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Sample records for 3985-9315a 18a resolution

  1. Structure of apo-azurin from Alcaligenes denitrificans at 1.8 A resolution.

    PubMed

    Shepard, W E; Kingston, R L; Anderson, B F; Baker, E N

    1993-05-01

    The structure of apo-azurin from Alcaligenes denitrificans has been determined at high resolution by X-ray crystallography. Two separate structure analyses have been carried out, (i) on crystals obtained from solutions of apo-azurin and (ii) on crystals obtained by removal of copper from previously formed crystals of holo-azurin. Data to 1.8 A resolution were collected from the apo-azurin crystals, by Weissenberg photography (with image plates) using synchrotron radiation and by diffractometry, and the structure was refined by restrained least-squares methods to a final R value of 0.160 for all data in the range 10.0-1.8 A. The final model of 1954 protein atoms, 246 water molecules (66 half-weighted), four SO(4)(2-) ions, and two low-occupancy (0.13 and 0.15) Cu atoms has r.m.s. deviations of 0.012, 0.045 and 0.013 A from standard bond lengths, angle distances and planar groups. For copper-removed azurin, data to 2.2 A were collected by diffractometry and the structure refined by restrained least squares to a final R value of 0.158 for all data in the range 10.0-2.2 A. The final model of 1954 protein atoms, 264 water molecules, two SO(4)(2-) ions, two low occupancy (0.18 and 0.22) metal atoms and one unidentified atom (modelled as S) has r.m.s. deviations of 0.013, 0.047 and 0.012 A from standard bond lengths, angle distances and planar groups. The two structures are essentially identical to each other and show no significant differences from the oxidized and reduced holo-azurin structures. The ligand side chains move slightly closer together following the removal of copper, with the radius of the cavity between the three strongly binding ligands, His 46, His 117 and Cys 112, shrinking from 1.31 A in reduced azurin to 1.24 A in oxidized azurin and 1.16 A in apo-azurin. There is a suggestion of increased flexibility in one of the copper-binding loops but the structure supports the view that the copper site found in holo-azurin is a stable structure, defined by the

  2. Crystal structure analysis of an A-DNA fragment at 1.8 A resolution: d(GCCCGGGC).

    PubMed Central

    Heinemann, U; Lauble, H; Frank, R; Blöcker, H

    1987-01-01

    Single crystals of the self-complementary octadeoxyribonucleotide d(GCCCGGGC) have been analysed by X-ray diffraction methods at a resolution of 1.8 A. The tetragonal unit cell of space group P4(3)2(1)2 has dimensions of a = 43.25 A and c = 24.61 A and contains eight strands of the oligonucleotide. The structure was refined by standard crystallographic techniques to an R factor of 17.1% using 1359 3 sigma structure factor observations. Two strands of the oligonucleotide are related by the crystallographic dyad axis to form a DNA helix in the A conformation. The d(GCCCGGGC) helix is characterized by a wide open major groove, a near perpendicular orientation of base pairs to the helix axis and an unusually small average helix twist angle of 31.3 degrees indicating a slightly underwound helix with 11.5 base pairs per turn. Extensive cross-strand stacking between guanine bases at the central cytosine-guanine step is made possible by a number of local conformational adjustments including a fully extended sugar-phosphate backbone of the central guanosine nucleotide. PMID:3684603

  3. Crystal structure of YbaK protein from Haemophilus influenzae (HI1434) at 1.8 A resolution: functional implications.

    PubMed

    Zhang, H; Huang, K; Li, Z; Banerjei, L; Fisher, K E; Grishin, N V; Eisenstein, E; Herzberg, O

    2000-07-01

    Structural genomics of proteins of unknown function most straightforwardly assists with assignment of biochemical activity when the new structure resembles that of proteins whose functions are known. When a new fold is revealed, the universe of known folds is enriched, and once the function is determined by other means, novel structure-function relationships are established. The previously unannotated protein HI1434 from H. influenzae provides a hybrid example of these two paradigms. It is a member of a microbial protein family, labeled in SwissProt as YbaK and ebsC. The crystal structure at 1.8 A resolution reported here reveals a fold that is only remotely related to the C-lectin fold, in particular to endostatin, and thus is not sufficiently similar to imply that YbaK proteins are saccharide binding proteins. However, a crevice that may accommodate a small ligand is evident. The putative binding site contains only one invariant residue, Lys46, which carries a functional group that could play a role in catalysis, indicating that YbaK is probably not an enzyme. Detailed sequence analysis, including a number of newly sequenced microbial organisms, highlights sequence homology to an insertion domain in prolyl-tRNA synthetases (proRS) from prokaryote, a domain whose function is unknown. A HI1434-based model of the insertion domain shows that it should also contain the putative binding site. Being part of a tRNA synthetases, the insertion domain is likely to be involved in oligonucleotide binding, with possible roles in recognition/discrimination or editing of prolyl-tRNA. By analogy, YbaK may also play a role in nucleotide or oligonucleotide binding, the nature of which is yet to be determined.

  4. Structure of 4-chlorobenzoyl coenzyme A dehalogenase determined to 1.8 A resolution: an enzyme catalyst generated via adaptive mutation.

    PubMed

    Benning, M M; Taylor, K L; Liu R-Q; Yang, G; Xiang, H; Wesenberg, G; Dunaway-Mariano, D; Holden, H M

    1996-06-25

    Here we describe the three-dimensional structure of 4-chlorobenzoyl-CoA dehalogenase from Pseudomonas sp. strain CBS-3. This enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of 4-chlorobenzoyl-CoA to 4-hydroxybenzoyl-CoA. The molecular structure of the enzyme/4-hydroxybenzoyl-CoA complex was solved by the techniques of multiple isomorphous replacement, solvent flattening, and molecular averaging. Least-squares refinement of the protein model reduced the crystallographic R factor to 18.8% for all measured X-ray data from 30 to 1.8 A resolution. The crystallographic investigation of this dehalogenase revealed that the enzyme is a trimer. Each subunit of the trimer folds into two distinct motifs. The larger, N-terminal domain is characterized by 10 strands of beta-pleated sheet that form two distinct layers which lie nearly perpendicular to one another. These layers of beta-sheet are flanked on either side by alpha-helices. The C-terminal domain extends away from the body of the molecule and is composed of three amphiphilic alpha-helices. This smaller domain is primarily involved in trimerization. The two domains of the subunit are linked together by a cation, most likely a calcium ion. The 4-hydroxybenzoyl-CoA molecule adopts a curved conformation within the active site such that the 4-hydroxybenzoyl and the adenosine moieties are buried while the pantothenate and pyrophosphate groups of the coenzyme are more solvent exposed. From the three-dimensional structure it is clear that Asp 145 provides the side-chain carboxylate group that adds to form the Meisenheimer intermediate and His 90 serves as the general base in the subsequent hydrolysis step. Many of the structural principles derived from this investigation may be directly applicable to other related enzymes such as crotonase. PMID:8679561

  5. Crystal structure of deoxygenated Limulus polyphemus subunit II hemocyanin at 2.18 A resolution: clues for a mechanism for allosteric regulation.

    PubMed Central

    Hazes, B.; Magnus, K. A.; Bonaventura, C.; Bonaventura, J.; Dauter, Z.; Kalk, K. H.; Hol, W. G.

    1993-01-01

    The crystal structure of Limulus polyphemus subunit type II hemocyanin in the deoxygenated state has been determined to a resolution of 2.18 A. Phase information for this first structure of a cheliceratan hemocyanin was obtained by molecular replacement using the crustacean hemocyanin structure of Panulirus interruptus. The most striking observation in the Limulus structure is the unexpectedly large distance of 4.6 A between both copper ions in the oxygen-binding site. Each copper has approximate trigonal planar coordination by three histidine N epsilon atoms. No bridging ligand between the copper ions could be detected. Other important new discoveries are (1) the presence of a cis-peptide bond between Glu 309 and Ser 310, with the carbonyl oxygen of the peptide plane hydrogen bonded to the N delta atom of the copper B ligand His 324; (2) localization of a chloride-binding site in the interface between the first and second domain; (3) localization of a putative calcium-binding site in the third domain. Furthermore, comparison of Limulus versus Panulirus hemocyanin revealed considerable tertiary and quaternary rigid body movements, although the overall folds are similar. Within the subunit, the first domain is rotated by about 7.5 degrees with respect to the other two domains, whereas within the hexamer the major movement is a 3.1 degrees rotation of the trimers with respect to each other. The rigid body rotation of the first domain suggests a structural mechanism for the allosteric regulation by chloride ions and probably causes the cooperative transition of the hexamer between low and high oxygen affinity states. In this postulated mechanism, the fully conserved Phe49 is the key residue that couples conformational changes of the dinuclear copper site into movements of the first domain. PMID:8518732

  6. Studies of monoclinic hen egg-white lysozyme. IV. X-ray refinement at 1.8 A resolution and a comparison of the variable regions in the polymorphic forms.

    PubMed

    Rao, S T; Sundaralingam, M

    1996-01-01

    Monoclinic crystals of hen egg-white lysozyme (E.C. 3.2.1.17, HEL) grown at low pH in the presence of NaNO(3) belong to space group P2(1) with unit-cell dimensions, a = 28.0, b = 62.5, c = 60.9 A and beta= 90.8 degrees with two molecules in the asymmetric unit. 1.8 A resolution intensity data, collected on a CAD-4 diffractometer, contained 17 524 reflections with F > 3sigma (93% complete). Our earlier preliminary 1.8 A model was refitted and refined using X-PLOR to an R value of 0.189. The deviations in the model from ideal geometry are 0.013 A in bond lengths and 2.8 degrees in bond angles. The r.m.s. deviation in the backbone atoms between the two molecules is 0.42 A. A comparison of HEL in different polymorphic crystal forms reveals that the prominent structural variability among them resides in two exposed regions 45-50 and 65-73 which are also regions of lattice contacts.

  7. The structure of a glycogen phosphorylase glucopyranose spirohydantoin complex at 1.8 A resolution and 100 K: the role of the water structure and its contribution to binding.

    PubMed Central

    Gregoriou, M.; Noble, M. E.; Watson, K. A.; Garman, E. F.; Krulle, T. M.; de la Fuente, C.; Fleet, G. W.; Oikonomakos, N. G.; Johnson, L. N.

    1998-01-01

    A glucopyranose spirohydantoin (a pyranose analogue of the potent herbicide, hydantocidin) has been identified as the highest affinity glucose analogue inhibitor of glycogen phosphorylase b (GPb). In order to elucidate the structural features that contribute to the binding, the structures of GPb in the native T state conformation and in complex with glucopyranose spirohydantoin have been determined at 100 K to 2.0 A and 1.8 A resolution, respectively, and refined to crystallographic R values of 0.197 (R[free] 0.248) and 0.182 (R[free] 0.229), respectively. The low temperature structure of GPb is almost identical to that of the previously determined room temperature structure, apart from a decrease in overall atomic temperature factors ((B) room temperature GPb = 34.9 A2; (B) 100 K GPb = 23.4 A2). The glucopyranose spirohydantoin inhibitor (Ki = 3.0 microM) binds at the catalytic site and induces small changes in two key regions of the protein: the 280s loop (residues 281-286) that results in a decrease in mobility of this region, and the 380s loop (residues 377-385) that undergoes more significant shifts in order to optimize contact to the ligand. The hydantoin group, that is responsible for increasing the affinity of the glucose compound by a factor of 10(3), makes only one hydrogen bond to the protein, from one of its NH groups to the main chain oxygen of His377. The other polar groups of the hydantoin group form hydrogen bonds to five water molecules. These waters are involved in extensive networks of hydrogen bonds and appear to be an integral part of the protein structure. Analysis of the water structure at the catalytic site of the native enzyme, shows that five waters are displaced by ligand binding and that there is a significant decrease in mobility of the remaining waters on formation of the GPb-hydantoin complex. The ability of the inhibitor to exploit existing waters, to displace waters and to recruit new waters appears to be important for the high

  8. Myosin 18A coassembles with nonmuscle myosin 2 to form mixed bipolar filaments.

    PubMed

    Billington, Neil; Beach, Jordan R; Heissler, Sarah M; Remmert, Kirsten; Guzik-Lendrum, Stephanie; Nagy, Attila; Takagi, Yasuharu; Shao, Lin; Li, Dong; Yang, Yi; Zhang, Yingfan; Barzik, Melanie; Betzig, Eric; Hammer, John A; Sellers, James R

    2015-03-30

    Class-18 myosins are most closely related to conventional class-2 nonmuscle myosins (NM2). Surprisingly, the purified head domains of Drosophila, mouse, and human myosin 18A (M18A) lack actin-activated ATPase activity and the ability to translocate actin filaments, suggesting that the functions of M18A in vivo do not depend on intrinsic motor activity. M18A has the longest coiled coil of any myosin outside of the class-2 myosins, suggesting that it might form bipolar filaments similar to conventional myosins. To address this possibility, we expressed and purified full-length mouse M18A using the baculovirus/Sf9 system. M18A did not form large bipolar filaments under any of the conditions tested. Instead, M18A formed an ∼ 65-nm-long bipolar structure with two heads at each end. Importantly, when NM2 was polymerized in the presence of M18A, the two myosins formed mixed bipolar filaments, as evidenced by cosedimentation, electron microscopy, and single-molecule imaging. Moreover, super-resolution imaging of NM2 and M18A using fluorescently tagged proteins and immunostaining of endogenous proteins showed that NM2 and M18A are present together within individual filaments inside living cells. Together, our in vitro and live-cell imaging data argue strongly that M18A coassembles with NM2 into mixed bipolar filaments. M18A could regulate the biophysical properties of these filaments and, by virtue of its extra N- and C-terminal domains, determine the localization and/or molecular interactions of the filaments. Given the numerous, fundamental cellular and developmental roles attributed to NM2, our results have far-reaching biological implications.

  9. 38 CFR 18a.5 - Delegation to the General Counsel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Counsel. 18a.5 Section 18a.5 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) DELEGATION OF RESPONSIBILITY IN CONNECTION WITH TITLE VI, CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 § 18a.5 Delegation to the General Counsel. The General Counsel is delegated the responsibility, upon receipt...

  10. 38 CFR 18a.5 - Delegation to the General Counsel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Counsel. 18a.5 Section 18a.5 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) DELEGATION OF RESPONSIBILITY IN CONNECTION WITH TITLE VI, CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 § 18a.5 Delegation to the General Counsel. The General Counsel is delegated the responsibility, upon receipt...

  11. 38 CFR 18a.5 - Delegation to the General Counsel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Counsel. 18a.5 Section 18a.5 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) DELEGATION OF RESPONSIBILITY IN CONNECTION WITH TITLE VI, CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 § 18a.5 Delegation to the General Counsel. The General Counsel is delegated the responsibility, upon receipt...

  12. 38 CFR 18a.5 - Delegation to the General Counsel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Counsel. 18a.5 Section 18a.5 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) DELEGATION OF RESPONSIBILITY IN CONNECTION WITH TITLE VI, CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 § 18a.5 Delegation to the General Counsel. The General Counsel is delegated the responsibility, upon receipt...

  13. 38 CFR 18a.5 - Delegation to the General Counsel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Counsel. 18a.5 Section 18a.5 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) DELEGATION OF RESPONSIBILITY IN CONNECTION WITH TITLE VI, CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 § 18a.5 Delegation to the General Counsel. The General Counsel is delegated the responsibility, upon receipt...

  14. 24 CFR 203.18a - Solar energy system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., alteration, or improvement to an existing or new structure which is designed to utilize wind energy or solar... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Solar energy system. 203.18a... § 203.18a Solar energy system. (a) The dollar limitation provided in § 203.18(a) may be increased by...

  15. 24 CFR 203.18a - Solar energy system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., alteration, or improvement to an existing or new structure which is designed to utilize wind energy or solar... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Solar energy system. 203.18a... § 203.18a Solar energy system. (a) The dollar limitation provided in § 203.18(a) may be increased by...

  16. 24 CFR 203.18a - Solar energy system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Solar energy system. 203.18a... § 203.18a Solar energy system. (a) The dollar limitation provided in § 203.18(a) may be increased by up... to the installation of a solar energy system. (b) Solar energy system is defined as any...

  17. 24 CFR 203.18a - Solar energy system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Solar energy system. 203.18a... § 203.18a Solar energy system. (a) The dollar limitation provided in § 203.18(a) may be increased by up... to the installation of a solar energy system. (b) Solar energy system is defined as any...

  18. 24 CFR 203.18a - Solar energy system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Solar energy system. 203.18a... § 203.18a Solar energy system. (a) The dollar limitation provided in § 203.18(a) may be increased by up... to the installation of a solar energy system. (b) Solar energy system is defined as any...

  19. 18. A VIEW EAST, SHOWING THE HEAVILY WOODED BANKS OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. A VIEW EAST, SHOWING THE HEAVILY WOODED BANKS OF THE ST. JOSEPH RIVER. THIS IS TYPICAL OF THE RIVERSIDE ENVIRONMENT OF THE BRIDGE. - County Line Bridge, Spanning St. Joseph River at State Route 219, 0.6 mile south of U.S. Route 20, Osceola, St. Joseph County, IN

  20. 18. A view looking southeast at the remains of the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. A view looking southeast at the remains of the director's office, his reception room and a portion of the elevator lobby. These two rooms were equipped with their own air conditioners. - John T. Beasley Building, 632 Cherry Street (between Sixth & Seventh Streets), Terre Haute, Vigo County, IN

  1. [Dispute Resolutions].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hale, Claudia L.; Cooks, Leda M.

    1994-01-01

    Focusing on the teaching of alternative dispute resolutions at universities, Claudia L. Hale and Leda M. Cooks argue that mediation should be taught primarily as a communication process that involves the joint efforts of mediator and disputants. Teachers of mediation should begin by distinguishing mediation from other forms of dispute resolution,…

  2. Conflict resolution.

    PubMed

    Levin, Roger

    2006-03-01

    The sooner conflict is identified and confronted, the more quickly it can be resolved (and the sooner, the better). When this is accomplished calmly and objectively, many areas of conflict will be eliminated. Addressing conflict as it arises also sends a clear message to the team that the practice seeks resolution, not punishment or negative consequences. In addition, the dentist and the office manager need to lead by example by avoiding gossip and encouraging open communication. The goal is to go from a parent-child relationship with the dental team to an adult-adult relationship using this series of managerial conflict resolution steps.

  3. NCAI Resolutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Indian Journal of the Institute for the Development of Indian Law, 1977

    1977-01-01

    Five Major Policy Resolutions were adopted, without objection, at the 33rd Annual Convention of the National Congress of American Indians (NCAI) held in Salt Lake City, Utah, in October 1976. The issues involved were: Treaties and Trust Responsibilities, Tribal Government, Jurisdiction, Federal Administration and Structure of Indian Affairs, and…

  4. MCS-18, a novel natural plant product prevents autoimmune diabetes.

    PubMed

    Seifarth, Christian; Littmann, Leonie; Resheq, Yazid; Rössner, Susanne; Goldwich, Andreas; Pangratz, Nadine; Kerek, Franz; Steinkasserer, Alexander; Zinser, Elisabeth

    2011-09-30

    There is still a vital need for new therapies in order to prevent or treat type I diabetes. In this respect, we report that MCS-18 a novel natural product isolated from the plant Helleborus purpurascens (i.e. Christmas rose) is able to increase diabetes free survival using the NOD-mouse model, which is accompanied with a diminished IFN-γ secretion of splenocytes. In the animal group which has been treated with MCS-18 during week 8 and week 12 of age 70% of the animals showed a diabetes free survival at week 30, whereas in contrast in the untreated animals less than 10% were free of diabetes. MCS-18 treatment significantly reduced islet T-cell infiltrates as well as the rate of T-cell proliferation. Periinsular infiltrates in the MCS-18 treated animals showed a significantly enhanced number of Foxp3(+) CD25(+) T cells, indicating the increased presence of regulatory T cells. These studies show that MCS-18 exerts an efficient immunosuppressive activity with remarkable potential for the therapy of diseases characterized by pathological over-activation of the immune system.

  5. The first structure at 1.8 A resolution of an active autolysate form of porcine alpha-trysoin.

    PubMed

    Johnson, A; Krishnaswamy, S; Sundaram, P V; Pattabhi, V

    1997-05-01

    The first crystal structure of an active autolysate form of porcine alpha-trypsin (APT), a two-chain molecule obtained from the limited autolysis of porcine beta-trypsin at position Lys145-Ser146, has been determined. APT crystallizes in space group P2(1)2(1)2(1) with one protein molecule in the asymmetric unit. The structure was solved by molecular replacement followed by refinement using X-PLOR to an R factor of 0.200 and an R(free) of 0.285 for 8.0-1.8 A data with r.m.s deviations from ideal values of 0.01 A and 1.7 degrees for bond lengths and bond angles, respectively. Comparison with inactive autolysate porcine epsilon-trypsin (EPT) and porcine beta-trypsin in complex with bittergourd trypsin inhibitor (MCT) revealed a small but systematic directional chain shift around the active-site residues from APT to EPT to MCT. PMID:15299934

  6. Assessing resolution in super-resolution imaging.

    PubMed

    Demmerle, Justin; Wegel, Eva; Schermelleh, Lothar; Dobbie, Ian M

    2015-10-15

    Resolution is a central concept in all imaging fields, and particularly in optical microscopy, but it can be easily misinterpreted. The mathematical definition of optical resolution was codified by Abbe, and practically defined by the Rayleigh Criterion in the late 19th century. The limit of conventional resolution was also achieved in this period, and it was thought that fundamental constraints of physics prevented further increases in resolution. With the recent development of a range of super-resolution techniques, it is necessary to revisit the concept of optical resolution. Fundamental differences in super-resolution modalities mean that resolution is not a directly transferrable metric between techniques. This article considers the issues in resolution raised by these new technologies, and presents approaches for comparing resolution between different super-resolution methods.

  7. 28 CFR 0.18a - Office of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Office of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization. 0.18a Section 0.18a Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ORGANIZATION OF THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Office of the Deputy Attorney General § 0.18a Office of Small and...

  8. 28 CFR 0.18a - Office of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Office of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization. 0.18a Section 0.18a Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ORGANIZATION OF THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Office of the Deputy Attorney General § 0.18a Office of Small and...

  9. 38 CFR 18a.2 - Delegation to the Under Secretary for Benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the Under Secretary for Benefits and designee to take any necessary action as to programs of... Secretary for Benefits. 18a.2 Section 18a.2 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS... § 18a.2 Delegation to the Under Secretary for Benefits. The Under Secretary for Benefits is...

  10. 38 CFR 18a.2 - Delegation to the Under Secretary for Benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Secretary for Benefits. 18a.2 Section 18a.2 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) DELEGATION OF RESPONSIBILITY IN CONNECTION WITH TITLE VI, CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964... special restorative training to implement Title VI, Civil Rights Act of 1964. Authority is......

  11. 38 CFR 18a.2 - Delegation to the Under Secretary for Benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Secretary for Benefits. 18a.2 Section 18a.2 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) DELEGATION OF RESPONSIBILITY IN CONNECTION WITH TITLE VI, CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964... special restorative training to implement Title VI, Civil Rights Act of 1964. Authority is......

  12. 38 CFR 18a.2 - Delegation to the Under Secretary for Benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Secretary for Benefits. 18a.2 Section 18a.2 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) DELEGATION OF RESPONSIBILITY IN CONNECTION WITH TITLE VI, CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964... special restorative training to implement Title VI, Civil Rights Act of 1964. Authority is......

  13. 38 CFR 18a.2 - Delegation to the Under Secretary for Benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Secretary for Benefits. 18a.2 Section 18a.2 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) DELEGATION OF RESPONSIBILITY IN CONNECTION WITH TITLE VI, CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964... special restorative training to implement Title VI, Civil Rights Act of 1964. Authority is......

  14. 28 CFR 0.18a - Office of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... shall: (a) Be responsible for the implementation and execution of the functions and duties required by... Business Utilization. 0.18a Section 0.18a Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ORGANIZATION OF THE... Business Utilization. The Office of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization is headed by a...

  15. Clinicopathological relevance of kinesin family member 18A expression in invasive breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kasahara, Mai; Nagahara, Makoto; Nakagawa, Tsuyoshi; Ishikawa, Toshiaki; Sato, Takanobu; Uetake, Hiroyuki; Sugihara, Kenichi

    2016-01-01

    Recently, kinesin motor proteins have been focused on as targets for cancer therapy. Kinesins are microtubule-based motor proteins that mediate diverse functions within the cell, including the transport of vesicles, organelles, chromosomes and protein complexes, as well as the movement of microtubules. In the current study, the expression of kinesin family member 18A (KIF18A), a member of kinesin superfamily, was investigated in breast cancer using immunohistochemistry, and its effect on breast cancer prognosis was examined. KIF18A expression level was significantly associated with lymph node metastasis (P=0.047). In patients with high levels of KIF18A expression, survival was significantly poorer compared to patients with low levels of KIF18A expression (disease-free survival, P=0.030). Multivariate analysis revealed that venous invasion (hazard ratio, 9.22; 95% confidence interval, 3.90–23.66; P<0.001) and KIF18A expression (hazard ratio, 3.20; 95% confidence interval, 1.34–6.09; P=0.010) were independent predictive factors for lymph node metastasis. KIF18A may be a useful predictive marker for lymph node metastasis in breast cancer, which could facilitate curative adjuvant treatment. PMID:27588139

  16. CYP18A1 regulates tissue-specific steroid hormone inactivation in Bombyx mori

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhiqian; Ge, Xie; Ling, Lin; Zeng, Baosheng; Xu, Jun; Aslam, Abu F.M.; You, Lang; Palli, Subba Reddy; Huang, Yongping; Tan, Anjiang

    2015-01-01

    Insect development and metamorphosis are regulated by two major hormones, juvenile hormone and ecdysteroids. Despite being the key regulator of insect developmental transitions, the metabolic pathway of the primary steroid hormone, 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E), especially its inactivation pathway, is still not completely elucidated. A cytochrome P450 enzyme, CYP18A1, has been shown to play key roles in insect steroid hormone inactivation through 26-hydroxylation. Here, we identified two CYP18 (BmCYP18A1 and BmCYP18B1) orthologs in the lepidopteran model insect, Bombyx mori. Interestingly, BmCYP18A1 gene is predominantly expressed in the middle silk gland (MSG) while BmCYP18B1 expresses ubiquitously in B. mori. BmCYP18A1 is induced by 20E in vitro, suggesting its role in 20E metabolism. Using the binary Gal4/UAS transgenic system, we ectopically overexpressed BmCYP18A1 in a MSG-specific manner with a Sericin1-Gal4 (Ser-Gal4) driver or in a ubiquitous manner with an Actin3-Gal4 (A3-Gal4) driver. Ectopic overexpression of BmCYP18A1 in MSG or in all tissues resulted in developmental arrestment of transgenic animals during the final instar larval stage. The 20E titers in the transgenic animals expressing BmCYP18A1 were lower compared to the levels in the control animals. Although the biological significance of MSG-specific expression of BmCYP18A1 is unclear, our results provide the first evidence that BmCYP18A1, which is conserved in most arthropods, is involved in a tissue-specific steroid hormone inactivation in B. mori. PMID:25173591

  17. BnNHL18A shows a localization change by stress-inducing chemical treatments

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Suk-Bae; Ham, Byung-Kook; Park, Jeong Mee; Kim, Young Jin; Paek, Kyung-Hee . E-mail: khpaek95@korea.ac.kr

    2006-01-06

    The two genes, named BnNHL18A and BnNHL18B, showing sequence homology with Arabidopsis NDR1/HIN1-like (NHL) genes, were isolated from cDNA library prepared with oilseed rape (Brassica napus) seedlings treated with NaCl. The transcript level of BnNHL18A was increased by sodium chloride, ethephon, hydrogen peroxide, methyl jasmonate, or salicylic acid treatment. The coding regions of BnNHL18A and BnNHL18B contain a sarcolipin (SLN)-like sequence. Analysis of the localization of smGFP fusion proteins showed that BnNHL18A is mainly localized to endoplasmic reticulum (ER). This result suggests that the SLN-like sequence plays a role in retaining proteins in ER membrane in plants. In response to NaCl, hydrogen peroxide, ethephon, and salicylic acid treatments, the protein localization of BnNHL18A was changed. Our findings suggest a common function of BnNHL18A in biotic and abiotic stresses, and demonstrate the presence of the shared mechanism of protein translocalization between the responses to plant pathogen and to osmotic stress.

  18. Argonaute‐2 Promotes miR‐18a Entry in Human Brain Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Raquel; Santos, Tiago; Amar, Arun; Gong, Alex; Chen, Thomas C.; Tahara, Stanley M.; Giannotta, Steven L.; Hofman, Florence M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Cerebral arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is a vascular disease exhibiting abnormal blood vessel morphology and function. miR‐18a ameliorates the abnormal characteristics of AVM‐derived brain endothelial cells (AVM‐BEC) without the use of transfection reagents. Hence, our aim was to identify the mechanisms by which miR‐18a is internalized by AVM‐BEC. Since AVM‐BEC overexpress RNA‐binding protein Argonaute‐2 (Ago‐2) we explored the clinical potential of Ago‐2 as a systemic miRNA carrier. Methods and Results Primary cultures of AVM‐BEC were isolated from surgical specimens and tested for endogenous miR‐18a levels using qPCR. Conditioned media (CM) was derived from AVM‐BEC cultures (AVM‐BEC‐CM). AVM‐BEC‐CM significantly enhanced miR‐18a internalization. Ago‐2 was detected using western blotting and immunostaining techniques. Ago‐2 was highly expressed in AVM‐BEC; and siAgo‐2 decreased miR‐18a entry into brain‐derived endothelial cells. Only brain‐derived endothelial cells were responsive to the Ago‐2/miR‐18a complex and not other cell types tested. Secreted products (eg, thrombospondin‐1 [TSP‐1]) were tested using ELISA. Brain endothelial cells treated with the Ago‐2/miR‐18a complex in vitro increased TSP‐1 secretion. In the in vivo angiogenesis glioma model, animals were treated with miR‐18a in combination with Ago‐2. Plasma was obtained and tested for TSP‐1 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)‐A. In this angiogenesis model, the Ago‐2/miR‐18a complex caused a significant increase in TSP‐1 and decrease in VEGF‐A secretion in the plasma. Conclusions Ago‐2 facilitates miR‐18a entry into brain endothelial cells in vitro and in vivo. This study highlights the clinical potential of Ago‐2 as a miRNA delivery platform for the treatment of brain vascular diseases. PMID:24837588

  19. Conflict Resolution Communications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lincoln, Melinda G.

    2002-01-01

    Suggests that, due to escalating violence in contemporary society, community colleges should offer certificate or degree programs in conflict resolution. Describes a conflict resolution communication program, which teaches communication skills, mediation processes, and coping strategies to prospective mediators. (NB)

  20. Functionally conserved cis-regulatory elements of COL18A1 identified through zebrafish transgenesis.

    PubMed

    Kague, Erika; Bessling, Seneca L; Lee, Josephine; Hu, Gui; Passos-Bueno, Maria Rita; Fisher, Shannon

    2010-01-15

    Type XVIII collagen is a component of basement membranes, and expressed prominently in the eye, blood vessels, liver, and the central nervous system. Homozygous mutations in COL18A1 lead to Knobloch Syndrome, characterized by ocular defects and occipital encephalocele. However, relatively little has been described on the role of type XVIII collagen in development, and nothing is known about the regulation of its tissue-specific expression pattern. We have used zebrafish transgenesis to identify and characterize cis-regulatory sequences controlling expression of the human gene. Candidate enhancers were selected from non-coding sequence associated with COL18A1 based on sequence conservation among mammals. Although these displayed no overt conservation with orthologous zebrafish sequences, four regions nonetheless acted as tissue-specific transcriptional enhancers in the zebrafish embryo, and together recapitulated the major aspects of col18a1 expression. Additional post-hoc computational analysis on positive enhancer sequences revealed alignments between mammalian and teleost sequences, which we hypothesize predict the corresponding zebrafish enhancers; for one of these, we demonstrate functional overlap with the orthologous human enhancer sequence. Our results provide important insight into the biological function and regulation of COL18A1, and point to additional sequences that may contribute to complex diseases involving COL18A1. More generally, we show that combining functional data with targeted analyses for phylogenetic conservation can reveal conserved cis-regulatory elements in the large number of cases where computational alignment alone falls short.

  1. Munc18a controls SNARE assembly through its interaction with the syntaxin N-peptide

    PubMed Central

    Burkhardt, Pawel; Hattendorf, Douglas A; Weis, William I; Fasshauer, Dirk

    2008-01-01

    Sec1/Munc18-like (SM) proteins functionally interact with SNARE proteins in vesicular fusion. Despite their high sequence conservation, structurally disparate binding modes for SM proteins with syntaxins have been observed. Several SM proteins appear to bind only to a short peptide present at the N terminus of syntaxin, designated the N-peptide, while Munc18a binds to a ‘closed' conformation formed by the remaining portion of syntaxin 1a. Here, we show that the syntaxin 16 N-peptide binds to the SM protein Vps45, but the remainder of syntaxin 16 strongly enhances the affinity of the interaction. Likewise, the N-peptide of syntaxin 1a serves as a second binding site in the Munc18a/syntaxin 1a complex. When the syntaxin 1a N-peptide is bound to Munc18a, SNARE complex formation is blocked. Removal of the N-peptide enables binding of syntaxin 1a to its partner SNARE SNAP-25, while still bound to Munc18a. This suggests that Munc18a controls the accessibility of syntaxin 1a to its partners, a role that might be common to all SM proteins. PMID:18337752

  2. 38 CFR 18a.4 - Duties of the Director, Contract Compliance Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) Investigate and process all complaints arising under Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964; (b) Conduct... VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) DELEGATION OF RESPONSIBILITY IN CONNECTION WITH TITLE VI, CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 § 18a.4 Duties of the Director, Contract Compliance Service. Upon referral by the......

  3. 38 CFR 18a.4 - Duties of the Director, Contract Compliance Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) Investigate and process all complaints arising under Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964; (b) Conduct... VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) DELEGATION OF RESPONSIBILITY IN CONNECTION WITH TITLE VI, CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 § 18a.4 Duties of the Director, Contract Compliance Service. Upon referral by the......

  4. 38 CFR 18a.4 - Duties of the Director, Contract Compliance Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) Investigate and process all complaints arising under Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964; (b) Conduct... VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) DELEGATION OF RESPONSIBILITY IN CONNECTION WITH TITLE VI, CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 § 18a.4 Duties of the Director, Contract Compliance Service. Upon referral by the......

  5. 38 CFR 18a.4 - Duties of the Director, Contract Compliance Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) Investigate and process all complaints arising under Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964; (b) Conduct... VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) DELEGATION OF RESPONSIBILITY IN CONNECTION WITH TITLE VI, CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 § 18a.4 Duties of the Director, Contract Compliance Service. Upon referral by the......

  6. 38 CFR 18a.4 - Duties of the Director, Contract Compliance Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) Investigate and process all complaints arising under Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964; (b) Conduct... VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) DELEGATION OF RESPONSIBILITY IN CONNECTION WITH TITLE VI, CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 § 18a.4 Duties of the Director, Contract Compliance Service. Upon referral by the......

  7. 46 CFR 31.10-18a - Liquefied gas vessels: additional firefighting equipment inspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Liquefied gas vessels: additional firefighting equipment... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Inspections § 31.10-18a Liquefied gas vessels: additional firefighting equipment... issued for a liquefied gas vessel under § 31.05-1, the master shall ensure that the firefighting...

  8. 46 CFR 31.10-18a - Liquefied gas vessels: additional firefighting equipment inspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Liquefied gas vessels: additional firefighting equipment... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Inspections § 31.10-18a Liquefied gas vessels: additional firefighting equipment... issued for a liquefied gas vessel under § 31.05-1, the master shall ensure that the firefighting...

  9. 46 CFR 31.10-18a - Liquefied gas vessels: additional firefighting equipment inspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Liquefied gas vessels: additional firefighting equipment... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Inspections § 31.10-18a Liquefied gas vessels: additional firefighting equipment... issued for a liquefied gas vessel under § 31.05-1, the master shall ensure that the firefighting...

  10. 46 CFR 31.10-18a - Liquefied gas vessels: additional firefighting equipment inspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Liquefied gas vessels: additional firefighting equipment... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Inspections § 31.10-18a Liquefied gas vessels: additional firefighting equipment... issued for a liquefied gas vessel under § 31.05-1, the master shall ensure that the firefighting...

  11. 46 CFR 31.10-18a - Liquefied gas vessels: additional firefighting equipment inspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Liquefied gas vessels: additional firefighting equipment... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Inspections § 31.10-18a Liquefied gas vessels: additional firefighting equipment... issued for a liquefied gas vessel under § 31.05-1, the master shall ensure that the firefighting...

  12. USGS aerial resolution targets.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Salamonowicz, P.H.

    1982-01-01

    It is necessary to measure the achievable resolution of any airborne sensor that is to be used for metric purposes. Laboratory calibration facilities may be inadequate or inappropriate for determining the resolution of non-photographic sensors such as optical-mechanical scanners, television imaging tubes, and linear arrays. However, large target arrays imaged in the field can be used in testing such systems. The USGS has constructed an array of resolution targets in order to permit field testing of a variety of airborne sensing systems. The target array permits any interested organization with an airborne sensing system to accurately determine the operational resolution of its system. -from Author

  13. Elevated expression of KIF18A enhances cell proliferation and predicts poor survival in human clear cell renal carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    CHEN, QI; CAO, BIN; NAN, NING; WANG, YU; ZHAI, XU; LI, YOUFANG; CHONG, TIE

    2016-01-01

    The function of kinesin family member 18A (KIF18A) in human renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is unclear. The purpose of the current study was to determine the expression and prognostic significance of KIF18A in RCC. Specimens from 273 RCC patients undergoing nephrectomies were studied. Expression of KIF18A mRNA was examined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) or quantitative PCR, and the expression of KIF18A protein was examined by immunohistochemistry and western blotting. The expression of KIF18A in clear-cell RCC cell lines was decreased using small interfering RNA targeting KIF18A, and increased by transfection with KIF18A cDNA. The proliferative ability of RCC cells in vitro and in vivo was detected by WST-1 assay and an animal xenograft model with BALB/c nude mice, respectively. The association between KIF18A expression and overall survival was calculated using Kaplan-Meier analysis. The results showed that KIF18A expression was significantly increased in RCC tissues compared with normal kidney tissues. The level of KIF18A expression was significantly associated with tumor stage, histological grade, metastasis and tumor size. Moreover, KIF18A increased the proliferation of RCC cells in vitro and in vivo. KIF18A expression was upregulated in RCC and enhanced the proliferation of RCC cells. Therefore, it appears that KIF18A plays a key role in the carcinogenesis and progression of RCC, and is a novel candidate prognostic marker for RCC patients. Furthermore, silencing KIF18A expression may serve as a new therapeutic strategy against RCC. PMID:27347065

  14. Targeted deletion of Kif18a protects from colitis-associated colorectal (CAC) tumors in mice through impairing Akt phosphorylation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Houbao; Xu, Wangyang; Zhang, Hongxin; Liu, Jianbing; Xu, Haimin; Lu, Shunyuan; Dang, Suying; Kuang, Ying; Jin, Xiaolong; Wang, Zhugang

    2013-08-16

    Highlights: •Kif18A is up-regulated in CAC of mouse model. •Kif18a{sup −/−} mice are protected from CAC. •Tumor cells from Kif18a{sup −/−} mice undergo more apoptosis. •Kif18A deficiency induces poor Atk phosphorylation. -- Abstract: Kinesins are a superfamily of molecular motors involved in cell division or intracellular transport. They are becoming important targets for chemotherapeutic intervention of cancer due to their crucial role in mitosis. Here, we demonstrate that the kinesin-8 Kif18a is overexpressed in murine CAC and is a crucial promoter during early CAC carcinogenesis. Kif18a-deficient mice are evidently protected from AOM–DSS-induced colon carcinogenesis. Kif18A is responsible for proliferation of colonic tumor cells, while Kif18a ablation in mice promotes cell apoptosis. Mechanistically, Kif18a is responsible for induction of Akt phosphorylation, which is known to be associated with cell survival regulation. In conclusion, Kif18a is critical for colorectal carcinogenesis in the setting of inflammation by mechanisms of increased PI3K-AKT signaling. Inhibition of Kif18A activity may be useful in the prevention or chemotherapeutic intervention of CAC.

  15. A Conflict Resolution Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, John; Wood, Christine

    2004-01-01

    The Conflict Resolution Model was formulated by a group of Australian psychologists who set about integrating the literature on achieving mutually beneficial outcomes in a conflict situation in order to create a best-practice prescriptive process for conflict resolution. A number of experimental studies conducted at the University of Tasmania with…

  16. Effects of spatial resolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abrams, M.

    1982-01-01

    Studies of the effects of spatial resolution on extraction of geologic information are woefully lacking but spatial resolution effects can be examined as they influence two general categories: detection of spatial features per se; and the effects of IFOV on the definition of spectral signatures and on general mapping abilities.

  17. Conflict Resolution Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charnofsky, Norene M., Comp.

    Various theories and approaches to conflict resolution and peace education are presented in the 31 resources listed in this annotated bibliography. It is divided into two sections. Section 1 contains materials designed to help adults become more effective role models for the peaceful resolution of conflict. Topics include parent/child conflicts,…

  18. Automated conflict resolution issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wike, Jeffrey S.

    1991-01-01

    A discussion is presented of how conflicts for Space Network resources should be resolved in the ATDRSS era. The following topics are presented: a description of how resource conflicts are currently resolved; a description of issues associated with automated conflict resolution; present conflict resolution strategies; and topics for further discussion.

  19. Super resolution fluorescence microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Bo; Bates, Mark; Zhuang, Xiaowei

    2010-01-01

    Achieving a spatial resolution that is not limited by the diffraction of light, recent developments of super-resolution fluorescence microscopy techniques allow the observation of many biological structures not resolvable in conventional fluorescence microscopy. New advances in these techniques now give them the ability to image three-dimensional (3D) structures, measure interactions by multicolor colocalization, and record dynamic processes in living cells at the nanometer scale. It is anticipated that super-resolution fluorescence microscopy will become a widely used tool for cell and tissue imaging to provide previously unobserved details of biological structures and processes. PMID:19489737

  20. Lincoln's Spot Resolutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Jean West; Schamel, Wynell Burroughs

    1988-01-01

    Examines the events leading to and immediately following the declaration of war on Mexico in 1846. Includes the second and third pages of Abraham Lincoln's "Spot Resolutions" and presents teaching suggestions for interpreting the document and assessing public opinion. (GEA)

  1. High-Resolution Autoradiography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Towe, George C; Gomberg, Henry J; Freemen, J W

    1955-01-01

    This investigation was made to adapt wet-process autoradiography to metallurgical samples to obtain high resolution of segregated radioactive elements in microstructures. Results are confined to development of the technique, which was perfected to a resolution of less than 10 microns. The radioactive samples included carbon-14 carburized iron and steel, nickel-63 electroplated samples, a powder product containing nickel-63, and tungsten-185 in N-155 alloy.

  2. Ultra high resolution tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Haddad, W.S.

    1994-11-15

    Recent work and results on ultra high resolution three dimensional imaging with soft x-rays will be presented. This work is aimed at determining microscopic three dimensional structure of biological and material specimens. Three dimensional reconstructed images of a microscopic test object will be presented; the reconstruction has a resolution on the order of 1000 A in all three dimensions. Preliminary work with biological samples will also be shown, and the experimental and numerical methods used will be discussed.

  3. SRNL Development of Recovery Processes for Mark-18A Heavy Actinide Targets

    SciTech Connect

    Allender, Jeffrey S.; Bridges, Nicholas J.; Loftin, Bradley M.; Dunsmuir, Michael D.

    2015-07-14

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) are developing plans for the recovery of rare and unique isotopes contained within heavy-actinide target assemblies, specifically the Mark-18A. Mark-18A assemblies were irradiated in Savannah River Site (SRS) reactors in the 1970s under extremely high neutron-flux conditions and produced, virtually, the world's supply of plutonium-244, an isotope of key importance to high-precision actinide measurement and other scientific and nonproliferation uses; and curium highly enriched in heavy isotopes (e.g., curium-246 and curium-248). In 2015 and 2016, SRNL is pursuing tasks that would reduce program risk and budget requirements, including further characterization of unprocessed targets; engineering studies for the use of the SRNL Shielded Cells Facility (SCF) for recovery; and development of onsite and offsite shipping methods including a replacement for the heavy (70 ton) cask previously used for onsite transfer of irradiated items at SRS. A status update is provided for the characterization, including modeling using the Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code (MCNP); direct non-destructive assay measurements; and cask design.

  4. Active Aeroelastic Wing Aerodynamic Model Development and Validation for a Modified F/A-18A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cumming, Stephen B.; Diebler, Corey G.

    2005-01-01

    A new aerodynamic model has been developed and validated for a modified F/A-18A used for the Active Aeroelastic Wing (AAW) research program. The goal of the program was to demonstrate the advantages of using the inherent flexibility of an aircraft to enhance its performance. The research aircraft was an F/A-18A with wings modified to reduce stiffness and a new control system to increase control authority. There have been two flight phases. Data gathered from the first flight phase were used to create the new aerodynamic model. A maximum-likelihood output-error parameter estimation technique was used to obtain stability and control derivatives. The derivatives were incorporated into the National Aeronautics and Space Administration F-18 simulation, validated, and used to develop new AAW control laws. The second phase of flights was used to evaluate the handling qualities of the AAW aircraft and the control law design process, and to further test the accuracy of the new model. The flight test envelope covered Mach numbers between 0.85 and 1.30 and dynamic pressures from 600 to 1250 pound-force per square foot. The results presented in this report demonstrate that a thorough parameter identification analysis can be used to improve upon models that were developed using other means. This report describes the parameter estimation technique used, details the validation techniques, discusses differences between previously existing F/A-18 models, and presents results from the second phase of research flights.

  5. Ribosomal protein L18aB is required for both male gametophyte function and embryo development in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Hailong; Chen, Dan; Wang, Yifan; Sun, Yang; Zhao, Jing; Sun, Mengxiang; Peng, Xiongbo

    2016-01-01

    Ribosomal proteins are involved in numerous essential cell activities in plants. However, the regulatory role in specific plant developmental processes has not yet been fully elucidated. Here we identified the new ribosomal protein L18aB, which is specifically involved in sexual reproduction and plays a critical role in male gametophyte development and embryo pattern formation. In rpl18aB mutant plants, the mature pollen grains can germinate normally, but their competitiveness for growing in the style is significantly reduced. More interestingly, RPL18aB is required in early embryogenesis. rpl18aB embryos displayed irregular cell division orientations in the early pro-embryo and arrested at the globular stage with possible, secondary pattern formation defects. Further investigations revealed that the polar transportation of auxin is disturbed in the rpl18aB mutant embryos, which may explain the observed failure in embryo pattern formation. The cell type-specific complementation of RPL18aB in rpl18aB was not able to recover the phenotype, indicating that RPL18aB may play an essential role in early cell fate determination. This work unravels a novel role in embryo development for a ribosomal protein, and provides insight into regulatory mechanism of early embryogenesis. PMID:27502163

  6. Ribosomal protein L18aB is required for both male gametophyte function and embryo development in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Yan, Hailong; Chen, Dan; Wang, Yifan; Sun, Yang; Zhao, Jing; Sun, Mengxiang; Peng, Xiongbo

    2016-01-01

    Ribosomal proteins are involved in numerous essential cell activities in plants. However, the regulatory role in specific plant developmental processes has not yet been fully elucidated. Here we identified the new ribosomal protein L18aB, which is specifically involved in sexual reproduction and plays a critical role in male gametophyte development and embryo pattern formation. In rpl18aB mutant plants, the mature pollen grains can germinate normally, but their competitiveness for growing in the style is significantly reduced. More interestingly, RPL18aB is required in early embryogenesis. rpl18aB embryos displayed irregular cell division orientations in the early pro-embryo and arrested at the globular stage with possible, secondary pattern formation defects. Further investigations revealed that the polar transportation of auxin is disturbed in the rpl18aB mutant embryos, which may explain the observed failure in embryo pattern formation. The cell type-specific complementation of RPL18aB in rpl18aB was not able to recover the phenotype, indicating that RPL18aB may play an essential role in early cell fate determination. This work unravels a novel role in embryo development for a ribosomal protein, and provides insight into regulatory mechanism of early embryogenesis. PMID:27502163

  7. 38 CFR 18a.1 - Delegations of responsibility between the Secretary of Veterans Affairs and the Secretary...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Delegations of responsibility between the Secretary of Veterans Affairs and the Secretary, Department of Health and Human Services, and the Secretary, Department of Education. 18a.1 Section 18a.1 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS...

  8. Position Resolution in DROIDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samedov, Victor V.

    2008-04-01

    Since the very beginning, Distributed Read-Out Imaging Devices (DROIDs) were proposed to achieve both good position and energy resolutions. In DROIDs, the absorption of primary particle energy occurs in a long superconductive strip. Quasiparticles produced in the absorber diffuse along the strip and counted by the superconductive tunnel junctions positioned at the two ends of the strip. In this paper the formula for estimation DROID’s position resolution from experimental data was derived. This formula takes into account correlation between fluctuations of signals of DROID’s detectors.

  9. International Conflict Resolution Workshops.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Stephen P.

    This paper describes two attempts to utilize a conflict resolution approach in academic settings. The approach includes: (1) the significance of the structure of communication between parties in conflict; (2) the understanding of face-to-face interaction processes; (3) problems of perceptual distortion; and (4) political socializations. The…

  10. High-resolution headlamp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gut, Carsten; Cristea, Iulia; Neumann, Cornelius

    2016-04-01

    The following article shall describe how human vision by night can be influenced. At first, front lighting systems that are already available on the market will be described, followed by their analysis with respect to the positive effects on traffic safety. Furthermore, how traffic safety by night can be increased since the introduction of high resolution headlamps shall be discussed.

  11. Antenna performance and resolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carney, J. J.

    1974-01-01

    The performance of the antenna throughout SL-2, SL-3, and SL-4 was investigated along with the antenna resolution of brightness temperature during flight. The target area selected for the test flights was the Gulf of California, as it offered land/water interface. The coordinate transformations and antenna orientation, flight path simulation, and integration over the radiometric target are discussed.

  12. High resolution drift chambers

    SciTech Connect

    Va'vra, J.

    1985-07-01

    High precision drift chambers capable of achieving less than or equal to 50 ..mu..m resolutions are discussed. In particular, we compare so called cool and hot gases, various charge collection geometries, several timing techniques and we also discuss some systematic problems. We also present what we would consider an ''ultimate'' design of the vertex chamber. 50 refs., 36 figs., 6 tabs.

  13. Resolution in 60 Seconds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Hugh

    2009-01-01

    As a visiting scholar in digital media and composition at Ohio State University during Spring 2009, I created "Resolution in 60 Seconds" to promote the National Day on Writing on October 20, 2009, established by the National Council of Teachers of English (NCTE). The National Day on Writing (NDoW) seeks "[t]o draw attention to the remarkable…

  14. MiR-18a regulates the proliferation, migration and invasion of human glioblastoma cell by targeting neogenin

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Yichen; Wang, Ping; Zhao, Wei; Yao, Yilong; Liu, Xiaobai; Ma, Jun; Xue, Yixue; Liu, Yunhui

    2014-05-15

    MiR-17-92 cluster has recently been reported as an oncogene in some tumors. However, the association of miR-18a, an important member of this cluster, with glioblastoma remains unknown. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the expression of miR-18a in glioblastoma and its role in biological behavior of U87 and U251 human glioblastoma cell lines. Quantitative RT-PCR results showed that miR-18a was highly expressed in glioblastoma tissues and U87 and U251 cell lines compared with that in human brain tissues and primary normal human astrocytes, and the expression levels were increased along with the rising pathological grades of glioblastoma. Neogenin was identified as the target gene of miR-18a by dual-luciferase reporter assays. RT-PCR and western blot results showed that its expression levels were decreased along with the rising pathological grades of glioblastoma. Inhibition of miR-18a expression was established by transfecting exogenous miR-18a inhibitor into U87 and U251 cells, and its effects on the biological behavior of glioblastoma cells were studied using CCK-8 assay, transwell assay and flow cytometry. Inhibition of miR-18a expression in U87 and U251 cells significantly up-regulated neogenin, and dramatically suppressed the abilities of cell proliferation, migration and invasion, induced cell cycle arrest and promoted cellular apoptosis. Collectively, these results suggest that miR-18a may regulate biological behavior of human glioblastoma cells by targeting neogenin, and miR-18a can serve as a potential target in the treatment of glioblastoma. - Highlights: • MiR-18a was highly expressed in glioblastoma tissues and U87 and U251 cell lines. • Neogenin was identified as the target gene of miR-18a. • Neogenin expressions were decreased along with the rising pathological grades of glioblastoma. • Inhibition of miR-18a suppressed biological behavior of glioma cells by up-regulating neogenin.

  15. A super resolution framework for low resolution document image OCR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Di; Agam, Gady

    2013-01-01

    Optical character recognition is widely used for converting document images into digital media. Existing OCR algorithms and tools produce good results from high resolution, good quality, document images. In this paper, we propose a machine learning based super resolution framework for low resolution document image OCR. Two main techniques are used in our proposed approach: a document page segmentation algorithm and a modified K-means clustering algorithm. Using this approach, by exploiting coherence in the document, we reconstruct from a low resolution document image a better resolution image and improve OCR results. Experimental results show substantial gain in low resolution documents such as the ones captured from video.

  16. Variable-Resolution GCMs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox-Rabinovitz, Michael S.

    2002-01-01

    Variable resolution GCMs using a global stretched grid (SG) with enhanced regional resolute over multiple (four) areas of interest represent a viable new approach to regional climate and climate change studies and applications. The four areas, one at each global quadrant, include major global monsoonal circulations over North America, South America, India-China, and Australia. The SG-approach is an ideal tool for representing consistent interactions of global/large- and regional/mesoscales. It is an alternative to the widely used nested-grid approach. Several existing SG-GCMs are briefly described. The major discussion is based on the GEOS (Goddard Earth Observing System) SG-GCM regional climate simulations.

  17. High resolution analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinove, C. J.

    1982-01-01

    The possibilities for the use of high spectral resolution analysis in the field of hydrology and water resources are examined. Critical gaps in scientific knowledge that must be filled before technology can be evaluated involve the spectral response of water, substances dissolved and suspended in water, and substances floating on water. The most complete mapping of oil slicks can be done in the ultraviolet region. A mean of measuring the ultraviolet reflection at the surface from satellite altitudes needs to be determined. The use of high spectral resolution sensors in a reasonable number of narrow bands may be able to sense the reflectance or emission characteristics of water and its contained materials that can be correlated with commonly used water quality variables. Technological alternative available to experiment with problems of sensing water quality are to use existing remote sensing instrumentation in an empirical mode and to develop instruments for either testing hypoteses or conducting empirical experiments.

  18. Particle detector spatial resolution

    DOEpatents

    Perez-Mendez, Victor

    1992-01-01

    Method and apparatus for producing separated columns of scintillation layer material, for use in detection of X-rays and high energy charged particles with improved spatial resolution. A pattern of ridges or projections is formed on one surface of a substrate layer or in a thin polyimide layer, and the scintillation layer is grown at controlled temperature and growth rate on the ridge-containing material. The scintillation material preferentially forms cylinders or columns, separated by gaps conforming to the pattern of ridges, and these columns direct most of the light produced in the scintillation layer along individual columns for subsequent detection in a photodiode layer. The gaps may be filled with a light-absorbing material to further enhance the spatial resolution of the particle detector.

  19. Particle detector spatial resolution

    DOEpatents

    Perez-Mendez, V.

    1992-12-15

    Method and apparatus for producing separated columns of scintillation layer material, for use in detection of X-rays and high energy charged particles with improved spatial resolution is disclosed. A pattern of ridges or projections is formed on one surface of a substrate layer or in a thin polyimide layer, and the scintillation layer is grown at controlled temperature and growth rate on the ridge-containing material. The scintillation material preferentially forms cylinders or columns, separated by gaps conforming to the pattern of ridges, and these columns direct most of the light produced in the scintillation layer along individual columns for subsequent detection in a photodiode layer. The gaps may be filled with a light-absorbing material to further enhance the spatial resolution of the particle detector. 12 figs.

  20. High resolution data acquisition

    DOEpatents

    Thornton, Glenn W.; Fuller, Kenneth R.

    1993-01-01

    A high resolution event interval timing system measures short time intervals such as occur in high energy physics or laser ranging. Timing is provided from a clock (38) pulse train (37) and analog circuitry (44) for generating a triangular wave (46) synchronously with the pulse train (37). The triangular wave (46) has an amplitude and slope functionally related to the time elapsed during each clock pulse in the train. A converter (18, 32) forms a first digital value of the amplitude and slope of the triangle wave at the start of the event interval and a second digital value of the amplitude and slope of the triangle wave at the end of the event interval. A counter (26) counts the clock pulse train (37) during the interval to form a gross event interval time. A computer (52) then combines the gross event interval time and the first and second digital values to output a high resolution value for the event interval.

  1. High resolution data acquisition

    DOEpatents

    Thornton, G.W.; Fuller, K.R.

    1993-04-06

    A high resolution event interval timing system measures short time intervals such as occur in high energy physics or laser ranging. Timing is provided from a clock, pulse train, and analog circuitry for generating a triangular wave synchronously with the pulse train (as seen in diagram on patent). The triangular wave has an amplitude and slope functionally related to the time elapsed during each clock pulse in the train. A converter forms a first digital value of the amplitude and slope of the triangle wave at the start of the event interval and a second digital value of the amplitude and slope of the triangle wave at the end of the event interval. A counter counts the clock pulse train during the interval to form a gross event interval time. A computer then combines the gross event interval time and the first and second digital values to output a high resolution value for the event interval.

  2. Optical resolution of rotenoids

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Abidi, S.L.

    1987-01-01

    Optical resolution of selected rotenoids containing 1-3 asymmetric centers in dihydrobenzopyranofuroben-zopyranone and dihydrobisbenzopyranopyranone series has been achieved on two chiral high-performance liquid chromatographic (hplc) stationary phases. In most cases, the absolute stereochemistry at the cis-B/C ring junction of the rotenoidal antipodes can be related to their elution order. Generally, the 6aα,12aα-enantiomers were more strongly retained by the chiral substrate than their corresponding optical antipodes. The elution-configuration relationship provides potential utility for predicting the absolute configuration of related rotenoidal compounds. Chiral phase hplc on amino-acid-bonded-silica yielded results explicable in terms of Pirkle's bonding schemes for chiral recognition. Resolution data for 12a-hydroxy-, 12a-methoxy-, and 12-hydroxyiminorotenoids further corroborate the mechanistic rationale, and demonstrate that nonpolar π-π interactions appeared to be important for enantiomeric separation on helic poly-triphenylmethylacryl-ate-silica (CPOT). In the latter system, steric effects and conformational factors in association with the modification of E-ring structures might play significant roles in the chiral separation process in view of the reversal to the elution order observed for all methoxylated rotenoids and elliptone derivatives including the parent deguelin. The unique separability (α = 1.44) of 12a-hydroxyelliptone on CPOT was suggestive of structural effects of the 5-side chain on the resolution of the rotenoids having a five-membered-E-ring. The results obtained with two different types of chiral phases are complementary and useful for optical resolution of a wide variety of natural and synthetic rotenoidal compounds.

  3. Continuing Appropriations Resolution, 2012

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Rogers, Harold [R-KY-5

    2011-09-14

    09/15/2011 Rules Committee Resolution H. Res. 399 Reported to House. Rule provides for consideration of H.J. Res. 79 with 1 hour of general debate. Previous question shall be considered as ordered without intervening motions except motion to recommit with or without instructions... (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  4. High resolution telescope

    DOEpatents

    Massie, Norbert A.; Oster, Yale

    1992-01-01

    A large effective-aperture, low-cost optical telescope with diffraction-limited resolution enables ground-based observation of near-earth space objects. The telescope has a non-redundant, thinned-aperture array in a center-mount, single-structure space frame. It employs speckle interferometric imaging to achieve diffraction-limited resolution. The signal-to-noise ratio problem is mitigated by moving the wavelength of operation to the near-IR, and the image is sensed by a Silicon CCD. The steerable, single-structure array presents a constant pupil. The center-mount, radar-like mount enables low-earth orbit space objects to be tracked as well as increases stiffness of the space frame. In the preferred embodiment, the array has elemental telescopes with subaperture of 2.1 m in a circle-of-nine configuration. The telescope array has an effective aperture of 12 m which provides a diffraction-limited resolution of 0.02 arc seconds. Pathlength matching of the telescope array is maintained by an electro-optical system employing laser metrology. Speckle imaging relaxes pathlength matching tolerance by one order of magnitude as compared to phased arrays. Many features of the telescope contribute to substantial reduction in costs. These include eliminating the conventional protective dome and reducing on-site construction activites. The cost of the telescope scales with the first power of the aperture rather than its third power as in conventional telescopes.

  5. Voltage-gated K+ channel from mammalian brain: 3D structure at 18A of the complete (alpha)4(beta)4 complex.

    PubMed

    Orlova, Elena V; Papakosta, Marianthi; Booy, Frank P; van Heel, Marin; Dolly, J Oliver

    2003-02-28

    Voltage-sensitive K(+) channels (Kv) serve numerous important roles, e.g. in the control of neuron excitability and the patterns of synaptic activity. Here, we use electron microscopy (EM) and single particle analysis to obtain the first, complete structure of Kv1 channels, purified from rat brain, which contain four transmembrane channel-forming alpha-subunits and four cytoplasmically-associated beta-subunits. The 18A resolution structure reveals an asymmetric, dumb-bell-shaped complex with 4-fold symmetry, a length of 140A and variable width. By fitting published X-ray data for recombinant components to our EM map, the modulatory (beta)(4) was assigned to the innermost 105A end, the N-terminal (T1)(4) domain of the alpha-subunit to the central 50A moiety and the pore-containing portion to the 125A membrane part. At this resolution, the selectivity filter could not be localised. Direct contact of the membrane component with the central (T1)(4) domain occurs only via peripheral connectors, permitting communication between the channel and beta-subunits for coupling of responses to changes in excitability and metabolic status of neurons.

  6. Evaluation of F/A-18A HARV inlet flow analysis with flight data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, C. Frederic; Podleski, Steve D.; Barankiewicz, Wendy S.; Zeleznik, Susan Z.

    1995-01-01

    The F/A-18A aircraft has experienced engine stalls at high angles-of-attack and yaw flight conditions which were outside of its flight envelope. Future aircraft may be designed to operate routinely in this flight regime. Therefore, it is essential that an understanding of the inlet flow field at these flight conditions be obtained. Due to the complex interactions of the fuselage and inlet flow fields, a study of the flow within the inlet must also include external effects. Full Navier-Stokes (FNS) calculations on the F/A-18A High Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV) inlet for several angles-of-attack with sideslip and free stream Mach numbers have been obtained. The predicted forebody/fuselage surface static pressures agreed well with flight data. The surface static pressures along the inlet lip are in good agreement with the numerical predictions. The major departure in agreement is along the bottom of the lip at 30 deg and 60 deg angle-of-attack where a possible streamwise flow separation is not being predicted by the code. The circumferential pressure distributions at the engine face are in very good agreement with the numerical results. The variation in surface static pressure in the circumferential direction is very small with the exception of 60 angle-of-attack. Although the simulation does not include the effect of the engine, it appears that this omission has a second order effect on the circumferential pressure distribution. An examination of the unsteady flight test data base has shown that the secondary vortex migrates a significant distance with time. In fact, the extent of this migration increases with angle-of-attack with increasing levels of distortion. The effects of the engine on this vortex movement is unknown. This implies that the level of flow unsteadiness increases with increasing distortion. Since the computational results represent an asymptotic solution driven by steady boundary conditions, these numerical results may represent an arbitrary point

  7. PARC3D calculations of the F/A-18A HARV inlet vortex generators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Podleski, Steve D.

    1995-01-01

    NASA Lewis Research Center is currently engaged in a research effort as a team member of the High Alpha Technology Program within the NASA agency. This program uses a specially-equipped F/A-18A aircraft called the High Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV), in an effort to improve the maneuverability of high performance military aircraft at low-subsonic-speed, high-angle-of-attack conditions. The overall objective of the NASA Lewis effort is to develop inlet analysis technology towards efficient airflow delivery to the engine during these maneuvers. One portion of this inlet analysis technology uses computational fluid dynamics to predict installed inlet performance. Most of the F/A-18A HARV geometry, which includes the ramp/splitter plate, side diverter and slot, inlet lip and upper diverter, and deflected leading-edge flap has been modeled. The empennage and rear fuselage have not. A pair of vortex generators located on the bottom wall of the inlet were not modeled initially. These vortex generators were installed to alleviate any flow separation that may be induced by the wheel well protrusion into the inlet wall. Calculations completed with the PARC3D code showed that the pressure recovery has been underpredicted and the flow distortion over-predicted. To improve the correlation of PARC3D predictions with flight and wind tunnel tests, the vortex generators were included in the grid geometry and the results are presented in this report. The grid totals 27 blocks or 1.3 million grid points for the half model, which includes the vortex generator grid blocks. Two flight cases were calculated, a high speed case with a Mach number of 0.8 and angle of attack of 3.4; and a low speed case with a Mach number of 0.43 and angle of attack of 32.2. The vortex generators have a significant effect on the inlet boundary layers at high speed, low angle of attack; and have no effect at low speed, high angle of attack.

  8. TU-F-18A-02: Iterative Image-Domain Decomposition for Dual-Energy CT

    SciTech Connect

    Niu, T; Dong, X; Petrongolo, M; Zhu, L

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Dual energy CT (DECT) imaging plays an important role in advanced imaging applications due to its material decomposition capability. Direct decomposition via matrix inversion suffers from significant degradation of image signal-to-noise ratios, which reduces clinical value. Existing de-noising algorithms achieve suboptimal performance since they suppress image noise either before or after the decomposition and do not fully explore the noise statistical properties of the decomposition process. We propose an iterative image-domain decomposition method for noise suppression in DECT, using the full variance-covariance matrix of the decomposed images. Methods: The proposed algorithm is formulated in the form of least-square estimation with smoothness regularization. It includes the inverse of the estimated variance-covariance matrix of the decomposed images as the penalty weight in the least-square term. Performance is evaluated using an evaluation phantom (Catphan 600) and an anthropomorphic head phantom. Results are compared to those generated using direct matrix inversion with no noise suppression, a de-noising method applied on the decomposed images, and an existing algorithm with similar formulation but with an edge-preserving regularization term. Results: On the Catphan phantom, our method retains the same spatial resolution as the CT images before decomposition while reducing the noise standard deviation of decomposed images by over 98%. The other methods either degrade spatial resolution or achieve less low-contrast detectability. Also, our method yields lower electron density measurement error than direct matrix inversion and reduces error variation by over 97%. On the head phantom, it reduces the noise standard deviation of decomposed images by over 97% without blurring the sinus structures. Conclusion: We propose an iterative image-domain decomposition method for DECT. The method combines noise suppression and material decomposition into an iterative

  9. Inlet Flow Characteristics During Rapid Maneuvers for an F/A-18A Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steenken, William G.; Williams, John G.; Walsh, Kevin R.

    1999-01-01

    The F404-GE-400 engine powered F/A-18A High Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV) was used to examine the characteristics of inlet airflow during rapid aircraft maneuvers. A study of the degree of similarity between inlet data obtained during rapid aircraft maneuvers and inlet data obtained at steady aerodynamic attitudes was conducted at the maximum engine airflow of approximately 145 Ibm/sec using a computer model that was generated from inlet data obtained during steady aerodynamic maneuvers. Results show that rapid-maneuver inlet recoveries agreed very well with the recoveries obtained at equivalent stabilized angle-of-attack conditions. The peak dynamic circumferential distortion values obtained during rapid maneuvers agreed within 0.01 units of distortion over the 10 - 38 degree angle of attack range with the values obtained during steady aerodynamic maneuvers while similar agreement was found for the peak dynamic radial distortion values up to 29 degrees angle-of-attack. Exceedences of the rapid-maneuver peak dynamic circumferential distortion values relative to the peak distortion model values at steady attitudes occurred only at low or negative angles of attack and were inconsequential from an engine-stability assessment point of view. The results of this study validate the current industry practice of testing at steady aerodynamic conditions to characterize inlet recovery and peak dynamic distortion levels.

  10. Finite resolution multitarget tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mušicki, Darko; Morelande, Mark R.

    2005-09-01

    Target tracking algorithms have to operate in an environment of uncertain measurement origin, due to the presence of randomly detected target measurements as well as clutter measurements from unwanted random scatterers. A majority of Bayesian multi-target tracking algorithms suffer from computational complexity which is exponential in the number of tracks and the number of shared measurements. The Linear Multi-target (LM) tracking procedure is a Bayesian multi-target tracking approximation with complexity which is linear in the number of tracks and the number of shared measurements. It also has a much simpler structure than the "optimal" Bayesian multi-target tracking, with apparently negligible decrease in performance. A vast majority of target tracking algorithms have been developed with the assumption of infinite sensor resolution, where a measurement can have only one source. This assumption is not valid for real sensors, such as radars. This paper presents a multi-target tracking algorithm which removes this restriction. The procedure utilizes a simple structure of LM tracking procedure to obtain a LM Finite Resolution (LMfr) tracking procedure which is much simpler than the previously published efforts. Instead of calculating the probability of measurement merging for each combination of potentially merging targets, we evaluate only one merging hypotheses for each measurement and each track. A simulation study is presented which compares LMfr-IPDA with LM-IPDA and IPDA target tracking in a cluttered environment utilizing a finite resolution sensor with five crossing targets. The study concentrates on the false track discrimination performance and the track retention capabilities.

  11. Resolution Enhancement of Multilook Imagery

    SciTech Connect

    Galbraith, Amy E.

    2004-07-01

    This dissertation studies the feasibility of enhancing the spatial resolution of multi-look remotely-sensed imagery using an iterative resolution enhancement algorithm known as Projection Onto Convex Sets (POCS). A multi-angle satellite image modeling tool is implemented, and simulated multi-look imagery is formed to test the resolution enhancement algorithm. Experiments are done to determine the optimal con guration and number of multi-angle low-resolution images needed for a quantitative improvement in the spatial resolution of the high-resolution estimate. The important topic of aliasing is examined in the context of the POCS resolution enhancement algorithm performance. In addition, the extension of the method to multispectral sensor images is discussed and an example is shown using multispectral confocal fluorescence imaging microscope data. Finally, the remote sensing issues of atmospheric path radiance and directional reflectance variations are explored to determine their effect on the resolution enhancement performance.

  12. High resolution time interval meter

    DOEpatents

    Martin, A.D.

    1986-05-09

    Method and apparatus are provided for measuring the time interval between two events to a higher resolution than reliability available from conventional circuits and component. An internal clock pulse is provided at a frequency compatible with conventional component operating frequencies for reliable operation. Lumped constant delay circuits are provided for generating outputs at delay intervals corresponding to the desired high resolution. An initiation START pulse is input to generate first high resolution data. A termination STOP pulse is input to generate second high resolution data. Internal counters count at the low frequency internal clock pulse rate between the START and STOP pulses. The first and second high resolution data are logically combined to directly provide high resolution data to one counter and correct the count in the low resolution counter to obtain a high resolution time interval measurement.

  13. ANL high-resolution injector

    SciTech Connect

    Minehara, E.; Kutschera, W.; Hartog, P.D.; Billquist, P.; Liu, Z.

    1986-05-01

    The ANL (Argonne National Laboratory) high-resolution injector has been installed to obtain higher mass resolution and higher preacceleration, and to utilize effectively the full mass range of ATLAS (Argonne tandem linac accelerator system). Preliminary results of the first beam test are reported briefly. The design and performance, in particular a high-mass-resolution magnet with aberration compensation, are discussed.

  14. Automating the conflict resolution process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wike, Jeffrey S.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose is to initiate a discussion of how the conflict resolution process at the Network Control Center can be made more efficient. Described here are how resource conflicts are currently resolved as well as the impacts of automating conflict resolution in the ATDRSS era. A variety of conflict resolution strategies are presented.

  15. SP-R210 (Myo18A) Isoforms as Intrinsic Modulators of Macrophage Priming and Activation

    PubMed Central

    DiAngelo, Susan L.; Silveyra, Patricia; Umstead, Todd M.; Halstead, E. Scott; Davies, Michael L.; Hu, Sanmei; Floros, Joanna; McCormack, Francis X.; Christensen, Neil D.; Chroneos, Zissis C.

    2015-01-01

    The surfactant protein (SP-A) receptor SP-R210 has been shown to increase phagocytosis of SP-A-bound pathogens and to modulate cytokine secretion by immune cells. SP-A plays an important role in pulmonary immunity by enhancing opsonization and clearance of pathogens and by modulating macrophage inflammatory responses. Alternative splicing of the Myo18A gene results in two isoforms: SP-R210S and SP-R210L, with the latter predominantly expressed in alveolar macrophages. In this study we show that SP-A is required for optimal expression of SP-R210L on alveolar macrophages. Interestingly, pre-treatment with SP-A prepared by different methods either enhances or suppresses responsiveness to LPS, possibly due to differential co-isolation of SP-B or other proteins. We also report that dominant negative disruption of SP-R210L augments expression of receptors including SR-A, CD14, and CD36, and enhances macrophages’ inflammatory response to TLR stimulation. Finally, because SP-A is known to modulate CD14, we used a variety of techniques to investigate how SP-R210 mediates the effect of SP-A on CD14. These studies revealed a novel physical association between SP-R210S, CD14, and SR-A leading to an enhanced response to LPS, and found that SP-R210L and SP-R210S regulate internalization of CD14 via distinct macropinocytosis-like mechanisms. Together, our findings support a model in which SP-R210 isoforms differentially regulate trafficking, expression, and activation of innate immune receptors on macrophages. PMID:25965346

  16. SP-R210 (Myo18A) Isoforms as Intrinsic Modulators of Macrophage Priming and Activation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Linlin; Carrillo, Marykate; Wu, Yuchieh M; DiAngelo, Susan L; Silveyra, Patricia; Umstead, Todd M; Halstead, E Scott; Davies, Michael L; Hu, Sanmei; Floros, Joanna; McCormack, Francis X; Christensen, Neil D; Chroneos, Zissis C

    2015-01-01

    The surfactant protein (SP-A) receptor SP-R210 has been shown to increase phagocytosis of SP-A-bound pathogens and to modulate cytokine secretion by immune cells. SP-A plays an important role in pulmonary immunity by enhancing opsonization and clearance of pathogens and by modulating macrophage inflammatory responses. Alternative splicing of the Myo18A gene results in two isoforms: SP-R210S and SP-R210L, with the latter predominantly expressed in alveolar macrophages. In this study we show that SP-A is required for optimal expression of SP-R210L on alveolar macrophages. Interestingly, pre-treatment with SP-A prepared by different methods either enhances or suppresses responsiveness to LPS, possibly due to differential co-isolation of SP-B or other proteins. We also report that dominant negative disruption of SP-R210L augments expression of receptors including SR-A, CD14, and CD36, and enhances macrophages' inflammatory response to TLR stimulation. Finally, because SP-A is known to modulate CD14, we used a variety of techniques to investigate how SP-R210 mediates the effect of SP-A on CD14. These studies revealed a novel physical association between SP-R210S, CD14, and SR-A leading to an enhanced response to LPS, and found that SP-R210L and SP-R210S regulate internalization of CD14 via distinct macropinocytosis-like mechanisms. Together, our findings support a model in which SP-R210 isoforms differentially regulate trafficking, expression, and activation of innate immune receptors on macrophages. PMID:25965346

  17. Lexical ambiguity resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Small, S.; Cottrell, G.; Tanenhaus, M.

    1987-01-01

    This book collects much of the best research currently available on the problem of lexical ambiguity resolution in the processing of human language. When taken out of context, sentences are usually ambiguous. When actually uttered in a dialogue or written in text, these same sentences often have unique interpretations. The inherent ambiguity of isolated sentences, becomes obvious in the attempt to write a computer program to understand them. Different views have emerged on the nature of context and the mechanisms by which it directs unambiguous understanding of words and sentences. These perspectives are represented and discussed. Eighteen original papers from a valuable source book for cognitive scientists in AI, psycholinguistics, neuropsychology, or theoretical linguistics.

  18. Atomic resolution holography.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Kouichi

    2014-11-01

    Atomic resolution holography, such as X-ray fluorescence holography (XFH)[1] and photoelectron holography (PH), has the attention of researcher as an informative local structure analysis, because it provides three dimensional atomic images around specific elements within a range of a few nanometers. It can determine atomic arrangements around a specific element without any prior knowledge of structures. It is considered that the atomic resolution holographic is a third method of structural analysis at the atomic level after X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS). As known by many researchers, XRD and XAFS are established methods that are widespread use in various fields. XRD and XAFS provide information on long-range translational periodicities and very local environments, respectively, whereas the atomic resolution holography gives 3D information on the local order and can visualize surrounding atoms with a large range of coordination shells. We call this feature "3D medium-range local structure observation".In addition to this feature, the atomic resolution holography is very sensitive to the displacement of atoms from their ideal positions, and one can obtain quantitative information about local lattice distortions by analyzing reconstructed atomic images[2] When dopants with different atomic radii from the matrix elements are present, the lattices around the dopants are distorted. However, using the conventional methods of structural analysis, one cannot determine the extent to which the local lattice distortions are preserved from the dopants. XFH is a good tool for solving this problem.Figure 1 shows a recent achievement on a relaxor ferroelectric of Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3 (PMN) using XFH. The structural studies of relaxor ferroelectrics have been carried out by X-ray or neutron diffractions, which suggested rhombohedral distortions of their lattices. However, their true pictures have not been obtained, yet. The Nb Kα holograms showed

  19. 50 CFR Figures 18a, 18b and 18c to... - Large Frame TED Escape Opening; Minimum Dimensions Using All-Bar Cuts (Triangular Cuts); Large...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Side Cuts (Rectangular Cut) 18a, Figures 18a, 18b and 18c to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE...

  20. Evaluating super resolution algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Youn Jin; Park, Jong Hyun; Shin, Gun Shik; Lee, Hyun-Seung; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Park, Se Hyeok; Kim, Jaehyun

    2011-01-01

    This study intends to establish a sound testing and evaluation methodology based upon the human visual characteristics for appreciating the image restoration accuracy; in addition to comparing the subjective results with predictions by some objective evaluation methods. In total, six different super resolution (SR) algorithms - such as iterative back-projection (IBP), robust SR, maximum a posteriori (MAP), projections onto convex sets (POCS), a non-uniform interpolation, and frequency domain approach - were selected. The performance comparison between the SR algorithms in terms of their restoration accuracy was carried out through both subjectively and objectively. The former methodology relies upon the paired comparison method that involves the simultaneous scaling of two stimuli with respect to image restoration accuracy. For the latter, both conventional image quality metrics and color difference methods are implemented. Consequently, POCS and a non-uniform interpolation outperformed the others for an ideal situation, while restoration based methods appear more accurate to the HR image in a real world case where any prior information about the blur kernel is remained unknown. However, the noise-added-image could not be restored successfully by any of those methods. The latest International Commission on Illumination (CIE) standard color difference equation CIEDE2000 was found to predict the subjective results accurately and outperformed conventional methods for evaluating the restoration accuracy of those SR algorithms.

  1. High Resolution Laboratory Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brünken, S.; Schlemmer, S.

    2016-05-01

    In this short review we will highlight some of the recent advancements in the field of high-resolution laboratory spectroscopy that meet the needs dictated by the advent of highly sensitive and broadband telescopes like ALMA and SOFIA. Among these is the development of broadband techniques for the study of complex organic molecules, like fast scanning conventional absorption spectroscopy based on multiplier chains, chirped pulse instrumentation, or the use of synchrotron facilities. Of similar importance is the extension of the accessible frequency range to THz frequencies, where many light hydrides have their ground state rotational transitions. Another key experimental challenge is the production of sufficiently high number densities of refractory and transient species in the laboratory, where discharges have proven to be efficient sources that can also be coupled to molecular jets. For ionic molecular species sensitive action spectroscopic schemes have recently been developed to overcome some of the limitations of conventional absorption spectroscopy. Throughout this review examples demonstrating the strong interplay between laboratory and observational studies will be given.

  2. High Resolution Doppler Imager

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hays, Paul B.

    1999-01-01

    This report summarizes the accomplishments of the High Resolution Doppler Imager (HRDI) on UARS spacecraft during the period 4/l/96 - 3/31/99. During this period, HRDI operation, data processing, and data analysis continued, and there was a high level of vitality in the HRDI project. The HRDI has been collecting data from the stratosphere, mesosphere, and lower thermosphere since instrument activation on October 1, 1991. The HRDI team has stressed three areas since operations commenced: 1) operation of the instrument in a manner which maximizes the quality and versatility of the collected data; 2) algorithm development and validation to produce a high-quality data product; and 3) scientific studies, primarily of the dynamics of the middle atmosphere. There has been no significant degradation in the HRDI instrument since operations began nearly 8 years ago. HRDI operations are fairly routine, although we have continued to look for ways to improve the quality of the scientific product, either by improving existing modes, or by designing new ones. The HRDI instrument has been programmed to collect data for new scientific studies, such as measurements of fluorescence from plants, measuring cloud top heights, and lower atmosphere H2O.

  3. TH-A-18A-01: Innovation in Clinical Breast Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, B; Yang, K; Yaffe, M; Chen, J

    2014-06-15

    Several novel modalities have been or are on the verge of being introduced into the breast imaging clinic. These include tomosynthesis imaging, dedicated breast CT, contrast-enhanced digital mammography, and automated breast ultrasound, all of which are covered in this course. Tomosynthesis and dedicated breast CT address the problem of tissue superimposition that limits mammography screening performance, by improved or full resolution of the 3D breast morphology. Contrast-enhanced digital mammography provides functional information that allows for visualization of tumor angiogenesis. 3D breast ultrasound has high sensitivity for tumor detection in dense breasts, but the imaging exam was traditionally performed by radiologists. In automated breast ultrasound, the scan is performed in an automated fashion, making for a more practical imaging tool, that is now used as an adjunct to digital mammography in breast cancer screening. This course will provide medical physicists with an in-depth understanding of the imaging physics of each of these four novel imaging techniques, as well as the rationale and implementation of QC procedures. Further, basic clinical applications and work flow issues will be discussed. Learning Objectives: To be able to describe the underlying physical and physiological principles of each imaging technique, and to understand the corresponding imaging acquisition process. To be able to describe the critical system components and their performance requirements. To understand the rationale and implementation of quality control procedures, as well as regulatory requirements for systems with FDA approval. To learn about clinical applications and understand risks and benefits/strength and weakness of each modality in terms of clinical breast imaging.

  4. Resolution in Photovoltaic Potential Computation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alam, N.; Coors, V.; Zlatanova, S.; Oosterom, P. J. M.

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, an analysis of the effect of the various types of resolution involved in photovoltaic potential computation is presented. To calculate solar energy incident on a surface, shadow from surrounding buildings has been considered. The incident energy on a surface has been calculated taking the orientation, tilt and position into consideration. Different sky visibility map has been created for direct and diffuse radiation and only the effect of resolution of the factors has been explored here. The following four resolutions are considered: 1. temporal resolution (1, 10, 60 minutes time interval for calculating visibility of sun), 2. object surface resolution (0.01, 0.1, 0.375, 0.75, 1.25, 2.5 and 5 m2 as maximum triangle size of a surface to be considered), 3. blocking obstacle resolution (number of triangles from LoD1, LoD2, or LoD3 CityGML building models), and 4. sky resolution (ranging from 150 to 600 sky-patches used to divide the sky-dome). Higher resolutions result in general in more precise estimation of the photovoltaic potential, but also the computation time is increasing, especially as realizes that this computation has to be done for every building with its object surface (both roofs and façades). This paper is the first in depth analysis ever of the effect of resolution and will help to configure the proper settings for effective photovoltaic potential computations.

  5. 38 CFR 18a.1 - Delegations of responsibility between the Secretary of Veterans Affairs and the Secretary...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... VI, CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 § 18a.1 Delegations of responsibility between the Secretary of Veterans... Rights Act of 1964 and the Departments' regulations issued thereunder (45 CFR part 80 and 34 CFR part 100... responsible Department of Veterans Affairs official under Title VI of the......

  6. 38 CFR 18a.1 - Delegations of responsibility between the Secretary of Veterans Affairs and the Secretary...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... VI, CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 § 18a.1 Delegations of responsibility between the Secretary of Veterans... Rights Act of 1964 and the Departments' regulations issued thereunder (45 CFR part 80 and 34 CFR part 100... responsible Department of Veterans Affairs official under Title VI of the......

  7. 38 CFR 18a.1 - Delegations of responsibility between the Secretary of Veterans Affairs and the Secretary...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... VI, CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 § 18a.1 Delegations of responsibility between the Secretary of Veterans... Rights Act of 1964 and the Departments' regulations issued thereunder (45 CFR part 80 and 34 CFR part 100... responsible Department of Veterans Affairs official under Title VI of the......

  8. 38 CFR 18a.1 - Delegations of responsibility between the Secretary of Veterans Affairs and the Secretary...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... VI, CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 § 18a.1 Delegations of responsibility between the Secretary of Veterans... Rights Act of 1964 and the Departments' regulations issued thereunder (45 CFR part 80 and 34 CFR part 100... responsible Department of Veterans Affairs official under Title VI of the......

  9. Ginsenoside Rd attenuates breast cancer metastasis implicating derepressing microRNA-18a-regulated Smad2 expression.

    PubMed

    Wang, Peiwei; Du, Xiaoye; Xiong, Minqi; Cui, Jingang; Yang, Qinbo; Wang, Wenjian; Chen, Yu; Zhang, Teng

    2016-01-01

    Metastasis remains a major cause of mortality and poor prognosis in breast cancer patients. Anti-metastatic therapies are in great need to achieve optimal clinical outcome in breast cancer patients. Panax Notoginseng Saponins (PNS) has previously been shown to inhibit breast cancer metastasis in mouse. Here the potential anti-metastatic effect of one of the chemical compounds of PNS, ginsenoside Rd (Rd), was further evaluated in mouse mammary carcinoma 4T1 cells. The results revealed that Rd treatment dose-dependently suppressed cell migration and invasion in cultured 4T1 cells. In 4T1 cell-inoculated mice, Rd treatment led to decreased number of tumor lesions in lungs in both spontaneous and experimental metastasis models. Rd treatment resulted in increased expression of Smad2 in cultured 4T1 cells and in tumors grown from inoculated 4T1 cells. Rd treatment decreased the expression of microRNA (miR)-18a in cultured 4T1 cells and in tumors derived from inoculated 4T1 cells. Smad2 was further verified to be a direct target of miR-18a in 4T1 cells. The significant impact of Rd on counteracting miR-18a-medidated downregulation of Smad2 expression was also demonstrated. Together, the current work shows for the first time that Rd treatment attenuates breast cancer metastasis in part through derepressing miR-18a-mediated Smad2 expression regulation. PMID:27641158

  10. Ginsenoside Rd attenuates breast cancer metastasis implicating derepressing microRNA-18a-regulated Smad2 expression

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Peiwei; Du, Xiaoye; Xiong, Minqi; Cui, Jingang; Yang, Qinbo; Wang, Wenjian; Chen, Yu; Zhang, Teng

    2016-01-01

    Metastasis remains a major cause of mortality and poor prognosis in breast cancer patients. Anti-metastatic therapies are in great need to achieve optimal clinical outcome in breast cancer patients. Panax Notoginseng Saponins (PNS) has previously been shown to inhibit breast cancer metastasis in mouse. Here the potential anti-metastatic effect of one of the chemical compounds of PNS, ginsenoside Rd (Rd), was further evaluated in mouse mammary carcinoma 4T1 cells. The results revealed that Rd treatment dose-dependently suppressed cell migration and invasion in cultured 4T1 cells. In 4T1 cell-inoculated mice, Rd treatment led to decreased number of tumor lesions in lungs in both spontaneous and experimental metastasis models. Rd treatment resulted in increased expression of Smad2 in cultured 4T1 cells and in tumors grown from inoculated 4T1 cells. Rd treatment decreased the expression of microRNA (miR)-18a in cultured 4T1 cells and in tumors derived from inoculated 4T1 cells. Smad2 was further verified to be a direct target of miR-18a in 4T1 cells. The significant impact of Rd on counteracting miR-18a-medidated downregulation of Smad2 expression was also demonstrated. Together, the current work shows for the first time that Rd treatment attenuates breast cancer metastasis in part through derepressing miR-18a-mediated Smad2 expression regulation. PMID:27641158

  11. X-ray crystal spectrometer for opacity measurements in the 8-18 A spectral range at the LULI laser facility

    SciTech Connect

    Reverdin, C.; Thais, F.; Loisel, G.; Bougeard, M.

    2010-10-15

    An x-ray crystal spectrometer was built in order to measure opacities in the 8-18 A spectral range with an average spectral resolution of <{lambda}/{delta}{lambda}>{approx}400. It has been successfully used at the LULI-2000 laser facility (See C. Sauteret, rapport LULI 2001, 88 (2002) at Ecole Polytechnique (France) to measure in the same experimental conditions the 2p-3d transitions of several elements with the neighboring atomic number Z: Fe, Ni, Cu, and Ge [G. Loisel et al., High Energy Density Phys. 5, 173 (2009)]. Hence, a spectrometer with a wide spectral range is needed. This spectrometer features two lines of sight. In this example, one line of sight looks through the sample and the other one is looking directly at the backlighter emission. Both are outfitted with a spherical condensing mirror. A TlAP crystal is used for spectral dispersion. Detection is made with an image plate Fuji BAS TR2025, which is sensitive to x rays. We present some experimental results showing the performances of this spectrometer.

  12. High Resolution Formaldehyde Photochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ernest, C. T.; Bauer, D.; Hynes, A. J.

    2010-12-01

    Formaldehyde (HCHO) is the most abundant and most important organic carbonyl compound in the atmosphere. The sources of formaldehyde are the oxidation of methane, isoprene, acetone, and other volatile organic compounds (VOCs); fossil fuel combustion; and biomass burning. The dominant loss mechanism for formaldehyde is photolysis which occurs via two pathways: (R1) HCHO + hv → HCO + H (R2) HCHO + hv → H2 + CO The first pathway (R1) is referred to as the radical channel, while the second pathway (R2) is referred to as the molecular channel. The products of both pathways play a significant role in atmospheric chemistry. The CO that is produced in the molecular channel undergoes further oxidation to produce CO2. Under atmospheric conditions, the H atom and formyl radical that are produced in the radical channel undergo rapid reactions with O2 to produce the hydroperoxyl radical (HO2) via (R3) and (R4). (R3) HCO + O2 → HO2 + CO (R4) H + O2 → HO2 Thus, for every photon absorbed, the photolysis of formaldehyde can contribute one CO2 molecule to the global greenhouse budget or two HO2 radicals to the tropospheric HOx (OH + HO2) cycle. The HO2 radicals produced during formaldehyde photolysis have also been implicated in the formation of photochemical smog. The HO2 radicals act as radical chain carriers and convert NO to NO2, which ultimately results in the catalytic production of O3. Constraining the yield of HO2 produced via HCHO photolysis is essential for improving tropospheric chemistry models. In this study, both the absorption cross section and the quantum yield of the radical channel (R1) were measured at high resolution over the tropospherically relevant wavelength range 304-330 nm. For the cross section measurements a narrow linewidth Nd:YAG pumped dye laser was used with a multi-pass cell. Partial pressures of HCHO were kept below 0.3 torr. Simultaneous measurement of OH LIF in a flame allowed absolute calibration of the wavelength scale. Pressure

  13. Highest Resolution Gaspra Mosaic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This picture of asteroid 951 Gaspra is a mosaic of two images taken by the Galileo spacecraft from a range of 5,300 kilometers (3,300 miles), some 10 minutes before closest approach on October 29, 1991. The Sun is shining from the right; phase angle is 50 degrees. The resolution, about 54 meters/pixel, is the highest for the Gaspra encounter and is about three times better than that in the view released in November 1991. Additional images of Gaspra remain stored on Galileo's tape recorder, awaiting playback in November. Gaspra is an irregular body with dimensions about 19 x 12 x 11 kilometers (12 x 7.5 x 7 miles). The portion illuminated in this view is about 18 kilometers (11 miles) from lower left to upper right. The north pole is located at upper left; Gaspra rotates counterclockwise every 7 hours. The large concavity on the lower right limb is about 6 kilometers (3.7 miles) across, the prominent crater on the terminator, center left, about 1.5 kilometers (1 mile). A striking feature of Gaspra's surface is the abundance of small craters. More than 600 craters, 100-500 meters (330-1650 feet) in diameter are visible here. The number of such small craters compared to larger ones is much greater for Gaspra than for previously studied bodies of comparable size such as the satellites of Mars. Gaspra's very irregular shape suggests that the asteroid was derived from a larger body by nearly catastrophic collisions. Consistent with such a history is the prominence of groove-like linear features, believed to be related to fractures. These linear depressions, 100-300 meters wide and tens of meters deep, are in two crossing groups with slightly different morphology, one group wider and more pitted than the other. Grooves had previously been seen only on Mars's moon Phobos, but were predicted for asteroids as well. Gaspra also shows a variety of enigmatic curved depressions and ridges in the terminator region at left. The Galileo project, whose primary mission is the

  14. Gaspra - Highest Resolution Mosaic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This picture of asteroid 951 Gaspra is a mosaic of two images taken by the Galileo spacecraft from a range of 5,300 kilometers (3,300 miles), some 10 minutes before closest approach on October 29, 1991. The Sun is shining from the right; phase angle is 50 degrees. The resolution, about 54 meters/pixel, is the highest for the Gaspra encounter and is about three times better than that in the view released in November 1991. Additional images of Gaspra remain stored on Galileo's tape recorder, awaiting playback in November. Gaspra is an irregular body with dimensions about 19 x 12 x 11 kilometers (12 x 7.5 x 7 miles). The portion illuminated in this view is about 18 kilometers (11 miles) from lower left to upper right. The north pole is located at upper left; Gaspra rotates counterclockwise every 7 hours. The large concavity on the lower right limb is about 6 kilometers (3.7 miles) across, the prominent crater on the terminator, center left, about 1.5 kilometers (1 mile). A striking feature of Gaspra's surface is the abundance of small craters. More than 600 craters, 100-500 meters (330-1650 feet) in diameter are visible here. The number of such small craters compared to larger ones is much greater for Gaspra than for previously studied bodies of comparable size such as the satellites of Mars. Gaspra's very irregular shape suggests that the asteroid was derived from a larger body by nearly catastrophic collisions. Consistent with such a history is the prominence of groove-like linear features, believed to be related to fractures. These linear depressions, 100-300 meters wide and tens of meters deep, are in two crossing groups with slightly different morphology, one group wider and more pitted than the other. Grooves had previously been seen only on Mars's moon Phobos, but were predicted for asteroids as well. Gaspra also shows a variety of enigmatic curved depressions and ridges in the terminator region at left. The Galileo project, whose primary mission is the

  15. Enhanced High Resolution RBS System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pollock, Thomas J.; Hass, James A.; Klody, George M.

    2011-06-01

    Improvements in full spectrum resolution with the second NEC high resolution RBS system are summarized. Results for 50 Å TiN/HfO films on Si yielding energy resolution on the order of 1 keV are also presented. Detector enhancements include improved pulse processing electronics, upgraded shielding for the MCP/RAE detector, and reduced noise generated from pumping. Energy resolution measurements on spectra front edge coupled with calculations using 0.4mStr solid angle show that beam energy spread at 400 KeV from the Pelletron® accelerator is less than 100 eV. To improve user throughput, magnet control has been added to the automatic data collection. Depth profiles derived from experimental data are discussed. For the thin films profiled, depth resolutions were on the Angstrom level with the non-linear energy/channel conversions ranging from 100 to 200 eV.

  16. Electron microscopy at atomic resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Gronsky, R.

    1983-11-01

    The direct imaging of atomic structure in solids has become increasingly easier to accomplish with modern transmission electron microscopes, many of which have an information retrieval limit near 0.2 nm point resolution. Achieving better resolution, particularly with any useful range of specimen tilting, requires a major design effort. This presentation describes the new Atomic Resolution Microscope (ARM), recently put into operation at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Capable of 0.18 nm or better interpretable resolution over a voltage range of 400 kV to 1000 kV with +- 40/sup 0/ biaxial specimen tilting, the ARM features a number of new electron-optical and microprocessor-control designs. These are highlighted, and its atomic resolution performance demonstrated for a selection of inorganic crystals.

  17. Momentum resolution in inverse photoemission

    SciTech Connect

    Zumbülte, A.; Schmidt, A. B.; Donath, M.

    2015-01-15

    We present a method to determine the electron beam divergence, and thus the momentum resolution, of an inverse-photoemission setup directly from a series of spectra measured on Cu(111). Simulating these spectra with different beam divergences shows a distinct influence of the divergence on the appearance of the Shockley surface state. Upon crossing the Fermi level, its rise in intensity can be directly linked with the beam divergence. A comparison of measurement and simulation enables us to quantify the momentum resolution independent of surface quality, energy resolution, and experimental geometry. With spin resolution, a single spectrum taken around the Fermi momentum of a spin-split surface state, e.g., on Au(111), is sufficient to derive the momentum resolution of an inverse-photoemission setup.

  18. Momentum resolution in inverse photoemission.

    PubMed

    Zumbülte, A; Schmidt, A B; Donath, M

    2015-01-01

    We present a method to determine the electron beam divergence, and thus the momentum resolution, of an inverse-photoemission setup directly from a series of spectra measured on Cu(111). Simulating these spectra with different beam divergences shows a distinct influence of the divergence on the appearance of the Shockley surface state. Upon crossing the Fermi level, its rise in intensity can be directly linked with the beam divergence. A comparison of measurement and simulation enables us to quantify the momentum resolution independent of surface quality, energy resolution, and experimental geometry. With spin resolution, a single spectrum taken around the Fermi momentum of a spin-split surface state, e.g., on Au(111), is sufficient to derive the momentum resolution of an inverse-photoemission setup.

  19. Interferometric resolution boosting for spectrographs

    SciTech Connect

    Erskine, D J; Edelstein, J

    2004-05-25

    Externally dispersed interferometry (EDI) is a technique for enhancing the performance of spectrographs for wide bandwidth high resolution spectroscopy and Doppler radial velocimetry. By placing a small angle-independent interferometer near the slit of a spectrograph, periodic fiducials are embedded on the recorded spectrum. The multiplication of the stellar spectrum times the sinusoidal fiducial net creates a moir{acute e} pattern, which manifests high detailed spectral information heterodyned down to detectably low spatial frequencies. The latter can more accurately survive the blurring, distortions and CCD Nyquist limitations of the spectrograph. Hence lower resolution spectrographs can be used to perform high resolution spectroscopy and radial velocimetry. Previous demonstrations of {approx}2.5x resolution boost used an interferometer having a single fixed delay. We report new data indicating {approx}6x Gaussian resolution boost (140,000 from a spectrograph with 25,000 native resolving power), taken by using multiple exposures at widely different interferometer delays.

  20. Resolution analysis by random probing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simutė, S.; Fichtner, A.; van Leeuwen, T.

    2015-12-01

    We develop and apply methods for resolution analysis in tomography, based on stochastic probing of the Hessian or resolution operators. Key properties of our methods are (i) low algorithmic complexity and easy implementation, (ii) applicability to any tomographic technique, including full-waveform inversion and linearized ray tomography, (iii) applicability in any spatial dimension and to inversions with a large number of model parameters, (iv) low computational costs that are mostly a fraction of those required for synthetic recovery tests, and (v) the ability to quantify both spatial resolution and inter-parameter trade-offs. Using synthetic full-waveform inversions as benchmarks, we demonstrate that auto-correlations of random-model applications to the Hessian yield various resolution measures, including direction- and position-dependent resolution lengths, and the strength of inter-parameter mappings. We observe that the required number of random test models is around 5 in one, two and three dimensions. This means that the proposed resolution analyses are not only more meaningful than recovery tests but also computationally less expensive. We demonstrate the applicability of our method in 3D real-data full-waveform inversions for the western Mediterranean and Japan. In addition to tomographic problems, resolution analysis by random probing may be used in other inverse methods that constrain continuously distributed properties, including electromagnetic and potential-field inversions, as well as recently emerging geodynamic data assimilation.

  1. Energy resolution of scintillation detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moszyński, M.; Syntfeld-Każuch, A.; Swiderski, L.; Grodzicka, M.; Iwanowska, J.; Sibczyński, P.; Szczęśniak, T.

    2016-01-01

    According to current knowledge, the non-proportionality of the light yield of scintillators appears to be a fundamental limitation of energy resolution. A good energy resolution is of great importance for most applications of scintillation detectors. Thus, its limitations are discussed below; which arise from the non-proportional response of scintillators to gamma rays and electrons, being of crucial importance to the intrinsic energy resolution of crystals. The important influence of Landau fluctuations and the scattering of secondary electrons (δ-rays) on intrinsic resolution is pointed out here. The study on undoped NaI and CsI at liquid nitrogen temperature with a light readout by avalanche photodiodes strongly suggests that the non-proportionality of many crystals is not their intrinsic property and may be improved by selective co-doping. Finally, several observations that have been collected in the last 15 years on the influence of the slow components of light pulses on energy resolution suggest that more complex processes are taking place in the scintillators. This was observed with CsI(Tl), CsI(Na), ZnSe(Te), and undoped NaI at liquid nitrogen temperature and, finally, for NaI(Tl) at temperatures reduced below 0 °C. A common conclusion of these observations is that the highest energy resolution, and particularly intrinsic resolution measured with the scintillators, characterized by two or more components of the light pulse decay, is obtainable when the spectrometry equipment integrates the whole light of the components. In contrast, the slow components observed in many other crystals degrade the intrinsic resolution. In the limiting case, afterglow could also be considered as a very slow component that spoils the energy resolution. The aim of this work is to summarize all of the above observations by looking for their origin.

  2. Temporal resolution enhancement from motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rollason, M. P.; Watson, G. H.; Strens, M. J. A.

    2009-09-01

    We describe progress in the third year of the EMRS DTC TEP theme project entitled "Temporal Resolution Enhancement from Motion". The aim is to develop algorithms that combine evidence over time from a sequence of images in order to improve spatial resolution and reduce unwanted artefacts. Years one and two of this project developed and demonstrated an efficient algorithm that provided good resolution enhancement of a scene viewed in the far field (approximately flat) [1]. This paper reports a new algorithm which is applicable to a three dimensional scene where substantial depth variation causes parallax within the imagery. The new algorithm is demonstrated using airborne infra-red imagery.

  3. Image Resolution in Optical Nanoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Nieuwenhuizen, Robert P.J.; Lidke, Keith A.; Bates, Mark; Puig, Daniela Leyton; Grünwald, David; Stallinga, Sjoerd; Rieger, Bernd

    2014-01-01

    Resolution in optical nanoscopy depends on the localization uncertainty of single fluorescent labels, the density of labels covering the sample, and the sample’s spatial structure. Currently there is no integral, practical resolution measure that takes all factors into account. Here we introduce such a measure that can be computed directly from the image. We demonstrate its validity and benefits on 2D and 3D localization microscopy images of tubulin and actin filaments. Our approach makes it possible to compare achieved resolutions in images taken with different nanoscopy methods, optimize and rank different emitter localization and labeling strategies, define a stopping criterion for data acquisition, describe image anisotropy and heterogeneity, and, surprisingly, estimate the average number of localizations per emitter. Our findings challenge the current focus on obtaining the best localization precision, but instead show how the best image resolution can be achieved as fast as possible. PMID:23624665

  4. Superfine resolution acoustooptic spectrum analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ansari, Homayoon; Lesh, James R.

    1991-01-01

    High resolution spectrum analysis of RF signals is required in applications such as the search for extraterrestrial intelligence, RF interference monitoring, or general purpose decomposition of signals. Sub-Hertz resolution in three-dimensional acoustooptic spectrum analysis is theoretically and experimentally demonstrated. The operation of a two-dimensional acoustooptic spectrum analyzer is extended to include time integration over a sequence of CCD frames.

  5. High Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (HIRIS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conley, Joseph M.; Herring, Mark; Norris, David D.

    1988-01-01

    The High Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (HIRIS), related data system, orbit, and mission operations are described. The pushbroom instrument simultaneously images the terrestrial surface in 192 spectral bands from 0.4 to 2.5 microns. The swath width is 30 km and spatial resolution is 30 m. It is planned to be launched with the Earth Observing System aboard the Space Station Polar Platform in 1995. Array detectors allow concurrent integration of the signals at 192,000 detector elements.

  6. Resolution enhancement in tilted coordinates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hariri Naghadeh, Diako; Keith Morley, Christopher

    2016-11-01

    Deconvolution is applied to remove source wavelet effects from seismograms. The results are resolution enhancement that enables detection of thin layers. Following enhancement of resolution, low frequency and high angle reflectors, particularly at great depth, appear as low amplitude and semi-invisible reflectors that are difficult to track and pick. A new approach to enhance resolution is introduced that estimates a derivative using continuous wavelet transform in tilted coordinates. The results are compared with sparse spike deconvolution, curvelet deconvolution and inverse quality filtering in wavelet domain. The positive consequence of the new method is to increase sampling of high dip features by changing the coordinate system from Cartesian to tilted. To compare those methods a complex data set was chosen that includes high angle faults and chaotic mass transport complex. Image enhancement using curvelet deconvolution shows a chaotic system as a non-chaotic one. The results show that sparse spike deconvolution and inverse quality filtering in wavelet domain are able to enhance resolution more than curvelet deconvolution especially at great depth but it is impossible to follow steep dip reflectors after resolution enhancement using these methods, especially when their apparent dips are more than 45°. By estimating derivatives in a continuous wavelet transform from tilted data sets similar resolution enhancement as the other deconvolution methods is achieved but additionally steep dipping reflectors are imaged much better than others. Subtracted results of the enhanced resolution data set using new method and the other introduced methods show that steeply dipping reflectors are highlighted as a particular ability of the new method. The results show that high frequency recovery in Cartesian co-ordinate is accompanied by inability to image steeply dipping reflectors especially at great depths. Conversely recovery of high frequency data and imaging of the data

  7. Dynamic thermodynamic resolution: advantage by separation of equilibration and resolution.

    PubMed

    Lee, Won Koo; Park, Yong Sun; Beak, Peter

    2009-02-17

    In the investigation of a chemical reaction, researchers typically survey variables such as time, temperature, and stoichiometry to optimize yields. This Account demonstrates how control of these variables, often in nontraditional ways, can provide significant improvements in enantiomeric ratios for asymmetric reactions. Dynamic thermodynamic resolution (DTR) offers a convenient method for the resolution of enantiomeric products in the course of a reaction. This process depends on an essential requirement: the equilibration of the penultimate diastereomers must be subject to external control. As a general case, the reaction of A(R), A(S) with B under the influence of the chiral species, L*, gives resolved products C(R) and C(S). In the first step of dynamic resolution under thermodynamic control, the enantiomeric reactants A(R) and A(S) and L* form the diastereomers A(R)/L* and A(S)/L*. The equilibrium between A(R) and A(S) can be rapid, slow, or not operative, and L* can represent a ligand, an auxiliary, or a crystallization process that provides a chiral environment. Second, the populations of the diastereomers are controlled, usually by thermal equilibration. Finally, the reaction of the diastereomers with a reagent B provides the enantiomeric products C(R) and C(S). The control of the diastereomeric equilibrium distinguishes DTR from other resolution techniques. By contrast, physical resolutions separate thermodynamically stable, nonequilibrating diastereomers, and dynamic kinetic resolutions utilize kinetic control for reactions of rapidly equilibrating diastereomers. The dynamic thermodynamic resolutions discussed in this Account illustrate cases of significantly improved enantioselectivities using this technique. Although many of the well-recognized cases come from organolithium chemistry, the principles are general, and we also present cases facilitated by other chemistries. This approach has been used to control enantioselectivities in a number of

  8. Neutron detector resolution for scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Kolda, S.A.

    1997-03-01

    A resolution function has been determined for scattered neutron experiments at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI). This function accounts for the shifting and broadening of the resonance peak due to the additional path length, traveled by the neutron after scattering and prior to detection, along with the broadening of the resonance peak due to the bounce target. This resolution function has been parameterized both in neutron energy and size of the sample disk. Monte Carlo Neutron and Photon (MCNP) modeling has been used to determine the shape of the detector resolution function while assuming that the sample nucleus has an infinite mass. The shape of the function for a monoenergetic neutron point source has been compared to the analytical solution. Additionally, the parameterized detector resolution function has been used to broaden the scatter yield calculated from Evaluated Neutron Data File ENDF/B-VI cross section data for {sup 238}U. The target resolution function has been empirically determined by comparison of the broadened scatter yield and the experimental yield for {sup 238}U. The combined resolution function can be inserted into the SAMMY code to allow resonance analysis for scattering measurements.

  9. High resolution digital delay timer

    DOEpatents

    Martin, Albert D.

    1988-01-01

    Method and apparatus are provided for generating an output pulse following a trigger pulse at a time delay interval preset with a resolution which is high relative to a low resolution available from supplied clock pulses. A first lumped constant delay (20) provides a first output signal (24) at predetermined interpolation intervals corresponding to the desired high resolution time interval. Latching circuits (26, 28) latch the high resolution data (24) to form a first synchronizing data set (60). A selected time interval has been preset to internal counters (142, 146, 154) and corrected for circuit propagation delay times having the same order of magnitude as the desired high resolution. Internal system clock pulses (32, 34) count down the counters to generate an internal pulse delayed by an interval which is functionally related to the preset time interval. A second LCD (184) corrects the internal signal with the high resolution time delay. A second internal pulse is then applied to a third LCD (74) to generate a second set of synchronizing data (76) which is complementary with the first set of synchronizing data (60) for presentation to logic circuits (64). The logic circuits (64) further delay the internal output signal (72) to obtain a proper phase relationship of an output signal (80) with the internal pulses (32, 34). The final delayed output signal (80) thereafter enables the output pulse generator (82) to produce the desired output pulse (84) at the preset time delay interval following input of the trigger pulse (10, 12).

  10. Mars high-resolution mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batson, R. M.; Thomas, P. K.

    1991-06-01

    A series of photomosaics of high-resolution Viking Orbiter images of Mars is being prepared and published to support the Mars 1:500,000 scale geologic mapping program. More than 100 of these photomosaics were made manually, but for the last several years they have all been made digitally. The digital mosaics are published on the Mars Transverse Mercator (MTM) system, and they are also available to the appropriate principal investigators as digital files in the mosaicked digital image model (MDIM) format. The mosaics contain Viking Orbiter images with the highest available resolution: in some areas as high as 10 m/pixel. This resolution, where it exists, will support a 1:100,000 map scale. The full resolution of a mosaic is preserved in a digital file, but conventional lithographic publication of such large-scale inset maps will be done only if required by the geologic map author. When high-resolution images do not fill the neat lines of an MTM quadrangle, the medium-resolution (1/256 degrees/pixel, or 231 m/pixel) MDIM is used. The mosaics are tied by image-matching to the planetwide MDIM, in which random errors as large as 5 km (10 mm at 1:500,000 scale) are common; a few much larger, worst-case errors also occur. Because of the distribution of the errors, many large discrepancies appear along the cutlines between frames with very different resolutions. Furthermore, each block of quadrangles is compiled on its own local control system, and adjacent blocks, compiled later, are unlikely to match. Selection of areas to be mapped is based on geologic mapping proposals reviewed and recommended by the Mars 1:500,000 scale geologic mapping review panel. There is no intention to map the entire planet at this scale.

  11. Homozygosity Mapping and Whole Exome Sequencing Reveal a Novel Homozygous COL18A1 Mutation Causing Knobloch Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Piri, Niloofar; Nürnberg, Gudrun; Saleh-Gohari, Nasrollah; Haghighi, Amirreza; Neidhardt, John; Nürnberg, Peter; Berger, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the genetic basis of a chorioretinal dystrophy with high myopia of unknown origin in a child of a consanguineous marriage. The proband and ten family members of Iranian ancestry participated in this study. Linkage analysis was carried out with DNA samples of the proband and her parents by using the Human SNP Array 6.0. Whole exome sequencing (WES) was performed with the patients’ DNA. Specific sequence alterations within the homozygous regions identified by whole exome sequencing were verified by Sanger sequencing. Upon genetic analysis, a novel homozygous frameshift mutation was found in exon 42 of the COL18A1 gene in the patient. Both parents were heterozygous for this sequence variation. Mutations in COL18A1 are known to cause Knobloch syndrome (KS). Retrospective analysis of clinical records of the patient revealed surgical removal of a meningocele present at birth. The clinical features shown by our patient were typical of KS with the exception of chorioretinal degeneration which is a rare manifestation. This is the first case of KS reported in a family of Iranian ancestry. We identified a novel disease-causing (deletion) mutation in the COL18A1 gene leading to a frameshift and premature stop codon in the last exon. The mutation was not present in SNP databases and was also not found in 192 control individuals. Its localization within the endostatin domain implicates a functional relevance of endostatin in KS. A combined approach of linkage analysis and WES led to a rapid identification of the disease-causing mutation even though the clinical description was not completely clear at the beginning. PMID:25392994

  12. Singularity Resolution in Quantum Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Parampreet

    2014-03-01

    In recent years, progress in understanding of the quantization of cosmological spacetimes using techniques of loop quantum gravity, has led to important insights on the resolution of singularities. With a rigorous loop quantization of isotropic and anisotropic spacetimes and development of sophisticated numerical techniques, it is now possible to explore in detail the structure of spacetime in the Planck regime and extract new physics of the very early universe. Investigations of quantization of various spacetimes indicates that classical singularities such as the big bang are avoided, and quantum evolution results in a bounce of the scale factor. The resolution of singularities seems to occur without any assumption on the initial state for quantum evolution or the equation of state of matter. In this talk, we will review some of the main developments in this direction and provide an up to date summary of the novel results obtained on the resolution of singularities in various models in loop quantum gravity.

  13. KINOFORM LENSES - TOWARD NANOMETER RESOLUTION.

    SciTech Connect

    STEIN, A.; EVANS-LUTTERODT, K.; TAYLOR, A.

    2004-10-23

    While hard x-rays have wavelengths in the nanometer and sub-nanometer range, the ability to focus them is limited by the quality of sources and optics, and not by the wavelength. A few options, including reflective (mirrors), diffractive (zone plates) and refractive (CRL's) are available, each with their own limitations. Here we present our work with kinoform lenses which are refractive lenses with all material causing redundant 2{pi} phase shifts removed to reduce the absorption problems inherently limiting the resolution of refractive lenses. By stacking kinoform lenses together, the effective numerical aperture, and thus the focusing resolution, can be increased. The present status of kinoform lens fabrication and testing at Brookhaven is presented as well as future plans toward achieving nanometer resolution.

  14. Resolution in forensic microbial genotyping

    SciTech Connect

    Velsko, S P

    2005-08-30

    Resolution is a key parameter for differentiating among the large number of strain typing methods that could be applied to pathogens involved in bioterror events or biocrimes. In this report we develop a first-principles analysis of strain typing resolution using a simple mathematical model to provide a basis for the rational design of microbial typing systems for forensic applications. We derive two figures of merit that describe the resolving power and phylogenetic depth of a strain typing system. Rough estimates of these figures-of-merit for MLVA, MLST, IS element, AFLP, hybridization microarrays, and other bacterial typing methods are derived from mutation rate data reported in the literature. We also discuss the general problem of how to construct a ''universal'' practical typing system that has the highest possible resolution short of whole-genome sequencing, and that is applicable with minimal modification to a wide range of pathogens.

  15. High resolution optical DNA mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baday, Murat

    Many types of diseases including cancer and autism are associated with copy-number variations in the genome. Most of these variations could not be identified with existing sequencing and optical DNA mapping methods. We have developed Multi-color Super-resolution technique, with potential for high throughput and low cost, which can allow us to recognize more of these variations. Our technique has made 10--fold improvement in the resolution of optical DNA mapping. Using a 180 kb BAC clone as a model system, we resolved dense patterns from 108 fluorescent labels of two different colors representing two different sequence-motifs. Overall, a detailed DNA map with 100 bp resolution was achieved, which has the potential to reveal detailed information about genetic variance and to facilitate medical diagnosis of genetic disease.

  16. Spontaneous resolution of subfoveal perfluorocarbon

    PubMed Central

    Oellers, Patrick; Charkoudian, Leon D; Hahn, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Perfluorocarbon liquids (PFCL) have transformed the surgical approach to complex retinal detachments, but their use can be complicated by subretinal retention. Migration of peripherally located subretinal PFCL towards the fovea is well established, but spontaneous resolution of subfoveal PFCL without surgical evacuation or displacement has rarely been described. We present a case of a large single retained subfoveal PFCL droplet following vitrectomy with membrane peeling, inferior relaxing retinectomy, and silicone oil tamponade that demonstrated spontaneous resolution 3 weeks postoperatively, with subsequent anatomic and visual improvement. No residual subretinal PFCL was noted, and we hypothesize that the PFCL droplet spontaneously extruded through a transient hole created in the thinned retina overlying the droplet, which subsequently closed spontaneously. Further understanding of the mechanisms of PFCL migration and resolution may facilitate improved treatments for this complication. PMID:25834389

  17. High resolution spectrograph. [for LST

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peacock, K.

    1975-01-01

    The high resolution spectrograph (HRS) is designed to be used with the Large Space Telescope (LST) for the study of spectra of point and extended targets in the spectral range 110 to 410 nm. It has spectral resolutions of 1,000; 30,000; and 100,000 and has a field of view as large as 10 arc sec. The spectral range and resolution are selectable using interchangeable optical components and an echelle spectrograph is used to display a cross dispersed spectrum on the photocathode of either of 2 SEC orthicon image tubes. Provisions are included for wavelength calibration, target identification and acquisition and thermal control. The system considerations of the instrument are described.

  18. High-resolution imaging ellipsometer.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Qiwen; Leger, James R

    2002-08-01

    We report on a novel imaging ellipsometer using a high-numerical-aperture (NA) objective lens capable of measuring a two-dimensional ellipsometric signal with high resolution. Two-dimensional ellipsometric imaging is made possible by spatial filtering at the pupil plane of the objective. A Richards-Wolf vectorial diffraction model and geometrical optics model are developed to simulate the system. The thickness profile of patterned polymethyl methacrylate is measured for calibration purposes. Our instrument has a sensitivity of 5 A and provides spatial resolution of approximately 0.5 microm with 632.8-nm illumination. Its capability of measuring refractive-index variations with high spatial resolution is also demonstrated.

  19. Active Aeroelastic Wing Aerodynamic Model Development and Validation for a Modified F/A-18A Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cumming, Stephen B.; Diebler, Corey G.

    2005-01-01

    A new aerodynamic model has been developed and validated for a modified F/A-18A airplane used for the Active Aeroelastic Wing (AAW) research program. The goal of the program was to demonstrate the advantages of using the inherent flexibility of an aircraft to enhance its performance. The research airplane was an F/A-18A with wings modified to reduce stiffness and a new control system to increase control authority. There have been two flight phases. Data gathered from the first flight phase were used to create the new aerodynamic model. A maximum-likelihood output-error parameter estimation technique was used to obtain stability and control derivatives. The derivatives were incorporated into the National Aeronautics and Space Administration F-18 simulation, validated, and used to develop new AAW control laws. The second phase of flights was used to evaluate the handling qualities of the AAW airplane and the control law design process, and to further test the accuracy of the new model. The flight test envelope covered Mach numbers between 0.85 and 1.30 and dynamic pressures from 600 to 1250 pound-force per square foot. The results presented in this report demonstrate that a thorough parameter identification analysis can be used to improve upon models that were developed using other means. This report describes the parameter estimation technique used, details the validation techniques, discusses differences between previously existing F/A-18 models, and presents results from the second phase of research flights.

  20. Requirements on high resolution detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, A.

    1997-02-01

    For a number of microtomography applications X-ray detectors with a spatial resolution of 1 {mu}m are required. This high spatial resolution will influence and degrade other parameters of secondary importance like detective quantum efficiency (DQE), dynamic range, linearity and frame rate. This note summarizes the most important arguments, for and against those detector systems which could be considered. This article discusses the mutual dependencies between the various figures which characterize a detector, and tries to give some ideas on how to proceed in order to improve present technology.

  1. Comparison of anti-endotoxin activity of apoE and apoA mimetic derivatives of a model amphipathic peptide 18A.

    PubMed

    Sharifov, Oleg F; Nayyar, Gaurav; Ternovoy, Vladimir V; Palgunachari, Mayakonda N; Garber, David W; Anantharamaiah, Gm; Gupta, Himanshu

    2014-11-01

    Endotoxemia is a major cause of chronic inflammation, and is an important pathogenic factor in the development of metabolic syndrome and atherosclerosis. Human apolipoprotein E (apoE) and apoA-I are protein components of high-density lipoprotein, which have strong anti-endotoxin activity. Here, we compared anti-endotoxin activity of Ac-hE18A-NH2 and 4F peptides, modified from model amphipathic helical 18A peptide, to mimic, respectively, apoE and apoA-I properties. Ac-hE18A-NH2, stronger than 4F, inhibited endotoxin activity and disaggregated Escherichia coli 055:B5 (wild smooth serotype). Ac-hE18A-NH2 and 4F inhibited endotoxin activity of E. coli 026:B6 (rough-like serotype) to a similar degree. This suggests that Ac-hE18A-NH2 as a dual-domain molecule might interact with both the lipid A and headgroup of smooth LPS, whereas 4F binds lipid A. In C57BL/6 mice, Ac-hE18A-NH2 was superior to 4F in inhibiting the inflammatory responses mediated by E. coli 055:B5, but not E. coli 026:B6. However, in THP-1 cells, isolated human primary leukocytes, and whole human blood, Ac-hE18A-NH2 reduced responses more strongly than 4F to both E. coli serotypes either when peptides were pre-incubated or co-incubated with LPS, indicating that Ac-hE18A-NH2 also has strong anti-inflammatory effects independent of endotoxin-neutralizing properties. In conclusion, Ac-hE18A-NH2 is more effective than 4F in inhibiting LPS-mediated inflammation, which opens prospective clinical applications for Ac-hE18A-NH2.

  2. Conflict Resolution in Quaker Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brutz, Judith L.; Ingoldsby, Bron B.

    1984-01-01

    Compared conflict resolution in male (N=130) and female (N=158) Quaker adults to the national study on family violence. Results generally showed no differences in the violence rates; however, Quaker fathers reported more acts of overall violence toward their children and Quaker sibling violence was higher than the national sample. (LLL)

  3. Angled Layers in Super Resolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Researchers used a special imaging technique with the panoramic camera on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity to get as detailed a look as possible at a target region near eastern foot of 'Burns Cliff.' The intervening terrain was too difficult for driving the rover closer. The target is the boundary between two sections of layered rock. The layers in lower section (left) run at a marked angle to the layers in next higher section (right).

    This view is the product of a technique called super resolution. It was generated from data acquired on sol 288 of Opportunity's mission (Nov. 14, 2004) from a position along the southeast wall of 'Endurance Crater.' Resolution slightly higher than normal for the panoramic camera was synthesized for this view by combining 17 separate images of this scene, each one 'dithered' or pointed slightly differently from the previous one. Computer manipulation of the individual images was then used to generate a new synthetic view of the scene in a process known mathematically as iterative deconvolution, but referred to informally as super resolution. Similar methods have been used to enhance the resolution of images from the Mars Pathfinder mission and the Hubble Space Telescope.

  4. Advanced very high resolution radiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The advanced very high resolution radiometer development program is considered. The program covered the design, construction, and test of a breadboard model, engineering model, protoflight model, mechanical structural model, and a life test model. Special bench test and calibration equipment was also developed for use on the program.

  5. Spatial resolution in visual memory.

    PubMed

    Ben-Shalom, Asaf; Ganel, Tzvi

    2015-04-01

    Representations in visual short-term memory are considered to contain relatively elaborated information on object structure. Conversely, representations in earlier stages of the visual hierarchy are thought to be dominated by a sensory-based, feed-forward buildup of information. In four experiments, we compared the spatial resolution of different object properties between two points in time along the processing hierarchy in visual short-term memory. Subjects were asked either to estimate the distance between objects or to estimate the size of one of the objects' features under two experimental conditions, of either a short or a long delay period between the presentation of the target stimulus and the probe. When different objects were referred to, similar spatial resolution was found for the two delay periods, suggesting that initial processing stages are sensitive to object-based properties. Conversely, superior resolution was found for the short, as compared with the long, delay when features were referred to. These findings suggest that initial representations in visual memory are hybrid in that they allow fine-grained resolution for object features alongside normal visual sensitivity to the segregation between objects. The findings are also discussed in reference to the distinction made in earlier studies between visual short-term memory and iconic memory.

  6. Resolution-enhanced Mapping Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumer, J. B.; Aubrun, J. N.; Rosenberg, W. J.; Roche, A. E.

    1993-01-01

    A familiar mapping spectrometer implementation utilizes two dimensional detector arrays with spectral dispersion along one direction and spatial along the other. Spectral images are formed by spatially scanning across the scene (i.e., push-broom scanning). For imaging grating and prism spectrometers, the slit is perpendicular to the spatial scan direction. For spectrometers utilizing linearly variable focal-plane-mounted filters the spatial scan direction is perpendicular to the direction of spectral variation. These spectrometers share the common limitation that the number of spectral resolution elements is given by the number of pixels along the spectral (or dispersive) direction. Resolution enhancement by first passing the light input to the spectrometer through a scanned etalon or Michelson is discussed. Thus, while a detector element is scanned through a spatial resolution element of the scene, it is also temporally sampled. The analysis for all the pixels in the dispersive direction is addressed. Several specific examples are discussed. The alternate use of a Michelson for the same enhancement purpose is also discussed. Suitable for weight constrained deep space missions, hardware systems were developed including actuators, sensor, and electronics such that low-resolution etalons with performance required for implementation would weigh less than one pound.

  7. Ambiguity Resolution in Lateralized Arabic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayadre, Manar; Kurzon, Dennis; Peleg, Orna; Zohar, Eviatar

    2015-01-01

    We examined ambiguity resolution in reading in Arabic. Arabic is an abjad orthography and is morphologically similar to Hebrew. However, Arabic literacy occurs in a diglossic context, and its orthography is more visually complex than Hebrew. We therefore tested to see whether hemispheric differences will be similar or different from previous…

  8. Scoring Conflict-Resolution Goals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloane, Marie W.

    1998-01-01

    Successful programs for classroom management and discipline treat students as active participants in building positive affective environments. This paper discusses the basic steps of conflict resolution and presents an example of how one elementary school handled a situation in which a group of students who played soccer each day during recess had…

  9. High resolution tomographic instrument development

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-08-01

    Our recent work has concentrated on the development of high-resolution PET instrumentation reflecting in part the growing importance of PET in nuclear medicine imaging. We have developed a number of positron imaging instruments and have the distinction that every instrument has been placed in operation and has had an extensive history of application for basic research and clinical study. The present program is a logical continuation of these earlier successes. PCR-I, a single ring positron tomograph was the first demonstration of analog coding using BGO. It employed 4 mm detectors and is currently being used for a wide range of biological studies. These are of immense importance in guiding the direction for future instruments. In particular, PCR-II, a volume sensitive positron tomograph with 3 mm spatial resolution has benefited greatly from the studies using PCR-I. PCR-II is currently in the final stages of assembly and testing and will shortly be placed in operation for imaging phantoms, animals and ultimately humans. Perhaps the most important finding resulting from our previous study is that resolution and sensitivity must be carefully balanced to achieve a practical high resolution system. PCR-II has been designed to have the detection characteristics required to achieve 3 mm resolution in human brain under practical imaging situations. The development of algorithms by the group headed by Dr. Chesler is based on a long history of prior study including his joint work with Drs. Pelc and Reiderer and Stearns. This body of expertise will be applied to the processing of data from PCR-II when it becomes operational.

  10. High resolution tomographic instrument development

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    Our recent work has concentrated on the development of high-resolution PET instrumentation reflecting in part the growing importance of PET in nuclear medicine imaging. We have developed a number of positron imaging instruments and have the distinction that every instrument has been placed in operation and has had an extensive history of application for basic research and clinical study. The present program is a logical continuation of these earlier successes. PCR-I, a single ring positron tomograph was the first demonstration of analog coding using BGO. It employed 4 mm detectors and is currently being used for a wide range of biological studies. These are of immense importance in guiding the direction for future instruments. In particular, PCR-II, a volume sensitive positron tomograph with 3 mm spatial resolution has benefited greatly from the studies using PCR-I. PCR-II is currently in the final stages of assembly and testing and will shortly be placed in operation for imaging phantoms, animals and ultimately humans. Perhaps the most important finding resulting from our previous study is that resolution and sensitivity must be carefully balanced to achieve a practical high resolution system. PCR-II has been designed to have the detection characteristics required to achieve 3 mm resolution in human brain under practical imaging situations. The development of algorithms by the group headed by Dr. Chesler is based on a long history of prior study including his joint work with Drs. Pelc and Reiderer and Stearns. This body of expertise will be applied to the processing of data from PCR-II when it becomes operational.

  11. High resolution tomographic instrument development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Our recent work has concentrated on the development of high-resolution PET instrumentation reflecting in part the growing importance of PET in nuclear medicine imaging. We have developed a number of positron imaging instruments and have the distinction that every instrument has been placed in operation and has had an extensive history of application for basic research and clinical study. The present program is a logical continuation of these earlier successes. PCR-I, a single ring positron tomograph was the first demonstration of analog coding using BGO. It employed 4 mm detectors and is currently being used for a wide range of biological studies. These are of immense importance in guiding the direction for future instruments. In particular, PCR-II, a volume sensitive positron tomograph with 3 mm spatial resolution has benefitted greatly from the studies using PCR-I. PCR-II is currently in the final stages of assembly and testing and will shortly be placed in operation for imaging phantoms, animals and ultimately humans. Perhaps the most important finding resulting from our previous study is that resolution and sensitivity must be carefully balanced to achieve a practical high resolution system. PCR-II has been designed to have the detection characteristics required to achieve 3 mm resolution in human brain under practical imaging situations. The development of algorithms by the group headed by Dr. Chesler is based on a long history of prior study including his joint work with Drs. Pelc and Reiderer and Stearns. This body of expertise will be applied to the processing of data from PCR-II when it becomes operational.

  12. HRSC: High resolution stereo camera

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neukum, G.; Jaumann, R.; Basilevsky, A.T.; Dumke, A.; Van Gasselt, S.; Giese, B.; Hauber, E.; Head, J. W.; Heipke, C.; Hoekzema, N.; Hoffmann, H.; Greeley, R.; Gwinner, K.; Kirk, R.; Markiewicz, W.; McCord, T.B.; Michael, G.; Muller, Jan-Peter; Murray, J.B.; Oberst, J.; Pinet, P.; Pischel, R.; Roatsch, T.; Scholten, F.; Willner, K.

    2009-01-01

    The High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC) on Mars Express has delivered a wealth of image data, amounting to over 2.5 TB from the start of the mapping phase in January 2004 to September 2008. In that time, more than a third of Mars was covered at a resolution of 10-20 m/pixel in stereo and colour. After five years in orbit, HRSC is still in excellent shape, and it could continue to operate for many more years. HRSC has proven its ability to close the gap between the low-resolution Viking image data and the high-resolution Mars Orbiter Camera images, leading to a global picture of the geological evolution of Mars that is now much clearer than ever before. Derived highest-resolution terrain model data have closed major gaps and provided an unprecedented insight into the shape of the surface, which is paramount not only for surface analysis and geological interpretation, but also for combination with and analysis of data from other instruments, as well as in planning for future missions. This chapter presents the scientific output from data analysis and highlevel data processing, complemented by a summary of how the experiment is conducted by the HRSC team members working in geoscience, atmospheric science, photogrammetry and spectrophotometry. Many of these contributions have been or will be published in peer-reviewed journals and special issues. They form a cross-section of the scientific output, either by summarising the new geoscientific picture of Mars provided by HRSC or by detailing some of the topics of data analysis concerning photogrammetry, cartography and spectral data analysis.

  13. 28 CFR 542.13 - Informal resolution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Informal resolution. 542.13 Section 542... ADMINISTRATIVE REMEDY Administrative Remedy Program § 542.13 Informal resolution. (a) Informal resolution. Except... Administrative Remedy. Each Warden shall establish procedures to allow for the informal resolution of...

  14. 43 CFR 10.17 - Dispute resolution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dispute resolution. 10.17 Section 10.17... REPATRIATION REGULATIONS General § 10.17 Dispute resolution. (a) Formal and informal resolutions. Any person... a fair resolution of the matter. The Review Committee may aid in this regard as described below....

  15. 36 CFR 1150.113 - Amicable resolution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Amicable resolution. 1150.113 Section 1150.113 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE... resolution. (a) Amicable resolution is encouraged at any stage of proceedings where such resolution...

  16. [United Nations Resolutions. Resolution on Prison Education. Resolution on Basic Principles for the Treatment of Prisoners. Resolution on Criminal Justice Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations, New York, NY.

    This document contains three United Nations resolutions that emphasize the role and practice of prison education. The three resolutions were adopted in 1990: (1) the Economic and Social Council Resolution 1990/20 on prison education; (2) the General Assembly Resolution 45/111 on basic principles for the treatment of prisoners; and (3) General…

  17. High-resolution color images of Io

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcewen, A. S.; Soderblom, L. A.

    1984-01-01

    Color versions of the highest resolution Voyager images of Io were produced by combining the low resolution color images with the high resolution, clear filter images. High resolution versions of the orange, blue, and violet filter images are produced by: orange = high-res clear * low-res orange / low-res clear blue = high-res clear * low-res blue / low-res clear violet = high-res clear * low-res violet / low-res clear. The spectral responses of the high and low resolution clear filter images cancel, leaving the color, while the spatial frequencies of the two low resolution images cancel, leaving the high resolution.

  18. Grapefruit-derived nanovectors deliver miR-18a for treatment of liver metastasis of colon cancer by induction of M1 macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Teng, Yun; Mu, Jingyao; Hu, Xin; Samykutty, Abhilash; Zhuang, Xiaoying; Deng, Zhongbin; Zhang, Lifeng; Cao, Pengxiao; Yan, Jun; Miller, Donald; Zhang, Huang-Ge

    2016-01-01

    Liver metastasis accounts for many of the cancer deaths in patients. Effective treatment for metastatic liver tumors is not available. Here, we provide evidence for the role of miR-18a in the induction of liver M1 (F4/80+interferon gamma (IFNγ)+IL-12+) macrophages. We found that miR-18a encapsulated in grapefruit-derived nanovector (GNV) mediated inhibition of liver metastasis that is dependent upon the induction of M1 (F4/80+IFNγ+IL-12+) macrophages; depletion of macrophages eliminated its anti-metastasis effect. Furthermore, the miR-18a mediated induction of macrophage IFNγ by targeting IRF2 is required for subsequent induction of IL-12. IL-12 then activates natural killer (NK) and natural killer T (NKT) cells for inhibition of liver metastasis of colon cancer. This conclusion is supported by the fact that knockout of IFNγ eliminates miR-18a mediated induction of IL-12, miR-18a treatment has an anti-metastatic effects in T cell deficient mice but there is no anti-metastatic effect on NK and NKT deficient mice. Co-delivery of miR-18a and siRNA IL-12 to macrophages did not result in activation of co-cultured NK and NKT cells. Taken together our results indicate that miR-18a can act as an inhibitor for liver metastasis through induction of M1 macrophages. PMID:27028860

  19. HBX Protein-Induced Downregulation of microRNA-18a is Responsible for Upregulation of Connective Tissue Growth Factor in HBV Infection-Associated Hepatocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaomin; Zhang, Yingjian; Wang, Ping; Wang, Hongyun; Su, Huanhuan; Zhou, Xin; Zhang, Lamei

    2016-01-01

    Background This study was designed to improve our understanding of the role of miR-18a and its target (connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), which are mediators in HBX-induced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Material/Methods We first investigated the expression of several candidate microRNAs (miRNAs) reported to have been aberrantly expressed between HepG2 and HepG2.2.15, which is characterized by stable HBV infection, while the CTGF is identified as a target of miR-18a. Furthermore, the expression of CTGF evaluated in HepG2 was transfected with HBX, while the HepG2.2.15 was transfected with miR-18a and CTGF siRNA. We examined the cell cycle at the same time. Results We found that the expression of miR-18a was abnormally reduced in the HBV-positive HCC tissue samples compared with HBV-negative HCC samples. Through the use of a luciferase reporter system, we also identified CTGF 3′UTR (1046–1052 bp) as the exact binding site for miR-18a. We also observed a clear increase in CTGF mRNA and protein expression levels in HBV-positive HCC human tissue samples in comparison with the HBV-negative controls, indicating a possible negatively associated relationship between miR-18a and CTGF. Furthermore, we investigated the effect of HBX overexpression on miR-18a and CTGF, as well as the viability and cell cycle status of HepG2 cells. In addition, we found that HBX introduction downregulated miR-18a, upregulated CTGF, elevated the viability, and promoted cell cycle progression. We transfected HepG2.2.15 with miR-18a mimics and CTGF siRNA, finding that upregulated miR-18a and downregulated CTGF suppress the viability and cause cell cycle arrest. Conclusions Our study shows the role of the CTGF gene as a target of miR-18a, and identifies the function of HBV/HBX/miR-18a/CTGF as a key signaling pathway mediating HBV infection-induced HCC. PMID:27421245

  20. Moderate-resolution holographic spectrograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muslimov, E. R.; Pavlycheva, N. K.; Valyavin, G. G.; Fabrika, S. N.

    2016-07-01

    We present a new scheme of a moderate-resolution spectrograph based on a cascade of serial holographic gratings each of which produces an individual spectrum with a resolution of about 6000 and a bandwidth of 80 nm. The gratings ensure centering of each part of the spectrum they produce so as to provide uniform coverage of the broadest possible wavelength interval. In this study we manage to simultaneously cover the 430-680 nm interval without gaps using three gratings. Efficiency of the spectrograph optical system itself from the entrance slit to the CCD detector is typically of about 60% with a maximum of 75%. We discuss the advantages and drawbacks of the new spectrograph scheme as well as the astrophysical tasks for which the instrument can be used.

  1. Conflict resolution in insect societies.

    PubMed

    Ratnieks, Francis L W; Foster, Kevin R; Wenseleers, Tom

    2006-01-01

    Although best known for cooperation, insect societies also manifest many potential conflicts among individuals. These conflicts involve both direct reproduction by individuals and manipulation of the reproduction of colony members. Here we review five major areas of reproductive conflict in insect societies: (a) sex allocation, (b) queen rearing, (c) male rearing, (d) queen-worker caste fate, and (e) breeding conflicts among totipotent adults. For each area we discuss the basis for conflict (potential conflict), whether conflict is expressed (actual conflict), whose interests prevail (conflict outcome), and the factors that reduce colony-level costs of conflict (conflict resolution), such as factors that cause workers to work rather than to lay eggs. Reproductive conflicts are widespread, sometimes having dramatic effects on the colony. However, three key factors (kinship, coercion, and constraint) typically combine to limit the effects of reproductive conflict and often lead to complete resolution.

  2. High Resolution Neutral Atom Microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bucay, Igal; Castillo-Garza, Rodrigo; Stratis, Georgios; Raizen, Mark

    2015-03-01

    We are developing a high resolution neutral atom microscope based on metastable atom electron spectroscopy (MAES). When a metastable atom of a noble gas is near a solid, a surface electron will tunnel to an empty energy level of the metastable atom, thereby ejecting the excited electron from the atom. The emitted electrons carry information regarding the local topography and electronic, magnetic, and chemical structures of most hard materials. Furthermore, using a chromatic aberration corrected magnetic hexapole lens we expect to attain a spatial resolution below 10 nm. We will use this microscope to investigate how local phenomena can give rise to macroscopic effects in materials that cannot be probed using a scanning tunneling microscope, namely insulating transition metal oxides.

  3. SPECT imaging with resolution recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Bronnikov, A. V.

    2011-07-01

    Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is a method of choice for imaging spatial distributions of radioisotopes. Many applications of this method are found in nuclear industry, medicine, and biomedical research. We study mathematical modeling of a micro-SPECT system by using a point-spread function (PSF) and implement an OSEM-based iterative algorithm for image reconstruction with resolution recovery. Unlike other known implementations of the OSEM algorithm, we apply en efficient computation scheme based on a useful approximation of the PSF, which ensures relatively fast computations. The proposed approach can be applied with the data acquired with any type of collimators, including parallel-beam fan-beam, cone-beam and pinhole collimators. Experimental results obtained with a micro SPECT system demonstrate high efficiency of resolution recovery. (authors)

  4. A high resolution TDC subsystem

    SciTech Connect

    Geiges, R.; Merle, K. )

    1994-02-01

    A high resolution TDC subsystem was developed at the Institute for Nuclear Physics in Mainz. The TDC chip offers a time resolution of less than 300 ps and a programmable measurement range from 0 to 16 [mu]sec. The time measurement is done with a new, purely digital counting method. The chip can be operated in common start or common stop mode. In common start mode the chip is able to store up to 4 multiple hits per channel. The chip is used to build a transputer controlled subsystem for the measurement of the drift times of a vertical drift chamber. The design of the subsystem will be described and the first results from the tests of the prototype system will be presented.

  5. Interpersonal Relations and Conflict Resolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piedmont City Unified School District, CA.

    THE FOLLOWING IS THE FULL TEXT OF THIS DOCUMENT: This year we initiated a program to assist students with conflict resolution and problem-solving. The program has two components. Each month the principal holds a class meeting with students in grades 2-5, one grade at a time. Since we have 2 classes for each grade, the principal meets in a large,…

  6. Enhancing the ATIC Charge Resolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guzik, T. G.; Adams, J. H., Jr.; Ahn, H. S.; Bashindzhagyan, G. L.; Batkov, K. E.; Chang, J.; Christl, M.; Fazely, A. R.; Ganel, O.; Gunashingha, R. M.

    2006-01-01

    The Advanced Thin Ionization Calorimeter (ATIC) experiment measures the energy spectra of elements, from H to Fe, in the energy region from about 100 GeV to tens of TeV. The ATIC instrument was flown twice in long-duration balloon flights around the South Pole; the ATIC-1 test flight during Dec. 2000 - Jan. 2001 and the ATIC-2 science flight during Dec. 2002 - Jan. 2003. Analyses of both datasets have, to date, relied upon the highly segmented Silicon Matrix (SiM) detector to separate the incident cosmic ray from the calorimeter backscatter and to identify the charge. This method has worked well, enabling ATIC to separate protons from helium and to resolve all the major species up through iron. This charge resolution can be significantly improved by restricting the analysis to particle trajectories that pass through two SiM pixels at the cost of using only a fraction of the potential instrument geometry. However, immediately below the SiM is the two layer SI hodoscope (x, y) consisting of Bicron BC-408 plastic scintillator 2 cm wide, 1 cm thick, 88.2 cm long strips viewed by Hamamatsu R5611 photomultiplier tubes on each end of each strip. The primary purpose of the ATIC hodoscopes is to provide a fast trigger, and each hodoscope includes two crossed layers of strips (42 per layer in the case of Sl) providing supplemental particle trajectory information. The hodoscope readout electronics were designed to provide reasonable charge resolution over the dynamic range from protons through iron. This presentation discusses the S 1 hodoscope energy deposit calibrations, examines the charge resolution possible with this detector and investigates combining the S1 and SiM charge measurements to improve the overall ATIC charge resolution while minimizing degradation of the instrument geometry.

  7. Optical resolution from Fisher information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motka, L.; Stoklasa, B.; D'Angelo, M.; Facchi, P.; Garuccio, A.; Hradil, Z.; Pascazio, S.; Pepe, F. V.; Teo, Y. S.; Řeháček, J.; Sánchez-Soto, L. L.

    2016-05-01

    The information gained by performing a measurement on a physical system is most appropriately assessed by the Fisher information, which in fact establishes lower bounds on estimation errors for an arbitrary unbiased estimator. We revisit the basic properties of the Fisher information and demonstrate its potential to quantify the resolution of optical systems. We illustrate this with some conceptually important examples, such as single-slit diffraction, spectroscopy and superresolution techniques.

  8. High resolution time interval counter

    DOEpatents

    Condreva, Kenneth J.

    1994-01-01

    A high resolution counter circuit measures the time interval between the occurrence of an initial and a subsequent electrical pulse to two nanoseconds resolution using an eight megahertz clock. The circuit includes a main counter for receiving electrical pulses and generating a binary word--a measure of the number of eight megahertz clock pulses occurring between the signals. A pair of first and second pulse stretchers receive the signal and generate a pair of output signals whose widths are approximately sixty-four times the time between the receipt of the signals by the respective pulse stretchers and the receipt by the respective pulse stretchers of a second subsequent clock pulse. Output signals are thereafter supplied to a pair of start and stop counters operable to generate a pair of binary output words representative of the measure of the width of the pulses to a resolution of two nanoseconds. Errors associated with the pulse stretchers are corrected by providing calibration data to both stretcher circuits, and recording start and stop counter values. Stretched initial and subsequent signals are combined with autocalibration data and supplied to an arithmetic logic unit to determine the time interval in nanoseconds between the pair of electrical pulses being measured.

  9. High resolution time interval counter

    DOEpatents

    Condreva, K.J.

    1994-07-26

    A high resolution counter circuit measures the time interval between the occurrence of an initial and a subsequent electrical pulse to two nanoseconds resolution using an eight megahertz clock. The circuit includes a main counter for receiving electrical pulses and generating a binary word--a measure of the number of eight megahertz clock pulses occurring between the signals. A pair of first and second pulse stretchers receive the signal and generate a pair of output signals whose widths are approximately sixty-four times the time between the receipt of the signals by the respective pulse stretchers and the receipt by the respective pulse stretchers of a second subsequent clock pulse. Output signals are thereafter supplied to a pair of start and stop counters operable to generate a pair of binary output words representative of the measure of the width of the pulses to a resolution of two nanoseconds. Errors associated with the pulse stretchers are corrected by providing calibration data to both stretcher circuits, and recording start and stop counter values. Stretched initial and subsequent signals are combined with autocalibration data and supplied to an arithmetic logic unit to determine the time interval in nanoseconds between the pair of electrical pulses being measured. 3 figs.

  10. Box graphs and resolutions I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, Andreas P.; Schäfer-Nameki, Sakura

    2016-04-01

    Box graphs succinctly and comprehensively characterize singular fibers of elliptic fibrations in codimension two and three, as well as flop transitions connecting these, in terms of representation theoretic data. We develop a framework that provides a systematic map between a box graph and a crepant algebraic resolution of the singular elliptic fibration, thus allowing an explicit construction of the fibers from a singular Weierstrass or Tate model. The key tool is what we call a fiber face diagram, which shows the relevant information of a (partial) toric triangulation and allows the inclusion of more general algebraic blowups. We shown that each such diagram defines a sequence of weighted algebraic blowups, thus providing a realization of the fiber defined by the box graph in terms of an explicit resolution. We show this correspondence explicitly for the case of SU (5) by providing a map between box graphs and fiber faces, and thereby a sequence of algebraic resolutions of the Tate model, which realizes each of the box graphs.

  11. With a long flight data probe extending from its nose, this F/A-18A has been modified to conduct fli

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    With a long flight data probe extending from its nose, this F/A-18A has been modified to conduct flight research in the Active Aeroelastic Wing (AAW) project at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California.

  12. A modified F/A-18A sporting a distinctive red, white and blue paint scheme is the test aircraft for

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    A modified F/A-18A sporting a distinctive red, white and blue paint scheme is the test aircraft for the Active Aeroelastic Wing (AAW) project at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California.

  13. This modified F/A-18A with its distinctive red, white and blue paint scheme is the test aircraft for

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This modified F/A-18A with its distinctive red, white and blue paint scheme is the test aircraft for the Active Aeroelastic Wing (AAW) project at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California.

  14. microRNA-221 and microRNA-18a identification in stool as potential biomarkers for the non-invasive diagnosis of colorectal carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Yau, T O; Wu, C W; Dong, Y; Tang, C-M; Ng, S S M; Chan, F K L; Sung, J J Y; Yu, J

    2014-01-01

    Background: The detection of microRNA (miRNA) dysregulation in stool is a novel approach for the diagnosis of colorectal carcinoma (CRC). The aim of this study is to investigate the use of miR-221 and miR-18a in stool samples as non-invasive biomarkers for CRC diagnosis. Methods: A miRNA expression array containing 667 miRNAs was performed to identify miRNA dysregulation in CRC tissues. We focused on miR-221 and miR-18a, two significantly upregulated miRNAs which were subsequently verified in 40 pairs of CRC tissues and 595 stool samples (198 CRCs, 199 polyps and 198 normal controls). Results: miR-221 and miR-18a were upregulated in the miRNA expression array. miR-221 and miR-18a levels were also significantly higher in 40 CRC tumours compared with their respective adjacent normal tissues. In stool samples, miR-221 and miR-18a showed a significant increasing trend from normal controls to late stages of CRC (P<0.0001). The levels of stool miR-221 and miR-18a were both significantly higher in subjects with stages I+II (miR-221: P<0.0001, miR-18a: P<0.0001) and stages III+IV of CRC (miR-221: P=0.0004, miR-18a: P<0.0001) compared with normal controls. The AUC of stool miR-221 and miR-18a were 0.73 and 0.67 for CRC patients as compared with normal controls, respectively. No significant differences in stool miR-221 and miR-18a levels were found between patients with proximal and distal CRCs. The use of antibiotics did not influence stool miRNA-221 and miRNA-18a levels. Conclusions: Stool-based miR-221 can be used as a non-invasive biomarker for the detection of CRC. PMID:25233396

  15. In-Flight Wing Pressure Distributions for the NASA F/A-18A High Alpha Research Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Mark C.; Saltzman, John A.

    2000-01-01

    Pressure distributions on the wings of the F/A-18A High Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV) were obtained using both flush-mounted pressure orifices and surface-mounted pressure tubing. During quasi-stabilized 1-g flight, data were gathered at ranges for angle of attack from 5 deg to 70 deg, for angle of sideslip from -12 deg to +12 deg, and for Mach from 0.23 to 0.64, at various engine settings, and with and without the leading edge extension fence installed. Angle of attack strongly influenced the wing pressure distribution, as demonstrated by a distinct flow separation pattern that occurred between the range from 15 deg to 30 deg. Influence by the leading edge extension fence was evident on the inboard wing pressure distribution, but little influence was seen on the outboard portion of the wing. Angle-of-sideslip influence on wing pressure distribution was strongest at low angle of attack. Influence of Mach number was observed in the regions of local supersonic flow, diminishing as angle of attack was increased. Engine throttle setting had little influence on the wing pressure distribution.

  16. An Inlet Distortion Assessment During Aircraft Departures at High Angle of Attack for an F/A-18A Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steenken, William G.; Williams, John G.; Yuhas, Andrew J.; Walsh, Kevin R.

    1997-01-01

    The F404-GE-400-powered F/A-18A High Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV) was used to examine the quality of inlet airflow during departed flight maneuvers, that is, during flight outside the normal maneuvering envelope where control surfaces have little or no effectiveness. Six nose-left and six nose-right departures were initiated at Mach numbers between 0.3 and 0.4 at an altitude of 35 kft. The entry yaw rates were approximately 40 to 90 deg/sec. Engine surges were encountered during three of the nose-left and one of the nose-right departures. Time-variant inlet-total-pressure distortion levels at the engine face did not significantly exceed those at maximum angle-of-attack and sideslip maneuvers during controlled flight. Surges caused by inlet distortion levels resulted from a combination of high levels of inlet distortion and rapid changes in aircraft position. These rapid changes indicate a combination of engine support and gyroscopic loads being applied to the engine structure that impact the aerodynamic stability of the compressor through changes in the rotor-to-case clearances. This document presents the slides from an oral presentation.

  17. Amylase enzyme from Bacillus subtilis S8-18: a potential desizing agent from the marine environment.

    PubMed

    Kalpana, Balu Jancy; Sindhulakshmi, Muthukrishnan; Pandian, Shunmugiah Karutha

    2014-01-01

    The present study is aimed at developing an economical medium for the production of α-amylase from Bacillus subtilis S8-18, a marine sediment isolate from Palk Bay, with various agricultural by-products that are cheap and rich in starch. These products include wheat bran, wheat husk, rice bran, rice husk, and potato peel and are used to replace soluble starch present in the Luria Bertani (LB) broth (synthetic medium). The rice husk was found to be the best to influence enzyme production significantly (61,186 IU mL⁻¹) when compared with the yield of 30,026 IU mL⁻¹ obtained by commercial starch. Hence, LB broth containing rice husk was considered an economical medium. In addition, the effect of various nutritional and physiological factors on enzyme production was also investigated. Furthermore, the desizing efficiency of α-amylases produced by synthetic and economical media was evaluated through various assays like reducing sugar estimation, weight loss assay, drop absorbency assay, scanning electron microscopy, and Fourier transform infrared analyses. In addition, a commercial α-amylase from B. subtilis was also used in desizing analyses for comparative purposes. It revealed that the α-amylase from the economical medium was as effective in desizing the cotton fabrics as that of the commercial enzyme and much superior to the enzyme produced through the synthetic medium.

  18. Amylase enzyme from Bacillus subtilis S8-18: a potential desizing agent from the marine environment.

    PubMed

    Kalpana, Balu Jancy; Sindhulakshmi, Muthukrishnan; Pandian, Shunmugiah Karutha

    2014-01-01

    The present study is aimed at developing an economical medium for the production of α-amylase from Bacillus subtilis S8-18, a marine sediment isolate from Palk Bay, with various agricultural by-products that are cheap and rich in starch. These products include wheat bran, wheat husk, rice bran, rice husk, and potato peel and are used to replace soluble starch present in the Luria Bertani (LB) broth (synthetic medium). The rice husk was found to be the best to influence enzyme production significantly (61,186 IU mL⁻¹) when compared with the yield of 30,026 IU mL⁻¹ obtained by commercial starch. Hence, LB broth containing rice husk was considered an economical medium. In addition, the effect of various nutritional and physiological factors on enzyme production was also investigated. Furthermore, the desizing efficiency of α-amylases produced by synthetic and economical media was evaluated through various assays like reducing sugar estimation, weight loss assay, drop absorbency assay, scanning electron microscopy, and Fourier transform infrared analyses. In addition, a commercial α-amylase from B. subtilis was also used in desizing analyses for comparative purposes. It revealed that the α-amylase from the economical medium was as effective in desizing the cotton fabrics as that of the commercial enzyme and much superior to the enzyme produced through the synthetic medium. PMID:23659677

  19. Expression, Circulation, and Excretion Profile of MicroRNA-21, -155, and -18a Following Acute Kidney Injury

    PubMed Central

    Vaidya, Vishal S.

    2012-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous noncoding RNA molecules that are involved in post-transcriptional gene silencing. Using global miRNA expression profiling, we found miR-21, -155, and 18a to be highly upregulated in rat kidneys following tubular injury induced by ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) or gentamicin administration. Mir-21 and -155 also showed decreased expression patterns in blood and urinary supernatants in both models of kidney injury. Furthermore, urinary levels of miR-21 increased 1.2-fold in patients with clinical diagnosis of acute kidney injury (AKI) (n = 22) as compared with healthy volunteers (n = 25) (p < 0.05), and miR-155 decreased 1.5-fold in patients with AKI (p < 0.01). We identified 29 messenger RNA core targets of these 3 miRNAs using the context likelihood of relatedness algorithm and found these predicted gene targets to be highly enriched for genes associated with apoptosis or cell proliferation. Taken together, these results suggest that miRNA-21 and -155 could potentially serve as translational biomarkers for detection of AKI and may play a critical role in the pathogenesis of kidney injury and tissue repair process. PMID:22705808

  20. Super Resolution Image of Yogi

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Yogi is a meter-size rock about 5 meters northwest of the Mars Pathfinder lander and was the second rock visited by the Sojourner Rover's alpha proton X-ray spectrometer (APXS) instrument. This mosaic shows super resolution techniques applied to the second APXS target rock, which was poorly illuminated in the rover's forward camera view taken before the instrument was deployed. Super resolution was applied to help to address questions about the texture of this rock and what it might tell us about its mode of origin.

    This mosaic of Yogi was produced by combining four 'Super Pan' frames taken with the IMP camera. This composite color mosaic consists of 7 frames from the right eye, taken with different color filters that were enlarged by 500% and then co-added using Adobe Photoshop to produce, in effect, a super-resolution panchromatic frame that is sharper than an individual frame would be. This panchromatic frame was then colorized with the red, green, and blue filtered images from the same sequence. The color balance was adjusted to approximate the true color of Mars. Shadows were processed separately from the rest of the rock and combined with the rest of the scene to bring out details in the shadow of Yogi that would be too dark to view at the same time as the sunlit surfaces.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

  1. Ultra-high resolution AMOLED

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wacyk, Ihor; Prache, Olivier; Ghosh, Amal

    2011-06-01

    AMOLED microdisplays continue to show improvement in resolution and optical performance, enhancing their appeal for a broad range of near-eye applications such as night vision, simulation and training, situational awareness, augmented reality, medical imaging, and mobile video entertainment and gaming. eMagin's latest development of an HDTV+ resolution technology integrates an OLED pixel of 3.2 × 9.6 microns in size on a 0.18 micron CMOS backplane to deliver significant new functionality as well as the capability to implement a 1920×1200 microdisplay in a 0.86" diagonal area. In addition to the conventional matrix addressing circuitry, the HDTV+ display includes a very lowpower, low-voltage-differential-signaling (LVDS) serialized interface to minimize cable and connector size as well as electromagnetic emissions (EMI), an on-chip set of look-up-tables for digital gamma correction, and a novel pulsewidth- modulation (PWM) scheme that together with the standard analog control provides a total dimming range of 0.05cd/m2 to 2000cd/m2 in the monochrome version. The PWM function also enables an impulse drive mode of operation that significantly reduces motion artifacts in high speed scene changes. An internal 10-bit DAC ensures that a full 256 gamma-corrected gray levels are available across the entire dimming range, resulting in a measured dynamic range exceeding 20-bits. This device has been successfully tested for operation at frame rates ranging from 30Hz up to 85Hz. This paper describes the operational features and detailed optical and electrical test results for the new AMOLED WUXGA resolution microdisplay.

  2. Conflict resolution for student midwives.

    PubMed

    Steen, Mary

    2011-03-01

    Poor working relationships, aggressive behaviour and bullying within the midwifery profession are a common phenomenon, with student midwives reporting that they have either experienced or witnessed this within their clinical or educational environments. There is a need to address this unpleasant phenomenon and one way is to introduce conflict resolution strategies. This article describes and discusses how the Start Treating Others Positively (STOP) model has been adapted to develop an educational workshop to assist student midwives in enhancing and developing skills to manage conflict in their working and learning environments. PMID:21473323

  3. Nanosecond microscopy with spectroscopic resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinrich, Christoph; Bernet, Stefan; Ritsch-Marte, Monika

    2006-03-01

    We demonstrate coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy in a wide-field setup with nanosecond laser pulse excitation. In contrast to confocal setups, the image of a sample can be recorded with a single pair of excitation pulses. For this purpose, the excitation geometry is specially designed in order to satisfy the phase matching condition over the whole sample area. The spectral, temporal and spatial sensitivity of the method is demonstrated by imaging test samples, i.e. oil vesicles in sunflower seeds, on a nanosecond timescale. The method provides snapshot imaging in 3 ns with a spectral resolution of 25 cm-1.

  4. Multiresponse Imaging For Improved Resolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fales, Carl L., Jr.; Huck, Friedrich O.

    1993-01-01

    Images restored with resolution finer than sampling lattice. Multiresponse imaging overcomes sampling-passband constraint and critically constrained only by optical response and sensitivity of image-gathering device. Process consists of multiresponse image gathering and Wiener-matrix restoration. Image-gathering process acquires sequence of images, each with different optical response so within-pass-band and aliased signal components weighted differently. Wiener-matrix filter, in turn, unscrambles within-passband and aliased frequency components of undersampled signal and restores them up to cutoff frequency of optical response.

  5. DARPA high resolution display technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slusarczuk, Marko

    1990-11-01

    Much of the information of interest to pilots in flight is display-limited, and is undergoing substantial expansion due to improved sensor output and signal processing; attention is accordingly given to digitally-based instrument display imaging in the present evaluation of high-resolution cockpit display technologies. Also noted are the advantages of digitally transmitted sensor data in cases where the airborne reconnaissance user may be able to analyze telemetered airborne data in real time and respond with requests to the pilot for more detailed information of specific battlefield sites.

  6. High Spectral Resolution Lidar Data

    DOE Data Explorer

    Eloranta, Ed

    2004-12-01

    The HSRL provided calibrated vertical profiles of optical depth, backscatter cross section and depoloarization at a wavelength of 532 nm. Profiles were acquired at 2.5 second intervals with 7.5 meter resolution. Profiles extended from an altitude of 100 m to 30 km in clear air. The lidar penetrated to a maximum optical depth of ~ 4 under cloudy conditions. Our data contributed directly to the aims of the M-PACE experiment, providing calibrated optical depth and optical backscatter measurements which were not available from any other instrument.

  7. High-Resolution Imaging Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dozier, Jeff; Goetz, Alexander F. H.

    1990-01-01

    Earth resources observed in greater detail. High-Resolution Imaging Spectrometer, undergoing development for use in NASA's Earth Observing System, measures reflectance of Earth's surface in visible and near-infrared wavelengths. From an orbit around Earth, instrument scans surface of Earth in 200 wavelength bands simultaneously. Produces images enabling identification of minerals in rocks and soils, important algal pigments in oceans and inland waters, changes in spectra associated with biochemistry of plant canopies, compositions of atmospheric aerosols, sizes of grains in snow, and contamination of snow by impurities that absorb visible light.

  8. High Resolution Scanning Reflectarray Antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Romanofsky, Robert R. (Inventor); Miranda, Felix A. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    The present invention provides a High Resolution Scanning Reflectarray Antenna (HRSRA) for the purpose of tracking ground terminals and space craft communication applications. The present invention provides an alternative to using gimbaled parabolic dish antennas and direct radiating phased arrays. When compared to a gimbaled parabolic dish, the HRSRA offers the advantages of vibration free steering without incurring appreciable cost or prime power penalties. In addition, it offers full beam steering at a fraction of the cost of direct radiating arrays and is more efficient.

  9. Improving staff nurse conflict resolution skills.

    PubMed

    Baker, K M

    1995-01-01

    As health care organizations restructure their organizations based on a team-managed philosophy, staff nurses will need new skills to function successfully in this type of environment. Specifically, staff nurses will need improved conflict resolution skills. Training and nurse managers' modeling of effective resolution techniques are key elements in developing improved conflict resolution skills among staff nurses. PMID:7566208

  10. 33 CFR 385.23 - Dispute resolution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dispute resolution. 385.23... Processes § 385.23 Dispute resolution. (a) Disputes with the non-Federal sponsor concerning a Project Cooperation Agreement shall be resolved under the specific dispute resolution procedures of that...

  11. 49 CFR 397.75 - Dispute resolution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dispute resolution. 397.75 Section 397.75... resolution. (a) Petition. One or more States or Indian tribes may petition the Administrator to resolve a... this subpart. (b) Filing. Each petition for dispute resolution filed under this section must: (1)...

  12. 34 CFR 300.510 - Resolution process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Resolution process. 300.510 Section 300.510 Education... DISABILITIES Procedural Safeguards Due Process Procedures for Parents and Children § 300.510 Resolution process. (a) Resolution meeting. (1) Within 15 days of receiving notice of the parent's due process...

  13. 14 CFR 158.83 - Informal resolution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Informal resolution. 158.83 Section 158.83... PASSENGER FACILITY CHARGES (PFC'S) Termination § 158.83 Informal resolution. The Administrator shall undertake informal resolution with the public agency or any other affected party if, after review...

  14. 12 CFR 611.1220 - Termination resolution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Termination resolution. 611.1220 Section 611... Institution Status § 611.1220 Termination resolution. No more than 1 week before you submit your plan of termination to us, your board of directors must adopt a termination resolution stating its support...

  15. 21 CFR 312.48 - Dispute resolution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dispute resolution. 312.48 Section 312.48 Food and... USE INVESTIGATIONAL NEW DRUG APPLICATION Administrative Actions § 312.48 Dispute resolution. (a... resolution. Appropriate issues to raise with the ombudsman include resolving difficulties in...

  16. 21 CFR 314.103 - Dispute resolution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dispute resolution. 314.103 Section 314.103 Food... Applications § 314.103 Dispute resolution. (a) General. FDA is committed to resolving differences between... application. If resolution is not achieved, the applicant may raise the matter with the person designated...

  17. 20 CFR 627.481 - Audit resolution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Audit resolution. 627.481 Section 627.481... PROGRAMS UNDER TITLES I, II, AND III OF THE ACT Administrative Standards § 627.481 Audit resolution. (a) Federal audit resolution. When the OIG issues an audit report to the Employment and...

  18. 10 CFR 74.57 - Alarm resolution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Alarm resolution. 74.57 Section 74.57 Energy NUCLEAR... Quantities of Strategic Special Nuclear Material § 74.57 Alarm resolution. (a) Licensees subject to § 74.51 shall provide the MC&A alarm resolution capabilities described in paragraphs (b) through (f) of...

  19. On Radar Resolution in Coherent Change Detection.

    SciTech Connect

    Bickel, Douglas L.

    2015-11-01

    It is commonly observed that resolution plays a role in coherent change detection. Although this is the case, the relationship of the resolution in coherent change detection is not yet defined . In this document, we present an analytical method of evaluating this relationship using detection theory. Specifically we examine the effect of resolution on receiver operating characteristic curves for coherent change detection.

  20. The quest for ultimate super resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemmer, Philip; Ben-Benjamin, Jonathan Samuel

    2016-09-01

    With the wealth of super-resolution techniques available in the literature it is useful to provide a succinct review of the general concepts involved in the different schemes. In this paper we group super-resolution schemes into several broad categories to simplify comparison, and to elucidate the factors limiting their respective resolutions.

  1. 49 CFR 397.75 - Dispute resolution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... first. (e) Hearings; alternative dispute resolution. Upon receipt of a petition filed pursuant to... parties from settling the dispute or seeking other methods of alternative dispute resolution prior to the... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Dispute resolution. 397.75 Section...

  2. 34 CFR 300.510 - Resolution process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Resolution process. 300.510 Section 300.510 Education... DISABILITIES Procedural Safeguards Due Process Procedures for Parents and Children § 300.510 Resolution process. (a) Resolution meeting. (1) Within 15 days of receiving notice of the parent's due process...

  3. 34 CFR 303.442 - Resolution process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Resolution process. 303.442 Section 303.442 Education... DISABILITIES Procedural Safeguards States That Choose to Adopt the Part B Due Process Hearing Procedures Under Section 615 of the Act § 303.442 Resolution process. (a) Resolution meeting. (1) Within 15 days...

  4. 34 CFR 300.510 - Resolution process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Resolution process. 300.510 Section 300.510 Education... DISABILITIES Procedural Safeguards Due Process Procedures for Parents and Children § 300.510 Resolution process. (a) Resolution meeting. (1) Within 15 days of receiving notice of the parent's due process...

  5. 34 CFR 300.510 - Resolution process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Resolution process. 300.510 Section 300.510 Education... DISABILITIES Procedural Safeguards Due Process Procedures for Parents and Children § 300.510 Resolution process. (a) Resolution meeting. (1) Within 15 days of receiving notice of the parent's due process...

  6. 34 CFR 303.442 - Resolution process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Resolution process. 303.442 Section 303.442 Education... DISABILITIES Procedural Safeguards States That Choose to Adopt the Part B Due Process Hearing Procedures Under Section 615 of the Act § 303.442 Resolution process. (a) Resolution meeting. (1) Within 15 days...

  7. 34 CFR 303.442 - Resolution process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Resolution process. 303.442 Section 303.442 Education... DISABILITIES Procedural Safeguards States That Choose to Adopt the Part B Due Process Hearing Procedures Under Section 615 of the Act § 303.442 Resolution process. (a) Resolution meeting. (1) Within 15 days...

  8. Super Resolution Algorithm for CCTVs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gohshi, Seiichi

    2015-03-01

    Recently, security cameras and CCTV systems have become an important part of our daily lives. The rising demand for such systems has created business opportunities in this field, especially in big cities. Analogue CCTV systems are being replaced by digital systems, and HDTV CCTV has become quite common. HDTV CCTV can achieve images with high contrast and decent quality if they are clicked in daylight. However, the quality of an image clicked at night does not always have sufficient contrast and resolution because of poor lighting conditions. CCTV systems depend on infrared light at night to compensate for insufficient lighting conditions, thereby producing monochrome images and videos. However, these images and videos do not have high contrast and are blurred. We propose a nonlinear signal processing technique that significantly improves visual and image qualities (contrast and resolution) of low-contrast infrared images. The proposed method enables the use of infrared cameras for various purposes such as night shot and poor lighting environments under poor lighting conditions.

  9. Low-resolution gait recognition.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Junping; Pu, Jian; Chen, Changyou; Fleischer, Rudolf

    2010-08-01

    Unlike other biometric authentication methods, gait recognition is noninvasive and effective from a distance. However, the performance of gait recognition will suffer in the low-resolution (LR) case. Furthermore, when gait sequences are projected onto a nonoptimal low-dimensional subspace to reduce the data complexity, the performance of gait recognition will also decline. To deal with these two issues, we propose a new algorithm called superresolution with manifold sampling and backprojection (SRMS), which learns the high-resolution (HR) counterparts of LR test images from a collection of HR/LR training gait image patch pairs. Then, we incorporate SRMS into a new algorithm called multilinear tensor-based learning without tuning parameters (MTP) for LR gait recognition. Our contributions include the following: 1) With manifold sampling, the redundancy of gait image patches is remarkably decreased; thus, the superresolution procedure is more efficient and reasonable. 2) Backprojection guarantees that the learned HR gait images and the corresponding LR gait images can be more consistent. 3) The optimal subspace dimension for dimension reduction is automatically determined without introducing extra parameters. 4) Theoretical analysis of the algorithm shows that MTP converges. Experiments on the USF human gait database and the CASIA gait database show the increased efficiency of the proposed algorithm, compared with previous algorithms. PMID:20199936

  10. Solar corona at high resolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golub, L.; Rosner, R.; Zombeck, M. V. Z.; Vaiana, G. S.

    1982-01-01

    The earth's surface is shielded from solar X rays almost completely by the atmosphere. It is, therefore, necessary to place X-ray detectors on rockets or orbiting satellites. Solar rays were detected for the first time in the late 1940's, using V-2 rockets. In 1960, the first true X-ray images of the sun were obtained with the aid of a simple pinhole camera. The spatial resolution of the X-ray images could be considerably improved by making use of reflective optics, operating at grazing incidence. Aspects of X-ray mirror developments are discussed along with the results obtained in coronal studies utilizing the new devices for the observation of solar X-ray emission. It is pointed out that the major achievements of the Skylab missions were due primarily to the unique opportunity to obtain data over an extended period of time. Attention is given to normal incidence X-ray optics, achievements possible by making use of high spatial resolution optics, and details of improved mirror design.

  11. High Resolution Imaging with AEOS

    SciTech Connect

    Patience, J; Macintosh, B A; Max, C E

    2001-08-27

    The U. S. Air Force Advanced Electro-Optical System (AEOS) which includes a 941 actuator adaptive optics system on a 3.7m telescope has recently been made available for astronomical programs. Operating at a wavelength of 750 nm, the diffraction-limited angular resolution of the system is 0.04 inches; currently, the magnitude limit is V {approx} 7 mag. At the distances of nearby open clusters, diffraction-limited images should resolve companions with separations as small as 4-6 AU--comparable to the Sun-Jupiter distance. The ability to study such close separations is critical, since most companions are expected to have separations in the few AU to tens of AU range. With the exceptional angular resolution of the current AEOS setup, but restricted target magnitude range, we are conducting a companion search of a large, well-defined sample of bright early-type stars in nearby open clusters and in the field. Our data set will both characterize this relatively new adaptive optics system and answer questions in binary star formation and stellar X-ray activity. We will discuss our experience using AEOS, the data analysis involved, and our initial results.

  12. High resolution imaging at Palomar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kulkarni, Shrinivas R.

    1992-01-01

    For the last two years we have embarked on a program of understanding the ultimate limits of ground-based optical imaging. We have designed and fabricated a camera specifically for high resolution imaging. This camera has now been pressed into service at the prime focus of the Hale 5 m telescope. We have concentrated on two techniques: the Non-Redundant Masking (NRM) and Weigelt's Fully Filled Aperture (FFA) method. The former is the optical analog of radio interferometry and the latter is a higher order extension of the Labeyrie autocorrelation method. As in radio Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI), both these techniques essentially measure the closure phase and, hence, true image construction is possible. We have successfully imaged binary stars and asteroids with angular resolution approaching the diffraction limit of the telescope and image quality approaching that of a typical radio VLBI map. In addition, we have carried out analytical and simulation studies to determine the ultimate limits of ground-based optical imaging, the limits of space-based interferometric imaging, and investigated the details of imaging tradeoffs of beam combination in optical interferometers.

  13. Syntaxin1a variants lacking an N-peptide or bearing the LE mutation bind to Munc18a in a closed conformation

    DOE PAGES

    Colbert, Karen N.; Hattendorf, Douglas A.; Weiss, Thomas M.; Burkhardt, Pawel; Fasshauer, Dirk; Weis, William I.

    2013-07-15

    In neurons, soluble N-ethylmaleimide–sensitive factor attachment receptor (SNARE) proteins drive the fusion of synaptic vesicles to the plasma membrane through the formation of a four-helix SNARE complex. Members of the Sec1/Munc18 protein family regulate membrane fusion through interactions with the syntaxin family of SNARE proteins. The neuronal protein Munc18a interacts with a closed conformation of the SNARE protein syntaxin1a (Syx1a) and with an assembled SNARE complex containing Syx1a in an open conformation. The N-peptide of Syx1a (amino acids 1–24) has been implicated in the transition of Munc18a-bound Syx1a to Munc18a-bound SNARE complex, but the underlying mechanism is not understood. Inmore » addition, we report the X-ray crystal structures of Munc18a bound to Syx1a with and without its native N-peptide (Syx1aΔN), along with small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) data for Munc18a bound to Syx1a, Syx1aΔN, and Syx1a L165A/E166A (LE), a mutation thought to render Syx1a in a constitutively open conformation. We show that all three complexes adopt the same global structure, in which Munc18a binds a closed conformation of Syx1a. We also identify a possible structural connection between the Syx1a N-peptide and SNARE domain that might be important for the transition of closed-to-open Syx1a in SNARE complex assembly. Although the role of the N-peptide in Munc18a-mediated SNARE complex assembly remains unclear, our results demonstrate that the N-peptide and LE mutation have no effect on the global conformation of the Munc18a–Syx1a complex.« less

  14. Syntaxin1a variants lacking an N-peptide or bearing the LE mutation bind to Munc18a in a closed conformation

    SciTech Connect

    Colbert, Karen N.; Hattendorf, Douglas A.; Weiss, Thomas M.; Burkhardt, Pawel; Fasshauer, Dirk; Weis, William I.

    2013-07-15

    In neurons, soluble N-ethylmaleimide–sensitive factor attachment receptor (SNARE) proteins drive the fusion of synaptic vesicles to the plasma membrane through the formation of a four-helix SNARE complex. Members of the Sec1/Munc18 protein family regulate membrane fusion through interactions with the syntaxin family of SNARE proteins. The neuronal protein Munc18a interacts with a closed conformation of the SNARE protein syntaxin1a (Syx1a) and with an assembled SNARE complex containing Syx1a in an open conformation. The N-peptide of Syx1a (amino acids 1–24) has been implicated in the transition of Munc18a-bound Syx1a to Munc18a-bound SNARE complex, but the underlying mechanism is not understood. In addition, we report the X-ray crystal structures of Munc18a bound to Syx1a with and without its native N-peptide (Syx1aΔN), along with small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) data for Munc18a bound to Syx1a, Syx1aΔN, and Syx1a L165A/E166A (LE), a mutation thought to render Syx1a in a constitutively open conformation. We show that all three complexes adopt the same global structure, in which Munc18a binds a closed conformation of Syx1a. We also identify a possible structural connection between the Syx1a N-peptide and SNARE domain that might be important for the transition of closed-to-open Syx1a in SNARE complex assembly. Although the role of the N-peptide in Munc18a-mediated SNARE complex assembly remains unclear, our results demonstrate that the N-peptide and LE mutation have no effect on the global conformation of the Munc18a–Syx1a complex.

  15. Variations in the vesicular monoamine transporter 1 gene (VMAT1/SLC18A1) are associated with bipolar I disorder

    PubMed Central

    Lohoff, Falk W; Dahl, John P; Ferraro, Thomas N; Arnold, Steven E; Gallinat, Jürgen; Sander, Thomas; Berrettini, Wade H

    2008-01-01

    The vesicular monoamine transporter 1 gene (VMAT1/SLC18A1) maps to the shared bipolar disorder (BPD) / schizophrenia (SZ) susceptibility locus on chromosome 8p21. Vesicular monoamine transporters are involved in transport of monoamine neurotransmitters which have been postulated to play a relevant role in the etiology of BPD and/or SZ. Variations in the VMAT1 gene might affect transporter function and/or expression and might be involved in the etiology of BPD and/or SZ. Genotypes of 585 patients with BPD type I and 563 control subjects were obtained for three missense SNPs (Thr4Pro, Thr98Ser, Thr136Ile) and 4 non-coding SNPs (rs988713, rs2279709, rs3735835, rs1497020). All cases and controls were of European descent. Allele frequencies differed significantly for the potential functional polymorphism Thr136Ser between BPD patients and controls (p = 0.003; df = 1; OR = 1.34; 95% CI: 1.11 – 1.62). Polymorphisms in the promoter region (rs988713: p = 0.005, df = 1; OR = 1.31; 95% CI: 1.09 – 1.59) and intron 8 (rs2279709: p = 0.039, df = 1; OR = 0.84; 95% CI: 0.71 – 0.99) were also associated with disease. Expression analysis confirmed that VMAT1 is expressed in human brain at the mRNA and protein level. Results suggest that variations in the VMAT1 gene may confer susceptibility to BPD in patients of European descent. Additional studies are necessary to confirm this effect and to elucidate the role of VMAT1 in CNS physiology. PMID:16936705

  16. Reconcile: A Coreference Resolution Research Platform

    SciTech Connect

    Stoyanov, V; Cardie, C; Gilbert, N; Riloff, E; Buttler, D; Hysom, D

    2009-10-29

    Despite the availability of standard data sets and metrics, approaches to the problem of noun phrase coreference resolution are hard to compare empirically due to the different evaluation setting stemming, in part, from the lack of comprehensive coreference resolution research platforms. In this tech report we present Reconcile, a coreference resolution research platform that aims to facilitate the implementation of new approaches to coreference resolution as well as the comparison of existing approaches. We discuss Reconcile's architecture and give results of running Reconcile on six data sets using four evaluation metrics, showing that Reconcile's performance is comparable to state-of-the-art systems in coreference resolution.

  17. [Superhigh spectral resolution measurement of spectrometer].

    PubMed

    Liu, Sheng-Gang; Weng, Ji-Dong; Tao, Tian-Jiong

    2013-04-01

    The spectral resolution is one of the most important indexes of spectrometer. A new method is put forward for measuring the superhigh spectral resolution based on the Rayleigh criterion and the optical heterodyne, and the uncertainty of this method is analyzed. The spectral resolution of some spectrometer was measured using this method, and the experimental results show that the spectral resolution is higher than 18.9 pm, and the standard uncertainty is 2.3 pm. When showed using wave number, the spectral resolution is higher than 0.078 8 cm(-1), and the standard uncertainty is 0.009 6 cm(-1).

  18. Focusing super resolution on the cytoskeleton

    PubMed Central

    Shelden, Eric A.; Colburn, Zachary T.; Jones, Jonathan C.R.

    2016-01-01

    Super resolution imaging is becoming an increasingly important tool in the arsenal of methods available to cell biologists. In recognition of its potential, the Nobel Prize for chemistry was awarded to three investigators involved in the development of super resolution imaging methods in 2014. The availability of commercial instruments for super resolution imaging has further spurred the development of new methods and reagents designed to take advantage of super resolution techniques. Super resolution offers the advantages traditionally associated with light microscopy, including the use of gentle fixation and specimen preparation methods, the ability to visualize multiple elements within a single specimen, and the potential to visualize dynamic changes in living specimens over time. However, imaging of living cells over time is difficult and super resolution imaging is computationally demanding. In this review, we discuss the advantages/disadvantages of different super resolution systems for imaging fixed live specimens, with particular regard to cytoskeleton structures. PMID:27303635

  19. Evaluation of Advanced Bionics high resolution mode.

    PubMed

    Buechner, Andreas; Frohne-Buechner, Carolin; Gaertner, Lutz; Lesinski-Schiedat, Anke; Battmer, Rolf-Dieter; Lenarz, Thomas

    2006-07-01

    The objective of this paper is to evaluate the advantages of the Advanced Bionic high resolution mode for speech perception, through a retrospective analysis. Forty-five adult subjects were selected who had a minimum experience of three months' standard mode (mean of 10 months) before switching to high resolution mode. Speech perception was tested in standard mode immediately before fitting with high resolution mode, and again after a maximum of six months high resolution mode usage (mean of two months). A significant improvement was found, between 11 and 17%, depending on the test material. The standard mode preference does not give any indication about the improvement when switching to high resolution. Users who are converted within any study achieve a higher performance improvement than those converted in the clinical routine. This analysis proves the significant benefits of high resolution mode for users, and also indicates the need for guidelines for individual optimization of parameter settings in a high resolution mode program.

  20. High Resolution Thermography In Medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, R. P.; Goff, M. R.; Culley, J. E.

    1988-10-01

    A high resolution medical thermal imaging system using an 8 element SPRI1E detector is described. Image processing is by an Intellect 100 processor and is controlled by a DEC LSI 11/23 minicomputer. Image storage is with a 170 Mbyte winchester disc together with archival storage on 12 inch diameter optical discs having a capacity of 1 Gbyte per side. The system is currently being evaluated for use in physiology and medicine. Applications outlined include the potential of thermographic screening to identify genetic carriers in X-linked hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (XED), detailed vas-cular perfusion studies in health and disease and the relation-ship between cutaneous blood flow, neurological peripheral function and skin surface temperature.

  1. Three day crisis resolution unit.

    PubMed

    Dubin, S E; Ananth, J; Bajwa-Goldsmith, B; Stuller, S; Lewis, C; Miller, M; Noel, N; Fernandez, L

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes a three day crisis resolution unit within the confines of the psychiatric emergency service of a general hospital. It utilizes a crisis model of acute intervention, time limited psychotherapeutic approach combined with family therapy, and psychotropic meditation when indicated. One hundred thirty six consecutive admissions were rev ie.wed. 19% were discharged within 72 hours, and 51% required further hospitalization. Seventy seven percent of the patients discharged had involved families (significant others) in the treatment process, in comparison with only 28% family involvement with those patients who needed further hospitalization. This may be even more significant for psychotic patients who were discharged (14/18 family involvement) versus those who needed long hospitalization (13/50 family involvement).

  2. Improving the Higgs Mass Resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanzlik, Jessica

    2007-10-01

    The search for the Higgs boson is of great interest, with a variety of searches ongoing at the CDF and D0 experiments at the Tevatron at Fermilab, as well as planned searches in the upcoming LHC detectors ATLAS and CMS. At Fermilab, one primary mode for a low mass Higgs is via ZH production. In this channel, the Z boson decays into a neutrino pair, and the Higgs boson decays into a bottom quark and an anti-bottom quark pair. In these events, there are two jets (from the two quarks) ass well as a large energy imbalance from the undetected neutrinos. This analysis investigates the use of the energy imbalance to improve the measurement of the individual jets and thus the determination of the resulting Higgs mass. The method we investigate involves the use of Artificial Neural Networks. We present expected improvements in Higgs mass resolution.

  3. Resolution enhanced sound detecting apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kendall, J. M. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    An apparatus is described for enhancing the resolution of a sound detector of the type which includes an acoustic mirror for focusing sound from an object onto a microphone to enable the determination of the location from which the sound arises. The enhancement apparatus includes an enclosure which surrounds the space between the mirror and microphone, and contains a gas heavier than air, such as Freon, through which sound moves slower and therefore with a shorter wavelength than in air, so that a mirror of given size has greater resolving power. An acoustically transparent front wall of the enclosure which lies forward of the mirror, can include a pair of thin sheets with pressured air between them, to form an end of the region of heavy gas into a concave shape.

  4. Resolution Of A Shadow Image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edgerton, Harold E.

    1982-02-01

    The 19th century art of shadow imaging, as started by Wedgwood (1803), and as used by William Henry Fox-Talbot (1851) in England, has been revived by using a small-area electronic flash lamp and fine grain film. One immediate application has been the photographic recording of large samples of living plankton. The purpose of this paper is to re-examine the resolution of the shadow system, and to describe some of the strobe light sources that are presently available. Also, a modified method of shadow photography is described where enhanced color images give interesting and, perhaps, important color effects that may be useful in the study of plankton and other semitrans-parent subjects.

  5. Music therapy in grief resolution.

    PubMed

    Bright, R

    1999-01-01

    The multifaceted nature of grief and the enormous variation in individual clients' responses to losses make it necessary for therapists to have wide background knowledge and well-developed skills in counseling and/or psychotherapy. The author describes an innovative method of facilitating grief resolution using precomposed music that is significant to the patient after a major loss. In this method, music is of equal importance with verbal processing as part of the overall therapeutic approach. Musical improvization is also used as a primary tool to reflect back to, and affirm for, the patient the affective content of his or her life story. This approach requires the therapist to have particular musical skills and a wide repertoire of genres and specific musical pieces, as well as intuition. Several clinical vignettes illustrate the application of this approach.

  6. High-resolution slug testing.

    PubMed

    Zemansky, G M; McElwee, C D

    2005-01-01

    The hydraulic conductivity (K) variation has important ramifications for ground water flow and the transport of contaminants in ground water. The delineation of the nature of that variation can be critical to complete characterization of a site and the planning of effective and efficient remedial measures. Site-specific features (such as high-conductivity zones) need to be quantified. Our alluvial field site in the Kansas River valley exhibits spatial variability, very high conductivities, and nonlinear behavior for slug tests in the sand and gravel aquifer. High-resolution, multilevel slug tests have been performed in a number of wells that are fully screened. A general nonlinear model based on the Navier-Stokes equation, nonlinear frictional loss, non-Darcian flow, acceleration effects, radius changes in the wellbore, and a Hvorslev model for the aquifer has been used to analyze the data, employing an automated processing system that runs within the Excel spreadsheet program. It is concluded that slug tests can provide the necessary data to identify the nature of both horizontal and vertical K variation in an aquifer and that improved delineation or higher resolution of K structure is possible with shorter test intervals. The gradation into zones of higher conductivity is sharper than seen previously, and the maximum conductivity observed is greater than previously measured. However, data from this project indicate that well development, the presence of fines, and the antecedent history of the well are important interrelated factors in regard to slug-test response and can prevent obtaining consistent results in some cases.

  7. Jovian Temperatures--Highest Resolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This is the highest resolution image ever recorded of Jupiter's temperature field. It was obtained by NASA's Galileo mission, with its Photopolarimeter-Radiometer (PPR) experiment, during the seventh of its 10 orbits around Jupiter to date, in the vicinity of Jupiter's Great Red Spot. This image, shown on the bottom panel, indicates the forces powering Jovian winds, and differentiates between areas of strongest upwelling and downwelling winds in the upper part of the atmosphere where winds are strong. For reference, the upper panel shows the visible clouds in a Hubble Space Telescope Planetary Camera color composite image of the same part of the planet taken within 10 hours of the PPR observation.

    Many of Galileo's atmospheric observations targeted specific Jovian cloud features, including the Great Red Spot. It is the planet's coldest region, indicating that winds are upwelling and forcing air to expand outward over its entire visible extent. The edges of the cold inner region of the Great Red Spot are close to the PPR's 1800-kilometer (1100-mile) spatial resolution. The largest temperature gradient is also seen between the cold 'inner' Great Red Spot and a region some 5000 kilometers (3000 miles) south which is more than 10 degrees warmer. This implies a strong eastward jet, consistent with cloud-tracked winds.

    The southern central portion of the Great Red Spot is not as cold as the rest of the feature. This is consistent with the winds inside the Great Red Spot being more complicated than a simple counterclockwise rotation around the center.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov.

  8. Highest Resolution Image of Europa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    During its twelfth orbit around Jupiter, on Dec. 16, 1997, NASA's Galileo spacecraft made its closest pass of Jupiter's icy moon Europa, soaring 200 kilometers (124 miles) kilometers above the icy surface. This image was taken near the closest approach point, at a range of 560 kilometers (335 miles) and is the highest resolution picture of Europa that will be obtained by Galileo. The image was taken at a highly oblique angle, providing a vantage point similar to that of someone looking out an airplane window. The features at the bottom of the image are much closer to the viewer than those at the top of the image. Many bright ridges are seen in the picture, with dark material in the low-lying valleys. In the center of the image, the regular ridges and valleys give way to a darker region of jumbled hills, which may be one of the many dark pits observed on the surface of Europa. Smaller dark, circular features seen here are probably impact craters.

    North is to the right of the picture, and the sun illuminates the surface from that direction. This image, centered at approximately 13 degrees south latitude and 235 degrees west longitude, is approximately 1.8 kilometers (1 mile) wide. The resolution is 6 meters (19 feet) per picture element. This image was taken on December 16, 1997 by the solid state imaging system camera on NASA's Galileo spacecraft.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. JPL is an operating division of California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/ galileo.

  9. Resolution of Inflammation: What Controls Its Onset?

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, Michelle A; Sousa, Lirlândia P; Pinho, Vanessa; Perretti, Mauro; Teixeira, Mauro M

    2016-01-01

    An effective resolution program may be able to prevent the progression from non-resolving acute inflammation to persistent chronic inflammation. It has now become evident that coordinated resolution programs initiate shortly after inflammatory responses begin. In this context, several mechanisms provide the fine-tuning of inflammation and create a favorable environment for the resolution phase to take place and for homeostasis to return. In this review, we focus on the events required for an effective transition from the proinflammatory phase to the onset and establishment of resolution. We suggest that several mediators that promote the inflammatory phase of inflammation can simultaneously initiate a program for active resolution. Indeed, several events enact a decrease in the local chemokine concentration, a reduction which is essential to inhibit further infiltration of neutrophils into the tissue. Interestingly, although neutrophils are cells that characteristically participate in the active phase of inflammation, they also contribute to the onset of resolution. Further understanding of the molecular mechanisms that initiate resolution may be instrumental to develop pro-resolution strategies to treat complex chronic inflammatory diseases, in humans. The efforts to develop strategies based on resolution of inflammation have shaped a new area of pharmacology referred to as "resolution pharmacology."

  10. Resolution of Inflammation: What Controls Its Onset?

    PubMed Central

    Sugimoto, Michelle A.; Sousa, Lirlândia P.; Pinho, Vanessa; Perretti, Mauro; Teixeira, Mauro M.

    2016-01-01

    An effective resolution program may be able to prevent the progression from non-resolving acute inflammation to persistent chronic inflammation. It has now become evident that coordinated resolution programs initiate shortly after inflammatory responses begin. In this context, several mechanisms provide the fine-tuning of inflammation and create a favorable environment for the resolution phase to take place and for homeostasis to return. In this review, we focus on the events required for an effective transition from the proinflammatory phase to the onset and establishment of resolution. We suggest that several mediators that promote the inflammatory phase of inflammation can simultaneously initiate a program for active resolution. Indeed, several events enact a decrease in the local chemokine concentration, a reduction which is essential to inhibit further infiltration of neutrophils into the tissue. Interestingly, although neutrophils are cells that characteristically participate in the active phase of inflammation, they also contribute to the onset of resolution. Further understanding of the molecular mechanisms that initiate resolution may be instrumental to develop pro-resolution strategies to treat complex chronic inflammatory diseases, in humans. The efforts to develop strategies based on resolution of inflammation have shaped a new area of pharmacology referred to as “resolution pharmacology.” PMID:27199985

  11. Resolution of Inflammation: What Controls Its Onset?

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, Michelle A; Sousa, Lirlândia P; Pinho, Vanessa; Perretti, Mauro; Teixeira, Mauro M

    2016-01-01

    An effective resolution program may be able to prevent the progression from non-resolving acute inflammation to persistent chronic inflammation. It has now become evident that coordinated resolution programs initiate shortly after inflammatory responses begin. In this context, several mechanisms provide the fine-tuning of inflammation and create a favorable environment for the resolution phase to take place and for homeostasis to return. In this review, we focus on the events required for an effective transition from the proinflammatory phase to the onset and establishment of resolution. We suggest that several mediators that promote the inflammatory phase of inflammation can simultaneously initiate a program for active resolution. Indeed, several events enact a decrease in the local chemokine concentration, a reduction which is essential to inhibit further infiltration of neutrophils into the tissue. Interestingly, although neutrophils are cells that characteristically participate in the active phase of inflammation, they also contribute to the onset of resolution. Further understanding of the molecular mechanisms that initiate resolution may be instrumental to develop pro-resolution strategies to treat complex chronic inflammatory diseases, in humans. The efforts to develop strategies based on resolution of inflammation have shaped a new area of pharmacology referred to as "resolution pharmacology." PMID:27199985

  12. Dilation framing camera with 4 ps resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Houzhi; Zhao, Xin; Liu, Jinyuan; Xie, Weixin; Bai, Yanli; Lei, Yunfei; Liao, Yubo; Niu, Hanben

    2016-04-01

    A framing camera using pulse-dilation technology is reported in this article. The camera uses pulse dilation of an electron signal from a pulsed photo-cathode (PC) to achieve high temporal resolution. While the PC is not pulsed, the measured temporal resolution of the camera without pulse-dilation is about 71 ps. While the excitation pulse is applied on the PC, the measured temporal resolution is improved to 4 ps by using the pulse-dilation technology. The spatial resolution of the dilation framing camera is also measured, which is better than 100 μm. The relationship between the temporal resolution and the PC bias voltage is obtained. The variation of the temporal resolution with the gradient of the PC excitation pulse is also provided.

  13. Ariel - Highest Resolution Color Picture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The complex terrain of Ariel is viewed in this image, the best Voyager 2 color picture of the Uranian moon. The individual photos used to construct this composite were taken Jan. 24, 1986, from a distance of 170,000 kilometers (105,000 miles. Voyager captured this view of Ariel's southern hemisphere through the green, blue and violet filters of the narrow-angle camera; the resolution is about 3 km (2 mi). Most of the visible surface consists of relatively intensely cratered terrain transected by fault scarps and fault-bounded valleys (graben). Some of the largest valleys, which can be seen near the terminator (at right), are partly filled with younger deposits that are less heavily cratered. Bright spots near the limb and toward the left are chiefly the rims of small craters. Most of the brightly rimmed craters are too small to be resolved here, although one about 30 km (20 mi) in diameter can be easily distinguished near the center. These bright-rim craters, though the youngest features on Ariel, probably have formed over a long span of geological time. Although Ariel has a diameter of only about 1,200 km (750 mi), it has clearly experienced a great deal of geological activity in the past. The Voyager project is managed for NASA by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

  14. High resolution optoelectronic retinal prosthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loudin, Jim; Dinyari, Rostam; Huie, Phil; Butterwick, Alex; Peumans, Peter; Palanker, Daniel

    2009-02-01

    Electronic retinal prostheses seek to restore sight in patients with retinal degeneration by delivering pulsed electric currents to retinal neurons via an array of microelectrodes. Most implants use inductive or optical transmission of information and power to an intraocular receiver, with decoded signals subsequently distributed to retinal electrodes through an intraocular cable. Surgical complexity could be minimized by an "integrated" prosthesis, in which both power and data are delivered directly to the stimulating array without any discrete components or cables. We present here an integrated retinal prosthesis system based on a photodiode array implant. Video frames are processed and imaged onto the retinal implant by a video goggle projection system operating at near-infrared wavelengths (~ 900 nm). Photodiodes convert light into pulsed electric current, with charge injection maximized by specially optimized series photodiode circuits. Prostheses of three different pixel densities (16 pix/mm2, 64 pix/mm2, and 256 pix/mm2) have been designed, simulated, and prototyped. Retinal tissue response to subretinal implants made of various materials has been investigated in RCS rats. The resulting prosthesis can provide sufficient charge injection for high resolution retinal stimulation without the need for implantation of any bulky discrete elements such as coils or tethers. In addition, since every pixel functions independently, pixel arrays may be placed separately in the subretinal space, providing visual stimulation to a larger field of view.

  15. Modeling cloth at micron resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bala, Kavita

    2014-02-01

    Fabric is one of the most common materials in our everyday lives, and accurately simulating the appearance of cloth is a critical problem in graphics, design, and virtual prototyping. But modeling and rendering fabric is very challenging because fabrics have a very complex structure, and this structure plays an important role in their visual appearance—cloth is made of fibers that are twisted into yarns which are woven into patterns. Light interacting with this complex structure produce the characteristic visual appearance that humans recognize as silk, cotton, or wool. In this paper we present an end-to-end pipeline to model and render fabrics: we introduce a novel modality to create volume models of fabric at micron resolution using CT technology coupled with photographs; a new technique to synthesize models of user-specified designs from such CT scans; and finally, an efficient algorithm to render these complex volumetric models for practical applications. This pipeline produces the most realistic images of virtual cloth to date, and opens the way to bridging the gap between real and virtual fabric appearance.

  16. Resolution 64/85, 1985.

    PubMed

    1988-01-01

    This Resolution provides that the Argentine social program on behalf of women and the family has the following objectives: to study the situation of women and the family in the legal, labor, educational, cultural, health and socioeconomic areas; to collect information and documentation regarding women and the family for use in the establishment of a data bank capable of serving as a basis for the formulation of programs and standards designed to achieve the full involvement of women in social planning; to prepare reports and support measures contributing to the elimination of existing discrimination against women in society; to promote the involvement of women in organized community activities aimed at improving the quality of life of the population; to promote the technical and occupational training of women in accordance with their psychosocial characteristics and the requirements of the labor market; to promote, in the communication media, a change in the image of women more in keeping with their actual role at the present time; to develop basic, nontraditional support services for women designed to bring about improvements in the conditions of family and occupational life and to eliminate instances of social discrimination against women; and to coordinate and monitor activities of promotion, prevention, or treatment on behalf of families in critical situations or vulnerability due to their socioeconomic circumstances.

  17. Recognition of psychotherapy effectiveness: the APA resolution.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Linda F; Norcross, John C; Vasquez, Melba J T; Kaslow, Nadine J

    2013-03-01

    In August 2012, the American Psychological Association (APA) Council of Representatives voted overwhelmingly to adopt as APA policy a Resolution on the Recognition of Psychotherapy Effectiveness. This invited article traces the origins and intentions of that resolution and its protracted journey through the APA governance labyrinth. We summarize the planned dissemination and projected results of the resolution and identify several lessons learned through the entire process.

  18. Interactively variable isotropic resolution in computed tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapp, Robert M.; Kyriakou, Yiannis; Kachelrieß, Marc; Wilharm, Sylvia; Kalender, Willi A.

    2008-05-01

    An individual balancing between spatial resolution and image noise is necessary to fulfil the diagnostic requirements in medical CT imaging. In order to change influencing parameters, such as reconstruction kernel or effective slice thickness, additional raw-data-dependent image reconstructions have to be performed. Therefore, the noise versus resolution trade-off is time consuming and not interactively applicable. Furthermore, isotropic resolution, expressed by an equivalent point spread function (PSF) in every spatial direction, is important for the undistorted visualization and quantitative evaluation of small structures independent of the viewing plane. Theoretically, isotropic resolution can be obtained by matching the in-plane and through-plane resolution with the aforementioned parameters. Practically, however, the user is not assisted in doing so by current reconstruction systems and therefore isotropic resolution is not commonly achieved, in particular not at the desired resolution level. In this paper, an integrated approach is presented for equalizing the in-plane and through-plane spatial resolution by image filtering. The required filter kernels are calculated from previously measured PSFs in x/y- and z-direction. The concepts derived are combined with a variable resolution filtering technique. Both approaches are independent of CT raw data and operate only on reconstructed images which allows for their application in real time. Thereby, the aim of interactively variable, isotropic resolution is achieved. Results were evaluated quantitatively by measuring PSFs and image noise, and qualitatively by comparing the images to direct reconstructions regarded as the gold standard. Filtered images matched direct reconstructions with arbitrary reconstruction kernels with standard deviations in difference images of typically between 1 and 17 HU. Isotropic resolution was achieved within 5% of the selected resolution level. Processing times of 20-100 ms per frame

  19. WE-E-18A-01: Large Area Avalanche Amorphous Selenium Sensors for Low Dose X-Ray Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Scheuermann, J; Goldan, A; Zhao, W; Tousignant, O; Leveille, S

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: A large area indirect flat panel imager (FPI) with avalanche gain is being developed to achieve x-ray quantum noise limited low dose imaging. It uses a thin optical sensing layer of amorphous selenium (a-Se), known as High-Gain Avalanche Rushing Photoconductor (HARP), to detect optical photons generated from a high resolution x-ray scintillator. We will report initial results in the fabrication of a solid-state HARP structure suitable for a large area FPI. Our objective is to establish the blocking layer structures and defect suppression mechanisms that provide stable and uniform avalanche gain. Methods: Samples were fabricated as follows: (1) ITO signal electrode. (2) Electron blocking layer. (3) A 15 micron layer of intrinsic a-Se. (4) Transparent hole blocking layer. (5) Multiple semitransparent bias electrodes to investigate avalanche gain uniformity over a large area. The sample was exposed to 50ps optical excitation pulses through the bias electrode. Transient time of flight (TOF) and integrated charge was measured. A charge transport simulation was developed to investigate the effects of varying blocking layer charge carrier mobility on defect suppression, avalanche gain and temporal performance. Results: Avalanche gain of ∼200 was achieved experimentally with our multi-layer HARP samples. Simulations using the experimental sensor structure produced the same magnitude of gain as a function of electric field. The simulation predicted that the high dark current at a point defect can be reduced by two orders of magnitude by blocking layer optimization which can prevent irreversible damage while normal operation remained unaffected. Conclusion: We presented the first solid state HARP structure directly scalable to a large area FPI. We have shown reproducible and uniform avalanche gain of 200. By reducing mobility of the blocking layers we can suppress defects and maintain stable avalanche. Future work will optimize the blocking layers to prevent lag

  20. Data resolution versus forestry classification and modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kan, E. P.; Ball, D. L.; Basu, J. P.; Smelser, R. L.

    1975-01-01

    This paper examines the effects on timber stand computer classification accuracies caused by changes in the resolution of remotely sensed multispectral data. This investigation is valuable, especially for determining optimal sensor and platform designs. Theoretical justification and experimental verification support the finding that classification accuracies for low resolution data could be better than the accuracies for data with higher resolution. The increase in accuracy is constructed as due to the reduction of scene inhomogeneity at lower resolution. The computer classification scheme was a maximum likelihood classifier.

  1. Retinally stabilized differential resolution television display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruoff, C. F., Jr. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A remote television viewing system employing an eye tracker is disclosed, wherein a small region of the image appears in high resolution, and the remainder of the image appears in low resolution. The eye tracker monitors the position of the viewer's line of sight. The eye tracker position data is transmitted to the remote television camera and control. Both the remote camera and television display are adapted to have selectable high-resolution and low resolution raster scan modes. The position data from the eye tracker is used to determine the point at which the high-resolution scan is to commence. The video data defining the observed image is encoded in a novel format, wherein in each data field, the data representing the position of the high resolution region of predetermined size appears first, followed by the high resolution zone video data and then the low-resolution region data. As the viewer's line of sight relative to the displayed image changes, the position of the high resolution region changes to track the viewer's line of sight.

  2. 33 CFR 385.23 - Dispute resolution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... DEFENSE PROGRAMMATIC REGULATIONS FOR THE COMPREHENSIVE EVERGLADES RESTORATION PLAN CERP Implementation... Plan shall be resolved according to the terms of the Dispute Resolution Agreement executed on...

  3. 33 CFR 385.23 - Dispute resolution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... DEFENSE PROGRAMMATIC REGULATIONS FOR THE COMPREHENSIVE EVERGLADES RESTORATION PLAN CERP Implementation... Plan shall be resolved according to the terms of the Dispute Resolution Agreement executed on...

  4. Optical-resolution photoacoustic endomicroscopy in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Joon-Mo; Li, Chiye; Chen, Ruimin; Rao, Bin; Yao, Junjie; Yeh, Cheng-Hung; Danielli, Amos; Maslov, Konstantin; Zhou, Qifa; Shung, K. Kirk; Wang, Lihong V.

    2015-01-01

    Optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy (OR-PAM) has become a major experimental tool of photoacoustic tomography, with unique imaging capabilities for various biological applications. However, conventional imaging systems are all table-top embodiments, which preclude their use in internal organs. In this study, by applying the OR-PAM concept to our recently developed endoscopic technique, called photoacoustic endoscopy (PAE), we created an optical-resolution photoacoustic endomicroscopy (OR-PAEM) system, which enables internal organ imaging with a much finer resolution than conventional acoustic-resolution PAE systems. OR-PAEM has potential preclinical and clinical applications using either endogenous or exogenous contrast agents. PMID:25798315

  5. Fundamental Limits of Spatial Resolution in PET

    PubMed Central

    Moses, William W.

    2010-01-01

    The fundamental limits of spatial resolution in positron emission tomography (PET) have been understood for many years. The physical size of the detector element usually plays the dominant role in determining resolution, but the combined contributions from acollinearity, positron range, penetration into the detector ring, and decoding errors in the detector modules often combine to be of similar size. In addition, the sampling geometry and statistical noise further degrade the effective resolution. This paper describes quantitatively describes these effects, discusses potential methods for reducing the magnitude of these effects, and computes the ultimately achievable spatial resolution for clinical and pre-clinical PET cameras. PMID:21804677

  6. Planetary Atmospheres at High Resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurwell, M.; Butler, B.; Moullet, A.

    2013-10-01

    The long millimeter through submillimeter bands are particularly well suited for studying the wide variety of planetary atmospheres in our solar system. Temperatures ranging from a few 10s to hundreds of degrees, coupled with typically high densities (relative to the ISM) mean that thermal ‘continuum’ emission can be strong and molecular rotational transitions can be well-populated. Large bodies (Jovian and terrestrial planets) can be reasonably well studied by current interferometers such as the Submillimeter Array, IRAM Plateau de Bure Interferometer, and Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy, yet many smaller bodies with atmospheres can only be crudely studied, primarily due to lack of sensitivity on baselines long enough to well resolve the object. Newly powerful interferometers such as the Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array will usher in a new era of planetary atmospheric exploration. The vast sensitivity and spatial resolution of these arrays will increase our ability to image all bodies with extremely fine fidelity (due to the large number of antennas), and for study of smaller objects by resolving their disks into many pixels while providing the sensitivity necessary to detect narrow and/or weak line emission. New science topics will range from detailed mapping of HDO, ClO, and sulfur species in the mesosphere of Venus and PH3 and H2S in the upper tropospheres of the gas and ice giants, high SNR mapping of winds on Mars, Neptune and Titan, down to spectroscopic imaging of volcanic eruptions within the tenuous atmosphere on Io, resolved imaging of CO and other species in the atmosphere of Pluto, and even potentially detection of gases within the plumes of Enceladus.

  7. USGS MODERATE RESOLUTION LAND IMAGING

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dwyer, J. L.; Willems, J. S.

    2009-12-01

    For the past 37 years, the Landsat series of satellites has provided continuous data of the Earth’s land masses, coastal boundaries, and coral reefs creating an unprecedented comprehensive record of landscape dynamics. Landsat 5 and 7 continue to capture hundreds of images of the Earth’s surface each day. In mid-December 2008, the USGS made the entire Landsat archive available to everyone, anywhere, at anytime via the Internet at no cost to the user. The opening of the Landsat archive, the longest record of the terrestrial environment, is a revolution that will affect the future of moderate resolution Earth observations, enabling scientists to address research questions and develop operational applications that were previously cost prohibitive. In addition, the time-series data richness of the archive allows for the development of essential climate variables used to monitor the causes and consequences of lands cover change as a function of climate variability and anthropogenic influences. Landsat is unique as a single source of systematic, global land observations in terms of the number of spectral bands, global collection capacity, image quality, and the proven fidelity of its calibrated sensors. Through the Land Remote Sensing Policy Act of 1992 and the Presidential Decision Direct/NSTC-3 (1994), as amended on October 16, 2000, the U.S Geological Survey (USGS) is charged to ensure the continuity of Landsat data. To accomplish this, the USGS, in partnership with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), is currently preparing for the launch of the Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) in December 2012, the eighth satellite in the Landsat Program. The LDCM will ensure the continuation of the Landsat record and will consist of significant improvements in radiometric response and additional spectral bands, from which high quality data products will be generated and accessible to users at no cost.

  8. The 1.8 A crystal structure of human cathepsin G in complex with Suc-Val-Pro-PheP-(OPh)2: a Janus-faced proteinase with two opposite specificities.

    PubMed Central

    Hof, P; Mayr, I; Huber, R; Korzus, E; Potempa, J; Travis, J; Powers, J C; Bode, W

    1996-01-01

    The crystal structure of human neutrophil cathepsin G, complexed with the peptidyl phosphonate inhibitor Suc-Val-Pro-PheP-(OPh)2, has been determined to a resolution of 1.8 A using Patterson search techniques. The cathepsin G structure shows the polypeptide fold characteristic of trypsin-like serine proteinases and is especially similar to rat mast cell proteinase II. Unique to cathepsin G, however, is the presence of Glu226 (chymotrypsinogen numbering), which is situated at the bottom of the S1 specificity pocket, dividing it into two compartments. For this reason, the benzyl side chain of the inhibitor PheP residue does not fully occupy the pocket but is, instead, located at its entrance. Its positively charged equatorial edge is involved in a favourable electrostatic interaction with the negatively charged carboxylate group of Glu226. Arrangement of this Glu226 carboxylate would also allow accommodation of a Lys side chain in this S1 pocket, in agreement with the recently observed cathepsin G preference for Lys and Phe at P1. The cathepsin G complex with the covalently bound phosphonate inhibitor mimics a tetrahedral substrate intermediate. A comparison of the Arg surface distributions of cathepsin G, leukocyte elastase and rat mast cell protease II shows no simple common recognition pattern for a mannose-6-phosphate receptor-independent targeting mechanism for sorting of these granular proteinases. Images PMID:8896442

  9. Principal Connection/New School Year Resolutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoerr, Thomas R.

    2016-01-01

    In this article, Hoerr suggests that as a new school year begins, why not set some goals? Just as with the resolutions made every January 1, the new school year resolutions should focus on areas needing improvement. This article offers three key areas for review: (1) Communication. Hoerr notes, if administrators want faculty to work as colleagues,…

  10. 10 CFR 850.5 - Dispute resolution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Dispute resolution. 850.5 Section 850.5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM General Provisions § 850.5 Dispute resolution... relief in accordance with 10 CFR part 1003, Subpart G. (b) The Office of Hearings and Appeals may...

  11. 10 CFR 850.5 - Dispute resolution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Dispute resolution. 850.5 Section 850.5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM General Provisions § 850.5 Dispute resolution... relief in accordance with 10 CFR part 1003, Subpart G. (b) The Office of Hearings and Appeals may...

  12. 10 CFR 850.5 - Dispute resolution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Dispute resolution. 850.5 Section 850.5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM General Provisions § 850.5 Dispute resolution... relief in accordance with 10 CFR part 1003, Subpart G. (b) The Office of Hearings and Appeals may...

  13. 10 CFR 850.5 - Dispute resolution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Dispute resolution. 850.5 Section 850.5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM General Provisions § 850.5 Dispute resolution... relief in accordance with 10 CFR part 1003, Subpart G. (b) The Office of Hearings and Appeals may...

  14. High resolution magnetic spectrometer SHARAQ in RIBF

    SciTech Connect

    Shimoura, S.

    2007-05-22

    For a new spectroscopy of nuclei using intense RI beams at RIBF, we started the SHARAQ project where a high-resolution SHARAQ spectrometer is being constructed together with a high-resolution secondary beam line. Physics motivation and the specification of the spectrometer are presented.

  15. 20 CFR 658.412 - Complaint resolution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Complaint resolution. 658.412 Section 658.412 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS... Complaint resolution. (a) A JS-related complaint is resolved when: (1) The complainant...

  16. High resolution scintillation detector with semiconductor readout

    DOEpatents

    Levin, Craig S.; Hoffman, Edward J.

    2000-01-01

    A novel high resolution scintillation detector array for use in radiation imaging such as high resolution Positron Emission Tomography (PET) which comprises one or more parallelepiped crystals with at least one long surface of each crystal being in intimate contact with a semiconductor photodetector such that photons generated within each crystal by gamma radiation passing therethrough is detected by the photodetector paired therewith.

  17. 47 CFR 76.1713 - Complaint resolution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Complaint resolution. 76.1713 Section 76.1713 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Documents to be Maintained for Inspection § 76.1713 Complaint resolution....

  18. 36 CFR 1150.41 - Informal resolution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Informal resolution. 1150.41... Motions § 1150.41 Informal resolution. (a) The A&TBCB immediately shall send copies of complaints to all... within the ten (10) day period after termination of the one hundred eighty (180) day informal...

  19. Conflict Resolution and Mediation for Peer Helpers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorenson, Don L.

    This book explores conflict resolution strategies and presents a systematic approach to mediation for peer helpers. The first part examines conflict resolution. Internal and external sources of conflict are considered. Irritations, inappropriate expectations, and unknown sources of external conflict are examined. A section on looking inside…

  20. 47 CFR 301.220 - Dispute Resolution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Dispute Resolution. 301.220 Section 301.220 Telecommunication NATIONAL TELECOMMUNICATIONS AND INFORMATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE RELOCATION OF AND SPECTRUM SHARING BY FEDERAL GOVERNMENT STATIONS Dispute Resolution Boards. § 301.220...

  1. Conflict Resolution between Friends during Middle Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joshi, Anupama

    2008-01-01

    The author interviewed 74 children (ages 8.5-11.5 years) in an exploratory study of interpersonal conflict resolution between children. Results suggest that children (a) most frequently used assertion and discussion as conflict resolution strategies, (b) used more than one strategy in a single conflict, and (c) used a strategy that corresponded to…

  2. Conflict Resolution between Mexican Origin Adolescent Siblings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killoren, Sarah E.; Thayer, Shawna M.; Updegraff, Kimberly A.

    2008-01-01

    We investigated correlates of adolescents' sibling conflict resolution strategies in 246, two-parent Mexican origin families. Specifically, we examined links between siblings' conflict resolution strategies and sibling dyad characteristics, siblings' cultural orientations and values, and sibling relationship qualities. Data were gathered during…

  3. Spatial resolution in vector potential photoelectron microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Browning, R.

    2014-03-15

    The experimental spatial resolution of vector potential photoelectron microscopy is found to be much higher than expected because of the cancellation of one of the expected contributions to the point spread function. We present a new calculation of the spatial resolution with support from finite element ray tracing, and experimental results.

  4. Mirror-enhanced super-resolution microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xusan; Xie, Hao; Alonas, Eric; Liu, Yujia; Chen, Xuanze; Santangelo, Philip J; Ren, Qiushi; Xi, Peng; Jin, Dayong

    2016-01-01

    Axial excitation confinement beyond the diffraction limit is crucial to the development of next-generation, super-resolution microscopy. STimulated Emission Depletion (STED) nanoscopy offers lateral super-resolution using a donut-beam depletion, but its axial resolution is still over 500 nm. Total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy is widely used for single-molecule localization, but its ability to detect molecules is limited to within the evanescent field of ~ 100 nm from the cell attachment surface. We find here that the axial thickness of the point spread function (PSF) during confocal excitation can be easily improved to 110 nm by replacing the microscopy slide with a mirror. The interference of the local electromagnetic field confined the confocal PSF to a 110-nm spot axially, which enables axial super-resolution with all laser-scanning microscopes. Axial sectioning can be obtained with wavelength modulation or by controlling the spacer between the mirror and the specimen. With no additional complexity, the mirror-assisted excitation confinement enhanced the axial resolution six-fold and the lateral resolution two-fold for STED, which together achieved 19-nm resolution to resolve the inner rim of a nuclear pore complex and to discriminate the contents of 120 nm viral filaments. The ability to increase the lateral resolution and decrease the thickness of an axial section using mirror-enhanced STED without increasing the laser power is of great importance for imaging biological specimens, which cannot tolerate high laser power. PMID:27398242

  5. High Resolution PDF Measurements on Ag Nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Rocha, Tulio C. R.; Martin, Chris; Kycia, Stefan; Zanchet, Daniela

    2009-01-29

    The quantitative analysis of structural defects in Ag nanoparticles was addressed in this work. We performed atomic scale structural characterization by a combination of x-ray diffraction (XRD) using the Pair Distribution Function analysis (PDF) and High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM). The XRD measurements were performed using an innovative instrumentation setup to provide high resolution PDF patterns.

  6. MEPHISTO spectromicroscope reaches 20 nm lateral resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Stasio, Gelsomina; Perfetti, Luca; Gilbert, B.; Fauchoux, O.; Capozi, M.; Perfetti, P.; Margaritondo, G.; Tonner, B. P.

    1999-03-01

    The recently described tests of the synchrotron imaging photoelectron spectromicroscope MEPHISTO (Microscope à Emission de PHotoélectrons par Illumination Synchrotronique de Type Onduleur) were complemented by further resolution improvements and tests, which brought the lateral resolution down to 20 nm. Images and line plot profiles demonstrate such performance.

  7. Resolution on Confronting Bullying and Harassment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    English Journal, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Consistent with National Council of Teachers of English's (NCTE's) commitment to establishing and maintaining equitable school practices, this resolution builds on the 2010 NCTE Resolution on Social Justice in Literacy Education--in particular, the efforts to support teaching about "social injustice and discrimination in all its forms." NCTE urge…

  8. Alternative Dispute Resolution to the Rescue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kassberg, Maria

    1989-01-01

    Examines the use of mediation and arbitration to settle civil disputes which have been traditionally settled through the courts. Discusses the advantages of alternative forms of dispute resolution. Describes the operations of dispute resolution centers and provides information about the individuals who serve as dispute mediators. (KO)

  9. High spectral resolution reflectance spectroscopy of minerals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, Roger N.; King, Trude V. V.; Klejwa, Matthew; Swayze, Gregg A.; Vergo, Norma

    1990-01-01

    The reflectance spectra of minerals are studied as a function of spectral resolution in the range from 0.2 to 3.0 microns. Selected absorption bands were studied at resolving powers as high as 2240. At resolving powers of approximately 1000, many OH-bearing minerals show diagnostic sharp absorptions at the resolution limit. At low resolution, some minerals may not be distinguishable, but as the resolution is increased, most can be easily identified. As the resolution is increased, many minerals show fine structure, particularly in the OH-stretching overtone region near 1.4 micron. The fine structure can enhance the ability to discriminate between minerals, and in some cases the fine structure can be used to determine elemental composition.

  10. Magnetic measurements with atomic-plane resolution.

    PubMed

    Rusz, Ján; Muto, Shunsuke; Spiegelberg, Jakob; Adam, Roman; Tatsumi, Kazuyoshi; Bürgler, Daniel E; Oppeneer, Peter M; Schneider, Claus M

    2016-01-01

    Rapid development of magnetic nanotechnologies calls for experimental techniques capable of providing magnetic information with subnanometre spatial resolution. Available probes of magnetism either detect only surface properties, such as spin-polarized scanning tunnelling microscopy, magnetic force microscopy or spin-polarized low-energy electron microscopy, or they are bulk probes with limited spatial resolution or quantitativeness, such as X-ray magnetic circular dichroism or classical electron magnetic circular dichroism (EMCD). Atomic resolution EMCD methods have been proposed, although not yet experimentally realized. Here, we demonstrate an EMCD technique with an atomic size electron probe utilizing a probe-corrected scanning transmission electron microscope in its standard operation mode. The crucial element of the method is a ramp in the phase of the electron beam wavefunction, introduced by a controlled beam displacement. We detect EMCD signals with atomic-plane resolution, thereby bringing near-atomic resolution magnetic circular dichroism spectroscopy to hundreds of laboratories worldwide. PMID:27578421

  11. Magnetic measurements with atomic-plane resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rusz, Ján; Muto, Shunsuke; Spiegelberg, Jakob; Adam, Roman; Tatsumi, Kazuyoshi; Bürgler, Daniel E.; Oppeneer, Peter M.; Schneider, Claus M.

    2016-08-01

    Rapid development of magnetic nanotechnologies calls for experimental techniques capable of providing magnetic information with subnanometre spatial resolution. Available probes of magnetism either detect only surface properties, such as spin-polarized scanning tunnelling microscopy, magnetic force microscopy or spin-polarized low-energy electron microscopy, or they are bulk probes with limited spatial resolution or quantitativeness, such as X-ray magnetic circular dichroism or classical electron magnetic circular dichroism (EMCD). Atomic resolution EMCD methods have been proposed, although not yet experimentally realized. Here, we demonstrate an EMCD technique with an atomic size electron probe utilizing a probe-corrected scanning transmission electron microscope in its standard operation mode. The crucial element of the method is a ramp in the phase of the electron beam wavefunction, introduced by a controlled beam displacement. We detect EMCD signals with atomic-plane resolution, thereby bringing near-atomic resolution magnetic circular dichroism spectroscopy to hundreds of laboratories worldwide.

  12. Magnetic measurements with atomic-plane resolution

    PubMed Central

    Rusz, Ján; Muto, Shunsuke; Spiegelberg, Jakob; Adam, Roman; Tatsumi, Kazuyoshi; Bürgler, Daniel E.; Oppeneer, Peter M.; Schneider, Claus M.

    2016-01-01

    Rapid development of magnetic nanotechnologies calls for experimental techniques capable of providing magnetic information with subnanometre spatial resolution. Available probes of magnetism either detect only surface properties, such as spin-polarized scanning tunnelling microscopy, magnetic force microscopy or spin-polarized low-energy electron microscopy, or they are bulk probes with limited spatial resolution or quantitativeness, such as X-ray magnetic circular dichroism or classical electron magnetic circular dichroism (EMCD). Atomic resolution EMCD methods have been proposed, although not yet experimentally realized. Here, we demonstrate an EMCD technique with an atomic size electron probe utilizing a probe-corrected scanning transmission electron microscope in its standard operation mode. The crucial element of the method is a ramp in the phase of the electron beam wavefunction, introduced by a controlled beam displacement. We detect EMCD signals with atomic-plane resolution, thereby bringing near-atomic resolution magnetic circular dichroism spectroscopy to hundreds of laboratories worldwide. PMID:27578421

  13. 40 CFR 22.18 - Quick resolution; settlement; alternative dispute resolution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Quick resolution; settlement; alternative dispute resolution. 22.18 Section 22.18 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... REVOCATION/TERMINATION OR SUSPENSION OF PERMITS Prehearing Procedures § 22.18 Quick resolution;...

  14. High Resolution Image Reconstruction from Projection of Low Resolution Images DIffering in Subpixel Shifts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mareboyana, Manohar; Le Moigne-Stewart, Jacqueline; Bennett, Jerome

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate a simple algorithm that projects low resolution (LR) images differing in subpixel shifts on a high resolution (HR) also called super resolution (SR) grid. The algorithm is very effective in accuracy as well as time efficiency. A number of spatial interpolation techniques using nearest neighbor, inverse-distance weighted averages, Radial Basis Functions (RBF) etc. used in projection yield comparable results. For best accuracy of reconstructing SR image by a factor of two requires four LR images differing in four independent subpixel shifts. The algorithm has two steps: i) registration of low resolution images and (ii) shifting the low resolution images to align with reference image and projecting them on high resolution grid based on the shifts of each low resolution image using different interpolation techniques. Experiments are conducted by simulating low resolution images by subpixel shifts and subsampling of original high resolution image and the reconstructing the high resolution images from the simulated low resolution images. The results of accuracy of reconstruction are compared by using mean squared error measure between original high resolution image and reconstructed image. The algorithm was tested on remote sensing images and found to outperform previously proposed techniques such as Iterative Back Projection algorithm (IBP), Maximum Likelihood (ML), and Maximum a posterior (MAP) algorithms. The algorithm is robust and is not overly sensitive to the registration inaccuracies.

  15. High resolution image reconstruction from projection of low resolution images differing in subpixel shifts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mareboyana, Manohar; Le Moigne, Jacqueline; Bennett, Jerome

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate simple algorithms that project low resolution (LR) images differing in subpixel shifts on a high resolution (HR) also called super resolution (SR) grid. The algorithms are very effective in accuracy as well as time efficiency. A number of spatial interpolation techniques using nearest neighbor, inverse-distance weighted averages, Radial Basis Functions (RBF) etc. are used in projection. For best accuracy of reconstructing SR image by a factor of two requires four LR images differing in four independent subpixel shifts. The algorithm has two steps: i) registration of low resolution images and (ii) shifting the low resolution images to align with reference image and projecting them on high resolution grid based on the shifts of each low resolution image using different interpolation techniques. Experiments are conducted by simulating low resolution images by subpixel shifts and subsampling of original high resolution image and the reconstructing the high resolution images from the simulated low resolution images. The results of accuracy of reconstruction are compared by using mean squared error measure between original high resolution image and reconstructed image. The algorithm was tested on remote sensing images and found to outperform previously proposed techniques such as Iterative Back Projection algorithm (IBP), Maximum Likelihood (ML) algorithms. The algorithms are robust and are not overly sensitive to the registration inaccuracies.

  16. High resolution at low beam energy in the SEM: resolution measurement of a monochromated SEM.

    PubMed

    Michael, Joseph R

    2011-01-01

    The resolution of secondary electron low beam energy imaging of a scanning electron microscope equipped with a monochromator is quantitatively measured using the contrast transfer function (CTF) method. High-resolution images, with sub-nm resolutions, were produced using low beam energies. The use of a monochromator is shown to quantitatively improve the resolution of the SEM at low beam energies by limiting the chromatic aberration contribution to the electron probe size as demonstrated with calculations and images of suitable samples. Secondary electron image resolution at low beam energies is ultimately limited by noise in the images as shown by the CTFs.

  17. Super-resolution benefit for face recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Shuowen; Maschal, Robert; Young, S. Susan; Hong, Tsai Hong; Phillips, Jonathon P.

    2011-06-01

    Vast amounts of video footage are being continuously acquired by surveillance systems on private premises, commercial properties, government compounds, and military installations. Facial recognition systems have the potential to identify suspicious individuals on law enforcement watchlists, but accuracy is severely hampered by the low resolution of typical surveillance footage and the far distance of suspects from the cameras. To improve accuracy, super-resolution can enhance suspect details by utilizing a sequence of low resolution frames from the surveillance footage to reconstruct a higher resolution image for input into the facial recognition system. This work measures the improvement of face recognition with super-resolution in a realistic surveillance scenario. Low resolution and super-resolved query sets are generated using a video database at different eye-to-eye distances corresponding to different distances of subjects from the camera. Performance of a face recognition algorithm using the super-resolved and baseline query sets was calculated by matching against galleries consisting of frontal mug shots. The results show that super-resolution improves performance significantly at the examined mid and close ranges.

  18. Improved reduced-resolution satellite imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellison, James; Milstein, Jaime

    1995-01-01

    The resolution of satellite imagery is often traded-off to satisfy transmission time and bandwidth, memory, and display limitations. Although there are many ways to achieve the same reduction in resolution, algorithms vary in their ability to preserve the visual quality of the original imagery. These issues are investigated in the context of the Landsat browse system, which permits the user to preview a reduced resolution version of a Landsat image. Wavelets-based techniques for resolution reduction are proposed as alternatives to subsampling used in the current system. Experts judged imagery generated by the wavelets-based methods visually superior, confirming initial quantitative results. In particular, compared to subsampling, the wavelets-based techniques were much less likely to obscure roads, transmission lines, and other linear features present in the original image, introduce artifacts and noise, and otherwise reduce the usefulness of the image. The wavelets-based techniques afford multiple levels of resolution reduction and computational speed. This study is applicable to a wide range of reduced resolution applications in satellite imaging systems, including low resolution display, spaceborne browse, emergency image transmission, and real-time video downlinking.

  19. Multislice helical CT: image temporal resolution.

    PubMed

    Hui, H; Pan, T; Shen, Y

    2000-05-01

    A multislice helical computed tomography (CT) halfscan (HS) reconstruction algorithm is proposed for cardiac applications. The imaging performances (in terms of the temporal resolution, z-axis resolution, image noise, and image artifacts) of the HS algorithm are compared to the existing algorithms using theoretical models and clinical data. A theoretical model of the temporal resolution performance (in terms of the temporal sensitivity profile) is established for helical CT, in general, i.e., for any number of detector rows and any reconstruction algorithm used. It is concluded that the HS reconstruction results in improved image temporal resolution than the corresponding 180 degrees LI (linear interpolation) reconstruction and is more immune to the inconsistent data problem induced by cardiac motions. The temporal resolution of multislice helical CT with the HS algorithm is comparable to that of single-slice helical CT with the HS algorithm. In practice, the 180 degrees LI and HS-LI algorithms can be used in parallel to generate two image sets from the same scan acquisition, one (180 degrees LI) for improved z-resolution and noises, and the other (HS-LI) for improved image temporal resolution.

  20. Measuring temporal resolution of cardiac CT reconstructions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, David; Heuscher, Dominic

    2005-04-01

    Multi-slice CT today is capable of imaging the heart with excellent temporal resolution. Algorithms have been developed to perform reconstructions combining data from multiple cardiac cycles. This paper presents a simulation phantom that enables a direct measurement of the actual temporal resolution achieved by these algorithms. This is not only useful for assessing the temporal resolution but also for validating the algorithms themselves. A simulation phantom was developed that consists of a 20 cm. diameter water phantom containing an array of cylinders whose intensities are pulsed for various durations ranging from 10 msec. to 250 msec. The intensity varied between the background value of water (0 HU) and 800 HU. By measuring the nominal attenuation value at the center of each cylinder, a curve can be derived representing the response over the given temporal range. A temporal resolution representing the FWHM value is determined based on the half-max value of this curve. Reconstructions were performed using a multi-cycle cardiac algorithm described previously in the literature. The measured FWHM values agree quite well to the temporal resolution predicted by the cardiac algorithm itself. Even the variation along the longitudinal axis can be accounted for by the predicted values. A simulated phantom can be used to accurately assess the temporal resolution of cardiac reconstruction algorithms. Excellent agreement was achieved between the predicted and measured temporal resolution values for the multi-cycle algorithm used in this study.

  1. Improving spatial resolution of confocal Raman microscopy by super-resolution image restoration.

    PubMed

    Cui, Han; Zhao, Weiqian; Wang, Yun; Fan, Ying; Qiu, Lirong; Zhu, Ke

    2016-05-16

    A new super-resolution image restoration confocal Raman microscopy method (SRIR-RAMAN) is proposed for improving the spatial resolution of confocal Raman microscopy. This method can recover the lost high spatial frequency of the confocal Raman microscopy by using Poisson-MAP super-resolution imaging restoration, thereby improving the spatial resolution of confocal Raman microscopy and realizing its super-resolution imaging. Simulation analyses and experimental results indicate that the spatial resolution of SRIR-RAMAN can be improved by 65% to achieve 200 nm with the same confocal Raman microscopy system. This method can provide a new tool for high spatial resolution micro-probe structure detection in physical chemistry, materials science, biomedical science and other areas.

  2. High resolution SAR applications and instrument design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dionisio, C.; Torre, A.

    1993-01-01

    The Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) has viewed, in the last two years, a huge increment of interest from many preset and potential users. The good spatial resolution associated to the all weather capability lead to considering SAR not only a scientific instrument but a tool for verifying and controlling the daily human relationships with the Earth Environment. New missions were identified for SAR as spatial resolution became lower than three meters: disasters, pollution, ships traffic, volcanic eruptions, earthquake effect are only a few of the possible objects which can be effectively detected, controlled and monitored by SAR mounted on satellites. High resolution radar design constraints and dimensioning are discussed.

  3. High-resolution ophthalmic imaging system

    DOEpatents

    Olivier, Scot S.; Carrano, Carmen J.

    2007-12-04

    A system for providing an improved resolution retina image comprising an imaging camera for capturing a retina image and a computer system operatively connected to the imaging camera, the computer producing short exposures of the retina image and providing speckle processing of the short exposures to provide the improved resolution retina image. The system comprises the steps of capturing a retina image, producing short exposures of the retina image, and speckle processing the short exposures of the retina image to provide the improved resolution retina image.

  4. A method for coincidence timing resolution enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ermis, E. E.; Celiktas, C.; Pilicer, E.

    2016-05-01

    A method including the coincidence time resolution improvement for a TOF/positron emission tomography system was suggested. The spectrometer for this aim was composed of two NaI(Tl) and two plastic scintillation detectors. Experimental results were supported by FLUKA Monte Carlo simulation program by constructing the detector setup in software medium. Present experimental results verified our previous results and conclusions obtained from the suggested method. It was concluded that better resolutions would help the improvement not only on the TOF gain but also on the spatial resolution, leading to better images and helping the Physician in his/her diagnosis and treatment.

  5. High spectral resolution in the solar spectrum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baret, F.; Green, R. O.

    1994-01-01

    A session dedicated to high spectral resolution in the solar spectrum, covering topics of calibration, atmospheric correction, geology/pedology, inland water, and vegetation, is reported. The session showed a high degree of diversity in the topics and the approaches used. It was highlighted that high spectral resolution data could provide atmospherically corrected ground level calibrated reflectance values. Important advances were shown in the use of radiative transfer models applied either on water bodies or vegetation. Several studies highlighted the high degree of redundancy contained in high spectral resolution data.

  6. Resolution enhancement using simultaneous couple illumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussain, Anwar; Martínez Fuentes, José Luis

    2016-10-01

    A super-resolution technique based on structured illumination created by a liquid crystal on silicon spatial light modulator (LCOS-SLM) is presented. Single and simultaneous pairs of tilted beams are generated to illuminate a target object. Resolution enhancement of an optical 4f system is demonstrated by using numerical simulations. The resulting intensity images are recorded at a charged couple device (CCD) and stored in the computer memory for further processing. One dimension enhancement can be performed with only 15 images. Two dimensional complete improvement requires 153 different images. The resolution of the optical system is extended three times compared to the band limited system.

  7. SPATIAL AND SPECTRAL RESOLUTION IN GEOBOTANY.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Milton, Nancy M.; Mouat, D.A.

    1984-01-01

    Remotely sensed data are now available from a wide variety of instruments, each data set having a particular spectral and spatial resolution. The changes in vegetation associated with changes in lithology or the presence of mineral deposits can also occur at different scales. The task of geobotanical remote sensing is to choose or adapt the remotely sensed data to the appropriate geobotanical technique to solve the geological problem of interest. Examples are given of a number of applications of data sets of different spectral and spatial resolution. The relative importance of spectral and spatial resolution is discussed.

  8. Mechanisms controlling the temporal degradation of Nek2A and Kif18A by the APC/C–Cdc20 complex

    PubMed Central

    Sedgwick, Garry G; Hayward, Daniel G; Di Fiore, Barbara; Pardo, Mercedes; Yu, Lu; Pines, Jonathon; Nilsson, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    The Anaphase Promoting Complex/Cyclosome (APC/C) in complex with its co-activator Cdc20 is responsible for targeting proteins for ubiquitin-mediated degradation during mitosis. The activity of APC/C–Cdc20 is inhibited during prometaphase by the Spindle Assembly Checkpoint (SAC) yet certain substrates escape this inhibition. Nek2A degradation during prometaphase depends on direct binding of Nek2A to the APC/C via a C-terminal MR dipeptide but whether this motif alone is sufficient is not clear. Here, we identify Kif18A as a novel APC/C–Cdc20 substrate and show that Kif18A degradation depends on a C-terminal LR motif. However in contrast to Nek2A, Kif18A is not degraded until anaphase showing that additional mechanisms contribute to Nek2A degradation. We find that dimerization via the leucine zipper, in combination with the MR motif, is required for stable Nek2A binding to and ubiquitination by the APC/C. Nek2A and the mitotic checkpoint complex (MCC) have an overlap in APC/C subunit requirements for binding and we propose that Nek2A binds with high affinity to apo-APC/C and is degraded by the pool of Cdc20 that avoids inhibition by the SAC. PMID:23288039

  9. Crafting Elegant Solutions: Strategies for Conflict Resolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koch, Susan J.; Decker, Robert H.

    1993-01-01

    The conflict-resolution technique of interpersonal negotiation involves five steps: (1) state your positive intentions; (2) define, analyze, and discuss the problem; (3) summarize progress; (4) explore alternative solutions; and (5) set a time for follow-up. (MLF)

  10. Terminal Area Conflict Detection and Resolution Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verma, Savita Arora

    2011-01-01

    This poster will describe analysis of a conflict detection and resolution tool for the terminal area called T-TSAFE. With altitude clearance information, the tool can reduce false alerts to as low as 2 per hour.

  11. High-resolution climate simulation using CAM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bacmeister, J.; Neale, R. B.; Hannay, C.; Lauritzen, P. H.; Wehner, M. F.

    2012-12-01

    Thanks to the development of highly scalable dynamical cores that can exploit massively parallel computer architectures, we expect that global climate models in the next decade will run routinely at horizontal resolutions of 25 km or finer. Early results at these resolutions show clear improvements in simulating climatologically and societally-important mesoscale meteorology such as tropical cyclones. Improvements in regional circulations likely associated with topography are also obtained. Nevertheless many long-standing biases in climate simulations, e.g., the "double ITCZ" bias in precipitation, remain remarkably insensitive to increased resolution. This talk will present high-resolution global simulations using the community atmosphere model. Sensitivity of tropical cyclone climatology and precipitation statistics to model physics suites will be shown

  12. Plenary Session: Resolutions and Plans for Implementation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Nutrition Education, 1980

    1980-01-01

    Presented are two resolutions adopted by the participants at the plenary session of the National Conference on Nutrition Education. Agencies which will receive these recommendations are also identified. (SA)

  13. Conflict resolution training in the NHS.

    PubMed

    Molloy, Steve; Henderson, Iain

    2006-07-01

    The following article is based on a presentation at AfPP's Annual Congress in October 2005. It deals with the increasing level of violence and aggression directed towards NHS staff in the workplace and advises on conflict resolution.

  14. Super-resolution imaging in live cells.

    PubMed

    Cox, Susan

    2015-05-01

    Over the last twenty years super-resolution fluorescence microscopy has gone from proof-of-concept experiments to commercial systems being available in many labs, improving the resolution achievable by up to a factor of 10 or more. There are three major approaches to super-resolution, stimulated emission depletion microscopy, structured illumination microscopy, and localisation microscopy, which have all produced stunning images of cellular structures. A major current challenge is optimising performance of each technique so that the same sort of data can be routinely taken in live cells. There are several major challenges, particularly phototoxicity and the speed with which images of whole cells, or groups of cells, can be acquired. In this review we discuss the various approaches which can be successfully used in live cells, the tradeoffs in resolution, speed, and ease of implementation which one must make for each approach, and the quality of results that one might expect from each technique.

  15. Solar system events at high spatial resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Baines, K H; Gavel, D T; Getz, A M; Gibbartd, S G; MacIntosh, B; Max, C E; McKay, C P; Young, E F; de Pater, I

    1999-02-19

    Until relatively recent advances in technology, astronomical observations from the ground were limited in image resolution by the blurring effects of earth's atmosphere. The blur extent, ranging typically from 0.5 to 2 seconds of arc at the best astronomical sights, precluded ground-based observations of the details of the solar system's moons, asteroids, and outermost planets. With the maturing of a high resolution image processing technique called speckle imaging the resolution limitation of the atmosphere can now be largely overcome. Over the past three years they have used speckle imaging to observe Titan, a moon of Saturn with an atmospheric density comparable to Earth's, Io, the volcanically active innermost moon of Jupiter, and Neptune, a gas giant outer planet which has continually changing planet-encircling storms. These observations were made at the world's largest telescope, the Keck telescope in Hawaii and represent the highest resolution infrared images of these objects ever taken.

  16. High resolution in galaxy photometry and imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieto, J.-L.; Lelievre, G.

    Techniques for increasing the resolution of ground-based photometric observations of galaxies are discussed. The theoretical limitations on resolution and their implications for choosing telescope size at a given site considered, with an emphasis on the importance of the Fried (1966) parameter r0. The techniques recommended are shortening exposure time, selection of the highest-resolution images, and a posteriori digital image processing (as opposed to active-mirror image stabilization or the cine-CCD system of Fort et al., 1984). The value of the increased resolution (by a factor of 2) achieved at Pic du Midi observatory for studies of detailed structure in extragalactic objects, for determining the distance to galaxies, and for probing the central cores of galaxies is indicated.

  17. Chapter Iii: Resolutions of the General Assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-12-01

    The members of the Resolutions Committee 2003-2006 were Christopher J. Corbally (chair, USA), Jocely S. Bell Burnell (UK), Matthew Colless (Australia) Georges Meylan (Switzerland), Silvia Torres-Peimbert (Mexico), Rachel L. Webster (Australia), and Robert Williams (USA).

  18. Imaging enzyme kinetics at atomic resolution.

    PubMed

    Spence, John; Lattman, Eaton

    2016-07-01

    Serial crystallography at a synchrotron has been used to obtain time-resolved atomic resolution density maps of enzyme catalysis in copper nitrite reductase. Similar XFEL studies, intended to out-run radiation damage, will also soon appear. PMID:27437108

  19. High range resolution micro-Doppler analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cammenga, Zachary A.; Smith, Graeme E.; Baker, Christopher J.

    2015-05-01

    This paper addresses use of the micro-Doppler effect and the use of high range-resolution profiles to observe complex targets in complex target scenes. The combination of micro-Doppler and high range-resolution provides the ability to separate the motion of complex targets from one another. This ability leads to the differentiation of targets based on their micro-Doppler signatures. Without the high-range resolution, this would not be possible because the individual signatures would not be separable. This paper also addresses the use of the micro-Doppler information and high range-resolution profiles to generate an approximation of the scattering properties of a complex target. This approximation gives insight into the structure of the complex target and, critically, is created without using a pre-determined target model.

  20. NOAA's Use of High-Resolution Imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hund, Erik

    2007-01-01

    NOAA's use of high-resolution imagery consists of: a) Shoreline mapping and nautical chart revision; b) Coastal land cover mapping; c) Benthic habitat mapping; d) Disaster response; and e) Imagery collection and support for coastal programs.

  1. A High-Resolution Global Climate Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Duffy, P B

    2001-01-23

    A major factor limiting the quality and usefulness of global climate models is the coarse spatial resolution of these models. Global climate models today are typically run at resolutions of {approx}300 km (or even coarser) meaning that the smallest features represented are 300 km across. As Figure 1 shows, this resolution does not allow adequate representation of small or even large topographic features (e.g. the Sierra Nevada mountains). As a result of this and other problems, coarse-resolution global models do not come close to accurately simulating climate on regional spatial scales (e.g. within California). Results on continental and larger sales are much more realistic. An important consequence of this inability to simulate regional climate is that global climate model results cannot be used as the basis of assessments of potential societal impacts of climate change (e.g. effects on agriculture in the Central Valley, on management of water resources, etc.).

  2. Concern for Economy Reflected in Resolutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Vocational Journal, 1975

    1975-01-01

    The 21 resolutions approved at the American Vocational Association (AVA) New Orleans Convention reflected: concern about the economy, the single State agency concept for administering funds, more resources for research, and support for the adoption of the metric system. (EA)

  3. High resolution solar X-ray studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blake, R. L.

    1974-01-01

    Two high resolution solar X-ray payloads and their launches on Aerobee rockets with pointing system are described. The payloads included 5 to 25A X-ray spectrometers, multiaperture X-ray cameras, and command box attitude control inflight by means of a television image radioed to ground. Spatial resolution ranged from five arc minutes to ten arc seconds and spectral resolution ranged from 500 to 3000. Several laboratory tasks were completed in order to achieve the desired resolution. These included (1) development of techniques to align grid collimators, (2) studies of the spectrometric properties of crystals, (3) measurements of the absorption coefficients of various materials used in X-ray spectrometers, (4) evaluation of the performance of multiaperture cameras, and (5) development of facilities.

  4. Atomic resolution images of graphite in air

    SciTech Connect

    Grigg, D.A.; Shedd, G.M.; Griffis, D.; Russell, P.E.

    1988-12-01

    One sample used for proof of operation for atomic resolution in STM is highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG). This sample has been imaged with many different STM`s obtaining similar results. Atomic resolution images of HOPG have now been obtained using an STM designed and built at the Precision Engineering Center. This paper discusses the theoretical predictions and experimental results obtained in imaging of HOPG.

  5. The 2015 super-resolution microscopy roadmap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hell, Stefan W.; Sahl, Steffen J.; Bates, Mark; Zhuang, Xiaowei; Heintzmann, Rainer; Booth, Martin J.; Bewersdorf, Joerg; Shtengel, Gleb; Hess, Harald; Tinnefeld, Philip; Honigmann, Alf; Jakobs, Stefan; Testa, Ilaria; Cognet, Laurent; Lounis, Brahim; Ewers, Helge; Davis, Simon J.; Eggeling, Christian; Klenerman, David; Willig, Katrin I.; Vicidomini, Giuseppe; Castello, Marco; Diaspro, Alberto; Cordes, Thorben

    2015-11-01

    Far-field optical microscopy using focused light is an important tool in a number of scientific disciplines including chemical, (bio)physical and biomedical research, particularly with respect to the study of living cells and organisms. Unfortunately, the applicability of the optical microscope is limited, since the diffraction of light imposes limitations on the spatial resolution of the image. Consequently the details of, for example, cellular protein distributions, can be visualized only to a certain extent. Fortunately, recent years have witnessed the development of ‘super-resolution’ far-field optical microscopy (nanoscopy) techniques such as stimulated emission depletion (STED), ground state depletion (GSD), reversible saturated optical (fluorescence) transitions (RESOLFT), photoactivation localization microscopy (PALM), stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM), structured illumination microscopy (SIM) or saturated structured illumination microscopy (SSIM), all in one way or another addressing the problem of the limited spatial resolution of far-field optical microscopy. While SIM achieves a two-fold improvement in spatial resolution compared to conventional optical microscopy, STED, RESOLFT, PALM/STORM, or SSIM have all gone beyond, pushing the limits of optical image resolution to the nanometer scale. Consequently, all super-resolution techniques open new avenues of biomedical research. Because the field is so young, the potential capabilities of different super-resolution microscopy approaches have yet to be fully explored, and uncertainties remain when considering the best choice of methodology. Thus, even for experts, the road to the future is sometimes shrouded in mist. The super-resolution optical microscopy roadmap of Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics addresses this need for clarity. It provides guidance to the outstanding questions through a collection of short review articles from experts in the field, giving a thorough

  6. Improved Blocking at 25km Resolution?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiemann, R.; Demory, M. E.; Mizielinski, M.; Roberts, M.; Shaffrey, L.; Strachan, J.; Vidale, P. L.; Matsueda, M.

    2014-12-01

    It has been suggested that relatively coarse resolution of atmospheric general circulation models (AGCMs) limits their ability to represent mid-latitude blocking. Assessing the role of model resolution for blocking is computationally expensive, as multi-decadal simulations at the desired resolution are necessary for a robust estimation of blocking statistics. Here, we use an ensemble of three atmosphere-only global models for which simulations that fulfil this requirement are available at resolutions of roughly 25km horizontal grid spacing in the mid-latitudes. This corresponds to about a fourfold increase in resolution over the highest-resolution CMIP5 (Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, Phase 5) models. The three models are (i) the ECMWF model (IFS) as used in the project Athena, (ii) the MRI-AGCM 3.2, and (iii) our own HadGEM3-GA3 simulations obtained in the UPSCALE project (UK on PrACE - weather-resolving Simulations of Climate for globAL Environmental risk). We use a two-dimensional blocking index to assess the representation of blocking in these simulations and in three reanalyses (ERA-Interim, ERA-40, MERRA). We evaluate the spatial distribution of climatological blocking frequency, the interannual variability of blocking occurrence as well as the persistence of blocking events. Furthermore, the degree to which blocking biases are associated with mean-state biases is quantified in the different models. We find that the representation of blocking remains very sensitive to atmospheric resolution as the grid spacing is reduced to about 25km. The simulated blocking frequency increases with resolution, mostly so as to reduce the model bias, yet there is considerable variation between the results obtained for different models, seasons, and for the Atlantic and Pacific regions.

  7. The spatial resolution of epidemic peaks.

    PubMed

    Mills, Harriet L; Riley, Steven

    2014-04-01

    The emergence of novel respiratory pathogens can challenge the capacity of key health care resources, such as intensive care units, that are constrained to serve only specific geographical populations. An ability to predict the magnitude and timing of peak incidence at the scale of a single large population would help to accurately assess the value of interventions designed to reduce that peak. However, current disease-dynamic theory does not provide a clear understanding of the relationship between: epidemic trajectories at the scale of interest (e.g. city); population mobility; and higher resolution spatial effects (e.g. transmission within small neighbourhoods). Here, we used a spatially-explicit stochastic meta-population model of arbitrary spatial resolution to determine the effect of resolution on model-derived epidemic trajectories. We simulated an influenza-like pathogen spreading across theoretical and actual population densities and varied our assumptions about mobility using Latin-Hypercube sampling. Even though, by design, cumulative attack rates were the same for all resolutions and mobilities, peak incidences were different. Clear thresholds existed for all tested populations, such that models with resolutions lower than the threshold substantially overestimated population-wide peak incidence. The effect of resolution was most important in populations which were of lower density and lower mobility. With the expectation of accurate spatial incidence datasets in the near future, our objective was to provide a framework for how to use these data correctly in a spatial meta-population model. Our results suggest that there is a fundamental spatial resolution for any pathogen-population pair. If underlying interactions between pathogens and spatially heterogeneous populations are represented at this resolution or higher, accurate predictions of peak incidence for city-scale epidemics are feasible. PMID:24722420

  8. High-Resolution X-Ray Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    ODell, Stephen L.; Brissenden, Roger J.; Davis, William; Elsner, Ronald F.; Elvis, Martin; Freeman, Mark; Gaetz, Terry; Gorenstein, Paul; Gubarev, Mikhail V.

    2010-01-01

    Fundamental needs for future x-ray telescopes: a) Sharp images => excellent angular resolution. b) High throughput => large aperture areas. Generation-X optics technical challenges: a) High resolution => precision mirrors & alignment. b) Large apertures => lots of lightweight mirrors. Innovation needed for technical readiness: a) 4 top-level error terms contribute to image size. b) There are approaches to controlling those errors. Innovation needed for manufacturing readiness. Programmatic issues are comparably challenging.

  9. On Bayesian adaptive video super resolution.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ce; Sun, Deqing

    2014-02-01

    Although multiframe super resolution has been extensively studied in past decades, super resolving real-world video sequences still remains challenging. In existing systems, either the motion models are oversimplified or important factors such as blur kernel and noise level are assumed to be known. Such models cannot capture the intrinsic characteristics that may differ from one sequence to another. In this paper, we propose a Bayesian approach to adaptive video super resolution via simultaneously estimating underlying motion, blur kernel, and noise level while reconstructing the original high-resolution frames. As a result, our system not only produces very promising super resolution results outperforming the state of the art, but also adapts to a variety of noise levels and blur kernels. To further analyze the effect of noise and blur kernel, we perform a two-step analysis using the Cramer-Rao bounds. We study how blur kernel and noise influence motion estimation with aliasing signals, how noise affects super resolution with perfect motion, and finally how blur kernel and noise influence super resolution with unknown motion. Our analysis results confirm empirical observations, in particular that an intermediate size blur kernel achieves the optimal image reconstruction results.

  10. Effective resolution concepts for lidar observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iarlori, M.; Madonna, F.; Rizi, V.; Trickl, T.; Amodeo, A.

    2015-12-01

    Since its establishment in 2000, EARLINET (European Aerosol Research Lidar NETwork) has provided, through its database, quantitative aerosol properties, such as aerosol backscatter and aerosol extinction coefficients, the latter only for stations able to retrieve it independently (from Raman or high-spectral-resolution lidars). These coefficients are stored in terms of vertical profiles, and the EARLINET database also includes the details of the range resolution of the vertical profiles. In fact, the algorithms used in the lidar data analysis often alter the spectral content of the data, mainly acting as low-pass filters to reduce the high-frequency noise. Data filtering is described by the digital signal processing (DSP) theory as a convolution sum: each filtered signal output at a given range is the result of a linear combination of several signal input data samples (relative to different ranges from the lidar receiver), and this could be seen as a loss of range resolution of the output signal. Low-pass filtering always introduces distortions in the lidar profile shape. Thus, both the removal of high frequency, i.e., the removal of details up to a certain spatial extension, and the spatial distortion produce a reduction of the range resolution. This paper discusses the determination of the effective resolution (ERes) of the vertical profiles of aerosol properties retrieved from lidar data. Large attention has been dedicated to providing an assessment of the impact of low-pass filtering on the effective range resolution in the retrieval procedure.

  11. Convolutional Neural Network Based dem Super Resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zixuan; Wang, Xuewen; Xu, Zekai; Hou, Wenguang

    2016-06-01

    DEM super resolution is proposed in our previous publication to improve the resolution for a DEM on basis of some learning examples. Meanwhile, the nonlocal algorithm is introduced to deal with it and lots of experiments show that the strategy is feasible. In our publication, the learning examples are defined as the partial original DEM and their related high measurements due to this way can avoid the incompatibility between the data to be processed and the learning examples. To further extent the applications of this new strategy, the learning examples should be diverse and easy to obtain. Yet, it may cause the problem of incompatibility and unrobustness. To overcome it, we intend to investigate a convolutional neural network based method. The input of the convolutional neural network is a low resolution DEM and the output is expected to be its high resolution one. A three layers model will be adopted. The first layer is used to detect some features from the input, the second integrates the detected features to some compressed ones and the final step transforms the compressed features as a new DEM. According to this designed structure, some learning DEMs will be taken to train it. Specifically, the designed network will be optimized by minimizing the error of the output and its expected high resolution DEM. In practical applications, a testing DEM will be input to the convolutional neural network and a super resolution will be obtained. Many experiments show that the CNN based method can obtain better reconstructions than many classic interpolation methods.

  12. A Simple Two Aircraft Conflict Resolution Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chatterji, Gano B.

    1999-01-01

    Conflict detection and resolution methods are crucial for distributed air-ground traffic management in which the crew in the cockpit, dispatchers in operation control centers and air traffic controllers in the ground-based air traffic management facilities share information and participate in the traffic flow and traffic control imctions.This paper describes a conflict detection and a conflict resolution method. The conflict detection method predicts the minimum separation and the time-to-go to the closest point of approach by assuming that both the aircraft will continue to fly at their current speeds along their current headings. The conflict resolution method described here is motivated by the proportional navigation algorithm. It generates speed and heading commands to rotate the line-of-sight either clockwise or counter-clockwise for conflict resolution. Once the aircraft achieve a positive range-rate and no further conflict is predicted, the algorithm generates heading commands to turn back the aircraft to their nominal trajectories. The speed commands are set to the optimal pre-resolution speeds. Six numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the conflict detection and resolution method.

  13. A Simple Two Aircraft Conflict Resolution Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chatterji, Gano B.

    2006-01-01

    Conflict detection and resolution methods are crucial for distributed air-ground traffic management in which the crew in, the cockpit, dispatchers in operation control centers sad and traffic controllers in the ground-based air traffic management facilities share information and participate in the traffic flow and traffic control functions. This paper describes a conflict detection, and a conflict resolution method. The conflict detection method predicts the minimum separation and the time-to-go to the closest point of approach by assuming that both the aircraft will continue to fly at their current speeds along their current headings. The conflict resolution method described here is motivated by the proportional navigation algorithm, which is often used for missile guidance during the terminal phase. It generates speed and heading commands to rotate the line-of-sight either clockwise or counter-clockwise for conflict resolution. Once the aircraft achieve a positive range-rate and no further conflict is predicted, the algorithm generates heading commands to turn back the aircraft to their nominal trajectories. The speed commands are set to the optimal pre-resolution speeds. Six numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the conflict detection, and the conflict resolution methods.

  14. Ultrahigh-resolution endoscopic optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yu; Herz, Paul R.; Hsiung, Pei-Lin; Aguirre, Aaron D.; Mashimo, Hiroshi; Desai, Saleem; Pedrosa, Macos; Koski, Amanda; Schmitt, Joseph M.; Fujimoto, James G.

    2005-01-01

    Early detection of gastrointestinal cancer is essential for the patient treatment and medical care. Endoscopically guided biopsy is currently the gold standard for the diagnosis of early esophageal cancer, but can suffer from high false negative rates due to sampling errors. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an emerging medical imaging technology which can generate high resolution, cross-sectional images of tissue in situ and in real time, without the removal of tissue specimen. Although endoscopic OCT has been used successfully to identify certain pathologies in the gastrointestinal tract, the resolution of current endoscopic OCT systems has been limited to 10 - 15 m for clinical procedures. In this study, in vivo imaging of the gastrointestinal tract is demonstrated at a three-fold higher resolution (< 5 m), using a portable, broadband, Cr4+:Forsterite laser as the optical light source. Images acquired from the esophagus, gastro-esophageal junction and colon on animal model display tissue microstructures and architectural details at high resolution, and the features observed in the OCT images are well-matched with histology. The clinical feasibility study is conducted through delivering OCT imaging catheter using standard endoscope. OCT images of normal esophagus, Barrett's esophagus, and esophageal cancers are demonstrated with distinct features. The ability of high resolution endoscopic OCT to image tissue morphology at an unprecedented resolution in vivo would facilitate the development of OCT as a potential imaging modality for early detection of neoplastic changes.

  15. Nonlocal similarity based DEM super resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zekai; Wang, Xuewen; Chen, Zixuan; Xiong, Dongping; Ding, Mingyue; Hou, Wenguang

    2015-12-01

    This paper discusses a new topic, DEM super resolution, to improve the resolution of an original DEM based on its partial new measurements obtained with high resolution. A nonlocal algorithm is introduced to perform this task. The original DEM was first divided into overlapping patches, which were classified either as "test" or "learning" data depending on whether or not they are related to high resolution measurements. For each test patch, the similar patches in the learning dataset were identified via template matching. Finally, the high resolution DEM of the test patch was restored by the weighted sum of similar patches under the condition that the reconstruction weights were the same in different resolution cases. A key assumption of this strategy is that there are some repeated or similar modes in the original DEM, which is quite common. Experiments were done to demonstrate that we can restore a DEM by preserving the details without introducing artifacts. Statistic analysis was also conducted to show that this method can obtain higher accuracy than traditional interpolation methods.

  16. 29 CFR 96.53 - Audit resolution generally.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Audit resolution generally. 96.53 Section 96.53 Labor Office... Resolution § 96.53 Audit resolution generally. The DOL official(s) responsible for audit resolution shall.... The process of audit resolution includes at a minimum an initial determination, an informal...

  17. Fourier ring correlation as a resolution criterion for super-resolution microscopy.

    PubMed

    Banterle, Niccolò; Bui, Khanh Huy; Lemke, Edward A; Beck, Martin

    2013-09-01

    Optical nanoscopy techniques using localization based image reconstruction, also termed super-resolution microscopy (SRM), have become a standard tool to bypass the diffraction limit in fluorescence light microscopy. The localization precision measured for the detected fluorophores is commonly used to describe the maximal attainable resolution. However, this measure takes not all experimental factors, which impact onto the finally achieved resolution, into account. Several other methods to measure the resolution of super-resolved images were previously suggested, typically relying on intrinsic standards, such as molecular rulers, or on a priori knowledge about the specimen, e.g. its spatial frequency content. Here we show that Fourier ring correlation provides an easy-to-use, laboratory consistent standard for measuring the resolution of SRM images. We provide a freely available software tool that combines resolution measurement with image reconstruction.

  18. Resolution limits of ultrafast ultrasound localization microscopy.

    PubMed

    Desailly, Yann; Pierre, Juliette; Couture, Olivier; Tanter, Mickael

    2015-11-21

    As in other imaging methods based on waves, the resolution of ultrasound imaging is limited by the wavelength. However, the diffraction-limit can be overcome by super-localizing single events from isolated sources. In recent years, we developed plane-wave ultrasound allowing frame rates up to 20,000 fps. Ultrafast processes such as rapid movement or disruption of ultrasound contrast agents (UCA) can thus be monitored, providing us with distinct punctual sources that could be localized beyond the diffraction limit. We previously showed experimentally that resolutions beyond λ/10 can be reached in ultrafast ultrasound localization microscopy (uULM) using a 128 transducer matrix in reception. Higher resolutions are theoretically achievable and the aim of this study is to predict the maximum resolution in uULM with respect to acquisition parameters (frequency, transducer geometry, sampling electronics). The accuracy of uULM is the error on the localization of a bubble, considered a point-source in a homogeneous medium. The proposed model consists in two steps: determining the timing accuracy of the microbubble echo in radiofrequency data, then transferring this time accuracy into spatial accuracy. The simplified model predicts a maximum resolution of 40 μm for a 1.75 MHz transducer matrix composed of two rows of 64 elements. Experimental confirmation of the model was performed by flowing microbubbles within a 60 μm microfluidic channel and localizing their blinking under ultrafast imaging (500 Hz frame rate). The experimental resolution, determined as the standard deviation in the positioning of the microbubbles, was predicted within 6 μm (13%) of the theoretical values and followed the analytical relationship with respect to the number of elements and depth. Understanding the underlying physical principles determining the resolution of superlocalization will allow the optimization of the imaging setup for each organ. Ultimately, accuracies better than the size of

  19. Automated Conflict Resolution For Air Traffic Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erzberger, Heinz

    2005-01-01

    The ability to detect and resolve conflicts automatically is considered to be an essential requirement for the next generation air traffic control system. While systems for automated conflict detection have been used operationally by controllers for more than 20 years, automated resolution systems have so far not reached the level of maturity required for operational deployment. Analytical models and algorithms for automated resolution have been traffic conditions to demonstrate that they can handle the complete spectrum of conflict situations encountered in actual operations. The resolution algorithm described in this paper was formulated to meet the performance requirements of the Automated Airspace Concept (AAC). The AAC, which was described in a recent paper [1], is a candidate for the next generation air traffic control system. The AAC's performance objectives are to increase safety and airspace capacity and to accommodate user preferences in flight operations to the greatest extent possible. In the AAC, resolution trajectories are generated by an automation system on the ground and sent to the aircraft autonomously via data link .The algorithm generating the trajectories must take into account the performance characteristics of the aircraft, the route structure of the airway system, and be capable of resolving all types of conflicts for properly equipped aircraft without requiring supervision and approval by a controller. Furthermore, the resolution trajectories should be compatible with the clearances, vectors and flight plan amendments that controllers customarily issue to pilots in resolving conflicts. The algorithm described herein, although formulated specifically to meet the needs of the AAC, provides a generic engine for resolving conflicts. Thus, it can be incorporated into any operational concept that requires a method for automated resolution, including concepts for autonomous air to air resolution.

  20. Resolution limits of ultrafast ultrasound localization microscopy.

    PubMed

    Desailly, Yann; Pierre, Juliette; Couture, Olivier; Tanter, Mickael

    2015-11-21

    As in other imaging methods based on waves, the resolution of ultrasound imaging is limited by the wavelength. However, the diffraction-limit can be overcome by super-localizing single events from isolated sources. In recent years, we developed plane-wave ultrasound allowing frame rates up to 20,000 fps. Ultrafast processes such as rapid movement or disruption of ultrasound contrast agents (UCA) can thus be monitored, providing us with distinct punctual sources that could be localized beyond the diffraction limit. We previously showed experimentally that resolutions beyond λ/10 can be reached in ultrafast ultrasound localization microscopy (uULM) using a 128 transducer matrix in reception. Higher resolutions are theoretically achievable and the aim of this study is to predict the maximum resolution in uULM with respect to acquisition parameters (frequency, transducer geometry, sampling electronics). The accuracy of uULM is the error on the localization of a bubble, considered a point-source in a homogeneous medium. The proposed model consists in two steps: determining the timing accuracy of the microbubble echo in radiofrequency data, then transferring this time accuracy into spatial accuracy. The simplified model predicts a maximum resolution of 40 μm for a 1.75 MHz transducer matrix composed of two rows of 64 elements. Experimental confirmation of the model was performed by flowing microbubbles within a 60 μm microfluidic channel and localizing their blinking under ultrafast imaging (500 Hz frame rate). The experimental resolution, determined as the standard deviation in the positioning of the microbubbles, was predicted within 6 μm (13%) of the theoretical values and followed the analytical relationship with respect to the number of elements and depth. Understanding the underlying physical principles determining the resolution of superlocalization will allow the optimization of the imaging setup for each organ. Ultimately, accuracies better than the size of

  1. [NiFe] hydrogenase from Desulfovibrio desulfuricans ATCC 27774: gene sequencing, three-dimensional structure determination and refinement at 1.8 A and modelling studies of its interaction with the tetrahaem cytochrome c3.

    PubMed

    Matias, P M; Soares, C M; Saraiva, L M; Coelho, R; Morais, J; Le Gall, J; Carrondo, M A

    2001-01-01

    The primary and three-dimensional structures of a [NiFe] hydrogenase isolated from D. desulfitricans ATCC 27774 were determined, by nucleotide analysis and single-crystal X-ray crystallography. The three-dimensional structural model was refined to R=0.167 and Rfree=0.223 using data to 1.8 A resolution. Two unique structural features are observed: the [4Fe-4S] cluster nearest the [NiFe] centre has been modified [4Fe-3S-3O] by loss of one sulfur atom and inclusion of three oxygen atoms; a three-fold disorder was observed for Cys536 which binds to the nickel atom in the [NiFe] centre. Also, the bridging sulfur atom that caps the active site was found to have partial occupancy, thus corresponding to a partly activated enzyme. These structural features may have biological relevance. In particular, the two less-populated rotamers of Cys536 may be involved in the activation process of the enzyme, as well as in the catalytic cycle. Molecular modelling studies were carried out on the interaction between this [NiFe] hydrogenase and its physiological partner, the tetrahaem cytochrome c3 from the same organism. The lowest energy docking solutions were found to correspond to an interaction between the haem IV region in tetrahaem cytochrome c3 with the distal [4Fe-4S] cluster in [NiFe] hydrogenase. This interaction should correspond to efficient electron transfer and be physiologically relevant, given the proximity of the two redox centres and the fact that electron transfer decay coupling calculations show high coupling values and a short electron transfer pathway. On the other hand, other docking solutions have been found that, despite showing low electron transfer efficiency, may give clues on possible proton transfer mechanisms between the two molecules. PMID:11191224

  2. Spatial Resolution Requirements for MODIS-N. [Polar Platform Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townshend, J. R. G.; Justice, C. O.; Markham, B. L.; Briggs, S. A.

    1988-01-01

    An empirical investigation of the required spatial resolution for MODIS-N is outlined. It is based on 5 LANDSAT multispectral scanner system images of the normalized difference vegetation index degraded to resolutions between 250 m and 4000 m. Pairs of images from different dates were registered and difference images were generated. Fourier analysis indicates that resolutions finer than 1 km are highly desirable for change detection. A sensor with a resolution of 500 m is recommended as providing the best compromise between detail of changes detected and the size of the resultant data volume, but other options are also suggested.

  3. 36 CFR 1150.3 - Policy of amicable resolution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Policy of amicable resolution... amicable resolution. The policy of the Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board is to... resolution of all complaints....

  4. Genetic association analysis of 300 genes identifies a risk haplotype in SLC18A2 for post-traumatic stress disorder in two independent samples.

    PubMed

    Solovieff, Nadia; Roberts, Andrea L; Ratanatharathorn, Andrew; Haloosim, Michelle; De Vivo, Immaculata; King, Anthony P; Liberzon, Israel; Aiello, Allison; Uddin, Monica; Wildman, Derek E; Galea, Sandro; Smoller, Jordan W; Purcell, Shaun M; Koenen, Karestan C

    2014-07-01

    The genetic architecture of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) remains poorly understood with the vast majority of genetic association studies reporting on single candidate genes. We conducted a large genetic study in trauma-exposed European-American women (N=2538; 845 PTSD cases, 1693 controls) by testing 3742 SNPs across more than 300 genes and conducting polygenic analyses using results from the Psychiatric Genome-Wide Association Studies Consortium (PGC). We tested the association between each SNP and two measures of PTSD, a severity score and diagnosis. We found a significant association between PTSD (diagnosis) and SNPs (top SNP: rs363276, odds ratio (OR)=1.4, p=2.1E-05) in SLC18A2 (vesicular monoamine transporter 2). A haplotype analysis of 9 SNPs in SLC18A2, including rs363276, identified a risk haplotype (CGGCGGAAG, p=0.0046), and the same risk haplotype was associated with PTSD in an independent cohort of trauma-exposed African-Americans (p=0.049; N=748, men and women). SLC18A2 is involved in transporting monoamines to synaptic vesicles and has been implicated in a number of neuropsychiatric disorders including major depression. Eight genes previously associated with PTSD had SNPs with nominally significant associations (p<0.05). The polygenic analyses suggested that there are SNPs in common between PTSD severity and bipolar disorder. Our data are consistent with a genetic architecture for PTSD that is highly polygenic, influenced by numerous SNPs with weak effects, and may overlap with mood disorders. Genome-wide studies with very large samples sizes are needed to detect these types of effects. PMID:24525708

  5. Genetic Association Analysis of 300 Genes Identifies a Risk Haplotype in SLC18A2 for Post-traumatic Stress Disorder in Two Independent Samples

    PubMed Central

    Solovieff, Nadia; Roberts, Andrea L; Ratanatharathorn, Andrew; Haloosim, Michelle; De Vivo, Immaculata; King, Anthony P; Liberzon, Israel; Aiello, Allison; Uddin, Monica; Wildman, Derek E; Galea, Sandro; Smoller, Jordan W; Purcell, Shaun M; Koenen, Karestan C

    2014-01-01

    The genetic architecture of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) remains poorly understood with the vast majority of genetic association studies reporting on single candidate genes. We conducted a large genetic study in trauma-exposed European-American women (N=2538; 845 PTSD cases, 1693 controls) by testing 3742 SNPs across more than 300 genes and conducting polygenic analyses using results from the Psychiatric Genome-Wide Association Studies Consortium (PGC). We tested the association between each SNP and two measures of PTSD, a severity score and diagnosis. We found a significant association between PTSD (diagnosis) and SNPs (top SNP: rs363276, odds ratio (OR)=1.4, p=2.1E-05) in SLC18A2 (vesicular monoamine transporter 2). A haplotype analysis of 9 SNPs in SLC18A2, including rs363276, identified a risk haplotype (CGGCGGAAG, p=0.0046), and the same risk haplotype was associated with PTSD in an independent cohort of trauma-exposed African-Americans (p=0.049; N=748, men and women). SLC18A2 is involved in transporting monoamines to synaptic vesicles and has been implicated in a number of neuropsychiatric disorders including major depression. Eight genes previously associated with PTSD had SNPs with nominally significant associations (p<0.05). The polygenic analyses suggested that there are SNPs in common between PTSD severity and bipolar disorder. Our data are consistent with a genetic architecture for PTSD that is highly polygenic, influenced by numerous SNPs with weak effects, and may overlap with mood disorders. Genome-wide studies with very large samples sizes are needed to detect these types of effects. PMID:24525708

  6. Very low resolution face recognition problem.

    PubMed

    Zou, Wilman W W; Yuen, Pong C

    2012-01-01

    This paper addresses the very low resolution (VLR) problem in face recognition in which the resolution of the face image to be recognized is lower than 16 × 16. With the increasing demand of surveillance camera-based applications, the VLR problem happens in many face application systems. Existing face recognition algorithms are not able to give satisfactory performance on the VLR face image. While face super-resolution (SR) methods can be employed to enhance the resolution of the images, the existing learning-based face SR methods do not perform well on such a VLR face image. To overcome this problem, this paper proposes a novel approach to learn the relationship between the high-resolution image space and the VLR image space for face SR. Based on this new approach, two constraints, namely, new data and discriminative constraints, are designed for good visuality and face recognition applications under the VLR problem, respectively. Experimental results show that the proposed SR algorithm based on relationship learning outperforms the existing algorithms in public face databases. PMID:21775262

  7. High-Resolution PET Detector. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Karp, Joel

    2014-03-26

    The objective of this project was to develop an understanding of the limits of performance for a high resolution PET detector using an approach based on continuous scintillation crystals rather than pixelated crystals. The overall goal was to design a high-resolution detector, which requires both high spatial resolution and high sensitivity for 511 keV gammas. Continuous scintillation detectors (Anger cameras) have been used extensively for both single-photon and PET scanners, however, these instruments were based on NaI(Tl) scintillators using relatively large, individual photo-multipliers. In this project we investigated the potential of this type of detector technology to achieve higher spatial resolution through the use of improved scintillator materials and photo-sensors, and modification of the detector surface to optimize the light response function.We achieved an average spatial resolution of 3-mm for a 25-mm thick, LYSO continuous detector using a maximum likelihood position algorithm and shallow slots cut into the entrance surface.

  8. On the resolution of plenoptic PIV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deem, Eric A.; Zhang, Yang; Cattafesta, Louis N.; Fahringer, Timothy W.; Thurow, Brian S.

    2016-08-01

    Plenoptic PIV offers a simple, single camera solution for volumetric velocity measurements of fluid flow. However, due to the novel manner in which the particle images are acquired and processed, few references exist to aid in determining the resolution limits of the measurements. This manuscript provides a framework for determining the spatial resolution of plenoptic PIV based on camera design and experimental parameters. This information can then be used to determine the smallest length scales of flows that are observable by plenoptic PIV, the dynamic range of plenoptic PIV, and the corresponding uncertainty in plenoptic PIV measurements. A simplified plenoptic camera is illustrated to provide the reader with a working knowledge of the method in which the light field is recorded. Then, operational considerations are addressed. This includes a derivation of the depth resolution in terms of the design parameters of the camera. Simulated volume reconstructions are presented to validate the derived limits. It is found that, while determining the lateral resolution is relatively straightforward, many factors affect the resolution along the optical axis. These factors are addressed and suggestions are proposed for improving performance.

  9. High Spatial Resolution Thermal Satellite Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, Robert

    2003-01-01

    This document in the form of viewslides, reviews various low-cost alternatives to high spatial resolution thermal satellite technologies. There exists no follow-on to Landsat 7 or ASTER high spatial resolution thermal systems. This document reviews the results of the investigation in to the use of new technologies to create a low-cost useful alternative. Three suggested technologies are examined. 1. Conventional microbolometer pushbroom modes offers potential for low cost Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) thermal or ASTER capability with at least 60-120 ground sampling distance (GSD). 2. Backscanning could produce MultiSpectral Thermal Imager performance without cooled detectors. 3. Cooled detector could produce hyperspectral thermal class system or extremely high spatial resolution class instrument.

  10. A Super-Resolution Laser Altimetry Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, Xiaomei; Hu, Yongxiang; Trepte, Charles; Liu, Zhaoyan

    2014-01-01

    A super-resolution laser altimetry technique has been proposed to provide improved lidar altimetry from Cloud Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) lidar data, and it is applicable to other similar atmospheric profiling lidar with low-pass filters. To achieve high altimetry resolution, the new technique relies on an empirical relationship between the peak signal ratio and the distance between land surface and the peak signal range bin center, which is directly derived from the CALIPSO lidar measurements and does not require the CALIPSO's transient response. The CALIPSO surface elevation results in Northern America retrieved by the new technique agree with the National Elevation Database high resolution elevation maps, and the comparisons suggest that the precision of the technique is much better than 1.4 m. The preliminary data product of land surface elevation retrieved by the new technique from CALIPSO lidar measurements is available to the altimetry community for evaluation.

  11. Resolution enhancement in nonlinear photoacoustic imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Goy, Alexandre S.; Fleischer, Jason W.

    2015-11-23

    Nonlinear processes can be exploited to gain access to more information than is possible in the linear regime. Nonlinearity modifies the spectra of the excitation signals through harmonic generation, frequency mixing, and spectral shifting, so that features originally outside the detector range can be detected. Here, we present an experimental study of resolution enhancement for photoacoustic imaging of thin metal layers immersed in water. In this case, there is a threshold in the excitation below which no acoustic signal is detected. Above threshold, the nonlinearity reduces the width of the active area of the excitation beam, resulting in a narrower absorption region and thus improved spatial resolution. This gain is limited only by noise, as the active area of the excitation can be arbitrarily reduced when the fluence becomes closer to the threshold. Here, we demonstrate a two-fold improvement in resolution and quantify the image quality as the excitation fluence goes through threshold.

  12. Resolution enhancement in nonlinear photoacoustic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goy, Alexandre S.; Fleischer, Jason W.

    2015-11-01

    Nonlinear processes can be exploited to gain access to more information than is possible in the linear regime. Nonlinearity modifies the spectra of the excitation signals through harmonic generation, frequency mixing, and spectral shifting, so that features originally outside the detector range can be detected. Here, we present an experimental study of resolution enhancement for photoacoustic imaging of thin metal layers immersed in water. In this case, there is a threshold in the excitation below which no acoustic signal is detected. Above threshold, the nonlinearity reduces the width of the active area of the excitation beam, resulting in a narrower absorption region and thus improved spatial resolution. This gain is limited only by noise, as the active area of the excitation can be arbitrarily reduced when the fluence becomes closer to the threshold. Here, we demonstrate a two-fold improvement in resolution and quantify the image quality as the excitation fluence goes through threshold.

  13. Optimal Discretization Resolution in Algebraic Image Reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharif, Behzad; Kamalabadi, Farzad

    2005-11-01

    In this paper, we focus on data-limited tomographic imaging problems where the underlying linear inverse problem is ill-posed. A typical regularized reconstruction algorithm uses algebraic formulation with a predetermined discretization resolution. If the selected resolution is too low, we may loose useful details of the underlying image and if it is too high, the reconstruction will be unstable and the representation will fit irrelevant features. In this work, two approaches are introduced to address this issue. The first approach is using Mallow's CL method or generalized cross-validation. For each of the two methods, a joint estimator of regularization parameter and discretization resolution is proposed and their asymptotic optimality is investigated. The second approach is a Bayesian estimator of the model order using a complexity-penalizing prior. Numerical experiments focus on a space imaging application from a set of limited-angle tomographic observations.

  14. High-resolution reconstruction for terahertz imaging.

    PubMed

    Xu, Li-Min; Fan, Wen-Hui; Liu, Jia

    2014-11-20

    We present a high-resolution (HR) reconstruction model and algorithms for terahertz imaging, taking advantage of super-resolution methodology and algorithms. The algorithms used include projection onto a convex sets approach, iterative backprojection approach, Lucy-Richardson iteration, and 2D wavelet decomposition reconstruction. Using the first two HR reconstruction methods, we successfully obtain HR terahertz images with improved definition and lower noise from four low-resolution (LR) 22×24 terahertz images taken from our homemade THz-TDS system at the same experimental conditions with 1.0 mm pixel. Using the last two HR reconstruction methods, we transform one relatively LR terahertz image to a HR terahertz image with decreased noise. This indicates potential application of HR reconstruction methods in terahertz imaging with pulsed and continuous wave terahertz sources.

  15. Customized MFM probes with high lateral resolution.

    PubMed

    Iglesias-Freire, Óscar; Jaafar, Miriam; Berganza, Eider; Asenjo, Agustina

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic force microscopy (MFM) is a widely used technique for magnetic imaging. Besides its advantages such as the high spatial resolution and the easy use in the characterization of relevant applied materials, the main handicaps of the technique are the lack of control over the tip stray field and poor lateral resolution when working under standard conditions. In this work, we present a convenient route to prepare high-performance MFM probes with sub-10 nm (sub-25 nm) topographic (magnetic) lateral resolution by following an easy and quick low-cost approach. This allows one to not only customize the tip stray field, avoiding tip-induced changes in the sample magnetization, but also to optimize MFM imaging in vacuum (or liquid media) by choosing tips mounted on hard (or soft) cantilevers, a technology that is currently not available on the market. PMID:27547625

  16. HIRIS - The High Resolution Imaging Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dozier, Jeff

    1988-01-01

    The High-Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (HIRIS) is a JPL facility instrument designed for NASA's Earth Observing System (Eos).It will have 10-nm wide spectral bands from 0.4-2.5 microns at 30 m spatial resolution over a 30 km swath. The spectral resolution allows identification of many minerals in rocks and soils, important algal pigments in oceans and inland waters, spectral changes associated with plant canopy biochemistry, composition of atmospheric aerosols, and grain size of snow and its contamination by absorbing impurities. The bands wil have 12-bit quantization over a dynamic range suitable for bright targets, such as snow. For targets of low brightness, such as water bodies, image-motion compensation will allow gains up to a factor of eight to increase signal-to-noise ratios. In the 824-km orbit altitude proposed for Eos, the crosstrack pointing capability will allow 4-5 views during a 16-day revisit cycle.

  17. Constructing a WISE High Resolution Galaxy Atlas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarrett, T. H.; Masci, F.; Tsai, C. W.; Petty, S.; Cluver, M.; Assef, Roberto J.; Benford, D.; Blain, A.; Bridge, C.; Donoso, E.; Eisenhardt, P.; Fowler, J.; Koribalski, B.; Lake, S.; Neill, James D.; Seibert, M.; Sheth, K.; Stanford, S.; Wright, E.

    2012-08-01

    After eight months of continuous observations, the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) mapped the entire sky at 3.4 μm, 4.6 μm, 12 μm, and 22 μm. We have begun a dedicated WISE High Resolution Galaxy Atlas project to fully characterize large, nearby galaxies and produce a legacy image atlas and source catalog. Here we summarize the deconvolution techniques used to significantly improve the spatial resolution of WISE imaging, specifically designed to study the internal anatomy of nearby galaxies. As a case study, we present results for the galaxy NGC 1566, comparing the WISE enhanced-resolution image processing to that of Spitzer, Galaxy Evolution Explorer, and ground-based imaging. This is the first paper in a two-part series; results for a larger sample of nearby galaxies are presented in the second paper.

  18. Customized MFM probes with high lateral resolution

    PubMed Central

    Jaafar, Miriam; Berganza, Eider; Asenjo, Agustina

    2016-01-01

    Summary Magnetic force microscopy (MFM) is a widely used technique for magnetic imaging. Besides its advantages such as the high spatial resolution and the easy use in the characterization of relevant applied materials, the main handicaps of the technique are the lack of control over the tip stray field and poor lateral resolution when working under standard conditions. In this work, we present a convenient route to prepare high-performance MFM probes with sub-10 nm (sub-25 nm) topographic (magnetic) lateral resolution by following an easy and quick low-cost approach. This allows one to not only customize the tip stray field, avoiding tip-induced changes in the sample magnetization, but also to optimize MFM imaging in vacuum (or liquid media) by choosing tips mounted on hard (or soft) cantilevers, a technology that is currently not available on the market. PMID:27547625

  19. Customized MFM probes with high lateral resolution.

    PubMed

    Iglesias-Freire, Óscar; Jaafar, Miriam; Berganza, Eider; Asenjo, Agustina

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic force microscopy (MFM) is a widely used technique for magnetic imaging. Besides its advantages such as the high spatial resolution and the easy use in the characterization of relevant applied materials, the main handicaps of the technique are the lack of control over the tip stray field and poor lateral resolution when working under standard conditions. In this work, we present a convenient route to prepare high-performance MFM probes with sub-10 nm (sub-25 nm) topographic (magnetic) lateral resolution by following an easy and quick low-cost approach. This allows one to not only customize the tip stray field, avoiding tip-induced changes in the sample magnetization, but also to optimize MFM imaging in vacuum (or liquid media) by choosing tips mounted on hard (or soft) cantilevers, a technology that is currently not available on the market.

  20. Constructing a WISE High Resolution Galaxy Atlas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jarrett, T. H.; Masci, F.; Tsai, C. W.; Petty, S.; Cluver, M.; Assef, Roberto J.; Benford, D.; Blain, A.; Bridge, C.; Donoso, E.; Eisenhardt, P.; Fowler, J.; Koribalski, B.; Lake, S.; Neill, James D.; Seibert, M.; Stanford, S.; Wright, E.

    2012-01-01

    After eight months of continuous observations, the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) mapped the entire sky at 3.4 micron, 4.6 micron, 12 micron, and 22 micron. We have begun a dedicated WISE High Resolution Galaxy Atlas project to fully characterize large, nearby galaxies and produce a legacy image atlas and source catalog. Here we summarize the deconvolution techniques used to significantly improve the spatial resolution of WISE imaging, specifically designed to study the internal anatomy of nearby galaxies. As a case study, we present results for the galaxy NGC 1566, comparing the WISE enhanced-resolution image processing to that of Spitzer, Galaxy Evolution Explorer, and ground-based imaging. This is the first paper in a two-part series; results for a larger sample of nearby galaxies are presented in the second paper.

  1. Resolution-enhancing hybrid, spectral CT reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, D. P.; Badea, C. T.

    2016-04-01

    Spectral x-ray imaging based on photon-counting x-ray detectors (PCXD) is an area of growing interest. By measuring the energy of x-ray photons, a spectral CT system can better differentiate elements using a single scan. However, the spatial resolution achievable with most PCXDs limits their application, particularly in preclinical CT imaging. Consequently, our group is developing a hybrid micro-CT scanner based on a high-resolution, energy-integrating (EID) detector and a lower-resolution, PCXD. To complement this system, we propose and demonstrate a hybrid, spectral CT reconstruction algorithm which robustly combines the spectral contrast of the PCXD with the spatial resolution of the EID. Specifically, the high-resolution, spectrally resolved data (X) is recovered as the sum of two matrices: one with low column rank (XL) determined from the EID data and one with intensity gradient sparse columns (XS) corresponding to the upsampled spectral contrast obtained from the PCXD data. We test the proposed algorithm in a feasibility study focused on molecular imaging of atherosclerotic plaque using activatable iodine and gold nanoparticles. The results show accurate estimation of material concentrations at increased spatial resolution for a voxel size ratio between the PCXD and the EID of 500 μm3:100 μm3. Specifically, regularized, iterative reconstruction of the MOBY mouse phantom around the K-edges of iodine (33.2 keV) and gold (80.7 keV) reduces the reconstruction error by more than a factor of three relative to least-squares, algebraic reconstruction. Likewise, the material decomposition accuracy into iodine, gold, calcium, and water improves by more than a factor of two.

  2. Polarization imaging with enhanced spatial resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peinado, A.; Lizana, A.; Iemmi, C.; Campos, J.

    2015-03-01

    We present the design and the experimental implementation of a new imaging set-up, based on Liquid Crystal technology, able to obtain super-resolved polarimetric images of polarimetric samples when the resolution is detector limited. The proposed set-up is a combination of two modules. One of them is an imaging Stokes polarimeter, based on Ferroelectric Liquid Crystal cells, which is used to analyze the polarization spatial distribution of an incident beam. The other module is used to obtain high resolved intensity images of the sample in an optical system whose resolution is mainly limited by the CCD pixel geometry. It contains a calibrated Parallel Aligned Liquid Crystal on Silicon display employed to introduce controlled linear phases. As a result, a set of different low resolved intensity images with sub-pixel displacements are captured by the CCD. By properly combining these images and after applying a deconvolution process, a super-resolved intensity image of the object is obtained. Finally, the combination of the two different optical modules permits to employ super-resolved images during the polarimetric data reduction calculation, leading to a final polarization image with enhanced spatial resolution. The proposed optical set-up performance is implemented and experimentally validated by providing super-resolved images of an amplitude resolution test and a birefringent resolution test. A significant improvement in the spatial resolution (by a factor of 1.4) of the obtained polarimetric images, in comparison with the images obtained with the regular imaging system, is clearly observed when applying our proposed technique.

  3. The interaction of mammalian Class C Vps with nSec-1/Munc18-a and syntaxin 1A regulates pre-synaptic release

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Bong Yoon; Sahara, Yoshinori; Yamamoto, Akitsugu; Kominami, Eiki; Kohsaka, Shinichi; Akazawa, Chihiro . E-mail: akazawa1@ncnp.go.jp

    2006-11-24

    Membrane docking and fusion in neurons is a highly regulated process requiring the participation of a large number of SNAREs (soluble N-ethylmaleimide sensitive factor attachment protein receptors) and SNARE-interacting proteins. We found that mammalian Class C Vps protein complex associated specifically with nSec-1/Munc18-a, and syntaxin 1A both in vivo and in vitro. In contrast, VAMP2 and SNAP-25, other neuronal core complex proteins, did not interact. When co-transfected with the human growth hormone (hGH) reporter gene, mammalian Class C Vps proteins enhanced Ca{sup 2+}-dependent exocytosis, which was abolished by the Ca{sup 2+}-channel blocker nifedipine. In hippocampal primary cultures, the lentivirus-mediated overexpression of hVps18 increased asynchronous spontaneous synaptic release without changing mEPSCs. These results indicate that mammalian Class C Vps proteins are involved in the regulation of membrane docking and fusion through an interaction with neuronal specific SNARE molecules, nSec-1/Munc18-a and syntaxin 1A.

  4. A missense mutation in ALDH18A1, encoding Delta1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthase (P5CS), causes an autosomal recessive neurocutaneous syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bicknell, Louise S; Pitt, James; Aftimos, Salim; Ramadas, Ram; Maw, Marion A; Robertson, Stephen P

    2008-10-01

    There are several rare syndromes combining wrinkled, redundant skin and neurological abnormalities. Although phenotypic overlap between conditions has suggested that some might be allelic to one another, the aetiology for many of them remains unknown. A consanguineous New Zealand Maori family has been characterised that segregates an autosomal recessive connective tissue disorder (joint dislocations, lax skin) associated with neurological abnormalities (severe global developmental delay, choreoathetosis) without metabolic abnormalities in four affected children. A genome-screen performed under a hypothesis of homozygosity by descent for an ancestral mutation, identified a locus at 10q23 (Z = 3.63). One gene within the candidate interval, ALDH18A1, encoding Delta1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthase (P5CS), was considered a plausible disease gene since a missense mutation had previously been shown to cause progressive neurodegeneration, cataracts, skin laxity, joint dislocations and metabolic derangement in a consanguineous Algerian family. A missense mutation, 2350C>T, was identified in ALDH18A1, which predicts the substitution H784Y. H784 is invariant across all phyla and lies within a previously unrecognised, conserved C-terminal motif in P5CS. In an in vivo assay of flux through this metabolic pathway using dermal fibroblasts obtained from an affected individual, proline and ornithine biosynthetic activity of P5CS was not affected by the H784Y substitution. These data suggest that P5CS may possess additional uncharacterised functions that affect connective tissue and central nervous system function.

  5. High resolution A/D conversion based on piecewise conversion at lower resolution

    DOEpatents

    Terwilliger, Steve

    2012-06-05

    Piecewise conversion of an analog input signal is performed utilizing a plurality of relatively lower bit resolution A/D conversions. The results of this piecewise conversion are interpreted to achieve a relatively higher bit resolution A/D conversion without sampling frequency penalty.

  6. Results of the spatial resolution simulation for multispectral data (resolution brochures)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The variable information content of Earth Resource products at different levels of spatial resolution and in different spectral bands is addressed. A low-cost brochure that scientists and laymen could use to visualize the effects of increasing the spatial resolution of multispectral scanner images was produced.

  7. Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR): A Different Framework for Conflict Resolution in Educational Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turan, Selahattin; Taylor, Charles

    This paper briefly introduces alternative dispute resolution (ADR) processes and their fundamental principles. The paper provides a review of the literature on ADR and discusses its applicability in educational settings. The concept of conflict is explained, along with analysis of the limitations of traditional conflict resolution processes. The…

  8. Super-resolution optical microscopy: multiple choices.

    PubMed

    Huang, Bo

    2010-02-01

    The recent invention of super-resolution optical microscopy enables the visualization of fine features in biological samples with unprecedented clarity. It creates numerous opportunities in biology because vast amount of previously obscured subcellular processes now can be directly observed. Rapid development in this field in the past two years offers many imaging modalities that address different needs but they also complicates the choice of the 'perfect' method for answering a specific question. Here I will briefly describe the principles of super-resolution optical microscopy techniques and then focus on comparing their characteristics in various aspects of practical applications. PMID:19897404

  9. High-Resolution, Two-Wavelength Pyrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bickler, Donald B.; Henry, Paul K.; Logiurato, D. Daniel

    1989-01-01

    Modified two-color pyrometer measures temperatures of objects with high spatial resolution. Image focused on hole 0.002 in. (0.05 mm) in diameter in brass sheet near end of bundle, causing image to be distributed so fibers covered by defocused radiation from target. Pinhole ensures radiation from only small part of target scene reaches detector, thus providing required spatial resolution. By spreading radiation over bundle, pinhole ensures entire active area of detectors utilized. Produces signal as quiet as conventional instruments but with only 1/64 input radiation.

  10. A Portable, High Resolution, Surface Measurement Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ihlefeld, Curtis M.; Burns, Bradley M.; Youngquist, Robert C.

    2012-01-01

    A high resolution, portable, surface measurement device has been demonstrated to provide micron-resolution topographical plots. This device was specifically developed to allow in-situ measurements of defects on the Space Shuttle Orbiter windows, but is versatile enough to be used on a wide variety of surfaces. This paper discusses the choice of an optical sensor and then the decisions required to convert a lab bench optical measurement device into an ergonomic portable system. The necessary trade-offs between performance and portability are presented along with a description of the device developed to measure Orbiter window defects.

  11. Emotional intelligence and conflict resolution in nursing.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Peter J; Troth, Ashlea C

    2002-08-01

    How nurses maintain relationships and resolve conflict in the workplace is considered an important skill in the nursing profession (Hillhouse & Adler, 1997). In this paper we explore the utility of emotional intelligence in predicting an individual's preferred style of conflict resolution. Theorists such as Goleman (1998) have proposed a strong link between emotional intelligence and successful conflict resolution. A preliminary analysis of our empirical study indicates that individuals with high emotional intelligence prefer to seek collaborative solutions when confronted with conflict. Implications for the nursing profession are discussed. PMID:16118974

  12. A High Resolution Scale-of-four

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Fitch, V.

    1949-08-25

    A high resolution scale-of-four has been developed to be used in conjunction with the nuclear particle detection devices in applications where the counting rate is unusually high. Specifically, it is intended to precede the commercially available medium resolution scaling circuits and so decrease the resolving time of the counting system. The circuit will function reliably on continuously recurring pulses separated by less than 0.1 microseconds. It will resolve two pulses (occurring at a moderate repetition rate) which are spaced at 0.04 microseconds. A five-volt input signal is sufficient to actuate the device.

  13. Effects of spatial resolution on image registration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Can; Carass, Aaron; Jog, Amod; Prince, Jerry L.

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents a theoretical analysis of the effect of spatial resolution on image registration. Based on the assumption of additive Gaussian noise on the images, the mean and variance of the distribution of the sum of squared differences (SSD) were estimated. Using these estimates, we evaluate a distance between the SSD distributions of aligned images and non-aligned images. The experimental results show that by matching the resolutions of the moving and fixed images one can get a better image registration result. The results agree with our theoretical analysis of SSD, but also suggest that it may be valid for mutual information as well.

  14. RAPID DAMAGE ASSESSMENT FROM HIGH RESOLUTION IMAGERY

    SciTech Connect

    Vijayaraj, Veeraraghavan; Bright, Eddie A; Bhaduri, Budhendra L

    2008-01-01

    Disaster impact modeling and analysis uses huge volumes of image data that are produced immediately following a natural or an anthropogenic disaster event. Rapid damage assessment is the key to time critical decision support in disaster management to better utilize available response resources and accelerate recovery and relief efforts. But exploiting huge volumes of high resolution image data for identifying damaged areas with robust consistency in near real time is a challenging task. In this paper, we present an automated image analysis technique to identify areas of structural damage from high resolution optical satellite data using features based on image content.

  15. Beam Shape Effects on Grating Spectrometer Resolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, Edwin F.; Rabanus, David; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The collimated optical beam in a grating spectrometer may be circular or elliptical in cross section, so that different parts of the beam illuminate different numbers of grooves on the grating. Here we estimate the consequent loss in spectral resolution relative to that obtained with a beam which illuminates a fixed number of grooves. For representative diffraction resolution functions, the effect is to reduce the intrinsic resolving power of the spectrometer by about 13%, exclusive of other contributions such as finite entrance slit width.

  16. High spatial resolution restoration of IRAS images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grasdalen, Gary L.; Inguva, R.; Dyck, H. Melvin; Canterna, R.; Hackwell, John A.

    1990-01-01

    A general technique to improve the spatial resolution of the IRAS AO data was developed at The Aerospace Corporation using the Maximum Entropy algorithm of Skilling and Gull. The technique has been applied to a variety of fields and several individual AO MACROS. With this general technique, resolutions of 15 arcsec were achieved in 12 and 25 micron images and 30 arcsec in 60 and 100 micron images. Results on galactic plane fields show that both photometric and positional accuracy achieved in the general IRAS survey are also achieved in the reconstructed images.

  17. Superconducting High Resolution Fast-Neutron Spectrometers

    SciTech Connect

    Hau, Ionel Dragos

    2006-01-01

    Superconducting high resolution fast-neutron calorimetric spectrometers based on 6LiF and TiB{sub 2} absorbers have been developed. These novel cryogenic spectrometers measure the temperature rise produced in exothermal (n, α) reactions with fast neutrons in 6Li and 10B-loaded materials with heat capacity C operating at temperatures T close to 0.1 K. Temperature variations on the order of 0.5 mK are measured with a Mo/Cu thin film multilayer operated in the transition region between its superconducting and its normal state. The advantage of calorimetry for high resolution spectroscopy is due to the small phonon excitation energies kBT on the order of μeV that serve as signal carriers, resulting in an energy resolution ΔE ~ (kBT2C)1/2, which can be well below 10 keV. An energy resolution of 5.5 keV has been obtained with a Mo/Cu superconducting sensor and a TiB2 absorber using thermal neutrons from a 252Cf neutron source. This resolution is sufficient to observe the effect of recoil nuclei broadening in neutron spectra, which has been related to the lifetime of the first excited state in 7Li. Fast-neutron spectra obtained with a 6Li-enriched LiF absorber show an energy resolution of 16 keV FWHM, and a response in agreement with the 6Li(n, α)3H reaction cross section and Monte Carlo simulations for energies up to several MeV. The energy resolution of order of a few keV makes this novel instrument applicable to fast-neutron transmission spectroscopy based on the unique elemental signature provided by the neutron absorption and scattering resonances. The optimization of the energy resolution based on analytical and numerical models of the detector response is discussed in the context of these applications.

  18. A high-resolution time-to-digital converter using a three-level resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dehghani, Asma; Saneei, Mohsen; Mahani, Ali

    2016-08-01

    In this article, a three-level resolution Vernier delay line time-to-digital converter (TDC) was proposed. The proposed TDC core was based on the pseudo-differential digital architecture that made it insensitive to nMOS and pMOS transistor mismatches. It also employed a Vernier delay line (VDL) in conjunction with an asynchronous read-out circuitry. The time interval resolution was equal to the difference of delay between buffers of upper and lower chains. Then, via the extra chain included in the lower delay line, resolution was controlled and power consumption was reduced. This method led to high resolution and low power consumption. The measurement results of TDC showed a resolution of 4.5 ps, 12-bit output dynamic range, and integral nonlinearity of 1.5 least significant bits. This TDC achieved the consumption of 68.43 µW from 1.1-V supply.

  19. High Resolution Surface Science at Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Zachary J.; Tamppari, Leslie K.; Lock, Robert E.; Sturm, Erick J.

    2013-01-01

    The proposed mission would place a 2.4 m telescope in orbit around Mars with two focal plane instruments to obtain the highest resolution images and spectral maps of the surface to date (3-10x better than current). This investigation would make major contributions to all of the Mars Program Goals: life, climate, geology and preparation for human presence.

  20. High-Resolution Traction Force Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Plotnikov, Sergey V.; Sabass, Benedikt; Schwarz, Ulrich S.; Waterman, Clare M.

    2015-01-01

    Cellular forces generated by the actomyosin cytoskeleton and transmitted to the extracellular matrix (ECM) through discrete, integrin-based protein assemblies, that is, focal adhesions, are critical to developmental morphogenesis and tissue homeostasis, as well as disease progression in cancer. However, quantitative mapping of these forces has been difficult since there has been no experimental technique to visualize nanonewton forces at submicrometer spatial resolution. Here, we provide detailed protocols for measuring cellular forces exerted on two-dimensional elastic substrates with a high-resolution traction force microscopy (TFM) method. We describe fabrication of polyacrylamide substrates labeled with multiple colors of fiducial markers, functionalization of the substrates with ECM proteins, setting up the experiment, and imaging procedures. In addition, we provide the theoretical background of traction reconstruction and experimental considerations important to design a high-resolution TFM experiment. We describe the implementation of a new algorithm for processing of images of fiducial markers that are taken below the surface of the substrate, which significantly improves data quality. We demonstrate the application of the algorithm and explain how to choose a regularization parameter for suppression of the measurement error. A brief discussion of different ways to visualize and analyze the results serves to illustrate possible uses of high-resolution TFM in biomedical research. PMID:24974038

  1. Obtaining high resolution XUV coronal images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golub, L.; Spiller, E.

    1992-01-01

    Photographs obtained during three flights of an 11 inch diameter normal incident soft X-ray (wavelength 63.5 A) telescope are analyzed and the data are compared to the results expected from tests of the mirror surfaces. Multilayer coated X ray telescopes have the potential for 0.01 arcsec resolution, and there is optimism that such high quality mirrors can be built. Some of the factors which enter into the performance actually achieved in practice are as follows: quality of the mirror substrate, quality of the multilayer coating, and number of photons collected. Measurements of multilayer mirrors show that the actual performance achieved in the solar X-ray images demonstrates a reduction in the scattering compared to that calculated from the topography of the top surface of the multilayer. In the brief duration of a rocket flight, the resolution is also limited by counting statistics from the number of photons collected. At X-ray Ultraviolet (XUV) wavelengths from 171 to 335 A the photon flux should be greater than 10(exp 10) ph/sec, so that a resolution better than 0.1 arcsec might be achieved, if mirror quality does not provide a limit first. In a satellite, a large collecting area will be needed for the highest resolution.

  2. Resolution requirements for aero-optical simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Mani, Ali Wang Meng; Moin, Parviz

    2008-11-10

    Analytical criteria are developed to estimate the error of aero-optical computations due to inadequate spatial resolution of refractive index fields in high Reynolds number flow simulations. The unresolved turbulence structures are assumed to be locally isotropic and at low turbulent Mach number. Based on the Kolmogorov spectrum for the unresolved structures, the computational error of the optical path length is estimated and linked to the resulting error in the computed far-field optical irradiance. It is shown that in the high Reynolds number limit, for a given geometry and Mach number, the spatial resolution required to capture aero-optics within a pre-specified error margin does not scale with Reynolds number. In typical aero-optical applications this resolution requirement is much lower than the resolution required for direct numerical simulation, and therefore, a typical large-eddy simulation can capture the aero-optical effects. The analysis is extended to complex turbulent flow simulations in which non-uniform grid spacings are used to better resolve the local turbulence structures. As a demonstration, the analysis is used to estimate the error of aero-optical computation for an optical beam passing through turbulent wake of flow over a cylinder.

  3. Violence as a Means of Conflict Resolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crummey, Nefertari

    This paper describes, from an historicial perspective, the causes and consequences of violent outbreaks involving the black community and examines the effectiveness of various kinds of violence in the resolution of conflict. Violence as a means of protest and a method of change is presented as an integral factor in the shaping of American history.…

  4. Integrating Conflict Resolution Training into the Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevahn, Laurie

    2004-01-01

    All students can be taught how to manage conflicts constructively by integrating training into the existing school curriculum. This article describes a practical and effective approach to curriculum-integrated conflict resolution training that involves students in repeatedly using integrative negotiation and peer mediation procedures to resolve…

  5. 33 CFR 385.23 - Dispute resolution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Cooperation Agreement. (b) Disputes with the non-Federal sponsor concerning design activities shall be resolved under the specific dispute resolution procedures of the design agreement. (c) All other unresolved...) The parties will attempt to resolve disputes at the lowest organizational level before seeking...

  6. Resolution or Analysis Scale: What Matters Most?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Bradley

    2016-04-01

    Identifying the scale at which different covariates best explain the variation of soil properties reflects the geographic strategy of using map generalization (relative size of map delineations) to identify the scale at which phenomena occur. The size of map delineations corresponds to resolution in raster data models. Although not always considered in digital soil mapping studies, resolution is widely recognized as an important factor in identifying covariates in digital spatial analysis. However, many variables that are useful as predictors in digital soil mapping are dependent upon spatial context. For example, the slope gradient at a specific location can only be calculated by considering the surrounding area. In these cases, an analysis neighborhood is used when calculating such variables using a raster data model. The context or area considered is then dependent upon both the resolution and the number of cells (window size) used to define the neighborhood. This presentation explores the difference between resolution and analysis scale, then tests which concept is most important for identifying optimal scales of correlation for digital soil informatics.

  7. 10 CFR 850.5 - Dispute resolution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... relief in accordance with 10 CFR part 1003, Subpart G. (b) The Office of Hearings and Appeals may not... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dispute resolution. 850.5 Section 850.5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM General Provisions § 850.5 Dispute...

  8. A High-Resolution Stopwatch for Cents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gingl, Z.; Kopasz, K.

    2011-01-01

    A very low-cost, easy-to-make stopwatch is presented to support various experiments in mechanics. The high-resolution stopwatch is based on two photodetectors connected directly to the microphone input of a sound card. Dedicated free open-source software has been developed and made available to download. The efficiency is demonstrated by a free…

  9. A resolution supporting National Men's Health Week.

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Sen. Crapo, Mike [R-ID

    2010-06-09

    06/14/2010 Resolution agreed to in Senate without amendment and with a preamble by Unanimous Consent. (text: CR S4892-4893) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed SenateHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  10. Improving Dispute Resolution: Student Contracts and Charters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, G. R.

    2011-01-01

    The sector is entering a climate of future funding cuts and fee rises, which are likely to prompt a growing number and widening range of disputes. This article describes the launch of a new Improving Dispute Resolution Advisory Service. The particular questions raised in this context by the introduction of student charters and the relationship of…

  11. A resolution supporting National Men's Health Week.

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Sen. Crapo, Mike [R-ID

    2009-06-18

    06/25/2009 Resolution agreed to in Senate without amendment and with a preamble by Unanimous Consent. (text: CR S7111-7112) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed SenateHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  12. Means for improving apparent resolution of television

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilborn, E. H.

    1967-01-01

    Technique using short term temporal integration characteristics of the observers visual system improves the apparent resolution of television video presentations. The raster is displaced slightly on each frame so the eye can integrate the information in each raster grain. This phase shift uses a switching time delay.

  13. 47 CFR 301.220 - Dispute resolution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... AND SPECTRUM SHARING BY FEDERAL GOVERNMENT STATIONS Dispute Resolution Boards § 301.220 Dispute... where the dispute or an element thereof relates to the impact on the Federal Entity's national security, law enforcement, or public safety operations or functions, the board may request, and the...

  14. Sibling Conflict Resolution Skills: Assessment and Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Brett W.; Roberts, Mark W.

    2009-01-01

    Sibling conflict can rise to the level of a clinical problem. In Phase 1 a lengthy behavioral role-play analog sampling child reactions to normal sibling conflicts was successfully shortened. In Phase 2 normal children who lacked sibling conflict resolution skills were randomly assigned to a Training or Measurement Only condition. Training…

  15. CONFOCAL MICROSCOPY SYSTEM PERFORMANCE: AXIAL RESOLUTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract

    Confocal Microscopy System Performance: Axial resolution.
    Robert M. Zucker, PhD

    Reproductive Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Re...

  16. 21 CFR 314.103 - Dispute resolution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... FDA's public information regulations in part 20. (c) Scientific and medical disputes. (1) Because... HUMAN USE APPLICATIONS FOR FDA APPROVAL TO MARKET A NEW DRUG FDA Action on Applications and Abbreviated Applications § 314.103 Dispute resolution. (a) General. FDA is committed to resolving differences...

  17. Subgrid resolution of flow and force fields.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buneman, O.

    1973-01-01

    By means of spline fitting, both while converting a Lagrangian distribution of field sources onto an Eulerian grid, and while interpolating the field from its Eulerian grid to the Lagrangian positions of the responding elements, one achieves effective resolution down to about one-eight of a grid mesh unit. One also avoids discontinuities and noise due to cell boundary crossings.

  18. Conflict Resolution Automation and Pilot Situation Awareness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dao, Arik-Quang V.; Brandt, Summer L.; Bacon, Paige; Kraut, Josh; Nguyen, Jimmy; Minakata, Katsumi; Raza, Hamzah; Rozovski, David; Johnson, Walter W.

    2010-01-01

    This study compared pilot situation awareness across three traffic management concepts. The Concepts varied in terms of the allocation of traffic avoidance responsibility between the pilot on the flight deck, the air traffic controllers, and a conflict resolution automation system. In Concept 1, the flight deck was equipped with conflict resolution tools that enable them to fully handle the responsibility of weather avoidance and maintaining separation between ownship and surrounding traffic. In Concept 2, pilots were not responsible for traffic separation, but were provided tools for weather and traffic avoidance. In Concept 3, flight deck tools allowed pilots to deviate for weather, but conflict detection tools were disabled. In this concept pilots were dependent on ground based automation for conflict detection and resolution. Situation awareness of the pilots was measured using online probes. Results showed that individual situation awareness was highest in Concept 1, where the pilots were most engaged, and lowest in Concept 3, where automation was heavily used. These findings suggest that for conflict resolution tasks, situation awareness is improved when pilots remain in the decision-making loop.

  19. Songs for Peacemakers: Conflict Resolution. Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nass, Marcia; Nass, Max

    This teacher's guide was designed as part of a kit that includes a video tape and sound cassette recording, but may be adapted for independent use. The resource is based on the premise that teaching conflict resolution is becoming a necessity in an increasingly violent world, and that using music to teach peace education is successful with young…

  20. Dispute Resolution in the Year 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandler, Margaret K.

    1985-01-01

    The dominant faculty dispute resolution process will continue to be negotiation between parties, but mediation will increase. Problem solving by labor-management committees and similar groups, and compulsory interest arbitration, will remain limited. Grievance mediation, although gaining in interest, will not overtake binding grievance…

  1. Literacy, Numeracy and Alternative Dispute Resolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cumming, J. Joy; Wilson, Janice M.

    2005-01-01

    The formal court system in Australia has long been criticised for its adversarial nature. As a result, there has been an increase in the use of alternative dispute resolution processes such as mediation. These are promoted as a means of increasing access to justice by disadvantaged groups and as an inexpensive way of solving legal or quasi-legal…

  2. Gandhi: An Alternative for Conflict Resolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Kathleen M.

    Designed to expose high school students to an alternative method of conflict resolution, this lesson revolves around the Indian movement for independence from Great Britain and the principles of non-violence advocated by Mahatma Gandhi which helped make that movement successful. The activities presented are designed to fit into a general world…

  3. Conflict Resolution, Diversity, and Social Justice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Townley, Annette

    1994-01-01

    Briefly explores the issue of conflict resolution (CR) in education; the introduction of CR into the public schools; and whether CR processes such as mediation meet the needs of nondominant groups. It also introduces several articles that discuss specific approaches to the development and implementation of CR programs in schools. (GLR)

  4. Does resolution really increase image quality?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tisse, Christel-Loïc; Guichard, Frédéric; Cao, Frédéric

    2008-02-01

    A general trend in the CMOS image sensor market is for increasing resolution (by having a larger number of pixels) while keeping a small form factor by shrinking photosite size. This article discusses the impact of this trend on some of the main attributes of image quality. The first example is image sharpness. A smaller pitch theoretically allows a larger limiting resolution which is derived from the Modulation Transfer Function (MTF). But recent sensor technologies (1.75μm, and soon 1.45μm) with typical aperture f/2.8 are clearly reaching the size of the diffraction blur spot. A second example is the impact on pixel light sensitivity and image sensor noise. For photonic noise, the Signal-to-Noise-Ratio (SNR) is typically a decreasing function of the resolution. To evaluate whether shrinking pixel size could be beneficial to the image quality, the tradeoff between spatial resolution and light sensitivity is examined by comparing the image information capacity of sensors with varying pixel size. A theoretical analysis that takes into consideration measured and predictive models of pixel performance degradation and improvement associated with CMOS imager technology scaling, is presented. This analysis is completed by a benchmarking of recent commercial sensors with different pixel technologies.

  5. 76 FR 67323 - Resolution Plans Required

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-01

    ... regulators in conducting advance resolution planning for a covered company. As demonstrated by the... Corporation met with industry representatives to discuss issues relating to the proposed rule. \\3\\ 76 FR 22... market funds should be excluded from the requirements of the proposed rule. Some commenters...

  6. High-resolution two dimensional advective transport

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, P.E.; Larock, B.E.

    1989-01-01

    The paper describes a two-dimensional high-resolution scheme for advective transport that is based on a Eulerian-Lagrangian method with a flux limiter. The scheme is applied to the problem of pure-advection of a rotated Gaussian hill and shown to preserve the monotonicity property of the governing conservation law.

  7. 10 CFR 74.57 - Alarm resolution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Alarm resolution. 74.57 Section 74.57 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) MATERIAL CONTROL AND ACCOUNTING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Formula... similar future occurrences. (e) The licensee shall provide an ability to rapidly assess the validity...

  8. Megapixels and Human Recognition of Resolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kreis, Steve

    2008-01-01

    This paper tries to demonstrate that it is not reasonable to judge the quality of pictures that a camera can produce just by the number of pixels that the sensor has. It does so by trying to relate the number of pixels in a picture to the resolution that the eye can see at various distances away from prints of different size.

  9. Resolution enhancement in medical ultrasound imaging.

    PubMed

    Ploquin, Marie; Basarab, Adrian; Kouamé, Denis

    2015-01-01

    Image resolution enhancement is a problem of considerable interest in all medical imaging modalities. Unlike general purpose imaging or video processing, for a very long time, medical image resolution enhancement has been based on optimization of the imaging devices. Although some recent works purport to deal with image postprocessing, much remains to be done regarding medical image enhancement via postprocessing, especially in ultrasound imaging. We face a resolution improvement issue in the case of medical ultrasound imaging. We propose to investigate this problem using multidimensional autoregressive (AR) models. Noting that the estimation of the envelope of an ultrasound radio frequency (RF) signal is very similar to the estimation of classical Fourier-based power spectrum estimation, we theoretically show that a domain change and a multidimensional AR model can be used to achieve super-resolution in ultrasound imaging provided the order is estimated correctly. Here, this is done by means of a technique that simultaneously estimates the order and the parameters of a multidimensional model using relevant regression matrix factorization. Doing so, the proposed method specifically fits ultrasound imaging and provides an estimated envelope. Moreover, an expression that links the theoretical image resolution to both the image acquisition features (such as the point spread function) and a postprocessing feature (the AR model) order is derived. The overall contribution of this work is threefold. First, it allows for automatic resolution improvement. Through a simple model and without any specific manual algorithmic parameter tuning, as is used in common methods, the proposed technique simply and exclusively uses the ultrasound RF signal as input and provides the improved B-mode as output. Second, it allows for the a priori prediction of the improvement in resolution via the knowledge of the parametric model order before actual processing. Finally, to achieve the

  10. On effective resolution in ocean models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soufflet, Yves; Marchesiello, Patrick; Lemarié, Florian; Jouanno, Julien; Capet, Xavier; Debreu, Laurent; Benshila, Rachid

    2016-02-01

    The increase of model resolution naturally leads to the representation of a wider energy spectrum. As a result, in recent years, the understanding of oceanic submesoscale dynamics has significantly improved. However, dissipation in submesoscale models remains dominated by numerical constraints rather than physical ones. Effective resolution is limited by the numerical dissipation range, which is a function of the model numerical filters (assuming that dispersive numerical modes are efficiently removed). We present a Baroclinic jet test case set in a zonally reentrant channel that provides a controllable test of a model capacity at resolving submesoscale dynamics. We compare simulations from two models, ROMS and NEMO, at different mesh sizes (from 20 to 2 km). Through a spectral decomposition of kinetic energy and its budget terms, we identify the characteristics of numerical dissipation and effective resolution. It shows that numerical dissipation appears in different parts of a model, especially in spatial advection-diffusion schemes for momentum equations (KE dissipation) and tracer equations (APE dissipation) and in the time stepping algorithms. Effective resolution, defined by scale-selective dissipation, is inadequate to qualify traditional ocean models with low-order spatial and temporal filters, even at high grid resolution. High-order methods are better suited to the concept and probably unavoidable. Fourth-order filters are suited only for grid resolutions less than a few kilometers and momentum advection schemes of even higher-order may be justified. The upgrade of time stepping algorithms (from filtered Leapfrog), a cumbersome task in a model, appears critical from our results, not just as a matter of model solution quality but also of computational efficiency (extended stability range of predictor-corrector schemes). Effective resolution is also shaken by the need for non scale-selective barotropic mode filters and requires carefully addressing the

  11. Identifying Optimal Spatial Resolutions For Trend Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnett, W.; Duffy, P.

    2014-12-01

    One of the key challenges facing the ecological community lies in understanding the impacts of forecast climate change on the structure and function of ecosystems both through time and across large spatial extents. There are two main obstacles that currently hinder the ability to quantify ecosystem change in this manner within the context of a shifting climate. First, with respect to key ecosystem responses, there are limited data that have sufficient spatial-temporal resolution and extent. Second, methods for quantifying long term changes in ecosystem responses with complex spatial and temporal structure driven by climatic forcing are not well developed. In this work we focus on the question "What is the most appropriate spatial resolution for detecting a process level trend?" We address this question through the development and application of a simulation framework that allows for the parametric specification of the following model components: measurement error, the functional form of the link between climate drivers and the ecosystem response, and annual process variability dealing with non-separable space-time covariance structures. We consider varying spatial resolution and the corresponding impact of the covariance structure associated with the data model. This is parameterized in the simulation framework through an additive measurement error term. As the spatial resolution becomes coarser, sub-pixel heterogeneity becomes absorbed by the measurement error term as opposed to attribution to parameters in the process model. The results of this study characterize an "envelope" of values for these parameters that allow for the detection of trend in process model parameter. This study outlines a quantitative method of choosing a spatial resolution that allows for the detection of trend given a collection of prior distributions associated with other model parameters.

  12. 24 CFR 3288.33 - Notice of dispute resolution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notice of dispute resolution. 3288... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME DISPUTE RESOLUTION PROGRAM HUD Manufactured Home Dispute Resolution Program in HUD-Administered States § 3288.33 Notice of dispute resolution. (a) Once the...

  13. 31 CFR 585.319 - UNSC Resolution 757.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false UNSC Resolution 757. 585.319 Section... General Definitions § 585.319 UNSC Resolution 757. The term UNSC Resolution 757 means United Nations Security Council Resolution No. 757, adopted May 30, 1992, prohibiting certain transactions with respect...

  14. 47 CFR 64.1703 - Dispute resolution default process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dispute resolution default process. 64.1703... Communications Act: Dispute Resolution Regarding Equipment Standards § 64.1703 Dispute resolution default process...) Within two (2) days of the filing of a dispute with the NASDO invoking the dispute resolution...

  15. 24 CFR 3288.25 - Initiation of dispute resolution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Initiation of dispute resolution... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME DISPUTE RESOLUTION PROGRAM HUD Manufactured Home Dispute Resolution Program in HUD-Administered States § 3288.25 Initiation of dispute resolution. (a)...

  16. 24 CFR 3288.30 - Screening of dispute resolution request.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Screening of dispute resolution... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME DISPUTE RESOLUTION PROGRAM HUD Manufactured Home Dispute Resolution Program in HUD-Administered States § 3288.30 Screening of dispute resolution request. (a)...

  17. 24 CFR 3288.15 - Eligibility for dispute resolution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Eligibility for dispute resolution... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME DISPUTE RESOLUTION PROGRAM HUD Manufactured Home Dispute Resolution Program in HUD-Administered States § 3288.15 Eligibility for dispute resolution. (a) Initiation...

  18. 14 CFR 17.31 - Use of alternative dispute resolution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of alternative dispute resolution. 17... PROCEDURAL RULES PROCEDURES FOR PROTESTS AND CONTRACTS DISPUTES Alternative Dispute Resolution § 17.31 Use of alternative dispute resolution. (a) The Office of Dispute Resolution for Acquisition shall encourage...

  19. 24 CFR 3288.25 - Initiation of dispute resolution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME DISPUTE RESOLUTION PROGRAM HUD Manufactured Home Dispute... resolution. Any of the parties or the homeowner may initiate the HUD Manufactured Home Dispute Resolution Program at any time after an alleged defect has been reported, by requesting dispute resolution,...

  20. 24 CFR 3288.25 - Initiation of dispute resolution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME DISPUTE RESOLUTION PROGRAM HUD Manufactured Home Dispute... resolution. Any of the parties or the homeowner may initiate the HUD Manufactured Home Dispute Resolution Program at any time after an alleged defect has been reported, by requesting dispute resolution,...

  1. 42 CFR 455.240 - Conflict of interest resolution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Conflict of interest resolution. 455.240 Section... § 455.240 Conflict of interest resolution. (a) Review Board: CMS may establish a Conflicts of Interest Review Board to assist in resolving organizational conflicts of interest. (b) Resolution: Resolution...

  2. 13 CFR 134.216 - Alternative dispute resolution procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Alternative dispute resolution... joint motion requesting that the Judge permit the use of alternative dispute resolution procedures to... dispute resolution procedures. (b) A Judge may offer alternative dispute resolution procedures to...

  3. 14 CFR 17.31 - Use of alternative dispute resolution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Use of alternative dispute resolution. 17... PROCEDURAL RULES PROCEDURES FOR PROTESTS AND CONTRACTS DISPUTES Alternative Dispute Resolution § 17.31 Use of alternative dispute resolution. (a) The Office of Dispute Resolution for Acquisition shall encourage......

  4. 48 CFR 1233.214 - Alternative dispute resolution (ADR).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Alternative dispute resolution (ADR). (c) The Administrative Dispute Resolution Act (ADRA) of 1990, Public Law... Specialist, who is responsible for the operations of the Center for Alternative Dispute Resolution, (C-4... alternative means of dispute resolution set forth in the ADRA, 5 U.S.C. 571(3) on a......

  5. 39 CFR 601.107 - Initial disagreement resolution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... communicate, in writing, to the supplier his or her resolution of the disagreement. (c) Alternative dispute resolution. Alternative dispute resolution (ADR) procedures may be used to resolve a disagreement. If the use... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Initial disagreement resolution. 601.107...

  6. Understanding conflict-resolution taskload: Implementing advisory conflict-detection and resolution algorithms in an airspace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vela, Adan Ernesto

    2011-12-01

    From 2010 to 2030, the number of instrument flight rules aircraft operations handled by Federal Aviation Administration en route traffic centers is predicted to increase from approximately 39 million flights to 64 million flights. The projected growth in air transportation demand is likely to result in traffic levels that exceed the abilities of the unaided air traffic controller in managing, separating, and providing services to aircraft. Consequently, the Federal Aviation Administration, and other air navigation service providers around the world, are making several efforts to improve the capacity and throughput of existing airspaces. Ultimately, the stated goal of the Federal Aviation Administration is to triple the available capacity of the National Airspace System by 2025. In an effort to satisfy air traffic demand through the increase of airspace capacity, air navigation service providers are considering the inclusion of advisory conflict-detection and resolution systems. In a human-in-the-loop framework, advisory conflict-detection and resolution decision-support tools identify potential conflicts and propose resolution commands for the air traffic controller to verify and issue to aircraft. A number of researchers and air navigation service providers hypothesize that the inclusion of combined conflict-detection and resolution tools into air traffic control systems will reduce or transform controller workload and enable the required increases in airspace capacity. In an effort to understand the potential workload implications of introducing advisory conflict-detection and resolution tools, this thesis provides a detailed study of the conflict event process and the implementation of conflict-detection and resolution algorithms. Specifically, the research presented here examines a metric of controller taskload: how many resolution commands an air traffic controller issues under the guidance of a conflict-detection and resolution decision-support tool. The goal

  7. The resolution bias: low-resolution feedback simulations are better at destroying galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourne, Martin A.; Zubovas, Kastytis; Nayakshin, Sergei

    2015-10-01

    Feedback from supermassive black holes is thought to play a key role in regulating the growth of host galaxies. Cosmological and galaxy formation simulations using smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH), which usually use a fixed mass for SPH particles, often employ the same sub-grid active galactic nuclei (AGN) feedback prescription across a range of resolutions. It is thus important to ask how the impact of the simulated AGN feedback on a galaxy changes when only the numerical resolution (the SPH particle mass) changes. We present a suite of simulations modelling the interaction of an AGN outflow with the ambient turbulent and clumpy interstellar medium in the inner part of the host galaxy at a range of mass resolutions. We find that, with other things being equal, degrading the resolution leads to feedback becoming more efficient at clearing out all gas in its path. For the simulations presented here, the difference in the mass of the gas ejected by AGN feedback varies by more than a factor of 10 between our highest and lowest resolution simulations. This happens because feedback-resistant high-density clumps are washed out at low effective resolutions. We also find that changes in numerical resolution lead to undesirable artefacts in how the AGN feedback affects the AGN immediate environment.

  8. Advanced Remote-Sensing Imaging Emission Spectrometer (ARIES): AIRS Spectral Resolution with MODIS Spatial Resolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pagano, Thomas S.; Chahine, Moustafa T.; Aumann, Hartmut H.; OCallaghan, Fred

    2006-01-01

    The Advanced Remote-sensing Imaging Emission Spectrometer (ARIES) will measure a wide range of earth quantities fundamental to the study of global climate change. It will build upon the success of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) instruments currently flying on the EOS Aqua Spacecraft. Both instruments are facility instruments for NASA providing data to thousands of scientists investigating land, ocean and atmospheric Earth System processes. ARIES will meet all the requirements of AIRS and MODIS in a single compact instrument, while providing the next-generation capability of improved spatial resolution for AIRS and improved spectral resolution for MODIS.

  9. View of Callisto at Increasing Resolutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    These four views of Jupiter's second largest moon, Callisto, highlight how increasing resolutions enable interpretation of the surface. In the global view (top left) the surface is seen to have many small bright spots, while the regional view (top right) reveals the spots to be the larger craters. The local view (bottom right) not only brings out smaller craters and detailed structure of larger craters, but also shows a smooth dark layer of material that appears to cover much of the surface. The close-up frame (bottom left) presents a surprising smoothness in this highest resolution (30 meters per picture element) view of Callisto's surface.

    North is to the top of these frames which were taken by the Solid State Imaging (SSI) system on NASA's Galileo spacecraft between November 1996 and November 1997. Even higher resolution images (better than 20 meters per picture element) of Callisto will be taken on June 30, 1999 during the 21st orbit of the spacecraft around Jupiter.

    The top left frame is scaled to 10 kilometers (km) per picture element (pixel) and covers an area about 4400 by 2500 km. The moon Callisto, which has a diameter of 4806 km, appears to be peppered with many bright spots. Images at this resolution of other cratered moons in the Solar System indicate that the bright spots could be impact craters. The ring structure of Valhalla, the largest impact structure on Callisto, is visible in the center of the frame. This color view combines images obtained in November 1997 taken through the green, violet, and 1 micrometer filters of the SSI system.

    The top right frame is ten times higher resolution (about 1 km per pixel) and covers an area approximately 440 by 250 km. Craters, which are clearly recognizable, appear to be the dominant landform on Callisto. The crater rims appear bright, while the adjacent area and the crater interiors are dark. This resolution is comparable to the best data available from the 1979 flyby's of NASA's two Voyager

  10. 40 CFR 22.18 - Quick resolution; settlement; alternative dispute resolution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... remain in effect notwithstanding any dispute resolution proceeding. (3) The parties may choose any person to act as a neutral, or may move for the appointment of a neutral. If the Presiding Officer grants...

  11. 40 CFR 22.18 - Quick resolution; settlement; alternative dispute resolution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... remain in effect notwithstanding any dispute resolution proceeding. (3) The parties may choose any person to act as a neutral, or may move for the appointment of a neutral. If the Presiding Officer grants...

  12. Resolution-recovery-embedded image reconstruction for a high-resolution animal SPECT system.

    PubMed

    Zeraatkar, Navid; Sajedi, Salar; Farahani, Mohammad Hossein; Arabi, Hossein; Sarkar, Saeed; Ghafarian, Pardis; Rahmim, Arman; Ay, Mohammad Reza

    2014-11-01

    The small-animal High-Resolution SPECT (HiReSPECT) is a dedicated dual-head gamma camera recently designed and developed in our laboratory for imaging of murine models. Each detector is composed of an array of 1.2 × 1.2 mm(2) (pitch) pixelated CsI(Na) crystals. Two position-sensitive photomultiplier tubes (H8500) are coupled to each head's crystal. In this paper, we report on a resolution-recovery-embedded image reconstruction code applicable to the system and present the experimental results achieved using different phantoms and mouse scans. Collimator-detector response functions (CDRFs) were measured via a pixel-driven method using capillary sources at finite distances from the head within the field of view (FOV). CDRFs were then fitted by independent Gaussian functions. Thereafter, linear interpolations were applied to the standard deviation (σ) values of the fitted Gaussians, yielding a continuous map of CDRF at varying distances from the head. A rotation-based maximum-likelihood expectation maximization (MLEM) method was used for reconstruction. A fast rotation algorithm was developed to rotate the image matrix according to the desired angle by means of pre-generated rotation maps. The experiments demonstrated improved resolution utilizing our resolution-recovery-embedded image reconstruction. While the full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) radial and tangential resolution measurements of the system were over 2 mm in nearly all positions within the FOV without resolution recovery, reaching around 2.5 mm in some locations, they fell below 1.8 mm everywhere within the FOV using the resolution-recovery algorithm. The noise performance of the system was also acceptable; the standard deviation of the average counts per voxel in the reconstructed images was 6.6% and 8.3% without and with resolution recovery, respectively.

  13. Resolution analysis of high-resolution marine seismic data acquired off Yeosu, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Ho-Young; Kim, Wonsik; Koo, Nam-Hyung; Park, Keun-Pil; Yoo, Dong-Geun; Kang, Dong-Hyo; Kim, Young-Gun; Seo, Gab-Seok; Hwang, Kyu-Duk

    2014-05-01

    High-resolution marine seismic surveys have been conducted for the mineral exploration and engineering purpose survey. To improve the quality of high-resolution seismic data, small-scaled multi-channel seismic techniques are used. In this study, we designed high-resolution marine seismic survey using a small airgun and an 8-channel streamer cable and analyzed the resolution of the seismic data related to acquisition and processing parameters. The field survey was conducted off Yeosu, Korea where the stratified thin sedimentary layers are deposited. We used a 30 in3 airgun and an 8-channel streamer cable with a 5 m group interval. We shoot the airgun with a 5 m shot interval and recorded digital data with a 0.1 ms sample interval and 1 s record length. The offset between the source and the first channel was 20 m. We processed the acquired data with simple procedure such as gain recovery, deconvolution, digital filtering, CMP sorting, NMO correction, static correction and stacking. To understand the effect of the acquisition parameters on the vertical and horizontal resolution, we resampled the acquired data using various sample intervals and CMP intervals and produced seismic sections. The analysis results show that the detailed subsurface structures can be imaged with good resolution and continuity using acquisition parameters with a sample interval shorter than 0.2 ms and a CMP interval shorter than 2.5 m. A high-resolution marine 8-channel airgun seismic survey using appropriate acquisition and processing parameters can be effective in imaging marine subsurface structure with a high resolution. This study is a part of a National Research Laboratory (NRL) project and a part of an Energy Technology Innovation (ETI) Project of the Korea Institute of Energy Technology Evaluation and Planning (KETEP), funded by the Ministry of Trade, Industry and Energy (MOTIE). The authors thank the officers and crew of the R/V Tamhae II for their efforts in the field survey.

  14. High-Resolution Broadband Spectral Interferometry

    SciTech Connect

    Erskine, D J; Edelstein, J

    2002-08-09

    We demonstrate solar spectra from a novel interferometric method for compact broadband high-resolution spectroscopy. The spectral interferometer (SI) is a hybrid instrument that uses a spectrometer to externally disperse the output of a fixed-delay interferometer. It also has been called an externally dispersed interferometer (EDI). The interferometer can be used with linear spectrometers for imaging spectroscopy or with echelle spectrometers for very broad-band coverage. EDI's heterodyning technique enhances the spectrometer's response to high spectral-density features, increasing the effective resolution by factors of several while retaining its bandwidth. The method is extremely robust to instrumental insults such as focal spot size or displacement. The EDI uses no moving parts, such as purely interferometric FTS spectrometers, and can cover a much wider simultaneous bandpass than other internally dispersed interferometers (e.g. HHS or SHS).

  15. Extending resolution limits of EUV resist materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krysak, Marie; Leeson, Michael; Han, Eungnak; Blackwell, James; Harlson, Shane

    2015-03-01

    Extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) technology continues to progress and remains a viable candidate for next generation lithography1, which drives the need for EUV resists capable of high resolution with high sensitivity and low LWR. While chemically amplified resists (CARs) have demonstrated the ability to pattern 12nm half-pitch features2, pattern collapse continues to limit their ultimate resolution. We have taken multiple approaches to extend resist capabilities past these limits. Recent results in pattern collapse mitigation using a resist encapsulation and etch back strategy will be discussed. We continue to investigate EUV patterning of semi-inorganic resists to simultaneously increase EUV photon absorption and extend mechanical strength beyond CAR capabilities. The limitations of metal oxide-based nanoparticle photoresists have been investigated, and have provided key insights to further understanding the mechanism of this class of materials.

  16. Spiroborate Ions for Crystallization and Resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Lawrence Wan Yin

    Spiroborate anions are boron compounds with two oxygen based chelating ligands which offer useful prospects for crystallization and chiral resolution. In particular the application and the rationale of using chiral spiroborates with either B-based or ligand-based chirality as a simple, cheap and effective auxiliaries for resolution are studied. In Chapter 2 the scope and limitations of spiroborate formation and crystallization are explored through different classes by investigating their structures and properties. Structures of five different classes are described including spiroborates derived from various diols, catechols, a-hydroxy acids, hydroxybenzoic acids and hydroxyl oximes. The crystallizing abilities are demonstrated with successful isolation of stable product using differing cations. Both limitations and difficulties in each system are also discussed. In chapter 3 chiral spiroborate anions bora-bis-mandelate [B(Man) 2] anions are introduced as highly effective auxiliary for resolution of various racemic chiral cations. The scope of their application is well exemplified by, though not limited to, three disparate examples; the pharmaceutically important natural alkaloid tetrahydropalmatine (THP) which forms a mono-cation, the small 1,2-diaminopropane (1,2-dap) which forms a dication and the metal-organic complex [Co(phen)3]3+. The resulting salts with [B(Man)2] are 1:1, 1:2 and 1:3 stoichiometry. The resolutions may be either by a facile one-pot solvothermal procedure or via counter-ion exchange in metathesis crystallizations using a pre-prepared salt such as Na[B(Man) 2]. High ee of > 90 % have been achieved in all three systems and confirmed by chiral chromatography and/or Circular Dichroism spectroscopy. In Chapter 4 the investigation of spiroborate diastereomeric ion pairs using chiral [B(Man)2] anions and chiral aminoalcohols were undertaken to better understand the structural issues of chiral resolution and predict the resolution result. Three other

  17. Clock jitter generator with picoseconds resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jovanović, Goran; Stojčev, Mile; Nikolić, Tatjana

    2013-06-01

    The clock is one of the most critical signals in any synchronous system. As CMOS technology has scaled, supply voltages have dropped chip power consumption has increased and the effects of jitter due to clock frequency increase have become critical and jitter budget has become tighter. This article describes design and development of low-cost mixed-signal programmable jitter generator with high resolution. The digital technique is used for coarse-grain and an analogue technique for fine-grain clock phase shifting. Its structure allows injection of various random and deterministic jitter components in a controllable and programmable fashion. Each jitter component can be switched on or off. The jitter generator can be used in jitter tolerance test and jitter transfer function measurement of high-speed synchronous digital circuits. At operating system clock frequency of 220 MHz, a jitter with 4 ps resolution can be injected.

  18. High resolution 3D nonlinear integrated inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yong; Wang, Xuben; Li, Zhirong; Li, Qiong; Li, Zhengwen

    2009-06-01

    The high resolution 3D nonlinear integrated inversion method is based on nonlinear theory. Under layer control, the log data from several wells (or all wells) in the study area and seismic trace data adjacent to the wells are input to a network with multiple inputs and outputs and are integratedly trained to obtain an adaptive weight function of the entire study area. Integrated nonlinear mapping relationships are built and updated by the lateral and vertical geologic variations of the reservoirs. Therefore, the inversion process and its inversion results can be constrained and controlled and a stable seismic inversion section with high resolution with velocity inversion, impedance inversion, and density inversion sections, can be gained. Good geologic effects have been obtained in model computation tests and real data processing, which verified that this method has high precision, good practicality, and can be used for quantitative reservoir analysis.

  19. A high resolution ultraviolet Shuttle glow spectrograph

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carruthers, George R.

    1993-01-01

    The High Resolution Shuttle Glow Spectrograph-B (HRSGS-B) is a small payload being developed by the Naval Research Laboratory. It is intended for study of shuttle surface glow in the 180-400 nm near- and middle-ultraviolet wavelength range, with a spectral resolution of 0.2 nm. It will search for, among other possible features, the band systems of excited NO which result from surface-catalyzed combination of N and O. It may also detect O2 Hertzberg bands and N2 Vegard-Kaplan bands resulting from surface recombination. This wavelength range also includes possible N2+ and OH emissions. The HRSGS-B will be housed in a Get Away Special canister, mounted in the shuttle orbiter payload bay, and will observe the glow on the tail of the orbiter.

  20. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salomonson, Vincent V.

    1990-01-01

    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) observing facility on the Earth Observing System (EOS) is composed of two instruments, MODIS-Nadir (N) and MODIS-Tilt (T). MODIS-N has 36 spectral bands between 0.4 and 14.2 micrometers with spatial resolution between 214 and 856 meters. MODIS-T has 32 bands with 10-15 nanometer bandwidths between 0.4 and 0.9 micrometers. MODIS-T scans fore and aft + or - 50 degrees. Both instruments scan cross-track so as to provide daily (MODIS-N) or once every 2 days (MODIS-T) coverage at 705 kilometers altitude. Both instruments are entering into the execution phases of their development in 1990.

  1. Full-resolution interferometric SAR processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, George W.; Breitenstein, Darryl S.; Roth, Duane; Mansfield, Arthur W.; Rais, Houra

    2000-08-01

    In this paper we present our approach to full resolution IFSAR processing that retains full azimuth and range resolution for a significant fraction of the pixels. This is accomplished through the use of statistical analysis and nonlinear smoothing in conjunction with limited spectral extrapolation. In our approach, a significant fraction of the pixels retain their original phase values all of the way through the processing. At the same time, we are able to reduce the number of residues by several orders of magnitude. An additional benefit of this approach is the ability to detect and discriminate between complete decorrelation due to large bodies of water and partial decorrelation due to foliage. The approach will be presented along with examples based on ERS tandem pair data.

  2. Ovine β-lactoglobulin at atomic resolution

    PubMed Central

    Kontopidis, George; Nordle Gilliver, Anna; Sawyer, Lindsay

    2014-01-01

    The crystal structure of the triclinic form of the milk protein β-lactoglobulin from sheep (Ovis aries) at 1.1 Å resolution is described together with a comparison of the triclinic structures of the low-pH bovine and high-pH ovine proteins. All three structures are remarkably similar, despite the well known pH-dependent conformational transition described for the bovine and porcine proteins that occurs in solution. The high resolution of the present structure determination has allowed a more accurate description of the protein than has hitherto been possible, but it is still not clear whether flexibility changes in the external loops can compensate for the presence of a significant void in the unliganded interior of the structure. PMID:25372816

  3. Penrose Pixels for Super-Resolution.

    PubMed

    Ben-Ezra, M; Lin, Zhouchen; Wilburn, Bennett; Zhang, Wei

    2011-07-01

    We present a novel approach to reconstruction-based super-resolution that uses aperiodic pixel tilings, such as a Penrose tiling or a biological retina, for improved performance. To this aim, we develop a new variant of the well-known error back projection super-resolution algorithm that makes use of the exact detector model in its back projection operator for better accuracy. Pixels in our model can vary in shape and size, and there may be gaps between adjacent pixels. The algorithm applies equally well to periodic or aperiodic pixel tilings. We present analysis and extensive tests using synthetic and real images to show that our approach using aperiodic layouts substantially outperforms existing reconstruction-based algorithms for regular pixel arrays. We close with a discussion of the feasibility of manufacturing CMOS or CCD chips with pixels arranged in Penrose tilings.

  4. Computer synthesis of high resolution electron micrographs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nathan, R.

    1976-01-01

    Specimen damage, spherical aberration, low contrast and noisy sensors combine to prevent direct atomic viewing in a conventional electron microscope. The paper describes two methods for obtaining ultra-high resolution in biological specimens under the electron microscope. The first method assumes the physical limits of the electron objective lens and uses a series of dark field images of biological crystals to obtain direct information on the phases of the Fourier diffraction maxima; this information is used in an appropriate computer to synthesize a large aperture lens for a 1-A resolution. The second method assumes there is sufficient amplitude scatter from images recorded in focus which can be utilized with a sensitive densitometer and computer contrast stretching to yield fine structure image details. Cancer virus characterization is discussed as an illustrative example. Numerous photographs supplement the text.

  5. HIGHEST RESOLUTION OBSERVATIONS OF THE QUIETEST SUN

    SciTech Connect

    Goode, Philip R.; Yurchyshyn, Vasyl; Cao, Wenda; Abramenko, Valentyna; Andic, Aleksandra; Ahn, Kwangsu; Chae, Jongchul

    2010-05-01

    Highest resolution observations made with the new 1.6 m aperture solar telescope in Big Bear Solar Observatory during this time of historic inactivity on the Sun reveal new insights into the small-scale dynamics of the Sun's photosphere. The telescope's unprecedented resolution enabled us to observe that the smallest scale photospheric magnetic field seems to come in isolated points in the dark intergranular lanes, rather than the predicted continuous sheets confined to the lanes, and the unexpected longevity of the bright points implies a deeper anchoring than predicted. Further, we demonstrated for the first time that the photospheric plasma motion and magnetic fields are in equipartition over a wide dynamic range, and both cascade energy to ever-smaller scales according to classical Kolmogorov turbulence theory. Finally, we discovered tiny jet-like features originating in the dark lanes that surround the ubiquitous granules that characterize the solar surface.

  6. High resolution x-ray microscope

    SciTech Connect

    Gary, C. K.; Park, H.; Lombardo, L. W.; Piestrup, M. A.; Cremer, J. T.; Pantell, R. H.; Dudchik, Y. I.

    2007-04-30

    The authors present x-ray images of grid meshes and biological material obtained using a microspot x-ray tube with a multilayer optic and a 92-element parabolic compound refractive lens (CRL) made of a plastic containing only hydrogen and carbon. Images obtained using this apparatus are compared with those using an area source with a spherical lens and a spherical lens with multilayer condenser. The authors found the best image quality using the multilayer condenser with a parabolic lens, compared to images with a spherical lens and without the multilayer optics. The resolution was measured using a 155-element parabolic CRL and a multilayer condenser with the microspot tube. The experiment demonstrates about 1.1 {mu}m resolution.

  7. Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging at microscopic resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, G. Allan; Thompson, Morrow B.; Gewalt, Sally L.; Hayes, Cecil E.

    Resolution limits in NMR imaging are imposed by bandwidth considerations, available magnetic gradients for spatial encoding, and signal to noise. This work reports modification of a clinical NMR imaging device with picture elements of 500 × 500 × 5000 μm to yield picture elements of 50 × 50 × 1000 μm. Resolution has been increased by using smaller gradient coils permitting gradient fields >0.4 mT/cm. Significant improvements in signal to noise are achieved with smaller rf coils, close attention to choice of bandwidth, and signal averaging. These improvements permit visualization of anatomical structures in the rat brain with an effective diameter of 1 cm with the same definition as is seen in human imaging. The techniques and instrumentation should open a number of basic sciences such as embryology, plant sciences, and teratology to the potentials of NMR imaging.

  8. High-resolution adaptive spiking sonar.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Fernando J; Kuc, Roman

    2009-05-01

    A new sonar system based on the conventional 6500 ranging module is presented that generates a sequence of spikes whose temporal density is related to the strength of the received echo. This system notably improves the resolution of a previous system by shortening the discharge cycle of the integrator included in the module. The operation is controlled by a PIC18F452 device, which can adapt the duration of the discharge to changing features of the echo, providing the system with a novel adaptive behavior. The performance of the new sensor is characterized and compared with that of the previous system by performing rotational scans of simple objects with different reflecting strengths. Some applications are suggested that exploit the high resolution and adaptability of this sensor.

  9. High Resolution non-Markovianity in NMR

    PubMed Central

    Bernardes, Nadja K.; Peterson, John P. S.; Sarthour, Roberto S.; Souza, Alexandre M.; Monken, C. H.; Roditi, Itzhak; Oliveira, Ivan S.; Santos, Marcelo F.

    2016-01-01

    Memoryless time evolutions are ubiquitous in nature but often correspond to a resolution-induced approximation, i.e. there are correlations in time whose effects are undetectable. Recent advances in the dynamical control of small quantum systems provide the ideal scenario to probe some of these effects. Here we experimentally demonstrate the precise induction of memory effects on the evolution of a quantum coin (qubit) by correlations engineered in its environment. In particular, we design a collisional model in Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and precisely control the strength of the effects by changing the degree of correlation in the environment and its time of interaction with the qubit. We also show how these effects can be hidden by the limited resolution of the measurements performed on the qubit. The experiment reinforces NMR as a test bed for the study of open quantum systems and the simulation of their classical counterparts. PMID:27669652

  10. Increased resolution macular thickness mapping by OCT.

    PubMed

    Bernardes, Rui; Santos, Torcato; Cunha-Vaz, José

    2006-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) poor mapping resolution has been pointed out as the biggest disadvantage of this technique when compared to others, e.g., retinal thickness analyzer. In this work we were able to solve this problem by developing an atlas of macular thickness of the human retina into which OCT scans were thereafter registered. This atlas is used to allow registering OCT scans from the Fast Macular Protocol, thus bringing OCT scans into the atlas coordinates, therefore correcting for misfixations, while simultaneously allowing to perform OCT inter-scan registration. From this initial registration, we were able to compute a thickness map into which Fast RNFL Protocol scans were merged, thus allowing for increased OCT mapping resolution. PMID:17946646

  11. A simple, high efficiency, high resolution spectropolarimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barden, Samuel C.

    2012-09-01

    A simple concept is described that uses volume phase holographic gratings as polarizing dispersers for a high efficiency, high resolution spectropolarimeter. Although the idea has previously been mentioned in the literature as possible, such a concept has not been explored in detail. Performance analysis is presented for a VPHG spectropolarimeter concept that could be utilized for both solar and night-time astronomy. Instrumental peak efficiency can approach 100% with spectral dispersions permitting R~200,000 spectral resolution with diffraction limited telescopes. The instrument has 3-channels: two dispersed image planes with orthogonal polarization and an undispersed image plane. The concept has a range of versatility where it could be configured (with appropriate half-wave plates) for slit-fed spectroscopy or without slits for snapshot/hyperspectral/tomographic spectroscopic imaging. Multiplex gratings could also be used for the simultaneous recording of two separate spectral bands or multiple instruments could be daisy chained with beam splitters for further spectral coverage.

  12. [Spontaneous resolution of a lumbar disc herniation].

    PubMed

    Gelabert-González, M; Serramito-García, R; Aran-Echabe, E; García-Allut, A

    2007-04-01

    Lumbar disc herniation is a common cause of lower leg radiculopathy and the most effective methods of treatment remain in question. Both surgical and nonsurgical treatments may provide a successful outcome in appropriately selected patients. The spontaneous resolution of herniated lumbar discs is a well-established phenomenon. The authors present a case of spontaneous regression of a herniated lumbar nucleus pulpous in a patient with radiculopathy. PMID:17497061

  13. Levitational Image Cytometry with Temporal Resolution.

    PubMed

    Tasoglu, Savas; Khoory, Joseph A; Tekin, Huseyin C; Thomas, Clemence; Karnoub, Antoine E; Ghiran, Ionita C; Demirci, Utkan

    2015-07-01

    A simple, yet powerful magnetic-levitation-based device is reported for real-time, label-free separation, as well as high-resolution monitoring of cell populations based on their unique magnetic and density signatures. This method allows a wide variety of cellular processes to be studied, accompanied by transient or permanent changes in cells' fundamental characteristics as a biological material. PMID:26058598

  14. The Automated Conflict Resolution System (ACRS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaplan, Ted; Musliner, Andrew; Wampler, David

    1993-01-01

    The Automated Conflict Resolution System (ACRS) is a mission-current scheduling aid that predicts periods of mutual interference when two or more orbiting spacecraft are scheduled to communicate with the same Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS) at the same time. The mutual interference predicted has the potential to degrade or prevent communications. Thus the ACRS system is a useful tool for aiding in the scheduling of Space Network (SN) communications.

  15. High resolution image measurements of nuclear tracks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shirk, E. K.; Price, P. B.

    1980-01-01

    The striking clarity and high contrast of the mouths of tracks etched in CR-39 plastic detectors allow automatic measurement of track parameters to be made with simple image-recognition equipment. Using a commercially available Vidicon camera system with a microprocessor-controlled digitizer, resolution for normally incident C-12 and N-14 ions at 32 MeV/amu equivalent to a 14sigma separation of adjacent charges was demonstrated.

  16. CYP450-derived oxylipins mediate inflammatory resolution.

    PubMed

    Gilroy, Derek W; Edin, Matthew L; De Maeyer, Roel P H; Bystrom, Jonas; Newson, Justine; Lih, Fred B; Stables, Melanie; Zeldin, Darryl C; Bishop-Bailey, David

    2016-06-01

    Resolution of inflammation has emerged as an active process in immunobiology, with cells of the mononuclear phagocyte system being critical in mediating efferocytosis and wound debridement and bridging the gap between innate and adaptive immunity. Here we investigated the roles of cytochrome P450 (CYP)-derived epoxy-oxylipins in a well-characterized model of sterile resolving peritonitis in the mouse. Epoxy-oxylipins were produced in a biphasic manner during the peaks of acute (4 h) and resolution phases (24-48 h) of the response. The epoxygenase inhibitor SKF525A (epoxI) given at 24 h selectively inhibited arachidonic acid- and linoleic acid-derived CYP450-epoxy-oxlipins and resulted in a dramatic influx in monocytes. The epoxI-recruited monocytes were strongly GR1(+), Ly6c(hi), CCR2(hi), CCL2(hi), and CX3CR1(lo) In addition, expression of F4/80 and the recruitment of T cells, B cells, and dendritic cells were suppressed. sEH (Ephx2)(-/-) mice, which have elevated epoxy-oxylipins, demonstrated opposing effects to epoxI-treated mice: reduced Ly6c(hi) monocytes and elevated F4/80(hi) macrophages and B, T, and dendritic cells. Ly6c(hi) and Ly6c(lo) monocytes, resident macrophages, and recruited dendritic cells all showed a dramatic change in their resolution signature following in vivo epoxI treatment. Markers of macrophage differentiation CD11b, MerTK, and CD103 were reduced, and monocyte-derived macrophages and resident macrophages ex vivo showed greatly impaired phagocytosis of zymosan and efferocytosis of apoptotic thymocytes following epoxI treatment. These findings demonstrate that epoxy-oxylipins have a critical role in monocyte lineage recruitment and activity to promote inflammatory resolution and represent a previously unidentified internal regulatory system governing the establishment of adaptive immunity. PMID:27226306

  17. CYP450-derived oxylipins mediate inflammatory resolution

    PubMed Central

    Gilroy, Derek W.; De Maeyer, Roel P. H.; Bystrom, Jonas; Newson, Justine; Lih, Fred B.; Stables, Melanie; Zeldin, Darryl C.; Bishop-Bailey, David

    2016-01-01

    Resolution of inflammation has emerged as an active process in immunobiology, with cells of the mononuclear phagocyte system being critical in mediating efferocytosis and wound debridement and bridging the gap between innate and adaptive immunity. Here we investigated the roles of cytochrome P450 (CYP)-derived epoxy-oxylipins in a well-characterized model of sterile resolving peritonitis in the mouse. Epoxy-oxylipins were produced in a biphasic manner during the peaks of acute (4 h) and resolution phases (24–48 h) of the response. The epoxygenase inhibitor SKF525A (epoxI) given at 24 h selectively inhibited arachidonic acid- and linoleic acid-derived CYP450-epoxy-oxlipins and resulted in a dramatic influx in monocytes. The epoxI-recruited monocytes were strongly GR1+, Ly6chi, CCR2hi, CCL2hi, and CX3CR1lo. In addition, expression of F4/80 and the recruitment of T cells, B cells, and dendritic cells were suppressed. sEH (Ephx2)−/− mice, which have elevated epoxy-oxylipins, demonstrated opposing effects to epoxI-treated mice: reduced Ly6chi monocytes and elevated F4/80hi macrophages and B, T, and dendritic cells. Ly6chi and Ly6clo monocytes, resident macrophages, and recruited dendritic cells all showed a dramatic change in their resolution signature following in vivo epoxI treatment. Markers of macrophage differentiation CD11b, MerTK, and CD103 were reduced, and monocyte-derived macrophages and resident macrophages ex vivo showed greatly impaired phagocytosis of zymosan and efferocytosis of apoptotic thymocytes following epoxI treatment. These findings demonstrate that epoxy-oxylipins have a critical role in monocyte lineage recruitment and activity to promote inflammatory resolution and represent a previously unidentified internal regulatory system governing the establishment of adaptive immunity. PMID:27226306

  18. High resolution alpha particle spectrometry through collimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Seunghoon; Kwak, Sung-Woo; Kang, Han-Byeol

    2015-06-01

    Alpha particle spectrometry with collimation is a useful method for identifying nuclear materials among various nuclides. A mesh type collimator reduces the low energy tail and broadened energy distribution by cutting off particles with a low incidence angle. The relation between the resolution and the counting efficiency can be investigated by changing a ratio of the mesh hole diameter and the collimator thickness. Through collimation, a target particle can be distinguished by a PIPS® detector under a mixture of various nuclides.

  19. High resolution schemes for hyperbolic conservation laws

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harten, A.

    1983-01-01

    A class of new explicit second order accurate finite difference schemes for the computation of weak solutions of hyperbolic conservation laws is presented. These highly nonlinear schemes are obtained by applying a nonoscillatory first order accurate scheme to an appropriately modified flux function. The so-derived second order accurate schemes achieve high resolution while preserving the robustness of the original nonoscillatory first order accurate scheme. Numerical experiments are presented to demonstrate the performance of these new schemes.

  20. [Resolution of radiodiagnosis of pharyngeal tumors].

    PubMed

    Ismagulova, E K; Antoniv, V F

    2005-01-01

    The authors show informative value of radiomethods in diagnosis of pharyngeal tumors, analyse resolution of x-ray investigation, computed tomography and ultrasound, present roentgenological semiotics of patients with nasopharyngeal cancer (45 patients), analyse results of x-ray examination of 45 patients with primary laryngopharyngeal tumors. In diagnosis of metastases to the neck lymph nodes ultrasound investigation (159 patients) is used as a screening method and provides additional information about tumor relationships with the major vessels.

  1. Microarray analysis at single molecule resolution

    PubMed Central

    Mureşan, Leila; Jacak, Jarosław; Klement, Erich Peter; Hesse, Jan; Schütz, Gerhard J.

    2010-01-01

    Bioanalytical chip-based assays have been enormously improved in sensitivity in the recent years; detection of trace amounts of substances down to the level of individual fluorescent molecules has become state of the art technology. The impact of such detection methods, however, has yet not fully been exploited, mainly due to a lack in appropriate mathematical tools for robust data analysis. One particular example relates to the analysis of microarray data. While classical microarray analysis works at resolutions of two to 20 micrometers and quantifies the abundance of target molecules by determining average pixel intensities, a novel high resolution approach [1] directly visualizes individual bound molecules as diffraction limited peaks. The now possible quantification via counting is less susceptible to labeling artifacts and background noise. We have developed an approach for the analysis of high-resolution microarray images. It consists first of a single molecule detection step, based on undecimated wavelet transforms, and second, of a spot identification step via spatial statistics approach (corresponding to the segmentation step in the classical microarray analysis). The detection method was tested on simulated images with a concentration range of 0.001 to 0.5 molecules per square micron and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) between 0.9 and 31.6. For SNR above 15 the false negatives relative error was below 15%. Separation of foreground/background proved reliable, in case foreground density exceeds background by a factor of 2. The method has also been applied to real data from high-resolution microarray measurements. PMID:20123580

  2. Ganymede - Comparison of Voyager and Galileo Resolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    These images demonstrate the dramatic improvement in the resolution of pictures that NASA's Galileo spacecraft is returning compared to previous images of the Jupiter system. The frame at left was taken by the Voyager 2 spacecraft when it flew by in 1979, with a resolution of about 1.3 kilometers (0.8 mile) per pixel. The frame at right showing the same area was captured by Galileo during its first flyby of Ganymede on June 27, 1996; it has a resolution of about 74 meters (243 feet) per pixel, more than 17 times better than that of the Voyager image. In the Voyager frame, line-like bright and dark bands can be seen but their detailed structure and origin are not clear. In the Galileo image, each band is now seen to be composed of many smaller ridges. The structure and shape of the ridges permit scientists to determine their origin and their relation to other terrains, helping to unravel the complex history of the planet-sized moon. In each of these frames, north is to the top, and the sun illuminates the surface from the lower left nearly overhead (about 77 degrees above the horizon). The area shown, at latitude 10 degrees north, 167 degrees west, is about 35 by 55 kilometers (25 by 34 miles). The image was taken June 27 when Galileo was 7,448 kilometers (4.628 miles) away from Ganymede. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science.

  3. An alternative resolution to the Mansuripur paradox

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redfern, Francis

    2016-04-01

    In 2013 an article published online by the journal Science declared that the paradox proposed by Masud Mansuripur was resolved. This paradox concerns a point charge-Amperian magnetic dipole system as seen in a frame of reference where they are at rest and one in which they are moving. In the latter frame an electric dipole appears on the magnetic dipole. A torque is then exerted upon the electric dipole by the point charge, a torque that is not observed in the at-rest frame. Mansuripur points out this violates the relativity principle and suggests the Lorentz force responsible for the torque be replaced by the Einstein-Laub force. The resolution of the paradox reported by Science, based on numerous papers in the physics literature, preserves the Lorentz force but depends on the concept of hidden momentum. Here I propose a different resolution based on the overlooked fact that the charge-magnetic dipole system contains linear and angular electromagnetic field momentum. The time rate of change of the field angular-momentum in the frame through which the system is moving cancels that due to the charge-electric dipole interaction. From this point of view hidden momentum is not needed in the resolution of the paradox.

  4. High Resolution Laser Spectroscopy of Rhenium Carbide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adam, Allan G.; Hall, Ryan M.; Linton, Colan; Tokaryk, Dennis

    2014-06-01

    The first spectroscopic study of rhenium carbide, ReC, has been performed using both low and high resolution techniques to collect rotationally resolved electronic spectra from 420 to 500nm. Laser-induced fluorescence (LIF), and dispersed fluorescence (DF) techniques were employed. ReC was formed in our laser ablation molecular jet apparatus by ablating a rhenium target rod in the presence of 1% methane in helium. The low resolution spectrum identified four bands of an electronic system belonging to ReC, three of which have been studied so far. Extensive hyperfine structure composed of six hyperfine components was observed in the high resolution spectrum, as well as a clear distinction between the 187ReC and 185ReC isotopologues. The data seems consistent with a ^4Π - ^4Σ- transition, as was predicted before experimentation. Dispersed fluorescence spectra allowed us to determine the ground state vibrational frequency (ωe"=994.4 ± 0.3 wn), and to identify a low-lying electronically excited state at Te"=1118.4 ± 0.4 wn with a vibrational frequency of ωe"=984 ± 2 wn. Personal communication, F. Grein, University of New Brunswick

  5. ITER TCWS Conceptual Design Chit Resolution Report

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, Jan

    2012-02-01

    Design Chits resulted from the External Conceptual Design Review (CDR) held at Cadarache on July 21-23, 2009 (Reference [5.1.3]). Those Chits were categorized into 3 categories in accordance with the following rules: Category 1 - Chits to be resolved before proceeding with preliminary design; Category 2 - Chits to be resolved during preliminary design; and Category 3 - Chits already resolved or covered by higher category Chits such that no further action is required. Prior to the preliminary design, all the category 1 chits were resolved and the category chit 1 resolution report was approved (Reference [5.1.4]). However, as the design has been evolving, one of the category 1 chits needs to be re-addressed. The purpose of this report is to present the resolutions to one CDR Category 1 Chit (Cat 1 Chit No.5) and twenty-three CDR Category 2 Chits. The Category 2 Chit resolutions presented are listed in order from item number one to item number twenty-three.

  6. Novel ultrahigh resolution optical fibre temperature sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poeggel, Sven; Duraibabu, Dineshbabu; Dooly, Gerard; Lewis, Elfed; Leen, Gabriel

    2016-05-01

    In this paper a novel patent pending high resolution optical fibre temperature sensor, based on an optical fibre pressure and temperature sensor (OFTPS), which is surrounded by an oil filled chamber, is presented. The OFPTS is based on a Fabry Perot interferometer (FPI) which has an embedded fibre Bragg grating (FBG). The high ratio between the volume of the oil filled outer cavity and the FPIs air filled cavity, results in a highly sensitive temperature sensor. The FBG element of the device can be used for wide range temperature measurements, and combining this capability with the high resolution capability of the FPI/oil cavity results in a wide range and high resolution temperature sensing device. The outer diameter of the sensor is less than 1mm in diameter and can be designed to be even smaller. The sensors temperature response was measured in a range of ΔT = 7K and resulted in a shift in the optical spectrum of ΔλF = 61.42nm. Therefore the Q-point of the reflected optical FPI spectrum is shifting with a sensitivity of sot = 8.77 nm/K . The sensitivity can easily be further increased by changing the oil/air volumetric ratio and therefore adapt the sensor to a wide variety of applications.

  7. Effect of Resolution on Propagating Detonation Wave

    SciTech Connect

    Menikoff, Ralph

    2014-07-10

    Simulations of the cylinder test are used to illustrate the effect of mesh resolution on a propagating detonation wave. For this study we use the xRage code with the SURF burn model for PBX 9501. The adaptive mesh capability of xRage is used to vary the resolution of the reaction zone. We focus on two key properties: the detonation speed and the cylinder wall velocity. The latter is related to the release isentrope behind the detonation wave. As the reaction zone is refined (2 to 15 cells for cell size of 62 to 8μm), both the detonation speed and final wall velocity change by a small amount; less than 1 per cent. The detonation speed decreases with coarser resolution. Even when the reaction zone is grossly under-resolved (cell size twice the reaction-zone width of the burn model) the wall velocity is within a per cent and the detonation speed is low by only 2 per cent.

  8. Comparative Very-High-Resolution VUV Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, B. R.; Gibson, S. T.; Baldwin, K. G. H.; Dooley, P. M.; Waring, K.

    Despite their importance to the photochemistry of the terrestrial atmosphere, and many experimental studies, previous characterization of the Schumann-Runge (SR) bands of O2, B3 Σ u- <- X3 Σ_g^- (v, 0) (1750-2050 Å) has been limited by poor experimental resolution. In addition, our understanding of the SR spectrum is incomplete, many rovibrational transitions in the perturbed region of the spectrum [B(v > 15)] remaining unassigned. We review new very-high-resolution measurements of the O2 photoabsorption cross section in the SR bands. Tunable, narrow-bandwidth background vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) radiation for the measurements ( 7 × 105 resolving power) was generated by the two-photon-resonant difference-frequency four-wave mixing in Xe of excimer-pumped dye-laser radiation. With the aid of these cross-section measurements, rovibrational and line-shape analyses have led to new insights into the molecular structure and predissociation dynamics of O2. The current VUV laser-spectroscopic measurements are shown to compare favourably with results from two other very-high-resolution experimental techniques, namely laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy and VUV Fourier-transform spectroscopy, the latter performed using a synchrotron source.

  9. Temporal resolution in individuals with neurological disorders

    PubMed Central

    Rabelo, Camila Maia; Weihing, Jeffrey A; Schochat, Eliane

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Temporal processing refers to the ability of the central auditory nervous system to encode and detect subtle changes in acoustic signals. This study aims to investigate the temporal resolution ability of individuals with mesial temporal sclerosis and to determine the sensitivity and specificity of the gaps-in-noise test in identifying this type of lesion. METHOD: This prospective study investigated differences in temporal resolution between 30 individuals with normal hearing and without neurological lesions (G1) and 16 individuals with both normal hearing and mesial temporal sclerosis (G2). Test performances were compared, and the sensitivity and specificity were calculated. RESULTS: There was no difference in gap detection thresholds between the two groups, although G1 revealed better average thresholds than G2 did. The sensitivity and specificity of the gaps-in-noise test for neurological lesions were 68% and 98%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Temporal resolution ability is compromised in individuals with neurological lesions caused by mesial temporal sclerosis. The gaps-in-noise test was shown to be a sensitive and specific measure of central auditory dysfunction in these patients. PMID:26375561

  10. Increasing image resolution using the pyramidal detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isakson, Steve; Sahagun, Luis Roberto; Wade, Glen

    2002-11-01

    The knife-edge detector (KED) has been used in transverse wave, scanning laser acoustic microscopes (SLAM) successfully for many years. It possesses a good balance between spatial bandwidth, detector noise insensitivity, and detector grain stability. Many detectors have tried to increase the bandwidth to improve the image resolution, only to be difficult to use and susceptible to vibration and mechanical variations. The authors have invented and designed a pyramidal detector (PD) that combines the stability and noise insensitivity of the KED with a significantly improved bandwidth in both axes of the object plane. The detector uses the entire signal provided at the detector to increase the signal to noise ratio and significantly decrease the cover slip spatial frequencies that are difficult to detect. The increased bandwidth allows image resolution approaching what an ideal detector could achieve. Additionally, unlike the KED, the PD spatial bandwidth is approximately isotropic to waves traveling in the cover slip. Increased spatial resolution and uniformity result. This property is particularly useful for back-propagation in tomographic applications.

  11. Performance of a Nanometer Resolution BPM System

    SciTech Connect

    Walston, S.; Chung, C.; Fitsos, P.; Gronberg, J.; Meller, R.; Vogel, V.; Hayano, H.; Honda, Y.; Terunuma, N.; Urakawa, J.; Kolomensky, Y.; Orimoto, T.; Boogert, S.; Frisch, J.; May, J.; McCormick, D.; Ross, M.; Smith, S.; Smith, T.; White, G.; Slater, M.; /Cambridge U. /University Coll. London

    2007-04-24

    International Linear Collider (ILC) interaction region beam sizes and component position stability requirements will be as small as a few nanometers. It is important to the ILC design effort to demonstrate that these tolerances can be achieved ideally using beam-based stability measurements. It has been estimated that RF cavity beam position monitors (BPMs) could provide position measurement resolutions of less than one nanometer and could form the basis of the desired beam-based stability measurement. We have developed a high resolution RF cavity BPM system. A triplet of these BPMs has been installed in the extraction line of the KEK Accelerator Test Facility (ATF) for testing with its ultra-low emittance beam. The three BPMs are rigidly mounted inside an alignment frame on variable-length struts which allow movement in position and angle. We have developed novel methods for extracting the position and tilt information from the BPM signals including a calibration algorithm which is immune to beam jitter. To date, we have been able to demonstrate a resolution of approximately 20 nm over a dynamic range of +/- 20 microns. We report on the progress of these ongoing tests.

  12. Performance of a Nanometer Resolution BPM System

    SciTech Connect

    Vogel, V; Hayano, H; Honda, Y; Terunuma, N; Urakawa, J; Kolomensky, Y; Orimoto, T; Chung, C; Fitsos, P; Gronberg, J; Walston, S; White, G; Frisch, J; May, J; McCormick, D; Ross, M; Smith, S; Smith, T; Slater, M; Ward, D; Boogert, S; Lyapin, A; Malton, S; Miller, D

    2005-10-14

    International Linear Collider (ILC) interaction region beam sizes and component position stability requirements will be as small as a few nanometers. it is important to the ongoing ILC design effort to demonstrate that these tolerances can be achieved--ideally using beam-based stability measurements. It has been estimated that an RF cavity BPM with modern waveform processing could provide a position measurement resolution of less than one nanometer. Such a system could form the basis of the desired beam-based stability measurement, as well as be used for other specialized purposes. They have developed a high resolution RF cavity BPM and associated electronics. A triplet comprised of these BPMs has been installed in the extraction line of the KEK Accelerator Test Facility (ATF) for testing with its ultra-low emittance beam. The three BPMs are rigidly mounted inside an alignment frame on six variable-length struts which can be used to move the BPMs in position and angle. they have developed novel methods for extracting the position and tilt information from the BPM signals including a robust calibration algorithm which is immune to beam jitter. To date, they have been able to demonstrate a resolution of approximately 20 nm over a dynamic range of {+-} 20 {micro}m. They report on the progress of these ongoing tests.

  13. PERFORMANCE OF A NANOMETER RESOLUTION BPM SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Walston, S; Chung, C; Fitsos, P; Gronberg, J; Meller, R; Vogel, V; Hayano, H; Honda, Y; Terunuma, N; Urakawa, J; Kolomensky, Y; Orimoto, T; Boogert, S; Frisch, J; May, J; McCormick, D; Ross, M; Smith, S; Smith, T; Slater, M; Thomson, M; Ward, D; Lyapin, A; Malton, S; Miller, D; White, G

    2006-06-21

    International Linear Collider (ILC) interaction region beam sizes and component position stability requirements will be as small as a few nanometers. It is important to the ILC design effort to demonstrate that these tolerances can be achieved--ideally using beam-based stability measurements. It has been estimated that RF cavity beam position monitors (BPMs) could provide position measurement resolutions of less than one nanometer and could form the basis of the desired beam-based stability measurement. We have developed a high resolution RF cavity BPM system. A triplet of these BPMs has been installed in the extraction line of the KEK Accelerator Test Facility (ATF) for testing with its ultra-low emittance beam. The three BPMs are rigidly mounted inside an alignment frame on variable-length struts which allow movement in position and angle. We have developed novel methods for extracting the position and tilt information from the BPM signals including a calibration algorithm which is immune to beam jitter. To date, we have been able to demonstrate a resolution of approximately 20 nm over a dynamic range of +/- 20 microns. We report on the progress of these ongoing tests.

  14. High-Resolution US of Rheumatologic Diseases.

    PubMed

    Taljanovic, Mihra S; Melville, David M; Gimber, Lana H; Scalcione, Luke R; Miller, Margaret D; Kwoh, C Kent; Klauser, Andrea S

    2015-01-01

    For the past 15 years, high-resolution ultrasonography (US) is being routinely and increasingly used for initial evaluation and treatment follow-up of rheumatologic diseases. This imaging technique is performed by using high-frequency linear transducers and has proved to be a powerful diagnostic tool in evaluation of articular erosions, simple and complex joint and bursal effusions, tendon sheath effusions, and synovitis, with results comparable to those of magnetic resonance imaging, excluding detection of bone marrow edema. Crystal deposition diseases including gouty arthropathy and calcium pyrophosphate deposition disease (CPPD) have characteristic appearances at US, enabling differentiation between these two diseases and from inflammatory arthropathies. Enthesopathy, which frequently accompanies psoriatic and reactive arthritis, also has a characteristic appearance at high-resolution US, distinguishing these two entities from other inflammatory and metabolic arthropathies. The presence of Doppler signal in examined joints, bursae, and tendon sheaths indicates active synovitis. Microbubble echo contrast agents augment detection of tissue vascularity and may act in the future as a drug delivery vehicle. Frequently, joint, tendon sheath, and bursal fluid aspirations and therapeutic injections are performed under US guidance. The authors describe the high-resolution US technique including gray-scale, color or power Doppler, and contrast agent-enhanced US that is used in evaluation of rheumatologic diseases of the wrist and hand and the ankle and foot in their routine clinical practice. This article demonstrates imaging findings of normal joints, rheumatoid arthritis, gouty arthritis, CPPD, psoriatic and reactive arthritis, and osteoarthritis.

  15. High-resolution phylogenetic microbial community profiling

    PubMed Central

    Singer, Esther; Bushnell, Brian; Coleman-Derr, Devin; Bowman, Brett; Bowers, Robert M; Levy, Asaf; Gies, Esther A; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Copeland, Alex; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Hallam, Steven J; Hugenholtz, Philip; Tringe, Susannah G; Woyke, Tanja

    2016-01-01

    Over the past decade, high-throughput short-read 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing has eclipsed clone-dependent long-read Sanger sequencing for microbial community profiling. The transition to new technologies has provided more quantitative information at the expense of taxonomic resolution with implications for inferring metabolic traits in various ecosystems. We applied single-molecule real-time sequencing for microbial community profiling, generating full-length 16S rRNA gene sequences at high throughput, which we propose to name PhyloTags. We benchmarked and validated this approach using a defined microbial community. When further applied to samples from the water column of meromictic Sakinaw Lake, we show that while community structures at the phylum level are comparable between PhyloTags and Illumina V4 16S rRNA gene sequences (iTags), variance increases with community complexity at greater water depths. PhyloTags moreover allowed less ambiguous classification. Last, a platform-independent comparison of PhyloTags and in silico generated partial 16S rRNA gene sequences demonstrated significant differences in community structure and phylogenetic resolution across multiple taxonomic levels, including a severe underestimation in the abundance of specific microbial genera involved in nitrogen and methane cycling across the Lake's water column. Thus, PhyloTags provide a reliable adjunct or alternative to cost-effective iTags, enabling more accurate phylogenetic resolution of microbial communities and predictions on their metabolic potential. PMID:26859772

  16. Oxygen depth profiling with subnanometre depth resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosmata, Marcel; Munnik, Frans; Hanf, Daniel; Grötzschel, Rainer; Crocoll, Sonja; Möller, Wolfhard

    2014-10-01

    A High-depth Resolution Elastic Recoil Detection (HR-ERD) set-up using a magnetic spectrometer has been taken into operation at the Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf for the first time. This instrument allows the investigation of light elements in ultra-thin layers and their interfaces with a depth resolution of less than 1 nm near the surface. As the depth resolution is highly influenced by the experimental measurement parameters, sophisticated optimisation procedures have been implemented. Effects of surface roughness and sample damage caused by high fluences need to be quantified for each kind of material. Also corrections are essential for non-equilibrium charge state distributions that exist very close to the surface. Using the example of a high-k multilayer SiO2/Si3N4Ox/SiO2/Si it is demonstrated that oxygen in ultra-thin films of a few nanometres thickness can be investigated by HR-ERD.

  17. Multi-frame image super resolution based on sparse coding.

    PubMed

    Kato, Toshiyuki; Hino, Hideitsu; Murata, Noboru

    2015-06-01

    An image super-resolution method from multiple observation of low-resolution images is proposed. The method is based on sub-pixel accuracy block matching for estimating relative displacements of observed images, and sparse signal representation for estimating the corresponding high-resolution image, where correspondence between high- and low-resolution images are modeled by a certain degradation process. Relative displacements of small patches of observed low-resolution images are accurately estimated by a computationally efficient block matching method. The matching scores of the block matching are used to select a subset of low-resolution patches for reconstructing a high-resolution patch, that is, an adaptive selection of informative low-resolution images is realized. The proposed method is shown to perform comparable or superior to conventional super-resolution methods through experiments using various images.

  18. Impacts of resolution-dependent physics in aquaplanet simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, C.; Leung, L. R.; Hagos, S. M.; Lu, J.; Sakaguchi, K.; Yoon, J.; Park, S. H.; Duda, M.; Skamarock, W. C.

    2015-12-01

    Advances in computing resources are gradually moving regional as well as global numerical forecasting simulations towards high resolutions. However, long-term simulations at global high resolutions remain a challenge. The recently developed variable-resolution global modeling framework, Model for Prediction Across Scales (MPAS), provides an opportunity to mitigate some computational limitations by using regional grid refinement. For effective use of such a modeling framework in climate studies, the impacts of resolution-dependent physics and dynamics on climate simulations should be thoroughly examined and alleviated. This study assesses the dependence of model sensitivity to resolution on the choice of model physics packages. To this end, several three-year numerical simulations are performed with the non-hydrostatic MPAS coupled to the CAM4 and CAM5 physics at multiple global quasi-uniform resolutions of 240 km, 120 km, 60 km, and 30 km and a global variable resolution configuration at 120 km resolution with a regional mesh refinement at 30km resolution over the tropics. While MPAS-CAM4 appears less sensitive to resolution than MPAS-CAM5 for individual components of precipitation, both exhibit similar increase in total precipitation with increased resolution. The simulations also exhibit sensitivity of the subtropical jet position that affects the sensitivity of atmospheric river (AR) frequency to resolutions. Hence model sensitivity to resolution depends on the physics parameterizations used. The simulations with regional mesh refinement also demonstrate significant impacts of resolution-dependent physics.

  19. NMR Microscopy - Micron-Level Resolution.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwok, Wing-Chi Edmund

    1990-01-01

    Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) has been developed into a powerful and widely used diagnostic tool since the invention of techniques using linear magnetic field gradients in 1973. The variety of imaging contrasts obtainable in MRI, such as spin density, relaxation times and flow rate, gives MRI a significant advantage over other imaging techniques. For common diagnostic applications, image resolutions have been in the order of millimeters with slice thicknesses in centimeters. For many research applications, however, resolutions in the order of tens of microns or smaller are needed. NMR Imaging in these high resolution disciplines is known as NMR microscopy. Compared with conventional microscopy, NMR microscopy has the advantage of being non-invasive and non-destructive. The major obstacles of NMR microscopy are low signal-to-noise ratio and effects due to spin diffusion. To overcome these difficulties, more sensitive RF probes and very high magnetic field gradients have to be used. The most effective way to increase sensitivity is to build smaller probes. Microscope probes of different designs have been built and evaluated. Magnetic field gradient coils that can produce linear field gradients up to 450 Gauss/cm were also assembled. In addition, since microscope probes often employ remote capacitors for RF tuning, the associated signal loss in the transmission line was studied. Imaging experiments have been carried out in a 2.1 Tesla small bore superconducting magnet using the typical two-dimensional spin warp imaging technique. Images have been acquired for both biological and non-biological samples. The highest resolution was obtained in an image of a nerve bundle from the spinal cord of a racoon and has an in-plane resolution of 4 microns. These experiments have demonstrated the potential application of NMR microscopy to pathological research, nervous system study and non -destructive testings of materials. One way to further improve NMR microscopy is

  20. Interpolating Low Time-Resolution Forecast Data

    SciTech Connect

    Shuai Lu, PNNL

    2015-11-03

    Methodology that interpolates low time-resolution data (e.g., hourly) to high time-resolution (e.g., minutely) with variability patterns extracted from historical records. Magnitude of the variability inserted into the low timeresolution data can be adjusted according to the installed capacity represented by the low time-resolution data compared to that by historical records. This approach enables detailed analysis of the impacts from wind and solar on power system intra-hour operations and balancing reserve requirements even with only hourly data. It also allows convenient creation of high resolution wind or solar generation data with various degree of variability to investigate their operational impacts. The methodology comprises of the following steps: 1. Smooth the historical data (set A) with an appropriate window length l to get its trend (set B); l can be a fraction of an hour (e.g., 15 minutes) or longer than an hour, of which the length of the variability patterns will be; 2. Extract the variable component (set C) of historical data by subtracting the smooth trend from it, i.e. set C = set A – set B 3. For each window length l of the variable component data set, find the average value x (will call it base component) of the corresponding window of the historical data set; 4. Define a series of segments (set D) that the values of data will be grouped into, e.g. (0, 0.1), (0.1, 0.2), …, (0.9, 1.0) after normalization; Link each variability pattern to a data segment based on its corresponding base component x; after this step, each data segment should be linked to multiple variability patterns after this step; 5. Use spline function to interpolate the low time-resolution forecast data (set E) to become a high time-resolution smooth curve (set F); 6. Based on the window length l , calculate the average value y in each window length of set F; find the data segment that y belongs to; then randomly select one of the variability patterns linked to this data

  1. Method and system for dual resolution translation stage

    DOEpatents

    Halpin, John Michael

    2014-04-22

    A dual resolution translation stage includes a stage assembly operable to receive an optical element and a low resolution adjustment device mechanically coupled to the stage assembly. The dual resolution stage also includes an adjustable pivot block mechanically coupled to the stage assembly. The adjustable pivot block includes a pivot shaft. The dual resolution stage further includes a lever arm mechanically coupled to the adjustable pivot block. The lever arm is operable to pivot about the pivot shaft. The dual resolution stage additionally includes a high resolution adjustment device mechanically coupled to the lever arm and the stage assembly.

  2. Prediction of Wind Tunnel Effects on the Installed F/A-18A Inlet Flow Field at High Angles-of-attack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Crawford F.

    1995-01-01

    NASA Lewis is currently engaged in a research effort as a team member of the High Alpha Technology Program (HATP) within NASA. This program utilizes a specially equipped F/A-18A, the High Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV), in an ambitious effort to improve the maneuverability of high performance military aircraft at low subsonic speed, high angle of attack conditions. The overall objective of the Lewis effort is to develop inlet technology that will ensure efficient airflow delivery to the engine during these maneuvers. One part of the Lewis approach utilizes computational fluid dynamics codes to predict the installed performance of inlets for these highly maneuverable aircraft. Wind tunnel tests were a major component of the Lewis program. Since the available wind tunnel was small (9 x 15 ft) as compared to the scale of the model of the F/A-18A (19.78 percent), there were questions about the capability to obtain useful inlet performance data. The blockage effects were expected to be very large. This report represents the results of an analysis to determine how the wind tunnel walls effect inlet performance at several angles of attack. The predictions for the external particle traces along the fuselage indicate the influence of the wind tunnel side wall under the model is greater at 30 deg angle of attack than at 50 deg angle of attack on the under Leading Edge Extension (LEX) vortex trajectory. The side wall above the model appears to have negligible influence on the under LEX vortex. This may be due to the LEX acting as 'shield' to the upper wall effects. As expected, the wind tunnel has a significant influence on the external forces. The lift and drag coefficients increase significantly for the wind tunnel model as compared to free stream conditions. The wind tunnel had a small effect on the inlet recovery and on inlet total pressure distortion patterns. The predicted recoveries for the wind tunnel model are within one percentage point of the model recoveries in

  3. Isotope specific resolution recovery image reconstruction in high resolution PET imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Kotasidis, Fotis A.; Angelis, Georgios I.; Anton-Rodriguez, Jose; Matthews, Julian C.; Reader, Andrew J.; Zaidi, Habib

    2014-05-15

    Purpose: Measuring and incorporating a scanner-specific point spread function (PSF) within image reconstruction has been shown to improve spatial resolution in PET. However, due to the short half-life of clinically used isotopes, other long-lived isotopes not used in clinical practice are used to perform the PSF measurements. As such, non-optimal PSF models that do not correspond to those needed for the data to be reconstructed are used within resolution modeling (RM) image reconstruction, usually underestimating the true PSF owing to the difference in positron range. In high resolution brain and preclinical imaging, this effect is of particular importance since the PSFs become more positron range limited and isotope-specific PSFs can help maximize the performance benefit from using resolution recovery image reconstruction algorithms. Methods: In this work, the authors used a printing technique to simultaneously measure multiple point sources on the High Resolution Research Tomograph (HRRT), and the authors demonstrated the feasibility of deriving isotope-dependent system matrices from fluorine-18 and carbon-11 point sources. Furthermore, the authors evaluated the impact of incorporating them within RM image reconstruction, using carbon-11 phantom and clinical datasets on the HRRT. Results: The results obtained using these two isotopes illustrate that even small differences in positron range can result in different PSF maps, leading to further improvements in contrast recovery when used in image reconstruction. The difference is more pronounced in the centre of the field-of-view where the full width at half maximum (FWHM) from the positron range has a larger contribution to the overall FWHM compared to the edge where the parallax error dominates the overall FWHM. Conclusions: Based on the proposed methodology, measured isotope-specific and spatially variant PSFs can be reliably derived and used for improved spatial resolution and variance performance in resolution

  4. Factors Affecting Inlet-Engine Compatibility During Aircraft Departures at High Angle of Attack for an F/A -18A Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steenken, W. G.; Williams, J. G.; Yuhas, A. J.; Walsh, K. R.

    1999-01-01

    The F404-GE-400 engine powered F/A- 18A High Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV) was used to examine the quality of inlet airflow during departed flight maneuvers, that is, during flight outside the normal maneuvering envelope where control surfaces have little or no effectiveness. A series of six nose-left and six nose-right departures were initiated at Mach numbers between 0.3 and 0.4 at an altitude of 35 kft. The yaw rates at departure recovery were in the range of 40 to 90 degrees per second. Engine surges were encountered during three of the nose-left and one of the nose-right departures. Time-variant inlet-total-pressure distortion levels at the engine face were determined to not significantly exceed those measured at maximum angle-of-attack and - sideslip maneuvers during controlled flight. Surges as a result of inlet distortion levels were anticipated to initiate in the fan. Analysis revealed that the surges initiated in the compressor and were the result of a combination of high levels of inlet distortion and rapid changes in aircraft motion. These rapid changes in aircraft motion are indicative of a combination of engine mount and gyroscopic loads being applied to the engine structure that impact the aerodynamic stability of the compressor through changes in the rotor-to-case clearances.

  5. Protective effect of EC-18, a synthetic monoacetyldiglyceride on lung inflammation in a murine model induced by cigarette smoke and lipopolysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Shin, In-Sik; Ahn, Kyung-Seop; Shin, Na-Rae; Lee, Hyun-Jun; Ryu, Hyung Won; Kim, Jae Wha; Sohn, Ki-Young; Kim, Heung Jae; Han, Yong-Hae; Oh, Sei-Ryang

    2016-01-01

    The antler of Sika deer (Cervus nippon Temminck) has been used a natural medicine in Korea, China and Japan, and a monoacetyldiaglyceride (1-palmitoyl-2-linoleoyl-3-acetylglycerol, PLAG) was found in the antler of Sika deer as a constituent for immunomodulation. In this study, we investigated protective effects of EC-18 (a synthetic copy of PLAG) on inflammatory responses using a cigarette smoke with lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced airway inflammation model. Mice were exposed to cigarette smoke for 1h per day for 3days. Ten micrograms of LPS dissolved in 50μL of PBS was administered intra nasally 1h after the final cigarette smoke exposure. EC-18 was administered by oral gavage at doses of 30 and 60mg/kg for 3days. EC-18 significantly reduced the number of neutrophils, reactive oxygen species production, cytokines and elastase activity in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) compared with the cigarette smoke and LPS induced mice. Histologically, EC-18 attenuated airway inflammation with a reduction in myeloperoxidase expression in lung tissue. Additionally, EC-18 inhibited the phosphorylation of NF-κB and IκB induced by cigarette smoke and LPS exposure. Our results show that EC-18 effectively suppresses neutrophilic inflammation induced by cigarette smoke and LPS exposure. In conclusion, this study suggests that EC-18 has therapeutic potential for the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. PMID:26655742

  6. Inlet Distortion for an F/A-18A Aircraft During Steady Aerodynamic Conditions up to 60 deg Angle of Attack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walsh, Kevin R.; Yuhas, Andrew J.; Williams, John G.; Steenken, William G.

    1997-01-01

    The effects of high-angle-of-attack flight on aircraft inlet aerodynamic characteristics were investigated at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, as part of NASA's High Alpha Technology Program. The highly instrumented F/A-18A High Alpha Research Vehicle was used for this research. A newly designed inlet total-pressure rake was installed in front of the starboard F404-GE-400 engine to measure inlet recovery and distortion characteristics. One objective was to determine inlet total-pressure characteristics at steady high-angle-of-attack conditions. Other objectives include assessing whether significant differences exist in inlet distortion between rapid angle-of-attack maneuvers and corresponding steady aerodynamic conditions, assessing inlet characteristics during aircraft departures, providing data for developing and verifying computational fluid dynamic codes, and calculating engine airflow using five methods. This paper addresses the first objective by summarizing results of 79 flight maneuvers at steady aerodynamic conditions, ranging from -10 deg to 60 deg angle of attack and from -8 deg to 11 deg angle of sideslip at Mach 0.3 and 0.4. These data and the associated database have been rigorously validated to establish a foundation for understanding inlet characteristics at high angle of attack.

  7. The long noncoding RNA CASC2 functions as a competing endogenous RNA by sponging miR-18a in colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Guanli; Wu, Xiaoli; Li, Shi; Xu, Xiaoqun; Zhu, Hua; Chen, Xiangjian

    2016-01-01

    Recent evidence highlights the crucial regulatory roles of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNA) in tumor biology. In colorectal cancer (CRC), the expression of several lncRNAs is dysregulated and play essential roles in CRC tumorigenesis. However, the potential biological roles and regulatory mechanisms of the novel human lncRNA, CASC2 (cancer susceptibility candidate 2), in tumor biology are poorly understood. In this study, CASC2 expression was significantly decreased in CRC tissues and CRC cell lines, and decreased expression was significantly more frequent in patients with advanced tumor-node-metastasis stage disease (TNM III and IV) (P = 0.028). Further functional experiments indicate that CASC2 could directly upregulate PIAS3 expression by functioning as a competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) for miR-18a. This interactions leads to the de-repression of genes downstream of STAT3 and consequentially inhibition of CRC cell proliferation and tumor growth in vitro and in vivo by extending the G0/G1-S phase transition. Taken together, these observations suggest CASC2 as a ceRNA plays an important role in CRC pathogenesis and may serve as a potential target for cancer diagnosis and treatment. PMID:27198161

  8. Medusae Fossae Formation - High Resolution Image

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    An exotic terrain of wind-eroded ridges and residual smooth surfaces are seen in one of the highest resolution images ever taken of Mars from orbit. The Medusae Fossae formation is believed to be formed of the fragmental ejecta of huge explosive volcanic eruptions. When subjected to intense wind-blasting over hundreds of millions of years, this material erodes easily once the uppermost tougher crust is breached. The crust, or cap rock, can be seen in the upper right part of the picture. The finely-spaced ridges are similar to features on Earth called yardangs, which are formed by intense winds plucking individual grains from, and by wind-driven sand blasting particles off, sedimentary deposits.

    The image was taken on October 30, 1997 at 11:05 AM PST, shortly after the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft's 31st closest approach to Mars. The image covers an area 3.6 X 21.5 km (2.2 X 13.4 miles) at 3.6 m (12 feet) per picture element--craters only 11 m (36 feet, about the size of a swimming pool) across can be seen. The best Viking view of the area (VO 1 387S34) has a resolution of 240 m/pixel, or 67 times lower resolution than the MOC frame.

    Malin Space Science Systems (MSSS) and the California Institute of Technology built the MOC using spare hardware from the Mars Observer mission. MSSS operates the camera from its facilities in San Diego, CA. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Mars Surveyor Operations Project operates the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft with its industrial partner, Lockheed Martin Astronautics, from facilities in Pasadena, CA and Denver, CO.

  9. High-resolution phylogenetic microbial community profiling

    SciTech Connect

    Singer, Esther; Coleman-Derr, Devin; Bowman, Brett; Schwientek, Patrick; Clum, Alicia; Copeland, Alex; Ciobanu, Doina; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Gies, Esther; Hallam, Steve; Tringe, Susannah; Woyke, Tanja

    2014-03-17

    The representation of bacterial and archaeal genome sequences is strongly biased towards cultivated organisms, which belong to merely four phylogenetic groups. Functional information and inter-phylum level relationships are still largely underexplored for candidate phyla, which are often referred to as microbial dark matter. Furthermore, a large portion of the 16S rRNA gene records in the GenBank database are labeled as environmental samples and unclassified, which is in part due to low read accuracy, potential chimeric sequences produced during PCR amplifications and the low resolution of short amplicons. In order to improve the phylogenetic classification of novel species and advance our knowledge of the ecosystem function of uncultivated microorganisms, high-throughput full length 16S rRNA gene sequencing methodologies with reduced biases are needed. We evaluated the performance of PacBio single-molecule real-time (SMRT) sequencing in high-resolution phylogenetic microbial community profiling. For this purpose, we compared PacBio and Illumina metagenomic shotgun and 16S rRNA gene sequencing of a mock community as well as of an environmental sample from Sakinaw Lake, British Columbia. Sakinaw Lake is known to contain a large age of microbial species from candidate phyla. Sequencing results show that community structure based on PacBio shotgun and 16S rRNA gene sequences is highly similar in both the mock and the environmental communities. Resolution power and community representation accuracy from SMRT sequencing data appeared to be independent of GC content of microbial genomes and was higher when compared to Illumina-based metagenome shotgun and 16S rRNA gene (iTag) sequences, e.g. full-length sequencing resolved all 23 OTUs in the mock community, while iTags did not resolve closely related species. SMRT sequencing hence offers various potential benefits when characterizing uncharted microbial communities.

  10. Resolution analysis in compressive multidimensional microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, A. D.; Clemente, P.; Irles, E.; Soldevila, F.; Salvador, E.; Tajahuerce, E.; Lancis, J.

    2015-03-01

    Despite imaging systems that scan a single-element benefit from mature technology, they suffer from acquisition times linearly proportional to the spatial resolution. A promising option is to use a single-pixel system that benefits from data collection strategies based on compressive sampling. Single-pixel systems also offer the possibility to use dedicated sensors such as a fiber spectrometer for multispectral imaging or a distribution of photodiodes for 3D imaging. The image is obtained by lighting the scene with microstructured masks implemented onto a programmable spatial light modulator. The masks are used as generalized measurement modes where the object information is expressed and the image is recovered through algebraic optimization. The fundamental reason why the bucket detection strategy can outperform conventional optical array detection is the use of a single channel detector that simultaneously integrates all the photons transmitted through the patterned scene. Spatial frequencies that are not transmitted through this low-quality optics are demonstrated to be present in the retrieved image. Our work makes two specific contributions within the field of single-pixel imaging through patterned illumination. First, we demonstrate that single-pixel imaging improves the resolution of conventional imaging systems overcoming the Rayleigh criterion. An analysis of resolution using a low NA microscope objective for imaging at a CCD camera shows that single-pixel cameras are not limited at all by the optical quality of the collection optics. Second, we experimentally demonstrate the capability of our technique to properly recover an image even when an optical diffuser is located in between the sample and the bucket detector.

  11. High Resolution Global View of Io

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Io, the most volcanic body in the solar system is seen in the highest resolution obtained to date by NASA's Galileo spacecraft. The smallest features that can be discerned are 2.5 kilometers in size. There are rugged mountains several kilometers high, layered materials forming plateaus, and many irregular depressions called volcanic calderas. Several of the dark, flow-like features correspond to hot spots, and may be active lava flows. There are no landforms resembling impact craters, as the volcanism covers the surface with new deposits much more rapidly than the flux of comets and asteroids can create large impact craters. The picture is centered on the side of Io that always faces away from Jupiter; north is to the top.

    Color images acquired on September 7, 1996 have been merged with higher resolution images acquired on November 6, 1996 by the Solid State Imaging (CCD) system aboard NASA's Galileo spacecraft. The color is composed of data taken, at a range of 487,000 kilometers, in the near-infrared, green, and violet filters and has been enhanced to emphasize the extraordinary variations in color and brightness that characterize Io's face. The high resolution images were obtained at ranges which varied from 245,719 kilometers to 403,100 kilometers.

    Launched in October 1989, Galileo entered orbit around Jupiter on December 7, 1995. The spacecraft's mission is to conduct detailed studies of the giant planet, its largest moons and the Jovian magnetic environment. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo

  12. Image Resolution in Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Pennycook, S. J.; Lupini, A.R.

    2008-06-26

    Digital images captured with electron microscopes are corrupted by two fundamental effects: shot noise resulting from electron counting statistics and blur resulting from the nonzero width of the focused electron beam. The generic problem of computationally undoing these effects is called image reconstruction and for decades has proved to be one of the most challenging and important problems in imaging science. This proposal concerned the application of the Pixon method, the highest-performance image-reconstruction algorithm yet devised, to the enhancement of images obtained from the highest-resolution electron microscopes in the world, now in operation at Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  13. THz Low Resolution Spectroscopy for Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stacey, Gordon J.

    2011-09-01

    The THz spectral regime provides a wide range of spectral lines that are invaluable probes of star formation and AGN activity in galaxies both in the local Universe and at the earliest times. We review the utility of these lines, give examples of the science they deliver, and detail the properties of successful low resolution direct detection spectrometers for work in the THz regime. We finish with a discussion of the exciting new science we expect with the next direct detection generation spectrometers on new facilities such as SOFIA, CCAT, SPICA, and ALMA.

  14. Cohomological Resolutions for Anomalous Lie Constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasiewicz, Zbigniew; Walczyk, Cezary J.

    2014-06-01

    It is shown that the BRST resolution of the spaces of physical states of the systems with anomalies can be consistently defined. The appropriate anomalous complexes are obtained by canonical restrictions of the ghost extended spaces to the kernel of anomaly operator without any modifications of the 'matter' sector. The cohomologies of the anomalous complex for the case of constraints constituting a centrally extended simple Lie algebra of compact type are calculated and analyzed in details within the framework of Hodge-deRham-Kähler theory: the vanishing theorem of the relative cohomologies is proved and the absolute cohomologies are reconstructed.

  15. Coordination Logic for Repulsive Resolution Maneuvers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Narkawicz, Anthony J.; Munoz, Cesar A.; Dutle, Aaron M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an algorithm for determining the direction an aircraft should maneuver in the event of a potential conflict with another aircraft. The algorithm is implicitly coordinated, meaning that with perfectly reliable computations and information, it will in- dependently provide directional information that is guaranteed to be coordinated without any additional information exchange or direct communication. The logic is inspired by the logic of TCAS II, the airborne system designed to reduce the risk of mid-air collisions between aircraft. TCAS II provides pilots with only vertical resolution advice, while the proposed algorithm, using a similar logic, provides implicitly coordinated vertical and horizontal directional advice.

  16. High resolution millimeter-wave imaging sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, W. J.; Howard, R. J.; Parks, G. S.

    1985-01-01

    A scanning 3-mm radiometer is described that has been built for use on a small aircraft to produce real time high resolution images of the ground when atmospheric conditions such as smoke, dust, and clouds make IR and visual sensors unusable. The sensor can be used for a variety of remote sensing applications such as measurements of snow cover and snow water equivalent, precipitation mapping, vegetation type and extent, surface moisture and temperature, and surface thermal inertia. The advantages of millimeter waves for cloud penetration and the ability to observe different physical phenomena make this system an attractive supplement to visible and IR remote sensing systems.

  17. Resolution No. 16, 20 November 1987.

    PubMed

    1988-01-01

    This Venezuela Resolution requires the performance of a cytological study in all medical offices providing family planning, pre- and postnatal care, adult hygiene, treatment for sexually transmitted diseases, and gynecological services and, in general, all medical offices in the public sector that treat women between the ages of 25 and 64. It also requires all patients treated in these offices who for any reason have to be admitted for hospitalization to undergo a cytological exam. The purpose of these activities is the prevention of uterine cancer.

  18. HIGH RESOLUTION PHOTOEMISSION STUDIES OF COMPLEX MATERIALS.

    SciTech Connect

    JOHNSON,P.D.; VALLA,T.; FEDOROV,A.; REISFELD,G.; HULBERT,S.L.

    1999-10-13

    Recent instrumentation developments in photoemission are providing new insights into the physics of complex materials. With increased energy and momentum resolution, it has become possible to examine in detail different contributions to the self-energy or inverse lifetime of the photohole created in the photoexcitation process. Employing momentum distribution and energy distribution curves, a detailed study of the optimally doped cuprate, Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8+{delta}}, shows that the material behaves like a non-Fermi liquid with no evidence for the quasi-particles characteristic of a Fermi liquid.

  19. High resolution extremity CT for biomechanics modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Ashby, A.E.; Brand, H.; Hollerbach, K.; Logan, C.M.; Martz, H.E.

    1995-09-23

    With the advent of ever more powerful computing and finite element analysis (FEA) capabilities, the bone and joint geometry detail available from either commercial surface definitions or from medical CT scans is inadequate. For dynamic FEA modeling of joints, precise articular contours are necessary to get appropriate contact definition. In this project, a fresh cadaver extremity was suspended in parafin in a lucite cylinder and then scanned with an industrial CT system to generate a high resolution data set for use in biomechanics modeling.

  20. DSCOVR High Time Resolution Solar Wind Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szabo, Adam

    2012-01-01

    The Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR), previously known as Triana, spacecraft is expected to be launched in late 2014. It will carry a fluxgate magnetometer, Faraday Cup solar wind detector and a top-hat electron electrostatic analyzer. The Faraday Cup will provide an unprecedented 10 vectors/sec time resolution measurement of the solar wind proton and alpha reduced distribution functions. Coupled with the 40 vector/sec vector magnetometer measurements, the identification of specific wave modes in the solar wind will be possible for the first time. The science objectives and data products of the mission will be discussed.

  1. High resolution IVEM tomography of biological specimens

    SciTech Connect

    Sedat, J.W.; Agard, D.A.

    1997-02-01

    Electron tomography is a powerful tool for elucidating the three-dimensional architecture of large biological complexes and subcellular organelles. The introduction of intermediate voltage electron microscopes further extended the technique by providing the means to examine very large and non-symmetrical subcellular organelles, at resolutions beyond what would be possible using light microscopy. Recent studies using electron tomography on a variety of cellular organelles and assemblies such as centrosomes, kinetochores, and chromatin have clearly demonstrated the power of this technique for obtaining 3D structural information on non-symmetric cell components. When combined with biochemical and molecular observations, these 3D reconstructions have provided significant new insights into biological function.

  2. Comparing High Resolution Weather Forecasts to Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foley, T. A.; Smith, J. A.; Raby, J. W.

    2013-12-01

    The Advanced Research version of the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF) is a mesoscale numerical weather prediction (NWP) system, with a horizontal grid spacing of several kilometers to several hundred kilometers. WRF can create forecasts of finer horizontal resolution by embedding a smaller domain inside the parent domain, a process called nesting. A nest may be embedded simultaneously within a coarser-resolution (parent) model run, or run independently as a separate model forecast. Army operations require weather forecasts on a scale of one kilometer or less, an area of weather modeling known as 'terra incognita' between which large eddy simulation and traditional mesoscale NWP models are applied with most confidence. Complex terrain leads to differences in surface temperature, moisture gradients, and wind speed /wind direction, and these differences are not always well-characterized by mesoscale WRF forecasts. Differences in land surface characteristics produce air flows such as mountain/valley breezes, and sea breezes that are of vital importance to Army and Air Force operations. Atmospheric effects on commercial as well as military air platforms and any associated subsystems is of critical concern, whether for commercial flight planning or for military mission execution. The traditional model verification techniques currently used aggregate the error statistics over an entire domain (such as on the order of 100km x 100km to 500km x 500km in size), techniques which produce results that often appear smoothed and may not show the value added of higher resolution WRF output at grid resolutions of 1km or less. Point verification methods can also be ineffective due to 'double counting' errors of phase and spatial nature, and failing to capture model skill in resolving mesoscale structure. More in-depth analysis of the forecast errors are needed to deduce the various sub-regimes and temporal and spatial trends which may govern the statistics in a way which

  3. High Spectral Resolution Lidar: System Calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vivek Vivekanandan, J.; Morley, Bruce; Spuler, Scott; Eloranta, Edwin

    2015-04-01

    One of the unique features of the high spectral resolution lidar (HSRL) is simultaneous measurements of backscatter and extinction of atmosphere. It separates molecular scattering from aerosol and cloud particle backscatter based on their Doppler spectrum width. Scattering from aerosol and cloud particle are referred as Mie scattering. Molecular or Rayleigh scattering is used as a reference for estimating aerosol extinction and backscatter cross-section. Absolute accuracy of the backscattered signals and their separation into Rayleigh and Mie scattering depends on spectral purity of the transmitted signals, accurate measurement of transmit power, and precise performance of filters. Internal calibration is used to characterize optical subsystems Descriptions of high spectral resolution lidar system and its measurement technique can be found in Eloronta (2005) and Hair et al.(2001). Four photon counting detectors are used to measure the backscatter from the combined Rayleigh and molecular scattering (high and low gain), molecular scattering and cross-polarized signal. All of the detectors are sensitive to crosstalk or leakage through the optical filters used to separate the received signals and special data files are used to remove these effects as much as possible. Received signals are normalized with respect to the combined channel response to Mie and Rayleigh scattering. The laser transmit frequency is continually monitored and tuned to the 1109 Iodine absorption line. Aerosol backscatter cross-section is measured by referencing the aerosol return signal to the molecular return signal. Extinction measurements are calculated based on the differences between the expected (theoretical) and actual change in the molecular return. In this paper an overview of calibration of the HSRL is presented. References: Eloranta, E. W., High Spectral Resolution Lidar in Lidar: Range-Resolved Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere, Klaus Weitkamp editor, Springer Series in Optical

  4. High-resolution flurescence spectroscopy in immunoanalysis

    SciTech Connect

    Grubor, Nenad M.

    2005-01-01

    The work presented in this dissertation combines highly sensitive and selective fluorescence line-narrowing spectroscopy (FLNS) detection with various modes of immunoanalytical techniques. It has been shown that FLNS is capable of directly probing molecules immunocomplexed with antibodies, eliminating analytical ambiguities that may arise from interferences that accompany traditional immunochemical techniques. Moreover, the utilization of highly cross-reactive antibodies for highly specific analyte determination has been demonstrated. Finally, they demonstrate the first example of the spectral resolution of diastereomeric analytes based on their interaction with a cross-reactive antibody.

  5. High Resolution Image From Viking Lander 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Viking 1 took this high-resolution picture today, its third day on Mars. Distance from the camera to the nearfield (bottom) is about 4 meters (13 feet); to the horizon, about 3 kilometers (1.8 miles). The photo shows numerous angular blocks ranging in size from a few centimeters to several meters. The surface between the blocks is composed of fine-grained material. Accumulation of some fine-grained material behind blocks indicates wind deposition of dust and sand downwind of obstacles. The large block on the horizon is about 4 meters (13 feet) wide. Distance across the horizon is about 34 meters (110 feet).

  6. High resolution obtained by photoelectric scanning techniques.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, J. S.

    1972-01-01

    Several applications of linear scanning of different types of objects are described; examples include double stars, satellites, the Red Spot of Jupiter and a landing site on the moon. This technique allows one to achieve a gain of about an order of magnitude in resolution over conventional photoelectric techniques; it is also effective in providing sufficient data for removing background effects and for the application of deconvolution procedures. Brief consideration is given to two-dimensional scanning, either at the telescope or of electronographic images in the laboratory. It is suggested that some of the techniques described should be given serious consideration for space applications.

  7. Crusta: Visualizing High-resolution Global Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernardin, T. S.; Kreylos, O.; Bowles, C. J.; Cowgill, E.; Hamann, B.; Kellogg, L. H.

    2009-12-01

    Virtual globes have become indispensable tools for visualizing, understanding and presenting data from Earth and other planetary bodies. The scientific community has invested much effort into exploiting existing globes to their fullest potential by refining and adapting their capabilities to better satisfy specific needs. For example, Google Earth provides users with the ability to view hillshade images derived from airborne LiDAR data such as the 2007 Northern California GeoEarthScope data. However, because most available globes were not designed with the specific needs of geoscientists in mind, shortcomings are becoming increasingly evident in geoscience applications such as terrain visualization. In particular, earth scientists struggle to visualize digital elevation models with both high spatial resolution (0.5 - 1 square meters per sample) and large extent (>2000 square kilometers), such as those obtained with airborne LiDAR. To address the specific earth science need of real-time terrain visualization of LiDAR data, we are developing Crusta as part of a close collaboration involving earth and computer scientists. Crusta is a new virtual globe that differs from widely used globes by both providing accurate global data representation and the ability to easily visualize custom topographic and image data. As a result, Crusta enables real-time, interactive visualization of high resolution digital elevation data spanning thousands of square kilometers, such as the complete 2007 Northern California GeoEarthScope airborne LiDAR data set. To implement an accurate data representation and avoid distortion of the display at the poles, where other projections have singularities, Crusta represents the globe as a thirty-sided polyhedron. Each side of this polyhedron can be subdivided to an arbitrarily fine grid on the surface of the globe, which allows Crusta to accommodate input data of arbitrary resolution ranging from global (e.g., Blue Marble) to local (e.g., a tripod

  8. Binary Cepheids From High-Angular Resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallenne, A.; Mérand, A.; Kervella, P.

    2015-12-01

    Optical interferometry is the only technique giving access to milli-arcsecond (mas) spatial resolution. This is a powerful and unique tool to detect the close orbiting companions of Cepheids, and offers an unique opportunity to make progress in resolving the Cepheid mass discrepancy. Our goal in studying binary Cepheids is to measure the astrometric position of the high-contrast companion, and then combine them with spectroscopic measurements to derive the orbital elements, distances, and dynamical masses. In the course of this program, we developed a new tool, CANDID, to search for high-contrast companions and set detection limits from interferometric observations

  9. Moderate resolution spectrophotometry of high redshift quasars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Donald P.; Schmidt, Maarten; Gunn, James E.

    1991-01-01

    A uniform set of photometry and high signal-to-noise moderate resolution spectroscopy of 33 quasars with redshifts larger than 3.1 is presented. The sample consists of 17 newly discovered quasars (two with redshifts in excess of 4.4) and 16 sources drawn from the literature. The objects in this sample have r magnitudes between 17.4 and 21.4; their luminosities range from -28.8 to -24.9. Three of the 33 objects are broad absorption line quasars. A number of possible high redshift damped Ly-alpha systems were found.

  10. High Resolution Spectroscopy with Submillimeter-Wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Vinay; Dave, Hemant

    2003-03-01

    In order to explain the characteristic features of planetary atmosphere, detection and precise measurements of environmentally important gases such as CO, CIO, No becomes necessary. Since most of the polyatomic molecules have (ro-vibrational) transitions in submillimeter region 100 μ-1000μ), probing in this wavelength region is vital. The specific rotational and vibrational states are the result of interactions between different atoms in the molecule. Since each molecule has a unique arrangement of atoms, it has an exclusive submillimeter signature. We are developing a portable heterodyne receiver system at Physical Research Laboratory, Ahmedabad to perform high-resolution spectroscopy in this wavelength region.

  11. High-resolution stratigraphy with strontium isotopes.

    PubMed

    Depaolo, D J; Ingram, B L

    1985-02-22

    The isotopic ratio of strontium-87 to strontium-86 shows no detectable variation in present-day ocean water but changes slowly over millions of years. The strontium contained in carbonate shells of marine organisms records the ratio of strontium-87 to strontium-86 of the oceans at the time that the shells form. Sedimentary rocks composed of accumulated fossil carbonate shells can be dated and correlated with the use of high precision measurements of the ratio of strontium-87 to strontium-86 with a resolution that is similar to that of other techniques used in age correlation. This method may prove valuable for many geological, paleontological, paleooceanographic, and geochemical problems.

  12. Enforcing Compliance with IDEA: Dispute Resolution and Appropriate Relief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dagley, David

    1995-01-01

    This discussion of dispute resolution and remedies under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act focuses on the due process hearing as well as alternative dispute resolution, appropriate relief, reimbursements, compensatory relief, punitive damages, and attorneys' fees. (DB)

  13. [Solving resolution of diffraction gratings using coefficients of Zernike polynomials].

    PubMed

    Yu, Hai-li; Qi, Xiang-dong; Bayanheshig; Tang, Yu-guo

    2012-01-01

    It is hard and costly to test resolution directly, because the focal length of testing equipment could be nearly ten meters. Solving resolution by diffraction wavefront aberration indirectly is an effective solution to this problem. A normalization model of solving resolution using fitting coefficients of Zernike polynomials was established based on the spectral imaging theory of Fourier optics. The relationship between resolution and wavefront aberration of diffraction gratings was illustrated by this model. Finally, a new method of testing resolution using fitting coefficients of Zernike polynomials was proposed. According to this method, the resolution of a grating is tested by ZYGO interferometer indirectly. Compared with direct method, results indicate that the error of indirect method is less than 4.22%, and this method could be an effective way to avoid the difficulty of direct method to solve resolution. Meanwhile, this method can be used in ZYGO interferometer to solve resolution by wavefront testing easily.

  14. Statistical conditional sampling for variable-resolution video compression.

    PubMed

    Wong, Alexander; Shafiee, Mohammad Javad; Azimifar, Zohreh

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we investigate a variable-resolution approach to video compression based on Conditional Random Field and statistical conditional sampling in order to further improve compression rate while maintaining high-quality video. In the proposed approach, representative key-frames within a video shot are identified and stored at full resolution. The remaining frames within the video shot are stored and compressed at a reduced resolution. At the decompression stage, a region-based dictionary is constructed from the key-frames and used to restore the reduced resolution frames to the original resolution via statistical conditional sampling. The sampling approach is based on the conditional probability of the CRF modeling by use of the constructed dictionary. Experimental results show that the proposed variable-resolution approach via statistical conditional sampling has potential for improving compression rates when compared to compressing the video at full resolution, while achieving higher video quality when compared to compressing the video at reduced resolution.

  15. 3D spatial resolution and spectral resolution of interferometric 3D imaging spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Obara, Masaki; Yoshimori, Kyu

    2016-04-01

    Recently developed interferometric 3D imaging spectrometry (J. Opt. Soc. Am A18, 765 [2001]1084-7529JOAOD610.1364/JOSAA.18.000765) enables obtainment of the spectral information and 3D spatial information for incoherently illuminated or self-luminous object simultaneously. Using this method, we can obtain multispectral components of complex holograms, which correspond directly to the phase distribution of the wavefronts propagated from the polychromatic object. This paper focuses on the analysis of spectral resolution and 3D spatial resolution in interferometric 3D imaging spectrometry. Our analysis is based on a novel analytical impulse response function defined over four-dimensional space. We found that the experimental results agree well with the theoretical prediction. This work also suggests a new criterion and estimate method regarding 3D spatial resolution of digital holography. PMID:27139648

  16. The Resolution Code of Acute Inflammation: Novel Pro-Resolving Lipid Mediators in Resolution

    PubMed Central

    Serhan, Charles N.; Chiang, Nan; Dalli, Jesmond

    2015-01-01

    Studies into the mechanisms in resolution of self-limited inflammation and acute reperfusion injury have uncovered a new genus of pro-resolving lipid mediators coined specialized pro-resolving mediators (SPM) including lipoxins, resolvins, protectins and maresins that are each temporally produced by resolving-exudates with distinct actions for return to homeostasis. SPM evoke potent anti-inflammatory and novel pro-resolving mechanisms as well as enhance microbial clearance. While born in inflammation-resolution, SPM are conserved structures with functions discovered in microbial defense, pain, organ protection and tissue regeneration, wound healing, cancer, reproduction, and neurobiology-cognition. This review covers these SPM mechanisms and other new omega-3 PUFA pathways that open their path for functions in resolution physiology. PMID:25857211

  17. The time resolution of the St Petersburg paradox

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Ole

    2011-01-01

    A resolution of the St Petersburg paradox is presented. In contrast to the standard resolution, utility is not required. Instead, the time-average performance of the lottery is computed. The final result can be phrased mathematically identically to Daniel Bernoulli's resolution, which uses logarithmic utility, but is derived using a conceptually different argument. The advantage of the time resolution is the elimination of arbitrary utility functions. PMID:22042904

  18. Phase Change Super Resolution near Field Structure ROM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyunki; Hwang, Inoh; Kim, Jooho; Park, Changmin; Ro, Myongdo; Lee, Jinkyung; Jung, Moonil; Park, Insik

    2005-05-01

    We confirmed a super resolution phenomenon and a typical super resolution near field structure threshold phenomenon in a read only memory (ROM)-type sample disk. We found that this super resolution phenomenon originates from a phase-change layer and is closely related to the thermal properties of the super resolution layer. We also improved the readout stability using a co-sputtered layer with phase change (GST) and dielectric materials (ZnS-SiO2).

  19. High Resolution Simulations of Future Climate in West Africa Using a Variable-Resolution Atmospheric Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adegoke, J. O.; Engelbrecht, F.; Vezhapparambu, S.

    2013-12-01

    In previous work demonstrated the application of a var¬iable-resolution global atmospheric model, the conformal-cubic atmospheric model (CCAM), across a wide range of spatial and time scales to investigate the ability of the model to provide realistic simulations of present-day climate and plausible projections of future climate change over sub-Saharan Africa. By applying the model in stretched-grid mode the versatility of the model dynamics, numerical formulation and physical parameterizations to function across a range of length scales over the region of interest, was also explored. We primarily used CCAM to illustrate the capability of the model to function as a flexible downscaling tool at the climate-change time scale. Here we report on additional long term climate projection studies performed by downscaling at much higher resolutions (8 Km) over an area that stretches from just south of Sahara desert to the southern coast of the Niger Delta and into the Gulf of Guinea. To perform these simulations, CCAM was provided with synoptic-scale forcing of atmospheric circulation from 2.5 deg resolution NCEP reanalysis at 6-hourly interval and SSTs from NCEP reanalysis data uses as lower boundary forcing. CCAM 60 Km resolution downscaled to 8 Km (Schmidt factor 24.75) then 8 Km resolution simulation downscaled to 1 Km (Schmidt factor 200) over an area approximately 50 Km x 50 Km in the southern Lake Chad Basin (LCB). Our intent in conducting these high resolution model runs was to obtain a deeper understanding of linkages between the projected future climate and the hydrological processes that control the surface water regime in this part of sub-Saharan Africa.

  20. A medium resolution minefield model suitable for entity-level resolution combat simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, E.T.

    1994-06-09

    A new, flexible, and realistic representation of conventional minefields in entity-level resolution combat simulations is presented. The model includes important aspects of minefield effects on battlefield entities and of breaching devices on minefields. The model is designed at ``medium resolution,`` that is, it is general enough to depict a wide variety of tactical situations accurately; however, it only represents tactically significant aspects of mine warfare, discarding or aggregating details, thus minimizing computer memory and speed requirements. This paper describes the model in detail, its implementation in the Janus simulation code, and its use in a preliminary analysis effort related to the effect of delay on the tactical battlefield.