Science.gov

Sample records for 39b mission objectives

  1. STS-87 Mission Specialist Doi and his wife pose at LC 39B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    STS-87 Mission Specialist Takao Doi, Ph.D., of the National Space Development Agency of Japan poses with his wife, Hitomi Doi, in front of Kennedy Space Center's Launch Pad 39B during final prelaunch activities leading up to the scheduled Nov. 19 liftoff. The other STS-87 crew members are Commander Kevin Kregel; Pilot Steven Lindsey; Mission Specialists Kalpana Chawla, Ph.D., and Winston Scott; and Payload Specialist Leonid Kadenyuk of the National Space Agency of Ukraine. STS-87 will be the fourth flight of the United States Microgravity Payload and the Spartan- 201 deployable satellite.

  2. STS-87 Mission Specialist Chawla and her husband pose at LC 39B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    STS-87 Mission Specialist Kalpana Chawla, Ph.D., poses with her husband, Jean-Pierre Harrison, in front of Kennedy Space Center's Launch Pad 39B during final prelaunch activities leading up to the scheduled Nov. 19 liftoff. The other STS-87 crew members are Commander Kevin Kregel; Pilot Steven Lindsey; Mission Specialists Winston Scott and Takao Doi, Ph.D., of the National Space Development Agency of Japan; and Payload Specialist Leonid Kadenyuk of the National Space Agency of Ukraine. STS-87 will be the fourth flight of the United States Microgravity Payload and the Spartan-201 deployable satellite.

  3. Mission Specialist Pedro Duque smiles at camera while at Launch Pad 39B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    STS-95 Mission Specialist Pedro Duque of Spain, with the European Space Agency (ESA), smiles for the camera from Launch Pad 39B. The STS-95 crew were making final preparations for launch, targeted for liftoff at 2 p.m. on Oct. 29. Other crew members not shown are Mission Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr., Pilot Steven W. Lindsey, Mission Specialists Scott E. Parazynski, Stephen K. Robinsion, and and Payload Specialists John H. Glenn Jr., senator from Ohio, and Chiaki Mukai, with the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA). The STS-95 mission is expected to last 8 days, 21 hours and 49 minutes, returning to KSC at 11:49 a.m. EST on Nov. 7.

  4. STS-80 MISSION SPECIALIST STORY MUSGRAVE ANSWERS PRESS QUESTIONS AT PAD 39B DURING TERMINAL COUNTDOW

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    While preparing for what probably will be his last space flight, STS-80 Mission Specialist Story Musgrave appears pensive as he gazes skyward from Kennedy Space Center, where he and four other crew members are scheduled to lift off November 8 on the Space Shuttle Columbia. The STS-80 crew arrived at KSC to participate in the Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test (TCDT), a dress rehearsal for launch. On STS- 80, Musgrave will equal American astronaut John Young's record of six space flights. At 61, he also will be the oldest human to fly in space. He was selected by NASA as a scientist-astronaut in 1967, but did not fly until the Space Shuttle program. He was a mission specialist on STS-6 in 1983, STS 51-F in 1985, STS-33 in 1989 and STS-44 in 1991, and the payload commander on STS-61 in 1993, the first Hubble Space Telescope servicing mission.

  5. Space Shuttle Discovery leaves the VAB for Launch Pad 39B and mission STS-60

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Leaving the Vehicle Asembly Building for Launch Pad 39A on a crisp, clear winter day, the Space Shuttle Discovery makes the final Earth-bound leg of a journey into space. Once at the pad, two of the payloads for Discovery's upcoming flight, mission STS- 60, will be installed. The Wake Shield Facility-1 and Get Away Special bridge assembly will be joining SPACEHAB-2 in the orbiter's payload bay. Liftoff of the first Space Shuttle flight of 1994 is currently targeted for around Feb. 3.{end}

  6. Mission objectives and trajectories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The present state of the knowledge of asteroids was assessed to identify mission and target priorities for planning asteroidal flights in the 1980's and beyond. Mission objectives, mission analysis, trajectory studies, and cost analysis are discussed. A bibliography of reports and technical memoranda is included.

  7. Pad 39B Deconstruction

    NASA Video Gallery

    A time-lapse video of the deconstruction of Launch Pad 39B at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The fixed service structure and rotating service structure were removed. Both structures were b...

  8. Space Shuttle Discovery on Launch Pad 39B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    An olivaceous cormorant soars in the cloud-streaked sky near the Space Shuttle Discovery as it waits for liftoff on mission STS-103. To the left of Discovery is the Rotating Service Structure, rolled back on Dec. 16 in preparation for launch. At right is a 290-foot-high water tank with a capacity of 300,000 gallons. The tank is part of the sound suppression water system used during launch. The STS-103 mission, to service the Hubble Space Telescope, is scheduled for launch Dec. 17 at 8:47 p.m. EST from Launch Pad 39B. Mission objectives include replacing gyroscopes and an old computer, installing another solid state recorder, and replacing damaged insulation in the telescope. The mission is expected to last about 8 days and 21 hours. Discovery is expected to land at KSC Sunday, Dec. 26, at about 6:25 p.m. EST.

  9. The STS-103 crew address family and friends at Pad 39B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The STS-103 crew address family and friends at Launch Pad 39B. From left to right are Pilot Scott J. Kelly, Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr., and Mission Specialists C. Michael Foale (Ph.D.), John M. Grunsfeld (Ph.D.), Jean-Frangois Clervoy of France , Claude Nicollier of Switzerland and Steven L. Smith. Nicollier and Clervoy are with the European Space Agency. In the background is Space Shuttle Discovery, alongside the lighted Fixed Service Structure. The STS-103 mission, to service the Hubble Space Telescope, is scheduled for launch Dec. 17 at 8:47 p.m. EST from Launch Pad 39B. Mission objectives include replacing gyroscopes and an old computer, installing another solid state recorder, and replacing damaged insulation in the telescope. The mission is expected to last about 8 days and 21 hours. Discovery is expected to land at KSC Sunday, Dec. 26, at about 6:25 p.m. EST.

  10. Low Cost Multiple Near Earth Object Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, D. B.; Klaus, K.; Kaplan, M.

    2009-12-01

    Commercial spacecraft are available with efficient high power solar arrays and hybrid propulsion systems (Chemical and Solar Electric) that make possible multiple Near Earth Object Missions within Discovery budget limits. Our analysis is based on the Geosynchronous Transfer Orbit Capability (GTOC-3) solution. GTOC-3 assumptions: - Escape from Earth, rendezvous with 3 asteroids, then rendezvous with Earth - Departure velocity below 0.5 km/s - Launch between 2016 and 2025 - Total trip time less than 10 years - Minimum stay time of 60 days at each asteroid - Initial spacecraft mass of 2,000 kg - Thrust of 0.15 N and Isp of 3,000 s - Only Earth GAMs allowed (Rmin = 6,871 km) Preliminary results indicate that for mission objectives we can visit Apophis and any other 2 asteroids on this list or any other 3 asteroids listed. We have considered two spacecraft approaches to accomplish mission objectives: - Case 1: Chemical engine burn to the 1st target, and then solar electric to the 2nd and 3rd targets, or - Case 2: Solar electric propulsion to all 3 targets For both Cases, we assumed an instrument mass of up to 100 kg, power up to 100 W, and s/c bus pointing as good as 12 arc sec.Multi-NEO Mission Candidates

  11. Shuttle Atlantis travels to LC-39B for STS-76

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Atlantis completes the journey to Launch Pad 39B from the Vehicle Assembly Building. Atlantis is being prepared for a March 21 liftoff on Mission STS-76, which will be highlighted by the third docking between the U.S. Shuttle and the Russian Space Station Mir and the transfer of U.S. astronaut Shannon Lucid to the station for an extended stay.

  12. Mission objectives and scientific rationale for the magnetometer mission.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langel, R. A.

    1991-12-01

    Based on a review of the characteristics of the geomagnetic field, objectives for the magnetic portion of the ARISTOTELES mission are: (1) To derive a description of the main magnetic field and its secular variation. (2) To investigate the correlation between the geomagnetic field and variations in the length of day. (3) To study properties of the fluid core. (4) To study the conductivity of the mantle. (5) To model the state and evolution of the crust and upper lithosphere. (6) To measure and characterize field aligned currents and ionospheric currents and to understand their generation mechanisms and their role in energy coupling in the interplanetary-magnetospheric-ionospheric systems. Procedures for these investigations are outlined.

  13. Solar system object observations with Gaia Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudryashova, Maria; Tanga, Paolo; Mignard, Francois; CARRY, Benoit; Christophe, Ordenovic; DAVID, Pedro; Hestroffer, Daniel

    2016-05-01

    After a commissioning period, the astrometric mission Gaia of the European Space Agency (ESA) started its survey in July 2014. Throughout passed two years the Gaia Data Processing and Analysis Consortium (DPAC) has been treating the data. The current schedule anticipates the first Gaia Data Release (Gaia-DR1) toward the end of summer 2016. Nevertheless, it is not planned to include Solar System Objects (SSO) into the first release. This is due to a special treatment required by solar system objects, as well as by other peculiar sources (multiple and extended ones). In this presentation, we address issues and recent achivements in SSO processing, in particular validation of SSO-short term data processing chain, GAIA-SSO alerts, as well as the first runs of SSO-long term pipeline.

  14. The STS-103 crew head for Astrovan and trip to Launch Pad 39B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The STS-103 crew smile and wave to onlookers as they head toward the 'Astrovan' at right that will carry them to Launch Pad 39B for liftoff of Space Shuttle Discovery. In their orange launch and entry suits, they are (front row) Pilot Scott J. Kelly and Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr., (second row) Mission Specialists John M. Grunsfeld (Ph.D.) and Jean-Francois Clervoy of France, (third row) C. Michael Foale (Ph. D.) and Claude Nicollier of Switzerland, and bringing up the rear, Steven L. Smith. The STS-103 mission, to service the Hubble Space Telescope, is scheduled for launch Dec. 17 at 8:47 p.m. EST from Launch Pad 39B. Mission objectives include replacing gyroscopes and an old computer, installing another solid state recorder, and replacing damaged insulation in the telescope. After the 8-day, 21-hour mission, Discovery is expected to land at KSC Sunday, Dec. 26, at about 6:30 p.m. EST.

  15. STS-76 crew beside shuttle Atlantis at LC-39B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The STS-76 flight crew stands tall besides the Space Shuttle Atlantis at Launch Pad 39B. From left are Mission Specialists Shannon Lucid, Michael 'Rich' Clifford, and Linda Godwin; Pilot Richard Searfoss and Mission Commander Kevin Chilton; and Payload Commander Ronald Sega. The astronauts are wearing their launch/entry suits for the final phase of the Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test (TCDT), a dress rehearsal for launch. Atlantis is targeted for liftoff on the third Shuttle-Mir docking flight on March 21.

  16. STS-76 liftoff - right side view from Pad 39B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The chase to catch up with the Russian Space Station Mir gets under way with an on-time liftoff, as the Space Shuttle Atlantis hurtles skyward from Launch Pad 39B at 3:13:04 a.m. EST, March 22. On board for Mission STS-76 -- also the 76th Shuttle flight - - are a crew of six: Mission Commander Kevin P. Chilton; Pilot Richard A. Searfoss; Payload Commander Ronald M. Sega; and Mission Specialists Michael Richard 'Rich' Clifford, Linda M. Godwin, and Shannon W. Lucid. During the course of the planned nine-day flight, Atlantis will rendezvous and dock with Mir for athe third time. Lucid will transfer to the station for an approximately four-and-a-half month stay, becoming the first American woman to live on Mir. In addition, Godwin and Clifford will perform an extravehicular activity later in the mission, the first around the mated Atlantis-Mir assembly.

  17. STS-90 Columbia launch from LC-39B at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Columbia lifts off from Launch Pad 39B at 2:19 p.m. EDT Apr. 17 to begin the nearly 17-day STS-90 Neurolab mission. A torrent of water is seen flowing onto the mobile launcher platform as several large quench nozzles, or 'rainbirds,' mounted on platform's surface operate as a sound suppression system. The crew members are Commander Richard Searfoss, Pilot Scott Altman, Mission Specialists Richard Linnehan, D.V.M., Dafydd (Dave) Williams, M.D., with the Canadian Space Agency, and Kathryn (Kay) Hire; and Payload Specialists Jay Buckey, M.D., and James Pawelczyk, Ph.D. Investigations during the Neurolab mission will focus on the effects of microgravity on the nervous system.

  18. Objectives and results of the BIRD mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenz, Eckehard; Briess, Klaus; Halle, Winfried; Oertel, Dieter; Skrbek, Wolfgang; Zhukov, Boris

    2003-11-01

    The DLR small satellite BIRD (Bi- spectral Infrared Detection) is successfully operating in space since October 2001. The main payload is dedicated to the observation of high temperature events and consists mainly of a Bi-Spectral Infrared Push Broom Scanner (3.4-4.2μm and 8.5-9.3μm), a Push Broom Imager for the Visible and Near Infrared and a neural network classification signal processor. The BIRD mission answers topical technological and scientific questions related to the operation of a compact infra-red push-broom sensor on board of a micro satellite. A powerful Payload Data Handling System (PDH) is responsible for all payload real time operation, control and on-board science data handling. The IR cameras are equipped with an advanced real time data processing allowing an autonomously adaptation of the dynamic range to different scenarios. The BIRD mission control, the data reception and the data processing is conducted by the DLR ground stations in Weilheim and Neustrelitz (Germany; is experimentally performed by a low cost ground station implemented at DLR Berlin-Adlershof. The BIRD on ground data processing chain delivers radiometric and geometric corrected data products, which will be also described in this paper. The BIRD mission is an exemplary demonstrator for small satellite projects dedicated to the hazard detection and monitoring.

  19. STS-81 Rollout to Pad 39B (turtle in foreground)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Will the Space Shuttle Atlantis or the turtle reach Launch Pad 39B first? Carried atop the Mobile Launch Platform on the 6- million-pound Crawler Transporter, Shuttle Atlantis departs the Vehicle Assembly Building en route to Pad B at a maximum speed of 1 mile per hour. No one clocked the turtle, which seems to be heading in the same direction. Atlantis is tentatively scheduled to lift off on a nine-day mission on Jan. 12. STS-81 will be the fifth Shuttle-Mir docking. The six-member crew at liftoff will include Mission Specialist J.M. Linenger, who will transfer to the Russian Mir Space Station for an extended stay, replacing astronaut John E. Blaha, who will return to Earth on Atlantis.

  20. The STS-93 crew practice emergency egress training from Launch Pad 39B.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Inside an M-113 armored personnel carrier at the launch pad, the STS-93 crew take part in emergency egress training under the watchful eyes of Capt. George Hoggard (center), trainer with the KSC Fire Department. From left are Mission Specialist Michel Tognini of France, Commander Eileen M. Collins, Hoggard, Mission Specialist Steven A. Hawley (Ph.D.), Pilot Jeffrey S. Ashby, and Mission Specialist Catherine G. Coleman (Ph.D.). Collins is the first woman to serve as mission commander. Tognini represents the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES). The training is part of Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test activities that also include a launch-day dress rehearsal culminating with a simulated main engine cut-off. The primary mission of STS-93 is the release of the Chandra X-ray Observatory, which will allow scientists from around the world to obtain unprecedented X-ray images of exotic environments in space to help understand the structure and evolution of the universe. Chandra is expected to provide unique and crucial information on the nature of objects ranging from comets in our solar system to quasars at the edge of the observable universe. Since X-rays are absorbed by the Earth's atmosphere, space-based observatories are necessary to study these phenomena and allow scientists to analyze some of the greatest mysteries of the universe. The targeted launch date for STS-93 is no earlier than July 20 at 12:36 a.m. EDT from Launch Pad 39B.

  1. STS-75 liftoff - right side view from Pad 39B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    A smooth countdown culminates in an on-time liftoff as the Space Shuttle Columbia climbs skyward atop a column of flame. The launch from Pad 39B occurred at 3:18:00 P.M. EST, February 22, 1996. Aboard for Mission STS-75 is an international crew headed by Mission Commander Andrew M. Allen; Scott J. 'Doc' Horowitz is pilot; Franklin R. Chang-Diaz is payload commander. Serving as mission specialists are Jeffrey A. Hoffman, Maurizio Cheli and Claude Nicollier. Cheli, from Italy, and Nicollier, from Switzerland, both represent the European Space Agency (ESA). Assigned as payload specialist is Italian Umberto Guidoni, who represents the Italian Space Agency (ASI). During a mission scheduled to last nearly 14 days the flightg crew will be working with two primary parylods: the U.S./Italian Tethered Satellite System (TSS-1R), which is being re-flown, and the U.S. Microgravity Payload (USMP-3), making its third spaceflight. Mission STS-75 marks the second Shuttle flight of 1996 and the 75th Shuttle launch overall.

  2. STRATCOM-8 scientific objectives and mission orginization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, E. I. (Compiler)

    1977-01-01

    Stratospheric photochemistry was studied, with emphasis on the Ozone-NOx-ultraviolet flux interactions, but also including members of the chlorine, water vapor, and carbon-containing families. Secondary objectives include: (1) study of the balloon environment, (2) comparison of independent measurements of ozone and of NO, (3) development of new sensor systems; and (4) some measurements for exploratory purposes. Most, but not all, systems and instruments performed as planned, and it is believed that data are available to achieve most of the planned scientific and engineering objectives. The emphasis on photochemistry in the 35 to 40 km region is greater than anticipated, and observations are more complete for sunset than for sunrise. The planned instruments and a summary of the flight operations is discussed partly for the mutual information of those participating and partly for the wider scientific community.

  3. The STS-103 crew exit the O&C Building on way to Launch Pad 39B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The STS-103 crew smile and wave to onlookers as they walk out of the Operations and Checkout Building enroute to Launch Pad 39B and liftoff of Space Shuttle Discovery. In their orange launch and entry suits, they are (front row) Pilot Scott J. Kelly and Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr., (second row) Mission Specialists John M. Grunsfeld (Ph.D.) and Jean-Francois Clervoy of France, (third row) C. Michael Foale (Ph. D.) and Claude Nicollier of Switzerland, and bringing up the rear, Steven L. Smith. The STS-103 mission, to service the Hubble Space Telescope, is scheduled for launch Dec. 17 at 8:47 p.m. EST from Launch Pad 39B. Mission objectives include replacing gyroscopes and an old computer, installing another solid state recorder, and replacing damaged insulation in the telescope. After the 8-day, 21-hour mission, Discovery is expected to land at KSC Sunday, Dec. 26, at about 6:30 p.m. EST.

  4. MARCO POLO: A Near Earth Object Sample Return Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barucci, M. A.; Yoshikawa, M.; Michel, P.; Kawaguchi, J.; Yano, H.; Brucato, J. R.; Franchi, I. A.; Dotto, E.; Fulchignoni, M.; Ulamec, S.; Boehnhardt, H.; Coradini, M.; Green, S. F.; Josset, J.-L.; Koschny, D.; Muinonen, M.; Oberst, J.; Marco Polo Scienc

    2008-03-01

    MARCO POLO is a joint European-Japanese sample return mission to a near-Earth object. In late 2007 this mission was selected by ESA, in the framework of COSMIC VISION 2015-2025, for an assessment scheduled to last until mid 2009.

  5. STS-87 Payload installation in LC 39B PCR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    A payload canister, seen here half-open, containing the primary payloads for the STS-87 mission, is moved into the Payload Changeout Room at Pad 39B at Kennedy Space Center. The STS-87 payload includes the United States Microgravity Payload-4 (USMP- 4), seen here on two Multi-Purpose Experiment Support Structures in the center of the photo, and Spartan-201, wrapped in a protective covering directly above the USMP-4 experiments. Spartan-201 is a small retrievable satellite involved in research to study the interaction between the Sun and its wind of charged particles. USMP-4 is one of a series of missions designed to conduct scientific research aboard the Shuttle in the unique microgravity environment for extended periods of time. In the past, USMP missions have provided invaluable experience in the design of instruments needed for the International Space Station (ISS) and microgravity programs to follow in the 21st century. STS-87 is scheduled for launch Nov. 19.

  6. Astronaut Jean-Francois Clervoy in white room on launch pad 39B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    In the white room at Launch Pad 39B, STS-66 mission specialist Jean-Francois Clervoy is assisted with his partial pressure launch/entry suit by close-out crew members Travis Thompson and Danny Wyatt (background) before entering the Space Shuttle Atlantis for its November 3 launch.

  7. STS-103 crew pose in front of Pad 39B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    During Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test (TDCT) activities at Launch Pad 39B, the STS-103 crew pose in front of the flame trench, which is situated underneath the Mobile Launcher Platform holding Space Shuttle Discovery. Standing left to right are Mission Specialists Claude Nicollier of Switzerland, who is with the European Space Agency (ESA), C. Michael Foale (Ph.D.), John M. Grunsfeld (Ph.D.), Pilot Scott J. Kelly, Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr., and Mission Specialists Jean-Frangois Clervoy of France, also with ESA, and Steven L. Smith. One of the solid rocket boosters and the external tank that are attached to Discovery can be seen in the photo. The flame trench is made of concrete and refractory brick, and contains an orbiter flame deflector on one side and solid rocket booster flame deflector on the other. The deflectors protect the flame trench floor and pad surface from the intense heat of launch. The TCDT provides the crew with emergency egress training, opportunities to inspect their mission payloads in the orbiter's payload bay, and simulated countdown exercises. STS-103 is a 'call-up' mission due to the need to replace and repair portions of the Hubble Space Telescope, including the gyroscopes that allow the telescope to point at stars, galaxies and planets. The STS-103 crew will be replacing a Fine Guidance Sensor, an older computer with a new enhanced model, an older data tape recorder with a solid-state digital recorder, a failed spare transmitter with a new one, and degraded insulation on the telescope with new thermal insulation. The crew will also install a Battery Voltage/Temperature Improvement Kit to protect the spacecraft batteries from overcharging and overheating when the telescope goes into a safe mode. Four EVA's are planned to make the necessary repairs and replacements on the telescope. The mission is targeted for launch Dec. 6 at 2:37 a.m. EST.

  8. Multi-Objective Hybrid Optimal Control for Interplanetary Mission Planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Englander, Jacob; Vavrina, Matthew; Ghosh, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Preliminary design of low-thrust interplanetary missions is a highly complex process. The mission designer must choose discrete parameters such as the number of flybys, the bodies at which those flybys are performed and in some cases the final destination. In addition, a time-history of control variables must be chosen which defines the trajectory. There are often many thousands, if not millions, of possible trajectories to be evaluated. The customer who commissions a trajectory design is not usually interested in a point solution, but rather the exploration of the trade space of trajectories between several different objective functions. This can be a very expensive process in terms of the number of human analyst hours required. An automated approach is therefore very diserable. This work presents such as an approach by posing the mission design problem as a multi-objective hybrid optimal control problem. The method is demonstrated on a hypothetical mission to the main asteroid belt.

  9. Balancing Science Objectives and Operational Constraints: A Mission Planner's Challenge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weldy, Michelle

    1996-01-01

    The Air Force minute sensor technology integration (MSTI-3) satellite's primary mission is to characterize Earth's atmospheric background clutter. MSTI-3 will use three cameras for data collection, a mid-wave infrared imager, a short wave infrared imager, and a visible imaging spectrometer. Mission science objectives call for the collection of over 2 million images within the one year mission life. In addition, operational constraints limit camera usage to four operations of twenty minutes per day, with no more than 10,000 data and calibrating images collected per day. To balance the operational constraints and science objectives, the mission planning team has designed a planning process to e event schedules and sensor operation timelines. Each set of constraints, including spacecraft performance capabilities, the camera filters, the geographical regions, and the spacecraft-Sun-Earth geometries of interest, and remote tracking station deconflictions has been accounted for in this methodology. To aid in this process, the mission planning team is building a series of tools from commercial off-the-shelf software. These include the mission manifest which builds a daily schedule of events, and the MSTI Scene Simulator which helps build geometrically correct scans. These tools provide an efficient, responsive, and highly flexible architecture that maximizes data collection while minimizing mission planning time.

  10. STS-87 Columbia rolls out to LC 39B in preparation for launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The orbiter Columbia, mated to its external tank and two solid rocket boosters, rolls out to Kennedy Space Centers (KSCs) Pad 39-B. Columbia is scheduled to launch on Nov. 19 for STS-87 on a 16-day flight of the United States Microgravity Payload (USMP)-4 mission. This mission also features the deployment and retrieval of the Spartan-201 satellite and a spacewalk to demonstrate assembly and maintenance operations for future use on the International Space Station.

  11. STS-112 crew in front of Launch Pad 39B before launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Members of the STS-112 crew pose in front of Launch Pad 39B during a tour of Kennedy Space Center prior to launch. From left, they are Mission Specialist Sandra H. Magnus, Commander Jeffrey S. Ashby, Pilot Pamela Ann Melroy, a nd Mission Specialists David A. Wolf, Fyodor N. Yurchikhin of the Russian Space Agency, and Piers J. Sellers. The launch of Space Shuttle Atlantis was postponed today to no earlier than Thursday, Oct. 3, while weather forecasters and the mission managemen t team assess the possible effect Hurricane Lili may have on the Mission Control Center located at the Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas.

  12. 28 CFR 0.39b - Confidentiality of information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... disclose the identity of any person submitting an allegation of misconduct or reprisal pursuant to 28 CFR 0... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Confidentiality of information. 0.39b Section 0.39b Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ORGANIZATION OF THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE...

  13. STS-106 crew members Morukov and Malenchenko pose in front of Pad 39B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Russian cosmonauts Boris V. Morukov and Yuri I. Malenchenko wave for the photo while standing in front of Launch Pad 39B where Space Shuttle Atlantis awaits launch. The cosmonauts are with the Russian Aviation and Space Agency. STS-106 is scheduled to launch Sept. 8, 2000, at 8:45 a.m. EDT from Launch Pad 39B. On the 11- day mission, the seven-member crew will perform support tasks on orbit, transfer supplies and prepare the living quarters in the newly arrived Zvezda Service Module. Malenchenko will perform a six-and-a-half-hour space walk, along with Mission Specialist Edward T. Lu, during the mission. Landing is targeted for Sept. 19 at 4:59 a.m. EDT at the KSC Shuttle Landing Facility.

  14. Mission objectives and comparison of strategies for Mars exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duke, Michael B.; Keaton, Paul W.; Weaver, David; Briggs, Geoffrey; Roberts, Barney

    1993-01-01

    Over the past several years, a number of candidate scenarios for the human exploration of Mars have been advanced. These have had a range of mission objectives, scope, scale, complexity and probable cost. The Exploration Programs Office (ExPO) has developed a reference Mars exploration program and a means of comparing it to other proposed Mars programs. The reference program was initiated in a workshop of Mars exploration advocates which defined two objectives of equal importance for early Mars exploration - understanding Mars and understanding the potential of Mars to support humans. These goals were used to define a set of transportation and surface elements that could carry out a robust exploration program. The approach to comparing alternate architectures has three principal parts: (1) Bringing the architectures into rough commonality in terms of surface mission objectives and hardware capabilities; (2) Providing a common level of human support for flights to and from Mars; and (3) Comparing the complexity of the elements needed to carry out the program and using partial redundancy to approximate the same statistical probability of mission success. This top-level approach has been applied to the ExPO reference program, the 'Mars Directs strategy (Zubrin, 1991) and the Stanford International Mars Mission (Lusignan, 1992).

  15. Marco Polo: Near-Earth Object Sample Return Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonieta Barucci, Maria; Yoshikawa, M.; Koschny, D.; Boehnhardt, H.; Brucato, J. R.; Coradini, M.; Dotto, E.; Franchi, I. A.; Green, S. F.; Josset, J. L.; Kawagushi, J.; Michel, P.; Muinonen, K.; Oberst, J.; Yano, H.; Binzel, R. P.; Marco Polo Science Team

    2008-09-01

    MARCO POLO is a joint European-Japanese sample return mission to a Near-Earth Object (NEO), selected by ESA in the framework of COSMIC VISION 2015-2025 for an assessment study scheduled to last until October 2009. This Euro-Asian mission will go to a primitive Near-Earth Object (NEO), such as C or D-type, scientifically characterize it at multiple scales, and bring samples back to Earth for detailed scientific investigation. NEOs are part of the small body population in the Solar System, which are leftover building blocks of the Solar System formation process. They offer important clues to the chemical mixture from which planets formed about 4.6 billion years ago. The scientific objectives of Marco Polo will therefore contribute to a better understanding of the origin and evolution of the Solar System, the Earth, and the potential contribution of primitive material to the formation of Life. Marco Polo is based on a launch with a Soyuz Fregat and consists of a Mother Spacecraft (MSC), possibly carrying a lander. The MSC would approach the target asteroid and spend a few months for global characterization of the target to select a sampling site. Then, the MSC would then descend to retrieve several samples which will be transferred to a Sample Return Capsule (SRC). The MSC would return to Earth and release the SRC into the atmosphere for ground recovery. The sample of the NEO will then be available for detailed investigation in ground-based laboratories. In parallel to JAXA considering how to perform the mission, ESA has performed a Marco Polo study in their Concurrent Design Facility (CDF). Two parallel industrial studies will start in September 2008 to be conducted in Europe for one year. The scientific objectives addressed by the mission and the current status of the mission study (ESA-JAXA) will be presented and discussed.

  16. Possible LISA follow-on mission scientific objectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bender, Peter L.; Begelman, Mitchell C.; Gair, Jonathan R.

    2013-08-01

    A major objective that has been suggested for a follow-on mission to a Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA)-type mission is to investigate more completely how intermediate mass black holes were formed and grew in the early universe, before they evolved into the much more massive black holes at the centers of many galaxies today. The actual design of such a follow-on mission will of course depend on what is observed by a LISA-type mission, such as the recently modified proposal for an evolved LISA mission, with the interferometer arm lengths between spacecraft reduced from 5 million to 1 million km. However, the sensitivity goals of a follow-on mission are likely to be influenced strongly by the desire to be able to see mergers of 10 M⊙ black holes with roughly 3000 M⊙ or larger intermediate mass black holes out to as large redshifts as possible. Approximate calculations of the expected signal-to-noise have been made for a possible LISA follow-on mission that was suggested about eight years ago (Bender and Begelman 2005 Trends in Space Science and Cosmic Vision 2020 (Noordwijk: ESA Publications Division) pp 33-38), and was called the Advanced Laser Interferometer Antenna. Based on the calculations, it appears that detections out to a redshift of 10 would be possible for 10 M⊙ black holes spiraling into perhaps 5000 M⊙ or larger intermediate mass black holes if the extragalactic gravitational wave background due to close white dwarf binaries is in the currently estimated range.

  17. Objectives and Tasks of Lunar Mission BW1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laufer, R.; Roeser, H.-P.

    2007-08-01

    Lunar Mission BW1 is the forth project of the "Stuttgart Small Satellite Program" initiated in 2002 at the Institute of Space Systems (IRS), Universitaet Stuttgart, Germany. The small Moon orbiter is a 1 m cube spacecraft of approx. 200 kg launch mass currently under development with participation of diploma/masters and Ph.D. students as well as academic and industrial partners. Demonstrating the ability of an academic institution to participate and contribute to space exploration by designing, building and operating a complete space probe Lunar Mission BW1 will be a test bed to perform technology demonstration and other experiments beyond Earth orbit in cis-lunar space and at the Moon. The satellite is planned to be launched end of the decade as a piggyback payload from a geostationary transfer orbit (GTO) and will reach lunar orbit using its own electric propulsion systems (thermal arcjet and iMPD thrusters). The paper will present objectives and tasks of Lunar Mission BW1 and the elements of this mission, i.e. spacecraft, ground segment, operations. It will give also an overview about the experience and heritage gained from the three other missions of the Stuttgart Small Satellite Program (Flying Laptop - technology demonstration/Earth observation, Perseus - electric propulsion test/UV astronomy, Cermit - re-entry vehicle/GNC experiment).

  18. Multi-Objective Hybrid Optimal Control for Interplanetary Mission Planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Englander, Jacob A.

    2014-01-01

    Preliminary design of low-thrust interplanetary missions is a highly complex process. The mission designer must choose discrete parameters such as the number of flybys, the bodies at which those flybys are performed, and in some cases the final destination. Because low-thrust trajectory design is tightly coupled with systems design, power and propulsion characteristics must be chosen as well. In addition, a time-history of control variables must be chosen which defines the trajectory. There are often may thousands, if not millions, of possible trajectories to be evaluated. The customer who commissions a trajectory design is not usually interested in a point solution, but rather the exploration of the trade space of trajectories between several different objective functions. This can be a very expensive process in terms of the number of human analyst hours required. An automated approach is therefore very desirable. This work presents such an approach by posing the mission design problem as a multi-objective hybrid optimal control problem. The method is demonstrated on hypothetical mission to the main asteroid belt and to Deimos.

  19. Multi-Objective Hybrid Optimal Control for Interplanetary Mission Planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Englander, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    Preliminary design of low-thrust interplanetary missions is a highly complex process. The mission designer must choose discrete parameters such as the number of flybys, the bodies at which those flybys are performed, and in some cases the final destination. Because low-thrust trajectory design is tightly coupled with systems design, power and propulsion characteristics must be chosen as well. In addition, a time-history of control variables must be chosen which defines the trajectory. There are often many thousands, if not millions, of possible trajectories to be evaluated. The customer who commissions a trajectory design is not usually interested in a point solution, but rather the exploration of the trade space of trajectories between several different objective functions. This can be very expensive process in terms of the number of human analyst hours required. An automated approach is therefore very desirable. This work presents such an approach by posing the mission design problem as a multi-objective hybrid optimal control problem. The methods is demonstrated on hypothetical mission to the main asteroid belt and to Deimos.

  20. Mars Environmental Survey (MESUR): Science objectives and mission description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hubbard, G. Scott; Wercinski, Paul F.; Sarver, George L.; Hanel, Robert P.; Ramos, Ruben

    1992-01-01

    In-situ observations and measurements of Mars are objectives of a feasibility study beginning at the Ames Research Center for a mission called the Mars Environmental SURvey (MESUR). The purpose of the MESUR mission is to emplace a pole-to-pole global distribution of landers on the Martian surface to make both short- and long-term observations of the atmosphere and surface. The basic concept is to deploy probes which would directly enter the Mars atmosphere, provide measurements of the upper atmospheric structure, image the local terrain before landing, and survive landing to perform meteorology, seismology, surface imaging, and soil chemistry measurements. MESUR is intended to be a relatively low-cost mission to advance both Mars science and human presence objectives. Mission philosophy is to: (1) 'grow' a network over a period of years using a series of launch opportunities, thereby minimizing the peak annual costs; (2) develop a level-of-effort which is flexible and responsive to a broad set of objectives; (3) focus on science while providing a solid basis for human exploration; and (4) minimize project cost and complexity wherever possible. In order to meet the diverse scientific objectives, each MESUR lander will carry the following strawman instrument payload consisting of: (1) Atmospheric structure experiment, (2) Descent and surface imagers, (3) Meteorology package, (4) Elemental composition instrument, (5) 3-axis seismometer, and (6) Thermal analyzer/evolved gas analyzer. The feasibility study is primarily to show a practical way to design an early capability for characterizing Mars' surface and atmospheric environment on a global scale. The goals are to answer some of the most urgent questions to advance significantly our scientific knowledge about Mars, and for planning eventual exploration of the planet by robots and humans.

  1. Science Objectives and Mission Concepts for Europa Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamppari, L. K.; Senske, D. A.; Johnson, T. V.; Oberto, R.; Zimmerman, W.; JPL's Team-X Team

    2000-10-01

    Since the arrival of the Galileo spacecraft to the Jovian system in 1995, evidence indicating a liquid water ocean beneath the icy Europan crust has become much stronger. This evidence combined with the fact that Europa is greater than 90 wt% water [1] makes it a candidate body to harbor extant or extinct life. The outstanding Europa science questions [2] are to determine whether or not there is or has been a liquid water layer under the ice and whether or not liquid water currently exists on the surface or has in the geologically recent past, what geological processes create the ice rafts and other ice-tectonic processes that affect the surface, the composition of the deep interior , geochemical sources of energy, the nature of the neutral atmosphere and ionosphere, and the nature of the radiation environment, especially with regard to its implications for organic and biotic chemistry. In addition, in situ studies of the surface of Europa would offer the opportunity to characterize the chemistry of the ice including organics, pH, salinity, and redox potential. In order to address these scientific objectives, a Europa program, involving multiple spacecraft, is envisioned. The JPL Outer Planets program has been helping to lay the groundwork for such a program. This effort is being conducted with particular emphasis on compiling and identifying science objectives which will flow down to a Europa mission architecture. This poster will show the tracability of observational methods from the science objectives. Also in support of developing a Europa mission architecture, JPL's Team-X has conducted a variety of Europa mission studies . A comparison of the studies done to date will be presented, highlighting science objectives accomplished, technological challenges, and cost. A more detailed presentation will be given on a Europa Lander concept study. First, the science objectives and instrumentation will be shown, including instrument mass, power usage, volume, and data

  2. STS-106 crew participates in activities at Launch Pad 39-B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    At the 195-foot level of Launch Pad 39B, STS-106 Pilot Scott D. Altman (left) gets into position in the slidewire basket while Commander Terrence W. Wilcutt reaches for the lever to release it. The basket is part of the emergency egress equipment from the orbiter. They and the rest of the STS-106 crew are taking part in Terminal Countdown Demonstration Activities (TCDT), which includes emergency egress training, along with opportunities to inspect their mission payload in the orbiter'''s payload bay, and a simulated launch countdown. STS-106 is scheduled to launch Sept. 8, 2000, at 8:31 a.m. EDT from Launch Pad 39B. On the 11-day mission, the seven-member crew will perform support tasks on orbit, transfer supplies and prepare the living quarters in the newly arrived Zvezda Service Module. The first long-duration crew, dubbed '''Expedition One,''' is due to arrive at the Station in late fall.

  3. STS-52 Columbia, OV-102, rises above KSC LC Pad 39B after liftoff

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    STS-52 Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, leaves Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Launch Complex (LC) Pad 39B on its way toward a ten-day Earth-orbital mission. OV-102 is barely visible at the top of the exhaust cloud which covers the launch pad. The Atlantic Ocean creates the background. The photograph was taken from the Shuttle Training Aircraft (STA) piloted by astronaut Steven R. Nagel. Liftoff occurred at 1:09:39 pm (Eastern Daylight Time (EDT)).

  4. The scientific objectives of the ATLAS-1 shuttle mission

    SciTech Connect

    Torr, M.R. )

    1993-03-19

    During the 9-day ATLAS-1 mission (March 24-April 2, 1992), a significant database was acquired on the temperature, pressure, and composition of the atmosphere regions between approximately 15 km and 300 km, together with measurements of the total solar irradiance and the solar spectral irradiance between 1,200 [Angstrom] and 3.2 [mu]m. Six remote sensing atmospheric instruments covered a scope in altitude and species that has not been addressed before from a single mission. The atmospheric composition dataset should serve as an important reference for the determination of future global change in these regions. Both the solar and atmospheric instruments made observations that were coordinated with those made from other spacecraft, such as the UARS, the NOAA, and the ERB satellites. The objective of these correlative measurements was both to complement the measurements made by the other payloads and also to update the calibration of the instruments on the long-duration orbiting vehicles with recent, highly accurate calibrations. Experiments were conducted in space plasma physics. Most important of these was the generation of artificial auroras by firing a beam of energetic electrons into the atmosphere. The induced auroras were observed with a photometric imaging camera. In addition, measurements were made of the precipitation of energetic neutrals from the ring current. ATLAS-1 also carried an UV instrument to gather wide field observations of astronomical sources. A subset of these instruments is planned to fly once a year for the duration of a solar cycle. Both the ATLAS-1 mission and the ongoing series represent an important element of the Mission to Planet Earth and the Global Change Program. The papers in this special issue give a summary of the results obtained in the first 4 months following the mission. 1 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Scientific objectives for a 1996 Mars Sample Return Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanchard, D. P.; Gooding, J. L.; Clanton, U. S.

    1985-01-01

    The Mars Sample Return Mission, designed to return a variety of surface and subsurface samples as well as atmospheric samples, is described. Primary information about the planet is essential to understanding its place in the evolution of the solar system. The most accurate landing techniques will be used to place the lander near geologically interesting features. A capable rover will be an essential element of the sample collection strategy to maximize the diversity of the samples. The sample collection and return systems will keep the samples at Mars ambient conditions or colder to preserve the abundances and distribution of volatile components. Planetary quarantine is an important consideration for both the Mars lander and the earth return vehicle. Quarantine procedures must be consistent with the primary objectives of the mission and must not compromise the investigations of the returned samples.

  6. STS-102 crew gets emergency exit training at Launch Pad 39B during TCDT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, Fla. -- During emergency exit training on the Fixed Service Structure of Launch Pad 39B, STS-102 Mission Specialist Paul Richards takes a closer look at the lever that releases a slidewire basket, used for emergency exits from the launch pad, to the landing below. He and the rest of the crew are taking part in Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test activities, which include a simulated launch countdown. STS-102 is the eighth construction flight to the International Space Station, with Space Shuttle Discovery carrying the Multi-Purpose Logistics Module Leonardo. Launch on mission STS-102 is scheduled for March 8.

  7. STS-87 Columbia rolls out to LC 39B in preparation for launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The orbiter Columbia, mated to its external tank and two solid rocket boosters, is prepared to roll out of Kennedy Space Centers (KSCs) Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) to Pad 39-B. Columbia is scheduled to launch on Nov. 19 for STS-87 on a 16-day flight of the United States Microgravity Payload (USMP)-4 mission. This mission also features the deployment and retrieval of the Spartan-201 satellite and a spacewalk to demonstrate assembly and maintenance operations for future use on the International Space Station.

  8. STS-114: Discovery TCDT Flight Crew Test Media Event at Pad 39-B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    The STS-114 Space Shuttle Discovery Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test (TCDT) flight crew is shown at Pad 39-B. Eileen Collins, Commander introduces the astronauts. Andrew Thomas, mission specialist talks about his primary responsibility of performing boom inspections, Wendy Lawrence, Mission Specialist 4 (MS4) describes her role as the robotic arm operator supporting Extravehicular Activities (EVA), Stephen Robinson, Mission Specialist 3 (MS3) talks about his role as flight engineer, Charlie Camarda, Mission Specialist 5 (MS5) says that his duties are to perform boom operations, transfer operations from the space shuttle to the International Space Station and spacecraft rendezvous. Soichi Noguchi, Mission Specialist 1 (MS1) from JAXA, introduces himself as Extravehicular Activity 1 (EVA1), and Jim Kelley, Pilot will operate the robotic arm and perform pilot duties. Questions from the news media about the safety of the external tank, going to the International Space Station and returning, EVA training, and thoughts about the Space Shuttle Columbia crew are answered.

  9. STS-95 crew members Glenn, Lindsey and Robinson at Launch Pad 39B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    STS-95 Payload Specialist John H. Glenn Jr., senator from Ohio, smiles at his fellow crew members (middle) Pilot Steven W. Lindsey and (right) Mission Specialist Stephen K. Robinson while visiting Launch Pad 39B. The crew were making final preparations for launch, targeted for liftoff at 2 p.m. on Oct. 29. The other crew members (not shown) are Mission Specialist Scott E. Parazynski, Payload Specialist Chiaki Mukai, with the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA), Mission Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr., and Mission Specialist Pedro Duque of Spain, with the European Space Agency (ESA). The STS-95 mission is expected to last 8 days, 21 hours and 49 minutes, returning to KSC at 11:49 a.m. EST on Nov. 7.

  10. Payload Specialist Chiaki Mukai waves at well-wishers at Launch Pad 39B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    STS-95 Payload Specialist Chiaki Mukai, with the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA), smiles at well-wishers while at Launch Pad 39B. The crew were making final preparations for launch, targeted for liftoff at 2 p.m. on Oct. 29. Other crew members not shown are Mission Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr., Pilot Steven W. Lindsey, Mission Specialist Pedro Duque of Spain, with the European Space Agency (ESA), Mission Specialist Scott E. Parazynski, Mission Specialist Stephen K. Robinson, and Payload Specialist John H. Glenn Jr., senator from Ohio. The STS-95 mission is expected to last 8 days, 21 hours and 49 minutes, returning to KSC at 11:49 a.m. EST on Nov. 7.

  11. STS-97 crew practices emergency egress from Launch Pad 39B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    On the 195-foot level at Launch Pad 39B, STS-97 Mission Specialist Joe Tanner reaches for the lever to release the slidewire basket that also holds Mission Specialists Marc Garneau (middle) and Carlos Noriega (right). They are practicing their emergency egress training from Endeavour as part of Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test (TCDT) activities. The TCDT also includes a simulated launch countdown and opportunities to inspect the mission payloads in the orbiter'''s payload bay. Mission STS-97is the sixth construction flight to the International Space Station. Its payload includes the P6 Integrated Truss Structure and a photovoltaic (PV) module, with giant solar arrays that will provide power to the Station. The mission includes two spacewalks to complete the solar array connections. STS-97 is scheduled to launch Nov. 30 at 10:05 p.m. EST.

  12. STS-97 crew poses for photo on Launch Pad 39B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    During Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test (TCDT) activities at Launch Pad 39B, the STS-97 crew poses for a photo at the 215-foot level. From left, they are Mission Specialist Carlos Noriega, Commander Brent Jett, Pilot Mike Bloomfield and Mission Specialists Marc Garneau and Joe Tanner. Behind them at left can be seen the top of the solid rocket booster and external tank on Space Shuttle Endeavour. The TCDT includes emergency egress training, opportunities to inspect the mission payloads in the orbiter'''s payload bay and a simulated launch countdown. Mission STS-97is the sixth construction flight to the International Space Station. Its payload includes the P6 Integrated Truss Structure and a photovoltaic (PV) module, with giant solar arrays that will provide power to the Station. The mission includes two spacewalks to complete the solar array connections. STS-97 is scheduled to launch Nov. 30 at 10:05 p.m. EST.

  13. STS-95 crew members greet families at Launch Pad 39B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    STS-95 crew members greet their families from Launch Pad 39B. From left, they are Mission Specialist Scott E. Parazynski, Payload Specialist Chiaki Mukai, with the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA), Payload Specialist John H. Glenn Jr., senator from Ohio, Mission Specialist Stephen K. Robinson, Pilot Steven W. Lindsey, Mission Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr., and Mission Specialist Pedro Duque of Spain, with the European Space Agency (ESA). The crew were making final preparations for launch, targeted for liftoff at 2 p.m. on Oct. 29. The mission is expected to last 8 days, 21 hours and 49 minutes, returning to KSC at 11:49 a.m. EST on Nov. 7.

  14. Design of Spacecraft Missions to Remove Multiple Orbital Debris Objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barbee, Brent W.; Alfano, Salvatore; Pinon, Elfego; Gold, Kenn; Gaylor, David

    2012-01-01

    The amount of hazardous debris in Earth orbit has been increasing, posing an evergreater danger to space assets and human missions. In January of 2007, a Chinese ASAT test produced approximately 2600 pieces of orbital debris. In February of 2009, Iridium 33 collided with an inactive Russian satellite, yielding approximately 1300 pieces of debris. These recent disastrous events and the sheer size of the Earth orbiting population make clear the necessity of removing orbital debris. In fact, experts from both NASA and ESA have stated that 10 to 20 pieces of orbital debris need to be removed per year to stabilize the orbital debris environment. However, no spacecraft trajectories have yet been designed for removing multiple debris objects and the size of the debris population makes the design of such trajectories a daunting task. Designing an efficient spacecraft trajectory to rendezvous with each of a large number of orbital debris pieces is akin to the famous Traveling Salesman problem, an NP-complete combinatorial optimization problem in which a number of cities are to be visited in turn. The goal is to choose the order in which the cities are visited so as to minimize the total path distance traveled. In the case of orbital debris, the pieces of debris to be visited must be selected and ordered such that spacecraft propellant consumption is minimized or at least kept low enough to be feasible. Emergent Space Technologies, Inc. has developed specialized algorithms for designing efficient tour missions for near-Earth asteroids that may be applied to the design of efficient spacecraft missions capable of visiting large numbers of orbital debris pieces. The first step is to identify a list of high priority debris targets using the Analytical Graphics, Inc. SOCRATES website and then obtain their state information from Celestrak. The tour trajectory design algorithms will then be used to determine the itinerary of objects and v requirements. These results will shed light

  15. The Mission Accessible Near-Earth Objects Survey (MANOS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abell, Paul; Moskovitz, Nicholas; DeMeo, Francesca; Endicott, Thomas; Busch, Michael; Roe, Henry; Trilling, David; Thomas, Cristina; Willman, Mark; Grundy, Will; Christensen, Eric; Person, Michael; Binzel, Richard; Polishook, David

    2013-01-01

    Near-Earth objects (NEOs) are essential to understanding the origin of the Solar System. Their relatively small sizes and complex dynamical histories make them excellent laboratories for studying ongoing Solar System processes. The proximity of NEOs to Earth makes them favorable targets for space missions. In addition, knowledge of their physical properties is crucial for impact hazard assessment. However, in spite of their importance to science, exploration, and planetary defense, a representative sample of physical characteristics for sub-km NEOs does not exist. Here we present the Mission Accessible Near-Earth Objects Survey (MANOS), a multi-year survey of subkm NEOs that will provide a large, uniform catalog of physical properties (light curves + colors + spectra + astrometry), representing a 100-fold increase over the current level of NEO knowledge within this size range. This survey will ultimately characterize more than 300 mission-accessible NEOs across the visible and near-infrared ranges using telescopes in both the northern and southern hemispheres. MANOS has been awarded 24 nights per semester for the next three years on NOAO facilities including Gemini North and South, the Kitt Peak Mayall 4m, and the SOAR 4m. Additional telescopic assets available to our team include facilities at Lowell Observatory, the University of Hawaii 2.2m, NASA's IRTF, and the Magellan 6.5m telescopes. Our focus on sub-km sizes and mission accessibility (dv < 7 km/s) is a novel approach to physical characterization studies and is possible through a regular cadence of observations designed to access newly discovered NEOs within days or weeks of first detection before they fade beyond observational limits. The resulting comprehensive catalog will inform global properties of the NEO population, advance scientific understanding of NEOs, produce essential data for robotic and spacecraft exploration, and develop a critical knowledge base to address the risk of NEO impacts. We intend

  16. The Mission Accessible Near-Earth Objects Survey (MANOS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abell, Paul; Moskovitz, N.; Trilling, D.; Thomas, C.; Willman, M.; Grundy, W.; Roe, H.; Christensen, E.; Person, M.; Binzel, R.; Polishook, D.; DeMeo, F.; Endicott, T.; Busch, M.

    2013-10-01

    Near-Earth objects (NEOs) are essential to understanding the origin of the Solar System. Their relatively small sizes and complex dynamical histories make them excellent laboratories for studying ongoing Solar System processes. The proximity of NEOs to Earth makes them favorable targets for space missions. In addition, knowledge of their physical properties is crucial for impact hazard assessment. However, in spite of their importance to science, exploration, and planetary defense, a representative sample of physical characteristics for sub-km NEOs does not exist. Here we present the Mission Accessible Near-Earth Objects Survey (MANOS), a multi-year survey of sub-km NEOs that will provide a large, uniform catalog of physical properties (light curves + colors + spectra + astrometry), representing a 100-fold increase over the current level of NEO knowledge within this size range. This survey will ultimately characterize more than 300 mission-accessible NEOs across the visible and near-infrared ranges using telescopes in both the northern and southern hemispheres. MANOS has been awarded 24 nights per semester for the next three years on NOAO facilities including Gemini North and South, the Kitt Peak Mayall 4m, and the SOAR 4m. Additional telescopic assets available to our team include facilities at Lowell Observatory, the University of Hawaii 2.2m, NASA’s IRTF, and the Magellan 6.5m telescopes. Our focus on sub-km sizes and mission accessibility (dv < 7 km/s) is a novel approach to physical characterization studies and is possible through a regular cadence of observations designed to access newly discovered NEOs within days or weeks of first detection before they fade beyond observational limits. The resulting comprehensive catalog will inform global properties of the NEO population, advance scientific understanding of NEOs, produce essential data for robotic and spacecraft exploration, and develop a critical knowledge base to address the risk of NEO impacts. We

  17. MARCO POLO: near earth object sample return mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barucci, M. A.; Yoshikawa, M.; Michel, P.; Kawagushi, J.; Yano, H.; Brucato, J. R.; Franchi, I. A.; Dotto, E.; Fulchignoni, M.; Ulamec, S.

    2009-03-01

    MARCO POLO is a joint European-Japanese sample return mission to a Near-Earth Object. This Euro-Asian mission will go to a primitive Near-Earth Object (NEO), which we anticipate will contain primitive materials without any known meteorite analogue, scientifically characterize it at multiple scales, and bring samples back to Earth for detailed scientific investigation. Small bodies, as primitive leftover building blocks of the Solar System formation process, offer important clues to the chemical mixture from which the planets formed some 4.6 billion years ago. Current exobiological scenarios for the origin of Life invoke an exogenous delivery of organic matter to the early Earth: it has been proposed that primitive bodies could have brought these complex organic molecules capable of triggering the pre-biotic synthesis of biochemical compounds. Moreover, collisions of NEOs with the Earth pose a finite hazard to life. For all these reasons, the exploration of such objects is particularly interesting and urgent. The scientific objectives of MARCO POLO will therefore contribute to a better understanding of the origin and evolution of the Solar System, the Earth, and possibly Life itself. Moreover, MARCO POLO provides important information on the volatile-rich (e.g. water) nature of primitive NEOs, which may be particularly important for future space resource utilization as well as providing critical information for the security of Earth. MARCO POLO is a proposal offering several options, leading to great flexibility in the actual implementation. The baseline mission scenario is based on a launch with a Soyuz-type launcher and consists of a Mother Spacecraft (MSC) carrying a possible Lander named SIFNOS, small hoppers, sampling devices, a re-entry capsule and scientific payloads. The MSC leaves Earth orbit, cruises toward the target with ion engines, rendezvous with the target, conducts a global characterization of the target to select a sampling site, and delivers small

  18. Small Body Landers for Near Earth Object Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klaus, K.; Cook, T. S.; Kaplan, M.

    2009-12-01

    Our studies have concluded that PI-class science small body missions are possible with telecommunications infrastructure solar powered spacecraft. These spacecraft are flight proven with more than 60 yrs of cumulative in-space operation and are equipped with highly efficient solar arrays capable of accessing a wide variety of small bodies. Coupled with this capability, we are developing a “small body lander product line that leverages the significant investments that have been made in the highly successful DARPA Orbital Express program. Orbital Express demonstrated autonomous rendezvous, close proximity and capture with a passive space object, both capabilities that can also support autonomous precision “landings” on small bodies. An OE based NEO exploration lander can provide up to 100kg of science payload and 200 W of power available to the science payload. Our studies indicate that some of these missions can be accomplished within Discovery class budget, and most within a New Frontiers-class budget. OE autonomous robotic technology enables equipment relocation, surface sampling, sample retrieval and stowage, spacecraft and/or science instrument reconfiguration and alternate means of lander recovery. OE’s capture system technology enables repeatable lander and probe deployment and capture including lander refueling, setting in motion the design of missions to multiple small bodies and multiple sites on target bodies. Enhancements have been made to the navigation algorithms to enable precision natural body navigation. For science measurements that only require very small mass and power, we are developing nanosats that offer “full spacecraft-like” capabilities, e.g., 3 axis stability and control and on-board propulsion.

  19. The Mission Accessible Near-Earth Object Survey (MANOS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moskovitz, N.; Manos Team

    2014-07-01

    Near-Earth objects (NEOs) are essential to understanding the origin of the Solar System through their compositional links to meteorites. As tracers of various regions within the Solar System they can provide insight to more distant, less accessible populations. Their relatively small sizes and complex dynamical histories make them excellent laboratories for studying ongoing Solar System processes such as space weathering, planetary encounters, and non-gravitational dynamics. Knowledge of their physical properties is essential to impact hazard assessment. Finally, the proximity of NEOs to Earth make them favorable targets for robotic and human exploration. However, in spite of their scientific importance, only the largest (km-scale) NEOs have been well studied and a representative sample of physical characteristics for sub-km NEOs does not exist. To address these issues we are conducting the Mission Accessible Near-Earth Object Survey (MANOS), a fully allocated multi-year survey of sub-km NEOs that will provide a large, uniform catalog of physical properties including light curves, spectra, and astrometry. From this comprehensive catalog, we will derive global properties of the NEO population, as well as identify individual targets that are of potential interest for exploration. We will accomplish these goals for approximately 500 mission-accessible NEOs across the visible and near-infrared ranges using telescope assets in both the northern and southern hemispheres. MANOS has been awarded large survey status by NOAO to employ Gemini-N, Gemini-S, SOAR, the Kitt Peak 4 m, and the CTIO 1.3 m. Access to additional facilities at Lowell Observatory (DCT 4.3 m, Perkins 72'', Hall 42'', LONEOS), the University of Hawaii, and the Catalina Sky Survey provide essential complements to this suite of telescopes. Targets for MANOS are selected based on three primary criteria: mission accessibility (i.e. Δ v < 7 km/s), size (H > 20), and observability. Our telescope assets allow

  20. STS-33 MS Carter on KSC LC Pad 39B 195 ft level with OV-103 in background

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    STS-33 Mission Specialist (MS) Manley L. Carter, Jr, wearing launch and entry suit (LES), poses in front of Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, at the 195 ft level elevator entrance at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Launch Complex (LC) Pad 39B. Visible in the background is the catwalk to OV-103's side hatch and the Atlantic Ocean.

  1. STS-80 CREW ANSWERS PRESS QUESTIONS AT PAD 39B DURING TERMINAL COUNTDOWN DEMONSTRATION TEST

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    STS-80 crew members participating in the Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test (TCDT), a dress rehearsal for launch, talk to press representatives (off camera) and answer their questions at Launch Pad 39B. From left, are Mission Specialists Thomas D. Jones and Tamara E. Jernigan, Commander Kenneth D. Cockrell (with microphone), Pilot Kent V. Rominger and Mission Specialist Story Musgrave. The STS-80 mission, the seventh and final Shuttle flight of 1996, will feature two spacewalks and the deployment, operation and retrieval of two scientific satellites, the Orbiting Retrievable Far and Extreme Ultraviolet Spectrometer- Shuttle Pallet Satellite-2 (ORFEUS-SPAS-2) and the Wake Shield Facility-3 (WSF-3). The mission will be conducted aboard the Space Shuttle orbiter Columbia.

  2. STS-102 crew poses for media at Launch Pad 39B during TCDT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, Fla. -- After a media briefing at the slidewire basket landing near Launch Pad 39B, the STS-102 crew poses for photographers. From left are Mission Specialists Susan Helms, Yury Usachev and James Voss; Commander James Wetherbee; Mission specialist Paul Richards; Pilot James Kelly; and Mission Specialist Andrew Thomas. The crew is taking part in Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test activities, which include emergency exit training from the pad and a simulated launch countdown. STS-102 is the eighth construction flight to the International Space Station, with Space Shuttle Discovery carrying the Multi-Purpose Logistics Module Leonardo. Voss, Helms and Usachev are the Expedition Two crew who will be the second resident crew on the International Space Station. They will replace Expedition One, who will return to Earth with Discovery. Launch on mission STS-102 is scheduled for March 8.

  3. STS-70 crew on their way to Launch Pad 39B for TCDT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The STS-70 flight crew walks out of the Operations and Checkout Building on their way to Launch Pad 39B to participate in the Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test (TCDT) for that mission. As they depart to board their Astrovan, Mission Commander Terence 'Tom' Henricks (front right) holds up a Buckeye nut to signify that this is the Buckeye crew. Pilot Kevin R. Kregel (front left) is the only STS-70 crew member who is not a native of Ohio, but was recently bestowed with honorary citizenship by the governor of that state. Mission Specialist Mary Ellen Weber is behind Kregel, followed by Mission Specialists Nancy Jane Currie and Donald A. Thomas. With the crew aboard the Space Shuttle Discovery, the TCDT simulated a final launch countdown until just beofre orbiter main engine ignition.

  4. STS-97 crew gets emergency egress training at Launch Pad 39B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Inside the bunker at Launch Pad 39B, a trainer explains the use of an air pack to some of the STS-97 crew. At left is Commander Brent Jett; then Pilot Mike Bloomfield and Mission Specialists Carlos Noriega and Marc Garneau (far right). The training is part of Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test (TCDT) activities, which also include a simulated launch countdown and opportunities for the crew to inspect the mission payloads in the orbiter'''s payload bay. Mission STS-97is the sixth construction flight to the International Space Station. Its payload includes the P6 Integrated Truss Structure and a photovoltaic (PV) module, with giant solar arrays that will provide power to the Station. The mission includes two spacewalks to complete the solar array connections. STS-97 is scheduled to launch Nov. 30 at 10:05 p.m. EST.

  5. STS-97 crew exit the O&C on way to Launch Pad 39B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The STS-97 crew get a taste of the excitement of launch day as they exit the O&C Building to head for Launch Pad 39B. They are taking part in Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test (TCDT) activities that include emergency egress training and a simulated launch countdown. On the left (front to back) are Mission Specialists Carlos Noriega and Joe Tanner; on the right (front to back) are Commander Brent Jett, Pilot Mike Bloomfield and Mission Specialist Marc Garneau, who is a Canadian astronaut. Mission STS-97is the sixth construction flight to the International Space Station. Its payload includes the P6 Integrated Truss Structure and a photovoltaic (PV) module, with giant solar arrays that will provide power to the Station. The mission includes two spacewalks to complete the solar array connections. STS-97 is scheduled to launch Nov. 30 at 10:05 p.m. EST.

  6. 28 CFR 0.39b - Confidentiality of information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-Office of Professional Responsibility § 0.39b Confidentiality of information. The Counsel shall not disclose the identity of any person submitting an allegation of misconduct or reprisal pursuant to 28 CFR 0.39a(a)(1) or (2) unless the person consents to the disclosure of his identity or the disclosure...

  7. 28 CFR 0.39b - Confidentiality of information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-Office of Professional Responsibility § 0.39b Confidentiality of information. The Counsel shall not disclose the identity of any person submitting an allegation of misconduct or reprisal pursuant to 28 CFR 0.39a(a)(1) or (2) unless the person consents to the disclosure of his identity or the disclosure...

  8. 28 CFR 0.39b - Confidentiality of information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-Office of Professional Responsibility § 0.39b Confidentiality of information. The Counsel shall not disclose the identity of any person submitting an allegation of misconduct or reprisal pursuant to 28 CFR 0.39a(a)(1) or (2) unless the person consents to the disclosure of his identity or the disclosure...

  9. 28 CFR 0.39b - Confidentiality of information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-Office of Professional Responsibility § 0.39b Confidentiality of information. The Counsel shall not disclose the identity of any person submitting an allegation of misconduct or reprisal pursuant to 28 CFR 0.39a(a)(1) or (2) unless the person consents to the disclosure of his identity or the disclosure...

  10. 27 CFR 21.71 - Formula No. 39-B.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... and Authorized Uses § 21.71 Formula No. 39-B. (a) Formula. To every 100 gallons of alcohol add: Two.... (1) As a solvent: 111.Hair and scalp preparations. 112.Bay rum. 113.Lotions and creams (hand, face.... 141.Shampoos. 142.Soap and bath preparations. 210.External pharmaceuticals, not U.S.P. or N.F....

  11. STS-106 crew participates in activities at Launch Pad 39-B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    At the 195-foot level of Launch Pad 39B, STS-106 Mission Specialists Edward T. Lu (left) reaches for a lever to release the slidewire basket . At right is Richard A. Mastracchio (right) already seated. The basket is part of the emergency egress equipment from the orbiter. In the background can be seen Mission Specialist Boris V. Morukov in another slidewire basket. They and the rest of the STS-106 crew are taking part in Terminal Countdown Demonstration Activities (TCDT), which includes emergency egress training, along with opportunities to inspect their mission payload in the orbiter'''s payload bay, and a simulated launch countdown. STS-106 is scheduled to launch Sept. 8, 2000, at 8:31 a.m. EDT from Launch Pad 39B. On the 11-day mission, the seven-member crew will perform support tasks on orbit, transfer supplies and prepare the living quarters in the newly arrived Zvezda Service Module. The first long-duration crew, dubbed '''Expedition One,''' is due to arrive at the Station in late fall.

  12. Science Objectives of the FOXSI Small Explorer Mission Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shih, Albert Y.; Christe, Steven; Alaoui, Meriem; Allred, Joel C.; Antiochos, Spiro K.; Battaglia, Marina; Camilo Buitrago-Casas, Juan; Caspi, Amir; Dennis, Brian R.; Drake, James; Fleishman, Gregory D.; Gary, Dale E.; Glesener, Lindsay; Grefenstette, Brian; Hannah, Iain; Holman, Gordon D.; Hudson, Hugh S.; Inglis, Andrew R.; Ireland, Jack; Ishikawa, Shin-Nosuke; Jeffrey, Natasha; Klimchuk, James A.; Kontar, Eduard; Krucker, Sam; Longcope, Dana; Musset, Sophie; Nita, Gelu M.; Ramsey, Brian; Ryan, Daniel; Saint-Hilaire, Pascal; Schwartz, Richard A.; Vilmer, Nicole; White, Stephen M.; Wilson-Hodge, Colleen

    2016-05-01

    Impulsive particle acceleration and plasma heating at the Sun, from the largest solar eruptive events to the smallest flares, are related to fundamental processes throughout the Universe. While there have been significant advances in our understanding of impulsive energy release since the advent of RHESSI observations, there is a clear need for new X-ray observations that can capture the full range of emission in flares (e.g., faint coronal sources near bright chromospheric sources), follow the intricate evolution of energy release and changes in morphology, and search for the signatures of impulsive energy release in even the quiescent Sun. The FOXSI Small Explorer (SMEX) mission concept combines state-of-the-art grazing-incidence focusing optics with pixelated solid-state detectors to provide direct imaging of hard X-rays for the first time on a solar observatory. We present the science objectives of FOXSI and how its capabilities will address and resolve open questions regarding impulsive energy release at the Sun. These questions include: What are the time scales of the processes that accelerate electrons? How do flare-accelerated electrons escape into the heliosphere? What is the energy input of accelerated electrons into the chromosphere, and how is super-heated coronal plasma produced?

  13. STS-87 Payload Specialist Kadenyuk and his wife pose at LC 39B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    STS-87 Payload Specialist Leonid Kadenyuk of the National Space Agency of Ukraine poses with his wife, Vera Kadenyuk, in front of Kennedy Space Center's Launch Pad 39B during final prelaunch activities leading up to the scheduled Nov. 19 liftoff. The other STS-87 crew members are Commander Kevin Kregel; Pilot Steven Lindsey; and Mission Specialists Kalpana Chawla, Ph.D.; Winston Scott; and Takao Doi, Ph.D., National Space Development Agency of Japan. STS-87 will be the fourth flight of the United States Microgravity Payload and the Spartan-201 deployable satellite.

  14. STS-87 Commander Kregel and his wife pose at LC 39B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    STS-87 Commander Kevin Kregel poses with his wife, Jeannie Kregel, in front of Kennedy Space Center's Launch Pad 39B during final prelaunch activities leading up to the scheduled Nov. 19 liftoff. The other STS-87 crew members are Pilot Steven Lindsey; Mission Specialists Kalpana Chawla, Ph.D., Winston Scott, and Takao Doi, Ph.D., of the National Space Development Agency of Japan; and Payload Specialist Leonid Kadenyuk of the National Space Agency of Ukraine. STS-87 will be the fourth flight of the United States Microgravity Payload and the Spartan-201 deployable satellite.

  15. STS-95 Space Shuttle Discovery rollout to Launch Pad 39B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Dawn breaks behind STS-95 Space Shuttle Discovery, on the Mobile Launch Platform, as it approaches Launch Complex Pad 39B after a 6-hour, 4.2-mile trip from the Vehicle Assembly Building. At the launch pad, the orbiter, external tank and solid rocket boosters will undergo final preparations for the launch, scheduled to lift off Oct. 29. The mission includes research payloads such as the Spartan solar-observing deployable spacecraft, the Hubble Space Telescope Orbital Systems Test Platform, the International Extreme Ultraviolet Hitchhiker, as well as the SPACEHAB single module with experiments on space flight and the aging process.

  16. STS-80 PILOT ROMINGER AT PAD 39B DURING TERMINAL COUNTDOWN DEMONSTRATION TEST

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Fully covered by his orange launch and entry spacesuit, STS-80 Pilot Kent V. Rominger participates in the Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test (TCDT) at Launch Pad 39B. He and the other four crew members are targeted for a Nov. 8 liftoff on the Space Shuttle Columbia. The STS-80 mission, the seventh and final Shuttle flight of 1996, will feature two spacewalks and the deployment, operation and retrieval of two scientific satellites, the Orbiting Retrievable Far and Extreme Ultraviolet Spectrometer-Shuttle Pallet Satellite-2 (ORFEUS-SPAS-2) and the Wake Shield Facility-3 (WSF-3).

  17. Plans and objectives of the remaining Apollo missions.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scherer, L. R.

    1972-01-01

    The three remaining Apollo missions will have significantly increased scientific capabilities. These result from increased payload, more time on the surface, improved range, and more sophisticated experiments on the surface and in orbit. Landing sites for the last three missions will be carefully selected to maximize the total scientific return.

  18. STS-97 crew practices emergency egress from Launch Pad 39B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    On the 195-foot level at Launch Pad 39B, STS-97 Commander Brent Jett reaches for the lever to release the slidewire basket that also holds Pilot Mike Bloomfield (right). They are practicing their emergency egress training from Endeavour as part of Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test (TCDT) activities. The TCDT also includes a simulated launch countdown and opportunities to inspect the mission payloads in the orbiter'''s payload bay. Mission STS-97is the sixth construction flight to the International Space Station. Its payload includes the P6 Integrated Truss Structure and a photovoltaic (PV) module, with giant solar arrays that will provide power to the Station. The mission includes two spacewalks to complete the solar array connections. STS-97 is scheduled to launch Nov. 30 at 10:05 p.m. EST.

  19. STS-102 crew poses on the FSS at Launch Pad 39B during TCDT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, Fla. -- At the 195-foot level on the Fixed Service Structure, Launch Pad 39B, members of the STS-102 crew relax after emergency escape training. From left are Mission Specialists Paul Richards, Andrew Thomas and Susan Helms, and Commander James Wetherbee. The crew is at KSC for Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test activities, which include the emergency training and a simulated launch countdown. STS-102 is the eighth construction flight to the International Space Station, with Space Shuttle Discovery carrying the Multi-Purpose Logistics Module Leonardo. Helms is part of the Expedition Two crew who will be on the mission to replace Expedition One on the International Space Station. Expedition One will return to Earth with Discovery. Launch on mission STS-102 is scheduled for March 8.

  20. STS-102 crew poses on the FSS at Launch Pad 39B during TCDT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, Fla. -- Relaxing after emergency escape training on the 195-foot level of the Fixed Service Structure, Launch Pad 39B, are(left to right) STS-102 Mission Specialists Andrew Thomas and Paul Richards and Commander James Wetherbee. The crew is at KSC for Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test activities, which include the emergency training and a simulated launch countdown. STS-102 is the eighth construction flight to the International Space Station, with Space Shuttle Discovery carrying the Multi-Purpose Logistics Module Leonardo. Also flying on the mission are the Expedition Two crew, who will replace the Expedition One crew on Space Station. Expedition One will return to Earth with Discovery. Launch on mission STS-102 is scheduled for March 8.

  1. STS-102 crew poses on the FSS at Launch Pad 39B during TCDT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, Fla. -- STS-102 Mission Specialists Yury Usachev (left), Susan Helms (center) and James Voss (right) take time to pose for the camera after emergency escape training on the 195-foot level of the Fixed Service Structure, Launch Pad 39B. They are the Expedition Two crew who will be flying to the International Space Station on mission STS-102 to replace Expedition One. The STS-102 crew is at KSC for Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test activities, which include the emergency training and a simulated launch countdown. STS-102 is the eighth construction flight to the International Space Station, with Space Shuttle Discovery carrying the Multi-Purpose Logistics Module Leonardo. Expedition One will return to Earth with Discovery. Launch on mission STS-102 is scheduled for March 8.

  2. STS-102 crew poses on the FSS at Launch Pad 39B during TCDT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, Fla. -- At the 195-foot level on the Fixed Service Structure, Launch Pad 39B, members of the STS-102 crew relax after emergency escape training. At left is Pilot James Kelly; in the center and right are Mission Specialists Yury Usachev and James Voss. The crew is at KSC for Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test activities, which include the emergency training and a simulated launch countdown. STS-102 is the eighth construction flight to the International Space Station, with Space Shuttle Discovery carrying the Multi-Purpose Logistics Module Leonardo. Usachev and Voss are part of the Expedition Two crew who will be on the mission to replace Expedition One on the International Space Station. Expedition One will return to Earth with Discovery. Launch on mission STS-102 is scheduled for March 8.

  3. STS-102 crew poses in the White Room at Launch Pad 39B during TCDT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, Fla. -- The STS-102 crew poses in the White Room outside the orbiter Discovery on Launch Pad 39B. Kneeling in front are Mission Specialists Susan Helms, Yury Usachev and James Voss. Standing behind them are Mission Specialists Paul Richards and Andrew Thomas, Commander James Wetherbee and Pilot James Kelly. The crew is taking part in Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test activities, which include emergency exit training and a simulated launch countdown. STS-102 is the eighth construction flight to the International Space Station, with Space Shuttle Discovery carrying the Multi-Purpose Logistics Module Leonardo. Voss, Helms and Usachev are the Expedition Two crew who will be the second resident crew on the International Space Station. They will replace Expedition One, who will return to Earth with Discovery. Launch on mission STS-102 is scheduled for March 8.

  4. STS-112 crew in front of Launch Pad 39B before launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - STS-112 Commander Jeffrey S. Ashby poses in front of Launch Pad 39B during a tour of Kennedy Space Center prior to launch. Also on the tour were the other members of the crew including Pilot Pamela Ann Melroy and Mission Speci alists David A. Wolf, Sandra H. Magnus, Piers J. Sellers, and Fyodor N. Yurchikhin of the Russian Space Agency. The launch of Space Shuttle Atlantis was postponed today to no earlier than Thursday, Oct. 3, while weather forecasters and the mission managem ent team assess the possible effect Hurricane Lili may have on the Mission Control Center located at the Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas.

  5. NEP for a Kuiper Belt Object Rendezvous Mission

    SciTech Connect

    HOUTS,MICHAEL G.; LENARD,ROGER X.; LIPINSKI,RONALD J.; PATTON,BRUCE; POSTON,DAVID I.; WRIGHT,STEVEN A.

    1999-11-03

    Kuiper Belt Objects (KBOs) are a recently-discovered set of solar system bodies which lie at about the orbit of Pluto (40 AU) out to about 100 astronomical units (AU). There are estimated to be about 100,000 KBOS with a diameter greater than 100 km. KBOS are postulated to be composed of the pristine material which formed our solar system and may even have organic materials in them. A detailed study of KBO size, orbit distribution, structure, and surface composition could shed light on the origins of the solar system and perhaps even on the origin of life in our solar system. A rendezvous mission including a lander would be needed to perform chemical analysis of the surface and sub-surface composition of KBOS. These requirements set the size of the science probe at around a ton. Mission analyses show that a fission-powered system with an electric thruster could rendezvous at 40 AU in about 13.0 years with a total {Delta}V of 46 krnk. It would deliver a 1000-kg science payload while providing ample onboard power for relaying data back to earth. The launch mass of the entire system (power, thrusters, propellant, navigation, communication, structure, science payload, etc.) would be 7984 kg if it were placed into an earth-escape trajectory (C=O). Alternatively, the system could be placed into a 700-km earth orbit with more propellant,yielding a total mass in LEO of 8618 kg, and then spiral out of earth orbit to arrive at the KBO in 14.3 years. To achieve this performance, a fission power system with 100 kW of electrical power and a total mass (reactor, shield, conversion, and radiator) of about 2350 kg. Three possible configurations are proposed: (1) a UZrH-fueled, NaK-cooled reactor with a steam Rankine conversion system, (2) a UN-fueled gas-cooled reactor with a recuperated Brayton conversion system, and (3) a UN-fueled heatpipe-cooled reactor with a recuperated Brayton conversion system. (Boiling and condensation in the Rankine system is a technical risk at present

  6. STS-81 CREW DURING SAFETY EQUIPMENT DEMONSTRATION AT LC 39B DURING TCDT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The STS-81 crew gets a description of safety equipment and emergency egress routes on Launch Pad 39B during Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test (TCDT) exercises for that mission. They are (from left): Mission Specialists Marsha S. Ivins, J.M. 'Jerry' Linenger and Peter J. K. 'Jeff' Wisoff; Mission Commander Michael A. Baker; Mission Specialist John M. Grunsfeld; and Pilot Brent W. Jett, Jr. STS-81 is the fifth Shuttle-Mir docking mission and will feature the transfer of Linenger to Mir to replace astronaut John Blaha, who has been on the orbital laboratory since Sept. 19 after arrival there during the STS-79 mission. During STS-81, Shuttle and Mir crews will conduct risk mitigation, human life science, microgravity and materials processing experiments that will provide data for the design, development and operation of the International Space Station. The primary payload is the SPACEHAB-DM double module will provide space for more than 2,000 pounds of hardware, food and water that will be transferred into the Russian space station during five days of docking operations during the 10-day mission. The SPACEHAB will also be used to return experiment samples from the Mir to Earth for analysis and for microgravity experiments during the mission.

  7. Low cost missions to explore the diversity of near Earth objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belton, Michael J. S.; Delamere, Alan

    1992-01-01

    We propose a series of low-cost flyby missions to perform a reconnaissance of near-Earth cometary nuclei and asteroids. The primary scientific goal is to study the physical and chemical diversity in these objects. The mission concept is based on the Pegasus launch vehicle. Mission costs, inclusive of launch, development, mission operations, and analysis are expected to be near $50 M per mission. Launch opportunities occur in all years. The benefits of this reconnaissance to society are stressed.

  8. NASA's Earth Science Enterprise: Future Science Missions, Objectives and Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Habib, Shahid

    1998-01-01

    NASA has been actively involved in studying the planet Earth and its changing environment for well over thirty years. Within the last decade, NASA's Earth Science Enterprise has become a major observational and scientific element of the U.S. Global Change Research Program. NASA's Earth Science Enterprise management has developed a comprehensive observation-based research program addressing all the critical science questions that will take us into the next century. Furthermore, the entire program is being mapped to answer five Science Themes (1) land-cover and land-use change research (2) seasonal-to-interannual climate variability and prediction (3) natural hazards research and applications (4) long-term climate-natural variability and change research and (5) atmospheric ozone research. Now the emergence of newer technologies on the horizon and at the same time continuously declining budget environment has lead to an effort to refocus the Earth Science Enterprise activities. The intent is not to compromise the overall scientific goals, but rather strengthen them by enabling challenging detection, computational and space flight technologies those have not been practically feasible to date. NASA is planning faster, cost effective and relatively smaller missions to continue the science observations from space for the next decade. At the same time, there is a growing interest in the world in the remote sensing area which will allow NASA to take advantage of this by building strong coalitions with a number of international partners. The focus of this presentation is to provide a comprehensive look at the NASA's Earth Science Enterprise in terms of its brief history, scientific objectives, organization, activities and future direction.

  9. Objectives and Model Payload Definition for NEO Human Mission Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carnelli, I.; Galvez, A.; Carpenter, J.

    2011-10-01

    ESA has supported studies on NEO threat assessment systems and deflection concepts in the context of the General Studies Programme and in close cooperation with the directorates of Technical and Quality Management and of the Scientific Programme. This work has made it possible to identify a project for Europe to make a significant - yet realistic - contribution to the international efforts in this field: the Don Quijote NEO technology demonstration mission. This paper describes what such a small mission can do to prepare future human exploration and what is the in-situ data that can be obtained through such a project.

  10. STS-90 M.S. Kathryn Hire waves to family and friends near Pad 39B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    STS-90 Mission Specialist Kathryn (Kay) Hire waves to friends and family members near Launch Pad 39B, from which she and the rest of the seven-member crew are scheduled to launch aboard Columbia on May 16 at 2:19 p.m. EDT. The astronauts are under strict health stabilization guidelines to protect them from close contact with persons who do not have health stabilization clearance. This is the 25th flight of Columbia and the 90th mission flown since the start of the Space Shuttle program. STS- 90 is a nearly 17-day life sciences research flight that will focus on the most complex and least understood part of the human body -- the nervous system. Neurolab will examine the effects of spaceflight on the brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves and sensory organs in the human body.

  11. The Space Shuttle Columbia rolls out to Launch Pad 39B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Columbia continues up the ramp to Launch Pad 39B in its morning rollout prior to STS-90. Leveling systems within the crawler-transporter underneath the Shuttle keep the platform level while negotiating the five percent ramp leading up to the pad surface. The top of the orbiter is kept vertical within plus or minus 10 minutes of arc, about the diameter of a basketball during the journey. The Neurolab experiments are the primary payload on this nearly 17-day space flight. Investigations during the Neurolab mission will focus on the effects of microgravity on the nervous system. The crew of STS- 90, slated for launch April 16 at 2:19 p.m. EDT, includes Commander Richard Searfoss, Pilot Scott Altman, Mission Specialists Richard Linnehan, Dafydd (Dave) Williams, M.D., and Kathryn (Kay) Hire, and Payload Specialists Jay Buckey, M.D., and James Pawelczyk, Ph.D.

  12. The geostationary tropospheric pollution explorer (GeoTROPE) mission: objectives, requirements and mission concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burrows, J. P.; Bovensmann, H.; Bergametti, G.; Flaud, J. M.; Orphal, J.; Noël, S.; Monks, P. S.; Corlett, G. K.; Goede, A. P.; von Clarmann, T.; Steck, T.; Fischer, H.; Friedl-Vallon, F.

    2004-01-01

    One of the major challenges facing atmospheric sciences is to assess, understand and quantify the impact of natural and anthropogenic pollution on the quality of life on Earth on a local, regional and continental scale. It has become apparent that pollution originating from local/regional events can have serious effects on the composition of the lower atmosphere on a continental scale. However, to understand the effects of regional pollution on a continental scale there is a requirement to transcend traditional atmospheric spatial and temporal scales and attempt to monitor the entire atmosphere at the same time. In the troposphere the variability of chemical processes, of source strength and the dynamics induce important short term, i.e., sub-hourly, variations and significant horizontal and vertical variability of constituents and geophysical parameters relevant to a range of contemporary issues such as air quality. To study tropospheric composition, it is therefore required to link diurnal with seasonal and annual timescales, as well as local and regional with continental spatial scales, by performing sub-hourly measurements at appropriate horizontal and vertical resolution. Tropospheric observations from low-Earth orbit (LEO) platforms have already demonstrated the potential of detecting constituents relevant for air quality but they are limited, for example by the daily revisit time and local cloud cover statistics. The net result of this is that the troposphere is currently significantly under sampled. Measurements from Geostationary Orbit (GEO) offer the only practical approach to the observation of diurnal variation from space with the pertinent horizontal resolution. The Geostationary Tropospheric Pollution Explorer (GeoTROPE) is an attempt to determine tropospheric constituents with high temporal and spatial resolution. The paper will summarise the needs for geostationary observations of tropospheric composition and will give the mission objectives and the

  13. STS-87 crew in LC-39B white room during TCDT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The crew of the STS-87 mission, scheduled for launch Nov. 19 aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia from pad 39B at Kennedy Space Center (KSC), participates in the Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test (TCDT) at KSC. Standing, from left, Mission Specialist Winston Scott; Backup Payload Specialist Yaroslav Pustovyi, Ph.D., of the National Space Agency of Ukraine (NSAU); Payload Specialist Leonid Kadenyuk of NSAU; Pilot Steven Lindsey; Commander Kevin Kregel; Mission Specialist Takao Doi, Ph.D., of the National Space Development Agency of Japan; and Mission Specialist Kalpana Chawla, Ph.D. The TCDT is held at KSC prior to each Space Shuttle flight providing the crew of each mission opportunities to participate in simulated countdown activities. The TCDT ends with a mock launch countdown culminating in a simulated main engine cut-off. The crew also spends time undergoing emergency egress training exercises at the pad and has an opportunity to view and inspect the payloads in the orbiter's payload bay.

  14. STS-87 crew in front of LC-39B during TCDT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The crew of the STS-87 mission, scheduled for launch Nov. 19 aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia from Pad 39B at Kennedy Space Center (KSC), poses at the pad during a break in the Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test (TCDT) at KSC. Standing in front of the Shuttle Columbia are, from left, Commander Kevin Kregel; Mission Specialist Kalpana Chawla, Ph.D.; Pilot Steven Lindsey; Mission Specialist Takao Doi, Ph.D., of the National Space Development Agency of Japan; Backup Payload Specialist Yaroslav Pustovyi, Ph.D., of the National Space Agency of Ukraine (NSAU); Payload Specialist Leonid Kadenyuk of NSAU; and Mission Specialist Winston Scott. The TCDT is held at KSC prior to each Space Shuttle flight providing the crew of each mission opportunities to participate in simulated countdown activities. The TCDT ends with a mock launch countdown culminating in a simulated main engine cut-off. The crew also spends time undergoing emergency egress training exercises at the pad and has an opportunity to view and inspect the payloads in the orbiter's payload bay.

  15. Planetary objectives of Odyssey2 Mission: Neptune and Triton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenoir, Benjamin; Lenoir, B.; Christophe, B.; Foulon, B.; Touboul, P.; Lévy, A.; Léon-Hirtz, S.; Biancale, R.; Sohl, F.; Dittus, H.; van Zoest, T.; Courty, J.-M.; Reynaud, S.; Lamine, B.; Métris, G.; Wolf, P.; Lümmerzahl, C.; Selig, H.

    Odyssey2 Mission will be proposed for the next call of M3 missions for Cosmic Vision 2015-2025. It will aim at Neptune and Triton and the interplanetary cruise will be used for testing General Relativity, and in particular its scale dependence. To do so, the satellite will carry on board the following instruments: • a high-precision 3 axis electrostatic accelerometer, with bias calibration system, which will measure the non-gravitational forces acting on the spacecraft; • a radio-science instrument, for a precise range and Doppler measurement, with additional VLBI equipment; • a one-way laser ranging, which will improve the range and Doppler measurement made by radio-science; • an Ultra Stable Oscillator (USO), used for laser and radio-science measurement. During the encounters with Neptune and Triton, these instruments will be use in order to increase the scientific return on the gravity field and atmosphere of these two bodies. Indeed, the atmospheric drag for example, which will be measured by the accelerometer, has a non-negligible impact on the trajectory of the spacecraft and therefore on the Doppler signature of the trajectory. If no data are available on the non-gravitational forces, the retrieval of the gravity potential coefficients can be put in jeopardy. Concerning the knowledge of the atmosphere, the direct measurement of atmospheric drag can be used, with the outputs of other instruments, to enhance our knowledge of the atmosphere of these two bodies. Moreover, the radio-link and the USO can be used together to measure the time delay of the radio beam and infer some characteristics of the atmosphere. Several instruments dedicated to planetology are under study. The choice between them will be an output of the Phase 0 study performed by CNES for this mission: • a magnetometer to measure intrinsic fields on Neptune and induced fields on Triton; • an infrared mapping capability, which was not available during the Voyager flyby, to determine

  16. STS-96 crew leaves the O&C Building enroute to Pad 39B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The STS-96 crew smile and wave at onlookers as they eagerly head for the bus that will take them to Launch Pad 39B for liftoff of Space Shuttle Discovery, targeted for 6:49 a.m. EDT. From left to right in front are Mission Specialists Valery Ivanovich Tokarev, Ellen Ochoa, Julie Payette and Tamara E. Jernigan; in back are Mission Specialist Daniel T. Barry, Pilot Rick D. Husband, and Commander Kent V. Rominger. Payette is with the Canadian Space Agency, and Tokarev is with the Russian Space Agency. STS-96 is a 10-day logistics and resupply mission for the International Space Station, carrying about 4,000 pounds of supplies, to be stored aboard the station for use by future crews, including laptop computers, cameras, tools, spare parts, and clothing. The mission also includes such payloads as a Russian crane, the Strela; a U.S.-built crane; the Spacehab Oceaneering Space System Box (SHOSS), a logistics items carrier; and STARSHINE, a student- involved experiment. It will include a space walk to attach the cranes to the outside of the ISS for use in future construction. Landing is expected at the SLF on June 6 about 1:58 a.m. EDT.

  17. STS-95 Space Shuttle Discovery rollout to Launch Pad 39B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    As daylight creeps over the horizon, STS-95 Space Shuttle Discovery, on the Mobile Launch Platform, arrives at Launch Complex Pad 39B after a 4.2-mile trip taking approximately 6 hours. At the left is the 'white room,' attached to the orbiter access arm. The white room is an environmental chamber that mates with the orbiter and holds six persons. At the launch pad, the orbiter, external tank and solid rocket boosters will undergo final preparations for the launch, scheduled to lift off Oct. 29. The mission includes research payloads such as the Spartan solar- observing deployable spacecraft, the Hubble Space Telescope Orbital Systems Test Platform, the International Extreme Ultraviolet Hitchhiker, as well as the SPACEHAB single module with experiments on space flight and the aging process.

  18. STS-90 M.S. Pawelczyk stands behind his children near Pad 39B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    STS-90 Payload Specialist James Pawelczyk, Ph.D., stands behind his two children, Bradley and Katlyn (left to right), as they smile to photographers near Launch Pad 39B. James and the rest of the seven-member crew are scheduled to launch aboard Columbia, seen in the background, on May 16 at 2:19 p.m. EDT. The astronauts are under strict health stabilization guidelines to protect them from close contact with persons who do not have health stabilization clearance. This is the 25th flight of Columbia and the 90th mission flown since the start of the Space Shuttle program. This launch of Neurolab will examine the effects of spaceflight on the brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves and sensory organs in the human body.

  19. STS-34 Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104, lifts off from KSC LC Pad 39B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    STS-34 Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104, lifts off from Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Launch Complex (LC) Pad 39B at 12:53:39:983 pm Eastern Daylight Time (EDT). This distant view shows OV-104 atop its external tank (ET) and flanked by two solid rocket boosters (SRBs) after it has cleared the launch tower and as it begins its roll maneuver. Exhaust smoke billows from the SRBs and covers the launch pad and the surrounding area. A water tower is visible at the right. Space shuttle main engine (SSME) and SRB glow is reflected in a nearby waterway. The liftoff marks the beginning of a five-day mission in space.

  20. A remote camera at Launch Pad 39B, at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC), recorded this profile view of

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    STS-75 LAUNCH VIEW --- A remote camera at Launch Pad 39B, at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC), recorded this profile view of the Space Shuttle Columbia as it cleared the tower to begin the mission. The liftoff occurred on schedule at 3:18:00 p.m. (EST), February 22, 1996. Onboard Columbia for the scheduled two-week mission were astronauts Andrew M. Allen, commander; Scott J. Horowitz, pilot; Franklin R. Chang-Diaz, payload commander; and astronauts Maurizio Cheli, Jeffrey A. Hoffman and Claude Nicollier, along with payload specialist Umberto Guidioni. Cheli and Nicollier represent the European Space Agency (ESA), while Guidioni represents the Italian Space Agency (ASI).

  1. The OCO-3 Mission : Overview of Science Objectives and Status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eldering, Annmarie; Bennett, Matthew; Basilio, Ralph

    2016-04-01

    The Orbiting Carbon Observatory 3 (OCO-3) is a space instrument that will investigate important questions about the distribution of carbon dioxide on Earth as it relates to growing urban populations and changing patterns of fossil fuel combustion. OCO-3 will explore, for the first time, daily variations in the release and uptake of carbon dioxide by plants and trees in the major tropical rainforests of South America, Africa, and Southeast Asia, the largest stores of aboveground carbon on our planet. NASA will develop and assemble the instrument using spare materials from OCO-2 and host the instrument on the International Space Station (ISS) (earliest launch readiness in early 2018.) The low-inclination ISS orbit lets OCO-3 sample the tropics and sub-tropics across the full range of daylight hours with dense observations at northern and southern mid-latitudes (+/- 52°). At the same time, OCO-3 will also collect measurements of solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) over these areas. The combination of these dense CO2 (expected to have a precision of 1 parts per mission) and SIF measurements provides continuity of data for global flux estimates as well as a unique opportunity to address key deficiencies in our understanding of the global carbon cycle. The instrument utilizes an agile, 2-axis pointing mechanism (PMA), providing the capability to look towards the bright reflection from the ocean and validation targets. The PMA also allows for a snapshot mapping mode to collect dense datasets over 100km by 100km areas. Measurements over urban centers could aid in making estimates of fossil fuel CO2 emissions. This is critical because the largest urban areas (25 megacities) account for 75% of the global total fossil fuel CO2 emissions, and rapid growth (> 10% per year) is expected in developing regions over the coming 10 years. Similarly, the snapshot mapping mode can be used to sample regions of interest for the terrestrial carbon cycle. For example, snapshot

  2. The OCO-3 Mission : Overview of Science Objectives and Status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eldering, A.; Basilio, R. R.; Bennett, M. W.

    2015-12-01

    The Orbiting Carbon Observatory 3 (OCO-3) is a space instrument that will investigate important questions about the distribution of carbon dioxide on Earth as it relates to growing urban populations and changing patterns of fossil fuel combustion. OCO-3 will explore, for the first time, daily variations in the release and uptake of carbon dioxide by plants and trees in the major tropical rainforests of South America, Africa, and Southeast Asia, the largest stores of aboveground carbon on our planet. NASA will develop and assemble the instrument using spare materials from OCO-2 and host the instrument on the International Space Station (ISS) (earliest launch readiness in early 2018.) The low-inclination ISS orbit lets OCO-3 sample the tropics and sub-tropics across the full range of daylight hours with dense observations at northern and southern mid-latitudes (+/- 52º). At the same time, OCO-3 will also collect measurements of solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) over these areas. The combination of these dense CO2 (expected to have a precision of 1 parts per mission) and SIF measurements provides continuity of data for global flux estimates as well as a unique opportunity to address key deficiencies in our understanding of the global carbon cycle. The instrument utilizes an agile, 2-axis pointing mechanism (PMA), providing the capability to look towards the bright reflection from the ocean and validation targets. The PMA also allows for a snapshot mapping mode to collect dense datasets over 100km by 100km areas. Measurements over urban centers could aid in making estimates of fossil fuel CO2 emissions. This is critical because the largest urban areas (25 megacities) account for 75% of the global total fossil fuel CO2 emissions, and rapid growth (> 10% per year) is expected in developing regions over the coming 10 years. Similarly, the snapshot mapping mode can be used to sample regions of interest for the terrestrial carbon cycle. For example, snapshot

  3. Artist's Concept- Ares I On Launchpad 39B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Under the goals of the Vision for Space Exploration, Ares I is a chief component of the cost-effective space transportation infrastructure being developed by NASA's Constellation Program. This transportation system will safely and reliably carry human explorers back to the moon, and then onward to Mars and other destinations in the solar system. Launch Pad 39B of the Kennedy Space Flight Center (KSC), currently used for Space Shuttle launches, will be revised to host the Ares launch vehicles. The fixed and rotating service structures standing at the pad will be dismantled sometime after the Ares I-X test flight. A new launch tower for Ares I will be built onto a new mobile launch platform. The gantry for the shuttle doesn't reach much higher than the top of the four segments of the solid rocket booster. Pad access above the current shuttle launch pad structure will not be required for Ares I-X because the stages above the solid rocket booster are inert. For the test scheduled in 2012 or for the crewed flights, workers and astronauts will need access to the highest levels of the rocket and capsule. When the Ares I rocket rolls out to the launch pad on the back of the same crawler-transporters used now, its launch gantry will be with it. The mobile launchers will nestle under three lightning protection towers to be erected around the pad area. Ares time at the launch pad will be significantly less than the three weeks or more the shuttle requires. This 'clean pad' approach minimizes equipment and servicing at the launch pad. It is the same plan NASA used with the Saturn V rockets and industry employs it with more modern launchers. The launch pad will also get a new emergency escape system for astronauts, one that looks very much like a roller coaster. Cars riding on a rail will replace the familiar baskets hanging from steel cables. This artist's concept illustrates the Ares I on launch pad 39B.

  4. STS-103 crew instructed about bunker equipment at Pad 39B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Inside a bunker at Launch Pad 39B, the STS-103 crew are instructed about use of the equipment. From left (in their astronaut uniforms) are Mission Specialist C. Michael Foale (Ph.D.), Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr., Mission Specialists Claude Nicollier of Switzerland, Steven L. Smith, John M. Grunsfeld (Ph.D.), and Pilot Steven J. Kelly. Not shown in the photo is Mission Specialist Jean-Frangois Clervoy of France. Nicollier and Clervoy are both with the European Space Agency. As a preparation for launch, the crew have been participating in Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test (TCDT) activities at KSC. The TCDT provides the crew with emergency egress training, opportunities to inspect their mission payloads in the orbiter's payload bay, and simulated countdown exercises. STS-103 is a 'call-up' mission due to the need to replace and repair portions of the Hubble Space Telescope, including the gyroscopes that allow the telescope to point at stars, galaxies and planets. The STS-103 crew will be replacing a Fine Guidance Sensor, an older computer with a new enhanced model, an older data tape recorder with a solid-state digital recorder, a failed spare transmitter with a new one, and degraded insulation on the telescope with new thermal insulation. The crew will also install a Battery Voltage/Temperature Improvement Kit to protect the spacecraft batteries from overcharging and overheating when the telescope goes into a safe mode. Four EVA's are planned to make the necessary repairs and replacements on the telescope. The mission is targeted for launch Dec. 6 at 2:37 a.m. EST.

  5. Aalto-1 nanosatellite - technical description and mission objectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kestilä, A.; Tikka, T.; Peitso, P.; Rantanen, J.; Näsilä, A.; Nordling, K.; Saari, H.; Vainio, R.; Janhunen, P.; Praks, J.; Hallikainen, M.

    2012-11-01

    This work presents the outline and so far completed design of the Aalto-1 science mission. Aalto-1 is a multi-payload remote sensing nanosatellite, built almost entirely by students. The satellite aims for a 500-900 km sun-synchronous orbit, and includes an accurate attitude dynamics and control unit, a UHF/VHF housekeeping and S-band data links, and a GPS unit for positioning (radio positioning and NORAD TLE's are planned to be used as backups). It has three specific payloads: a spectral imager based on piezo-actuated Fabry-Perot interferometry, designed and built by The Technical Research Center of Finland (VTT); a miniaturized radiation monitor (RADMON) jointly designed and built by Universities of Helsinki and Turku ; and an electrostatic plasma brake designed and built by the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI), derived from the concept of the e-sail, also originating from FMI. Two phases are important for the payloads, the technology demonstration and the science phase. Emphasis is placed on technological demonstration of the spectral imager and RADMON, and suitable targets have already been chosen to be completed during that phase, while the plasma brake will start operation in the latter part of the science phase. The technology demonstration will be over in relatively short time, while the science phase is planned to last two years. The science phase is divided into two smaller phases: the science observations phase, during which only the spectral imager and RADMON will be operated for 6-12 months, and the plasma brake demonstration phase, which is dedicated to the plasma brake experiment for at least a year. These smaller phases are necessary due to the drastically different power, communication and attitude requirements of the payloads. The spectral imager will be by far the most demanding instrument on board, as it requires most of the downlink bandwidth, has a high peak power and attitude performance. It will acquire images in a series up to at

  6. Aalto-1 nanosatellite - technical description and mission objectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kestilä, A.; Tikka, T.; Peitso, P.; Rantanen, J.; Näsilä, A.; Nordling, K.; Saari, H.; Vainio, R.; Janhunen, P.; Praks, J.; Hallikainen, M.

    2013-02-01

    This work presents the outline and so far completed design of the Aalto-1 science mission. Aalto-1 is a multi-payload remote-sensing nanosatellite, built almost entirely by students. The satellite aims for a 500-900 km sun-synchronous orbit and includes an accurate attitude dynamics and control unit, a UHF/VHF housekeeping and S-band data links, and a GPS unit for positioning (radio positioning and NORAD TLE's are planned to be used as backup). It has three specific payloads: a spectral imager based on piezo-actuated Fabry-Perot interferometry, designed and built by The Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT); a miniaturised radiation monitor (RADMON) jointly designed and built by Universities of Helsinki and Turku; and an electrostatic plasma brake designed and built by the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI), derived from the concept of the e-sail, also originating from FMI. Two phases are important for the payloads, the technology demonstration and the science phase. The emphasis is placed on technological demonstration of the spectral imager and RADMON, and suitable targets have already been chosen to be completed during that phase, while the plasma brake will start operation in the latter part of the science phase. The technology demonstration will be over in a relatively short time, while the science phase is planned to last two years. The science phase is divided into two smaller phases: the science observations phase, during which only the spectral imager and RADMON will be operated for 6-12 months and the plasma brake demonstration phase, which is dedicated to the plasma brake experiment for at least a year. These smaller phases are necessary due to the drastically different power, communication and attitude requirements of the payloads. The spectral imager will be by far the most demanding instrument on board, as it requires most of the downlink bandwidth, has a high peak power and attitude performance. It will acquire images in a series up to at

  7. The STS-90 crew wave to family and friends in front of Launch Pad 39B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The STS-90 crew wave to friends and family members near Launch Pad 39B, from which they are scheduled to launch aboard Columbia on May 16 at 2:19 p.m. EDT. The crew include, left to right, Mission Specialist Richard Linnehan, D.V.M., Commander Richard Searfoss, Pilot Scott Altman, Payload Specialists James Pawelczyk, Ph.D., and Jay Buckey, M.D., and Mission Specialists Dafydd (Dave) Williams, M.D., with the Canadian Space Agency, and Kathryn (Kay) Hire. The Space Shuttle Columbia is seen in the background, protected by its Rotating Service Structure. This is the 25th flight of Columbia and the 90th mission flown since the start of the Space Shuttle program. STS-90 is a nearly 17-day life sciences research flight that will focus on the most complex and least understood part of the human body -- the nervous system. Neurolab will examine the effects of spaceflight on the brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves and sensory organs in the human body.

  8. STS-96 crew leaves the O&C Building enroute to Pad 39B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The STS-96 crew wave to onlookers as they walk out of the Operations and Checkout Building enroute to Launch Pad 39B and liftoff of Space Shuttle Discovery, targeted for 6:49 a.m. EDT. In their orange launch and entry suits, they are (clockwise from bottom left) Mission Specialists Tamara E. Jernigan, Julie Payette, Ellen Ochoa, Valery Ivanovich Tokarev and Daniel T. Barry, Pilot Rick D. Husband, and Commander Kent V. Rominger. Payette is with the Canadian Space Agency, and Tokarev is with the Russian Space Agency. STS-96 is a 10-day logistics and resupply mission for the International Space Station, carrying about 4,000 pounds of supplies, to be stored aboard the station for use by future crews, including laptop computers, cameras, tools, spare parts, and clothing. The mission also includes such payloads as a Russian crane, the Strela; a U.S.-built crane; the Spacehab Oceaneering Space System Box (SHOSS), a logistics items carrier; and STARSHINE, a student-involved experiment. It will include a space walk to attach the cranes to the outside of the ISS for use in future construction. Landing is expected at the SLF on June 6 about

  9. A decision support tool for synchronizing technology advances with strategic mission objectives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hornstein, Rhoda S.; Willoughby, John K.

    1992-01-01

    Successful accomplishment of the objectives of many long-range future missions in areas such as space systems, land-use planning, and natural resource management requires significant technology developments. This paper describes the development of a decision-support data-derived tool called MisTec for helping strategic planners to determine technology development alternatives and to synchronize the technology development schedules with the performance schedules of future long-term missions. Special attention is given to the operations, concept, design, and functional capabilities of the MisTec. The MisTec was initially designed for manned Mars mission, but can be adapted to support other high-technology long-range strategic planning situations, making it possible for a mission analyst, planner, or manager to describe a mission scenario, determine the technology alternatives for making the mission achievable, and to plan the R&D activity necessary to achieve the required technology advances.

  10. STS-96 Space Shuttle Discovery rolls back to Launch Pad 39B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Space Shuttle Discovery makes the climb to Launch Pad 39B aboard the mobile launcher platform and crawler transporter. The crawler is able to keep its cargo level during the move up the five percent grade, not varying from the vertical more than the diameter of a soccer ball. At right are the rotating and fixed service structures which will be used during prelaunch preparations at the pad. Earlier in the week, the Shuttle was rolled back to the VAB from the pad to repair hail damage on the external tank's foam insulation. Mission STS-96, the 94th launch in the Space Shuttle Program, is scheduled for liftoff May 27 at 6:48 a.m. EDT. STS-96 is a logistics and resupply mission for the International Space Station, carrying such payloads as a Russian crane, the Strela; a U.S.-built crane; the Spacehab Oceaneering Space System Box (SHOSS), a logistics items carrier; and STARSHINE, a student-shared experiment.

  11. STS-87 Columbia rolls out to LC 39B in preparation for launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The orbiter Columbia, mated to its external tank and two solid rocket boosters, rolls out to Kennedy Space Centers (KSCs) Pad 39-B atop a mobile launcher platform (MLP). The entire complement of crawler transporter, MLP and Shuttle weigh in excess of 18 million pounds. The transporter moves at an average rate of less than one mile-per-hour with the Shuttle on top and uses a laser docking system to precisely position the MLP on the pad surface. A leveling system on the crawler transporter keeps the Shuttle perfectly stable during the roll out and during the climb up the 5 percent grade to the launch pad surface. Columbia is scheduled to launch on Nov. 19 for STS-87 on a 16-day flight of the United States Microgravity Payload (USMP)-4 mission. This mission also features the deployment and retrieval of the Spartan-201 satellite and a spacewalk to demonstrate assembly and maintenance operations for future use on the International Space Station.

  12. STS-103 crew learn about use of slideware basket at Pad 39B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    At the slidewire area of Launch Pad 39B, the STS-103 crew listen to use of the emergency egress equipment. From left are the trainer, with crew members Mission Specialists Steven L. Smith, Jean-Frangois Clervoy of France, Claude Nicollier of Switzerland, John M. Grunsfeld (Ph.D.), Pilot Steven J. Kelly, C. Michael Foale (Ph.D.), and (kneeling) Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr. Clervoy and Nicollier are both with the European Space Agency. As a preparation for launch, the crew have been participating in Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test (TCDT) activities at KSC. The TCDT provides the crew with emergency egress training, opportunities to inspect their mission payloads in the orbiter's payload bay, and simulated countdown exercises. STS-103 is a 'call-up' mission due to the need to replace and repair portions of the Hubble Space Telescope, including the gyroscopes that allow the telescope to point at stars, galaxies and planets. The STS-103 crew will be replacing a Fine Guidance Sensor, an older computer with a new enhanced model, an older data tape recorder with a solid-state digital recorder, a failed spare transmitter with a new one, and degraded insulation on the telescope with new thermal insulation. The crew will also install a Battery Voltage/Temperature Improvement Kit to protect the spacecraft batteries from overcharging and overheating when the telescope goes into a safe mode. Four EVA's are planned to make the necessary repairs and replacements on the telescope. The mission is targeted for launch Dec. 6 at 2:37 a.m. EST.

  13. Multi-Objective Hybrid Optimal Control for Multiple-Flyby Low-Thrust Mission Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Englander, Jacob A.; Vavrina, Matthew A.; Ghosh, Alexander R.

    2015-01-01

    Preliminary design of low-thrust interplanetary missions is a highly complex process. The mission designer must choose discrete parameters such as the number of flybys, the bodies at which those flybys are performed, and in some cases the final destination. In addition, a time-history of control variables must be chosen that defines the trajectory. There are often many thousands, if not millions, of possible trajectories to be evaluated. The customer who commissions a trajectory design is not usually interested in a point solution, but rather the exploration of the trade space of trajectories between several different objective functions. This can be a very expensive process in terms of the number of human analyst hours required. An automated approach is therefore very desirable. This work presents such an approach by posing the mission design problem as a multi-objective hybrid optimal control problem. The method is demonstrated on a hypothetical mission to the main asteroid belt.

  14. Multi-Objective Hybrid Optimal Control for Multiple-Flyby Interplanetary Mission Design Using Chemical Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Englander, Jacob; Vavrina, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    The customer (scientist or project manager) most often does not want just one point solution to the mission design problem Instead, an exploration of a multi-objective trade space is required. For a typical main-belt asteroid mission the customer might wish to see the trade-space of: Launch date vs. Flight time vs. Deliverable mass, while varying the destination asteroid, planetary flybys, launch year, etcetera. To address this question we use a multi-objective discrete outer-loop which defines many single objective real-valued inner-loop problems.

  15. Initial Considerations for Navigation and Flight Dynamics of a Crewed Near-Earth Object Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, Greg N.; Getchius, Joel; Tracy, William H.

    2011-01-01

    A crewed mission to a Near-Earth Object (NEO) was recently identified as a NASA Space Policy goal and priority. In support of this goal, a study was conducted to identify the initial considerations for performing the navigation and flight dynamics tasks of this mission class. Although missions to a NEO are not new, the unique factors involved in human spaceflight present challenges that warrant special examination. During the cruise phase of the mission, one of the most challenging factors is the noisy acceleration environment associated with a crewed vehicle. Additionally, the presence of a human crew necessitates a timely return trip, which may need to be expedited in an emergency situation where the mission is aborted. Tracking, navigation, and targeting results are shown for sample human-class trajectories to NEOs. Additionally, the benefit of in-situ navigation beacons on robotic precursor missions is presented. This mission class will require a longer duration flight than Apollo and, unlike previous human missions, there will likely be limited communication and tracking availability. This will necessitate the use of more onboard navigation and targeting capabilities. Finally, the rendezvous and proximity operations near an asteroid will be unlike anything previously attempted in a crewed spaceflight. The unknown gravitational environment and physical surface properties of the NEO may cause the rendezvous to behave differently than expected. Symbiosis of the human pilot and onboard navigation/targeting are presented which give additional robustness to unforeseen perturbations.

  16. Advanced software development workstation: Object-oriented methodologies and applications for flight planning and mission operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Izygon, Michel

    1993-01-01

    The work accomplished during the past nine months in order to help three different organizations involved in Flight Planning and in Mission Operations systems, to transition to Object-Oriented Technology, by adopting one of the currently most widely used Object-Oriented analysis and Design Methodology is summarized.

  17. The STS-87 crew members and their spouses pose in front of Columbia at LC 39B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The crew of STS-87 pose with their spouses in front of Kennedy Space Center's Launch Pad 39B during final prelaunch activities leading up to the scheduled Nov. 19 liftoff. From left to right are: Vera Kadenyuk, wife of Payload Specialist Leonid Kadenyuk of the National Space Agency of Ukraine who is next to Vera; Mission Specialist Winston Scott and his wife, Marilyn; Mission Specialist Takao Doi, Ph.D., of the National Space Development Agency of Japan, and his wife, Hitomi; Jeannie Kregel, who is married to Commander Kevin Kregel standing next to her; Mission Specialist Kalpana Chawla, Ph.D., and her husband, Jean-Pierre Harrison; and Pilot Steven Lindsey and his wife Diane. STS-87 will be the fourth flight of the United States Microgravity Payload and the Spartan-201 deployable satellite.

  18. Proving Ground Potential Mission and Flight Test Objectives and Near Term Architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, R. Marshall; Craig, Douglas A.; Lopez, Pedro Jr.

    2016-01-01

    NASA is developing a Pioneering Space Strategy to expand human and robotic presence further into the solar system, not just to explore and visit, but to stay. NASA's strategy is designed to meet technical and non-technical challenges, leverage current and near-term activities, and lead to a future where humans can work, learn, operate, and thrive safely in space for an extended, and eventually indefinite, period of time. An important aspect of this strategy is the implementation of proving ground activities needed to ensure confidence in both Mars systems and deep space operations prior to embarking on the journey to the Mars. As part of the proving ground development, NASA is assessing potential mission concepts that could validate the required capabilities needed to expand human presence into the solar system. The first step identified in the proving ground is to establish human presence in the cis-lunar vicinity to enable development and testing of systems and operations required to land humans on Mars and to reach other deep space destinations. These capabilities may also be leveraged to support potential commercial and international objectives for Lunar Surface missions. This paper will discuss a series of potential proving ground mission and flight test objectives that support NASA's journey to Mars and can be leveraged for commercial and international goals. The paper will discuss how early missions will begin to satisfy these objectives, including extensibility and applicability to Mars. The initial capability provided by the launch vehicle will be described as well as planned upgrades required to support longer and more complex missions. Potential architectures and mission concepts will be examined as options to satisfy proving ground objectives. In addition, these architectures will be assessed on commercial and international participation opportunities and on how well they develop capabilities and operations applicable to Mars vicinity missions.

  19. Science Objectives and Rationale for the Radiation Belt Storm Probes Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mauk, B.H.; Fox, Nicola J.; Kanekal, S. G.; Kessel, R. L.; Sibek, D. G.; Ukhorskiy, A.

    2012-01-01

    The NASA Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP) mission addresses how populationsof high energy charged particles are created, vary, and evolve in space environments,and specifically within Earths magnetically trapped radiation belts. RBSP, with a nominallaunch date of August 2012, comprises two spacecraft making in situ measurements for atleast 2 years in nearly the same highly elliptical, low inclination orbits (1.1 5.8 RE, 10).The orbits are slightly different so that 1 spacecraft laps the other spacecraft about every2.5 months, allowing separation of spatial from temporal effects over spatial scales rangingfrom 0.1 to 5 RE. The uniquely comprehensive suite of instruments, identical on the twospacecraft, measures all of the particle (electrons, ions, ion composition), fields (E and B),and wave distributions (dE and dB) that are needed to resolve the most critical science questions.Here we summarize the high level science objectives for the RBSP mission, providehistorical background on studies of Earth and planetary radiation belts, present examples ofthe most compelling scientific mysteries of the radiation belts, present the mission design ofthe RBSP mission that targets these mysteries and objectives, present the observation andmeasurement requirements for the mission, and introduce the instrumentation that will deliverthese measurements. This paper references and is followed by a number of companionpapers that describe the details of the RBSP mission, spacecraft, and instruments.

  20. Science Objectives and Rationale for the Radiation Belt Storm Probes Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauk, B. H.; Fox, N. J.; Kanekal, S. G.; Kessel, R. L.; Sibeck, D. G.; Ukhorskiy, A.

    2013-11-01

    The NASA Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP) mission addresses how populations of high energy charged particles are created, vary, and evolve in space environments, and specifically within Earth's magnetically trapped radiation belts. RBSP, with a nominal launch date of August 2012, comprises two spacecraft making in situ measurements for at least 2 years in nearly the same highly elliptical, low inclination orbits (1.1×5.8 RE, 10∘). The orbits are slightly different so that 1 spacecraft laps the other spacecraft about every 2.5 months, allowing separation of spatial from temporal effects over spatial scales ranging from ˜0.1 to 5 RE. The uniquely comprehensive suite of instruments, identical on the two spacecraft, measures all of the particle (electrons, ions, ion composition), fields ( E and B), and wave distributions ( d E and d B) that are needed to resolve the most critical science questions. Here we summarize the high level science objectives for the RBSP mission, provide historical background on studies of Earth and planetary radiation belts, present examples of the most compelling scientific mysteries of the radiation belts, present the mission design of the RBSP mission that targets these mysteries and objectives, present the observation and measurement requirements for the mission, and introduce the instrumentation that will deliver these measurements. This paper references and is followed by a number of companion papers that describe the details of the RBSP mission, spacecraft, and instruments.

  1. The Mission Accessible Near-Earth Objects Survey (MANOS): photometric results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thirouin, Audrey; Moskovitz, Nicholas; Binzel, Richard; Christensen, Eric J.; DeMeo, Francesca; Person, Michael J.; Polishook, David; Thomas, Cristina; Trilling, David E.; Willman, Mark; Hinkle, Mary L.; Burt, Brian; Avner, Dan

    2016-10-01

    The Mission Accessible Near-Earth Object Survey (MANOS) is a physical characterization survey of Near-Earth Objects (NEOs) to provide physical data for several hundred mission accessible NEOs across visible and near-infrared wavelengths. Using a variety of 1-m to 8-m class telescopes, we observe 5 to 10 newly discovered sub-km NEOs per month in order to derive their rotational properties and taxonomic class.Rotational data can provide useful information about physical properties, like shape, surface heterogeneity/homogeneity, density, internal structure, and internal cohesion. Here, we present results of the MANOS photometric survey for more than 200 NEOs. We report lightcurves from our first three years of observing and show objects with rotational periods from a couple of hours down to a few seconds. MANOS found the three fastest rotators known to date with rotational periods below 20s. A physical interpretation of these ultra-rapid rotators is that they are bound through a combination of cohesive and/or tensile strength rather than gravity. Therefore, these objects are important to understand the internal structure of NEOs. Rotational properties are used for statistical study to constrain overall properties of the NEO population. We also study rotational properties according to size, and dynamical class. Finally, we report a sample of NEOs that are fully characterized (lightcurve and visible spectra) as the most suitable candidates for a future robotic or human mission. Viable mission targets are objects with a rotational period >1h, and a delta-v lower than 12 km/s. Assuming the MANOS rate of object characterization, and the current NEO population estimates by Tricarico (2016), and by Harris and D'Abramo (2015), 10,000 to 1,000,000 NEOs with diameters between 10m and 1km are expected to be mission accessible. We acknowledge funding support from NASA NEOO grant number NNX14AN82G, and NOAO survey program.

  2. The High Energy Solar Physics mission (HESP): Scientific objectives and technical description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crannell, Carol; Dennis, Brian; Davis, John; Emslie, Gordon; Haerendel, Gerhard; Hudson, High; Hurford, Gordon; Lin, Robert; Ling, James; Pick, Monique

    1991-01-01

    The High Energy Solar Physics mission offers the opportunity for major breakthroughs in the understanding of the fundamental energy release and particle acceleration processes at the core of the solar flare problem. The following subject areas are covered: the scientific objectives of HESP; what we can expect from the HESP observations; the high energy imaging spectrometer (HEISPEC); the HESP spacecraft; and budget and schedule.

  3. Objectives for Mars Orbital Missions in the 2020s: Report from a MEPAG Science Analysis Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zurek, R. W.; Campbell, B. A.; Diniega, S.; Lock, R. E.

    2015-12-01

    NASA Headquarters is looking at possible missions to Mars to follow the proposed 2020 Mars rover mission currently in development. One option being considered is a multi-functional orbiter, launched in the early 2020's, whose capabilities could address objectives in the following areas: • Replenishment of the telecommunications and reconnaissance infrastructure presently provided by the aging Mars Odyssey and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiters; • Scientific and technical progress on the NRC Planetary Science Decadal Survey priorities, updated MEPAG Goals, and/or follow-up of new discoveries; • Location and quantification of in situ resources for utilization by future robotic and human surface-based missions; and • Data needed to address Strategic Knowledge Gaps (SKGs), again for possible human missions. The Mars Exploration Program Analysis Group (MEPAG) was asked to prepare an analysis of possible science objectives and remote sensing capabilities that could be implemented by such a multi-purpose Mars orbiter launched in the 2022/24 timeframe. MEPAG conducted this analysis through formation of a Next Orbiter Science Analysis Group (NEX-SAG), which was chartered jointly by the NASA Science and Human Exploration Directorates. The SAG was asked to conduct this study within a range of mission capabilities, including the possible first use of Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) in the Mars system. SEP could provide additional power enabling new payload components and possible changes in orbit (e.g., orbital inclination change) that permit different mission observational campaigns (e.g., polar and non-polar). Special attention was paid towards identifying synergies between science investigations, reconnaissance, and resource/SKG needs. We will present the findings and conclusions of this NEX-SAG regarding possible objectives for the next NASA Orbiter to Mars.

  4. Research Objectives for Human Missions in the Proving Ground of Cis-Lunar Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spann, James; Niles, Paul B.; Eppler, Dean B.; Kennedy, Kriss J.; Lewis, Ruthan.; Sullivan, Thomas A.

    2016-04-01

    Introduction: This talk will introduce the preliminary findings in support of NASA's Future Capabilities Team. In support of the ongoing studies conducted by NASA's Future Capabilities Team, we are tasked with collecting research objectives for the Proving Ground activities. The objectives could include but are certainly not limited to: demonstrating crew well being and performance over long duration missions, characterizing lunar volatiles, Earth monitoring, near Earth object search and identification, support of a far-side radio telescope, and measuring impact of deep space environment on biological systems. Beginning in as early as 2023, crewed missions beyond low Earth orbit will begin enabled by the new capabilities of the SLS and Orion vehicles. This will initiate the "Proving Ground" phase of human exploration with Mars as an ultimate destination. The primary goal of the Proving Ground is to demonstrate the capability of suitably long duration spaceflight without need of continuous support from Earth, i.e. become Earth Independent. A major component of the Proving Ground phase is to conduct research activities aimed at accomplishing major objectives selected from a wide variety of disciplines including but not limited to: Astronomy, Heliophysics, Fundamental Physics, Planetary Science, Earth Science, Human Systems, Fundamental Space Biology, Microgravity, and In Situ Resource Utilization. Mapping and prioritizing the most important objectives from these disciplines will provide a strong foundation for establishing the architecture to be utilized in the Proving Ground. Possible Architectures: Activities and objectives will be accomplished during the Proving Ground phase using a deep space habitat. This habitat will potentially be accompanied by a power/propulsion bus capable of moving the habitat to accomplish different objectives within cis-lunar space. This architecture can also potentially support staging of robotic and tele-robotic assets as well as

  5. Research Objectives for Human Missions in the Proving Ground of Cis-Lunar Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spann, James; Niles, Paul; Eppler, Dean; Kennedy, Kriss; Lewis, Ruthan; Sullivan, Thomas

    2016-07-01

    Introduction: This talk will introduce the preliminary findings in support of NASA's Future Capabilities Team. In support of the ongoing studies conducted by NASA's Future Capabilities Team, we are tasked with collecting re-search objectives for the Proving Ground activities. The objectives could include but are certainly not limited to: demonstrating crew well being and performance over long duration missions, characterizing lunar volatiles, Earth monitoring, near Earth object search and identification, support of a far-side radio telescope, and measuring impact of deep space environment on biological systems. Beginning in as early as 2023, crewed missions beyond low Earth orbit will be enabled by the new capabilities of the SLS and Orion vehicles. This will initiate the "Proving Ground" phase of human exploration with Mars as an ultimate destination. The primary goal of the Proving Ground is to demonstrate the capability of suitably long dura-tion spaceflight without need of continuous support from Earth, i.e. become Earth Independent. A major component of the Proving Ground phase is to conduct research activities aimed at accomplishing major objectives selected from a wide variety of disciplines including but not limited to: Astronomy, Heliophysics, Fun-damental Physics, Planetary Science, Earth Science, Human Systems, Fundamental Space Biology, Microgravity, and In Situ Resource Utilization. Mapping and prioritizing the most important objectives from these disciplines will provide a strong foundation for establishing the architecture to be utilized in the Proving Ground. Possible Architectures: Activities and objectives will be accomplished during the Proving Ground phase using a deep space habitat. This habitat will potentially be accompanied by a power/propulsion bus capable of moving the habitat to accomplish different objectives within cis-lunar space. This architecture can also potentially support stag-ing of robotic and tele-robotic assets as well as

  6. STS-90 M.S. Williams with the CSA waves to family and friends near Pad 39B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    STS-90 Mission Specialist Dafydd (Dave) Williams, M.D., with the Canadian Space Agency speaks with friends and family members near Launch Pad 39B, from which he and the rest of the seven-member crew are scheduled to launch aboard Columbia on May 16 at 2:19 p.m. EDT. The astronauts are under strict health stabilization guidelines to protect them from close contact with persons who do not have health stabilization clearance. This is the 25th flight of Columbia and the 90th mission flown since the start of the Space Shuttle program. STS-90 is a nearly 17-day life sciences research flight that will focus on the most complex and least understood part of the human body -- the nervous system. Neurolab will examine the effects of spaceflight on the brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves and sensory organs in the human body.

  7. STS-102 MS Helms, Usachev and Voss pose on the FSS at Launch Pad 39B during TCDT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, Fla. -- After emergency escape training on the 195-foot level of the Fixed Service Structure, Launch Pad 39B, STS-102 Mission Specialists Susan Helms, Yury Usachev and James Voss pose for the camera. The three are also the Expedition Two crew who will be replacing Expedition One on the International Space Station. Behind them, at left, can be seen the tops of the solid rocket booster and external tank on Space Shuttle Discovery. The STS-102 crew is at KSC for Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test activities, which include the emergency training and a simulated launch countdown. STS-102 is the eighth construction flight to the Space Station, with Discovery carrying the Multi-Purpose Logistics Module Leonardo. Expedition One will return to Earth with Discovery. Launch on mission STS-102 is scheduled for March 8.

  8. The Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment III/International Space Station Mission: Science Objectives and Mission Status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckman, R.; Zawodny, J. M.; Cisewski, M. S.; Flittner, D. E.; McCormick, M. P.; Gasbarre, J. F.; Damadeo, R. P.; Hill, C. A.

    2015-12-01

    The Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment III/International Space Station (SAGE III/ISS) is a strategic climate continuity mission which was included in NASA's 2010 plan, "Responding to the Challenge of Climate and Environmental Change: NASA's Plan for a Climate-Centric Architecture for Earth Observations and Applications from Space." SAGE III/ISS continues the long-term, global measurements of trace gases and aerosols begun in 1979 by SAGE I and continued by SAGE II and SAGE III on Meteor 3M. Using a well characterized occultation technique, the SAGE III instrument's spectrometer will measure vertical profiles of ozone, aerosols, water vapor, nitrogen dioxide, and other trace gases relevant to ozone chemistry. The mission will launch in 2016 aboard a Falcon 9 spacecraft.The primary objective of SAGE III/ISS is to monitor the vertical distribution of aerosols, ozone, and other trace gases in the Earth's stratosphere and troposphere to enhance our understanding of ozone recovery and climate change processes in the stratosphere and upper troposphere. SAGE III/ISS will provide data necessary to assess the state of the recovery in the distribution of ozone, extend the SAGE III aerosol measurement record that is needed by both climate models and ozone models, and gain further insight into key processes contributing to ozone and aerosol variability. The multi-decadal SAGE ozone and aerosol data sets have undergone intense community scrutiny for accuracy and stability. SAGE ozone data have been used to monitor the effectiveness of the Montreal Protocol.The ISS inclined orbit of 51.6 degrees is ideal for SAGE III measurements because the orbit permits solar occultation measurement coverage to approximately +/- 70 degrees of latitude. SAGE III/ISS will make measurements using the solar occultation measurement technique, lunar occultation measurement technique, and the limb scattering measurement technique. In this presentation, we describe the SAGE III/ISS mission, its

  9. How Many Ultra-Low Delta-v Near Earth Objects Remain Undiscovered? Implications for missions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elvis, Martin; Ranjan, Sukrit; Galache, Jose Luis; Murphy, Max

    2015-08-01

    The past decade has witnessed considerable growth of interest in missions to Near-Earth Objects (NEOs). NEOs are considered prime targets for manned and robotic missions, for both scientific objectives as well as in-situ resource utilization including harvesting of water for propellant and life support and mining of high-value elements for sale on Earth. Appropriate targets are crucial to such missions. Hence, ultra-low delta-v mission targets are strongly favored. Some mission architectures rely on the discovery of more ultra-low delta-v NEOs. In fact the approved and executed NEO missions have all targeted asteroids with ultra-low LEO to asteroid rendezvous delta-v <5.5 km/s.In this paper, we estimate the total NEO population as a function of delta-v, and how many remain to be discovered in various size ranges down to ~100m. We couple the NEOSSat-1 model (Greenstreet et al., 2012) to the NEO size distribution derived from the NEOWISE survey (Mainzer et al., 2011b) to compute an absolute NEO population model. We compare the Minor Planet Center (MPC) catalog of known NEOs to this NEO population model. We compute the delta-v from LEO to asteroid rendezvous orbits using a modified Shoemaker-Helin (S-H) formalism that empirically removes biases found comparing S-H with the results from NHATS. The median delta-v of the known NEOs is 7.3 km/s, the median delta-v predicted by our NEO model is 9.8 km/s, suggesting that undiscovered objects are biased to higher delta-v. The survey of delta-v <10.3 km/s NEOs is essentially complete for objects with diameter D >300 m. However, there are tens of thousands of objects with delta-v <10.3 km/s to be discovered in the D = 50 - 300 m size class (H = 20.4 - 24.3). Our work suggests that there are 100 yet-undiscovered NEOs with delta-v < 5:8 km/s, and 1000 undiscovered NEOs with v < 6.3 km/s. We conclude that, even with complete NEO surveys, the selection of good (i.e. ultra-low delta-v) mission targets is limited given current

  10. Multi-Objective Hybrid Optimal Control for Multiple-Flyby Interplanetary Mission Design Using Chemical Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Englander, Jacob A.; Vavrina, Matthew A.

    2015-01-01

    Preliminary design of high-thrust interplanetary missions is a highly complex process. The mission designer must choose discrete parameters such as the number of flybys and the bodies at which those flybys are performed. For some missions, such as surveys of small bodies, the mission designer also contributes to target selection. In addition, real-valued decision variables, such as launch epoch, flight times, maneuver and flyby epochs, and flyby altitudes must be chosen. There are often many thousands of possible trajectories to be evaluated. The customer who commissions a trajectory design is not usually interested in a point solution, but rather the exploration of the trade space of trajectories between several different objective functions. This can be a very expensive process in terms of the number of human analyst hours required. An automated approach is therefore very desirable. This work presents such an approach by posing the impulsive mission design problem as a multiobjective hybrid optimal control problem. The method is demonstrated on several real-world problems.

  11. Science objectives and performances of NOMAD, a spectrometer suite for the ExoMars TGO mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandaele, A. C.; Neefs, E.; Drummond, R.; Thomas, I. R.; Daerden, F.; Lopez-Moreno, J.-J.; Rodriguez, J.; Patel, M. R.; Bellucci, G.; Allen, M.; Altieri, F.; Bolsée, D.; Clancy, T.; Delanoye, S.; Depiesse, C.; Cloutis, E.; Fedorova, A.; Formisano, V.; Funke, B.; Fussen, D.; Geminale, A.; Gérard, J.-C.; Giuranna, M.; Ignatiev, N.; Kaminski, J.; Karatekin, O.; Lefèvre, F.; López-Puertas, M.; López-Valverde, M.; Mahieux, A.; McConnell, J.; Mumma, M.; Neary, L.; Renotte, E.; Ristic, B.; Robert, S.; Smith, M.; Trokhimovsky, S.; Vander Auwera, J.; Villanueva, G.; Whiteway, J.; Wilquet, V.; Wolff, M.

    2015-12-01

    The NOMAD spectrometer suite on the ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter will map the composition and distribution of Mars' atmospheric trace species in unprecedented detail, fulfilling many of the scientific objectives of the joint ESA-Roscosmos ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter mission. The instrument is a combination of three channels, covering a spectral range from the UV to the IR, and can perform solar occultation, nadir and limb observations. In this paper, we present the science objectives of the instrument and how these objectives have influenced the design of the channels. We also discuss the expected performance of the instrument in terms of coverage and detection sensitivity.

  12. Multi-Objective Multi-User Scheduling for Space Science Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Mark D.; Giuliano, Mark

    2010-01-01

    We have developed an architecture called MUSE (Multi-User Scheduling Environment) to enable the integration of multi-objective evolutionary algorithms with existing domain planning and scheduling tools. Our approach is intended to make it possible to re-use existing software, while obtaining the advantages of multi-objective optimization algorithms. This approach enables multiple participants to actively engage in the optimization process, each representing one or more objectives in the optimization problem. As initial applications, we apply our approach to scheduling the James Webb Space Telescope, where three objectives are modeled: minimizing wasted time, minimizing the number of observations that miss their last planning opportunity in a year, and minimizing the (vector) build up of angular momentum that would necessitate the use of mission critical propellant to dump the momentum. As a second application area, we model aspects of the Cassini science planning process, including the trade-off between collecting data (subject to onboard recorder capacity) and transmitting saved data to Earth. A third mission application is that of scheduling the Cluster 4-spacecraft constellation plasma experiment. In this paper we describe our overall architecture and our adaptations for these different application domains. We also describe our plans for applying this approach to other science mission planning and scheduling problems in the future.

  13. Science objectives and the Mariner Jupiter/Saturn 1977 mission design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Penzo, P. A.

    1974-01-01

    The two Mariner spacecraft to be launched in 1977 to fly by Jupiter and Saturn require a mission design which is heavily dependent on science objectives. These science objectives translate into trajectory requirements imposed by one or more of the eleven instruments aboard Mariner such as distance of closest approach, inclination, occultation, lighting, etc., at the bodies of interest. Also, Jupiter and Saturn cannot be considered as individual targets but as miniature solar systems, where the mission design must apply to the Jovian and Saturnian satellites, and to Saturn's rings. The major objective of this analysis is to translate the science desires into the mission possibilities. Each object, be it a Galilean satellite, Titan, or the ring of Saturn, provides a unique region suitable for scientific investigation for the on-board instruments. Some of these trajectory regions overlap, others do not. Thus, critical choices must be made in selecting the trajectories to be flown by the two Mariner spacecraft. Such a choice, though preliminary, has been made by the Mariner Jupiter/Saturn 1977 (MJS'77) science teams, and a brief discussion of the selection process and the pair of trajectories chosen is presented in this paper.

  14. The Gamma-Ray Observatory mission objectives and its significance for gamma-ray astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bertsch, D. L.

    1984-01-01

    The Gamma Ray Observatory (GRO) is an approved NASA mission, programmed for launch in 1988. Its complement of four detectors has established goals: (1) to study the nature of compact gamma-ray sources such as neutron stars and black holes, or objects whose nature is yet to be understood; (2) to search for evidence of nucleosynthesis especially in the regions of supernovae; (3) to study structural features and dynamical properties of the Galaxy; (4) to explore other galaxies, especially the extraordinary types such as radio, Seyferts, and quasars; and (5) to study cosmological effects by examining the diffuse radiation in detail. This paper discusses the design, objectives, and expected scientific results of each of the GRO instruments in view of the GRO mission goals.

  15. Identifying Accessible Near-Earth Objects For Crewed Missions With Solar Electric Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smet, Stijn De; Parker, Jeffrey S.; Herman, Jonathan F. C.; Aziz, Jonathan; Barbee, Brent W.; Englander, Jacob A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the expansion of the Near-Earth Object Human Space Flight Accessible Targets Study (NHATS) with Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP). The research investigates the existence of new launch seasons that would have been impossible to achieve using only chemical propulsion. Furthermore, this paper shows that SEP can be used to significantly reduce the launch mass and in some cases the flight time of potential missions as compared to the current, purely chemical trajectories identified by the NHATS project.

  16. Multi-objective optimization to support rapid air operations mission planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonsalves, Paul G.; Burge, Janet E.

    2005-05-01

    Within the context of military air operations, Time-sensitive targets (TSTs) are targets where modifiers such, "emerging, perishable, high-payoff, short dwell, or highly mobile" can be used. Time-critical targets (TCTs) further the criticality of TSTs with respect to achievement of mission objectives and a limited window of opportunity for attack. The importance of TST/TCTs within military air operations has been met with a significant investment in advanced technologies and platforms to meet these challenges. Developments in ISR systems, manned and unmanned air platforms, precision guided munitions, and network-centric warfare have made significant strides for ensuring timely prosecution of TSTs/TCTs. However, additional investments are needed to further decrease the targeting decision cycle. Given the operational needs for decision support systems to enable time-sensitive/time-critical targeting, we present a tool for the rapid generation and analysis of mission plan solutions to address TSTs/TCTs. Our system employs a genetic algorithm-based multi-objective optimization scheme that is well suited to the rapid generation of approximate solutions in a dynamic environment. Genetic Algorithms (GAs) allow for the effective exploration of the search space for potentially novel solutions, while addressing the multiple conflicting objectives that characterize the prosecution of TSTs/TCTs (e.g. probability of target destruction, time to accomplish task, level of disruption to other mission priorities, level of risk to friendly assets, etc.).

  17. Science of Marco Polo : Near-Earth Object Sample Return Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barucci, M. A.; Yoshikawa, Makoto; Koschny, Detlef; Boehnhardt, Hermann; Brucato, J. Robert; Coradini, Marcello; Dotto, Elisabetta; Franchi, Ian A.; Green, Simon F.; Josset, Jean-Luc; Michel, Patrick; Kawagushi, Jun; Muinonen, Karri; Oberst, Juergen; Yano, Hajime; Binzel, Richard P.

    MARCO POLO is a joint European-Japanese sample return mission to a Near-Earth Object (NEO), selected by ESA in the framework of COSMIC VISION for an assessment study. This Euro-Asian mission will go to a primitive NEO, such as C or D type, scientifically characterize it at multiple scales, and bring samples back to Earth for detailed scientific investigation. NEOs are part of the small body population in the solar system, which are leftover building blocks of the solar system formation process. They offer important clues to the chemical mixture from which planets formed about 4.6 billion years ago. The scientific objectives of Marco Polo will therefore contribute to a better understanding of the origin and evolution of the Solar System, the Earth, and possibly Life itself. Marco Polo is based on a launch with a Soyuz Fregat and consists of a Mother Spacecraft (MSC), possibly carrying a lander. The MSC would approach the target asteroid and spend a few months for global characterization of the target to select a sampling site. Then, the MSC would then descend to retrieve, using a "touch and go" manoeuvre, several samples which will be transferred to a Sample Return Capsule (SRC). The MSC would return to Earth and release the SRC into the atmosphere for ground recovery. The sample of the NEO will then be available for detailed investigation in ground-based laboratories. The scientific objectives addressed by the mission and the current status of the mission study (ESA-JAXA) will be presented and discussed.

  18. Special issue editorial - Plasma interactions with Solar System Objects: Anticipating Rosetta, Maven and Mars Orbiter Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coates, A. J.; Wellbrock, A.; Yamauchi, M.

    2015-12-01

    Within our solar system, the planets, moons, comets and asteroids all have plasma interactions. The interaction depends on the nature of the object, particularly the presence of an atmosphere and a magnetic field. Even the size of the object matters through the finite gyroradius effect and the scale height of cold ions of exospheric origin. It also depends on the upstream conditions, including position within the solar wind or the presence within a planetary magnetosphere. Soon after ESA's Rosetta reached comet Churyumov-Gerasimenko, NASA's Maven and ISRO's Mars Orbiter Mission (MOM) reached Mars, and ESA's Venus Express mission was completed, this issue explores our understanding of plasma interactions with comets, Mars, Venus, and moons in the solar system. We explore the processes which characterise the interactions, such as ion pickup and field draping, and their effects such as plasma escape. Papers are based on data from current and recent space missions, modelling and theory, as we explore our local part of the 'plasma universe'.

  19. Lunar polar ice deposits: scientific and utilization objectives of the lunar ice discovery mission proposal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    B. Duke, Michael

    2002-03-01

    The Clementine mission has revived interest in the possibility that ice exists in shadowed craters near the lunar poles. Theoretically, the problem is complex, with several possible sources of water (meteoroid, asteroid, comet impact), several possible loss mechanisms (impact vaporization, sputtering, photoionization), and burial by meteorite impact. Opinions of modelers have ranged from no ice to several times 10 16 g of ice in the cold traps. Clementine bistatic radar data have been interpreted in favor of the presence of ice, while Arecibo radar data do not confirm its presence. The Lunar Prospector mission, planned to be flown in the fall of 1997, could gather new evidence for the existence of ice. If ice is present, both scientific and utilitarian objectives would be addressed by a lunar polar rover, such as that proposed to the NASA Discovery program, but not selected. The lunar polar rover remains the best way to understand the distribution and characteristics of lunar polar ice.

  20. The Mission Accessible Near-Earth Objects Survey (MANOS): spectroscopy results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Cristina A.; Moskovitz, Nicholas; Hinkle, Mary L.; Mommert, Michael; Polishook, David; Thirouin, Audrey; Binzel, Richard; Christensen, Eric J.; DeMeo, Francesca E.; Person, Michael J.; Trilling, David E.; Willman, Mark; Burt, Brian

    2016-10-01

    The Mission Accessible Near-Earth Object Survey (MANOS) is an ongoing physical characterization survey to build a large, uniform catalog of physical properties including lightcurves and visible wavelength spectroscopy. We will use this catalog to investigate the global properties of the small NEO population and identify individual objects that can be targets of interest for future exploration. To accomplish our goals, MANOS uses a wide variety of telescopes (1-8m) in both the northern and southern hemispheres. We focus on targets that have been recently discovered and operate on a regular cadence of remote and queue observations to enable rapid characterization of small NEOs. Targets for MANOS are selected based on three criteria: mission accessibility, size, and observability. With our resources, we observe 5-10 newly discovered sub-km NEOs per month. MANOS has been operating for three years and we have observed over 500 near-Earth objects in that time.We will present results from the spectroscopy component of the MANOS program. Visible wavelength spectra are obtained using DeVeny on the Discovery Channel Telescope (DCT), Goodman on the Southern Astrophysical Research (SOAR) telescope, and GMOS on Gemini North and South. Over 300 NEO spectra have been obtained during our program. We will present preliminary results from our spectral sample. We will discuss the compositional diversity of the small NEO population and how the observed NEOs compare to the meteorite population.MANOS is funded by the NASA Near-Earth Object Observations program.

  1. STS-102 MPLM Leonardo is moved to the payload canister for transfer to Launch Pad 39B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, Fla. -- In the Space Station Processing Facility, an overhead crane begins lifting the Multi-Purpose Logistics Module Leonardo. The MPLM is being moved to the payload canister for transfer to Launch Pad 39B and installation in Space Shuttle Discovery. The Leonardo, one of Italy'''s major contributions to the International Space Station program, is a reusable logistics carrier. It is the primary delivery system used to resupply and return Station cargo requiring a pressurized environment. Leonardo is the primary payload on mission STS-102 and will deliver up to 10 tons of laboratory racks filled with equipment, experiments and supplies for outfitting the newly installed U.S. Laboratory Destiny. STS-102 is scheduled to launch March 8 at 6:45 a.m. EST.

  2. RAB39B gene mutations are not linked to familial Parkinson’s disease in China

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Ji-feng; Luo, Yang; Tang, Bei-sha; Wan, Chang-min; Yang, Yang; Li, Kai; Liu, Zhen-hua; Sun, Qi-ying; Xu, Qian; Yan, Xin-xiang; Guo, Ji-feng

    2016-01-01

    Recently, RAB39B mutations were reported to be a causative factor in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD). To validate the role of RAB39B in familial PD, a total of 195 subjects consisting of 108 PD families with autosomal-dominant (AD) inheritance and 87 PD families with autosomal-recessive (AR) inheritance in the Chinese Han population from mainland China were included in this study. We did not identify any variants in the coding region or the exon-intron boundaries of the gene by Sanger sequencing method in the DNA samples of 180 patients (100 with AD and 80 with AR). Furthermore, we did not find any variants in the RAB39B gene when Whole-exome sequencing (WES) was applied to DNA samples from 15 patients (8 with AD and 7 with AR) for further genetic analysis. Additionally, when quantitative real-time PCR was used to exclude large rearrangement variants in these patients, we found no dosage mutations in RAB39B gene. Our results suggest that RAB39B mutation is very rare in familial PD and may not be a major cause of familial PD in the Chinese Han Population. PMID:27694831

  3. The Mission Accessible Near-Earth Object Survey (MANOS): Project Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moskovitz, Nicholas; Polishook, David; Thomas, Cristina; Willman, Mark; DeMeo, Francesca; Mommert, Michael; Endicott, Thomas; Trilling, David; Binzel, Richard; Hinkle, Mary; Siu, Hosea; Neugent, Kathryn; Christensen, Eric; Person, Michael; Burt, Brian; Grundy, Will; Roe, Henry; Abell, Paul; Busch, Michael

    2014-11-01

    The Mission Accessible Near-Earth Object Survey (MANOS) began in August 2013 as a multi-year physical characterization survey that was awarded survey status by NOAO. MANOS will target several hundred mission-accessible NEOs across visible and near-infrared wavelengths, ultimately providing a comprehensive catalog of physical properties (astrometry, light curves, spectra). Particular focus is paid to sub-km NEOs, for which little data currently exists. These small bodies are essential to understanding the link between meteorites and asteroids, pose the most immediate impact hazard to the Earth, and are highly relevant to a variety of planetary mission scenarios. Accessing these targets is enabled through a combination of classical, queue, and target-of-opportunity observations carried out at 1- to 8-meter class facilities in both the northern and southern hemispheres. The MANOS observing strategy is specifically designed to rapidly characterize newly discovered NEOs before they fade beyond observational limits. MANOS will provide major advances in our understanding of the NEO population as a whole and for specific objects of interest. Here we present an overview of the survey, progress to date, and early science highlights including: (1) an estimate of the taxonomic distribution of spectral types for NEOs smaller than ~100 meters, (2) the distribution of rotational properties for approximately 100 previously unstudied objects, (3) models for the dynamical evolution of the overall NEO population over the past 0.5 Myr, and (4) progress in developing a new set of online tools at asteroid.lowell.edu that will enable near realtime public dissemination of our data while providing a portal to facilitate coordination efforts within the small body observer community.MANOS is supported through telescope allocations from NOAO and Lowell Observatory. We acknowledge funding support from an NSF Astronomy and Astrophysics Postdoctoral Fellowship to N. Moskovitz and NASA NEOO grant

  4. The Mission Accessible Near-Earth Object Survey (MANOS) — First Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moskovitz, Nicholas; Avner, Louis; Binzel, Richard; Burt, Brian; Christensen, Eric; DeMeo, Francesca; Hinkle, Mary; Mommert, Michael; Person, Michael; Polishook, David; Schottland, Robert; Siu, Hosea; Thirouin, Audrey; Thomas, Cristina; Trilling, David; Wasserman, Lawrence; Willman, Mark

    2015-11-01

    The Mission Accessible Near-Earth Object Survey (MANOS) began in August 2013 as a multi-year physical characterization survey that was awarded survey status by NOAO and has since expanded operations to include facilities at Lowell Observatory and the University of Hawaii. MANOS will target several hundred mission-accessible NEOs across visible and near-infrared wavelengths, providing a comprehensive catalog of physical properties (astrometry, light curves, spectra). Particular focus is paid to sub-km NEOs, where little data currently exists. These small bodies are essential to understanding the link between meteorites and asteroids, pose the most immediate impact hazard to the Earth, and are highly relevant to a variety of planetary mission scenarios. Observing these targets is enabled through a combination of classical, queue, and target-of-opportunity observations carried out at 1- to 8-meter class facilities in both the northern and southern hemispheres. The MANOS observing strategy enables the characterization of roughly 10% of newly discovered NEOs before they fade beyond observational limits.To date MANOS has obtained data on over 200 sub-km NEOs and will ultimately provide major advances in our understanding of the NEO population as a whole and for specific objects of interest. Here we present first results from the survey including: (1) the de-biased taxonomic distribution of spectral types for NEOs smaller than ~100 meters, (2) the distribution of rotational properties for small objects with high Earth-encounter probabilities, (3) progress in developing a new set of online tools at asteroid.lowell.edu that will help to facilitate observational planning for the small body observer community, and (4) physical properties derived from rotational light curves.MANOS is supported through telescope allocations from NOAO, Lowell Observatory and the University of Hawaii. We acknowledge funding support from NASA NEOO grant number NNX14AN82G and an NSF Astronomy and

  5. Small Solar Electric Propulsion Spacecraft Concept for Near Earth Object and Inner Solar System Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lang, Jared J.; Randolph, Thomas M.; McElrath, Timothy P.; Baker, John D.; Strange, Nathan J.; Landau, Damon; Wallace, Mark S.; Snyder, J. Steve; Piacentine, Jamie S.; Malone, Shane; Bury, Kristen M.; Tracy, William H.

    2011-01-01

    Near Earth Objects (NEOs) and other primitive bodies are exciting targets for exploration. Not only do they provide clues to the early formation of the universe, but they also are potential resources for manned exploration as well as provide information about potential Earth hazards. As a step toward exploration outside Earth's sphere of influence, NASA is considering manned exploration to Near Earth Asteroids (NEAs), however hazard characterization of a target is important before embarking on such an undertaking. A small Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) spacecraft would be ideally suited for this type of mission due to the high delta-V requirements, variety of potential targets and locations, and the solar energy available in the inner solar system.Spacecraft and mission trades have been performed to develop a robust spacecraft design that utilizes low cost, off-the-shelf components that could accommodate a suite of different scientific payloads for NEO characterization. Mission concepts such as multiple spacecraft each rendezvousing with different NEOs, single spacecraft rendezvousing with separate NEOs, NEO landers, as well as other inner solar system applications (Mars telecom orbiter) have been evaluated. Secondary launch opportunities using the Expendable Secondary Payload Adapter (ESPA) Grande launch adapter with unconstrained launch dates have also been examined.

  6. Mission feasibility analysis on deflecting Earth-crossing objects using a power limited laser ablating spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Young-Joo; Park, Sang-Young; Choi, Kyu-Hong

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyzes several mission capabilities to deflect Earth-crossing objects (ECOs) using a conceptual future spacecraft with a power limited laser ablating tool. A constrained optimization problem is formulated based on nonlinear programming with a three-dimensional patched conic method. System dynamics are also established, considering the target ECO’s orbit as being continuously perturbed by limited laser power. The required optimal operating duration and operating angle history of the laser ablating tool are computed for various types of ECOs to avoid an Earth impact. The available final warning time is also determined with a given limited laser power. As a result, detailed laser operating behaviors are presented and discussed, which include characteristics of operating duration and angle variation histories in relation to the operation’s start time and target object’s properties. The calculated durations of the optimal laser operation are also compared to those estimated with first-order approximations previous studies. It is discovered that the duration of the laser operation estimated with first-order approximations could result in up to about 50% error if the operation is started at the final warning time. The laser operation should be started as early as possible because an early start requires a short operating duration with a small operating angle variation. The mission feasibility demonstrated in the present study will give various insights into preparing future deflection missions using power limited spacecraft with a laser ablation tool.

  7. Multi-Objective Hybrid Optimal Control for Multiple-Flyby Interplanetary Mission Design using Chemical Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Englander, Jacob A.; Vavrina, Matthew A.

    2015-01-01

    Preliminary design of high-thrust interplanetary missions is a highly complex process. The mission designer must choose discrete parameters such as the number of flybys and the bodies at which those flybys are performed. For some missions, such as surveys of small bodies, the mission designer also contributes to target selection. In addition, real-valued decision variables, such as launch epoch, flight times, maneuver and flyby epochs, and flyby altitudes must be chosen. There are often many thousands of possible trajectories to be evaluated. The customer who commissions a trajectory design is not usually interested in a point solution, but rather the exploration of the trade space of trajectories between several different objective functions. This can be a very expensive process in terms of the number of human analyst hours required. An automated approach is therefore very desirable. This work presents such an approach by posing the impulsive mission design problem as a multi-objective hybrid optimal control problem. The method is demonstrated on several real-world problems. Two assumptions are frequently made to simplify the modeling of an interplanetary high-thrust trajectory during the preliminary design phase. The first assumption is that because the available thrust is high, any maneuvers performed by the spacecraft can be modeled as discrete changes in velocity. This assumption removes the need to integrate the equations of motion governing the motion of a spacecraft under thrust and allows the change in velocity to be modeled as an impulse and the expenditure of propellant to be modeled using the time-independent solution to Tsiolkovsky's rocket equation [1]. The second assumption is that the spacecraft moves primarily under the influence of the central body, i.e. the sun, and all other perturbing forces may be neglected in preliminary design. The path of the spacecraft may then be modeled as a series of conic sections. When a spacecraft performs a close

  8. The Bias-Corrected Taxonomic Distribution of Mission-Accessible Small Near-Earth Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinkle, Mary L.; Moskovitz, Nicholas; Trilling, David; Binzel, Richard P.; Thomas, Cristina; Christensen, Eric; DeMeo, Francesca; Person, Michael J.; Polishook, David; Willman, Mark

    2015-11-01

    Although they are thought to compose the majority of the Near-Earth object (NEO) population, the small (d < 1 km) near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) have not yet been studied as thoroughly as their larger cousins. Sub-kilometer objects are amongst the most abundant newly discovered NEOs and are often targets of opportunity, observable for only a few days to weeks after their discovery. Even at their brightest (V ~ 18), these asteroids are faint enough that they must be observed with large ground-based telescopes.The Mission Accessible Near-Earth Object Survey (MANOS) began in August 2013 as a multi-year physical characterization survey that was awarded survey status by NOAO. MANOS will target several hundred mission-accessible NEOs across visible and near-infrared wavelengths, ultimately providing a comprehensive catalog of physical properties (astrometry, light curves, spectra).Fifty-seven small, mission-accessible NEAs were observed between mid 2013 and mid 2015 using GMOS at Gemini North & South observatories as well as the DeVeny spectrograph at Lowell Observatory's Discovery Channel Telescope. Archival data of 43 objects from the MIT-UH-IRTF Joint Campaign for NEO Spectral Reconnaissance (PI R. Binzel) were also used. Taxonomic classifications were obtained by fitting our spectra to the mean reflectance spectra of the Bus asteroid taxonomy (Bus & Binzel 2002). Small NEAs are the likely progenitors of meteorites; an improved understanding of the abundance of meteorite parent body types in the NEO population improves understanding of how the two populations are related as well as the biases Earth's atmosphere imposes upon the meteorite collection.We present classifications for these objects as well as results for the debiased distribution of taxa(as a proxy for composition) as a function of object size and compare to the observed fractions of ordinary chondritemeteorites and asteroids with d > 1 km. Amongst the smallest NEOs we find an unexpected distribution of

  9. The Bias-Corrected Taxonomic Distribution of Mission-Accessible Small Near-Earth Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinkle, Mary Louise; Moskovitz, Nicholas; Trilling, David; Binzel, Richard; DeMeo, Francesca; Thomas, Cristina; Polishook, David; Person, Michael; Willman, Mark; Christensen, Eric

    2015-08-01

    As relics of the inner solar system's formation, asteroids trace the origins of solar system material. Near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) are the intermediaries between material that falls to Earth as meteorites and the source regions of those meteorites in the main belt. A better understanding of the physical parameters of NEAs, in particular their compositions, provides a more complete picture of the processes that shaped the inner solar system and that deliver material from the main belt to near-Earth space.Across the entire NEA population, the smallest (d < 1 km) objects have not been well-studied. These very small objects are often targets of opportunity, observable for only a few days to weeks after their discovery. Even at their brightest (V ~ 18), these asteroids are faint enough that they must be observed with large ground-based telescopes.The Mission Accessible Near-Earth Object Survey (MANOS) began in August 2013 as a multi-year physical characterization survey that was awarded survey status by NOAO. MANOS will target several hundred mission-accessible NEOs across visible and near-infrared wavelengths, ultimately providing a comprehensive catalog of physical properties (astrometry, light curves, spectra). Seventy small, mission-accessible NEAs were observed between mid 2013 and mid 2015 using the Gemini Multi-Object Spectrograph at Gemini North & South observatories. Taxonomic classifications were obtained by fitting our spectra to the mean reflectance spectra of the Bus asteroid taxonomy (Bus & Binzel 2002). The smallest near-Earth asteroids are the likely progenitors of meteorites; we expect the observed fraction of ordinary chondrite meteorites to match that of their parent bodies, S-type asteroids. The distribution of the population of small NEAs should also resemble that of their parent bodies, the larger asteroids (d > 1 km). We present classifications for these objects as well as preliminary results for the debiased distribution of taxa (as a proxy for

  10. Multi-Mission Space Exploration Vehicle Concept Simulation of Operations in Proximity to a Near Earth Object

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kline, Heather

    2011-01-01

    This paper details a project to simulate the dynamics of a proposed Multi-Mission Space Exploration Vehicle (MMSEV), and modeling the control of this spacecraft. A potential mission of the MMSEV would be to collect samples from a Near-Earth Object (NEO), a mission which would require the spacecraft to be able to navigate to an orbit keeping it stationary over an area of a spinning asteroid while a robotic arm interacts with the surface.

  11. Science Objectives and Site Selection Criteria for a Human Mission to Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niles, P. B.; Beaty, D. W.; Hays, L. E.; Bass, D.; Bell, M. S.; Bleacher, J. E.; Cabrol, N. A.; Conrad, P. G.; Eppler, D. B.; Hamilton, V. E.; Head, J. W., III; Kahre, M. A.; Levy, J. S.; Lyons, T. W.; Rafkin, S. C.; Rice, M. S.; Rice, J.

    2015-12-01

    NASA recently requested that MEPAG evaluate the scientific objectives and the science-related landing site criteria that could be used to support preliminary landing site evaluation for a human mission to Mars in the late 2030's. These requests were addressed by the Human Science Objectives Science Analysis Group, or HSO-SAG 2015, consisting of members of the Mars science and human exploration communities. A set of candidate scientific objectives was identified by the SAG considering intrinsic scientific merit, magnitude of the benefit of a proximal human, opportunities to make simultaneous observations from different vantage points, and opportunities to deliver scientific payloads of higher mass/complexity. These science objectives were then used to construct a set of landing site criteria that can be used to identify potential human landing sites on Mars with high potential for substantial scientific discovery. A future human landing site will lie in the center of a 100 km radius 'exploration zone' and scientific regions of interest within this exploration zone can be considered candidate sites for human exploration. HSO-SAG determined that potential landing sites on Mars should have access to the following: 1) deposits with a high preservation potential for evidence of past habitability and/or sites that are promising for present habitability; 2) Noachian and/or Hesperian rocks that can be used to understand past atmospheres; 3) exposures of at least two crustal units that are suitable for radiometric dating; 4) access to outcrops with signatures indicative of aqueous processes; 5) identifiable stratigraphic contacts and cross-cutting relationships from which relative ages can be determined. These criteria will be used along with other criteria developed from engineering and exploration objectives to help prioritize candidate landing sites for future human missions to Mars. The first landing site workshop will occur on October 27-30, 2015 in Houston, TX. Please

  12. STS-30 Atlantis, OV-104, lifts off from KSC LC Pad 39B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    STS-30 Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104, clears the launch tower at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Launch Complex (LC) Pad 39B as it rides into Earth orbit atop the external tank (ET). This profile view shows OV-104 backdropped against partially cloudy Florida skies. Exhaust plumes billow from the solid rocket boosters (SRBs). An exhaust cloud surrounds LC Pad 39B. Visible in the foreground are the emergency egress system (slidewire) landing area, trees, and a waterway reflecting the glow of the SRB firing. Launch occurred at 2:46:58 pm (Eastern Daylight Time (EDT)).

  13. Aerial view of STS-33 Discovery, OV-103, lifting off from KSC LC Pad 39B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Aerial view shows STS-33 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, lifting off from Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Launch Complex (LC) Pad 39B at 7:23:29:989 am Eastern Standard Time (EST). The circular area surrounding LC Pad 39B glows as a result of the spotlights and the solid rocket booster (SRB) and space shuttle main engine (SSME) firings. A billowly exhaust cloud extends on either side of the pad as OV-103 atop a firey glow rises into the dark morning sky. The coastline of the Atlantic Ocean is visible at the top of the frame. The STS-33 launch is the first post-Challenger nocturnal launch.

  14. Aspects of Solar System Objects Dynamics with the Gaia Mission and in the Gaia Era

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hestroffer, Daniel J. G. J.; David, Pedro; Hees, Aurélien; Kovalenko, Irina; Kudryashova, Maria; Thuillot, William; Berthier, Jerome; Carry, Benoit; Emelynaov, Nikolai; Fouchard, Marc; Lainey, Valery; Le Poncin-Lafitte, Christophe; Stoica, Radu; Tanga, Paolo

    2015-05-01

    After its successful launch in December 2013, and commissioning period, ESA's astrometric space mission Gaia has now started its scientific operations. In addition to the 3D census of our Milky Way with high precision parallax, proper motion, and other parameters derived for a billion of stars, Gaia will also provide a scientific harvest for Solar System Objects (SSO) science. The high precision astrometry and photometry that will be regularly collected for about 300,000 asteroids - during the 5years nominal mission time - will enable significant improvements on fundamental observational data for a very large number of objects.I will describe the current status of the satellite and observations, the Gaia-FUN-SSO follow-up network, data releases policy, and data validations. We will also present the expected results on the dynamics of asteroids and comets, asteroid masses and binary asteroids, tests of GR, and prospects of SSO science (satellites, stellar occultations, etc.) with the Gaia stellar catalogue.Acknowledgements: Thanks to the Gaia DPAC CU4 consortium, and the Labex ESEP (No 2011-LABX-030) & Initiative d'excellence PSL* (convention No ANR-10-IDEX-0001-02)

  15. Operational space human factors - Methodology for a DSO. [Detailed Supplementary Objective for manned Shuttle Orbiter missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callaghan, Thomas F.; Gosbee, John W.; Adam, Susan C.

    1992-01-01

    The Human Factors Assessment of Orbiter Missions (Detailed Supplementary Objective 904) was conducted on STS-40 (Spacelab Life Sciences 1) in order to bring human factors into the operational world of manned space flight. This paper describes some of its methods. Included are explanations of general and space human factors, and a description of DSO 904 study objectives and results. The methods described include ways to collect background information for studies and also different in-flight data collection techniques. Several lessons for the space human factors engineer are reflected in this paper. First, method development is just as important as standards generation. Second, results of investigations should always have applicability to design. Third, cooperation with other NASA groups is essential. Finally, the human is the most important component of the space exploration system, and often the most difficult to study.

  16. Bi-objective optimization of a multiple-target active debris removal mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bérend, Nicolas; Olive, Xavier

    2016-05-01

    The increasing number of space debris in Low-Earth Orbit (LEO) raises the question of future Active Debris Removal (ADR) operations. Typical ADR scenarios rely on an Orbital Transfer Vehicle (OTV) using one of the two following disposal strategies: the first one consists in attaching a deorbiting kit, such as a solid rocket booster, to the debris after rendezvous; with the second one, the OTV captures the debris and moves it to a low-perigee disposal orbit. For multiple-target ADR scenarios, the design of such a mission is very complex, as it involves two optimization levels: one for the space debris sequence, and a second one for the "elementary" orbit transfer strategy from a released debris to the next one in the sequence. This problem can be seen as a Time-Dependant Traveling Salesman Problem (TDTSP) with two objective functions to minimize: the total mission duration and the total propellant consumption. In order to efficiently solve this problem, ONERA has designed, under CNES contract, TOPAS (Tool for Optimal Planning of ADR Sequence), a tool that implements a Branch & Bound method developed in previous work together with a dedicated algorithm for optimizing the "elementary" orbit transfer. A single run of this tool yields an estimation of the Pareto front of the problem, which exhibits the trade-off between mission duration and propellant consumption. We first detail our solution to cope with the combinatorial explosion of complex ADR scenarios with 10 debris. The key point of this approach is to define the orbit transfer strategy through a small set of parameters, allowing an acceptable compromise between the quality of the optimum solution and the calculation cost. Then we present optimization results obtained for various 10 debris removal scenarios involving a 15-ton OTV, using either the deorbiting kit or the disposal orbit strategy. We show that the advantage of one strategy upon the other depends on the propellant margin, the maximum duration allowed

  17. A New Lightning Instrumentation System for Pad 39B at the Kennedy Space Center Florida

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mata, C. T.; Rakov, V. A.

    2011-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes a new lightning instrumentation system for pad 39B at Kennedy Space Center Florida. The contents include: 1) Background; 2) Instrumentation; 3) Meteorological Instrumentation; and 4) Lessons learned. A presentation of the data acquired at Camp Blanding is also shown.

  18. Endeavour, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 105, roll out to KSC Launch Complex Pad 39B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Endeavour, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 105, roll out to Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Launch Complex (LC) Pad 39B via crawler transport. Scene is framed by palm trees on either side. View provided by KSC with alternate number KSC-92PC-553.

  19. STS-27 Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104, rolls out to KSC LC pad 39B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    STS-27 Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104, atop the mobile launcher platform rolls out to Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Launch Complex (LC) pad 39B via the crawler transporter. In this profile view, the tractor tracks of the crawler transporter, the mobile launcher platform, and the underside of OV-104 attached to the external tank (ET) are visible.

  20. The Mission Accessible Near-Earth Object Survey Public Database Development Effort

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burt, Brian; Moskovitz, Nicholas; Putnam, Lowell

    2014-11-01

    The Mission Accessible Near-Earth Object Survey (MANOS) began in August 2013 as a multi-year physical characterization survey that was awarded large survey status by NOAO. MANOS will target several hundred mission-accessible NEOs across visible and near-infrared wavelengths, ultimately providing a comprehensive catalog of physical properties (astrometry, light curves, spectra). The MANOS project will provide a resource that not only helps to manage our survey in a fully transparent, publicly accessible forum, but will also help to coordinate minor planet characterization efforts and target prioritization across multiple research groups. Working towards that goal, we are developing a portal for rapid, up to date, public dissemination of our data. Migrating the Lowell Astorb dataset to a SQL framework is a major step towards the modernization of the system and will make capable up-to-date deployment of data. This will further allow us to develop utilities of various complexity, such as a deltaV calculator, minor planet finder charts, and sophisticated ephemeri generation functions. We present the state of this effort and a preliminary timeline for functionality.

  1. The Mission Accessible Near-Earth Object Survey (MANOS): first photometric results.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thirouin, Audrey; Moskovitz, N.; Binzel, R.; Christensen, E.; DeMeo, F.; Person, M.; Polishook, D.; Thomas, C.; Trilling, D.; Willman, M.; Burt, B.; Hinkle, M.; Mommert, Michael

    2015-08-01

    The Mission Accessible Near-Earth Object Survey (MANOS) is a physical characterization survey of Near Earth Objects (NEOs) that was originally awarded multi-year survey status by NOAO and recently has employed additional facilities available to Lowell Observatory and the University of Hawaii. Our main goal is to provide physical data, such as rotational properties and composition, for several hundred mission accessible NEOs across visible and near-infrared wavelengths.As of February 2015, 12,287 NEOs have been discovered. Despite this impressive number, physical information for the majority of these objects remains limited. Typical NEOs fade in a matter of days or weeks after their discovery, thus their characterization requires a challenging set of rapid response observations.Using a variety of 1-m to 4-m class telescopes, we aim to observe 5 to 10 newly discovered sub-km NEOs per month in order to derive their rotational properties. Such rotational data can provide useful information about physical properties, like shape, surface heterogeneity/homogeneity, density, internal structure, and internal cohesion. Here, we present early results of the MANOS photometric survey for more than 50 NEOs. One of the goals of this survey is to increase the number of sub-km NEOs whose short-term variability has been studied and to compile a high quality homogeneous database which may be used to perform statistical analyses.We report light curves from our first two years of observing and show objects with rotational periods from a couple of hours down to few seconds. We consider the spin rate distributions of several sub-samples according to their size and other physical parameters. Our results were merged with rotational parameters of other asteroids in the literature to build a larger sample. This allows us to identify correlations of rotational properties with orbital parameters. In particular, we want to study MOID vs. rotation period/morphology/elongation/amplitude, rotation

  2. Research Objectives for Human Missions in the Proving Ground of Cis-Lunar Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niles, P. B.; Eppler, D. B.; Kennedy, K. J.; Lewis, R.; Spann, J. F.; Sullivan, T. A.

    2016-01-01

    Beginning in as early as 2023, crewed missions beyond low Earth orbit will begin enabled by the new capabilities of the SLS and Orion vehicles. This will initiate the "Proving Ground" phase of human exploration with Mars as an ultimate destination. The primary goal of the Proving Ground is to demonstrate the capability of suitably long duration spaceflight without need of continuous support from Earth, i.e. become Earth Independent. A major component of the Proving Ground phase is to conduct research activities aimed at accomplishing major objectives selected from a wide variety of disciplines including but not limited to: Astronomy, Heliophysics, Fundamental Physics, Planetary Science, Earth Science, Human Systems, Fundamental Space Biology, Microgravity, and In A major component of the Proving Ground phase is to conduct research activities aimed at accomplishing major objectives selected from a wide variety of disciplines including but not limited to: Astronomy, Heliophysics, Fundamental Physics, Planetary Science, Earth Science, Human Systems, Fundamental Space Biology, Microgravity, and In Situ Resource Utilization. Mapping and prioritizing the most important objectives from these disciplines will provide a strong foundation for establishing the architecture to be utilized in the Proving Ground.

  3. Ice Dragon: A Mission to Address Science and Human Exploration Objectives on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoker, Carol R.; Davila, A.; Sanders, G.; Glass, Brian; Gonzales, A.; Heldmann, Jennifer; Karcz, J.; Lemke, L.; Sanders, G.

    2012-01-01

    We present a mission concept where a SpaceX Dragon capsule lands a payload on Mars that samples ground ice to search for evidence of life, assess hazards to future human missions, and demonstrate use of Martian resources.

  4. Ice Dragon: A Mission to Address Science and Human Exploration Objectives on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoker, C.; Davilla, A.; Davis, S.; Glass, B.; Gonzales, A.; Heldmann, J.; Karcz, J.; Lemke, L.; Sanders, G.

    2012-06-01

    We present a mission concept where a SpaceX Dragon capsule lands a payload on Mars that samples ground ice to search for evidence of life, assess hazards to future human missions, and demonstrate use of Martian resources.

  5. HST Hot-Jupiter Transmission Spectral Survey: Clear Skies for Cool Saturn WASP-39b

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Patrick D.; Knutson, Heather A.; Sing, David K.; Henry, Gregory W.; Williamson, Michael W.; Fortney, Jonathan J.; Burrows, Adam S.; Kataria, Tiffany; Nikolov, Nikolay; Showman, Adam P.; Ballester, Gilda E.; Désert, Jean-Michel; Aigrain, Suzanne; Deming, Drake; Lecavelier des Etangs, Alain; Vidal-Madjar, Alfred

    2016-08-01

    We present the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) optical transmission spectroscopy of the cool Saturn-mass exoplanet WASP-39b from 0.29-1.025 μm, along with complementary transit observations from Spitzer IRAC at 3.6 and 4.5 μm. The low density and large atmospheric pressure scale height of WASP-39b make it particularly amenable to atmospheric characterization using this technique. We detect a Rayleigh scattering slope as well as sodium and potassium absorption features; this is the first exoplanet in which both alkali features are clearly detected with the extended wings predicted by cloud-free atmosphere models. The full transmission spectrum is well matched by a clear H2-dominated atmosphere, or one containing a weak contribution from haze, in good agreement with the preliminary reduction of these data presented in Sing et al. WASP-39b is predicted to have a pressure-temperature profile comparable to that of HD 189733b and WASP-6b, making it one of the coolest transiting gas giants observed in our HST STIS survey. Despite this similarity, WASP-39b appears to be largely cloud-free, while the transmission spectra of HD 189733b and WASP-6b both indicate the presence of high altitude clouds or hazes. These observations further emphasize the surprising diversity of cloudy and cloud-free gas giant planets in short-period orbits and the corresponding challenges associated with developing predictive cloud models for these atmospheres.

  6. STS-54 Endeavour, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 105, lifts off from KSC LC Pad 39B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    STS-54 Endeavour, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 105, lifts off from a Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Launch Complex (LC) Pad 39B at 8:59:30 am (Eastern Standard Time (EST)). An exhaust cloud fills the launch pad area as OV-105, atop the external tank (ET) and flanked by two solid rocket boosters (SRBs), rockets into the sky. The glow of the SRB firings lights up the fixed service structure (FSS) tower and is reflected in a nearby waterway (foreground).

  7. Calculating the Lightning Protection System Downconductors' Grounding Resistance at Launch Complex 39B, Kennedy Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mata, Carlos T.; Mata, Angel G.

    2012-01-01

    A new Lightning Protection System (LPS) was designed and built at Launch Complex 39B (LC39B), at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC), Florida, which consists of a catenary wire system (at a height of about 181 meters above ground level) supported by three insulators installed atop three towers in a triangular configuration. Nine downconductors (each about 250 meters long) are connected to the catenary wire system. Each downconductor is connected to a 7.62-meter-radius circular counterpoise conductor with six equally spaced, 6-meter-long vertical grounding rods. Grounding requirements at LC39B call for all underground and aboveground metallic piping, enclosures, raceways, and cable trays, within 7.62 meters of the counterpoise, to be bonded to the counterpoise, which results in a complex interconnected grounding system, given the many metallic piping, raceways, and cable trays that run in multiple directions around LC39B. The complexity of this grounding system makes the fall-of-potential method, which uses multiple metallic rods or stakes, unsuitable for measuring the grounding impedances of the downconductors. To calculate the grounding impedance of the downconductors, an Earth Ground Clamp (EGC) (a stakeless device for measuring grounding impedance) and an Alternative Transient Program (ATP) model of the LPS are used. The EGC is used to measure the loop impedance plus the grounding impedance of each downconductor, and the ATP model is used to calculate the loop impedance of each downconductor circuit. The grounding resistance of the downconductors is then calculated by subtracting the ATP calculated loop impedances from the EGC measurements.

  8. Orbit Options for an Orion-Class Spacecraft Mission to a Near-Earth Object

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shupe, Nathan C.

    Based on the recommendations of the Augustine Commission, President Obama has proposed a vision for U.S. human spaceflight in the post-Shuttle era which includes a manned mission to a Near-Earth Object (NEO). A 2006-2007 study commissioned by the Constellation Program Advanced Projects Office investigated the feasibility of sending a crewed Orion spacecraft to a NEO using different combinations of elements from the latest launch system architecture at that time. The study found a number of suitable mission targets in the database of known NEOs, and predicted that the number of candidate NEOs will continue to increase as more advanced observatories come online and execute more detailed surveys of the NEO population. The objective of this thesis is to pick up where the previous Constellation study left off by considering what orbit options are available for an Orion-class spacecraft upon arrival at a NEO. A model including multiple perturbations (solar radiation pressure, solar gravity, non-spherical mass distribution of the central body) to two-body dynamics is constructed to numerically integrate the motion of a satellite in close proximity to a small body in an elliptical orbit about the Sun. Analytical limits derived elsewhere in the literature for the thresholds on the size of the satellite orbit required to maintain stability in the presence of these perturbing forces are verified by the numerical model. Simulations about NEOs possessing various physical parameters (size, shape, rotation period) are then used to empirically develop general guidelines for establishing orbits of an Orion-class spacecraft about a NEO. It is found that an Orion-class spacecraft can orbit NEOs at any distance greater than the NEO surface height and less than the maximum semi-major axis allowed by the solar radiation pressure perturbation, provided that the ellipticity perturbation is sufficiently weak (this condition is met if the NEO is relatively round and/or has a long rotation

  9. High Performance Ultra-light Nuclear Rockets for NEO (Near Earth Objects) Interaction Missions

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, J.; Maise, G.; Ludewig, H.; Todosow, M.

    1996-12-31

    The performance capabilities and technology features of ultra compact nuclear thermal rockets based on very high power density ({approximately} 30 Megawatts per liter) fuel elements are described. Nuclear rockets appear particularly attractive for carrying out missions to investigate or intercept Near Earth Objects (NEOS) that potentially could impact on the Earth. Many of these NEO threats, whether asteroids or comets, have extremely high closing velocities, i.e., tens of kilometers per second relative to the Earth. Nuclear rockets using hydrogen propellant enable flight velocities 2 to 3 times those achievable with chemical rockets, allowing interaction with a potential NEO threat at a much shorter time, and at much greater range. Two versions of an ultra compact nuclear rocket based on very high heat transfer rates are described: the PBR (Particle Bed Reactor), which has undergone substantial hardware development effort, and MITEE (Miniature Reactor Engine) which is a design derivative of the PBR. Nominal performance capabilities for the PBR are: thermal power - 1000 MW thrust - 45,000 lbsf, and weight - 500 kg. For MITEE, nominal capabilities are: thermal power - 100 MW; thrust {approx} 4500 lbsf, and weight - 50 kg. Development of operational PBR/MITEE systems would enable spacecraft launched from LEO (Low Earth Orbit) to investigate intercept NEO`s at a range of {approximately} 100 million kilometers in times of {approximately} 30 days.

  10. Spectral studies of asteroids 21 lutetia and 4 vesta as objects of space missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busarev, V. V.

    2010-12-01

    Asteroid 21 Lutetia is one of the objects of the Rosetta mission carried out by the European Space Agency (ESA). The Rosetta spacecraft launched in 2004 is to approach Lutetia in July 2010, and then it will be directed to the comet Churyumov-Gerasimenko. Asteroid 4 Vesta is planned to be investigated in 2011 from the Dawn spacecraft launched by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) in 2007 (its second object is the largest asteroid, 1 Ceres). The observed characteristics of Lutetia and Vesta are different and even contradictory. In spite of the intense and versatile ground-based studies, the origin and evolution of these minor planets remain obscure or not completely clear. The types of Lutetia and Vesta (M and V, respectively) determined from their spectra correspond to the high-temperature mineralogy, which agrees with their albedo estimated from the Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) observations. However, according to the opinion of some researchers, Lutetia is of the C type, and, therefore, its mineralogy is of the lowtemperature type. In turn, hydrosilicate formations have been found in some places on the surface of Vesta. Our observations also testify that at some relative phases of rotation (RP), the reflectance spectra of Lutetia and Vesta demonstrate features confirming the presence of hydrosilicates in the surface material. However, this fact can be reconciled with the magmatic nature of Lutetia and Vesta if the hydrated material was delivered to their surfaces by falling primitive bodies. Such small bodies are probably present everywhere in the main asteroid belt and can be the relicts of silicate-icy planetesimals from Jupiter's formation zone or the fragments of primitive-type asteroids. When interpreting the reflectance spectra of Lutetia and Vesta, we discuss the spectral classification by Tholen (1984) from the standpoint of its general importance for the estimation of the mineralogical type of the asteroids and the study of

  11. The NEOTωIST mission (Near-Earth Object Transfer of angular momentum spin test)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drube, Line; Harris, Alan W.; Engel, Kilian; Falke, Albert; Johann, Ulrich; Eggl, Siegfried; Cano, Juan L.; Ávila, Javier Martín; Schwartz, Stephen R.; Michel, Patrick

    2016-10-01

    We present a concept for a kinetic impactor demonstration mission, which intends to change the spin rate of a previously-visited asteroid, in this case 25143 Itokawa. The mission would determine the efficiency of momentum transfer during an impact, and help mature the technology required for a kinetic impactor mission, both of which are important precursors for a future space mission to deflect an asteroid by collisional means in an emergency situation. Most demonstration mission concepts to date are based on changing an asteroid's heliocentric orbit and require a reconnaissance spacecraft to measure the very small orbital perturbation due to the impact. Our concept is a low-cost alternative, requiring only a single launch. Taking Itokawa as an example, an estimate of the order of magnitude of the change in the spin period, δP, with such a mission results in δP of ~4 min (0.5%), which could be detectable by Earth-based observatories. Our preliminary study found that a mission concept in which an impactor produces a change in an asteroid's spin rate could provide valuable information for the assessment of the viability of the kinetic-impactor asteroid deflection concept. Furthermore, the data gained from the mission would be of great benefit for our understanding of the collisional evolution of asteroids and the physics behind crater and ejecta-cloud development.

  12. The Mission Accessible Near-Earth Object Survey (MANOS) -- Science Highlights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moskovitz, Nicholas; Thirouin, Audrey; Binzel, Richard; Burt, Brian; Christensen, Eric; DeMeo, Francesca; Endicott, Thomas; Hinkle, Mary; Mommert, Michael; Person, Michael; Polishook, David; Siu, Hosea; Thomas, Cristina; Trilling, David; Willman, Mark

    2015-08-01

    Near-Earth objects (NEOs) are essential to understanding the origin of the Solar System through their compositional links to meteorites. As tracers of other parts of the Solar System they provide insight to more distant populations. Their small sizes and complex dynamical histories make them ideal laboratories for studying ongoing processes of planetary evolution. Knowledge of their physical properties is essential to impact hazard assessment. And the proximity of NEOs to Earth make them favorable targets for a variety of planetary mission scenarios. However, in spite of their importance, only the largest NEOs are well studied and a representative sample of physical properties for sub-km NEOs does not exist.MANOS is a multi-year physical characterization survey, originally awarded survey status by NOAO. MANOS is targeting several hundred mission-accessible, sub-km NEOs across visible and near-infrared wavelengths to provide a comprehensive catalog of physical properties (astrometry, light curves, spectra). Accessing these targets is enabled through classical, queue, and target-of-opportunity observations carried out at 1- to 8-meter class facilities in the northern and southern hemispheres. Our observing strategy is designed to rapidly characterize newly discovered NEOs before they fade beyond observational limits.Early progress from MANOS includes: (1) the de-biased taxonomic distribution of spectral types for NEOs smaller than ~100 meters, (2) the distribution of rotational properties for approximately 100 previously unstudied NEOs, (3) detection of the fastest known rotation period of any minor planet in the Solar System, (4) an investigation of the influence of planetary encounters on the rotational properties of NEOs, (5) dynamical models for the evolution of the overall NEO population over the past 0.5 Myr, and (6) development of a new set of online tools at asteroid.lowell.edu that will enable near realtime public dissemination of our data products while

  13. The Geostationary Tropospheric Pollution Explorer (GeoTROPE) mission: Objectives and Requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burrows, J.; Bergametti, G.; Bovensmann, H.; Flaud, J.; Orphal, J.; Noel, S.; Monks, P.; Corlett, G.; Goede, A.; von Clarmann, T.; Steck, T.; Fischer, H.; Friedl-Vallon, F.

    One of the major challenges facing atmospheric sciences is to assess, understand and quantify the impact of natural and anthropogenic pollution on the quality of life on Earth on a local, regional and continental scale. It has become apparent that pollution originating from local/regional events can have serious effects on the composition of the lower atmosphere on a continental scale. However, to understand the effects of regional pollution on a continental scale there is a requirement to transcend traditional atmospheric spatial and temporal scales and attempt to monitor the entire atmosphere at the same time. In the troposphere the variability of chemical processes, of source strength and the dynamics induce important short term, i.e. sub-hourly, variations and significant horizontal and vertical variability of constituents and geophysical parameters relevant to a range of contemporary issues such as air quality. To study tropospheric composition, it is therefore required to link diurnal with seasonal and annual timescales, as well as local and regional with continental spatial scales, by performing sub-hourly measurements at appropriate horizontal and vertical resolution. Tropospheric observations from low-Earth orbit (LEO) platforms have already demonstrated the potential of detecting constituents relevant for air quality but they are limited, for example by the daily revisit time and local cloud cover statistics. The net result of this is is that the troposphere is currently significantly under sampled. Measurements from Geostationary Orbit (GEO) offer the only practical approach to the observation of diurnal variation from space with the pertinent horizontal resolution. The Geostationary Tropospheric Pollution Explorer (GeoTROPE) is an attempt to determine tropospheric constituents with high temporal and spatial resolution. The talk will summarise the needs for geostationary observations of tropospheric composition and will give the mission objectives and

  14. The intellectual disability protein RAB39B selectively regulates GluA2 trafficking to determine synaptic AMPAR composition

    PubMed Central

    Mignogna, Maria Lidia; Giannandrea, Maila; Gurgone, Antonia; Fanelli, Francesca; Raimondi, Francesco; Mapelli, Lisa; Bassani, Silvia; Fang, Huaqiang; Van Anken, Eelco; Alessio, Massimo; Passafaro, Maria; Gatti, Silvia; Esteban, José A.; Huganir, Richard; D’Adamo, Patrizia

    2015-01-01

    RAB39B is a member of the RAB family of small GTPases that controls intracellular vesicular trafficking in a compartment-specific manner. Mutations in the RAB39B gene cause intellectual disability comorbid with autism spectrum disorder and epilepsy, but the impact of RAB39B loss of function on synaptic activity is largely unexplained. Here we show that protein interacting with C-kinase 1 (PICK1) is a downstream effector of GTP-bound RAB39B and that RAB39B-PICK1 controls trafficking from the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi and, hence, surface expression of GluA2, a subunit of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid receptors (AMPARs). The role of AMPARs in synaptic transmission varies depending on the combination of subunits (GluA1, GluA2 and GluA3) they incorporate. RAB39B downregulation in mouse hippocampal neurons skews AMPAR composition towards non GluA2-containing Ca2+-permeable forms and thereby alters synaptic activity, specifically in hippocampal neurons. We posit that the resulting alteration in synaptic function underlies cognitive dysfunction in RAB39B-related disorders. PMID:25784538

  15. The intellectual disability protein RAB39B selectively regulates GluA2 trafficking to determine synaptic AMPAR composition.

    PubMed

    Mignogna, Maria Lidia; Giannandrea, Maila; Gurgone, Antonia; Fanelli, Francesca; Raimondi, Francesco; Mapelli, Lisa; Bassani, Silvia; Fang, Huaqiang; Van Anken, Eelco; Alessio, Massimo; Passafaro, Maria; Gatti, Silvia; Esteban, José A; Huganir, Richard; D'Adamo, Patrizia

    2015-01-01

    RAB39B is a member of the RAB family of small GTPases that controls intracellular vesicular trafficking in a compartment-specific manner. Mutations in the RAB39B gene cause intellectual disability comorbid with autism spectrum disorder and epilepsy, but the impact of RAB39B loss of function on synaptic activity is largely unexplained. Here we show that protein interacting with C-kinase 1 (PICK1) is a downstream effector of GTP-bound RAB39B and that RAB39B-PICK1 controls trafficking from the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi and, hence, surface expression of GluA2, a subunit of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid receptors (AMPARs). The role of AMPARs in synaptic transmission varies depending on the combination of subunits (GluA1, GluA2 and GluA3) they incorporate. RAB39B downregulation in mouse hippocampal neurons skews AMPAR composition towards non GluA2-containing Ca(2+)-permeable forms and thereby alters synaptic activity, specifically in hippocampal neurons. We posit that the resulting alteration in synaptic function underlies cognitive dysfunction in RAB39B-related disorders. PMID:25784538

  16. Mission Specialist Smith is suited and ready for launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    In the Operations and Checkout Building, STS-103 Mission Specialist Steven L. Smith signals he is suited up and ready for launch. Other crew members are Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr., Pilot Scott J. Kelly and Mission Specialists C. Michel Foale (Ph.D.), John M. Grunsfeld (Ph.D.), Jean-Frangois Clervoy of France and Claude Nicollier of Switzerland. Clervoy and Nicollier are with the European Space Agency. The STS-103 mission, to service the Hubble Space Telescope, is scheduled for launch Dec. 17 at 8:47 p.m. EST from Launch Pad 39B. Mission objectives include replacing gyroscopes and an old computer, installing another solid state recorder, and replacing damaged insulation in the telescope. After the 8-day, 21-hour mission, Discovery is expected to land at KSC Sunday, Dec. 26, at about 6:30 p.m. EST.

  17. Mission Specialist Foale gets help suiting up before launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    In the Operations and Checkout Building, STS-103 Mission Specialist C. Michel Foale (Ph.D.) smiles as his launch and entry suit is checked by a suit techician during final launch preparations. Other crew members are Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr., Pilot Scott J. Kelly and Mission Specialists Steven L. Smith, John M. Grunsfeld (Ph.D.), Claude Nicollier of Switzerland and Jean-Frangois Clervoy of France. Nicollier and Clervoy are with the European Space Agency. The STS-103 mission, to service the Hubble Space Telescope, is scheduled for launch Dec. 17 at 8:47 p.m. EST from Launch Pad 39B. Mission objectives include replacing gyroscopes and an old computer, installing another solid state recorder, and replacing damaged insulation in the telescope. After the 8-day, 21-hour mission, Discovery is expected to land at KSC Sunday, Dec. 26, at about 6:30 p.m. EST.

  18. Aerial view of the newest bus stop to view Launch Pad 39B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    This aerial view looking northeast shows a new stop (bottom) on the KSC bus tour that allow visitors to view Pad LC-39B (top). The tour stop is next to the crawlerway that is used to transport the Space Shuttle vehicles to the pad. The length of the crawlerway from the Vehicle Assembly Building to Pad B is 6,828 meters (22,440 ft); its width overall is 40 meters (130 ft); each lane is 12 meters (40ft) with a 15-meter (50ft) median.

  19. Aerial view of the newest bus stop to view Launch Pad 39B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Tour buses unload passengers at a new stop on the KSC tour that allows visitors to view Pad LC-39B. The tour road runs parallel to the crawlerway (just out of sight) that is used to transport the Space Shuttle vehicles to the pad. The length of the crawlerway from the Vehicle Assembly Building to Pad B is 6,828 meters (22,440 ft); its width overall is 40 meters (130 ft); each lane is 12 meters (40ft) with a 15-meter (50ft) median. This view looks south.

  20. STS-56 Discovery, OV-103, lifts off from KSC LC Pad 39B into darkness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    STS-56 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, lifts off from Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Launch Complex (LC) Pad 39B into the early morning darkness at 1:29 am (Eastern Daylight Time (EDT)). OV-103, atop its external tank (ET) and flanked by solid rocket boosters (SRBs), rises above the mobile launcher platform. Exhaust plumes trail from the SRBs. The glow of the SRB / space shuttle main engine (SSME) firings illuminate the fixed service structure (FSS) tower. Trees are silhouetted against the launch fireworks in the foreground.

  1. JUICE: complementarity of the payload in adressing the mission science objectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titov, Dmitri; Barabash, Stas; Bruzzone, Lorenzo; Dougherty, Michele; Erd, Christian; Fletcher, Leigh; Gare, Philippe; Gladstone, Randall; Grasset, Olivier; Gurvits, Leonid; Hartogh, Paul; Hussmann, Hauke; Iess, Luciano; Jaumann, Ralf; Langevin, Yves; Palumbo, Pasquale; Piccioni, Giuseppe; Wahlund, Jan-Erik

    2014-05-01

    radar sounder (RIME) for exploring the surface and subsurface of the moons, and a radio science experiment (3GM) to probe the atmospheres of Jupiter and its satellites and to perform measurements of the gravity fields. An in situ package comprises a powerful particle environment package (PEP), a magnetometer (J-MAG) and a radio and plasma wave instrument (RPWI), including electric fields sensors and a Langmuir probe. An experiment (PRIDE) using ground-based Very-Long-Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) will provide precise determination of the moons ephemerides. The instruments will work together to achieve mission science objectives that otherwise cannot be achieved by a single experiment. For instance, joint J-MAG, 3GM, GALA and JANUS observations would constrain thickness of the ice shell, ocean depth and conductivity. SWI, 3GM and UVS would complement each other in the temperature sounding of the Jupiter atmosphere. The complex coupling between magnetosphere and atmosphere of Jupiter will be jointly studied by combination of aurora imaging (UVS, MAJIS, JANUS) and plasma and fields measurements (J-MAG, RPWI, PEP). The talk will give an overview of the JUICE payload focusing on complementarity and synergy between the experiments.

  2. Gravitational experiments on a solar probe mission: Scientific objectives and technology considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, John D.

    1989-01-01

    The concept of a solar impact probe (either solar plunger or sun grazer) led to the initiation of a NASA study at JPL in 1978 on the engineering and scientific feasibility of a Solar Probe Mission, named Starprobe, in which a spacecraft is placed in a high eccentricity orbit with a perihelion near 4 solar radii. The Starprobe study showed that the concept was feasible and in fact preliminary mission and spacecraft designs were developed. In the early stages of the Solar Probe studies the emphasis was placed on gravitational science, but by the time of a workshop at Caltech in May 1978 (Neugebauer and Davies, 1978) there was about an equal division of interest between heliospheric physics and gravitation. The last of the gravitational studies for Solar Probe was conducted at JPL in 1983. Since that time, the Committee on Solar and Space Physics (CSSP) of the National Academy of Sciences has recommended the pursuit of a focused mission, featuring fields and particles instrumentation and emphasizing studies of the solar wind source region. Such a solar probe mission is currently listed as the 1994 Major New Star candidate. In the remainder of this review, the unique gravitational science that can be accomplished with a solar probe mission is reviewed. In addition the technology issues that were identified in 1980 by the ad hoc working group for Gravity and Relativity Science are addressed.

  3. Low delta-V Near Earth Objects: a survey of suitable targets for space missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ieva, S.; Dotto, E.; Perna, D.; Barucci, M. A.; Bernardi, F.; Fornasier, S.; De Luise, F.; Perozzi, E.; Rossi, A.; Brucato, J. R.

    2013-09-01

    Near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) are attracting nowadays more and more attention from the scientific community, because of their constant threat to human civilization, their increasing feasibility for future space missions and the opportunity to investigate pristine material. Unfortunately only 10% of discovered NEAs have been physically characterized. So, to help design future rendez-vous space missions we perform spectroscopic observations of 13 NEAs without a taxonomic classification and high accessibility from Earth, based upon their minimal change in the spacecraft's speed to shuttle to the asteroid's orbit. The obtained data are also important to settle the ground truth for all those asteroids who will never be visited by a spacecraft.

  4. Solar-Terrestrial Physics in the 1990s: Key Science Objectives for the IACG Mission Set

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The International Solar-Terrestrial Physics (ISTP) program is an internationally coordinated multi-spacecraft mission that will study the production of the supersonic magnetized solar wind, its interaction with the Earth's magnetosphere, and the resulting transport of plasma, momentum and energy through the magnetosphere and into the ionosphere and upper atmosphere. The mission will involve l4spacecraft to be launched between 1992 and 1996, along with complementary ground-based observations and theoretical programs. A list of the spacecraft, their nominal orbits, and responsible agencies is shown.

  5. Calculating the Lightning Protection System Downconductors' Grounding Resistance at Launch Complex 39B, Kennedy Space Center, Florida

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mata, Carlos; Mata, Angel

    2011-01-01

    A new Lightning Protection System (LPS) was designed and built at Launch Complex 39B (LC39B), at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC). Florida, which consists of a catenary wire system (at a height of about 181 meters above ground level) supported by three insulation installed atop three towers in a triangular configuration. Nine downconductors (each about 250 meters long) are connected to the catenary wire system. Each downconductor is connected to a 7.62-meter-radius circular counterpoise conductor with six equally spaced. 6-meter-1ong vertical grounding rods. Grounding requirements at LC39B call for all underground and above ground metallic piping. enclosures, raceways. and. cable trays. within 7.62 meters of. counterpoise, to be bonded to the counterpoise, which results in a complex interconnected grounding system, given the many metallic piping, raceways and cable trays that run in multiple directions around LC39B.

  6. The HYSPIRI Decadal Survey Mission: Update on the Mission Concept and Science Objectives for Global Imaging Spectroscopy and Multi-Spectral Thermal Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Robert O.; Hook, Simon J.; Middleton, Elizabeth; Turner, Woody; Ungar, Stephen; Knox, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The NASA HyspIRI mission is planned to provide global solar reflected energy spectroscopic measurement of the terrestrial and shallow water regions of the Earth every 19 days will all measurements downlinked. In addition, HyspIRI will provide multi-spectral thermal measurements with a single band in the 4 micron region and seven bands in the 8 to 12 micron region with 5 day day/night coverage. A direct broadcast capability for measurement subsets is also planned. This HyspIRI mission is one of those designated in the 2007 National Research Council (NRC) Decadal Survey: Earth Science and Applications from Space. In the Decadal Survey, HyspIRI was recognized as relevant to a range of Earth science and science applications, including climate: "A hyperspectral sensor (e.g., FLORA) combined with a multispectral thermal sensor (e.g., SAVII) in low Earth orbit (LEO) is part of an integrated mission concept [described in Parts I and II] that is relevant to several panels, especially the climate variability panel." The HyspIRI science study group was formed in 2008 to evaluate and refine the mission concept. This group has developed a series of HyspIRI science objectives: (1) Climate: Ecosystem biochemistry, condition & feedback; spectral albedo; carbon/dust on snow/ice; biomass burning; evapotranspiration (2) Ecosystems: Global plant functional types, physiological condition, and biochemistry including agricultural lands (3) Fires: Fuel status, fire frequency, severity, emissions, and patterns of recovery globally (4) Coral reef and coastal habitats: Global composition and status (5) Volcanoes: Eruptions, emissions, regional and global impact (6) Geology and resources: Global distributions of surface mineral resources and improved understanding of geology and related hazards These objectives are achieved with the following measurement capabilities. The HyspIRI imaging spectrometer provides: full spectral coverage from 380 to 2500 at 10 nm sampling; 60 m spatial sampling

  7. Fault Management in an Objectives-Based/Risk-Informed View of Safety and Mission Success

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groen, Frank

    2012-01-01

    Theme of this talk: (1) Net-benefit of activities and decisions derives from objectives (and their priority) -- similarly: need for integration, value of technology/capability. (2) Risk is a lack of confidence that objectives will be met. (2a) Risk-informed decision making requires objectives. (3) Consideration of objectives is central to recent guidance.

  8. STS-49 Endeavour, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 105, lifts off from KSC LC Pad 39B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    STS-49 Endeavour, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 105, lifts off from Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Launch Complex (LC) Pad 39B at 7:40 pm (Eastern Daylight Time (EDT)). In this profile view, OV-105, mounted on the external tank (ET) and with the right solid rocket booster (SRB) visible, soars above the launch pad and clears the fixed service structure (FSS) tower. A diamond shock effect can be seen beneath the three space shuttle main engines (SSMEs). Exhaust plumes billowing from the SRBs cover the launch pad in a cloud of smoke. A bird in flight is silhouetted against the glow of the SRB/SSME firings. In the foreground are Florida vegetation and a waterway. The sound suppression water system elevated tank is visible at the right.

  9. A New Comprehensive Lightning Instrumentation System for Pad 39B at the Kennedy Space Center, Florida

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mata, Carlos T.; Rakov, Vladimir A.; Mata, Angel G.; Bonilla Tatiana; Navedo, Emmanuel; Snyder, Gary P.

    2010-01-01

    A new comprehensive lightning instrumentation system has been designed for Launch Complex 39B at the Kennedy Space Center, Florida. This new instrumentation system includes the synchronized recording of six high-speed video cameras, currents through the nine downconductors of the new lightning protection system, four B-dot, 3-axis measurement stations, and five D-dot stations composed of two antennas each. The instrumentation system is composed of centralized transient recorders and digitizers that located close to the sensors in the field. The sensors and transient recorders communicate via optical fiber. The transient recorders are triggered by the B-dot sensors, the E-dot sensors, or the current through the downlead conductors. The high-speed cameras are triggered by the transient recorders when the latter perceives a qualified trigger.

  10. TTC39B deficiency stabilizes LXR reducing both atherosclerosis and steatohepatitis.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Joanne; Koseki, Masahiro; Molusky, Matthew M; Yakushiji, Emi; Ichi, Ikuyo; Westerterp, Marit; Iqbal, Jahangir; Chan, Robin B; Abramowicz, Sandra; Tascau, Liana; Takiguchi, Shunichi; Yamashita, Shizuya; Welch, Carrie L; Di Paolo, Gilbert; Hussain, M Mahmood; Lefkowitch, Jay H; Rader, Daniel J; Tall, Alan R

    2016-07-14

    Cellular mechanisms that mediate steatohepatitis, an increasingly prevalent condition in the Western world for which no therapies are available, are poorly understood. Despite the fact that its synthetic agonists induce fatty liver, the liver X receptor (LXR) transcription factor remains a target of interest because of its anti-atherogenic, cholesterol removal, and anti-inflammatory activities. Here we show that tetratricopeptide repeat domain protein 39B (Ttc39b, C9orf52) (T39), a high-density lipoprotein gene discovered in human genome-wide association studies, promotes the ubiquitination and degradation of LXR. Chow-fed mice lacking T39 (T39(-/-)) display increased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels associated with increased enterocyte ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (Abca1) expression and increased LXR protein without change in LXR messenger RNA. When challenged with a high fat/high cholesterol/bile salt diet, T39(-/-) mice or mice with hepatocyte-specific T39 deficiency show increased hepatic LXR protein and target gene expression, and unexpectedly protection from steatohepatitis and death. Mice fed a Western-type diet and lacking low-density lipoprotein receptor (Ldlr(-/-)T39(-/-)) show decreased fatty liver, increased high-density lipoprotein, decreased low-density lipoprotein, and reduced atherosclerosis. In addition to increasing hepatic Abcg5/8 expression and limiting dietary cholesterol absorption, T39 deficiency inhibits hepatic sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1 (SREBP-1, ADD1) processing. This is explained by an increase in microsomal phospholipids containing polyunsaturated fatty acids, linked to an LXRα-dependent increase in expression of enzymes mediating phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis and incorporation of polyunsaturated fatty acids into phospholipids. The preservation of endogenous LXR protein activates a beneficial profile of gene expression that promotes cholesterol removal and inhibits lipogenesis. T39 inhibition could

  11. Evaluation of the Performance Characteristics of the CGLSS and NLDN Systems Based on Two Years of Ground-Truth Data from Launch Complex 39B, Kennedy Space Center, Florida

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mata, Carlos T.; Hill, Jonathan D.; Mata, Angel G.; Cummins, Kenneth L.

    2014-01-01

    From May 2011 through July 2013, the lightning instrumentation at Launch Complex 39B (LC39B) at the Kennedy Space Center, Florida, has obtained high-speed video records and field change waveforms (dE/dt and three-axis dH/dt) for 54 negative polarity return strokes whose strike termination locations and times are known with accuracy of the order of 10 m or less and 1 µs, respectively. A total of 18 strokes terminated directly to the LC39B lighting protection system (LPS), which contains three 181 m towers in a triangular configuration, an overhead catenary wire system on insulating masts, and nine down conductors. An additional 9 strokes terminated on the 106 m lightning protection mast of Launch Complex 39A (LC39A), which is located about 2.7 km southeast of LC39B. The remaining 27 return strokes struck either on the ground or attached to low-elevation grounded objects within about 500 m of the LC39B LPS. Leader/return stroke sequences were imaged at 3200 frames/sec by a network of six Phantom V310 high-speed video cameras. Each of the three towers on LC39B had two high-speed cameras installed at the 147 m level with overlapping fields of view of the center of the pad. The locations of the strike points of 54 return strokes have been compared to time-correlated reports of the Cloud-to-Ground Lightning Surveillance System (CGLSS) and the National Lightning Detection Network (NLDN), and the results of this comparison will be presented and discussed.

  12. Mission Objectives Of The Atmospheric Composition Related Sentinels S5p, S4, And S5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingmann, Paul; Veihelmann, Ben; Langen, Jorg; Meijer, Yasjka

    2013-12-01

    Atmospheric chemistry observations from space have been made for over 30 years, in the beginning mainly by US missions. These missions have always been motivated by the concern about a number of environmental issues. At present European instruments like GOME-2 on MetOp/EPS-A and -B and OMI on NASA's Aura are in space and, despite being designed for research purposes, perform routine observations. The space instruments have helped improving our understanding of processes that govern stratospheric ozone depletion, climate change and the transport of pollutants. However, long-term continuous time series of atmospheric trace gas data have been limited to stratospheric ozone and a few related species. According to current planning, meteorological satellites will maintain these observations over the next decade. They will also add some measurements of tropospheric trace gases critical for climate forcing. However, as their measurements have been motivated by meteorology, vertical sensitivities and accuracies are marginal for atmospheric chemistry applications. With the exception of stratospheric ozone, reliable long-term space-based monitoring of atmospheric constituents with quality attributes sufficient to serve atmospheric chemistry applications still need to be established. The need for a GMES atmospheric service (GAS), its scope and high level requirements were laid down in an orientation papers organised by the European Commission and then updated by an Implementation Group (IG) [1], backed by four working groups, advising the Commission on scope, architecture, in situ and space requirements. The goal of GAS is to provide coherent information on atmospheric variables in support of European policies and for the benefit of European citizens. Services cover air quality, climate change/forcing, stratospheric ozone and solar radiation. To meet the needs of the user community atmospheric composition mission concepts for GEO and LEO have been defined usually referred to

  13. Habitability constraints/objectives for a mars manned mission: Internal architecture considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winisdoerffer, F.; Soulez-Larivière, C.

    1992-08-01

    It is generally accepted that high quality internal environment shall strongly support crew's adaptation and acceptance to situation of long isolation and confinement. Thus, this paper is an attempt to determine to which extent the resulting stress corresponding to the anticipated duration of a trip to Mars (1 and a half years to 2 and a half years) could be decreased when internal architecture of the spacecraft is properly designed. It is assumed that artificial gravity shall be available on board the Mars spacecraft. This will of course have a strong impact on internal architecture as far as a 1-g oriented design will become mandatory, at least in certain inhabited parts of the spacecraft. The review of usual Habitability functions is performed according to the peculiarities of such an extremely long mission. A particular attention is paid to communications issues and the need for privacy. The second step of the paper addresses internal architecture issues through zoning analyses. Common, Service and Personal zones need to be adapted to the constraints associated with the extremely long duration of the mission. Furthermore, due to the nature of the mission itself (relative autonomy, communication problems, monotony) and the type of selected crew (personalities, group structure) the implementation of a ``fourth zone'', so-called ``recreational'' zone, seems to be needed. This zoning analysis is then translated into some internal architecture proposals, which are discussed and illustrated. This paper is concluded by a reflection on habitability and recommendations on volumetric requirements. Some ideas to validate proposed habitability items through simulation are also discussed.

  14. Habitability constraints/objectives for a Mars manned mission: internal architecture considerations.

    PubMed

    Winisdoerffer, F; Soulez-Larivière, C

    1992-01-01

    It is generally accepted that high quality internal environment shall strongly support crew's adaptation and acceptance to situation of long isolation and confinement. Thus, this paper is an attempt to determine to which extent the resulting stress corresponding to the anticipated duration of a trip to Mars (1 and a half years to 2 and a half years) could be decreased when internal architecture of the spacecraft is properly designed. It is assumed that artificial gravity shall be available on board the Mars spacecraft. This will of course have a strong impact on internal architecture as far as a 1-g oriented design will become mandatory, at least in certain inhabited parts of the spacecraft. The review of usual Habitability functions is performed according to the peculiarities of such an extremely long mission. A particular attention is paid to communications issues and the need for privacy. The second step of the paper addresses internal architecture issues through zoning analyses. Common, Service and Personal zones need to be adapted to the constraints associated with the extremely long duration of the mission. Furthermore, due to the nature of the mission itself (relative autonomy, communication problems, monotony) and the type of selected crew (personalities, group structure) the implementation of a "fourth zone", so-called "recreational" zone, seems to be needed. This zoning analysis is then translated into some internal architecture proposals, which are discussed and illustrated. This paper is concluded by a reflection on habitability and recommendations on volumetric requirements. Some ideas to validate proposed habitability items through simulation are also discussed.

  15. Next space solar observatory SOLAR-C: mission instruments and science objectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katsukawa, Y.; Watanabe, T.; Hara, H.; Ichimoto, K.; Kubo, M.; Kusano, K.; Sakao, T.; Shimizu, T.; Suematsu, Y.; Tsuneta, S.

    2012-12-01

    SOLAR-C, the fourth space solar mission in Japan, is under study with a launch target of fiscal year 2018. A key concept of the mission is to view the photosphere, chromosphere, and corona as one system coupled by magnetic fields along with resolving the size scale of fundamental physical processes connecting these atmospheric layers. It is especially important to study magnetic structure in the chromosphere as an interface layer between the photosphere and the corona. The SOLAR-C satellite is equipped with three telescopes, the Solar UV-Visible-IR Telescope (SUVIT), the EUV/FUV High Throughput Spectroscopic Telescope (EUVS/LEMUR), and the X-ray Imaging Telescope (XIT). Observations with SUVIT of photospheric and chromospheric magnetic fields make it possible to infer three dimensional magnetic structure extending from the photosphere to the chromosphere and corona.This helps to identify magnetic structures causing magnetic reconnection, and clarify how waves are propagated, reflected, and dissipated. Phenomena indicative of or byproducts of magnetic reconnection, such as flows and shocks, are to be captured by SUVIT and by spectroscopic observations using EUVS/LEMUR, while XIT observes rapid changes in temperature distribution of plasma heated by shock waves.

  16. Investigation of Archean microfossil preservation for defining science objectives for Mars sample return missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorber, K.; Czaja, A. D.

    2014-12-01

    Recent studies suggest that Mars contains more potentially life-supporting habitats (either in the present or past), than once thought. The key to finding life on Mars, whether extinct or extant, is to first understand which biomarkers and biosignatures are strictly biogenic in origin. Studying ancient habitats and fossil organisms of the early Earth can help to characterize potential Martian habitats and preserved life. This study, which focuses on the preservation of fossil microorganisms from the Archean Eon, aims to help define in part the science methods needed for a Mars sample return mission, of which, the Mars 2020 rover mission is the first step.Here is reported variations in the geochemical and morphological preservation of filamentous fossil microorganisms (microfossils) collected from the 2.5-billion-year-old Gamohaan Formation of the Kaapvaal Craton of South Africa. Samples of carbonaceous chert were collected from outcrop and drill core within ~1 km of each other. Specimens from each location were located within thin sections and their biologic morphologies were confirmed using confocal laser scanning microscopy. Raman spectroscopic analyses documented the carbonaceous nature of the specimens and also revealed variations in the level of geochemical preservation of the kerogen that comprises the fossils. The geochemical preservation of kerogen is principally thought to be a function of thermal alteration, but the regional geology indicates all of the specimens experienced the same thermal history. It is hypothesized that the fossils contained within the outcrop samples were altered by surface weathering, whereas the drill core samples, buried to a depth of ~250 m, were not. This differential weathering is unusual for cherts that have extremely low porosities. Through morphological and geochemical characterization of the earliest known forms of fossilized life on the earth, a greater understanding of the origin of evolution of life on Earth is gained

  17. STS-97 crew gets emergency egress training at Launch Pad 39B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The STS-97 crew listens to a trainer explain use of the slidewire basket (right) for emergency egress from the Fixed Service Structure. Second from left is Mission Specialist Joe Tanner; next to him in the cap is Capt. George Hoggard, safety trainer with the KSC Fire Department; Pilot Mike Bloomfield; Mission Specialist Carlos Noriega; Commander Brent Jett; and Mission Specialist Marc Garneau. The training is part of Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test (TCDT) activities, which also include a simulated launch countdown and opportunities to inspect the mission payloads in the orbiter'''s payload bay. Mission STS- 97is the sixth construction flight to the International Space Station. Its payload includes the P6 Integrated Truss Structure and a photovoltaic (PV) module, with giant solar arrays that will provide power to the Station. The mission includes two spacewalks to complete the solar array connections. STS-97 is scheduled to launch Nov. 30 at 10:05 p.m. EST.

  18. STS-104 crew poses for photo on 215-foot level at Launch Pad 39B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, Fla. -- The STS-104 crew poses for a group photo on the 215-foot level of the Fixed Service Structure. Standing left to right are Mission Specialist Janet Lynn Kavandi, Commander Steven Lindsey, Pilot Charles O. Hobaugh, and Mission Specialists Michael L. Gernhardt and James F. Reilly. The crew has been taking part in Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test activities, which include emergency egress training and a simulated countdown exercise. The launch of Atlantis on mission STS-104 is scheduled July 12. The mission is the 10th flight to the International Space Station and carries the Joint Airlock Module and High Pressure Gas Assembly.

  19. Common variants upstream of KDR encoding VEGFR2 and in TTC39B associate with endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Aradottir, Kristrun; Feenstra, Bjarke; Sigurdsson, Asgeir; Stefansdottir, Lilja; Kristinsdottir, Anna M.; Zink, Florian; Halldorsson, Gisli H.; Munk Nielsen, Nete; Geller, Frank; Melbye, Mads; Gudbjartsson, Daniel F.; Geirsson, Reynir T.; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Stefansson, Kari

    2016-01-01

    We conducted a genome-wide association scan (GWAS) of endometriosis using 25.5 million sequence variants detected through whole-genome sequencing (WGS) of 8,453 Icelanders and imputed into 1,840 cases and 129,016 control women, followed by testing of associated variants in Danish samples. Here we report the discovery of a new endometriosis susceptibility locus on 4q12 (rs17773813[G], OR=1.28; P=3.8 × 10−11), upstream of KDR encoding vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2). The variant correlates with disease severity (P=0.0046) when moderate/severe endometriosis cases are tested against minimal/mild cases. We further report association of rs519664[T] in TTC39B on 9p22 with endometriosis (P=4.8 × 10−10; OR=1.29). The involvement of KDR in endometriosis risk highlights the importance of the VEGF pathway in the pathogenesis of the disease. PMID:27453397

  20. STS-80 Mission Specialist Story Musgrave in White Room

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    STS-80 Mission Specialist Story Musgrave prepares to enter the Space Shuttle Columbia at Launch Pad 39B, with assistance from white room closeout crew members (from left) Rick Welty, Troy Stewart, Ray Villalobos and Bob Saulnier.

  1. The NASA Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO) Mission: Objectives, Approach, and Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Livermore, Thomas R.; Crisp, David

    2008-01-01

    The Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO) is a NASA Earth System Science Pathfinder (ESSP) mission that is currently under development at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). OCO will make global, space-based measurements of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) with the precision, resolution, and coverage needed to characterize regional-scale sources and sinks of this important greenhouse gas. The observatory consists of a dedicated spacecraft bus that carries a single instrument. The bus employs single-string version of Orbital Sciences Corporation (OSC) LEOStar-2 architecture. This 3-axis stabilized bus includes a propulsion system for orbit insertion and maintenance, provides power, points the instrument, receives and processes commands from the ground, and records, stores, and downlinks science and engineering data. The OCO instrument incorporates 3 oboresighted, high resolution grating spectrometers that will make coincident measurements of reflected sunlight in near-infrared CO2 and molecular oxygen (O2) bands. The instrument was designed and manufactured by Hamilton Sundstrand (Pomona, CA), and then integrated, flight qualified, and calibrated by JPL. It is scheduled for delivery to OSC (Dulles, VA) for integration with the spacecraft bus in the spring of 2008. OCO will be launched from the Vandenberg Air Force Base on a dedicated OSC Taurus XL launch vehicle in December 2008. It will fly in formation with the Earth Observing System Afternoon Constellation, a group of satellites that files in a 98.8 minute, 705 km altitude, sun-synchronous orbit. This orbit provides coverage of the sunlit hemisphere with a 16-day ground track repeat cycle. OCO will fly approx.4 minutes ahead of the EOS Aqua platform, with an ascending nodal crossing time of approx.1:26 PM. The OCO science data will be transmitted to the NASA Ground Network Stations in Alaska and Virginia, and then transferred to the OCO Ground Data System at JPL. There, the CO2 and O2 spectra will be analyzed by the

  2. STS-102 crew poses on the FSS at Launch Pad 39B during TCDT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, Fla. -- The STS-102 crew poses for a photo on the 215-foot level of the Fixed Service Structure. Behind them is Space Shuttle Discovery. Standing, left to right, are Mission Specialist Susan Helms, Pilot James Kelly, Mission Specialists Andrew Thomas and Paul Richards, Commander James Wetherbee and Mission Specialists Yury Usachev and James Voss. The crew is taking part in Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test activities, which include emergency exit training and a simulated launch countdown. STS-102 is the eighth construction flight to the International Space Station, with Space Shuttle Discovery carrying the Multi-Purpose Logistics Module Leonardo. Voss, Helms and Usachev are the Expedition Two crew who will be the second resident crew on the International Space Station. They will replace Expedition One, who will return to Earth with Discovery. Launch on mission STS-102 is scheduled for March 8.

  3. The STS-97 crew pose during TCDT at Launch Pad 39B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The STS-97 crew poses on the 215-foot level of the Fixed Service Structure during Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test activities that include emergency egress training, familiarization with the payload and a simulated launch countdown. From left, they are Mission Specialist Carlos Noriega, Commander Brent Jett, Pilot Mike Bloomfield, and Mission Specialists Marc Garneau and Joe Tanner. Mission STS-97 is the sixth construction flight to the International Space Station. Its payload includes the P6 Integrated Truss Structure and a photovoltaic (PV) module, with giant solar arrays that will provide power to the Station. The mission includes two spacewalks to complete the solar array connections. STS-97 is scheduled to launch Nov. 30 at 10:05 p.m. EST.

  4. Hayabusa2 mission target asteroid (162173) 1999 JU_3: Searching for the object's spin-axis orientation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, T.; Durech, J.; Mueller, M.; Kiss, C.; Vilenius, E.; Ishiguro, M.

    2014-07-01

    The JAXA Hayabusa2 mission was approved in 2011 with launch planned for late 2014. Arriving at the asteroid (162173) 1999 JU_3 in 2018, it will survey it, land, and obtain surface material, then depart in late 2019, and return to the Earth in December 2020. We observed the near-Earth asteroid 1999 JU_3 with the Herschel Space Observatory in April 2012 at thermal far-infrared wavelengths, supported by several ground-based observations to obtain optical lightcurves. We re-analyzed previously published Subaru-COMICS observations and merged them with existing data sets from Akari-IRC and Spitzer-IRS. In addition, we used the object's near-IR flux increase from February to May 2013 as observed by Spitzer. The almost spherical shape and the insufficient quality of lightcurve observations forced us to combine radiometric techniques and lightcurve inversion in a new way to find the object's spin-axis orientation, its shape, and to improve the quality of the key physical and thermal parameters of 1999 JU_3. We will present our best pre-launch solution for this C-class asteroid, including the sense of rotation, the spin-axis orientation, the effective diameter, the geometric albedo, and thermal inertia. The finely constrained values for this asteroid serve as an important input for the preparation of this exciting mission.

  5. Replicas of the Santa Maria, Nina, Pinta sail by OV-105 on KSC LC Pad 39B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Replicas of Christopher Columbus' sailing ships Santa Maria, Nina, and Pinta sail by Endeavour, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 105, on Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Launch Complex (LC) Pad 39B awaiting liftoff on its maiden voyage, STS-49. This view is a closeup of the ships with KSC launch complex in the distant background. View provided by KSC with alternate number KSC-92PC-968.

  6. STS-33 Pilot Blaha on KSC LC Pad 39B 195 ft level with OV-103 in background

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    STS-33 Pilot John E. Blaha, wearing launch and entry suit (LES), poses in front of Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, at the 195 ft level elevator entrance at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Launch Complex (LC) Pad 39B. Visible in the background is the catwalk to OV-103's side hatch and the Atlantic Ocean.

  7. Science Objectives of the JEM EUSO Mission on International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takahashi, Yoshiyuki

    2007-01-01

    JEM-EUSO space observatory is planned with a very large exposure factor which will exceed the critical exposure factor required for observing the most of the sources within the propagational horizon of about one hundred Mpc. The main science objective of JEM-EUSO is the source-identifying astronomy in particle channel with extremey-high-energy particles. Quasi-linear tracking of the source objects through galactic magnetic field should become feasible at energy > 10(exp 20) eV for all-sky. The individual GZK profile in high statistics experiments should differ from source to source due to different distance unless Lorentz invariance is somehow limited. hi addition, JEM-EUSO has three exploratory test observations: (i), extremely high energy neutrinos beginning at E > 10(exp 19) eV: neutrinos as being expected to have a slowly increasing cross section in the Standard Model, and in particular, hundreds of times more in the extra-dimension models. (ii). fundamental physics at extreme Super LHC (Large Hadronic Collider) energies with the hierarchical unified energy much below the GUT scale, and (iii). global atmospheric observation, including large-scale and local plasma discharges, night-glow, meteorites, and others..

  8. Liftoff of Space Shuttle Columbia on mission STS-93

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Reflected in the waters near Launch Pad 39-B, Space Shuttle Columbia rockets into the night sky on mission STS-93. After two unsuccessful attempts on previous nights, liftoff occurred at 12:31 a.m. EDT.. STS-93 is a five-day mission primarily to release the Chandra X-ray Observatory, which will allow scientists from around the world to study some of the most distant, powerful and dynamic objects in the universe. The crew numbers five: Commander Eileen M. Collins, Pilot Jeffrey S. Ashby, and Mission Specialists Stephen A. Hawley (Ph.D.), Catherine G. Coleman (Ph.D.) and Michel Tognini of France, with the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES). The target landing date is July 27, 1999, at 11:20 p.m. EDT.

  9. STS-102 crew poses on the FSS at Launch Pad 39B during TCDT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, Fla. -- STS-102 Mission Specialists Andrew Thomas (front, left) and Paul Richards take their seats in the slidewire basket, used for emergency egress from the orbiter and pad. Behind them, other crew members climb into their basket. The crew is at KSC for Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test activities, which include the emergency training and a simulated launch countdown. STS-102 is the eighth construction flight to the International Space Station, with Space Shuttle Discovery carrying the Multi-Purpose Logistics Module Leonardo. In addition, the Expedition Two crew will be on the mission, to replace Expedition One, who will return to Earth with Discovery. Launch on mission STS-102 is scheduled for March 8.

  10. Potential scientific objectives for a 2018 2-rover mission to Mars and implications for the landing site and landed operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grant, J. A.; Westall, F.; Beaty, D.; Cady, S. L.; Carr, M. H.; Ciarletti, V.; Coradini, A.; Elfving, A.; Glavin, D.; Goesmann, F.; Hurowitz, J. A.; Ori, G. G.; Phillips, R. J.; Salvo, C.; Sephton, M.; Syvertson, M.; Vago, J. L.

    2010-12-01

    A study sponsored by MEPAG has defined the possibilities for cooperative science using two rovers under consideration for launch to Mars in 2018 (ESA’s ExoMars, and a NASA-sourced rover concept for which we use the working name of MAX-C). The group considered collaborative science opportunities both without change to either proposed rover, as well as with some change allowed. Planning focused on analysis of shared and separate objectives, with concurrence on two high priority shared objectives that could form the basis of highly significant collaborative exploration activity. The first shared objective relates to sending the proposed rovers to a site interpreted to contain evidence of past environments with high habitability potential, and with high preservation potential for physical and chemical biosignatures where they would evaluate paleoenvironmental conditions, assess the potential for preservation of biotic and/or prebiotic signatures, and search for possible evidence of past life and prebiotic chemistry. The second shared objective relates to the collection, documentation, and suitable packaging of a set of samples by the rovers that would be sufficient to achieve the scientific objectives of a possible future sample return mission. Achieving cooperative science with the two proposed rovers implies certain compromises that might include less time available for pursuing each rover’s independent objectives, implementation of some hardware modifications, and the need to share a landing site that may not be optimized for either rover. Sharing a landing site has multiple implications, including accepting a common latitude restriction, accepting the geological attributes of the common landing site, and creation of a potential telecommunications bottleneck. Moreover, ensuring a safe landing with the sky crane and pallet system envisioned for the mission would likely result in landing terrain engineering requirements more constraining than those for MSL

  11. STS-102 crew poses on the FSS at Launch Pad 39B during TCDT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, Fla. -- STS-102 Commander James Wetherbee reaches for the release lever for the slidewire basket, used for emergency egress from the orbiter and pad. Behind him is Pilot James Kelly. The crew is at KSC for Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test activities, which include the emergency training and a simulated launch countdown. STS-102 is the eighth construction flight to the International Space Station, with Space Shuttle Discovery carrying the Multi-Purpose Logistics Module Leonardo. In addition, the Expedition Two crew will be on the mission, to replace Expedition One, who will return to Earth with Discovery. Launch on mission STS-102 is scheduled for March 8.

  12. STS-102 crew poses on the FSS at Launch Pad 39B during TCDT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, Fla. -- Three members of the STS-102 crew hurry to the slidewire baskets for emergency egress training. The crew is at KSC for Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test activities, which include the emergency training and a simulated launch countdown. STS-102 is the eighth construction flight to the International Space Station, with Space Shuttle Discovery carrying the Multi-Purpose Logistics Module Leonardo. In addition, the Expedition Two crew will be on the mission, to replace Expedition One, who will return to Earth with Discovery. Launch on mission STS-102 is scheduled for March 8.

  13. The Near Earth Object Surveillance Satellite: Mission status and CCD evolution after 18 months on-orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, B.; Scott, R.; Sale, M.

    2014-09-01

    The Near Earth Object Surveillance Satellite (NEOSSat) is a small telescope equipped microsatellite designed to perform both Space Situational Awareness (SSA) experiments and asteroid detection. NEOSSat was launched on 25 February 2013, however, due to time pressures, NEOSSat was launched with only the minimal software required to keep the spacecraft safe. The time pressure also resulted in the spacecraft undergoing reduced system and environmental testing on the ground. The full software suite, required to obtain imagery and maintain stable pointing, has since been uploaded to the spacecraft. NEOSSat has obtained imagery since June 2013, with the shutter both open and closed, but as of March 2014 has not achieved the fine pointing required to obtain scientifically useful data. The collected imagery is being used to characterize the on-board CCD camera. While gain and dark current values agree with pre-launch values, unexpected artefacts have appeared in the images. Methods for mitigating the artefacts through image processing have been developed, and spacecraft-level fixes are currently being investigated. In addition, damage from high energy particles impacting the CCD has produced hot pixels in imagery. We have been able to measure the evolution of these hot pixels over several months, both in terms of numbers and characteristics; these results will be presented. In addition, early results from the mission (image quality issues and evolution, early imagery examples), as well as the mission status (including fine pointing), will be discussed.

  14. Planned flight test of a mercury ion auxiliary propulsion system. 1: Objectives, systems descriptions, and mission operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Power, J. C.

    1978-01-01

    A planned flight test of an 8 cm diameter, electron-bombardment mercury ion thruster system is described. The primary objective of the test is to flight qualify the 5 mN (1 mlb.) thruster system for auxiliary propulsion applications. A seven year north-south stationkeeping mission was selected as the basis for the flight test operating profile. The flight test, which will employ two thruster systems, will also generate thruster system space performance data, measure thruster-spacecraft interactions, and demonstrate thruster operation in a number of operating modes. The flight test is designated as SAMSO-601 and will be flown aboard the shuttle-launched Air Force space test program P80-1 satellite in 1981. The spacecraft will be 3- axis stabilized in its final 740 km circular orbit, which will have an inclination of approximately greater than 73 degrees. The spacecraft design lifetime is three years.

  15. Aero-gravity Assisted Manoeuvers within Preliminary Interplanetary Mission Design: a Multi-objective Evolutive Algorithm Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Povoleri, A.; Lavagna, M.; Finzi, A. E.

    The paper presents a new approach to deal with the preliminary space mission analysis design of particularly complex trajectories focused on interplanetary targets. According to an optimisation approach, a multi-objective strategy is selected on a mixed continuous and discrete state variables domain in order to deal with possible multi-gravity assist manoeuvres (GAM) as further degrees of freedom of the problem, in terms of both number and planets sequence selection to minimize both the ?v expense and the time trip time span. A further added value to the proposed algorithm stays in that, according to planets having an atmosphere, aero-gravity assist manoeuvres (AGAM) are considered too within the overall mission design optimisation, and the consequent optimal control problem related to the aerodynamic angles history, is solved. According to the target planet different capture strategies are managed by the algorithm, the aerocapture manoeuvre too, whenever possible (e.g. Venus, Mars target planets). In order not to be trapped in local solution the Evolutionary Algorithms (EAs) have been selected to solve such a complex problem. Simulations and comparison with already designed space missions showed the ability of the proposed architecture in correctly selecting both the sequences and the planets type of either GAMs or AGAMs to optimise the selected criteria vector, in a multidisciplinary environment, switching on the optimal control problem whenever the atmospheric interaction is involved in the optimisation by the search process. Symbols δ = semi-angular deviation for GAM between the v∞ -, v∞ + inoutcoming vectors [rad] φ = Angular deviation for AGAM between the v∞ -, v∞ + inoutcoming vectors [rad] ρ = Atmospheric density [kgm-3 ] γ = Flight path angle [rad] µ = Bank angle [rad] δ?ttransf j = j-th heliocentric transfer time variation with respect to the linked conics solution ?|v∞| = Relative velocity losses because of drag [ms-1 ] ωI = i

  16. STS-102 crew poses on the FSS at Launch Pad 39B during TCDT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, Fla. -- An STS-102 crew member reaches for the release lever for the slidewire basket, used for emergency egress from the orbiter and pad. The crew is at KSC for Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test activities, which include the emergency training and a simulated launch countdown. On the horizon in the background can be seen the Vehicle Assembly Building. STS-102 is the eighth construction flight to the International Space Station, with Space Shuttle Discovery carrying the Multi-Purpose Logistics Module Leonardo. In addition, the Expedition Two crew will be on the mission, to replace Expedition One, who will return to Earth with Discovery. Launch on mission STS-102 is scheduled for March 8.

  17. Replicas of the Santa Maria, Nina, Pinta sail by OV-105 on KSC LC Pad 39B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Replicas of Christopher Columbus' sailing ships Santa Maria, Nina, and Pinta sail by Endeavour, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 105, on Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Launch Complex (LC) Pad 39B awaiting liftoff on its maiden voyage, STS-49. Taken from the water, the silhouettes of the three sailing ships appear in the foreground with OV-105 atop the mobile launcher platform barely visible in the distant background. View provided by KSC with alternate number KSC-92PC-976.

  18. LEGOS: Object-based software components for mission-critical systems. Final report, June 1, 1995--December 31, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1998-08-01

    An estimated 85% of the installed base of software is a custom application with a production quantity of one. In practice, almost 100% of military software systems are custom software. Paradoxically, the marginal costs of producing additional units are near zero. So why hasn`t the software market, a market with high design costs and low productions costs evolved like other similar custom widget industries, such as automobiles and hardware chips? The military software industry seems immune to market pressures that have motivated a multilevel supply chain structure in other widget industries: design cost recovery, improve quality through specialization, and enable rapid assembly from purchased components. The primary goal of the ComponentWare Consortium (CWC) technology plan was to overcome barriers to building and deploying mission-critical information systems by using verified, reusable software components (Component Ware). The adoption of the ComponentWare infrastructure is predicated upon a critical mass of the leading platform vendors` inevitable adoption of adopting emerging, object-based, distributed computing frameworks--initially CORBA and COM/OLE. The long-range goal of this work is to build and deploy military systems from verified reusable architectures. The promise of component-based applications is to enable developers to snap together new applications by mixing and matching prefabricated software components. A key result of this effort is the concept of reusable software architectures. A second important contribution is the notion that a software architecture is something that can be captured in a formal language and reused across multiple applications. The formalization and reuse of software architectures provide major cost and schedule improvements. The Unified Modeling Language (UML) is fast becoming the industry standard for object-oriented analysis and design notation for object-based systems. However, the lack of a standard real-time distributed

  19. STS-49 Astronaut By Mission Peculiar Equipment Support Structure (MPESS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    STS-49, the first flight of the Space Shuttle Orbiter Endeavour, lifted off from launch pad 39B on May 7, 1992 at 6:40 pm CDT. The STS-49 mission was the first U.S. orbital flight to feature 4 extravehicular activities (EVAs), and the first flight to involve 3 crew members working simultaneously outside of the spacecraft. The primary objective was the capture and redeployment of the INTELSAT VI (F-3), a communication satellite for the International Telecommunication Satellite organization, which was stranded in an unusable orbit since its launch aboard the Titan rocket in March 1990. In this onboard photo, astronaut Thomas Akers is positioned near the Mission Peculiar Equipment Support Structure (MPESS) in the cargo bay. The MPESS, developed by Marshall Space Flight Center, was used to support experiments.

  20. STS-35 Columbia, OV-102, lifts off from KSC LC Pad 39B at 1:49 am (EST)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    STS-35 Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, atop its external tank (ET) and flanked by two solid rocket boosters (SRBs) clears the launch tower during its liftoff from Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Launch Complex (LC) Pad 39B at 1:49 am (Eastern Standard Time (EST)). OV-102 rises above the mobile launcher pad covered with an exhaust cloud which is illuminated by the glow of the SRB and space shuttle main engine (SSME) firings. The launch tower's fixed service structure (FSS) and retracted rotating service structure (RSS) are highlighted against the early morning darkness by SRB/SSME glow as the shadowy shuttle climbs into the sky.

  1. Replicas of the Santa Maria, Nina, Pinta sail by OV-105 on KSC LC Pad 39B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Replicas of Christopher Columbus' sailing ships Santa Maria, Nina, and Pinta sail by Endeavour, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 105, on Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Launch Complex (LC) Pad 39B awaiting liftoff on its maiden voyage, STS-49. This view was taken from the water showing the three ships silhouetted in the foreground with OV-105 on mobile launcher platform profiled against fixed service structure (FSS) tower and rectracted rotating service structure (RSS) in the background. Next to the launch pad (at right) are the sound suppression water system tower and the liquid hydrogen (LH2) storage tank. View provided by KSC with alternate number KSC-92PC-970.

  2. Replicas of the Santa Maria, Nina, Pinta sail by OV-105 on KSC LC Pad 39B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Replicas of Christopher Columbus' sailing ships Santa Maria, Nina, and Pinta sail by Endeavour, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 105, on Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Launch Complex (LC) Pad 39B awaiting liftoff on its maiden voyage, STS-49. This view, taken from behind the fixed service structure (FSS) tower and retracted rotating service structure (RSS), shows the three ships as they sail by in the distance. OV-105 and its orange external tank (ET) are only partially visible. View provided by KSC with alternate KSC number KSC-92PC-977.

  3. Replicas of the Santa Maria, Nina, Pinta sail by OV-105 on KSC LC Pad 39B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Replicas of Christopher Columbus' sailing ships Santa Maria, Nina, and Pinta sail by Endeavour, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 105, on Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Launch Complex (LC) Pad 39B awaiting liftoff on its maiden voyage, STS-49. This view was taken from the water showing the three ships silhouetted in the foreground with OV-105 on mobile launcher platform profiled against fixed service structure (FSS) tower and rectracted rotating service structure (RSS) in the background. Next to the launch pad (at right) are the sound suppression water system tower and the liquid hydrogen (LH2) storage tank. View provided by KSC with alternate number KSC-92PC-971.

  4. Replicas of the Santa Maria, Nina, Pinta sail by OV-105 on KSC LC Pad 39B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Replicas of Christopher Columbus' sailing ships Santa Maria, Nina, and Pinta sail by Endeavour, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 105, on Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Launch Complex (LC) Pad 39B awaiting liftoff on its maiden voyage, STS-49. This view was taken from the water showing the three ships in the foreground with OV-105 on mobile launcher platform profiled against fixed service structure (FSS) tower and rectracted rotating service structure (RSS) in the background. Next to the launch pad (at right) are the sound suppression water system tower and the liquid hydrogen (LH2) storage tank. View provided by KSC with alternate number KSC-92PC-967.

  5. Summary of 2011 Direct and Nearby Lightning Strikes to Launch Complex 39B, Kennedy Space Center, Florida

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mata, C.T.; Mata, A.G.

    2012-01-01

    A Lightning Protection System (LPS) was designed and built at Launch Complex 39B (LC39B), at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC), Florida in 2009. This LPS was instrumented with comprehensive meteorological and lightning data acquisition systems that were deployed from late 2010 until mid 2011. The first direct strikes to the LPS were recorded in March of 2011, when a limited number of sensors had been activated. The lightning instrumentation system detected a total of 70 nearby strokes and 19 direct strokes to the LPS, 2 of the 19 direct strokes to the LPS had two simultaneous ground attachment points (in both instances one channel terminated on the LPS and the other on the nearby ground). Additionally, there are more unaccounted nearby strokes seen on video records for which limited data was acquired either due to the distance of the stroke or the settings of the data acquisition system. Instrumentation deployment chronological milestones, a summary of lightning strikes (direct and nearby), high speed video frames, downconductor currents, and dH/dt and dE/dt typical waveforms for direct and nearby strokes are presented.

  6. STS-72 Mission Specialist Barry enters Endeavour

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    STS-72 Mission Specialist Dr. Daniel T. Barry (center) prepares to enter the Space Shuttle Endeavour at Launch Pad 39B, as white room closeout crew members Mike Mangione (no. Davis (no. 6) assist him. Endeavour is set to lift off during and approximately 49-minute window opening at 4:18 am EST, Jan. 11.

  7. Mutations in RAB39B cause X-linked intellectual disability and early-onset Parkinson disease with α-synuclein pathology.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Gabrielle R; Sim, Joe C H; McLean, Catriona; Giannandrea, Maila; Galea, Charles A; Riseley, Jessica R; Stephenson, Sarah E M; Fitzpatrick, Elizabeth; Haas, Stefan A; Pope, Kate; Hogan, Kirk J; Gregg, Ronald G; Bromhead, Catherine J; Wargowski, David S; Lawrence, Christopher H; James, Paul A; Churchyard, Andrew; Gao, Yujing; Phelan, Dean G; Gillies, Greta; Salce, Nicholas; Stanford, Lynn; Marsh, Ashley P L; Mignogna, Maria L; Hayflick, Susan J; Leventer, Richard J; Delatycki, Martin B; Mellick, George D; Kalscheuer, Vera M; D'Adamo, Patrizia; Bahlo, Melanie; Amor, David J; Lockhart, Paul J

    2014-12-01

    Advances in understanding the etiology of Parkinson disease have been driven by the identification of causative mutations in families. Genetic analysis of an Australian family with three males displaying clinical features of early-onset parkinsonism and intellectual disability identified a ∼45 kb deletion resulting in the complete loss of RAB39B. We subsequently identified a missense mutation (c.503C>A [p.Thr168Lys]) in RAB39B in an unrelated Wisconsin kindred affected by a similar clinical phenotype. In silico and in vitro studies demonstrated that the mutation destabilized the protein, consistent with loss of function. In vitro small-hairpin-RNA-mediated knockdown of Rab39b resulted in a reduction in the density of α-synuclein immunoreactive puncta in dendritic processes of cultured neurons. In addition, in multiple cell models, we demonstrated that knockdown of Rab39b was associated with reduced steady-state levels of α-synuclein. Post mortem studies demonstrated that loss of RAB39B resulted in pathologically confirmed Parkinson disease. There was extensive dopaminergic neuron loss in the substantia nigra and widespread classic Lewy body pathology. Additional pathological features included cortical Lewy bodies, brain iron accumulation, tau immunoreactivity, and axonal spheroids. Overall, we have shown that loss-of-function mutations in RAB39B cause intellectual disability and pathologically confirmed early-onset Parkinson disease. The loss of RAB39B results in dysregulation of α-synuclein homeostasis and a spectrum of neuropathological features that implicate RAB39B in the pathogenesis of Parkinson disease and potentially other neurodegenerative disorders.

  8. Mutations in RAB39B Cause X-Linked Intellectual Disability and Early-Onset Parkinson Disease with α-Synuclein Pathology

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Gabrielle R.; Sim, Joe C.H.; McLean, Catriona; Giannandrea, Maila; Galea, Charles A.; Riseley, Jessica R.; Stephenson, Sarah E.M.; Fitzpatrick, Elizabeth; Haas, Stefan A.; Pope, Kate; Hogan, Kirk J.; Gregg, Ronald G.; Bromhead, Catherine J.; Wargowski, David S.; Lawrence, Christopher H.; James, Paul A.; Churchyard, Andrew; Gao, Yujing; Phelan, Dean G.; Gillies, Greta; Salce, Nicholas; Stanford, Lynn; Marsh, Ashley P.L.; Mignogna, Maria L.; Hayflick, Susan J.; Leventer, Richard J.; Delatycki, Martin B.; Mellick, George D.; Kalscheuer, Vera M.; D’Adamo, Patrizia; Bahlo, Melanie; Amor, David J.; Lockhart, Paul J.

    2014-01-01

    Advances in understanding the etiology of Parkinson disease have been driven by the identification of causative mutations in families. Genetic analysis of an Australian family with three males displaying clinical features of early-onset parkinsonism and intellectual disability identified a ∼45 kb deletion resulting in the complete loss of RAB39B. We subsequently identified a missense mutation (c.503C>A [p.Thr168Lys]) in RAB39B in an unrelated Wisconsin kindred affected by a similar clinical phenotype. In silico and in vitro studies demonstrated that the mutation destabilized the protein, consistent with loss of function. In vitro small-hairpin-RNA-mediated knockdown of Rab39b resulted in a reduction in the density of α-synuclein immunoreactive puncta in dendritic processes of cultured neurons. In addition, in multiple cell models, we demonstrated that knockdown of Rab39b was associated with reduced steady-state levels of α-synuclein. Post mortem studies demonstrated that loss of RAB39B resulted in pathologically confirmed Parkinson disease. There was extensive dopaminergic neuron loss in the substantia nigra and widespread classic Lewy body pathology. Additional pathological features included cortical Lewy bodies, brain iron accumulation, tau immunoreactivity, and axonal spheroids. Overall, we have shown that loss-of-function mutations in RAB39B cause intellectual disability and pathologically confirmed early-onset Parkinson disease. The loss of RAB39B results in dysregulation of α-synuclein homeostasis and a spectrum of neuropathological features that implicate RAB39B in the pathogenesis of Parkinson disease and potentially other neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:25434005

  9. STS-73 Mission Cmdr. Kenneth D. Bowersox suits up

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    STS-73 Mission Commander Kenneth D. Bowersox is assisted by a suit technician as he dons his launch/entry suit in the Operations and Checkout Building. The seven-member crew of Mission STS-73 will depart shortly for Launch Pad 39B, where the Space Shuttle Columbia awaits another liftoff attempt at 9:50 a.m. EDT.

  10. STS-80 Mission Specialist Tamara E. Jernigan in White Room

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    STS-80 Mission Specialist Tamara E. Jernigan prepares to enter the Space Shuttle Columbia at Launch Pad 39B, with assistance from white room closeout crew members (from left) Ray Villalobos and Bob Saulnier. Behind her is Mission Specialist Story Musgrave.

  11. STS-93 Mission Specialist Hawley takes part in emergency egress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    STS-93 Mission Specialist Steven A. Hawley (Ph.D.) smiles for the photographer before climbing into an M-113 armored personnel carrier at the launch pad to take part in emergency egress training. In preparation for their mission, the STS-93 crew are participating in Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test activities that also include a launch-day dress rehearsal culminating with a simulated main engine cut-off. Others in the crew are Commander Eileen M. Collins, Pilot Jeffrey S. Ashby, and Mission Specialists Catherine G. Coleman (Ph.D.) and Michel Tognini of France, who represents the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES). Collins is the first woman to serve as a mission commander. The primary mission of STS-93 is the release of the Chandra X-ray Observatory, which will allow scientists from around the world to obtain unprecedented X-ray images of exotic environments in space to help understand the structure and evolution of the universe. Chandra is expected to provide unique and crucial information on the nature of objects ranging from comets in our solar system to quasars at the edge of the observable universe. Since X-rays are absorbed by the Earth's atmosphere, space-based observatories are necessary to study these phenomena and allow scientists to analyze some of the greatest mysteries of the universe. The targeted launch date for STS-93 is no earlier than July 20 at 12:36 a.m. EDT from Launch Pad 39B.

  12. Development of the coastal zone color scanner for NIMBUS 7. Volume 1: Mission objectives and instrument description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    An Earth scanning six channel (detector) radiometer using a classical Cassegrain telescope and a Wadsworth type grating spectrometer was launched aboard Nimbus 7 in order to determine the abundance or density of chlorophyll at or near the sea surface in coastal waters. The instrument also measures the sediment or gelbstroffe (yellow stuff) in coastal waters, detects surface vegetation, and measures sea surface temperature. Block diagrams and schematics are presented, design features are discussed and each subsystem of the instrument is described. A mission overview is included.

  13. Minor Body Surveyor: A Multi-Object, High Speed, Spectro-Photometer Space Mission System Employing Wide-Area Intelligent Change Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaplan, M. L.; van Cleve, J. E.; Alcock, C.

    2003-12-01

    Detection and characterization of the small bodies of the outer solar system presents unique challenges to terrestrial based sensing systems, principally the inverse 4th power decrease of reflected and thermal signals with target distance from the Sun. These limits are surpassed by new techniques [1,2,3] employing star-object occultation event sensing, which are capable of detecting sub-kilometer objects in the Kuiper Belt and Oort cloud. This poster will present an instrument and space mission concept based on adaptations of the NASA Discovery Kepler program currently in development at Ball Aerospace and Technologies Corp. Instrument technologies to enable this space science mission are being pursued and will be described. In particular, key attributes of an optimized payload include the ability to provide: 1) Coarse spectral resolution (using an objective spectrometer approach) 2) Wide FOV, simultaneous object monitoring (up to 150,000 stars employing select data regions within a large focal plane mosaic) 3) Fast temporal frame integration and readout architectures (10 to 50 msec for each monitored object) 4) Real-time, intelligent change detection processing (to limit raw data volumes) The Minor Body Surveyor combines the focal plane and processing technology elements into a densely packaged format to support general space mission issues of mass and power consumption, as well as telemetry resources. Mode flexibility is incorporated into the real-time processing elements to allow for either temporal (Occultations) or spatial (Moving targets) change detection. In addition, a basic image capture mode is provided for general pointing and field reference measurements. The overall space mission architecture is described as well. [1] M. E. Bailey. Can 'Invisible' Bodies be Observed in the Solar System. Nature, 259:290-+, January 1976. [2] T. S. Axelrod, C. Alcock, K. H. Cook, and H.-S. Park. A Direct Census of the Oort Cloud with a Robotic Telescope. In ASP Conf. Ser

  14. Capture of cosmic dusts and exposure of organics on the International Space Station: Objectives of the Tanpopo Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Kensei

    Finding of a wide variety of organic compounds contained in extraterrestrial bodies such as carbonaceous chondrites and comets suggested that they were important materials for the first life on the Earth. Cosmic dusts (interplanetary dust particles; IDPs) were believed to have been important carriers of extraterrestrial organics, since IDPs could deliver organics to the primitive Earth more safely than asteroids and comets. Since most IDPs have been collected in such terrestrial environments as ocean sediments, Antarctic ices, and air in stratosphere, it is difficult to judge whether biooranics found in IDPs were extraterrestrial origins or not. Thus it would be of importance to collect IDPs out of the terrestrial biosphere. We are planning the Tanpopo Mission by utilizing the Exposed Facility of Japan Experimental Module (JEM/EF) of the International Space Station (ISS). Two types of experiments will be done in the Tanpopo Mission: Capture experiments and exposure experiments. In order to collect cosmic dusts (including IDPs) on the ISS, we are going to use extra-low density aerogel, since both cosmic dusts and ISS are moving at 8 km s-1 or over. We have developed novel aerogel whose density is 0.01 g cm-3. After the return of the aerogel blocks after 1 to a few years’ stay on JEM/EF, organic compounds in the captured dusts will be characterized by a wide variety of analytical techniques including FT-IR, XANES, and MS. Amino acid enantiomers will be determined after HF digestion and acid hydrolysis. A number of amino acids were detected in water extract of carbonaceous chondrites. It is controversial whether meteorites contain free amino acids or amino acid precursors. When dusts are formed from meteorites or comets in interplanetary space, they are exposed to high-energy particles and photons. In order to evaluate stability and possible alteration of amino acid-related compounds, we chose amino acids (glycine and isovaline) and hydantoins (precursors of amino

  15. Abundance of unusual objects on the planet venus according to the data of missions of 1975-1982

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ksanfomality, L. V.

    2014-11-01

    The results of processing the archival data of the television experiment performed on the surface of the planet by the VENERA spacecraft in 1975 and 1982 are presented. In previously published papers, the author tried to show all diverse objects found by that time and their properties. In 2012-2014, new groups of objects have been found. This paper focuses on only one type of new finding (the conventional name is "hesperos") and their morphological features. It is shown that similar objects with dimensions from 13 to 25 cm, having the forms of a large fallen leaf or a spindle, are met in the regions of the planet Venus separated by distances of 900 and 4400 km.

  16. Sizing of "Mother Ship and Catcher" Missions for LEO Small Debris and for GEO Large Object Capture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bacon, John B.

    2009-01-01

    Most LEO debris lies in a limited number of inclination "bands" associated with specific useful orbits. Objects in such narrow inclination bands have all possible Right Ascensions of Ascending Node (RAANs), creating a different orbit plane for nearly every piece of debris. However, a low-orbiting satellite will always phase in RAAN faster than debris objects in higher orbits at the same inclination, potentially solving the problem. Such a low-orbiting base can serve as a "mother ship" that can tend and then send small, disposable common individual catcher/deboost devices--one for each debris object--as the facility drifts into the same RAAN as each higher object. The dV necessary to catch highly-eccentric orbit debris in the center of the band alternatively allows the capture of less-eccentric debris in a wider inclination range around the center. It is demonstrated that most LEO hazardous debris can be removed from orbit in three years, using a single LEO launch of one mother ship--with its onboard magazine of freeflying low-tech catchers--into each of ten identified bands, with second or potentially third launches into only the three highest-inclination bands. The nearly 1000 objects near the geostationary orbit present special challenges in mass, maneuverability, and ultimate disposal options, leading to a dramatically different architecture and technology suite than the LEO solution. It is shown that the entire population of near-GEO derelict objects can be gathered and tethered together within a 3 year period for future scrap-yard operations using achievable technologies and only two earth launches.

  17. Increased dosage of RAB39B affects neuronal development and could explain the cognitive impairment in male patients with distal Xq28 copy number gains.

    PubMed

    Vanmarsenille, Lieselot; Giannandrea, Maila; Fieremans, Nathalie; Verbeeck, Jelle; Belet, Stefanie; Raynaud, Martine; Vogels, Annick; Männik, Katrin; Õunap, Katrin; Jacqueline, Vigneron; Briault, Sylvain; Van Esch, Hilde; D'Adamo, Patrizia; Froyen, Guy

    2014-03-01

    Copy number gains at Xq28 are a frequent cause of X-linked intellectual disability (XLID). Here, we report on a recurrent 0.5 Mb tandem copy number gain at distal Xq28 not including MECP2, in four male patients with nonsyndromic mild ID and behavioral problems. The genomic region is duplicated in two families and triplicated in a third reflected by more distinctive clinical features. The X-inactivation patterns in carrier females correspond well with their clinical symptoms. Our mapping data confirm that this recurrent gain is likely mediated by nonallelic homologous recombination between two directly oriented Int22h repeats. The affected region harbors eight genes of which RAB39B encoding a small GTPase, was the prime candidate since loss-of-function mutations had been linked to ID. RAB39B is expressed at stable levels in lymphocytes from control individuals, suggesting a tight regulation. mRNA levels in our patients were almost two-fold increased. Overexpression of Rab39b in mouse primary hippocampal neurons demonstrated a significant decrease in neuronal branching as well as in the number of synapses when compared with the control neurons. Taken together, we provide evidence that the increased dosage of RAB39B causes a disturbed neuronal development leading to cognitive impairment in patients with this recurrent copy number gain.

  18. Investigations of the First Objects to Light Up the Universe: The Dark Ages Radio Explorer (DARE) Mission Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burns, Jack; Lazio, Joseph; Bowman, Judd; Bradley, Richard; Datta, Abhirup; Furlanetto, Steven; Jones, Dayton; Kasper, Justin; Loeb, Abraham

    2015-08-01

    The Dark Ages Radio Explorer (DARE) is designed to probe the epoch of formation of the first stars, black holes, and galaxies, never before observed, using the redshifted hyperfine 21-cm transition from neutral hydrogen. These first objects to illuminate the Universe (redshifts 35 to 11) will be studied via their heating and ionization of the intergalactic medium. Over its lifetime of 2 years, DARE observes at low radio astronomy frequencies (VHF), 40 - 120 MHz, in a 125 km altitude lunar orbit. The Moon occults both Earth and the Sun as DARE makes observations on the lunar farside, shielding it from the corrupting effects of radio interference, Earth’s ionosphere, and solar emissions. Bi-conical dipole antennas, pseudo-correlation receivers used in differential mode to stabilize the radiometer, and a digital spectrometer achieve the sensitivity required to observe the cosmic signal. The unique frequency structure of the 21-cm signal and its uniformity over large angular scales are unlike the spectrally featureless, spatially varying characteristics of the Galactic foreground, allowing the signal to be cleanly separated from the foreground. In the talk, the DARE science objectives, the science instrument, foreground removal strategy, and design of an engineering prototype will be described.

  19. STS-73 Mission Cmdr Kenneth D. Bowersox suits up

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    STS-73 Mission Commander Kenneth D. Bowersox completes suitup activities in the Operations and Checkout Building. He and six fellow crew members will depart shortly for Launch Pad 39B, where the Space Shuttle Columbia is undergoing final preparations for liftoff during a launch window opening at 9:41 a.m. EDT, Oct. 7.

  20. STS-102 MS Helms, Usachev and Voss pose on the FSS at Launch Pad 39B during TCDT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, Fla. -- STS-102 Mission Specialists Susan Helms, Yury Usachev and James Voss clasp hands showing their unity as the Expedition Two crew who will be replacing Expedition One on the International Space Station. Behind them can be seen the tops of the solid rocket booster and external tank on Space Shuttle Discovery. The STS-102 crew is at KSC for Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test activities, which include the emergency training and a simulated launch countdown. STS-102 is the eighth construction flight to the Space Station, with Discovery carrying the Multi-Purpose Logistics Module Leonardo. Expedition One will return to Earth with Discovery. Launch on mission STS-102 is scheduled for March 8.

  1. STS-73 Mission Cmdr. Kenneth D. Bowersox suits up

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    In the Operations and Checkout Building, STS-73 Mission Commander Kenneth D. Bowersox gets a helping hand from a suit technician in adjusting the fit of the helmet of his launch/entry suit. The seven crew members assigned to Mission STS-73 will depart shortly for Launch Pad 39B, where the Space Shuttle Columbia awaits them and a liftoff scheduled to occur no earlier than 10:46 a.m. EDT.

  2. STS-93 Mission Specialist Coleman takes part in emergency egress training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    STS-93 Mission Specialist Catherine G. Coleman (Ph.D.) smiles for the photographer before climbing into an M-113 armored personnel carrier at the launch pad to take part in emergency egress training. In preparation for their mission, the STS-93 crew are participating in Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test activities that also include a launch-day dress rehearsal culminating with a simulated main engine cut-off. Others in the crew are Commander Eileen M. Collins, Pilot Jeffrey S. Ashby, and Mission Specialists Steven A. Hawley (Ph.D.) and Michel Tognini of France, who represents the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES). Collins is the first woman to serve as a mission commander. The primary mission of STS-93 is the release of the Chandra X-ray Observatory, which will allow scientists from around the world to obtain unprecedented X-ray images of exotic environments in space to help understand the structure and evolution of the universe. Chandra is expected to provide unique and crucial information on the nature of objects ranging from comets in our solar system to quasars at the edge of the observable universe. Since X-rays are absorbed by the Earth's atmosphere, space-based observatories are necessary to study these phenomena and allow scientists to analyze some of the greatest mysteries of the universe. The targeted launch date for STS-93 is no earlier than July 20 at 12:36 a.m. EDT from Launch Pad 39B.

  3. A Neptune Orbiter Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, R. A.; Spilker, T. R.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes the results of new analyses and mission/system designs for a low cost Neptune Orbiter mission. Science and measurement objectives, instrumentation, and mission/system design options are described and reflect an aggressive approach to the application of new advanced technologies expected to be available and developed over the next five to ten years.

  4. Shared mission operations concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spradlin, Gary L.; Rudd, Richard P.; Linick, Susan H.

    1994-01-01

    Historically, new JPL flight projects have developed a Mission Operations System (MOS) as unique as their spacecraft, and have utilized a mission-dedicated staff to monitor and control the spacecraft through the MOS. NASA budgetary pressures to reduce mission operations costs have led to the development and reliance on multimission ground system capabilities. The use of these multimission capabilities has not eliminated an ongoing requirement for a nucleus of personnel familiar with a given spacecraft and its mission to perform mission-dedicated operations. The high cost of skilled personnel required to support projects with diverse mission objectives has the potential for significant reduction through shared mission operations among mission-compatible projects. Shared mission operations are feasible if: (1) the missions do not conflict with one another in terms of peak activity periods, (2) a unique MOS is not required, and (3) there is sufficient similarity in the mission profiles so that greatly different skills would not be required to support each mission. This paper will further develop this shared mission operations concept. We will illustrate how a Discovery-class mission would enter a 'partner' relationship with the Voyager Project, and can minimize MOS development and operations costs by early and careful consideration of mission operations requirements.

  5. Postrefurbishment mission Hubble Space Telescope images of the core of the Orion Nebula: Proplyds, Herbig-Haro objects, and measurements of a circumstellar disk

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Dell, C. R.; Wen, Zheng

    1994-01-01

    We report on observations of M42 made with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) immediately after the successful repair and refurbishment mission. Images were made in the strongest optical emission lines of H I, (N II), and (O III) and in a bandpass close to V. In a previous paper, the term proplyd was introduced to describe young stars surrounded by circumstellar material rendered visible by being in an H II region. We confirm the proplyd nature of 17 of 18 objects found earlier with the HST, incorporate 13 previously known sources into the class on the basis of their emission-line appearance, and find 26 additional members not seen previously in other wavelengths. Half of the 110 stars brighter than V = 21 show proplyd structure, which implies that more than half of the stars have circumstellar material since nebular structures are more difficult to detect than stars. The highly variable forms of the proplyds can be explained on the basis of balance of ambient stellar gas pressure and radial pressure arising from the stellar wind and radiation pressure of the dominant stars in the region. Arguments are presented explaining the proplyds as disks or flattened envelopes surrounding young stars, hence they are possible planetary disks. The characteristic mass of ionized material is 2 x 10(exp 28) g, which becomes a lower limit to the total mass of the proplyds. A new, coordinate-based, designation scheme for compact sources and stars in the vicinity of M42 is proposed and applied. Evidence is presented that one of the previously known bright Herbig-Haro objects (HH 203) may be the result of a stream of material coming from a proplyd shocking against the neutral lid that covers M42. One object, 183-405, is a proplyd seen only in silhouette against the bright nebular background. It is elliptical, with dimensions 0.9 sec by 1.2 sec and surrounds a pre-main-sequence star of at least 0.2 solar mass. The outer parts of this stellar disk are optically thin and allow column mass

  6. STS-87 Mission Specialist Winston E. Scott suits up

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    STS-87 Mission Specialist Winston Scott dons his launch and entry suit with the assistance of a suit technician in the Operations and Checkout Building. This is Scotts second space flight. He and the five other crew members will depart shortly for Launch Pad 39B, where the Space Shuttle Columbia awaits liftoff on a 16-day mission to perform microgravity and solar research. Scott is scheduled to perform an extravehicular activity spacewalk with Mission Specialist Takao Doi, Ph.D., of the National Space Development Agency of Japan, during STS-87. He also performed a spacewalk on STS-72.

  7. STS-87 Mission Specialist Doi in white room

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    STS-87 Mission Specialist Takao Doi, Ph.D., of the National Space Development Agency of Japan, is assisted with his ascent and re- entry flight suit by Dave Law, USA mechanical technician, in the white room at Launch Pad 39B as Dr. Doi prepares to enter the Space Shuttle orbiter Columbia on launch day. At right wearing glasses is Danny Wyatt, NASA quality assurance specialist. STS-87 is the fourth flight of the United States Microgravity Payload and Spartan-201. The 16-day mission will include a spacewalk by Dr. Doi and Mission Specialist Winston Scott.

  8. STS-87 Mission Specialist Takao Doi suits up

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    STS-87 Mission Specialist Takao Doi, Ph.D., of the National Space Development Agency of Japan, gives a thumbs up in his launch and entry suit in the Operations and Checkout Building. He and the five other crew members will depart shortly for Launch Pad 39B, where the Space Shuttle Columbia awaits liftoff on a 16-day mission to perform microgravity and solar research. Dr. Doi is scheduled to perform an extravehicular activity spacewalk with Mission Specialist Winston Scott during STS-87.

  9. STS-87 Mission Specialist Scott in white room

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    STS-87 Mission Specialist Winston Scott is assisted with his ascent and re-entry flight suit in the white room at Launch Pad 39B by Danny Wyatt, NASA quality assurance specialist. STS-87 is the fourth flight of the United States Microgravity Payload and Spartan-201. Scott is scheduled to perform an extravehicular activity spacewalk with Mission Specialist Takao Doi, Ph.D., of the National Space Development Agency of Japan, during STS-87. Scott also performed a spacewalk on the STS-72 mission.

  10. Planetary missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclaughlin, William I.

    1989-01-01

    The scientific and engineering aspects of near-term missions for planetary exploration are outlined. The missions include the Voyager Neptune flyby, the Magellan survey of Venus, the Ocean Topography Experiment, the Mars Observer mission, the Galileo Jupiter Orbiter and Probe, the Comet Rendezvous Asteroid Flyby mission, the Mars Rover Sample Return mission, the Cassini mission to Saturn and Titan, and the Daedalus probe to Barnard's star. The spacecraft, scientific goals, and instruments for these missions are noted.

  11. Instituto para la Promocion de la Cultura Civica, A.C.: Mission; Philosophy; Goals and Objectives; Challenge and Commitment; Activities; Publications and Essays; Presence in the Mass Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Instituto para la Promocion de la Cultura Civica. Mexico City (Mexico).

    The report discusses the activities of the Instituto para la Promocion de la Culture Civica (ICC), a non-partisan, not-for-profit Mexican nongovernmental organization (NGO) that has as its mission: to promote the advancement of a civic culture understood as a system of values, ideas, traits of character, dispositions, inclinations, attitudes,…

  12. STS-80 Crew Arrival (Mission Specialist Story Musgrave)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    STS-80 Mission Specialist Story Musgrave and four fellow crew members arrive at KSC's Shuttle Landing Facility as preparations continue for launch of the final Shuttle flight of 1996. Tomorrow, Nov. 12, the launch countdown will begin at 1 p.m. with the countdown clock set at T-43 hours. The Space Shuttle Columbia is scheduled for liftoff from Launch Pad 39B at 2:50 p.m. EST, Nov. 15.

  13. STS-73 Mission Specialist Catherine Coleman suits up

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    STS-73 Mission Specialist Catherine G. Coleman is assisted by a suit technician as she dons her launch/entry suit in the Operations and Checkout Building. STS-73 will be the first trip into space for Coleman, who will depart shortly for Launch Pad 39B, where the Space Shuttle Columbia awaits lift off during a window opening at 9:41 a.m. EDT, Oct. 7.

  14. Mission operations management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rocco, David A.

    1994-01-01

    Redefining the approach and philosophy that operations management uses to define, develop, and implement space missions will be a central element in achieving high efficiency mission operations for the future. The goal of a cost effective space operations program cannot be realized if the attitudes and methodologies we currently employ to plan, develop, and manage space missions do not change. A management philosophy that is in synch with the environment in terms of budget, technology, and science objectives must be developed. Changing our basic perception of mission operations will require a shift in the way we view the mission. This requires a transition from current practices of viewing the mission as a unique end product, to a 'mission development concept' built on the visualization of the end-to-end mission. To achieve this change we must define realistic mission success criteria and develop pragmatic approaches to achieve our goals. Custom mission development for all but the largest and most unique programs is not practical in the current budget environment, and we simply do not have the resources to implement all of our planned science programs. We need to shift our management focus to allow us the opportunity make use of methodologies and approaches which are based on common building blocks that can be utilized in the space, ground, and mission unique segments of all missions.

  15. Predicting Mission Success in Small Satellite Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saunders, Mark; Richie, Wayne; Rogers, John; Moore, Arlene

    1992-01-01

    In our global society with its increasing international competition and tighter financial resources, governments, commercial entities and other organizations are becoming critically aware of the need to ensure that space missions can be achieved on time and within budget. This has become particularly true for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Office of Space Science (OSS) which has developed their Discovery and Explorer programs to meet this need. As technologies advance, space missions are becoming smaller and more capable than their predecessors. The ability to predict the mission success of these small satellite missions is critical to the continued achievement of NASA science mission objectives. The NASA Office of Space Science, in cooperation with the NASA Langley Research Center, has implemented a process to predict the likely success of missions proposed to its Discovery and Explorer Programs. This process is becoming the basis for predicting mission success in many other NASA programs as well. This paper describes the process, methodology, tools and synthesis techniques used to predict mission success for this class of mission.

  16. Advanced solar space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bohlin, J. D.

    1979-01-01

    The space missions in solar physics planned for the next decade are similar in that they will have, for the most part, distinct, unifying science objectives in contrast to the more general 'exploratory' nature of the Orbiting Solar Observatory and Skylab/ATM missions of the 1960's and 70's. In particular, the strategy for advanced solar physics space missions will focus on the quantitative understanding of the physical processes that create and control the flow of electromagnetic and particulate energy from the sun and through interplanetary space at all phases of the current sunspot cycle No. 21. Attention is given to the Solar Maximum Mission, the International Solar Polar Mission, solar physics on an early Shuttle mission, principal investigator class experiments for future spacelabs, the Solar Optical Telescope, the Space Science Platform, the Solar Cycle and Dynamics Mission, and an attempt to send a spacecraft to within 4 solar radii of the sun's surface.

  17. Mission requirements: Second Skylab mission SL-3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Complete SL-3 mission objectives and requirements, as revised 1 February 1972 (Rev. 6), are presented. Detailed test objectives are also given on the medical experiments, Apollo Telescope Mount experiments, Earth Resources Experiment Package, and corollary experiments and environmental microbiology experiments.

  18. The 2005 MARTE Robotic Drilling Experiment in Río Tinto, Spain: Objectives, Approach, and Results of a Simulated Mission to Search for Life in the Martian Subsurface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoker, Carol R.; Cannon, Howard N.; Dunagan, Stephen E.; Lemke, Lawrence G.; Glass, Brian J.; Miller, David; Gomez-Elvira, Javier; Davis, Kiel; Zavaleta, Jhony; Winterholler, Alois; Roman, Matt; Rodriguez-Manfredi, Jose Antonio; Bonaccorsi, Rosalba; Bell, Mary Sue; Brown, Adrian; Battler, Melissa; Chen, Bin; Cooper, George; Davidson, Mark; Fernández-Remolar, David; Gonzales-Pastor, Eduardo; Heldmann, Jennifer L.; Martínez-Frías, Jesus; Parro, Victor; Prieto-Ballesteros, Olga; Sutter, Brad; Schuerger, Andrew C.; Schutt, John; Rull, Fernando

    2008-10-01

    The Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE) simulated a robotic drilling mission to search for subsurface life on Mars. The drill site was on Peña de Hierro near the headwaters of the Río Tinto river (southwest Spain), on a deposit that includes massive sulfides and their gossanized remains that resemble some iron and sulfur minerals found on Mars. The mission used a fluidless, 10-axis, autonomous coring drill mounted on a simulated lander. Cores were faced; then instruments collected color wide-angle context images, color microscopic images, visible near infrared point spectra, and (lower resolution) visible-near infrared hyperspectral images. Cores were then stored for further processing or ejected. A borehole inspection system collected panoramic imaging and Raman spectra of borehole walls. Life detection was performed on full cores with an adenosine triphosphate luciferin-luciferase bioluminescence assay and on crushed core sections with SOLID2, an antibody array-based instrument. Two remotely located science teams analyzed the remote sensing data and chose subsample locations. In 30 days of operation, the drill penetrated to 6 m and collected 21 cores. Biosignatures were detected in 12 of 15 samples analyzed by SOLID2. Science teams correctly interpreted the nature of the deposits drilled as compared to the ground truth. This experiment shows that drilling to search for subsurface life on Mars is technically feasible and scientifically rewarding.

  19. The 2005 MARTE Robotic Drilling Experiment in Río Tinto, Spain: objectives, approach, and results of a simulated mission to search for life in the Martian subsurface.

    PubMed

    Stoker, Carol R; Cannon, Howard N; Dunagan, Stephen E; Lemke, Lawrence G; Glass, Brian J; Miller, David; Gomez-Elvira, Javier; Davis, Kiel; Zavaleta, Jhony; Winterholler, Alois; Roman, Matt; Rodriguez-Manfredi, Jose Antonio; Bonaccorsi, Rosalba; Bell, Mary Sue; Brown, Adrian; Battler, Melissa; Chen, Bin; Cooper, George; Davidson, Mark; Fernández-Remolar, David; Gonzales-Pastor, Eduardo; Heldmann, Jennifer L; Martínez-Frías, Jesus; Parro, Victor; Prieto-Ballesteros, Olga; Sutter, Brad; Schuerger, Andrew C; Schutt, John; Rull, Fernando

    2008-10-01

    The Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE) simulated a robotic drilling mission to search for subsurface life on Mars. The drill site was on Peña de Hierro near the headwaters of the Río Tinto river (southwest Spain), on a deposit that includes massive sulfides and their gossanized remains that resemble some iron and sulfur minerals found on Mars. The mission used a fluidless, 10-axis, autonomous coring drill mounted on a simulated lander. Cores were faced; then instruments collected color wide-angle context images, color microscopic images, visible-near infrared point spectra, and (lower resolution) visible-near infrared hyperspectral images. Cores were then stored for further processing or ejected. A borehole inspection system collected panoramic imaging and Raman spectra of borehole walls. Life detection was performed on full cores with an adenosine triphosphate luciferin-luciferase bioluminescence assay and on crushed core sections with SOLID2, an antibody array-based instrument. Two remotely located science teams analyzed the remote sensing data and chose subsample locations. In 30 days of operation, the drill penetrated to 6 m and collected 21 cores. Biosignatures were detected in 12 of 15 samples analyzed by SOLID2. Science teams correctly interpreted the nature of the deposits drilled as compared to the ground truth. This experiment shows that drilling to search for subsurface life on Mars is technically feasible and scientifically rewarding.

  20. The 2005 MARTE Robotic Drilling Experiment in Río Tinto, Spain: objectives, approach, and results of a simulated mission to search for life in the Martian subsurface.

    PubMed

    Stoker, Carol R; Cannon, Howard N; Dunagan, Stephen E; Lemke, Lawrence G; Glass, Brian J; Miller, David; Gomez-Elvira, Javier; Davis, Kiel; Zavaleta, Jhony; Winterholler, Alois; Roman, Matt; Rodriguez-Manfredi, Jose Antonio; Bonaccorsi, Rosalba; Bell, Mary Sue; Brown, Adrian; Battler, Melissa; Chen, Bin; Cooper, George; Davidson, Mark; Fernández-Remolar, David; Gonzales-Pastor, Eduardo; Heldmann, Jennifer L; Martínez-Frías, Jesus; Parro, Victor; Prieto-Ballesteros, Olga; Sutter, Brad; Schuerger, Andrew C; Schutt, John; Rull, Fernando

    2008-10-01

    The Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE) simulated a robotic drilling mission to search for subsurface life on Mars. The drill site was on Peña de Hierro near the headwaters of the Río Tinto river (southwest Spain), on a deposit that includes massive sulfides and their gossanized remains that resemble some iron and sulfur minerals found on Mars. The mission used a fluidless, 10-axis, autonomous coring drill mounted on a simulated lander. Cores were faced; then instruments collected color wide-angle context images, color microscopic images, visible-near infrared point spectra, and (lower resolution) visible-near infrared hyperspectral images. Cores were then stored for further processing or ejected. A borehole inspection system collected panoramic imaging and Raman spectra of borehole walls. Life detection was performed on full cores with an adenosine triphosphate luciferin-luciferase bioluminescence assay and on crushed core sections with SOLID2, an antibody array-based instrument. Two remotely located science teams analyzed the remote sensing data and chose subsample locations. In 30 days of operation, the drill penetrated to 6 m and collected 21 cores. Biosignatures were detected in 12 of 15 samples analyzed by SOLID2. Science teams correctly interpreted the nature of the deposits drilled as compared to the ground truth. This experiment shows that drilling to search for subsurface life on Mars is technically feasible and scientifically rewarding. PMID:19032053

  1. The First Spacelab Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craft, H.

    1984-01-01

    The role of the mission manager in coordinating the payload with the space transportation system is studied. The establishment of the investigators working group to assist in achieving the mission objectives is examined. Analysis of the scientific requirements to assure compatibility with available resources, and analysis of the payload in order to define orbital flight requirements are described. The training of payload specialists, launch site integration, and defining the requirements for the operation of the integrated payload and the payload operations control center are functions of the mission manager. The experiences gained from the management of the Spacelab One Mission, which can be implemented in future missions, are discussed. Examples of material processing, earth observations, and life sciences advances from the First Spacelab Mission are presented.

  2. STS-93 Mission Specialist Coleman drives an M-113 during training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Under the watchful eyes of Capt. George Hoggard (left), trainer with the KSC Fire Department, STS-93 Mission Specialist Catherine G. Coleman (Ph.D.) drives the M-113 armored personnel carrier during emergency egress training at the launch pad. Behind her is Pilot Jeffrey S. Ashby and Commander Eileen M. Collins. In preparation for their mission, the STS-93 crew are participating in Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test activities that also include a launch-day dress rehearsal culminating with a simulated main engine cut-off. Others in the crew participating are Mission Specialists Steven A. Hawley (Ph.D.) and Michel Tognini of France, who represents the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES). Collins is the first woman to serve as a mission commander. The primary mission of STS-93 is the release of the Chandra X-ray Observatory, which will allow scientists from around the world to obtain unprecedented X-ray images of exotic environments in space to help understand the structure and evolution of the universe. Chandra is expected to provide unique and crucial information on the nature of objects ranging from comets in our solar system to quasars at the edge of the observable universe. Since X-rays are absorbed by the Earth's atmosphere, space-based observatories are necessary to study these phenomena and allow scientists to analyze some of the greatest mysteries of the universe. The targeted launch date for STS-93 is no earlier than July 20 at 12:36 a.m. EDT from Launch Pad 39B.

  3. Voyager Interstellar Mission (VIM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudd, R.; Textor, G.

    1991-01-01

    The DSN (Deep Space Network) mission support requirements for the Voyager Interstellar Mission (VIM) are summarized. The general objectives of the VIM are to investigate the interplanetary and interstellar media and to continue the Voyager program of ultraviolet astronomy. The VIM will utilize both Voyager spacecraft for the period from January 1990 through December 2019. The mission objectives are outlined and the DSN support requirements are defined through the presentation of tables and narratives describing the spacecraft flight profile; DSN support coverage; frequency assignments; support parameters for telemetry, control and support systems; and tracking support responsibility.

  4. Formation, Alteration and Delivery of Exogenous High Molecular Weight Organic Compounds: Objectives of the Tanpopo Mission from the Point of View of Chemical Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Kensei; K. Sarker, Palash; Ono, Keisuke; Kawamoto, Yukinori; Obayashi, Yumiko; Kaneko, Takeo; Yoshida, Satoshi; Mita, Hajime; Yabuta, Hikaru; Yamagishi, Akihiko

    A wide variety of organic compounds have been detected in such extraterrestrial bodies as carbonaceous chondrites and comets. Amino acids have been confirmed in extracts from carbonaceous chondrites and cometary dusts. It was suggested that these organics were formed in quite cold environments. We irradiated possible interstellar media, such as a frozen mixture of methanol, ammonia and water, with high-energy particles. Amino acid precursors with high molecular weights were detected in the irradiated products. Such complex amino acid precursors are much more stable than free amino acids against radiation, and heat. It is suggested that interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) brought much more organics than meteorites and comets. However, characteristics of organic compounds in IDPs are little known, since they have been collected only in terrestrial biosphere. We are planning the Tanpopo Mission, where IDPs would be collected in aerogel equipped on the Exposure Facility of the International Space Station. In addition, amino acids and their relating compounds would be exposed to space environments to see their possible alteration processes.

  5. An interstellar precursor mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaffe, L. D.; Ivie, C.; Lewis, J. C.; Lipes, R.; Norton, H. N.; Stearns, J. W.; Stimpson, L. D.; Weissman, P.

    1980-01-01

    A mission out of the planetary system, launched about the year 2000, could provide valuable scientific data as well as test some of the technology for a later mission to another star. Primary scientific objectives for the precursor mission concern characteristics of the heliopause, the interstellar medium, stellar distances (by parallax measurements), low-energy cosmic rays, interplanetary gas distribution, and the mass of the solar system. Secondary objectives include investigation of Pluto. The mission should extend to 400-1000 AU from the sun. A heliocentric hyperbolic escape velocity of 50-100 km/sec or more is needed to attain this distance within a reasonable mission duration (20-50 years). The trajectory should be toward the incoming interstellar gas. For a year 2000 launch, a Pluto encounter and orbiter can be included. A second mission targeted parallel to the solar axis would also be worthwhile. The mission duration is 20 years, with an extended mission to a total of 50 years. A system using one or two stages of nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) was selected as a possible baseline. The most promising alternatives are ultralight solar sails or laser sailing, with the lasers in earth orbit, for example. The NEP baseline design allows the option of carrying a Pluto orbiter as a daughter spacecraft.

  6. STS-69 Mission Insignia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Designed by the mission crew members, the patch for STS-69 symbolizes the multifaceted nature of the flight's mission. The primary payload, the Wake Shield Facility (WSF), is represented in the center by the astronaut emblem against a flat disk. The astronaut emblem also signifies the importance of human beings in space exploration, reflected by the planned space walk to practice for International Space Station (ISS) activities and to evaluate space suit design modifications. The two stylized Space Shuttles highlight the ascent and entry phases of the mission. Along with the two spiral plumes, the stylized Space Shuttles symbolize a NASA first, the deployment and recovery on the same mission of two spacecraft (both the Wake Shield Facility and the Spartan). The constellations Canis Major and Canis Minor represent the astronomy objectives of the Spartan and International Extreme Ultraviolet Hitchhiker (IEH) payload. The two constellations also symbolize the talents and dedication of the support personnel who make Space Shuttle missions possible.

  7. NEOCAM: Near Earth Object Chemical Analysis Mission: Bridging the Gulf between Telescopic Observations and the Chemical and Mineralogical Compositions of Asteroids or Diogenes A: Diagnostic Observation of the Geology of Near Earth Spectrally-Classified Asteroids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nuth, Joseph A.

    2009-01-01

    Studies of meteorites have yielded a wealth of scientific information based on highly detailed chemical and isotopic studies possible only in sophisticated terrestrial laboratories. Telescopic studies have revealed an enormous (greater than 10(exp 5)) number of physical objects ranging in size from a few tens of meters to several hundred kilometers, orbiting not only in the traditional asteroid belt between Mars and Jupiter but also throughout the inner solar system. Many of the largest asteroids are classed into taxonomic groups based on their observed spectral properties and are designated as C, D. X, S or V types (as well as a wide range in sub-types). These objects are certainly the sources far the meteorites in our laboratories, but which asteroids are the sources for which meteorites? Spectral classes are nominally correlated to the chemical composition and physical characteristics of the asteroid itself based on studies of the spectral changes induced in meteorites due to exposure to a simulated space environment. While laboratory studies have produced some notable successes (e.g. the identification of the asteroid Vesta as the source of the H, E and D meteorite classes), it is unlikely that we have samples of each asteroidal spectral type in our meteorite collection. The correlation of spectral type and composition for many objects will therefore remain uncertain until we can return samples of specific asteroid types to Earth for analyses. The best candidates for sample return are asteroids that already come close to the Earth. Asteroids in orbit near 1 A.U. have been classified into three groups (Aten, Apollo & Amor) based on their orbital characteristics. These Near Earth Objects (NEOs) contain representatives of virtually all spectral types and sub-types of the asteroid population identified to date. Because of their close proximity to Earth, NEOs are prime targets for asteroid missions such as the NEAR-Shoemaker NASA Discovery Mission to Eros and the

  8. Cassini Mission

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, Robert

    2005-08-10

    The Cassini/Huygens mission is a joint NASA/European Space Agency/Italian Space Agency project which has a spacecraft currently in orbit about Saturn, and has successfully sent an atmospheric probe through the atmosphere of Saturn's largest moon Titan and down to its previously hidden surface. This presentation will describe the overall mission, how it got a rather massive spacecraft to Saturn, and will cover some of the scientific results of the mission to date.

  9. STS-93 Mission Specialist Tognini drives an M-113 during training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Under the watchful eyes of KSC Fire Department trainer Capt. George Hoggard (seated on the front), STS-93 Mission Specialist Michel Tognini of France (right) drives the M-113 armored personnel carrier during emergency egress training at the launch pad. Tognini represents the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES). At the far left is Roland Nedelkovich, with the Vehicle Integration Test Team, JSC. In preparation for their mission, the STS-93 crew are participating in Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test activities that also include a launch-day dress rehearsal culminating with a simulated main engine cut-off. Others in the crew participating are Commander Eileen M. Collins, Pilot Jeffrey S. Ashby, and Mission Specialists Steven A. Hawley (Ph.D.) and Catherine G. Coleman (Ph.D.) Collins is the first woman to serve as a Shuttle commander. The primary mission of STS-93 is the release of the Chandra X-ray Observatory, which will allow scientists from around the world to obtain unprecedented X-ray images of exotic environments in space to help understand the structure and evolution of the universe. Chandra is expected to provide unique and crucial information on the nature of objects ranging from comets in our solar system to quasars at the edge of the observable universe. Since X-rays are absorbed by the Earth's atmosphere, space-based observatories are necessary to study these phenomena and allow scientists to analyze some of the greatest mysteries of the universe. The targeted launch date for STS-93 is no earlier than July 20 at 12:36 a.m. EDT from Launch Pad 39B.

  10. An interstellar precursor mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaffe, L. D.; Ivie, C.; Lewis, J. C.; Lipes, R. G.; Norton, H. N.; Stearns, J. W.; Stimpson, L.; Weissman, P.

    1977-01-01

    A mission out of the planetary system, with launch about the year 2000, could provide valuable scientific data as well as test some of the technology for a later mission to another star. Primary scientific objectives for the precursor mission concern characteristics of the heliopause, the interstellar medium, stellar distances (by parallax measurements), low energy cosmic rays, interplanetary gas distribution, and mass of the solar system. Secondary objectives include investigation of Pluto. Candidate science instruments are suggested. Individual spacecraft systems for the mission were considered, technology requirements and problem areas noted, and a number of recommendations made for technology study and advanced development. The most critical technology needs include attainment of 50-yr spacecraft lifetime and development of a long-life NEP system.

  11. MSFC Flight Mission Directive Apollo-Saturn 205 Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    The purpose of this directive is to provide, under one cover, coordinated direction for the AS-205 Space Vehicle Flight. Within this document, mission objectives are specified, vehicle configuration is described and referenced, flight trajectories, data acquisition requirements, instrumentation requirements, and detailed documentation requirements necessary to meet launch vehicle mission objectives are defined and/or referenced.

  12. IMP mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The program requirements and operations requirements for the IMP mission are presented. The satellite configuration is described and the missions are analyzed. The support equipment, logistics, range facilities, and responsibilities of the launching organizations are defined. The systems for telemetry, communications, satellite tracking, and satellite control are identified.

  13. STS-87 Mission Specialist Chawla talks to the media during TCDT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Kalpana Chawla, Ph.D., a mission specialist of the STS-87 crew, participates in a news briefing at Launch Pad 39B during the Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test (TCDT) at Kennedy Space Center (KSC). First-time Shuttle flier Dr. Chawla reported for training as an astronaut at Johnson Space Center in 1995. She has a doctorate in aerospace engineering from the University of Colorado. The TCDT is held at KSC prior to each Space Shuttle flight providing the crew of each mission opportunities to participate in simulated countdown activities. The TCDT ends with a mock launch countdown culminating in a simulated main engine cut-off. The crew also spends time undergoing emergency egress training exercises at the pad and has an opportunity to view and inspect the payloads in the orbiter's payload bay. STS-87 is scheduled for launch Nov. 19 aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia from pad 39B at KSC.

  14. The Voyager Interstellar Mission.

    PubMed

    Rudd, R P; Hall, J C; Spradlin, G L

    1997-01-01

    The Voyager Interstellar Mission began on January 1, 1990, with the primary objective being to characterize the interplanetary medium beyond Neptune and to search for the transition region between the interplanetary medium and the interstellar medium. At the start of this mission, the two Voyager spacecraft had already been in flight for over twelve years, having successfully returned a wealth of scientific information about the planetary systems of Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune, and the interplanetary medium between Earth and Neptune. The two spacecraft have the potential to continue returning science data until around the year 2020. With this extended operating lifetime, there is a high likelihood of one of the two spacecraft penetrating the termination shock and possibly the heliopause boundary, and entering interstellar space before that time. This paper describes the Voyager Interstellar Mission--the mission objectives, the spacecraft and science payload, the mission operations system used to support operations, and the mission operations strategy being used to maximize science data return even in the event of certain potential spacecraft subsystem failures. The implementation of automated analysis tools to offset and enable reduced flight team staffing levels is also discussed.

  15. The Voyager Interstellar Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudd, R. P.; Hall, J. C.; Spradlin, G. L.

    1997-01-01

    The Voyager Interstellar Mission began on January 1, 1990, with the primary objective being to characterize the interplanetary medium beyond Neptune and to search for the transition region between the interplanetary medium and the interstellar medium. At the start of this mission, the two Voyager spacecraft had already been in flight for over twelve years, having successfully returned a wealth of scientific information about the planetary systems of Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune, and the interplanetary medium between Earth and Neptune. The two spacecraft have the potential to continue returning science data until around the year 2020. With this extended operating lifetime, there is a high likelihood of one of the two spacecraft penetrating the termination shock and possibly the heliopause boundary, and entering interstellar space before that time. This paper describes the Voyager Interstellar Mission--the mission objectives, the spacecraft and science payload, the mission operations system used to support operations, and the mission operations strategy being used to maximize science data return even in the event of certain potential spacecraft subsystem failures. The implementation of automated analysis tools to offset and enable reduced flight team staffing levels is also discussed.

  16. The Voyager Interstellar Mission.

    PubMed

    Rudd, R P; Hall, J C; Spradlin, G L

    1997-01-01

    The Voyager Interstellar Mission began on January 1, 1990, with the primary objective being to characterize the interplanetary medium beyond Neptune and to search for the transition region between the interplanetary medium and the interstellar medium. At the start of this mission, the two Voyager spacecraft had already been in flight for over twelve years, having successfully returned a wealth of scientific information about the planetary systems of Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune, and the interplanetary medium between Earth and Neptune. The two spacecraft have the potential to continue returning science data until around the year 2020. With this extended operating lifetime, there is a high likelihood of one of the two spacecraft penetrating the termination shock and possibly the heliopause boundary, and entering interstellar space before that time. This paper describes the Voyager Interstellar Mission--the mission objectives, the spacecraft and science payload, the mission operations system used to support operations, and the mission operations strategy being used to maximize science data return even in the event of certain potential spacecraft subsystem failures. The implementation of automated analysis tools to offset and enable reduced flight team staffing levels is also discussed. PMID:11540770

  17. The Mars Observer Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palluconi, F. D.

    1985-01-01

    The Mars Observer Mission is to be the first in a series of modest-cost inner-planet missions. Launch is planned for the August/September 1990 Mars opportunity with arrival at Mars one year later. The geoscience/climatology objectives are to be met during a mapping mission over the course of one Mars year (687 days). The mapping orbit will be near-polar (93 degree orbital inclination), sun-synchronous (2 PM sunward equator crossing), and near-circular (350 km orbit altitude, 116 minute period). The spacecraft, to be selected in late 1985, will be a modified version of an existing commercial design which, in the mapping orbit, will maintain a nadir orientation. Experiments and instruments will be selected through an Announcement of Opportunity (AO) process with release of the AO in April 1985, and selection in early 1986. A description of current planning for this mission, with emphasis on climatology, is presented here.

  18. STS-111 Mission Insignia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Pictured here is the Space Shuttle Orbiter Endeavour, STS-111 mission insignia. The International Space Station (ISS) recieved a new crew, Expedition Five, replacing Expedition Four after a record-setting 196 days in space, when STS-111 visited in June 2002. Three spacewalks enabled the STS-111 crew to accomplish additional mission objectives: the delivery and installation of a new platform for the ISS robotic arm, the Mobile Base System (MBS) which is an important part of the Station's Mobile Servicing System allowing the robotic arm to travel the length of the Station; the replacement of a wrist roll joint on the Station's robotic arm; and unloading supplies and science experiments from the Leonardo Multi-Purpose Logistics Module, which made its third trip to the orbital outpost. The STS-111 mission, the 14th Shuttle mission to visit the ISS, was launched on June 5, 2002 and landed June 19, 2002.

  19. The Spacelab J mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cremin, J. W.; Leslie, F. W.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes Spacelab J (SL-J), its mission characteristics, features, parameters and configuration, the unique nature of the shared reimbursable cooperative effort with the National Space Development Agency (NASDA) of Japan and the evolution, content and objectives of the mission scientific experiment complement. The mission is planned for launch in 1991. This long module mission has 35 experiments from Japan as well as 9 investigations from the United States. The SL-J payload consists of two broad scientific disciplines which require the extended microgravity or cosmic ray environment: (1) materials science such as crystal growth, solidification processes, drop dynamics, free surface flows, gas dynamics, metallurgy and semiconductor technology; and (2) life science including cell development, human physiology, radiation-induced mutations, vestibular studies, embryo development, and medical technology. Through an international agreement with NASDA, NASA is preparing to fly the first Japanese manned, scientific, cooperative endeavor with the United States.

  20. Apollo 15 mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    A detailed discussion is presented of the Apollo 15 mission, which conducted exploration of the moon over longer periods, greater ranges, and with more instruments of scientific data acquisition than previous missions. The topics include trajectory, lunar surface science, inflight science and photography, command and service module performance, lunar module performance, lunar surface operational equipment, pilot's report, biomedical evaluation, mission support performance, assessment of mission objectives, launch phase summary, anomaly summary, and vehicle and equipment descriptions. The capability of transporting larger payloads and extending time on the moon were demonstrated. The ground-controlled TV camera allowed greater real-time participation by earth-bound personnel. The crew operated more as scientists and relied more on ground support team for systems monitoring. The modified pressure garment and portable life support system provided better mobility and extended EVA time. The lunar roving vehicle and the lunar communications relay unit were also demonstrated.

  1. Mission scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaspin, Christine

    1989-01-01

    How a neural network can work, compared to a hybrid system based on an operations research and artificial intelligence approach, is investigated through a mission scheduling problem. The characteristic features of each system are discussed.

  2. STS-90 Mission Specialist Richard Linnehan suits up

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    STS-90 Mission Specialist Richard Linnehan, D.V.M., sits in a chair during suitup activities in the Operations and Checkout Building. Linnehan and the rest of the STS-90 crew will shortly depart for Launch Pad 39B, where the Space Shuttle Columbia awaits a second liftoff attempt at 2:19 p.m. EDT. His second trip into space, Linnehan is participating in a life sciences research flight that will focus on the most complex and least understood part of the human body -- the nervous system. Neurolab will examine the effects of spaceflight on the brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves and sensory organs in the human body.

  3. Recce mission planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    York, Andrew M.

    2000-11-01

    The ever increasing sophistication of reconnaissance sensors reinforces the importance of timely, accurate, and equally sophisticated mission planning capabilities. Precision targeting and zero-tolerance for collateral damage and civilian casualties, stress the need for accuracy and timeliness. Recent events have highlighted the need for improvement in current planning procedures and systems. Annotating printed maps takes time and does not allow flexibility for rapid changes required in today's conflicts. We must give aircrew the ability to accurately navigate their aircraft to an area of interest, correctly position the sensor to obtain the required sensor coverage, adapt missions as required, and ensure mission success. The growth in automated mission planning system capability and the expansion of those systems to include dedicated and integrated reconnaissance modules, helps to overcome current limitations. Mission planning systems, coupled with extensive integrated visualization capabilities, allow aircrew to not only plan accurately and quickly, but know precisely when they will locate the target and visualize what the sensor will see during its operation. This paper will provide a broad overview of the current capabilities and describe how automated mission planning and visualization systems can improve and enhance the reconnaissance planning process and contribute to mission success. Think about the ultimate objective of the reconnaissance mission as we consider areas that technology can offer improvement. As we briefly review the fundamentals, remember where and how TAC RECCE systems will be used. Try to put yourself in the mindset of those who are on the front lines, working long hours at increasingly demanding tasks, trying to become familiar with new operating areas and equipment, while striving to minimize risk and optimize mission success. Technical advancements that can reduce the TAC RECCE timeline, simplify operations and instill Warfighter

  4. SEPAC: Spacelab Mission 1 report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The SEPAC Spacelab Mission 1 activities relevant to software operations are reported. Spacelab events and problems that did not directly affect SEPAC but are of interest to experimenters are included. Spacelab Mission 1 was launched from KSC on 28 November 1983 at 10:10 Huntsville time. The Spacelab Mission met its objectives. There were two major problems associated with SEPAC: the loss of the EBA gun and the RAU 21.

  5. Spacelab Mission 3 experiment descriptions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, C. K. (Editor)

    1982-01-01

    The Spacelab 3 mission is the first operational flight of Spacelab aboard the shuttle transportation system. The primary objectives of this mission are to conduct application, science, and technology experimentation that requires the low gravity environment of Earth orbit and an extended duration, stable vehicle attitude with emphasis on materials processing. This document provides descriptions of the experiments to be performed during the Spacelab 3 mission.

  6. Mission planning for autonomous systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearson, G.

    1987-01-01

    Planning is a necessary task for intelligent, adaptive systems operating independently of human controllers. A mission planning system that performs task planning by decomposing a high-level mission objective into subtasks and synthesizing a plan for those tasks at varying levels of abstraction is discussed. Researchers use a blackboard architecture to partition the search space and direct the focus of attention of the planner. Using advanced planning techniques, they can control plan synthesis for the complex planning tasks involved in mission planning.

  7. The LISA Pathfinder Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNamara, Paul

    2013-04-01

    LISA Pathfinder, the second of the European Space Agency's Small Missions for Advanced Research in Technology (SMART), is a dedicated technology validation mission for future interferometric spaceborne gravitational wave observatories, for example the proposed eLISA mission. The technologies required for eLISA are many and extremely challenging. This coupled with the fact that some flight hardware cannot be fully tested on ground due to Earth-induced noise, led to the implementation of the LISA Pathfinder mission to test the critical eLISA technologies in a flight environment. LISA Pathfinder essentially mimics one arm of the eLISA constellation by shrinking the 1 million kilometre armlength down to a few tens of centimetres, giving up the sensitivity to gravitational waves, but keeping the measurement technology: the distance between the two test masses is measured using a laser interferometric technique similar to one aspect of the eLISA interferometry system. The scientific objective of the LISA Pathfinder mission consists then of the first in-flight test of low frequency gravitational wave detection metrology. Here I will present an overview of the mission, focusing on scientific and technical goals, followed by the current status of the project.

  8. Autonomous mission operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frank, J.; Spirkovska, L.; McCann, R.; Wang, Lui; Pohlkamp, K.; Morin, L.

    NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems Autonomous Mission Operations (AMO) project conducted an empirical investigation of the impact of time delay on today's mission operations, and of the effect of processes and mission support tools designed to mitigate time-delay related impacts. Mission operation scenarios were designed for NASA's Deep Space Habitat (DSH), an analog spacecraft habitat, covering a range of activities including nominal objectives, DSH system failures, and crew medical emergencies. The scenarios were simulated at time delay values representative of Lunar (1.2-5 sec), Near Earth Object (NEO) (50 sec) and Mars (300 sec) missions. Each combination of operational scenario and time delay was tested in a Baseline configuration, designed to reflect present-day operations of the International Space Station, and a Mitigation configuration in which a variety of software tools, information displays, and crew-ground communications protocols were employed to assist both crews and Flight Control Team (FCT) members with the long-delay conditions. Preliminary findings indicate: 1) Workload of both crewmembers and FCT members generally increased along with increasing time delay. 2) Advanced procedure execution viewers, caution and warning tools, and communications protocols such as text messaging decreased the workload of both flight controllers and crew, and decreased the difficulty of coordinating activities. 3) Whereas crew workload ratings increased between 50 sec and 300 sec of time delay in the Baseline configuration, workload ratings decreased (or remained flat) in the Mitigation configuration.

  9. Mission analyses for manned flight experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orth, J. E.

    1973-01-01

    The investigations to develop a high altitude aircraft program plan are reported along with an analysis of manned comet and asteroid missions, the development of shuttle sortie mission objectives, and an analysis of major management issues facing the shuttle sortie.

  10. Mission Possible

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kittle, Penny, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    As teachers, our most important mission is to turn our students into readers. It sounds so simple, but it's hard work, and we're all on a deadline. Kittle describes a class in which her own expectations that students would become readers combined with a few impassioned strategies succeeded ... at least with a young man named Alan.

  11. Aquarius Mission Technical Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LeVine, D. M.; Lagerloef, G. S. E.; Yueh, S.; Dinnat, E.; Pellerano, F.

    2007-01-01

    Aquarius is an L-band microwave instrument being developed to map the surface salinity field of the oceans from space. It is part of the Aquarius/SAC-D mission, a partnership between the USA (NASA) and Argentina (CONAE) with launch scheduled for early in 2009. The primary science objective of this mission is to monitor the seasonal and interannual variation of the large scale features of the surface salinity field in the open ocean with a spatial resolution of 150 km and a retrieval accuracy of 0.2 psu globally on a monthly basis.

  12. The Euromir missions.

    PubMed

    Andresen, R D; Domesle, R

    1996-11-01

    The 179-day flight of ESA Astronaut Thomas Reiter onboard the Russian Space Station Mir drew to a successful conclusion on 29 February 1996 with the safe landing of the Soyuz TM-22 capsule near Arkalyk in Kazakhstan. This mission, known as Euromir 95, was part of ESA's precursor flight programme for the International Space Station, and followed the equally successful Euromir 94 mission by ESA Astronaut Ulf Merbold (3 October-4 November 1994). This article discusses the objectives of the two flights and presents an overview of the experiment programme, a preliminary assessment of its results and achievements, and reviews some of the lessons learnt for future Space Station operations.

  13. Earth Science Missions Engineering Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marius, Julio L.

    2009-01-01

    This presentation gives a general overlook of the engineering efforts that are necessary to meet science mission requirement especially for Earth Science missions. It provides brief overlook of NASA's current missions and future Earth Science missions and the engineering challenges to meet some of the specific science objectives. It also provides, if time permits, a brief summary of two significant weather and climate phenomena in the Southern Hemisphere: El Nino and La Nina, as well as the Ozone depletion over Antarctica that will be of interest to IEEE intercom 2009 conference audience.

  14. EVAL mission requirements, phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The aspects of NASA's applications mission were enhanced by utilization of shuttle/spacelab, and payload groupings which optimize the cost of achieving the mission goals were defined. Preliminary Earth Viewing Application Laboratory (EVAL) missions, experiments, sensors, and sensor groupings were developed. The major technological EVAL themes and objectives which NASA will be addressing during the 1980 to 2,000 time period were investigated. Missions/experiments which addressed technique development, sensor development, application development, and/or operational data collection were considered as valid roles for EVAL flights.

  15. Object Oriented Learning Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Ed

    2005-01-01

    We apply the object oriented software engineering (OOSE) design methodology for software objects (SOs) to learning objects (LOs). OOSE extends and refines design principles for authoring dynamic reusable LOs. Our learning object class (LOC) is a template from which individualised LOs can be dynamically created for, or by, students. The properties…

  16. The PROBA-3 Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhukov, Andrei

    2016-07-01

    PROBA-3 is the next ESA mission in the PROBA line of small technology demonstration satellites. The main goal of PROBA-3 is in-orbit demonstration of formation flying techniques and technologies. The mission will consist of two spacecraft together forming a giant (150 m long) coronagraph called ASPIICS (Association of Spacecraft for Polarimetric and Imaging Investigation of the Corona of the Sun). The bigger spacecraft will host the telescope, and the smaller spacecraft will carry the external occulter of the coronagraph. ASPIICS heralds the next generation of solar coronagraphs that will use formation flying to observe the inner corona in eclipse-like conditions for extended periods of time. The occulter spacecraft will also host the secondary payload, DARA (Davos Absolute RAdiometer), that will measure the total solar irradiance. PROBA-3 is planned to be launched in 2019. The scientific objectives of PROBA-3 will be discussed in the context of other future solar and heliospheric space missions.

  17. STS-95 Mission Insignia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The STS-95 patch, designed by the crew, is intended to reflect the scientific, engineering, and historic elements of the mission. The Space Shuttle Discovery is shown rising over the sunlit Earth limb, representing the global benefits of the mission science and the solar science objectives of the Spartan Satellite. The bold number '7' signifies the seven members of Discovery's crew and also represents a historical link to the original seven Mercury astronauts. The STS-95 crew member John Glenn's first orbital flight is represented by the Friendship 7 capsule. The rocket plumes symbolize the three major fields of science represented by the mission payloads: microgravity material science, medical research for humans on Earth and in space, and astronomy.

  18. Asteroid Rescue Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izon, S.; Kokan, T.; Lee, S.; Miller, J.; Morrell, R.; Richie, D.; Rohrschneider, R.; Rostan, S.; Staton, E.; Olds, J.

    2001-01-01

    This paper is in response to a request for papers from the Lunar and Planetary Institute in Houston, Texas as part of a National University Competition. A human rescue mission to the asteroid 16 Psyche was designed based around a failed Mars mission scenario. The scenario assumed the second human Mars mission, based on the Mars Design Reference Mission 3.0, failed to propulsively capture into Mars orbit, resulting in a higher energy trajectory headed towards the asteroid belt on an intercept trajectory with 16 Psyche. The task was to design a mission that could rescue the astronauts using existing Mars mission hardware prior to the failure of their life support system. Analysis tools were created in the following six disciplines for the design of the mission: trajectory, propulsion, habitat and life support, space rescue vehicle and earth reentry vehicle, space transfer vehicle, and operations. The disciplinary analysis tools were integrated into a computational framework in order to aid the design process. The problem was solved using a traditional fixed-point iteration method with user controlled design variables. Additionally, two other methods of optimization were implemented: design of experiments and collaborative optimization. These were looked at in order to evaluate their ease of implementation and use at solving a complex, multidisciplinary problem. The design of experiments methodology was used to create a central composite design array and a non-linear response surface equation. The response surface equation allows rapid system level optimization. Collaborative optimization is a true multidisciplinary optimization technique which benefits from disciplinary level optimization in conjunction with system level optimization. By reformatting the objective functions of the disciplinary optimizers, collaborative optimization guides the discipline optimizers toward the system optimum.

  19. The Asteroid Impact Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carnelli, Ian; Galvez, Andres; Mellab, Karim

    2016-04-01

    The Asteroid Impact Mission (AIM) is a small and innovative mission of opportunity, currently under study at ESA, intending to demonstrate new technologies for future deep-space missions while addressing planetary defense objectives and performing for the first time detailed investigations of a binary asteroid system. It leverages on a unique opportunity provided by asteroid 65803 Didymos, set for an Earth close-encounter in October 2022, to achieve a fast mission return in only two years after launch in October/November 2020. AIM is also ESA's contribution to an international cooperation between ESA and NASA called Asteroid Impact Deflection Assessment (AIDA), consisting of two mission elements: the NASA Double Asteroid Redirection Test (DART) mission and the AIM rendezvous spacecraft. The primary goals of AIDA are to test our ability to perform a spacecraft impact on a near-Earth asteroid and to measure and characterize the deflection caused by the impact. The two mission components of AIDA, DART and AIM, are each independently valuable but when combined they provide a greatly increased scientific return. The DART hypervelocity impact on the secondary asteroid will alter the binary orbit period, which will also be measured by means of lightcurves observations from Earth-based telescopes. AIM instead will perform before and after detailed characterization shedding light on the dependence of the momentum transfer on the asteroid's bulk density, porosity, surface and internal properties. AIM will gather data describing the fragmentation and restructuring processes as well as the ejection of material, and relate them to parameters that can only be available from ground-based observations. Collisional events are of great importance in the formation and evolution of planetary systems, own Solar System and planetary rings. The AIDA scenario will provide a unique opportunity to observe a collision event directly in space, and simultaneously from ground-based optical and

  20. Liftoff of Space Shuttle Endeavour on mission STS-97

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    As Space Shuttle Endeavour rockets off Launch Pad 39B, spewing clouds of smoke and steam, a majestic heron soars over the nearby water and Endeavour'''s reflection. Liftoff occurred on time at 10:06:01 p.m. EST. The Shuttle and its five-member crew will deliver U.S. solar arrays to the International Space Station and be the first Shuttle crew to visit the Station'''s first resident crew. The 11-day mission includes three spacewalks. This marks the 101st mission in Space Shuttle history and the 25th night launch. Endeavour is expected to land Dec. 11 at 6:19 p.m. EST.

  1. A Mars 1984 mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Mission objectives are developed for the next logical step in the investigation of the local physical and chemical environments and the search for organic compounds on Mars. The necessity of three vehicular elements: orbiter, penetrator, and rover for in situ investigations of atmospheric-lithospheric interactions is emphasized. A summary report and committee recommendations are included with the full report of the Mars Science Working Group.

  2. Kepler Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borucki, William J.; DeVincenzi, D. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The first step in discovering, the extent of life in our galaxy is to determine the number of terrestrial planets in the habitable zone (HZ). The Kepler Mission is a 0.95 m aperture photometer scheduled to be launched in 2006. It is designed to continuously monitor the brightness of 100,000 solar-like stars to detect the transits of Earth-size and larger planets. The depth and repetition time of transits provide the size of the planet relative to the star and its orbital period. When combined with ground-based spectroscopy of these stars to fix the stellar parameters, the true planet radius and orbit scale, hence the relation to the HZ are determined. These spectra are also used to discover the relationships between the characteristics of planets and the stars they orbit. In particular, the association of planet size and occurrence frequency with stellar mass and metallicity will be investigated. Based on the results of the current Doppler - velocity discoveries, over a thousand giant planets will be found. Information on the albedos and densities of those giants showing transits will be obtained. At the end of the four year mission, hundreds of terrestrial planets should be discovered in and near the HZ of their stars if such planets are common. A null result would imply that terrestrial planets in the HZ occur in less than 1% of the stars and that life might be quite rare.

  3. Payload missions integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, R. A. K.

    1983-01-01

    Highlights of the Payload Missions Integration Contract (PMIC) are summarized. Spacelab Missions no. 1 to 3, OSTA partial payloads, Astro-1 Mission, premission definition, and mission peculiar equipment support structure are addressed.

  4. Hitchhiker mission operations: Past, present, and future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Kathryn

    1995-01-01

    What is mission operations? Mission operations is an iterative process aimed at achieving the greatest possible mission success with the resources available. The process involves understanding of the science objectives, investigation of which system capabilities can best meet these objectives, integration of the objectives and resources into a cohesive mission operations plan, evaluation of the plan through simulations, and implementation of the plan in real-time. In this paper, the authors present a comprehensive description of what the Hitchhiker mission operations approach is and why it is crucial to mission success. The authors describe the significance of operational considerations from the beginning and throughout the experiment ground and flight systems development. The authors also address the necessity of training and simulations. Finally, the authors cite several examples illustrating the benefits of understanding and utilizing the mission operations process.

  5. Pioneer Mars 1979 mission options

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedlander, A. L.; Hartmann, W. K.; Niehoff, J. C.

    1974-01-01

    A preliminary investigation of lower cost Mars missions which perform useful exploration objectives after the Viking/75 mission was conducted. As a study guideline, it was assumed that significant cost savings would be realized by utilizing Pioneer hardware currently being developed for a pair of 1978 Venus missions. This in turn led to the additional constraint of a 1979 launch with the Atlas/Centaur launch vehicle which has been designated for the Pioneer Venus missions. Two concepts, using an orbiter bus platform, were identified which have both good science potential and mission simplicity indicative of lower cost. These are: (1) an aeronomy/geology orbiter, and (2) a remote sensing orbiter with a number of deployable surface penetrometers.

  6. Mission Simulation Toolkit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pisaich, Gregory; Flueckiger, Lorenzo; Neukom, Christian; Wagner, Mike; Buchanan, Eric; Plice, Laura

    2007-01-01

    The Mission Simulation Toolkit (MST) is a flexible software system for autonomy research. It was developed as part of the Mission Simulation Facility (MSF) project that was started in 2001 to facilitate the development of autonomous planetary robotic missions. Autonomy is a key enabling factor for robotic exploration. There has been a large gap between autonomy software (at the research level), and software that is ready for insertion into near-term space missions. The MST bridges this gap by providing a simulation framework and a suite of tools for supporting research and maturation of autonomy. MST uses a distributed framework based on the High Level Architecture (HLA) standard. A key feature of the MST framework is the ability to plug in new models to replace existing ones with the same services. This enables significant simulation flexibility, particularly the mixing and control of fidelity level. In addition, the MST provides automatic code generation from robot interfaces defined with the Unified Modeling Language (UML), methods for maintaining synchronization across distributed simulation systems, XML-based robot description, and an environment server. Finally, the MSF supports a number of third-party products including dynamic models and terrain databases. Although the communication objects and some of the simulation components that are provided with this toolkit are specifically designed for terrestrial surface rovers, the MST can be applied to any other domain, such as aerial, aquatic, or space.

  7. The OASIS Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, James H., Jr.; Barghouty, Abdulnasser F.; Binns, W. robert; Christl, Mark; Cosse, Charles B.; Guzik, T. Gregory; deNolfo, Georgia A.; Hams,Thomas; Isbert, Joachim; Israel, Martin H.; Krizmanic, John F.; Labrador, Allan W.; Link, Jason T.; Mewaldt, Richard A.; Mitchell, Martin H.; Moiseev, Alexander A.; Sasaki, Makoto; Stochaj, Steven J.; Stone, Edward C.; Steitmatter, Robert E.; Waddington, C. Jake; Watts, John W.; Wefel, John P.; Wiedenbeck, Mark E.

    2010-01-01

    The Orbiting Astrophysical Observatory in Space (OASIS) is a mission to investigate Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCRs), a major feature of our galaxy. OASIS will use measurements of GCRs to determine the cosmic ray source, where they are accelerated, to investigate local accelerators and to learn what they can tell us about the interstellar medium and the processes that occur in it. OASIS will determine the astrophysical sources of both the material and acceleration of GCRs by measuring the abundances of the rare actinide nuclei and make direct measurements of the spectrum and anisotropy of electrons at energies up to approx.10 TeV, well beyond the range of the Fermi and AMS missions. OASIS has two instruments. The Energetic Trans-Iron Composition Experiment (ENTICE) instrument measures elemental composition. It resolves individual elements with atomic number (Z) from 10 to 130 and has a collecting power of 60m2.str.yrs, >20 times larger than previous instruments, and with improved resolution. The sample of 10(exp 10) GCRs collected by ENTICE will include .100 well-resolved actinides. The High Energy Particle Calorimeter Telescope (HEPCaT) is an ionization calorimeter that will extend the electron spectrum into the TeV region for the first time. It has 7.5 sq m.str.yrs of collecting power. This talk will describe the scientific objectives of the OASIS mission and its discovery potential. The mission and its two instruments which have been designed to accomplish this investigation will also be described.

  8. The Pioneer Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lasher, Larry E.; Hogan, Robert (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    This article describes the major achievements of the Pioneer Missions and gives information about mission objectives, spacecraft, and launches of the Pioneers. Pioneer was the United States' longest running space program. The Pioneer Missions began forty years ago. Pioneer 1 was launched shortly after Sputnik startled the world in 1957 as Earth's first artificial satellite at the start of the space age. The Pioneer Missions can be broken down into four distinct groups: Pioneer (PN's) 1 through 5, which comprise the first group - the "First Pioneers" - were launched from 1958 through 1960. These Pioneers made the first thrusts into space toward the Moon and into interplanetary orbit. The next group - the "Interplanetary Pioneers" - consists of PN's 6 through 9, with the initial launch being in 1965 (through 1968); this group explored inward and outward from Earth's orbit and travel in a heliocentric orbit around the Sun just as the Earth. The Pioneer group consisting of 10 and 11 - the "Outer Solar System Pioneers" - blazed a trail through the asteroid belt and was the first to explore Jupiter, Saturn and the outer Solar System and is seeking the borders of the heliosphere and will ultimately journey to the distant stars. The final group of Pioneer 12 and 13 the "Planetary Pioneers" - traveled to Earth's mysterious twin, Venus, to study this planet.

  9. Visual Navigation - SARE Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alonso, Roberto; Kuba, Jose; Caruso, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    The SARE Earth Observing and Technological Mission is part of the Argentinean Space Agency (CONAE - Comision Nacional de Actividades Espaciales) Small and Technological Payloads Program. The Argentinean National Space Program requires from the SARE program mission to test in a real environment of several units, assemblies and components to reduce the risk of using these equipments in more expensive Space Missions. The objective is to make use those components with an acceptable maturity in design or development, but without any heritage at space. From the application point of view, this mission offers new products in the Earth Observation data market which are listed in the present paper. One of the technological payload on board of the SARE satellite is the sensor Ground Tracker. It computes the satellite attitude and orbit in real time (goal) and/or by ground processing. For the first operating mode a dedicated computer and mass memory are necessary to be part of the mentioned sensor. For the second operational mode the hardware and software are much simpler.

  10. STS-51 Mission Insignia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Designed by the crewmembers, the STS-51 crew patch honors all who have contributed to mission success. It symbolizes NASA's continuing quest to increase mankind's knowledge and use of space through this multi-faceted mission. The gold star represents the U.S. Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) boosted by the Transfer Orbit Stage (TOS). The rays below the ACTTOS represent the innovative communication technologies to be tested by this experiment. The stylized Shuttle Pallet Satellite (SPAS) represents the German-sponsored ASTROSPAS mission. The constellation Orion below SPAS is representative of the types of stellar objects to be studied by its experimenters. The stars in Orion also commemorate the astronauts who have sacrificed their lives for the space program. The ascending spiral, symbolizing America's continuing commitment to leadership in space exploration and development, originates with the thousands of persons who ensure the success of each Shuttle flight. The five large white stars, representing the five crewmembers, along with the single gold star, fomm the mission's numerical designation.

  11. STS-103 Mission Insignia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Designed by the crew members, the STS-103 emblem depicts the Space Shuttle Discovery approaching the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) prior to its capture and berthing. The purpose of the mission was to remove and replace some of the Telescope's older and out-of-date systems with newer, more reliable and more capable ones, and to make repairs to HST's exterior thermal insulation that had been damaged by more than nine years of exposure to the space environment. The horizontal and vertical lines centered on the Telescope symbolize the ability to reach and maintain a desired attitude in space, essential to the instrument's scientific operation. The preservation of this ability was one of the primary objectives of the mission. After the flight, the Telescope resumed its successful exploration of deep space and will continue to be used to study solar system objects, stars in the making, late phases of stellar evolution, galaxies and the early history of the universe. HST, as represented on this emblem was inspired by views from previous servicing missions, with its solar arrays illuminated by the Sun, providing a striking contrast with the blackness of space and the night side of Earth.

  12. The Prospector mission

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, B. ); Pieters, C. ); Ulmer, M. . Dept. of Physics and Astronomy); Henrikson, C. )

    1992-09-07

    The Prospector mission combines high resolution visual/near-infrared(IR) imaging spectroscopy with moderately high resolution K- and L-line X-ray fluorescence mapping. These combined capabilities can be used to map the composition of virtually all solar-system objects, ranging from those that lack atmospheres (Mercury, the Earth's Moon, asteroids, and Martian satellites) to the upper atmosphere of Venus. For the purpose of mission definition and development, we have focused here on a mapping, mission to the moons of Mars-specifically Phobos, which is an easily accessible small body of the Solar System and has long been an object of intense speculation. Phobos is variously interpreted as a captured asteroid, a captured but disrupted basaltic achondrite body with anomalously low density, a comet nucleus, a body of reassembled Mars material ejected into orbit during a large impact event, a body of unknown origin but covered by an accumulation of cosmic dust and/or material ejected from Deimos, or none of the above. Multispectral observations of Phobos by instruments on the Phobos 2 spacecraft indicate that the surface of the moon is spectrally heterogeneous, with at least four units based on extended visible color. Distribution of color ratio units are most likely caused by compositional heterogeneity and surficial processes. The composition and structure of Phobos remains a stimulating scientific question, but Phobos is much more than a cipher among planetary phenomena. The low [Delta]V requirements for missions to Phobos make it readily accessible-much more so than the Martian surface. The low orbital height of Phobos make it an attractive platform for staging Mars observation and exploration. Furthermore, the possible chondritic nature of Phobos may provide a valuable reservoir of extractable H, C, N, 0, and S.

  13. The Prospector mission

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, B.; Pieters, C.; Ulmer, M.; Henrikson, C.

    1992-09-07

    The Prospector mission combines high resolution visual/near-infrared(IR) imaging spectroscopy with moderately high resolution K- and L-line X-ray fluorescence mapping. These combined capabilities can be used to map the composition of virtually all solar-system objects, ranging from those that lack atmospheres (Mercury, the Earth`s Moon, asteroids, and Martian satellites) to the upper atmosphere of Venus. For the purpose of mission definition and development, we have focused here on a mapping, mission to the moons of Mars-specifically Phobos, which is an easily accessible small body of the Solar System and has long been an object of intense speculation. Phobos is variously interpreted as a captured asteroid, a captured but disrupted basaltic achondrite body with anomalously low density, a comet nucleus, a body of reassembled Mars material ejected into orbit during a large impact event, a body of unknown origin but covered by an accumulation of cosmic dust and/or material ejected from Deimos, or none of the above. Multispectral observations of Phobos by instruments on the Phobos 2 spacecraft indicate that the surface of the moon is spectrally heterogeneous, with at least four units based on extended visible color. Distribution of color ratio units are most likely caused by compositional heterogeneity and surficial processes. The composition and structure of Phobos remains a stimulating scientific question, but Phobos is much more than a cipher among planetary phenomena. The low {Delta}V requirements for missions to Phobos make it readily accessible-much more so than the Martian surface. The low orbital height of Phobos make it an attractive platform for staging Mars observation and exploration. Furthermore, the possible chondritic nature of Phobos may provide a valuable reservoir of extractable H, C, N, 0, and S.

  14. Phoenix--the first Mars Scout mission.

    PubMed

    Shotwell, Robert

    2005-01-01

    NASA has initiated the first of a new series of missions to augment the current Mars Program. In addition to the systematic series of planned, directed missions currently comprising the Mars Program plan, NASA has started a series of Mars Scout missions that are low cost, price fixed, Principal [correction of Principle] Investigator-led projects. These missions are intended to provide an avenue for rapid response to discoveries made as a result of the primary Mars missions, as well as allow more risky technologies and approaches to be applied in the investigation of Mars. The first in this new series is the Phoenix mission which was selected as part of a highly competitive process. Phoenix will use the Mars 2001 Lander that was discontinued in 2000 and apply a new set of science objectives and mission objectives and will validate this soft lander architecture for future applications. This paper will provide an overview of both the Program and the Project.

  15. Phoenix--the first Mars Scout mission.

    PubMed

    Shotwell, Robert

    2005-01-01

    NASA has initiated the first of a new series of missions to augment the current Mars Program. In addition to the systematic series of planned, directed missions currently comprising the Mars Program plan, NASA has started a series of Mars Scout missions that are low cost, price fixed, Principal [correction of Principle] Investigator-led projects. These missions are intended to provide an avenue for rapid response to discoveries made as a result of the primary Mars missions, as well as allow more risky technologies and approaches to be applied in the investigation of Mars. The first in this new series is the Phoenix mission which was selected as part of a highly competitive process. Phoenix will use the Mars 2001 Lander that was discontinued in 2000 and apply a new set of science objectives and mission objectives and will validate this soft lander architecture for future applications. This paper will provide an overview of both the Program and the Project. PMID:16010756

  16. Mission-Based Reporting in Academic Psychiatry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anders, Thomas F.; Hales, Robert E.; Shahrokh, Narriman C.; Howell, Lydia P.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: This article describes a data entry and analysis system called Mission-Based Reporting (MBR) that is used to measure faculty and department activities related to specific academic missions and objectives. The purpose of MBR is to provide a reporting tool useful in evaluating faculty effort and in helping chairs 1) to better assess their…

  17. Cloud Computing Techniques for Space Mission Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arrieta, Juan; Senent, Juan

    2014-01-01

    The overarching objective of space mission design is to tackle complex problems producing better results, and faster. In developing the methods and tools to fulfill this objective, the user interacts with the different layers of a computing system.

  18. Low Cost Mission Operations Workshop. [Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The presentations given at the Low Cost (Space) Mission Operations (LCMO) Workshop are outlined. The LCMO concepts are covered in four introductory sections: Definition of Mission Operations (OPS); Mission Operations (MOS) Elements; The Operations Concept; and Mission Operations for Two Classes of Missions (operationally simple and complex). Individual presentations cover the following topics: Science Data Processing and Analysis; Mis sion Design, Planning, and Sequencing; Data Transport and Delivery, and Mission Coordination and Engineering Analysis. A list of panelists who participated in the conference is included along with a listing of the contact persons for obtaining more information concerning LCMO at JPL. The presentation of this document is in outline and graphic form.

  19. Mars integrated transportation system multistage Mars mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    In accordance with the objective of the Mars Integrated Transport System (MITS) program, the Multistage Mars Mission (MSMM) design team developed a profile for a manned mission to Mars. The purpose of the multistage mission is to send a crew of five astronauts to the martian surface by the year 2019. The mission continues man's eternal quest for exploration of new frontiers. This mission has a scheduled duration of 426 days that includes experimentation en route as well as surface exploration and experimentation. The MSMM is also designed as a foundation for a continuing program leading to the colonization of the planet Mars.

  20. Science Planning for the TROPIX Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, C. T.

    1998-01-01

    The objective of the study grant was to undertake the planning needed to execute meaningful solar electric propulsion missions in the magnetosphere and beyond. The first mission examined was the Transfer Orbit Plasma Investigation Experiment (TROPIX) mission to spiral outward through the magnetosphere. The next mission examined was to the moon and an asteroid. Entitled Diana, it was proposed to NASA in October 1994. Two similar missions were conceived in 1996 entitled CNR for Comet Nucleus Rendezvous and MBAR for Main Belt Asteroid Rendezvous. The latter mission was again proposed in 1998. All four of these missions were unsuccessfully proposed to the NASA Discovery program. Nevertheless we were partially successful in that the Deep Space 1 (DS1) mission was eventually carried out nearly duplicating our CNR mission. Returning to the magnetosphere we studied and proposed to the Medium Class Explorer (MIDEX) program a MidEx mission called TEMPEST, in 1995. This mission included two solar electric spacecraft that spiraled outward in the magnetosphere: one at near 900 inclination and one in the equatorial plane. This mission was not selected for flight. Next we proposed a single SEP vehicle to carry Energetic Neutral Atom (ENA) imagers and inside observations to complement the IMAGE mission providing needed data to properly interpret the IMAGE data. This mission called SESAME was submitted unsuccessfully in 1997. One proposal was successful. A study grant was awarded to examine a four spacecraft solar electric mission, named Global Magnetospheric Dynamics. This study was completed and a report on this mission is attached but events overtook this design and a separate study team was selected to design a classical chemical mission as a Solar Terrestrial Probe. Competing proposals such as through the MIDEX opportunity were expressly forbidden. A bibliography is attached.

  1. STS-99 / Endeavour Mission Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The primary objective of the STS-99 mission was to complete high resolution mapping of large sections of the Earth's surface using the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). This radar system will produce unrivaled 3-D images of the Earth's Surface. This videotape presents a mission overview press briefing. The panel members are Dr. Ghassem Asrar, NASA Associate Administrator Earth Sciences; General James C. King, Director National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA); Professor Achim Bachem, Member of the Executive Board, Deutschen Zentrum fur Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR), the German National Aerospace Research Center; and Professor Sergio Deiulio, President of the Italian Space Agency. Dr. Asrar opened with a summary of the history of Earth Observations from space, relating the SRTM to this history. This mission, due to cost and complexity, required partnership with other agencies and nations, and the active participation of the astronauts. General King spoke to the expectations of NIMA, and the use of the Synthetic Aperture Radar to produce the high resolution topographic images. Dr. Achim Bachem spoke about the international cooperation that this mission required, and some of the commercial applications and companies that will use this data. Dr Deiulio spoke of future plans to improve knowledge of the Earth using satellites. Questions from the press concerned use of the information for military actions, the reason for the restriction on access to the higher resolution data, the mechanism to acquire that data for scientific research, and the cost sharing from the mission's partners. There was also discussion about the mission's length.

  2. NEO Sample Return mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barucci, M. A.; Neo-Sr Team

    The NEOs are representative of the population of asteroids and dead comets thought to be the remnants of the ancient planetesimals that accreted to form the planets. The chemical investigation of NEOs having primitive characteristics is thus essential in the understanding the planet formation and evolution. They carry records of the solar system's birth/early phases and the geological evolution of small bodies in the interplanetary regions. Moreover, collisions of NEOs with Earth represent a serious hazard to life. For all these reasons the exploration and characterization of these objects are particularly interesting and urgent. NEOs are interesting and highly accessible targets for scientific research and robotic exploration. Within this framework, the mission LEONARD including an orbiter and a lander to the primitive double object (1996 FG3) has been studied by CNES, in collaboration with a number of European planetologists (France, Italy, Germany and United Kingdom) and related Space Agencies. A new Sample Return mission is under study within a large European community and possible collaboration with the Japanese Space Agency JAXA to reply to the ESA Cosmic Vision AO. The principal objectives are to investigate on 1) the properties of the building blocks of the terrestrial planets; 2) the major events (e.g. agglomeration, heating, ... . . ) which ruled the history of planetesimals; 3) the primitive asteroids which could contain presolar material unknown in meteoritic samples; 4) the organics in primitive materials; 5) the initial conditions and evolution history of the solar nebula; and 6) how they can shed light on the origin of molecules necessary for life. This type of mission appears clearly to have the potential to revolutionize our understanding of primitive materials.

  3. Landsat Data Continuity Mission

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2007-01-01

    The Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) is a partnership between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to place the next Landsat satellite in orbit by late 2012. The Landsat era that began in 1972 will become a nearly 45-year global land record with the successful launch and operation of the LDCM. The LDCM will continue the acquisition, archival, and distribution of multispectral imagery affording global, synoptic, and repetitive coverage of the Earth's land surfaces at a scale where natural and human-induced changes can be detected, differentiated, characterized, and monitored over time. The mission objectives of the LDCM are to (1) collect and archive medium resolution (circa 30-m spatial resolution) multispectral image data affording seasonal coverage of the global landmasses for a period of no less than 5 years; (2) ensure that LDCM data are sufficiently consistent with data from the earlier Landsat missions, in terms of acquisition geometry, calibration, coverage characteristics, spectral characteristics, output product quality, and data availability to permit studies of land-cover and land-use change over time; and (3) distribute LDCM data products to the general public on a nondiscriminatory basis and at a price no greater than the incremental cost of fulfilling a user request. Distribution of LDCM data over the Internet at no cost to the user is currently planned.

  4. Landsat Data Continuity Mission

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2012-01-01

    The Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) is a partnership formed between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to place the next Landsat satellite in orbit in January 2013. The Landsat era that began in 1972 will become a nearly 41-year global land record with the successful launch and operation of the LDCM. The LDCM will continue the acquisition, archiving, and distribution of multispectral imagery affording global, synoptic, and repetitive coverage of the Earth's land surfaces at a scale where natural and human-induced changes can be detected, differentiated, characterized, and monitored over time. The mission objectives of the LDCM are to (1) collect and archive medium resolution (30-meter spatial resolution) multispectral image data affording seasonal coverage of the global landmasses for a period of no less than 5 years; (2) ensure that LDCM data are sufficiently consistent with data from the earlier Landsat missions in terms of acquisition geometry, calibration, coverage characteristics, spectral characteristics, output product quality, and data availability to permit studies of landcover and land-use change over time; and (3) distribute LDCM data products to the general public on a nondiscriminatory basis at no cost to the user.

  5. Debris/ice/TPS assessment and integrated photographic analysis for Shuttle Mission STS-62

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katnik, Gregory N.; Bowen, Barry C.; Davis, J. Bradley; Speece, Robert F.; Rivera, Jorge E.

    1994-01-01

    A pre-launch debris inspection of the pad and Shuttle vehicle was conducted on 2 March 1994. The detailed walkdown of Launch Pad 39B and MLP-1 also included the primary flight elements OV-102 Columbia (16th flight), ET-62 (LWT 55), and BI-064 SRB's. There were no significant facility or vehicle anomalies. After the launch on March 4th, a debris inspection of Pad 39B was performed. Damage to the pad overall was minimal. On-orbit photographs taken by the flight crew and two films from the ET/ORB umbilical cameras of the External Tank after separation from the Orbiter revealed no major damage or lost flight hardware that would have been a safety of flight concern. Orbiter performance on final approach appeared normal. Infrared imagery of landing gear deployment showed the loss of thermal barrier from the nose gear wheel well. The missing thermal barrier material was not recovered. The Solid Rocket Boosters were inspected at Hanger AF after retrieval. Both frustums had a combined total of 44 MSA-2 debonds over fasteners. Significant amounts of BTA had been applied to closeouts on the RH frustum, forward skirt, and aft skirt. Hypalon paint was blistered/missing over the areas were the BTA had been applied. The underlying BTA was not sooted (IFA STS-62-B-1). Investigation of this condition has concluded there was insufficient heat rates to cause blistering of the Hypalon until late in the ascent phase. A post landing inspection of OV-102 was conducted after the landing at KSC. The Orbiter TPS sustained a total of 97 hits, of which 16 had a major dimension of 1 inch or larger. The Orbiter lower surface had a total of 36 hits, of which 7 had a major dimension of 1 inch or larger. Based on these numbers and comparison to statistics from previous missions of similar configuration, both the total number of debris hits and the number of hits 1 inch or larger was less than average. Six thermal barriers, total size approximately 36 in. x 3 in. x 1.5 in., and one corner tile

  6. Progress on the Cluster Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kivelson, Margaret; Khurana, Krishan; Acuna, Mario (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Prof M. G. Kivelson and Dr. K. K. Khurana (UCLA (University of California, Los Angeles)) are co-investigators on the Cluster Magnetometer Consortium (CMC) that provided the fluxgate magnetometers and associated mission support for the Cluster Mission. The CMC designated UCLA as the site with primary responsibility for the inter-calibration of data from the four spacecraft and the production of fully corrected data critical to achieving the mission objectives. UCLA will also participate in the analysis and interpretation of the data. The UCLA group here reports its excellent progress in developing fully intra-calibrated data for large portions of the mission and an excellent start in developing inter-calibrated data for selected time intervals, especially extended intervals in August, 2001 on which a workshop held at ESTEC in March, 2002 focused. In addition, some scientific investigations were initiated and results were reported at meetings.

  7. Interplanetary mission planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    A long range plan for solar system exploration is presented. The subjects discussed are: (1) science payload for first Jupiter orbiters, (2) Mercury orbiter mission study, (3) preliminary analysis of Uranus/Neptune entry probes for Grand Tour Missions, (4) comet rendezvous mission study, (5) a survey of interstellar missions, (6) a survey of candidate missions to explore rings of Saturn, and (7) preliminary analysis of Venus orbit radar missions.

  8. Sample Return Mission to the South Pole Aitken Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duke, M. B.; Clark, B. C.; Gamber, T.; Lucey, P. G.; Ryder, G.; Taylor, G. J.

    1999-01-01

    affected all of the planets of the inner solar system, and in particular, could have been critical to the history of life on Earth. If the SPA is significantly older, a more orderly cratering history may be inferred. Secondly, melt-rock compositions and clasts in melt rocks or breccias may yield evidence of the composition of the lunar mantle, which could have been penetrated by the impact or exposed by the rebound process that occurred after the impact. Thirdly, study of mare and cryptomare basalts could yield further constraints on the age of SPA and the thermal history of the crust and mantle in that region. The integration of these data may allow inferences to be made on the nature of the impacting body. Secondary science objectives in samples from the SPA could include analysis of the regolith for the latitudinal effects of solar wind irradiation, which should be reduced from its equatorial values; possible remnant magnetization of very old basalts; and evidence for Imbrium Basin ejecta and KREEP materials. If a sampling site is chosen close enough to the poles, it is possible that indirect evidence of polar-ice deposits may be found in the form of oxidized or hydrated regolith constituents. A sample return mission to the Moon may be possible within the constraints of NASA's Discovery Program. Recent progress in the development of sample return canisters for Genesis, Stardust, and Mars Sample Return missions suggests that a small capsule can be returned directly to the ground without a parachute, thus reducing its mass and complexity. Return of a 1-kg sample from the lunar surface would appear to be compatible with a Delta 11 class launch from Earth, or possibly with a piggyback opportunity on a commercial launch to GEO. A total mission price tag on the order of 100 million would be a goal. Target date would be late 2002. Samples would be returned to the curatorial facility at the Johnson Space Center for description and allocation for investigations. Concentration of

  9. How mission requirements affect observations: case of the PICARD mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irbah, A.; Meftah, M.; Hauchecorne, A.; Damé, L.; Djafer, D.

    2016-07-01

    The scientific objectives of a space mission result into instrumental developments and specific satellite operations to observe astronomical objects of interest. The payload in its space environment is however subject to important thermal variations that affect observations. This is well observed when images of the Sun are recorded with the constraint of keeping the solar rotational axis in a constant direction relatively to the camera reference frame. Consequences are clearly observed on image positions that follow the thermal variations induced by the satellite orbit. This is, in particular, the case for the space mission PICARD. This phenomenon is similar to defocus and motions of images recorded with ground-based telescopes. We first present some simulations showing these effects. We then compare our results with real data obtained from the space mission PICARD.

  10. Mission design of a Pioneer Jupiter Orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedman, L. D.; Nunamaker, R. R.

    1975-01-01

    The Mission analysis and design work performed in order to define a Pioneer mission to orbit Jupiter is described. This work arose from the interaction with a science advisory 'Mission Definition' team and led to the present mission concept. Building on the previous Jupiter Orbiter-Satellite Tour development at JPL a magnetospheric survey mission concept is developed. The geometric control of orbits which then provide extensive local time coverage of the Jovian system is analyzed and merged with the various science and program objectives. The result is a 'flower-orbit' mission design, yielding three large apoapse excursions at various local times and many interior orbits whose shape and orientation is under continual modification. This orbit design, together with a first orbit defined by delivery of an atmospheric probe, yields a mission of high scientific interest.

  11. STS-80 Mission Specialist Story Musgrave suits up

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    STS-80 Mission Specialist Story Musgrave is donning his launch/entry suit in the Operations and Checkout Building with assistance from a suit technician. Musgrave's sixth flight into space is noteworthy in two respects. First, he will tie NASA astronaut John Young's record for most number of spaceflights by any human being. Secondly, at age 61, Musgrave will be the oldest person ever to fly in space. He and four crew members will shortly depart the O&C and head for Launch Pad 39B, where the Space Shuttle Columbia awaits liftoff during a two-and-a-half hour window opening at 2:53 p.m. EST, Nov. 19.

  12. STS-76 Mission Specialist Shannon Lucid suits up

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    STS-76 Mission Specialist Shannon W. Lucid is donning her launch/entry suit in the Operations and Checkout Building with assistance from a suit technician. A veteran space traveler who is embarking on her fifth Shuttle flight, Lucid has spent the better part of the last year training in Russia to become the first American woman assigned to fly on the Russian Space Station Mir. She will remain on Mir until August when she returns to Earth with the crew of STS-79. Once suitup activities are completed the six-member STS-76 flight crew will depart for Launch Pad 39B, where the Space Shuttle Atlantis is undergoing final preparations for liftoff during an approximately seven- minute launch window opening around 3:13 a.m. EST, March 22.

  13. STS-81 Mission Specialist Jerry Linenger suits up

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    STS-81 Mission Specialist Jerry Linenger waves to the camera in his launch/entry suit and helmet in the suitup room of the Operations and Checkout (O&C) Building. He is on his second Shuttle flight and has been an astronaut since 1992. Linenger will become a member of the Mir 22 crew and replace astronaut John Blaha on the Russian space station for a four-month stay after the Space Shuttle orbiter Atlantis docks with the orbital habitat on flight day 3. A medical doctor and an exercise buff, Linenger will conduct physiological experiments during his stay on Mir. He and five crew members will shortly depart the O&C and head for Launch Pad 39B, where the Space Shuttle Atlantis will lift off during a 7-minute window that opens at 4:27 a.m. EST, January 12.

  14. STS-78 Mission Specialist Charles E. Brady suits up

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    STS-78 Mission Specialist Charles E. Brady Jr. is donning his launch/entry suit in the Operations and Checkout Building. A spaceflight rookie, Brady was selected by NASA to join the astronaut corps in March 1992; he is a medical doctor who also is a commander in the U.S. Navy. Along with six fellow crew members, he will depart the O&C in a short while and head for Launch Pad 39B, where the Space Shuttle Columbia awaits liftoff during a two-and-a-half hour launch window opening at 10:49 a.m. EDT, June 20. STS-78 will be an extended duration flight during which extensive research will be conducted in the Life and Microgravity Spacelab (LMS) located in the payload bay.

  15. Study of multiple asteroid flyby missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The feasibility, scientific objectives, mission profile characteristics, and implementation of an asteroid belt exploration mission by a spacecraft guided to intercept three or more asteroids at close range are discussed. A principal consideration in planning a multiasteroid mission is to cut cost by adapting an available and flight-proven spacecraft design such as Pioneer F and G, augmenting its propulsion and guidance capabilities and revising the scientific payload complement in accordance with required mission characteristics. Spacecraft modification necessary to meet the objectives and requirements of the mission were studied. A ground rule of the study was to hold design changes to a minimum and to utilize available technology as much as possible. However, with mission dates not projected before the end of this decade, a reasonable technology growth in payload instrument design and some subsystem components is anticipated that can be incorporated in the spacecraft adaptation.

  16. A Look Inside the Juno Mission to Jupiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grammier, Richard S.

    2008-01-01

    Juno, the second mission within the New Frontiers Program, is a Jupiter polar orbiter mission designed to return high-priority science data that spans across multiple divisions within NASA's Science Mission Directorate. Juno's science objectives, coupled with the natural constraints of a cost-capped, PI-led mission and the harsh environment of Jupiter, have led to a very unique mission and spacecraft design.

  17. Introductory remarks to the mission and system aspects session

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonnefoy, Rene; Schuyer, M.

    1991-12-01

    A brief history of the measurement of Earth potential fields is presented. The scientific objectives of the Aristoteles mission are summarized. Cooperation between NASA and ESA in developing the Aristoteles mission constraints are presented in tabular form. Correspondence between major mission and technical constraints is discussed. Program status of the Aristoteles mission and the mission baseline are described. The planned configuration of the Aristoteles satellite is shown in diagrammatic form.

  18. Space physics missions handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Robert A. (Compiler); Burks, David H. (Compiler); Hayne, Julie A. (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this handbook is to provide background data on current, approved, and planned missions, including a summary of the recommended candidate future missions. Topics include the space physics mission plan, operational spacecraft, and details of such approved missions as the Tethered Satellite System, the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory, and the Atmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science.

  19. Mir Mission Chronicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDonald, Sue

    1998-01-01

    Dockings, module additions, configuration changes, crew changes, and major mission events are tracked for Mir missions 17 through 21 (November 1994 through August 1996). The international aspects of these missions are presented, comprising joint missions with ESA and NASA, including three U.S. Space Shuttle dockings. New Mir modules described are Spektr, the Docking Module, and Priroda.

  20. Missions and Moral Judgement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bushnell, Amy Turner

    2000-01-01

    Addresses the history of Spanish-American missions, discussing the view of missions in church history, their role in the Spanish conquest, and the role and ideas of Herbert E. Bolton. Focuses on differences among Spanish borderlands missions, paying particular attention to the Florida missions. (CMK)

  1. Human Mars Missions: Cost Driven Architecture Assessments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donahue, Benjamin

    1998-01-01

    This report investigates various methods of reducing the cost in space transportation systems for human Mars missions. The reference mission for this task is a mission currently under study at NASA. called the Mars Design Reference Mission, characterized by In-Situ propellant production at Mars. This study mainly consists of comparative evaluations to the reference mission with a view to selecting strategies that would reduce the cost of the Mars program as a whole. One of the objectives is to understand the implications of certain Mars architectures, mission modes, vehicle configurations, and potentials for vehicle reusability. The evaluations start with year 2011-2014 conjunction missions which were characterized by their abort-to-the-surface mission abort philosophy. Variations within this mission architecture, as well as outside the set to other architectures (not predicated on an abort to surface philosophy) were evaluated. Specific emphasis has been placed on identifying and assessing overall mission risk. Impacts that Mars mission vehicles might place upon the Space Station, if it were to be used as an assembly or operations base, were also discussed. Because of the short duration of this study only on a few propulsion elements were addressed (nuclear thermal, cryogenic oxygen-hydrogen, cryogenic oxygen-methane, and aerocapture). Primary ground rules and assumptions were taken from NASA material used in Marshall Space Flight Center's own assessment done in 1997.

  2. Rosetta mission operations for landing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Accomazzo, Andrea; Lodiot, Sylvain; Companys, Vicente

    2016-08-01

    The International Rosetta Mission of the European Space Agency (ESA) was launched on 2nd March 2004 on its 10 year journey to comet Churyumov-Gerasimenko and has reached it early August 2014. The main mission objectives were to perform close observations of the comet nucleus throughout its orbit around the Sun and deliver the lander Philae to its surface. This paper describers the activities at mission operations level that allowed the landing of Philae. The landing preparation phase was mainly characterised by the definition of the landing selection process, to which several parties contributed, and by the definition of the strategy for comet characterisation, the orbital strategy for lander delivery, and the definition and validation of the operations timeline. The definition of the landing site selection process involved almost all components of the mission team; Rosetta has been the first, and so far only mission, that could not rely on data collected by previous missions for the landing site selection. This forced the teams to include an intensive observation campaign as a mandatory part of the process; several science teams actively contributed to this campaign thus making results from science observations part of the mandatory operational products. The time allocated to the comet characterisation phase was in the order of a few weeks and all the processes, tools, and interfaces required an extensive planning an validation. Being the descent of Philae purely ballistic, the main driver for the orbital strategy was the capability to accurately control the position and velocity of Rosetta at Philae's separation. The resulting operations timeline had to merge this need of frequent orbit determination and control with the complexity of the ground segment and the inherent risk of problems when doing critical activities in short times. This paper describes the contribution of the Mission Control Centre (MOC) at the European Space Operations Centre (ESOC) to this

  3. The Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abell, Paul; Gates, Michele; Johnson, Lindley; Chodas, Paul; Mazanek, Dan; Reeves, David; Ticker, Ronald

    2016-07-01

    To achieve its long-term goal of sending humans to Mars, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) plans to proceed in a series of incrementally more complex human spaceflight missions. Today, human flight experience extends only to Low-Earth Orbit (LEO), and should problems arise during a mission, the crew can return to Earth in a matter of minutes to hours. The next logical step for human spaceflight is to gain flight experience in the vicinity of the Moon. These cis-lunar missions provide a "proving ground" for the testing of systems and operations while still accommodating an emergency return path to the Earth that would last only several days. Cis-lunar mission experience will be essential for more ambitious human missions beyond the Earth-Moon system, which will require weeks, months, or even years of transit time. In addition, NASA has been given a Grand Challenge to find all asteroid threats to human populations and know what to do about them. Obtaining knowledge of asteroid physical properties combined with performing technology demonstrations for planetary defense provide much needed information to address the issue of future asteroid impacts on Earth. Hence the combined objectives of human exploration and planetary defense give a rationale for the Asteroid Re-direct Mission (ARM). Mission Description: NASA's ARM consists of two mission segments: 1) the Asteroid Redirect Robotic Mission (ARRM), the first robotic mission to visit a large (greater than ~100 m diameter) near-Earth asteroid (NEA), collect a multi-ton boulder from its surface along with regolith samples, demonstrate a planetary defense technique, and return the asteroidal material to a stable orbit around the Moon; and 2) the Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission (ARCM), in which astronauts will take the Orion capsule to rendezvous and dock with the robotic vehicle, conduct multiple extravehicular activities to explore the boulder, and return to Earth with samples. NASA's proposed

  4. Technology for Future Exoplanet Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawson, Peter; Devirian, Michael; van Zyl, Jakob

    2011-01-01

    A central theme in NASA's and ESA's vision for future missions is the search for habitable worlds and life beyond our Solar System. This presentation will review the current state of the art in planet-finding technology, with an emphasis on methods of starlight suppression. At optical wavelengths, Earth-like planets are about 10 billion times fainter than their host stars. Starlight suppression is therefore necessary to enable measurements of biosignatures in the atmospheres of faint Earth-like planets. Mission concepts based on coronagraph, starshade, and interferometers will be described along with their science objectives and technology requirements.

  5. Mission Design Overview for the Phoenix Mars Scout Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, Mark D.; Fujii, Kenneth K.

    2007-01-01

    The Phoenix mission "follows the water" by landing in a region where NASA's Mars Odyssey orbiter has discovered evidence of ice-rich soil very near the Martian surface. For three months after landing, the fixed Lander will perform in-situ and remote sensing investigations that will characterize the chemistry of the materials at the local surface, sub-surface, and atmosphere, and will identify potential provenance of key indicator elements of significance to the biological potential of Mars, including potential organics and any accessible water ice. The Lander will employ a robotic arm to dig to the ice layer, and will analyze the acquired samples using a suite of deck-mounted, science instruments. The development of the baseline strategy to achieve the objectives of this mission involves the integration of a variety of elements into a coherent mission plan.

  6. Comet nucleus sample return mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    A comet nucleus sample return mission in terms of its relevant science objectives, candidate mission concepts, key design/technology requirements, and programmatic issues is discussed. The primary objective was to collect a sample of undisturbed comet material from beneath the surface of an active comet and to preserve its chemical and, if possible, its physical integrity and return it to Earth in a minimally altered state. The secondary objectives are to: (1) characterize the comet to a level consistent with a rendezvous mission; (2) monitor the comet dynamics through perihelion and aphelion with a long lived lander; and (3) determine the subsurface properties of the nucleus in an area local to the sampled core. A set of candidate comets is discussed. The hazards which the spacecraft would encounter in the vicinity of the comet are also discussed. The encounter strategy, the sampling hardware, the thermal control of the pristine comet material during the return to Earth, and the flight performance of various spacecraft systems and the cost estimates of such a mission are presented.

  7. Space Interferometry Mission: Measuring the Universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marr, James; Dallas, Saterios; Laskin, Robert; Unwin, Stephen; Yu, Jeffrey

    1991-01-01

    The Space Interferometry Mission (SIM) will be the NASA Origins Program's first space based long baseline interferometric observatory. SIM will use a 10 m Michelson stellar interferometer to provide 4 microarcsecond precision absolute position measurements of stars down to 20th magnitude over its 5 yr. mission lifetime. SIM will also provide technology demonstrations of synthesis imaging and interferometric nulling. This paper describes the what, why and how of the SIM mission, including an overall mission and system description, science objectives, general description of how SIM makes its measurements, description of the design concepts now under consideration, operations concept, and supporting technology program.

  8. The Euclid mission design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Racca, Giuseppe D.; Laureijs, René; Stagnaro, Luca; Salvignol, Jean-Christophe; Lorenzo Alvarez, José; Saavedra Criado, Gonzalo; Gaspar Venancio, Luis; Short, Alex; Strada, Paolo; Bönke, Tobias; Colombo, Cyril; Calvi, Adriano; Maiorano, Elena; Piersanti, Osvaldo; Prezelus, Sylvain; Rosato, Pierluigi; Pinel, Jacques; Rozemeijer, Hans; Lesna, Valentina; Musi, Paolo; Sias, Marco; Anselmi, Alberto; Cazaubiel, Vincent; Vaillon, Ludovic; Mellier, Yannick; Amiaux, Jérôme; Berthé, Michel; Sauvage, Marc; Azzollini, Ruyman; Cropper, Mark; Pottinger, Sabrina; Jahnke, Knud; Ealet, Anne; Maciaszek, Thierry; Pasian, Fabio; Zacchei, Andrea; Scaramella, Roberto; Hoar, John; Kohley, Ralf; Vavrek, Roland; Rudolph, Andreas; Schmidt, Micha

    2016-07-01

    Euclid is a space-based optical/near-infrared survey mission of the European Space Agency (ESA) to investigate the nature of dark energy, dark matter and gravity by observing the geometry of the Universe and on the formation of structures over cosmological timescales. Euclid will use two probes of the signature of dark matter and energy: Weak gravitational Lensing, which requires the measurement of the shape and photometric redshifts of distant galaxies, and Galaxy Clustering, based on the measurement of the 3-dimensional distribution of galaxies through their spectroscopic redshifts. The mission is scheduled for launch in 2020 and is designed for 6 years of nominal survey operations. The Euclid Spacecraft is composed of a Service Module and a Payload Module. The Service Module comprises all the conventional spacecraft subsystems, the instruments warm electronics units, the sun shield and the solar arrays. In particular the Service Module provides the extremely challenging pointing accuracy required by the scientific objectives. The Payload Module consists of a 1.2 m three-mirror Korsch type telescope and of two instruments, the visible imager and the near-infrared spectro-photometer, both covering a large common field-of-view enabling to survey more than 35% of the entire sky. All sensor data are downlinked using K-band transmission and processed by a dedicated ground segment for science data processing. The Euclid data and catalogues will be made available to the public at the ESA Science Data Centre.

  9. AXTAR: Mission Design Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Paul S.; Chakrabarty, Deepto; Wilson-Hodge, Colleen A.; Philips, Bernard F.; Remillard, Ronald A.; Levine, Alan M.; Wood, Kent S.; Wolff, Michael T.; Gwon, Chul S.; Strohmayer, Tod E.; Briggs, Michael S.; Capizzo, Peter; Fabisinski, Leo; Hopkins, Randall C.; Hornsby, Linda S.; Johnson, Les; Maples, C. Dauphne; Miernik, Janie H.; Thomas, Dan; DeGeronimo, Gianluigi

    2010-01-01

    The Advanced X-ray Timing Array (AXTAR) is a mission concept for X-ray timing of compact objects that combines very large collecting area, broadband spectral coverage, high time resolution, highly flexible scheduling, and an ability to respond promptly to time-critical targets of opportunity. It is optimized for sub-millisecond timing of bright Galactic X-ray sources in order to study phenomena at the natural time scales of neutron star surfaces and black hole event horizons, thus probing the physics of ultra-dense matter, strongly curved spacetimes, and intense magnetic fields. AXTAR s main instrument, the Large Area Timing Array (LATA) is a collimated instrument with 2 50 keV coverage and over 3 square meters effective area. The LATA is made up of an array of super-modules that house 2-mm thick silicon pixel detectors. AXTAR will provide a significant improvement in effective area (a factor of 7 at 4 keV and a factor of 36 at 30 keV) over the RXTE PCA. AXTAR will also carry a sensitive Sky Monitor (SM) that acts as a trigger for pointed observations of X-ray transients in addition to providing high duty cycle monitoring of the X-ray sky. We review the science goals and technical concept for AXTAR and present results from a preliminary mission design study

  10. The OHMIC Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ergun, R.; Burch, J. L.; Lotko, W.; Frey, H. U.; Chaston, C. C.

    2013-12-01

    The Observatory for Heteroscale Magnetosphere-Ionosphere Coupling (OHMIC) investigates the coupling of Earth's magnetosphere and ionosphere (MI) focusing on the conversion of electromagnetic energy into particle energy in auroral acceleration regions. Energy conversion and acceleration are universal processes that are a critical part of MI coupling and govern the energy deposition into Earth's upper atmosphere. These same processes are known to occur in planetary magnetospheres and in the magnetized plasmas of stars. Energy conversion and acceleration in the auroral regions are known to occur on small spatial scales through dispersive Alfvén waves and nonlinear plasma structures such as double layers. OHMIC advances our understanding of MI coupling over previous missions using two spacecraft equipped with high-time resolution measurements of electron distributions, ion distributions, and vector electric and magnetic fields. One of the spacecraft will carry two high-time and high-spatial resolution imagers and a wide-angle imager in the far ultraviolet. The mission has two phases. The first phase investigates meridional phenomena by using the combination of two-point measurements and high-resolution to distinguishing spatial and temporal phenomena. The second phase investigates field-aligned phenomena with spacecraft separations between 10 and 1100 km. Primary science objectives include (1) determining how energy conversion and transport vary along the magnetic field, (2) determining how ionospheric outflow is mediated by ion heating, convection and field-aligned transport, and (3) determining how charged-particle acceleration and injection vary in time and space.

  11. Potential Mission Scenarios Post Asteroid Crewed Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lopez, Pedro, Jr.; McDonald, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    A deep-space mission has been proposed to identify and redirect an asteroid to a distant retrograde orbit around the moon, and explore it by sending a crew using the Space Launch System and the Orion spacecraft. The Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission (ARCM), which represents the third segment of the Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM), could be performed on EM-3 or EM-4 depending on asteroid return date. Recent NASA studies have raised questions on how we could progress from current Human Space Flight (HSF) efforts to longer term human exploration of Mars. This paper will describe the benefits of execution of the ARM as the initial stepping stone towards Mars exploration, and how the capabilities required to send humans to Mars could be built upon those developed for the asteroid mission. A series of potential interim missions aimed at developing such capabilities will be described, and the feasibility of such mission manifest will be discussed. Options for the asteroid crewed mission will also be addressed, including crew size and mission duration.

  12. Mission design options for human Mars missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wooster, Paul D.; Braun, Robert D.; Ahn, Jaemyung; Putnam, Zachary R.

    Trajectory options for conjunction-class human Mars missions are examined, including crewed Earth-Mars trajectories with the option for abort to Earth, with the intent of serving as a resource for mission designers. An analysis of the impact of Earth and Mars entry velocities on aeroassist systems is included, and constraints are suggested for interplanetary trajectories based upon aeroassist system capabilities.

  13. The CHEOPS Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broeg, Christopher; benz, willy; fortier, andrea; Ehrenreich, David; beck, Thomas; cessa, Virginie; Alibert, Yann; Heng, Kevin

    2015-12-01

    The CHaracterising ExOPlanet Satellite (CHEOPS) is a joint ESA-Switzerland space mission dedicated to search for exoplanet transits by means of ultra-high precision photometry. It is expected to be launch-ready at the end of 2017.CHEOPS will be the first space observatory dedicated to search for transits on bright stars already known to host planets. It will have access to more than 70% of the sky. This will provide the unique capability of determining accurate radii for planets for which the mass has already been estimated from ground-based radial velocity surveys and for new planets discovered by the next generation ground-based transits surveys (Neptune-size and smaller). The measurement of the radius of a planet from its transit combined with the determination of its mass through radial velocity techniques gives the bulk density of the planet, which provides direct insights into the structure and/or composition of the body. In order to meet the scientific objectives, a number of requirements have been derived that drive the design of CHEOPS. For the detection of Earth and super-Earth planets orbiting G5 dwarf stars with V-band magnitudes in the range 6 ≤ V ≤ 9 mag, a photometric precision of 20 ppm in 6 hours of integration time must be reached. This time corresponds to the transit duration of a planet with a revolution period of 50 days. In the case of Neptune-size planets orbiting K-type dwarf with magnitudes as faint as V=12 mag, a photometric precision of 85 ppm in 3 hours of integration time must be reached. To achieve this performance, the CHEOPS mission payload consists of only one instrument, a space telescope of 30 cm clear aperture, which has a single CCD focal plane detector. CHEOPS will be inserted in a low Earth orbit and the total duration of the CHEOPS mission is 3.5 years (goal: 5 years).The presentation will describe the current payload and mission design of CHEOPS, give the development status, and show the expected performances.

  14. Climate Benchmark Missions: CLARREO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wielicki, Bruce A.; Young, David F.

    2010-01-01

    CLARREO (Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory) is one of the four Tier 1 missions recommended by the recent NRC decadal survey report on Earth Science and Applications from Space (NRC, 2007). The CLARREO mission addresses the need to rigorously observe climate change on decade time scales and to use decadal change observations as the most critical method to determine the accuracy of climate change projections such as those used in the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC AR4). A rigorously known accuracy of both decadal change observations as well as climate projections is critical in order to enable sound policy decisions. The CLARREO mission accomplishes this critical objective through highly accurate and SI traceable decadal change observations sensitive to many of the key uncertainties in climate radiative forcings, responses, and feedbacks that in turn drive uncertainty in current climate model projections. The same uncertainties also lead to uncertainty in attribution of climate change to anthropogenic forcing. The CLARREO breakthrough in decadal climate change observations is to achieve the required levels of accuracy and traceability to SI standards for a set of observations sensitive to a wide range of key decadal change variables. These accuracy levels are determined both by the projected decadal changes as well as by the background natural variability that such signals must be detected against. The accuracy for decadal change traceability to SI standards includes uncertainties of calibration, sampling, and analysis methods. Unlike most other missions, all of the CLARREO requirements are judged not by instantaneous accuracy, but instead by accuracy in large time/space scale average decadal changes. Given the focus on decadal climate change, the NRC Decadal Survey concluded that the single most critical issue for decadal change observations was their lack of accuracy and low confidence in

  15. Spacelab 3 Mission Science Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fichtl, George H. (Editor); Theon, John S. (Editor); Hill, Charles K. (Editor); Vaughan, Otha H. (Editor)

    1987-01-01

    Papers and abstracts of the presentations made at the symposium are given as the scientific report for the Spacelab 3 mission. Spacelab 3, the second flight of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) orbital laboratory, signified a new era of research in space. The primary objective of the mission was to conduct applications, science, and technology experiments requiring the low-gravity environment of Earth orbit and stable vehicle attitude over an extended period (e.g., 6 days) with emphasis on materials processing. The mission was launched on April 29, 1985, aboard the Space Shuttle Challenger which landed a week later on May 6. The multidisciplinary payload included 15 investigations in five scientific fields: material science, fluid dynamics, life sciences, astrophysics, and atmospheric science.

  16. Deep Space 1 Mission Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehman, D. H.

    1999-09-01

    Deep Space 1 (DS1), launched on October 24, 1998, is the first mission of NASA's New Millennium program. This program is chartered to flight validate high-risk, advanced technologies important for future space and Earth science programs. Twelve advanced technologies were chosen for validation on DS1. These include solar electric propulsion, high-power solar concentrator arrays, autonomous on-board optical navigation, two low-mass science instrument packages, and several telecommunications and microelectronics devices. The encounter of the DS1 spacecraft with the asteroid Braille on July 29,1999 represented the conclusion of the technology validation phase of the mission and the first encounter of the spacecraft with a deep space target. The validation of technologies has been completed. The presentation will describe the mission, science and technology objectives and results to date, and future plans for the project.

  17. The PROPEL Electrodynamic Tether Demonstration Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bilen, Sven G.; Johnson, C. Les; Wiegmann, Bruce M.; Alexander, Leslie; Gilchrist, Brian E.; Hoyt, Robert P.; Elder, Craig H.; Fuhrhop, Keith P.; Scadera, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The PROPEL ("Propulsion using Electrodynamics") mission will demonstrate the operation of an electrodynamic tether propulsion system in low Earth orbit and advance its technology readiness level for multiple applications. The PROPEL mission has two primary objectives: first, to demonstrate the capability of electrodynamic tether technology to provide robust and safe, near-propellantless propulsion for orbit-raising, de-orbit, plane change, and station keeping, as well as to perform orbital power harvesting and formation flight; and, second, to fully characterize and validate the performance of an integrated electrodynamic tether propulsion system, qualifying it for infusion into future multiple satellite platforms and missions with minimal modification. This paper provides an overview of the PROPEL system and design reference missions; mission goals and required measurements; and ongoing PROPEL mission design efforts.

  18. Agile: From Software to Mission System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trimble, Jay; Shirley, Mark H.; Hobart, Sarah Groves

    2016-01-01

    The Resource Prospector (RP) is an in-situ resource utilization (ISRU) technology demonstration mission, designed to search for volatiles at the Lunar South Pole. This is NASA's first near real time tele-operated rover on the Moon. The primary objective is to search for volatiles at one of the Lunar Poles. The combination of short mission duration, a solar powered rover, and the requirement to explore shadowed regions makes for an operationally challenging mission. To maximize efficiency and flexibility in Mission System design and thus to improve the performance and reliability of the resulting Mission System, we are tailoring Agile principles that we have used effectively in ground data system software development and applying those principles to the design of elements of the mission operations system.

  19. Overview of the Cassini Extended Mission Trajectory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buffington, Brent; Strange, Nathan; Smith, John

    2008-01-01

    Due to the highly successful execution of the Cassini-Huygens prime mission and the estimated propellant remaining at the conclusion of the prime mission, NASA Headquarters allocated funding for the development of a 2-year long Cassini extended mission. The resultant extended mission, stemming from 1.5 years of development, includes an additional 26 targeted Titan flybys, 9 close flybys of icy satellites, and 60 orbits about Saturn. This paper describes, in detail, the different phases of the Cassini extended mission and the associated design methodology, which attempted to maximize the number and quality of high-priority scientific objectives while minimizing the total delta v expenditure and adhering to mission-imposed constraints.

  20. Architecting a mission plan for Lunar Observer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ridenoure, Rex W.

    1991-01-01

    The present status of NASA's Lunar Observer study effort at JPL is discussed in the context of an ongoing 20-year series of studies focused on defining a robotic, low-altitude, polar-orbiting mission to the moon. The primary emphasis of the discussion is a review of the various systems-level factors that drive the overall architecture of the mission plan. Selected top-level project and science requirements are summarized and the current mission and science objectives are presented. A brief description of the candidate science instrument complement is included. Several significant orbital effects caused by the lunar gravity field are explained and the variety of trajectory and maneuver options considered for both getting to the moon and orbiting there are described. Several candidate mission architectures are outlined and the mission plans chosen for future study are described. Two mission options result: a single-spacecraft, single-launch scenario, and a multiple-spacecraft, multiple-launch concept.

  1. The first Spacelab mission. [payload management functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pace, R. E., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    The purpose of Spacelab, an Orbiter-mounted NASA/ESA laboratory, is to include in the Space Transportation System (STS) a payload carrier with maximum flexibility to accommodate multidisciplinary scientific payloads. The major Spacelab configurations obtained by combination of two basic elements, the module and pallet, are described along with the anticipated program of experiments and payloads, and mission management general concept. The first Spacelab 7-day mission is scheduled for flight in the second half of 1980, with the primary objective being to verify system performance capabilities. Detailed attention is given to the payload mission management responsibilities for the first flight, including program control, science management, payload interfaces, integrated payload mission planning, integration requirements, payload specialist training, payload integration, launch site integration, payload flight/mission operations, and postmission activities. The Spacelab configuration (including the long module and one pallet) and the overall schedule for this mission are presented.

  2. Constellation Program Mission Operations Project Office Status and Support Philosophy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Ernest; Webb, Dennis

    2007-01-01

    The Constellation Program Mission Operations Project Office (CxP MOP) at Johnson Space Center in Houston Texas is preparing to support the CxP mission operations objectives for the CEV/Orion flights, the Lunar Lander, and and Lunar surface operations. Initially the CEV will provide access to the International Space Station, then progress to the Lunar missions. Initial CEV mission operations support will be conceptually similar to the Apollo missions, and we have set a challenge to support the CEV mission with 50% of the mission operations support currently required for Shuttle missions. Therefore, we are assessing more efficient way to organize the support and new technologies which will enhance our operations support. This paper will address the status of our preparation for these CxP missions, our philosophical approach to CxP operations support, and some of the technologies we are assessing to streamline our mission operations infrastructure.

  3. Chandrayaan-1: India's first planetary science mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nath Goswami, Jitendra

    A new initiative of the Indian Space Research Organization to have dedicated Space Science Missions led to two major missions that are currently in progress: Astrosat and Chandrayaan-1, the latter being the first planetary science mission of the country. The spadework for this mission started about ten years back and culminated in late 2003 with the official endorsement for the mission. This remote sensing mission, to be launched in early next year, is expected to further our understanding of the origin and evolution of the Moon based on a chemical, mineralogical and topographic study of the lunar surface at spatial and spectral resolutions much better than those for previous and other currently planned lunar missions. The Chandrayaan-1 mission is also international in character and will have an array of Indian instruments as well as several instruments from abroad some of which will have very strong Indian collaboration. This talk will provide a brief overview of our present understanding of the Moon, the science objectives of the Chandrayaan-1 mission and how we hope to achieve these from the data to be obtained by the various instruments on board the mission. A possible road map for Indian planetary exploration programme in the context of the International scenario will be presented at the end.

  4. STS-73 Mission Insignia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The crew patch of STS-73, the second flight of the United States Microgravity Laboratory (USML-2), depicts the Space Shuttle Columbia in the vastness of space. In the foreground are the classic regular polyhedrons that were investigated by Plato and later Euclid. The Pythagoreans were also fascinated by the symmetrical three-dimensional objects whose sides are the same regular polygon. The tetrahedron, the cube, the octahedron, and the icosahedron were each associated with the Natural Elements of that time: fire (on this mission represented as combustion science); Earth (crystallography), air and water (fluid physics). An additional icon shown as the infinity symbol was added to further convey the discipline of fluid mechanics. The shape of the emblem represents a fifth polyhedron, a dodecahedron, which the Pythagoreans thought corresponded to a fifth element that represented the cosmos.

  5. Objectives and Outcomes

    SciTech Connect

    Segalman, D.J.

    1998-11-30

    I have recently become involved in the ABET certification process under the new system - ABET 2000. This system relies heavily on concepts of Total Quality Management (TQM). It encourages each institution to define its objectives in terms of its own mission and then create a coherent program based on it. The prescribed steps in setting up the new system at an engineering institution are: o identification of constituencies G definition of mission. It is expected that the department's mission will be consistent with that of the overall institution, but containing some higher resolution language appropriate to that particular discipline of the engineering profession. o statement of objectives consistent with the mission 3G~~\\vED " enumeration of desired, and preferably measurable, outcomes of the process that would ~ `=. verify satisfaction of the objectives. ~~~ 07 !398 o establish performance standards for each outcome. o creation of appropriate feedback loops to assure that the objectives are still consistent with Q$YT1 the mission, that the outcomes remain consistent with the objectives, and that the curriculum and the teaching result in those outcomes. It is my assertion that once the institution verbalizes a mission, enumerated objectives naturally flow from that mission. (We shall try to demonstrate by example.) Further, if the mission uses the word "engineer", one would expect that word also to appear in at least one of the objectives. The objective of producing engineers of any sort must -by decree - involve the presence of the ABET criteria in the outcomes list. In other words, successful satisfaction of the ABET items a-k are a necessary subset of the measure of success in producing engineers. o We shall produce bachelor level engineers whose training in the core topics of chemical (or electrical, or mechanical) engineering is recognized to be among the best in the nation. o We shall provide an opportunity for our students to gain a

  6. Cubesat Gravity Field Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burla, Santoshkumar; Mueller, Vitali; Flury, Jakob; Jovanovic, Nemanja

    2016-04-01

    CHAMP, GRACE and GOCE missions have been successful in the field of satellite geodesy (especially to improve Earth's gravity field models) and have established the necessity towards the next generation gravity field missions. Especially, GRACE has shown its capabilities beyond any other gravity field missions. GRACE Follow-On mission is going to continue GRACE's legacy which is almost identical to GRACE mission with addition of laser interferometry. But these missions are not only quite expensive but also takes quite an effort to plan and to execute. Still there are few drawbacks such as under-sampling and incapability of exploring new ideas within a single mission (ex: to perform different orbit configurations with multi satellite mission(s) at different altitudes). The budget is the major limiting factor to build multi satellite mission(s). Here, we offer a solution to overcome these drawbacks using cubesat/ nanosatellite mission. Cubesats are widely used in research because they are cheaper, smaller in size and building them is easy and faster than bigger satellites. Here, we design a 3D model of GRACE like mission with available sensors and explain how the Attitude and Orbit Control System (AOCS) works. The expected accuracies on final results of gravity field are also explained here.

  7. Swarm: ESA's Magnetic Field Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drinkwater, M. R.; Haagmans, R.; Floberghagen, R.; Plank, G.; Menard, Y.

    2011-12-01

    Swarm is the fifth Earth Explorer mission in ESA's Living Planet Programme, and is scheduled for launch in 2012. The objective of the Swarm mission is to provide the best-ever survey of the geomagnetic field and its temporal evolution using a constellation of 3 identical satellites. The Mission shall deliver data that allow access to new insights into the Earth system by improved scientific understanding of the Earth's interior and near-Earth electromagnetic environment. After launch and triple satellite release at an initial altitude of about 490 km, a pair of the satellites will fly side-by-side with slowly decaying altitude, while the third satellite will be lifted to 530 km to complete the Swarm constellation. High-precision and high-resolution measurements of the strength, direction and variation of the magnetic field, complemented by precise navigation, accelerometer and electric field measurements, will provide the observations required to separate and model various sources of the geomagnetic field and near-Earth current systems. The mission science goals are to provide a unique view into Earth core dynamics, mantle conductivity, crustal magnetisation, ionospheric and magnetospheric current systems and upper atmosphere dynamics - ranging from understanding the geodynamo to contributing to space weather. The scientific objectives and results from recent scientific studies will be presented. In addition the current status of the project, which is presently approaching the final stage of the development phase, will be addressed. A consortium of European scientific institutes is developing a distributed processing system to produce geophysical (Level 2) data products to the Swarm user community. The setup of Swarm ground segment and the contents of the data products will be addressed. More information on the Swarm mission can be found at the mission web site (see URL below).

  8. Re-Engineering the Mission Operations System (MOS) for the Prime and Extended Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, Joseph C., Jr.; Cheng, Leo Y.

    2012-01-01

    One of the most challenging tasks in a space science mission is designing the Mission Operations System (MOS). Whereas the focus of the project is getting the spacecraft built and tested for launch, the mission operations engineers must build a system to carry out the science objectives. The completed MOS design is then formally assessed in the many reviews. Once a mission has completed the reviews, the Mission Operation System (MOS) design has been validated to the Functional Requirements and is ready for operations. The design was built based on heritage processes, new technology, and lessons learned from past experience. Furthermore, our operational concepts must be properly mapped to the mission design and science objectives. However, during the course of implementing the science objective in the operations phase after launch, the MOS experiences an evolutional change to adapt for actual performance characteristics. This drives the re-engineering of the MOS, because the MOS includes the flight and ground segments. Using the Spitzer mission as an example we demonstrate how the MOS design evolved for both the prime and extended mission to enhance the overall efficiency for science return. In our re-engineering process, we ensured that no requirements were violated or mission objectives compromised. In most cases, optimized performance across the MOS, including gains in science return as well as savings in the budget profile was achieved. Finally, we suggest a need to better categorize the Operations Phase (Phase E) in the NASA Life-Cycle Phases of Formulation and Implementation

  9. The Space Interferometry Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Unwin, Stephen C.

    1998-01-01

    The Space Interferometry Mission (SIM) is the next major space mission in NASA's Origins program after SIRTF. The SIM architecture uses three Michelson interferometers in low-earth orbit to provide 4 microarcsecond precision absolute astrometric measurements on approx. 40,000 stars. SIM will also provide synthesis imaging in the visible waveband to a resolution of 10 milliarcsecond, and interferometric nulling to a depth of 10(exp -4). A near-IR (1-2 micron) capability is being considered. Many key technologies will be demonstrated by SIM that will be carried over directly or can be readily scaled to future Origins missions such as TPF. The SIM spacecraft will carry a triple Michelson interferometer with baselines in the 10 meter range. Two interferometers act as high precision trackers, providing attitude information at all time, while the third one conducts the science observations. Ultra-accurate laser metrology and active systems monitor the systematic errors and to control the instrument vibrations in order to reach the 4 microarcsecond level on wide-angle measurements. SIM will produce a wealth of new astronomical data. With an absolute positional precision of 4 microarcsecond, SIM will improve on the best currently available measures (the Hipparcos catalog) by 2 or 3 orders of magnitude, providing parallaxes accurate to 10% and transverse velocities to 0.2 km/s anywhere in the Galaxy, to stars as faint as 20th magnitude. With the addition of radial velocities, knowledge of the 6-dimension phase space for objects of interest will allow us to attack a wide array of previously inaccessible problems such as: search for planets down to few earth masses; calibration of stellar luminosities and by means of standard candles, calibration of the cosmic distance scale; detecting perturbations due to spiral arms, disk warps and central bar in our galaxy; probe of the gravitational potential of the Galaxy, several kiloparsecs out of the galactic plane; synthesis imaging

  10. Soviet Mission Control Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    This photo is an overall view of the Mission Control Center in Korolev, Russia during the Expedition Seven mission. The Expedition Seven crew launched aboard a Soyez spacecraft on April 26, 2003. Photo credit: NASA/Bill Ingalls

  11. Space missions to comets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neugebauer, M. (Editor); Yeomans, D. K. (Editor); Brandt, J. C. (Editor); Hobbs, R. W. (Editor)

    1979-01-01

    The broad impact of a cometary mission is assessed with particular emphasis on scientific interest in a fly-by mission to Halley's comet and a rendezvous with Tempel 2. Scientific results, speculations, and future plans are discussed.

  12. Editing the Mission.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Sharon; Fogg, Piper

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the decision by Columbia University's new president to reevaluate the mission of its journalism school before naming a new dean, in order to explore how the journalism school fits into the mission of a research university. (EV)

  13. Space Launch System Mission Flexibility Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monk, Timothy; Holladay, Jon; Sanders, Terry; Hampton, Bryan

    2012-01-01

    The Space Launch System (SLS) is envisioned as a heavy lift vehicle that will provide the foundation for future beyond low Earth orbit (LEO) missions. While multiple assessments have been performed to determine the optimal configuration for the SLS, this effort was undertaken to evaluate the flexibility of various concepts for the range of missions that may be required of this system. These mission scenarios include single launch crew and/or cargo delivery to LEO, single launch cargo delivery missions to LEO in support of multi-launch mission campaigns, and single launch beyond LEO missions. Specifically, we assessed options for the single launch beyond LEO mission scenario using a variety of in-space stages and vehicle staging criteria. This was performed to determine the most flexible (and perhaps optimal) method of designing this particular type of mission. A specific mission opportunity to the Jovian system was further assessed to determine potential solutions that may meet currently envisioned mission objectives. This application sought to significantly reduce mission cost by allowing for a direct, faster transfer from Earth to Jupiter and to determine the order-of-magnitude mass margin that would be made available from utilization of the SLS. In general, smaller, existing stages provided comparable performance to larger, new stage developments when the mission scenario allowed for optimal LEO dropoff orbits (e.g. highly elliptical staging orbits). Initial results using this method with early SLS configurations and existing Upper Stages showed the potential of capturing Lunar flyby missions as well as providing significant mass delivery to a Jupiter transfer orbit.

  14. Threads of Mission Success

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gavin, Thomas R.

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the many parts of the JPL mission planning process that the project manager has to work with. Some of them are: NASA & JPL's institutional requirements, the mission systems design requirements, the science interactions, the technical interactions, financial requirements, verification and validation, safety and mission assurance, and independent assessment, review and reporting.

  15. STS-87 Payload Specialist Kadenyuk participates in the CEIT for his mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Participating in the Crew Equipment Integration Test (CEIT) at Kennedy Space Center is STS-87 Payload Specialist Leonid Kadenyuk of the National Space Agency of Ukraine (NSAU). Here, Cosmonaut Kadenyuk is inspecting flowers for pollination and fertilization, which will occur as part of the Collaborative Ukrainian Experiment, or CUE, aboard Columbia during its 16-day mission, scheduled to take off from KSC's Launch Pad 39-B on Nov. 19. The CUE experiment is a collection of 10 plant space biology experiments that will fly in Columbia's middeck and feature an educational component that involves evaluating the effects of microgravity on the pollinating Brassica rapa seedlings. Students in Ukrainian and American schools will participate in the same experiment on the ground and have several live opportunities to discuss the experiment with Kadenyuk in Space. Kadenyuk of the Ukraine will be flying his first Shuttle mission on STS-87.

  16. Flora: A Proposed Hyperspectral Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ungar, Stephen; Asner, Gregory; Green, Robert; Knox, Robert

    2006-01-01

    ) designed to effectively reduce the volume of data required to be transmitted down to the ground. This paper discusses mission science objectives, describes the mission concept and presents the current status of possible funding opportunities leading to realization of the mission.

  17. Recent Results from the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Mission and Plans for the Extended Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, John W.; Vondrak, Richard; Chin, Gordon; Petro, Noah; Gavin, James W.

    2012-01-01

    The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft (LRO), launched on June 18, 2009, began with the goal of seeking safe landing sites for future robotic missions or the return of humans to the Moon as part of NASA's Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD). In addition, LRO's objectives included the search for surface resources and to investigate the Lunar radiation environment. After spacecraft commissioning, this phase of the mission began on September 15, 2009, completed on September 15, 2010 when operational responsibility for LRO was transferred to NASA's Science Mission Directorate (SMD). The SMD mission is scheduled for 2 years and will be completed in 2012 with an opportunity for an extended mission beyond 2012. Under SMD, the mission focuses on a new set of goals related to understanding the geologic history of the Moon, its current state, and what it can tell us about the evolution of the Solar System. Having marked the two year anniversary will review here the major results from the LRO mission for both exploration and science and discuss plans and objectives going forward including a proposed 2-year extended mission. These objectives include: 1) understanding the bombardment history of the Moon, 2) interpreting Lunar geologic processes, 3) mapping the global Lunar regolith, 4) identifying volatiles on the Moon, and 5) measuring the Lunar atmosphere and radiation environment.

  18. The Europa Clipper Mission Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pappalardo, Robert; Goldstein, Barry; Magner, Thomas; Prockter, Louise; Senske, David; Paczkowski, Brian; Cooke, Brian; Vance, Steve; Wes Patterson, G.; Craft, Kate

    2014-05-01

    A NASA-appointed Science Definition Team (SDT), working closely with a technical team from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and the Applied Physics Laboratory (APL), recently considered options for a future strategic mission to Europa, with the stated science goal: Explore Europa to investigate its habitability. The group considered several mission options, which were fully technically developed, then costed and reviewed by technical review boards and planetary science community groups. There was strong convergence on a favored architecture consisting of a spacecraft in Jupiter orbit making many close flybys of Europa, concentrating on remote sensing to explore the moon. Innovative mission design would use gravitational perturbations of the spacecraft trajectory to permit flybys at a wide variety of latitudes and longitudes, enabling globally distributed regional coverage of the moon's surface, with nominally 45 close flybys at altitudes from 25 to 100 km. We will present the science and reconnaissance goals and objectives, a mission design overview, and the notional spacecraft for this concept, which has become known as the Europa Clipper. The Europa Clipper concept provides a cost-efficient means to explore Europa and investigate its habitability, through understanding the satellite's ice and ocean, composition, and geology. The set of investigations derived from the Europa Clipper science objectives traces to a notional payload for science, consisting of: Ice Penetrating Radar (for sounding of ice-water interfaces within and beneath the ice shell), Topographical Imager (for stereo imaging of the surface), ShortWave Infrared Spectrometer (for surface composition), Neutral Mass Spectrometer (for atmospheric composition), Magnetometer and Langmuir Probes (for inferring the satellite's induction field to characterize an ocean), and Gravity Science (to confirm an ocean).The mission would also include the capability to perform reconnaissance for a future lander

  19. An Empirical Model for Formulating Operational Missions for Community Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Richard C., Jr.; Doucette, Donald S.

    A research project was conducted to develop and implement a model for community college missions. The new model would depart from existing models, which utilize a hierarchy of decreasing levels of generality beginning with institutional missions and culminating in objectives. In contrast, this research defined institutional mission in terms of…

  20. Deep space 1 mission and observation of comet Borrellly

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, M.; Weidner, R.J.; Soderblom, L.A.

    2002-01-01

    The NASA's new millennium program (NMP) focuses on testing high-risk, advanced technologies in space with low-cost flights. The objective of the NMP technology validation missions is to enable future science missions. The NMP missions are technology-driven, with the principal requirements coming from the needs of the advanced technologies that form the 'payload'.

  1. Mars landing exploration mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzaki, Megumi

    1991-07-01

    The overall concept for Mars observation missions and the systems to implement the missions are reviewed. Reviews are conducted on the following items: (1) profiles of the candidate missions; (2) aerodynamic capture deceleration estimates; (3) prospective Mars orbit decisions; (4) landing methods as the prerequisites for mission accomplishment; and (5) explorer systems to accomplish the missions. The major processes involved in the mission, from the launch to the beginning of observation of the surface, are outlined. Reviews of possible orbits taken by the explorer from Mars transfer orbit (Hohmann orbit) to Mars revolving orbit are presented. Additionally, the possible orbits for the landing vehicle from departing from the revolving orbit through landing are presented. Transportation and landing module design concepts concerning the structure, weight, and electric power balances of the explorer system are presented. Critical Mars mission technologies are cited as follows: (1) inter-planet navigation; (2) aerodynamic capture; (3) automatic and autonomous operation; and (4) landing technology.

  2. The Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator (HIAD) Mission Applications Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bose, David M.; Winski, Richard; Shidner, Jeremy; Zumwalt, Carlie; Johnston, Christopher O.; Komar, D. R.; Cheatwood, F. M.; Hughes, Stephen J.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the HIAD Mission Applications Study is to quantify the benefits of HIAD infusion to the concept of operations of high priority exploration missions. Results of the study will identify the range of mission concepts ideally suited to HIADs and provide mission-pull to associated technology development programs while further advancing operational concepts associated with HIAD technology. A summary of Year 1 modeling and analysis results is presented covering missions focusing on Earth and Mars-based applications. Recommended HIAD scales are presented for near term and future mission opportunities and the associated environments (heating and structural loads) are described.

  3. NASA Laboratory Analysis for Manned Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krihak, Michael K.; Shaw, Tianna E.

    2014-01-01

    The Exploration Laboratory Analysis (ELA) project supports the Exploration Medical Capability Element under the NASA Human Research Program. ELA instrumentation is identified as an essential capability for future exploration missions to diagnose and treat evidence-based medical conditions. However, mission architecture limits the medical equipment, consumables, and procedures that will be available to treat medical conditions during human exploration missions. Allocated resources such as mass, power, volume, and crew time must be used efficiently to optimize the delivery of in-flight medical care. Although commercial instruments can provide the blood and urine based measurements required for exploration missions, these commercial-off-the-shelf devices are prohibitive for deployment in the space environment. The objective of the ELA project is to close the technology gap of current minimally invasive laboratory capabilities and analytical measurements in a manner that the mission architecture constraints impose on exploration missions. Besides micro gravity and radiation tolerances, other principal issues that generally fail to meet NASA requirements include excessive mass, volume, power and consumables, and nominal reagent shelf-life. Though manned exploration missions will not occur for nearly a decade, NASA has already taken strides towards meeting the development of ELA medical diagnostics by developing mission requirements and concepts of operations that are coupled with strategic investments and partnerships towards meeting these challenges. This paper focuses on the remote environment, its challenges, biomedical diagnostics requirements and candidate technologies that may lead to successful blood-urine chemistry and biomolecular measurements in future space exploration missions.

  4. Simulation of Mission Phases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlstrom, Nicholas Mercury

    2016-01-01

    This position with the Simulation and Graphics Branch (ER7) at Johnson Space Center (JSC) provided an introduction to vehicle hardware, mission planning, and simulation design. ER7 supports engineering analysis and flight crew training by providing high-fidelity, real-time graphical simulations in the Systems Engineering Simulator (SES) lab. The primary project assigned by NASA mentor and SES lab manager, Meghan Daley, was to develop a graphical simulation of the rendezvous, proximity operations, and docking (RPOD) phases of flight. The simulation is to include a generic crew/cargo transportation vehicle and a target object in low-Earth orbit (LEO). Various capsule, winged, and lifting body vehicles as well as historical RPOD methods were evaluated during the project analysis phase. JSC core mission to support the International Space Station (ISS), Commercial Crew Program (CCP), and Human Space Flight (HSF) influenced the project specifications. The simulation is characterized as a 30 meter +V Bar and/or -R Bar approach to the target object's docking station. The ISS was selected as the target object and the international Low Impact Docking System (iLIDS) was selected as the docking mechanism. The location of the target object's docking station corresponds with the RPOD methods identified. The simulation design focuses on Guidance, Navigation, and Control (GNC) system architecture models with station keeping and telemetry data processing capabilities. The optical and inertial sensors, reaction control system thrusters, and the docking mechanism selected were based on CCP vehicle manufacturer's current and proposed technologies. A significant amount of independent study and tutorial completion was required for this project. Multiple primary source materials were accessed using the NASA Technical Report Server (NTRS) and reference textbooks were borrowed from the JSC Main Library and International Space Station Library. The Trick Simulation Environment and User

  5. Analogue Missions on Earth, a New Approach to Prepare Future Missions on the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebeuf, Martin

    well as using analogue missions to meet agency programmatic needs, the Canadian Space Agency encourages scientists and engineers to make use of opportunities presented by analogue missions to further their own research objectives. Specific objectives of Analogue Missions are to (1) foster a multidisciplinary approach to planning, data acquisition, processing and interpretation, calibration of instruments, and telemetry during mission operations; (2) integrate new science with emerging technologies; and (3) develop an expertise on exploration architecture design from projects carried out at terrestrial analogue sites. Within Analogue Missions, teams develop planning tools, use mission-specific software and technology, and communicate results as well as lessons learned during tactical operations. The expertise gained through Analogue Missions will contribute to inform on all aspects of exploration architectures, including planetary mobility requirements and astronaut training.

  6. STS-34: Mission Overview Briefing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Live footage shows Milt Heflin, the Lead Flight Director participating in the STS-34 Mission Briefing. He addresses the primary objective, and answered questions from the audience and other NASA Centers. Heflin also mentions the Shuttle Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet secondary payload, and several experiments. These experiments include Growth Hormone Crystal Distribution (Plants), Polymer Morphology, Sensor Technology Experiment, Mesoscale Lightning Experiment, Shuttle Student Involvement Program "Ice Crystals", and the Air Force Maui Optical Site.

  7. EDL Pathfinder Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drake, Bret G.

    2016-01-01

    NASA is developing a long-term strategy for achieving extended human missions to Mars in support of the policies outlined in the 2010 NASA Authorization Act and National Space Policy. The Authorization Act states that "A long term objective for human exploration of space should be the eventual international exploration of Mars." Echoing this is the National Space Policy, which directs that NASA should, "By 2025, begin crewed missions beyond the moon, including sending humans to an asteroid. By the mid-2030s, send humans to orbit Mars and return them safely to Earth." Further defining this goal, NASA's 2014 Strategic Plan identifies that "Our long-term goal is to send humans to Mars. Over the next two decades, we will develop and demonstrate the technologies and capabilities needed to send humans to explore the red planet and safely return them to Earth." Over the past several decades numerous assessments regarding human exploration of Mars have indicated that landing humans on the surface of Mars remains one of the key critical challenges. In 2015 NASA initiated an Agency-wide assessment of the challenges associated with Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL) of large payloads necessary for supporting human exploration of Mars. Due to the criticality and long-lead nature of advancing EDL techniques, it is necessary to determine an appropriate strategy to improve the capability to land large payloads. This paper provides an overview of NASA's 2015 EDL assessment on understanding the key EDL risks with a focus on determining what "must" be tested at Mars. This process identified the various risks and potential risk mitigation strategies, that is, benefits of flight demonstration at Mars relative to terrestrial test, modeling, and analysis. The goal of the activity was to determine if a subscale demonstrator is necessary, or if NASA should take a direct path to a human-scale lander. This assessment also provided insight into how EDL advancements align with other Agency

  8. Phobos Sample Return mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zelenyi, Lev; Zakharov, A.; Martynov, M.; Polischuk, G.

    Very mysterious objects of the Solar system are the Martian satellites, Phobos and Deimos. Attempt to study Phobos in situ from an orbiter and from landers have been done by the Russian mission FOBOS in 1988. However, due to a malfunction of the onboard control system the landers have not been delivered to the Phobos surface. A new robotics mission to Phobos is under development now in Russia. Its main goal is the delivery of samples of the Phobos surface material to the Earth for laboratory studies of its chemical, isotopic, mineral composition, age etc. Other goals are in situ studies of Phobos (regolith, internal structure, peculiarities in orbital and proper rotation), studies of Martian environment (dust, plasma, fields). The payload includes a number of scientific instruments: gamma and neutron spectrometers, gaschromatograph, mass spectrometers, IR spectrometer, seismometer, panoramic camera, dust sensor, plasma package. To implement the tasks of this mission a cruise-transfer spacecraft after the launch and the Earth-Mars interplanetary flight will be inserted into the first elliptical orbit around Mars, then after several corrections the spacecraft orbit will be formed very close to the Phobos orbit to keep the synchronous orbiting with Phobos. Then the spacecraft will encounter with Phobos and will land at the surface. After the landing the sampling device of the spacecraft will collect several samples of the Phobos regolith and will load these samples into the return capsule mounted at the returned vehicle. This returned vehicle will be launched from the mother spacecraft and after the Mars-Earth interplanetary flight after 11 monthes with reach the terrestrial atmosphere. Before entering into the atmosphere the returned capsule will be separated from the returned vehicle and will hopefully land at the Earth surface. The mother spacecraft at the Phobos surface carrying onboard scientific instruments will implement the "in situ" experiments during an year

  9. The Mars Pathfinder Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golombek, Matthew P.

    1997-01-01

    Mars Pathfinder, one of the first Discovery-class missions (quick, low-cost projects with focused science objectives), will land a single spacecraft with a microrover and several instruments on the surface of Mars in 1997. Pathfinder will be the first mission to use a rover, carrying a chemical analysis instrument, to characterize the rocks and soils in a landing area over hundreds of square meters on Mars, which will provide a calibration point or "ground truth" for orbital remote sensing observations. In addition to the rover, which also performs a number of technology experiments, Pathfinder carries three science instruments: a stereoscopic imager with spectral filters on an extendable mast, an alpha proton X ray spectrometer, and an atmospheric structure instrument/meteorology package. The instruments, the rover technology experiments, and the telemetry system will allow investigations of the surface morphology and geology at submeter to a hundred meters scale, the petrology and geochemistry of rocks and soils, the magnetic properties of dust, soil mechanics and properties, a variety of atmospheric investigations, and the rotational and orbital dynamics of Mars. Landing downstream from the mouth of a giant catastrophic outflow channel, Ares Vallis at 19.5 deg N, 32.8 deg W, offers the potential of identifying and analyzing a wide variety of crustal materials, from the ancient heavily cratered terrain, intermediate-aged ridged plains, and reworked channel deposits, thus allowing first-order scientific investigations of the early differentiation and evolution of the crust, the development of weathering products, and tile early environments and conditions on Mars.

  10. A magnetic shield/dual purpose mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watkins, Seth; Albertelli, Jamil; Copeland, R. Braden; Correll, Eric; Dales, Chris; Davis, Dana; Davis, Nechole; Duck, Rob; Feaster, Sandi; Grant, Patrick

    1994-01-01

    The objective of this work is to design, build, and fly a dual-purpose payload whose function is to produce a large volume, low intensity magnetic field and to test the concept of using such a magnetic field to protect manned spacecraft against particle radiation. An additional mission objective is to study the effect of this moving field on upper atmosphere plasmas. Both mission objectives appear to be capable of being tested using the same superconducting coil. The potential benefits of this magnetic shield concept apply directly to both earth-orbital and interplanetary missions. This payload would be a first step in assessing the true potential of large volume magnetic fields in the U.S. space program. Either converted launch systems or piggyback payload opportunities may be appropriate for this mission. The use of superconducting coils for magnetic shielding against solar flare radiation during manned interplanetary missions has long been contemplated and was considered in detail in the years preceding the Apollo mission. With the advent of new superconductors, it has now become realistic to reconsider this concept for a Mars mission. Even in near-earth orbits, large volume magnetic fields produced using conventional metallic superconductors allow novel plasma physics experiments to be contemplated. Both deployed field-coil and non-deployed field-coil shielding arrangements have been investigated, with the latter being most suitable for an initial test payload in a polar orbit.

  11. Swarm: ESA's Magnetic Field Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plank, G.; Floberghagen, R.; Menard, Y.; Haagmans, R.

    2013-12-01

    Swarm is the fifth Earth Explorer mission in ESA's Living Planet Programme, and is scheduled for launch in fall 2013. The objective of the Swarm mission is to provide the best-ever survey of the geomagnetic field and its temporal evolution using a constellation of three identical satellites. The mission shall deliver data that allow access to new insights into the Earth system by improved scientific understanding of the Earth's interior and near-Earth electromagnetic environment. After launch and triple satellite release at an initial altitude of about 490 km, a pair of the satellites will fly side-by-side with slowly decaying altitude, while the third satellite will be lifted to 530 km to complete the Swarm constellation. High-precision and high-resolution measurements of the strength, direction and variation of the magnetic field, complemented by precise navigation, accelerometer and electric field measurements, will provide the observations required to separate and model various sources of the geomagnetic field and near-Earth current systems. The mission science goals are to provide a unique view into Earth's core dynamics, mantle conductivity, crustal magnetisation, ionospheric and magnetospheric current systems and upper atmosphere dynamics - ranging from understanding the geodynamo to contributing to space weather. The scientific objectives and results from recent scientific studies will be presented. In addition the current status of the project, which is presently in the final stage of the development phase, will be addressed. A consortium of European scientific institutes is developing a distributed processing system to produce geophysical (Level 2) data products for the Swarm user community. The setup of the Swarm ground segment and the contents of the data products will be addressed. In case the Swarm satellites are already in orbit, a summary of the on-going mission operations activities will be given. More information on Swarm can be found at www.esa.int/esaLP/LPswarm.html.

  12. Swarm: ESA's Magnetic Field Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plank, G.; Floberghagen, R.; Menard, Y.; Haagmans, R.

    2012-12-01

    Swarm is the fifth Earth Explorer mission in ESA's Living Planet Programme, and is scheduled for launch in fall 2012. The objective of the Swarm mission is to provide the best-ever survey of the geomagnetic field and its temporal evolution using a constellation of three identical satellites. The mission shall deliver data that allow access to new insights into the Earth system by improved scientific understanding of the Earth's interior and near-Earth electromagnetic environment. After launch and triple satellite release at an initial altitude of about 490 km, a pair of the satellites will fly side-by-side with slowly decaying altitude, while the third satellite will be lifted to 530 km to complete the Swarm constellation. High-precision and high-resolution measurements of the strength, direction and variation of the magnetic field, complemented by precise navigation, accelerometer and electric field measurements, will provide the observations required to separate and model various sources of the geomagnetic field and near-Earth current systems. The mission science goals are to provide a unique view into Earth's core dynamics, mantle conductivity, crustal magnetisation, ionospheric and magnetospheric current systems and upper atmosphere dynamics - ranging from understanding the geodynamo to contributing to space weather. The scientific objectives and results from recent scientific studies will be presented. In addition the current status of the project, which is presently in the final stage of the development phase, will be addressed. A consortium of European scientific institutes is developing a distributed processing system to produce geophysical (Level 2) data products for the Swarm user community. The setup of the Swarm ground segment and the contents of the data products will be addressed. In case the Swarm satellites are already in orbit, a summary of the on-going mission operations activities will be given.

  13. Love Objects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cusack, Lynne

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the role of "security" or "transition" objects, such as a blanket or stuffed toy, in children's development of self-comfort and autonomy. Notes the influence of parents in the child-object relationship, and discusses children's responses to losing a security object, and the developmental point at which a child will give up such an…

  14. Object crowding.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Julian M; Tjan, Bosco S

    2011-05-25

    Crowding occurs when stimuli in the peripheral fields become harder to identify when flanked by other items. This phenomenon has been demonstrated extensively with simple patterns (e.g., Gabors and letters). Here, we characterize crowding for everyday objects. We presented three-item arrays of objects and letters, arranged radially and tangentially in the lower visual field. Observers identified the central target, and we measured contrast energy thresholds as a function of target-to-flanker spacing. Object crowding was similar to letter crowding in spatial extent but was much weaker. The average elevation in threshold contrast energy was in the order of 1 log unit for objects as compared to 2 log units for letters and silhouette objects. Furthermore, we examined whether the exterior and interior features of an object are differentially affected by crowding. We used a circular aperture to present or exclude the object interior. Critical spacings for these aperture and "donut" objects were similar to those of intact objects. Taken together, these findings suggest that crowding between letters and objects are essentially due to the same mechanism, which affects equally the interior and exterior features of an object. However, for objects defined with varying shades of gray, it is much easier to overcome crowding by increasing contrast.

  15. Citizenship Objectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Committee on Assessing the Progress of Education, Ann Arbor, MI.

    The general procedures used to develop educational objectives for the National Assessment of Educational Progress are outlined, as are the procedures used to develop citizenship objectives. Ten general objectives are stated: "show concern for the welfare and dignity of others"; "support rights and freedoms of all individuals"; "help maintain law…

  16. Ongoing Mars Missions: Extended Mission Plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zurek, Richard; Diniega, Serina; Crisp, Joy; Fraeman, Abigail; Golombek, Matt; Jakosky, Bruce; Plaut, Jeff; Senske, David A.; Tamppari, Leslie; Thompson, Thomas W.; Vasavada, Ashwin R.

    2016-10-01

    Many key scientific discoveries in planetary science have been made during extended missions. This is certainly true for the Mars missions both in orbit and on the planet's surface. Every two years, ongoing NASA planetary missions propose investigations for the next two years. This year, as part of the 2016 Planetary Sciences Division (PSD) Mission Senior Review, the Mars Odyssey (ODY) orbiter project submitted a proposal for its 7th extended mission, the Mars Exploration Rover (MER-B) Opportunity submitted for its 10th, the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) for its 4th, and the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Curiosity rover and the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution (MVN) orbiter for their 2nd extended missions, respectively. Continued US participation in the ongoing Mars Express Mission (MEX) was also proposed. These missions arrived at Mars in 2001, 2004, 2006, 2012, 2014, and 2003, respectively. Highlights of proposed activities include systematic observations of the surface and atmosphere in twilight (early morning and late evening), building on a 13-year record of global mapping (ODY); exploration of a crater rim gully and interior of Endeavour Crater, while continuing to test what can and cannot be seen from orbit (MER-B); refocused observations of ancient aqueous deposits and polar cap interiors, while adding a 6th Mars year of change detection in the atmosphere and the surface (MRO); exploration and sampling by a rover of mineralogically diverse strata of Mt. Sharp and of atmospheric methane in Gale Crater (MSL); and further characterization of atmospheric escape under different solar conditions (MVN). As proposed, these activities follow up on previous discoveries (e.g., recurring slope lineae, habitable environments), while expanding spatial and temporal coverage to guide new detailed observations. An independent review panel evaluated these proposals, met with project representatives in May, and made recommendations to NASA in June 2016. In this

  17. Approach to Spacelab Payload mission management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craft, H. G.; Lester, R. C.

    1978-01-01

    The nucleus of the approach to Spacelab Payload mission management is the establishment of a single point of authority for the entire payload on a given mission. This single point mission manager will serve as a 'broker' between the individual experiments and the STS, negotiating agreements by two-part interaction. The payload mission manager, along with a small support team, will represent the users in negotiating use of STS accommodations. He will provide the support needed by each individual experimenter to meet the scientific, technological, and applications objectives of the mission with minimum cost and maximum efficiency. The investigator will assume complete responsibility for his experiment hardware definition and development and will take an active role in the integration and operation of his experiment.

  18. Reconfigurable Software for Mission Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trimble, Jay

    2014-01-01

    We developed software that provides flexibility to mission organizations through modularity and composability. Modularity enables removal and addition of functionality through the installation of plug-ins. Composability enables users to assemble software from pre-built reusable objects, thus reducing or eliminating the walls associated with traditional application architectures and enabling unique combinations of functionality. We have used composable objects to reduce display build time, create workflows, and build scenarios to test concepts for lunar roving operations. The software is open source, and may be downloaded from https:github.comnasamct.

  19. The EOS-Aura Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoeberl, Mark R.

    2004-01-01

    The EOS-Aura atmospheric chemistry mission is scheduled for launch in June 2004. Aura is the third of the large EOS observatories. The spacecraft carries an international instrument payload that has a planned six year lifetime. The Aura mission will collect data to help answer stratospheric and tropospheric atmospheric chemistry questions. The mission has the following four major objectives: 1) Track the ozone layer to determine if it is recovering as predicted. The four Aura instruments, HIRDLS, OMI, MLS, and TES will measure ozone, key source, radical, reservoir, tracer gases, and aerosols. Aura's unique design allows for major ozone controlling gases to be measured within the same air mass within a few minutes. The OMI instrument will continue the trends fiom NASA's TOMS series. 2) Track tropospheric pollutant sources and measure tropospheric ozone precursors. Major pollution sources include urban, industrial and biomass burning regions. Tropospheric trace gases will be measured, using TES and OMI, at an average spatial resolution of about approximately 15 km with near global coverage. 3) Measure key upper tropospheric atmospheric constituents that influence climate. The Aura instruments will monitor O3, H2O, CO, cirrus ice, and aerosols. EOS-Aura will fly in a sun-synchronous polar orbit about 15 minutes behind Aqua and make near coincident and synergistic measurements with the EOS- Aqua, Cloudsat, OCO, PARASOL and Calipso missions. Aura launched July 15,2004.

  20. The EOS-Aura Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoeberl, Mark R.

    2005-01-01

    The EOS-Aura atmospheric chemistry mission is scheduled for launch in June 2004. Aura is the third of the large EOS observatories. The spacecraft carries an international instrument payload that has a planned six year lifetime. The Aura mission will collect data to help answer stratospheric and tropospheric atmospheric chemistry questions. The mission has the following four major objectives: 1) Track the ozone layer to determine if it is recovering as predicted. The four Aura instruments, HIRDLS, OMI, MLS, and TES will measure ozone, key source, radical, reservoir, tracer gases, and aerosols. Aura's unique design allows for major ozone controlling gases to be measured within the same air mass within a few minutes. The OMI instrument will continue the trends from NASA's TOMS series. 2) Track tropospheric pollutant sources and measure tropospheric ozone precursors. Major pollution sources include urban, industrial and biomass burning regions. Tropospheric trace gases will be measured, using TES and OMI, at an average spatial resolution of about approx. 15 km with near global coverage. 3) Measure key upper tropospheric atmospheric constituents that influence climate. The Aura instruments will monitor O3, H2O, CO, cirrus ice, and aerosols. EOS-Aura will fly in a sun-synchronous polar orbit about 15 minutes behind Aqua and make near coincident and synergistic measurements with the EOS-Aqua, Cloudsat, OCO, PARASOL and Calipso missions. Aura launched July 15,2004.

  1. History of the Spitzer Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rieke, George

    2006-12-01

    The Spitzer Telescope was launched more than 20 years after the original announcement of opportunity was released. During this long gestation period, the mission took a wide variety of forms and had to survive many political and managerial environments within NASA and in the US Government generally. Finally, approval to build the telescope was won at the height of the faster-better-cheaper era, but completing it extended beyond this phase. This poster shows the key steps in preserving the mission and why decision makers viewed it positively at critical points when it might have been killed. In the end, the scope of the mission was reduced by a factor of about five while still preserving much of its science capabilities. This reduction required a new way to streamline the science objectives by adopting a limited number of key programs and requiring that all features be justified in terms of those programs. This philosophy provided decision rules to carry out necessary descopes while preserving a coherent set of capabilities. In addition, the faster-better-cheaper guidelines requires use of a small launch vehicle, which was only possible by the invention of a new “warm launch” telescope concept, in which the telescope would cool primarily by radiation into space after launch. Both of these concepts are critical to the approach to future missions such as JWST. This work is partially supported by contract 1255094 from JPL/Caltech to the University of Arizona.

  2. LISA Pathfinder: mission and status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonucci, F.; Armano, M.; Audley, H.; Auger, G.; Benedetti, M.; Binetruy, P.; Boatella, C.; Bogenstahl, J.; Bortoluzzi, D.; Bosetti, P.; Caleno, M.; Cavalleri, A.; Cesa, M.; Chmeissani, M.; Ciani, G.; Conchillo, A.; Congedo, G.; Cristofolini, I.; Cruise, M.; Danzmann, K.; De Marchi, F.; Diaz-Aguilo, M.; Diepholz, I.; Dixon, G.; Dolesi, R.; Dunbar, N.; Fauste, J.; Ferraioli, L.; Fertin, D.; Fichter, W.; Fitzsimons, E.; Freschi, M.; García Marin, A.; García Marirrodriga, C.; Gerndt, R.; Gesa, L.; Gilbert, F.; Giardini, D.; Grimani, C.; Grynagier, A.; Guillaume, B.; Guzmán, F.; Harrison, I.; Heinzel, G.; Hewitson, M.; Hollington, D.; Hough, J.; Hoyland, D.; Hueller, M.; Huesler, J.; Jeannin, O.; Jennrich, O.; Jetzer, P.; Johlander, B.; Killow, C.; Llamas, X.; Lloro, I.; Lobo, A.; Maarschalkerweerd, R.; Madden, S.; Mance, D.; Mateos, I.; McNamara, P. W.; Mendes, J.; Mitchell, E.; Monsky, A.; Nicolini, D.; Nicolodi, D.; Nofrarias, M.; Pedersen, F.; Perreur-Lloyd, M.; Perreca, A.; Plagnol, E.; Prat, P.; Racca, G. D.; Rais, B.; Ramos-Castro, J.; Reiche, J.; Romera Perez, J. A.; Robertson, D.; Rozemeijer, H.; Sanjuan, J.; Schleicher, A.; Schulte, M.; Shaul, D.; Stagnaro, L.; Strandmoe, S.; Steier, F.; Sumner, T. J.; Taylor, A.; Texier, D.; Trenkel, C.; Tombolato, D.; Vitale, S.; Wanner, G.; Ward, H.; Waschke, S.; Wass, P.; Weber, W. J.; Zweifel, P.

    2011-05-01

    LISA Pathfinder, the second of the European Space Agency's Small Missions for Advanced Research in Technology (SMART), is a dedicated technology demonstrator for the joint ESA/NASA Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) mission. The technologies required for LISA are many and extremely challenging. This coupled with the fact that some flight hardware cannot be fully tested on ground due to Earth-induced noise led to the implementation of the LISA Pathfinder mission to test the critical LISA technologies in a flight environment. LISA Pathfinder essentially mimics one arm of the LISA constellation by shrinking the 5 million kilometre armlength down to a few tens of centimetres, giving up the sensitivity to gravitational waves, but keeping the measurement technology: the distance between the two test masses is measured using a laser interferometric technique similar to one aspect of the LISA interferometry system. The scientific objective of the LISA Pathfinder mission consists then of the first in-flight test of low frequency gravitational wave detection metrology. LISA Pathfinder is due to be launched in 2013 on-board a dedicated small launch vehicle (VEGA). After a series of apogee raising manoeuvres using an expendable propulsion module, LISA Pathfinder will enter a transfer orbit towards the first Sun-Earth Lagrange point (L1). After separation from the propulsion module, the LPF spacecraft will be stabilized using the micro-Newton thrusters, entering a 500 000 km by 800 000 km Lissajous orbit around L1. Science results will be available approximately 2 months after launch.

  3. The Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abell, Paul; Gates, Michele; Johnson, Lindley; Chodas, Paul; Mazanek, Dan; Reeves, David; Ticker, Ronald

    2016-07-01

    To achieve its long-term goal of sending humans to Mars, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) plans to proceed in a series of incrementally more complex human spaceflight missions. Today, human flight experience extends only to Low-Earth Orbit (LEO), and should problems arise during a mission, the crew can return to Earth in a matter of minutes to hours. The next logical step for human spaceflight is to gain flight experience in the vicinity of the Moon. These cis-lunar missions provide a "proving ground" for the testing of systems and operations while still accommodating an emergency return path to the Earth that would last only several days. Cis-lunar mission experience will be essential for more ambitious human missions beyond the Earth-Moon system, which will require weeks, months, or even years of transit time. In addition, NASA has been given a Grand Challenge to find all asteroid threats to human populations and know what to do about them. Obtaining knowledge of asteroid physical properties combined with performing technology demonstrations for planetary defense provide much needed information to address the issue of future asteroid impacts on Earth. Hence the combined objectives of human exploration and planetary defense give a rationale for the Asteroid Re-direct Mission (ARM). Mission Description: NASA's ARM consists of two mission segments: 1) the Asteroid Redirect Robotic Mission (ARRM), the first robotic mission to visit a large (greater than ~100 m diameter) near-Earth asteroid (NEA), collect a multi-ton boulder from its surface along with regolith samples, demonstrate a planetary defense technique, and return the asteroidal material to a stable orbit around the Moon; and 2) the Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission (ARCM), in which astronauts will take the Orion capsule to rendezvous and dock with the robotic vehicle, conduct multiple extravehicular activities to explore the boulder, and return to Earth with samples. NASA's proposed

  4. Matrix evaluation of science objectives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wessen, Randii R.

    1994-01-01

    The most fundamental objective of all robotic planetary spacecraft is to return science data. To accomplish this, a spacecraft is fabricated and built, software is planned and coded, and a ground system is designed and implemented. However, the quantitative analysis required to determine how the collection of science data drives ground system capabilities has received very little attention. This paper defines a process by which science objectives can be quantitatively evaluated. By applying it to the Cassini Mission to Saturn, this paper further illustrates the power of this technique. The results show which science objectives drive specific ground system capabilities. In addition, this process can assist system engineers and scientists in the selection of the science payload during pre-project mission planning; ground system designers during ground system development and implementation; and operations personnel during mission operations.

  5. Manned Mars mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Terrapin Technologies proposes a Manned Mars Mission design study. The purpose of the Manned Mars Mission is to transport ten people and a habitat with all required support systems and supplies from low Earth orbit (LEO) to the surface of Mars and, after an expedition of three months to return the personnel safely to LEO. The proposed hardware design is based on systems and components of demonstrated high capability and reliability. The mission design builds on past mission experience but incorporates innovative design approaches to achieve mission priorities. These priorities, in decreasing order of importance, are safety, reliability, minimum personnel transfer time, minimum weight, and minimum cost. The design demonstrates the feasibility and flexibility of a waverider transfer module. Information is given on how the plan meets the mission requirements.

  6. End of Mission Considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hull, Scott M.

    2013-01-01

    While a great deal of effort goes into planning and executing successful mission operations, it is also important to consider the End of the Mission during the planning, design, and operations phases of any mission. Spacecraft and launch vehicles must be disposed of properly in order to limit the generation of orbital debris, and better preserve the orbital environment for all future missions. Figure 30-1 shows a 1990's projected growth of debris with and without the use of responsible disposal techniques. This requires early selection of a responsible disposal scenario, so that the necessary capabilities can be incorporated into the hardware designs. The mission operations must then be conducted in such a way as to preserve, and then actually perform, the planned, appropriate end of mission disposal.

  7. Concepts For An EO Land Convoy Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cutter, M. A.; Eves, S.; Remedios, J.; Humpage, N.; Hall, D.; Regan, A.

    2013-12-01

    ESA are undertaking three studies investigating possible synergistic satellite missions flying in formation with the operational Copernicus Sentinel missions and/or the METOP satellites. These three studies are focussed on:- a) ocean and ice b) land c) atmosphere Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd (SSTL), the University of Leicester and Astrium Ltd are undertaking the second of these studies into the synergetic observation by missions flying in formation with European operational missions, focusing on the land theme. The aim of the study is to identify and develop, (through systematic analysis), potential innovative Earth science objectives and novel applications and services that could be made possible by flying additional satellites, (possibly of small-class type), in constellation or formation with one or more already deployed or firmly planned European operational missions, with an emphasis on the Sentinel missions, but without excluding other possibilities. In the long-term, the project aims at stimulating the development of novel, (smaller), mission concepts in Europe that may exploit new and existing European operational capacity in order to address in a cost effective manner new scientific objectives and applications. One possible route of exploitation would be via the proposed Small Mission Initiative (SMI) that may be initiated under the ESA Earth Explorer Observation Programme (EOEP). The following ESA science priority areas have been highlighted during the study [1]:- - The water cycle - The carbon cycle - Terrestrial ecosystems - Biodiversity - Land use and land use cover - Human population dynamics The study team have identified the science gaps that might be addressed by a "convoy" mission flying with the Copernicus Sentinel satellites, identified the candidate mission concepts and provided recommendations regarding the most promising concepts from a list of candidates. These recommendations provided the basis of a selection process performed by ESA

  8. Apollo experience report: The role of flight mission rules in mission preparation and conduct

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keyser, L. W.

    1974-01-01

    The development of flight mission rules from the mission development phase through the detailed mission-planning phase and through the testing and training phase is analyzed. The procedure for review of the rules and the coordination requirements for mission-rule development are presented. The application of the rules to real-time decision making is outlined, and consideration is given to the benefit of training ground controllers and flightcrews in the methods of determining the best response to a nonnominal in-flight situation for which no action has been preplanned. The Flight Mission Rules document is discussed in terms of the purpose and objective thereof and in terms of the definition, the development, and the use of mission rules.

  9. The virtual mission approach: Empowering earth and space science missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, Elaine

    1993-08-01

    Future Earth and Space Science missions will address increasingly broad and complex scientific issues. To accomplish this task, we will need to acquire and coordinate data sets from a number of different instrumetns, to make coordinated observations of a given phenomenon, and to coordinate the operation of the many individual instruments making these observations. These instruments will need to be used together as a single ``Virtual Mission.'' This coordinated approach is complicated in that these scientific instruments will generally be on different platforms, in different orbits, from different control centers, at different institutions, and report to different user groups. Before this Virtual Mission approach can be implemented, techniques need to be developed to enable separate instruments to work together harmoniously, to execute observing sequences in a synchronized manner, and to be managed by the Virtual Mission authority during times of these coordinated activities. Enabling technologies include object-oriented designed approaches, extended operations management concepts and distributed computing techniques. Once these technologies are developed and the Virtual Mission concept is available, we believe the concept will provide NASA's Science Program with a new, ``go-as-you-pay,'' flexible, and resilient way of accomplishing its science observing program. The concept will foster the use of smaller and lower cost satellites. It will enable the fleet of scientific satellites to evolve in directions that best meet prevailing science needs. It will empower scientists by enabling them to mix and match various combinations of in-space, ground, and suborbital instruments - combinations which can be called up quickly in response to new events or discoveries. And, it will enable small groups such as universities, Space Grant colleges, and small businesses to participate significantly in the program by developing small components of this evolving scientific fleet.

  10. Juno Mission Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Meemong; Weidner, Richard J.

    2008-01-01

    The Juno spacecraft is planned to launch in August of 2012 and would arrive at Jupiter four years later. The spacecraft would spend more than one year orbiting the planet and investigating the existence of an ice-rock core; determining the amount of global water and ammonia present in the atmosphere, studying convection and deep- wind profiles in the atmosphere; investigating the origin of the Jovian magnetic field, and exploring the polar magnetosphere. Juno mission management is responsible for mission and navigation design, mission operation planning, and ground-data-system development. In order to ensure successful mission management from initial checkout to final de-orbit, it is critical to share a common vision of the entire mission operation phases with the rest of the project teams. Two major challenges are 1) how to develop a shared vision that can be appreciated by all of the project teams of diverse disciplines and expertise, and 2) how to continuously evolve a shared vision as the project lifecycle progresses from formulation phase to operation phase. The Juno mission simulation team addresses these challenges by developing agile and progressive mission models, operation simulations, and real-time visualization products. This paper presents mission simulation visualization network (MSVN) technology that has enabled a comprehensive mission simulation suite (MSVN-Juno) for the Juno project.

  11. Cassini Solstice Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spilker, Linda J.; Pappalardo, R.; Scientists, Cassini

    2009-09-01

    Our understanding of the Saturn system has been greatly enhanced by the Cassini-Huygens mission. Fundamental new discoveries have altered our views of Saturn, Titan, the rings, moons, and magnetosphere of the system. The proposed 7-year Cassini Solstice Mission will address new questions that have arisen during the Prime and Equinox Missions, and observe seasonal and temporal change in the Saturn system to prepare for future missions. The proposed Solstice Mission will provide new science in three ways: first, by observing seasonally and temporally dependent processes on Titan, Saturn, and other icy satellites, and within the rings and magnetosphere, in a hitherto unobserved seasonal phase from equinox to solstice; second, by addressing new questions that have arisen during the mission thus far, for example providing qualitatively new measurements of Enceladus which could not be accommodated in the earlier mission phases, and third, by conducting a close-in mission at Saturn that will provide a unique comparison to the Juno observations at Jupiter. These types of observations, absent Cassini, will not be fulfilled for decades to come. This poster summarizes a white paper that has been prepared for the Space Studies Board 2013-2022 Planetary Science Decadal Survey on the Cassini Solstice mission. This work was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract with NASA. Copyright 2009 California Institute of Technology. Government sponsorship acknowledged.

  12. STEREO Mission Design Implementation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guzman, Jose J.; Dunham, David W.; Sharer, Peter J.; Hunt, Jack W.; Ray, J. Courtney; Shapiro, Hongxing S.; Ossing, Daniel A.; Eichstedt, John E.

    2007-01-01

    STEREO (Solar-TErrestrial RElations Observatory) is the third mission in the Solar Terrestrial Probes program (STP) of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Science Mission Directorate Sun-Earth Connection theme. This paper describes the successful implementation (lunar swingby targeting) of the mission following the first phasing orbit to deployment into the heliocentric mission orbits following the two lunar swingbys. The STEREO Project had to make some interesting trajectory decisions in order to exploit opportunities to image a bright comet and an unusual lunar transit across the Sun.

  13. Spacelab mission 4 - The first dedicated life sciences mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perry, T. W.; Reid, D. H.

    1983-01-01

    Plans for the first Spacelab-4 mission dedicated entirely to the life sciences, are reviewed. The thrust of the scientific mission scheduled for late 1985 will be to study the acute effects of weightlessness on living systems, particularly humans. The payload of the Spacelab compartment will contain 24 experiments of which approximately half will involve humans. Among the major areas of interest are cardiovascular and pulmonary function, vestibular function, renal and endocrine physiology, hematology, nitrogen balance, immunological function, the gravitational biology of plants, inflight fertilization of frogs' eggs and the effects of zero gravity on monkeys and rats. In selecting the array of experiments an effort was made to combine investigations with complementary scientific objectives to develop animal models of human biological problems.

  14. Demonstration That Calibration of the Instrument Response to Polarizations Parallel and Perpendicular to the Object Space Projected Slit of an Imaging Spectrometer Enable Measurement of the Atmospheric Absorption Spectrum in Region of the Weak CO2 Band for the Case of Arbitrary Polarization: Implication for the Geocarb Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumer, J. B.; Rairden, R. L.; Polonsky, I. N.; O'Brien, D. M.

    2014-12-01

    The Tropospheric Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (TIMS) unit rebuilt to operate in a narrow spectral region, approximately 1603 to 1615 nm, of the weak CO2 band as described by Kumer et al. (2013, Proc. SPIE 8867, doi:10.1117/12.2022668) was used to conduct the demonstration. An integrating sphere (IS), linear polarizers and quarter wave plate were used to confirm that the instrument's spectral response to unpolarized light, to 45° linearly polarized light and to circular polarized light are identical. In all these cases the intensity components Ip = Is where Ip is the component parallel to the object space projected slit and Is is perpendicular to the slit. In the circular polarized case Ip = Is in the time averaged sense. The polarizer and IS were used to characterize the ratio Rθ of the instrument response to linearly polarized light at the angle θ relative to parallel from the slit, for increments of θ from 0 to 90°, to that of the unpolarized case. Spectra of diffusely reflected sunlight passed through the polarizer in increments of θ, and divided by the respective Rθ showed identical results, within the noise limit, for solar spectrum multiplied by the atmospheric transmission and convolved by the Instrument Line Shape (ILS). These measurements demonstrate that unknown polarization in the diffusely reflected sunlight on this small spectral range affect only the slow change across the narrow band in spectral response relative to that of unpolarized light and NOT the finely structured / high contrast spectral structure of the CO2 atmospheric absorption that is used to retrieve the atmospheric content of CO2. The latter is one of the geoCARB mission objectives (Kumer et al, 2013). The situation is similar for the other three narrow geoCARB bands; O2 A band 757.9 to 768.6 nm; strong CO2 band 2045.0 to 2085.0 nm; CH4 and CO region 2300.6 to 2345.6 nm. Polonsky et al have repeated the mission simulation study doi:10.5194/amt-7-959-2014 assuming no use of a geo

  15. Solar System dynamics with the Gaia mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hestroffer, D.; Berthier, J.; Carry, B.; David, P.; Lainey, V.; Rambaux, N.; Thuillot, W.; Arlot, J.-E.; Bancelin, D.; Colas, F.; Desmars, J.; Devillepoix, H.; Fouchard, M.; Ivantsov, A.; Kovalenko, I.; Robert, V.

    2014-12-01

    The Gaia mission is to be launched on December 19th, 2013 by the European Space Agency (ESA). Solar System science is well covered by the mission and has been included since the early stages of its concept and development. We present here some aspects on the astrometry and dynamics of Solar System Objects (SSO) - in particular asteroids, comets and satellites - as well as ground-based support. We also touch upon the future of SSO astrometry that will be achieved indirectly, after mission completion, from the Gaia astrometric catalogue.

  16. Solar composition from the Genesis Discovery Mission

    PubMed Central

    Burnett, D. S.; Team, Genesis Science

    2011-01-01

    Science results from the Genesis Mission illustrate the major advantages of sample return missions. (i) Important results not otherwise obtainable except by analysis in terrestrial laboratories: the isotopic compositions of O, N, and noble gases differ in the Sun from other inner solar system objects. The N isotopic composition is the same as that of Jupiter. Genesis has resolved discrepancies in the noble gas data from solar wind implanted in lunar soils. (ii) The most advanced analytical instruments have been applied to Genesis samples, including some developed specifically for the mission. (iii) The N isotope result has been replicated with four different instruments. PMID:21555545

  17. Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission Development Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Azarbarzin, Ardeshir Art

    2011-01-01

    Mission Objective: (1) Improve scientific understanding of the global water cycle and fresh water availability (2) Improve the accuracy of precipitation forecasts (3) Provide frequent and complete sampling of the Earth s precipitation Mission Description (Class B, Category I): (1) Constellation of spacecraft provide global precipitation measurement coverage (2) NASA/JAXA Core spacecraft: Provides a microwave radiometer (GMI) and dual-frequency precipitation radar (DPR) to cross-calibrate entire constellation (3) 65 deg inclination, 400 km altitude (4) Launch July 2013 on HII-A (5) 3 year mission (5 year propellant) (6) Partner constellation spacecraft.

  18. Solar composition from the Genesis Discovery Mission.

    PubMed

    Burnett, D S; Team, Genesis Science

    2011-11-29

    Science results from the Genesis Mission illustrate the major advantages of sample return missions. (i) Important results not otherwise obtainable except by analysis in terrestrial laboratories: the isotopic compositions of O, N, and noble gases differ in the Sun from other inner solar system objects. The N isotopic composition is the same as that of Jupiter. Genesis has resolved discrepancies in the noble gas data from solar wind implanted in lunar soils. (ii) The most advanced analytical instruments have been applied to Genesis samples, including some developed specifically for the mission. (iii) The N isotope result has been replicated with four different instruments. PMID:21555545

  19. Solar composition from the Genesis Discovery Mission.

    PubMed

    Burnett, D S; Team, Genesis Science

    2011-11-29

    Science results from the Genesis Mission illustrate the major advantages of sample return missions. (i) Important results not otherwise obtainable except by analysis in terrestrial laboratories: the isotopic compositions of O, N, and noble gases differ in the Sun from other inner solar system objects. The N isotopic composition is the same as that of Jupiter. Genesis has resolved discrepancies in the noble gas data from solar wind implanted in lunar soils. (ii) The most advanced analytical instruments have been applied to Genesis samples, including some developed specifically for the mission. (iii) The N isotope result has been replicated with four different instruments.

  20. Manned NEO Mission EVA Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2011-01-01

    The President has proposed to land astronauts on an asteroid by 2025. However, Manned NEO (Near Earth Objects) Missions will present a host of new and exciting problems that will need to be better defined and solved before such a mission is launched. Here I will focus on the challenges for conducting asteroidal EVAs. Specfically, crew locomotion, sampling, drilling, documentation, and instrument deployment issues arising from the micro gravity environments associated with NEOs. Therefore, novel methods and techniques will need to be developed and tested in order to achieve specific mission science objectives. Walking or driving on the surface will not be a realistic option due to the small sizes (10 s to 100 s of meters in diameter) and hence extremely low gravity of the present day known candidate NEOs. EVAs will have to be carried out with crew members either using a self propelled device (akin to the MMU and SAFER units used on Shuttle/ISS) and or tethers. When using tethers a grid system could be deployed which is anchored to the asteroid. These anchor points could be inserted by firing penetrators into the surface from the spacecraft while it is still at a safe standoff distance. These penetrators would pull double duty by being laden with scientific instrumentation to probe the subsurface. Dust and debris generated by sample collection and locomotion in a microgravity environment could also pose some problems that will require forethought.

  1. Analysis of selected deep space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, W. S.; Holman, M. L.; Bilsky, H. W.

    1971-01-01

    Task 1 of the NEW MOONS (NASA Evaluation With Models of Optimized Nuclear Spacecraft) study is discussed. Included is an introduction to considerations of launch vehicles, spacecraft, spacecraft subsystems, and scientific objectives associated with precursory unmanned missions to Jupiter and thence out of the ecliptic plane, as well as other missions to Jupiter and other outer planets. Necessity for nuclear power systems is indicated. Trajectories are developed using patched conic and n-body computer techniques.

  2. Aquarius/SAC-D Mission Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sen, Amit; Kim, Yunjin; Caruso, Daniel; Lagerloef, Gary; Colomb, Raul; Yueh, Simon; LeVine, David

    2006-01-01

    Aquarius/SAC-D is a cooperative international mission developed between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) of United States of America (USA) and the Comision Nacional de Actividades Espaciales (CONAE) of Argentina. The overall mission objective is to contribute to the understanding of the total Earth system and the consequences of the natural and man-made changes in the environment of the planet. Major themes are: ocean surface salinity, water cycle, climate, natural hazards and cryosphere.

  3. Neptune aerocapture mission and spacecraft design overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Robert W.; Hall, Jeff L.; Spliker, Tom R.; O'Kongo, Nora

    2004-01-01

    A detailed Neptune aerocapture systems analysis and spacecraft design study was performed as part of NASA's In-Space Propulsion Program. The primary objectives were to assess the feasibility of a spacecraft point design for a Neptune/Triton science mission. That uses aerocapture as the Neptune orbit insertion mechanism. This paper provides an overview of the science, mission and spacecraft design resulting from that study.

  4. Assessment of Alternative Europa Mission Architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Langmaier, Jerry; Elliott, John; Clark, Karla; Pappalardo, Robert; Reh, Kim; Spilker, Tom

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the science merit, technical risk and qualitative assessment of relative cost of alternative architectural implementations as applied to a first dedicated mission to Europa. The objective was accomplished through an examination of mission concepts resulting from previous and ongoing studies. Key architectural elements that were considered include moon orbiters, flybys (single flybys like New Horizons and multiple flybys similar to the ongoing Jupiter System Observer study), sample return and in situ landers and penetrators.

  5. Towards a class library for mission planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pujo, Oliver; Smith, Simon T.; Starkey, Paul; Wolff, Thilo

    1994-01-01

    The PASTEL Mission Planning System (MPS) has been developed in C++ using an object-oriented (OO) methodology. While the scope and complexity of this system cannot compare to that of an MPS for a complex mission one of the main considerations of the development was to ensure that we could reuse some of the classes in future MPS. We present here PASTEL MPS classes which could be used in the foundations of a class library for MPS.

  6. Giotto Extended Mission (GEM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkins, D. E. B.; Grensemann, M.

    1991-01-01

    The primary objectives of the Giotto Extended Mission (GEM), are to determine the composition and physical state of the Grigg Skjellerup Comet's nucleus; to determine the processes that govern the composition and distribution of neutral and ionized species in the cometary atmosphere. Giotto consists of a single European Space Agency (ESA) spacecraft that was launched in 1985 from Center Spatial Guyanis in French Guiana on an Ariane launch vehicle. After a successful launch into geostationary orbit and a heliocentric transfer trajectory, the spacecraft successfully encountered Halley's Comet in 1986. One month after encountering Halley's Comet, Mar. 1986, the spacecraft was placed in hibernation in a heliocentric orbit slightly less than 1 AU. Between Feb. and Jul. 1990 the spacecraft was successfully reactivated, checked out, and placed on a trajectory course to intercept comet Grigg Skjellerup. The spacecraft has been in hibernation since Jul. 1990. Information is presented in tabular form in the following areas: coverage goals, Deep Space Network Support, frequency assignments, telemetry, command, and tracking support responsibility.

  7. The Mission Assessment Post Processor (MAPP): A New Tool for Performance Evaluation of Human Lunar Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Jacob; Stewart, Shaun M.; Lee, David E.; Davis, Elizabeth C.; Condon, Gerald L.; Senent, Juan

    2010-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration s (NASA) Constellation Program paves the way for a series of lunar missions leading to a sustained human presence on the Moon. The proposed mission design includes an Earth Departure Stage (EDS), a Crew Exploration Vehicle (Orion) and a lunar lander (Altair) which support the transfer to and from the lunar surface. This report addresses the design, development and implementation of a new mission scan tool called the Mission Assessment Post Processor (MAPP) and its use to provide insight into the integrated (i.e., EDS, Orion, and Altair based) mission cost as a function of various mission parameters and constraints. The Constellation architecture calls for semiannual launches to the Moon and will support a number of missions, beginning with 7-day sortie missions, culminating in a lunar outpost at a specified location. The operational lifetime of the Constellation Program can cover a period of decades over which the Earth-Moon geometry (particularly, the lunar inclination) will go through a complete cycle (i.e., the lunar nodal cycle lasting 18.6 years). This geometry variation, along with other parameters such as flight time, landing site location, and mission related constraints, affect the outbound (Earth to Moon) and inbound (Moon to Earth) translational performance cost. The mission designer must determine the ability of the vehicles to perform lunar missions as a function of this complex set of interdependent parameters. Trade-offs among these parameters provide essential insights for properly assessing the ability of a mission architecture to meet desired goals and objectives. These trades also aid in determining the overall usable propellant required for supporting nominal and off-nominal missions over the entire operational lifetime of the program, thus they support vehicle sizing.

  8. Space Shuttle mission: STS-67

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Endeavor, scheduled to launch March 2, 1995 from NASA's Kennedy Space Center, will conduct NASA's longest Shuttle flight prior to date. The mission, designated STS-67, has a number of experiments and payloads, which the crew, commanded by Stephen S. Oswald, will have to oversee. This NASA press kit for the mission contains a general background (general press release, media services information, quick-look facts page, shuttle abort modes, summary timeline, payload and vehicle weights, orbital summary, and crew responsibilities); cargo bay payloads and activities (Astro 2, Get Away Special Experiments); in-cabin payloads (Commercial Minimum Descent Altitude Instrumentation Technology Associates Experiments, protein crystal growth experiments, Middeck Active Control Experiment, and Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment); and the STS-67 crew biographies. The payloads and experiments are described and summarized to give an overview of the goals, objectives, apparatuses, procedures, sponsoring parties, and the assigned crew members to carry out the tasks.

  9. Skylab mission report, third visit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    An evaluation is presented of the operational and engineering aspects of the third Skylab visit, including information on the performance of the command and service module and the experiment hardware, the crew's evaluation of the visit, and other visit-related areas of interest such as biomedical observations. The specific areas discussed are contained in the following: (1) solar physics and astrophysics investigations; (2) Comet Kohoutek experiments; (3) medical experiments; (4) earth observations, including data for the multispectral photographic facility, the earth terrain camera, and the microwave radiometer/scattermometer and altimeter; (5) engineering and technology experiments; (6) food and medical operational equipment; (7) hardware and experiment anomalies; and (8) mission support, mission objectives, flight planning, and launch phase summary. Conclusions discussed as a result of the third visit to Skylab involve the advancement of the sciences, practical applications, the durability of man and systems in space, and spaceflight effectiveness and economy.

  10. Java Mission Evaluation Workstation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pettinger, Ross; Watlington, Tim; Ryley, Richard; Harbour, Jeff

    2006-01-01

    The Java Mission Evaluation Workstation System (JMEWS) is a collection of applications designed to retrieve, display, and analyze both real-time and recorded telemetry data. This software is currently being used by both the Space Shuttle Program (SSP) and the International Space Station (ISS) program. JMEWS was written in the Java programming language to satisfy the requirement of platform independence. An object-oriented design was used to satisfy additional requirements and to make the software easily extendable. By virtue of its platform independence, JMEWS can be used on the UNIX workstations in the Mission Control Center (MCC) and on office computers. JMEWS includes an interactive editor that allows users to easily develop displays that meet their specific needs. The displays can be developed and modified while viewing data. By simply selecting a data source, the user can view real-time, recorded, or test data.

  11. NuSTAR and IXO Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, William W.

    2010-01-01

    NuSTAR (Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array) and IXO (International X-ray Observatory) missions are two of NASA X-ray missions for the coming decade. NuSTAR is a small explorer class mission that will for the first time use a multilayer-coated X-ray mirror assemblies to focus X-rays up to 80 keV. Among other objectives, its major science objective will be to conduct surveys to identify hard X-ray sources and to resolve the diffuse X-ray background. IXO, a collaborative mission of NASA, ESA, and JAXA, will be an observatory class mission. It will have a 3m in diameter X-ray mirror assembly with unprecedented photon collection area with a suite of focal plane detectors: a grating system, a large format CCD imaging system, a calorimeter, a polarimeter, and a high resolution and fast timing detector. It will significantly advance the spectroscopic studies of black holes, neutron stars, AGN, IGM, and nearly every other aspect of the X-ray universe. In this talk I will describe the instruments and scientific objectives of these two missions.

  12. Titan and Enceladus mission (TANDEM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coustenis, A.

    2007-08-01

    Our understanding of Titan's atmosphere and surface has recently been enhanced by the data returned by the Cassini-Huygens mission. The Cassini orbiter will continue to be operational for about 3 more years during its extended mission. After this mission, any unanswered questions will forever remain unknown, unless we go back with an optimized orbital tour and advanced instrumentation. Considering the complementary nature of the geological, chemical and evolutionary history of Titan and Enceladus, we propose to carry out studies for a mission to perform an in situ exploration of these two objects in tandem. In our proposal we determine key science measurements, the types of samples that would be needed and the instrument suites for achieving the science goals. In particular, we develop conceptual designs for delivering the science payload, including orbiters, aerial platforms and probes, and define a launch/delivery/communication management architecture. This mission will require new technologies and capabilities so that the science goals can be achieved within the cost cap and acceptable risks. International participation will play a key role in achieving all the science goals of this mission. We will build this mission concept around a central core of single orbiter, a single Titan aerial probe and a core group of category 1 instruments. Aerobraking with Titan's atmosphere will be given serious consideration to minimize resource requirements and risk. This approach will allow a single orbiter to be used for both Enceladus science and Titan science with final orbit around Titan and later release of aerial probe(s) into Titan's atmosphere. The Titan aerial probe may be a Montgolfière balloon concept that will use the waster heat ~ 1000 watts from a single RTG power system. There will be a release of penetrator(s) on Enceladus also. This proposal addresses directly several of the scientific questions highlighted in the ESA Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 call, particularly

  13. The Pioneer Venus Missions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Mountain View, CA. Ames Research Center.

    This document provides detailed information on the atmosphere and weather of Venus. This pamphlet describes the technological hardware including the probes that enter the Venusian atmosphere, the orbiter and the launch vehicle. Information is provided in lay terms on the mission profile, including details of events from launch to mission end. The…

  14. NASA Mission: The Universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This booklet is mainly a recruitment tool for the various NASA Centers. This well illustrated booklet briefly describes NASA's mission and career opportunities on the NASA team. NASA field installations and their missions are briefly noted. NASA's four chief program offices are briefly described. They are: (1) Aeronautics, Exploration, and Space Technology; (2) Space Flight; (3) Space Operations; and (4) Space Science and Applications.

  15. The Rosetta mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Matt; Altobelli, Nicolas; Martin, Patrick; Buratti, Bonnie J.; Choukroun, Mathieu

    2016-10-01

    The Rosetta Mission is the third cornerstone mission the ESA programme Horizon 2000. The aim of the mission is to map the comet 67-P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko by remote sensing, to examine its environment insitu and its evolution in the inner solar system. The lander Philae is the first device to land on a comet and perform in-situ science on the surface. Following its launch in March 2004, Rosetta underwent 3 Earth and 1 Mars flybys to achieve the correct trajectory to capture the comet, including flybys of asteroid on 2867 Steins and 21 Lutetia. For June 2011- January 2014 the spacecraft passed through a period of hibernation, due to lack of available power for full payload operation and following successful instrument commissioning, successfully rendezvoused with the comet in August 2014. Following an intense period of mapping and characterisation, a landing site for Philae was selected and on 12 November 2014, Philae was successfully deployed. Rosetta then embarked on the main phase of the mission, observing the comet on its way into and away from perihelion in August 2015. At the time of writing the mission is planned to terminate with the Rosetta orbiter impacting the comet surface on 30 September 2016. This presentation will provide a brief overview of the mission and its science. The first author is honoured to give this talk on behalf of all Rosetta mission science, instrument and operations teams, for it is they who have worked tirelessly to make this mission the success it is.

  16. Mission Medical Information System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson-Throop, Kathy A.; Joe, John C.; Follansbee, Nicole M.

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation gives an overview of the Mission Medical Information System (MMIS). The topics include: 1) What is MMIS?; 2) MMIS Goals; 3) Terrestrial Health Information Technology Vision; 4) NASA Health Information Technology Needs; 5) Mission Medical Information System Components; 6) Electronic Medical Record; 7) Longitudinal Study of Astronaut Health (LSAH); 8) Methods; and 9) Data Submission Agreement (example).

  17. Fulfilling an Ambitious Mission

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rourke, James; Mero, Dianne

    2008-01-01

    Given its success as a high achieving, award-winning magnet school for academically oriented students in grades 9-12, Columbus Alternative High School has more than successfully fulfilled its ambitious mission in the 30 years since it was named. According to the school's mission statement, Columbus Alternative aims "to create a truly alternative…

  18. Swarm: ESA's Magnetic Field Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plank, Gernot; Haagmans, Roger; Floberghagen, Rune; Menard, Yvon

    2013-04-01

    Swarm is the fifth Earth Explorer mission in ESA's Living Planet Programme, and is scheduled for launch in 2013. The objective of the Swarm mission is to provide the best-ever survey of the geomagnetic field and its temporal evolution using a constellation of 3 identical satellites. The Mission shall deliver data that allow access to new insights into the Earth system by improved scientific understanding of the Earth's interior and near-Earth electromagnetic environment. After launch and triple satellite release at an initial altitude of about 490 km, a pair of the satellites will fly side-by-side with slowly decaying altitude, while the third satellite will be lifted to 530 km to complete the Swarm constellation. High-precision and high-resolution measurements of the strength, direction and variation of the magnetic field, complemented by precise navigation, accelerometer and electric field measurements, will provide the observations required to separate and model various sources of the geomagnetic field and near-Earth current systems. The mission science goals are to provide a unique view into Earth's core dynamics, mantle conductivity, crustal magnetisation, ionospheric and magnetospheric current systems and upper atmosphere dynamics - ranging from understanding the geodynamo to contributing to space weather. The scientific objectives and results from recent scientific studies will be presented. In addition the current status of the project, which is presently in the final stage of the development phase, will be addressed. A consortium of European scientific institutes is developing a distributed processing system to produce geophysical (Level 2) data products for the Swarm user community. The setup of the Swarm ground segment and the contents of the data products will be addressed. More information on Swarm can be found at www.esa.int/esaLP/LPswarm.html.

  19. General Mission Analysis Tool (GMAT) User's Guide (Draft)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, Steven P.

    2007-01-01

    4The General Mission Analysis Tool (GMAT) is a space trajectory optimization and mission analysis system. This document is a draft of the users guide for the tool. Included in the guide is information about Configuring Objects/Resources, Object Fields: Quick Look-up Tables, and Commands and Events.

  20. The LISA Pathfinder Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitale, Stefano; LISA Pathfinder Team

    2013-04-01

    LISA Pathfinder is a mission of the European Space Mission aimed at demonstrating the space-time metrology required for space-borne gravitational wave observatories like eLISA. In particular the mission aims at experimentally test the detailed physical model of the eLISA instrument using the hardware to be flown on eLISA. This model predicts that no true forces on test-bodies will compete with gravitational signals in excess to fN/Hz^(-1/2). The mission is in phase C/D and is due to launch in two years. The talk will describe the mission, its development status, and the metrology under test.

  1. Mars Surface Mission Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duke, M. B. (Editor)

    1997-01-01

    A workshop was held at the Lunar and Planetary Institute on September 4-5, 1997, to address the surface elements of the Mars Reference Mission now being reviewed by NASA. The workshop considered the current reference mission and addressed the types of activities that would be expected for science and resource exploration and facilities operations. A set of activities was defined that can be used to construct "vignettes" of the surface mission. These vignettes can form the basis for describing the importance of the surface mission, for illustrating aspects of the surface mission, and for allowing others to extend and revise these initial ideas. The topic is rich with opportunities for additional conceptualization. It is recommended that NASA consider supporting university design teams to conduct further analysis of the possibilities.

  2. Kepler Mission Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koch, David; Borucki, William; Lissauer, J.; Mayer, David; Voss, Janice; Basri, Gibor; Gould, Alan; Brown, Timothy; Cockran, William; Caldwell, Douglas

    2005-01-01

    The Kepler Mission is in the development phase with launch planned for 2007. The mission goal first off is to reliably detect a significant number of Earth-size planets in the habitable zone of solar-like stars. The mission design allows for exploring the diversity of planetary sizes, orbital periods, stellar spectral types, etc. In this paper we describe the technical approach taken for the mission design; describing the flight and ground system, the detection methodology, the photometer design and capabilities, and the way the data are taken and processed. (For Stellar Classification program. Finally the detection capability in terms of planet size and orbit are presented as a function of mission duration and stellar type.

  3. PERCIVAL mission to Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, David W.; Lilley, Stewart; Sirman, Melinda; Bolton, Paul; Elliott, Susan; Hamilton, Doug; Nickelson, James; Shelton, Artemus

    1992-01-01

    With the downturn of the world economy, the priority of unmanned exploration of the solar system has been lowered. Instead of foregoing all missions to our neighbors in the solar system, a new philosophy of exploration mission design has evolved to insure the continued exploration of the solar system. The 'Discovery-class' design philosophy uses a low cost, limited mission, available technology spacecraft instead of the previous 'Voyager-class' design philosophy that uses a 'do-everything at any cost' spacecraft. The Percival Mission to Mars was proposed by Ares Industries as one of the new 'Discovery-class' of exploration missions. The spacecraft will be christened Percival in honor of American astronomer Percival Lowell who proposed the existence of life on Mars in the early twentieth century. The main purpose of the Percival mission to Mars is to collect and relay scientific data to Earth suitable for designing future manned and unmanned missions to Mars. The measurements and observations made by Percival will help future mission designers to choose among landing sites based on the feasibility and scientific interest of the sites. The primary measurements conducted by the Percival mission include gravity field determination, surface and atmospheric composition, sub-surface soil composition, sub-surface seismic activity, surface weather patterns, and surface imaging. These measurements will be taken from the orbiting Percival spacecraft and from surface penetrators deployed from Mars orbit. The design work for the Percival Mission to Mars was divided among four technical areas: Orbits and Propulsion System, Surface Penetrators, Gravity and Science Instruments, and Spacecraft Structure and Systems. The results for each of the technical areas is summarized and followed by a design cost analysis and recommendations for future analyses.

  4. Trusted Objects

    SciTech Connect

    CAMPBELL,PHILIP L.; PIERSON,LYNDON G.; WITZKE,EDWARD L.

    1999-10-27

    In the world of computers a trusted object is a collection of possibly-sensitive data and programs that can be allowed to reside and execute on a computer, even on an adversary's machine. Beyond the scope of one computer we believe that network-based agents in high-consequence and highly reliable applications will depend on this approach, and that the basis for such objects is what we call ''faithful execution.''

  5. The bering small vehicle asteroid mission concept.

    PubMed

    Michelsen, Rene; Andersen, Anja; Haack, Henning; Jørgensen, John L; Betto, Maurizio; Jørgensen, Peter S

    2004-05-01

    The study of asteroids is traditionally performed by means of large Earth based telescopes, by means of which orbital elements and spectral properties are acquired. Space borne research, has so far been limited to a few occasional flybys and a couple of dedicated flights to a single selected target. Although the telescope based research offers precise orbital information, it is limited to the brighter, larger objects, and taxonomy as well as morphology resolution is limited. Conversely, dedicated missions offer detailed surface mapping in radar, visual, and prompt gamma, but only for a few selected targets. The dilemma obviously being the resolution versus distance and the statistics versus DeltaV requirements. Using advanced instrumentation and onboard autonomy, we have developed a space mission concept whose goal is to map the flux, size, and taxonomy distributions of asteroids. The main focus is on main belt objects, but the mission profile will enable mapping of objects inside the Earth orbit as well.

  6. Airborne Lidar Simulator for the Lidar Surface Topography (LIST) Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, Anthony W.; Krainak, Michael A.; Abshire, James B.; Cavanaugh, John; Valett, Susan; Ramos-Izquierdo, Luis

    2010-01-01

    In 2007, the National Research Council (NRC) completed its first decadal survey for Earth science at the request of NASA, NOAA, and USGS. The Lidar Surface Topography (LIST) mission is one of fifteen missions recommended by NRC, whose primary objectives are to map global topography and vegetation structure at 5 m spatial resolution, and to acquire global surface height mapping within a few years. NASA Goddard conducted an initial mission concept study for the LIST mission in 2007, and developed the initial measurement requirements for the mission.

  7. The Effect of Mission Location on Mission Costs and Equivalent System Mass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, John W.; Levri, Julie A.; Jones, Harry W.

    2003-01-01

    Equivalent System Mass (ESM) is used by the Advanced Life Support (ALS) community to quantify mission costs of technologies for space applications (Drysdale et al, 1999, Levri et al, 2000). Mass is used as a cost measure because the mass of an object determines propulsion (acceleration) cost (i.e. amount of fuel needed), and costs relating to propulsion dominate mission cost. Mission location drives mission cost because acceleration is typically required to initiate and complete a change in location. Total mission costs may be reduced by minimizing the mass of materials that must be propelled to each distinct location. In order to minimize fuel requirements for missions beyond low-Earth orbit (LEO), the hardware and astronauts may not all go to the same location. For example, on a Lunar or Mars mission, some of the hardware or astronauts may stay in orbit while the rest of the hardware and astronauts descend to the planetary surface. In addition, there may be disposal of waste or used hardware at various mission locations to avoid propulsion of mass that is no longer needed in the mission. This paper demonstrates how using location factors in the calculation of ESM can account for the effects of various acceleration events and can improve the accuracy and value of the ESM metric to mission planners. Even a mission with one location can benefit from location factor analysis if the alternative technologies under consideration consume resources at different rates. For example, a mission that regenerates resources will have a relatively constant mass compared to one that uses consumables and vents/discards mass along the way. This paper shows examples of how location factors can affect ESM calculations and how the inclusion of location factors can change the relative value of technologies being considered for development.

  8. Mars Orbiter Study. Volume 2: Mission Design, Science Instrument Accommodation, Spacecraft Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drean, R.; Macpherson, D.; Steffy, D.; Vargas, T.; Shuman, B.; Anderson, K.; Richards, B.

    1982-01-01

    Spacecraft system and subsystem designs were developed at the conceptual level to perform either of two Mars Orbiter Missions, a Climatology Mission and an Aeronomy Mission. The objectives of these missions are to obtain and return data to increase knowledge of Mars.

  9. Planning for the V&V of infused software technologies for the Mars Science Laboratory Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feather, Martin S.; Fesq, Lorraine M.; Ingham, Michel D.; Klein, Suzanne L.; Nelson, Stacy D.

    2004-01-01

    NASA's Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover mission is planning to make use of advanced software technologies in order to support fulfillment of its ambitious science objectives. The mission plans to adopt the Mission Data System (MDS) as the mission software architecture, and plans to make significant use of on-board autonomous capabilities for the rover software.

  10. Moon manned mission scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Angelis, G.; Tripathi, R. K.; Wilson, J. W.; Clowdsley, M. S.; Nealy, J. E.; Badavi, F. F.

    An analysis is performed on the radiation environment found around and on the surface of the Moon, and applied to different possible lunar mission scenarios. An optimization technique has been used to obtain mission scenarios minimizing the astronaut radiation exposure and at the same time controlling the effect of shielding, in terms of mass addition and material choice, as a mission cost driver. The scenarios are evaluated from the point of view of radiation safety with the radiation protection quantities recommended for LEO scenarios.

  11. Global astrometry with the space interferometry mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boden, A.; Unwin, S.; Shao, M.

    1997-01-01

    The prospects for global astrometric measurements with the space interferometry mission (SIM) are discussed. The SIM mission will perform four microarcsec astrometric measurements on objects as faint as 20 mag using the optical interferometry technique with a 10 m baseline. The SIM satellite will perform narrow angle astrometry and global astrometry by means of an astrometric grid. The sensitivities of the SIM global astrometric performance and the grid accuracy versus instrumental parameters and sky coverage schemes are reported on. The problems in finding suitable astrometric grid objects to support microarcsec astrometry, and related ground-based observation programs are discussed.

  12. Exobiology and Future Mars Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckay, Christopher P. (Editor); Davis, Wanda, L. (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    Scientific questions associated with exobiology on Mars were considered and how these questions should be addressed on future Mars missions was determined. The mission that provided a focus for discussions was the Mars Rover/Sample Return Mission.

  13. Operational efficiency subpanel advanced mission control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedland, Peter

    1990-01-01

    Herein, the term mission control will be taken quite broadly to include both ground and space based operations as well as the information infrastructure necessary to support such operations. Three major technology areas related to advanced mission control are examined: (1) Intelligent Assistance for Ground-Based Mission Controllers and Space-Based Crews; (2) Autonomous Onboard Monitoring, Control and Fault Detection Isolation and Reconfiguration; and (3) Dynamic Corporate Memory Acquired, Maintained, and Utilized During the Entire Vehicle Life Cycle. The current state of the art space operations are surveyed both within NASA and externally for each of the three technology areas and major objectives are discussed from a user point of view for technology development. Ongoing NASA and other governmental programs are described. An analysis of major research issues and current holes in the program are provided. Several recommendations are presented for enhancing the technology development and insertion process to create advanced mission control environments.

  14. Pointing control for the International Comet Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leblanc, D. R.; Schumacher, L. L.

    1980-01-01

    The design of the pointing control system for the proposed International Comet Mission, intended to fly by Comet Halley and rendezvous with Comet Tempel-2 is presented. Following a review of mission objectives and the spacecraft configuration, design constraints on the pointing control system controlling the two-axis gimballed scan platform supporting the science instruments are discussed in relation to the scientific requirements of the mission. The primary design options considered for the pointing control system design for the baseline spacecraft are summarized, and the design selected, which employs a target-referenced, inertially stabilized control system, is described in detail. The four basic modes of operation of the pointing control subsystem (target acquisition, inertial hold, target track and slew) are discussed as they relate to operations at Halley and Tempel-2. It is pointed that the pointing control system design represents a significant advance in the state of the art of pointing controls for planetary missions.

  15. Flight Software for the LADEE Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cannon, Howard N.

    2015-01-01

    The Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) spacecraft was launched on September 6, 2013, and completed its mission on April 17, 2014 with a directed impact to the Lunar Surface. Its primary goals were to examine the lunar atmosphere, measure lunar dust, and to demonstrate high rate laser communications. The LADEE mission was a resounding success, achieving all mission objectives, much of which can be attributed to careful planning and preparation. This paper discusses some of the highlights from the mission, and then discusses the techniques used for developing the onboard Flight Software. A large emphasis for the Flight Software was to develop it within tight schedule and cost constraints. To accomplish this, the Flight Software team leveraged heritage software, used model based development techniques, and utilized an automated test infrastructure. This resulted in the software being delivered on time and within budget. The resulting software was able to meet all system requirements, and had very problems in flight.

  16. The DS1 hyper-extended mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brophy, J.; Brinza, D.; Polk, J.; Henry, M.

    2002-01-01

    The Primary Mission for Deep Space (DS1) was to demonstrate 12 new technologies one of which was the Ion Propulsion System (IPS). After successfully completing its primary mission, DS1 was given a new mission. The objective of this Extended Mission was to fly by the Comet Borrelly. After the successful Borrelly encounter, the ion thruster on DS1 had to be operated for more than 14,000 hours in space. This provided a unique opportunity to investigate the condition of the thruster after long-term operation in space and determine, to the extent possible, if the thruster wear in space is consistent with that observed in long-duration ground tests.

  17. Mission statements: selling corporate values to employees.

    PubMed

    Klemm, M; Sanderson, S; Luffman, G

    1991-06-01

    This article investigates the reasons for the increasing use of the Company Mission Statement. Using information from a survey of U.K. companies in 1989 it looks at the types of statements issued by companies, their content, usage, and value to managers. Of particular interest is whether the mission is primarily used for the motivation of staff, or for external image building. Related issues are the value of the mission drafting process in bringing managers together to agree common objectives and the use of a hierarchy of statements to reconcile internal and external stakeholders' interests. The conclusion is that the Mission, which includes a statement of company values, is an important tool for managers to assert their leadership within the organization.

  18. The Legacy of the FUSE Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonneborne, George

    2012-01-01

    The Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) mission was a far-ultraviolet space telescope that performed high resolution (R=20,OOO) spectroscopy in the 905 - 1187 A spectral range. FUSE primarily observed stars and distant galaxies to study interstellar and intergalactic gas through absorption spectroscopy, as well as the properties of the objects themselves. This capability complemented the Hubble Space Telescope at longer wavelengths, and provided the international astronomical community with access to an important part of the electromagnetic spectrum. FUSE was a joint project of NASA, CNES, and CSA. The mission operated from 1999 to 2007. This review talk will summarize the scientific impact of the FUSE mission on several key scientific problems, as well as lessons learned for future mission concepts.

  19. Small planetary mission plan: Report to Congress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This document outlines NASA's small planetary projects plan within the context of overall agency planning. In particular, this plan is consistent with Vision 21: The NASA Strategic Plan, and the Office of Space Science and Applications (OSSA) Strategic Plan. Small planetary projects address focused scientific objectives using a limited number of mature instruments, and are designed to require little or no new technology development. Small missions can be implemented by university and industry partnerships in coordination with a NASA Center to use the unique services the agency provides. The timeframe for small missions is consistent with academic degree programs, which makes them an excellent training ground for graduate students and post-doctoral candidates. Because small missions can be conducted relatively quickly and inexpensively, they provide greater opportunity for increased access to space. In addition, small missions contribute to sustaining a vital scientific community by increasing the available opportunities for direct investigator involvement from just a few projects in a career to many.

  20. Small planetary mission plan: Report to Congress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1992-04-01

    This document outlines NASA's small planetary projects plan within the context of overall agency planning. In particular, this plan is consistent with Vision 21: The NASA Strategic Plan, and the Office of Space Science and Applications (OSSA) Strategic Plan. Small planetary projects address focused scientific objectives using a limited number of mature instruments, and are designed to require little or no new technology development. Small missions can be implemented by university and industry partnerships in coordination with a NASA Center to use the unique services the agency provides. The timeframe for small missions is consistent with academic degree programs, which makes them an excellent training ground for graduate students and post-doctoral candidates. Because small missions can be conducted relatively quickly and inexpensively, they provide greater opportunity for increased access to space. In addition, small missions contribute to sustaining a vital scientific community by increasing the available opportunities for direct investigator involvement from just a few projects in a career to many.

  1. NASA's Radiation Belt Storm Probe Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sibeck, David G.

    2011-01-01

    NASA's Radiation Belt Storm Probe (RBSP) mission, comprising two identically-instrumented spacecraft, is scheduled for launch in May 2012. In addition to identifying and quantifying the processes responsible for energizing, transporting, and removing energetic particles from the Earth's Van Allen radiation, the mission will determine the characteristics of the ring current and its effect upon the magnetosphere as a whole. The distances separating the two RBSP spacecraft will vary as they move along their 1000 km altitude x 5.8 RE geocentric orbits in order to enable the spacecraft to separate spatial from temporal effects, measure gradients that help identify particle sources, and determine the spatial extent of a wide array of phenomena. This talk explores the scientific objectives of the mission and the manner by which the mission has been tailored to achieve them.

  2. The NASA X-Ray Mission Concepts Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petre, Robert; Ptak, A.; Bookbinder, J.; Garcia, M.; Smith, R.; Bautz, M.; Bregman, J.; Burrows, D.; Cash, W.; Jones-Forman, C.; Murray, S.; Plucinsky, P.; Ramsey, B.; Remillard, R.; Wilson-Hodge, C.; Daelemans, G.; Karpati, G.; Nicoletti, A.; Reid, P.

    2012-01-01

    The 2010 Astrophysics Decadal Survey recommended a significant technology development program towards realizing the scientific goals of the International X-ray Observatory (IXO). NASA has undertaken an X-ray mission concepts study to determine alternative approaches to accomplishing IXO's high ranking scientific objectives over the next decade given the budget realities, which make a flagship mission challenging to implement. The goal of the study is to determine the degree to which missions in various cost ranges from $300M to $2B could fulfill these objectives. The study process involved several steps. NASA released a Request for Information in October 2011, seeking mission concepts and enabling technology ideas from the community. The responses included a total of 14 mission concepts and 13 enabling technologies. NASA also solicited membership for and selected a Community Science Team (CST) to guide the process. A workshop was held in December 2011 in which the mission concepts and technology were presented and discussed. Based on the RFI responses and the workshop, the CST then chose a small group of notional mission concepts, representing a range of cost points, for further study. These notional missions concepts were developed through mission design laboratory activities in early 2012. The results of all these activities were captured in the final X-ray mission concepts study report, submitted to NASA in July 2012. In this presentation, we summarize the outcome of the study. We discuss background, methodology, the notional missions, and the conclusions of the study report.

  3. Overview of a Preliminary Destination Mission Concept for a Human Orbital Mission to the Martial Moons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mazanek, D. D.; Abell, P. A.; Antol, J.; Barbee, B. W.; Beaty, D. W.; Bass, D. S.; Castillo-Rogez, J. C.; Coan, D. A.; Colaprete, A.; Daugherty, K. J.; Drake, B. G.; Earle, K. D.; Graham, L. D.; Hembree, R. M.; Hoffman, S. J.; Jefferies, S. A.; Lupisella, M. L.; Reeves, David M.

    2012-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration s Human Spaceflight Architecture Team (HAT) has been developing a preliminary Destination Mission Concept (DMC) to assess how a human orbital mission to one or both of the Martian moons, Phobos and Deimos, might be conducted as a follow-on to a human mission to a near-Earth asteroid (NEA) and as a possible preliminary step prior to a human landing on Mars. The HAT Mars-Phobos-Deimos (MPD) mission also permits the teleoperation of robotic systems by the crew while in the Mars system. The DMC development activity provides an initial effort to identify the science and exploration objectives and investigate the capabilities and operations concepts required for a human orbital mission to the Mars system. In addition, the MPD Team identified potential synergistic opportunities via prior exploration of other destinations currently under consideration.

  4. STS-107 Mission after the Mission: Recovery of Data from the Debris of Columbia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Over, A. P.; Cassanto, J. M.; Cassanto, V. A.; DeLucas, L. J.; Reichert, P.; otil, S. M.; Reed, D. W.; Ahmay, F. T.

    2003-01-01

    STS-107 was a 16-day, dedicated research mission that included over 80 experiments, spanning many disciplines including biology, physics, chemistry, and earth sciences, including many student experiments. The mission was considered a resounding success until February 1, 2003, when tragedy struck the Columbia and her crew as she re-entered the atmosphere over Texas. During the mission, approximately one third of the overall data was obtained but much more was stored in the flight hardware systems. This paper documents a new set of STS-107 experiment objectives, a "mission after the mission," in which several experiment teams attempted, and, in many cases succeeded, to recover data from their flight hardware, now debris. A description of the data recovery efforts is included for these five experiment facilities: Combustion Module-2, Critical Viscosity of Xenon-2, Commercial Instrumentation Technology Associates Biomedical Experiments-2, Biological Research in Canisters-14, and Commercial Protein Crystal Growth.

  5. Defining departmental mission.

    PubMed

    Hartman, M D; Barrow, J A; Sawyer, W R

    1990-02-01

    Mission statements have long been recognized by corporate America as a way to define an enterprise. The necessary business orientation of the health care industry requires that hospitals and hospital departments define their scope of services and reason for existence. The accelerating reprofessionalization affecting departments of pharmacy requires the same. "Improving the quality of patient care" can no longer represent a euphemism for simply reacting to external factors or acting on a whim without clear meaningful intent. Professional departments and hospitals must demonstrate a sense of direction and purpose and be able to justify costs to a budget-conscious management and skeptical public. Mission statements are not substitutes for a clearly defined sense of professional mission. However, well-constructed mission statements contribute to clarity of departmental and professional purpose and effective achievement of goals. PMID:10128549

  6. Theme: A Mission Statement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mannebach, Alfred J; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Discusses what the future holds for vocational agriculture. Includes seven articles on the mission of agricultural education, teacher education, the public image, planning, secondary vocational agriculture, needed changes, and a vision for the future. (JOW)

  7. Technology Demonstration Missions

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA's Technology Demonstration Missions (TDM) Program seeks to infuse new technology into space applications, bridging the gap between mature “lab-proven” technology and "flight-ready" status....

  8. Mission Control Roses

    NASA Video Gallery

    The 110th bouquet of roses arrived in Mission Control on Saturday, July 9, 2011. They were sent as quietly as they have been for more than 23 years by a family near Dallas, Texas. For 110 shuttle m...

  9. Mars Exploration Rover Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Barbara A.

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the Mars Exploration Rover Mission. The design of the Rover along with the Athena science payload is also described. Photographs of the Gusev Crater and Meridiani rocks are also shown.

  10. NASA Hurricane Mission - GRIP

    NASA Video Gallery

    This is an overview of NASA's hurricane research campaign called Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes (GRIP). The six-week mission was conducted in coordination with NOAA and the National Sc...

  11. Students on Hayabusa Mission

    NASA Video Gallery

    Three Massachusetts high school students began their summer with a journey halfway around the world to participate in a NASA airborne mission to image the Japanese Hayabusa spacecraft's fiery retur...

  12. The IRIS Mission Timeline

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation shows the timeline of activities for the IRIS mission. Following launch, during the initial orbits, the spacecraft “detumbles”, opens the solar arrays, acquires the sun and com...

  13. Mission X Introduction

    NASA Video Gallery

    Expedition 26 Flight Engineer Cady Coleman delivers a message to student teams participating in the Mission X: Train Like An Astronaut international education and fitness challenge. To learn more, ...

  14. Theme: The Expanded Mission.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finley, Eddy; And Others

    1991-01-01

    This theme issue covers the following topics: modernization of agricultural education, an expanded mission for the field, community development, a national presence for agricultural education, revising curriculum, and interesting students in new careers in agriculture. (SK)

  15. STS-83 Mission Insignia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The crew patch for NASA's STS-83 mission depicts the Space Shuttle Columbia launching into space for the first Microgravity Sciences Laboratory 1 (MSL-1) mission. MSL-1 investigated materials science, fluid dynamics, biotechnology, and combustion science in the microgravity environment of space, experiments that were conducted in the Spacelab Module in the Space Shuttle Columbia's cargo bay. The center circle symbolizes a free liquid under microgravity conditions representing various fluid and materials science experiments. Symbolic of the combustion experiments is the surrounding starburst of a blue flame burning in space. The 3-lobed shape of the outermost starburst ring traces the dot pattern of a transmission Laue photograph typical of biotechnology experiments. The numerical designation for the mission is shown at bottom center. As a forerunner to missions involving International Space Station (ISS), STS-83 represented the hope that scientific results and knowledge gained during the flight will be applied to solving problems on Earth for the benefit and advancement of humankind.

  16. STS-133 Mission Highlights

    NASA Video Gallery

    Space shuttle Discovery and the STS-133 crew launched Feb. 24, 2011, on a mission to deliver the Permanent Multipurpose Module, Robonaut 2 and the Express Logistics Carrier 4 to the International S...

  17. Calculation of Operations Efficiency Factors for Mars Surface Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laubach, Sharon

    2014-01-01

    The duration of a mission--and subsequently, the minimum spacecraft lifetime--is a key component in designing the capabilities of a spacecraft during mission formulation. However, determining the duration is not simply a function of how long it will take the spacecraft to execute the activities needed to achieve mission objectives. Instead, the effects of the interaction between the spacecraft and ground operators must also be taken into account. This paper describes a method, using "operations efficiency factors", to account for these effects for Mars surface missions. Typically, this level of analysis has not been performed until much later in the mission development cycle, and has not been able to influence mission or spacecraft design. Further, the notion of moving to sustainable operations during Prime Mission--and the effect that change would have on operations productivity and mission objective choices--has not been encountered until the most recent rover missions (MSL, the (now-cancelled) joint NASA-ESA 2018 Mars rover, and the proposed rover for Mars 2020). Since MSL had a single control center and sun-synchronous relay assets (like MER), estimates of productivity derived from MER prime and extended missions were used. However, Mars 2018's anticipated complexity (there would have been control centers in California and Italy, and a non-sun-synchronous relay asset) required the development of an explicit model of operations efficiency that could handle these complexities. In the case of the proposed Mars 2018 mission, the model was employed to assess the mission return of competing operations concepts, and as an input to component lifetime requirements. In this paper we provide examples of how to calculate the operations efficiency factor for a given operational configuration, and how to apply the factors to surface mission scenarios. This model can be applied to future missions to enable early effective trades between operations design, science mission

  18. Lessons Learned from the Clementine Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    According to BMDO, the Clementine mission achieved many of its technology objectives during its flight to the Moon in early 1994 but, because of a software error, was unable to test the autonomous tracking of a cold target. The preliminary analyses of the returned lunar data suggest that valuable scientific measurements were made on several important topics but that COMPLEX's highest-priority objectives for lunar science were not achieved. This is not surprising given that the rationale for Clementine was technological rather than scientific. COMPLEX lists below a few of the lessons that may be learned from Clementine. Although the Clementine mission was not conceived as a NASA science mission exactly like those planned for the Discovery program, many operational aspects of the two are similar. It is therefore worthwhile to understand the strengths and faults of the Clementine approach. Some elements of the Clementine operation that led to the mission's success include the following: (1) The mission's achievements were the responsibility of a single organization and its manager, which made that organization and that individual accountable for the final outcome; (2) The sponsor adopted a hands-off approach and set a minimum number of reviews (three); (3) The sponsor accepted a reasonable amount of risk and allowed the project team to make the trade-offs necessary to minimize the mission's risks while still accomplishing all its primary objectives; and (4) The development schedule was brief and the agreed-on funding (and funding profile) was adhered to. Among the operational shortcomings of Clementine were the following: (1) An overly ambitious schedule and a slightly lean budget (meaning insufficient time for software development and testing, and leading ultimately to human exhaustion); and (2) No support for data calibration, reduction, and analysis. The principal lesson to be learned in this category is that any benefits from the constructive application of higher

  19. The ASTRO-H Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dotani, Tadayasu; Takahashi, Tadayuki

    2012-07-01

    ASTRO-H, the new Japanese X-ray Astronomy Satellite following Suzaku, is an international X-ray mission, planed for launch in 2014. ASTRO-H is a combination of wide band X-ray spectroscopy (3 - 80 keV) provided by focusing hard X-ray mirrors and hard X-ray imaging detectors, and high energy-resolution soft X-ray spectroscopy (0.3 - 10 keV) provided by thin-foil X-ray optics and a micro-calorimeter array. The mission will also carry an X-ray CCD camera as a focal plane detector for a soft X-ray telescope and a non-focusing soft gamma-ray detector based on a narrow-FOV semiconductor Compton Camera. With these instruments, ASTRO-H covers very wide energy range from 0.3 keV to 600 keV. The simultaneous broad band pass, coupled with high spectral resolution of <7 eV by the micro-calorimeter will enable a wide variety of important science themes to be pursued. The ASTRO-H mission objectives are to study the evolution of yet-unknown obscured super massive Black Holes in Active Galactic Nuclei; trace the growth history of the largest structures in the Universe; provide insights into the behavior of material in extreme gravitational fields; trace particle acceleration structures in clusters of galaxies and SNRs; and investigate the detailed physics of jets. In this presentation, we will describe the mission, scientific goal and the recent progress of the project.

  20. The Europa Clipper mission concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pappalardo, Robert; Lopes, Rosaly

    Jupiter's moon Europa may be a habitable world. Galileo spacecraft data suggest that an ocean most likely exists beneath Europa’s icy surface and that the “ingredients” necessary for life (liquid water, chemistry, and energy) could be present within this ocean today. Because of the potential for revolutionizing our understanding of life in the solar system, future exploration of Europa has been deemed an extremely high priority for planetary science. A NASA-appointed Science Definition Team (SDT), working closely with a technical team from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and the Applied Physics Laboratory (APL), recently considered options for a future strategic mission to Europa, with the stated science goal: Explore Europa to investigate its habitability. The group considered several mission options, which were fully technically developed, then costed and reviewed by technical review boards and planetary science community groups. There was strong convergence on a favored architecture consisting of a spacecraft in Jupiter orbit making many close flybys of Europa, concentrating on remote sensing to explore the moon. Innovative mission design would use gravitational perturbations of the spacecraft trajectory to permit flybys at a wide variety of latitudes and longitudes, enabling globally distributed regional coverage of the moon’s surface, with nominally 45 close flybys at altitudes from 25 to 100 km. We will present the science and reconnaissance goals and objectives, a mission design overview, and the notional spacecraft for this concept, which has become known as the Europa Clipper. The Europa Clipper concept provides a cost-efficient means to explore Europa and investigate its habitability, through understanding the satellite’s ice and ocean, composition, and geology. The set of investigations derived from these science objectives traces to a notional payload for science, consisting of: Ice Penetrating Radar (for sounding of ice-water interfaces

  1. The EOS Aura Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoeberl, Mark R.; Douglass, A. R.; Hilsenrath, E.; Luce, M.; Barnett, J.; Beer, R.; Waters, J.; Gille, J.; Levelt, P. F.; DeCola, P.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The EOS Aura Mission is designed to make comprehensive chemical measurements of the troposphere and stratosphere. In addition the mission will make measurements of important climate variables such as aerosols, and upper tropospheric water vapor and ozone. Aura will launch in late 2003 and will fly 15 minutes behind EOS Aqua in a polar sun synchronous ascending node orbit with a 1:30 pm equator crossing time.

  2. Apollo 17 mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Operational and engineering aspects of the Apollo 17 mission are outlined. The vehicle configuration was similar to those of Apollo 15 and 16. There were significant differences in the science payload for Apollo 17 and spacecraft hardware differences and experiment equipment are described. The mission achieved a landing in the Taurus-Littrow region of the moon and returned samples of the pre-Imbrium highlands and young craters.

  3. Galileo Mission Science Briefing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1989-07-01

    The first of two tapes of the Galileo Mission Science press briefing is presented. The panel is moderated by George Diller from the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Public Affairs Office. The participants are John Conway, the director of Payload and operations at Kennedy; Donald E. Williams, Commander of STS-43, the shuttle mission which will launch the Galileo mission; John Casani, the Deputy Assistant Director of Flight Projects at the Jet Propulsion Lab (JPL); Dick Spehalski, Galileo Project Manager at JPL; and Terrence Johnson, Galileo Project Scientist at JPL. The briefing begins with an announcement of the arrival of the Galileo Orbiter at KSC. The required steps prior to the launch are discussed. The mission trajectory and gravity assists from planetary and solar flybys are reviewed. Detailed designs of the orbiter are shown. The distance that Galileo will travel from the sun precludes the use of solar energy for heat. Therefore Radioisotope heater units are used to keep the equipment at operational temperature. A video of the arrival of the spacecraft at KSC and final tests and preparations is shown. Some of the many science goals of the mission are reviewed. Another video showing an overview of the Galileo mission is presented. During the question and answer period, the issue of the use of plutonium on the mission is broached, which engenders a review of the testing methods used to ensure the safety of the capsules containing the hazardous substance. This video has actual shots of the orbiter, as it is undergoing the final preparations and tests for the mission.

  4. Apollo mission experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaefer, H. J.

    1972-01-01

    Dosimetric implications for manned space flight are evaluated by analyzing the radiation field behind the heavy shielding of a manned space vehicle on a near-earth orbital mission and how it compares with actual exposure levels recorded on Apollo missions. Emphasis shifts from flux densities and energy spectra to incident radiation and absorbed doses and dose equivalents as they are recorded within the ship at locations close to crew members.

  5. Galileo Mission Science Briefing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The first of two tapes of the Galileo Mission Science press briefing is presented. The panel is moderated by George Diller from the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Public Affairs Office. The participants are John Conway, the director of Payload and operations at Kennedy; Donald E. Williams, Commander of STS-43, the shuttle mission which will launch the Galileo mission; John Casani, the Deputy Assistant Director of Flight Projects at the Jet Propulsion Lab (JPL); Dick Spehalski, Galileo Project Manager at JPL; and Terrence Johnson, Galileo Project Scientist at JPL. The briefing begins with an announcement of the arrival of the Galileo Orbiter at KSC. The required steps prior to the launch are discussed. The mission trajectory and gravity assists from planetary and solar flybys are reviewed. Detailed designs of the orbiter are shown. The distance that Galileo will travel from the sun precludes the use of solar energy for heat. Therefore Radioisotope heater units are used to keep the equipment at operational temperature. A video of the arrival of the spacecraft at KSC and final tests and preparations is shown. Some of the many science goals of the mission are reviewed. Another video showing an overview of the Galileo mission is presented. During the question and answer period, the issue of the use of plutonium on the mission is broached, which engenders a review of the testing methods used to ensure the safety of the capsules containing the hazardous substance. This video has actual shots of the orbiter, as it is undergoing the final preparations and tests for the mission.

  6. STEREO Mission Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunham, David W.; Guzman, Jose J.; Sharer, Peter J.; Friessen, Henry D.

    2007-01-01

    STEREO (Solar-TErestrial RElations Observatory) is the third mission in the Solar Terrestrial Probes program (STP) of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). STEREO is the first mission to utilize phasing loops and multiple lunar flybys to alter the trajectories of more than one satellite. This paper describes the launch computation methodology, the launch constraints, and the resulting nine launch windows that were prepared for STEREO. More details are provided for the window in late October 2006 that was actually used.

  7. NEEMO 7 undersea mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thirsk, Robert; Williams, David; Anvari, Mehran

    2007-02-01

    The NEEMO 7 mission was the seventh in a series of NASA-coordinated missions utilizing the Aquarius undersea habitat in Florida as a human space mission analog. The primary research focus of this mission was to evaluate telementoring and telerobotic surgery technologies as potential means to deliver medical care to astronauts during spaceflight. The NEEMO 7 crewmembers received minimal pre-mission training to perform selected medical and surgical procedures. These procedures included: (1) use of a portable ultrasound to locate and measure abdominal organs and structures in a crewmember subject; (2) use of a portable ultrasound to insert a small needle and drain into a fluid-filled cystic cavity in a simulated patient; (3) surgical repair of two arteries in a simulated patient; (4) cystoscopy and use of a ureteral basket to remove a renal stone in a simulated patient; and (5) laparoscopic cholecystectomy in a simulated patient. During the actual mission, the crewmembers performed the procedures without or with telementoring and telerobotic assistance from experts located in Hamilton, Ontario. The results of the NEEMO 7 medical experiments demonstrated that telehealth interventions rely heavily on a robust broadband, high data rate telecommunication link; that certain interventional procedures can be performed adequately by minimally trained individuals with telementoring assistance; and that prior clinical experience does not always correlate with better procedural performance. As space missions become longer in duration and take place further from Earth, enhancement of medical care capability and expertise will be required. The kinds of medical technologies demonstrated during the NEEMO 7 mission may play a significant role in enabling the human exploration of space beyond low earth orbit, particularly to destinations such as the Moon and Mars.

  8. Hydrology Applications of the GRACE missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivasan, M. M.; Ivins, E. R.; Jasinski, M. F.

    2014-12-01

    NASA and their German space agency partners have a rich history of global gravity observations beginning with the launch of the Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment (GRACE) in 2002. The science goals of the mission include providing monthly maps of variations in the gravity field, where the major time-varying signal is due to water motion in the Earth system. GRACE has a unique ability to observe the mass flux of water movement at monthly time scales. The hydrology applications of the GRACE mission include measurements of seasonal storage of surface and subsurface water and evapotranspiration at the land-ocean-atmosphere boundary. These variables are invaluable for improved modeling and prediction of Earth system processes. Other mission-critical science objectives include measurements that are a key component of NASA's ongoing climate measuring capabilities. Successful strategies to enhance science and practical applications of the proposed GRACE-Follow On (GRACE-FO) mission, scheduled to launch in 2017, will require engaging with and facilitating between representatives in the science, societal applications, and mission planning communities. NASA's Applied Sciences Program is supporting collaboration on an applied approach to identifying communities of potential and of practice in order to identify and promote the societal benefits of these and future gravity missions. The objective is to engage applications-oriented users and organizations and enable them to envision possible applications and end-user needs as a way to increase the benefits of these missions to the nations. The focus of activities for this applications program include; engaging the science community in order to identify applications and current and potential data users, developing a written Applications Plan, conducting workshops and user tutorials, providing ready access to information via web pages, developing databases of key and interested users/scientists, creating printed materials

  9. Human exploration mission studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cataldo, Robert L.

    1989-01-01

    The Office of Exploration has established a process whereby all NASA field centers and other NASA Headquarters offices participate in the formulation and analysis of a wide range of mission strategies. These strategies were manifested into specific scenarios or candidate case studies. The case studies provided a systematic approach into analyzing each mission element. First, each case study must address several major themes and rationale including: national pride and international prestige, advancement of scientific knowledge, a catalyst for technology, economic benefits, space enterprise, international cooperation, and education and excellence. Second, the set of candidate case studies are formulated to encompass the technology requirement limits in the life sciences, launch capabilities, space transfer, automation, and robotics in space operations, power, and propulsion. The first set of reference case studies identify three major strategies: human expeditions, science outposts, and evolutionary expansion. During the past year, four case studies were examined to explore these strategies. The expeditionary missions include the Human Expedition to Phobos and Human Expedition to Mars case studies. The Lunar Observatory and Lunar Outpost to Early Mars Evolution case studies examined the later two strategies. This set of case studies established the framework to perform detailed mission analysis and system engineering to define a host of concepts and requirements for various space systems and advanced technologies. The details of each mission are described and, specifically, the results affecting the advanced technologies required to accomplish each mission scenario are presented.

  10. Atrial Fibrillation During an Exploration Class Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lipset, Mark A.; Lemery, Jay; Polk, J. D.; Hamilton, Douglas R.

    2010-01-01

    International Space Station or a mission to the Moon or Mars. Learning Objectives: The audience will become familiar with the risks and challenges inherent to developing a therapeutic strategy for the treatment of atrial fibrillation during a long-term exploration class mission.

  11. The Biological Oxidant and Life Detection (BOLD) mission: A proposal for a mission to Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulze-Makuch, Dirk; Head, James N.; Houtkooper, Joop M.; Knoblauch, Michael; Furfaro, Roberto; Fink, Wolfgang; Fairén, Alberto G.; Vali, Hojatollah; Kelly Sears, S.; Daly, Mike; Deamer, David; Schmidt, Holger; Hawkins, Aaron R.; Sun, Henry J.; Lim, Darlene S. S.; Dohm, James; Irwin, Louis N.; Davila, Alfonso F.; Mendez, Abel; Andersen, Dale

    2012-07-01

    The next step in the exploration of Mars should include a strong and comprehensive life detection component. We propose a mission called BOLD: Biological Oxidant and Life Detection mission. The scientific objectives of the BOLD mission are to characterize habitability of the martian surface and to search for evidence of extinct or extant life. In contrast to the Viking mission, which was designed to detect heterotrophic life on Mars, the BOLD mission incorporates a more comprehensive search for autotrophic microorganisms, as well as detecting a variety of biomarkers and understanding their environment. Six miniature landers are envisioned for BOLD that utilize either an orbital (e.g. Viking) or direct entry (e.g., MER, Phoenix) mission architecture. The number of landers will provide mission redundancy, and each will incorporate a Mars Soil Analyzer, a Multispectral Microscopic Imager, a Nanopore-ARROW that detects biopolymers with single molecule resolution, an Atmospheric Structure and Surface Environment Instrument, a Fluorescent Stain experiment, and a Chirality experiment. A terrain navigation system, coupled with robust propulsion, permits a landing accuracy on the order of meters if required to meet the science objectives. The probes will use existing orbiters for communication relay if the orbiter architecture proves too ambitious.

  12. Mission planning for the Lidar in Space Technology Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Redifer, Matthew E.

    1995-01-01

    Developing a mission planning system for a Space Shuttle mission is a complex procedure. Several months of preparation are required to develop a plan that optimizes science return during the short operations time frame. Further complicating the scenario is the necessity to schedule around crew activities and other payloads which share Orbiter resources. SpaceTec, Inc. developed the mission planning system for the Lidar In Space Technology Experiment, or LITE, which flew on Space Shuttle mission STS-64 in September of 1994. SpaceTec used a combination of off-th-shelf and in-house developed software to analyze various mission scenarios both premission and real-time during the flight. From this analysis, SpaceTec developed a comprehensive mission plan that met the mission objectives.

  13. Influence of Power System Technology on Electric Propulsion Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oleson, Steven R.

    1995-01-01

    Electric propulsion (EP) thruster technology, with efficient lightweight power systems can provide substantial reductions in propulsion system wet mass due to the high specific impulse (Isp) of the thrusters. Historically, the space power systems are too massive for many potential orbital missions. The objective of this paper is to show the impact of current power system technology on EP mission performance and determine what technology advancements are needed to make EP beneficial for earth orbital applications. The approach of the paper is to model the electric propulsion system and orbital mission using a partial parametric method. Various missions are analyzed from orbit maintenance to orbit transfer. Results portray the relationship between mission performance and power technology level. Conclusions show which mission applications currently have acceptable power technology, and which mission applications require power technology improvements.

  14. Management of information for mission operations using automated keyword referencing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, Roger A.; Curran, Patrick S.

    1993-01-01

    Although millions of dollars have helped to improve the operability and technology of ground data systems for mission operations, almost all mission documentation remains bound in printed volumes. This form of documentation is difficult and timeconsuming to use, may be out-of-date, and is usually not cross-referenced with other related volumes of mission documentation. A more effective, automated method of mission information access is needed. A new method of information management for mission operations using automated keyword referencing is proposed. We expound on the justification for and the objectives of this concept. The results of a prototype tool for mission information access that uses a hypertextlike user interface and existing mission documentation are shared. Finally, the future directions and benefits of our proposed work are described.

  15. An integrated mission planning approach for the Space Exploration Initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Coomes, E.P.; Dagle, J.E.; Bamberger, J.A.; Noffsinger, K.E.

    1992-08-01

    This report discusses a fully integrated energy-based approach to mission planning which is needed if the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) is to succeed. Such an approach would reduce the number of new systems and technologies requiring development. The resultant horizontal commonality of systems and hardware would reduce the direct economic impact of SEI and provide an economic benefit by greatly enhancing our international technical competitiveness through technology spin-offs and through the resulting early return on investment. Integrated planning and close interagency cooperation must occur if the SEI is to achieve its goal of expanding the human presence into the solar system and be an affordable endeavor. An energy-based mission planning approach gives each mission planner the needed power, yet preserves the individuality of mission requirements and objectives while reducing the concessions mission planners must make. This approach may even expand the mission options available and enhance mission activities.

  16. Mission building blocks for outer solar system exploration.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herman, D.; Tarver, P.; Moore, J.

    1973-01-01

    Description of the technological building blocks required for exploring the outer planets with maximum scientific yields under stringent resource constraints. Two generic spacecraft types are considered: the Mariner and the Pioneer. Following a discussion of the outer planet mission constraints, the evolutionary development of spacecraft, probes, and propulsion building blocks is presented. Then, program genealogies are shown for Pioneer and Mariner missions and advanced propulsion systems to illustrate the soundness of a program based on spacecraft modification rather than on the development of new spacecraft for each mission. It is argued that, for minimum costs, technological advancement should occur in an evolutionary manner from mission to mission. While this strategy is likely to result in compromises on specific missions, the realization of the overall objectives calls for an advance commitment to the entire mission series.

  17. An integrated mission planning approach for the space exploration initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Coomes, E.P.; Dagle, J.E.; Bamberger, J.A.; Noffsinger, K.E.

    1992-01-01

    A fully integrated energy-based approach to mission planning is needed if the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) is to succeed. Such an approach would reduce the number of new systems and technologies requiring development. The resultant horizontal commonality of systems and hardware would reduce the direct economic impact of SEI and provide an economic benefit by greatly enhancing our international technical competitiveness through technology spin-offs and through the resulting early return on investment. Integrated planning and close interagency cooperation must occur if the SEI is to achieve its goal of expanding the human presence into the solar system and be an affordable endeavor. An energy-based mission planning approach gives each mission planner the needed power, yet preserves the individuality of mission requirements and objectives while reducing the concessions mission planners must make. This approach may even expand the mission options available and enhance mission activities.

  18. STS-90 Mission Specialist Dave Williams is suited up for launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    STS-90 Mission Specialist Dafydd (Dave) Williams, M.D., with the Canadian Space Agency sits in a chair during suitup activities in the Operations and Checkout Building. Williams and the rest of the STS-90 crew will shortly depart for Launch Pad 39B, where the Space Shuttle Columbia awaits a second liftoff attempt at 2:19 p.m. EDT. His first trip into space, Williams is participating in this life sciences research flight that will focus on the most complex and least understood part of the human body -- the nervous system. Neurolab will examine the effects of spaceflight on the brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves and sensory organs in the human body.

  19. STS-90 Mission Specialist Kathryn (Kay) Hire is suited up for launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    STS-90 Mission Specialist Kathryn (Kay) Hire prepares for launch during suitup activities in the Operations and Checkout Building as Astronaut Support Personnel team member Heidi Piper braids Hire's hair. Hire and the rest of the STS-90 crew will shortly depart for Launch Pad 39B, where the Space Shuttle Columbia awaits a second liftoff attempt at 2:19 p.m. EDT. Her first trip into space, Hire is participating in this life sciences research flight that will focus on the most complex and least understood part of the human body -- the nervous system. Neurolab will examine the effects of spaceflight on the brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves and sensory organs in the human body.

  20. STS-90 Mission Commander Richard Searfoss is suited up for launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    STS-90 Mission Specialist Kathryn (Kay) Hire prepares for launch during suitup activities in the Operations and Checkout Building as Astronaut Support Personnel team member Heidi Piper braids Hire's hair. Hire and the rest of the STS-90 crew will shortly depart for Launch Pad 39B, where the Space Shuttle Columbia awaits a second liftoff attempt at 2:19 p.m. EDT. Her first trip into space, Hire is participating in this life sciences research flight that will focus on the most complex and least understood part of the human body -- the nervous system. Neurolab will examine the effects of spaceflight on the brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves and sensory organs in the human body.