeF{sup +}, ArF{sup +}, ArH{sup +}, HCl, HCl{sup +}, ClF, Cl{sub 2}, HF, HF{sup +}, F{sub 2}, H{sub 2}, and H{sub 2}{sup +}. Structures, vibrational frequencies, ionization potentials, reaction enthalpies, and triplet vs singlet energies (for HeF{sup +}, NeF{sup +}, and ArF{sup +}) have been examined. The reactions considered include hydrogenolysis and bond dissociation reactions.

  8. Vibro-conformational study of F2S(O)NCN: FTIR, pre-resonance Raman effect, force field and theoretical calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez, R. M. S.; Cutin, E. H.; Mack, H.-G.; Sala, O.; Della Védova, C. O.

    1994-12-01

    The FTIR spectrum for vapour and the Raman spectrum for the liquid of difluorosulphenilimine cyanide (F2S(O)NCN) are presented. CS symmetry is suggested for the main conformer in the liquid phase. Vibrational assignments are made for all but the torsional fundamental mode. The symmetry force constants were calculated using an approximate value for the torsion. The study was complemented by theoretical calculations at various levels of sophistication. According to the ab initio methods (HF/3-21G*, HF/6-31G*, MP2/6-31G*) two stable conformations of the compound exist in the gas phase. The main form possesses CS symmetry (δ(OSNC) = 180°, trans), whilst for the less stable rotamer C1 symmetry (δ(OSNC) = 4 to 26°, near-cis) is predicted.

  9. Optimized Structures and Proton Affinities of Fluorinated Dimethyl Ethers: An Ab Initio Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orgel, Victoria B.; Ball, David W.; Zehe, Michael J.

    1996-01-01

    Ab initio methods have been used to investigate the proton affinity and the geometry changes upon protonation for the molecules (CH3)2O, (CH2F)2O, (CHF2)2O, and (CF3)2O. Geometry optimizations were performed at the MP2/3-2 I G level, and the resulting geometries were used for single-point energy MP2/6-31G calculations. The proton affinity calculated for (CH3)2O was 7 Kjoule/mole from the experimental value, within the desired variance of +/- 8Kjoule/mole for G2 theory, suggesting that the methodology used in this study is adequate for energy difference considerations. For (CF3)20, the calculated proton affinity of 602 Kjoule/mole suggests that perfluorinated ether molecules do not act as Lewis bases under normal circumstances; e.g. degradation of commercial lubricants in tribological applications.

  10. Measurement of Whole-Body Vibration Exposure from Garbage Trucks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeda, S.; Morioka, M.

    1998-08-01

    Japanese garbage truck drivers are exposed to mechanical whole-body vibration during their work. Some drivers have suffered from low back pain from this vibration. However, there is no evidence of a relationship between the whole-body vibration from the garbage trucks and low back pain or occupational disease, due to the lack of investigations. A field study was conducted in order to characterize the health risks associated with garbage truck work. Three different types of truck were tested at different loadings and on different road surfaces, with the vibrations measured at the driver/seat interface (x,y, andz-axes). The vibrations were compared with the health risk guidance according to Annex B of ISO 2631-1 [1]. The findings of this study indicated that Japanese garbage truck drivers should not operate trucks for 2.5 h in a day, under current working conditions.

  11. Joint Analysis of X-Ray and Sunyaev-Zel'Dovich Observations of Galaxy Clusters Using an Analytic Model of the Intracluster Medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hasler, Nicole; Bulbul, Esra; Bonamente, Massimiliano; Carlstrom, John E.; Culverhouse, Thomas L.; Gralla, Megan; Greer, Christopher; Lamb, James W.; Hawkins, David; Hennessy, Ryan; Joy, Marshall; Kolodziejczak, Jeffrey; Landry, David; Leitch, Erik M.; Mantz, Adam; Marrone, Daniel P.; Miller, Amber; Mroczkowski, Tony; Muchovej, Stephen; Plagge, Thomas; Pryke, Clem; Woody, David

    2012-01-01

    We perform a joint analysis of X-ray and Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect data using an analytic model that describes the gas properties of galaxy clusters. The joint analysis allows the measurement of the cluster gas mass fraction profile and Hubble constant independent of cosmological parameters. Weak cosmological priors are used to calculate the overdensity radius within which the gas mass fractions are reported. Such an analysis can provide direct constraints on the evolution of the cluster gas mass fraction with redshift. We validate the model and the joint analysis on high signal-to-noise data from the Chandra X-ray Observatory and the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Array for two clusters, A2631 and A2204.

  12. Ab initio Study on Mechanism of Forming a Silicic Bis-Heterocyclic Compound Between Dimethylmethylenesilylene and Ethene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Xiu-hui; Han, Jun-feng; Yu, Hai-bin; Lian, Zhen-xia

    2010-10-01

    The mechanism of the cycloaddition reaction of forming a silicic bis-heterocyclic compound between singlet dimethylmethylenesilylene (Me2C=Si:) and ethene has been investigated with the CCSD(T)//MP2/6-31G* method. From the potential energy profile, it can be predicted that, this reaction has one dominant channel. The presented rule of this dominant channel: the 3p unoccupied orbital of Si in dimethylmethylenesilylene and the π orbital of ethene forming the π→p donor-acceptor bond, resulting in the formation of three-membered ring intermediate (INT1); INT1 then isomerizes to a four-membered ring silylene (P2), which is driven by ring-enlargement effect; due to sp3 hybridization of Si atom in P2, P2 further combines with ethene to form a silicic bis-heterocyclic compound.

  13. Ab initio study of the formation of bis-heterocyclic compound involving Si and Ge from dichlorosilylene germylidene (Cl2Si=Ge:) and ethene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Xiuhui; Lian, Zhenxia; Li, Yongqing; Wang, Zhina

    2012-12-01

    The mechanism of the cycloaddition reaction between singlet state dichlorosilylene germylidene (Cl2Si=Ge:) and ethene has been investigated with CCSD(T)//MP2/6-31G* method, from the potential energy profile, we predict that the reaction has one dominant reaction pathway. The presented rule of the reaction is that the two reactants firstly form a Si-heterocyclic four-membered ring germylene through the [2+2] cycloaddition reaction. Due to the sp 3 hybridization of the Ge: atom in Si-heterocyclic four-membered ring germylene, the Si-heterocyclic four-membered ring germylene further combined with the ethene to form a bis-heterocyclic compound with Si and Ge.

  14. Ab initio study of mechanism of forming a Spiro-Si-heterocyclic ring compound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Xiuhui; Ji, Hua

    2013-04-01

    The mechanism of the cycloaddition reaction of forming a spiro-Si-heterocyclic ring compound between singlet dichloroalkylidenesilylene (Cl2C=Si :) and ethene has been investigated with CCSD(T)//MP2/6-31G* method. From the potential energy profile, it can be predicted that the reaction has one dominant reaction pathway. The presented rule of this reaction is that the 3 p unoccupied orbital of Si in dichloroalkylidene and the π orbital of ethene forming the π → p donor-acceptor bond, resulting in the formation of a three-membered ring intermediate. Ring-enlargement effect make the three-membered ring intermediate isomerizes to a four-membered ring silylene. Due to sp 3 hybridization of Si atom in the four-membered ring silylene, the four-membered ring silylene further combines with ethene to form a spiro-Si-heterocyclic ring compound.

  15. The relationship of ecological and geographic factors to gambling behavior and pathology.

    PubMed

    Welte, John W; Wieczorek, William F; Barnes, Grace M; Tidwell, Marie-Cecile; Hoffman, Joseph H

    2004-01-01

    The current study examined the effect of neighborhood disadvantage and gambling availability on gambling participation and pathology. A national telephone survey included 2631 US adults. Census data was used to characterize the respondent's neighborhood, and the distance from the respondent's home to gambling facilities was calculated. Logistic and linear regressions were performed to predict gambling participation and pathology. Results showed that the neighborhood disadvantage was positively related to frequency of gambling and problem/pathological gambling. The presence of a casino within 10 miles of the respondent's home was positively related to problem/pathological gambling. The permissiveness of gambling laws was positively related to any gambling in the past year, as well as frequent gambling. These results were interpreted to mean that the ecology of disadvantaged neighborhoods promotes gambling pathology, and that availability of gambling opportunities promotes gambling participation and pathology. PMID:15577275

  16. Berberine alkaloid: Quantum chemical study of different forms by the DFT and MP2 methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danilov, V. I.; Dailidonis, V. V.; Hovorun, D. M.; Kurita, N.; Murayama, Y.; Natsume, T.; Potopalsky, A. I.; Zaika, L. A.

    2006-10-01

    The stable structures and electronic properties for the berberine cation as well as possible ammonium, carbinol and amino-aldehyde forms of protoberberine salts in the presence of hydroxyl ions were investigated by the B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) and MP2/6-31++G(d,p) methods. The geometry optimizations by both methods lead to the nonplanar propeller-twisted and buckled structure for the all forms. The obtained bond lengths and bond angles agree with the experimental values. The comparison of total energies elucidates that the amino-aldehyde form is the most preferable tautomer in gas phase, while the carbinol form is less stable. The least stable tautomer is the ammonium form.

  17. Tyrosine-glycine revisited: Resolving the discrepancy between theory and experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holroyd, Leo F.; van Mourik, Tanja

    2015-02-01

    Energies of 20 conformers of the Tyr-Gly dipeptide were computed using DSD-PBEP86-D3BJ/aug-cc-VTZ, with geometries from M06-2X/6-31+G* and B97-D/6-31+G*. At 0 K, these energies support the earlier finding from MP2/6-31+G*//B3LYP/6-31+G*, that the most stable conformer is folded and H-bonded. However, when free-energy corrections at 400 K are added, non-H-bonded conformers are the most stable. This supports an earlier spectroscopic study in which H-bonded conformers were absent. Of the four most stable conformers at 400 K, two were not matched with spectra in the experimental study, but we argue that all four can in fact be plausibly assigned to the experimental spectra.

  18. Common occurrence of zoonotic pathogen Cryptosporidium meleagridis in broiler chickens and turkeys in Algeria.

    PubMed

    Baroudi, Djamel; Khelef, Djamel; Goucem, Rachid; Adjou, Karim T; Adamu, Haileeyesus; Zhang, Hongwei; Xiao, Lihua

    2013-09-23

    Only a small number of birds have been identified by molecular techniques as having Cryptosporidium meleagridis, the third most important species for human cryptosporidiosis. In this study, using PCR-RFLP analysis of the small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene, we examined the ileum of 90 dead chickens from 23 farms and 57 dead turkeys from 16 farms in Algeria for Cryptosporidium spp. C. meleagridis-positive specimens were subtyped by sequence analysis of the 60 kDa glycoprotein gene. Cryptosporidium infection rates were 34% and 44% in chickens and turkeys, respectively, with all positive turkeys (25) and most positive chickens (26/31) having C. meleagridis. All C. meleagridis specimens belonged to a new subtype family. The frequent occurrence of C. meleagridis in chickens and turkeys illustrates the potential for zoonotic transmission of cryptosporidiosis in Algeria. PMID:23498647

  19. Coordinates of features on the Galilean satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davies, M. E.; Katayama, F. Y.

    1981-01-01

    Control nets of the four Galilean satellites have been established photogrammetrically from pictures taken by the two Voyager spacecraft during their flybys of Jupiter in 1979. Coordinates of 504 points on Io, 112 points on Europa, 1547 points on Ganymede, and 439 points on Callisto are listed. Selected points are identified on U.S. Geological Survey maps of the satellites. Measurements of these points were made on 234 pictures of Io, 115 pictures of Europa, 282 pictures of Ganymede, and 200 pictures of Callisto. The systems of longitude were defined by craters on Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto. Preliminary solutions have been found for the directions of the axes of rotation of the Galilean satellites. New mean radii have been determined as 1815 + or - 5 km for Io, 1569 + or - 10 km for Europa, 2631 + or - 10 km for Ganymede, and 2400 + or - 10 km for Callisto.

  20. Optimization of a quarter-car suspension model coupled with the driver biomechanical effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsov, Alexey; Mammadov, Musa; Sultan, Ibrahim; Hajilarov, Eldar

    2011-06-01

    In this paper a Human-Vehicle-Road (HVR) model, comprising a quarter-car and a biomechanical representation of the driver, is employed for the analysis. Differential equations are provided to describe the motions of various masses under the influence of a harmonic road excitation. These equations are, subsequently, solved to obtain a closed form mathematical expression for the steady-state vertical acceleration measurable at the vehicle-human interface. The solution makes it possible to find optimal parameters for the vehicle suspension system with respect to a specified ride comfort level. The quantitative definition given in the ISO 2631 standard for the ride comfort level is adopted in this paper for the optimization procedure. Numerical examples, based on actually measured road profiles, are presented to prove the validity of the proposed approach and its suitability for the problem at hand.

  1. Possible Origin for Porphin Derivatives in Prebiotic Chemistry a Computational Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aylward, Nigel; Bofinger, Neville

    2005-08-01

    A set of chemical reactions is postulated to account for the formation of the macrocyclic porphin structure, basic to the pyrrole derivatives chlorophyll, protoporphyrin, heme and bilirubin, important in photosynthesis, respiration and digestion. A set of equations is given for the prebiotic synthesis of porphin derivatives from the simple molecules; cyanoacetylene, diacetylene, carbon monoxide and ammonia that have been detected in space. A number of isomers of hydrogenated porphin arise which may lose hydrogen to give ultimately porphin and its dehydrogenated derivative. The reactions, while not unique, provide a pathway which has been shown to be feasible from the overall enthalpy changes in the ZKE approximation at the HF and MP2/6-31G* level

  2. Adopting a Clinical Assessment Framework in Older Adult Mental Health.

    PubMed

    Hung, Lillian; Lee, Patience Anne; Au-Yeung, Andy T; Kucherova, Irina; Harrigan, MaryLou

    2016-07-01

    Obtaining new knowledge accepted and used by practitioners remains a slow process. A dearth of knowledge translation research exists that explores how to effectively move knowledge to practice in the field of older adult mental health. The current article reports findings of a knowledge translation study that examined what factors enabled the adoption of a new clinical assessment framework, P.I.E.C.E.S.™, into practice in an older adult tertiary mental health unit. Theoretical insights of appreciative inquiry were used to guide the study. Qualitative methods were used, including focus groups with 20 staff and individual interviews with three leaders. The appreciative inquiry approach helped researchers successfully facilitate knowledge translation. Enabling factors included: (a) fostering positive energy to make continuous improvement, (b) working with team members across disciplines at all levels, and (c) using knowledge translation tools to enable and sustain the new practice. [Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 54 (7), 26-31.]. PMID:27362382

  3. Role of aromatic structure in pathways of hydrogen transfer and bond cleavage in coal liquefaction: Theoretical studies

    SciTech Connect

    Franz, J.A.; Autrey, T.; Camaioni, D.M.; Watts, J.D.; Bartlett, R.J.

    1995-09-01

    The mechanisms by which strong carbon-carbon bonds between aromatic rings and side chains are cleaved under hydropyrolysis conditions remain a subject of wide interest to fuel science. Recently, the authors have studied in detail an alternate pathway for hydrogen atom transfer to {pi}-systems, radical hydrogen transfer (RHT). RHT is the direct, bimolecular transfer of hydrogen from the {beta}-position of an organic radical to the target {pi}-system. In the initial theoretical study, they examined the reaction ethyl radical + ethylene = ethylene + ethyl at the spin-projected UMP2/6-31G** level of theory. Recently, they have used a calibrated ROHF-MNDO-PM3 method to predict thermoneutral RHT barriers for hydrogen transfer between hydroaryl radicals and the corresponding arene. Because of the inherent limitations of semiempirical methods such as ROHF-MNDO-PM3, they have extended the initial work with the ethyl + ethylene study to examine this reaction at the ROHF-MBPT[2]-6-31G** and ROHF-CCSD[T]-6-31G** levels of ab initio theory. The primary objective was to determine how intrinsic RHT barriers change with conjugative stabilization of the radicals. The spin-restricted ROHF approach has been applied to study several RHT reactions, and they present completed ROHF results for the ethyl + ethylene system and preliminary results for the methallyl + butadiene system. The methallyl + butadiene system serves as a model for highly stabilized hydroaryl radicals: the methallyl radical exhibits a C-H bond strength of 46.5 kcal/mol compared to 9-hydroanthracenyl, 43.1 kcal/mol.

  4. Measurement of whole-body vibration in taxi drivers.

    PubMed

    Funakoshi, Mitsuhiko; Taoda, Kazushi; Tsujimura, Hiroji; Nishiyama, Katsuo

    2004-03-01

    In a previous epidemiological study we reported that the prevalence (45.8%) of low-back pain (LBP) and the two-year incidence (25.9%) of LBP in 284 male taxi drivers in Japan was comparable with rates reported for other occupational drivers in which LBP frequently occurs. LBP was significantly related with the level of uncomfortable road vibrations, and, importantly, increased with total mileage. The aim of this study was to measure whole-body vibration (WBV) on the driver's seat pan of 12 taxis operating under actual working conditions. The results were evaluated according to the health guidelines in International Standard ISO 2631-1:1997. Finally, the relation between total mileage and WBV was investigated. The majority of the frequency-weighted r.m.s. accelerations of the taxis fell into the "potential health risks" zone, under ISO 2631-1:1997. It was clear that the taxi drivers were exposed to serious WBV magnitudes. Therefore, occupational health and safety management should be carried out to help prevent adverse health effects in taxi drivers. In particular, reduction of WBV in taxis and shortening of driving time to reduce duration of WBV exposure should be considered. Moreover, because many taxi drivers work 18 h every other day, the shortening of working hours and taking of rest breaks while working should be considered. Frequency-weighted r.m.s. accelerations of taxis had a tendency to decrease as total mileage increased. The relation between total mileage and WBV should be investigated by taking measurements on the floor and the back rest in addition to the seat pan. PMID:15090686

  5. Annoyance rate evaluation method on ride comfort of vehicle suspension system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Chuanyin; Zhang, Yimin; Zhao, Guangyao; Ma, Yan

    2014-03-01

    The existing researches of the evaluation method of ride comfort of vehicle mainly focus on the level of human feelings to vibration. The level of human feelings to vibration is influenced by many factors, however, the ride comfort according to the common principle of probability and statistics and simple binary logic is unable to reflect these uncertainties. The random fuzzy evaluation model from people subjective response to vibration is adopted in the paper, these uncertainties are analyzed from the angle of psychological physics. Discussing the traditional evaluation of ride comfort during vehicle vibration, a fuzzily random evaluation model on the basis of annoyance rate is proposed for the human body's subjective response to vibration, with relevant fuzzy membership function and probability distribution given. A half-car four degrees of freedom suspension vibration model is described, subject to irregular excitations from the road surface, with the aid of software Matlab/Simulink. A new kind of evaluation method for ride comfort of vehicles is proposed in the paper, i.e., the annoyance rate evaluation method. The genetic algorithm and neural network control theory are used to control the system. Simulation results are obtained, such as the comparison of comfort reaction to vibration environments between before and after control, relationship of annoyance rate to vibration frequency and weighted acceleration, based on ISO 2631/1(1982), ISO 2631-1(1997) and annoyance rate evaluation method, respectively. Simulated assessment results indicate that the proposed active suspension systems prove to be effective in the vibration isolation of the suspension system, and the subjective response of human being can be promoted from very uncomfortable to a little uncomfortable. Furthermore, the novel evaluation method based on annoyance rate can further estimate quantitatively the number of passengers who feel discomfort due to vibration. A new analysis method of vehicle

  6. Electronic structure, bonding, spectra, and linear and nonlinear electric properties of Ti@C28.

    PubMed

    Skwara, Bartłomiej; Góra, Robert W; Zaleśny, Robert; Lipkowski, Paweł; Bartkowiak, Wojciech; Reis, Heribert; Papadopoulos, Manthos G; Luis, Josep M; Kirtman, Bernard

    2011-09-22

    The potential energy surface (PES) of Ti@C(28) has been revisited, and the stationary points have been carefully characterized. In particular, the C(2v) symmetry structure considered previously turns out to be a transition state lying 2.3 kcal/mol above the ground state of C(3v) symmetry at the MP2/6-31G(d) level. A large binding energy of 181.3 kcal/mol is found at the ROMP2/6-31G(d) level. Topological analysis of the generalized Ti@C(28) density reveals four bond paths between Ti and carbon atoms of the host. The character of all four contacts corresponds to a partially covalent closed shell interaction. UV-vis, IR, and Raman spectra are calculated and compared with C(28)H(4). The dipole moment and the static electronic and double harmonic vibrational (hyper)polarizabilities have been obtained. Distortion of the fullerene cage due to encapsulation leads to nonzero diagonal components of the electronic first hyperpolarizability β, and to an increase in the diagonal components of the electronic polarizability α and second hyperpolarizability γ. However, introduction of the Ti atom causes a comparable or larger reduction in most cases due to localized bonding interactions. At the double harmonic level, the average vibrational β is much larger than its electronic counterpart, but the opposite is true for α and for the contribution to γ that has been calculated. There is also a very large anharmonic (nuclear relaxation) contribution to β which results from a shallow PES with four minima separated by very low barriers. Thus, the vibrational γ (and α) may, likewise, become much larger when anharmonicity is taken into account. PMID:21790194

  7. Reinvestigation of the Structure of Protonated Lysine Dimer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Xianglei

    2014-03-01

    To better understand inconsistencies between the predicted infrared (IR) spectra of previously suggested isomers of Lys2H+ reported by Wu et al. (J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom. 22:1651-1659, 18) and the experimental IR photon dissociation (IRPD) spectrum obtained by Oh et al. (J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127:4076-4083, 4), the structure of Lys2H+ was reinvestigated using IRPD spectroscopy in the extended region 2700-3700 cm-1 and theoretical calculations. The new experimental IRPD spectrum is in good agreement with Oh's spectrum in the corresponding wavelength range. Based on calculations at the MP2/6-311++G(d,p)//B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) and MP2/6-31 + G(d,p)//MP2/6-31 + G(d,p) levels, a new salt-bridged isomer, ZW1, was found to be the most stable isomer; it is more energetically favored than the previously suggested charge-solvated isomer LL-CS01 by 10 or 26 kJ mol-1. Although the calculated IR spectrum of ZW1 is in good agreement with the experimental one in the range 2700-3700 cm-1, it is in poor agreement with the previous IRPD spectrum in the range 1000-1900 cm-1. This investigation shows that the intermolecular interactions inside the dimer are more complex than previously supposed. It is possible that both salt-bridged and charge-solvated isomers of Lys2H+ are stable in the gas phase, and the isomers generated during ionization are sensitive to the experimental conditions.

  8. Whole-body vibration and ergonomic study of US railroad locomotives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johanning, Eckardt; Landsbergis, Paul; Fischer, Siegfried; Christ, Eberhard; Göres, Benno; Luhrman, Raymond

    2006-12-01

    US locomotive operators have exposure to multi-axis whole-body vibration (WBV) and shocks while seated. This study assessed operator-related and ergonomic seating design factors that may have confounding or mitigating influence on WBV exposure and its effects. Vibration exposure was measured according to international guidelines (ISO 2631-1; 1997); ergonomic work place factors and vibration effects were studied with a cross-sectional survey instrument distributed to a randomly selected group of railroad engineers ( n=2546) and a control group; and during vehicle inspections. The survey response rate was 47% for the RR engineers ( n=1195) and 41% for the controls ( n=323). Results of the mean basic vibration measurements were for the x, y, z-direction and vector sum 0.14, 0.22, 0.28 and 0.49 m/s 2 respectively; almost all crest factors (CF), MTVV and VDV values were above the critical ratios given in ISO 2631-1. The prevalence of serious neck and lower back disorders among locomotive engineers was found to be nearly double that of the sedentary control group without such exposure. Railroad engineers rated their seats mostly unacceptable regarding different adjustment and comfort aspects (3.02-3.51; scale 1=excellent to 4=unacceptable), while the control group rated their chairs more favorably (1.96-3.44). Existing cab and seat design in locomotives can result in prolonged forced awkward spinal posture of the operator combined with WBV exposure. In a logistic regression analysis, time at work being bothered by vibration (h/day) was significantly associated with an increased risk of low back pain, shoulder and neck pain, and sciatic pain among railroad engineers. Customized vibration attenuation seats and improved cab design of the locomotive controls should be further investigated.

  9. Theoretical studies of mechanisms of cycloaddition reaction between difluoromethylene carbene and acetone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Xiu Hui; Yu, Hai Bin; Wu, Wei Rong; Xu, Yue Hua

    Mechanisms of the cycloaddition reaction between singlet difluoromethylene carbene and acetone have been investigated with the second-order Møller-Plesset (MP2)/6-31G* method, including geometry optimization and vibrational analysis. Energies for the involved stationary points on the potential energy surface (PES) are corrected by zero-point energy (ZPE) and CCSD(T)/6-31G* single-point calculations. From the PES obtained with the CCSD(T)//MP2/6-31G* method for the cycloaddition reaction between singlet difluoromethylene carbene and acetone, it can be predicted that path B of reactions 2 and 3 should be two competitive leading channels of the cycloaddition reaction between difluoromethylene carbene and acetone. The former consists of two steps: (i) the two reactants first form a four-membered ring intermediate, INT2, which is a barrier-free exothermic reaction of 97.8 kJ/mol; (ii) the intermediate INT2 isomerizes to a four-membered product P2b via a transition state TS2b with an energy barrier of 24.9 kJ/mol, which results from the methyl group transfer. The latter proceeds in three steps: (i) the two reactants first form an intermediate, INT1c, through a barrier-free exothermic reaction of 199.4 kJ/mol; (ii) the intermediate INT1c further reacts with acetone to form a polycyclic intermediate, INT3, which is also a barrier-free exothermic reaction of 27.4 kJ/mol; and (iii) INT3 isomerizes to a polycyclic product P3 via a transition state TS3 with an energy barrier of 25.8 kJ/mol.

  10. Insights into the Lactonase Mechanism of Serum Paraoxonase 1 (PON1): Experimental and Quantum Mechanics/Molecular Mechanics (QM/MM) Studies.

    PubMed

    Le, Quang Anh Tuan; Kim, Seonghoon; Chang, Rakwoo; Kim, Yong Hwan

    2015-07-30

    Serum paraoxonase 1 (PON1) is a versatile enzyme for the hydrolysis of various substrates (e.g., lactones, phosphotriesters) and for the formation of a promising chemical platform γ-valerolactone. Elucidation of the PON1-catalyzed lactonase reaction mechanism is very important for understanding the enzyme function and for engineering this enzyme for specific applications. Kinetic study and hybrid quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) method were used to investigate the PON1-catalyzed lactonase reaction of γ-butyrolactone (GBL) and (R)-γ-valerolactone (GVL). The activation energies obtained from the QM/MM calculations were in good agreement with the experiments. Interestingly, the QM/MM energy barriers at MP2/3-21G(d,p) level for the lactonase of GVL and GBL were respectively 14.3-16.2 and 11.5-13.1 kcal/mol, consistent with the experimental values (15.57 and 14.73 kcal/mol derived from respective kcat values of 36.62 and 147.21 s(-1)). The QM/MM energy barriers at MP2/6-31G(d) and MP2/6-31G(d,p) levels were also in relatively good agreements with the experiments. Importantly, the difference in the QM/MM energy barriers at MP2 level with all investigated basis sets for the lactonase of GVL and GBL were in excellent agreement with the experiments (0.9-3.1 and 0.8 kcal/mol, respectively). A detailed mechanism for the PON1-catalyzed lactonase reaction was also proposed in this study. PMID:26146888

  11. Safety and severity of accelerations delivered from whole body vibration exercise devices to standing adults

    PubMed Central

    Muir, Jesse; Kiel, Douglas P.; Rubin, Clinton T.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Whole Body Vibration (WBV) devices are used as a means to augment training, and their potential to treat a range of musculoskeletal diseases and injuries is now being considered. The goal of this work is to determine the degree to which acceleration delivered by WBV devices at the plantar surfaces of a standing human is transmitted through the axial and appendicular skeleton, and how this mechanical challenge corresponds to the safety Threshold Limit Values (TLV) established by the International Standards Organization ISO-2631. Design Non-blinded laboratory assessment of a range of WBV devices as it pertains to acceleration transmission to healthy volunteers. Methods Using skin and bite-bar mounted accelerometers, transmissibility to the tibia and cranium was determined in six healthy adults standing on a programmable WBV device as a function of frequency and intensity. Measures of transmissibility were then made from three distinct types of WBV platforms, which delivered a 50-fold range of peak-to-peak acceleration intensities (0.3 to 15.1g p-p; where 1g is earth’s gravitational field). Results For a given frequency, transmissibility was independent of intensity when below 1g. Transmissibility declined non-linearly with increasing frequency. Depending on the WBV device, vibration ranged from levels considered safe by ISO-2631 for up to eight hours each day (0.3gp-p @ 30Hz), to levels that were seven times higher than what is considered a safe threshold for even one minute of exposure each day (15.1g p-p @ 30Hz). Transmissibility to the cranium was markedly attenuated by the degree of flexion in the knees. Conclusions Vibration can have adverse effects on a number of physiologic systems. This work indicates that readily accessible WBV devices markedly exceed ISO guidelines for safety, and extreme caution must be practiced when considering their use. PMID:23453990

  12. Structures, bonding and energies of N 6 isomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glukhovtsev, Mikhail N.; von Ragué Schleyer, Paul

    1992-10-01

    The most stable N 6 isomer, a twisted open-chain C 2 structure, is 188.3 kcal/mol (MP4SDTQ/6-31G(d)//MP2(full)/6-31 G(d) + ZPE(MP2/6-31 G(d))) higher in energy than three N 2 molecules. In contrast to benzene, hexazine, N 6, prefers a non-planar twist-boat D 2 structure, but this is 26.0 kcal/mol less stable than the C 2 form. The D 6h altenative is a second-order saddle point at MP2 (full)/6-31G(d) 2.1 kcal/mol higher in energy at MP4SDTQ/6-311 (+s)G(d)//MP2(full)/6-311 (+s)G(2d) + ZPE (MP2/6-31G(d)). The homodesmotic and hyperhomodesmotic reaction energies indicate that the D 6h structure is destabilized (-17.6 and -10.4 kcal/mol, respectively), in contrast to the stabilization of benzene (23.9 and 20.3 kcal/mol, respectively, MP4SDTQ/6-31 G(d, p)//MP2(full)/6-31 G(d, p)). NBO analysis shows that none of the N atoms in the N 6 open-chain structures forms more than four covalent bonds. The other N 6 valence isomers, hexaaza-Dewar-benzene, hexaazabicyclopropenyl, and hexaazaprismane are higher in energy than hexazine (33.9, 29.6 and 115.8 kcal/mol, respectively) at MP4SDTQ(fc)/6-31 G(d)/MP2(full)/6-31 G(d) + ZPE(HF/6-31 G(d)).

  13. The use of coenzyme Q0 as a template in the development of a molecularly imprinted polymer for the selective recognition of coenzyme Q10.

    PubMed

    Contin, Mario; Flor, Sabrina; Martinefski, Manuela; Lucangioli, Silvia; Tripodi, Valeria

    2014-01-01

    In this work, a novel molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) for use as a solid phase extraction sorbent was developed for the determination of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) in liver extract. CoQ10 is an essential cofactor in mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and a powerful antioxidant agent found in low concentrations in biological samples. This fact and its high hydrophobicity make the analysis of CoQ10 technically challenging. Accordingly, a MIP was synthesised using coenzyme Q0 as the template, methacrylic acid as the functional monomer, acetonitrile as the porogen, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as the crosslinker and benzoyl peroxide as the initiator. Various parameters affecting the polymer preparation and extraction efficiency were evaluated. Morphological characterisation of the MIP and its proper comparison with C18 as a sorbent in solid phase extraction were performed. The optimal conditions for the molecularly imprinted solid phase extraction (MISPE) consisted of 400 μL of sample mixed with 30 mg of MIP and 600 μL of water to reach the optimum solution loading. The loading was followed by a washing step consisting of 1 mL of a 1-propanol solution (1-propanol:water, 30:70,v/v) and elution with 1 mL of 1-propanol. After clean-up, the CoQ10 in the samples was analysed by high performance liquid chromatography. The extraction recoveries were higher than 73.7% with good precision (3.6-8.3%). The limits of detection and quantification were 2.4 and 7.5 μg g(-1), respectively, and a linear range between 7.5 and 150 μg g(-1) of tissue was achieved. The new MISPE procedure provided a successful clean-up for the determination of CoQ10 in a complex matrix. PMID:24356222

  14. The clinical profile of patients with anorexia nervosa in Singapore: a follow-up descriptive study

    PubMed Central

    Kuek, Angeline; Utpala, Ranjani; Lee, Huei Yen

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The prevalence rate of anorexia nervosa is lower in Asia than in the West, although studies have found that it is on the rise in Asia. This study aims to present the clinical profile of patients presenting with anorexia nervosa in Singapore. METHODS The present study used archival data from the Eating Disorder Programme registry of the Department of Psychiatry, Singapore General Hospital, Singapore. Patient records from 2003 to 2010 were collected and analysed. Presenting characteristics of the patients were also compared with those of another local study conducted eight years earlier. RESULTS From 2003 to 2010, a total of 271 patients were diagnosed with anorexia nervosa by a psychiatrist in our hospital. Of these, 251 (92.6%) were female and 238 (87.8%) were Chinese. Our patients had a lower mean weight (36.83 kg, p < 0.001) and a lower mean body mass index (BMI) (14.43 kg/m2, p < 0.001) than patients from the previous local study. Almost half of all our patients (n = 135, 49.8%) were diagnosed with at least one psychiatric comorbidity and 50 (18.5%) had a history of self-harm. CONCLUSION The presenting characteristics of our study cohort were similar to those of the Western population. However, the lower presenting weight and BMI in our cohort indicates that cases seen today are more severe than those seen eight years ago. Therefore, it is important to put in place prevention programmes to help adolescents cultivate a healthy body image as well as early intervention programmes to improve detection rates and treatment outcomes. PMID:26106239

  15. Sweetened Beverage Consumption, Incident Coronary Heart Disease and Biomarkers of Risk in Men

    PubMed Central

    de Koning, Lawrence; Malik, Vasanti S.; Kellogg, Mark D.; Rimm, Eric B.; Willett, Walter C.; Hu, Frank B.

    2012-01-01

    Background Sugar-sweetened beverage consumption is associated with weight gain and risk of type 2 diabetes. Few studies have tested for a relationship with coronary heart disease (CHD), or intermediate biomarkers. The role of artificially sweetened beverages is also unclear. Methods and Results We performed an analysis of the Health Professionals Follow-up study, a prospective cohort study including 42 883 men. Associations of cumulatively averaged sugar-sweetened (e.g. sodas) and artificially sweetened (e.g. diet sodas) beverage intake with incident fatal and non-fatal CHD (myocardial infarction) were examined using proportional hazard models. There were 3683 CHD cases over 22 years of follow-up. Participants in the top quartile of sugar-sweetened beverage intake had a 20% higher relative risk of CHD than those in the bottom quartile (RR=1.20, 95% CI: 1.09, 1.33, p for trend < 0.01) after adjusting for age, smoking, physical activity, alcohol, multivitamins, family history, diet quality, energy intake, BMI, pre-enrollment weight change and dieting. Artificially sweetened beverage consumption was not significantly associated with CHD (multivariate RR=1.02, 95% CI: 0.93, 1.12, p for trend = 0.28). Adjustment for self-reported high cholesterol, high triglycerides, high blood pressure and diagnosed type 2 diabetes slightly attenuated these associations. Intake of sugar-sweetened but not artificially sweetened beverages was significantly associated with increased triglycerides, CRP, IL6, TNFr1, TNFr2, decreased HDL, Lp(a), and leptin (p values < 0.02). Conclusions Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages was associated with increased risk of CHD and some adverse changes in lipids, inflammatory factors, and leptin. Artificially sweetened beverage intake was not associated with CHD risk or biomarkers. PMID:22412070

  16. Pooled influenza vaccine effectiveness estimates for Australia, 2012-2014.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, S G; Carville, K S; Chilver, M; Fielding, J E; Grant, K A; Kelly, H; Levy, A; Stocks, N P; Tempone, S S; Regan, A K

    2016-08-01

    Data were pooled from three Australian sentinel general practice influenza surveillance networks to estimate Australia-wide influenza vaccine coverage and effectiveness against community presentations for laboratory-confirmed influenza for the 2012, 2013 and 2014 seasons. Patients presenting with influenza-like illness at participating GP practices were swabbed and tested for influenza. The vaccination odds of patients testing positive were compared with patients testing negative to estimate influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE) by logistic regression, adjusting for age group, week of presentation and network. Pooling of data across Australia increased the sample size for estimation from a minimum of 684 to 3,683 in 2012, from 314 to 2,042 in 2013 and from 497 to 3,074 in 2014. Overall VE was 38% [95% confidence interval (CI) 24-49] in 2012, 60% (95% CI 45-70) in 2013 and 44% (95% CI 31-55) in 2014. For A(H1N1)pdm09 VE was 54% (95% CI-28 to 83) in 2012, 59% (95% CI 33-74) in 2013 and 55% (95% CI 39-67) in 2014. For A(H3N2), VE was 30% (95% CI 14-44) in 2012, 67% (95% CI 39-82) in 2013 and 26% (95% CI 1-45) in 2014. For influenza B, VE was stable across years at 56% (95% CI 37-70) in 2012, 57% (95% CI 30-73) in 2013 and 54% (95% CI 21-73) in 2014. Overall VE against influenza was low in 2012 and 2014 when A(H3N2) was the dominant strain and the vaccine was poorly matched. In contrast, overall VE was higher in 2013 when A(H1N1)pdm09 dominated and the vaccine was a better match. Pooling data can increase the sample available and enable more precise subtype- and age group-specific estimates, but limitations remain. PMID:27125368

  17. Molecular determination of abundance of infection with Sarcocystis species in slaughtered sheep of Urmia, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Farhang-Pajuh, Farhad; Yakhchali, Mohammad; Mardani, Karim

    2014-01-01

    Sarcocystis is one of the most prevalent parasites of domestic ruminants worldwide. This study was aimed to determine prevalence of Sarcocystis infection and molecular discrimination of Sarcocystis gigantea and Sarcocystis medusiformis infecting domestic sheep. Tissue samples from 638 sheep slaughtered at Urmia abattoir were randomly collected from February 2011 to January 2012. Genomic DNA extraction and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed to amplify a 964 bp fragment of nuclear 18S rRNA gene. The PCR products were subjected to digestion with endonuclease MboII and/or MvaI for discriminating S. medusiformis and S. gigantea. Results indicated that the overall prevalence of Sarcocystis unspecified species was 36.83% (235/638) in which male (7.63%, 38/498) and female (35.00%, 49/140) sheep over 4 years-old had the highest prevalence. There was no significant difference between prevalence of macrosarcocysts and sex. Two macrosarcocysts forms were found as fat (27.90%, 178/638) and thin (8.93%, 57/638) in striated muscles. There was significant difference between frequency of macrosarcocysts and body distribution. Mixed infection with both fat and thin macrosarcocysts was also found in 11.13% (71/638) of infected sheep. There was no significant difference regarding the prevalence of mixed infection in both age classes. The PCR-RFLP patterns showed that fat sarcocysts were S. gigantea (29.31%, 187/638) and thin sarcocysts were S. medusiformis (7.52%, 48/638). It was concluded that ovine Sarcocystis infection was prevalent in Urmia and a combination of conventional methods and molecular study for sheep sarcocysts could be informative. PMID:25568716

  18. Molecular determination of abundance of infection with Sarcocystis species in slaughtered sheep of Urmia, Iran.

    PubMed

    Farhang-Pajuh, Farhad; Yakhchali, Mohammad; Mardani, Karim

    2014-01-01

    Sarcocystis is one of the most prevalent parasites of domestic ruminants worldwide. This study was aimed to determine prevalence of Sarcocystis infection and molecular discrimination of Sarcocystis gigantea and Sarcocystis medusiformis infecting domestic sheep. Tissue samples from 638 sheep slaughtered at Urmia abattoir were randomly collected from February 2011 to January 2012. Genomic DNA extraction and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed to amplify a 964 bp fragment of nuclear 18S rRNA gene. The PCR products were subjected to digestion with endonuclease MboII and/or MvaI for discriminating S. medusiformis and S. gigantea. Results indicated that the overall prevalence of Sarcocystis unspecified species was 36.83% (235/638) in which male (7.63%, 38/498) and female (35.00%, 49/140) sheep over 4 years-old had the highest prevalence. There was no significant difference between prevalence of macrosarcocysts and sex. Two macrosarcocysts forms were found as fat (27.90%, 178/638) and thin (8.93%, 57/638) in striated muscles. There was significant difference between frequency of macrosarcocysts and body distribution. Mixed infection with both fat and thin macrosarcocysts was also found in 11.13% (71/638) of infected sheep. There was no significant difference regarding the prevalence of mixed infection in both age classes. The PCR-RFLP patterns showed that fat sarcocysts were S. gigantea (29.31%, 187/638) and thin sarcocysts were S. medusiformis (7.52%, 48/638). It was concluded that ovine Sarcocystis infection was prevalent in Urmia and a combination of conventional methods and molecular study for sheep sarcocysts could be informative. PMID:25568716

  19. Characteristic, polymorphism and expression distribution of LCAT gene in a Mongolian gerbil model for hyperlipidemia.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yue huan; Wu, Jiu sheng; Wang, Zhi yuan; Yu, Chen huan; Ying, Hua zhong; Xu, Ning ying

    2014-10-01

    This study aims to evaluate the genetic basis and activity of lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) in a novel Mongolian gerbil model for hyperlipidemia. Gerbils may be susceptible to high fat and cholesterol (HF/HC) diets, which can rapidly lead to the development of hyperlipidemia. Approximately 10-30% of gerbils that are over 8months old and fed controlled diets spontaneously develop hyperlipidemia. Using the HF/HC diet model, we detected triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), HDL (high density lipoprotein)-C, LDL (low density lipoprotein)-C and LCAT in both old (>8months) and young gerbils. The TC and HDL-C levels were two times higher in old gerbils compared with young gerbils (P<0.01). However, in the old group the LCAT activity fell slightly compared with the normal lipidemia group. It is reasonable to hypothesize that this may be associated with single nucleotide polymorphisms of the LCAT gene. We cloned this gene to investigate the sensitivity of the gerbil to the HF/HC diet and spontaneous hyperlipidemia. The entire LCAT gene was cloned by splicing sequences of RACE (rapid amplification of cDNA ends) and nest-PCR products (AN: KC533867.1). The results showed that the 3683base pair gene consists of six exons and five introns. The LCAT protein consists of 444 amino acid (AA) residues, which are analogous to the human LCAT gene, and includes 24 signal peptide AA and 420 mature protein AA. Expression of LCAT was detected in the kidney, spleen and adrenal tissue, apart from the liver, by immunohistochemistry. The abundance of the protein was greater in the older group compared with the control group. Polymorphisms were analyzed by PCR-SSCP (PCR-single-strand conformation polymorphism) but none were found in 444 animals of the ZCLA closed population (a Chinese cultured laboratory gerbil population). PMID:25036405

  20. Metal Emissions and Urban Incident Parkinson Disease: A Community Health Study of Medicare Beneficiaries by Using Geographic Information Systems

    PubMed Central

    Willis, Allison W.; Evanoff, Bradley A.; Lian, Min; Galarza, Aiden; Wegrzyn, Andrew; Schootman, Mario; Racette, Brad A.

    2010-01-01

    Parkinson disease associated with farming and exposure to agricultural chemicals has been reported in numerous studies; little is known about Parkinson disease risk factors for those living in urban areas. The authors investigated the relation between copper, lead, or manganese emissions and Parkinson disease incidence in the urban United States, studying 29 million Medicare beneficiaries in the year 2003. Parkinson disease incidence was determined by using beneficiaries who had not changed residence since 1995. Over 35,000 nonmobile incident Parkinson disease cases, diagnosed by a neurologist, were identified for analysis. Age-, race-, and sex-standardized Parkinson disease incidence was compared between counties with high cumulative industrial release of copper, manganese, or lead (as reported to the Environmental Protection Agency) and counties with no/low reported release of all 3 metals. Parkinson disease incidence (per 100,000) in counties with no/low copper/lead/manganese release was 274.0 (95% confidence interval (CI): 226.8, 353.5). Incidence was greater in counties with high manganese release: 489.4 (95% CI: 368.3, 689.5) (relative risk = 1.78, 95% CI: 1.54, 2.07) and counties with high copper release: 304.2 (95% CI: 276.0, 336.8) (relative risk = 1.1, 95% CI: 0.94, 1.31). Urban Parkinson disease incidence is greater in counties with high reported industrial release of copper or manganese. Environmental exposure to metals may be a risk factor for Parkinson disease in urban areas. PMID:20959505

  1. Effect of Beta Blockers and Renin-Angiotensin System Inhibitors on Survival in Patients With Acute Myocardial Infarction Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention.

    PubMed

    Lee, Pil Hyung; Park, Gyung-Min; Kim, Young-Hak; Yun, Sung-Cheol; Chang, Mineok; Roh, Jae-Hyung; Yoon, Sung-Han; Ahn, Jung-Min; Park, Duk-Woo; Kang, Soo-Jin; Lee, Seung-Whan; Lee, Cheol Whan; Park, Seong-Wook; Park, Seung-Jung

    2016-03-01

    Because it remains uncertain whether β-blockers (BBs) and/or renin-angiotensin system inhibitors benefit a broad population of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients, we sought to evaluate the effectiveness of these drugs in improving survival for post-AMI patients who underwent a percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).From the nationwide data of the South Korea National Health Insurance, 33,390 patients with a diagnosis of AMI who underwent a PCI between 2009 and 2013 and survived at least 30 days were included in this study. We evaluated the risk of all-cause death for patients treated with both BB and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI)/angiotensin II receptor antagonist (ARB) (n = 16,280), only BB (n = 3683), and only ACEI/ARB (n = 9849), with the drug-untreated patients (n = 3578) as the reference.Over a median follow-up of 2.4 years, although treated patients displayed a trend toward improved survival, there were no significant differences in the adjusted risk of all-cause death when patients were treated with both drugs (hazard ratio [HR] 0.86, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.70-1.06, P = 0.154), BB (HR 0.88, 95% CI 0.68-1.14, P = 0.325), or ACEI/ARB (HR 0.84, 95% CI 0.68-1.04, P = 0.111). No additional benefit was found for the combination therapy compared with either isolated BB (HR 0.98, 95% CI 0.80-1.21, P = 0.856) or ACEI/ARB (HR 1.03, 95% CI 0.89-1.19, P = 0.727) therapy.Treatment with BB and/or ACEI/ARB has limited effect on survival in unselected nonfatal AMI patients who undergo PCI. PMID:26962802

  2. Short-term exposure to a treated sewage effluent alters reproductive behaviour in the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus).

    PubMed

    Sebire, Marion; Katsiadaki, Ioanna; Taylor, Nick G H; Maack, Gerd; Tyler, Charles R

    2011-09-01

    Some UK sewage treatment work (STW) effluents have been found to contain high levels of anti-androgenic activity, but the biological significance of this activity to fish has not been determined. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of exposure to a STW effluent with anti-androgenic activity on the reproductive physiology and behaviour of three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus). Fish were exposed to a STW effluent (50 and 100%, v/v) with a strong anti-androgenic activity (328.56±36.83 μgl(-1) flutamide equivalent, as quantified in a recombinant yeast assay containing the human androgen receptor) and a low level of oestrogenic activity (3.32±0.66 ngl(-1) oestradiol equivalent, quantified in a recombinant yeast assay containing the human oestrogen receptor) for a period of 21 days in a flow-through system in the laboratory. Levels of spiggin, an androgen-regulated protein, were not affected by the STW effluent exposure, nor were levels of vitellogenin (a biomarker of oestrogen exposure), but the reproductive behaviour of the males was impacted. Males exposed to full strength STW effluent built fewer nests and there was a significant reduction in male courtship behaviour for exposures to both the 50 and 100% STW effluent treatments compared with controls. The effect seen on the reproduction of male sticklebacks may not necessarily have been as a consequence of the endocrine active chemicals present in the STW effluent alone, but could relate to other features of the effluent, such as turbidity that can impair visual signalling important for courtship interactions. Regardless the specific causation, the data presented show that effluents from STW have an impact on reproductive behaviour in male sticklebacks which in turn affects reproductive performance/outcome. The study further highlights the use of fish behaviour as a sensitive endpoint for assessing potential effects of contaminated water bodies on fish reproduction. PMID:21684244

  3. Chemical characteristic and toxicity assessment of particle associated PAHs for the short-term anthropogenic activity event: During the Chinese New Year's Festival in 2013.

    PubMed

    Shi, Guo-Liang; Liu, Gui-Rong; Tian, Ying-Ze; Zhou, Xiao-Yu; Peng, Xing; Feng, Yin-Chang

    2014-06-01

    PM10 and PM2.5 samples were simultaneously collected during a period which covered the Chinese New Year's (CNY) Festival. The concentrations of particulate matter (PM) and 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were measured. The possible source contributions and toxicity risks were estimated for Festival and non-Festival periods. According to the diagnostic ratios and Multilinear Engine 2 (ME2), three sources were identified and their contributions were calculated: vehicle emission (48.97% for PM10, 53.56% for PM2.5), biomass & coal combustion (36.83% for PM10, 28.76% for PM2.5), and cook emission (22.29% for PM10, 27.23% for PM2.5). An interesting result was found: although the PAHs are not directly from the fireworks display, they were still indirectly influenced by biomass combustion which is affiliated with the fireworks display. Additionally, toxicity risks of different sources were estimated by Multilinear Engine 2-BaP equivalent (ME2-BaPE): vehicle emission (54.01% for PM10, 55.42% for PM2.5), cook emission (25.59% for PM10, 29.05% for PM2.5), and biomass & coal combustion source (20.90% for PM10, 14.28% for PM2.5). It is worth to be noticed that the toxicity contribution of cook emission was considerable in Festival period. The findings can provide useful information to protect the urban human health, as well as develop the effective air control strategies in special short-term anthropogenic activity event. PMID:24632060

  4. Occurrence of culturable soil fungi in a tropical moist deciduous forest Similipal Biosphere Reserve, Odisha, India

    PubMed Central

    Jena, Santanu K.; Tayung, Kumanand; Rath, Chandi C.; Parida, Debraj

    2015-01-01

    Similipal Biosphere Reserve (SBR) is a tropical moist deciduous forest dominated by the species Shorea robusta . To the best of our knowledge their rich biodiversity has not been explored in term of its microbial wealth. In the present investigation, soil samples were collected from ten selected sites inside SBR and studied for their physicochemical parameters and culturable soil fungal diversity. The soil samples were found to be acidic in nature with a pH ranging from of 5.1–6.0. Highest percentage of organic carbon and moisture content were observed in the samples collected from the sites, Chahala-1 and Chahala-2. The plate count revealed that fungal population ranged from 3.6 × 10 4 –2.1 × 10 5 and 5.1 × 10 4 –4.7 × 10 5 cfu/gm of soil in summer and winter seasons respectively. The soil fungus, Aspergillus niger was found to be the most dominant species and Species Important Values Index (SIVI) was 43.4 and 28.6 in summer and winter seasons respectively. Among the sites studied, highest fungal diversity indices were observed during summer in the sites, Natto-2 and Natto-1. The Shannon-Wiener and Simpson indices in these two sites were found to be 3.12 and 3.022 and 0.9425 and 0.9373 respectively. However, the highest Fisher’s alpha was observed during winter in the sites Joranda, Natto-2, Chahala-1 and Natto-1 and the values were 3.780, 3.683, 3.575 and 3.418 respectively. Our investigation revealed that, fungal population was dependent on moisture and organic carbon (%) of the soil but its diversity was found to be regulated by sporulating species like Aspergillus and Penicillium . PMID:26221092

  5. Job Satisfaction Differences between Primary Health Care and Treatment Sectors: An Experience from Iran

    PubMed Central

    Bagheri, Shokoufe; Janati, Ali; Kousha, Ahmad; Sadeghi-Bazargani, Homayoun; Asghari-Jafarabadi, Mohammad; Farahbakhsh, Mostafa

    2013-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to compare the levels of job satisfaction and its predictors among primary health care and treatment sectors' staff in East Azerbaijan Province, Iran. Methods: This comparative study was conducted in East Azerbaijan Province,Iran in 2011. A questionnaire survey was performed on 420 staff from health care and treatment sectors using multi-stage proportional cluster sampling method. Job satisfaction was measured in five aspects namely: structural and managerial; individual; social; work-itself; environmental and welfare job satisfaction factors.The job satisfaction measurement score was normalized to fall into a range of zero to 100. Statistical analyses were performed using Friedman and independent sample t-tests. Results: Overall satisfaction in health and treatment sectors was moderate with a mean score above 50. Hospital General Practitioners reported significantly higher job satisfaction score (mean ± SD=57.34 ± 17.02) compared to health care center General Practitioners (mean ± SD= 31.74±14.99). The highest satisfaction scores belonged to individual factors both in health care sector staff (64.83±18.50) and treatment sector staff (63.55±17.44). The lowest job satisfaction was observed with environmental and welfare factors (38.47±19.86 and 36.83±19.86, respectively). Conclusion: The job satisfaction significantly differs between primary health care and treatment sectors. Based on the results, environmental and welfare factors may be targeted to improve the job satisfaction in public health care system. PMID:24688957

  6. Safety and immunogenicity of a delta inulin-adjuvanted inactivated Japanese encephalitis virus vaccine in pregnant mares and foals.

    PubMed

    Bielefeldt-Ohmann, Helle; Prow, Natalie A; Wang, Wenqi; Tan, Cindy S E; Coyle, Mitchell; Douma, Alysha; Hobson-Peters, Jody; Kidd, Lisa; Hall, Roy A; Petrovsky, Nikolai

    2014-01-01

    In 2011, following severe flooding in Eastern Australia, an unprecedented epidemic of equine encephalitis occurred in South-Eastern Australia, caused by Murray Valley encephalitis virus (MVEV) and a new variant strain of Kunjin virus, a subtype of West Nile virus (WNVKUN). This prompted us to assess whether a delta inulin-adjuvanted, inactivated cell culture-derived Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) vaccine (JE-ADVAX™) could be used in horses, including pregnant mares and foals, to not only induce immunity to JEV, but also elicit cross-protective antibodies against MVEV and WNVKUN. Foals, 74-152 days old, received two injections of JE-ADVAX™. The vaccine was safe and well-tolerated and induced a strong JEV-neutralizing antibody response in all foals. MVEV and WNVKUN antibody cross-reactivity was seen in 33% and 42% of the immunized foals, respectively. JE-ADVAX™ was also safe and well-tolerated in pregnant mares and induced high JEV-neutralizing titers. The neutralizing activity was passively transferred to their foals via colostrum. Foals that acquired passive immunity to JEV via maternal antibodies then were immunized with JE-ADVAX™ at 36-83 days of age, showed evidence of maternal antibody interference with low peak antibody titers post-immunization when compared to immunized foals of JEV-naïve dams. Nevertheless, when given a single JE-ADVAX™ booster immunization as yearlings, these animals developed a rapid and robust JEV-neutralizing antibody response, indicating that they were successfully primed to JEV when immunized as foals, despite the presence of maternal antibodies. Overall, JE-ADVAX™ appears safe and well-tolerated in pregnant mares and young foals and induces protective levels of JEV neutralizing antibodies with partial cross-neutralization of MVEV and WNVKUN. PMID:25516480

  7. The ability of bispectral index to detect intra-operative wakefulness during isoflurane/air anaesthesia, compared with the isolated forearm technique.

    PubMed

    Russell, I F

    2013-10-01

    Clinical signs are unreliable for guiding anaesthetic administration and it is suggested that using the bispectral index can improve anaesthetic delivery. In the current study, isoflurane administration was guided to a bispectral index range of 55-60. Intra-operative responsiveness, as assessed by the isolated forearm technique, was compared with whether the bispectral index predicted/identified a patient's appropriate hand movements in response to commands. Thirty-four women underwent major gynaecological surgery with isoflurane/air and atracurium. Eleven women responded on 32 occasions with appropriate hand movements to commands given during surgery, of which the bispectral index detected 17 (sensitivity 53%). The bispectral index suggested consciousness 660 times in the absence of any movement responses (specificity 69%). The positive predictive value of the bispectral index was 3%. The median (IQR [range]) bispectral index value associated with an intra-operative response was significantly lower than that associated with eye opening after surgery: 60 (50-68 [36-83]) vs 77 (75-84 [59-90]), respectively (p = 2.25 × 10(-8)). Conversely, end-tidal isoflurane concentration was significantly higher at intra-operative response than at eye opening: 0.3 (0.3-0.4 [0.2-0.9]) vs 0.2 (0.1-0.2 [0.1-0.3]), respectively (p = 7.36 × 10(-8)). For patients who responded more than once during surgery, the bispectral index value associated with a response was not constant. No patient had recall for surgery or the taped commands, and only one could remember dreaming (a good dream). Titrating isoflurane to target a bispectral index range of 55-60 may result in an unacceptable number of patients who are conscious during surgery (albeit without recall). PMID:24047289

  8. Previous Fractures at Multiple Sites Increase the Risk for Subsequent Fractures: The Global Longitudinal Study of Osteoporosis in Women

    PubMed Central

    Gehlbach, Stephen; Saag, Kenneth G.; Adachi, Jonathan D.; Hooven, Fred H.; Flahive, Julie; Boonen, Steven; Chapurlat, Roland D.; Compston, Juliet E.; Cooper, Cyrus; Díez-Perez, Adolfo; Greenspan, Susan L.; LaCroix, Andrea Z.; Netelenbos, J. Coen; Pfeilschifter, Johannes; Rossini, Maurizio; Roux, Christian; Sambrook, Philip N.; Silverman, Stuart; Siris, Ethel S.; Watts, Nelson B.; Lindsay, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Previous fractures of the hip, spine, or wrist are well-recognized predictors of future fracture, but the role of other fracture sites is less clear. We sought to assess the relationship between prior fracture at 10 skeletal locations and incident fracture. The Global Longitudinal Study of Osteoporosis in Women (GLOW) is an observational cohort study being conducted in 17 physician practices in 10 countries. Women ≥ 55 years answered questionnaires at baseline and at 1 and/or 2 years (fractures in previous year). Of 60,393 women enrolled, follow-up data were available for 51,762. Of these, 17.6%, 4.0%, and 1.6% had suffered 1, 2, or ≥3 fractures since age 45. During the first 2 years of follow-up, 3149 women suffered 3683 incident fractures. Compared with women with no prior fractures, women with 1, 2, or ≥ 3 prior fractures were 1.8-, 3.0-, and 4.8-fold more likely to have any incident fracture; those with ≥3 prior fractures were 9.1-fold more likely to sustain a new vertebral fracture. Nine of 10 prior fracture locations were associated with an incident fracture. The strongest predictors of incident spine and hip fractures were prior spine fracture (hazard ratio 7.3) and hip (hazard ratio 3.5). Prior rib fractures were associated with a 2.3-fold risk of subsequent vertebral fracture, previous upper leg fracture predicted a 2.2-fold increased risk of hip fracture; women with a history of ankle fracture were at 1.8-fold risk of future fracture of a weight-bearing bone. Our findings suggest that a broad range of prior fracture sites are associated with an increased risk of incident fractures, with important implications for clinical assessments and risk model development. PMID:22113888

  9. Policies and Programs to Facilitate Access to Targeted Cancer Therapies in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Sruamsiri, Rosarin; Ross-Degnan, Dennis; Lu, Christine Y.; Chaiyakunapruk, Nathorn; Wagner, Anita K.

    2015-01-01

    Background Increasing access to clinically beneficial targeted cancer medicines is a challenge in every country due to their high cost. We describe the interplay of innovative policies and programs involving multiple stakeholders to facilitate access to these medicines in Thailand, as well as the utilization of selected targeted therapies over time. Methods We selected two medicines on the 2013 Thai national list of essential medicines (NLEM) [letrozole and imatinib] and three unlisted medicines for the same indications [trastuzumab, nilotinib and dasatinib]. We created timelines of access policies and programs for these products based on scientific and grey literature. Using IMS Health sales data, we described the trajectories of sales volumes of the study medicines between January 2001 and December 2012. We compared estimated average numbers of patients treated before and after the implementation of policies and programs for each product. Results Different stakeholders implemented multiple interventions to increase access to the study medicines for different patient populations. During 2007–2009, the Thai Government created a special NLEM category with different coverage requirements for payers and issued compulsory licenses; payers negotiated prices with manufacturers and engaged in pooled procurement; pharmaceutical companies expanded patient assistance programs and lowered prices in different ways. Compared to before the interventions, estimated numbers of patients treated with each medicine increased significantly afterwards: for letrozole from 645 (95% CI 366–923) to 3683 (95% CI 2,748–4,618); for imatinib from 103 (95% CI 72–174) to 350 (95% CI 307–398); and for trastuzumab from 68 (95% CI 45–118) to 412 (95% CI 344–563). Conclusions Government, payers, and manufacturers implemented multi-pronged approaches to facilitate access to targeted cancer therapies for the Thai population, which differed by medicine. Routine monitoring is needed to

  10. Predicting chronic benzodiazepine use in adults with depressive disorder

    PubMed Central

    Carrier, Jean-Daniel; Roberge, Pasquale; Courteau, Josiane; Vanasse, Alain

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To identify predictive variables of incident chronic benzodiazepine (BZD) use that could be assessed by prescribing physicians. Design Retrospective cohort study using public health and drug insurance administrative data. Setting Quebec. Participants New adult BZD users from January 1, 1999, to March 31, 2006, with a diagnosis of depressive disorder in the previous year were included. Chronic BZD use was defined as BZD availability at least 50% of the days between day 181 and day 365 following initiation. Main outcome measures Potential associations between chronic BZD use and age; sex; drug insurance status; recent hospitalization; comorbidity; presence of chronic pain; use of psychotropic medication; mental health diagnoses; number, type, and duration of BZDs prescribed; and the prescribing physician’s specialty. Results Selection led to an exhaustive cohort of 13 688 patients aged 18 to 64 years, and 3683 aged 65 and older. For the 18 to 64 age group, the combination of disability insurance and more than 1 BZD increased the proportion of chronic users from 14.4% to 53.4%. For patients 65 and older, the main correlates of chronic BZD use included claiming more than 1 BZD (adjusted odds ratio 2.24, 99% CI 1.65 to 3.06) and recent hospitalization (adjusted odds ratio 1.70, 99% CI 1.38 to 2.10). Recently hospitalized older patients with a prescription duration of less than 8 days were the highest-risk group identified (57.8%). Conclusion Physicians should be aware that patients are more likely to become chronic BZD users if they receive disability insurance or following a hospitalization. Combination of BZDs is a potentially problematic practice that could be increasing the risk of chronic use. PMID:27521413

  11. Indications of noncontinuous PVT-behaviour of H2O at high P-T conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirwald, P. W.

    2003-04-01

    , Gallagher and Kell (1984): NBS/NRC Steam Tables, Mc-Graw-Hill. (3) Okhulkov, Demianets and Gorbaty (1994): J.Chem. Phys., 100, 1578--1588 (4) Mirwald (2001): Mitt. Österr. Miner.Ges. 146, 193-195 (5) Mirwald (2002): Ber. Dtsche. Mineralog. Ges., No.1, 2002, p.110 (6) Becher, Cemic and Langer (1983): Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta , 47, 1573-1578. (7) Manning (1994): Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 58, 4831-4839.

  12. Intrinsic Subtypes, PIK3CA Mutation, and the Degree of Benefit From Adjuvant Trastuzumab in the NSABP B-31 Trial

    PubMed Central

    Pogue-Geile, Katherine L.; Song, Nan; Jeong, Jong-Hyeon; Gavin, Patrick G.; Kim, Seong-Rim; Blackmon, Nicole L.; Finnigan, Melanie; Rastogi, Priya; Fehrenbacher, Louis; Mamounas, Eleftherios P.; Swain, Sandra M.; Wickerham, D. Lawrence; Geyer, Charles E.; Costantino, Joseph P.; Wolmark, Norman; Paik, Soonmyung

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Considerable molecular heterogeneity exists among human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) –positive breast cancer regarding gene expression and mutation profiling. Evidence from preclinical, clinical neoadjuvant, and metastatic clinical trials suggested that PIK3CA mutational status and PAM50 intrinsic subtype of a tumor were markers of response to anti-HER2 therapies. We evaluated the predictive value of these two biomarkers in the adjuvant setting using archived tumor blocks from National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project (NSABP) trial B-31. Patients and Methods Expression data for 49 genes using the nCounter platform were used to generate PAM50 intrinsic subtypes for 1,578 archived tumor blocks from patients in the B-31 trial. Six PIK3CA hotspot mutations were examined by mass spectrometry of the primer extension products in a randomly selected subset (n = 671). We examined the heterogeneity of trastuzumab treatment effect across different subsets defined by each marker using Cox regression and disease-free survival as the end point. Results Seven hundred forty-one (47.0%) of 1,578 tumors were classified as HER2-enriched (HER2E) subtype, and 166 (24.7%) of 671 tumors had PIK3CA mutations. Hazard ratios (HRs) for trastuzumab in HER2E and other subtypes were 0.44 (95% CI, 0.34 to 0.58; P < .001) and 0.47 (95% CI, 0.35 to 0.62; P < .001), respectively (interaction P = .67). HRs for trastuzumab in PIK3CA wild-type and mutated tumors were 0.51 (95% CI, 0.37 to 0.71; P < .001) and 0.44 (95% CI, 0.24 to 0.82; P = .009), respectively (interaction P = .64). Conclusion Unlike results seen in the metastatic and neoadjuvant clinical trials, PIK3CA and PAM50 intrinsic subtypes were not predictive biomarkers for adjuvant trastuzumab in NSABP B-31. These data suggest that results from the metastatic and neoadjuvant setting may not be always applicable to the adjuvant setting. PMID:25559813

  13. [Measures taken against the plague in Diest in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries].

    PubMed

    De Backer, C

    1999-01-01

    Older literature about the city of Diest reveals that in 1348 the plague wiped out half of the population; in 1439, 1523 and 1578-1579, the plague struck again. In the course of time the municipal authorities issued ordinances which were aimed at combating the disease and stopping it spreading. These ordinances were first published and then renewed or modified several times. This was done in the years 1469, 1483 and 1519. These texts have virtually the same contents and all contain about twenty articles of a prophylactic nature. A house where people had died of the plague had to remain shut for a number of months, and the relatives were not allowed in public for a while. Dirty water could not be emptied into the gutters, food had to be placed by the door, the clothes of those who were sick or who had died could not be washed in wells or in the river Demer and could not be sold, people caring for the sick had to wear a white sign, no one was allowed to take in any sick person from outside Diest, etc. Other articles are about refuse in the streets and pigs roaming around freely. Infringements were made punishable by fines, or if the perpetrators were insolvent, they had to make a pilgrimage to Strasbourg, Cologne or Rome. The ordinance of 1469 was issued again in 1472. It seems to be based on an ordinance of the city of Louvain, as this indication of the origin in the text was replaced by the word "Diest", and references to places in Diest were added. The ordinance of 1519 was confirmed in 1523, 1532, 1543-1544, 1558, 1574 and 1579. Separate regulations were issued in 1530, 1532-1533, 1573, 1578-1579, 1599. They relate to infected clothes and household articles, dung heaps, dead animals in the Demer, people who came into contact with anyone suffering from the plague, epidemics in the area, such as Beringen (1556) and Turnhout (1571). Diest also had municipal plague masters; these were surgeons. A number of names and data are known to us from municipal accounts from

  14. Structures and stabilities of small silicon clusters: Ab initio molecular-orbital calculations of Si7-Si11

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Xiaolei; Zeng, X. C.

    2003-02-01

    Ab initio all-electron molecular-orbital calculations have been carried out to study the structure and relative stability of small silicon clusters (Sin, n=7-11). A number of low-energy geometric isomers are optimized at the second-order Møller-Plesset (MP2) MP2/6-31G(d) level. Harmonic vibrational analysis has been performed to assure that the optimized geometries are stable. The total energies of stable isomers are computed at the coupled-cluster single and double substitutions (including triple excitations) [CCSD(T)] CCSD(T)/6-31G(d) level. The calculated binding energies per atom at both the MP2/6-31G(d) and CCSD(T)/6-31G(d) levels agree with the experiments. For Si7, Si8, and Si10, the lowest-energy structures are the same as those predicted previously from the all-electron optimization at the Hartree-Fock (HF) HF/6-31G(d) level [Raghavachari and Rohlfing, J. Chem. Phys. 89, 2219 (1988)]. For Si9, the lowest-energy isomer is same as that predicted based on density-functional plane-wave pseudopotential method [Vasiliev, Ogut, and Chelikowsky, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 4805 (1997)]. Particular attention has been given to Si11 because several low-energy geometric isomers were found nearly isoenergetic. On the basis of MP2/6-311G(2d)//CCSD(T)/6-311G(2d) calculation, we identified that the C2v isomer, a tricapped trigonal prism with two additional caps on side trigonal faces, is most likely the global-minimum structure. However, another competitive geometric isomer for the global minimum is also found on basis of the MP2/6-311G(2d)//CCSD(T)/6-311G(2d) calculation. Additionally, calculations of the binding energy and the cluster polarizability offer more insights into relatively strong stability of two magic-number clusters Si6 and Si10.

  15. Whole-body Vibration Exposure Intervention among Professional Bus and Truck Drivers: A Laboratory Evaluation of Seat-suspension Designs.

    PubMed

    Blood, Ryan P; Yost, Michael G; Camp, Janice E; Ching, Randal P

    2015-01-01

    Long-term exposure to seated whole-body vibration (WBV) is one of the leading risk factors for the development of low back disorders. Professional bus and truck drivers are regularly exposed to continuous WBV, since they spend the majority of their working hours driving heavy vehicles. This study measured WBV exposures among professional bus and truck drivers and evaluated the effects of seat-suspension designs using simulated field-collected data on a vibration table. WBV exposures were measured and compared across three different seat designs: an air-ride bus seat, an air-ride truck seat, and an electromagnetically active (EM-active) seat. Air-ride seats use a compressed-air bladder to attenuate vibrations, and they have been in operation throughout the transportation industry for many years. The EM-active seat is a relatively new design that incorporates a microprocessor-controlled actuator to dampen vibration. The vibration table simulated seven WBV exposure scenarios: four segments of vertical vibration and three scenarios that used field-collected driving data on different road surfaces-a city street, a freeway, and a section of rough roadway. The field scenarios used tri-axial WBV data that had been collected at the seat pan and at the driver's sternum, in accordance with ISO 2631-1 and 2631-5. This study found that WBV was significantly greater in the vertical direction (z-axis) than in the lateral directions (x-and y-axes) for each of the three road types and each of the three types of seats. Quantitative comparisons of the results showed that the floor-to-seat-pan transmissibility was significantly lower for the EM-active seat than for either the air-ride bus seat or the air-ride truck seat, across all three road types. This study also demonstrated that seat-suspension designs have a significant effect on the vibrations transmitted to vehicle operators, and the study's results may prove useful in designing future seat suspensions. PMID:25625530

  16. Infrared, Raman and Microwave Spectra, Conformational Stability, Barriers to Internal Rotation, and AB Initio Calculations of Some Allyl Halides and Substituted Allyl Halides.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhen, Mengzhang

    The infrared (3500 to 40 cm^{ -1}) and Raman (3500 to 20 cm^ {-1})^ectra of gaseous and solid 3-fluoropropene and trans-1-fluoro-2-butene, trans-CH_3 HC=CHCH_2F, have been recorded. Additionally, the Raman spectra of the liquids have been recorded and qualitative depolarization values have been obtained. The spectra have been interpreted on the basis that the conformation which has the fluorine atom cis to the double bond is thermodynamically preferred for both molecules over the gauche rotamer in both the gaseous and liquid phases and is the only rotamer present in the annealed solid. An assignment of the fundamental vibrations for both conformations for both molecules, based on their infrared band contours, depolarization values and group frequencies, is given and discussed. The microwave spectrum of 3-fluoro-2-methylpropene (methallyl fluoride), CH_2C(CH _3)CH_2F, has been recorded from 18.0 to 39.0 GHz. The a-type R-branches have been observed and assigned in the ground and first two vibrationally excited states of the asymmetric torsion for both the low energy cis and high energy gauche conformers. Additionally, the c-type Q-branches for the gauche conformer and b-type Q-branches for the cis conformer have been assigned. From the Stark effect the dipole moment components were determined for the cis conformer to be | mu_ a| = 1.65 +/- 0.02, |mu_ b| = 1.13 +/- 0.01 and | mu_ t| = 2.00 +/- 0.01 D and those for the gauche conformer to be |mu_ a| = 1.36 +/- 0.03, |mu_ b| = 0-26 +/- 0.07, |mu_ c| = 0 -89 +/- 0.07 and |mu_ t| = 1.65 +/- 0.01 D. Complete equilibrium geometries for both conformers have been determined with the RHF/3-21G, RHF/6-31G* and MP2/6-31G* basis sets. A normal coordinate analysis utilizing the harmonic force constants obtained with the MP2/6-31G* basis set has been carried out for both conformers. The results are discussed and compared with the corresponding quantities obtained for some similar molecules.

  17. Small copper-doped silicon clusters CuSin (n = 4-10) and their anions: structures, thermochemistry, and electron affinities.

    PubMed

    Lin, Lin; Yang, Jucai

    2015-06-01

    The structures and energies of copper-doped small silicon clusters CuSi n (n = 4-10) and their anions were investigated systematically using CCSD(T)/aug-cc-pVTZ-DK//MP2/6-31G(2df,p), G4//MP2/6-31G(2df,p), and the B3LYP/6-311+G* basis set. The performance of the methods used for the prediction of energetic and thermodynamic properties was evaluated. Comparing experimental [Xu et al. (2012) J Chem Phys 136:104308] and theoretical calculations, it was concluded that the CCSD(T) results are very accurate and exhibit the best performance; the mean absolute deviation from experimental data was 0.043 eV. The excellent agreement of vertical detachment energy (VDE) between experimental results and CCSD(T) calculations indicates that the ground state structures of CuSi n (-) (n = 4-10) presented in this paper are reliable. For CuSi10, assigning 2.90±0.08 eV to the experimental adiabatic electron affinity (AEA) and 3.90±0.08 eV to the VDE is more reasonable than to 3.46±0.08 eV and 3.62±0.08 eV, respectively, based on the CCSD(T) calculations and the previous photoelectron spectrum of CuSi10 (-) (Xu et al., op. cit.). The AEAs of CuSi n (n = 4-10), excluding CuSi7, are in excellent agreement with experimental data, showing that the ground state structures of CuSi n (n = 4-6, 8-10) reported in this paper are reliable. CuSi10 is suggested to be the smallest endohedral ground state structure. However, adding an additional electron to CuSi10 pulls out the Cu atom from the center location, forming an exohedral ground state structure of CuSi10 (-). The charge transfer and dissociation energy of Cu from CuSi n and their anions determined to examine the nature of bonding and their relative stabilities. PMID:26003428

  18. Molybdenite Re-Os and muscovite 40Ar/39Ar dating of the Xihuashan tungsten deposit, central Nanling district, South China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Rui-Zhong; Wei, Wen-Feng; Bi, Xian-Wu; Peng, Jian-Tang; Qi, You-Qiang; Wu, Li-Yan; Chen, You-Wei

    2012-10-01

    The Xihuashan tungsten deposit in the central Nanling region, South China, is an important vein-type ore deposit hosted in Cambrian strata and Mesozoic granitic intrusions. Wolframite and molybdenite are the principal ore minerals. The gangue minerals are mainly quartz and muscovite. Wolframite and molybdenite are products of the first stage hydrothermal activity, whereas muscovite formed dominantly at the second stage. Molybdenite Re-Os and muscovite 40Ar/39Ar dating have been carried out to investigate the age of mineralization. Re-Os isotopic dating for molybdenite associated with wolframite yield a precise, well-constrained isochron age of 157.8 ± 0.9 Ma (MSWD = 1.5). Ar-Ar isotopic analyses of muscovite yield a plateau age of 152.8 ± 1.6 Ma, in agreement with an inverse isochron age of 152.8 ± 1.6 Ma, which is ~ 5 mys younger than the Re-Os age. The molybdenite Re-Os age is interpreted as the age of tungsten mineralization. This age coincides well with the zircon U-Pb age of the host granitic intrusion reported previously. The ~ 5 mys difference between molybdenite Re-Os and muscovite 40Ar/39Ar ages probably represents the duration of hydrothermal activity. The results show that the Xihuashan tungsten deposit is one of many important tungsten-tin deposits formed during 150 to 160 Ma associated with large-scale lithospheric extension in South China.

  19. Imaging characteristics of distance-driven method in a prototype cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Sunghoon; Kim, Ye-seul; Lee, Haenghwa; Lee, Donghoon; Seo, Chang-Woo; Kim, Hee-Joung

    2016-03-01

    Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) has widely been used and studied in both medical imaging and radiation therapy. The aim of this study was to evaluate our newly developed CBCT system by implementing a distance-driven system modeling technique in order to produce excellent and accurate cross-sectional images. For the purpose of comparing the performance of the distance-driven methods, we also performed pixel-driven and ray-driven techniques when conducting forward- and back-projection schemes. We conducted the Feldkamp-Davis-Kress (FDK) algorithm and simultaneous algebraic reconstruction technique (SART) to retrieve a volumetric information of scanned chest phantom. The results indicated that contrast-to-noise (CNR) of the reconstructed images by using FDK and SART showed 8.02 and 15.78 for distance-driven, whereas 4.02 and 5.16 for pixel-driven scheme and 7.81 and 13.01 for ray-driven scheme, respectively. This could demonstrate that distance-driven method described more closely the chest phantom compared to pixel- and ray-driven. However, both elapsed time for modeling a system matrix and reconstruction time took longer time when performing the distance-driven scheme. Therefore, future works will be directed toward reducing computational time to acceptable limits for real applications.

  20. Field Performance of Nine Soil Water Content Sensors on a Sandy Loam Soil in New Brunswick, Maritime Region, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Chow, Lien; Xing, Zisheng; Rees, Herb W.; Meng, Fanrui; Monteith, John; Stevens, Lionel

    2009-01-01

    An in situ field test on nine commonly-used soil water sensors was carried out in a sandy loam soil located in the Potato Research Center, Fredericton, NB (Canada) using the gravimetric method as a reference. The results showed that among the tested sensors, regardless of installation depths and soil water regimes, CS615, Trase, and Troxler performed the best with the factory calibrations, with a relative root mean square error (RRMSE) of 15.78, 16.93, and 17.65%, and a r2 of 0.75, 0.77, and 0.65, respectively. TRIME, Moisture Point (MP917), and Gopher performed slightly worse with the factory calibrations, with a RRMSE of 45.76, 26.57, and 20.41%, and a r2 of 0.65, 0.72, and 0.78, respectively, while the Gypsum, WaterMark, and Netafim showed a frequent need for calibration in the application in this region. PMID:22291570

  1. Effects of alkaline concentration, temperature, and additives on the strength of alkaline-induced egg white gel.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yan; Tu, Yonggang; Li, Jianke; Xu, Mingsheng; Yang, Youxian; Nie, Xuliang; Yao, Yao; Du, Huaying

    2014-10-01

    Egg whites can undergo gelation at extreme pH. In this paper, the effects of NaOH concentration (1.5, 2, 2.5, and 3%), temperature (10, 20, 30, and 40°C), and additives (metallic compounds, carbohydrates, stabilizers, and coagulants) on the strength of alkaline-induced egg white gel were investigated. Results showed that NaOH concentration and induced temperature significantly affected the rate of formation and peak strength of the egg white gel. Of the 6 metallic compounds used in this experiment, CuSO₄exhibited the optimal effect on the strength of alkaline-induced egg white gel, followed by MgCl₂, ZnSO4, PbO, and CaCl₂. When CuSO₄concentration was 0.2%, the gel strength increased by 31.92%. The effect of Fe₂(SO₄)₃was negligible. Of the 5 carbohydrate additives, xanthan gum (0.2%) caused the highest increase (54.31%) in the strength of alkaline-induced egg white gel, followed by sodium alginate, glucose, starch, and sucrose. Meanwhile, propylene glycol (0.25%) caused the highest improvement (15.78%) in the strength of alkaline-induced egg white gel among the 3 stabilizing agents and coagulants used, followed by Na₂HPO₄and glucono-δ-lactone. PMID:25125561

  2. Paolo Sarpi and the first Copernican tidal theory.

    PubMed

    Naylor, Ron

    2014-12-01

    Despite his demanding religious responsibilities, Paolo Sarpi maintained an active involvement in science between 1578 and 1598- as his Pensieri reveal. They show that from 1585 onwards he studied the Copernican theory and recorded arguments in its favour. The fact that for 1595 they include an outline of a Copernican tidal theory resembling Galileo's Dialogue theory is well known. But examined closely, Sarpi's theory is found to be different from that of the Dialogue in several important respects. That Sarpi was a Copernican by 1592 is revealed by other of his pensieri, whereas at that time we know that Galileo was not. The examination of Sarpi's tidal theory and of the work of Galileo in this period indicates that the theory Sarpi recorded in 1595 was of his own creation. The appreciation that the theory was Sarpi's and that Galileo subsequently came to change his views on the Copernican theory and adopted the tidal theory has major implications for our understanding of the significance of Sarpi's contribution to the Scientific Revolution. Moreover, it appears that several of the most significant theoretical features of the tidal theory published by Galileo in the Dialogue - and which proved of lasting value - were in reality Sarpi's. PMID:25547000

  3. Supramolecular assembly of borate with quaternary ammonium: Crystal structure and tunable luminescent properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Jie; Wang, Yong-gang; Wang, Ying-xia; Liao, Fu-hui; Lin, Jian-hua

    2013-04-01

    A new borate [C6H16N][B5O6(OH)4] (1) is synthesized hydrothermally by the reaction of isopropyltrimethylammonium hydroxide with boric acid. It crystallizes in the triclinic space group P-1 with the parameters a=9.1578(10) Å, b=9.372(9) Å, c=9.9812(10) Å, α=66.508(2)°, β=74.751(2)°, γ=81.893(2)°. The [B5O6(OH)4]- anions are interlinked via hydrogen bonding forming a 3D supramolecular network containing large cavities, where reside the (CH3)3(i-C3H7) N+ cations. This borate shows tunable luminescent properties with temperature, heating-treatment, exciting-light, and solvents. The fluorescent intensity of 1 enhances 6-fold with decreasing the temperature from 25 K to 78 K. By treatment under different temperatures, the luminescence of 1 shifted from blue to white and the sample treated at 230 °C emits bright white light to naked eyes. The hybrid borate can disperse in different solvents, and shows a red-shifted and intense emission in polar solvents.

  4. Identification and characterization of two chitin synthase genes in African malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xin; Zhang, Jianzhen; Park, Yoonseong; Zhu, Kun Yan

    2012-09-01

    Chitin synthase (CHS) represents an attractive target site for combating insect pests as insect growth and development are strictly dependent on precisely tuned chitin biosynthesis and this pathway is absent in humans and other vertebrates. Current knowledge on CHS in insects, especially their structures, functions, and regulations is still very limited. We report the identification and characterization of two chitin synthase genes, AgCHS1 and AgCHS2, in African malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae. AgCHS1 and AgCHS2 were predicted to encode proteins of 1,578 and 1,586 amino acid residues, respectively. Their deduced amino acid sequences show high similarities to other insect chitin synthases. Transcriptional analysis indicated that AgCHS1 was expressed in egg, larval, pupal and adult stages whereas AgCHS2 appeared to be expressed at relatively low levels, particularly during the larval stages as examined by reverse transcription (RT)-PCR and real-time quantitative PCR. Relatively high expression was detected in the carcass followed by the foregut and hindgut for AgCHS1, and the foregut (cardia included) followed by the midgut for AgCHS2. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and immunohistochemical analysis revealed new information including the localization of the two enzymes in the ommatidia of the compound eyes, and AgCHS2 in the thoracic and abdominal inter-segmental regions of pupal integument. PMID:22683441

  5. The First Report of Epidemic Pertussis by Bahaodowle Razi From the 15th Century Anno Domini

    PubMed Central

    Yarmohammadi, Hassan; Bahmani Kazeruni, Mohamad H.; Soofi, Amir; Zargaran, Arman

    2015-01-01

    Background: Pertussis or “whooping cough” is an acute, communicable infection of the respiratory tract caused by the Gram-negative bacterium Bordetella pertussis. It has been recorded in history of medicine that the first pertussis epidemic was reported in 1578 by a French scientist, Guillaume de Baillou, in Paris. Furthermore, the causative agent was first isolated in 1906 by Jules Jean Baptiste Vincent Bordet and his brother-in-law Octave Gengou. However, it seems that earlier reports can be found in history of medicine. Objectives: The aim of this study as to analyze the first Report of Epidemic Pertussis by Bahaodowle Razi From the 15th Century Anno Domini Materials and Methods: We investigated a copy (Persian lithograph) of the book named “a summary of experiences in medicine”, written by Bahaoddin-bin-Ghasem-Bahaoddin Razi (well known as Bahaodowle Razi) in 1502 to find the earliest existing report of epidemic pertussis in the history. Results: Bahaodowle Razi, a Persian physician from the 15th century Anno Domini (AD), reported two epidemics in Harat and one in Rey (inold Persia) for the first time, one century before Baillou. He named it as Sorfe-ie-Am (meaning public cough). Those occurred during his lifetime. Explaining about his observations and experiences about this epidemic, Bahaodowle Razi elaborated on prognosis, symptoms, etiology and predisposing factors of pertussis. Conclusions: This document shows that Bahaodowle Razi’s report was the first report of epidemic pertussis in the medical history. PMID:26413316

  6. Dispersive bi-stability in a vertical microcavity-based saturable absorber due to photo-thermal effect and initial phase-detuning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradhan, R.; Saha, S.; Datta, P. K.

    2013-01-01

    Round-trip phase-shifts with intensity of an input signal due to saturable index change and optically induced thermal effects in a vertical cavity semiconductor (quantum wells) saturable absorber (VCSSA) are investigated analytically to observe counter-clockwise bi-stability in transmission mode and clockwise bi-stability in reflection mode. Simultaneous effects of Kerr nonlinearity and cavity heating on resonance wavelength-shift of the VCSSA micro-cavity are investigated. It is found that these bi-stable characteristics are possible to the absorption edge of nonlinear material for long wavelength side operations of low intensity resonance wavelength of the micro-cavity, where dispersion of absorption and refraction are neglected over a small range of optical wavelength tuning (δλ˜10 nm). Simulations are carried out to find out optimized parameters of the device for bi-stable characteristics. Operations are demonstrated for InGaAs/InP quantum wells based VCSSA with low intensity resonance wavelength of 1570 nm. For counter-clockwise bi-stable switching at working wavelength of 1581 nm, an input intensity variation of 0.79IS is required with top (Rt) and back DBR reflectivity (Rb) of 91% and 93%, respectively, where IS represents the absorption saturation intensity of nonlinear medium. Whereas, the clockwise bi-stability occurs at 0.22IS for working wavelength of 1578 nm with Rt of 90% and Rb of 98%, respectively.

  7. Some aspects of the biology and control using botanicals of the rice moth, Corcyra cephalonica (Stainton), on some pulses.

    PubMed

    Allotey; Azalekor

    2000-07-01

    The life cycle of Corcyra cephalonica was studied under ambient laboratory conditions (temperature range 27.5-30 degrees C and 60-73% r.h.) on groundnut, bambara groundnut and cowpea. The mean developmental period ranged from 33.2+/-0.2 to 45.3+/-1.8 days on whole, broken and powdered forms of the food media. Egg hatchability was found to be 83%, while adult longevity ranged from 1.5+/-0.5 to 11.9+/-1.3 days for males and 1.5+/-0.5 to 16.5+/-1.2 days for females. Sex ratio (male symbol:female symbol) of emerged adults ranged from 1:1 to 1:2.1. Mean fecundities ranged from 128+/-5 to 157+/-8 on the food media. In experiments to assess the insecticidal potential of three plant materials against C. cephalonica, Eichhornia crassipes powder showed a higher efficacy than both Citrus sinensis peel powder and the leaf powder of Chromolaena odorata at dosages of 0.5-2.0 g per 40 g of legume seed. At the higher dosage of 2.5 g, C. sinensis was more effective and reduced the population of C. cephalonica by half when compared to the population in control jars over a period of 1.5 months. PMID:10758262

  8. Vascular access: an historical perspective from Sir William Harvey to the 1956 Nobel prize to André F. Cournand, Werner Forssmann, and Dickinson W. Richards.

    PubMed

    Sette, Piersandro; Dorizzi, Romolo M; Azzini, Anna M

    2012-01-01

    Sir William Harvey (1578-1657), who had many precursors, discovered blood circulation in 1628 after a significant number of anatomic dissection of cadavers; his studies were continued by Sir Christopher Wren and Daniel Johann Major. The first central vein catheterization was performed on a horse by Stephen Hales, an English Vicar. In 1844, a century later, the French biologist Claude Bernard attempted the first carotid artery cannulation and repeated the procedure in the jugular vein, again on a horse. He was first to report the complications now well known to be associated with this maneuver. In 1929 Werner Forssmann tried cardiac catheterization on himself, but could not investigate the procedure further since his findings were rejected and ridiculed by colleagues. His work was continued by André Frédéric Cournand and Dickinson Woodruff Richards Jr in the United States. In 1956 the three physicians shared the Nobel Prize for Medicine for their studies on vascular and cardiac systems. The genius and the perseverance of the three physicians paved the way towards peripheral and central catheter vein placement, one of the most frequently performed maneuvers in hospitals. Its history still remains unknown to most and deserves a short description. PMID:21983826

  9. Chelators effect on soil Cu extractability and uptake by Elsholtzia splendens.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Li-ying; Yang, Xiao-e

    2004-04-01

    Phytoremediation is emerging as a potential cost-effective solution for remediation of contaminated soils, and bioavailability of metal in the soil for plant uptake is an important factor for successful phytoremediation. This study aimed at investigating the ability of EDTA and citric acid for enhancing soil bioavailability of Cu and phytoremediation by Elsholtzia splendens in two types of soils contaminated with heavy metals [i.e. mined soil from copper mining area (MS), and paddy soil (PS) polluted by copper refining]. The results showed that addition of 2.5 mmol/kg EDTA significantly increased the H(2)O extractable Cu concentration from 1.20 to 15.78 mg/kg in MS and from 0.26 to 15.72 mg/kg in PS, and that shoot Cu concentration increased 4-fold and 8-fold as compared to the control. There was no significant difference between the treatment with 5.0 mmol/kg EDTA and that with 2.5 mmol/kg EDTA, probably because that 2.5 mmol/kg EDTA was enough for elevating Cu bioavailability to the maximum level. As compared with the control, citric acid had no marked effect on both soil extractable Cu and shoot Cu concentration or accumulation. The results indicated that EDTA addition can increase the potential and efficiency of Cu phytoextraction by E. splendens in polluted soils. PMID:14994436

  10. Dynamic Categorization of Clinical Research Eligibility Criteria by Hierarchical Clustering

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Zhihui; Yetisgen-Yildiz, Meliha; Weng, Chunhua

    2011-01-01

    Objective To semi-automatically induce semantic categories of eligibility criteria from text and to automatically classify eligibility criteria based on their semantic similarity. Design The UMLS semantic types and a set of previously developed semantic preference rules were utilized to create an unambiguous semantic feature representation to induce eligibility criteria categories through hierarchical clustering and to train supervised classifiers. Measurements We induced 27 categories and measured the prevalence of the categories in 27,278 eligibility criteria from 1,578 clinical trials and compared the classification performance (i.e., precision, recall, and F1-score) between the UMLS-based feature representation and the “bag of words” feature representation among five common classifiers in Weka, including J48, Bayesian Network, Naïve Bayesian, Nearest Neighbor, and Instance-based Learning Classifier. Results The UMLS semantic feature representation outperforms the “bag of words” feature representation in 89% of the criteria categories. Using the semantically induced categories, machine-learning classifiers required only 2,000 instances to stabilize classification performance. The J48 classifier yielded the best F1-score and the Bayesian Network classifier achieved the best learning efficiency. Conclusion The UMLS is an effective knowledge source and can enable an efficient feature representation for semi-automated semantic category induction and automatic categorization for clinical research eligibility criteria and possibly other clinical text. PMID:21689783

  11. High-spin states in the N=50 nucleus ^87Rb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fotiades, N.; Cizewski, J. A.; Krücken, R.; Clark, R. M.; Fallon, P.; Lee, I. Y.; Macchiavelli, A. O.; Becker, J. A.; Bernstein, L. A.; McNabb, D. P.; Younes, W.

    2001-10-01

    High-spin states in ^87Rb have been studied following the fission of two compound nuclei (^199Tl and ^197Pb) formed in different fusion-evaporation reactions. The Gammasphere array at LBNL was used to detect γ-ray coincidences. The level scheme has been extended above the previously known 1578 keV, 9/2^+ isomer by observation of many states up to ~7.2 MeV excitation energy. Coupling of the odd g_9/2 proton to the yrast states in the ^86Kr core accounts for the first excited states observed above the 9/2^+ isomer. The level scheme of ^87Rb is also compared to excitations in ^85Kr and the ^89Y isotone. This work has been supported in part by the U.S. Department of Energy under Contracts No. W-7405-ENG-36 (LANL), FG02-91ER-40609 (Yale), W-7405-ENG-48 (LLNL) and AC03-76SF00098 (LBNL) and by the National Science Foundation (Rutgers).

  12. Sub-grid scale precipitation in ALCMs: re-assessing the land surface sensitivity using a single column model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitman, Andrew J.; Yang, Zong-Liang; Henderson-Sellers, Ann

    1993-10-01

    The sensitivity of a land surface scheme to the distribution of precipitation within a general circulation model's grid element is investigated. Earlier experiments which showed considerable sensitivity of the runoff and evaporation simulation to the distribution of precipitation are repeated in the light of other results which show no sensitivity of evaporation to the distribution of precipitation. Results show that while the earlier results over-estimated the sensitivity of the surface hydrology to the precipitation distribution, the general conclusion that the system is sensitive is supported. It is found that changing the distribution of precipitation from falling over 100% of the grid square to falling over 10% leads to a reduction in evaporation from 1578 mm y-1 to 1195 mm y -1 while runoff increases from 278 mm y-1 to 602 mm y-1. The sensitivity is explained in terms of evaporation being dominated by available energy when precipitation falls over nearly the entire grid square, but by moisture availability (mainly intercepted water) when it falls over little of the grid square. These results also indicate that earlier work using stand-alone forcing to drive land surface schemes ‘off-line’, and to investigate the sensitivity of land surface codes to various parameters, leads to results which are non-repeatable in single column simulations.

  13. The Beginning of Variable star astronomy in Hungary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zsoldos, Endre

    Variable star astronomy began in Hungary as elsewhere: new objects have been recognized in the sky. Comets appeared in 16th - 17th century chronicles. The first mention of the new star of 1572 seems to be the "Prognosticon" of Wilhelm Misocacus, printed in 1578. New stars were discussed in the 17th century by Jesuits as well as Protestants. The work of Jacob Schnitzler is especially interesting from this point. The Cartesians dealt with new stars with less enthusiasm, they hardly mentioned them. The beginning of the 19th century saw the development of science in Hungarian, variable stars, however, were left out. The birth of variable star astronomy might be linked to the Ógyalla Observatory, originally a private observatory of Miklós Konkoly Thege. The 1885 supernova in the Andromeda Nebula were observed there, as well as the spectra of a few interesting variable stars. Theoretical astrophysics also has its beginnings in Ógyalla through the work of Radó Kövesligethy. Professional variable star astronomy started here in the early 20th century through the work of Antal Tass

  14. How exponential are FREDs?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaefer, Bradley E.; Dyson, Samuel E.

    1996-08-01

    A common Gamma-Ray Burst-light curve shape is the ``FRED'' or ``fast-rise exponential-decay.'' But how exponential is the tail? Are they merely decaying with some smoothly decreasing decline rate, or is the functional form an exponential to within the uncertainties? If the shape really is an exponential, then it would be reasonable to assign some physically significant time scale to the burst. That is, there would have to be some specific mechanism that produces the characteristic decay profile. So if an exponential is found, then we will know that the decay light curve profile is governed by one mechanism (at least for simple FREDs) instead of by complex/multiple mechanisms. As such, a specific number amenable to theory can be derived for each FRED. We report on the fitting of exponentials (and two other shapes) to the tails of ten bright BATSE bursts. The BATSE trigger numbers are 105, 257, 451, 907, 1406, 1578, 1883, 1885, 1989, and 2193. Our technique was to perform a least square fit to the tail from some time after peak until the light curve approaches background. We find that most FREDs are not exponentials, although a few come close. But since the other candidate shapes come close just as often, we conclude that the FREDs are misnamed.

  15. Strip gratings on dielectric substrates as output couplers for submillimeter lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veron, D.; Whitbourn, L. B.

    1986-03-01

    This paper describes the use and advantages of metallic strip gratings on dielectric substrates as output couplers for both optically pumped and discharge-excited submillimeter lasers. Formulas are presented for the calculation of transmittance and loss of such couplers, taking account of loss in the strip grating as well as loss and multiple reflections in the substrate. Included are expressions for the phase shifts on reflection and transmission by an arbitrary lossy grid on a plane boundary between two dielectrics, according to a transmission-line model that is applicable for wavelengths in both dielectrics longer than the grid period. In relation to these phase shifts, attention is drawn to an important sign convention. The theory is shown to agree well with measured transmittance of a typical device between 500 and 1600 GHz as well as spot measurements at 891 (337-micron HCN laser), 1540, and 1578 GHz (195- and 190-micron DCN laser). Finally, the theory is used to design a low loss coupler for the low gain 119-micron line of discharge excited H2O.

  16. Adult perceptions of phonotactic violations in Japanese

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fais, Laurel; Kajikawa, Sachiyo; Werker, Janet; Amano, Shigeaki

    2001-05-01

    Adult Japanese speakers ``hear'' epenthetic vowels in productions of Japanese-like words that violate the canonical CVCVCV form by containing internal consonant clusters (CVCCV) [Dupoux et al., J. Exp. Psychol. 25, 1568-1578 (1999)]. Given this finding, this research examined how Japanese adults rated the goodness of Japanese-like words produced without a vowel in the final syllable (CVC), and words produced without vowels in the penultimate and final syllables (CVCC). Furthermore, in some of these contexts, voiceless vowels may appear in fluent, casual Japanese productions, especially in the Kanto dialect, and in some, such voiceless vowels may not appear. Results indicate that both Kanto and Kinki speakers rated CVC productions for contexts in which voiceless vowels are not allowed as the worst; they rated CVC and CVCC contexts in which voiceless vowel productions are allowed as better. In these latter contexts, the CVC words, which result from the loss of one, final, vowel, are judged to be better than the CVCC words, which result from the loss of two (final and penultimate) vowels. These results mirror the relative seriousness of the phonotactic violations and indicate listeners have tacit knowledge of these regularities in their language.

  17. Statistical Properties of Galactic δ Scuti Stars: Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, S.-W.; Protopapas, P.; Kim, D.-W.; Byun, Y.-I.

    2013-05-01

    We present statistical characteristics of 1578 δ Scuti stars including nearby field stars and cluster member stars within the Milky Way. We obtained 46% of these stars (718 stars) from work by Rodríguez and collected the remaining 54% of stars (860 stars) from other literature. We updated the entries with the latest information of sky coordinates, color, rotational velocity, spectral type, period, amplitude, and binarity. The majority of our sample is well characterized in terms of typical period range (0.02-0.25 days), pulsation amplitudes (<0.5 mag), and spectral types (A-F type). Given this list of δ Scuti stars, we examined relations between their physical properties (i.e., periods, amplitudes, spectral types, and rotational velocities) for field stars and cluster members, and confirmed that the correlations of properties are not significantly different from those reported in Rodríguez's work. All the δ Scuti stars are cross-matched with several X-ray and UV catalogs, resulting in 27 X-ray and 41 UV-only counterparts. These counterparts are interesting targets for further study because of their uniqueness in showing δ Scuti-type variability and X-ray/UV emission at the same time. The compiled catalog can be accessed through the Web interface http://stardb.yonsei.ac.kr/DeltaScuti.

  18. Vibrational investigation on the copper(II) binding mode of carcinine and its pH dependence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torreggiani, Armida; Reggiani, Matteo; Manco, Immacolata; Tinti, Anna

    2007-05-01

    A comparative FT-Raman and FT-IR study of Carcinine (Carc), a natural imidazole dipeptide, and its complexes with Cu(II) ions was performed at different pH's. Both Raman and IR spectra present marker bands useful for the identification of the predominant complexes; in particular, Raman spectroscopy appears useful for identifying the metal-coordination site of the imidazole ring (N π or N τ atoms) of Carc. Free Carc shows a strong network of H-bonds and tautomer I (N τ-H) is the preferred form of the imidazolic ring (bands at 1578, 1292 and 988 cm -1). The presence of Cu(II) does not affect the tautomeric equilibrium at pH 7, whereas the deprotonation of both N-imidazolic nitrogens is strongly induced at higher pH. Under neutral and alkaline conditions the primary amino group takes part to the Cu(II) chelation, whereas all the peptidic moieties are involved in coordination only at pH 7. Thus, Carc acts as a tri-dentate ligand at neutral pH, mainly giving a monomeric complex, [CuLH -1], containing tautomer I, whereas an oligonuclear complex, probably [Cu 4L 4H -8], where metal-imidazolate ions connect different ligand molecules, predominates at alkaline pH.

  19. Spectroscopic Identification of Lipid, Protein and DNA Changes in Breast Cancer tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badr, Y. A.; Hassab Elnaby, S. I.

    2007-02-01

    The FTIR spectroscopy, at the range 4000 - 6000 cm-1 showed a clear distinction between normal and cancer tissues. Normal tissues spectra contain a doublet structure at 4258 and 4332 cm-1. This structure is usually on top of a small band that extends from 3950 cm-1 to 4400 cm-1. This structure us also observed from pure lipid tissues from control patients. The origin of this structure could be attributed to combinations of lipid lines. This structure is completely absent in cancer tissues, instead a broad intense band appears from 5100 cm-1 to 5200 cm-1. The intensity of this band varies from one patient to another. The shape of this broad band indicates that it is the due to random orientation changes in the proteins. This band has a peak at 5164 cm-1, it contains another small kink at 4882 cm-1. This may lead also to the conclusion that this window band is associated with a short half life time energy levels. On The other hand the photoacoustic spectrum of the same tissues , shows that in normal tissues there are three very distinct peaks (namely 1097,1159 and 1232 cm-1) they disappear in malignant tissues and replaced by many weak ripples. Two peaks (1578, 1690 cm-1) changes their position in malignant tissues(1626, 1678 cm-1). A change in DNA markers was also noticed in the range 600-1700 cm-1.

  20. A comparison of three radiation models for the calculation of nozzle arcs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixon, C. M.; Yan, J. D.; Fang, M. T. C.

    2004-12-01

    Three radiation models, the semi-empirical model based on net emission coefficients (Zhang et al 1987 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 20 386-79), the five-band P1 model (Eby et al 1998 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 31 1578-88), and the method of partial characteristics (Aubrecht and Lowke 1994 J. Phys. D: Appl.Phys. 27 2066-73, Sevast'yanenko 1979 J. Eng. Phys. 36 138-48), are used to calculate the radiation transfer in an SF6 nozzle arc. The temperature distributions computed by the three models are compared with the measurements of Leseberg and Pietsch (1981 Proc. 4th Int. Symp. on Switching Arc Phenomena (Lodz, Poland) pp 236-40) and Leseberg (1982 PhD Thesis RWTH Aachen, Germany). It has been found that all three models give similar distributions of radiation loss per unit time and volume. For arcs burning in axially dominated flow, such as arcs in nozzle flow, the semi-empirical model and the P1 model give accurate predictions when compared with experimental results. The prediction by the method of partial characteristics is poorest. The computational cost is the lowest for the semi-empirical model.

  1. Paleoclimatic and paleomagnetic constraints on the Paleozoic reconstructions of south China, north China and Tarim

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shangyou, Nie

    1991-10-01

    Paleomagnetic and paleoclimatic data provide the most useful latitudinal constraints for plate reconstructions. Distributions through the Paleozoic of five types of climatically sensitive sediments (coals, evaporites, reefs, dolomites and limestones) for south China, north China and Tarim are shown on 15 maps that include 1578 reliable data points. These paleoclimatic data agree reasonably well with available paleomagnetic directions, although significant divergence between the two exists for the Early Paleozoic. These data indicate the following: (1) South China was in low latitudes during the entire Paleozoic, with a subtropical position in the Cambrian. (2) North China also remained near the equator in the Early and Late Paleozoic, except for the Ordovian and the Late Permian when extensive evaporites suggest slightly higher latitudinal positions, while its Middle Paleozoic position is uncertain due to the missing stratigraphie record. (3) In south China, local tectonics appears to have played a dominant role in determining paleogeography and therefore marine sedimentation, especially after the Late Ordovician-Early Silurian, because the areal coverage of marine sediments through time is distinctly different from what would be expected from published global sea-level curves. (4) Paleoclimatic and paleomagnetic data are compatible with biogeographic data which suggest that south China was part of eastern Gondwana in the Early Paleozoic, but was widely separated from Gondwana in the Late Paleozoic, and the split between the two probably happened in the Devonian, giving rise to a major break-up unconformity in central south China.

  2. State energy price and expenditure report, 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-10-28

    The average price paid for energy in the United States in 1986 was $7.19 per million Btu, down significantly from the 1985 average of $8.42 per million Btu. While total energy consumption increased slightly to 74.3 quadrillion Btu from 1985 to 1986, expenditures fell from $445 billion to $381 billion. Energy expenditures per capita in 1986 were $1578, down significantly from the 1985 rate. In 1986, consumers used only 94 percent as much energy per person as they had in 1970, but they spent 3.9 times as much money per person on energy as they had in 1970. By state, energy expenditures per capita in 1986 ranged from the lowest rate of $1277 in New York to the highest of $3108 in Alaska. Of the major energy sources, electricity registered the highest price per million Btu ($19.00), followed by petroleum ($5.63), natural gas ($3.97), coal ($1.62), and nuclear fuel ($0.70). The price of electricity is relatively high because of significant costs for converting energy from various forms (e.g., fossil fuels, nuclear fuel, hydroelectric energy, and geothermal energy) into electricity, and additional, somewhat smaller costs for transmitting and distributing electricity to end users. In addition, electricity is a premium form of energy because of its flexibility and clean nature at energy consumers' sites.

  3. Maestlin's teaching of Copernicus. The evidence of his university textbook and disputations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Methuen, C.

    1996-06-01

    Michael Maestlin (1550 - 1631), professor of mathematics at the University of Tübingen from 1584 until his death, is probably best known as the teacher of Johannes Kepler. As such he has merited more attention from historians than most other sixteenth-century German professors of mathematics. While Maestlin's own achievements (for instance, his correct description of earthshine, his observation and identification of the nova of 1572, and his attempt to determine the orbit of the comet of 1577 - 1578) have been noted, Kepler's testimony that he learned the Copernican system from Maestlin has meant that attention has been focused on Maestlin's attitude toward the Copernican hypothesis. Central to the ensuing discussion has been the question, and particularly the light shed on it by such of Maestlin's teaching materials as survive, that forms the subject of this paper. Copernicus's planetary hypothesis was probably not taught to every student in the University of Tübingen, but Maestlin seems always to have made the new hypothesis available who had the interest and ability to pursue it.

  4. Molecular Structure of a Helical ribbon in a Peptide Self-Assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Wonmuk; Marini, Davide; Kamm, Roger D.; Zhang, Shuguang

    2002-03-01

    We have studied the molecular structure of nanometer scale helical ribbons observed during self-assembly of the peptide KFE8 (amino acid sequence: FKFEFKFE) (NanoLetters (2002, in press)). By analyzing the hydrogen bonding patterns between neighboring peptide backbones, we constructed a number of possible β-sheets. Using all possible combinations of these, we built helical ribbons with dimensions close to those found experimentally and performed molecular dynamics simulations to identify the most stable structure. Solvation effects were implemented by the analytic continuum electrostatics (ACE) model developed by Schaefer and Karplus (J. Phys. Chem. 100, 1578 (1996)). By applying electrostatic double layer theory, we incorporated the effect of pH by scaling the amount of charge on the sidechains. Our results suggest that the helical ribbon is comprised of a double β-sheet where the inner and the outer helices have distinct hydrogen bonding patterns. Our approach has general applicability to the study of helices formed by the self-assembly of β-sheet forming peptides with various amino acid sequences.

  5. Exact Green's functions for a Brownian particle reversibly binding to a fixed target in a finite, two-dimensional, circular domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalay, Ziya

    2012-06-01

    Despite the apparent need to study reversible reactions between molecules confined to a two-dimensional space such as the cell membrane, exact Green’s functions for this case have not been reported. Here we present exact analytical Green’s functions for a Brownian particle reversibly reacting with a fixed reaction center in a finite two-dimensional circular region with reflecting or absorbing boundaries, considering either a spherically symmetric initial distribution or a particle that is initially bound. We show that Green’s function can be used to predict the effect of measurement uncertainties on the outcome of single-particle/molecule-tracking experiments in which molecular interactions are investigated. Hence, we bridge the gap between previously known solutions in one dimension (Agmon 1984 J. Chem. Phys. 81 2811) and three dimensions (Kim and Shin 1999 Phys. Rev. Lett. 82 1578), and provide an example of how the knowledge of Green’s function can be used to predict experimentally accessible quantities.

  6. Analysis of construction conditions affecting the structural response of the cooling tower at Willow Island, West Virginia

    SciTech Connect

    Lew, H.S.; Fattal, S.G.

    1980-07-01

    The initial investigation of the Willow Island cooling tower collapse (NBSIR 78-1578) established that the most probable cause of the collapse was the imposition of construction loads on the tower before the concrete had gained adequate strength. The analysis presented herein responds to questions outside the scope of that investigation which considered only actual conditions existing at the time of the collapse. The present investigation shows that failure would initiate in lift 28 if the concrete strength in that lift is 100 psi (6.9 MPa) or less, and to maintain a safety factor of 2.0, the concrete strength in that lift should be 4000 psi (27.6 MPa). This study also reveals that even if an additional bolt had been introduced between each exterior jumpform beam and the tower, the stresses would not have been relieved enough to prevent failure of lift 28. Finally, it is shown, that if the ground anchor point of the static line had been kept at the location occupied just prior to its last move to a location near the center of the tower, the stresses in the shell due to construction loads would have been relieved to the extent that failure of lift 28 would probably not have occurred.

  7. Effect of annealing on the structural and optical properties of heavily carbon-doped ZnO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, He; Deng, Z. W.; Li, D. C.; Barbir, E.; Y Jiang, W.; Chen, M. X.; Kavanagh, K. L.; Mooney, P. M.; Watkins, S. P.

    2010-04-01

    ZnO films grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) at low temperatures (~500 °C) exhibit very high levels of carbon incorporation in the range of up to several percent. Such large levels of carbon incorporation significantly affect the structural properties of the thin films resulting in broadening of symmetric (0 0 2) rocking curves as well as broadened (1 0 1) pole figures compared with films grown at high temperature. Annealing of the films under air ambient at temperatures between 800 and 1100 °C results in dramatic sharpening of symmetric (0 0 2) rocking curves, indicating improved crystal alignment along the c-axes. (1 0 1) pole figure scans also show significant sharpening in the azimuthal axis, indicating similar improvements in the in-plane crystal alignment perpendicular to the c-axis. Raman spectra for as-grown ZnO at 500 °C show strong D and G peaks at 1381 and 1578 cm-1 due to sp2 carbon clusters. Annealing at 1000 °C results in the elimination of these bands, indicating that post-growth annealing treatment is a useful method to reduce the concentration of sp2 carbon clusters.

  8. Synthesis, characterization and cation adsorption of p-aminobenzoic acid intercalated on calcium phosphate

    SciTech Connect

    Silva, Camila F.N.; Lazarin, Angélica M.; Sernaglia, Rosana L.; Andreotti, Elza I.S.

    2012-06-15

    Graphical abstract: Scanning electron microscopy photographs of calcium phosphate (a) and intercalated with p-aminobenzoic acid (b). Highlights: ► Calcium phosphate was intercalated with p-aminobenzoic acid. ► Guest molecule contains nitrogen and oxygen atoms from amine and carboxylic groups. ► These basic centers are potentially useful for cation coordination in ethanol solution. ► Crystal morphology of compounds is lamellar, it agrees with expected structural characteristics. -- Abstract: Crystalline lamellar calcium phosphate retained 4-aminobenzoic acid inside its cavity without leaching. The intense infrared bands in the 1033 and 1010 cm{sup −1} interval confirmed the presence of the phosphonate groups attached to the inorganic layer, with sharp and intense peaks in X-ray diffraction patterns, which gave basal distances of 712 and 1578 pm for the original and the intercalated compounds, respectively. Solid-state {sup 31}P nuclear magnetic resonance spectra presented only one peak for the phosphate groups attached to the main inorganic polymeric structure near −2.4 ppm. The adsorption isotherms from ethanol gave the maximum adsorption capacities of 6.44 and 3.34 mmol g{sup −1} for nickel and cobalt, respectively, which stability constant and distribution coefficient followed Co > Ni.

  9. Observation of the limit cycle in asymmetric plasma divided by a magnetic filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohi, Kazuo; Naitou, Hiroshi; Tauchi, Yasushi; Fukumasa, Osamu

    2001-01-01

    An asymmetric plasma divided by a magnetic filter is numerically simulated by the one-dimensional particle-in-cell code VSIM1D [Koga et al., J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 68, 1578 (1999)]. Depending on the asymmetry, the system behavior is static or dynamic. In the static state, the potentials of the main plasma and the subplasma are given by the sheath potentials, φM˜3TMe/e and φS˜3TSe/e, respectively, with e being an electron charge and TMe and TSe being electron temperatures (TMe>TSe). In the dynamic state, while φM˜3TMe/e, φS oscillates periodically between φS,min˜3TSe/e and φS,max˜3TMe/e. The ions accelerated by the time varying potential gap get into the subplasma and excite the laminar shock waves. The period of the limit cycle is determined by the transit time of the shock wave structure.

  10. Prediction of scuffing failure based on competitive kinetics of oxide formation and removal: Application to lubricated sliding of AISI 52100 steel on steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cutiongco, Eric C.; Chung, Yip-Wah

    1994-07-01

    A method for predicting scuffing failure based on the competitive kinetics of oxide formation and removal has been developed and applied to the sliding of AISI 52100 steel on steel with poly-alpha-olefin as the lubricant. Oxide formation rates were determining using static oxidation tests on coupons of 52100 steel covered with poly-alpha-olefin at temperatures of 140 C to 250 C. Oxide removal rates were determined at different combinations of initial average nominal contact pressures (950 MPa to 1578 MPa) and sliding velocities (0.4 m/s to 1.8 m/s) using a ball-on-disk vacuum tribotester. The nominal asperity flash temperatures generated during the wear tests were calculated and the temperatures corresponding to the intersection of the the Arrhenius plots of oxide formation and removal rates were determined and taken as the critical failure temperatures. The pressure-velocity failure transition diagram was constructed by plotting the critical failure temperatures along isotherms of average nominal asperity flash temperatures calculated at different combinations of contact stress and sliding speed. The predicted failure transition curve agreed well with experimental scuffing data.

  11. Advances in optical structure systems; Proceedings of the Meeting, Orlando, FL, Apr. 16-19, 1990

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breakwell, John; Genberg, Victor L.; Krumweide, Gary C.

    Various papers on advances in optical structure systems are presented. Individual topics addressed include: beam pathlength optimization, thermal stress in glass/metal bond with PR 1578 adhesive, structural and optical properties for typical solid mirror shapes, parametric study of spinning polygon mirror deformations, simulation of small structures-optics-controls system, spatial PSDs of optical structures due to random vibration, mountings for a four-meter glass mirror, fast-steering mirrors in optical control systems, adaptive state estimation for control of flexible structures, surface control techniques for large segmented mirrors, two-time-scale control designs for large flexible structures, closed-loop dynamic shape control of a flexible beam. Also discussed are: inertially referenced pointing for body-fixed payloads, sensor blending line-of-sight stabilization, controls/optics/structures simulation development, transfer functions for piezoelectric control of a flexible beam, active control experiments for large-optics vibration alleviation, composite structures for a large-optical test bed, graphite/epoxy composite mirror for beam-steering applications, composite structures for optical-mirror applications, thin carbon-fiber prepregs for dimensionally critical structures.

  12. Strip gratings on dielectric substrates as output couplers for submillimeter lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Veron, D.; Whitbourn, L.B.

    1986-03-01

    This paper describes the use and advantages of metallic strip gratings on dielectric substrates as output couplers for both optically pumped and discharge-excited submillimeter lasers. Formulas are presented for the calculation of transmittance and loss of such couplers, taking account of loss in the strip grating as well as loss and multiple reflections in the substrate. Included are expressions for the phase shifts on reflection and transmission by an arbitrary lossy grid on a plane boundary between two dielectrics according to a transmission-line model that is applicable for wavelengths in both dielectrics longer than the grid period. In relation to these phase shifts attention is drawn to an important sign convention. The theory is shown to agree well with measured transmittance of a typical device between 500 and 1600 GHz as well as spot measurements at 891 (337-..mu..m HCN laser), 1540, and 1578 GHz (195- and 190-..mu..m DCN laser). Finally, the theory is used to design a low-loss coupler for the low-gain 119-..mu..m line of discharge excited H/sub 2/O.

  13. Awareness and perceptions of the risks of exposure to indoor radon: a population-based approach to evaluate a radon awareness and testing campaign in England and Wales.

    PubMed

    Poortinga, Wouter; Bronstering, Karin; Lannon, Simon

    2011-11-01

    The current study aimed to evaluate the locally directed radon roll-out program that was conducted between 2001 and 2005 in England and Wales to increase radon awareness and testing rates. A representative sample of 1,578 residents aged 16 and older were interviewed who lived in radon-affected areas of 15 local authorities in England and Wales that were eligible for participation in the program. The study systematically sampled across participating and nonparticipating local authorities, "actionable" and "nonactionable" radon-affected areas, and geographic regions with different campaign histories (Wales, Southwest England, and the rest of England). As a multistage sampling strategy was used, the data were analyzed from a multilevel perspective. This study found that participants living in participating local authorities had higher levels of awareness and were more likely to have tested their home for radon than participants living in nonparticipating local authorities. Similar results were found for participants living in "actionable" areas as compared to those living in "nonactionable" radon-affected areas. The study further found that radon awareness and testing rates were the highest in Southwest England and the lowest in Wales. This study suggests that the radon roll-out program has been effective in raising awareness and testing rates, and that ongoing domestic radon campaigns in Southwest England may have raised radon awareness and testing in these areas, showing important reinforcement effects of multiple risk communication campaigns. PMID:21477087

  14. Design and Validation of Four New Primers for Next-Generation Sequencing To Target the 18S rRNA Genes of Gastrointestinal Ciliate Protozoa

    PubMed Central

    Wright, André-Denis G.

    2014-01-01

    Four new primers and one published primer were used to PCR amplify hypervariable regions within the protozoal 18S rRNA gene to determine which primer pair provided the best identification and statistical analysis. PCR amplicons of 394 to 498 bases were generated from three primer sets, sequenced using Roche 454 pyrosequencing with Titanium, and analyzed using the BLAST database (NCBI) and MOTHUR version 1.29. The protozoal diversity of rumen contents from moose in Alaska was assessed. In the present study, primer set 1, P-SSU-316F and GIC758R (amplicon of 482 bases), gave the best representation of diversity using BLAST classification, and the set amplified Entodinium simplex and Ostracodinium spp., which were not amplified by the other two primer sets. Primer set 2, GIC1080F and GIC1578R (amplicon of 498 bases), had similar BLAST results and a slightly higher percentage of sequences that were identified with a higher sequence identity. Primer sets 1 and 2 are recommended for use in ruminants. However, primer set 1 may be inadequate to determine protozoal diversity in nonruminants. The amplicons created by primer set 1 were indistinguishable for certain species within the genera Bandia, Blepharocorys, Polycosta, and Tetratoxum and between Hemiprorodon gymnoprosthium and Prorodonopsis coli, none of which are normally found in the rumen. PMID:24973070

  15. Influence of processing conditions on acrylamide content in black ripe olives.

    PubMed

    Casado, Francisco J; Montaño, Alfredo

    2008-03-26

    The presence of acrylamide was investigated in different presentations of commercial black ripe olives, a well-known sterilized alkali-treated product. The analysis was performed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) after bromination of acrylamide, using (13C3)acrylamide as internal standard. In-house validation data for commercial ripe olives showed good precision and accuracy of the method, with repeatability below 3% and recoveries between 94 and 105%. Acrylamide was detected in all samples, but its concentration varied significantly from 176 to 1578 microg/kg of pulp. The effects of different processing conditions (two preservation methods and three darkening methods), cultivar (Hojiblanca or Manzanilla), and presentation form (pitted or sliced olives) on acrylamide content were evaluated in experiments performed in an olive-processing plant. All canned samples were sterilized at 121 degrees C for 30 min. Statistical analysis of the data indicated that the effects of darkening method and olive cultivar were the most pronounced. Acrylamide contents did not significantly differ after 6 months of storage. The small amounts of free amino acids and reducing sugars found in olives before sterilization did not significantly correlate with the acrylamide formed. PMID:18303816

  16. Assessment of Folic Acid Supplementation in Pregnant Women by Estimation of Serum Levels of Tetrahydrofolic Acid, Dihydrofolate Reductase, and Homocysteine

    PubMed Central

    Saxena, Vartika; Mirza, Anissa Atif; Kumari, Ranjeeta; Sharma, Kapil; Bharadwaj, Jyoti

    2016-01-01

    Background. Status of folic acid use in pregnant women of the hilly regions in North India was little known. This study was carried out to assess the folic acid use and estimate folate metabolites in pregnant women of this region. Materials and Methods. This cross-sectional study is comprised of 76 pregnant women, whose folic acid supplementation was assessed by a questionnaire and serum levels of homocysteine, tetrahydrofolic acid (THFA), and dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) were estimated using Enzyme Linked Immunoassays. Results. The study data revealed awareness of folic acid use during pregnancy was present in 46.1% and 23.7% were taking folic acid supplements. The study depicted that there was no statistically significant difference between serum levels of THFA and DHFR in pregnant women with and without folic acid supplements (p = 0.790). Hyperhomocysteinemia was present in 15.78% of the participants. Conclusion. Less awareness about folic acid supplementation and low use of folic acid by pregnant women were observed in this region. Sufficient dietary ingestion may suffice for the escalated requirements in pregnancy, but since this cannot be ensured, hence folic acid supplementation should be made as an integral part of education and reproductive health programs for its better metabolic use, growth, and development of fetus. PMID:27064332

  17. Emergence of whooping cough: notes from three early epidemics in Persia.

    PubMed

    Aslanabadi, Arash; Ghabili, Kamyar; Shad, Kaveh; Khalili, Majid; Sajadi, Mohammad M

    2015-12-01

    Whooping cough is a relatively new infectious disease afflicting human beings, compared with other infectious diseases, and is undergoing a resurgence despite decades of vaccination. The oldest known epidemic is thought to be the Paris outbreak of 1578. In this Historical Review, we describe three epidemics of whooping cough in Persia, which although arising roughly one century before the Paris outbreak, have not been examined in detail. A great amount of epidemiological detail was reported that not only distinguishes the various stages and complications of whooping cough, but also reveals unique immunological aspects of this disease. The first of these epidemics is the oldest recorded whooping cough epidemic. On the basis of epidemiological features, we propose that this whooping cough epidemic was the first to have taken place in Persia and might have been part of the first pandemic. This theory pushes back the date of first documented emergence of whooping cough by almost a century, which matches molecular data about its spread. Here, we discuss features of these early epidemics in relation to their initial emergence, potential origins, and spread to Europe. PMID:26298206

  18. The applicability of the Greulich & Pyle Atlas for bone age assessment in primary school-going children of Karachi, Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Manzoor Mughal, Arsalan; Hassan, Nuzhat; Ahmed, Anwar

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To assess the degree of applicability of bone age calculated by Greulich & Pyle Atlas in estimation of chronological age for therapeutic and medico legal purposes. Methods: Two Hundred and Twenty children (139 males, 81 females) between ages of 56 and 113 months (4.5 to 9.5 years) were randomly selected from 4 primary schools of Shireen Jinnah & Clifton, Karachi. Digital images of hand and wrist radiographs were obtained by a computed radiography at Ziauddin Hospital Clifton. Bone ages were computed using Greulich & Pyle Atlas by radiologists at Ziauddin Hospital, North Nazimabad, Karachi. Results: On average, the Greulich & Pyle Atlas underestimates chronological age by 6.65 ± 13.47 months in females and 15.78 ± 12.83 months in males (p-values < 0.001). High correlation was found between chronological age and bone age in both genders (Females r=0.778; p-value< 0.001, Males r=0.816; p-value < 0.001). Conclusion: Bone age calculated by Greulich & Pyle Atlas should not be used for estimating chronological age in children of ages 56-113 months in situations where high accuracy is required (e.g. medicolegal cases). However, serial measurements of bone age by this atlas can be used in management of growth related endocrine disorders in these children. PMID:24772153

  19. Raman spectroscopic analysis of cytotoxic effect of cisplatin-treated leukemic cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Juqiang; Li, Yongzeng; Feng, Shangyuan; Chen, Rong; Chen, Guannan; Chen, Qisong; Pan, Jianji; Lin, Shaojun; Yu, Yun

    2009-08-01

    An antitumor drug cisplatin was employed to treat the leukemic cells and induce apoptosis of the cancer cells. Confocal Raman micro-spectroscopy has been applied to investigate the effectiveness of the treatment using near-infrared laser (785nm) excitation, scanning range from 500 to 2000 cm-1. The Raman spectra of leukemic cell treated with cisplatin for 4, 6, 8, 12 and 14 h were measured separately. The major difference of the apoptotic cells from the cancer cells are the reduction in intensities of vibration bands generated by cellular lipids, proteins and nucleic acids. In particular, large intensity reduction in nucleic vibrations at 782, 1092, 1320, 1340, and 1578 cm-1 was observed upon apoptosis of the leukemic cells. Up to 45% reduction in the magnitude of the 782 cm-1 peak in Raman spectra of the apoptotic cells was observed, which suggests the breakdown of phosphodiester bonds and DNA bases. We showed that the principal components analysis (PCA), a multivariate statistical tool, can be used to distinguish single apoptotic cells and leukemic cells based on their Raman spectra. Our results indicate that the Raman spectroscopy with PCA is a novel, nondestructive mean for studying the cisplatin -treated leukemic cells, which could also provide useful data for clinical dosage optimization for cisplatin.

  20. Occurrence of anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies and parasite DNA in raw milk of sheep and goats of local breeds reared in Northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    da Silva, José Givanildo; Alves, Bruno Henrique L S; Melo, Renata Pimentel B; Kim, Pomy Cássia P; Souza Neto, Orestes L; Bezerra, Mauro José G; Sá, Silvio G; Mota, Rinaldo A

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to detect Toxoplasma gondii DNA in raw milk samples of goats and sheep of local breeds from the semi-arid region of the states of Pernambuco and Paraíba, Northeastern Brazil. Serum and milk samples were collected from 243 animals (186 goats and 57 sheep). The Indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) was used to search for anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies with a cutoff of 64. Subsequently, the raw milk samples were subjected to DNA extraction and PCR to detect DNA of T. gondii. The IFAT results showed a 6.58% (16/243) positivity when all the samples were considered and a positivity of 15.78% (9/57) and 3.76% (7/186) for goats and sheep samples, respectively. The PCR assay detected T. gondii DNA in 2.06% (5/243) of all the samples tested. All the PCR positive samples were from goats. This result shows the importance of adopting measures of flock's sanitary management and avoiding the consumption of raw milk may constitute a potential risk to the health of milk consumers in this region. PMID:25438258

  1. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic studies of CrArsM, an arsenic(III) S-adenosylmethionine methyltransferase from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Packianathan, Charles; Pillai, Jitesh K; Riaz, Ahmed; Kandavelu, Palani; Sankaran, Banumathi; Rosen, Barry P

    2014-10-01

    Arsenic is one the most toxic environmental substances. Arsenic is ubiquitous in water, soil and food, and ranks first on the Environmental Protection Agency's Superfund Priority List of Hazardous Substances. Arsenic(III) S-adenosylmethionine methyltransferases (AS3MT in animals and ArsM in microbes) are key enzymes of arsenic biotransformation, catalyzing the methylation of inorganic arsenite to give methyl, dimethyl and trimethyl products. Arsenic methyltransferases are found in members of every kingdom from bacteria to humans (EC 2.1.1.137). In the human liver, hAS3MT converts inorganic arsenic into more toxic and carcinogenic forms. CrArsM, an ortholog of hAS3MT from the eukaryotic green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, was purified by chemically synthesizing the gene and expressing it in Escherichia coli. Synthetic purified CrArsM was crystallized in an unliganded form. Crystals were obtained by the hanging-drop vapor-diffusion method. The crystals belonged to space group R3:H, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 157.8, c = 95.4 Å, γ = 120° and two molecules in the asymmetric unit. Complete data sets were collected and processed to a resolution of 2.40 Å. PMID:25286945

  2. Porous reduced graphene oxide membrane with enhanced gauge factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jen-Chieh; Weng, Cheng-Hsi; Tsai, Fu-Cheng; Shih, Wen-Pin; Chang, Pei-Zen

    2016-01-01

    This paper shows that a porous structure for a reduced graphene oxide (rGO) membrane effectively enhances its gauge factor. A porous graphene-based membrane was synthesized in a liquid phase by combining a GO sheet with copper hydroxide nanostrands (CHNs). A chemical reduction treatment using L-ascorbic acid was utilized to simultaneously improve the conductivity of GO and remove the CHNs from each GO sheet. The intrinsic gauge factors of the porous rGO membrane with varying applied tensile strains were obtained and found to increase monotonically with the increased porosity of the rGO membrane. For a membrane porosity of 15.78%, the maximum gauge factor is 46.1 under an applied strain of less than 1%. The main mechanism behind the enhanced gauge factor is attributed to the structure of the porous rGO membrane. The relationships between the initial electrical resistance, tunneling distance, and gauge factor of the rGO membrane were found by adjusting the membrane porosity and the results completely confirmed the physical phenomena.

  3. [Bloodletting as medical therapy for 2500 years].

    PubMed

    Ulvik, R J

    1999-06-30

    Bloodletting has been part of the history of medicine for more than 2500 years. Up to the end of the Middle Ages, the rationale for bloodletting originated from the ancient greek humoral theory. The great scientific progress from the 16th century and onward, apparently did not weaken its position. Prominent physicians such as Andreas Vesalius (1514-64), William Harvey (1578-1657) and Thomas Sydenham (1624-89) defended bloodletting. In the beginning of the 19th century the use of leeches became the major technique of bloodletting in Europe. In Norway bloodletting was mentioned in royal decrees from the 13th century, and the method became popular in folk medicine. At the end of the 19th century bloodletting came at last to be regarded as ineffective for most of its traditional purposes, and its use declined rapidly. Today, however, bloodletting is being restored in modern medicine as the most effective method of treating the increasing frequent disorders caused by iron overload. PMID:10425902

  4. [Steri's graffiti of Palermo and medical knowledges].

    PubMed

    Malta, Renato; Salerno, Alfredo

    2007-01-01

    The graffiti left by prisoners in the Inquisition gaols of Palermo's represent a testimony of the historical period between 1600 to 1793. In that period, by order of the viceroy Caracciolo, all the testimonies were removed at the same time in which the Inquisition court was suppressed. In this work the historical subdivision between sacred and profane themes is analyzed with the purpose to study human body in an anthropological key as a language in condition of limited freedom and under torture. Many of the profane graffiti are devoted to medical knowledge suggesting that doctors were involved in the activities of this religious court likewise happened in civil courts. Giovanni Filippo Ingrassia, the well-known proto-medical physician of the kingdom, in his treatise, wrote in 1578 and entitled Methodus dandi relationes ... reports many examples of the role of medical doctors in attesting fitness to torture of inquired people or the necessity of graduating torture when they were hill or in a morbid conditions. PMID:18450037

  5. Unforgeable noise-tolerant quantum tokens

    PubMed Central

    Pastawski, Fernando; Yao, Norman Y.; Jiang, Liang; Lukin, Mikhail D.; Cirac, J. Ignacio

    2012-01-01

    The realization of devices that harness the laws of quantum mechanics represents an exciting challenge at the interface of modern technology and fundamental science. An exemplary paragon of the power of such quantum primitives is the concept of “quantum money” [Wiesner S (1983) ACM SIGACT News 15:78–88]. A dishonest holder of a quantum bank note will invariably fail in any counterfeiting attempts; indeed, under assumptions of ideal measurements and decoherence-free memories such security is guaranteed by the no-cloning theorem. In any practical situation, however, noise, decoherence, and operational imperfections abound. Thus, the development of secure “quantum money”-type primitives capable of tolerating realistic infidelities is of both practical and fundamental importance. Here, we propose a novel class of such protocols and demonstrate their tolerance to noise; moreover, we prove their rigorous security by determining tight fidelity thresholds. Our proposed protocols require only the ability to prepare, store, and measure single quantum bit memories, making their experimental realization accessible with current technologies.

  6. Antifungal activity of schinol and a new biphenyl compound isolated from Schinus terebinthifolius against the pathogenic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to isolate and identify the antifungal compounds from the extracts of Schinus terebinthifolius (Anacardiaceae) against clinical isolates of the pathogenic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. Methods The hexane and dichlomethane fractions from leaves and stems of S. terebinthifolius were fractionated using several chromatography techniques to afford four compounds. Results The compounds isolated from S. terebinthifolius were identified as schinol (1), a new biphenyl compound, namely, 4'-ethyl-4-methyl-2,2',6,6'-tetrahydroxy[1,1'-biphenyl]-4,4'-dicarboxylate (2), quercetin (3), and kaempferol (4). Compounds 1 and 2 were active against different strains of P. brasiliensis, showing a minimal inhibitory concentration value against the isolate Pb B339 of 15.6 μg/ml. The isolate Pb 1578 was more sensitive to compound 1 with a MIC value of 7.5 μg/ml. Schinol presented synergistic effect only when combined with itraconazole. The compounds isolated from S. terebinthifolius were not able to inhibit cell wall synthesis or assembly using the sorbitol assay. Conclusion This work reveals for the first time the occurrence of compound 2 and discloses activity of compounds 1 and 2 against several clinical isolates of P. brasiliensis. These results justify further studies to clarify the mechanisms of action of these compounds. PMID:20939907

  7. Bloodstream infections in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia: a longitudinal single-center study.

    PubMed

    Kjellander, Christian; Björkholm, Magnus; Källman, Owe; Giske, Christian G; Weibull, Caroline E; Löve, Thorvardur J; Landgren, Ola; Kristinsson, Sigurdur Y

    2016-05-01

    Infectious complications in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) represent a major cause of morbidity and mortality. The aim of the study was to investigate temporal trends in bloodstream infections (BSIs) among patients with CLL. Individuals with blood cultures were linked to Swedish Cancer Registry and divided into three time periods (1988-1993, 1994-1999, and 2000-2006) according to year of CLL diagnosis. CLL patients (n = 275) with 1092 blood culture episodes were identified and linked to the nationwide Cause of Death Registry and Swedish Patient Registry (to retrieve information on splenectomies). The most common causes of BSI among CLL patients were Escherichia coli (11/43, 15/78, and 9/33), Streptococcus pneumoniae (7/43, 13/78, and 6/33), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (2/43, 8/78, and 3/33), Staphylococcus aureus (1/43, 6/78, and 6/33), and Viridans streptococci (5/43, 6/78, and 2/33). Coagulase-negative staphylococci was the most frequent microorganism found in blood cultures (22/70, 23/106, and 5/41, respectively) but is a frequent contaminant. Based on the largest study to date on BSI in CLL patients, we found a stable proportion of Gram-positive to Gram-negative bacteria and no temporal change of distribution was observed for BSIs 1988-2006. PMID:26976017

  8. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic studies of CrArsM, an arsenic(III) S-adenosylmethionine methyltransferase from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    PubMed Central

    Packianathan, Charles; Pillai, Jitesh K.; Riaz, Ahmed; Kandavelu, Palani; Sankaran, Banumathi; Rosen, Barry P.

    2014-01-01

    Arsenic is one the most toxic environmental substances. Arsenic is ubiquitous in water, soil and food, and ranks first on the Environmental Protection Agency’s Superfund Priority List of Hazardous Substances. Arsenic(III) S-adenosylmethionine methyltransferases (AS3MT in animals and ArsM in microbes) are key enzymes of arsenic biotransformation, catalyzing the methylation of inorganic arsenite to give methyl, dimethyl and trimethyl products. Arsenic methyltransferases are found in members of every kingdom from bacteria to humans (EC 2.1.1.137). In the human liver, hAS3MT converts inorganic arsenic into more toxic and carcinogenic forms. CrArsM, an ortholog of hAS3MT from the eukaryotic green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, was purified by chemically synthesizing the gene and expressing it in Escherichia coli. Synthetic purified CrArsM was crystallized in an unliganded form. Crystals were obtained by the hanging-drop vapor-diffusion method. The crystals belonged to space group R3:H, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 157.8, c = 95.4 Å, γ = 120° and two molecules in the asymmetric unit. Complete data sets were collected and processed to a resolution of 2.40 Å. PMID:25286945

  9. Cloning, expression, purification, crystallization and X-ray crystallographic analysis of d-lactate dehydrogenase from Lactobacillus jensenii

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sangwoo; Kim, Yong Hwan; Kim, Kyung-Jin

    2014-01-01

    The thermostable d-lactate dehydrogenase from Lactobacillus jensenii (Lj d-LDH) is a key enzyme for the production of the d-form of lactic acid from pyruvate concomitant with the oxidation of NADH to NAD+. The polymers of lactic acid are used as biodegradable bioplastics. The Lj d-LDH protein was crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method in the presence of 28%(w/v) polyethylene glycol 400, 100 mM Tris–HCl pH 9, 200 mM magnesium sulfate at 295 K. X-ray diffraction data were collected to a maximum resolution of 2.1 Å. The crystal belonged to space group P3121, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 90.5, c = 157.8 Å. With two molecules per asymmetric unit, the crystal volume per unit protein weight (V M) is 2.58 Å3 Da−1, which corresponds to a solvent content of approximately 52.3%. The structure was solved by single-wavelength anomalous dispersion using a selenomethionine derivative. PMID:25084378

  10. P. vivax Malaria and Dengue Fever Co-infection: A Cross-Sectional Study in the Brazilian Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Magalhães, Belisa M. L.; Siqueira, André M.; Alexandre, Márcia A. A.; Souza, Marcela S.; Gimaque, João B.; Bastos, Michele S.; Figueiredo, Regina M. P.; Melo, Gisely C.; Lacerda, Marcus V. G.; Mourão, Maria P. G.

    2014-01-01

    Background Malaria and dengue are the most prevalent vector-borne diseases worldwide and represent major public health problems. Both are endemic in tropical regions, propitiating co-infection. Only few co-infection cases have been reported around the world, with insufficient data so far to enhance the understanding of the effects of co-infection in the clinical presentation and severity. Methodology/Principal Findings A cross-sectional study was conducted (2009 to 2011) in hospitalized patients with acute febrile syndrome in the Brazilian Amazon. All patients were submitted to thick blood smear and PCR for Plasmodium sp. detection, ELISA, PCR and NS1 tests for dengue, viral hepatitis, HIV and leptospirosis. In total, 1,578 patients were recruited. Among them, 176 (11.1%) presented P. vivax malaria mono-infection, 584 (37%) dengue fever mono-infection, and 44 (2.8%) were co-infected. Co-infected patients had a higher chance of presenting severe disease (vs. dengue mono-infected), deep bleeding (vs. P. vivax mono-infected), hepatomegaly, and jaundice (vs. dengue mono-infected). Conclusions/Significance In endemic areas for dengue and malaria, jaundice (in dengue patients) and spontaneous bleeding (in malaria patients) should raise the suspicion of co-infection. Besides, whenever co-infection is confirmed, we recommend careful monitoring for bleeding and hepatic complications, which may result in a higher chance of severity, despite of the fact that no increased fatality rate was seen in this group. PMID:25340346

  11. Efficacy of various larvicides against Aedes aegypti immatures in the laboratory.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chih-Yuan; Teng, Hwa-Jen; Lee, Si-Jia; Lin, Cheo; Wu, Jhy-Wen; Wu, Ho-Sheng

    2013-01-01

    We conducted a laboratory study to evaluate the efficacy of control agents against small larvae, large larvae, and pupae of Aedes aegypti to determine an appropriate larvicide regime to employ in emergency dengue control programs. The control agents included Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (Bti), pyriproxyfen (an insect growth regulator), a larvicidal oil, Aquatain AMF (polydimethylsiloxane, a monomolecular film), and temephos at the recommend application dosages and rates. Our results showed that Bti, pyriproxyfen, and temephos were efficacious (100% mortality) against larvae, irrespective of the instar stage, but not against pupae of Ae. aegypti (1.5-7.8% mortality). Aquatain AMF, on the other hand, was very effective at controlling the pupal stage (100% mortality), but had limited efficacy against small larvae (38.0% mortality) and large larvae (78.0% mortality). The larvicidal oil was effective against all immature stages (93.3-100% mortality). Therefore, we concluded that for effectively interrupting the dengue transmission cycle, larvicides that kill the pupal stage (Aquatain AMF or larvicidal oil) should be included in an emergency dengue control program in addition to Bti, pyriproxyfen, or temephos. PMID:23883850

  12. The Arabidopsis SUPERMAN protein is able to specifically bind DNA through its single Cys2-His2 zinc finger motif.

    PubMed

    Dathan, Nina; Zaccaro, Laura; Esposito, Sabrina; Isernia, Carla; Omichinski, James G; Riccio, Andrea; Pedone, Carlo; Di Blasio, Benedetto; Fattorusso, Roberto; Pedone, Paolo V

    2002-11-15

    The Arabidopsis SUPERMAN (SUP) gene has been shown to be important in maintaining the boundary between stamens and carpels, and is presumed to act by regulating cell proliferation. In this work, we show that the SUP protein, which contains a single Cys2-His2 zinc finger domain including the QALGGH sequence, highly conserved in the plant zinc finger proteins, binds DNA. Using a series of deletion mutants, it was determined that the minimal domain required for specific DNA binding (residues 15-78) includes the single zinc finger and two basic regions located on either side of this motif. Furthermore, amino acid substitutions in the zinc finger or in the basic regions, including a mutation that knocks out the function of the SUP protein in vivo (glycine 63 to aspartate), have been found to abolish the activity of the SUP DNA-binding domain. These results strongly suggest that the SUP protein functions in vivo by acting as a DNA-binding protein, likely involved in transcriptional regulation. The association of both an N-terminal and a C-terminal basic region with a single Cys2-His2 zinc finger represents a novel DNA-binding motif suggesting that the mechanism of DNA recognition adopted by the SUP protein is different from that described so far in other zinc finger proteins. PMID:12433998

  13. Follow-up of potential novel Graves' disease susceptibility loci, identified in the UK WTCCC genome-wide nonsynonymous SNP study

    PubMed Central

    Newby, Paul R; Pickles, Oliver J; Mazumdar, Samaresh; Brand, Oliver J; Carr-Smith, Jaqueline D; Pearce, Simon H S; Franklyn, Jayne A; Evans, David M; Simmonds, Matthew J; Gough, Stephen C L

    2010-01-01

    A recent association scan using a genome-wide set of nonsynonymous coding single-nucleotide polymorphisms (nsSNPs) conducted in four diseases including Graves' disease (GD), identified nine novel possible regions of association with GD. We used a case–control approach in an attempt to replicate association of these nine regions in an independent collection of 1578 British GD patients and 1946 matched Caucasian controls. Although none of these loci showed evidence of association with GD in the independent data set, when combined with the original Wellcome Trust Case–Control Consortium study group, minor differences in allele frequencies (P⩾10−3) remained in the combined collection of 5924 subjects for four of the nsSNPs, present within HDLBP, TEKT1, JSRP1 and UTX. An additional 29 Tag SNPs were screened within these four gene regions to determine if further associations could be detected. Similarly, minor differences only (P=0.042–0.002) were detected in two HDLBP and two TEKT1 Tag SNPs in the combined UK GD collection. In conclusion, it is unlikely that the SNPs selected in this replication study have a significant effect on the risk of GD in the United Kingdom. Our study confirms the need for large data sets and stringent analysis criteria when searching for susceptibility loci in common diseases. PMID:20442750

  14. Marine radiocarbon reservoir age variation in Donax obesulus shells from northern Peru: late Holocene evidence for extended El Niño

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Etayo-Cadavid, Miguel F.; Andrus, C. Fred T.; Jones, Kevin B.; Hodgins, Gregory W. L.; Sandweiss, Daniel H.; Uceda-Castillo, Sandiago; Quilter, Jeffrey

    2013-01-01

    For at least 6 m.y., El Niño events have posed the greatest environmental risk on the Peruvian coast. A better understanding of El Niño is essential for predicting future risk and growth in this tropical desert. To achieve this we analyzed archaeological and modern pre-bomb shells from the surf clam Donax for the radiocarbon reservoir effect (ΔR) to characterize late Holocene coastal upwelling conditions in northern Peru (8°14′S). Mean ΔR values from these shells suggest that modern upwelling conditions in this region were likely established between A.D. 539 and A.D. 1578. Our radiocarbon data suggest that upwelling conditions ca. A.D. 539 were less intense than those in modern times. The observed coastal water enrichment in 14C may be consequence of frequent strong El Niño events or extended El Niño–like conditions. These ΔR-inferred marine conditions are in agreement with proposed extended El Niño activity in proxy and archaeological records of ca. A.D. 475–530. Extended El Niño conditions have been linked to political destabilization, societal transformation, and collapse of the Moche civilization in northern Peru. A return to such conditions would have significant impacts on the dense population of this region today and in the near future.

  15. The Differential Proteome of the Probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM Grown on the Potential Prebiotic Cellobiose Shows Upregulation of Two β -Glycoside Hydrolases.

    PubMed

    van Zanten, Gabriella C; Sparding, Nadja; Majumder, Avishek; Lahtinen, Sampo J; Svensson, Birte; Jacobsen, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    Probiotics, prebiotics, and combinations thereof, that is, synbiotics, are known to exert beneficial health effects in humans; however interactions between pro- and prebiotics remain poorly understood at the molecular level. The present study describes changes in abundance of different proteins of the probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM (NCFM) when grown on the potential prebiotic cellobiose as compared to glucose. Cytosolic cell extract proteomes after harvest at late exponential phase of NCFM grown on cellobiose or glucose were analyzed by two dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) in the acidic (pH 4-7) and the alkaline (pH 6-11) regions showing a total of 136 spots to change in abundance. Proteins were identified by MS or MS/MS from 81 of these spots representing 49 unique proteins and either increasing 1.5-13.9-fold or decreasing 1.5-7.8-fold in relative abundance. Many of these proteins were associated with energy metabolism, including the cellobiose related glycoside hydrolases phospho-β-glucosidase (LBA0881) and phospho-β-galactosidase II (LBA0726). The data provide insight into the utilization of the candidate prebiotic cellobiose by the probiotic bacterium NCFM. Several of the upregulated or downregulated identified proteins associated with utilization of cellobiose indicate the presence of carbon catabolite repression and regulation of enzymes involved in carbohydrate metabolism. PMID:25961012

  16. Oil and gas developments in Louisiana Gulf Coast onshore in 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Rives, J.S. II; McDowell, K.O.

    1982-11-01

    This report includes 38 parishes in south Louisiana. Industry drilled 1578 wells in 1981, an increase of 13.5% over 1980. The total footage drilled exceeds 18 million ft with a per well average depth of 11,568 ft. Wildcat wells numbered 319, other exploratory wells numbered 318, and development wells numbered 941. The successful completion rate includes the following: 8% for wildcat wells, 33% for other exploratory tests, and 54% for development wells. Wildcat wells discovered 26 new fields, 7 more than in 1980. This number includes 10 new fields in the Miocene trend, 7 in the Oligocene Frio-Hackberry trend, and 5 in the Tuscaloosa trend. Leasing activity totaled 1,766,536 acres, an 18% increase over 1980. This is the highest level since 1961, when over 2 million acres were leased. Rapides, St. Bernard, Plaquemines, Calcasieu, and Lafourche Parishes led the district in total acres leased. Geophysical activity increased in 1981 to 1734 crew-weeks, the highest level since 1965. This compares with 1656 crew-weeks in 1980. Seismic crews were most active in Plaquemines, Terrebonne, St. Tammany, and Livingston Parishes. Three carbon dioxide-enhanced oil recovery projects were initiated in onshore south Louisiana fields in 1980: Paradis field in St. Charles Parish, Bay St. Elaine field in Terrebonne Parish, and Right Hand Creek field in Beauregard Parish.

  17. Nutrient capture and recycling by periphyton attached to modified agrowaste carriers.

    PubMed

    Wan, Juanjuan; Liu, Xuemei; Wu, Chenxi; Wu, Yonghong

    2016-04-01

    The reuse of periphytic biofilm from traditional wastewater treatment (i.e., active sludge process) is inefficient to recycle nutrients due to low accumulation of nutrients. Then, in this study, peanut shell (PS), rice husk (RH), decomposed peanut shell (DPS), acidified rice husks (ARH), and a commonly used carrier-ceramsite (C, as the control)-were used to support the growth of periphyton. Results showed that DPS and ARH supported significantly higher periphyton biomass and metabolic versatility than PS and RH, respectively, due to the increased presence of positive groups. The total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) captured by periphyton were enhanced by 600-657 and 833-3255 % for DPS, and 461-1808 and 21-308 % for ARH, respectively. The removal of nutrients from simulated eutrophic surface waters using periphyton attached to DPS was improved by 24-47 % for TP, 12-048 % for TN, and 15-78 % for nitrate compared to the control. The results indicate that the periphyton attached to modified agrowaste was capable of efficiently entrapping and storing N and P from eutrophic water. This study also implies that the mixture of periphyton and the modified agrowaste carriers are promising raw materials of biofertilizer. PMID:26780044

  18. Synthesis and crystal structure of 3-ammonium-4-hydroxyphenyl sulfonate hemihydrate

    SciTech Connect

    Belhouchet, M. Mhiri, T.

    2013-01-15

    The crystal structure of 3-ammonium-4-hydroxyphenyl sulfonate hemihydrate C{sub 6}H{sub 3}(NH{sub 3})(OH)SO{sub 3} {center_dot} 0.5H{sub 2}O is determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The unit cell parameters are as follows: a = 11.2395(3), b = 10.3814(3), c = 13.7509(4) A, {beta} = 100.326(1) Degree-Sign , V = 1578.49(8) A{sup 3}, space group P2{sub 1}/n, Z = 4. The crystal structure can be described us a succession of infinite corrugated layers parallel to ab plane. These layers consist of rings formed by four sulfonate molecules located around a center of symmetry. The rings are connected to each other and to water molecules via O-H...O hydrogen bonds. The structure is further stabilized by {pi}-{pi} interactions between phenyl rings of organic entities of successive layers.

  19. Blutpräparate und therapeutische Anwendung (Hämotherapie)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burkhart, Jürgen; Leimbach, Rainer; Nagl, Detlev; Weinauer, Franz

    Die Geschichte der Blutübertragung lässt sich bis in das Altertum verfolgen - wenn auch hier das Blut nicht in die Blutgefäße eingebracht, sondern als Trank verabreicht wurde. Im alten Rom stürmten die Zuschauer in die Kampfarena, um das Blut verletzter Gladiatoren zu trinken, in dem Gedanken, deren Stärke würde in sie überfließen. So wurden auch Greise mit dem Blut von Jünglingen behandelt. Der Glaube, mit dem Blut würden Eigenschaften des Spenders übertragen, muss wohl auch bei dem Versuch mitgewirkt haben, Verbrecher durch Übertragung von Schafsblut "lammfromm“ zu machen. Zu Beginn der Mensch-zu-Mensch-Übertragung wurde Blut mittels eines Röhrchens von Blutgefäß zu Blutgefäß transfundiert. Diese im Mittelalter neu erprobte Form basierte auf der Entdeckung des Blutkreislaufes durch William Harvey (1578-1657). Es überwog allerdings noch die Blutübertragung vom Tier auf den Menschen, die nicht selten mit dem Tod beider Beteiligter endete. In der aufklärerischen Phase der französischen Revolution wurde diese Art der Blutübertragung deshalb verboten.

  20. History of psychiatry in Sweden during a millennium.

    PubMed

    Wetterberg, Lennart

    2012-03-01

    This report covers a millennium, from year 1000 when Sweden had only 0.4 million people until today's 9.4 million. In the 13th century, the first Swedish legal text about the mentally ill and the first hospital to treat them are documented. Control, care and cure of the ill have been shaped by social and cultural changes from time to time, e.g. King Gustav Vasa introduced a paradigm shift of care after the Reformation, when he altered Catholic buildings into state hospitals. He also ordered that medical texts should no longer be written in Latin but in Swedish. The first book dealing with mental illnesses was published in 1578. Laypersons ran the mental hospitals for centuries until the medical perspective and doctors were engaged in the 1800 s. To advance the hospital doctors' competence and skill, a Swedish Psychiatric Association was established in 1905. Severely psychotic patients could not be effectively treated until the introduction of chlorpromazine in the 1950s and there is still no cure available. Following the deinstitutionalization, from more than 35,000 beds 50 years ago down to about 4500 today, the request for outpatient treatment increased. Mandatory training in psychotherapies for all psychiatrists started in the 1970s. A major "psychiatry reform", with the hope of improving the situation for the mentally ill, and to reduce the stigma, was introduced in Sweden in 1995. The historic long-term effect of the reform cannot yet be fully evaluated. PMID:21770823

  1. Violence and injuries in South Africa: prioritising an agenda for prevention.

    PubMed

    Seedat, Mohamed; Van Niekerk, Ashley; Jewkes, Rachel; Suffla, Shahnaaz; Ratele, Kopano

    2009-09-19

    Violence and injuries are the second leading cause of death and lost disability-adjusted life years in South Africa. The overall injury death rate of 157.8 per 100,000 population is nearly twice the global average, and the rate of homicide of women by intimate partners is six times the global average. With a focus on homicide, and violence against women and children, we review the magnitude, contexts of occurrence, and patterns of violence, and refer to traffic-related and other unintentional injuries. The social dynamics that support violence are widespread poverty, unemployment, and income inequality; patriarchal notions of masculinity that valourise toughness, risk-taking, and defence of honour; exposure to abuse in childhood and weak parenting; access to firearms; widespread alcohol misuse; and weaknesses in the mechanisms of law enforcement. Although there have been advances in development of services for victims of violence, innovation from non-governmental organisations, and evidence from research, there has been a conspicuous absence of government stewardship and leadership. Successful prevention of violence and injury is contingent on identification by the government of violence as a strategic priority and development of an intersectoral plan based on empirically driven programmes and policies. PMID:19709732

  2. Field performance of nine soil water content sensors on a sandy loam soil in new brunswick, maritime region, Canada.

    PubMed

    Chow, Lien; Xing, Zisheng; Rees, Herb W; Meng, Fanrui; Monteith, John; Stevens, Lionel

    2009-01-01

    An in situ field test on nine commonly-used soil water sensors was carried out in a sandy loam soil located in the Potato Research Center, Fredericton, NB (Canada) using the gravimetric method as a reference. The results showed that among the tested sensors, regardless of installation depths and soil water regimes, CS615, Trase, and Troxler performed the best with the factory calibrations, with a relative root mean square error (RRMSE) of 15.78, 16.93, and 17.65%, and a r(2) of 0.75, 0.77, and 0.65, respectively. TRIME, Moisture Point (MP917), and Gopher performed slightly worse with the factory calibrations, with a RRMSE of 45.76, 26.57, and 20.41%, and a r(2) of 0.65, 0.72, and 0.78, respectively, while the Gypsum, WaterMark, and Netafim showed a frequent need for calibration in the application in this region. PMID:22291570

  3. [Ethological competence of Perm Territory dwellers in the assurance of personal infection safety].

    PubMed

    Merzlova, N B; Serova, I A; Iagodina, A Iu

    2014-01-01

    The authors attempted to analyze preventive measures against infectious and parasitic diseases, which were used domestically by the Perm Territory population, their conjugacy with the stereotypes of attitude towards domestic animals, as well as behavioral features of compliance andcompetence in the assurance of infection safety. The found gaps in the assurance of personal infection safety (drinking unboiled water, unprotected sex, disregard of helminth prevention in domestic animals, and unwillingness to go in for sports) are coherent with the epidemiological situation in the Perm Territory and to our clinical and laboratory study of the patients of the Perm Territory Children's Clinical Hospital in 2011. Enzyme immunoassay (EIA) was used to examine 10075 patients for helminths and protozoa; parasitic diseases were detected in 2047 (20.3%) persons. The diagnostic titer of antibodies to Toxocara antigens was revealed in 677 (11.8%) children of 5700 patients examined for toxocariasis; that for Opisthorchis antigens was in 595 (37.7%) of 1578 examined for Opisthorchis infestation. The diagnostic titers for echinococcosis was found in 9 (0.75%) of 1198 patients; later on the diagnosis of hydatid disease was verified by epidemiological, clinical, and laboratory studies. Despite the inadequate informative value of EIA for the diagnosis of giardiasis, high antibody titers to Lamblia antigens were detected in 766 (47.9%) of 1599 children. PMID:25296422

  4. Perceptual prothesis in native Spanish speakers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theodore, Rachel M.; Schmidt, Anna M.

    2003-04-01

    Previous research suggests a perceptual bias exists for native phonotactics [D. Massaro and M. Cohen, Percept. Psychophys. 34, 338-348 (1983)] such that listeners report nonexistent segments when listening to stimuli that violate native phonotactics [E. Dupoux, K. Kakehi, Y. Hirose, C. Pallier, and J. Mehler, J. Exp. Psychol.: Human Percept. Perform. 25, 1568-1578 (1999)]. This study investigated how native-language experience affects second language processing, focusing on how native Spanish speakers perceive the English clusters /st/, /sp/, and /sk/, which represent phonotactically illegal forms in Spanish. To preserve native phonotactics, Spanish speakers often produce prothetic vowels before English words beginning with /s/ clusters. Is the influence of native phonotactics also present in the perception of illegal clusters? A stimuli continuum ranging from no vowel (e.g., ``sku'') to a full vowel (e.g., ``esku'') before the cluster was used. Four final vowel contexts were used for each cluster, resulting in 12 sCV and 12 VsCV nonword endpoints. English and Spanish listeners were asked to discriminate between pairs differing in vowel duration and to identify the presence or absence of a vowel before the cluster. Results will be discussed in terms of implications for theories of second language speech perception.

  5. STATISTICAL PROPERTIES OF GALACTIC {delta} SCUTI STARS: REVISITED

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, S.-W.; Kim, D.-W.; Byun, Y.-I.; Protopapas, P. E-mail: kim@mpia-hd.mpg.de

    2013-05-15

    We present statistical characteristics of 1578 {delta} Scuti stars including nearby field stars and cluster member stars within the Milky Way. We obtained 46% of these stars (718 stars) from work by Rodriguez and collected the remaining 54% of stars (860 stars) from other literature. We updated the entries with the latest information of sky coordinates, color, rotational velocity, spectral type, period, amplitude, and binarity. The majority of our sample is well characterized in terms of typical period range (0.02-0.25 days), pulsation amplitudes (<0.5 mag), and spectral types (A-F type). Given this list of {delta} Scuti stars, we examined relations between their physical properties (i.e., periods, amplitudes, spectral types, and rotational velocities) for field stars and cluster members, and confirmed that the correlations of properties are not significantly different from those reported in Rodriguez's work. All the {delta} Scuti stars are cross-matched with several X-ray and UV catalogs, resulting in 27 X-ray and 41 UV-only counterparts. These counterparts are interesting targets for further study because of their uniqueness in showing {delta} Scuti-type variability and X-ray/UV emission at the same time. The compiled catalog can be accessed through the Web interface http://stardb.yonsei.ac.kr/DeltaScuti.

  6. [Intraperitoneal irrigation for pseudomyxoma peritonei-a case of critical metabolic alkalosis precipitated by irrigation with 101 of sodium bicarbonate--].

    PubMed

    Shirasaki, Reimi; Yamasaki, Saeko; Wakamatsu, Masaki; Mori, Yasuichiro; Hirano, Hiroko; Kaida, Takeshi; Machino, Asami

    2013-05-01

    Pseudomyxoma peritonei causes marked accumulation of jelly-like ascites in the peritoneal cavity. Removal of much mucinous ascites by irrigating the cavity appears to be an effective treatment. We describe a patient who underwent the irrigation with sodium bicarbonate solution and developed critical alkalemia. A 68-year-old woman with normal renal function was operated on for recurrent pseudomyxoma peritonei. Fol- lowing the excision of primary lesion, her intraperitoneal cavity was irrigated with 10 1 of 7% sodium bicarbonate in about 45 minutes. Thirty minutes after irrigation, blood gas analysis revealed severe metabolic alkalosis (pH 7.714, BE 25.6 mmol x l-1 ) with electrolyte disorder (Na 157.8 mmol x l-1 K 2.31mmol x l-1, Ca 0.73 mmol x l-1). Hypotension (<60 mmHg) and sinus tachycardia (>130 beats x min -1) supervened 75 minutes later. Transferring to the ICU, she was given KC1 solution intravenously based on serial blood analysis while on mechanical ventilation. The next day acid-base disturbance returned spontaneously to normal (pH 7.45, BE 8.0mmol x l-1), leading to endotracheal extubation. Electrolyte imbalance was gradually resolved on 2nd POD and she was discharged from the ICU. Intraperitoneal irrigation with sodium bicarbonate requires special perioperative considerations for lifethreatening alkalemia, especially in a patient with renal impairment. PMID:23772538

  7. Novel albendazole-chitosan nanoparticles for intestinal absorption enhancement and hepatic targeting improvement in rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Wang, Xiao-qing; Ren, Wei-xin; Chen, Yuan-lan; Yu, Yang; Zhang, Jian-kang; Bawudong, Dilimulati; Gu, Jun-peng; Xu, Xiao-dong; Zhang, Xue-nong

    2013-08-01

    To improve the treatment of helminthiasis, filariasis, and colorectal cancer, albendazole-associated chitosan nanoparticles (ABZ-CS-NPs) were prepared using the emulsion crosslinking volatile technique with contained sodium tripolyphosphate as the crosslinking agent and Poloxamer 188 as the auxiliary solvent. The structural characteristics of the NPs were determined using X-ray diffraction to analyze the interaction between CS and the drug. The NPs were then evaluated in terms of their physicochemical characteristics, drug release behavior, in vivo pharmacokinetic parameters, and biodistribution in animal studies. ABZ-loaded NPs with a uniformly spherical particle sizes (157.8 ± 2.82 nm) showed efficient drug loading, encapsulated efficiency, and high physical stability. The drug release from ABZ-CS-NPs was extended over several periods. Kinetic models were then fitted to determine the release mechanisms. ABZ and its metabolite albendazole sulfoxide (ABZSX) were analyzed in rats with mebendazole as the internal standard using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Compared with the ABZ suspension groups, the relative bioavailability values of ABZ and ABZSX were 146.05 and 222.15%, respectively. In addition, the plasma concentration versus time curve is consistent with that of the two compartment models in the plasma concentration versus time curve. The results indicate that the ABZ-loaded NPs are promising novel ABZ candidates for passive diffusion in the treatment of hydatid cysts in the liver via oral administration. PMID:23529958

  8. Cloning, sequence analysis and three-dimensional structure prediction of DNA pol I from thermophilic Geobacillus sp. MKK isolated from an Iranian hot spring.

    PubMed

    Khalaj-Kondori, Mohammad; Sadeghizadeh, Majid; Khajeh, Khosro; Naderi-Manesh, Hossein; Ahadi, Ali Mohammad; Emamzadeh, Abdorahman

    2007-08-01

    Molecular phylogenetic analysis of a novel thermophilic eubacterium isolated from an Iranian hot spring using 16S rDNA sequence showed that the new isolate belongs to genera Geobacillus. DNA pol I gene from this isolate was amplified, cloned, sequenced, and the three-dimensional (3D) structure of deduced amino acid sequence was predicted. Sequence analysis revealed the gene is 2,631 bp long, encodes a protein of 876 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 99 kDa, and belongs to family A DNA polymerases. Comparison of 3'-5'exonuclease domain of Klenow fragment (KF) with corresponding region of newly identified DNA pol I (MF), the large fragment of Bacillus stearothermophilus DNA pol I (BF) and Klentaq1, revealed not only deletions in three regions compared to KF, but that three of the four critical metal-binding residues in KF (Asp355, Glu357, Asp424, and Asp501) are altered in MF as well. Predicted 3D structure and sequence alignments between MF and BF showed that all critical residues in the polymerase active site are conserved. PMID:18025581

  9. Ab initio calculations of vibrational frequencies and infrared intensities for global warning potential of CFC substitutes. CF{sub 3}CH{sub 2}F (HFC-134a)

    SciTech Connect

    Papasavva, S.; Tai, S.; Esslinger, A.; Illinger, K.H.; Kenny, J.E.

    1995-03-16

    We have investigated the feasibility of using ab initio molecular orbital methods for predicting the global warming potential of the proposed chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) substitute CF{sub 3}CH{sub 2}F, HFC-134a. Various levels of theory and basis sets were used to optimize geometry and calculate harmonic vibrational frequencies and infrared intensities for the molecule using the GAUSSIAN 92 software package. In attempting to assess the quality of the computations, we found it necessary to reconsider the vibrational assignments available in the literature. On the basis of the current assignment, we find that for the highest level calculation, MP2/6-31G{sup **}, the calculated harmonic frequencies agree extremely well with the experimentally observed ones at frequencies below 800 cm{sup {minus}1}, with a systematic error toward higher calculated frequencies becoming apparent above 800 cm{sup {minus}1}. At lower levels of theory, the systematic error is apparent at all frequencies. The regularity of the deviation between calculated and observed frequencies makes ab initio calculations of vibrational frequencies much more useful than semiempirical calculations, which tend to show random deviations, as demonstrated with a PM3-UHF calculation in this work. The calculated absolute intensities are in good agreement with the limited experimental measurements previously reported. 23 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  10. Characteristics of Hospitalized Patients Following Suicide Attempt in Hamadan District, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Ghaleiha, Ali; Afzali, Saeed; Bazyar, Maryam; Khorsand, Faeze; Torabian, Saadat

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Limited research has been undertaken on suicide in developing countries. This paper aims to investigate characteristics of suicide attempts in Hamadan district of Iran. Methods A prospective study was conducted in all university hospitals in the Hamadan district of Iran and patients admitted for attempted suicides were included. All cases were assessed by psychiatrists and visited by two trained interns of Medicine. Results The incidence rate per 100,000 persons of attempted suicides was 228.6 for males and 263.1 for females; moreover, 344.9 for rural areas and 222.7 for urban areas. The suicide attempt was the highest in the 15 to 24 age category for both sexes and regions. Conclusions Suicide is a complex, long-term outcome that requires multifaceted theoretical constructs for the appropriate study of its antecedents. Findings of this study along with other studies in Iran revealed that unemployed men, housewives, and rural women, high-school students, and those with a low level of education were at higher risk of suicidal behaviors. PMID:23071883

  11. Ion-Ice Astrochemistry: Barrierless Low-Energy Deposition Pathways to HCOOH, CH3OH, and CO2 on Icy Grain Mantles from Precursor Cations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woon, David E.

    2011-01-01

    A new family of very favorable reaction pathways is explored involving the deposition of ions on icy grain mantles with very low energies. Quantum chemical cluster calculations at the MP2/6-31+G** level in 4H2O clusters and at the B3LYP/6-31+G** level in 17H2O clusters indicate that HCO+ and CH3 + are able to react spontaneously with one of the water molecules in the cluster to form protonated formic acid (HCOOH2 +) and protonated methanol (CH3OH2 +), respectively. It is furthermore found that these initial adducts spontaneously transfer their excess protons to the cluster to form neutral formic acid and methanol, plus solvated hydronium, H3O+. In the final case, if a CO molecule is bound to the surface of the cluster, OH+ may react with it to form protonated carbon dioxide (HCO2 +), which then loses its proton to yield CO2 and H3O+. In the present model, all of these processes were found to occur with no barriers. Discussion includes the analogous gas phase processes, which have been considered in previous studies, as well as the competitive abstraction pathway for HCO(+) + H2O.

  12. An iOS Application for Evaluating Whole-body Vibration Within a Workplace Risk Management Process.

    PubMed

    McGlothlin, James; Burgess-Limerick, R; Lynas, D

    2015-01-01

    Workplace management of whole-body vibration exposure requires systematic collection of whole-body vibration data in conjunction with the numerous variables which influence vibration amplitudes. The cost and complexity of commercially available measurement devices is an impediment to the routine collection of such data by workplaces. An iOS application (WBV) has been developed which allows an iPod Touch to be used to measure whole-body vibration exposures. The utility of the application was demonstrated by simultaneously obtaining 98 pairs of whole-body vibration measurements from both the iPod Touch application and a commercially available whole-body vibration device during the operation of a variety of vehicles and mobile plant in operation at a surface coal mine. The iOS application installed on a fifth-generation iPod Touch was shown to provide a 95% confidence of +/- 0.077 m/s(2) r.m.s. constant error for the vertical direction. Situations in which vibration levels lay within the ISO2631.1 health guidance caution zone were accurately identified, and the qualitative features of the frequency spectra were reproduced. The low cost and relative simplicity of the application has potential to facilitate its use as a screening tool to identify situations in which musculoskeletal disorders may arise as a consequence of exposure to whole-body vibration. PMID:25625605

  13. Long duration measurements of whole-body vibration exposures associated with surface coal mining equipment compared to previous short-duration measurements.

    PubMed

    Burgess-Limerick, Robin; Lynas, Danellie

    2016-01-01

    Previous measurements of whole-body vibration associated with earth-moving equipment at surface coal mines have highlighted the significance of the hazard. Considerable variability in measurement amplitudes, even within the same equipment type operated at the same site, has been noted. However, the measurements have previously been undertaken for relatively short durations. Fifty-nine measurements were collected from a range of earth-moving equipment in operation at a surface coal mine. Measurement durations ranged from 100-460 min (median = 340 min). The results indicate that the measurements previously observed are not an artifact of the relatively short durations and confirm that operators of dozers and off-road haul trucks, in particular, are frequently exposed to vertical whole-body vibration levels which lie within, or above, the Health Guidance Caution Zone defined by ISO2631.1. Further investigations are justified to identify opportunities for reducing operators' exposure to high amplitude vibrations. PMID:26771238

  14. THE ATACAMA COSMOLOGY TELESCOPE: HIGH-RESOLUTION SUNYAEV-ZEL'DOVICH ARRAY OBSERVATIONS OF ACT SZE-SELECTED CLUSTERS FROM THE EQUATORIAL STRIP

    SciTech Connect

    Reese, Erik D.; Mroczkowski, Tony; Devlin, Mark J.; Dicker, Simon R.; Menanteau, Felipe; Baker, Andrew J.; Hilton, Matt; Sievers, Jonathan; Bond, J. Richard; Hajian, Amir; Aguirre, Paula; Duenner, Rolando; Appel, John William; Das, Sudeep; Essinger-Hileman, Thomas; Hincks, Adam D.; Fowler, Joseph W.; Hill, J. Colin; Halpern, Mark; Hasselfield, Matthew; and others

    2012-05-20

    We present follow-up observations with the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Array (SZA) of optically confirmed galaxy clusters found in the equatorial survey region of the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT): ACT-CL J0022-0036, ACT-CL J2051+0057, and ACT-CL J2337+0016. ACT-CL J0022-0036 is a newly discovered, massive ({approx_equal} 10{sup 15} M{sub Sun }), high-redshift (z = 0.81) cluster revealed by ACT through the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect (SZE). Deep, targeted observations with the SZA allow us to probe a broader range of cluster spatial scales, better disentangle cluster decrements from radio point-source emission, and derive more robust integrated SZE flux and mass estimates than we can with ACT data alone. For the two clusters we detect with the SZA we compute integrated SZE signal and derive masses from the SZA data only. ACT-CL J2337+0016, also known as A2631, has archival Chandra data that allow an additional X-ray-based mass estimate. Optical richness is also used to estimate cluster masses and shows good agreement with the SZE and X-ray-based estimates. Based on the point sources detected by the SZA in these three cluster fields and an extrapolation to ACT's frequency, we estimate that point sources could be contaminating the SZE decrement at the {approx}< 20% level for some fraction of clusters.

  15. The Impact of Sleep Timing, Sleep Duration, and Sleep Quality on Depressive Symptoms and Suicidal Ideation amongst Japanese Freshmen: The EQUSITE Study

    PubMed Central

    Supartini, Atin; Honda, Takanori; Basri, Nadzirah A.; Haeuchi, Yuka; Chen, Sanmei; Ichimiya, Atsushi; Kumagai, Shuzo

    2016-01-01

    Aim. The aim of this study was to identify the impact of bedtime, wake time, sleep duration, sleep-onset latency, and sleep quality on depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation amongst Japanese freshmen. Methods. This cross-sectional data was derived from the baseline survey of the Enhancement of Q-University Students Intelligence (EQUSITE) study conducted from May to June, 2010. A total of 2,631 participants were recruited and completed the following self-reported questionnaires: the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), and the original Health Support Questionnaires developed by the EQUSITE study research team. Results. Of 1,992 participants eligible for analysis, 25.5% (n = 507) reported depressive symptoms (CES-D total score ≥ 16), and 5.8% (n = 115) reported suicidal ideation. The present study showed that late bedtime (later than 01:30), sleep-onset latency (≥30 minutes), and poor sleep quality showed a marginally significant association with depressive symptoms. Poor sleep quality was seen to predict suicidal ideation even after adjusting for depressive symptoms. Conclusion. The current study has important implications for the role of bedtime in the prevention of depressive symptoms. Improving sleep quality may prevent the development of depressive symptoms and reduce the likelihood of suicidal ideation. PMID:27042358

  16. Functional Characterization of AbeD, an RND-Type Membrane Transporter in Antimicrobial Resistance in Acinetobacter baumannii

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasan, Vijaya Bharathi; Venkataramaiah, Manjunath; Mondal, Amitabha; Rajamohan, Govindan

    2015-01-01

    Background Acinetobacter baumannii is becoming an increasing menace in health care settings especially in the intensive care units due to its ability to withstand adverse environmental conditions and exhibit innate resistance to different classes of antibiotics. Here we describe the biological contributions of abeD, a novel membrane transporter in bacterial stress response and antimicrobial resistance in A. baumannii. Results The abeD mutant displayed ~ 3.37 fold decreased survival and >5-fold reduced growth in hostile osmotic (0.25 M; NaCl) and oxidative (2.631 μM–6.574 μM; H2O2) stress conditions respectively. The abeD inactivated cells displayed increased susceptibility to ceftriaxone, gentamicin, rifampicin and tobramycin (~ 4.0 fold). The mutant displayed increased sensitivity to the hospital-based disinfectant benzalkonium chloride (~3.18-fold). In Caenorhabditis elegans model, the abeD mutant exhibited (P<0.01) lower virulence capability. Binding of SoxR on the regulatory fragments of abeD provide strong evidence for the involvement of SoxR system in regulating the expression of abeD in A. baumannii. Conclusion This study demonstrates the contributions of membrane transporter AbeD in bacterial physiology, stress response and antimicrobial resistance in A. baumannii for the first time. PMID:26496475

  17. Ropivacaine 0.25% versus bupivacaine 0.25% for continuous epidural analgesia in labor: a double-blind comparison.

    PubMed

    Stienstra, R; Jonker, T A; Bourdrez, P; Kuijpers, J C; van Kleef, J W; Lundberg, U

    1995-02-01

    We compared the effects of continuous epidural infusion of ropivacaine 0.25% with bupivacaine 0.25% on pain relief and motor block during labor, and on the neonate. Seventy-six full-term parturients in active labor requiring epidural analgesia were randomly allocated to receive either bupivacaine 0.25% or ropivacaine 0.25%. Fifteen minutes after a loading dose of 10 mL of the study drug, an epidural infusion with the same drug was started at 6-12 mL/h to maintain an adequate block. Top-up doses of 6-10 mL were given as required. At full cervical dilation, the epidural infusion was discontinued. The onset of pain relief (verbal scale), contraction pain (visual analog scale), intensity of motor block (modified Bromage scale), and duration of motor block were not statistically different between the groups. Apgar scores at 1 and 5 min after delivery were comparable. There was a higher proportion of the neonates in the ropivacaine group (26/31 = 84%) who had a neurologic and adaptive capacity score (NACS) > or = 35 2 h after delivery than in the bupivacaine group (18/29 = 62%). We conclude that ropivacaine 0.25% and bupivacaine 0.25% are equally effective for epidural pain relief during labor. Ropivacaine may have an advantage over bupivacaine regarding neonatal neurobehavioral performance during the first few hours after delivery, although further studies will be required to substantiate this. PMID:7818114

  18. Theoretical insight into the wavelength-dependent photodissociation mechanism of nitric acid.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Hongyan; Maeda, Satoshi; Morokuma, Keiji

    2016-09-21

    Photodissociation pathways of HNO3 involving the four lowest electronic singlet states (S0, S1, S2 and S3) were studied by the MS-CAS(12e,8o)PT2/6-31+G* method. All critical points, i.e. minima, transition states and minimum energy conical intersections, were explored systematically by the global reaction route mapping (GRRM) strategy utilizing the anharmonic downward distortion following (ADDF) method. Some key structures were also optimized at the MS-CAS(16e,12o)PT2/aug-cc-pVDZ level. Based on structures and relative energies of these critical points, we discussed the wavelength-dependent photodissociation mechanism of HNO3 in detail. The OH(X(2)Π) dissociation was found to occur through four pathways on the S1, S2, and S3 surfaces depending on the excitation energy, and one of the four pathways was shown to undergo the excited state roaming mechanism. The experimental appearance energy of the O((1)D) dissociation channel at 538.8 kJ mol(-1) was attributed to a conical intersection between the S2 and S3 surfaces. It has been shown experimentally that the O((1)D) channel was dominant at the higher excitation energy. In this study, its mechanistic reason was explained by the shape of the S3 surface and locations of important critical points. PMID:27538805

  19. Patellofemoral pain syndrome in Iranian female athletes.

    PubMed

    Nejati, Parisa; Forogh, Bijan; Moeineddin, Reza; Baradaran, Hamid Reza; Nejati, Mina

    2011-01-01

    Patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS) is the most common overuse syndrome in athletes. It is one of the causes of anterior knee pain in athletic population who come to the sports medicine clinic. Patellofemoral pain is more common among female athletes especially adolescents and young adults. Symptoms include: persistent pain behind the patella or peripatella. Pain increases on ascending and descending stairs and squatting and prolonged sitting. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of PFPS in Iranian female athletes. 418 female athletes aged 15-35 years were examined in five sports: Soccer (190), volleyball (103), running (42), fencing (45) and rock climbing (38). The athletes who had non- traumatic onset anterior knee pain of at least 3 months that increased in descending and ascending stairs and squatting, had no other causes of anterior knee pain such as ligament instability, bursitis, meniscal injury, tendonitis and arthritis and no history of knee surgery during the one past year were diagnosed as PFPS. 26/190 (13.68 %) soccer players, 21/103(20.38 %) volleyball players, 7/42 (16.66 %) runners, 6/45(13.33 %) fencers and 10/38 (26.31%) rock climbers had patellofemoral pain. Among the 418 female athletes who were evaluated 70 had PFPS. Rock climbers were the most common athletes with PFPS followed by volleyball players and runners. PMID:21681705

  20. Characterization of vibration and noise exposure in Canadian Forces armored vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakashima, Ann M.; Borland, Matthew J.; Abel, Sharon M.

    2005-09-01

    A study to characterize the vibration and noise exposure in several Canadian Forces (CF) armored vehicles is in progress. Measurements of whole-body vibration and ambient noise levels are being made in the LAV III, Bison, Coyote, and M113 vehicles at three different positions: driver, crew commander, and passenger bench (or navigator seat in the case of the Coyote). The measurements are being made while the vehicles are idling, driven over rough terrain, and driven at a high speed on paved highways. There are several standards that provide guidance on the measurement and assessment of whole-body vibration, but they are difficult to implement in practice, particularly in adverse environments. The whole-body vibration measurements in this study are particularly difficult to interpret in the case of the crew commander, who often stands on the seat, and the passenger, who is seated but unrestrained by a seatbelt. The preliminary results-suggest, that according to the International Organization for Standardization guidelines (ISO 2631-1:1997), there may be potential health risks for the driver and passenger after driving on rough terrain for less than 10 min. Noise levels were as high as 100 dBA during high-speed highway driving.

  1. Oral health related quality of life in diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Sadeghi, Rokhsareh; Taleghani, Ferial; Farhadi, Sareh

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims. Diabetic patients display an increased risk of oral disorders, and oral health related quality of life (OHRQL) might affect their management and treatment modalities. The aim of the present study was to determine OHRQL and associated parameters in patients with diabetes. Materials and methods. In this study two hundred patients were recruited from the diabetes clinic in Mustafa Khomeini Hospital in Tehran, Iran. OHRQL was assessed using Oral Health Impact Profile Questionnaire (OHIP-20). Also, another questionnaire was designed which contained questions regarding participants' knowledge about oral complications of diabetes and oral health behavior. OHRQL was categorized as low and good. Data were analyzed using logistic regression at P = 0.05. Results. Of the diabetic patients assessed, 77.5% were in good and 22.5% were in low categories of OHRQL. This quality was significantly associated with age (OR = 4.03, 95% CI = 1.63-11.29), knowledge about diabetes oral complications (OR = 18.17 95% CI = 4.42-158.6), educational level (OR = 26.31 95% CI = 4.2-1080.3), referred for dental visit by physician (OR = 3.16 95% CI = 1.48-6.69), frequency of brushing (OR = 10.29 95% CI = 3.96-31.2) and length of time diagnosed with diabetes (OR = 6.21 95% CI = 2.86-13.63). Conclusion. Oral health related quality of life was not negatively affected by diabetes mellitus in the assessed sample. PMID:25587385

  2. Dissociative and associative mechanisms of cope rearrangements of fluorinated 1,5-hexadienes and 2,2'-bis-methylenecyclopentanes.

    PubMed

    Black, Kersey A; Wilsey, Sarah; Houk, K N

    2003-06-01

    The effects of fluorine substitution on the Cope rearrangements of 1,5-hexadiene and 2,2'-bis-methylenecyclopentane have been examined computationally using (U)B3LYP/6-31+G(d,p) and CASPT2/6-31G(d) methodology. The calculations indicate that fluorine substituents at the hexadiene termini generally stabilize the transition states relative to the ground states of the chair conformations and destabilize pathways that occur via boat conformations, in accord with the experimental observations of Dolbier. With meso-2,2'-bis(difluoromethylene)cyclopentane, this destabilization is sufficient to favor a relatively dissociative concerted transition state resembling weakly interacting allyl radicals over a normal aromatic concerted boat transition state. This preference is due partly to an increase in the activation enthalpy for the concerted rearrangement coupled with the more favorable entropy for dissociation. In octafluoro- and decafluorohexadienes, the situation is reversed, and reaction through a cyclohexane-1,4-diyl is favored. Even in the octafluoro system with no radical stabilizing substituents at C(2) and C(5), the preference of fluorine for sp(3) centers causes reaction via the cyclohexane-1,4-diyl. In establishing methodology for this study, the conformations of 1,2-difluoroethane and 1,1,2,2-tetrafluoroethane were also examined thoroughly by the B3LYP method using three basis sets. PMID:12769581

  3. Collaborative Physical Chemistry Projects Involving Computational Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whisnant, David M.; Howe, Jerry J.; Lever, Lisa S.

    2000-02-01

    The physical chemistry classes from three colleges have collaborated on two computational chemistry projects using Quantum CAChe 3.0 and Gaussian 94W running on Pentium II PCs. Online communication by email and the World Wide Web was an important part of the collaboration. In the first project, students used molecular modeling to predict benzene derivatives that might be possible hair dyes. They used PM3 and ZINDO calculations to predict the electronic spectra of the molecules and tested the predicted spectra by comparing some with experimental measurements. They also did literature searches for real hair dyes and possible health effects. In the final phase of the project they proposed a synthetic pathway for one compound. In the second project the students were asked to predict which isomer of a small carbon cluster (C3, C4, or C5) was responsible for a series of IR lines observed in the spectrum of a carbon star. After preliminary PM3 calculations, they used ab initio calculations at the HF/6-31G(d) and MP2/6-31G(d) level to model the molecules and predict their vibrational frequencies and rotational constants. A comparison of the predictions with the experimental spectra suggested that the linear isomer of the C5 molecule was responsible for the lines.

  4. Introduction and summary of the 13th meeting of the Scientific Group on Methodologies for the Safety Evaluation of Chemicals (SGOMSEC): alternative testing methodologies.

    PubMed Central

    Stokes, W S; Marafante, E

    1998-01-01

    A workshop on alternative toxicological testing methodologies was convened by the Scientific Group on Methodologies for the Safety Evaluation of Chemicals (SGOMSEC) 26-31 January 1997 in Ispra, Italy, at the European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods. The purpose of the workshop was to assess the current status of alternative testing methodologies available to evaluate adverse human health and environmental effects of chemicals. Another objective of the workshop was to identify and recommend research needed to fill knowledge gaps that would lead to new test methodologies. Four work groups were established to address conceptual issues, acute toxicity, organ toxicity, and ecotoxicology. A joint workshop report was prepared for each topic and included recommendations for the development and use of alternative methods. Participants concluded that alternative methods and approaches are available that can be incorporated into tiered strategies for toxicological assessments. Use of these methods will reduce the numbers of animals required, and in some instances reduce animal pain and distress. It was recommended that future efforts to develop test methods should emphasize mechanism-based methods that can provide improved predictions of toxicity. Continued international cooperation was encouraged to facilitate future progress in the development of alternative toxicological testing methods. These methods will provide for improvements in human health protection, environmental protection, and animal welfare. PMID:9599686

  5. Predictors of whole-body vibration levels among urban taxi drivers.

    PubMed

    Chen, J C; Chang, W R; Shih, T S; Chen, C J; Chang, W P; Dennerlein, J T; Ryan, L M; Christiani, D C

    2003-09-15

    To identify a set of important WBV predictors that could be used to develop a statistical instrument for exposure assessment in a large epidemiologic study, a total of 432 WBV measures were taken from a sample of 247 male drivers in Taipei City, Taiwan. In accordance with the ISO 2631-1 (1997) methods, we measured the frequency-weighted vertical acceleration (z-axis) over drivers' seat surface, under conditions representing different types of rides (vacant vs. short vs. long) assigned to random destinations. Mixed effect models were used to analyse the WBV data including repeated measures. For this group of urban taxi drivers regularly exposed to WBV of low intensity (mean = 0.31 ms( - 2), ranging from 0.17 to 0.55 ms( - 2) r.m.s.), our analyses indicated that average driving speed was the primary predictor (p < 0.0001). As average driving speed increased, measured vertical acceleration increased in a quadratic-linear manner (p < 0.0001). Other WBV predictors, after adjusting for the effects of other covariates, included automobile manufacturer (p = 0.02), engine size (p = 0.04), body weight (p = 0.002), age (p = 0.02), use of seat cushion (p = 0.03), and traffic period (p = 0.02). Our study suggests that a similar statistical approach could be employed in future studies to improve the quality and efficiency of WBV exposure assessment in professional drivers. PMID:12850932

  6. Applicability of a Lactobacillus amylovorus strain as co-culture for natural folate bio-enrichment of fermented milk.

    PubMed

    Laiño, Jonathan Emiliano; Juarez del Valle, Marianela; Savoy de Giori, Graciela; LeBlanc, Jean Guy Joseph

    2014-11-17

    The ability of 55 strains from different Lactobacillus species to produce folate was investigated. In order to evaluate folic acid productivity, lactobacilli were cultivated in the folate-free culture medium (FACM). Most of the tested strains needed folate for growth. The production and the extent of vitamin accumulation were distinctive features of individual strains. Lactobacillus amylovorus CRL887 was selected for further studies because of its ability to produce significantly higher concentrations of vitamin (81.2 ± 5.4 μg/L). The safety of this newly identified folate producing strain was evaluated through healthy experimental mice. No bacterial translocation was detected in liver and spleen after consumption of CRL887 during 7 days and no undesirable side effects were observed in the animals that received this strain. This strain in co-culture with previously selected folate producing starter cultures (Lactobacillus bulgaricus CRL871, and Streptococcus thermophilus CRL803 and CRL415) yielded a yogurt containing high folate concentrations (263.1 ± 2.4 μg/L); a single portion of which would provide 15% of the recommended dietary allowance. This is the first report where a Lactobacillus amylovorus strain was successfully used as co-culture for natural folate bio-enrichment of fermented milk. PMID:25217720

  7. Optimizing adsorption of fluoride from water by modified banana peel dust using response surface modelling approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhaumik, Ria; Mondal, Naba Kumar

    2016-06-01

    The present work highlighted the effective application of banana peel dust (BPD) for removal of fluoride (F-) from aqueous solution. The effects of operating parameters such as pH, initial concentration, adsorbent dose, contact time, agitation speed and temperature were analysed using response surface methodology. The significance of independent variables and their interactions were tested by the analysis of variance and t test statistics. Experimental results revealed that BPD has higher F- adsorption capacity (17.43, 26.31 and 39.5 mg/g). Fluoride adsorption kinetics followed pseudo-second-order model with high correlation of coefficient value (0.998). On the other hand, thermodynamic data suggest that adsorption is favoured at lower temperature, exothermic in nature and enthalpy driven. The adsorbents were characterised through scanning electron microscope, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and point of zero charges (pHZPC) ranges from pH 6.2-8.2. Finally, error analysis clearly demonstrates that all three adsorbents are well fitted with Langmuir isotherm compared to the other isotherm models. The reusable properties of the material support further development for commercial application purpose.

  8. The Atacama Cosmology Telescope: High-Resolution Sunyaev-Zeldovich Array Observations of ACT SZE-Selected Clusters from the Equatorial Strip

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reese, Erik; Mroczkowski, Tony; Menateau, Felipe; Hilton, Matt; Sievers, Jonathan; Aguirre, Paula; Appel, John William; Baker, Andrew J.; Bond, J. Richard; Das, Sudeep; Devlin, Mark J.; Dicker, Simon R.; Duenner, Rolando; Essinger-Hileman, Thomas; Fowler, Joseph W.; Hajian, Amir; Halpern, Mark; Hasselfield, Matthew; Hill, J. Collin; Hincks, Adam D.; Huffenberger, Kevin M.; Hughes, John P.; Irwin, Kent D.; Klein, Jeff; Kosowsky, Arthur; Lin, Yen-Ting; Marriage, Tobias A.; Marsden, Danica; Moodley, Kavilan; Niemack, Michael D; Nolta, Michael R.; Page, Lyman A.; Parker, Lucas; Partridge, Bruce; Wollack, Edward J.

    2011-01-01

    We present follow-up observations with the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Array (SZA) of optically-confirmed galaxy clusters found in the equatorial survey region of the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT): ACT-CL J0022-0036, ACT-CL J2051+0057, and ACT-CL J2337+0016. ACT-CL J0022-0036 is a newly-discovered, massive ( approximately equals 10(exp 15) Solar M), high-redshift (z = 0.81) cluster revealed by ACT through the Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect (SZE). Deep, targeted observations with the SZA allow us to probe a broader range of cluster spatial scales, better disentangle cluster decrements from radio point source emission, and derive more robust integrated SZE flux and mass estimates than we can with ACT data alone. For the two clusters we detect with the SZA we compute integrated SZE signal and derive masses from the SZA data only. ACT-CL J2337+0016, also known as Abell 2631, has archival Chandra data that allow an additional X-ray-based mass estimate. Optical richness is also used to estimate cluster masses and shows good agreement with the SZE and X-ray-based estimates. Based on the point sources detected by the SZA in these three cluster fields and an extrapolation to ACT's frequency, we estimate that point sources could be contaminating the SZE decrement at the approx < 20% level for some fraction of clusters.

  9. A computational and spectroscopic study of the gas-phase conformers of adrenaline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Çarçabal, P.; Snoek, L. C.; van Mourik, T.

    The conformational landscapes of the neurotransmitter l-adrenaline (l-epinephrine) and its diastereoisomer pseudo-adrenaline, isolated in the gas phase and un-protonated, have been investigated by using a combination of mass-selected ultraviolet and infrared holeburn spectroscopy, following laser desorption of the sample into a pulsed supersonic argon jet, and DFT and ab initio computation (at the B3LYP/6-31+G*, MP2/6-31+G* and MP2/aug-cc-pVDZ levels of theory). Both for adrenaline and its diastereoisomer, pseudo-adrenaline, one dominant molecular conformation, very similar to the one seen in noradrenaline, has been observed. It could be assigned to an extended side-chain structure (AG1a) stabilized by an OH → N intramolecular hydrogen bond. An intramolecular hydrogen bond is also formed between the neighbouring hydroxyl groups on the catechol ring. The presence of further conformers for both diastereoisomers could not be excluded, but overlapping electronic spectra and low ion signals prevented further assignments.

  10. Effect of vibration duration on human discomfort. [passenger comfort and random vibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clevenson, S. A.; Dempsey, T. K.; Leatherwood, J. D.

    1978-01-01

    The duration effects of random vertical vibration on passenger discomfort were studied in a simulated section of an aircraft cabin configured to seat six persons in tourist-class style. Variables of the study included time of exposure (0.25 min to 60 min) and the rms amplitude of vibration (0.025g to 0.100g). The vibrations had a white noise spectrum with a bandwidth of 10 Hz centered at 5 Hz. Data indicate that the discomfort threshold occurred at an rms vertical acceleration level of 0.027g for all durations of vibration. However, for acceleration levels that exceeded the discomfort threshold, a systematic decrease in discomfort occurred as a function of increasing duration of vibration. For the range of accelerations used, the magnitude of the discomfort decrement was shown to be independent of acceleration level. The results suggest that discomfort from vertical vibration applied in the frequency range at which humans are most sensitive decreases with longer exposure, which is the opposite of the recommendation of the International Standard ISO 2631-1974 (E) Guide for the Evaluation of Human Exposure to Whole-Body Vibration.

  11. Conformational stability, vibrational (FT-IR and FT-Raman) spectra and computational analysis of m-trifluoromethyl benzoic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balachandran, V.; Karpagam, V.; Santhi, G.; Revathi, B.; Ilango, G.; Kavimani, M.

    2015-02-01

    In this work, the vibrational characteristics of m-trifluoromethyl benzoic acid have been investigated and both the experimental and theoretical vibrational data indicate the presence of functional groups in the title molecule. The density functional theoretical (DFT) computations were performed at the B3LYP/6-31G (d, p), LSDA/6-31G (d, p), MP2/6-31G (d, p) levels to derive the optimized geometry, vibrational wavenumbers. Furthermore, the molecular orbital calculations such as natural bond orbitals (NBO), HOMO-LUMO energy gap and Mapped molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) surfaces, The Mulliken charges, the first-order hyperpolarizability were also performed with the same level of DFT. The thermal flexibility of molecule in associated with vibrational temperature was also illustrated on the basis of correlation graphs. The detailed interpretation of the vibrational spectra has been carried out with the aid of potential energy distribution (PED) results obtained from MOLVIB program. The delocalization of electron density of various constituents of the molecule has been discussed with the aid of NBO and HOMO-LUMO energy gap analysis.

  12. Ab initio investigation of the molecular structure of methyl methoxymethyl phosphonate, a promising nuclease-resistant alternative of the phosphodiester linkage.

    PubMed

    Strajbl, M; Florian, J

    1996-02-01

    Conformational flexibility of the methyl methoxymethyl phosphonate anion (CH3-O-PO2-CH2-O-CH3)-, a nuclease resistant alternative to the phosphodiester linkage in DNA, have been investigated by ab initio quantum mechanical calculations. The potential of backbone torsional degrees of freedom of methyl methoxymethyl phosphonate anion (MMP) was determined at the Hartree-Fock (HF) 3-21G* level using the adiabatic mapping technique. Energies, geometries, and effective atomic charges of different conformers were calculated at HF/6-31G* and MP2/6-31G* levels of theory. These were compared to the results obtained for dimethyl phosphate calculated at the same level. The impact on DNA structure from inserting a methylene group between phosphorus and oxygen of the nucleoside sugar moiety was examined via distance and angle-constrained geometry optimizations. Due to its high flexibility, MMP has been shown to be compatible with both A and B forms of DNA. PMID:8906889

  13. Environmental effects on the structure of metal ion-DOTA complexes: An ab initio study of radiopharmaceutical metals.

    SciTech Connect

    Lau, E Y; Lightstone, F C; Colvin, M E

    2006-02-10

    Quantum mechanical calculations were performed to study the differences between the important radiopharmaceutical metals yttrium (Y) and indium (In) bound by DOTA and modified DOTA molecules. Energies were calculated at the MP2/6-31+G(d)//HF/6-31G(d) levels, using effective core potentials on the Y and In ions. Although the minimum energy structures obtained are similar for both metal ion-DOTA complexes, changes in coordination and local environment significantly affect the geometries and energies of these complexes. Coordination by a single water molecule causes a change in the coordination number and a change in the position of the metal ion in In-DOTA; but, Y-DOTA is hardly affected by water coordination. When one of the DOTA carboxylates is replaced by an amide, the coordination energy for the amide arm shows a large variation between the Y and In ions. Optimizations including water and guandinium moieties to approximate the effects of antibody binding indicate a large energy cost for the DOTA-chelated In to adopt the ideal conformation for antibody binding.

  14. Bulk and surface properties of spinel Co 3O 4 by density functional calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiang-Lan; Chen, Zhan-Hong; Li, Yi; Chen, Wen-Kai; Li, Jun-Qian

    2009-02-01

    DFT calculations are employed to bulk and surface properties of spinel oxide Co 3O 4. The bulk magnetic structure is calculated to be antiferromagnetic, with a Co 2+ moment of 2.631 μB in the antiferromagnetic state. There are three predicted electron transitions O(2p) → Co 2+(t 2g) of 2.2 eV, O(2p) → Co 3+(e g) of 2.9 eV and Co 3+(t 2g) → Co 2+(t 2g) of 3.3 eV, and the former two transitions are close to the corresponding experimental values 2.8 and 2.4 eV. The naturally occurring Co 3O 4 (1 1 0) and (1 1 1) surfaces were considered for surface calculations. For ideal Co 3O 4 (1 1 0) surfaces, the surface relaxations are not significant, while for ideal Co 3O 4 (1 1 1) surfaces the relaxation of Co 2+ cations in the tetrahedral sites is drastic, which agrees with the experiment observation. The stability over different oxygen environments for possible ideal and defect surface terminations were explored.

  15. Strains, Mechanism, and Perspective: Salmonella-Based Cancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Cheng-Zhi; Kazmierczak, Robert A.; Eisenstark, Abraham

    2016-01-01

    Recently, investigation of bacterial-based tumor therapy has regained focus due to progress in molecular, cellular, and microbial biology. Many bacteria such as Salmonella, Listeria, Escherichia, and Clostridium have proved to have tumor targeting and in some cases even tumor-destroying phenotypes. Furthermore, bacterial clinical treatments for cancer have been improved by combination with other therapeutic methods such as chemotherapeutic drugs and radioactive agents. Synthetic biology techniques have also driven the development of new bacterial-based cancer therapies. However, basic questions about the mechanisms of bacterial-mediated tumor targeting and destruction are still being elucidated. In this review, we focus on three tumor-therapeutic Salmonella models, the most intensively studied bacterial genus in this field. One of these Salmonella models is our Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium LT2 derived strain CRC2631, engineered to minimize toxicity but maximize tumor-targeting and destruction effects. The other two are VNP20009 and A1-R. We compare the means by which these therapeutic candidate strain models were selected for study, their tumor targeting and tumor destruction phenotypes in vitro and in vivo, and what is currently known about the mechanisms by which they target and destroy tumors. PMID:27190519

  16. A SPRY2 mutation leading to MAPK/ERK pathway inhibition is associated with an autosomal dominant form of IgA nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Milillo, Annamaria; La Carpia, Francesca; Costanzi, Stefano; D'Urbano, Vanessa; Martini, Maurizio; Lanuti, Paola; Vischini, Gisella; Larocca, Luigi M; Marchisio, Marco; Miscia, Sebastiano; Amoroso, Antonio; Gurrieri, Fiorella; Sangiorgi, Eugenio

    2015-12-01

    IgA nephropathy (IgAN) represents the most common primary glomerulonephritis worldwide with a prevalence of 25-50% among patients with primary glomerulopathies. In ~5-10% of the patients the disease segregates with an autosomal dominant (AD) pattern. Association studies identified loci on chromosomes 1q32, 6p21, 8p23, 17p13, 22q12, whereas classical linkage studies on AD families identified loci on chromosomes 2q36, 4q26-31, 6q22, 17q12-22. We have studied a large Sicilian family where IgAN segregates with an AD transmission. To identify the causal gene, the exomes of two affected and one unaffected individual have been sequenced. From the bioinformatics analysis a p.(Arg119Trp) variant in the SPRY2 gene was identified as the probable disease-causing mutation. Moreover, functional characterization of this variant showed that it is responsible for the inhibition of the MAPK/ERK1/2 pathway. The same effect was observed in two sporadic IgAN patients carriers of wild-type SPRY2, suggesting that downregulation of the MAPK/ERK1/2 pathway represents a common mechanism leading to IgAN. PMID:25782674

  17. Anterior Urethral Stricture Disease Negatively Impacts the Quality of Life of Family Members

    PubMed Central

    Weese, Jonathan R.; Eswara, Jairam R.; Marshall, Stephen D.; Chang, Andrew J.; Vetter, Joel; Brandes, Steven B.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To quantify the quality of life (QoL) distress experienced by immediate family members of patients with urethral stricture via a questionnaire given prior to definitive urethroplasty. The emotional, social, and physical effects of urethral stricture disease on the QoL of family members have not been previously described. Materials and Methods. A questionnaire was administered prospectively to an immediate family member of 51 patients undergoing anterior urethroplasty by a single surgeon (SBB). The survey was comprised of twelve questions that addressed the emotional, social, and physical consequences experienced as a result of their loved one. Results. Of the 51 surveyed family members, most were female (92.2%), lived in the same household (86.3%), and slept in the same room as the patient (70.6%). Respondents experienced sleep disturbances (56.9%) and diminished social lives (43.1%). 82.4% felt stressed by the patient's surgical treatment, and 83.9% (26/31) felt that their intimacy was negatively impacted. Conclusions. Urethral stricture disease has a significant impact on the family members of those affected. These effects may last decades and include sleep disturbance, decreased social interactions, emotional stress, and impaired sexual intimacy. Treatment of urethral stricture disease should attempt to mitigate the impact of the disease on family members as well as the patient. PMID:27034658

  18. Relationships between plasma leptin levels, leptin G2548A, leptin receptor Gln223Arg polymorphisms and gestational diabetes mellitus in Chinese population

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Mei; Peng, Songxu; Li, Wei; Wan, Zhihua; Fan, Linlin; Du, Yukai

    2016-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to examine concentrations of leptin and biochemical parameters in gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) patients and normal glucose tolerance (NGT) individuals, and also to explore the links of leptin (LEP) G2548A and leptin receptor (LEPR) Gln223Arg polymorphisms with leptin levels and GDM risk among Chinese. Our study included 357 GDM and 355 NGT individuals who were at 24~30 gestational weeks. Plasma leptin and insulin levels were analyzed by ELISA. Gene polymorphisms were genotyped using TaqMan real-time polymerase chain reaction assay. The results showed that plasma leptin levels were significantly higher in the impaired fasting glucose (IFG) group than NGT group (34.35 (26.54, 56.48) ng/mL vs 26.31 (17.99, 37.87) ng/mL, P < 0.05). Plasma leptin levels correlated with plasma fasting insulin levels, pre-pregnant body mass index, homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance and quantitative insulin sensitivity check index both in GDM and NGT group (P < 0.05). However, neither LEP G2548A nor LEPR Gln223Arg polymorphisms were significantly associated with GDM risk and plasma leptin levels (P > 0.05). Our findings showed that high leptin level was associated with GDM. And larger and more rigorous researches were needed to further explore the association of LEP and LEPR gene polymorphisms and GDM among Chinese population. PMID:27034205

  19. Synthesis and biological evaluation of 3-tetrazolo steroidal analogs: Novel class of 5α-reductase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, Saurabh; Mahapatra, Manoj Kumar; Kumar, Rajnish; Bhardwaj, Tilak R; Hartmann, Rolf W; Haupenthal, Jörg; Kumar, Manoj

    2016-02-15

    In the present study, a series of steroidal tetrazole derivatives of androstane and pregnane have been prepared in which the tetrazole moiety was appended at C-3 and 17a-aza locations. 3-Tetrazolo-3,5-androstadien-17-one (6), 3-tetrazolo-19-nor-3,5-androstadien-17-one (10), 3-tetrazolo-3,5-pregnadien-20-one (14), 17a-substituted 3-tetrazolo-17a-aza-D-homo-3,5-androstadien-17-one (26-31) and 3-(2-acetyltetrazolo)-17a-aza-d-homo-3,5-androstadien-17-one (32) were synthesized from dehydroepiandrosterone acetate (1) through multiple synthetic steps. Some of the synthesized compounds were evaluated for their in vitro 5α-reductase (5AR) inhibitory activity by measuring the conversion of [(3)H] androstenedione in human embryonic kidney (HEK) cells. In vivo 5α-reductase inhibitory activity also showed a significant reduction (p <0.05) in rat prostate weight. The most potent compound 14 showed 5AR-2 inhibition with IC50 being 15.6nM as compared to clinically used drug finasteride (40nM). There was also a significant inhibition of 5AR-1 with IC50 547nM compared to finasteride (453nM). PMID:26780831

  20. En route noise: NASA propfan test aircraft (calculated source noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rickley, E. J.

    1990-01-01

    The second phase of a joint National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) program to study the high-altitude, low-frequency acoustic noise propagation characteristics of the Advanced Turboprop (propfan) Aircraft was conducted on April 3-13, 1989 at the White Sands Missile Range (WSMR), New Mexico. The first phase was conducted on October 26-31, 1987 in Huntsville, Alabama. NASA (Lewis) measured the source noise of the test aircraft during both phases while NASA (Langley) measured surface noise only during the second phase. FAA/NASA designed a program to obtain noise level data from the propfan test bed aircraft, both in the near field and at ground level, during simulated en route flights (35,000 and 20,000 feet ASL), and to test low frequency atmospheric absorption algorithms and prediction technology to provide insight into the necessity for regulatory measures. The curves of calculated source noise versus emission angle are based on a second order best-fit curve of the peak envelope of the adjusted ground data. Centerline and sideline derived source noise levels are shown to be in good agreement. A comparison of the Alabama chase plane source data and the calculated source noise at centerline for both the Alabama and New Mexico data shows good agreement for the 35,000 and the 20,000 feet (ASL) overflights. With the availability of the New Mexico in-flight data, further in depth comparisons will be made.

  1. Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS), Westinghouse phase 1. Volume 12: Fuel cells. [energy conversion efficiency of, for use in electric power plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warde, C. J.; Ruka, R. J.; Isenberg, A. O.

    1976-01-01

    A parametric assessment of four fuel cell power systems -- based on phosphoric acid, potassium hydroxide, molten carbonate, and stabilized zirconia -- has shown that the most important parameters for electricity-cost reduction and/or efficiency improvement standpoints are fuel cell useful life and power density, use of a waste-heat recovery system, and fuel type. Typical capital costs, overall energy efficiencies (based on the heating value of the coal used to produce the power plant fuel), and electricity costs are: phosphoric acid $350-450/kWe, 24-29%, and 11.7 to 13.9 mills/MJ (42 to 50 mills/kWh); alkaline $450-700/kWe, 26-31%, and 12.8 to 16.9 mills/MJ (46 to 61 mills/kWh); molten carbonate $480-650/kWe, 32-46%, and 10.6 to 19.4 mills/MJ (38 to 70 mills/kWh), stabilized zirconia $420-950/kWe, 26-53%, and 9.7 to 16.9 mills/MJ (35 to 61 mills/kWh). Three types of fuel cell power plants -- solid electrolytic with steam bottoming, molten carbonate with steam bottoming, and solid electrolyte with an integrated coal gasifier -- are recommended for further study.

  2. Physical and Mental Health, Cognitive Development, and Health Care Use by Housing Status of Low-Income Young Children in 20 American Cities: A Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Fertig, Angela R.; Allison, Paul D.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed the independent effect of homeless and doubled-up episodes on physical and mental health, cognitive development, and health care use among children. Methods. We used data from 4 waves of the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, involving a sample of 2631 low-income children in 20 large US cities who have been followed since birth. Multivariate analyses involved logistic regression using the hybrid method to include both fixed and random effects. Results. Of the sample, 9.8% experienced homelessness and an additional 23.6% had a doubled-up episode. Housing status had little significant adverse effect on child physical or mental health, cognitive development, or health care use. Conclusions. Family and environmental stressors common to many children in poverty, rather than just homeless and doubled-up episodes, were associated with young children's poor health and cognitive development and high health care use. Practitioners need to identify and respond to parental and family needs for support services in addition to housing assistance to effectively improve the health and development of young children who experience residential instability, particularly those in homeless families. PMID:21551380

  3. Climate regimes and water temperature changes in the Columbia River: bioenergetic implications for predators of juvenile salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Petersen, J.H.; Kitchell, J.F.

    2001-01-01

    We examined how climatic regime shifts may have affected predation rates on juvenile Pacific salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.) by northern squawfish (Ptychocheilus oregonensis, also called northern pikeminnow), smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu), and walleye (Stizostedion vitreum) in the Columbia River. During 1933-1996, oceanic, coastal, and freshwater indices of climate were highly correlated, and an index for the Columbia River Basin suggested that climate shifts may have occurred about 1946, 1958, 1969, and 1977. Summer water temperature varied as much as 2??C between climate periods. We used a bioenergetics model for northern squawfish, the most important piscivore, to predict that predation on salmonids would have been 26-31% higher during two periods with relatively warm spring-summer water temperatures (1933-1946, 1978-1996) than during an extremely cold period (1947-1958). Predicted predation rates of northern squawfish were 68-96% higher in the warmest year compared with the coldest year. Predation rates of smallmouth bass and walleye on juvenile salmonids varied among climate periods similar to rates predicted for northern squawfish. Climatic effects need to be understood in both freshwater and nearshore marine habitats, since growth rates of salmon populations are especially sensitive to mortality during early life stages.

  4. Radiative lifetime and energy of the low-energy isomeric level in 229Th

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tkalya, E. V.; Schneider, Christian; Jeet, Justin; Hudson, Eric R.

    2015-11-01

    We estimate the range of the radiative lifetime and energy of the anomalous, low-energy 3 /2+(7.8 ±0.5 eV) state in the 229Th nucleus. Our phenomenological calculations are based on the available experimental data for the intensities of M 1 and E 2 transitions between excited levels of the 229Th nucleus in the Kπ[N nZΛ ] =5 /2+[633 ] and 3 /2+[631 ] rotational bands. We also discuss the influence of certain branching coefficients, which affect the currently accepted measured energy of the isomeric state. From this work, we establish a favored region, 0.66 ×106seV3/ω3≤τ ≤2.2 ×106seV3/ω3 , where the transition lifetime τ as a function of transition energy ω should lie at roughly the 95% confidence level. Together with the result of Beck et al. [LLNL-PROC-415170 (2009)], we establish a favored area where transition lifetime and energy should lie at roughly the 90% confidence level. We also suggest new nuclear physics measurements, which would significantly reduce the ambiguity in the present data.

  5. Rotational spectra of quinoline and of isoquinoline: spectroscopic constants and electric dipole moments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kisiel, Z.; Desyatnyk, O.; Pszczółkowski, L.; Charnley, S. B.; Ehrenfreund, P.

    2003-01-01

    Rotational spectra of quinoline and of isoquinoline have been observed in the centimeter- and millimeter-wave regions. The spectra were assigned on the basis of bands formed by high- J transitions, which were measured up to J″⩽128 and ν⩽234 GHz. Complementary measurements were also made on low- J, centimeter-wave spectra observed in supersonic expansion and with fully resolved nuclear quadrupole hyperfine structure. Accurate rotational, centrifugal distortion and hyperfine splitting constants for the ground states of both molecules are reported. The electric dipole moments for the two molecules were also determined from Stark effect measurements and are μa=0.14355(19), μb=2.0146(17), μtot=2.0197(17) D for quinoline, and μa=2.3602(21), μb=0.9051(14), μtot=2.5278(20) D for isoquinoline. The experimental observables were found to be rather accurately predicted by MP2/6-31G** ab initio calculations, and corresponding molecular geometries are also reported.

  6. Molecular geometry of 5-methyl-2-furaldehyde from gas electron diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shishkov, Igor F.; Vilkov, Lev V.; Hargittai, István

    1995-06-01

    An electron diffraction study of 5-methyl-2-furaldehyde (MFA) has been carried out to obtain information on its conformational properties and molecular geometry. Two conformers, with syn and anti orientations of the CO and CC bonds, were found to coexist with the composition 74(11) and 26%, respectively, at 333 K. The differences between the parameters in the syn and anti forms were assumed from ab initio calculations (MP2/6-31G∗) in the analysis. The following bond lengths ( rg, Å) and bond angles (deg) were obtained for the syn form with estimated total errors parenthesized in units of the last digit of the parameter: CC(mean) = 1.366(14), CO = 1.223(4), OCC(Me) = 117.1(13), CO(mean) = 2.378(12), CH(Me) = 1.116(15), CCO = 110.5(5), CC(Me) = 1.507(14), COC = 105.7(11), CCO = 121.5(14), CC(ald) = 1.454(12), OCC(ald) = 115.8(18). The conformationals properties of MFA are similar to those of 2-furaldehyde while for acrolein the anti form was found to be the most stable.

  7. Transfer entropy analysis of maternal and fetal heart rate coupling.

    PubMed

    Marzbanrad, Faezeh; Kimura, Yoshitaka; Endo, Miyuki; Palaniswami, Marimuthu; Khandoker, Ahsan H

    2015-08-01

    Although evidence of the short term relationship between maternal and fetal heart rates has been found in previous model-based studies, knowledge about the mechanism and patterns of the coupling during gestation is still limited. In this study, a model-free method based on Transfer Entropy (TE) was applied to quantify the maternal-fetal heart rate couplings in both directions. Furthermore, analysis of the lag at which TE was maximum and its changes throughout gestation, provided more information about the mechanism of coupling and its latency. Experimental results based on fetal electrocardiograms (fECGs) and maternal ECG showed the evidence of coupling for 62 out of 65 healthy mothers and fetuses in each direction, by statistically validating against the surrogate pairs. The fetuses were divided into three gestational age groups: early (16-25 weeks), mid (26-31 weeks) and late (32-41 weeks) gestation. The maximum TE from maternal to fetal heart rate significantly increased from early to mid gestation, while the coupling delay on both directions decreased significantly from mid to late gestation. These changes occur concomitant with the maturation of the fetal sensory and autonomic nervous systems with advancing gestational age. In conclusion, the application of TE with delays revealed detailed information about the changes in fetal-maternal heart rate coupling strength and latency throughout gestation, which could provide novel clinical markers of fetal development and well-being. PMID:26738115

  8. Impact of enzyme- and ultrasound-assisted extraction methods on biological properties of red, brown, and green seaweeds from the central west coast of Portugal.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Dina; Sousa, Sérgio; Silva, Aline; Amorim, Manuela; Pereira, Leonel; Rocha-Santos, Teresa A P; Gomes, Ana M P; Duarte, Armando C; Freitas, Ana Cristina

    2015-04-01

    Seaweeds are an excellent source of bioactive compounds, and therefore the use of sustainable and food compatible extraction methods such as enzyme-assisted (EAE) and ultrasound-assisted extraction were applied on Sargassum muticum, Osmundea pinnatifida, and Codium tomentosum. Extracts were evaluated for proximate characterization and biological properties. Higher extraction yields were observed for C. tomentosum EAE (48-62%; p < 0.05 for Cellulase and Viscozyme), followed by O. pinnatifida (49-55%; p < 0.05 except Alcalase) and S. muticum (26-31%; p < 0.05). S. muticum extracts presented the highest nitrogen (25 ± 2 mg/glyoph extract) and total phenolics (261 ± 37 μgcatechol equiv/glyoph extract) contents, whereas higher sugars (78 ± 14 mgglucose equiv/glyoph extract) including sulfated polysaccharide (44 ± 8 mgNa2SO4 acid/glyoph extract) contents characterized O. pinnatifida extracts. A higher effect on hydroxyl-radical scavenging activity (35-50%) was observed for all extracts, whereas S. muticum Alcalase and C. tomentosum Cellulase extracts exhibited higher prebiotic activity than fructooligosaccharides. O. pinnatifida and C. tomentosum EAE showed inhibitory potential against α-glucosidase (38-49%). PMID:25756735

  9. Re-description of Cephalobus topali Andrássy, 1970 (Rhabditida, Cephalobidae) from Vietnam, and transfer to Acrobeloides (Cobb, 1924) Thorne, 1937.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thi Anh Duong; Bonkowski, Michael; Peña-Santiago, Reyes; Abolafia, Joaquín

    2016-01-01

    Recently, specimens of Cephalobus topali, collected from an agricultural area from northern Vietnam, are described, including SEM study. They are characterized by their its 306-347 µm long body in females, lateral field with two alae or 3-4 longitudinal incisures, lip region with three pairs of asymmetrical conoid lips, three low and rounded labial probolae separate from the corresponding pair of lips by an incisure, U-shaped primary axils without guard processes, V-shaped secondary axils without guard processes, pharyngeal corpus slightly fusiform and 2.6-3.1 times the isthmus length, spermatheca and postvulval sac poorly developed, female tail conoid (18-24 µm, c = 12.7-17.0, c' = 1.8-2.7) with rounded terminus ending in an acute or wart-shaped mucro, phasmid at 29-34% of tail length, and male unknown. SEM pictures reveal that lip region pattern significantly differs from that found in members of Cephalobus and fits that observed in Acrobeloides, so that the species is transferred to this genus. Cephalobus quadrilineatus is provisionally maintained as different from C. topali. PMID:27394477

  10. Analysis of hepatitis C virus RNA dimerization and core–RNA interactions

    PubMed Central

    Ivanyi-Nagy, Roland; Kanevsky, Igor; Gabus, Caroline; Lavergne, Jean-Pierre; Ficheux, Damien; Penin, François; Fossé, Philippe; Darlix, Jean-Luc

    2006-01-01

    The core protein of hepatitis C virus (HCV) has been shown previously to act as a potent nucleic acid chaperone in vitro, promoting the dimerization of the 3′-untranslated region (3′-UTR) of the HCV genomic RNA, a process probably mediated by a small, highly conserved palindromic RNA motif, named DLS (dimer linkage sequence) [G. Cristofari, R. Ivanyi-Nagy, C. Gabus, S. Boulant, J. P. Lavergne, F. Penin and J. L. Darlix (2004) Nucleic Acids Res., 32, 2623–2631]. To investigate in depth HCV RNA dimerization, we generated a series of point mutations in the DLS region. We find that both the plus-strand 3′-UTR and the complementary minus-strand RNA can dimerize in the presence of core protein, while mutations in the DLS (among them a single point mutation that abolished RNA replication in a HCV subgenomic replicon system) completely abrogate dimerization. Structural probing of plus- and minus-strand RNAs, in their monomeric and dimeric forms, indicate that the DLS is the major if not the sole determinant of UTR RNA dimerization. Furthermore, the N-terminal basic amino acid clusters of core protein were found to be sufficient to induce dimerization, suggesting that they retain full RNA chaperone activity. These findings may have important consequences for understanding the HCV replicative cycle and the genetic variability of the virus. PMID:16707664

  11. Mechanisms by which saturated triacylglycerols elevate the plasma low density lipoprotein-cholesterol concentration in hamsters. Differential effects of fatty acid chain length.

    PubMed Central

    Woollett, L A; Spady, D K; Dietschy, J M

    1989-01-01

    These studies were designed to elucidate how shorter (MCT) and longer (HCO) chain-length saturated triacylglycerols and cholesterol interact to alter steady-state plasma LDL-cholesterol levels. When either MCT or HCO was fed in the absence of cholesterol, there was little effect on receptor-dependent LDL transport but a 36-43% increase in LDL-cholesterol production. Cholesterol feeding in the absence of triacylglycerol led to significant suppression of receptor-dependent LDL transport and a 26-31% increase in LDL-cholesterol production. However, when the longer chain-length saturated triacylglycerol was fed together with cholesterol there was a marked increase in the suppression of receptor-dependent LDL transport and an 82% increase in production rate. Together, these two alterations accounted for the observed eightfold increase in plasma LDL-cholesterol concentration. In contrast, feeding the shorter chain-length saturated triacylglycerol with cholesterol actually enhanced receptor-dependent LDL transport while also causing a smaller increase (52%) in the LDL-cholesterol production rate. As a result of these two opposing events, MCT feeding had essentially no net effect on plasma LDL-cholesterol levels beyond that induced by cholesterol feeding alone. PMID:2738148

  12. Theoretical study of the structure and spectroscopic characteristics of protonated carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Frisch, M.J.; Schaefer, H.F. III; Binkley, J.S.

    1985-05-23

    Protonated carbon dioxide has been examined theoretically by using geometries optimized at the MP2/6-31G(d) level and energies computed at the MP4/6-311++G(d,p) level. It is concluded that the C/sub s/ O-protonated complex is the only observable form of CO/sub 2/H/sup +/ when it is produced by association of H/sup +/ with CO/sub 2/ and under most other conditions. The enthalpy of protonation of CO/sub 2/ is found to be 130.7 kcal mol/sup -1/ at 298 K. Rotational constants are predicted to be 773.74, 10.79, and 10.65 GHz for CO/sub 2/H/sup +/ and 431.18, 10.17, and 9.94 GHz for CO/sub 2/D/sup +/. Stretching vibrational frequencies are predicted to be 1292, 2330, and 3348 cm/sup -1/ for CO/sub 2/H/sup +/ and 1270, 2316, and 2485 cm/sup -1/ for CO/sub 2/D/sup +/. The O-H (or O-D) stretching mode is expected to produce the most intense fundamental transition in both the infrared and Raman spectra, and the 2330 (2316)cm/sup -1/ C-O stretch is found to be the only other intense mode. 23 references, 3 tables.

  13. Theoretical study of reactivity of methane, methyl fluoride, and methyl chloride: Interaction with their radical cations and proton donors

    SciTech Connect

    Hess, B.A. Jr. ); Zahradnik, R. )

    1990-07-18

    This work deals with interactions between CH{sub 4} and CH{sub 4}{sup {sm bullet}+}, CH{sub 3}F and CH{sub 3}F{sup {sm bullet}+}, and CH{sub 3}Cl and CH{sub 3}Cl{sup {sm bullet}+}. The calculated {Delta}H{sub 0} values (MP4/6-31G**//MP2/6-31G**, ZPE included) for processes leading to CH{sub 5}{sup +} and CH{sub 3}{sup {sm bullet}}, and to CFH{sub 4} and CH{sub 2}F{sup {sm bullet}} amount to {minus}1.8 and {minus}21.0 kcal/mol, respectively. The {Delta}H{sub 0} leading to CClH{sub 4}{sup +} and CH{sub 2}Cl{sup {sm bullet}} (MP4/6-31G**//SCF/6-31G**, ZPE included) is {minus}2.3 kcal/mol. The calculated reaction heat for the first interaction is significantly closer to experimental values ({minus}4.16 and {minus}6 kcal/mol, respectively) than their previous theoretical estimates. The structures of the radical cations (CH{sub 4}{sup {sm bullet}+}, CH{sub 3}F{sup {sm bullet}+}) possess features of van der Waals associates.

  14. Light noble gas chemistry: Structures, stabilities, and bonding of helium, neon and argon compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Frenking, G. ); Koch, W. ); Reichel, F. ); Cremer, D. )

    1990-05-23

    Theoretically determined geometries are reported for the light noble gas ions Ng{sub 2}C{sup 2+}, Ng{sub 2}N{sup 2+}, Ng{sub 2}O{sup 2+}, NgCCNg{sup 2+}, NgCCH{sup +}, NgCN{sup +}, and NgNC{sup +} (Ng = He, Ne, Ar) at the MP2/6-31G(d,p) level of theory. In a few cases, optimizations were carried out at CASSCF/6-31G(d,p). The thermodynamic stability of the Ng compounds is investigated at MP4(SDTQ)/6-311G(2df,2pd) for Ng = He, Ne and at MP4(SDTQ)/6-311G(d,p) for Ng = Ar. The structures and stabilities of the molecules are discussed in terms of donor-acceptor interactions between Ng and the respective fragment cation, by using molecular orbital arguments and utilizing the analysis of the electron density distribution and its associated Laplace field. Generally, there is an increase in Ng,X binding interactions of a noble gas molecule NgX with increasing atomic size of Ng. In some cases the Ne,X stabilization energies are slightly smaller than the corresponding He,X values because of repulsive p-{pi} interactions in the neon compounds. The argon molecules are in all cases significantly stronger bound.

  15. Structural and spectral consequences of ion pairing. 4. Theoretical study of BF sub 4 sup minus M sup + (M = Li, Na, K, and Rb)

    SciTech Connect

    Francisco, J.S. ); Williams, I.H. )

    1990-11-15

    Ion pairs of BR{sub 4}{sup {minus}} anion with the cations Li{sup +}, Na{sup +}, K{sup +}, and Rb{sup +} have been studied by ab initio quantum-chemical methods. Optimized geometries for monodentate, bidentate, and tridentate structures have been determined at the HF/3-21 G and HF/6-31+G,3-21G levels of theory, and the energetics of these modes of coordination have been calculated with the inclusion of electron correlation by the MP2 and MP4 methods. The bidentate and tridentate structures for BF{sub 4}{sup {minus}}Li{sup +} have been studied at various levels of calculation up to MP2/6-311+G*//MP2/6-31G*. Vibrational frequencies, {sup 10}B isotope frequency shifts, and infrared intensities have been calculated at the HF/3-21G level for each ion pair and at the HF/6-31+G,3-21G level for the tridentate BF{sub 4}{sup {minus}}K{sup +} ion pair. The tridentate structure is preferred for Na{sup +}, K{sup +}, and Rb{sup +}, but the bidentate structure is preferred for Li{sup +}. The topological, structural, energetic, and spectral consequences of the changing nature of the cation in the ion pairs are discussed.

  16. Enhanced growth of lactobacilli in soymilk upon immobilization on agrowastes.

    PubMed

    Teh, Sue-Siang; Ahmad, Rosma; Wan-Abdullah, Wan-Nadiah; Liong, Min-Tze

    2010-04-01

    Cell immobilization is an alternative to microencapsulation for the maintenance of cells in a liquid medium. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of agrowastes from durian (Durio zibethinus), cempedak (Artocarpus champeden), and mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana) as immobilizers for lactobacilli grown in soymilk. Rinds from the agrowastes were separated from the skin, dried, and ground (150 microm) to form powders and used as immobilizers. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that lactobacilli cells were attached and bound to the surface of the immobilizers. Immobilized cells of Lactobacillus acidophilus FTDC 1331, L. acidophilus FTDC 2631, L. acidophilus FTDC 2333, L. acidophilus FTDC 1733, and L. bulgaricus FTCC 0411 were inoculated into soymilk, stored at room temperature (25 degrees C) and growth properties were evaluated over 168 h. Soymilk inoculated with nonimmobilized cells was used as the control. Utilization of substrates, concentrations of lactic and acetic acids, and changes in pH were evaluated in soymilk over 186 h. Immobilized lactobacilli showed significantly better growth (P < 0.05) compared to the control, accompanied by higher production of lactic and acetic acids in soymilk. Soymilk containing immobilized cells showed greater reduction of soy sugars such as stachyose, raffinose, sucrose, fructose, and glucose compared to the control (P < 0.05). PMID:20492305

  17. What is the mechanism of the OSO ring formation in sulfur tetroxide (SO4(C2v)) molecule?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodarzi, Moein; Vahedpour, Morteza; Solimannejad, Mohammad

    2012-06-01

    The mechanism of SO2 + O2 and O + SO3(D3h) reactions have been investigated at the MP2/6-31 + G(d) and CCSD(T)/cc-pV(Q + d)Z//MP2 levels on the triplet and singlet PESs. Although, no stable collision complexes have been found for the SO2 + O2(3∑g-), O(3P) + SO3(D3h) and O(1D) + SO3(D3h) reactions, 1IN(O2S-O2) has been considered on the singlet PES for the SO2 + O2(1Δg) reaction. The results show that there are no favorable paths for the OSO ring formation of SO4(C2v) in the atmospheric reactions of the SO2 + O2(3∑g-), SO2 + O2(1Δg) and O(3P) + SO3(D3h) while, the O(1D) + SO3(D3h) reaction can be suitable for the SO4(C2v) formation on the singlet PES.

  18. Rapid topography mapping of scalar fields: Large molecular clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeole, Sachin D.; López, Rafael; Gadre, Shridhar R.

    2012-08-01

    An efficient and rapid algorithm for topography mapping of scalar fields, molecular electron density (MED) and molecular electrostatic potential (MESP) is presented. The highlight of the work is the use of fast function evaluation by Deformed-atoms-in-molecules (DAM) method. The DAM method provides very rapid as well as sufficiently accurate function and gradient evaluation. For mapping the topography of large systems, the molecular tailoring approach (MTA) is invoked. This new code is tested out for mapping the MED and MESP critical points (CP's) of small systems. It is further applied to large molecular clusters viz. (H2O)25, (C6H6)8 and also to a unit cell of valine crystal at MP2/6-31+G(d) level of theory. The completeness of the topography is checked by extensive search as well as applying the Poincaré-Hopf relation. The results obtained show that the DAM method in combination with MTA provides a rapid and efficient route for mapping the topography of large molecular systems.

  19. Ab initio investigation of benzene clusters: Molecular tailoring approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahadevi, A. Subha; Rahalkar, Anuja P.; Gadre, Shridhar R.; Sastry, G. Narahari

    2010-10-01

    An exhaustive study on the clusters of benzene (Bz)n, n =2-8, at MP2/6-31++G∗∗ level of theory is reported. The relative strengths of CH-π and π-π interactions in these aggregates are examined, which eventually govern the pattern of cluster formation. A linear scaling method, viz., molecular tailoring approach (MTA), is efficiently employed for studying the energetics and growth patterns of benzene clusters consisting up to eight benzene (Bz) units. Accuracy of MTA-based calculations is appraised by performing the corresponding standard calculations wherever possible, i.e., up to tetramers. For benzene tetramers, the error introduced in energy is of the order of 0.1 mH (˜0.06 kcal/mol). Although for higher clusters the error may build up, further corrections based on many-body interaction energy analysis substantially reduce the error in the MTA-estimate. This is demonstrated for a prototypical case of benzene hexamer. A systematic way of building up a cluster of n monomers (n-mer) which employs molecular electrostatic potential of an (n -1)-mer is illustrated. The trends obtained using MTA method are essentially identical to those of the standard methods in terms of structure and energy. In summary, this study clearly brings out the possibility of effecting such large calculations, which are not possible conventionally, by the use of MTA without a significant loss of accuracy.

  20. Role of soil organic carbon and colloids in fate of TNT, RDX and HMX in training range soils.

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, Prasesh; Mayes, Melanie; Tang, Guoping

    2013-01-01

    Contamination of soils/groundwater by munition compounds (TNT, RDX, HMX) is of significant concern at many U.S. Department of Defense sites. We collected soils from operational ranges in Maryland (APG), Massachusetts (MMR-B and MMR-E) and Washington (JBLM) and conducted sorption/transport studies to investigate effects of soil organic carbon (OC) and clay content on fate of dissolved munition compounds (MCs). Sorption experiments showed higher sorption coefficients [TNT:42-68 kg/L, RDX:6.9-8.7 Kg/L and HMX:2.6-3.1 Kg/L] in OC rich soils (JBLM, MMR-E) compared to clay rich soils MMR-B and APG [TNT:19-21 Kg/L, RDX:2.5-3.4 Kg/L, HMX:0.9-1.2 Kg/L]. In column experiments, breakthrough of MCs was mostly quicker in MMR-B and APG soil filled columns compared to MMR-E and JBLM. Between TNT, RDX and HMX, breakthrough was fastest for RDX followed by HMX and TNT for all soil columns. Separation of effluents into dissolved (<3 kDa) vs unfiltered (total) fractions in effluents showed 30-50% of TNT in the fraction >3kDa (colloidal fraction). HMX and RDX were completely associated with dissolved fraction. Results demonstrate that OC rich soils may enhance sorption and delay transport of TNT, RDX and HMX. Furthermore, colloids could contribute to transport of dissolved TNT to a significant amount.

  1. An ab initio determination of the bending-torsion-torsion spectrum of dimethyl ether, CH3OCH3 and CD3OCD3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senent, M. L.; Moule, D. C.; Smeyers, Y. G.

    1995-04-01

    We have calculated the potential energy hypersurface of dimethyl ether with respect to the COC bending coordinate α and the torsional angles of the two methyl groups, θ1 and θ2. Two sets of ab initio calculations were carried out. The first was made at the level MP2/6-31G(d,p) in which the structural coordinates were fully relaxed except for the grid points on the hypersurface. More extensive calculation were carried out with MP4 corrections for electron correlation with the same molecular structure. The torsional bending Hamiltonian matrix was symmetrized by the operations of the G36 nonrigid group and was solved variationally. The effect of explicitly considering the bending mode in the three-dimensional treatment was determined by a comparison to the two-dimensional model in which the flexibility of the frame was absorbed into the calculation by the fully relaxed method. It was found that the three-dimensional calculation gave a much better account of the sin(3θ1)sin(θ2) intermode coupling than the two-dimensional treatment.

  2. An Occupational Study in Nurses: Prevalence of Thyroid Nodules and Cancer in Comparison to Health Check-up Female

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyung Hee; Woo, Seung Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. It is known that a great extent of radiation is emitted from the medical instruments used in hospitals and that radiation exposure can cause thyroid cancer. However, the correlation between occupational radiation exposure in hospitals and thyroid disease is not extensively recognized. Methods. The subjects of the study were female nurses, who worked at a single hospital and female, who had undergone a health examination at the same hospital during the same period. The 1,024 nurses and 2,631 healthy women were enrolled for the present study. All the participants were screened using thyroid ultrasonography, and fine-needle aspiration & cytology was performed on potentially malignant nodules. Results. Thyroid nodules were present in 315 nurses (30.8%) and 1,023 health check-up female (38.9%). Typically, 107 nurses (10.4%) and 201 health check-up female (7.6%) had suspicious nodule and were further tested with ultrasonography guided fine-needle aspiration & cytology. The 16 nurses (1.6%) and 38 health check-up female (1.4%) were diagnosed with thyroid cancer. The prevalence of thyroid nodules was enhanced in both the groups and a significant increase was noted in health check-up female group (P<0.05); however, no difference was seen in the incidence of thyroid cancer in both the groups (P>0.05). Conclusion. In our study, working in a hospital does not increase the prevalence of thyroid nodules or thyroid cancer. PMID:27334518

  3. Computational investigation of the stabilities of some N, O, F ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grice, M. E.; Politzer, Peter

    1995-03-01

    In response to the suggestion of Jeff Bottaro, we have investigated the potential stabilities of four N, 0, F ions, 1 - 4. All four molecular geometries were optimized using a non-local density functional (DF) procedure (Gaussian 92/DEF; BLYP6/-31+G**) and also at the ab initio MP2/6-31+G** (frozen core) level. For 1, the MP optimization was carried out as well without the frozen-core approximation. All calculations were for spin-restricted singlet states; however the DF results were checked for stability relative to allowing them to become spin-unrestricted and/or complex and were determined to be stable in this respect. In order to ascertain whether the optimized structures correspond to true energy minima, vibration frequencies were computed for all four systems at the DF level and for 1 and 2 at the MP2; for the anions 3 and 4, the number of basis functions being used precluded MP2 frequency calculations. No imaginary vibration frequencies were found. This confirms that the optimized structures of all four systems do correspond to true energy minima, and that these ions should be able to exist.

  4. Conformational stability, vibrational (FT-IR and FT-Raman) spectra and computational analysis of m-trifluoromethyl benzoic acid.

    PubMed

    Balachandran, V; Karpagam, V; Santhi, G; Revathi, B; Ilango, G; Kavimani, M

    2015-02-25

    In this work, the vibrational characteristics of m-trifluoromethyl benzoic acid have been investigated and both the experimental and theoretical vibrational data indicate the presence of functional groups in the title molecule. The density functional theoretical (DFT) computations were performed at the B3LYP/6-31G (d, p), LSDA/6-31G (d, p), MP2/6-31G (d, p) levels to derive the optimized geometry, vibrational wavenumbers. Furthermore, the molecular orbital calculations such as natural bond orbitals (NBO), HOMO-LUMO energy gap and Mapped molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) surfaces, The Mulliken charges, the first-order hyperpolarizability were also performed with the same level of DFT. The thermal flexibility of molecule in associated with vibrational temperature was also illustrated on the basis of correlation graphs. The detailed interpretation of the vibrational spectra has been carried out with the aid of potential energy distribution (PED) results obtained from MOLVIB program. The delocalization of electron density of various constituents of the molecule has been discussed with the aid of NBO and HOMO-LUMO energy gap analysis. PMID:25218226

  5. Dynamic Reaction Mechanisms of ClO¯ with CH3Cl: Comparison Between Direct Dynamics Trajectory Simulations and Experiment.

    PubMed

    Yu, Feng

    2016-03-24

    We have investigated the dynamic reaction mechanisms of *ClO¯ with CH3Cl (the asterisk is utilized to label a different Cl atom). Ab initio molecular dynamics simulations at the MP2/6-31+G(d,p) level of theory have been employed to compute the dynamic trajectories. On the basis of our simulations, the dynamic reaction pathways for the bimolecular nucleophilic substitution (SN2) reaction channel and SN2-induced elimination reaction channel are clearly illustrated. For the SN2 reaction channel, some trajectories directly dissociate to the final products of CH3O*Cl and Cl¯, whereas the others involve the dynamic Cl¯···CH3O*Cl intermediate complex. As to the SN2-induced elimination reaction channel, the trajectories lead to the final products of CH2O, HCl, and *Cl¯ through the dynamic Cl¯···CH3O*Cl intermediate complex. More significantly, the product branching ratios of Cl¯ and *Cl¯ predicted by our simulations are basically consistent with previous experimental results (Villano et al. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2009, 131, 8227-8233). PMID:26928354

  6. Standards of conduct for NASA employees

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    'Standards of Conduct' for employees (14 CFR Part 1207) is set forth in this handbook and is hereby incorporated in the NASA Directives System. This handbook incorporates, for the convenience of NASA employees, the regulations now in effect prescribing standards of conduct for NASA employees. These regulations set forth the high ethical standards of conduct required of NASA employees in carrying out their duties and responsibilities. These regulations have been approved by the Office of Government Ethics, Office of Personnel Management. The regulations incorporated in this handbook were first published in the Federal Register on October 21, 1967 (32 FR 14648-14659); Part B concerning the acceptance of gifts, gratuities, or entertainment was extensively revised on January 19, 1976 (41 FR 2631-2633) to clarify and generally to restrict the exceptions to the general rule against the acceptance by a NASA employee from persons or firms doing or seeking business with NASA. Those regulations were updated on January 29, 1985 (50 FR 3887) to ensure conformity to the Ethics in Government Act of 1978 regarding the public financial disclosure statement. These regulations were published in the Federal Register on June 16, 1987 (52 FR 22755-764) and a correction was printed on Sept. 28, 1987 (52 FR 36234).

  7. A theoretical and matrix-isolation FT-IR investigation of the conformational landscape of N-acetylcysteine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boeckx, Bram; Ramaekers, Riet; Maes, Guido

    2010-06-01

    The conformational landscape of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) has been investigated by a combined experimental matrix-isolation FT-IR and theoretical methodology. This combination is a powerful tool to study the conformational behavior of relatively small molecules. Geometry optimizations at the HF/3-21 level resulted in 438 different geometries with an energy difference smaller than 22 kJ mol -1. Among these, six conformations were detected with a relative energy difference smaller than 10 kJ mol -1 at the DFT(B3LYP)/6-31++G∗∗ level of theory. These were finally subjected to MP2/6-31++G∗∗ optimizations which resulted in five minima. The vibrational and thermodynamical properties of these conformations were calculated at both the DFT and MP2 methodologies. Experimentally NAC was isolated in an argon matrix at 16 K after being sublimated at 323 K. The most stable MP2 form appeared to be dominant in the experimental spectra but the presence of three other conformations with Δ EMP2 < 10 kJ mol -1 was also demonstrated. The experimentally observed abundance of the H-bond containing conformations appeared to be in good accordance with the predicted MP2 value.

  8. Electron Affinity of Phenyl-C61-Butyric Acid Methyl Ester (PCBM)

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, Bryon W.; Whitaker, James B.; Wang, Xue B.; Popov, Alexey A.; Rumbles, Garry; Kopidakis, Nikos; Strauss, Steven H.; Boltalina, Olga V.

    2013-07-25

    The gas-phase electron affinity (EA) of phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM), one of the best-performing electron acceptors in organic photovoltaic devices, is measured by lowtemperature photoelectron spectroscopy for the first time. The obtained value of 2.63(1) eV is only ca. 0.05 eV lower than that of C60 (2.68(1) eV), compared to a 0.09 V difference in their E1/2 values measured in this work by cyclic voltammetry. Literature E(LUMO) values for PCBM that are typically estimated from cyclic voltammetry, and commonly used as a quantitative measure of acceptor properties, are dispersed over a wide range between -4.3 and -3.62 eV; the reasons for such a huge discrepancy are analyzed here, and the protocol for reliable and consistent estimations of relative fullerene-based acceptor strength in solution is proposed.

  9. Infrared depletion spectroscopy of the doubly hydrogen-bonded aniline-(tetrahydrofuran) 2 complex produced in supersonic jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowdhury, Pradyot K.

    2006-01-01

    The vibrational frequencies of the N-H stretching modes of aniline after forming a strong doubly H-bonded complex with tetrahydrofuran (THF) are measured with infrared depletion spectroscopy that uses cluster-size-selective resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Two strong infrared absorption features observed at 3355 and 3488 cm -1 are assigned to the symmetric and antisymmetric N-H stretching vibrations of the 1:2 aniline-THF complex, respectively. The red-shifts of the N-H stretching vibrations of aniline agree with the ab initio calculated (MP2/6-31G**) aniline-(THF) 2 structure in which both aniline N-H bonds interact with the oxygen atom of THF through two hydrogen bonds. The calculated binding energy is found to be 29.6 kJ mol -1 after corrections for basis set superposition error (BSSE) and zero-point energy. The calculated structure revealed that the angle between the N-H bonds in the NH 2 group increased to 112.5° in the aniline-(THF) 2 complex from that of 109.8° in the aniline. The electronic 0-0 band origin for the S1 ← S0 transition is observed at 32,900 cm -1 in the aniline-(THF) 2 complex, giving a red-shift of 1129 cm -1 from that of the aniline molecule.

  10. The Impact of Sleep Timing, Sleep Duration, and Sleep Quality on Depressive Symptoms and Suicidal Ideation amongst Japanese Freshmen: The EQUSITE Study.

    PubMed

    Supartini, Atin; Honda, Takanori; Basri, Nadzirah A; Haeuchi, Yuka; Chen, Sanmei; Ichimiya, Atsushi; Kumagai, Shuzo

    2016-01-01

    Aim. The aim of this study was to identify the impact of bedtime, wake time, sleep duration, sleep-onset latency, and sleep quality on depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation amongst Japanese freshmen. Methods. This cross-sectional data was derived from the baseline survey of the Enhancement of Q-University Students Intelligence (EQUSITE) study conducted from May to June, 2010. A total of 2,631 participants were recruited and completed the following self-reported questionnaires: the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), and the original Health Support Questionnaires developed by the EQUSITE study research team. Results. Of 1,992 participants eligible for analysis, 25.5% (n = 507) reported depressive symptoms (CES-D total score ≥ 16), and 5.8% (n = 115) reported suicidal ideation. The present study showed that late bedtime (later than 01:30), sleep-onset latency (≥30 minutes), and poor sleep quality showed a marginally significant association with depressive symptoms. Poor sleep quality was seen to predict suicidal ideation even after adjusting for depressive symptoms. Conclusion. The current study has important implications for the role of bedtime in the prevention of depressive symptoms. Improving sleep quality may prevent the development of depressive symptoms and reduce the likelihood of suicidal ideation. PMID:27042358

  11. Whole body vibration and posture as risk factors for low back pain among forklift truck drivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoy, J.; Mubarak, N.; Nelson, S.; Sweerts de Landas, M.; Magnusson, M.; Okunribido, O.; Pope, M.

    2005-06-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate the risks from whole-body vibration and posture demands for low back pain (LBP) among forklift truck (forklift) drivers. Using a validated questionnaire, information about health history was obtained over a period of two weeks in face-to-face interviews. The forklift drivers were observed in respect of their sitting posture, including frequency with which different positions were adopted (bending, leaning and twisting) and postural analyses were conducted using the OWAS and RULA techniques. Forklift vibrations at the seat (exposure) were measured in the three orthogonal axes ( x-fore and aft, y-lateral and z-vertical) under actual working conditions according to the recommendations of ISO 2631-1. The results showed that LBP was more prevalent amongst forklift drivers than among non-drivers and driving postures in which the trunk is considerably twisted or bent forward associated with greatest risk. Furthermore, forklift drivers showed to be exposed to acceptable levels of vibration in the x- and y-directions (i.e., below the EU Physical Agents Directive on Vibration Exposure recommended action level—0.5 m/s 2), but not in the z-direction. There were indications that whole-body vibration acts associatively with other factors (not independently) to precipitate LBP.

  12. Measurement of whole-body vibration exposure from speed control humps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khorshid, E.; Alkalby, F.; Kamal, H.

    2007-07-01

    The main objective of speed control humps is to introduce shocks and high vibration levels when a car passes over them if its speed is higher than the allowable limit. Hump geometry is a major factor in altering the level of these shocks and specifying the speed limit. However, there is no study of the relationship between whole body vibration due to passing over a speed control hump and lower back pain or occupational diseases. In this study, an experimental investigation is conducted to evaluate health risks associated with different geometry speed control humps. Vibration levels and shocks are measured by a seat pad accelerometer placed under the driver's seat to evaluate hazard risks on the human body's lower back. The assessment is based on two standard methods of measuring whole body vibration: the British standard BS 6841 and the new ISO/DIS standard 2631-5. These methods are used to assess the effects of vehicle type, passenger location in the vehicle, vehicle speed, and speed control hump geometry. It was found that circular speed control humps currently installed on many public roads should be modified in order to eliminate hazards. Two newly designed speed humps were proved to be less hazardous than circular speed control humps.

  13. Sequences encoding identical peptides for the analysis and manipulation of coding DNA

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez, Joaquín

    2013-01-01

    The use of sequences encoding identical peptides (SEIP) for the in silico analysis of coding DNA from different species has not been reported; the study of such sequences could directly reveal properties of coding DNA that are independent of peptide sequences. For practical purposes SEIP might also be manipulated for e.g. heterologous protein expression. We extracted 1,551 SEIP from human and E. coli and 2,631 SEIP from human and D. melanogaster. We then analyzed codon usage and intercodon dinucleotide tendencies and found differences in both, with more conspicuous disparities between human and E. coli than between human and D. melanogaster. We also briefly manipulated SEIP to find out if they could be used to create new coding sequences. We hence attempted replacement of human by E. coli codons via dicodon exchange but found that full replacement was not possible, this indicated robust species-specific dicodon tendencies. To test another form of codon replacement we isolated SEIP from human and the jellyfish green fluorescent protein (GFP) and we then re-constructed the GFP coding DNA with human tetra-peptide-coding sequences. Results provide proof-of-principle that SEIP may be used to reveal differences in the properties of coding DNA and to reconstruct in pieces a protein coding DNA with sequences from a different organism, the latter might be exploited in heterologous protein expression. PMID:23861567

  14. Sequences encoding identical peptides for the analysis and manipulation of coding DNA.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Joaquín

    2013-01-01

    The use of sequences encoding identical peptides (SEIP) for the in silico analysis of coding DNA from different species has not been reported; the study of such sequences could directly reveal properties of coding DNA that are independent of peptide sequences. For practical purposes SEIP might also be manipulated for e.g. heterologous protein expression. We extracted 1,551 SEIP from human and E. coli and 2,631 SEIP from human and D. melanogaster. We then analyzed codon usage and intercodon dinucleotide tendencies and found differences in both, with more conspicuous disparities between human and E. coli than between human and D. melanogaster. We also briefly manipulated SEIP to find out if they could be used to create new coding sequences. We hence attempted replacement of human by E. coli codons via dicodon exchange but found that full replacement was not possible, this indicated robust species-specific dicodon tendencies. To test another form of codon replacement we isolated SEIP from human and the jellyfish green fluorescent protein (GFP) and we then re-constructed the GFP coding DNA with human tetra-peptide-coding sequences. Results provide proof-of-principle that SEIP may be used to reveal differences in the properties of coding DNA and to reconstruct in pieces a protein coding DNA with sequences from a different organism, the latter might be exploited in heterologous protein expression. PMID:23861567

  15. Effect of Wheelchair Frame Material on Users' Mechanical Work and Transmitted Vibration

    PubMed Central

    Aissaoui, Rachid

    2014-01-01

    Wheelchair propulsion exposes the user to a high risk of shoulder injury and to whole-body vibration that exceeds recommendations of ISO 2631-1:1997. Reducing the mechanical work required to travel a given distance (WN-WPM, weight-normalized work-per-meter) can help reduce the risk of shoulder injury, while reducing the vibration transmissibility (VT) of the wheelchair frame can reduce whole-body vibration. New materials such as titanium and carbon are used in today's wheelchairs and are advertised to improve both parameters, but current knowledge on this matter is limited. In this study, WN-WPM and VT were measured simultaneously and compared between six folding wheelchairs (1 titanium, 1 carbon, and 4 aluminium). Ten able-bodied users propelled the six wheelchairs on three ground surfaces. Although no significant difference of WN-WPM was found between wheelchairs (P < 0.1), significant differences of VT were found (P < 0.05). The carbon wheelchair had the lowest VT. Contrarily to current belief, the titanium wheelchair VT was similar to aluminium wheelchairs. A negative correlation between VT and WN-WPM was found, which means that reducing VT may be at the expense of increasing WN-WPM. Based on our results, use of carbon in wheelchair construction seems promising to reduce VT without increasing WN-WPM. PMID:25276802

  16. Graph theoretical enumeration of topology-distinct structures for hydrogen fluoride clusters (HF)n (n ≤ 6)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jelil, Mahmutjan; Abaydulla, Alimjan

    2015-07-01

    A graph theoretical procedure to generate all the possible topology-distinct structures for hydrogen fluoride (HF) clusters is presented in this work. The hydrogen bond matrix is defined and used to enumerate the topology-distinct structures of hydrogen fluoride (HF)n (n = 2-8) clusters. From close investigation of the structural patterns obtained, several restrictions that should be satisfied for a structure of the HF clusters to be stable are found. The corresponding digraphs of generated hydrogen bond matrices are used as the theoretical framework to obtain all the topology-distinct local minima for (HF)n (n ≤ 6), at the level of MP2/6-31G**(d, p) of ab initio MO method and B3LYP/6-31G**(d, p) of density functional theory method. For HF clusters up to tetramers, the local minimum structures that we generated are same as those in the literature. For HF pentamers and hexamers, we found some new local minima structures which had not been obtained previously.

  17. Biological effectiveness of fast neutrons on a murine osteosarcoma

    SciTech Connect

    Ishii, T.; Ando, K.; Koike, S.

    1989-03-01

    The effect of fast neutrons and gamma rays on a murine osteosarcoma was studied. The NROS tumor, a radiation-induced osteosarcoma in a C3H mouse, was transplanted into the right hind legs of syngeneic female mice and locally irradiated with single or four daily doses of either fast neutrons or gamma rays. The NROS contained 13-30% hypoxic cells. It took approximately 7 days for the NROS tumor to show apparent reoxygenation following gamma ray irradiations. Two assays were used to determine the neutrons' relative biological effectiveness (RBE) to gamma rays: tumor growth delay time and tumor control dose. The largest RBE of 4.5 was obtained at the smallest dose of neutrons examined, followed by a gradual decrease down to 2.3. The tumor growth delay assay indicated that the RBE values of 2.6-3.1 after single doses of fast neutrons increased to 3.1-4.5 after four daily fractions. The 50% tumor control doses were 78.5 Gy and 33.0 Gy after single doses of gamma rays and fast neutrons, resulting in an RBE of 2.3. Fractionated doses increased the RBE to 2.6. Mitotic cells disappeared shortly after irradiation but reappeared 7 days after irradiation.

  18. On the structure and dynamics of secondary n-alkyl cations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    East, Allan L. L.; Bučko, Tomáš; Hafner, Jürgen

    2009-09-01

    A variety of computational studies was undertaken to examine and establish the relative importance of open versus closed structures for unbranched secondary n-alkyl cations. First, the PW91 level of density functional theory was used to optimize over 20 minimum-energy structures of sec-pentyl, sec-hexyl, and sec-heptyl ions, demonstrating that closed structures are more stable than open ones on the potential energy surface (PES). Second, PW91 was used with a theoretical Andersen thermostat to perform a molecular dynamics simulation (150 ps) of C9H19+ at a typical catalytic temperature of 800 K, demonstrating that the structure preference is inverted on the free-energy surface. Third, both quantum (rigid-rotor/harmonic oscillator) and classical partition functions were used to demonstrate that the simulated structure-opening at catalytic temperatures is due to the floppiness of the open forms, which improves its free energy by both lowering its zero-point vibrational energy and increasing its molecular entropy. The particular conformer of the preferred open form (at 800 K) is dependent on length of alkyl ion, with pentyl ions preferring syn/anti structures but longer ions preferring open-clinal ones. These results, plus an additional set of PES optimized structures from an alternative level of theory (MP2/6-31G(d,p)), are used to discuss the likely nature of secondary n-alkyl ions.

  19. Use of transcutaneous ultrasonography to characterize ovarian status, size distribution, and hierarchical status of follicles in Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica).

    PubMed

    Sreesujatha, R M; Jeyakumar, S; Kundu, A; Balasundaram, Chellam

    2016-09-15

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the ovarian status of matured breeding female Japanese quail by means of B Mode portable ultrasound scanning. Active ovaries in various stages of hierarchical development and different morphological structure were observed. The large yellow follicles appeared as a cluster of dark circles with various intensity of hyperechoic concentric ring. Sonographically, these follicles were classified into F1, F2, and F3 measuring 16.20 ± 0.06 mm, 12.48 ± 0.09 mm, and 7.95 ± 0.16 mm, respectively. A comparative study on preslaughter and postslaughter ovarian follicular status revealed accuracy of follicles less than 10 mm, 10-15 mm, 15-18 mm, and greater than 18 mm as 26.31%, 78.9%, 93.75%, and 100%, respectively, with an overall accuracy of 71%. This is the first report on the application of transcutaneous ultrasonographic technique to monitor ovarian status on Japanese quail reporting that the ovarian follicular activity and morphological structure can be monitored nonintrusively throughout quail life which can used as model for reproductive and biomedical research. PMID:27233352

  20. Paris Agreement climate proposals need a boost to keep warming well below 2 °C.

    PubMed

    Rogelj, Joeri; den Elzen, Michel; Höhne, Niklas; Fransen, Taryn; Fekete, Hanna; Winkler, Harald; Schaeffer, Roberto; Sha, Fu; Riahi, Keywan; Meinshausen, Malte

    2016-06-30

    The Paris climate agreement aims at holding global warming to well below 2 degrees Celsius and to "pursue efforts" to limit it to 1.5 degrees Celsius. To accomplish this, countries have submitted Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDCs) outlining their post-2020 climate action. Here we assess the effect of current INDCs on reducing aggregate greenhouse gas emissions, its implications for achieving the temperature objective of the Paris climate agreement, and potential options for overachievement. The INDCs collectively lower greenhouse gas emissions compared to where current policies stand, but still imply a median warming of 2.6-3.1 degrees Celsius by 2100. More can be achieved, because the agreement stipulates that targets for reducing greenhouse gas emissions are strengthened over time, both in ambition and scope. Substantial enhancement or over-delivery on current INDCs by additional national, sub-national and non-state actions is required to maintain a reasonable chance of meeting the target of keeping warming well below 2 degrees Celsius. PMID:27357792

  1. Evidence for a strong intermolecular bond in the phenolṡN2 cation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haines, S. R.; Geppert, W. D.; Chapman, D. M.; Watkins, M. J.; Dessent, C. E. H.; Cockett, M. C. R.; Müller-Dethlefs, K.

    1998-12-01

    The phenolṡN2 complex cation has been studied with a combination of two-color resonant zero kinetic energy (ZEKE) and mass analyzed threshold ionization (MATI) spectroscopies to probe the interaction of a polar cation with a quadrupolar solvent molecule. Extended vibrational progressions are observed in three modes which are assigned as the in-plane bend (35 cm-1), the stretch (117 cm-1), and in-plane wag (130 cm-1) intermolecular vibrations, and are consistent with a structure where the N2 forms a directional bond to the phenol OH group in the plane of the aromatic ring. Ab initio calculations at the UMP2/6-31G*, UHF/cc-pVDZ, and UMP2/cc-pVDZ levels of theory support this assignment. The spectra also provide a value for the adiabatic ionization energy (67 423 cm-1±4.5 cm-1) and an estimate of the dissociation energy of the cluster (1650±20 cm-1) which illustrate that the quadrupolar nitrogen molecule binds considerably more strongly to the phenol cation than a rare gas atom. These results constitute the first report of an aromaticṡN2 complex where the interaction can be described in terms of weak hydrogen bonding, rather than in terms of a van der Waals bond to the π-system of the benzene ring.

  2. Blue Creek Winter Range : Wildlife Mitigation Project : Final Environmental Assessment.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration; United States. Bureau of Indian Affairs; Spokane Tribe of the Spokane Reservation, Washington

    1994-11-01

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) proposes to fund that portion of the Washington Wildlife Agreement pertaining to the Blue Creek Winter Range Wildlife Mitigation Project (Project) in a cooperative effort with the Spokane Tribe, Upper Columbia United Tribes, and the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA). If fully implemented, the proposed action would allow the sponsors to protect and enhance 2,631 habitat units of big game winter range and riparian shrub habitat on 2,185 hectares (5,400 acres) of Spokane Tribal trust lands, and to conduct long term wildlife management activities within the Spokane Indian Reservation project area. This Final Environmental Assessment (EA) examines the potential environmental effects of securing land and conducting wildlife habitat enhancement and long term management activities within the boundaries of the Spokane Indian Reservation. Four proposed activities (habitat protection, habitat enhancement, operation and maintenance, and monitoring and evaluation) are analyzed. The proposed action is intended to meet the need for mitigation of wildlife and wildlife habitat adversely affected by the construction of Grand Coulee Dam and its reservoir.

  3. Molecular geometry of 2-nitrotoluene from gas phase electron diffraction and quantum chemical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shishkov, Igor F.; Vilkov, Lev V.; Kovács, Attila; Hargittai, István

    1998-04-01

    The molecular geometry of 2-nitrotoluene has been determined by gas phase electron diffraction and quantum chemical computations at the MP2/6-31G∗ and Becke3-Lee-Yang-Parr (B3-LYP)/6-31G∗ levels of theory. Computed differences in CC bond lengths were utilized as constraints in the electron diffraction structure analysis. The scaled B3-LYP/6-31G∗ force field was used to generate the initial set of vibrational amplitudes. The electron diffraction study yielded the following bond lengths ( rg) and bond angles: C 1C 2, 1.405(8) Å; NO, 1.231(3) Å; C 1C 7, 1.508(8) Å; CN, 1.490(9) Å; C 7C 1C 2, 127.3(7)°; NC 2C 3, 113.8(6)°; C 1C 2C 3, 124.2(9)°; C 6C 1C 2, 114.8(6)°; C 5C 6C 1, 123.1(10)°; O-N-O, 124.9(3)°; ϕ(CN), 38(1)°. The structural features of the molecule point to steric interactions prevailing between the methyl and nitro groups.

  4. Sample-Size Effects on the Compression Behavior of a Ni-BASED Amorphous Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Weizhong; Zhao, Guogang; Wu, Linzhi; Yu, Hongjun; Li, Ming; Zhang, Lin

    Ni42Cu5Ti20Zr21.5Al8Si3.5 bulk metallic glasses rods with diameters of 1 mm and 3 mm, were prepared by arc melting of composing elements in a Ti-gettered argon atmosphere. The compressive deformation and fracture behavior of the amorphous alloy samples with different size were investigated by testing machine and scanning electron microscope. The compressive stress-strain curves of 1 mm and 3 mm samples exhibited 4.5% and 0% plastic strain, while the compressive fracture strength for 1 mm and 3 mm rod is 4691 MPa and 2631 MPa, respectively. The compressive fracture surface of different size sample consisted of shear zone and non-shear one. Typical vein patterns with some melting drops can be seen on the shear region of 1 mm rod, while fish-bone shape patterns can be observed on 3 mm specimen surface. Some interesting different spacing periodic ripples existed on the non-shear zone of 1 and 3 mm rods. On the side surface of 1 mm sample, high density of shear bands was observed. The skip of shear bands can be seen on 1 mm sample surface. The mechanisms of the effect of sample size on fracture strength and plasticity of the Ni-based amorphous alloy are discussed.

  5. Theoretical studies on the formation mechanism and explosive performance of nitro-substituted 1,3,5-triazines.

    PubMed

    Yang, Kiyull; Park, Young Hee; Cho, Soo Gyeong; Lee, Hai Whang; Kim, Chan Kyung; Koo, Hyun-Joo

    2010-10-01

    To develop new highly energetic materials, we have considered the design of molecules with high nitrogen content. Possible candidates include 1,3,5-triazine derivatives. In this work, we studied potential synthetic routes for melamine using the MP2/6-31+G(d,p)//B3LYP/6-31G(d) level of theory. The mechanisms studied here are stepwise mechanism beginning with the dimerization of cyanamide and one-step termolecular mechanism. The same type of mechanism is also applied to nitro-substituted 1,3,5-triazines. Values for the heat of formation in the solid phase were predicted from density functional theory calculations. Densities were estimated from a regression equation obtained by molecular surface electrostatic potentials. The Cheetah program was used to study the explosive performance of these compounds. In this study, we found that the explosive properties of 2-amino-4, 6-dinitro-1, 3,5-triazine (ADNTA), and 2,4,6-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (TNTA) are similar to those of RDX and HMX, respectively. PMID:20652990

  6. CHARMM Additive All-Atom Force Field for Acyclic Polyalcohols, Acyclic Carbohydrates and Inositol

    PubMed Central

    Hatcher, Elizabeth; Guvench, Olgun; MacKerell, Alexander D.

    2009-01-01

    Parametrization of the additive all-atom CHARMM force field for acyclic polyalcohols, acyclic carbohydrates and inositol is conducted. Initial parameters were transferred from the alkanes and hexopyranose carbohydrates, with subsequent development and optimization of parameters unique to the molecules considered in this study. Using the model compounds acetone and acetaldehyde, nonbonded parameters for carbonyls were optimized targeting quantum mechanical interaction data for solute-water pairs and pure solvent thermodynamic data. Bond and angle parameters were adjusted by comparing optimized geometries to small molecule crystal survey data and by performing vibrational analyses on acetone, acetaldehyde and glycerol. C-C-C-C, C-C-C-O, C-C-OH and O-C-C-O torsional parameters for polyol chains were fit to quantum mechanical dihedral potential energy scans comprising over 1500 RIMP2/cc-pVTZ//MP2/6-31G(d) conformations using an automated Monte Carlo simulated annealing procedure. Comparison of computed condensed-phase data, including crystal lattice parameters and densities, NMR proton-proton couplings, densities and diffusion coefficients of aqueous solutions, to experimental data validated the optimized parameters. Parameter development for these compounds proved particularly challenging because of the flexibility of the acyclic sugars and polyalcohols as well as the intramolecular hydrogen bonding between vicinal hydroxyls for all of the compounds. The newly optimized additive CHARMM force field parameters are anticipated to be of utility for atomic level of detail simulations of acyclic polyalcohols, acyclic carbohydrates and inositol in solution. PMID:20160980

  7. Short-Term responses of breeding birds of grassland and early successional habitat to timing of haying in Northwestern Arkansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Luscier, J.D.; Thompson, W.L.

    2009-01-01

    In 2003, we evaluated nest survival and density of the Dickcissel (Spiza americana), Eastern Meadowlark (Sturnella magna), Field Sparrow (Spizella pusilla), and Red-winged Blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus) in four unhayed, two early-hayed (26-31 May) and three late-hayed (17-25 June) fields in northwestern Arkansas. Rope dragging and observations revealed 89 nests. Daily nest-survival rates (SE) prior to haying ranged from 0.94 (0.03) to 0.97 (0.02). Early haying affected both nest-survival rates and bird densities negatively, whereas late haying had minimal effects. Fifteen nests in hayed portions of early-hayed fields were destroyed, whereas only 2 of 52 nests were affected by late haying. Density was at least 0.98 birds ha-1 higher in unhayed than in early-hayed fields and 1.03 birds ha-1 higher in late-hayed than in early-hayed fields. In northwestern Arkansas, postponing haying until mid- to late June would allow time for nestlings to fledge, would have little effect on bird densities, and would affect hay nutrition and regrowth minimally. ?? The Cooper Ornithological Society, 2009.

  8. Simulation of charged-particle beam transport in a gas using a hybrid particle-fluid plasma model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welch, D. R.; Olson, C. L.; Sanford, T. W. L.

    1994-03-01

    The simulation of charged-particle beam transport in a ˜1 Torr gas requires accurate plasma-electron modeling. A simple resistive model, which assumes local energy deposition and a thermal plasma-electron distribution, is inadequate. A hybrid model has been implemented into the particle-in-cell simulation code, iprop (The iprop Three-Dimensional Beam Propagation Code, AMRC-R-966, available from D. Welch, Mission Research Corporation, 1720 Randolph Road SE, Albuquerque, NM 87106, September 1987), in which plasma electrons are divided into high-energy macroparticle and thermal-fluid components. This model, which includes ``knock-on'' bound-electron collision and runaway sources for high-energy electrons, is then used in the simulation of relativistic electron-beam and ion-beam experiments. Results are found to be in agreement with HERMES III [Performance of the HERMES III Gamma Ray Simulator, in Digest of Technical Papers, 7th IEEE Pulsed Power Conference, Monterey, CA, 11 June 1989 (Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers, New York, 1989), pp. 26-31] and GAMBLE II [Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 2573 (1993)] experimental observables.

  9. Discrimination learning and reversal of the conditioned eyeblink reflex in a rodent model of autism.

    PubMed

    Stanton, Mark E; Peloso, Elizabeth; Brown, Kevin L; Rodier, Patricia

    2007-01-10

    Offspring of rats exposed to valproic acid (VPA) on gestational day (GD) 12 have been advocated as a rodent model of autism because they show neuron loss in brainstem nuclei and the cerebellum resembling that seen in human autistic cases . Studies of autistic children have reported alterations in acquisition of classical eyeblink conditioning and in reversal of instrumental discrimination learning . Acquisition of discriminative eyeblink conditioning depends on known brainstem-cerebellar circuitry whereas reversal depends on interactions of this circuitry with the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. In order to explore behavioral parallels of the VPA rodent model with human autism, the present study exposed pregnant Long-Evans rats to 600 mg/kg VPA on GD12 and tested their offspring from Postnatal Day (PND26-31) on discriminative eyeblink conditioning and reversal. VPA rats showed faster eyeblink conditioning, consistent with studies in autistic children . This suggests that previously reported parallels between human autism and the VPA rodent model with respect to injury to brainstem-cerebellar circuitry are accompanied by behavioral parallels when a conditioning task engaging this circuitry is used. VPA rats also showed impaired reversal learning, but this likely reflected "carry-over" of enhanced conditioning during acquisition rather than a reversal learning deficit like that seen in human autism. Further studies of eyeblink conditioning in human autism and in various animal models may help to identify the etiology of this developmental disorder. PMID:17137645

  10. Discrimination Learning and Reversal of the Conditioned Eyeblink Reflex in a Rodent Model of Autism

    PubMed Central

    Stanton, Mark E.; Peloso, Elizabeth; Brown, Kevin L.; Rodier, Patricia

    2007-01-01

    Offspring of rats exposed to valproic acid (VPA) on Gestational Day (GD) 12 have been advocated as a rodent model of autism because they show neuron loss in brainstem nuclei and the cerebellum resembling that seen in human autistic cases [20, 37]. Studies of autistic children have reported alterations in acquisition of classical eyeblink conditioning [40] and in reversal of instrumental discrimination learning [9]. Acquisition of discriminative eyeblink conditioning depends on known brainstem-cerebellar circuitry whereas reversal depends on interactions of this circuitry with the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. In order to explore behavioral parallels of the VPA rodent model with human autism, the present study exposed pregnant Long-Evans rats to 600 mg/kg VPA on GD12 [cf. 37] and tested their offspring from PND26-31 on discriminative eyeblink conditioning and reversal. VPA rats showed faster eyeblink conditioning, consistent with studies in autistic children [40]. This suggests that previously reported parallels between human autism and the VPA rodent model with respect to injury to brainstem-cerebellar circuitry [37] are accompanied by behavioral parallels when a conditioning task engaging this circuitry is used. VPA rats also showed impaired reversal learning, but this likely reflected “carry-over” of enhanced conditioning during acquisition rather than a reversal learning deficit like that seen in human autism. Further studies of eyeblink conditioning in human autism and in various animal models may help to identify the etiology of this developmental disorder. PMID:17137645

  11. A polarizable dipole-dipole interaction model for evaluation of the interaction energies for N-H···O=C and C-H···O=C hydrogen-bonded complexes.

    PubMed

    Li, Shu-Shi; Huang, Cui-Ying; Hao, Jiao-Jiao; Wang, Chang-Sheng

    2014-03-01

    In this article, a polarizable dipole-dipole interaction model is established to estimate the equilibrium hydrogen bond distances and the interaction energies for hydrogen-bonded complexes containing peptide amides and nucleic acid bases. We regard the chemical bonds N-H, C=O, and C-H as bond dipoles. The magnitude of the bond dipole moment varies according to its environment. We apply this polarizable dipole-dipole interaction model to a series of hydrogen-bonded complexes containing the N-H···O=C and C-H···O=C hydrogen bonds, such as simple amide-amide dimers, base-base dimers, peptide-base dimers, and β-sheet models. We find that a simple two-term function, only containing the permanent dipole-dipole interactions and the van der Waals interactions, can produce the equilibrium hydrogen bond distances compared favorably with those produced by the MP2/6-31G(d) method, whereas the high-quality counterpoise-corrected (CP-corrected) MP2/aug-cc-pVTZ interaction energies for the hydrogen-bonded complexes can be well-reproduced by a four-term function which involves the permanent dipole-dipole interactions, the van der Waals interactions, the polarization contributions, and a corrected term. Based on the calculation results obtained from this polarizable dipole-dipole interaction model, the natures of the hydrogen bonding interactions in these hydrogen-bonded complexes are further discussed. PMID:24497309

  12. Hydrogen-bonded glycine-HCN complexes in gas phase: structure, energetics, electric properties and cooperativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machado da Silva, Arnaldo; Chakrabarty, Sumana; Chaudhuri, Puspitapallab

    2015-03-01

    Twelve hydrogen-bonded complexes of glycine and hydrogen cyanide have been studied using high-level quantum-chemical calculations in gas phase. In particular, six 1:1 glycine-HCN dimers and six 1:2 glycine-HCN trimers have been considered. Besides the characteristics of the hydrogen bonds and their effect on molecular structure and energetics, several molecular electric properties have been calculated utilising two different models: MP2/6-31++G(d,p) and DFT-B3LYP/6-31++G(d,p). Although the structural parameters calculated by the two models are similar, equilibrium electronic energies of the clusters show model dependence. The lowest energy dimer is same in both the models which is ca. 3.0 kcal/mol more stable than the highest energy dimer. However, the lowest energy trimer is different in two methods. The energetic difference of stability between the highest and lowest trimer is 4.2 kcal/mol (4.4 kcal/mol) at an MP2 (B3LYP) level of calculation. The bond angles of glycine, in particular, are quite sensitive to the hydrogen-bond formation. Four out of six trimers are found to be strongly cooperative in both the models. Significant changes of dipole moments and polarisabilities of isolated glycine and hydrogen cyanide are observed due to the formation of hydrogen bonding. The Rayleigh scattering intensities of all clusters are much larger than those of their constituent monomers.

  13. Ab initio parameterization of YFF1, a universal force field for drug-design applications.

    PubMed

    Yakovenko, Olexandr Ya; Li, Yvonne Y; Oliferenko, Alexander A; Vashchenko, Ganna M; Bdzhola, Volodymyr G; Jones, Steven J M

    2012-02-01

    The YFF1 is a new universal molecular mechanic force field designed for drug discovery purposes. The electrostatic part of YFF1 has already been parameterized to reproduce ab initio calculated dipole and quadrupole moments. Now we report a parameterization of the van der Waals interactions (vdW) for the same atom types that were previously defined. The 6-12 Lennard-Jones potential terms were parameterized against homodimerization energies calculated at the MP2/6-31 G level of theory. The Boys-Bernardi counterpoise correction was employed to account for the basis-set superposition error. As a source of structural information we used about 2,400 neutral compounds from the ZINC2007 database. About 6,600 homodimeric configurations were generated from this dataset. A special "closure" procedure was designed to accelerate the parameters fitting. As a result, dimerization energies of small organic compounds are reproduced with an average unsigned error of 1.1 kcal mol(-1). Although the primary goal of this work was to parameterize nonbonded interactions, bonded parameters were also derived, by fitting to PM6 semiempirically optimized geometries of approximately 20,000 compounds. PMID:21562826

  14. The Atacama Cosmology Telescope: High-Resolution Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Array Observations of ACT SZE-Selected Clusters from the Equatorial Strip

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reese, Erik D.; Mroczkowski, Tony; Menanteau, Felipe; Hilton, Matt; Sievers, Jonathan; Aguirre, Paula; Appel, John William; Baker, Andrew J.; Bond, J. Richard; Das, Sudeep; Devlin, Mark J.; Dicker, Simon R.; Duenner, Rolando; Essinger-Hileman, Thomas; Fowler, Joseph W.; Hajian, Amir; Halpern, Mark; Hasselfield, Matthew; Hill, J. Colin; Hincks, Adam D.; Huffenberger, Kevin M.; Hughes, John P.; Irwin, Kent D.; Klein, Jeff; Wollack, Edward J.

    2011-01-01

    We present follow-up observations with the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Array (SZA) of optically-confirmed galaxy clusters found in the equatorial survey region of the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT): ACT-CL J0022-0036, ACT-CL J2051+0057, and ACT-CL J2337+0016. ACT-CL J0022-0036 is a newly-discovered, massive (10(exp 15) Msun), high-redshift (z=0.81) cluster revealed by ACT through the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect (SZE). Deep, targeted observations with the SZA allow us to probe a broader range of cluster spatial scales, better disentangle cluster decrements from radio point source emission, and derive more robust integrated SZE flux and mass estimates than we can with ACT data alone. For the two clusters we detect with the SZA we compute integrated SZE signal and derive masses from the SZA data only. ACT-CL J2337+0016, also known as Abell 2631, has archival Chandra data that allow an additional X-ray-based mass estimate. Optical richness is also used to estimate cluster masses and shows good agreement with the SZE and X-ray-based estimates. Based on the point sources detected by the SZA in these three cluster fields and an extrapolation to ACT's frequency, we estimate that point sources could be contaminating the SZE decrement at the less than = 20% level for some fraction of clusters.

  15. Assessment of whole-body vibration levels of coal miners. Volume 3. Low-frequency vibration exposure and seat performance. Open File report, November 1979-April 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Remington, P.J.

    1984-11-01

    The field data gathered as part of the measurements described in Volumes I and II were reanalyzed in the low frequency regime (.1 Hz to 1 Hz) where motion sickness normally occurs. These data were compared to the International Standard 2631 Addendum 2: Evaluation of exposure to whole-body Z-axis vertical vibration in the frequency range of 0.1 to 1.0 Hz. For both underground mining machines and surface-mining machines, the results showed that one would not expect motion sickness to be a severe problem. New field data were gathered on the vibration reduction performance of various seat designs found on surface-coal-mining machines. The vibration during normal operation was simultaneously measured on the seat using the standard seat-pad accelerometer packaged described in the previous two volumes, and on the floor of the machine at the base of the seat. Preliminary indications are that the so-called high performance seats used for operator vibration reduction do not offer significant improvement over conventional seats.

  16. Modeling Chemical Growth Processes in Titan's Atmosphere: 1. Theoretical Rates for Reactions between Benzene and the Ethynyl (C2H) and Cyano (CN) Radicals at Low Temperature and Pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woon, David E.

    2006-01-01

    Density functional theory calculations at the B3LYP/6-31+G** level were employed to characterize the critical points for adducts, isomers, products, and intervening transition states for the reactions between benzene and the ethynyl (C2H) or cyano (CN) radicals. Both addition reactions were found to have no barriers in their entrance channels, making them efficient at the low temperature and pressure conditions that prevail in the haze-forming region of Titan's atmosphere as well as in the dense interstellar medium (ISM). The dominant products are ethynylbenzene (C6H5C2H) and cyanobenzene (C6H5CN). Hydrogen abstraction reactions were also characterized but found to be non-competitive. Trajectory calculations based on potentials fit to about 600 points calculated at the ROMP2/6-31+G** level for each interaction surface were used to determine reaction rates. The rates incorporated any necessary corrections for back reactions as ascertained from a multiwell treatment used to determine outcome distributions over the range of temperatures and pressures pertinent to Titan and the ISM and are in good agreement with the limited available experimental data.

  17. Temperament as a moderator of the effects of parenting on children's behavior.

    PubMed

    Gallitto, Elena

    2015-08-01

    This study examined the role of child temperament as moderator of the effect of parenting style on children's externalizing and internalizing behaviors. A series of structural equation models were fit to a representative sample of 2,631 Canadian children from the National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth. In addition to testing for the presence of Temperament × Parenting interactions, these models also examined the direct and indirect effects of a number of additional contextual factors such as neighborhood problems, neighborhood cohesion, social support, and maternal depression. The results indicate that exposure to more positive parenting reduces behavior problems in children with difficult/unadaptable temperaments. No moderating effects of temperament on hostile parenting were found. Such results serve to highlight the pivotal role of positive features of the rearing environment as catalysts for the successful adaptation of children with difficult/unadaptable temperaments. The results of this modeling work also serve to emphasize the importance of considering the ways in which more distal factors can affect children's behavioral adaptation by contributing to changes in proximal family processes. PMID:25170995

  18. Effect of Beta Blockers and Renin–Angiotensin System Inhibitors on Survival in Patients With Acute Myocardial Infarction Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Pil Hyung; Park, Gyung-Min; Kim, Young-Hak; Yun, Sung-Cheol; Chang, Mineok; Roh, Jae-Hyung; Yoon, Sung-Han; Ahn, Jung-Min; Park, Duk-Woo; Kang, Soo-Jin; Lee, Seung-Whan; Lee, Cheol Whan; Park, Seong-Wook; Park, Seung-Jung

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Because it remains uncertain whether β-blockers (BBs) and/or renin–angiotensin system inhibitors benefit a broad population of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients, we sought to evaluate the effectiveness of these drugs in improving survival for post-AMI patients who underwent a percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). From the nationwide data of the South Korea National Health Insurance, 33,390 patients with a diagnosis of AMI who underwent a PCI between 2009 and 2013 and survived at least 30 days were included in this study. We evaluated the risk of all-cause death for patients treated with both BB and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI)/angiotensin II receptor antagonist (ARB) (n = 16,280), only BB (n = 3683), and only ACEI/ARB (n = 9849), with the drug-untreated patients (n = 3578) as the reference. Over a median follow-up of 2.4 years, although treated patients displayed a trend toward improved survival, there were no significant differences in the adjusted risk of all-cause death when patients were treated with both drugs (hazard ratio [HR] 0.86, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.70–1.06, P = 0.154), BB (HR 0.88, 95% CI 0.68–1.14, P = 0.325), or ACEI/ARB (HR 0.84, 95% CI 0.68–1.04, P = 0.111). No additional benefit was found for the combination therapy compared with either isolated BB (HR 0.98, 95% CI 0.80–1.21, P = 0.856) or ACEI/ARB (HR 1.03, 95% CI 0.89–1.19, P = 0.727) therapy. Treatment with BB and/or ACEI/ARB has limited effect on survival in unselected nonfatal AMI patients who undergo PCI. PMID:26962802

  19. Adverse Childhood Experiences and Psychosocial Well-Being of Women Who Were in Foster Care as Children

    PubMed Central

    Bruskas, Delilah; Tessin, Dale H

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objective: Research has shown that many children in foster care later have psychosocial problems as adults; this is often attributed to cumulative adversities and a lack of supportive caregivers. The risk factors associated with foster care, such as maternal separation and multiple placements, often counteract many protective factors that can ameliorate the effects of childhood adversities. This study assessed the relationship between adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and psychosocial well-being in women who were in foster care as children. Methods: A total of 101 women aged 18–71 years (mean, 36.83 [12.95] years) completed an anonymous online survey based on the 10-item ACE Questionnaire, the Sense of Coherence questionnaire, and the General Health Questionnaire. Results: More than 56% of respondents were identified as experiencing current psychological distress. Sense of coherence scores (mean, 54.26 [15.35]) showed a significant inverse association with both General Health Questionnaire (mean, 14.83 [5.88]) and ACE (mean, 5.68 [2.90]) scores (r = −0.64 and −0.31, respectively) and 97% reported at least 1 ACE, 70% reported ≥ 5 and 33% reported ≥ 8. Linear regressions indicated that ACEs reported to occur before foster care were associated with lower levels of sense of coherence (8%) and higher levels of psychological distress (6%). Physical neglect and living in a dysfunctional household (parental loss, maternal abuse, or household member associated with substance abuse or prison) significantly decreased during foster care by 16 and 19 percentage points, respectively. Rates of emotional and physical abuse did not change. Conclusion: The number of ACEs was associated with the level of psychological distress. Our findings suggest that children entering the foster care system are already vulnerable and at risk of experiencing ACEs during foster care and psychological distress during adulthood. Measures implemented to protect children must

  20. Reproductive aging-associated common genetic variants and the risk of breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction A younger age at menarche and an older age at menopause are well established risk factors for breast cancer. Recent genome-wide association studies have identified several novel genetic loci associated with these two traits. However, the association between these loci and breast cancer risk is unknown. Methods In this study, we investigated 19 and 17 newly identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from the ReproGen Consortium that have been associated with age at menarche and age at natural menopause, respectively, and assessed their associations with breast cancer risk in 6 population-based studies among up to 3,683 breast cancer cases and 34,174 controls in white women of European ancestry. In addition, we used these SNPs to calculate genetic risk scores (GRSs) based on their associations with each trait. Results After adjusting for age and potential population stratification, two age at menarche associated SNPs (rs1079866 and rs7821178) and one age at natural menopause associated SNP (rs2517388) were associated with breast cancer risk (p values, 0.003, 0.009 and 0.023, respectively). The odds ratios for breast cancer corresponding to per-risk-allele were 1.14 (95% CI, 1.05 to 1.24), 1.08 (95% CI, 1.02 to 1.15) and 1.10 (95% CI, 1.01 to 1.20), respectively, and were in the direction predicted by their associations with age at menarche or age at natural menopause. These associations did not appear to be attenuated by further controlling for self-reported age at menarche, age at natural menopause, or known breast cancer susceptibility loci. Although we did not observe a statistically significant association between any GRS for reproductive aging and breast cancer risk, the 4th and 5th highest quintiles of the younger age at menarche GRS had odds ratios of 1.14 (95% CI, 1.01 to 1.28) and 1.13 (95% CI, 1.00 to 1.27), respectively, compared to the lowest quintile. Conclusions Our study suggests that three genetic variants, independent of their