Science.gov

Sample records for 3a 3b 3c

  1. Compilation, design tests: Energetic particles Satellite S-3 including design tests for S-3A, S-3B and S-3C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ledoux, F. N.

    1973-01-01

    A compilation of engineering design tests which were conducted in support of the Energetic Particle Satellite S-3, S-3A, and S-3b programs. The purpose for conducting the tests was to determine the adequacy and reliability of the Energetic Particles Series of satellites designs. The various tests consisted of: (1) moments of inertia, (2) functional reliability, (3) component and structural integrity, (4) initiators and explosives tests, and (5) acceptance tests.

  2. KIF3C and KIF3A Form a Novel Neuronal Heteromeric Kinesin That Associates with Membrane Vesicles

    PubMed Central

    Muresan, Virgil; Abramson, Tatiana; Lyass, Asya; Winter, Dirk; Porro, Elena; Hong, Filbert; Chamberlin, Nancy L.; Schnapp, Bruce J.

    1998-01-01

    We have cloned from rat brain the cDNA encoding an 89,828-Da kinesin-related polypeptide KIF3C that is enriched in brain, retina, and lung. Immunocytochemistry of hippocampal neurons in culture shows that KIF3C is localized to cell bodies, dendrites, and, in lesser amounts, to axons. In subcellular fractionation experiments, KIF3C cofractionates with a distinct population of membrane vesicles. Native KIF3C binds to microtubules in a kinesin-like, nucleotide-dependent manner. KIF3C is most similar to mouse KIF3B and KIF3A, two closely related kinesins that are normally present as a heteromer. In sucrose density gradients, KIF3C sediments at two distinct densities, suggesting that it may be part of two different multimolecular complexes. Immunoprecipitation experiments show that KIF3C is in part associated with KIF3A, but not with KIF3B. Unlike KIF3B, a significant portion of KIF3C is not associated with KIF3A. Consistent with these biochemical properties, the distribution of KIF3C in the CNS has both similarities and differences compared with KIF3A and KIF3B. These results suggest that KIF3C is a vesicle-associated motor that functions both independently and in association with KIF3A. PMID:9487132

  3. 75 FR 910 - Airworthiness Directives; General Electric Company CF34-1A, -3A, -3A1, -3A2, -3B, and -3B1...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-07

    ...-42-AD; Amendment 39-16144; AD 2009-26-09] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; General Electric... existing airworthiness directive (AD) for General Electric Company (GE) CF34-1A, -3A, -3A1, -3A2, -3B, and... General Electric Company via Lockheed Martin Technology Services, 10525 Chester Road, Suite C,...

  4. Updating P300: An Integrative Theory of P3a and P3b

    PubMed Central

    Polich, John

    2009-01-01

    The empirical and theoretical development of the P300 event-related brain potential (ERP) is reviewed by considering factors that contribute to its amplitude, latency, and general characteristics. The neuropsychological origins of the P3a and P3b subcomponents are detailed, and how target/standard discrimination difficulty modulates scalp topography is discussed. The neural loci of P3a and P3b generation are outlined, and a cognitive model is proffered: P3a originates from stimulus-driven frontal attention mechanisms during task processing, whereas P3b originates from temporal-parietal activity associated with attention and appears related to subsequent memory processing. Neurotransmitter actions associating P3a to frontal/dopaminergic and P3b to parietal/norepinephrine pathways are highlighted. Neuroinhibition is suggested as an overarching theoretical mechanism for P300, which is elicited when stimulus detection engages memory operations. PMID:17573239

  5. Worldwide population distribution of the common LCE3C-LCE3B deletion associated with psoriasis and other autoimmune disorders

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There is increasing evidence of the importance of copy number variants (CNV) in genetic diversity among individuals and populations, as well as in some common genetic diseases. We previously characterized a common 32-kb insertion/deletion variant of the PSORS4 locus at chromosome 1q21 that harbours the LCE3C and LCE3B genes. This variant allele (LCE3C_LCE3B-del) is common in patients with psoriasis and other autoimmune disorders from certain ethnic groups. Results Using array-CGH (Agilent 244 K) in samples from the HapMap and Human Genome Diversity Panel (HGDP) collections, we identified 54 regions showing population differences in comparison to Africans. We provided here a comprehensive population-genetic analysis of one of these regions, which involves the 32-kb deletion of the PSORS4 locus. By a PCR-based genotyping assay we characterised the profiles of the LCE3C_LCE3B-del and the linkage disequilibrium (LD) pattern between the variant allele and the tag SNP rs4112788. Our results show that most populations tend to have a higher frequency of the deleted allele than Sub-Saharan Africans. Furthermore, we found strong LD between rs4112788G and LCE3C_LCE3B-del in most non-African populations (r2 >0.8), in contrast to the low concordance between loci (r2 <0.3) in the African populations. Conclusions These results are another example of population variability in terms of biomedical interesting CNV. The frequency distribution of the LCE3C_LCE3B-del allele and the LD pattern across populations suggest that the differences between ethnic groups might not be due to natural selection, but the consequence of genetic drift caused by the strong bottleneck that occurred during “out of Africa” expansion. PMID:23594316

  6. Feasibility of establishing deletion of the late cornified envelope genes LCE3B and LCE3C as a susceptibility factor for psoriasis

    PubMed Central

    Bashir, Safia; Hassan, Iffat; Majid, Sabhiya; Bhat, Yasmeen Jabeen; Farooq, Rabia

    2016-01-01

    Background: Psoriasis is a chronic hyperproliferative inflammatory disease of the skin, genetic predisposition to which is well-established. The late cornified envelope genes LCE3B and LCE3C are involved in maintaining the integrity of skin barrier especially following skin barrier disruption. The deletion of these genes would lead to an impaired epidermal response following damage to the skin barrier thus predisposing to psoriatic lesions. This study aimed to evaluate the common deletion of late cornified envelope genes (LCE 3B/3C) in psoriasis patients of Kashmiri ethnic population of North India. Materials and Methods: It was a hospital-based, case-control study which included 100 psoriasis cases and an equal number of controls. Blood samples were obtained, and DNA was extracted from all the samples by a kit-based method. To determine the LCE3C_LCE3B-del genotype, a three-primer polymerase chain reaction assay was performed. Results: The genotype for the common LCE3C_LCE3B deletion in 100 psoriasis patients and 100 controls was determined. Among the cases, 17 cases were homozygous for insertion genotype (I/I), 40 cases were heterozygous for insertion/deletion genotype (I/D) and 43 cases were homozygous for deletion genotype (D/D), compared to controls where 20 cases were homozygous for insertion genotype (I/I), 45 cases were heterozygous for insertion/deletion genotype (I/D), and 35 cases were homozygous for deletion genotype (D/D). The del/del frequency was higher among psoriatic patients compared to controls (43% vs. 35%) although the difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.507). Conclusion: We hereby infer that LCE3C_LCE3B deletion does not appear to be associated with the risk of psoriasis in our population. PMID:27376048

  7. Molecular Basis for Complement Recognition and Inhibition Determined by Crystallographic Studies of the Staphylococcal Complement Inhibitor (SCIN) Bound to C3c and C3b

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, Brandon L.; Ramyar, Kasra X.; Tzekou, Apostolia; Ricklin, Daniel; McWhorter, William J.; Lambris, John D.; Geisbrecht, Brian V.

    2010-10-22

    The human complement system plays an essential role in innate and adaptive immunity by marking and eliminating microbial intruders. Activation of complement on foreign surfaces results in proteolytic cleavage of complement component 3 (C3) into the potent opsonin C3b, which triggers a variety of immune responses and participates in a self-amplification loop mediated by a multi-protein assembly known as the C3 convertase. The human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus has evolved a sophisticated and potent complement evasion strategy, which is predicated upon an arsenal of potent inhibitory proteins. One of these, the staphylococcal complement inhibitor (SCIN), acts at the level of the C3 convertase (C3bBb) and impairs downstream complement function by trapping the convertase in a stable but inactive state. Previously, we have shown that SCIN binds C3b directly and competitively inhibits binding of human factor H and, to a lesser degree, that of factor B to C3b. Here, we report the co-crystal structures of SCIN bound to C3b and C3c at 7.5 and 3.5 {angstrom} limiting resolution, respectively, and show that SCIN binds a critical functional area on C3b. Most significantly, the SCIN binding site sterically occludes the binding sites of both factor H and factor B. Our results give insight into SCIN binding to activated derivatives of C3, explain how SCIN can recognize C3b in the absence of other complement components, and provide a structural basis for the competitive C3b-binding properties of SCIN. In the future, this may suggest templates for the design of novel complement inhibitors based upon the SCIN structure.

  8. Bacillus thuringiensis serovar mogi (flagellar serotype 3a3b3d), a novel serogroup with a mosquitocidal activity.

    PubMed

    Roh, Jong Yul; Liu, Qin; Lee, Dae Weon; Tao, Xueying; Wang, Yong; Shim, Hee Jin; Choi, Jae Young; Seo, Jong Bok; Ohba, Michio; Mizuki, Eiichi; Je, Yeon Ho

    2009-11-01

    The flagellated vegetative cells of the Bacillus thuringiensis strain K4 were agglutinated with the H3 reference antiserum and further, agglutinated with 3b and 3d monospecific factor sera but non-reactive for 3c and 3e factor sera. This creates a new serogroup with flagellar antigenic structure of 3a3b3d: B. thuringiensis serovar mogi. The strain K4 showed high activity against dipteran larvae, Anopheles sinensis and Culex pipienspallens while no lepidopteran toxicity. It produced ovoidal parasporal inclusions (crystals) whose SDS-PAGE protein profile consisted of several bands ranging from 75 to 30kDa. Through the protein identification by nano-LC-ESI-IT MS analysis, the putative peptides of Cry19Ba, Cry40ORF2, Cry27Aa and Cry20Aa were detected.

  9. Facility 3B, interior detail of selfclosing door into Facility 3A, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Facility 3B, interior detail of self-closing door into Facility 3A, wood support columns at east end of room, view facing north-northeast - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Instrument Shop & Electrical Shop Lean-to, Avenue E, between Sixth & Seventh Streets, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  10. Clinical spectrum of 4H leukodystrophy caused by POLR3A and POLR3B mutations

    PubMed Central

    Vanderver, Adeline; van Spaendonk, Rosalina M.L.; Schiffmann, Raphael; Brais, Bernard; Bugiani, Marianna; Sistermans, Erik; Catsman-Berrevoets, Coriene; Kros, Johan M.; Pinto, Pedro Soares; Pohl, Daniela; Tirupathi, Sandya; Strømme, Petter; de Grauw, Ton; Fribourg, Sébastien; Demos, Michelle; Pizzino, Amy; Naidu, Sakkubai; Guerrero, Kether; van der Knaap, Marjo S.; Bernard, Geneviève

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To study the clinical and radiologic spectrum and genotype–phenotype correlation of 4H (hypomyelination, hypodontia, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism) leukodystrophy caused by mutations in POLR3A or POLR3B. Methods: We performed a multinational cross-sectional observational study of the clinical, radiologic, and molecular characteristics of 105 mutation-proven cases. Results: The majority of patients presented before 6 years with gross motor delay or regression. Ten percent had an onset beyond 10 years. The disease course was milder in patients with POLR3B than in patients with POLR3A mutations. Other than the typical neurologic, dental, and endocrine features, myopia was seen in almost all and short stature in 50%. Dental and hormonal findings were not invariably present. Mutations in POLR3A and POLR3B were distributed throughout the genes. Except for French Canadian patients, patients from European backgrounds were more likely to have POLR3B mutations than other populations. Most patients carried the common c.1568T>A POLR3B mutation on one allele, homozygosity for which causes a mild phenotype. Systematic MRI review revealed that the combination of hypomyelination with relative T2 hypointensity of the ventrolateral thalamus, optic radiation, globus pallidus, and dentate nucleus, cerebellar atrophy, and thinning of the corpus callosum suggests the diagnosis. Conclusions: 4H is a well-recognizable clinical entity if all features are present. Mutations in POLR3A are associated with a more severe clinical course. MRI characteristics are helpful in addressing the diagnosis, especially if patients lack the cardinal non-neurologic features. PMID:25339210

  11. Neural generators of the auditory evoked potential components P3a and P3b.

    PubMed

    Wronka, Eligiusz; Kaiser, Jan; Coenen, Anton M L

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to define the scalp topography of the two subcomponents of the P3 component of the auditory evoked potential elicited in a three-stimulus oddball paradigm and to identify their cortical generators using the standardized low resolution electromagnetic tomography (sLORETA). Subjects were presented with a random sequence of auditory stimuli and instructed to respond to an infrequently occurring target stimulus inserted into a sequence of frequent standard and rare non-target stimuli. Results show that the magnitude of the frontal P3a is determined by the relative physical difference among stimuli, as it was larger for the stimulus more deviant from the standard. Major neural generators of the P3a were localized within frontal cortex and anterior cingulate gyrus. In contrast to this, the P3b, showing maximal amplitude at parietal locations, was larger for stimuli demanding a response than for the rare non-target. Major sources of the P3b included the superior parietal lobule and the posterior part of the cingulate gyrus. Our findings are in line with the hypothesis that P3a is related to alerting activity during the initial allocation of attention, while P3b is related to activation of a posterior network when the neuronal model of perceived stimulation is compared with the attentional trace. PMID:22508084

  12. Identification of high-risk Listeria monocytogenes serotypes in lineage I (serotype 1/2a, 1/2c, 3a and 3c) using multiplex PCR

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aims: Using molecular subtyping techniques, Listeria monocytogenes is divided into three major phylogenetic lineages, and a multiplex PCR method can differentiate five L. monocytogenes subgroups: 1/2a-3a, 1/2c-3c, 1/2b-3b-7, 4b-4d-4e, and 4a-4c. In the current study, we conducted genome comparison...

  13. Functional Analysis of KIF3A and KIF3B during Spermiogenesis of Chinese Mitten Crab Eriocheir sinensis

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yang; Wang, Qi; Wang, Da-Hui; Zhou, Hong; Hu, Yan-Jun; Yang, Wan-Xi

    2014-01-01

    Background Spermatogenesis represents the transformation process at the level of cellular development. KIF3A and KIF3B are believed to play some roles in the assembly and maintenance of flagella, intracellular transport of materials including organelles and proteins, and other unknown functions during this process. During spermatogenesis in Eriocheir sinensis, if the sperm shaping machinery is dependent on KIF3A and KIF3B remains unknown. Methodology/Principal Findings The cDNA of KIF3A and KIF3B were obtained by designing degenerate primers, 3′RACE, and 5′RACE. We detected the genetic presence of kif3a and kif3b in the heart, muscle, liver, gill, and testis of E. sinensis through RT-PCR. By western blot analysis, the protein presence of KIF3A and KIF3B in heart, muscle, gill, and testis reflected the content in protein level. Using in situ hybridization and immunofluorescence, we could track the dynamic location of KIF3A and KIF3B during different developmental phases of sperm. KIF3A and KIF3B were found surrounding the nucleus in early spermatids. In intermediate spermatids, these proteins expressed at high levels around the nucleus and extended to the final phase. During the nuclear shaping period, KIF3A and KIF3B reached their maximum in the late spermatids and were located around the nucleus and concentrated in the acrosome to some extent. Conclusions/Significance Our results revealed that KIF3A and KIF3B were involved in the nuclear and cellular morphogenesis at the levels of mRNA and protein. These proteins can potentially facilitate the intracellular transport of organelles, proteins, and other cargoes. The results represent the functions of KIF3A and KIF3B in the spermatogenesis of Crustacea and clarify phylogenetic relationships among the Decapoda. PMID:24870586

  14. GSK3A Is Redundant with GSK3B in Modulating Drug Resistance and Chemotherapy-Induced Necroptosis

    PubMed Central

    Grassilli, Emanuela; Ianzano, Leonarda; Bonomo, Sara; Missaglia, Carola; Cerrito, Maria Grazia; Giovannoni, Roberto; Masiero, Laura; Lavitrano, Marialuisa

    2014-01-01

    Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3 alpha (GSK3A) and beta (GSK3B) isoforms are encoded by distinct genes, are 98% identical within their kinase domain and perform similar functions in several settings; however, they are not completely redundant and, depending on the cell type and differentiative status, they also play unique roles. We recently identified a role for GSK3B in drug resistance by demonstrating that its inhibition enables necroptosis in response to chemotherapy in p53-null drug-resistant colon carcinoma cells. We report here that, similarly to GSK3B, also GSK3A silencing/inhibition does not affect cell proliferation or cell cycle but only abolishes growth after treatment with DNA-damaging chemotherapy. In particular, blocking GSK3A impairs DNA repair upon exposure to DNA-damaging drugs. As a consequence, p53-null cells overcome their inability to undergo apoptosis and mount a necroptotic response, characterized by absence of caspase activation and RIP1-independent, PARP-dependent AIF nuclear re-localization. We therefore conclude that GSK3A is redundant with GSK3B in regulating drug-resistance and chemotherapy-induced necroptosis and suggest that inhibition of only one isoform, or rather partial inhibition of overall cellular GSK3 activity, is enough to re-sensitize drug-resistant cells to chemotherapy. PMID:24984063

  15. VLBI FOR GRAVITY PROBE B. II. MONITORING OF THE STRUCTURE OF THE REFERENCE SOURCES 3C 454.3, B2250+194, AND B2252+172

    SciTech Connect

    Ransom, R. R.; Bartel, N.; Bietenholz, M. F.; Luca, P.; Lebach, D. E.; Ratner, M. I.; Shapiro, I. I.; Lederman, J. I.

    2012-07-01

    We used 8.4 GHz very long baseline interferometry images obtained at up to 35 epochs between 1997 and 2005 to examine the radio structures of the main reference source, 3C 454.3, and two secondary reference sources, B2250+194 and B2252+172, for the guide star for the NASA/Stanford relativity mission Gravity Probe B (GP-B). For one epoch in 2004 May, we also obtained images at 5.0 and 15.4 GHz. The 35 8.4 GHz images for quasar 3C 454.3 confirm a complex, evolving, core-jet structure. We identified at each epoch a component, C1, near the easternmost edge of the core region. Simulations of the core region showed that C1 is located, on average, 0.18 {+-} 0.06 mas west of the unresolved 'core' identified in 43 GHz images. We also identified in 3C 454.3 at 8.4 GHz several additional components that moved away from C1 with proper motions ranging in magnitude between 0.9 c and 5 c. The detailed motions of the components exhibit two distinct bends in the jet axis located {approx}3 and {approx}5.5 mas west of C1. The spectra between 5.0 and 15.4 GHz for the 'moving' components are steeper than those for C1. The 8.4 GHz images of B2250+194 and B2252+172, in contrast to those of 3C 454.3, reveal compact structures. The spectrum between 5.0 and 15.4 GHz for B2250+194 is inverted while that for B2252+172 is flat. Based on its position near the easternmost edge of the 8.4 GHz radio structure, close spatial association with the 43 GHz core, and relatively flat spectrum, we believe 3C 454.3 component C1 to be the best choice for the ultimate reference point for the GP-B guide star. The compact structures and inverted-to-flat spectra of B2250+194 and B2252+172 make these objects valuable secondary reference sources.

  16. DNA methyltransferase 1, 3a, and 3b expression in hepatitis C associated human hepatocellular carcinoma and their clinicopathological association.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Nadir Naveed; Ul Haq, Ahtesham; Siddiqui, Owais Ali; Khan, Rizma

    2016-08-01

    Identification of biomarker will obligate a substantial influence on various cancer management and treatment. We hypothesize that genetic/proteomic and epigenetic studies should be uncovering modifications which may be independently or jointly affect the expression of the genes that are involved in the progression of liver cancer (LC). For this purpose, we examined the effect of expressional changes of DNMTs on HCV infected LC of different genotypes. We found that both mRNA and protein expression levels of DNMT1, 3a, and 3b were upregulated in genotype 1b and 3a HCV infected patients as compared to control. However, DNMT3b mRNA levels did not change in genotypes 2a, 3, and 4, but were upregulated at the protein level by genotype 1b, 2a, and 3a. Furthermore, no significant changes were observed for DNMTs investigated in sample expressing the genotypes 5 and 6. Our findings suggest that HCV at least in part by altering DNMTs expression may play a significant role in HCC progression. PMID:26850594

  17. 3C 220.3: A radio galaxy lensing a submillimeter galaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Haas, Martin; Westhues, Christian; Chini, Rolf; Leipski, Christian; Klaas, Ulrich; Meisenheimer, Klaus; Barthel, Peter; Koopmans, Léon V. E.; Wilkes, Belinda J.; Bussmann, R. Shane; Willner, S. P.; Ashby, Matthew L. N.; Kuraszkiewicz, Joanna; Vegetti, Simona; Clements, David L.; Fassnacht, Christopher D.; Horesh, Assaf; Lagattuta, David J.; Stern, Daniel; Wylezalek, Dominika

    2014-07-20

    Herschel Space Observatory photometry and extensive multiwavelength follow-up have revealed that the powerful radio galaxy (PRG) 3C 220.3 at z = 0.685 acts as a gravitational lens for a background submillimeter galaxy (SMG) at z = 2.221. At an observed wavelength of 1 mm, the SMG is lensed into three distinct images. In the observed near infrared, these images are connected by an arc of ∼1''.8 radius forming an Einstein half-ring centered near the radio galaxy. In visible light, only the arc is apparent. 3C 220.3 is the only known instance of strong galaxy-scale lensing by a PRG not located in a galaxy cluster and therefore it offers the potential to probe the dark matter content of the radio galaxy host. Lens modeling rejects a single lens, but two lenses centered on the radio galaxy host A and a companion B, separated by 1''.5, provide a fit consistent with all data and reveal faint candidates for the predicted fourth and fifth images. The model does not require an extended common dark matter halo, consistent with the absence of extended bright X-ray emission on our Chandra image. The projected dark matter fractions within the Einstein radii of A (1''.02) and B (0''.61) are about 0.4 ± 0.3 and 0.55 ± 0.3. The mass to i-band light ratios of A and B, M/L{sub i}∼8±4 M{sub ⊙} L{sub ⊙}{sup −1}, appear comparable to those of radio-quiet lensing galaxies at the same redshift in the CfA-Arizona Space Telescope LEns Survey, Lenses Structure and Dynamics, and Strong Lenses in the Legacy Survey samples. The lensed SMG is extremely bright with observed f(250 μm) = 440 mJy owing to a magnification factor μ ∼ 10. The SMG spectrum shows luminous, narrow C IV λ1549 Å emission, revealing that the SMG houses a hidden quasar in addition to a violent starburst. Multicolor image reconstruction of the SMG indicates a bipolar morphology of the emitted ultraviolet (UV) light suggestive of cones through which UV light escapes a dust-enshrouded nucleus.

  18. The Antagonistic Gene Paralogs Upf3a and Upf3b Govern Nonsense-Mediated RNA Decay.

    PubMed

    Shum, Eleen Y; Jones, Samantha H; Shao, Ada; Dumdie, Jennifer; Krause, Matthew D; Chan, Wai-Kin; Lou, Chih-Hong; Espinoza, Josh L; Song, Hye-Won; Phan, Mimi H; Ramaiah, Madhuvanthi; Huang, Lulu; McCarrey, John R; Peterson, Kevin J; De Rooij, Dirk G; Cook-Andersen, Heidi; Wilkinson, Miles F

    2016-04-01

    Gene duplication is a major evolutionary force driving adaptation and speciation, as it allows for the acquisition of new functions and can augment or diversify existing functions. Here, we report a gene duplication event that yielded another outcome--the generation of antagonistic functions. One product of this duplication event--UPF3B--is critical for the nonsense-mediated RNA decay (NMD) pathway, while its autosomal counterpart--UPF3A--encodes an enigmatic protein previously shown to have trace NMD activity. Using loss-of-function approaches in vitro and in vivo, we discovered that UPF3A acts primarily as a potent NMD inhibitor that stabilizes hundreds of transcripts. Evidence suggests that UPF3A acquired repressor activity through simple impairment of a critical domain, a rapid mechanism that may have been widely used in evolution. Mice conditionally lacking UPF3A exhibit "hyper" NMD and display defects in embryogenesis and gametogenesis. Our results support a model in which UPF3A serves as a molecular rheostat that directs developmental events.

  19. Targeted disruption of DNMT1, DNMT3A and DNMT3B in human embryonic stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Jing; Karnik, Rahul; Gu, Hongcang; Ziller, Michael J.; Clement, Kendell; Tsankov, Alexander M.; Akopian, Veronika; Gifford, Casey A.; Donaghey, Julie; Galonska, Christina; Pop, Ramona; Reyon, Deepak; Tsai, Shengdar Q.; Mallard, William; Joung, J. Keith; Rinn, John L.; Gnirke, Andreas; Meissner, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    DNA methylation is a key epigenetic modification involved in regulating gene expression and maintaining genomic integrity. Here we inactivated all three catalytically active DNA methyltransferases in human embryonic stem cells (ESCs) using CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing to further investigate their roles and genomic targets. Disruption of DNMT3A or DNMT3B individually, as well as of both enzymes in tandem, creates viable, pluripotent cell lines with distinct effects on their DNA methylation landscape as assessed by whole-genome bisulfite sequencing. Surprisingly, in contrast to mouse, deletion of DNMT1 resulted in rapid cell death in human ESCs. To overcome the immediate lethality, we generated a doxycycline (DOX) responsive tTA-DNMT1* rescue line and readily obtained homozygous DNMT1 mutant lines. However, DOX-mediated repression of the exogenous DNMT1* initiates rapid, global loss of DNA methylation, followed by extensive cell death. Our data provide a comprehensive characterization of DNMT mutant ESCs, including single base genome-wide maps of their targets. PMID:25822089

  20. Biochemical genetics of opossum aldehyde dehydrogenase 3: evidence for three ALDH3A-like genes and an ALDH3B-like gene.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Roger S

    2010-04-01

    Mammalian ALDH3 isozymes participate in peroxidic and fatty aldehyde metabolism, and in anterior eye tissue UV-filtration. BLAT analyses were undertaken of the opossum genome using rat ALDH3A1, ALDH3A2, ALDH3B1, and ALDH3B2 amino acid sequences. Two predicted opossum ALDH3A1-like genes and an ALDH3A2-like gene were observed on chromosome 2, as well as an ALDH3B-like gene, which showed similar intron-exon boundaries with other mammalian ALDH3-like genes. Opossum ALDH3 subunit sequences and structures were highly conserved, including residues previously shown to be involved in catalysis and coenzyme binding for rat ALDH3A1. Eleven glycine residues were conserved for all of the opossum ALDH3-like sequences examined, including two glycine residues previously located within the stem of the rat ALDH3A1 active site funnel. Phylogeny studies of human, rat, opossum, and chicken ALDH3-like sequences indicated that the common ancestor for ALDH3A- and ALDH3B-like genes predates the appearance of birds during vertebrate evolution.

  1. Murine laminin alpha3A and alpha3B isoform chains are generated by usage of two promoters and alternative splicing.

    PubMed

    Ferrigno, O; Virolle, T; Galliano, M F; Chauvin, N; Ortonne, J P; Meneguzzi, G; Aberdam, D

    1997-08-15

    We already identified two distinct laminin alpha3A and alpha3B chain isoforms which differ in their amino-terminal ends and display different tissue-specific expression patterns. In this study we have investigated whether these two different isoforms are products of the same laminin alpha3 (lama3) gene and transcribed from one or two separate promoters. Genomic clones were isolated that encompass the sequences upstream to the 5' ends of both the alpha3A and the alpha3B cDNAs. Sequence analysis of the region upstream to the alpha3A open reading frame revealed the presence of a TATA box and potential binding sites for responsive elements. By primer extension analysis, the transcription start site of the alpha3B mRNA isoform was defined. The sequences upstream to the alpha3B mRNA transcription start site do not contain a TATA box near the transcription initiation sites, but AP-1, AP-2, and Sp1 consensus binding site sequences were identified. The genomic regions located immediately upstream of the alpha3A and alpha3B transcription start sites were shown to possess promoter activities in transfection experiments. In the promoter regions, response elements for the acute phase reactant signal and NF-interleukin 6 were found, and their possible relevance in the context of inflammation and wound healing is discussed. Our results demonstrate that the lama3 gene produces the two polypeptides by alternative splicing and contains two promoters, which regulate the production of the two isoforms alpha3A and alpha3B. PMID:9252362

  2. Characterization of a new ARID family transcription factor (Brightlike/ARID3C) that co-activates Bright/ARID3A-mediated immunoglobulin gene transcription.

    PubMed

    Tidwell, Josephine A; Schmidt, Christian; Heaton, Phillip; Wilson, Van; Tucker, Philip W

    2011-10-01

    Two members, Bright/ARID3A and Bdp/ARID3B, of the ARID (AT-Rich Interaction Domain) transcription family are distinguished by their ability to specifically bind to DNA and to self-associate via a second domain, REKLES. Bright and Bdp positively regulate immunoglobulin heavy chain gene (IgH) transcription by binding to AT-rich motifs within Matrix Associating Regions (MARs) residing within a subset of V(H) promoters and the Eμ intronic enhancer. In addition, REKLES provides Bright nuclear export function, and a small pool of Bright is directed to plasma membrane sub-domains/lipid rafts where it associates with and modulates signaling of the B cell antigen receptor (BCR). Here, we characterize a third, highly conserved, physically condensed ARID3 locus, Brightlike/ARID3C. Brightlike encodes two alternatively spliced, SUMO-I-modified isoforms that include or exclude (Δ6) the REKLES-encoding exon 6. Brightlike transcripts and proteins are expressed preferentially within B lineage lymphocytes and coordinate with highest Bright expression in activated follicular B cells. Brightlike, but not BrightlikeΔ6, undergoes nuclear-cytoplasmic shuttling with a fraction localizing within lipid rafts following BCR stimulation. Brightlike, but not BrightlikeΔ6, associates with Bright in solution, at common DNA binding sites in vitro, and is enriched at Bright binding sites in chromatin. Although possessing little transactivation capacity of its own, Brightlike significantly co-activates Bright-dependent IgH transcription with maximal activity mediated by the unsumoylated form. In sum, this report introduces Brightlike as an additional functional member of the family of ARID proteins, which should be considered in regulatory circuits, previously ascribed to be mediated by Bright.

  3. Genetic diversity of spike, 3a, 3b and e genes of infectious bronchitis viruses and emergence of new recombinants in Korea.

    PubMed

    Mo, Mei-Lan; Hong, Seung-Min; Kwon, Hyuk-Joon; Kim, Il-Hwan; Song, Chang-Seon; Kim, Jae-Hong

    2013-01-31

    The nucleotide sequences of a region including S1, S2, 3a, 3b and E genes of twenty-seven infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) isolates in Korea between 1990-2011 were determined and phylogenetic and computational recombination analyses were conducted. The sizes of coding regions of some genes varied among IBV isolates due to deletion or insertion of nucleotides; the nucleotide similarities of S1, S2, 3a, 3b and E genes among the 27 isolates were 75.9%-100.0%, 85%-100.0%, 64.0%-100.0%, 60.4%-100.0% and 83.1%-100.0%, respectively. According to phylogenetic analysis of S1 gene, the 27 isolates were divided into five genotypes, Mass, Korean-I (K-I), QX-like, KM91-like and New cluster 1. The phylogenetic trees based on the S2, 3a, 3b, E genes and S1-S2-3a-3b-E (S1-E) region nucleotide sequences did not closely follow the clustering based on the S1 sequence. The New cluster 1 prevalent during 2009 and 2010 was not found in 2011 but QX-like viruses became prevalent in 2011. The recombination analysis revealed two new S gene recombinants, 11036 and 11052 which might have been derived from recombinations between the New cluster 1 and QX-like viruses and between the K-I and H120 (vaccine) viruses, respectively. In conclusion, multiple IBV genotypes have co-circulated; QX-like viruses have recurred and new recombinants have emerged in Korea. This has enriched molecular epidemiology information of IBV and is useful for the control of IB in Korea.

  4. Mutation Analysis of H3F3A and H3F3B as a Diagnostic Tool for Giant Cell Tumor of Bone and Chondroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Cleven, Arjen H G; Höcker, Saskia; Briaire-de Bruijn, Inge; Szuhai, Karoly; Cleton-Jansen, Anne-Marie; Bovée, Judith V M G

    2015-11-01

    Specific H3F3A driver mutations and IDH2 mutations were recently described in giant cell tumor of bone (GCTB) and H3F3B driver mutations in chondroblastoma; these may be helpful as a diagnostic tool for giant cell-containing tumors of the bone. Using Sanger sequencing, we determined the frequency of H3F3A, H3F3B, IDH1, and IDH2 mutations in GCTBs (n=60), chondroblastomas (n=12), and other giant cell-containing tumors (n=24), including aneurysmal bone cyst, chondromyxoid fibroma, and telangiectatic osteosarcoma. To find an easy applicable marker for H3F3A mutation status, H3K36 trimethylation and ATRX expression were correlated with H3F3A mutations. In total, 69% of all GCTBs harbored an H3F3A (G34W/V) mutation compared with 0% of all other giant cell-containing tumors (P<0.001), whereas 70% of chondroblastomas showed an H3F3B (K36M) mutation compared with 0% of other giant cell-containing tumors (P<0.001). Diffuse H3K36 trimethylation positivity was more often seen in mutated H3F3A GCTBs compared with other giant cell-containing tumors (P=0.005). ATRX protein expression was not correlated with H3F3A mutation status. Hotspot mutations in IDH1 or IDH2 were absent. Our results show that H3F3A and H3F3B mutation analysis appears to be a highly specific, although less sensitive, diagnostic tool for the distinction of GCTB and chondroblastoma from other giant cell-containing tumors. Although H3K36 trimethylation and ATRX immunohistochemistry cannot be used as surrogate markers for H3F3A mutation status, mutations in H3F3A are associated with increased H3K36 trimethylation, suggesting that methylation at this residue may play a role in the etiology of the disease.

  5. Mutation Analysis of H3F3A and H3F3B as a Diagnostic Tool for Giant Cell Tumor of Bone and Chondroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Cleven, Arjen H G; Höcker, Saskia; Briaire-de Bruijn, Inge; Szuhai, Karoly; Cleton-Jansen, Anne-Marie; Bovée, Judith V M G

    2015-11-01

    Specific H3F3A driver mutations and IDH2 mutations were recently described in giant cell tumor of bone (GCTB) and H3F3B driver mutations in chondroblastoma; these may be helpful as a diagnostic tool for giant cell-containing tumors of the bone. Using Sanger sequencing, we determined the frequency of H3F3A, H3F3B, IDH1, and IDH2 mutations in GCTBs (n=60), chondroblastomas (n=12), and other giant cell-containing tumors (n=24), including aneurysmal bone cyst, chondromyxoid fibroma, and telangiectatic osteosarcoma. To find an easy applicable marker for H3F3A mutation status, H3K36 trimethylation and ATRX expression were correlated with H3F3A mutations. In total, 69% of all GCTBs harbored an H3F3A (G34W/V) mutation compared with 0% of all other giant cell-containing tumors (P<0.001), whereas 70% of chondroblastomas showed an H3F3B (K36M) mutation compared with 0% of other giant cell-containing tumors (P<0.001). Diffuse H3K36 trimethylation positivity was more often seen in mutated H3F3A GCTBs compared with other giant cell-containing tumors (P=0.005). ATRX protein expression was not correlated with H3F3A mutation status. Hotspot mutations in IDH1 or IDH2 were absent. Our results show that H3F3A and H3F3B mutation analysis appears to be a highly specific, although less sensitive, diagnostic tool for the distinction of GCTB and chondroblastoma from other giant cell-containing tumors. Although H3K36 trimethylation and ATRX immunohistochemistry cannot be used as surrogate markers for H3F3A mutation status, mutations in H3F3A are associated with increased H3K36 trimethylation, suggesting that methylation at this residue may play a role in the etiology of the disease. PMID:26457357

  6. Open-channel blockade is less effective on GluN3B than GluN3A subunit-containing NMDA receptors.

    PubMed

    McClymont, David W; Harris, John; Mellor, Ian R

    2012-07-01

    The GluN3 subunits of the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor are known to reduce its Ca(2+) permeability and Mg(2+) sensitivity, however, little is known about their effects on other channel blockers. cRNAs for rat NMDA receptor subunits were injected into Xenopus oocytes and responses to NMDA and glycine were recorded using two electrode voltage clamp. Channel block of receptors containing GluN1-1a/2A, GluN1-1a/2A/3A or GluN1-1a/2A/3B subunits was characterised using Mg(2+), memantine, MK-801, philanthotoxin-343 and methoctramine. IC(50) values for Mg(2+) and memantine increased when receptors contained GluN3A subunits and were further increased when they contained GluN3B, e.g. IC(50)s at -75mV for block of GluN1-1a/2A, GluN1-1a/2A/3A and GluN1-1a/2A/3B receptors respectively were 4.2, 22.4 and 40.1μM for Mg(2+), and 2.5, 7.5 and 17.5μM for memantine. Blocking activity was found to be fully or partially restored when G or R (at the N and N+1 sites respectively) were mutated to N in GluN3A. Thus, the changes cannot be attributed to the loss of the N or N+1 sites alone, but rather involve both sites or residues elsewhere. Block by MK-801 and philanthotoxin-343 was also reduced by GluN3A, most strongly at -100mV but not at -50mV, and by GluN3B at all V(h). Methoctramine was the least sensitive to introduction of GluN3 subunits suggesting a minimal interaction with the N and N+1 sites. We conclude that GluN3B-containing receptors provide increased resistance to channel block compared to GluN3A-containing receptors and this must be due to differences outside the deep pore region (N site and deeper).

  7. Planet hunters. VII. Discovery of a new low-mass, low-density planet (PH3 C) orbiting Kepler-289 with mass measurements of two additional planets (PH3 B and D)

    SciTech Connect

    Schmitt, Joseph R.; Fischer, Debra A.; Wang, Ji; Margossian, Charles; Brewer, John M.; Giguere, Matthew J.; Agol, Eric; Deck, Katherine M.; Rogers, Leslie A.; Gazak, J. Zachary; Holman, Matthew J.; Jek, Kian J.; Omohundro, Mark R.; Winarski, Troy; Lintott, Chris; Simpson, Robert; Lynn, Stuart; Parrish, Michael; Schawinski, Kevin; Schwamb, Megan E.; and others

    2014-11-10

    We report the discovery of one newly confirmed planet (P = 66.06 days, R {sub P} = 2.68 ± 0.17 R {sub ⊕}) and mass determinations of two previously validated Kepler planets, Kepler-289 b (P = 34.55 days, R {sub P} = 2.15 ± 0.10 R {sub ⊕}) and Kepler-289-c (P = 125.85 days, R {sub P} = 11.59 ± 0.10 R {sub ⊕}), through their transit timing variations (TTVs). We also exclude the possibility that these three planets reside in a 1:2:4 Laplace resonance. The outer planet has very deep (∼1.3%), high signal-to-noise transits, which puts extremely tight constraints on its host star's stellar properties via Kepler's Third Law. The star PH3 is a young (∼1 Gyr as determined by isochrones and gyrochronology), Sun-like star with M {sub *} = 1.08 ± 0.02 M {sub ☉}, R {sub *} = 1.00 ± 0.02 R {sub ☉}, and T {sub eff} = 5990 ± 38 K. The middle planet's large TTV amplitude (∼5 hr) resulted either in non-detections or inaccurate detections in previous searches. A strong chopping signal, a shorter period sinusoid in the TTVs, allows us to break the mass-eccentricity degeneracy and uniquely determine the masses of the inner, middle, and outer planets to be M = 7.3 ± 6.8 M {sub ⊕}, 4.0 ± 0.9M {sub ⊕}, and M = 132 ± 17 M {sub ⊕}, which we designate PH3 b, c, and d, respectively. Furthermore, the middle planet, PH3 c, has a relatively low density, ρ = 1.2 ± 0.3 g cm{sup –3} for a planet of its mass, requiring a substantial H/He atmosphere of 2.1{sub −0.3}{sup +0.8}% by mass, and joins a growing population of low-mass, low-density planets.

  8. Hepatitis B virus X protein upregulates DNA methyltransferase 3A/3B and enhances SOCS-1CpG island methylation.

    PubMed

    Fu, Xiaoyu; Song, Xiaoling; Li, Yanyan; Tan, Deming; Liu, Guozhen

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of hepatitis B virus X protein (HBx) on the expression of DNA methyltransferase (DNMT)3A/3B and suppressors of cytokine signaling‑1 (SOCS‑1), as well as promoter CpG island methylation of the SOCS‑1 gene. Stable hepatocyte cell lines expressing the HBx gene (pcDNA‑X/QSG7701) or an empty gene (pcDNA3.0/QSG7701) were established. Reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to detect the mRNA expression levels of DNMT3A/3B and SOCS‑1. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect the protein expression of DNMT3A/3B. Methylation‑specific PCR (MSP) was used to detect the methylation status of the SOCS‑1 gene promoter. The mRNA and protein expression levels of DNMT3A/3B were significantly higher in the pcDNA‑X/QSG7701‑transfected cells, compared with those in the pcDNA3.0/QSG7701 or non‑transfected QSG7701 cells (P<0.05), whereas the relative mRNA expression of SOCS‑1 was significantly lower in the pcDNA‑X/QSG7701 cells compared with the pcDNA3.0/QSG7701 and non‑transfected QSG7701 cells (F=19.6; P<0.05). Western blot analysis showed that the protein expression of SOCS‑1 was significantly lower in the pcDNA‑X/QSG7701 cells, compared with the pcDNA3.0/QSG7701 or non‑transfected QSG7701 cells (F=19.4; P<0.05). The results of the MSP analysis showed that SOCS‑1 promoter region methylation was present only in the pcDNA‑X/QSG7701 cells. The HBV‑X gene upregulated the mRNA and protein expression levels of DNMT3A/3B, downregulated the expression of SOCS‑1 and increased SOCS‑1 gene promoter CpG island methylation. This may provide a potential explanation of the mechanism underlying HBx-associated hepatocellular carcinoma.

  9. A Positive Regulatory Loop between foxi3a and foxi3b Is Essential for Specification and Differentiation of Zebrafish Epidermal Ionocytes

    PubMed Central

    Hsiao, Chung-Der; You, May-Su; Guh, Ying-Jey; Ma, Ming; Jiang, Yun-Jin; Hwang, Pung-Pung

    2007-01-01

    Background Epidermal ionocytes play essential roles in the transepithelial transportation of ions, water, and acid-base balance in fish embryos before their branchial counterparts are fully functional. However, the mechanism controlling epidermal ionocyte specification and differentiation remains unknown. Methodology/Principal Findings In zebrafish, we demonstrated that Delta-Notch-mediated lateral inhibition plays a vital role in singling out epidermal ionocyte progenitors from epidermal stem cells. The entire epidermal ionocyte domain of genetic mutants and morphants, which failed to transmit the DeltaC-Notch1a/Notch3 signal from sending cells (epidermal ionocytes) to receiving cells (epidermal stem cells), differentiates into epidermal ionocytes. The low Notch activity in epidermal ionocyte progenitors is permissive for activating winged helix/forkhead box transcription factors of foxi3a and foxi3b. Through gain- and loss-of-function assays, we show that the foxi3a-foxi3b regulatory loop functions as a master regulator to mediate a dual role of specifying epidermal ionocyte progenitors as well as of subsequently promoting differentiation of Na+,K+-ATPase-rich cells and H+-ATPase-rich cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Conclusions/Significance This study provides a framework to show the molecular mechanism controlling epidermal ionocyte specification and differentiation in a low vertebrate for the first time. We propose that the positive regulatory loop between foxi3a and foxi3b not only drives early ionocyte differentiation but also prevents the complete blockage of ionocyte differentiation when the master regulator of foxi3 function is unilaterally compromised. PMID:17375188

  10. Compendium of NASA data base for the Global Tropospheric Experiment's Arctic Boundary Layer Experiments ABLE-3A and ABLE-3B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, Gerald L.; Scott, A. Donald, Jr.

    1994-01-01

    The report provides a compendium of NASA aircraft data that are available from NASA's Global Tropospheric Experiment's (GTE) Arctic Boundary Layer Experiments (ABLE) conducted in July and August of 1988 (ABLE-3A) and 1990 (ABLE-3B). ABLE-3A flight experiments were based at Barrow and Bethel, Alaska, and included survey/transit flights to Thule, Greenland. ABLE-3B flight experiments were based at North Bay (Ontario) and Goose Bay, Canada, and included flights northward to Frobisher Bay, Canada. The primary purposes of the experiments were (1) the measurement of the flux of various trace gases from high-arctic ecosystems, (2) the elucidation of factors important to the production and destruction of ozone, and (3) the documentation of source and chemical signature of air common to and transported into the regions. The report provides a representation, in the form of selected data plots, of aircraft data that are available in archived format via NASA Langley's Distributed Active Archive Center. The archived data bases include data for other species measured on the aircraft as well as numerous supporting data, including meteorological observations/products, results from surface studies, satellite observations, and sondes releases.

  11. Source analysis of P3a and P3b components to investigate interaction of depression and anxiety in attentional systems

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yuezhi; Wang, Wuyi; Liu, Tiebang; Ren, Lijie; Zhou, Yunfei; Yu, Changhong; Qu, Xingda; Hu, Yong

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the impact of depressive disorders, anxiety disorders and the comorbidity of these disorders on the regional electrophysiological features of brain activity. Sixty-four-channel event-related potentials (ERP) were acquired during a visual oddball task in patients with depressive disorder, patients with anxiety disorders, patients with comorbid depressive and anxiety disorders and healthy subjects. An fMRI-constrained source model was applied to ERP to identify different cortical activities in the patient and control groups. Comorbid patients showed an abnormal frontal-greater-than-parietal P3b topography in the right hemisphere and the highest P3a amplitude at frontal and central sites at the scalp midline. For P3b, depressed patients showed decreased right-lateralized activity in the precentral sulcus (PrCS) and posterior parietal cortex (PPC). Anxious patients demonstrated hyperactive prefrontal cortices (PFC). Comorbid patients presented decreased activity in the cingulate gyrus, right PrCS and right PPC and increased activity in the left PFC and left insular (INS). For P3a, hyperactive left PrCS was found in comorbid patients. Comorbid patients showed both anxiety-related and depression-related activity. A superimposition effect of depression and anxiety was identified with (1) aggravated hypo-function of the right-lateralized dorsal attention and salience networks and (2) complicated anxiety-related hyper-function of the left-lateralized ventral attention and salience networks. PMID:26598026

  12. Compendium of NASA data base for the Global Tropospheric Experiment's Arctic Boundary Layer Experiments ABLE-3A and ABLE-3B

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory, G.L.; Scott, A.D. Jr.

    1994-11-01

    The report provides a compendium of NASA aircraft data that are available from NASA's Global Tropospheric Experiment's (GTE) Arctic Boundary Layer Experiments (ABLE) conducted in July and August of 1988 (ABLE-3A) and 1990 (ABLE-3B). ABLE-3A flight experiments were based at Barrow and Bethel, Alaska, and included survey/transit flights to Thule, Greenland. ABLE-3B flight experiments were based at North Bay (Ontario) and Goose Bay, Canada, and included flights northward to Frobisher Bay, Canada. The primary purposes of the experiments were (1) the measurement of the flux of various trace gases from high-arctic ecosystems, (2) the elucidation of factors important to the production and destruction of ozone, and (3) the documentation of source and chemical signature of air common to and transported into the regions. The report provides a representation, in the form of selected data plots, of aircraft data that are available in archived format via NASA Langley's Distributed Active Archive Center. The archived data bases include data for other species measured on the aircraft as well as numerous supporting data, including meteorological observations/products, results from surface studies, satellite observations, and sondes releases.

  13. Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 3A partially coincides with EBNA3C genome-wide and is tethered to DNA through BATF complexes.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Stefanie C S; Jiang, Sizun; Zhou, Hufeng; Willox, Bradford; Holthaus, Amy M; Kharchenko, Peter V; Johannsen, Eric C; Kieff, Elliott; Zhao, Bo

    2015-01-13

    Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) conversion of B-lymphocytes to Lymphoblastoid Cell Lines (LCLs) requires four EBV nuclear antigen (EBNA) oncoproteins: EBNA2, EBNALP, EBNA3A, and EBNA3C. EBNA2 and EBNALP associate with EBV and cell enhancers, up-regulate the EBNA promoter, MYC, and EBV Latent infection Membrane Proteins (LMPs), which up-regulate BCL2 to protect EBV-infected B-cells from MYC proliferation-induced cell death. LCL proliferation induces p16(INK4A) and p14(ARF)-mediated cell senescence. EBNA3A and EBNA3C jointly suppress p16(INK4A) and p14(ARF), enabling continuous cell proliferation. Analyses of the EBNA3A human genome-wide ChIP-seq landscape revealed 37% of 10,000 EBNA3A sites to be at strong enhancers; 28% to be at weak enhancers; 4.4% to be at active promoters; and 6.9% to be at weak and poised promoters. EBNA3A colocalized with BATF-IRF4, ETS-IRF4, RUNX3, and other B-cell Transcription Factors (TFs). EBNA3A sites clustered into seven unique groups, with differing B-cell TFs and epigenetic marks. EBNA3A coincidence with BATF-IRF4 or RUNX3 was associated with stronger EBNA3A ChIP-Seq signals. EBNA3A was at MYC, CDKN2A/B, CCND2, CXCL9/10, and BCL2, together with RUNX3, BATF, IRF4, and SPI1. ChIP-re-ChIP revealed complexes of EBNA3A on DNA with BATF. These data strongly support a model in which EBNA3A is tethered to DNA through a BATF-containing protein complexes to enable continuous cell proliferation.

  14. Distinct H3F3A and H3F3B driver mutations define chondroblastoma and giant cell tumor of bone.

    PubMed

    Behjati, Sam; Tarpey, Patrick S; Presneau, Nadège; Scheipl, Susanne; Pillay, Nischalan; Van Loo, Peter; Wedge, David C; Cooke, Susanna L; Gundem, Gunes; Davies, Helen; Nik-Zainal, Serena; Martin, Sancha; McLaren, Stuart; Goody, Victoria; Goodie, Victoria; Robinson, Ben; Butler, Adam; Teague, Jon W; Halai, Dina; Khatri, Bhavisha; Myklebost, Ola; Baumhoer, Daniel; Jundt, Gernot; Hamoudi, Rifat; Tirabosco, Roberto; Amary, M Fernanda; Futreal, P Andrew; Stratton, Michael R; Campbell, Peter J; Flanagan, Adrienne M

    2013-12-01

    It is recognized that some mutated cancer genes contribute to the development of many cancer types, whereas others are cancer type specific. For genes that are mutated in multiple cancer classes, mutations are usually similar in the different affected cancer types. Here, however, we report exquisite tumor type specificity for different histone H3.3 driver alterations. In 73 of 77 cases of chondroblastoma (95%), we found p.Lys36Met alterations predominantly encoded in H3F3B, which is one of two genes for histone H3.3. In contrast, in 92% (49/53) of giant cell tumors of bone, we found histone H3.3 alterations exclusively in H3F3A, leading to p.Gly34Trp or, in one case, p.Gly34Leu alterations. The mutations were restricted to the stromal cell population and were not detected in osteoclasts or their precursors. In the context of previously reported H3F3A mutations encoding p.Lys27Met and p.Gly34Arg or p.Gly34Val alterations in childhood brain tumors, a remarkable picture of tumor type specificity for histone H3.3 driver alterations emerges, indicating that histone H3.3 residues, mutations and genes have distinct functions.

  15. Marker vaccine potential of foot-and-mouth disease virus with large deletion in the non-structural proteins 3A and 3B.

    PubMed

    Biswal, Jitendra K; Subramaniam, Saravanan; Ranjan, Rajeev; Sharma, Gaurav K; Misri, Jyoti; Pattnaik, Bramhadev

    2015-11-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious, economically important disease of transboundary importance. Regular vaccination with chemically inactivated FMD vaccine is the major means of controlling the disease in endemic countries like India. However, the traditional inactivated vaccines may sometimes contain traces of FMD viral (FMDV) non-structural protein (NSP), therefore, interfering with the NSP-based serological discrimination between infected and vaccinated animals. The availability of marker vaccine for differentiating FMD infected from vaccinated animals (DIVA) would be crucial for the control and subsequent eradication of FMD in India. In this study, we constructed a negative marker FMDV serotype O virus (vaccine strain O IND R2/1975), containing dual deletions of amino acid residues 93-143 and 10-37 in the non-structural proteins 3A and 3B, respectively through reverse genetics approach. The negative marker virus exhibited similar growth kinetics and plaque morphology in cell culture as compared to the wild type virus. In addition, we also developed and evaluated an indirect ELISA (I-ELISA) targeted to the deleted 3AB NSP region (truncated 3AB) which could be used as a companion differential diagnostic assay. The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of the truncated 3AB I-ELISA were found to be 95.5% and 96%, respectively. The results from this study suggest that the availability negative marker virus and companion diagnostic assay could open a promising new avenue for the application of DIVA compatible marker vaccine for the control of FMD in India.

  16. Marker vaccine potential of foot-and-mouth disease virus with large deletion in the non-structural proteins 3A and 3B.

    PubMed

    Biswal, Jitendra K; Subramaniam, Saravanan; Ranjan, Rajeev; Sharma, Gaurav K; Misri, Jyoti; Pattnaik, Bramhadev

    2015-11-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious, economically important disease of transboundary importance. Regular vaccination with chemically inactivated FMD vaccine is the major means of controlling the disease in endemic countries like India. However, the traditional inactivated vaccines may sometimes contain traces of FMD viral (FMDV) non-structural protein (NSP), therefore, interfering with the NSP-based serological discrimination between infected and vaccinated animals. The availability of marker vaccine for differentiating FMD infected from vaccinated animals (DIVA) would be crucial for the control and subsequent eradication of FMD in India. In this study, we constructed a negative marker FMDV serotype O virus (vaccine strain O IND R2/1975), containing dual deletions of amino acid residues 93-143 and 10-37 in the non-structural proteins 3A and 3B, respectively through reverse genetics approach. The negative marker virus exhibited similar growth kinetics and plaque morphology in cell culture as compared to the wild type virus. In addition, we also developed and evaluated an indirect ELISA (I-ELISA) targeted to the deleted 3AB NSP region (truncated 3AB) which could be used as a companion differential diagnostic assay. The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of the truncated 3AB I-ELISA were found to be 95.5% and 96%, respectively. The results from this study suggest that the availability negative marker virus and companion diagnostic assay could open a promising new avenue for the application of DIVA compatible marker vaccine for the control of FMD in India. PMID:26260689

  17. NATO-3C/Delta launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    NATO-3C, the third in a series of NATO defense-related communication satellites, is scheduled to be launched on a delta vehicle from the Eastern Test Range no earlier than November 15, 1978. NATO-3A and -3B were successfully launched by Delta vehicles in April 1976 and January 1977, respectively. The NATO-3C spacecraft will be capable of transmitting voice, data, facsimile, and telex messages among military ground stations. The launch vehicle for the NATO-3C mission will be the Delta 2914 configuration. The launch vehicle is to place the spacecraft in a synchronous transfer orbit. The spacecraft Apogee Kick motor is to be fired at fifth transfer orbit apogee to circularize its orbit at geosynchronous altitude of 35,900 km(22,260 miles) above the equator over the Atlantic Ocean somewhere between 45 and 50 degrees W longitude.

  18. Heats of Formation for the Boronic Acids R–B(OH)2 and Boroxines R3B3O3 (R=H, Li, HBe, H2B, H3C, H2N, HO, F, and Cl) Calculated at the G2, G3, and G4 Levels of Theory

    PubMed Central

    Bock, Charles W.; Larkin, Joseph D.

    2014-01-01

    Boronic acids (R–B(OH)2) and their boroxine (R3B3O3) dehydration products have emerged as important classes of compounds with a multitude of diverse applications. However, the available heats of formation for these compounds are not always as accurate as would be required for further use. In this study the heats of formation at 298.15 K of R–B(OH)2 and R3B3O3 (R = H, Li, HBe, H2B, H3C, H2N, HO, F, and Cl) have been calculated at the G2, G3[G3B3], and G4 levels of theory and used to determine the enthalpy changes for the dehydration reactions: 3 R–B(OH)2 → R3B3O3 + 3 H2O; comparisons are made with other rigorous levels of theory, e.g. CBS-Q[CBS-QB3] and W1U, as well as with experimental values wherever possible. Enthalpy changes for the dehydration reactions have also been calculated using second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP2) with the Dunning-Woon correlation-consistent aug-cc-pVDZ and aug-cc-pVTZ basis sets, and B3LYP density functional theory with the 6-311++G(2df,2pd) basis set. With the exception of H2N-B(OH)2, the dehydration reactions are consistently predicted to be exothermic. Our results provide a cautionary note for the use of the B3LYP functional in the calculation of structures and energies of boronic acids and boroxines. Where comparisons could be made, the G4 and W1U predictions for the heats of formation of these boron compounds differ significantly. PMID:24653975

  19. Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 3C binds to BATF/IRF4 or SPI1/IRF4 composite sites and recruits Sin3A to repress CDKN2A.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Sizun; Willox, Bradford; Zhou, Hufeng; Holthaus, Amy M; Wang, Anqi; Shi, Tommy T; Maruo, Seiji; Kharchenko, Peter V; Johannsen, Eric C; Kieff, Elliott; Zhao, Bo

    2014-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 3C (EBNA3C) repression of CDKN2A p14(ARF) and p16(INK4A) is essential for immortal human B-lymphoblastoid cell line (LCL) growth. EBNA3C ChIP-sequencing identified >13,000 EBNA3C sites in LCL DNA. Most EBNA3C sites were associated with active transcription; 64% were strong H3K4me1- and H3K27ac-marked enhancers and 16% were active promoters marked by H3K4me3 and H3K9ac. Using ENCODE LCL transcription factor ChIP-sequencing data, EBNA3C sites coincided (±250 bp) with RUNX3 (64%), BATF (55%), ATF2 (51%), IRF4 (41%), MEF2A (35%), PAX5 (34%), SPI1 (29%), BCL11a (28%), SP1 (26%), TCF12 (23%), NF-κB (23%), POU2F2 (23%), and RBPJ (16%). EBNA3C sites separated into five distinct clusters: (i) Sin3A, (ii) EBNA2/RBPJ, (iii) SPI1, and (iv) strong or (v) weak BATF/IRF4. EBNA3C signals were positively affected by RUNX3, BATF/IRF4 (AICE) and SPI1/IRF4 (EICE) cooccupancy. Gene set enrichment analyses correlated EBNA3C/Sin3A promoter sites with transcription down-regulation (P < 1.6 × 10(-4)). EBNA3C signals were strongest at BATF/IRF4 and SPI1/IRF4 composite sites. EBNA3C bound strongly to the p14(ARF) promoter through SPI1/IRF4/BATF/RUNX3, establishing RBPJ-, Sin3A-, and REST-mediated repression. EBNA3C immune precipitated with Sin3A and conditional EBNA3C inactivation significantly decreased Sin3A binding at the p14(ARF) promoter (P < 0.05). These data support a model in which EBNA3C binds strongly to BATF/IRF4/SPI1/RUNX3 sites to enhance transcription and recruits RBPJ/Sin3A- and REST/NRSF-repressive complexes to repress p14(ARF) and p16(INK4A) expression. PMID:24344258

  20. Histone H3F3A and HIST1H3B K27M mutations define two subgroups of diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas with different prognosis and phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Castel, David; Philippe, Cathy; Calmon, Raphaël; Le Dret, Ludivine; Truffaux, Nathalène; Boddaert, Nathalie; Pagès, Mélanie; Taylor, Kathryn R; Saulnier, Patrick; Lacroix, Ludovic; Mackay, Alan; Jones, Chris; Sainte-Rose, Christian; Blauwblomme, Thomas; Andreiuolo, Felipe; Puget, Stephanie; Grill, Jacques; Varlet, Pascale; Debily, Marie-Anne

    2015-12-01

    Diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) is the most severe paediatric solid tumour, with no significant therapeutic progress made in the past 50 years. Recent studies suggest that diffuse midline glioma, H3-K27M mutant, may comprise more than one biological entity. The aim of the study was to determine the clinical and biological variables that most impact their prognosis. Ninety-one patients with classically defined DIPG underwent a systematic stereotactic biopsy and were included in this observational retrospective study. Histone H3 genes mutations were assessed by immunochemistry and direct sequencing, whilst global gene expression profiling and chromosomal imbalances were determined by microarrays. A full description of the MRI findings at diagnosis and at relapse was integrated with the molecular profiling data and clinical outcome. All DIPG but one were found to harbour either a somatic H3-K27M mutation and/or loss of H3K27 trimethylation. We also discovered a novel K27M mutation in HIST2H3C, and a lysine-to-isoleucine substitution (K27I) in H3F3A, also creating a loss of trimethylation. Patients with tumours harbouring a K27M mutation in H3.3 (H3F3A) did not respond clinically to radiotherapy as well, relapsed significantly earlier and exhibited more metastatic recurrences than those in H3.1 (HIST1H3B/C). H3.3-K27M-mutated DIPG have a proneural/oligodendroglial phenotype and a pro-metastatic gene expression signature with PDGFRA activation, while H3.1-K27M-mutated tumours exhibit a mesenchymal/astrocytic phenotype and a pro-angiogenic/hypoxic signature supported by expression profiling and radiological findings. H3K27 alterations appear as the founding event in DIPG and the mutations in the two main histone H3 variants drive two distinct oncogenic programmes with potential specific therapeutic targets. PMID:26399631

  1. Theoretical study of isoelectronic molecules: B6H10, 2-CB5H9, 2,3-C2B4H8, 2,3,4-C3B3H7, and 2,3,4,5-C4B2H6.

    PubMed

    Tian, Shan Xi

    2005-07-28

    Isoelectronic molecules regarding B6H10, 2-CB5H9, 2,3-C2B4H8, 2,3,4-C3B3H7, and 2,3,4,5-C4B2H6 are studied by the density functional B3LYP/6-311G(d,p) method and the electron propagator theory in the partial third-order quasiparticale approximation, as well as the extrapolated calculation with the coupled-cluster CCSD(T) theory. The calculated ionization potentials are in good agreement with the experimental data from photoelectron spectroscopy. Valence structures are characterized with natural orbital bond (NBO) theory, exhibiting the multiple three-center two-electron bonds B-H-B, B-B-B, C-B-B, B-C-B, and C-B-C, and chemical bond rearrangements in the cations. PMID:16834005

  2. Homologous Elements hs3a and hs3b in the 3′ Regulatory Region of the Murine Immunoglobulin Heavy Chain (Igh) Locus Are Both Dispensable for Class-switch Recombination*

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Yi; Pieretti, Joyce; Ju, Zhongliang; Wei, Shiniu; Christin, John R.; Bah, Fatmata; Birshtein, Barbara K.; Eckhardt, Laurel A.

    2011-01-01

    Immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) genes are formed, tested, and modified to yield diverse, specific, and high affinity antibody responses to antigen. The processes involved must be regulated, however, to avoid unintended damage to chromosomes. The 3′ regulatory region of the Igh locus plays a major role in regulating class-switch recombination (CSR), the process by which antibody effector functions are modified during an immune response. Loss of all known enhancer-like elements in this region dramatically impairs CSR, but individual element deletions have no effect on this process. In the present study, we explored the hypothesis that an underlying functional redundancy in the homologous elements hs3a and hs3b was masking the importance of either element to CSR. Several transgenic mouse lines were generated, each carrying a bacterial artificial chromosome transgene that mimicked Igh locus structure but in which hs3a was missing and hs3b was flanked by loxP sites. Matings to Cyclization Recombination Enzyme-expressing mice established “pairs” of lines that differed only in the presence or absence of hs3b. Remarkably, CSR remained robust in the absence of both hs3a and hs3b, suggesting that the remaining two elements of the 3′ regulatory region, hs1.2 and hs4, although individually dispensable for CSR, are, together, sufficient to support CSR. PMID:21673112

  3. Sequence and expression analysis of rainbow trout CXCR2, CXCR3a and CXCR3b aids interpretation of lineage-specific conversion, loss and expansion of these receptors during vertebrate evolution

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Qiaoqing; Li, Ronggai; Monte, Milena M.; Jiang, Yousheng; Nie, Pin; Holland, Jason W.; Secombes, Chris J.; Wang, Tiehui

    2014-01-01

    The chemokine receptors CXCR1–3 bind to 11 chemokines (CXCL1–11) that are clustered on the same chromosome in mammals but are largely missing in ray-finned fish. A second CXCR1/2, and a CXCR3a and CXCR3b gene have been cloned in rainbow trout. Analysis of CXCR1–R3 genes in lobe-finned fish, ray-finned fish and tetrapod genomes revealed that the teleostomian ancestor likely possessed loci containing both CXCR1 and CXCR2, and CXCR3a and CXCR3b. Based on this synteny analysis the first trout CXCR1/2 gene was renamed CXCR1, and the new gene CXCR2. The CXCR1/R2 locus was shown to have further expanded in ray-finned fish. In relation to CXCR3, mammals appear to have lost CXCR3b and birds both CXCR3a and CXCR3b during evolution. Trout CXCR1–R3 have distinct tissue expression patterns and are differentially modulated by PAMPs, proinflammatory cytokines and infections. They are highly expressed in macrophages and neutrophils, with CXCR1 and CXCR2 also expressed in B-cells. PMID:24613851

  4. Homologous elements hs3a and hs3b in the 3' regulatory region of the murine immunoglobulin heavy chain (Igh) locus are both dispensable for class-switch recombination.

    PubMed

    Yan, Yi; Pieretti, Joyce; Ju, Zhongliang; Wei, Shiniu; Christin, John R; Bah, Fatmata; Birshtein, Barbara K; Eckhardt, Laurel A

    2011-08-01

    Immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) genes are formed, tested, and modified to yield diverse, specific, and high affinity antibody responses to antigen. The processes involved must be regulated, however, to avoid unintended damage to chromosomes. The 3' regulatory region of the Igh locus plays a major role in regulating class-switch recombination (CSR), the process by which antibody effector functions are modified during an immune response. Loss of all known enhancer-like elements in this region dramatically impairs CSR, but individual element deletions have no effect on this process. In the present study, we explored the hypothesis that an underlying functional redundancy in the homologous elements hs3a and hs3b was masking the importance of either element to CSR. Several transgenic mouse lines were generated, each carrying a bacterial artificial chromosome transgene that mimicked Igh locus structure but in which hs3a was missing and hs3b was flanked by loxP sites. Matings to Cyclization Recombination Enzyme-expressing mice established "pairs" of lines that differed only in the presence or absence of hs3b. Remarkably, CSR remained robust in the absence of both hs3a and hs3b, suggesting that the remaining two elements of the 3' regulatory region, hs1.2 and hs4, although individually dispensable for CSR, are, together, sufficient to support CSR. PMID:21673112

  5. Homologous elements hs3a and hs3b in the 3' regulatory region of the murine immunoglobulin heavy chain (Igh) locus are both dispensable for class-switch recombination.

    PubMed

    Yan, Yi; Pieretti, Joyce; Ju, Zhongliang; Wei, Shiniu; Christin, John R; Bah, Fatmata; Birshtein, Barbara K; Eckhardt, Laurel A

    2011-08-01

    Immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) genes are formed, tested, and modified to yield diverse, specific, and high affinity antibody responses to antigen. The processes involved must be regulated, however, to avoid unintended damage to chromosomes. The 3' regulatory region of the Igh locus plays a major role in regulating class-switch recombination (CSR), the process by which antibody effector functions are modified during an immune response. Loss of all known enhancer-like elements in this region dramatically impairs CSR, but individual element deletions have no effect on this process. In the present study, we explored the hypothesis that an underlying functional redundancy in the homologous elements hs3a and hs3b was masking the importance of either element to CSR. Several transgenic mouse lines were generated, each carrying a bacterial artificial chromosome transgene that mimicked Igh locus structure but in which hs3a was missing and hs3b was flanked by loxP sites. Matings to Cyclization Recombination Enzyme-expressing mice established "pairs" of lines that differed only in the presence or absence of hs3b. Remarkably, CSR remained robust in the absence of both hs3a and hs3b, suggesting that the remaining two elements of the 3' regulatory region, hs1.2 and hs4, although individually dispensable for CSR, are, together, sufficient to support CSR.

  6. 75 FR 22693 - Airworthiness Directives; General Electric Company (GE) CF34-1A, CF34-3A, and CF34-3B Series...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-30

    ...; AD 2010-01-04] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; General Electric Company (GE) CF34-1A, CF34-3A...;having general applicability and legal effect, most of which are keyed #0;to and codified in the Code of...-7756; fax: (781) 238-7199. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: On January 8, 2010 (75 FR 1017), we published...

  7. Differential mRNA expression of the human DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) 1, 3a and 3b during the G0/G1 to S phase transition in normal and tumor cells

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, Keith D.; Keyomarsi, Khandan; Gonzales, Felicidad A.; Velicescu, Mihaela; Jones, Peter A.

    2000-01-01

    DNA methylation is essential for mammalian development, X-chromosome inactivation, and imprinting yet aberrant methylation patterns are one of the most common features of transformed cells. One of the proposed causes for these defects in the methylation machinery is overexpression of one or more of the three known catalytically active DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) 1, 3a and 3b, yet there are clearly examples in which overexpression is minimal or non-existent but global methylation anomalies persist. An alternative mechanism which could give rise to global methylation errors is the improper expression of one or more of the DNMTs during the cell cycle. To begin to study the latter possibility we examined the expression of the mRNAs for DNMT1, 3a and 3b during the cell cycle of normal and transformed cells. We found that DNMT1 and 3b levels were significantly downregulated in G0/G1 while DNMT3a mRNA levels were less sensitive to cell cycle alterations and were maintained at a slightly higher level in tumor lines compared to normal cell strains. Enzymatic activity assays revealed a similar decrease in the overall methylation capacity of the cells during G0/G1 arrest and again revealed that a tumor cell line maintained a higher methylation capacity during arrest than a normal cell strain. These results reveal a new level of control exerted over the cellular DNA methylation machinery, the loss of which provides an alternative mechanism for the genesis of the aberrant methylation patterns observed in tumor cells. PMID:10773079

  8. Stability and specificity of heterodimer formation for the coiled-coil neck regions of the motor proteins Kif3A and Kif3B: the role of unstructured oppositely charged regions

    PubMed Central

    Chana, M.S.; Tripet, B.P.; Mant, C.T.; Hodges, R.

    2005-01-01

    We investigated the folding, stability, and specificity of dimerization of the neck regions of the kinesin-like proteins Kif3A (residues 356–416) and Kif3B (residues 351–411). We showed that the complementary charged regions found in the hinge regions (which directly follow the neck regions) of these proteins do not adopt any secondary structure in solution. We then explored the ability of the complementary charged regions to specify heterodimer formation for the neck region coiled-coils found in Kif3A and Kif3B. Redox experiments demonstrated that oppositely charged regions specified the formation of a heterodimeric coiled-coil. Denaturation studies with urea demonstrated that the negatively charged region of Kif3A dramatically destabilized its neck coiled-coil (urea1/2 value of 3.9 m compared with 6.7 m for the coiled-coil alone). By comparison, the placement of a positively charged region C-terminal to the neck coiled-coil of Kif3B had little effect on stability (urea1/2 value of 8.2 m compared with 8.8 m for the coiled-coil alone). The pairing of complementary charged regions leads to specific heterodimer formation where the stability of the heterodimeric neck coiled-coil with charged regions had similar stability (urea1/2 value of 7.8 m) to the most stable homodimer (Kif3B) with charged regions (urea1/2 value of 8.0 m) and dramatically more stable than the Kif3A homodimer with charged regions (urea1/2, value of 3.9 m). The heterodimeric coiled-coil with charged extensions has essentially the same stability as the heterodimeric coiled-coil on its own (urea1/2 values of 7.8 and 8.1 m, respectively) suggesting that specificity of heterodimerization is driven by non-specific attraction of the oppositely unstructured charged regions without affecting stability of the heterodimeric coiled-coil. PMID:15705165

  9. Double plant homeodomain (PHD) finger proteins DPF3a and -3b are required as transcriptional co-activators in SWI/SNF complex-dependent activation of NF-κB RelA/p50 heterodimer.

    PubMed

    Ishizaka, Aya; Mizutani, Taketoshi; Kobayashi, Kazuyoshi; Tando, Toshio; Sakurai, Kouhei; Fujiwara, Toshinobu; Iba, Hideo

    2012-04-01

    We have previously shown that DPF2 (requiem/REQ) functions as a linker protein between the SWI/SNF complex and RelB/p52 NF-κB heterodimer and plays important roles in NF-κB transactivation via its noncanonical pathway. Using sensitive 293FT reporter cell clones that had integrated a SWI/SNF-dependent NF-κB reporter gene, we find in this study that the overexpression of DPF1, DPF2, DPF3a, DPF3b, and PHF10 significantly potentiates the transactivating activity of typical NF-κB dimers. Knockdown analysis using 293FT reporter cells that endogenously express these five proteins at low levels clearly showed that DPF3a and DPF3b, which are produced from the DPF3 gene by alternative splicing, are the most critical for the RelA/p50 NF-κB heterodimer transactivation induced by TNF-α stimulation. Our data further show that this transactivation requires the SWI/SNF complex. DPF3a and DPF3b are additionally shown to interact directly with RelA, p50, and several subunits of the SWI/SNF complex in vitro and to be co-immunoprecipitated with RelA/p50 and the SWI/SNF complex from the nuclear fractions of cells treated with TNF-α. In ChIP experiments, we further found that endogenous DPF3a/b and the SWI/SNF complex are continuously present on HIV-1 LTR, whereas the kinetics of RelA/p50 recruitment after TNF-α treatment correlate well with the viral transcriptional activation levels. Additionally, re-ChIP experiments showed DPF3a/b and the SWI/SNF complex associate with RelA on the endogenous IL-6 promoter after TNF-α treatment. In conclusion, our present data indicate that by linking RelA/p50 to the SWI/SNF complex, DPF3a/b induces the transactivation of NF-κB target gene promoters in relatively inactive chromatin contexts.

  10. Rapid detection of HCV genotyping 1a, 1b, 2a, 3a, 3b and 6a in a single reaction using two-melting temperature codes by a real-time PCR-based assay.

    PubMed

    Athar, Muhammad Ammar; Xu, Ye; Xie, Xiaoting; Xu, Zhenxing; Ahmad, Vakil; Hayder, Zulfiqar; Hussain, Syed Sajid; Liao, Yiqun; Li, Qingge

    2015-09-15

    The genotype of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) is an important indicator for antiviral therapeutic response. We hereby described development of a rapid HCV genotyping approach that enabled the identification of the six most common HCV subtypes of Asia, i.e., 1a, 1b, 2a, 3a, 3b, and 6a, in a single reaction. Using two dual-labeled, self-quenched probes that target the core region of the HCV genome, the exact subtype could be accurately identified by two-melting temperature codes determined from the two respective probes in a real-time PCR assay. Analytical sensitivity studies using armored RNA samples representing each of the six HCV subtypes showed that 5 copies/reaction of HCV RNA could be detected. The assay was evaluated using 244 HCV-positive serum samples and the results were compared with sequencing analysis. Of the 224 samples, subtype 3a (127, 52.3%) was the dominant, followed by 1b (51, 20.9%), 3b (47, 19.3%), 2a (8, 3.3%), 6a (4, 1.6%) and the least was subtype 1a (1, 0.4%). Moreover, 6 (2.5%) mixed infection samples were also detected. These results were fully concordant with sequencing analysis. We concluded that this real-time PCR-based assay could provide a rapid and reliable tool for routine HCV genotyping in most Asian countries.

  11. Epstein-Barr Virus Proteins EBNA3A and EBNA3C Together Induce Expression of the Oncogenic MicroRNA Cluster miR-221/miR-222 and Ablate Expression of Its Target p57KIP2

    PubMed Central

    Bazot, Quentin; Paschos, Kostas; Skalska, Lenka; Kalchschmidt, Jens S.; Parker, Gillian A.; Allday, Martin J.

    2015-01-01

    We show that two host-encoded primary RNAs (pri-miRs) and the corresponding microRNA (miR) clusters – widely reported to have cell transformation-associated activity – are regulated by EBNA3A and EBNA3C. Utilising a variety of EBV-transformed lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) carrying knockout-, revertant- or conditional-EBV recombinants, it was possible to demonstrate unambiguously that EBNA3A and EBNA3C are both required for transactivation of the oncogenic miR-221/miR-222 cluster that is expressed at high levels in multiple human tumours – including lymphoma/leukemia. ChIP, ChIP-seq, and chromosome conformation capture analyses indicate that this activation results from direct targeting of both EBV proteins to chromatin at the miR-221/miR-222 genomic locus and activation via a long-range interaction between enhancer elements and the transcription start site of a long non-coding pri-miR located 28kb upstream of the miR sequences. Reduced levels of miR-221/miR-222 produced by inactivation or deletion of EBNA3A or EBNA3C resulted in increased expression of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p57KIP2, a well-established target of miR-221/miR-222. MiR blocking experiments confirmed that miR-221/miR-222 target p57KIP2 expression in LCLs. In contrast, EBNA3A and EBNA3C are necessary to silence the tumour suppressor cluster miR-143/miR-145, but here ChIP-seq suggests that repression is probably indirect. This miR cluster is frequently down-regulated or deleted in human cancer, however, the targets in B cells are unknown. Together these data indicate that EBNA3A and EBNA3C contribute to B cell transformation by inhibiting multiple tumour suppressor proteins, not only by direct repression of protein-encoding genes, but also by the manipulation of host long non-coding pri-miRs and miRs. PMID:26153983

  12. Order-disorder in In{sup 3+} perovskites: The example of A(In{sub 2/3}B''{sub 1/3})O{sub 3} (A=Ba, Sr; B''=W, U)

    SciTech Connect

    Larregola, S.A. Alonso, J.A.; Pinacca, R.M.; Viola, M.C.; Pedregosa, J.C.

    2008-10-15

    We describe the preparation and structural characterization of four In-containing perovskites from neutron powder diffraction (NPD) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) data. Sr{sub 3}In{sub 2}B''O{sub 9} and Ba(In{sub 2/3}B''{sub 1/3})O{sub 3} (B''=W, U) were synthesized by standard ceramic procedures. The crystal structure of the W-containing perovskites and Ba(In{sub 2/3}U{sub 1/3})O{sub 3} have been revisited based on our high-resolution NPD and XRPD data, while for the new U-containing perovskite Sr{sub 3}In{sub 2}UO{sub 9} the structural refinement was carried out from high-resolution XRPD data. At room temperature, the crystal structure for the two Sr phases is monoclinic, space group P2{sub 1}/n, where the In atoms occupy two different sites Sr{sub 2}[In]{sub 2d}[In{sub 1/3}B''{sub 2/3}]{sub 2c}O{sub 6}, with a=5.7548(2) A, b=5.7706(2) A, c=8.1432(3) A, {beta}=90.01(1){sup o} for B''=W and a=5.861(1) A, b=5.908(1) A, c=8.315(2) A, {beta}=89.98(1){sup o} for B''=U. The two phases with A=Ba should be described in a simple cubic perovskite unit cell (S.G. Pm3-bar m) with In and B'' distributed at random at the octahedral sites, with a=4.16111(1) A and 4.24941(1) A for W and U compounds, respectively. - Graphical abstract: The structure of the new uranium-based double perovskite Sr{sub 3}In{sub 2}UO{sub 9} is described and the true symmetry of the other title compounds are revisited. The presence of long-range ordering in the Sr samples, by contrast with the Ba perovskites, is related with the smaller unit cell and B-B distances in the Sr oxides, promoting the electrostatic repulsions between highly charged W{sup 6+} and U{sup 6+} cations as driving force for the long-range B-site ordering.

  13. New hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotyping system that allows for identification of HCV genotypes 1a, 1b, 2a, 2b, 3a, 3b, 4, 5a, and 6a.

    PubMed Central

    Ohno, O; Mizokami, M; Wu, R R; Saleh, M G; Ohba, K; Orito, E; Mukaide, M; Williams, R; Lau, J Y

    1997-01-01

    Recent studies have focused on whether different hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotypes are associated with different profiles of pathogenicity, infectivity, and response to antiviral therapy. The establishment of a simple and precise genotyping system for HCV is essential to address these issues. A new genotyping system based on PCR of the core region with genotype-specific PCR primers for the determination of HCV genotypes 1a, 1b, 2a, 2b, 3a, 3b, 4, 5a, and 6a was developed. A total of 607 samples (379 from Japan, 63 from the United States, 53 from Korea, 35 from Taiwan, 32 from China, 20 from Hong Kong, 15 from Australia, 6 from Egypt, 3 from Bangladesh, and 1 from South Africa) were tested by both the assay of Okamoto et al. (H. Okamoto, Y. Sugiyama, S. Okada, K. Kurai, Y. Akahane, Y. Sugai, T. Tanaka, K. Sato, F. Tsuda, Y. Miyamura, and M. Mayumi, J. Gen. Virol. 73:673-679, 1992) and this new genotyping system. Comparison of the results showed concordant results for 539 samples (88.8%). Of the 68 samples with discordant results, the nucleotide sequences of the HCV isolates were determined in 23, and their genotypes were determined by molecular evolutionary analysis. In all 23 samples, the assignment of genotype by our new genotyping system was correct. This genotyping system may be useful for large-scale determination of HCV genotypes in clinical studies. PMID:8968908

  14. MANYEFFV3B

    2007-05-30

    MANYEFFV3B is a program to calculate bound state properties of light nuclei, mainly A=3 and A=4 systems, using realistic nucleon-nucleon interactions and, optionally, three-nucleon interaction derived within the chiral effective field theory. Also, the program is used to generate three-body effective interaction from the realistic NN+NNN potentials to be used in shell model calculations for heavier nuclei, typically p=shell nuclei. These calculations are referred to as ab initio no-core shell model calculations. The code outputsmore » eigenvalues and optionally wave functions of the investigated nuclei. Alternatively, the code outputs the three-body effective interactions matrix elements in relative-coordinate basis that needs to be further transformed to single-particle basis by a separate code in order to be used as input to shell model codes with three-body capability (MFD, Redstick). Several passes of the code are required in calculations for A>3 nuclei if three-body effective interaction is to be generated or used and also if NNN interaction is to be included.« less

  15. Boeing F3B-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1930-01-01

    Boeing F3B-1: While most Boeing F3B-1s served aboard the U. S. Navy aircraft carriers Lexington and Saratoga, this example flew in NACA hands at the Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory in the late 1920's. Also known as the Boeing Model 77, the aircraft was powered by a Pratt & Whitney Wasp radial engine.

  16. Endogenous APOBEC3B restricts LINE-1 retrotransposition in transformed cells and human embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Wissing, Silke; Montano, Mauricio; Garcia-Perez, Jose Luis; Moran, John V; Greene, Warner C

    2011-10-21

    Members of the APOBEC3 (A3) family of cytidine deaminase enzymes act as host defense mechanisms limiting both infections by exogenous retroviruses and mobilization of endogenous retrotransposons. Previous studies revealed that the overexpression of some A3 proteins could restrict engineered human Long INterspersed Element-1 (LINE-1 or L1) retrotransposition in HeLa cells. However, whether endogenous A3 proteins play a role in restricting L1 retrotransposition remains largely unexplored. Here, we show that HeLa cells express endogenous A3B and A3C, whereas human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) express A3B, A3C, A3DE, A3F, and A3G. To study the relative contribution of endogenous A3 proteins in restricting L1 retrotransposition, we first generated small hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) to suppress endogenous A3 mRNA expression, and then assessed L1 mobility using a cell-based L1 retrotransposition assay. We demonstrate that in both HeLa and hESCs, shRNA-based knockdown of A3B promotes a ∼2-3.7-fold increase in the retrotransposition efficiency of an engineered human L1. Knockdown of the other A3s produced no significant increase in L1 activity. Thus, A3B appears to restrict engineered L1 retrotransposition in a broad range of cell types, including pluripotent cells.

  17. Dynamic expression of transcription factor Brn3b during mouse cranial nerve development.

    PubMed

    Sajgo, Szilard; Ali, Seid; Popescu, Octavian; Badea, Tudor Constantin

    2016-04-01

    During development, transcription factor combinatorial codes define a large variety of morphologically and physiologically distinct neurons. Such a combinatorial code has been proposed for the differentiation of projection neurons of the somatic and visceral components of cranial nerves. It is possible that individual neuronal cell types are not specified by unique transcription factors but rather emerge through the intersection of their expression domains. Brn3a, Brn3b, and Brn3c, in combination with each other and/or transcription factors of other families, can define subgroups of retinal ganglion cells (RGC), spiral and vestibular ganglia, inner ear and vestibular hair cell neurons in the vestibuloacoustic system, and groups of somatosensory neurons in the dorsal root ganglia. The present study investigates the expression and potential role of the Brn3b transcription factor in cranial nerves and associated nuclei of the brainstem. We report the dynamic expression of Brn3b in the somatosensory component of cranial nerves II, V, VII, and VIII and visceromotor nuclei of nerves VII, IX, and X as well as other brainstem nuclei during different stages of development into adult stage. We find that genetically identified Brn3b(KO) RGC axons show correct but delayed pathfinding during the early stages of embryonic development. However, loss of Brn3b does not affect the anatomy of the other cranial nerves normally expressing this transcription factor.

  18. ARID3B Directly Regulates Ovarian Cancer Promoting Genes

    PubMed Central

    Bobbs, Alexander; Gellerman, Katrina; Hallas, William Morgan; Joseph, Stancy; Yang, Chao; Kurkewich, Jeffrey; Cowden Dahl, Karen D.

    2015-01-01

    The DNA-binding protein AT-Rich Interactive Domain 3B (ARID3B) is elevated in ovarian cancer and increases tumor growth in a xenograft model of ovarian cancer. However, relatively little is known about ARID3B's function. In this study we perform the first genome wide screen for ARID3B direct target genes and ARID3B regulated pathways. We identified and confirmed numerous ARID3B target genes by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) followed by microarray and quantitative RT-PCR. Using motif-finding algorithms, we characterized a binding site for ARID3B, which is similar to the previously known site for the ARID3B paralogue ARID3A. Functionality of this predicted site was demonstrated by ChIP analysis. We next demonstrated that ARID3B induces expression of its targets in ovarian cancer cell lines. We validated that ARID3B binds to an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) enhancer and increases mRNA expression. ARID3B also binds to the promoter of Wnt5A and its receptor FZD5. FZD5 is highly expressed in ovarian cancer cell lines, and is upregulated by exogenous ARID3B. Both ARID3B and FZD5 expression increase adhesion to extracellular matrix (ECM) components including collagen IV, fibronectin and vitronectin. ARID3B-increased adhesion to collagens II and IV require FZD5. This study directly demonstrates that ARID3B binds target genes in a sequence-specific manner, resulting in increased gene expression. Furthermore, our data indicate that ARID3B regulation of direct target genes in the Wnt pathway promotes adhesion of ovarian cancer cells. PMID:26121572

  19. Arid3b Is Critical for B Lymphocyte Development.

    PubMed

    Kurkewich, Jeffrey L; Klopfenstein, Nathan; Hallas, William M; Wood, Christian; Sattler, Rachel A; Das, Chhaya; Tucker, Haley; Dahl, Richard; Cowden Dahl, Karen D

    2016-01-01

    Arid3a and Arid3b belong to a subfamily of ARID (AT-rich interaction domain) transcription factors. The Arid family is involved in regulating chromatin accessibility, proliferation, and differentiation. Arid3a and Arid3b are closely related and share a unique REKLES domain that mediates their homo- and hetero-multimerization. Arid3a was originally isolated as a B cell transcription factor binding to the AT rich matrix attachment regions (MARS) of the immunoglobulin heavy chain intronic enhancer. Deletion of Arid3a results in a highly penetrant embryonic lethality with severe defects in erythropoiesis and hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). The few surviving Arid3a-/- (<1%) animals have decreased HSCs and early progenitors in the bone marrow, but all mature lineages are normally represented in the bone marrow and periphery except for B cells. Arid3b-/- animals die around E7.5 precluding examination of hematopoietic development. So it is unclear whether the phenotype of Arid3a loss on hematopoiesis is dependent or independent of Arid3b. In this study we circumvented this limitation by also examining hematopoiesis in mice with a conditional allele of Arid3b. Bone marrow lacking Arid3b shows decreased common lymphoid progenitors (CLPs) and downstream B cell populations while the T cell and myeloid lineages are unchanged, reminiscent of the adult hematopoietic defect in Arid3a mice. Unlike Arid3a-/- mice, HSC populations are unperturbed in Arid3b-/- mice. This study demonstrates that HSC development is independent of Arid3b, whereas B cell development requires both Arid3a and Arid3b transcription factors. PMID:27537840

  20. Arid3b Is Critical for B Lymphocyte Development

    PubMed Central

    Kurkewich, Jeffrey L.; Klopfenstein, Nathan; Hallas, William M.; Wood, Christian; Sattler, Rachel A.; Das, Chhaya; Tucker, Haley; Dahl, Richard; Cowden Dahl, Karen D.

    2016-01-01

    Arid3a and Arid3b belong to a subfamily of ARID (AT-rich interaction domain) transcription factors. The Arid family is involved in regulating chromatin accessibility, proliferation, and differentiation. Arid3a and Arid3b are closely related and share a unique REKLES domain that mediates their homo- and hetero-multimerization. Arid3a was originally isolated as a B cell transcription factor binding to the AT rich matrix attachment regions (MARS) of the immunoglobulin heavy chain intronic enhancer. Deletion of Arid3a results in a highly penetrant embryonic lethality with severe defects in erythropoiesis and hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). The few surviving Arid3a-/- (<1%) animals have decreased HSCs and early progenitors in the bone marrow, but all mature lineages are normally represented in the bone marrow and periphery except for B cells. Arid3b-/- animals die around E7.5 precluding examination of hematopoietic development. So it is unclear whether the phenotype of Arid3a loss on hematopoiesis is dependent or independent of Arid3b. In this study we circumvented this limitation by also examining hematopoiesis in mice with a conditional allele of Arid3b. Bone marrow lacking Arid3b shows decreased common lymphoid progenitors (CLPs) and downstream B cell populations while the T cell and myeloid lineages are unchanged, reminiscent of the adult hematopoietic defect in Arid3a mice. Unlike Arid3a-/- mice, HSC populations are unperturbed in Arid3b-/- mice. This study demonstrates that HSC development is independent of Arid3b, whereas B cell development requires both Arid3a and Arid3b transcription factors. PMID:27537840

  1. INTEGRATED POLARIZATION PROPERTIES OF 3C48, 3C138, 3C147, AND 3C286

    SciTech Connect

    Perley, R. A.; Butler, B. J. E-mail: BButler@nrao.edu

    2013-06-01

    We present the integrated polarization properties of the four compact radio sources 3C48, 3C138, 3C147, and 3C286, from 1 to 50 GHz, over a 30 yr time frame spanning 1982-2012. Using the polarized emission of Mars, we have determined that the position angle of the linearly polarized emission of 3C286 rises from 33 Degree-Sign at 8 GHz to 36 Degree-Sign at 45 GHz. There is no evidence for a change in the position angle over time. Using these values, the position angles of the integrated polarized emission from the other three sources are determined as a function of frequency and time. The fractional polarization of 3C286 is found to be slowly rising, at all frequencies, at a rate of {approx}0.015% yr{sup -1}. The fractional polarizations of 3C48, 3C138, and 3C147 are all slowly variable, with the variations correlated with changes in the total flux densities of these sources.

  2. 18 CFR 3b.201 - Content of records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... required to be accomplished by statute or by executive order of the President. Pursuant to § 3b.3(a)(4) of..., freedom of speech and of the press, and freedom of assembly and petition. In determining whether or not...

  3. 18 CFR 3b.201 - Content of records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... required to be accomplished by statute or by executive order of the President. Pursuant to § 3b.3(a)(4) of..., freedom of speech and of the press, and freedom of assembly and petition. In determining whether or not...

  4. 18 CFR 3b.201 - Content of records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... required to be accomplished by statute or by executive order of the President. Pursuant to § 3b.3(a)(4) of..., freedom of speech and of the press, and freedom of assembly and petition. In determining whether or not...

  5. 18 CFR 3b.201 - Content of records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... required to be accomplished by statute or by executive order of the President. Pursuant to § 3b.3(a)(4) of..., freedom of speech and of the press, and freedom of assembly and petition. In determining whether or not...

  6. P3b, consciousness, and complex unconscious processing.

    PubMed

    Silverstein, Brian H; Snodgrass, Michael; Shevrin, Howard; Kushwaha, Ramesh

    2015-12-01

    How can perceptual consciousness be indexed in humans? Recent work with ERPs suggests that P3b, a relatively late component, may be a neural correlate of consciousness (NCC). This proposal dovetails with currently prevailing cognitive theory regarding the nature of conscious versus unconscious processes, which holds that the latter are simple and very brief, whereas consciousness is ostensibly required for more durable, complex cognitive processing. Using a P3b oddball paradigm, we instead show that P3b and even later, related slow wave activity occur under rigorously subliminal conditions. Additional principal component analysis (PCA) further differentiated the presence of both P3a and P3b components, demonstrating that the latter indeed occurred subliminally. Collectively, our results suggest that complex, sustained cognitive processing can occur unconsciously and that P3b is not an NCC after all.

  7. Equal Educational Opportunity: Hearings Before the Select Committee on Equal Educational Opportunity of the United States Senate, Ninety-First Congress, Second Session on Equal Educational Opportunity. Parts 1A, 1B, 2, 3A, 3B, 3C, and 3D.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Select Committee on Equal Educational Opportunity.

    These hearings before the Senate Select Committee on Equal Educational Opportunity are organized in three parts, the contents of which are as follows: Part 1A and Part 2 comprise the "Introduction," with opening statements by a number of Senators, followed by the presentations of other witnesses. The focus of these two parts is on such topics as…

  8. 18 CFR 3b.4 - Government contractors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Government contractors. 3b.4 Section 3b.4 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION... PERSONAL INFORMATION General § 3b.4 Government contractors. Systems of records operated by a...

  9. 18 CFR 3b.4 - Government contractors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Government contractors. 3b.4 Section 3b.4 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION... PERSONAL INFORMATION General § 3b.4 Government contractors. Systems of records operated by a...

  10. 18 CFR 3b.4 - Government contractors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Government contractors. 3b.4 Section 3b.4 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION... PERSONAL INFORMATION General § 3b.4 Government contractors. Systems of records operated by a...

  11. 18 CFR 3b.4 - Government contractors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Government contractors. 3b.4 Section 3b.4 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION... PERSONAL INFORMATION General § 3b.4 Government contractors. Systems of records operated by a...

  12. 18 CFR 3b.4 - Government contractors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Government contractors. 3b.4 Section 3b.4 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION... PERSONAL INFORMATION General § 3b.4 Government contractors. Systems of records operated by a...

  13. 18 CFR 3b.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Definitions. 3b.2 Section 3b.2 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF... finger or voice print or a photograph; (e) System of records means a group of any records under...

  14. 18 CFR 3b.222 - Identification requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... identification, the system manager will require a signed statement from the individual asserting his identity and... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Identification requirements. 3b.222 Section 3b.222 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY...

  15. 18 CFR 3b.222 - Identification requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Identification requirements. 3b.222 Section 3b.222 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES COLLECTION, MAINTENANCE, USE, AND DISSEMINATION OF RECORDS...

  16. 18 CFR 3b.227 - Mailing lists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mailing lists. 3b.227 Section 3b.227 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES COLLECTION, MAINTENANCE, USE, AND DISSEMINATION OF RECORDS OF...

  17. 18 CFR 3b.223 - Fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Fees. 3b.223 Section 3b.223 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES COLLECTION, MAINTENANCE, USE, AND DISSEMINATION OF RECORDS OF IDENTIFIABLE...

  18. 18 CFR 3b.5 - Legal guardians.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Legal guardians. 3b.5 Section 3b.5 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES COLLECTION, MAINTENANCE, USE, AND DISSEMINATION OF RECORDS OF IDENTIFIABLE...

  19. 18 CFR 3b.250 - Specific exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Specific exemptions. 3b.250 Section 3b.250 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES COLLECTION, MAINTENANCE, USE, AND DISSEMINATION OF RECORDS OF...

  20. 18 CFR 3b.250 - Specific exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Specific exemptions. 3b.250 Section 3b.250 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES COLLECTION, MAINTENANCE, USE, AND DISSEMINATION OF RECORDS OF...

  1. 18 CFR 3b.250 - Specific exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Specific exemptions. 3b.250 Section 3b.250 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES COLLECTION, MAINTENANCE, USE, AND DISSEMINATION OF RECORDS OF...

  2. 18 CFR 3b.227 - Mailing lists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Mailing lists. 3b.227 Section 3b.227 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES COLLECTION, MAINTENANCE, USE, AND DISSEMINATION OF RECORDS OF...

  3. 18 CFR 3b.250 - Specific exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Specific exemptions. 3b.250 Section 3b.250 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES COLLECTION, MAINTENANCE, USE, AND DISSEMINATION OF RECORDS OF...

  4. 18 CFR 3b.5 - Legal guardians.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Legal guardians. 3b.5 Section 3b.5 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES COLLECTION, MAINTENANCE, USE, AND DISSEMINATION OF RECORDS OF IDENTIFIABLE...

  5. 18 CFR 3b.5 - Legal guardians.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Legal guardians. 3b.5 Section 3b.5 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES COLLECTION, MAINTENANCE, USE, AND DISSEMINATION OF RECORDS OF IDENTIFIABLE...

  6. 18 CFR 3b.5 - Legal guardians.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Legal guardians. 3b.5 Section 3b.5 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES COLLECTION, MAINTENANCE, USE, AND DISSEMINATION OF RECORDS OF IDENTIFIABLE...

  7. 18 CFR 3b.223 - Fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Fees. 3b.223 Section 3b.223 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES COLLECTION, MAINTENANCE, USE, AND DISSEMINATION OF RECORDS OF IDENTIFIABLE...

  8. 18 CFR 3b.223 - Fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Fees. 3b.223 Section 3b.223 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES COLLECTION, MAINTENANCE, USE, AND DISSEMINATION OF RECORDS OF IDENTIFIABLE...

  9. 18 CFR 3b.222 - Identification requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Identification requirements. 3b.222 Section 3b.222 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES COLLECTION, MAINTENANCE, USE, AND DISSEMINATION OF RECORDS...

  10. 18 CFR 3b.223 - Fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Fees. 3b.223 Section 3b.223 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES COLLECTION, MAINTENANCE, USE, AND DISSEMINATION OF RECORDS OF IDENTIFIABLE...

  11. 18 CFR 3b.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Purpose. 3b.1 Section 3b.1 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES COLLECTION, MAINTENANCE, USE, AND DISSEMINATION OF RECORDS OF IDENTIFIABLE...

  12. 18 CFR 3b.223 - Fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fees. 3b.223 Section 3b.223 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES COLLECTION, MAINTENANCE, USE, AND DISSEMINATION OF RECORDS OF IDENTIFIABLE...

  13. 18 CFR 3b.5 - Legal guardians.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Legal guardians. 3b.5 Section 3b.5 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES COLLECTION, MAINTENANCE, USE, AND DISSEMINATION OF RECORDS OF IDENTIFIABLE...

  14. 18 CFR 3b.222 - Identification requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Identification requirements. 3b.222 Section 3b.222 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES COLLECTION, MAINTENANCE, USE, AND DISSEMINATION OF RECORDS...

  15. 18 CFR 3b.227 - Mailing lists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Mailing lists. 3b.227 Section 3b.227 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES COLLECTION, MAINTENANCE, USE, AND DISSEMINATION OF RECORDS OF...

  16. 18 CFR 3b.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Purpose. 3b.1 Section 3b.1 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES COLLECTION, MAINTENANCE, USE, AND DISSEMINATION OF RECORDS OF IDENTIFIABLE...

  17. 18 CFR 3b.3 - Notice requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Notice requirements. 3b.3 Section 3b.3 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES COLLECTION, MAINTENANCE, USE, AND DISSEMINATION OF RECORDS OF...

  18. 18 CFR 3b.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Purpose. 3b.1 Section 3b.1 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES COLLECTION, MAINTENANCE, USE, AND DISSEMINATION OF RECORDS OF IDENTIFIABLE...

  19. 18 CFR 3b.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Definitions. 3b.2 Section 3b.2 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES COLLECTION, MAINTENANCE, USE, AND DISSEMINATION OF RECORDS OF IDENTIFIABLE...

  20. 18 CFR 3b.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Definitions. 3b.2 Section 3b.2 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES COLLECTION, MAINTENANCE, USE, AND DISSEMINATION OF RECORDS OF IDENTIFIABLE...

  1. 18 CFR 3b.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Purpose. 3b.1 Section 3b.1 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES COLLECTION, MAINTENANCE, USE, AND DISSEMINATION OF RECORDS OF IDENTIFIABLE...

  2. 18 CFR 3b.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Purpose. 3b.1 Section 3b.1 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES COLLECTION, MAINTENANCE, USE, AND DISSEMINATION OF RECORDS OF IDENTIFIABLE...

  3. 18 CFR 3b.3 - Notice requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Notice requirements. 3b.3 Section 3b.3 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES COLLECTION, MAINTENANCE, USE, AND DISSEMINATION OF RECORDS OF...

  4. 18 CFR 3b.3 - Notice requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notice requirements. 3b.3 Section 3b.3 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES COLLECTION, MAINTENANCE, USE, AND DISSEMINATION OF RECORDS OF...

  5. 18 CFR 3b.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definitions. 3b.2 Section 3b.2 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES COLLECTION, MAINTENANCE, USE, AND DISSEMINATION OF RECORDS OF IDENTIFIABLE...

  6. 18 CFR 3b.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Definitions. 3b.2 Section 3b.2 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES COLLECTION, MAINTENANCE, USE, AND DISSEMINATION OF RECORDS OF IDENTIFIABLE...

  7. 18 CFR 3b.3 - Notice requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Notice requirements. 3b.3 Section 3b.3 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES COLLECTION, MAINTENANCE, USE, AND DISSEMINATION OF RECORDS OF...

  8. 18 CFR 3b.227 - Mailing lists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Mailing lists. 3b.227 Section 3b.227 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT... specifically authorized by law. This provision shall not be construed to require the withholding of names...

  9. 18 CFR 3b.227 - Mailing lists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Mailing lists. 3b.227 Section 3b.227 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT... specifically authorized by law. This provision shall not be construed to require the withholding of names...

  10. Isolation of eukaryotic ribosomal proteins. Purification and characterization of the 40 S ribosomal subunit proteins Sa, Sc, S3a, S3b, S5', S9, S10, S11, S12, S14, S15, S15', S16, S17, S18, S19, S20, S21, S26, S27', and S29.

    PubMed

    Collatz, E; Ulbrich, N; Tsurugi, K; Lightfoot, H N; MacKinlay, W; Lin, A; Wool, I G

    1977-12-25

    The proteins of the small subunit of rat liver ribosomes were separated into five main groups by stepwise elution from carboxymethylcellulose with LiCl at pH 6.5. Twenty-one proteins (Sa, Sc, S3a, S3b, S5', S9, S10, S11, S12, S14, S15, S15', S16, S17, S18, S19, S20, S21, S26, S27', and S29) were isolated from three groups (A40, C40, and D40) by ion exchange chromatography on DEAE-cellulose, carboxymethylcellulose, and phosphocellulose and by filtration through Sephadex. The amount of protein obtained varied from 0.1 to 11 mg. Six of the proteins (S5', S10, S11, S18, S19, and S27') had no detectable contamination; the impurities in the others were no greater than 9%. The molecular weight of the proteins was estimated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in sodium dodecyl sulfate; the amino acid composition was determined.

  11. Molecular basis of the attenuated phenotype of human APOBEC3B DNA mutator enzyme.

    PubMed

    Caval, Vincent; Bouzidi, Mohamed S; Suspène, Rodolphe; Laude, Hélène; Dumargne, Marie-Charlotte; Bashamboo, Anu; Krey, Thomas; Vartanian, Jean-Pierre; Wain-Hobson, Simon

    2015-10-30

    The human APOBEC3A and APOBEC3B genes (A3A and A3B) encode DNA mutator enzymes that deaminate cytidine and 5-methylcytidine residues in single-stranded DNA (ssDNA). They are important sources of mutations in many cancer genomes which show a preponderance of CG->TA transitions. Although both enzymes can hypermutate chromosomal DNA in an experimental setting, only A3A can induce double strand DNA breaks, even though the catalytic domains of A3B and A3A differ by only 9% at the protein level. Accordingly we sought the molecular basis underlying A3B attenuation through the generation of A3A-A3B chimeras and mutants. It transpires that the N-terminal domain facilitates A3B activity while a handful of substitutions in the catalytic C-terminal domain impacting ssDNA binding serve to attenuate A3B compared to A3A. Interestingly, functional attenuation is also observed for the rhesus monkey rhA3B enzyme compared to rhA3A indicating that this genotoxic dichotomy has been selected for and maintained for some 38 million years. Expression of all human ssDNA cytidine deaminase genes is absent in mature sperm indicating they contribute to somatic mutation and cancer but not human diversity.

  12. Molecular basis of the attenuated phenotype of human APOBEC3B DNA mutator enzyme

    PubMed Central

    Caval, Vincent; Bouzidi, Mohamed S.; Suspène, Rodolphe; Laude, Hélène; Dumargne, Marie-Charlotte; Bashamboo, Anu; Krey, Thomas; Vartanian, Jean-Pierre; Wain-Hobson, Simon

    2015-01-01

    The human APOBEC3A and APOBEC3B genes (A3A and A3B) encode DNA mutator enzymes that deaminate cytidine and 5-methylcytidine residues in single-stranded DNA (ssDNA). They are important sources of mutations in many cancer genomes which show a preponderance of CG->TA transitions. Although both enzymes can hypermutate chromosomal DNA in an experimental setting, only A3A can induce double strand DNA breaks, even though the catalytic domains of A3B and A3A differ by only 9% at the protein level. Accordingly we sought the molecular basis underlying A3B attenuation through the generation of A3A-A3B chimeras and mutants. It transpires that the N-terminal domain facilitates A3B activity while a handful of substitutions in the catalytic C-terminal domain impacting ssDNA binding serve to attenuate A3B compared to A3A. Interestingly, functional attenuation is also observed for the rhesus monkey rhA3B enzyme compared to rhA3A indicating that this genotoxic dichotomy has been selected for and maintained for some 38 million years. Expression of all human ssDNA cytidine deaminase genes is absent in mature sperm indicating they contribute to somatic mutation and cancer but not human diversity. PMID:26384561

  13. 75 FR 28188 - Airworthiness Directives; General Electric Company CF34-1A, -3A, -3A1, -3A2, -3B, and -3B1...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-20

    ...-42-AD; Amendment 39-16144; AD 2009-26-09] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; General Electric... (AD) 2009-26-09, which published in the Federal Register. That AD applies to General Electric Company... 7, 2010 (75 FR 910), we published a final rule AD, FR Doc, E9-30471, in the Federal Register....

  14. Dynamic and static behaviors of N-Z-N σ(3c-4e) (Z = S, Se, and Te) interactions: atoms-in-molecules dual functional analysis with high-resolution X-ray diffraction determination of electron densities for 2-(2-pyridylimino)-2H-1,2,4-thiadiazolo[2,3-a]pyridine.

    PubMed

    Nakanishi, Waro; Hayashi, Satoko; Pitak, Mateusz B; Hursthouse, Michael B; Coles, Simon J

    2011-10-27

    The structure of 2-(2-pyridylimino)-2H-1,2,4-thiadiazolo[2,3-a]pyridine (NSN) indicates that the molecule has a planar geometry with a linear N···S···N linkage, creating a tetracyclic structure of the formal C(2v) symmetry. To clarify the nature of the NSN σ(3c-4e) bonding, together with the related NSeN and NTeN, the dynamic and static behaviors are investigated by applying atoms-in-molecules (AIM) dual functional analysis to both the fully optimized and perturbed structures. The structures were optimized computationally, retaining C(2v) symmetry. All bond critical points are detected as expected and exhibited on both sides of the N···Z···N moiety which supports the formation of NZN σ(3c-4e). It is confirmed that N···S···N is of the covalent nature close to Me(2)S(+)-∗-Cl or Me(2)Se(+)-∗-Br, whereas N···Se···N and N···Te···N have the (regular) CS nature close to the CT adducts of Me(2)S(-∗-Cl)(2) (TBP) and Me(2)Se-∗-Br(2) (MC), respectively. An experimental high-resolution charge density determination has been performed on NSN, which thoroughly supports the theoretical results. Very similar results are obtained in the analogous pyrimidyl derivatives for N···S···N, N···Se···N, and N···Te···N. AIM dual functional analysis, as validated by experimental high-resolution charge densities, is thus confirmed to be an excellent method to elucidate the nature of these interactions.

  15. 18 CFR 3c.2 - Nonpublic information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nonpublic information. 3c.2 Section 3c.2 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES STANDARDS OF CONDUCT § 3c.2 Nonpublic information. (a) Section 1264(d)...

  16. 18 CFR 3c.2 - Nonpublic information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Nonpublic information. 3c.2 Section 3c.2 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES STANDARDS OF CONDUCT § 3c.2 Nonpublic information. (a) Section 1264(d)...

  17. 18 CFR 3c.2 - Nonpublic information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Nonpublic information. 3c.2 Section 3c.2 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES STANDARDS OF CONDUCT § 3c.2 Nonpublic information. (a) Section 1264(d)...

  18. 18 CFR 3c.2 - Nonpublic information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Nonpublic information. 3c.2 Section 3c.2 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES STANDARDS OF CONDUCT § 3c.2 Nonpublic information. (a) Section 1264(d)...

  19. 18 CFR 3c.2 - Nonpublic information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Nonpublic information. 3c.2 Section 3c.2 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES STANDARDS OF CONDUCT § 3c.2 Nonpublic information. (a) Section 1264(d)...

  20. Novel derivatives of benzo[b]thieno[2,3-c]quinolones: synthesis, photochemical synthesis, and antitumor evaluation.

    PubMed

    Dogan Koruznjak, Jasna; Grdisa, Mira; Slade, Neda; Zamola, Branimir; Pavelić, Kresimir; Karminski-Zamola, Grace

    2003-10-01

    Novel derivatives of benzo[b]thieno[2,3-c]quinolones 3a-j were synthesized in a multistep synthesis starting from substituted benzo[b]thiophene-2-carbonyl chlorides, to their corresponding benzo[b]thiophene-2-carboxamides, which were photochemically dehydrohalogenated to their corresponding substituted benzo[b]thieno[2,3-c]quinolones. Compound 4 was prepared from 3i by alkylation with 3-dimethylaminopropyl chloride in the presence of NaH. Compounds 7a,b were prepared from 3g in the multistep synthesis from compounds 5 and 6. Compounds 3b, 3c-f, 3h, 7a, and 7b were found to exert cytostatic activity against malignant cell lines: pancreatic carcinoma (MiaPaCa2), breast carcinoma (MCF7), cervical carcinoma (HeLa), laryngeal carcinoma (Hep2), colon carcinoma (CaCo-2), melanoma (HBL), human fibroblast cell lines (WI-38). The compounds that bear a 3-dimethylaminopropyl substituent on the quinolone nitrogen (3b, 3c-f, 3h) showed higher antitumor activity than compounds bearing the same substituent on the amidic nitrogen (7a and 7b). The compound 3h, which has a 3-dimethylaminopropyl substituent on the quinolone nitrogen and a methoxycarbonyl substituent at position 9, had marked antitumor activity. Because of strong cytotoxic effect of compound 4 on melanoma cells (HBL, ME 67.3, and ME 67.1), a potential mechanism of action was examined. Analysis of DNA and Annexin-V-FLUOS staining indicated that compound 4 causes cell death by apoptosis.

  1. 18 CFR 3b.250 - Specific exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... PERSONAL INFORMATION Rules for Exemptions § 3b.250 Specific exemptions. Any system of records maintained by... identity of a confidential source who furnished the information to the Government under an express promise that his identity would be held in confidence, or, prior to September 27, 1975, under an...

  2. 18 CFR 3b.222 - Identification requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... IDENTIFIABLE PERSONAL INFORMATION Rules for Disclosure of Records § 3b.222 Identification requirements. The... personal identifier if known to the individual. A comparison of the signatures of the requester and those in the record will be used to determine identity. (c) If the system manager determines that the...

  3. Human kidney anion exchanger 1 interacts with kinesin family member 3B (KIF3B)

    SciTech Connect

    Duangtum, Natapol; Junking, Mutita; Sawasdee, Nunghathai; Cheunsuchon, Boonyarit; Limjindaporn, Thawornchai; Yenchitsomanus, Pa-thai

    2011-09-16

    Highlights: {yields} Impaired trafficking of kAE1 causes distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA). {yields} The interaction between kAE1 and kinesin family member 3B (KIF3B) is reported. {yields} The co-localization between kAE and KIF3B was detected in human kidney tissues. {yields} A marked reduction of kAE1 on the cell membrane was observed when KIF3B was knockdown. {yields} KFI3B plays an important role in trafficking of kAE1 to the plasma membrane. -- Abstract: Impaired trafficking of human kidney anion exchanger 1 (kAE1) to the basolateral membrane of {alpha}-intercalated cells of the kidney collecting duct leads to the defect of the Cl{sup -}/HCO{sub 3}{sup -} exchange and the failure of proton (H{sup +}) secretion at the apical membrane of these cells, causing distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA). In the sorting process, kAE1 interacts with AP-1 mu1A, a subunit of AP-1A adaptor complex. However, it is not known whether kAE1 interacts with motor proteins in its trafficking process to the plasma membrane or not. We report here that kAE1 interacts with kinesin family member 3B (KIF3B) in kidney cells and a dileucine motif at the carboxyl terminus of kAE1 contributes to this interaction. We have also demonstrated that kAE1 co-localizes with KIF3B in human kidney tissues and the suppression of endogenous KIF3B in HEK293T cells by small interfering RNA (siRNA) decreases membrane localization of kAE1 but increases its intracellular accumulation. All results suggest that KIF3B is involved in the trafficking of kAE1 to the plasma membrane of human kidney {alpha}-intercalated cells.

  4. Crumbs 3b promotes tight junctions in an ezrin-dependent manner in mammalian cells

    PubMed Central

    Tilston-Lünel, Andrew M.; Haley, Kathryn E.; Schlecht, Nicolas F.; Wang, Yanhua; Chatterton, Abigail L.D.; Moleirinho, Susana; Watson, Ailsa; Hundal, Harinder S.; Prystowsky, Michael B.; Gunn-Moore, Frank J.; Reynolds, Paul A.

    2016-01-01

    Crumbs 3 (CRB3) is a component of epithelial junctions, which has been implicated in apical-basal polarity, apical identity, apical stability, cell adhesion, and cell growth. CRB3 undergoes alternative splicing to yield two variants: CRB3a and CRB3b. Here, we describe novel data demonstrating that, as with previous studies on CRB3a, CRB3b also promotes the formation of tight junctions (TJs). However, significantly we demonstrate that the 4.1-ezrin–radixin–moesin-binding motif of CRB3b is required for CRB3b functionality and that ezrin binds to the FBM of CRB3b. Furthermore, we show that ezrin contributes to CRB3b functionality and the correct distribution of TJ proteins. We demonstrate that both CRB3 isoforms are required for the production of functionally mature TJs and also the localization of ezrin to the plasma membrane. Finally, we demonstrate that reduced CRB3b expression in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) correlates with cytoplasmic ezrin, a biomarker for aggressive disease, and shows evidence that while CRB3a expression has no effect, low CRB3b and high cytoplasmic ezrin expression combined may be prognostic for HNSCC. PMID:27190314

  5. The high energy source 3C 273

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonmontigny, Corinna

    1990-01-01

    The properties of 3C 273 are reviewed and an attempt is made to find an answer to the question why 3C 273 is the only extragalactic source so far, which was detected at energies greater than or equal to 50 MeV.

  6. Potentiation of NK cytotoxicity by antibody-C3b/iC3b heteroconjugates.

    PubMed

    Yefenof, E; Benizri, R; Reiter, Y; Klein, E; Fishelson, Z

    1990-02-15

    The interaction of two Burkitt lymphoma lines, Raji and Rael, with human C and NK cells was analyzed. Raji cells activate the alternative C pathway (ACP) and then bind C3 fragments. Consequently, the cells become more sensitive to lysis by CR3-bearing NK cells but not to C lysis. In contrast, Rael cells are poor ACP activators, do not bind C3 fragments, and are therefore resistant to C-dependent NK lysis. As suggested earlier, the difference between Raji and Rael could be attributed to the presence or absence of CR2, respectively, on their surface. To potentiate C- and NK-dependent lysis of target cells, we generated heteroconjugates composed of a murine antitransferrin receptor mAb and of human C C3b or iC3b. Antibody-C3b conjugates induced C3 deposition on Rael cells and elevated C3 deposition on Raji cells in human serum. Both Raji and Rael cells coated with antibody-C3b conjugates were efficiently lyzed by the cytolytic ACP in human serum. This conjugate had a small enhancing effect on target cell lysis by NK cells which could be markedly increased by combined treatment of the target cell with antibody-C3b conjugate and C5-depleted human serum. On the other hand, antibody-iC3b conjugates efficiently potentiated lysis of target cells by NK cells in the absence of serum. The iC3b-directed cytotoxicity was mediated by CR3-bearing NK effector cells. Anti-C3 but not anti-mouse Ig antibodies abrogated the activity of the antibody-iC3b conjugate. These results further demonstrate that NK cytotoxicity may be potentiated by opsonizing the target cells with C3 fragments and suggest that antibody-C3b/iC3b conjugates could be potent tools for targeting and potentiation of the lytic action of both C and NK cells against tumor cells.

  7. Potentiation of NK cytotoxicity by antibody-C3b/iC3b heteroconjugates.

    PubMed

    Yefenof, E; Benizri, R; Reiter, Y; Klein, E; Fishelson, Z

    1990-02-15

    The interaction of two Burkitt lymphoma lines, Raji and Rael, with human C and NK cells was analyzed. Raji cells activate the alternative C pathway (ACP) and then bind C3 fragments. Consequently, the cells become more sensitive to lysis by CR3-bearing NK cells but not to C lysis. In contrast, Rael cells are poor ACP activators, do not bind C3 fragments, and are therefore resistant to C-dependent NK lysis. As suggested earlier, the difference between Raji and Rael could be attributed to the presence or absence of CR2, respectively, on their surface. To potentiate C- and NK-dependent lysis of target cells, we generated heteroconjugates composed of a murine antitransferrin receptor mAb and of human C C3b or iC3b. Antibody-C3b conjugates induced C3 deposition on Rael cells and elevated C3 deposition on Raji cells in human serum. Both Raji and Rael cells coated with antibody-C3b conjugates were efficiently lyzed by the cytolytic ACP in human serum. This conjugate had a small enhancing effect on target cell lysis by NK cells which could be markedly increased by combined treatment of the target cell with antibody-C3b conjugate and C5-depleted human serum. On the other hand, antibody-iC3b conjugates efficiently potentiated lysis of target cells by NK cells in the absence of serum. The iC3b-directed cytotoxicity was mediated by CR3-bearing NK effector cells. Anti-C3 but not anti-mouse Ig antibodies abrogated the activity of the antibody-iC3b conjugate. These results further demonstrate that NK cytotoxicity may be potentiated by opsonizing the target cells with C3 fragments and suggest that antibody-C3b/iC3b conjugates could be potent tools for targeting and potentiation of the lytic action of both C and NK cells against tumor cells. PMID:2303717

  8. De novo DNA methyltransferase DNMT3b interacts with NEDD8-modified proteins.

    PubMed

    Shamay, Meir; Greenway, Melanie; Liao, Gangling; Ambinder, Richard F; Hayward, S Diane

    2010-11-19

    DNA methylation and histone modifications play an important role in transcription regulation. In cancer cells, many promoters become aberrantly methylated through the activity of the de novo DNA methyltransferases DNMT3a and DNMT3b and acquire repressive chromatin marks. NEDD8 is a ubiquitin-like protein modifier that is conjugated to target proteins, such as cullins, to regulate their activity, and cullin 4A (CUL4A) in its NEDD8-modified form is essential for repressive chromatin formation. We found that DNMT3b associates with NEDD8-modified proteins. Whereas DNMT3b interacts directly in vitro with NEDD8, conjugation of NEDD8 to target proteins enhances this interaction in vivo. DNMT3b immunoprecipitated two major bands of endogenously NEDDylated proteins at the size of NEDDylated cullins, and indeed DNMT3b interacted with CUL1, CUL2, CUL3, CUL4A, and CUL5. Moreover, DNMT3b preferentially immunoprecipitated the NEDDylated form of endogenous CUL4A. NEDD8 enhanced DNMT3b-dependent DNA methylation. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays suggest that DNMT3b recruits CUL4A and NEDD8 to chromatin, whereas deletion of Dnmt3b reduces the association of CUL4A and NEDD8 at a repressed promoter in a cancer cell line. PMID:20847044

  9. Critical role of ARID3B in the expression of pro-apoptotic p53-target genes and apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Pratama, Endrawan; Tian, Xiaohui; Lestari, Widya; Iseki, Sachiko; Ichwan, Solachuddin J A; Ikeda, Masa-Aki

    ARID3A and ARID3B are transcriptional targets of p53. Recently, it has been reported that ARID3A plays a critical role in the transcriptional activation of pro-arrest p21 in response to DNA damage. However, the role of ARID3B in the p53 regulatory pathway remains poorly understood. Here we show that ARID3A and ARID3B specifically bind to putative ARID3-binding sites in p53 target genes in vitro and in vivo. ARID3B and, to a lesser extent, ARID3A silencing blocked transcriptional activation of pro-apoptotic p53 target genes, such as PUMA, PIG3, and p53. Furthermore, ectopic ARID3B, to a lesser extent, ARID3A expression activated the pro-apoptotic gene expression, and only ARID3B induced apoptosis. Finally, ARID3B but not ARID3A silencing blocked apoptosis induction following DNA damage. These results indicated that, although ARID3B and ARID3A share overlapping functions, ARID3B play a key role in the expression of pro-apoptotic p53-target genes and apoptosis.

  10. Human kidney anion exchanger 1 interacts with kinesin family member 3B (KIF3B).

    PubMed

    Duangtum, Natapol; Junking, Mutita; Sawasdee, Nunghathai; Cheunsuchon, Boonyarit; Limjindaporn, Thawornchai; Yenchitsomanus, Pa-thai

    2011-09-16

    Impaired trafficking of human kidney anion exchanger 1 (kAE1) to the basolateral membrane of α-intercalated cells of the kidney collecting duct leads to the defect of the Cl(-)/HCO(3)(-) exchange and the failure of proton (H(+)) secretion at the apical membrane of these cells, causing distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA). In the sorting process, kAE1 interacts with AP-1 mu1A, a subunit of AP-1A adaptor complex. However, it is not known whether kAE1 interacts with motor proteins in its trafficking process to the plasma membrane or not. We report here that kAE1 interacts with kinesin family member 3B (KIF3B) in kidney cells and a dileucine motif at the carboxyl terminus of kAE1 contributes to this interaction. We have also demonstrated that kAE1 co-localizes with KIF3B in human kidney tissues and the suppression of endogenous KIF3B in HEK293T cells by small interfering RNA (siRNA) decreases membrane localization of kAE1 but increases its intracellular accumulation. All results suggest that KIF3B is involved in the trafficking of kAE1 to the plasma membrane of human kidney α-intercalated cells. PMID:21871436

  11. Leptin receptor expressing neurons express phosphodiesterase-3B (PDE3B) and leptin induces STAT3 activation in PDE3B neurons in the mouse hypothalamus.

    PubMed

    Sahu, Maitrayee; Sahu, Abhiram

    2015-11-01

    Leptin signaling in the hypothalamus is critical for normal food intake and body weight regulation. Cumulative evidence suggests that besides the signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3) pathway, several non-STAT3 pathways including the phosphodiesterase-3B (PDE3B) pathway mediate leptin signaling in the hypothalamus. We have shown that PDE3B is localized in various hypothalamic sites implicated in the regulation of energy homeostasis and that the anorectic and body weight reducing effects of leptin are mediated by the activation of PDE3B. It is still unknown if PDE3B is expressed in the long form of the leptin-receptor (ObRb)-expressing neurons in the hypothalamus and whether leptin induces STAT3 activation in PDE3B-expressing neurons. In this study, we examined co-localization of PDE3B with ObRb neurons in various hypothalamic nuclei in ObRb-GFP mice that were treated with leptin (5mg/kg, ip) for 2h. Results showed that most of the ObRb neurons in the arcuate nucleus (ARC, 93%), ventromedial nucleus (VMN, 94%), dorsomedial nucleus (DMN, 95%), ventral premammillary nucleus (PMv, 97%) and lateral hypothalamus (LH, 97%) co-expressed PDE3B. We next examined co-localization of p-STAT3 and PDE3B in the hypothalamus in C57BL6 mice that were treated with leptin (5mg/kg, ip) for 1h. The results showed that almost all p-STAT3 positive neurons in different hypothalamic nuclei including ARC, VMN, DMN, LH and PMv areas expressed PDE3B. These results suggest the possibility for a direct role for the PDE3B pathway in mediating leptin action in the hypothalamus.

  12. Direct kinetic study of OH and O3 formation in the reaction of CH3C(O)O2 with HO2.

    PubMed

    Gross, C B M; Dillon, T J; Schuster, G; Lelieveld, J; Crowley, J N

    2014-02-13

    The reaction between HO2 and CH3C(O)O2 has three exothermic product channels, forming OH (R3a), peracetic acid (R3b), and acetic acid plus O3 (R3c). The branching ratios of the OH- and ozone-forming reaction channels were determined using a combination of laser-induced fluorescence (LIF, for time-resolved OH concentration measurement) and transient absorption spectroscopy (TAS, for time-resolved O3 concentration measurement) following pulsed laser generation of HO2 and CH3C(O)O2 from suitable precursors. TAS was also used to determine the initial concentration of the reactant peroxy radicals. The data were evaluated by numerical simulation using kinetic models of the measured concentration profiles; a Monte Carlo approach was used to estimate the uncertainties of the rate constants (k3) and branching ratios (α) thus obtained. The reaction channel forming OH (R3a) was found to be the most important with α3a = 0.61 ± 0.09 and α3c = 0.16 ± 0.08. The overall rate coefficient of the title reaction was found to be k3 = (2.1 ± 0.4) × 10(-11) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) for both HO2 and DO2. Use of DO2 resulted in an increase in α3a to 0.80 ± 0.14. Comparison with former studies shows that OH formation via (R3) has been underestimated significantly to date. Possible reasons for these discrepancies and atmospheric implications are discussed. PMID:24491030

  13. CVD growth and properties of boron phosphide on 3C-SiC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padavala, Balabalaji; Frye, C. D.; Wang, Xuejing; Raghothamachar, Balaji; Edgar, J. H.

    2016-09-01

    Improving the crystalline quality of boron phosphide (BP) is essential for realizing its full potential in semiconductor device applications. In this study, 3C-SiC was tested as a substrate for BP epitaxy. BP films were grown on 3C-SiC(100)/Si, 3C-SiC(111)/Si, and 3C-SiC(111)/4H-SiC(0001) substrates in a horizontal chemical vapor deposition (CVD) system. Films were produced with good crystalline orientation and morphological features in the temperature range of 1000-1200 °C using a PH3+B2H6+H2 mixture. Rotational twinning was absent in the BP due to the crystal symmetry-matching with 3C-SiC. Confocal 3D Raman imaging of BP films revealed primarily uniform peak shift and peak widths across the scanned area, except at defects on the surface. Synchrotron white beam X-ray topography showed the epitaxial relationship between BP and 3C-SiC was (100) < 011 > BP||(100) < 011 > 3C-SiC and (111) < 11 2 ̅ > BP||(111) < 11 2 ̅ > 3C-SiC. Scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis indicated residual tensile strain in the films and improved crystalline quality at temperatures below 1200 °C. These results indicated that BP properties could be further enhanced by employing high quality bulk 3C-SiC or 3C-SiC epilayers on 4H-SiC substrates.

  14. Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 3C regulated genes in lymphoblastoid cell lines.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Bo; Mar, Jessica C; Maruo, Seiji; Lee, Sungwook; Gewurz, Benjamin E; Johannsen, Eric; Holton, Kristina; Rubio, Renee; Takada, Kenzo; Quackenbush, John; Kieff, Elliott

    2011-01-01

    EBV nuclear antigen 3C (EBNA3C) is an essential transcription factor for EBV transformed lymphoblast cell line (LCL) growth. To identify EBNA3C-regulated genes in LCLs, microarrays were used to measure RNA abundances in each of three different LCLs that conditionally express EBNA3C fused to a 4-OH-Tamoxifen-dependent estrogen receptor hormone binding domain (EBNA3CHT). At least three RNAs were assayed for each EBNA3CHT LCL under nonpermissive conditions, permissive conditions, and nonpermissive conditions with wild-type EBNA3C transcomplementation. Using a two-way ANOVA model of EBNA3C levels, we identified 550 regulated genes that were at least 1.5-fold up- or down-regulated with false discovery rates < 0.01. EBNA3C-regulated genes overlapped significantly with genes regulated by EBNA2 and EBNA3A consistent with coordinated effects on cell gene transcription. Of the 550 EBNA3C-regulated genes, 106 could be placed in protein networks. A seeded Bayesian network analysis of the 80 most significant EBNA3C-regulated genes suggests that RAC1, LYN, and TNF are upstream of other EBNA3C-regulated genes. Gene set enrichment analysis found enrichment for MAP kinase signaling, cytokine-cytokine receptor interactions, JAK-STAT signaling, and cell adhesion molecules, implicating these pathways in EBNA3C effects on LCL growth or survival. EBNA3C significantly up-regulated the CXCL12 ligand and its CXCR4 receptor and increased LCL migration. CXCL12 up-regulation depended on EBNA3C's interaction with the cell transcription factor, RBPJ, which is essential for LCL growth. EBNA3C also up-regulated MYC 1.3-fold and down-regulated CDKN2A exons 2 and 3, shared by p16 and p14, 1.4-fold, with false discovery rates < 5 × 10(-4).

  15. Truncated DNMT3B isoform DNMT3B7 suppresses growth, induces differentiation, and alters DNA methylation in human neuroblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Ostler, Kelly R.; Yang, Qiwei; Looney, Timothy J.; Zhang, Li; Vasanthakumar, Aparna; Tian, Yufeng; Kocherginsky, Masha; Raimondi, Stacey L.; DeMaio, Jessica G.; Salwen, Helen R.; Gu, Song; Chlenski, Alexandre; Naranjo, Arlene; Gill, Amy; Peddinti, Radhika; Lahn, Bruce T.; Cohn, Susan L.; Godley, Lucy A.

    2012-01-01

    Epigenetic changes in pediatric neuroblastoma may contribute to the aggressive pathophysiology of this disease, but little is known about the basis for such changes. In this study, we examined a role for the DNA methyltransferase DNMT3B, in particular, the truncated isoform DNMT3B7 which is generated frequently in cancer. To investigate if aberrant DNMT3B transcripts alter DNA methylation, gene expression, and phenotypic character in neuroblastoma, we measured DNMT3B expression in primary tumors. Higher levels of DNMT3B7 were detected in differentiated ganglioneuroblastomas compared to undifferentiated neuroblastomas, suggesting that expression of DNMT3B7 may induce a less aggressive clinical phenotype. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the effects of enforced DNMT3B7 expression in neuroblastoma cells, finding a significant inhibition of cell proliferation in vitro and angiogenesis and tumor growth in vivo. DNMT3B7-positive cells had higher levels of total genomic methylation and a dramatic decrease in expression of the FOS and JUN family members that comprise AP1 transcription factors. Consistent with an established antagonistic relationship between AP1 expression and retinoic acid receptor activity, increased differentiation was seen in the DNMT3B7-expressing neuroblastoma cells following treatment with all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) compared to controls. Our results indicate that DNMT3B7 modifies the epigenome in neuroblastoma cells to induce changes in gene expression, inhibit tumor growth, and increase sensitivity to ATRA. PMID:22815530

  16. DNMT3B7, a truncated DNMT3B isoform expressed in human tumors, disrupts embryonic development and accelerates lymphomagenesis

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Mrinal Y.; Vasanthakumar, Aparna; Barnes, Natalie Y.; Figueroa, Maria E.; Kamp, Anna; Hendrick, Christopher; Ostler, Kelly R.; Davis, Elizabeth M.; Lin, Shang; Anastasi, John; Le Beau, Michelle M.; Moskowitz, Ivan; Melnick, Ari; Pytel, Peter; Godley, Lucy A.

    2010-01-01

    Epigenetic changes are among the most common alterations observed in cancer cells, yet the mechanism by which cancer cells acquire and maintain abnormal DNA methylation patterns is not understood. Cancer cells have an altered distribution of DNA methylation and express aberrant DNA methyltransferase 3B transcripts, which encode truncated proteins, some of which lack the C-terminal catalytic domain. To test if a truncated DNMT3B isoform disrupts DNA methylation in vivo, we constructed two lines of transgenic mice expressing DNMT3B7, a truncated DNMT3B isoform commonly found in cancer cells. DNMT3B7 transgenic mice exhibit altered embryonic development, including lymphopenia, craniofacial abnormalities, and cardiac defects, similar to Dnmt3b-deficient animals, but rarely develop cancer. However, when DNMT3B7 transgenic are bred with Eμ-Myc transgenic mice, which model aggressive B cell lymphoma, DNMT3B7 expression increases the frequency of mediastinal lymphomas in Eμ-Myc animals. Eμ-Myc/DNMT3B7 mediastinal lymphomas have more chromosomal rearrangements, increased global DNA methylation levels, and more locus-specific perturbations in DNA methylation patterns compared to Eμ-Myc lymphomas. These data represent the first in vivo modeling of cancer-associated DNA methylation changes and suggest that truncated DNMT3B isoforms contribute to the re-distribution of DNA methylation characterizing virtually every human tumor. PMID:20587527

  17. DNMT3B7, a truncated DNMT3B isoform expressed in human tumors, disrupts embryonic development and accelerates lymphomagenesis.

    PubMed

    Shah, Mrinal Y; Vasanthakumar, Aparna; Barnes, Natalie Y; Figueroa, Maria E; Kamp, Anna; Hendrick, Christopher; Ostler, Kelly R; Davis, Elizabeth M; Lin, Shang; Anastasi, John; Le Beau, Michelle M; Moskowitz, Ivan P; Melnick, Ari; Pytel, Peter; Godley, Lucy A

    2010-07-15

    Epigenetic changes are among the most common alterations observed in cancer cells, yet the mechanism by which cancer cells acquire and maintain abnormal DNA methylation patterns is not understood. Cancer cells have an altered distribution of DNA methylation and express aberrant DNA methyltransferase 3B transcripts, which encode truncated proteins, some of which lack the COOH-terminal catalytic domain. To test if a truncated DNMT3B isoform disrupts DNA methylation in vivo, we constructed two lines of transgenic mice expressing DNMT3B7, a truncated DNMT3B isoform commonly found in cancer cells. DNMT3B7 transgenic mice exhibit altered embryonic development, including lymphopenia, craniofacial abnormalities, and cardiac defects, similar to Dnmt3b-deficient animals, but rarely develop cancer. However, when DNMT3B7 transgenic mice are bred with Emicro-Myc transgenic mice, which model aggressive B-cell lymphoma, DNMT3B7 expression increases the frequency of mediastinal lymphomas in Emicro-Myc animals. Emicro-Myc/DNMT3B7 mediastinal lymphomas have more chromosomal rearrangements, increased global DNA methylation levels, and more locus-specific perturbations in DNA methylation patterns compared with Emicro-Myc lymphomas. These data represent the first in vivo modeling of cancer-associated DNA methylation changes and suggest that truncated DNMT3B isoforms contribute to the redistribution of DNA methylation characterizing virtually every human tumor.

  18. Large exonic deletions in POLR3B gene cause POLR3-related leukodystrophy.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, Mariana; Thiffault, Isabelle; Guerrero, Kether; Martos-Moreno, Gabriel Á; Tran, Luan T; Benko, William; van der Knaap, Marjo S; van Spaendonk, Rosalina M L; Wolf, Nicole I; Bernard, Geneviève

    2015-06-05

    POLR3-related (or 4H) leukodystrophy is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in POLR3A or POLR3B and is characterized by neurological and non-neurological features. In a small proportion of patients, no mutation in either gene or only one mutation is found. Analysis of the POLR3B cDNA revealed a large deletion of exons 21-22 in one case and of exons 26-27 in another case. These are the first reports of long deletions causing POLR3-related leukodystrophy, suggesting that deletions and duplications in POLR3A or POLR3B should be investigated in patients with a compatible phenotype, especially if one pathogenic variant has been identified.

  19. Phosphodiesterase 3B (PDE3B) regulates NLRP3 inflammasome in adipose tissue

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Faiyaz; Chung, Youn Wook; Tang, Yan; Hockman, Steven C.; Liu, Shiwei; Khan, Yusuf; Huo, Kevin; Billings, Eric; Amar, Marcelo J.; Remaley, Alan T.; Manganiello, Vincent C.

    2016-01-01

    Activation of inflammation in white adipose tissue (WAT), includes infiltration/expansion of WAT macrophages, contributes pathogenesis of obesity, insulin resistance, and metabolic syndrome. The inflammasome comprises an intracellular sensor (NLR), caspase-1 and the adaptor ASC. Inflammasome activation leads to maturation of caspase-1 and processing of IL1β, contributing to many metabolic disorders and directing adipocytes to a more insulin-resistant phenotype. Ablation of PDE3B in WAT prevents inflammasome activation by reducing expression of NLRP3, caspase-1, ASC, AIM2, TNFα, IL1β and proinflammatory genes. Following IP injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), serum levels of IL1β and TNFα were reduced in PDE3B−/−mice compared to WT. Activation of signaling cascades, which mediate inflammasome responses, were modulated in PDE3B−/−mice WAT, including smad, NFAT, NFkB, and MAP kinases. Moreover, expression of chemokine CCL2, MCP-1 and its receptor CCR2, which play an important role in macrophage chemotaxis, were reduced in WAT of PDE3B−/−mice. In addition, atherosclerotic plaque formation was significantly reduced in the aorta of apoE−/−/PDE3B−/−and LDL-R−/−/PDE3B−/−mice compared to apoE−/−and LDL-R−/−mice, respectively. Obesity-induced changes in serum-cholesterol were blocked in PDE3B−/−mice. Collectively, these data establish a role for PDE3B in modulating inflammatory response, which may contribute to a reduced inflammatory state in adipose tissue. PMID:27321128

  20. Epigenetic regulation of macrophage polarization by DNA methyltransferase 3b.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaosong; Wang, Xianfeng; Liu, Dongxu; Yu, Liqing; Xue, Bingzhong; Shi, Hang

    2014-04-01

    Adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs) undergo a phenotypic switch from alternatively activated antiinflammatory M2 macrophages in lean individuals to classically activated proinflammatory M1 macrophages in obese subjects. However, the molecular mechanism underlying this process remains unclear. In this study we aim to determine whether DNA methyltransferase 3b (DNMT3b) regulates macrophage polarization and inflammation. We found that the expression of DNMT3b was significantly induced in macrophages exposed to the saturated fatty acid stearate, was higher in ATMs isolated from obese mice, but was significantly lower in alternatively activated M2 vs classically activated M1 ATMs, suggesting a role for DNMT3b in regulation of macrophage polarization and inflammation in obesity. DNMT3b knockdown promoted macrophage polarization to alternatively activated M2 phenotype and suppressed macrophage inflammation, whereas overexpressing DNMT3b did the opposite. Importantly, in a macrophage-adipocyte coculture system, we found that DNMT3b knockdown significantly improved adipocyte insulin signaling. The promoter of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR)γ1, a key transcriptional factor that regulates macrophage polarization, is enriched with CpG sites. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays showed that DNMT3b bound to the methylation region at PPARγ1 promoter, which was further enhanced by stearate. Moreover, pyrosequencing analysis revealed that stearate increased DNA methylation at PPARγ1, which was prevented by DNMT3b deficiency. Therefore, our data demonstrate that DNMT3b plays an important role in regulating macrophage polarization through epigenetic mechanisms. In obesity, elevated saturated fatty acids enhance DNMT3b expression, leading to DNA methylation at the PPARγ1 promoter, which may contribute to deregulated adipose tissue macrophage polarization, inflammation, and insulin resistance.

  1. 18 CFR 3b.225 - Written consent for disclosure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Written consent for disclosure. 3b.225 Section 3b.225 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY... United States for a civil or criminal law enforcement activity if the activity is authorized by law,...

  2. 18 CFR 3b.225 - Written consent for disclosure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Written consent for disclosure. 3b.225 Section 3b.225 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY... United States for a civil or criminal law enforcement activity if the activity is authorized by law,...

  3. 18 CFR 3b.226 - Accounting of disclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Accounting of disclosures. 3b.226 Section 3b.226 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES COLLECTION, MAINTENANCE, USE, AND DISSEMINATION OF RECORDS...

  4. 18 CFR 3b.226 - Accounting of disclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Accounting of disclosures. 3b.226 Section 3b.226 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES COLLECTION, MAINTENANCE, USE, AND DISSEMINATION OF RECORDS...

  5. 18 CFR 3b.203 - Rules of conduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Rules of conduct. 3b.203 Section 3b.203 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES COLLECTION, MAINTENANCE, USE, AND DISSEMINATION OF RECORDS OF...

  6. 18 CFR 3b.203 - Rules of conduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rules of conduct. 3b.203 Section 3b.203 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES COLLECTION, MAINTENANCE, USE, AND DISSEMINATION OF RECORDS OF...

  7. 18 CFR 3b.203 - Rules of conduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Rules of conduct. 3b.203 Section 3b.203 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES COLLECTION, MAINTENANCE, USE, AND DISSEMINATION OF RECORDS OF...

  8. 18 CFR 3b.203 - Rules of conduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Rules of conduct. 3b.203 Section 3b.203 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES COLLECTION, MAINTENANCE, USE, AND DISSEMINATION OF RECORDS OF...

  9. 18 CFR 3b.226 - Accounting of disclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Accounting of disclosures. 3b.226 Section 3b.226 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES COLLECTION, MAINTENANCE, USE, AND DISSEMINATION OF RECORDS...

  10. 18 CFR 3b.203 - Rules of conduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Rules of conduct. 3b.203 Section 3b.203 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES COLLECTION, MAINTENANCE, USE, AND DISSEMINATION OF RECORDS OF...

  11. 27 CFR 21.36 - Formula No. 3-B.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... and Authorized Uses § 21.36 Formula No. 3-B. (a) Formula. To every 100 gallons of alcohol add: One gallon of pine tar, U.S.P. (b) Authorized uses. (1) As a solvent: 111.Hair and scalp preparations. 141... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Formula No. 3-B....

  12. 27 CFR 21.36 - Formula No. 3-B.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... and Authorized Uses § 21.36 Formula No. 3-B. (a) Formula. To every 100 gallons of alcohol add: One gallon of pine tar, U.S.P. (b) Authorized uses. (1) As a solvent: 111.Hair and scalp preparations. 141... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Formula No. 3-B....

  13. 27 CFR 21.36 - Formula No. 3-B.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... and Authorized Uses § 21.36 Formula No. 3-B. (a) Formula. To every 100 gallons of alcohol add: One gallon of pine tar, U.S.P. (b) Authorized uses. (1) As a solvent: 111.Hair and scalp preparations. 141... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Formula No. 3-B....

  14. 27 CFR 21.36 - Formula No. 3-B.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... and Authorized Uses § 21.36 Formula No. 3-B. (a) Formula. To every 100 gallons of alcohol add: One gallon of pine tar, U.S.P. (b) Authorized uses. (1) As a solvent: 111.Hair and scalp preparations. 141... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Formula No. 3-B....

  15. 27 CFR 21.36 - Formula No. 3-B.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... and Authorized Uses § 21.36 Formula No. 3-B. (a) Formula. To every 100 gallons of alcohol add: One gallon of pine tar, U.S.P. (b) Authorized uses. (1) As a solvent: 111.Hair and scalp preparations. 141... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formula No. 3-B....

  16. FY-3C/VIRR SST algorithm and cal/val activities at NSMC/CMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Sujuan; Cui, Peng; Zhang, Peng; Ran, Maonong; Lu, Feng; Wang, Weihe

    2014-11-01

    The National Satellite Meteorological Center (NSMC)/CMA global sea surface temperature (SST) data are derived from measurements made by the Visible and Infrared Radiometer (VIRR) on board the FY-3 series polar orbiting satellites. Quality controlled in situ data from iQUAM (STAR/NESDIS/NOAA) is used in FY-3B/C VIRR matching procedure. The monthly matchup database (MDB) is created from FY-3C VIRR measurements paired with coincident SST measurements from buoys since November 2013. The satellite sensor's brightness temperature and buoy SST pairs are included in the MDB if they are coincident within 3km in space and 1 hour in time. Least-Square Regression is used for estimating the first-guess coefficient and SST residuals. Outliers are removed using Median±2STD, and the final coefficients of robust regression are estimated. A set of SST regression formalisms are tested base on NOAA- 19/AVHRR 2010 MDB. The test shows that, for daytime split-window nonlinear SST (NLSST) is the best, for nighttime triple-window MCSST (TCSST) is the best, which is agree with STAR/NESDIS's. The same regression analysis method also used on FY-3C/VIRR MDB. Compare with the three daytime SST algorithms and five nighttime SST algorithms, the best algorithm to retrieve FY-3C/VIRR SST for daytime is NLSST and for nighttime is TCSST. Compare with the coefficients of nighttime algorithm TCSST, it shows that for FY-3B/C VIRR SST, the contribution of 3.7μm band is smaller than split-window bands. The performance of 3.7μm band of FY-3C/VIRR is better than FY-3B/VIRR, but worse than NOAA-19/AVHRR.

  17. Knock-out mutations of Arabidopsis SmD3-b induce pleotropic phenotypes through altered transcript splicing.

    PubMed

    Swaraz, A M; Park, Young-Doo; Hur, Yoonkang

    2011-05-01

    SmD3 is a core protein of small nuclear ribonucleoprotein (snRNP) essential for splicing of primary transcripts. To elucidate function of SmD3 protein in plants, phenotypes and gene expression of SmD3 knock-out and overexpressing mutants in Arabidopsis have been analyzed. smd3-a knock-out mutant or SmD3-a and SmD3-b overexpressors did not show phenotypic alteration. Knock-out of SmD3-b resulted in the pleotropic phenotypes of delayed flowering time and completion of life cycle, reduced root growth, partially defective leaf venation, abnormal numbers of trichome branches, and changed numbers of floral organs. Microarray data revealed that the smd3-b mutant had altered expression of genes related to the above phenotypes, indirectly suggesting that changed splicing of these genes may cause the observed phenotypes. Splicing of selected genes was either totally blocked or reduced in the smd3-b mutant, indicating the important role of SmD3-b in the process. A double knock-out mutant of smd3-a and smd3-b could not be generated, indicating possible redundant function of these two genes. All data indicate that SmD3-b may be major component of the spliceosomal snRNP in Arabidopsis, but the function of SmD3-a may be redundant.

  18. Multiwavelength observations of giant radio galaxy 3C 35 and 3C 284

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, Sabyasachi; Chakrabarti, Sandip Kumar; Patra, Dusmanta; Konar, Chiranjib

    2016-07-01

    We report multi wavelength observations of large radio galaxy 3C35 and 3C284. The low frequency observations were done with the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT) starting from 150 MHz. The high frequency observations were done with Jansky Very Large Array (JVLA). Our main motivation for these observations is to estimate the spectral ages of these galaxies and to examine any proof of extended emission at low radio frequencies due to an earlier cycle of activity. The spectral age is measured by fitting the spectra with different spectral ageing models e.g. Kardashev-Pacholczyk (KP), Jaffe-Perola (JP) and Continuous Injection (CI).

  19. PROCEEDINGS: 1993 SO2 CONTROL SYMPOSIUM - VOLUME 1. SESSIONS 1, 2, 3A, AND 3B

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report documents more than 100 presentations at the 1993 SO2 Control Symposium in Boston, MA, August 24-27, 1993. The presentations covered a wide range of topics: industry's strategies for dealing with Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, including Phase I strategies, the emiss...

  20. Multifrequency Monitoring of 3C 120, 3C 279, and PKS 1510--089

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jorstad, S. G.; Marscher, A. P.; Aller, M. F.; Balonek, T. J.; Gomez, J.-L.; McHardy, I. M.; Terasranta, H.; Raiteri, C.; Tosti, G.

    2001-01-01

    We analyze contemporaneous X-ray, optical, and radio light curves of 3C 120, ABC 279, and PKS 1510-089 on timescales from a few to hundreds of days over a 3-5 year period. The results show the diverse connections between variability properties at different frequencies for different blazers.

  1. The resolved outflow from 3C 48

    SciTech Connect

    Shih, Hsin-Yi; Stockton, Alan E-mail: stockton@ifa.hawaii.edu

    2014-10-20

    We investigate the properties of the high-velocity outflow driven by the young radio jet of 3C 48, a compact-steep-spectrum source. We use the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph on board the Hubble Space Telecope to obtain (1) low-resolution UV and optical spectra and (2) multi-slit medium-resolution spectra of the ionized outflow. With supporting data from ground-based spectrographs, we are able to accurately measure the ratios of diagnostic emission lines such as [O III] λ5007, [O III] λ3727, [N II] λ6548, Hα, Hβ, [Ne V] λ3425, and [Ne III] λ3869. We fit the observed emission-line ratios using a range of ionization models, powered by active galactic nucleus (AGN) radiation and shocks, produced by the MAPPINGS code. We have determined that AGN radiation is likely the dominant ionization source. The outflow's density is estimated to be in the range n = 10{sup 3}-10{sup 4} cm{sup –3}, the mass is ∼6 × 10{sup 6} M {sub ☉}, and the metallicity is likely equal to or higher than solar. Compared with the typical outflows associated with more evolved radio jets, this young outflow is denser, less massive, and more metal rich. Multi-slit observations allow us to construct a two-dimensional velocity map of the outflow that shows a wide range of velocities with distinct velocity components, suggesting a wide-angle clumpy outflow.

  2. BOREAS Level-3b Landsat TM Imagery: At-sensor Radiances in BSQ Format

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Nickeson, Jaime; Knapp, David; Newcomer, Jeffrey A.; Cihlar, Josef

    2000-01-01

    For BOREAS, the level-3b Landsat TM data, along with the other remotely sensed images, were collected in order to provide spatially extensive information over the primary study areas. This information includes radiant energy, detailed land cover, and biophysical parameter maps such as FPAR and LAI. Although very similar in content to the level-3a Landsat TM products, the level-3b images were created to provide users with a directly usable at-sensor radiance image. Geographically, the level-3b images cover the BOREAS NSA and SSA. Temporally, the images cover the period of 22-Jun-1984 to 09-Jul-1996. The images are available in binary, image format files.

  3. Molecular characterization of a KIF3B-like kinesin gene in the testis of Octopus tankahkeei (Cephalopoda, Octopus).

    PubMed

    Dang, Ran; Zhu, Jun-Quan; Tan, Fu-Qing; Wang, Wei; Zhou, Hong; Yang, Wan-Xi

    2012-05-01

    KIF3B is known for maintaining and assembling cilia and flagellum. To date, the function of KIF3B and its relationship with KIF3A during spermiogenesis in the cephalopod Octopus tankahkeei remains unknown. In the present study, we characterized a gene encoding a homologue of rat KIF3B in the O. tankahkeei testis and examined its temporal and spatial expression pattern during spermiogenesis. The cDNA of KIF3B was obtained with degenerate and RACE PCR and the distribution pattern of ot-kif3b were observed with RT-PCR. The morphological development during spermiogenesis was illustrated by histological and transmission electron microscopy and mRNA expression of ot-kif3b was observed by in situ hybridization. The 2,365 nucleotides cDNA consisted of a 102 bp 5' untranslated region (UTR), a 2,208 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding a protein of 736 amino acids, and a 55 bp 3' UTR. Multiple alignments revealed that the putative Ot-KIF3B shared 68, 68, 69, 68, and 67% identity with that of Homo sapiens, Mus musculus, Gallus gallus, Danio rerio, and Xenopus laevis, respectively, along with high identities with Ot-KIF3A in fundamental structures. Ot-kif3b transcripts appeared gradually in early spermatids, increased in intermediate spermatids and maximized in drastically remodeled and final spermatids. The kif3b gene is identified and its expression pattern is demonstrated for the first time in O. tankahkeei. Compared to ot-kif3a reported by our laboratory before, our data suggested that the putative heterodimeric motor proteins Ot-KIF3A/B may be involved in intraspermatic transport and might contribute to structural changes during spermiogenesis.

  4. Photosynthesis of C3, C3-C4, and C4 grasses at glacial CO2.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Harshini; Sharwood, Robert E; Tissue, David T; Ghannoum, Oula

    2014-07-01

    Most physiology comparisons of C3 and C4 plants are made under current or elevated concentrations of atmospheric CO2 which do not reflect the low CO2 environment under which C4 photosynthesis has evolved. Accordingly, photosynthetic nitrogen (PNUE) and water (PWUE) use efficiency, and the activity of the photosynthetic carboxylases [Rubisco and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC)] and decarboxylases [NADP-malic enzyme (NADP-ME) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEP-CK)] were compared in eight C4 grasses with NAD-ME, PCK, and NADP-ME subtypes, one C3 grass, and one C3-C4 grass grown under ambient (400 μl l(-1)) and glacial (180 μl l(-1)) CO2. Glacial CO2 caused a smaller reduction of photosynthesis and a greater increase of stomatal conductance in C4 relative to C3 and C3-C4 species. Panicum bisulcatum (C3) acclimated to glacial [CO2] by doubling Rubisco activity, while Rubisco was unchanged in Panicum milioides (C3-C4), possibly due to its high leaf N and Rubisco contents. Glacial CO2 up-regulated Rubisco and PEPC activities in concert for several C4 grasses, while NADP-ME and PEP-CK activities were unchanged, reflecting the high control exerted by the carboxylases relative to the decarboxylases on the efficiency of C4 metabolism. Despite having larger stomatal conductance at glacial CO2, C4 species maintained greater PWUE and PNUE relative to C3-C4 and C3 species due to higher photosynthetic rates. Relative to other C4 subtypes, NAD-ME and PEP-CK grasses had the highest PWUE and PNUE, respectively; relative to C3, the C3-C4 grass had higher PWUE and similar PNUE at glacial CO2. Biomass accumulation was reduced by glacial CO2 in the C3 grass relative to the C3-C4 grass, while biomass was less reduced in NAD-ME grasses compared with NADP-ME and PCK grasses. Under glacial CO2, high resource use efficiency offers a key evolutionary advantage for the transition from C3 to C4 photosynthesis in water- and nutrient-limited environments.

  5. THE ACCELERATING JET OF 3C 279

    SciTech Connect

    Bloom, S. D.; Fromm, C. M.; Ros, E.

    2013-01-01

    Analysis of the proper motions of the subparsec scale jet of the quasar 3C 279 at 15 GHz with the Very Long Baseline Array shows significant accelerations in four of nine superluminal features. Analysis of these motions is combined with the analysis of flux density light curves to constrain values of Lorentz factor and viewing angle (and their derivatives) for each component. The data for each of these components are consistent with significant changes to the Lorentz factor, viewing angle, and azimuthal angle, suggesting jet bending with changes in speed. We see that for these observed components Lorentz factors are in the range {Gamma} = 10-41, viewing angles are in the range thetav = 0. Degree-Sign 1-5. Degree-Sign 0, and intrinsic (source frame) flux density is in the range, F{sub {nu},int} 1.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -9}-1.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -5} Jy. Considering individual components, the Lorentz factors vary from {Gamma} = 11-16 for C1, {Gamma} = 31-41 for C5, {Gamma} = 29-41 for C6, and {Gamma} = 9-12 for C8, indicating that there is no single underlying flow speed to the jet and likely we are seeing pattern speeds from shocks in the jet. The viewing angles vary in time from 0. Degree-Sign 6 to 1. Degree-Sign 5 in the case of C1 (the least extreme example), from 0. Degree-Sign 5 to 5. Degree-Sign 0 in the case of C8, and from 0. Degree-Sign 1 to 0. Degree-Sign 9 for C5 (the last two being the most extreme examples). The intrinsic flux density varies by factors from 1.4 for C8 and 430 for C5. Theoretical analysis of the accelerations also indicates potential jet bending. In addition, for one component, C5, polarization measurements also set limits to the trajectory of the jet.

  6. The Resolved Outflow from 3C 48

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shih, Hsin-Yi; Stockton, Alan

    2014-10-01

    We investigate the properties of the high-velocity outflow driven by the young radio jet of 3C 48, a compact-steep-spectrum source. We use the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph on board the Hubble Space Telecope to obtain (1) low-resolution UV and optical spectra and (2) multi-slit medium-resolution spectra of the ionized outflow. With supporting data from ground-based spectrographs, we are able to accurately measure the ratios of diagnostic emission lines such as [O III] λ5007, [O III] λ3727, [N II] λ6548, Hα, Hβ, [Ne V] λ3425, and [Ne III] λ3869. We fit the observed emission-line ratios using a range of ionization models, powered by active galactic nucleus (AGN) radiation and shocks, produced by the MAPPINGS code. We have determined that AGN radiation is likely the dominant ionization source. The outflow's density is estimated to be in the range n = 103-104 cm-3, the mass is ~6 × 106 M ⊙, and the metallicity is likely equal to or higher than solar. Compared with the typical outflows associated with more evolved radio jets, this young outflow is denser, less massive, and more metal rich. Multi-slit observations allow us to construct a two-dimensional velocity map of the outflow that shows a wide range of velocities with distinct velocity components, suggesting a wide-angle clumpy outflow. Based in part on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. These observations are associated with program GO-11574. Some of the data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation. Some of the

  7. DNA cytosine and methylcytosine deamination by APOBEC3B: enhancing methylcytosine deamination by engineering APOBEC3B

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Yang; Ito, Fumiaki; Zhang, Gewen; Fernandez, Braulio; Yang, Hanjing; Chen, Xiaojiang S.

    2015-01-01

    APOBEC (apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme catalytic polypeptide-like) is a family of enzymes that deaminates cytosine (C) to uracil (U) on nucleic acid. APOBEC3B (A3B) functions in innate immunity against intrinsic and invading retroelements and viruses. A3B can also induce genomic DNA mutations to cause cancer. A3B contains two cytosine deaminase domains (CD1, CD2), and there are conflicting reports about whether both domains are active. Here we demonstrate that only CD2 of A3B (A3BCD2) has C deamination activity. We also reveal that both A3B and A3BCD2 can deaminate methylcytosine (mC). Guided by structural and functional analysis, we successfully engineered A3BCD2 to gain over two orders of magnitude higher activity for mC deamination. Important determinants that contribute to the activity and selectivity for mC deamination have been identified, which reveals that multiple elements, rather than single ones, contribute to the mC deamination activity and selectivity in A3BCD2 and possibly other APOBECs. PMID:26195824

  8. Validation of FY-3B MWRI Rain Rate over China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, B.; Jiang, L.; Shi, C.; Xie, P.; You, R.

    2012-12-01

    As part of the collaboration between China Meteorological Administration (CMA) National Meteorological Information Centre (NMIC) and NOAA Climate Prediction Center (CPC), a new system is being developed to construct half hourly satellite precipitation estimate on a 0.05olat/lon grid over China by combining NOAA series, DMSP series, and CMA FY-3B Polar Microwave rain rate with TMI rain rate. Foundation to the development of the PMW rain rate combining algorithm is the validation of those passive microwave (PMW) - based rain rate retrievals. Since FY-3B is new and not included as inputs to CMORPH, and other established high-resolution satellite precipitation products, we focus our work here on the validation and error quantification of the FY-3B PMW rain rate retrievals. This is done by comparisons with the combined PMW product (MWCOMB) of NOAA/CPC and against a gauge-based analysis of hourly precipitation over China derived from gauge reports of dense station networks. Overall, the monthly mean rain rate distribution of FY-3B agrees very well with MWCOMB except for a little under-estimate over ocean. In the latitudinal profiles, we can see a very close agreement between the FY-3B retrievals and the MWCOMB over land, but there is an obvious general under estimates over ocean. Pattern correlation between FY-3B and MWCOMB is relatively high over both land and ocean. From more works on PDF check of 30-min precipitation, over a 0.25 degree grid, we can clearly see FY3B presents lower PDF for weak precipitation, especially over ocean and reasonable agreements in PDF over land. A gauge-based analysis of hourly precipitation derived from over 30000 station reports is used to validate FY-3B PMW rain rate. In order to compare, 7 PMW rain rate of different satellite, including TMI, NOAA-18, NOAA-19, Metop-A, DMSP-S16, DMSP-S17, DMSP-S18, are also compared with the gauge-based analysis. FY-3B's bias is a little higher than NOAA-18 over whole China, western China and eastern

  9. Synthesis and Antiproliferative Activity of Thiazolyl-bis-pyrrolo[2,3-b]pyridines and Indolyl-thiazolyl-pyrrolo[2,3-c]pyridines, Nortopsentin Analogues

    PubMed Central

    Carbone, Anna; Parrino, Barbara; Di Vita, Gloria; Attanzio, Alessandro; Spanò, Virginia; Montalbano, Alessandra; Barraja, Paola; Tesoriere, Luisa; Livrea, Maria Antonia; Diana, Patrizia; Cirrincione, Girolamo

    2015-01-01

    Two new series of nortopsentin analogues, in which the imidazole ring of the natural product was replaced by thiazole and indole units were both substituted by 7-azaindole moieties or one indole unit was replaced by a 6-azaindole portion, were efficiently synthesized. Compounds belonging to both series inhibited the growth of HCT-116 colorectal cancer cells at low micromolar concentrations, whereas they did not affect the viability of normal-like intestinal cells. A compound of the former series induced apoptosis, evident as externalization of plasma membrane phosphatidylserine (PS), and changes of mitochondrial trans-membrane potential, while blocking the cell cycle in G2/M phase. In contrast, a derivative of the latter series elicited distinct responses in accordance with the dose. Thus, low concentrations (GI30) induced morphological changes characteristic of autophagic death with massive formation of cytoplasmic acid vacuoles without apparent loss of nuclear material, and with arrest of cell cycle at the G1 phase, whereas higher concentrations (GI70) induced apoptosis with arrest of cell cycle at the G1 phase. PMID:25603343

  10. Crystal structure of inactive form of Rab3B

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Wei; Shen, Yang; Jiao, Ronghong; Liu, Yanli; Deng, Lingfu; Qi, Chao

    2012-02-24

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This is the first structural information of human Rab3B. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer To provides a structural basis for the GDP/GTP switch in controlling the activity of Rab3. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The charge distribution of Rab3B indicates its unique roles in vesicular trafficking. -- Abstract: Rab proteins are the largest family of ras-related GTPases in eukaryotic cells. They act as directional molecular switches at membrane trafficking, including vesicle budding, cargo sorting, transport, tethering, and fusion. Here, we generated and crystallized the Rab3B:GDP complex. The structure of the complex was solved to 1.9 A resolution and the structural base comparison with other Rab3 members provides a structural basis for the GDP/GTP switch in controlling the activity of small GTPase. The comparison of charge distribution among the members of Rab3 also indicates their different roles in vesicular trafficking.

  11. Detector production for the R3B Si-tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borri, M.; Lemmon, R.; Thornhill, J.; Bate, R.; Chartier, M.; Clague, N.; Herzberg, R.-D.; Labiche, M.; Lindsay, S.; Nolan, P.; Pearce, F.; Powell, W.; Wells, D.

    2016-11-01

    R3B is a fixed target experiment which will study reactions with relativistic radioactive beams at FAIR. Its Si-tracker will surround the target volume and it will detect light charged-particles like protons. The detector technology in use consists of double-sided silicon strip sensors wire bonded to the custom made R3B-ASIC. The tracker allows for a maximum of two outer layers and one inner layer. This paper reports on the production of detectors necessary to build the minimum tracking configuration: one inner layer and one outer layer.

  12. Retinoic acid negatively regulates dact3b expression in the hindbrain of zebrafish embryos

    PubMed Central

    Mandal, Amrita; Waxman, Joshua

    2014-01-01

    Wnt signaling plays important roles in normal development as well as pathophysiological conditions. The Dapper antagonist of β-catenin (Dact) proteins are modulators of both canonical and non-canonical Wnt signaling via direct interactions with Dishevelled (Dvl) and Van Gogh like-2 (Vangl2). Here, we report the dynamic expression patterns of two zebrafish dact3 paralogs during early embryonic development. Our whole mount in situ hybridization (WISH) analysis indicates that specific dact3a expression starts by the tailbud stage in adaxial cells. Later, it is expressed in the anterior lateral plate mesoderm, somites, migrating cranial neural crest, and hindbrain neurons. By comparison, dact3b expression initiates on the dorsal side at the dome stage and soon after is expressed in the dorsal forerunner cells (DFCs) during gastrulation. At later stages, dact3b expression becomes restricted to the branchial neurons of the hindbrain and to the 2nd pharyngeal arch. To investigate how zebrafish dact3 gene expression is regulated, we manipulated retinoic acid (RA) signaling during development and found it negatively regulates dact3b in the hindbrain. Our study is the first to document the expression of the paralogous zebrafish dact3 genes during early development and demonstrate dact3b can be regulated by RA signaling. Therefore, our study opens up new avenues to study Dact3 function in the development of multiple tissues and suggests a previously unappreciated cross regulation of Wnt signaling by RA signaling in the developing vertebrate hindbrain. PMID:25266145

  13. Identification of the heparin binding site on adeno-associated virus serotype 3B (AAV-3B)

    SciTech Connect

    Lerch, Thomas F.; Chapman, Michael S.

    2012-02-05

    Adeno-associated virus is a promising vector for gene therapy. In the current study, the binding site on AAV serotype 3B for the heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG) receptor has been characterized. X-ray diffraction identified a disaccharide binding site at the most positively charged region on the virus surface. The contributions of basic amino acids at this and other sites were characterized using site-directed mutagenesis. Both heparin and cell binding are correlated to positive charge at the disaccharide binding site, and transduction is significantly decreased in AAV-3B vectors mutated at this site to reduce heparin binding. While the receptor attachment sites of AAV-3B and AAV-2 are both in the general vicinity of the viral spikes, the exact amino acids that participate in electrostatic interactions are distinct. Diversity in the mechanisms of cell attachment by AAV serotypes will be an important consideration for the rational design of improved gene therapy vectors.

  14. Identification of the heparin binding site on adeno-associated virus serotype 3B (AAV-3B)

    SciTech Connect

    Lerch, Thomas F.; Chapman, Michael S.

    2012-05-24

    Adeno-associated virus is a promising vector for gene therapy. In the current study, the binding site on AAV serotype 3B for the heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG) receptor has been characterized. X-ray diffraction identified a disaccharide binding site at the most positively charged region on the virus surface. The contributions of basic amino acids at this and other sites were characterized using site-directed mutagenesis. Both heparin and cell binding are correlated to positive charge at the disaccharide binding site, and transduction is significantly decreased in AAV-3B vectors mutated at this site to reduce heparin binding. While the receptor attachment sites of AAV-3B and AAV-2 are both in the general vicinity of the viral spikes, the exact amino acids that participate in electrostatic interactions are distinct. Diversity in the mechanisms of cell attachment by AAV serotypes will be an important consideration for the rational design of improved gene therapy vectors.

  15. 18 CFR 3b.225 - Written consent for disclosure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Written consent for... IDENTIFIABLE PERSONAL INFORMATION Rules for Disclosure of Records § 3b.225 Written consent for disclosure. (a... communication to any person, or to any other agency, unless it has the written request by, or the prior...

  16. 18 CFR 3b.225 - Written consent for disclosure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Written consent for... IDENTIFIABLE PERSONAL INFORMATION Rules for Disclosure of Records § 3b.225 Written consent for disclosure. (a... communication to any person, or to any other agency, unless it has the written request by, or the prior...

  17. 18 CFR 3b.225 - Written consent for disclosure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Written consent for... IDENTIFIABLE PERSONAL INFORMATION Rules for Disclosure of Records § 3b.225 Written consent for disclosure. (a... communication to any person, or to any other agency, unless it has the written request by, or the prior...

  18. 18 CFR 3b.226 - Accounting of disclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Accounting of... IDENTIFIABLE PERSONAL INFORMATION Rules for Disclosure of Records § 3b.226 Accounting of disclosures. (a) The....225(b) (5) and (7). (b) Each system manager will retain the accounting made under paragraph (a)...

  19. 18 CFR 3b.226 - Accounting of disclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Accounting of... IDENTIFIABLE PERSONAL INFORMATION Rules for Disclosure of Records § 3b.226 Accounting of disclosures. (a) The....225(b) (5) and (7). (b) Each system manager will retain the accounting made under paragraph (a)...

  20. The 29.5 kb APOBEC3B Deletion Polymorphism Is Not Associated with Clinical Outcome of Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jingjing; Sieuwerts, Anieta M; Look, Maxime P; van der Vlugt-Daane, Michelle; Meijer-van Gelder, Marion E; Foekens, John A; Hollestelle, Antoinette; Martens, John W M

    2016-01-01

    Increased APOBEC3B mRNA levels are associated with a hypermutator phenotype and poor prognosis in ER-positive breast cancer patients. In addition, a 29.5 kb deletion polymorphism of APOBEC3B, resulting in an APOBEC3A-B hybrid transcript, has been associated with an increased breast cancer risk and the hypermutator phenotype. Here we evaluated whether the APOBEC3B deletion polymorphism also associates with clinical outcome of breast cancer. Copy number analysis was performed by quantitative PCR (qPCR) in primary tumors of 1,756 Dutch breast cancer patients. The APOBEC3B deletion was found in 187 patients of whom 16 carried a two-copy deletion and 171 carried a one-copy deletion. The prognostic value of the APOBEC3B deletion for the natural course of the disease was evaluated among 1,076 lymph-node negative (LNN) patients who did not receive adjuvant systemic treatment. No association was found between APOBEC3B copy number values and the length of metastasis-free survival (MFS; hazard ratio (HR) = 1.00, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.90-1.11, P = 0.96). Subgroup analysis by ER status also did not reveal an association between APOBEC3B copy number values and the length of MFS. The predictive value of the APOBEC3B deletion was assessed among 329 ER-positive breast cancer patients who received tamoxifen as the first-line therapy for recurrent disease and 226 breast cancer patients who received first-line chemotherapy for recurrent disease. No association between APOBEC3B copy number values and the overall response rate (ORR) to either tamoxifen (odds ratio (OR) = 0.88, 95% CI = 0.69-1.13, P = 0.31) or chemotherapy (OR = 0.97, 95% CI = 0.71-1.33, P = 0.87) was found. Thus, in contrast to APOBEC3B mRNA levels, the APOBEC3B deletion polymorphism has neither a prognostic nor a predictive value for breast cancer patients. Although a correlation exists between APOBEC3B copy number and mRNA expression, it is relatively weak. This suggests that other mechanisms exist that may

  1. The 29.5 kb APOBEC3B Deletion Polymorphism Is Not Associated with Clinical Outcome of Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Look, Maxime P.; van der Vlugt-Daane, Michelle; Meijer-van Gelder, Marion E.; Foekens, John A.; Martens, John W. M.

    2016-01-01

    Increased APOBEC3B mRNA levels are associated with a hypermutator phenotype and poor prognosis in ER-positive breast cancer patients. In addition, a 29.5 kb deletion polymorphism of APOBEC3B, resulting in an APOBEC3A-B hybrid transcript, has been associated with an increased breast cancer risk and the hypermutator phenotype. Here we evaluated whether the APOBEC3B deletion polymorphism also associates with clinical outcome of breast cancer. Copy number analysis was performed by quantitative PCR (qPCR) in primary tumors of 1,756 Dutch breast cancer patients. The APOBEC3B deletion was found in 187 patients of whom 16 carried a two-copy deletion and 171 carried a one-copy deletion. The prognostic value of the APOBEC3B deletion for the natural course of the disease was evaluated among 1,076 lymph-node negative (LNN) patients who did not receive adjuvant systemic treatment. No association was found between APOBEC3B copy number values and the length of metastasis-free survival (MFS; hazard ratio (HR) = 1.00, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.90–1.11, P = 0.96). Subgroup analysis by ER status also did not reveal an association between APOBEC3B copy number values and the length of MFS. The predictive value of the APOBEC3B deletion was assessed among 329 ER-positive breast cancer patients who received tamoxifen as the first-line therapy for recurrent disease and 226 breast cancer patients who received first-line chemotherapy for recurrent disease. No association between APOBEC3B copy number values and the overall response rate (ORR) to either tamoxifen (odds ratio (OR) = 0.88, 95% CI = 0.69–1.13, P = 0.31) or chemotherapy (OR = 0.97, 95% CI = 0.71–1.33, P = 0.87) was found. Thus, in contrast to APOBEC3B mRNA levels, the APOBEC3B deletion polymorphism has neither a prognostic nor a predictive value for breast cancer patients. Although a correlation exists between APOBEC3B copy number and mRNA expression, it is relatively weak. This suggests that other mechanisms exist

  2. Glycine decarboxylase in C3, C4 and C3-C4 intermediate species.

    PubMed

    Schulze, Stefanie; Westhoff, Peter; Gowik, Udo

    2016-06-01

    The glycine decarboxylase complex (GDC) plays a central role in photorespiration. GDC is localized in the mitochondria and together with serine hydroxymethyltransferase it converts two molecules of glycine to one molecule of serine, CO2 and NH3. Overexpression of GDC subunits in the C3 species Arabidopsis thaliana can increase the metabolic flux through the photorespiratory pathway leading to enhanced photosynthetic efficiency and consequently to an enhanced biomass production of the transgenic plants. Changing the spatial expression patterns of GDC subunits was an important step during the evolution of C3-C4 intermediate and likely also C4 plants. Restriction of the GDC activity to the bundle sheath cells led to the establishment of a photorespiratory CO2 pump. PMID:27038285

  3. In vivo redundant function of the 3' IgH regulatory element HS3b in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Bébin, Anne-Gaëlle; Carrion, Claire; Marquet, Marie; Cogné, Nadine; Lecardeur, Sandrine; Cogné, Michel; Pinaud, Eric

    2010-04-01

    In the mouse, the regulatory region located at the 3' end of the IgH locus includes four transcriptional enhancers: HS3a, HS1-2, HS3b, and HS4; the first three lie in a quasi-palindromic structure. Although the upstream elements HS3a and HS1-2 proved dispensable for Ig expression and class switch recombination (CSR), the joint deletion of HS3b and HS4 led to a consistent decrease in IgH expression in resting B cells and to a major CSR defect. Within this pair of distal enhancers, it was questionable whether HS3b and HS4 could be considered individually as elements critical for IgH expression and/or CSR. Studies in HS4-deficient mice recently revealed the role of HS4 as restricted to Igmicro-chain expression from the pre-B to the mature B cell stage and left HS3b as the last candidate for CSR regulation. Our present study finally invalidates the hypothesis that CSR could mostly rely on HS3b itself. B cells from HS3b-deficient animals undergo normal proliferation, germline transcription, and CSR upon in vitro stimulation with LPS; in vivo Ag-specific responses are not affected. In conclusion, our study highlights a major effect of the global ambiance of the IgH locus; enhancers demonstrated as being strongly synergistic in transgenes turn out to be redundant in their endogenous context.

  4. Mengo virus 3C proteinase: recombinant expression, intergenus substrate cleavage and localization in vivo.

    PubMed

    Hall, D J; Palmenberg, A C

    1996-01-01

    Mengo virus 3C proteinase was cloned and expressed to high levels in a bacterial vector system. The protein was solubilized from inclusion bodies then purified to homogeneity (> 95%) by ion exchange chromatography. The recombinant enzyme was proteolytically active in cell-free processing assays with a Mengo capsid precursor substrate, L-P1-2A, correctly and proficiently cleaving it into L, 1AB, 1C, 1D and 2A protein products. Further analyses with synthetic peptide substrates encompassing the Mengo or rhinovirus-14 2C/3A cleavage sequences, showed the Mengo 3C could recognize and process specific glutamine-glycine sites within these peptides. The reactivity with the rhinovirus peptide was unexpected, because cross-reactivity between a picornavirus 3C enzyme and a protein substrate from different genus of this family has otherwise never been observed. In reciprocal reactions, a rhinovirus-14 3C preparation was unable to cleave the Mengo-derived synthetic peptide substrate. The recombinant Mengo 3C reactions were also characterized with regard to substrate Km, optimum pH and temperature. The protein was additionally used to raise monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) in mice, which in turn localized natural 3C, 3ABC, 3CD and P3 in immunoblots, immunoprecipitations and indirect immunofluorescence assays of Mengo-infected HeLa cells. The monoclonals showed cross-reactivity with 3C and 3C-containing precursors from encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV), but did not react with 3C proteins from rhinovirus-14 or poliovirus-1M. PMID:8972564

  5. On the Y-chromosome haplogroup C3c classification.

    PubMed

    Malyarchuk, Boris A; Derenko, Miroslava; Denisova, Galina

    2012-10-01

    As there are ambiguities in classification of the Y-chromosome haplogroup C3c, relatively frequent in populations of Northern Asia, we analyzed all three haplogroup-defining markers M48, M77 and M86 in C3-M217-individuals from Siberia, Eastern Asia and Eastern Europe. We have found that haplogroup C3c is characterized by the derived state at M48, whereas mutations at both M77 and M86 define subhaplogroup C3c1. The branch defined by M48 alone would belong to subhaplogroup C3c*, characteristic for some populations of Central and Eastern Siberia, such as Koryaks, Evens, Evenks and Yukaghirs. Subhaplogroup C3c* individuals could be considered as remnants of the Neolithic population of Siberia, based on the age of C3c*-short tandem repeat variation amounting to 4.5 ± 2.4 thousand years. PMID:22810113

  6. Poliovirus protease 3C(pro) kills cells by apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Barco, A; Feduchi, E; Carrasco, L

    2000-01-20

    The tetracycline-based Tet-Off expression system has been used to analyze the effects of poliovirus protease 3C(pro) on human cells. Stable HeLa cell clones that express this poliovirus protease under the control of an inducible, tightly regulated promoter were obtained. Tetracycline removal induces synthesis of 3C protease, followed by drastic morphological alterations and cellular death. Degradation of cellular DNA in nucleosomes and generation of apoptotic bodies are observed from the second day after 3C(pro) induction. The cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase, an enzyme involved in DNA repair, occurs after induction of 3C(pro), indicating caspase activation by this poliovirus protease. The 3C(pro)-induced apoptosis is blocked by the caspase inhibitor z-VAD-fmk. Our findings suggest that the protease 3C is responsible for triggering apoptosis in poliovirus-infected cells by a mechanism that involves caspase activation.

  7. Late Type 3b Endoleak with an Endurant Endograft

    PubMed Central

    Barburoglu, Mehmet; Acunas, Bulent; Onal, Yilmaz; Ugurlucan, Murat; Sayin, Omer Ali; Alpagut, Ufuk

    2015-01-01

    Endovascular stent grafting with different commercially available stent graft systems is widely applied for the treatment of abdominal aortic aneurysms with high success rates in the current era. Various types of endoleaks are potential complications of the procedure. They usually occur in the early period. In this report, we present type 3b endoleak occurring 14 months after a successful endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair with a Medtronic Endurant stent graft. PMID:26798537

  8. APOSTLE: 11 TRANSIT OBSERVATIONS OF TrES-3b

    SciTech Connect

    Kundurthy, P.; Becker, A. C.; Agol, E.; Barnes, R.; Williams, B.

    2013-02-10

    The Apache Point Survey of Transit Lightcurves of Exoplanets (APOSTLE) observed 11 transits of TrES-3b over two years in order to constrain system parameters and look for transit timing and depth variations. We describe an updated analysis protocol for APOSTLE data, including the reduction pipeline, transit model, and Markov Chain Monte Carlo analyzer. Our estimates of the system parameters for TrES-3b are consistent with previous estimates to within the 2{sigma} confidence level. We improved the errors (by 10%-30%) on system parameters such as the orbital inclination (i {sub orb}), impact parameter (b), and stellar density ({rho}{sub *}) compared to previous measurements. The near-grazing nature of the system, and incomplete sampling of some transits, limited our ability to place reliable uncertainties on individual transit depths and hence we do not report strong evidence for variability. Our analysis of the transit timing data shows no evidence for transit timing variations and our timing measurements are able to rule out super-Earth and gas giant companions in low-order mean motion resonance with TrES-3b.

  9. Heterocyst-specific flavodiiron protein Flv3B enables oxic diazotrophic growth of the filamentous cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. PCC 7120

    PubMed Central

    Ermakova, Maria; Battchikova, Natalia; Richaud, Pierre; Leino, Hannu; Kosourov, Sergey; Isojärvi, Janne; Peltier, Gilles; Flores, Enrique; Cournac, Laurent; Allahverdiyeva, Yagut; Aro, Eva-Mari

    2014-01-01

    Flavodiiron proteins are known to have crucial and specific roles in photoprotection of photosystems I and II in cyanobacteria. The filamentous, heterocyst-forming cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 contains, besides the four flavodiiron proteins Flv1A, Flv2, Flv3A, and Flv4 present in vegetative cells, two heterocyst-specific flavodiiron proteins, Flv1B and Flv3B. Here, we demonstrate that Flv3B is responsible for light-induced O2 uptake in heterocysts, and that the absence of the Flv3B protein severely compromises the growth of filaments in oxic, but not in microoxic, conditions. It is further demonstrated that Flv3B-mediated photosynthetic O2 uptake has a distinct role in heterocysts which cannot be substituted by respiratory O2 uptake in the protection of nitrogenase from oxidative damage and, thus, in an efficient provision of nitrogen to filaments. In line with this conclusion, the Δflv3B strain has reduced amounts of nitrogenase NifHDK subunits and shows multiple symptoms of nitrogen deficiency in the filaments. The apparent imbalance of cytosolic redox state in Δflv3B heterocysts also has a pronounced influence on the amounts of different transcripts and proteins. Therefore, an O2-related mechanism for control of gene expression is suggested to take place in heterocysts. PMID:25002499

  10. Heterocyst-specific flavodiiron protein Flv3B enables oxic diazotrophic growth of the filamentous cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. PCC 7120.

    PubMed

    Ermakova, Maria; Battchikova, Natalia; Richaud, Pierre; Leino, Hannu; Kosourov, Sergey; Isojärvi, Janne; Peltier, Gilles; Flores, Enrique; Cournac, Laurent; Allahverdiyeva, Yagut; Aro, Eva-Mari

    2014-07-29

    Flavodiiron proteins are known to have crucial and specific roles in photoprotection of photosystems I and II in cyanobacteria. The filamentous, heterocyst-forming cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 contains, besides the four flavodiiron proteins Flv1A, Flv2, Flv3A, and Flv4 present in vegetative cells, two heterocyst-specific flavodiiron proteins, Flv1B and Flv3B. Here, we demonstrate that Flv3B is responsible for light-induced O2 uptake in heterocysts, and that the absence of the Flv3B protein severely compromises the growth of filaments in oxic, but not in microoxic, conditions. It is further demonstrated that Flv3B-mediated photosynthetic O2 uptake has a distinct role in heterocysts which cannot be substituted by respiratory O2 uptake in the protection of nitrogenase from oxidative damage and, thus, in an efficient provision of nitrogen to filaments. In line with this conclusion, the Δflv3B strain has reduced amounts of nitrogenase NifHDK subunits and shows multiple symptoms of nitrogen deficiency in the filaments. The apparent imbalance of cytosolic redox state in Δflv3B heterocysts also has a pronounced influence on the amounts of different transcripts and proteins. Therefore, an O2-related mechanism for control of gene expression is suggested to take place in heterocysts.

  11. Heterocyst-specific flavodiiron protein Flv3B enables oxic diazotrophic growth of the filamentous cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. PCC 7120.

    PubMed

    Ermakova, Maria; Battchikova, Natalia; Richaud, Pierre; Leino, Hannu; Kosourov, Sergey; Isojärvi, Janne; Peltier, Gilles; Flores, Enrique; Cournac, Laurent; Allahverdiyeva, Yagut; Aro, Eva-Mari

    2014-07-29

    Flavodiiron proteins are known to have crucial and specific roles in photoprotection of photosystems I and II in cyanobacteria. The filamentous, heterocyst-forming cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 contains, besides the four flavodiiron proteins Flv1A, Flv2, Flv3A, and Flv4 present in vegetative cells, two heterocyst-specific flavodiiron proteins, Flv1B and Flv3B. Here, we demonstrate that Flv3B is responsible for light-induced O2 uptake in heterocysts, and that the absence of the Flv3B protein severely compromises the growth of filaments in oxic, but not in microoxic, conditions. It is further demonstrated that Flv3B-mediated photosynthetic O2 uptake has a distinct role in heterocysts which cannot be substituted by respiratory O2 uptake in the protection of nitrogenase from oxidative damage and, thus, in an efficient provision of nitrogen to filaments. In line with this conclusion, the Δflv3B strain has reduced amounts of nitrogenase NifHDK subunits and shows multiple symptoms of nitrogen deficiency in the filaments. The apparent imbalance of cytosolic redox state in Δflv3B heterocysts also has a pronounced influence on the amounts of different transcripts and proteins. Therefore, an O2-related mechanism for control of gene expression is suggested to take place in heterocysts. PMID:25002499

  12. High Resolution Fabry-Perot Spectroscopy Of Comet Fragments 73P/ Schwassmann-Wachmann 3-B,C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliversen, Ronald J.; Mierkiewicz, E. J.; Morgenthaler, J. P.; Harris, W. M.; Kokorowski, M.; Kidder, A.; Schnackenberg, T.; Carpena Nunez, J.; Hall, T.; Haffner, L.

    2006-09-01

    In May 2006, comet 73P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 3 (SW3) made a spectacular close approach to the Earth. During its 1995 apparition, the comet fragmented into several pieces. One of the brighter components, SW3-B, fragmented into dozens of pieces during the 2006 apparition while another bright fragment, SW3-C did not. Understanding the difference between these two fragments will contribute significantly to our understanding of cometary interiors. We performed observations of SW3-B and SW3-C from Kitt Peak using the Fabry-Perot spectrometers at the McMath-Pierce (MMP) telescope from April 29 - May 10 and at the Wisconsin Hydrogen Alpha Mapper (WHαM) from May 1 - 6, 2006. This period is significant due to its proximity to perigee, overlap with complementary observations, and coincidence with the onset and decline-phase of a major outburst/fragmentation event from SW3-B. The MMP and WHAM Fabry-Perot spectrometers made high resolution measurements of [O I] and NH2 emissions near 6300 Å at δV = 5 km/s and 12 km/s with 4.5 arcmin and 1 degree fields of view, respectively. Many of the spectra separate the cometary and terrestrial [O I] lines and allow determination of water production rates. We report the preliminary analysis of these data, including discussion of the radial distribution of emissions, a comparison activity levels between the two fragments, and a comparison with complementary production rate measurements made over the same period. In addition, following the SW3-B May 9 outburst, H20+ measurements near 6200 Å were made to map the acceleration of water ions near the head and down the tail.

  13. Demonstration in human plasma of a form of C3 that has the conformation of "C3b-like C3".

    PubMed

    Hack, C E; Paardekooper, J; Van Milligen, F

    1990-06-01

    Disruption of the thioester in native C3 yields a C3 molecule that functionally resembles C3b. It has been proposed that this C3 molecule (iC3) plays a key role in initiation of the alternative pathway of the C system. However, its presence in plasma has never been demonstrated. We investigated the presence of iC3 in plasma, using mAb that recognize iC3 as well as C3 activation products but not native C3. One of these mAb, anti-C3-5, which binds iC3 via its C3a moiety, was used together with polyclonal 125I-anti-C3c to develop a RIA for iC3. Plasma incubated with methylamine yielded a strong response in this RIA, whereas neither fresh plasma nor serum in which the C system had been activated by incubation with aggregated IgG, did show this strong response. The specificity of this RIA was further demonstrated by additional experiments including experiments with purified preparations of the various forms of C3. Mean level of iC3 in freshly obtained plasma samples from 10 normal donors was 27 nmol/liter, which is 0.49% of total C3. Analysis by SDS-PAGE of C3 species that had been immunoprecipitated by mAb antiC3-5, revealed that some iC3 consisted of C3 molecules with an intact alpha-chain whereas another part consisted of iC3 molecules with an alpha-chain that had been cleaved by factor I. Thus, this study shows that fresh human plasma contains a C3 species with the conformation of "C3b-like C3" (iC3).

  14. Cortical Connections to Single Digit Representations in Area 3b of Somatosensory Cortex in Squirrel Monkeys and Prosimian Galagos

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Chia-Chi; Gharbawie, Omar A.; Qi, Huixin; Kaas, Jon H.

    2014-01-01

    The ventral posterior nucleus of thalamus sends highly segregated inputs into each digit representation in area 3b of primary somatosensory cortex. However, the spatial organization of the connections that link digit representations of areas 3b with other somatosensory areas is less understood. Here we examined the cortical inputs to individual digit representations of area 3b in four squirrel monkeys and one prosimian galago. Retrograde tracers were injected into neurophysiologically defined representations of individual digits of area 3b. Cortical tissues were cut parallel to the surface in some cases and showed that feedback projections to individual digits overlapped extensively in the hand representations of areas 3b, 1, and parietal ventral (PV) and second somatosensory (S2) areas. Other regions with overlapping populations of labeled cells included area 3a and primary motor cortex (M1). The results were confirmed in other cases in which the cortical tissues were cut in the coronal plane. The same cases also showed that cells were primarily labeled in the infragranular and supragranular layers. Thus, feedback projections to individual digit representations in area 3b mainly originate from multiple digits and other portions of hand representations of areas 3b, 1, PV, and S2. This organization is in stark contrast to the segregated thalamocortical inputs, which originate in single digit representations and terminate in the matching digit representation in the cortex. The organization of feedback connections could provide a substrate for the integration of information across the representations of adjacent digits in area 3b. PMID:23749740

  15. The Activation of Phytophthora Effector Avr3b by Plant Cyclophilin is Required for the Nudix Hydrolase Activity of Avr3b.

    PubMed

    Kong, Guanghui; Zhao, Yao; Jing, Maofeng; Huang, Jie; Yang, Jin; Xia, Yeqiang; Kong, Liang; Ye, Wenwu; Xiong, Qin; Qiao, Yongli; Dong, Suomeng; Ma, Wenbo; Wang, Yuanchao

    2015-08-01

    Plant pathogens secrete an arsenal of effector proteins to impair host immunity. Some effectors possess enzymatic activities that can modify their host targets. Previously, we demonstrated that a Phytophthora sojae RXLR effector Avr3b acts as a Nudix hydrolase when expressed in planta; and this enzymatic activity is required for full virulence of P. sojae strain P6497 in soybean (Glycine max). Interestingly, recombinant Avr3b produced by E. coli does not have the hydrolase activity unless it was incubated with plant protein extracts. Here, we report the activation of Avr3b by a prolyl-peptidyl isomerase (PPIase), cyclophilin, in plant cells. Avr3b directly interacts with soybean cyclophilin GmCYP1, which activates the hydrolase activity of Avr3b in a PPIase activity-dependent manner. Avr3b contains a putative Glycine-Proline (GP) motif; which is known to confer cyclophilin-binding in other protein substrates. Substitution of the Proline (P132) in the putative GP motif impaired the interaction of Avr3b with GmCYP1; as a result, the mutant Avr3bP132A can no longer be activated by GmCYP1, and is also unable to promote Phytophthora infection. Avr3b elicits hypersensitive response (HR) in soybean cultivars producing the resistance protein Rps3b, but Avr3bP132A lost its ability to trigger HR. Furthermore, silencing of GmCYP1 rendered reduced cell death triggered by Avr3b, suggesting that GmCYP1-mediated Avr3b maturation is also required for Rps3b recognition. Finally, cyclophilins of Nicotiana benthamiana can also interact with Avr3b and activate its enzymatic activity. Overall, our results demonstrate that cyclophilin is a "helper" that activates the enzymatic activity of Avr3b after it is delivered into plant cells; as such, cyclophilin is required for the avirulence and virulence functions of Avr3b.

  16. Why Are C3-C4 Intermediate Species Rare?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, J. E.; Field, C. B.; Berry, J. A.

    2014-12-01

    While C3-C4 intermediate photosynthesis is thought to represent the evolutionary bridge between C3 and C4 photosynthesis, C3-C4 intermediate species are ecologically rare in comparison to both C3 and C4 species. Here, we report results from a laboratory experiment, field observations, and model simulations that suggest a new explanation for the ecological rarity of C3-C4 intermediate species. In the laboratory experiment, we combined gas exchange and fluorescence to characterize the temperature response of photosynthesis in three closely-related species in the genus Flaveria that are representatives of the C3, C3-C4 intermediate, and C4 photosynthetic pathways. The leaf temperature that maximized the quantum yield for CO2 assimilation (Topt(ΦCO2)) was 24.9 ± 0.7°C in Flaveria robusta (C3), 29.8 ± 1.0°C in F. chloraefolia (C3-C4), and 35.7 ± 0.8°C in F. bidentis (C4), and was linearly related to the temperature sensitivity of the coupling between CO2 assimilation and electron transport (d(ΦCO2/ ΦPSII)/dT)). While F. chloraefolia does not simultaneously occur with F. robusta and F. bidentis in naturally-assembled communities, this C3-C4 intermediate species does occur with other C3 and C4 species. During the growing season in two of these mixed-photosynthetic-type communities, leaf temperatures for F. chloraefolia were similar to the Topt(ΦCO2) determined in the laboratory. A model of maximum potential carbon gain suggests that competitive coexistence of C3, C3-C4 intermediate, and C4 species could be dependent on a temperature regime that highlights the distinct relative advantages of the C3-C4 intermediate pathway. In combination, these results suggest that the relative temperature sensitivity of the C3, C3-C4 intermediate, and C4 photosynthetic pathways combined with environmental variation in temperature may help to explain why C3-C4 intermediate species are generally rare.

  17. Crystal structure of inactive form of Rab3B

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Wei; Shen, Yang; Jiao, Ronghong; Liu, Yanli; Deng, Lingfu; Qi, Chao

    2012-06-28

    Rab proteins are the largest family of ras-related GTPases in eukaryotic cells. They act as directional molecular switches at membrane trafficking, including vesicle budding, cargo sorting, transport, tethering, and fusion. Here, we generated and crystallized the Rab3B:GDP complex. The structure of the complex was solved to 1.9 {angstrom} resolution and the structural base comparison with other Rab3 members provides a structural basis for the GDP/GTP switch in controlling the activity of small GTPase. The comparison of charge distribution among the members of Rab3 also indicates their different roles in vesicular trafficking.

  18. SERPINB3/B4 contributes to early inflammation and barrier dysfunction in an experimental murine model of atopic dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Sivaprasad, Umasundari; Kinker, Kayla G.; Ericksen, Mark B.; Lindsey, Mark; Gibson, Aaron M.; Bass, Stacey A.; Hershey, Nicolas S.; Deng, Jingyuan; Medvedovic, Mario; Khurana Hershey, Gurjit K.

    2014-01-01

    Serine proteases are critical for epidermal barrier homeostasis and their aberrant expression and/or activity is associated with chronic skin diseases. Elevated levels of the serine protease inhibitors SERPINB3 and SERPINB4 are seen in patients with atopic dermatitis and psoriasis. However their mechanistic role in the skin is unknown. To evaluate the contribution of Serpinb3a (mouse homolog of SERPINB3 and SERPINB4) in atopic dermatitis, we examined the effect of topical Aspergillus fumigatus extract exposure in wild-type and Serpinb3a null mice on transepidermal water loss (TEWL), sensitization and inflammation. Allergen exposure induced Serpinb3a expression in the skin, along with increased TEWL, epidermal thickness, and skin inflammation, all of which were attenuated in the absence of Serpinb3a. Attenuated TEWL correlated with decreased expression of the pro-inflammatory marker S100A8. Silencing of SERPINB3/B4 in human keratinocytes decreased S100A8 expression supporting a role for SERPINB3/B4 in initiation of the acute inflammatory response. RNA-Seq analysis following allergen exposure identified a network of pro-inflammatory genes induced in the wild type mice that was absent in the Serpinb3a null mice. In conclusion, Serpinb3a deficiency attenuates barrier dysfunction and the early inflammatory response following cutaneous allergen exposure, supporting a role for Serpinb3a (mice) and SERPINB3/B4 (humans) early in atopic dermatitis. PMID:25111616

  19. Towards Large Area Growth of 3C-SiC

    SciTech Connect

    Vasiliauskas, Remigijus; Liljedahl, Rickard; Syvaejaervi, Mikael; Yakimova, Rositza

    2010-11-01

    In this work we have analyzed the possibility of upscaling the growth of 3C-SiC. The growth was done at different temperatures to find limiting mechanisms of the growth rate and to examine the morphology of grown layers. Coverage by 3C-SiC increases when increasing temperature, however more twins appeared. Activation energy of the growth is 130 kcal/mol--showing that growth rate limiting mechanism is sublimation of the source. We discuss the influence of large area 6H-SiC wafers on the formation of 3C-SiC, in which the change in basal plane orientation could also influence the growth of 3C-SiC.

  20. Unique structure of iC3b resolved at a resolution of 24 Å by 3D-electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Alcorlo, Martin; Martínez-Barricarte, Ruben; Fernández, Francisco J; Rodríguez-Gallego, César; Round, Adam; Vega, M Cristina; Harris, Claire L; de Cordoba, Santiago Rodríguez; Llorca, Oscar

    2011-08-01

    Activation of C3, deposition of C3b on the target surface, and subsequent amplification by formation of a C3-cleaving enzyme (C3-convertase; C3bBb) triggers the effector functions of complement that result in inflammation and cell lysis. Concurrently, surface-bound C3b is proteolyzed to iC3b by factor I and appropriate cofactors. iC3b then interacts with the complement receptors (CR) of the Ig superfamily, CR2 (CD21), CR3 (CD11b/CD18), and CR4 (CD11c/CD18) on leukocytes, down-modulating inflammation, enhancing B cell-mediated immunity, and targeting pathogens for clearance by phagocytosis. Using EM and small-angle X-ray scattering, we now present a medium-resolution structure of iC3b (24 Å). iC3b displays a unique conformation with structural features distinct from any other C3 fragment. The macroglobulin ring in iC3b is similar to that in C3b, whereas the TED (thioester-containing domain) domain and the remnants of the CUB (complement protein subcomponents C1r/C1s, urchin embryonic growth factor and bone morphogenetic protein 1) domain have moved to locations more similar to where they were in native C3. A consequence of this large conformational change is the disruption of the factor B binding site, which renders iC3b unable to assemble a C3-convertase. This structural model also justifies the decreased interaction between iC3b and complement regulators and the recognition of iC3b by the CR of the Ig superfamily, CR2, CR3, and CR4. These data further illustrate the extraordinary conformational versatility of C3 to accommodate a great diversity of functional activities.

  1. Unique structure of iC3b resolved at a resolution of 24 Å by 3D-electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Alcorlo, Martin; Martínez-Barricarte, Ruben; Fernández, Francisco J; Rodríguez-Gallego, César; Round, Adam; Vega, M Cristina; Harris, Claire L; de Cordoba, Santiago Rodríguez; Llorca, Oscar

    2011-08-01

    Activation of C3, deposition of C3b on the target surface, and subsequent amplification by formation of a C3-cleaving enzyme (C3-convertase; C3bBb) triggers the effector functions of complement that result in inflammation and cell lysis. Concurrently, surface-bound C3b is proteolyzed to iC3b by factor I and appropriate cofactors. iC3b then interacts with the complement receptors (CR) of the Ig superfamily, CR2 (CD21), CR3 (CD11b/CD18), and CR4 (CD11c/CD18) on leukocytes, down-modulating inflammation, enhancing B cell-mediated immunity, and targeting pathogens for clearance by phagocytosis. Using EM and small-angle X-ray scattering, we now present a medium-resolution structure of iC3b (24 Å). iC3b displays a unique conformation with structural features distinct from any other C3 fragment. The macroglobulin ring in iC3b is similar to that in C3b, whereas the TED (thioester-containing domain) domain and the remnants of the CUB (complement protein subcomponents C1r/C1s, urchin embryonic growth factor and bone morphogenetic protein 1) domain have moved to locations more similar to where they were in native C3. A consequence of this large conformational change is the disruption of the factor B binding site, which renders iC3b unable to assemble a C3-convertase. This structural model also justifies the decreased interaction between iC3b and complement regulators and the recognition of iC3b by the CR of the Ig superfamily, CR2, CR3, and CR4. These data further illustrate the extraordinary conformational versatility of C3 to accommodate a great diversity of functional activities. PMID:21788512

  2. Calculation of a BWR partial ATWS using RAMONA-3B

    SciTech Connect

    Garber, D.I.; Diamond, D.J.; Cheng, H.S.

    1982-01-01

    The RAMONA-3B code has been used to simulate a boiling water reactor (BWR) transient initiated by the closure of the main steam line isolation valves in which all the control rods in one-half the core fail to scram after reactor trip. The modeling of the nuclear steam supply system included three-dimensional neutron kinetics and parallel hydraulic channels (including a bypass channel). The transient is characterized by an initial pressure spike and then by oscillations in the pressure due to the opening and closing of relief valves. These oscillations in turn affect all thermohydraulic properties in the vessel. The simulation was continued for 7 minutes of reactor time at which point boron began to accumulate in the core. The calculation demonstrates the importance of using three-dimensional neutron kinetics in conjunction with the modeling of the nuclear steam supply system for this type of transient. RAMONA-3B is unique in its ability to do this type of calculation.

  3. 50 CFR Table 3b to Part 680 - Crab Disposition or Product Codes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Crab Disposition or Product Codes 3b Table 3b to Part 680 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 680, Table 3b Table 3b to Part 680—Crab Disposition or Product Codes...

  4. 50 CFR Table 3b to Part 680 - Crab Disposition or Product Codes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Crab Disposition or Product Codes 3b Table 3b to Part 680 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 680, Table 3b Table 3b to Part 680—Crab Disposition or Product Codes...

  5. 50 CFR Table 3b to Part 680 - Crab Disposition or Product Codes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Crab Disposition or Product Codes 3b Table 3b to Part 680 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 680, Table 3b Table 3b to Part 680—Crab Disposition or Product Codes...

  6. 50 CFR Table 3b to Part 680 - Crab Disposition or Product Codes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Crab Disposition or Product Codes 3b Table 3b to Part 680 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 680, Table 3b Table 3b to Part 680—Crab Disposition or Product Codes...

  7. 50 CFR Table 3b to Part 680 - Crab Disposition or Product Codes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Crab Disposition or Product Codes 3b Table 3b to Part 680 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 680, Table 3b Table 3b to Part 680—Crab Disposition or Product Codes...

  8. Fine Structure in 3C 120 and 3C 84. Ph.D. Thesis - Maryland Univ., 24 Aug. 1976

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutton, L. K.

    1976-01-01

    Seven epochs of very long baseline radio interferometric observations of the Seyfert galaxies 3C 120 and 3C 84, at 3.8-cm wave length using stations at Westford, Massachusetts, Goldstone, California, Green Bank, West Virginia, and Onsala, Sweden, have been analyzed for source structure. An algorithm for reconstructing the brightness distribution of a spatially confined source from fringe amplitude and so called closure phase data has been developed and successfully applied to artificially generated test data and to data on the above mentioned sources. Over the two year time period of observation, 3C 120 was observed to consist of a double source showing apparent super relativistic expansion and separation velocities. The total flux changes comprising one outburst can be attributed to one of these components. 3C 84 showed much slower changes, evidently involving flux density changes in individual stationary components rather than relative motion.

  9. RXTE, VLBA, Optical, and Radio Monitoring of the Quasars 3C 279, PKS 1510--089, and 3C 273

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marscher, A. P.; Jorstad, S. G.; Aller, M. F.; McHardy, I. M.; Balonek, T. J.

    2001-01-01

    We are continuing our combined RXTE X-ray, VLBA imaging (at 43 GHz), optical (several observatories), and radio (University of Michigan Radio Astronomy Observatory) monitoring of the quasars 3C 279 and PKS 1510-089, and have started similar monitoring of 3C 273. X-ray flares in 3C 279 and PKS 1510-089 are associated with ejections of superluminal components. In addition, there is a close connection between the optical and X-ray variability of 3C 279. There is a strong correlation between the 14.5 GHz and X-ray variability of PKS 1510-089 in 1997 and 1998 (with the radio leading the X-ray) that becomes weaker in subsequent years. X-ray fluctuations occur on a variety of timescales in 3C 273, with a major prolonged outburst in mid-2001. The lead author will discuss the correlations in terms of inverse Compton models for the X-ray emission coupled with synchrotron models for the lower-frequency radiation. Synchrotron self-Compton models can explain the "reverse" time lag in PKS 1510-089 is well as the variable correlation between the X-ray variations and those at lower frequencies in this object and in 3C 279.

  10. Structural and functional partitioning of bread wheat chromosome 3B.

    PubMed

    Choulet, Frédéric; Alberti, Adriana; Theil, Sébastien; Glover, Natasha; Barbe, Valérie; Daron, Josquin; Pingault, Lise; Sourdille, Pierre; Couloux, Arnaud; Paux, Etienne; Leroy, Philippe; Mangenot, Sophie; Guilhot, Nicolas; Le Gouis, Jacques; Balfourier, Francois; Alaux, Michael; Jamilloux, Véronique; Poulain, Julie; Durand, Céline; Bellec, Arnaud; Gaspin, Christine; Safar, Jan; Dolezel, Jaroslav; Rogers, Jane; Vandepoele, Klaas; Aury, Jean-Marc; Mayer, Klaus; Berges, Hélène; Quesneville, Hadi; Wincker, Patrick; Feuillet, Catherine

    2014-07-18

    We produced a reference sequence of the 1-gigabase chromosome 3B of hexaploid bread wheat. By sequencing 8452 bacterial artificial chromosomes in pools, we assembled a sequence of 774 megabases carrying 5326 protein-coding genes, 1938 pseudogenes, and 85% of transposable elements. The distribution of structural and functional features along the chromosome revealed partitioning correlated with meiotic recombination. Comparative analyses indicated high wheat-specific inter- and intrachromosomal gene duplication activities that are potential sources of variability for adaption. In addition to providing a better understanding of the organization, function, and evolution of a large and polyploid genome, the availability of a high-quality sequence anchored to genetic maps will accelerate the identification of genes underlying important agronomic traits. PMID:25035497

  11. An Overview of the NASA P-3B Airborne Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guillory, Anthony R.; Postell, George W.

    2009-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Wallops Flight Facility (WFF) P-3B Orion is a medium-lift, four engine turbo-prop aircraft that has been reconfigured from a military aircraft to an Earth Science research platform. The aircraft has a long history of supporting science missions, flying on average over 200 hours per year. Examples of research missions that have been flown aboard the aircraft are remote sensing flights to study geophysical parameters including ice-sheet topography and periodic change, soil moisture content, atmospheric aerosol constituents, and beach erosion. Missions are conducted for the purposes of calibration/validation of various NASA and international satellites that monitor climate change as well as process studies and the test of new prototype remote sensing instruments. In recent y ears the focus has been on ice surveys of the Arctic and Antarctic, soil moisture research, and measurements of atmospheric chemistry and radiation sciences. The aircraft has been conducting ice surveys of Greenland since 1993 for the purposes of topographic mapping of both the surface and basal topography. Another application of the aircraft has been for soil moisture research. Research has also been conducted using microwave radiometers and radars over various agricultural and forest lands. Recently, a mission was flown in the spring over the High-Arctic to collect air samples of haze and boreal forest fires in an effort to determine anthropogenic amounts and sources of pollution. This pa per will provide an overview of the P-3B platform and highlight recent science missions.

  12. Polarization-maintaining amplifier based on 3C fiber structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enokidani, Jun; Ito, Rumi; Sakurai, Tsutomu; Shin, Sumida; Tei, Kazuyoku

    2015-03-01

    Chirally-Coupled-Core (3C) fiber structure can preserve a single mode quality and even a linear polarization for a large core size. A principal advantage of fiber laser is its compatibility with monolithic integration and robust system. But so far, devices such as a combiner using the 3C fibers have not been reported. Here we report the first demonstration of such monolithic amplifier structure which contains an active fiber and a combiner based on 3C fibers. A single-stage amplifier is seeded by an EO Q-switched micro-laser and pumped by two high power fiber pigtailed 976-nm laser diodes via an in-house fabricated (2 + 1) × 1 pump signal combiner. The active fiber is based on a 3-m-long, 3C Yb-doped fiber (33 μm/250 μm core/cladding diameter with 0.06/0.46 NA). The amplifier demonstrates scaling up to 30W average power and 150 kW peak power in 0.3mJ, 2ns pulses. The beam profiles and beam qualities were characterized as its output power was varied up to 30W. The beam profile was maintained at a high beam quality of around M2=1.2. The spectral properties of the 3C fiber were also characterized as its output peak power was varied.

  13. Complement fragments C3b and iC3b coupled to latex induce a respiratory burst in human neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Hoogerwerf, M; Weening, R S; Hack, C E; Roos, D

    1990-02-01

    The complement fragments C3b and iC3b were purified from human serum by affinity chromatography with Sepharose-coupled monoclonal antibody against the C3d region of C3. The resulting preparations were more than 95% pure and contained less than 0.1% native IgG. Purified C3b and iC3b were coupled to latex beads (0.8 micron diameter) by means of F(ab')2 fragments of monoclonal antibodies against the beta chain or the C3d region of C3, thus orienting the C3b and the iC3b on the latex with the C3b- and iC3b-specific regions outwards. These particles were found to activate the respiratory burst of freshly isolated human neutrophils to 20-30% of the maximal capacity. Latex particles randomly coated with C3b or iC3b were about 3 times less stimulatory. C3b, iC3b and IgG coupled to latex in an oriented fashion were about equally effective in stimulating the respiratory burst. Neutrophils from a patient with a total deficiency of CR3 responded normally to C3b-coated latex but did not respond to iC3b-coated latex. A monoclonal antibody against the alpha chain of CR3 inhibited the activation by iC3b-coated latex and a polyclonal antibody against CR1 partially inhibited the activation by C3b-coated latex. We found an additive effect between IgG-coated latex and C3b-coated latex, regardless of the presence of IgG and C3b on the same particle or on different particles. Thus, binding of ligands to either CR1 or CR3 per se is sufficient to induce an activating signal to the NADPH oxidase in human neutrophils.

  14. Optical variability of PHL 1811 and 3C 273

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, J. H.; Kurtanidze, O.; Liu, Y.; Yuan, Y. H.; Hao, J. M.; Cai, W.; Xiao, H. B.; Pei, Z. Y.

    2015-03-01

    In this work, we reported the optical photometry monitoring results for two brightest nearby quasars, PHL 1811 and 3C 273 using the ST-6 camera at Abastumani Observatory, Georgia. For PHL 1811, we found 3 microvariability events with time scale of ΔT = 6.0 min. For 3C273, we found that the largest variations are ΔV = 0.369 +/- 0.028 mag, ΔR = 0.495 +/- 0.076 mag, and ΔI = 0.355 +/- 0.009 mag. When periodicity analysis methods are adopted to the available data, a period of p = 5.80 +/- 1.12 years is obtained for PHL 1811, and p = 21.10 +/- 0.14, 10.00 +/- 0.14, 7.30 +/- 0.09, 13.20 +/- 0.09, 2.10 +/- 0.06, and 0.68 +/- 0.05 years are obtained for 3C 273.

  15. Energetics and structural stability of Cs3C60

    SciTech Connect

    Saito, Susumu; Umemoto, Koichiro; Louie, Steven G.; Cohen, MarvinL.

    2003-12-15

    Using the ab initio pseudo potential total-energy method and the density-functional theory, we study the energetics of face-centered-cubic Cs3C60 which is a material of great interest as a possible high transition-temperature superconductor. At the optimized lattice constant the volume per C60 is found to be smaller than the most stable hexagon-coordination A15 phase, while the total energy of the fcc phase is about 0.9 eV higher than the A15 phase. These results indicate that a low-temperature and high-pressure synthesis method might be a possible way to produce the fcc Cs3C60 phase. In addition, it is also found that the A15 Cs3C60 should show a phase transformation from a hexagon-coordination phase to a pentagon-coordination phase under hydrostatic pressure.

  16. Graphene/3C-SiC Hybrid Nanolaminate.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Hao; Yang, Bing; Heuser, Steffen; Huang, Nan; Fu, Haiyuan; Jiang, Xin

    2015-12-30

    In this work, we demonstrate a one-step approach to create graphene/3C-SiC nanolaminate structure using microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition technique. Layer-by-layer arrangement of thin 3C-SiC layers and graphene sheets is obtained with the thicknesses of the individual 3C-SiC layers and graphene sheets being 5-10 nm and 2-5 nm, respectively. An intimate contact between 3C-SiC and the graphene sheets is achieved and the nanolaminate film shows a high room temperature conductivity of 96.1 S/cm. A dedicated structural analysis of the nanolaminates by means of high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) reveals that the growth of the nanolaminates follows an iterative process: preferential graphene nucleation around the planar defects at the central region of the SiC layer, leading to the "splitting" of the SiC layer; and the thickening of the SiC layer after being "split". A growth mechanism based on both kinetics and thermodynamics is proposed. Following the proposed mechanism, it is possible to control the layer thickness of the graphene/3C-SiC hybrid nanolaminate by manipulating the carbon concentration in the gas phase, which is further experimentally verified. The high electrical conductivity, large surface area porous structure, feasible integration on different substrates (metal, Mo; semiconductor, Si and 2H-SiC; insulator, diamond) of the graphene/3C-SiC hybrid nanolaminate as well as other unprecedented advantages of the nanolaminate structure make it very promising for applications in mechanical, energy, and sensor-related areas. PMID:26650041

  17. Discovery of antitumor anthra[2,3-b]furan-3-carboxamides: Optimization of synthesis and evaluation of antitumor properties.

    PubMed

    Shchekotikhin, Andrey E; Dezhenkova, Lyubov G; Tsvetkov, Vladimir B; Luzikov, Yuri N; Volodina, Yulia L; Tatarskiy, Victor V; Kalinina, Anastasia A; Treshalin, Michael I; Treshalina, Helen M; Romanenko, Vladimir I; Kaluzhny, Dmitry N; Kubbutat, Michael; Schols, Dominique; Pommier, Yves; Shtil, Alexander A; Preobrazhenskaya, Maria N

    2016-04-13

    Anthraquinones and their analogues, in particular heteroarene-fused anthracendiones, are prospective scaffolds for new compounds with improved antitumor characteristics. We herein report the use of a 'scaffold hopping' approach for the replacement of the core structure in the previously discovered hit compound naphtho[2,3-f]indole-5,10-dione 2 with an alternative anthra[2,3-b]furan-5,10-dione scaffold. Among 13 newly synthesized derivatives the majority of 4,11-dihydroxy-2-methyl-5,10-dioxoanthra[2,3-b]furan-3-carboxamides demonstrated a high antiproliferative potency against a panel of wild type and drug resistant tumor cell lines, a property superior over the reference drug doxorubicin or lead naphtho[2,3-f]indole-5,10-dione 2. At low micromolar concentrations the selected derivative of (R)-3-aminopyrrolidine 3c and its stereoisomer (S)-3-aminopyrrolidine 3d caused an apoptotic cell death preceded by an arrest in the G2/M phase. Studies of intracellular targets showed that 3c and 3d formed stable intercalative complexes with the duplex DNA as determined by spectral analysis and molecular docking. Both 3c and 3d attenuated topoisomerase 1 and 2 mediated unwinding of the supercoiled DNA via a mechanism different from conventional DNA-enzyme tertiary complex formation. Furthermore, 3d decreased the activity of selected human protein kinases in vitro, indicating multiple targeting by the new chemotype. Finally, 3d demonstrated an antitumor activity in a model of murine intraperitoneally transplanted P388 leukemia, achieving the increase of animal life span up to 262% at tolerable doses. Altogether, the 'scaffold hopping' demonstrated its productivity for obtaining new perspective antitumor drug candidates.

  18. The Activation of Phytophthora Effector Avr3b by Plant Cyclophilin is Required for the Nudix Hydrolase Activity of Avr3b

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Guanghui; Zhao, Yao; Jing, Maofeng; Huang, Jie; Yang, Jin; Xia, Yeqiang; Kong, Liang; Ye, Wenwu; Xiong, Qin; Qiao, Yongli; Dong, Suomeng; Ma, Wenbo; Wang, Yuanchao

    2015-01-01

    Plant pathogens secrete an arsenal of effector proteins to impair host immunity. Some effectors possess enzymatic activities that can modify their host targets. Previously, we demonstrated that a Phytophthora sojae RXLR effector Avr3b acts as a Nudix hydrolase when expressed in planta; and this enzymatic activity is required for full virulence of P. sojae strain P6497 in soybean (Glycine max). Interestingly, recombinant Avr3b produced by E. coli does not have the hydrolase activity unless it was incubated with plant protein extracts. Here, we report the activation of Avr3b by a prolyl-peptidyl isomerase (PPIase), cyclophilin, in plant cells. Avr3b directly interacts with soybean cyclophilin GmCYP1, which activates the hydrolase activity of Avr3b in a PPIase activity-dependent manner. Avr3b contains a putative Glycine-Proline (GP) motif; which is known to confer cyclophilin-binding in other protein substrates. Substitution of the Proline (P132) in the putative GP motif impaired the interaction of Avr3b with GmCYP1; as a result, the mutant Avr3bP132A can no longer be activated by GmCYP1, and is also unable to promote Phytophthora infection. Avr3b elicits hypersensitive response (HR) in soybean cultivars producing the resistance protein Rps3b, but Avr3bP132A lost its ability to trigger HR. Furthermore, silencing of GmCYP1 rendered reduced cell death triggered by Avr3b, suggesting that GmCYP1-mediated Avr3b maturation is also required for Rps3b recognition. Finally, cyclophilins of Nicotiana benthamiana can also interact with Avr3b and activate its enzymatic activity. Overall, our results demonstrate that cyclophilin is a “helper” that activates the enzymatic activity of Avr3b after it is delivered into plant cells; as such, cyclophilin is required for the avirulence and virulence functions of Avr3b. PMID:26317500

  19. Transit timing variation in exoplanet WASP-3b

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maciejewski, G.; Dimitrov, D.; Neuhäuser, R.; Niedzielski, A.; Raetz, St.; Ginski, Ch.; Adam, Ch.; Marka, C.; Moualla, M.; Mugrauer, M.

    2010-10-01

    Photometric follow-ups of transiting exoplanets may lead to discoveries of additional, less massive bodies in extrasolar systems. This is possible by detecting and then analysing variations in transit timing of transiting exoplanets. We present photometric observations gathered in 2009 and 2010 for exoplanet WASP-3b during the dedicated transit-timing-variation campaign. The observed transit timing cannot be explained by a constant period but by a periodic variation in the observations minus calculations diagram. Simplified models assuming the existence of a perturbing planet in the system and reproducing the observed variations of timing residuals were identified by three-body simulations. We found that the configuration with the hypothetical second planet of mass ~, located close to the outer 2:1 mean-motion resonance, is the most likely scenario reproducing observed transit timing. We emphasize, however, that more observations are required to constrain better the parameters of the hypothetical second planet in the WASP-3 system. For final interpretation not only transit timing but also photometric observations of the transit of the predicted second planet and high-precision radial velocity data are needed. This paper is based on observations made with the 60-cm telescope of the Rozhen National Astronomical Observatory, which is operated by the Institute of Astronomy, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, and the 90-cm telescope of the University Observatory Jena, which is operated by the Astrophysical Institute of the Friedrich Schiller University. E-mail: gm@astro.uni-jena.de

  20. The linear polarization of 3C 345 in the ultraviolet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dolan, Joseph F.; Boyd, Patricia T.; Wolinski, Karen G.; Smith, Paul S.; Impey, C. D.; Bless, Robert C.; Nelson, M. J.; Percival, J. W.; Taylor, M. J.; Elliot, J. L.

    1994-01-01

    The linear polarization of 3C 345, a superluminal radio source and OVV quasar, was observed in two bandpasses in the ultraviolet (centered at 2160 A and 2770 A) in 1993 April using the High Speed Photometer on the Hubble Space Telescope. The quasar is significantly polarized in the UV (p greater than 5%). Ground-based polarimetry was obtained 11 days later, but a difference in the position angle between the observations in the visible and those in the UV indicate that the magnitude of the polarization of 3C 345 may have changed over that time. If the two observation sets represent the same state of spectral polarization, then the large UV flux implies that either the polarization of the synchrotron continuum must stop decreasing in the UV, or that there is an additional source of polarized flux in the ultraviolet. Only if the UV observations represent a spectral polarization state with the same position angle in the visible seen previously in 3C 345 can the polarized flux be represented by a single power law consistent with the three-component model of Smith et al. This model consists of a polarized synchrotron component, an unpolarized component from the broad-line region, and an unpolarized component attributed to thermal radiation from an optically thick accretion disk. Additional simultaneous polarimetry in the UV and visible will be required to further constrain models of the continuum emission processes in 3C 345 and determine if the UV polarized flux is synchrotron in origin.

  1. Microwave Radiometer – 3 Channel (MWR3C) Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Cadeddu, MP

    2012-05-04

    The microwave radiometer 3-channel (MWR3C) provides time-series measurements of brightness temperatures from three channels centered at 23.834, 30, and 89 GHz. These three channels are sensitive to the presence of liquid water and precipitable water vapor.

  2. Revisiting correlations between broad-line and jet emission variations for AGNs: 3C 120 and 3C 273

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, H. T.; Bai, J. M.; Feng, H. C.; Li, S. K.

    2015-06-01

    We restudy the issue of cross-correlations between broad-line and jet emission variations, and aim to locate the position of a radio (and gamma-ray) emitting region in a jet of active galactic nuclei. Considering the radial profiles of the radius and number density of clouds in a spherical broad-line region (BLR), we derive new formulae connecting the jet-emitting position Rjet to the time lag τob between broad-line and jet emission variations, and the BLR radius. Also, formulae are derived for a disc-like BLR and a spherical shell BLR. The model-independent flux randomization/random subset selection method is used to estimate τob. For 3C 120, positive lags of about 0.3 yr are found between the 15 GHz emission and the Hβ, Hγ and He II λ4686 lines, including broad-line data in a newly published paper, indicating that the line variations lead the 15 GHz ones. Each of the broad-line light curves corresponds to a radio outburst. Rjet = 1.1-1.5 parsec (pc) is obtained for 3C 120. For 3C 273, a common feature of negative time lags is found in the cross-correlation functions between light curves of radio emission and the Balmer lines, as well as Lyα λ1216 and C IV λ1549 lines. Rjet = 1.0-2.6 pc is obtained for 3C 273. The estimated Rjet is comparable for 3C 120 and 3C 273, and the gamma-ray-emitting positions will be within ˜1-3 pc from the central engines. Comparisons show that the cloud number density and radius radial distributions and the BLR structures have only negligible effects on Rjet.

  3. Connection Between X-Ray Emission and Relativistic Jets in the Radio Galaxies 3C 111 and 3C 120

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aller, Margo F.

    2005-01-01

    This work represents a part of a longterm study of the X-ray flux variability in radio galaxies and its relation to flux and structural changes in the associated radio jet. The work described here included: 1) continued study of the emission properties of the FR I radio galaxy 3C 120 known to exhibit a jet/disk connection from our past work; and 2) the commencement of monitoring of a second radio galaxy, the FR I1 object 3C 111 which was selected because of similar radio and X-ray properties to 3C 120, including the presence of Fe K a emission. The association between X-ray dips and new superluminal components, suggesting a picture in which the radio jet is fed by accretion events near the black hole, was identified in 3C 120 using combined RXTE and radio flux monitoring data and bi-monthly to monthly imaging data from the VLBA at 43 GHz. Such data were also obtained for both targets during the period described here. Specific goals were to more broadly investigate the X-ray dip/superluminal connection in 3C 120, thereby determining the epochs of X-ray minima and superluminal ejections more accurately (and hence more precisely determining the distance between the accretion disk and the core of the radio jet), and to determine whether a similar pattern is present in the data for a second radio galaxy. In 3C 111 a different time scale (longer time delays between X-ray dips and superluminal ejections) was expected due to the higher black hole mass implied by its higher radio luminosity: no black hole mass is published for this object but one can be determined from a PDS analysis of the RXTE data. The addition of the second source to the study would identify whether a similar connection was present in other sources and, if found, would provide important information on how time scale (and hence size scale) of accretion disk/jet systems depends on black hole mass. The grant included funding for the reduction and analysis of data obtained during the time period of Rossi

  4. Evolutionary implications of C3 -C4 intermediates in the grass Alloteropsis semialata.

    PubMed

    Lundgren, Marjorie R; Christin, Pascal-Antoine; Escobar, Emmanuel Gonzalez; Ripley, Brad S; Besnard, Guillaume; Long, Christine M; Hattersley, Paul W; Ellis, Roger P; Leegood, Richard C; Osborne, Colin P

    2016-09-01

    C4 photosynthesis is a complex trait resulting from a series of anatomical and biochemical modifications to the ancestral C3 pathway. It is thought to evolve in a stepwise manner, creating intermediates with different combinations of C4 -like components. Determining the adaptive value of these components is key to understanding how C4 photosynthesis can gradually assemble through natural selection. Here, we decompose the photosynthetic phenotypes of numerous individuals of the grass Alloteropsis semialata, the only species known to include both C3 and C4 genotypes. Analyses of δ(13) C, physiology and leaf anatomy demonstrate for the first time the existence of physiological C3 -C4 intermediate individuals in the species. Based on previous phylogenetic analyses, the C3 -C4 individuals are not hybrids between the C3 and C4 genotypes analysed, but instead belong to a distinct genetic lineage, and might have given rise to C4 descendants. C3 A. semialata, present in colder climates, likely represents a reversal from a C3 -C4 intermediate state, indicating that, unlike C4 photosynthesis, evolution of the C3 -C4 phenotype is not irreversible. PMID:26524631

  5. Evolutionary implications of C3 -C4 intermediates in the grass Alloteropsis semialata.

    PubMed

    Lundgren, Marjorie R; Christin, Pascal-Antoine; Escobar, Emmanuel Gonzalez; Ripley, Brad S; Besnard, Guillaume; Long, Christine M; Hattersley, Paul W; Ellis, Roger P; Leegood, Richard C; Osborne, Colin P

    2016-09-01

    C4 photosynthesis is a complex trait resulting from a series of anatomical and biochemical modifications to the ancestral C3 pathway. It is thought to evolve in a stepwise manner, creating intermediates with different combinations of C4 -like components. Determining the adaptive value of these components is key to understanding how C4 photosynthesis can gradually assemble through natural selection. Here, we decompose the photosynthetic phenotypes of numerous individuals of the grass Alloteropsis semialata, the only species known to include both C3 and C4 genotypes. Analyses of δ(13) C, physiology and leaf anatomy demonstrate for the first time the existence of physiological C3 -C4 intermediate individuals in the species. Based on previous phylogenetic analyses, the C3 -C4 individuals are not hybrids between the C3 and C4 genotypes analysed, but instead belong to a distinct genetic lineage, and might have given rise to C4 descendants. C3 A. semialata, present in colder climates, likely represents a reversal from a C3 -C4 intermediate state, indicating that, unlike C4 photosynthesis, evolution of the C3 -C4 phenotype is not irreversible.

  6. 21 CFR 866.5260 - Complement C3b inactivator immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... immunochemical techniques the complement C3b inactivator (a plasma protein) in serum. Complement is a group of serum proteins that destroy infectious agents. Measurement of complement C3b inactivator aids in...

  7. 21 CFR 866.5260 - Complement C3b inactivator immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... immunochemical techniques the complement C3b inactivator (a plasma protein) in serum. Complement is a group of serum proteins that destroy infectious agents. Measurement of complement C3b inactivator aids in...

  8. 21 CFR 866.5260 - Complement C3b inactivator immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... immunochemical techniques the complement C3b inactivator (a plasma protein) in serum. Complement is a group of serum proteins that destroy infectious agents. Measurement of complement C3b inactivator aids in...

  9. 21 CFR 866.5260 - Complement C3b inactivator immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... immunochemical techniques the complement C3b inactivator (a plasma protein) in serum. Complement is a group of serum proteins that destroy infectious agents. Measurement of complement C3b inactivator aids in...

  10. The RICE MINUTE-LIKE1 (RML1) gene, encoding a ribosomal large subunit protein L3B, regulates leaf morphology and plant architecture in rice

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Ming; Wang, Yihua; Liu, Xi; Sun, Juan; Wang, Yunlong; Xu, Yang; Lv, Jia; Long, Wuhua; Zhu, Xiaopin; Guo, Xiuping; Jiang, Ling; Wang, Chunming; Wan, Jianmin

    2016-01-01

    Mutations of ribosomal proteins (RPs) are known to cause developmental abnormalities in yeast, mammals, and dicotyledonous plants; however, their effects have not been studied in rice. Here, we identifiy a ribosomal biogenesis mutant, rice minute-like1 (rml1) that displays a minute phenotype as evidenced by retarded growth and defects in the vascular system. We determine that RML1 encodes a ribosome large subunit protein 3B (RPL3B) in rice by means of map-based cloning and genetic complementation. RPL3B is abundantly expressed in all the tissues, whereas RPL3A, another RPL3 gene family member, is expressed at low levels. Notably, the expression level of RPL3A in the rml1 mutant is similar to that in the wild-type, suggesting that RPL3A provides no functional compensation for RPL3B in rml1 plants. Ribosomal profiles show that mutation of RPL3B leads to a significant reduction in free 60S ribosomal subunits and polysomes, indicating a ribosomal insufficiency in the rml1 mutant. Our results demonstrate that the ribosomal protein gene RPL3B is required for maintaining normal leaf morphology and plant architecture in rice through its regulation of ribosome biogenesis. PMID:27241493

  11. Fingersomatotopy in area 3b: an fMRI-study

    PubMed Central

    van Westen, Danielle; Fransson, Peter; Olsrud, Johan; Rosén, Birgitta; Lundborg, Göran; Larsson, Elna-Marie

    2004-01-01

    Background The primary sensory cortex (S1) in the postcentral gyrus is comprised of four areas that each contain a body map, where the representation of the hand is located with the thumb most laterally, anteriorly and inferiorly and the little finger most medially, posteriorly and superiorly. Previous studies on somatotopy using functional MRI have either used low field strength, have included a small number of subjects or failed to attribute activations to any area within S1. In the present study we included twenty subjects, who were investigated at 3 Tesla (T). We focused specifically on Brodmann area 3b, which neurons have discrete receptive fields with a potentially more clearcut somatotopic organisation. The spatial distribution for all fingers' peak activation was determined and group as well as individual analysis was performed. Results Activation maps from 18 subjects were of adequate quality; in 17 subjects activations were present for all fingers and these data were further analysed. In the group analysis the thumb was located most laterally, anteriorly and inferiorly with the other fingers sequentially positioned more medially, posteriorly and superiorly. At the individual level this somatotopic relationship was present for the thumb and little finger, with a higher variability for the fingers in between. The Euclidian distance between the first and fifth finger was 17.2 mm, between the first and second finger 10.6 mm and between the remaining fingers on average 6.3 mm. Conclusion Results from the group analysis, that is both the location of the fingers and the Euclidian distances, are well comparable to results from previous studies using a wide range of modalities. On the subject level the spatial localisation of the fingers showed a less stringent somatotopic order so that the location of a finger in a single subject cannot be predicted from the group result. PMID:15320953

  12. 18 CFR 3b.204 - Safeguarding information in manual and computer-based record systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... information in manual and computer-based record systems. 3b.204 Section 3b.204 Conservation of Power and Water... Collection of Records § 3b.204 Safeguarding information in manual and computer-based record systems. (a) The administrative and physical controls to protect the information in the manual and computer-based record...

  13. 18 CFR 3b.204 - Safeguarding information in manual and computer-based record systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... information in manual and computer-based record systems. 3b.204 Section 3b.204 Conservation of Power and Water... Collection of Records § 3b.204 Safeguarding information in manual and computer-based record systems. (a) The administrative and physical controls to protect the information in the manual and computer-based record...

  14. 18 CFR 3b.204 - Safeguarding information in manual and computer-based record systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... information in manual and computer-based record systems. 3b.204 Section 3b.204 Conservation of Power and Water... Collection of Records § 3b.204 Safeguarding information in manual and computer-based record systems. (a) The administrative and physical controls to protect the information in the manual and computer-based record...

  15. 18 CFR 3b.204 - Safeguarding information in manual and computer-based record systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... information in manual and computer-based record systems. 3b.204 Section 3b.204 Conservation of Power and Water... Collection of Records § 3b.204 Safeguarding information in manual and computer-based record systems. (a) The administrative and physical controls to protect the information in the manual and computer-based record...

  16. 18 CFR 3b.204 - Safeguarding information in manual and computer-based record systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... information in manual and computer-based record systems. 3b.204 Section 3b.204 Conservation of Power and Water... Collection of Records § 3b.204 Safeguarding information in manual and computer-based record systems. (a) The administrative and physical controls to protect the information in the manual and computer-based record...

  17. X-Ray Monitoring of 3C120

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Hugh

    The goal of this program is to characterize the variability at both X- ray and optical wavelengths simultaneously for the high luminosity, radio-loud AGN(RLAGN), 3C 120. The key question that is most central to the study of the variability of both RLAGN and radio-quiet AGN(RQAGN) is to identify a ''characteristic timescale", e.g. breaks (''knees") or spikes in the power density spectrum. There are now several RQAGN (e.g., NGC 3516 and Akn 120) for which characteristic timescales (i.e., knee frequencies) have been detected. However there is no RLAGN for which a knee frequency has been observed. The Seyfert-like RLAGN, 3C 120 offers a special opportunity for a possible first detection of a knee frequency in RLAGN.

  18. Extreme C-terminal sites are posttranslocationally glycosylated by the STT3B isoform of the OST.

    PubMed

    Shrimal, Shiteshu; Trueman, Steven F; Gilmore, Reid

    2013-04-01

    Metazoan organisms assemble two isoforms of the oligosaccharyltransferase (OST) that have different catalytic subunits (STT3A or STT3B) and partially nonoverlapping roles in asparagine-linked glycosylation. The STT3A isoform of the OST is primarily responsible for co-translational glycosylation of the nascent polypeptide as it enters the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum. The C-terminal 65-75 residues of a glycoprotein will not contact the translocation channel-associated STT3A isoform of the OST complex before chain termination. Biosynthetic pulse labeling of five human glycoproteins showed that extreme C-terminal glycosylation sites were modified by an STT3B-dependent posttranslocational mechanism. The boundary for STT3B-dependent glycosylation of C-terminal sites was determined to fall between 50 and 55 residues from the C terminus of a protein. C-terminal NXT sites were glycosylated more rapidly and efficiently than C-terminal NXS sites. Bioinformatics analysis of glycopeptide databases from metazoan organisms revealed a lower density of C-terminal acceptor sites in glycoproteins because of reduced positive selection of NXT sites and negative selection of NXS sites.

  19. DNMT3B isoforms without catalytic activity stimulate gene body methylation as accessory proteins in somatic cells.

    PubMed

    Duymich, Christopher E; Charlet, Jessica; Yang, Xiaojing; Jones, Peter A; Liang, Gangning

    2016-04-28

    Promoter DNA methylation is a key epigenetic mechanism for stable gene silencing, but is correlated with expression when located in gene bodies. Maintenance and de novo DNA methylation by catalytically active DNA methyltransferases (DNMT1 and DNMT3A/B) require accessory proteins such as UHRF1 and DNMT3L. DNMT3B isoforms are widely expressed, although some do not have active catalytic domains and their expression can be altered during cell development and tumourigenesis, questioning their biological roles. Here, we show that DNMT3B isoforms stimulate gene body methylation and re-methylation after methylation-inhibitor treatment. This occurs independently of the isoforms' catalytic activity, demonstrating a similar functional role to the accessory protein DNMT3L, which is only expressed in undifferentiated cells and recruits DNMT3A to initiate DNA methylation. This unexpected role for DNMT3B suggests that it might substitute for the absent accessory protein DNMT3L to recruit DNMT3A in somatic cells.

  20. The double-lobed blazar 3C 371

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wrobel, J. M.; Lind, K. R.

    1990-01-01

    High dynamic range VLA imaging reveals, for the first time, that the blazar 3C 371 exhibits very low surface brightness twin radio lobes. These lobes straddle the dominant compact core and have a projected extent of about 42/h kpc. A weak component located in the western lobe shares the morphology, size, and inferred magnetic field configuration of radio source hot spots. A continuous wiggling jet connects this hot spot with the compact core. Double lobes, hot spots, and one-sided jets are traits of extended, edge-brightened radio sources. The discovery of corresponding components in 3C 371's extended emission suggests that this emission is an edge-brightened double, viewed at a large enough angle to the line of sight that the radio lobes do not overlap. A moderate viewing angle is consistent with 3C 371's low bolometric luminosity for a blazar. The diffuse radio halo that surrounds the twin lobes may be related to the fat bridges or bridge distortions shown by edge-brightened doubles with similar radio powers.

  1. Voltammetry of Sc{sub 3}@C{sub 82}

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, M.R.; Dorn, H.C.; Stevenson, S.; Burbank, P.M.; Gibson, J.R.

    1997-01-15

    This paper describes the first electrochemical data for a polymetallic endohedral metallofullerene. The voltammetric behavior of Sc{sub 3}@C{sub 82} resembles that for La@C{sub 82} and Y@C{sub 82}, indicating that the identity of the metal does not influence dramatically the energies of the metallofullerene molecular orbitals. The three Sc atoms, however, transfer more electrons from the encapsulated metals to the cage than the monometallic counterparts, accounting for the differences in the voltammetry for Sc{sub 3}@C{sub 82}. The similarity of the voltammetry of Sc{sub 3}@C{sub 82} with that of the monometallic fullerenes suggests that Sc{sub 3}{sup +4}@C{sub 82}{sup 4-} may describe the formal charges on the Sc trimer and the C{sub 82} cage of these species. Metallofullerene electronic structure and physical properties should be better understood as more metallofullerenes become available for investigation. 31 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  2. AGN feedback on the ISM of 3C 236

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labiano, A.; García-Burillo, S.; Combes, F.; Usero, A.; Soria-Ruiz, R.; Tremblay, G.; Neri, R.; Fuente, A.; Morganti, R.; Oosterloo, T.

    2013-03-01

    We have carried out 1mm/3mm continuum and 12CO(2-1) line high resolution observations to identify the footprints of AGN feedback on 3C 236. The CO emission comes from a spatially resolved disk characterized by a regular rotating pattern. Within the limits imposed by the sensitivity and velocity coverage of our data, we do not detect any outflow signatures in the cold molecular gas. Re-inspection of optical and IR spectra, shows the presence of a previously unknown ionized gas outflow. The star-formation efficiency in 3C 236, is consistent with the value measured in normal galaxies, which follow the canonical Kennicutt-Schmidt law. This result, confirmed to hold in other young radio sources examined in this work, is in stark contrast with the factor of 10-50 lower SFE that has been claimed to characterize evolved powerful radio galaxies. The recent reactivation of the AGN in 3C 236 is a likely explanation for the early evolutionary status of its molecular disk.

  3. The milliarcsecond structure of 3C 273 at 22 GHz

    SciTech Connect

    Zensus, J.A.; Biretta, J.A.; Unwin, S.C.; Cohen, M.H. Owens Valley Radio Observatory, Pasadena, CA )

    1990-12-01

    The first VLBI images at 22 GHz of the jet in the quasar 3C 273 are presented. In addition to the compact core region, two emission regions can be identified with features seen at lower frequencies; they separate from the core with constant speeds of 0.65 + or - 0.09 and 0.92 + or - 0.11 mas/yr, corresponding to apparent superluminal motion of 4.3 + or - 0.3c and 6.1 + or - 0.3c (for Ho = 100 km/s Mpc, qo = 0.5). The core region brightened at about the estimated epoch of zero separation for the latest superluminal component, suggesting a causal relationship. The curved ridge line of the jet smoothly extends inward towards the core, although no pronounced bends in the range of core distance 0.5-2.5 mas are seen. No significant evidence is found against a common path of subsequent superluminal features. An apparent frequency dependence in the position of one superluminal feature tentatively suggests that opacity effects across the jet direction are present. The results are consistent with an interpretation of the superluminal features as shocks in an underlying relativistic flow, although alternative explanations cannot be ruled out. 43 refs.

  4. The Trails of Superluminal Jet Components in 3C 111

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kadler, M.; Ros, E.; Perucho, M.; Kovalev, Y. Y.; Homan, D. C.; Agudo, I.; Kellermann, K. I.; Aller, M. F.; Aller, H. D.; Lister, M. L.; Zensus, J. A.

    2007-01-01

    The parsec-scale radio jet of the broad-line radio galaxy 3C 111 has been monitored since 1995 as part of the 2cm Survey and MOJAVE monitoring observations conducted with the VLBA. Here, we present results from 18 epochs of VLBA observations of 3C 111 and from 18 years of radio flux density monitoring observations conducted at the University of Michigan. A major radio flux-density outburst of 3C 111 occurred in 1996 and was followed by a particularly bright plasma ejection associated with a superluminal jet component. This major event allows us to study a variety of processes associated with outbursts of radio-loud AGN in much greater detail than possible in other cases: the primary perturbation gives rise to the formation of a forward and a backward-shock, which both evolve in characteristically different ways and allow us to draw conclusions about the workflow of jet-production events; the expansion, acceleration and recollimation of the ejected jet plasma in an environment with steep pressure and density gradients are revealed; trailing components are formed in the wake of the primary perturbation as a result of Kelvin- Helmholtz instabilities from the interaction of the jet with the external medium. The jet-medium interaction is further scrutinized by the linear-polarization signature of jet components traveling along the jet and passing a region of steep pressure/density gradients.

  5. TEACHING HONORS ENGLISH 3A-3B, AND U.S. HISTORY AB--A PILOT PROJECT, WORKING DRAFT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pasadena City Unified School District, CA.

    AN ATTEMPT TO ENRICH THE CURRICULUM, TO INDIVIDUALIZE INSTRUCTION, AND TO INCREASE MOTIVATION IS PRESENTED. BOTH VERTICAL AND HORIZONTAL TYPES OF ENRICHMENT ARE APPLIED. TEACHERS OF ENGLISH AND U.S. HISTORY SHOULD STRESS CONCEPTS, MEANINGS, AND RELATIONSHIPS. THEY SHOULD ALSO INTRODUCE MORE INDEPENDENT STUDY AND HELP STUDENTS COMMUNICATE…

  6. 17 CFR 240.3b-16 - Definitions of terms used in Section 3(a)(1) of the Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... constitute, maintain, or provide “a market place or facilities for bringing together purchasers and sellers... of multiple buyers and sellers; and (2) Uses established, non-discretionary methods (whether by... buyers and sellers entering such orders agree to the terms of a trade. (b) An organization,...

  7. 17 CFR 240.3b-18 - Definitions of terms used in Section 3(a)(5) of the Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... the value of the obligations in a pool of obligations used to back the securities issued through a grantor trust or other separate entity. (d) The term obligation means any note, draft, acceptance, loan... evidenced by the loan documents of the bank or its affiliates, other than its broker or dealer...

  8. Phase change paint tests on Rockwell orbiter/tank and orbiter alone configurations (OH3A/OH3B)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quan, M.; Craig, C.

    1974-01-01

    Wind tunnel tests were conducted on scale models of the space shuttle orbiter and external tank. The tests were designed to determine the basic heating rate and interference effects on the orbiter-tank configuration and to analyze the effectiveness of the thermal protective system on the reentry vehicle. The phase change paint techniques were used to determine areodynamic heating rates. Oil flow and schlieren photographs were used for flow visualization.

  9. Cancer-associated SF3B1 mutations affect alternative splicing by promoting alternative branchpoint usage

    PubMed Central

    Alsafadi, Samar; Houy, Alexandre; Battistella, Aude; Popova, Tatiana; Wassef, Michel; Henry, Emilie; Tirode, Franck; Constantinou, Angelos; Piperno-Neumann, Sophie; Roman-Roman, Sergio; Dutertre, Martin; Stern, Marc-Henri

    2016-01-01

    Hotspot mutations in the spliceosome gene SF3B1 are reported in ∼20% of uveal melanomas. SF3B1 is involved in 3′-splice site (3′ss) recognition during RNA splicing; however, the molecular mechanisms of its mutation have remained unclear. Here we show, using RNA-Seq analyses of uveal melanoma, that the SF3B1R625/K666 mutation results in deregulated splicing at a subset of junctions, mostly by the use of alternative 3′ss. Modelling the differential junctions in SF3B1WT and SF3B1R625/K666 cell lines demonstrates that the deregulated splice pattern strictly depends on SF3B1 status and on the 3'ss-sequence context. SF3B1WT knockdown or overexpression do not reproduce the SF3B1R625/K666 splice pattern, qualifying SF3B1R625/K666 as change-of-function mutants. Mutagenesis of predicted branchpoints reveals that the SF3B1R625/K666-promoted splice pattern is a direct result of alternative branchpoint usage. Altogether, this study provides a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying splicing alterations induced by mutant SF3B1 in cancer, and reveals a role for alternative branchpoints in disease. PMID:26842708

  10. Classical NF-κB pathway is responsible for APOBEC3B expression in cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Maruyama, Wataru; Shirakawa, Kotaro; Matsui, Hiroyuki; Matsumoto, Tadahiko; Yamazaki, Hiroyuki; Sarca, Anamaria D; Kazuma, Yasuhiro; Kobayashi, Masayuki; Shindo, Keisuke; Takaori-Kondo, Akifumi

    2016-09-23

    APOBEC3B (A3B) is a DNA cytosine deaminase and catalyzes cytosine deamination, resulting in mutations in genomic DNA. A3B is aberrantly expressed in a variety of cancers and considered to be a source of genomic mutations that contribute to cancer progression and metastasis. However, the mechanisms through which A3B expression is dysregulated in cancer cells are not fully elucidated. Here we report that the classical NF-κB pathway plays a crucial role in the transcriptional regulation of A3B in various cancer cells, including lymphoid malignancies. PMA, a strong activator of PKC, induces A3B at both mRNA and protein levels in cancer cell lines, and specific inhibitors of both PKC and IKK downregulate A3B expression. Using luciferase reporter and EMSA assays, we identify 3 NF-κΒ binding sites in the A3B promoter and reveal that NF-κB p65/p50 and p65/c-Rel heterodimers are important for A3B transcription. These results suggest that the classical NF-κB pathway is responsible for activation of A3B mRNA expression and further imply that inhibition of PKC and IKK might augment cancer treatment by reducing cancer progression and metastasis through downregulation of A3B expression. PMID:27577680

  11. Deregulation of DNMT1, DNMT3B and miR-29s in Burkitt lymphoma suggests novel contribution for disease pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Robaina, Marcela C; Mazzoccoli, Luciano; Arruda, Viviane Oliveira; Reis, Flaviana Ruade de Souza; Apa, Alexandre Gustavo; de Rezende, Lidia Maria Magalhães; Klumb, Claudete Esteves

    2015-04-01

    Methylation of CpG islands in promoter gene regions is frequently observed in lymphomas. DNA methylation is established by DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs). DNMT1 maintains methylation patterns, while DNMT3A and DNMT3B are critical for de novo DNA methylation. Little is known about the expression of DNMTs in lymphomas. DNMT3A and 3B genes can be regulated post-transcriptionally by miR-29 family. Here, we demonstrated for the first time the overexpression of DNMT1 and DNMT3B in Burkitt lymphoma (BL) tumor samples (69% and 86%, respectively). Specifically, the treatment of two BL cell lines with the DNMT inhibitor 5-aza-dC decreased DNMT1 and DNMT3B protein levels and inhibited cell growth. Additionally, miR-29a, miR-29b and miR-29c levels were significantly decreased in the BL tumor samples. Besides, the ectopic expression of miR-29a, miR-29b and miR-29c reduced the DNMT3B expression and miR-29a and miR-29b lead to increase of p16(INK4a) mRNA expression. Altogether, our data suggest that deregulation of DNMT1, DNMT3B and miR29 may be involved in BL pathogenesis. PMID:25746661

  12. Assimilatory Sulfate Reduction in C3, C3-C4, and C4 Species of Flaveria1

    PubMed Central

    Koprivova, Anna; Melzer, Michael; von Ballmoos, Peter; Mandel, Therese; Brunold, Christian; Kopriva, Stanislav

    2001-01-01

    The activity of the enzymes catalyzing the first two steps of sulfate assimilation, ATP sulfurylase and adenosine 5′-phosphosulfate reductase (APR), are confined to bundle sheath cells in several C4 monocot species. With the aim to analyze the molecular basis of this distribution and to determine whether it was a prerequisite or a consequence of the C4 photosynthetic mechanism, we compared the intercellular distribution of the activity and the mRNA of APR in C3, C3-C4, C4-like, and C4 species of the dicot genus Flaveria. Measurements of APR activity, mRNA level, and protein accumulation in six Flaveria species revealed that APR activity, cysteine, and glutathione levels were significantly higher in C4-like and C4 species than in C3 and C3-C4 species. ATP sulfurylase and APR mRNA were present at comparable levels in both mesophyll and bundle sheath cells of C4 species Flaveria trinervia. Immunogold electron microscopy demonstrated the presence of APR protein in chloroplasts of both cell types. These findings, taken together with results from the literature, show that the localization of assimilatory sulfate reduction in the bundle sheath cells is not ubiquitous among C4 plants and therefore is neither a prerequisite nor a consequence of C4 photosynthesis. PMID:11598228

  13. Characterization of the Catalytic Domain of Human APOBEC3B and the Critical Structural Role for a Conserved Methionine.

    PubMed

    Siriwardena, Sachini U; Guruge, Thisari A; Bhagwat, Ashok S

    2015-09-25

    Human APOBEC3B deaminates cytosines in DNA and belongs to the AID/APOBEC family of enzymes. These proteins are involved in innate and adaptive immunity and may cause mutations in a variety of cancers. To characterize its ability to convert cytosines into uracils, we tested several derivatives of APOBEC3B gene for their ability to cause mutations in Escherichia coli. Through this analysis, a methionine residue at the junction of the amino-terminal domain (NTD) and the carboxy-terminal domain (CTD) was found to be essential for high mutagenicity. Properties of mutants with substitutions at this position, examination of existing molecular structures of APOBEC3 family members and molecular modeling suggest that this residue is essential for the structural stability of this family of proteins. The APOBEC3B CTD with the highest mutational activity was purified to homogeneity and its kinetic parameters were determined. Size-exclusion chromatography of the CTD monomer showed that it is in equilibrium with its dimeric form and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight analysis of the protein suggested that the dimer may be quite stable. The partially purified NTD did not show intrinsic deamination activity and did not enhance the activity of the CTD in biochemical assays. Finally, APOBEC3B was at least 10-fold less efficient at mutating 5-methylcytosine (5mC) to thymine than APOBEC3A in a genetic assay and was at least 10-fold less efficient at deaminating 5mC compared to C in biochemical assays. These results shed light on the structural organization of APOBEC3B catalytic domain, its substrate specificity and its possible role in causing genome-wide mutations.

  14. Synthesis of some new quinoxalines and 1,2,4-triazolo[4,3-a]-quinoxalines for evaluation of in vitro antitumor and antimicrobial activities.

    PubMed

    El-Hawash, Soad A M; Habib, Nargues S; Kassem, Mervat A

    2006-10-01

    Two novel series of quinoxalines derived from 3-phenylquinoxalin-2(1H)-one and 2-hydrazino-3-phenylquinoxaline, namely 1-substituted-3-phenylquinoxaline-2(1H)-ones, 2a-c, 3a-d, and 4; 2-(3-oxo-3,3a,4,5,6,7-hexahydroindazol-2-yl)-3-phenylquinoxaline 6; N- cyclopentylidene or benzylidene-N'-(3-phenylquinoxaline-2-yl)hydrazines, 7 and 18; 1-substituted-4-phenyl-1,2,4-triazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalines, 9, 10, 12, 13, 14, and 16 have been synthesized in order to evaluate their antitumor and antimicrobial activities. Preliminary screening at NCI showed that compounds 2b, 2c, 3b, 3c, and 9 exhibited a moderate to strong growth inhibition activity on various tumor panel cell lines between 10(-6) to 10(-5) molar concentrations. Compound 3b was the most active with a broad spectrum of activity. Compound 3c showed selectivity towards CNS-cancer SF-639, leukemia CCRF-CEM, and melanoma SK-MEL-5 (GI(50) = 4.03, 6.46, and 4.17 microM, respectively). On the other hand, the in vitro microbiological data revealed that the prepared compounds showed mild antimicrobial activity.

  15. The optical variability of the quasar 3C 446

    SciTech Connect

    Barbieri, C.; Vio, R.; Cappellaro, E; Turatto, M Padova Osservatorio Astronomico, Padua )

    1990-08-01

    The optical variability of the quasar 3C 446 is investigated using power spectrum and structure function analysis along with a new set of observations that extend the available data till 1989. No contradiction is found between the PS and SF analyses. The presence of the 1540-day periodicity is strengthened by the occurrence of the 1988 luminosity peak, suggesting that the next burst will occur in the northern spring of 1992. The time series of the quasar is nonstationary. The light variations are determined by a sequence of luminosity bursts, mostly regularly spaced in time and lasting up to 2 yr. 25 refs.

  16. SUZAKU OBSERVATION OF THE GIANT RADIO GALAXY 3C 326

    SciTech Connect

    Isobe, Naoki; Tashiro, Makoto S.; Seta, Hiromi; Gandhi, Poshak; Hayato, Asami; Nagai, Hiroshi; Hada, Kazuhiro; Matsuta, Keiko

    2009-11-20

    A Suzaku observation of a giant radio galaxy, 3C 326, which has a physical size of about 2 Mpc, was conducted on 2008 January 19-21. In addition to several X-ray sources, diffuse emission was significantly detected and associated with its west lobe, but the east lobe was contaminated by an unidentified X-ray source WARP J1552.4+2007. After careful evaluation of the X-ray and non-X-ray background, the 0.4-7 keV X-ray spectrum of the west lobe is described by a power-law model modified with the Galactic absorption. The photon index and 1 keV flux density were derived as GAMMA = 1.82{sup +0.26}{sub -0.24} +- 0.04 and S {sub X} = 19.4{sup +3.3}{sub -3.2} +- 3.0 nJy, respectively, where the first and second errors represent the statistical and systematic ones. The diffuse X-rays were attributed to be inverse Compton (IC) radiation by the synchrotron radio electrons scattering off the cosmic microwave background photons. This radio galaxy is the largest among those with lobes detected through IC X-ray emission. A comparison of the radio to X-ray fluxes yields the energy densities of electron and magnetic field as u{sub e} = (2.3 +- 0.3 +- 0.3) x 10{sup -13} erg cm{sup -3} and u{sub m} = (1.2{sup +0.2}{sub -0.1} +- 0.2) x 10{sup -14} erg cm{sup -3}, respectively. The galaxy is suggested to host a low-luminosity nucleus with an absorption-corrected 2-10 keV luminosity of <2 x 10{sup 42} erg s{sup -1}, together with a relatively weak radio core. The energetics in the west lobe of 3C 326 were compared with those of moderate radio galaxies with a size of approx100 kpc. The west lobe of 3C 326 is confirmed to agree with the correlations for the moderate radio galaxies, u{sub e} propor to D {sup -2.2+}-{sup 0.4} and u{sub m} propor to D {sup -2.4+}-{sup 0.4}, where D is their total physical size. This implies that the lobes of 3C 326 are still being energized by the jet, despite the current weakness of the nuclear activity.

  17. Degradation of the cancer genomic DNA deaminase APOBEC3B by SIV Vif.

    PubMed

    Land, Allison M; Wang, Jiayi; Law, Emily K; Aberle, Ryan; Kirmaier, Andrea; Krupp, Annabel; Johnson, Welkin E; Harris, Reuben S

    2015-11-24

    APOBEC3B is a newly identified source of mutation in many cancers, including breast, head/neck, lung, bladder, cervical, and ovarian. APOBEC3B is a member of the APOBEC3 family of enzymes that deaminate DNA cytosine to produce the pro-mutagenic lesion, uracil. Several APOBEC3 family members function to restrict virus replication. For instance, APOBEC3D, APOBEC3F, APOBEC3G, and APOBEC3H combine to restrict HIV-1 in human lymphocytes. HIV-1 counteracts these APOBEC3s with the viral protein Vif, which targets the relevant APOBEC3s for proteasomal degradation. While APOBEC3B does not restrict HIV-1 and is not targeted by HIV-1 Vif in CD4-positive T cells, we asked whether related lentiviral Vif proteins could degrade APOBEC3B. Interestingly, several SIV Vif proteins are capable of promoting APOBEC3B degradation, with SIVmac239 Vif proving the most potent. This likely occurs through the canonical polyubiquitination mechanism as APOBEC3B protein levels are restored by MG132 treatment and by altering a conserved E3 ligase-binding motif. We further show that SIVmac239 Vif can prevent APOBEC3B mediated geno/cytotoxicity and degrade endogenous APOBEC3B in several cancer cell lines. Our data indicate that the APOBEC3B degradation potential of SIV Vif is an effective tool for neutralizing the cancer genomic DNA deaminase APOBEC3B. Further optimization of this natural APOBEC3 antagonist may benefit cancer therapy.

  18. Genetic ablation of NMDA receptor subunit NR3B in mouse reveals motoneuronal and nonmotoneuronal phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Niemann, Stephan; Kanki, Hiroaki; Fukui, Yasuyuki; Takao, Keizo; Fukaya, Masahiro; Hynynen, Meri N; Churchill, Michael J; Shefner, Jeremy M; Bronson, Roderick T; Brown, Robert H; Watanabe, Masahiko; Miyakawa, Tsuyoshi; Itohara, Shigeyoshi; Hayashi, Yasunori

    2007-09-01

    NR3B is a modulatory subunit of the NMDA receptor, abundantly expressed in both cranial and spinal somatic motoneurons and at lower levels in other regions of the brain as well. Recently, we found the human NR3B gene (GRIN3B) to be highly genetically heterogeneous, and that approximately 10% of the normal European-American population lacks NR3B due to homozygous occurrence of a null allele in the gene. Therefore, it is especially important to understand the phenotypic consequences of the genetic loss of NR3B in both humans and animal models. We here provide results of behavioral analysis of mice genetically lacking NR3B, which is an ideal animal model due to homogeneity in genetic and environmental background. The NR3B(-/-) mice are viable and fertile. Consistent with the expression of NR3B in somatic motoneurons, the NR3B(-/-) mice showed a moderate but significant impairment in motor learning or coordination, and decreased activity in their home cages. Remarkably, the NR3B(-/-) mice showed a highly increased social interaction with their familiar cage mates in their home cage but moderately increased anxiety-like behaviour and decreased social interaction in a novel environment, consistent with the inhibitory role of NR3B on the functions of NMDA receptors. This work is the first reporting of the functional significance of NR3B in vivo and may give insight into the contribution of genetic variability of NR3B in the phenotypic heterogeneity among human population.

  19. Multiwavelength variability analysis of the FSRQ 3C 279

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patiño-Álvarez, V.; Chavushyan, V.; León-Tavares, J.; Carramiñana, A.; Carrasco, L.; Fernandes, S.; Schlegel, E. M.; López-Rodríguez, E.

    2015-03-01

    We present a multifrequency analysis of the variability in the flat-spectrum radio quasar 3C 279 from 2008 to 2014. Our multiwavelength dataset includes gamma-ray data from Fermi/LAT (Abdo et al. 2009), observations in 1mm from SMA (Gurwell et al. 2007), Near Infrared from OAGH (Carramiñana & Carrasco 2009) and SMARTS (Bonning et al. 2012); optical V band from the Steward Observatory (Smith et al. 2009) and SMARTS; optical spectra from OAGH (Patiño-Álvarez et al. 2013) and the Steward Observatory; and polarization spectra from the Steward Observatory. The light curves are shown in Fig. 1. Six out of seven optical activity periods identified within our dataset show clear counterparts in mm, NIR and gamma-rays, however, the late 2011 - early 2012 optical flare does not have a counterpart in the GeV regime. In this contribution, we discuss the flaring evolution of 3C 279 and speculate about the production of the anomalous activity period.

  20. Shocked Molecular Gas in the SNR 3C391

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bock, D. C.-J.; Wright, M. C. H.; Frail, D. A.; Gaensler, B. M.; Wilner, D. J.

    1999-05-01

    The discovery of OH (1720 MHz) masers in supernova remnants (SNRs) provides us with a convenient method for identifying promising candidates for studies of SNR/molecular cloud interactions. One remnant which is an ideal subject is 3C391. Here, single dish observations reveal a myriad of molecular lines from a giant shocked cloud at the blast-wave of the remnant. We present recent millimeter-wave observations of 3C391 with the Berkeley-Illinois-Maryland Association (BIMA) array. We have imaged the region towards the OH maser in HCN (J=1--0) and HCO+ (J=1--0) at a resolution of 4 arcsec. The morphology and brightness of the emission in HCO+ and HCN are similar; we resolve the shocked cloud seen by Frail and Mitchell (1998) into several clumps of characteristic size 10 arcsec. The maser is midway between two of these clumps, rather than being coincident with the peak column density. The clumps all have similar spectra with line-widths of ~ 30 km s(-1) , although there is evidence for a velocity gradient between the clumps. We examine the physical conditions of the shocked environment and discuss the relative abundances of the molecules. A companion study of the interaction between the SNR W51C and an associated molecular cloud is underway.

  1. Lymphoblastoid cell supernatants increase expression of C3b receptors on human polymorphonuclear leucocytes: direct binding studies with 125I-C3b.

    PubMed Central

    Berger, M; Cross, A S

    1984-01-01

    Human PMN incubated in culture supernatants of the Raji long-term human lymphoblastoid cell line showed increased rosette formation with sheep erythrocytes coated with C3b (EIgM C4b3b) but no change in rosette formation with IgG-coated erythrocytes. This suggested a specific increase in cell surface C3b receptors, which was further investigated using 125I-C3b for direct binding studies. The results confirmed that specific binding of 125I-C3b to PMN incubated in culture supernatants increased up to three- to four-fold over binding to PMN incubated in control media alone. Scatchard analysis revealed that the apparent Ka for supernatant-treated cells, 3.36 +/- 0.89 X 10(7) L/M did not differ from the Ka for cells incubated in control media, 3.76 +/- 0.75 X 10(7) L/M, suggesting an increase in a single class of C3b receptors. Kinetic studies revealed that the active factor was present within 24 hr of culture of the Raji cells, and that neutrophils incubated in culture supernatants increased their C3b receptors continuously for up to 4 hr, the longest interval tested. The effect of the culture supernatant was lost with dilution beyond eight- to 10-fold. The results suggest that culture supernatants of this long-term lymphoblastoid cell line contain soluble factors that induce increased expression of C3b receptors on PMN and may thus serve as a model for study of important physiologic effects of lymphocyte products on PMN in vivo. PMID:6230308

  2. Monitoring the Localization of MAP1LC3B by Indirect Immunofluorescence.

    PubMed

    Ktistakis, Nicholas T

    2015-08-01

    The autophagy protein MAP1LC3B (microtubule-associated proteins 1A/1B light chain 3B, hereafter referred to as LC3B), which is one of several mammalian homologs of yeast Atg8, is one of the most popular markers for autophagosome formation because its distribution changes from cytosolic/diffuse to punctate upon the induction of autophagy. In many settings, plasmids encoding fluorescently tagged LC3B are introduced into cells, and the subsequent autophagy response is monitored. However, for a variety of reasons, it would be desirable also to have a protocol to monitor the localization of endogenous LC3B under various conditions. This protocol provides such a methodology for the staining of endogenous LC3B by indirect immunofluorescence, such that autophagy responses can be monitored in mammalian cells. PMID:26240409

  3. 17 CFR 270.3c-4 - Definition of “common trust fund” as used in section 3(c)(3) of the Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definition of âcommon trust... 1940 § 270.3c-4 Definition of “common trust fund” as used in section 3(c)(3) of the Act. The term common trust fund as used in section 3(c)(3) of the Act (15 U.S.C. 80a-3(c)(3)) shall include a...

  4. Modeling SF3B1 Mutations in Cancer: Advances, Challenges, and Opportunities.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Daichi; Abdel-Wahab, Omar

    2016-09-12

    In this issue of Cancer Cell, Obeng et al. identify the consequences of expressing the most common mutation in the spliceosomal gene SF3B1 on hematopoiesis. The knockin mouse model described represents a valuable tool to dissect the effects of SF3B1 mutations on transformation, splicing, and less well-characterized functions of SF3B1. PMID:27622329

  5. 17 CFR 270.3c-3 - Definition of certain terms used in section 3(c)(1) of the Act with respect to certain debt...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... investment companies. 270.3c-3 Section 270.3c-3 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) RULES AND REGULATIONS, INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF 1940 § 270.3c-3 Definition of certain... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definition of certain...

  6. Revisiting Elliptical Satellite Orbits to Enhance the O3b Constellation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, L.; Lou, Yuxuan; Olusola, Opeoluwa

    Highly elliptical orbits can be used to provide targeted satellite coverage of locations at high latitudes. We review the history of use of these orbits for communication. How elliptical orbits can be used for broadband communication is outlined. We propose an addition of known elliptical orbits to the new equatorial O3b satellite constellation, extending O3b to cover high latitudes and the Earth's poles. We simulate the O3b constellation and compare this to recent measurement of the first real Internet traffic across the newly deployed O3b network.

  7. Development of potent inhibitors of the coxsackievirus 3C protease

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Eui Seung; Lee, Won Gil; Yun, Soo-Hyeon; Rho, Seong Hwan; Im, Isak; Yang, Sung Tae; Sellamuthu, Saravanan; Lee, Yong Jae; Kwon, Sun Jae; Park, Ohkmae K.; Jeon, Eun-Seok; Park, Woo Jin . E-mail: wjpark@gist.ac.kr; Kim, Yong-Chul . E-mail: yongchul@gist.ac.kr

    2007-06-22

    Coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) 3C protease (3CP) plays essential roles in the viral replication cycle, and therefore, provides an attractive therapeutic target for treatment of human diseases caused by CVB3 infection. CVB3 3CP and human rhinovirus (HRV) 3CP have a high degree of amino acid sequence similarity. Comparative modeling of these two 3CPs revealed one prominent distinction; an Asn residue delineating the S2' pocket in HRV 3CP is replaced by a Tyr residue in CVB3 3CP. AG7088, a potent inhibitor of HRV 3CP, was modified by substitution of the ethyl group at the P2' position with various hydrophobic aromatic rings that are predicted to interact preferentially with the Tyr residue in the S2' pocket of CVB3 3CP. The resulting derivatives showed dramatically increased inhibitory activities against CVB3 3CP. In addition, one of the derivatives effectively inhibited the CVB3 proliferation in vitro.

  8. Milliarcsecond polarization structure of the superluminal quasar 3C 273

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, David H.; Kollgaard, Ronald I.; Brown, Leslie F.; Gabuzda, Denise C.; Wardle, John F. C.

    1990-09-01

    A 2 x 10 marcsec-resolution determination is presented for the total intensity and linear polarization structures of the superluminal quasar 3C 273 at 5 GHz. Substantial polarized flux was detected from several superluminal components of the jet, whose fractional polarization increased symmetrically with distance from the core; the most distant component is highly polarized and exhibits a highly ordered magnetic field. Within a few marcsec of the core, the inferred magnetic field orientation varies rapidly with position along the jet. The primarily longitudinal magnetic field orientation is concluded to become established within 20 marcsec of the core. A highly disorganized magnetic field is the most plausible explanation for the low degree of polarization in the innermost regions of the jet.

  9. Trisodium citrate, Na3(C6H5O7)

    PubMed Central

    Rammohan, Alagappa; Kaduk, James A.

    2016-01-01

    The crystal structure of anhydrous tris­odium citrate, Na3(C6H5O7), has been solved and refined using synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction data, and optimized using density functional theory (DFT). There are two independent five-coordinate Na+ and one six-coordinate Na+ cations in the asymmetric unit. The [NaO5] and [NaO6] polyhedra share edges and corners to form a three-dimensional framework. There are channels parallel to the a and b axes in which the remainder of the citrate anions reside. The only hydrogen bonds are an intra­molecular one between the hy­droxy group and one of the terminal carboxyl­ate O atoms and an intermolecular one between a methylene group and the hydroxyl O atom. PMID:27308044

  10. Anisotropies in the HI gas distribution toward 3C 196

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalberla, P. M. W.; Kerp, J.

    2016-10-01

    Context. The local Galactic Hi gas was found to contain cold neutral medium (CNM) filaments that are aligned with polarized dust emission. These filaments appear to be dominated by the magnetic field and in this case turbulence is expected to show distinct anisotropies. Aims: We use the Galactic Effelsberg-Bonn Hi Survey (EBHIS) to derive 2D turbulence spectra for the Hi distribution in direction to 3C 196 and two more comparison fields. Methods: Prior to Fourier transform we apply a rotational symmetric 50% Tukey window to apodize the data. We derive average as well as position angle dependent power spectra. Anisotropies in the power distribution are defined as the ratio of the spectral power in orthogonal directions. Results: We find strong anisotropies. For a narrow range in position angle, in direction perpendicular to the filaments and the magnetic field, the spectral power is on average more than an order of magnitude larger than parallel. In the most extreme case the anisotropy reaches locally a factor of 130. Anisotropies increase on average with spatial frequency as predicted by Goldreich & Sridhar (1995, ApJ, 438, 763), at the same time the Kolmogorov spectral index remains almost unchanged. The strongest anisotropies are observable for a narrow range in velocity and decay with a power law index close to -8/3, almost identical to the average isotropic spectral index of -2.9 <γ< -2.6. Conclusions: Hi filaments, associated with linear polarization structures in LOFAR observations in direction to 3C 196, show turbulence spectra with marked anisotropies. Decaying anisotropies appear to indicate that we witness an ongoing shock passing the Hi and affecting the observed Faraday depth.

  11. Mutation Processes in 293-Based Clones Overexpressing the DNA Cytosine Deaminase APOBEC3B

    PubMed Central

    Quist, Jelmar S.; Temiz, Nuri A.; Tutt, Andrew N. J.; Grigoriadis, Anita; Harris, Reuben S.

    2016-01-01

    Molecular, cellular, and clinical studies have combined to demonstrate a contribution from the DNA cytosine deaminase APOBEC3B (A3B) to the overall mutation load in breast, head/neck, lung, bladder, cervical, ovarian, and other cancer types. However, the complete landscape of mutations attributable to this enzyme has yet to be determined in a controlled human cell system. We report a conditional and isogenic system for A3B induction, genomic DNA deamination, and mutagenesis. Human 293-derived cells were engineered to express doxycycline-inducible A3B-eGFP or eGFP constructs. Cells were subjected to 10 rounds of A3B-eGFP exposure that each caused 80–90% cell death. Control pools were subjected to parallel rounds of non-toxic eGFP exposure, and dilutions were done each round to mimic A3B-eGFP induced population fluctuations. Targeted sequencing of portions of TP53 and MYC demonstrated greater mutation accumulation in the A3B-eGFP exposed pools. Clones were generated and microarray analyses were used to identify those with the greatest number of SNP alterations for whole genome sequencing. A3B-eGFP exposed clones showed global increases in C-to-T transition mutations, enrichments for cytosine mutations within A3B-preferred trinucleotide motifs, and more copy number aberrations. Surprisingly, both control and A3B-eGFP clones also elicited strong mutator phenotypes characteristic of defective mismatch repair. Despite this additional mutational process, the 293-based system characterized here still yielded a genome-wide view of A3B-catalyzed mutagenesis in human cells and a system for additional studies on the compounded effects of simultaneous mutation mechanisms in cancer cells. PMID:27163364

  12. SF3B1 haploinsufficiency leads to formation of ring sideroblasts in myelodysplastic syndromes.

    PubMed

    Visconte, Valeria; Rogers, Heesun J; Singh, Jarnail; Barnard, John; Bupathi, Manoj; Traina, Fabiola; McMahon, James; Makishima, Hideki; Szpurka, Hadrian; Jankowska, Anna; Jerez, Andres; Sekeres, Mikkael A; Saunthararajah, Yogen; Advani, Anjali S; Copelan, Edward; Koseki, Haruhiko; Isono, Kyoichi; Padgett, Richard A; Osman, Sami; Koide, Kazunori; O'Keefe, Christine; Maciejewski, Jaroslaw P; Tiu, Ramon V

    2012-10-18

    Whole exome/genome sequencing has been fundamental in the identification of somatic mutations in the spliceosome machinery in myelodysplastic syndromes (MDSs) and other hematologic disorders. SF3B1, splicing factor 3b subunit 1 is mutated in 60%-80% of refractory anemia with ring sideroblasts (RARS) and RARS associated with thrombocytosis (RARS-T), 2 distinct subtypes of MDS and MDS/myeloproliferative neoplasms (MDSs/MPNs). An idiosyncratic feature of RARS/RARS-T is the presence of abnormal sideroblasts characterized by iron overload in the mitochondria, called RS. Based on the high frequency of mutations of SF3B1 in RARS/RARS-T, we investigated the consequences of SF3B1 alterations. Ultrastructurally, SF3B1 mutants showed altered iron distribution characterized by coarse iron deposits compared with wild-type RARS patients by transmission electron microscopy. SF3B1 knockdown experiments in K562 cells resulted in down-regulation of U2-type intron-splicing by RT-PCR. RNA-sequencing analysis of SF3B1 mutants showed differentially used genes relevant in MDS pathogenesis, such as ASXL1, CBL, EZH, and RUNX families. A SF3B pharmacologic inhibitor, meayamycin, induced the formation of RS in healthy BM cells. Further, BM aspirates of Sf3b1 heterozygous knockout mice showed RS by Prussian blue. In conclusion, we report the first experimental evidence of the association between SF3B1 and RS phenotype. Our data suggest that SF3B1 haploinsufficiency leads to RS formation.

  13. Mass spectral fragmentation patterns of some new benzo[b]thiophene- and thieno[2,3-b]thiophene-2,5-dicarbonyldichlorides and -dicarbonyldianilides and anilidoquinolones.

    PubMed

    Karminski-Zamola, G; Dogan, J; Boykin, D W; Bajić, M

    1995-01-01

    The electron impact mass spectra of some benzo[b]thiophene- and thieno[2,3-b]thiophene-2,5-dicarbonyldichlorides, 2,5-dicarbonyldianalides, 9-anilido-benzo[b]thienyl[2,3-c]quinolones and 9-anilidothieno[4,5-b']thienyl[2,3-c]quinolones are discussed. Dominant peaks in dianilides are formed by cleavage of the C-N bond on one side of the anilido group, as well as on the anilido group itself in anilidoquinolones. These ions fragment further by the cleavage of a C-C bond in dianilides and the CONRPh group is lost directly, while the quinolonic part of the molecule in quinolones fragments with low probability. Characteristic fragment ions of dicarbonyldichlorides arise by the cleavage of the C-C1 bond.

  14. Magnetic and Moessbauer studies on GdCo/sub 3/B/sub 2/ and DyCo/sub 3/B/sub 2/

    SciTech Connect

    Malik, S.K.; Umarji, A.M.; Shenoy, G.K.

    1984-10-01

    Magnetization and Moessbauer studies have been carried out on GdCo/sub 3/B/sub 2/ and DyCo/sub 3/B/sub 2/. These compounds are magnetically ordered with Curie temperatures of 56/sup 0/ and 21/sup 0/K respectively. The Co atoms are either nonmagnetic or carry a small moment in these compounds. The saturation moment of DyCo/sub 3/B/sub 2/ at 5/sup 0/K is smaller than the Dy/sup 3 +/ free-ion value. From /sup 161/Dy Moessbauer studies, the measured hyperfine magnetic field at the Dy site is also observed to be smaller than the free-ion value. /sup 155/Gd Moessbauer measurements in GdCo/sub 3/B/sub 2/ reveal the presence of large crystalline electric fields at the rare earth site. This causes the moment and the hyperfine field at the Dy site in DyCo/sub 3/B/sub 2/ to be reduced from its free-ion value.

  15. The Aligned z~1 Radio Galaxy 3C 280

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ridgway, Susan E.; Stockton, Alan; Lacy, Mark

    2004-01-01

    The z~1 radio galaxy 3C 280 has a particularly striking rest-frame UV morphology, with multiple line and continuum components precisely aligned with the radio structure, including an obvious semicircular arc. Here we explore the nature of these various components by bringing together Hubble Space Telescope and ground-based imaging, ground-based spectroscopy, and radio mapping. From plausible decompositions of the spectra, we show that the continuum of the nuclear component is likely dominated by a combination of nebular thermal continuum, quasar light, and light from old stars. A component that falls directly on the probable path of the radio jet shows mostly nebular thermal continuum and includes contributions from a relatively young stellar population with age around 100 Myr. The arc appears to be completely dominated by line emission and nebular thermal continuum, with no evidence for a significant stellar contribution. Although much of the aligned light is in UV components, the underlying old elliptical galaxy is also well aligned with the radio axis. The elliptical galaxy is well fitted by a de Vaucouleurs profile, probably has a moderately old stellar population (~3 Gyr), and is a massive system with a velocity dispersion of σ~270 km s-1 that implies that it contains a supermassive black hole. Although the arc and the extended emission surrounding the eastern lobe suggest that interactions between the radio lobe and jet must have been important in creating the UV morphology, the ionization and kinematic properties in these components are more consistent with photoionization than shock excitation. 3C 280 may be a transition object between the compact steep-spectrum radio galaxies, which seem to be shock-dominated, and the extended radio sources, which may have evolved past this phase and rarely show shock signatures. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the

  16. 18 CFR 3b.220 - Notification of maintenance of records to individuals concerned.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Notification of maintenance of records to individuals concerned. 3b.220 Section 3b.220 Conservation of Power and Water... which the individual should reasonably be expected to know, such as, but not limited to, date of...

  17. 18 CFR 3b.220 - Notification of maintenance of records to individuals concerned.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Notification of maintenance of records to individuals concerned. 3b.220 Section 3b.220 Conservation of Power and Water... which the individual should reasonably be expected to know, such as, but not limited to, date of...

  18. 18 CFR 3b.220 - Notification of maintenance of records to individuals concerned.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Notification of maintenance of records to individuals concerned. 3b.220 Section 3b.220 Conservation of Power and Water... which the individual should reasonably be expected to know, such as, but not limited to, date of...

  19. 18 CFR 3b.220 - Notification of maintenance of records to individuals concerned.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notification of maintenance of records to individuals concerned. 3b.220 Section 3b.220 Conservation of Power and Water... which the individual should reasonably be expected to know, such as, but not limited to, date of...

  20. 18 CFR 3b.220 - Notification of maintenance of records to individuals concerned.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Notification of maintenance of records to individuals concerned. 3b.220 Section 3b.220 Conservation of Power and Water... which the individual should reasonably be expected to know, such as, but not limited to, date of...

  1. 18 CFR 3b.221 - Access of records to individuals concerned.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Access of records to individuals concerned. 3b.221 Section 3b.221 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES COLLECTION, MAINTENANCE, USE, AND DISSEMINATION...

  2. 18 CFR 3b.202 - Collection of information from individuals concerned.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Collection of information from individuals concerned. 3b.202 Section 3b.202 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES COLLECTION, MAINTENANCE, USE,...

  3. 18 CFR 3b.221 - Access of records to individuals concerned.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Access of records to individuals concerned. 3b.221 Section 3b.221 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES COLLECTION, MAINTENANCE, USE, AND DISSEMINATION...

  4. 18 CFR 3b.202 - Collection of information from individuals concerned.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Collection of information from individuals concerned. 3b.202 Section 3b.202 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES COLLECTION, MAINTENANCE, USE,...

  5. 18 CFR 3b.224 - Requests to amend records and disputes thereon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Requests to amend records and disputes thereon. 3b.224 Section 3b.224 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES COLLECTION, MAINTENANCE, USE,...

  6. 18 CFR 3b.221 - Access of records to individuals concerned.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Access of records to individuals concerned. 3b.221 Section 3b.221 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES COLLECTION, MAINTENANCE, USE, AND DISSEMINATION...

  7. 18 CFR 3b.221 - Access of records to individuals concerned.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Access of records to individuals concerned. 3b.221 Section 3b.221 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES COLLECTION, MAINTENANCE, USE, AND DISSEMINATION...

  8. 18 CFR 3b.224 - Requests to amend records and disputes thereon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Requests to amend records and disputes thereon. 3b.224 Section 3b.224 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES COLLECTION, MAINTENANCE, USE,...

  9. 18 CFR 3b.224 - Requests to amend records and disputes thereon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Requests to amend records and disputes thereon. 3b.224 Section 3b.224 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES COLLECTION, MAINTENANCE, USE,...

  10. 18 CFR 3b.202 - Collection of information from individuals concerned.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Collection of information from individuals concerned. 3b.202 Section 3b.202 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES COLLECTION, MAINTENANCE, USE,...

  11. 18 CFR 3b.224 - Requests to amend records and disputes thereon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Requests to amend records and disputes thereon. 3b.224 Section 3b.224 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES COLLECTION, MAINTENANCE, USE,...

  12. 18 CFR 3b.224 - Requests to amend records and disputes thereon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Requests to amend records and disputes thereon. 3b.224 Section 3b.224 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES COLLECTION, MAINTENANCE, USE,...

  13. 18 CFR 3b.202 - Collection of information from individuals concerned.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Collection of information from individuals concerned. 3b.202 Section 3b.202 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES COLLECTION, MAINTENANCE, USE,...

  14. 21 CFR 866.5260 - Complement C3b inactivator immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunological Test Systems § 866.5260 Complement C3b inactivator immunological test system. (a) Identification. A complement... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Complement C3b inactivator immunological...

  15. APOBEC3B-Mediated Cytidine Deamination Is Required for Estrogen Receptor Action in Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Periyasamy, Manikandan; Patel, Hetal; Lai, Chun-Fui; Nguyen, Van T.M.; Nevedomskaya, Ekaterina; Harrod, Alison; Russell, Roslin; Remenyi, Judit; Ochocka, Anna Maria; Thomas, Ross S.; Fuller-Pace, Frances; Győrffy, Balázs; Caldas, Carlos; Navaratnam, Naveenan; Carroll, Jason S.; Zwart, Wilbert; Coombes, R. Charles; Magnani, Luca; Buluwela, Laki; Ali, Simak

    2015-01-01

    Summary Estrogen receptor α (ERα) is the key transcriptional driver in a large proportion of breast cancers. We report that APOBEC3B (A3B) is required for regulation of gene expression by ER and acts by causing C-to-U deamination at ER binding regions. We show that these C-to-U changes lead to the generation of DNA strand breaks through activation of base excision repair (BER) and to repair by non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) pathways. We provide evidence that transient cytidine deamination by A3B aids chromatin modification and remodelling at the regulatory regions of ER target genes that promotes their expression. A3B expression is associated with poor patient survival in ER+ breast cancer, reinforcing the physiological significance of A3B for ER action. PMID:26411678

  16. Degradation of the cancer genomic DNA deaminase APOBEC3B by SIV Vif

    PubMed Central

    Land, Allison M.; Wang, Jiayi; Law, Emily K.; Aberle, Ryan; Kirmaier, Andrea; Krupp, Annabel; Johnson, Welkin E.; Harris, Reuben S.

    2015-01-01

    APOBEC3B is a newly identified source of mutation in many cancers, including breast, head/neck, lung, bladder, cervical, and ovarian. APOBEC3B is a member of the APOBEC3 family of enzymes that deaminate DNA cytosine to produce the pro-mutagenic lesion, uracil. Several APOBEC3 family members function to restrict virus replication. For instance, APOBEC3D, APOBEC3F, APOBEC3G, and APOBEC3H combine to restrict HIV-1 in human lymphocytes. HIV-1 counteracts these APOBEC3s with the viral protein Vif, which targets the relevant APOBEC3s for proteasomal degradation. While APOBEC3B does not restrict HIV-1 and is not targeted by HIV-1 Vif in CD4-positive T cells, we asked whether related lentiviral Vif proteins could degrade APOBEC3B. Interestingly, several SIV Vif proteins are capable of promoting APOBEC3B degradation, with SIVmac239 Vif proving the most potent. This likely occurs through the canonical polyubiquitination mechanism as APOBEC3B protein levels are restored by MG132 treatment and by altering a conserved E3 ligase-binding motif. We further show that SIVmac239 Vif can prevent APOBEC3B mediated geno/cytotoxicity and degrade endogenous APOBEC3B in several cancer cell lines. Our data indicate that the APOBEC3B degradation potential of SIV Vif is an effective tool for neutralizing the cancer genomic DNA deaminase APOBEC3B. Further optimization of this natural APOBEC3 antagonist may benefit cancer therapy. PMID:26544511

  17. Variation in the FcgammaR3B gene among distinct Brazilian populations.

    PubMed

    Covas, D T; Kashima, S; Guerreiro, J F; dos Santos, S E B; Zago, M A

    2005-02-01

    The FCGR3B gene codes for the FcgammaR3b receptor, which occurs in three polymorphic forms representing the human neutrophil antigens (HNA)-1a, HNA-1b, and HNA-1c. The alleles that code for these antigens are FCGR3B*1, FCGR3B*2, and FCGR3B*3, respectively. New variants of these alleles have been recently described. In order to study the frequency of these alleles and the occurrence of variant forms, we sequenced part of the FCGR3B gene in 149 individuals belonging to four distinct Brazilian populations, i.e., 60 Amerindians, 30 Whites of European descent, 30 Afro-Brazilians, and 30 Japanese. The FCGR3B*1 allele showed high frequency among Amerindians (0.850), with the value detected representing the highest frequency described thus far for this allele in population studies. Its frequency was 0.660 in the Japanese population studied, a value equal to that observed in Afro-Brazilians (0.600) and higher than that observed in Whites (0.480). The FCGR3B*3 allele was only found among Afro-Brazilians, where it occurred at a frequency of 0.080, which was lower than the frequency observed among Afro-North Americans (0.207) and Ugandans (0.166). Two variant haplotypes were detected among Amerindians and Afro-Brazilians, occurring in six individuals (four Amerindians and two Afro-Brazilians). The variant haplotype FCGR3B*1 A227G, which occurred in homozygosis in two Amerindians and in heterozygosis in two Afro-Brazilians, is described for the first time in the present report. In general, these data reveal variability in the frequency of alleles of the FCGR3B gene compared to other populations of the same genetic background in other regions of the world.

  18. Observations of Titan 3C-4 Transtage Fragmentation Debris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cowardin, Heather; Seitzer, P.; Abercromby, K.; Barker, E.; Cardona, T.; Krisko, P.; Lederer, S.

    2013-01-01

    The fragmentation of a Titan 3C-4 Transtage (1968-081) on 21 February 1992 is one of only two known break-ups in or near geosynchronous orbit. The original rocket body and 24 pieces of debris are currently being tracked by the US Space Surveillance Network (SSN). The rocket body (SSN# 3432) and several of the original fragments (SSN# 25000, 25001, 30000, and 33511) were observed in survey mode during 2004-2010 using the 0.6-m Michigan Orbital DEbris Survey Telescope (MODEST) in Chile using a broad R filter. This paper will present a size distribution for all calibrated magnitude data acquired on MODEST. Size distribution plots will also be shown using historical models for small fragmentation debris (down to 10 cm) believed to be associated with the Titan break-up. In November 2010, visible broadband photometry (Johnson/Kron-Cousins BVRI) was acquired with the 0.9-m Small and Moderate Aperture Research Telescope System (SMARTS) at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO) in Chile on several Titan fragments (SSN# 25001, 33509, 33510) and the parent rocket body. Color index data will be used to determine the fragment brightness distribution and how the data compares to spacecraft materials measured in the laboratory using similar photometric measurement techniques. In 2012, the SSN added 16 additional fragments to the catalogue. MODEST acquired magnitude data on ten Titan fragments in late 2012 and early 2013. The magnitude distribution of all the observed fragments are analyzed as a function of time. In order to better characterize the breakup fragments spectral measurements were acquired on the original rocket body and five Titan fragments using the 6.5-m Magellan telescopes at Las Campanas Observatory in Chile. The telescopic spectra are compared with laboratory acquired spectra of materials (e.g., Aluminum and various paints) and categorized based on known absorption features for spacecraft materials.

  19. Multispectral Imaging of the Jet in 3C346

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, E. P.; Gardner, J. P.; Heap, S. R.; Baum, S. A.; O'Dea, C. P.

    1998-12-01

    Much progress has been made towards understanding the physics of extra-galactic jet flow in the past 10 years, through numerical modeling and detailed multi-frequency radio mapping. However, we still admit that basic parameters such as the magnetic field strength, the particle density, the bulk Lorentz factor and jet configuration (e.g., fast inner jet and slower outer sheath), and the nature and need for shocks remain unknown. However, by resolving the jets spectrally and spatially and pushing the observations to the higher energies with sufficient spatial resolution to resolve the cooling scale lengths, we can place unique constraints on the physical composition of, and acceleration mechanisms in, extra-galactic jets. The tightest constraints on the physics of jets come not from radio observations, but from observations in the optical, UV, and x-ray, where the lifetimes of the synchrotron emitting particles are measured in hundreds of years and the particles travel distances of hundreds of parsecs. To this end, we present radio through vacuum ultraviolet (STIS FUV-MAMA) spatially resolved images of the radio jet in 3C346 and use them examine the spatial variation of the spectral indices. Because the lifetime of the synchrotron radiating particles is inversely proportional to the observed frequency we can use the vastly different timescales (and therefore length scales) over which the radio (t ~ 10(5-7) yr.) and ultraviolet (t ~ 10(2-3) yr.) emitting particles cool to begin to place constraints on the magnetic field strengths. Also, the curvature of the spectrum as a function of position can be compared with aging models to constrain the magnetic field strength and to test the hypothesis that the magnetic field in radio jets may be substantially below equipartition (Heinz and Begelman 1997).

  20. Multiwavelength Observations of 3C66A in 2003

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boettcher, M.; Joshi, M.; Fossati, G.; Smith, I. A.; Mukherjee, R.; Bramel, D.; Cui, W.; WEBT Collaboration

    2004-08-01

    The radio-selected BL Lac object 3C66A was the target of an intensive multiwavelength observing campaign in the last quarter of 2003 and early 2004. It was monitored by the Whole Earth Blazar Telescope (WEBT) collaboration of optical observers, in tandem with 20 X-ray monitoring observations by the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer (RXTE), VHE gamma-ray observations by STACEE and VERITAS, and long-term monitoring at radio frequencies. In addition, 9 high-spatial-resolution observations using the VLA are being carried out during the campaign and throughout the year 2004 to follow possible structural changes of the source. A gradual brightening of the source over the course of the campaign was observed at all optical frequencies, culminating in a very bright flare at the end of January 2004. Optical light curves indicate intraday microvariability on time scales down to about 1.3 hours. No significant color-magnitude correlation for the entire data set was evident, but there is a slight indication of a hardness - intensity anti-correlation on intraday time scales. The X-ray spectrum is consistent with a power-law with a photon spectral index of ˜ 2.1, indicating that the RXTE energy band might be located right at the intersection of the synchrotron and the high-energy emission components of the broadband spectral energy distribution. No significant flux or spectral variability at X-ray energies was detected. We extracted snapshot spectral energy distributions at various times throughout the campaign, and present first spectral fits to those SEDs. This work was partially supported by NASA RXTE GO grant no. NNG 04GB13G.

  1. The PKC-NFκB Signaling Pathway Induces APOBEC3B Expression in Multiple Human Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Leonard, Brandon; McCann, Jennifer L.; Starrett, Gabriel J.; Kosyakovsky, Leah; Luengas, Elizabeth M.; Molan, Amy M.; Burns, Michael B.; McDougle, Rebecca M.; Parker, Peter J.; Brown, William L.; Harris, Reuben S.

    2015-01-01

    Overexpression of the antiviral DNA cytosine deaminase APOBEC3B has been linked to somatic mutagenesis in many cancers. HPV infection accounts for APOBEC3B upregulation in cervical and head/neck cancers, but the mechanisms underlying non-viral malignancies are unclear. In this study, we investigated the signal transduction pathways responsible for APOBEC3B upregulation. Activation of protein kinase C (PKC) by the diacylglycerol (DAG) mimic phorbol-myristic acid (PMA) resulted in specific and dose-responsive increases in APOBEC3B expression and activity, which could then be strongly suppressed by PKC or NFκB inhibition. PKC activation caused the recruitment of RELB, but not RELA, to the APOBEC3B promoter implicating non-canonical NFκB signaling. Notably, PKC was required for APOBEC3B upregulation in cancer cell lines derived from multiple tumor types. By revealing how APOBEC3B is upregulated in many cancers, our findings suggest that PKC and NFκB inhibitors may be repositioned to suppress cancer mutagenesis, dampen tumor evolution, and decrease the probability of adverse outcomes such as drug resistance and metastases. PMID:26420215

  2. Role of Arabidopsis RabG3b and autophagy in tracheary element differentiation.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Soon Il; Cho, Hong Joo; Park, Ohkmae K

    2010-11-01

    The vascular system of plants consists of two conducting tissues, xylem and phloem, which differentiate from procambium cells. Xylem serves as a transporting system for water and signaling molecules and is formed by sequential developmental processes, including cell division/expansion, secondary cell wall deposition, vacuole collapse and programmed cell death (PCD). PCD during xylem differentiation is accomplished by degradation of cytoplasmic constituents, and it is required for the formation of hollow vessels, known as tracheary elements (TEs). Our recent study revealed that the small GTPase RabG3b acts as a regulator of TE differentiation through its autophagic activation. By using an Arabidopsis in vitro cell culture system, we showed that autophagy is activated during TE differentiation. Overexpression of a constitutively active RabG3b (RabG3bCA) significantly enhances both autophagy and TE differentiation, which are consistently suppressed in transgenic plants overexpressing a dominant negative form (RabG3bDN) or RabG3b RNAi (RabG3bRNAi), a brassinosteroid-insensitive mutant bri1-301 and an autophagy mutant atg5-1. On the basis of our results, we propose that RabG3b functions as a component of autophagy and regulates TE differentiation by activating the process of PCD.

  3. Assay Development for the Discovery of Semaphorin 3B Inducing Agents from Natural Product Sources

    PubMed Central

    Yong, Yeonjoong; Pan, Li; Ren, Yulin; Fatima, Nighat; Ahmed, Safia; Chang, Leng Chee; Zhang, Xiaoli; Kinghorn, A. Douglas; Swanson, Steven M.; Carcache de Blanco, Esperanza J.

    2014-01-01

    Semaphorins are a class of membrane-bound and secreted proteins. They have been found to regulate basic cell functions such as axonal growth cone guidance and recent studies have focused on their effect on tumor progression. Semaphorin 3B (Sema 3B) particularly is a secreted protein that has been known to modulate proliferation and apoptosis, processes that are critical for tumor progression and development. In spite of its importance, there is yet no high-throughput screening assay available to detect or quantify the expression of Sema 3B for natural product anticancer drug discovery purposes. Therefore, the development of a new high-throughput bioassay for the discovery of Sema 3B inducing agents from natural product sources is described herein. A wide variety of pure compounds and extracts from plants and microorganisms has been found suitable for screening using this Sema 3B assay to detect and quantify the effect of Sema 3B inducing agents and thereby identify new selective bioactive Sema 3B lead compounds for anticancer drug discovery and development. Also, this new bioassay procedure is based on a high-throughput platform using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay that involves the optimization of sensitivity and selectivity levels as well as accuracy, reproducibility, robustness, and cost effectiveness. PMID:25016954

  4. DNA methyltransferase 3B (DNMT3B -579G>T) promotor polymorphism and the susceptibility to pediatric immune thrombocytopenic purpura in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Khorshied, Mervat Mamdooh; El-Ghamrawy, Mona Kamal

    2012-12-10

    Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) is an autoimmune disease characterized by increased platelet destruction. Although the etiology of ITP remains unclear, it is accepted that both environmental and genetic factors play an important role in the development of the disease. The present study aimed at exploring a novel molecular determinant that may influence the susceptibility and course of ITP in Egyptian children. To achieve our aim, genotyping of DNMT3B -579G>T promotor polymorphism by polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) assay. The current study was conducted on 140 ITP patients and 150 age and gender matched healthy controls. The results obtained revealed that DNMT3B -579 TT homotype was significantly higher in ITP patients and conferred almost three fold increased risk of ITP (OR=3.16, 95%CI=1.73-5.79). There was no statistically significant difference between ITP patients with wild or mutant genotypes as regards their clinical or laboratory data. Furthermore, there was no statistical difference in the distribution of DNMT3B -579G>T genotypes between acute and chronic ITP patients. In conclusion, DNMT3B -579G>T promotor polymorphism represents a novel genetic risk factor for ITP but not a predictor for tendency to chronicity in pediatric ITP in Egypt.

  5. Synthesis, characterization, and crystal structure of a new trisodium triborate, Na(3)[B(3)O(4)(OH)(4)].

    PubMed

    Andrieux, Jérôme; Goutaudier, Christelle; Laversenne, Laetitia; Jeanneau, Erwann; Miele, Philippe

    2010-06-01

    The preparation of a new trisodium triborate, Na(3)[B(3)O(4)(OH)(4)], and its complete characterization in terms of molecular structure and thermal behavior are reported. Synthesis of this compound was achieved either by NaBH(4) hydrolysis or by thermal treatment of Na[B(OH)(4)].2H(2)O. The crystal structure was determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The trisodium triborate crystallized in the monoclinic system (a = 12.8274(6) A, b = 7.7276(4) A, c = 6.9690(3) A, and beta = 98.161(3) degrees ), space group Cc, Z = 2. The structure of Na(3)[B(3)O(4)(OH)(4)] comprised [B(3)O(4)(OH)(4)](3-) polyanions, based on B-O-containing rings with two tetracoordinated boron atoms and one tricoordinated boron atom in the fragments BO(2)(OH)(2) and BO(3), respectively. These polyanions are interconnected by four intermolecular hydrogen bonds and presented a tilt of 10.470(4) degrees compared to the a axis. Thus, they are stacked by rotation of about 180 degrees around an axis defined by the three-coordinated boron atoms and parallel to the c axis. Such polyanions were only observed previously in two synthetic compounds, M(3)[B(3)O(4)(OH)(4)].2H(2)O with M = K and Rb, which were isostructural. The originality of the present work was the synthesis and the description of a different crystallographic structure containing this polyanion. Characteristic peaks ranging from 500 to 1500 cm(-1) and around 3300 cm(-1) highlighted the presence of the B-O rings and hydroxyl groups, respectively. The decomposition temperature T = 155 degrees C was obtained by thermogravimetric analysis, and the following equivalent formula in terms of hydration degree was proposed: NaBO(2).(2)/(3)H(2)O. Na(3)[B(3)O(4)(OH)(4)] decomposed into Na(3)[B(3)O(5)(OH)(2)] in equilibrium with its vapor. PMID:20450165

  6. Methyl 6-eth-oxy-3-phenyl-3a,4-dihydro-3H-chromeno[4,3-c]isoxazole-3a-car-boxylate.

    PubMed

    Suresh, G; Srinivasan, J; Bakthadoss, M; Aravindhan, S

    2013-02-01

    In the title compound, C(20)H(19)NO(5), the dihedral angle between the mean plane of the pyran ring (which has a half-chair conformation) and the benzene ring of the chromeno ring system is 7.21 (7)°. The dihedral angle between the mean plane of the chromeno ring system and the isoxazole ring is 21.78 (6)°, while the isoxazole ring forms a dihedral angle of 72.60 (8)° with the attached phenyl ring. In the crystal, mol-ecules are linked via pairs of C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming inversion dimers with an R(2) (2)(10) ring motif. These dimers are linked via C-H⋯N hydrogen bonds, forming chains along [001].

  7. Simultaneous Multiwavelength Monitoring of 3C66A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boettcher, M.

    2004-01-01

    The radio-selected BL Lac object 3C66A was the target of an intensive multiwavelength campaign from Sept. 2003 through Feb. 2004. It was monitored by the Whole Earth Blazar Telescope (WEBT) collaboration, in tandem with 20 X-ray monitoring observations by the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer (RXTE), VHE gamma-ray observations by STACEE and VERITAS, and long-term monitoring at radio frequencies. In addition. 9 observations using the VLBA are being carried out during the campaign and throughout the year 2004 to follow possible structural changes of the source. 21 pointings with RXTE during the period Sept. 15 - Dec. 27, 2003. All collected data have been fully analyzed, and first results have already been published at the 8th HEAD Meeting in New Orleans, LA, in Sept. 2004, and will also be presented at the 205th AAS Meeting in San Diego, CA, in Jan. 2005. A first Journal paper, to be submitted to the Astrophysical Journal, is currently in preparation, and we plan to have it ready for submission in January 2005. A gradual brightening of the source over the course of the campaign was observed at all optical frequencies, culminating in a very bright flare at the end of January 2004. Optical light curves indicate intraday microvariability on time scales down to about 1.3 hours. No significant color-magnitude correlation for the entire data set was evident, but there is a slight indication of a gradual spectral softening in the optical over the entire duration of multi-day outbursts (in both the rising and decaying phase). The X-ray spectrum is consistent with a power-law with a photon spectral index of approx. 2.1, indicating that the RXTE energy band might be located right at the intersection of the synchrotron and the high-energy emission components. No significant flux or spectral variability at X-ray energies was detected, though there seems to be a trend of very modest brightening in tandem with the optical flux. The first 4 VLBA epochs indicate a rather smooth jet with

  8. Rab3A deletion selectively reduces spontaneous neurotransmitter release at the mouse neuromuscular synapse.

    PubMed

    Sons, Michèle S; Plomp, Jaap J

    2006-05-17

    Rab3A is a synaptic vesicle-associated GTP-binding protein thought to be involved in modulation of presynaptic transmitter release through regulation of vesicle trafficking and membrane fusion. Electrophysiological studies at central nervous system synapses of Rab3A null-mutant mice have indicated that nerve stimulation-evoked transmitter release and its short- and long-term modulation are partly dependent on Rab3A, whereas spontaneous uniquantal release is completely independent of it. Here, we studied the acetylcholine (ACh) release at the neuromuscular junction (NMJ) of diaphragm and soleus muscles from Rab3A-deficient mice with intracellular microelectrode methods. Surprisingly, we found 20-40% reduction of spontaneous ACh release but completely intact nerve action potential-evoked release at both high- and low-rate stimulation and during recovery from intense release. The ACh release induced by hypertonic medium was also unchanged, indicating that the pool of vesicles for immediate release is unaltered at the Rab3A-deficient NMJ. These results indicate a selective role of Rab3A in spontaneous transmitter release at the NMJ which cannot or only partly be taken over by the closely related Rab3B, Rab3C, or Rab3D isoforms when Rab3A is deleted. It has been hypothesized that Rab3A mutation underlies human presynaptic myasthenic syndromes, in which severely reduced nerve action potential-evoked ACh release at the NMJ causes paralysis. Our observation that Rab3A deletion does not reduce evoked ACh release at any stimulation rate at the mouse NMJ, argues against this hypothesis. PMID:16631140

  9. The DNA cytosine deaminase APOBEC3B promotes tamoxifen resistance in ER-positive breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Law, Emily K.; Sieuwerts, Anieta M.; LaPara, Kelly; Leonard, Brandon; Starrett, Gabriel J.; Molan, Amy M.; Temiz, Nuri A.; Vogel, Rachel Isaksson; Meijer-van Gelder, Marion E.; Sweep, Fred C. G. J.; Span, Paul N.; Foekens, John A.; Martens, John W. M.; Yee, Douglas; Harris, Reuben S.

    2016-01-01

    Breast tumors often display extreme genetic heterogeneity characterized by hundreds of gross chromosomal aberrations and tens of thousands of somatic mutations. Tumor evolution is thought to be ongoing and driven by multiple mutagenic processes. A major outstanding question is whether primary tumors have preexisting mutations for therapy resistance or whether additional DNA damage and mutagenesis are necessary. Drug resistance is a key measure of tumor evolvability. If a resistance mutation preexists at the time of primary tumor presentation, then the intended therapy is likely to fail. However, if resistance does not preexist, then ongoing mutational processes still have the potential to undermine therapeutic efficacy. The antiviral enzyme APOBEC3B (apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme, catalytic polypeptide-like 3B) preferentially deaminates DNA C-to-U, which results in signature C-to-T and C-to-G mutations commonly observed in breast tumors. We use clinical data and xenograft experiments to ask whether APOBEC3B contributes to ongoing breast tumor evolution and resistance to the selective estrogen receptor modulator, tamoxifen. First, APOBEC3B levels in primary estrogen receptor–positive (ER+) breast tumors inversely correlate with the clinical benefit of tamoxifen in the treatment of metastatic ER+ disease. Second, APOBEC3B depletion in an ER+ breast cancer cell line results in prolonged tamoxifen responses in murine xenograft experiments. Third, APOBEC3B overexpression accelerates the development of tamoxifen resistance in murine xenograft experiments by a mechanism that requires the enzyme’s catalytic activity. These studies combine to indicate that APOBEC3B promotes drug resistance in breast cancer and that inhibiting APOBEC3B-dependent tumor evolvability may be an effective strategy to improve efficacies of targeted cancer therapies. PMID:27730215

  10. Analysis of methanobactin from Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b via ion mobility mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Choi, DongWon; Sesham, Ramakrishna; Kim, Yuri; Angel, Laurence A

    2012-01-01

    Methanobactins (mbs) are Low molecular mass copper binding chromopeptides analogous to pyoverdin class iron-binding siderophores. Mb produced by Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b (mb-oB3b) has been used as a model molecuLe for methanobactin although the amino acid sequence of mb-OB3b differs significantly from other characterized mbs. In particular, there is the presence of a pair of cystine residues which are absent in other characterized mbs. The role of the Cys3-Cys6 in copper binding, Cu(ll) reduction and its role on the mb-OB3b structure remains in debate. Here, we use a single-step dithiothreitol treatment as an effective method in reducing the disulfide bond allowing in-depth ion mobility-mass spectrometry (IM-MS) analysis. The IM-MS results show mb-oB3b exists in the gas-phase as three different negatively-charged states and exists in multiple conformational states, when introduced via electrospray ionization from aqueous solution near physiological pH. The disulfide bond serves a structural role and is not involved in the Cu(I/ll) binding capability of mb-OB3b, with the binding of a second Cu(I/ll) related to a further deprotonation of mb-OB3b. Overall, these findings are in good correlation with expected solution-phase behavior of mb-OB3b. The results suggest IM-MS is an effective tool for better understanding the complex nature of this intriguing peptide. PMID:23654196

  11. Efficient and Targeted Transduction of Nonhuman Primate Liver With Systemically Delivered Optimized AAV3B Vectors.

    PubMed

    Li, Shaoyong; Ling, Chen; Zhong, Li; Li, Mengxin; Su, Qin; He, Ran; Tang, Qiushi; Greiner, Dale L; Shultz, Leonard D; Brehm, Michael A; Flotte, Terence R; Mueller, Christian; Srivastava, Arun; Gao, Guangping

    2015-12-01

    Recombinant adeno-associated virus serotype 3B (rAAV3B) can transduce cultured human liver cancer cells and primary human hepatocytes efficiently. Serine (S)- and threonine (T)-directed capsid modifications further augment its transduction efficiency. Systemically delivered capsid-optimized rAAV3B vectors can specifically target cancer cells in a human liver cancer xenograft model, suggesting their potential use for human liver-directed gene therapy. Here, we compared transduction efficiencies of AAV3B and AAV8 vectors in cultured primary human hepatocytes and cancer cells as well as in human and mouse hepatocytes in a human liver xenograft NSG-PiZ mouse model. We also examined the safety and transduction efficacy of wild-type (WT) and capsid-optimized rAAV3B in the livers of nonhuman primates (NHPs). Intravenously delivered S663V+T492V (ST)-modified self-complementary (sc) AAV3B-EGFP vectors led to liver-targeted robust enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP) expression in NHPs without apparent hepatotoxicity. Intravenous injections of both WT and ST-modified rAAV3B.ST-rhCG vectors also generated stable super-physiological levels of rhesus chorionic gonadotropin (rhCG) in NHPs. The vector genome predominantly targeted the liver. Clinical chemistry and histopathology examinations showed no apparent vector-related toxicity. Our studies should be important and informative for clinical development of optimized AAV3B vectors for human liver-directed gene therapy.

  12. Behavioural correlates of the P3b event-related potential in school-age children

    PubMed Central

    Boucher, O.; Bastien, C. H.; Muckle, G.; Saint-Amour, D.; Jacobson, S. W.; Jacobson, J. L.

    2010-01-01

    The latency and amplitude of the P3b component of event-related potentials (ERPs) have been related to behavioural performance on several attention and memory tasks in adult populations. However, the extent to which these results apply to children is unknown. This study examined the neurobehavioral correlates of the P3b component in a longitudinal sample of school-age children from Arctic Québec. Children (N = 110; mean age = 11.3 years) were assessed on an ERP auditory oddball paradigm and a neurobehavioral evaluation targeting several aspects of cognition, including the Stewart Extended Continuous Performance Test (E-CPT), California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT), Stroop Color-Word Interference Test, and five subtests from the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children–Fourth edition (WISC-IV). P3b latency was positively related to reaction time measures and negatively associated with performance on the WISC-IV Digit Span Forward subtest. Amplitude of the P3b was associated with shorter completion time on the Stroop test and better delayed recognition memory performance among children who did not use semantic strategies on the CVLT. Profile analyses revealed no difference in scalp distribution of the P3b according to performance on these tests. The results are consistent with previous studies with older participants and suggest that, despite age-related differences in waveform and scalp distribution, the P3b component relates to similar neurocognitive processes in children and adults. PMID:20338199

  13. Regulators of complement activity mediate inhibitory mechanisms through a common C3b-binding mode.

    PubMed

    Forneris, Federico; Wu, Jin; Xue, Xiaoguang; Ricklin, Daniel; Lin, Zhuoer; Sfyroera, Georgia; Tzekou, Apostolia; Volokhina, Elena; Granneman, Joke Cm; Hauhart, Richard; Bertram, Paula; Liszewski, M Kathryn; Atkinson, John P; Lambris, John D; Gros, Piet

    2016-05-17

    Regulators of complement activation (RCA) inhibit complement-induced immune responses on healthy host tissues. We present crystal structures of human RCA (MCP, DAF, and CR1) and a smallpox virus homolog (SPICE) bound to complement component C3b. Our structural data reveal that up to four consecutive homologous CCP domains (i-iv), responsible for inhibition, bind in the same orientation and extended arrangement at a shared binding platform on C3b. Large sequence variations in CCP domains explain the diverse C3b-binding patterns, with limited or no contribution of some individual domains, while all regulators show extensive contacts with C3b for the domains at the third site. A variation of ~100° rotation around the longitudinal axis is observed for domains binding at the fourth site on C3b, without affecting the overall binding mode. The data suggest a common evolutionary origin for both inhibitory mechanisms, called decay acceleration and cofactor activity, with variable C3b binding through domains at sites ii, iii, and iv, and provide a framework for understanding RCA disease-related mutations and immune evasion. PMID:27013439

  14. A Two-Dimensional Zirconium Carbide by Selective Etching of Al3C3 from Nanolaminated Zr3Al3C5.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jie; Zha, Xianhu; Chen, Fan Y; Ye, Qun; Eklund, Per; Du, Shiyu; Huang, Qing

    2016-04-11

    The room-temperature synthesis of a new two-dimensional (2D) zirconium-containing carbide, Zr3C2T(z) MXene is presented. In contrast to traditional preparation of MXene, the layered ternary Zr3Al3C5 material instead of MAX phases is used as source under hydrofluoric acid treatment. The structural, mechanical, and electronic properties of the synthesized 2D carbide are investigated, combined with first-principles density functional calculations. A comparative study on the structrual stability of our obtained 2D Zr3C2T(z) and Ti3C2T(z) MXenes at elevated temperatures is performed. The obtained 2D Zr3C2T(z) exhibits relatively better ability to maintain 2D nature and strucural integrity compared to Ti-based Mxene. The difference in structural stability under high temperature condition is explained by a theoretical investigation on binding energy.

  15. 18 CFR 3c.3 - Reporting fraud, waste, abuse, and corruption and cooperation with official inquiries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... OF CONDUCT § 3c.3 Reporting fraud, waste, abuse, and corruption and cooperation with official inquiries. (a) Employees shall, in fulfilling the obligation of 5 CFR 2635.101(b)(11), report fraud, waste..., abuse, and corruption and cooperation with official inquiries. 3c.3 Section 3c.3 Conservation of...

  16. 18 CFR 3c.3 - Reporting fraud, waste, abuse, and corruption and cooperation with official inquiries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... OF CONDUCT § 3c.3 Reporting fraud, waste, abuse, and corruption and cooperation with official inquiries. (a) Employees shall, in fulfilling the obligation of 5 CFR 2635.101(b)(11), report fraud, waste..., abuse, and corruption and cooperation with official inquiries. 3c.3 Section 3c.3 Conservation of...

  17. 40 CFR 152.112 - Approval of registration under FIFRA sec. 3(c)(5).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... sec. 3(c)(5). 152.112 Section 152.112 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Applications § 152.112 Approval of registration under FIFRA sec. 3(c)(5). EPA will approve an application under the criteria of FIFRA sec. 3(c)(5) only if: (a) The Agency has determined that the application...

  18. A meteorological interpretation of the Arctic Boundary Layer Expedition (ABLE) 3B flight series

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shipham, Mark C.; Bachmeier, A. Scott; Cahoon, Donald R., Jr.; Gregory, Gerald L.; Anderson, Bruce E.; Browell, Edward V.

    1994-01-01

    The Arctic Boundary Layer Expedition (ABLE) 3B was conducted to determine the summertime tropospheric distribution, sources, and sinks of important trace gas and aerosol species over the wetlands and boreal forests of central and eastern Canada. Isentropic trajectories and analyzed midtropospheric circulation patterns were used to group flights according to the transport histories of polar, midlatitude, or tropical air masses which were sampled. These data were then divided into bands of potential temperature levels representing the low, middle, and maximum aircraft altitudes to assess the effects of both local and long distance transport and natural and man-made pollutants to the measured chemical species. Detailed case studies are provided to depict the complex three-dimensional airflow regimes that transported air with differing chemical signatures to the study area. Mission 6 details the large-scale movement of smoke in the generally prevailing west to northwesterly airflow that was observed on the majority of flights. Mission 1 analyzes the horizontal and vertical motions of maritime Pacific air in the upper troposphere that was routinely mixed downward to the aircraft altitude. Finally, mission 14 tracks the far northward excursion of tropical air that had been associated with a Pacific typhoon. The following three factors all had important influences on the collected chemical data sets: (1) local and distant stratospheric in puts into the upper and middle troposphere; (2) biomass-burning plumes from active fires in Alaska and Canada; (3) a band of 'low ozone' upper tropospheric air that was observed by airborne differential absorption lidar (DIAL) above the aircraft maximum altitude. Other modification factors observed on some flights included urban pollution from U.S. and Canadian cities, tropical air that had been associated with a Pacific typhoon, and precipitation scavenging by clouds and rain. Many flights were affected by several of the above factors

  19. Ternary borides Nb7Fe3B8 and Ta7Fe3B8 with Kagome-type iron framework.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Qiang; Gumeniuk, Roman; Borrmann, Horst; Schnelle, Walter; Tsirlin, Alexander A; Rosner, Helge; Burkhardt, Ulrich; Reissner, Michael; Grin, Yuri; Leithe-Jasper, Andreas

    2016-06-21

    Two new ternary borides TM7Fe3B8 (TM = Nb, Ta) were synthesized by high-temperature thermal treatment of samples obtained by arc-melting. This new type of structure with space group P6/mmm, comprises TM slabs containing isolated planar hexagonal [B6] rings and iron centered TM columns in a Kagome type of arrangement. Chemical bonding analysis in Nb7Fe3B8 by means of the electron localizability approach reveals two-center interactions forming the Kagome net of Fe and embedded B, while weaker multicenter bonding present between this net and Nb atoms. Magnetic susceptibility measurements reveal antiferromagnetic order below TN = 240 K for Nb7Fe3B8 and TN = 265 K for Ta7Fe3B8. Small remnant magnetization below 0.01μB per f.u. is observed in the antiferromagnetic state. The bulk nature of the magnetic transistions was confirmed by the hyperfine splitting of the Mössbauer spectra, the sizable anomalies in the specific heat capacity, and the kinks in the resistivity curves. The high-field paramagnetic susceptibilities fitted by the Curie-Weiss law show effective paramagnetic moments μeff≈ 3.1μB/Fe in both compounds. The temperature dependence of the electrical resistivity also reveals metallic character of both compounds. Density functional calculations corroborate the metallic behaviour of both compounds and demonstrate the formation of a sizable local magnetic moment on the Fe-sites. They indicate the presence of both antiferro- and ferrromagnetic interactions.

  20. Elevated APOBEC3B correlates with poor outcomes for estrogen-receptor-positive breast cancers.

    PubMed

    Sieuwerts, Anieta M; Willis, Scooter; Burns, Michael B; Look, Maxime P; Meijer-Van Gelder, Marion E; Schlicker, Andreas; Heideman, Marinus R; Jacobs, Heinz; Wessels, Lodewyk; Leyland-Jones, Brian; Gray, Kathryn P; Foekens, John A; Harris, Reuben S; Martens, John W M

    2014-12-01

    Recent observations connected DNA cytosine deaminase APOBEC3B to the genetic evolution of breast cancer. We addressed whether APOBEC3B is associated with breast cancer clinical outcomes. APOBEC3B messenger RNA (mRNA) levels were related in 1,491 primary breast cancers to disease-free (DFS), metastasis-free (MFS), and overall survival (OS). For independent validation, APOBEC3B mRNA expression was associated with patient outcome data in five additional cohorts (over 3,500 breast cancer cases). In univariate Cox regression analysis, increasing APOBEC3B expression as a continuous variable was associated with worse DFS, MFS, and OS (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.20, 1.21, and 1.24, respectively; all P < .001). Also, in untreated ER-positive (ER+), but not in ER-, lymph-node-negative patients, high APOBEC3B levels were associated with a poor DFS (continuous variable: HR = 1.29, P = .001; dichotomized at the median level, HR = 1.66, P = .0002). This implies that APOBEC3B is a marker of pure prognosis in ER + disease. These findings were confirmed in the analyses of five independent patient sets. In these analyses, APOBEC3B expression dichotomized at the median level was associated with adverse outcomes (METABRIC discovery and validation, 788 and 706 ER + cases, disease-specific survival (DSS), HR = 1.77 and HR = 1.77, respectively, both P < .001; Affymetrix dataset, 754 ER + cases, DFS, HR = 1.57, P = 2.46E-04; NKI295, 181 ER + cases, DFS, HR = 1.72, P = .054; and BIG 1-98, 1,219 ER + cases, breast-cancer-free interval (BCFI), HR = 1.42, P = 0.0079). APOBEC3B is a marker of pure prognosis and poor outcomes for ER + breast cancer, which strongly suggests that genetic aberrations induced by APOBEC3B contribute to breast cancer progression.

  1. Characterization of developmental Na(+) uptake in rainbow trout larvae supports a significant role for Nhe3b.

    PubMed

    Boyle, David; Blair, Salvatore D; Chamot, Danuta; Goss, Greg G

    2016-11-01

    Developing freshwater fish must compensate for the loss of ions, including sodium (Na(+)), to the environment. In this study, we used a radiotracer flux approach and pharmacological inhibitors to investigate the role of sodium/hydrogen exchange proteins (Nhe) in Na(+) uptake in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) reared from fertilization in soft water (0.1mM Na(+)). For comparison, a second group of embryos/larvae reared in hard water (2.2mM Na(+), higher pH and [Ca(2+)]) were also included in the experiment but were fluxed in soft water, only. Unidirectional rates of Na(+) uptake increased throughout development and were significantly higher in embryos/larvae reared in soft water. However, the mechanisms of Na(+) uptake in both groups of larvae were not significantly different, either in larvae immediately post-hatch or later in development: the broad spectrum Na(+) channel blocker amiloride inhibited 85-90% of uptake and the Nhe-inhibitor EIPA also caused near maximal inhibitions of Na(+) uptake. These data indicated Na(+) uptake was Nhe-mediated in soft water. A role of Nhe3b (but not Nhe2 or Nhe3a) in Na(+) uptake in soft water was also supported through gene expression analyses: expression of nhe3b increased throughout development in whole embryos/larvae in both groups and was significantly higher in those reared in soft water. This pattern of expression correlated well with measurements of Na(+) uptake. Together these data indicate that in part, rainbow trout embryos/larvae reared in low Na(+) soft water maintained Na(+) homeostasis by an EIPA sensitive component of Na(+) uptake, and support a primary role for Nhe3b.

  2. SF3B1 mutations constitute a novel therapeutic target in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Maguire, Sarah L; Leonidou, Andri; Wai, Patty; Marchiò, Caterina; Ng, Charlotte KY; Sapino, Anna; Salomon, Anne-Vincent; Reis-Filho, Jorge S; Weigelt, Britta; Natrajan, Rachael C

    2015-01-01

    Mutations in genes encoding proteins involved in RNA splicing have been found to occur at relatively high frequencies in several tumour types including myelodysplastic syndromes, chronic lymphocytic leukaemia, uveal melanoma, and pancreatic cancer, and at lower frequencies in breast cancer. To investigate whether dysfunction in RNA splicing is implicated in the pathogenesis of breast cancer, we performed a re-analysis of published exome and whole genome sequencing data. This analysis revealed that mutations in spliceosomal component genes occurred in 5.6% of unselected breast cancers, including hotspot mutations in the SF3B1 gene, which were found in 1.8% of unselected breast cancers. SF3B1 mutations were significantly associated with ER-positive disease, AKT1 mutations, and distinct copy number alterations. Additional profiling of hotspot mutations in a panel of special histological subtypes of breast cancer showed that 16% and 6% of papillary and mucinous carcinomas of the breast harboured the SF3B1 K700E mutation. RNA sequencing identified differentially spliced events expressed in tumours with SF3B1 mutations including the protein coding genes TMEM14C, RPL31, DYNL11, UQCC, and ABCC5, and the long non-coding RNA CRNDE. Moreover, SF3B1 mutant cell lines were found to be sensitive to the SF3b complex inhibitor spliceostatin A and treatment resulted in perturbation of the splicing signature. Albeit rare, SF3B1 mutations result in alternative splicing events, and may constitute drivers and a novel therapeutic target in a subset of breast cancers. © 2014 The Authors. The Journal of Pathology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. PMID:25424858

  3. Multifrequency VLBI follow up study of strong γ-ray flares in the blazars 3C273 and 3C279

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisakov, Mikhail M.; Kovalev, Yuri Y.

    2015-03-01

    We present multifrequency VLBI observations of the blazars 3C273 and 3C279 after detecting strong γ-ray flares in both of them. 3C273 exhibited a prominent flare in γ-rays in September 2009 which was followed by a strong flare in the 7 mm VLBI core and emergence of a new feature in the parsec scale jet. We have used time delay between flares in different wavebands together with kinematic analysis to determine that the γ-ray emission zone in 3C273 is located 3.6-5.3 pc upstream from the apparent 7 mm core. We have also analyzed frequency dependent core position to measure a deprojected distance between 7 mm core and the true base of the jet: 1-6 pc for 3C273 and 1-3 pc for 3C279, depending on observing epoch. For 3C279 light curve analysis did not give a robust γ-radio delay because there were too many overlapping flares in this source during considered period.

  4. FCGR3B gene frequencies among ethnic Thai blood donors from a regional hospital in Eastern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Kongmaroeng, C; Kumkaen, K

    2015-02-01

    The FCGR3B gene encodes three human neutrophil antigens which consist of HNA-1a, HNA-1b, and HNA-1c. These antigens are encoded by three alleles in the FCGR3B locus: FCGR3B*01, FCGR3B*02, and FCGR3B*03 alleles, respectively. The frequencies of FCGR3B alleles have been reported in different ethnic populations. This study compared the FCGR3B gene frequencies among 230 unrelated healthy Eastern Thai blood donors in Rayong hospital with the previously published studies. The polymerase chain reaction-sequence-specific primers method was performed to determine FCGR3B genotypes. The results showed that the allele frequencies of FCGR3B*01, FCGR3B*02, and FCGR3B*03 were 0.722, 0.274, and 0.009, respectively. The FCGR3B*01 and FCGR3B*02 frequencies found in the Eastern Thais were similar to the previous reports investigating in Northern Thais, Chinese Han, Taiwanese, and Japanese populations. Interestingly, our data showed statistically significant difference (P < 0.05) to Central Thais, Korean, Indian, Turkish, Australian, Tunisian, American, German, and Italian populations. In addition, one FCGR3Bnull , which represents a gene deletion, was also found in this study. This information is important not only for the assessment of neutrophil antibody-mediated clinical conditions and for disease association studies but also for anthropological studies.

  5. The Mitochondrial Fission Regulator DRP3B Does Not Regulate Cell Death in Plants

    PubMed Central

    YOSHINAGA, KEIKO; FUJIMOTO, MASARU; ARIMURA, SHIN-ICHI; TSUTSUMI, NOBUHIRO; UCHIMIYA, HIROFUMI; KAWAI-YAMADA, MAKI

    2006-01-01

    • Background and Aims Recent reports have described dramatic alterations in mitochondrial morphology during metazoan apoptosis. A dynamin-related protein (DRP) associated with mitochondrial outer membrane fission is known to be involved in the regulation of apoptosis. This study analysed the relationship between mitochondrial fission and regulation of plant cell death. • Methods Transgenic plants were generated possessing Arabidopsis DRP3B (K56A), the dominant-negative form of Arabidopsis DRP, mitochondrial-targeted green fluorescent protein and mouse Bax. • Key Results Arabidopsis plants over-expressing DRP3B (K56A) exhibited long tubular mitochondria. In these plants, mitochondria appeared as a string-of-beads during cell death. This indicates that DRP3B (K56A) prevented mitochondrial fission during plant cell death. However, in contrast to results for mammalian cells and yeast, Bax-induced cell death was not inhibited in DRP3B (K56A)-expressing plant cells. Similarly, hydrogen peroxide-, menadione-, darkness- and salicylic acid-induced cell death was not inhibited by DRP3B (K56A) expression. • Conclusions These results indicate that the systems controlling cell death in animals and plants are not common in terms of mitochondrial fission. PMID:16533833

  6. The Lipid-Modifying Enzyme SMPDL3B Negatively Regulates Innate Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Heinz, Leonhard X.; Baumann, Christoph L.; Köberlin, Marielle S.; Snijder, Berend; Gawish, Riem; Shui, Guanghou; Sharif, Omar; Aspalter, Irene M.; Müller, André C.; Kandasamy, Richard K.; Breitwieser, Florian P.; Pichlmair, Andreas; Bruckner, Manuela; Rebsamen, Manuele; Blüml, Stephan; Karonitsch, Thomas; Fauster, Astrid; Colinge, Jacques; Bennett, Keiryn L.; Knapp, Sylvia; Wenk, Markus R.; Superti-Furga, Giulio

    2015-01-01

    Summary Lipid metabolism and receptor-mediated signaling are highly intertwined processes that cooperate to fulfill cellular functions and safeguard cellular homeostasis. Activation of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) leads to a complex cellular response, orchestrating a diverse range of inflammatory events that need to be tightly controlled. Here, we identified the GPI-anchored Sphingomyelin Phosphodiesterase, Acid-Like 3B (SMPDL3B) in a mass spectrometry screening campaign for membrane proteins co-purifying with TLRs. Deficiency of Smpdl3b in macrophages enhanced responsiveness to TLR stimulation and profoundly changed the cellular lipid composition and membrane fluidity. Increased cellular responses could be reverted by re-introducing affected ceramides, functionally linking membrane lipid composition and innate immune signaling. Finally, Smpdl3b-deficient mice displayed an intensified inflammatory response in TLR-dependent peritonitis models, establishing its negative regulatory role in vivo. Taken together, our results identify the membrane-modulating enzyme SMPDL3B as a negative regulator of TLR signaling that functions at the interface of membrane biology and innate immunity. PMID:26095358

  7. XIST repression in the absence of DNMT1 and DNMT3B.

    PubMed

    Vasques, Luciana R; Stabellini, Raquel; Xue, Fei; Tian, X Cindy; Soukoyan, Marina; Pereira, Lygia V

    2005-01-01

    X chromosome inactivation (XCI) in human and mice involves XIST/Xist gene expression from the inactive X (Xi) and repression from the active X (Xa). Repression of the XIST/Xist gene on the Xa has been associated with methylation of its 5' region. In mice, Dnmt1 has been shown to be involved in the methylation and transcriptional repression of Xist on Xa. We examined maintenance of XIST gene repression on Xa in HCT116 cell lines knockout for either DNMT1 or DNMT3B and for DNMT1 and DNMT3B simultaneously. Methylation of the XIST promoter and XIST transcriptional repression is sustained in DNMT1-, DNMT3B- and DNMT1/DNMT3B knockout cells. Despite global DNA demethylation, the double knockout cells present only partial demethylation of the XIST promoter, which is not sufficient for gene reactivation. In contrast, global DNA demethylation with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine leads to XIST expression. Therefore, in these human cells maintenance of XIST methylation is controlled differently than global genomic methylation and in the absence of both DNMT1 and DNMT3B.

  8. Crystallization and preliminary diffraction studies of CBM3b of cellobiohydrolase 9A from Clostridium thermocellum

    SciTech Connect

    Jindou, Sadanari; Petkun, Svetlana; Shimon, Linda; Bayer, Edward A.; Lamed, Raphael; Frolow, Felix

    2007-12-01

    The cloning, expression, purification and crystallization of the CBM3b module of cellobiohydrolase 9A from C. thermocellum is described. The crystals diffract to 2.68 Å. Family 3 carbohydrate-binding modules (CBM3s) are associated with the scaffoldin subunit of the multi-enzyme cellulosome complex and with the family 9 glycoside hydrolases, which are multimodular enzymes that act on plant cell-wall polysaccharides, notably cellulose. Here, the crystallization of CBM3b from cellobiohydrolase 9A is reported. The crystals are tetragonal and belong to space group P4{sub 1} or P4{sub 3}. X-ray diffraction data for CBM3b have been collected to 2.68 Å resolution on beamline ID14-4 at the ESRF.

  9. Rare SF3B1 R625 mutations in cutaneous melanoma.

    PubMed

    Kong, Yong; Krauthammer, Michael; Halaban, Ruth

    2014-08-01

    RNA splicing is the cellular process that has only recently been found to be an important target for various cancers. Among the spliceosome genes that are involved in cancers, SF3B1 is most frequently mutated. Recurrent mutation in codon 625 has been found in uveal melanoma, but this mutation has not been identified in cutaneous melanoma. We used whole-exome sequencing to explore the mutational landscape of 295 melanoma samples, 231 of which are cutaneous melanoma. Among these cutaneous melanoma samples, we found two samples with R625 mutation in SF3B1 gene. The results were validated by Sanger sequencing. We conclude that SF3B1 R625 mutation does occur in cutaneous melanoma, although with a low frequency (∼1%).

  10. Extinction coefficient of H2CC(3B2) at 137 nm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fahr, A.; Laufer, A. H.

    1985-01-01

    In spite of the conduction of numerous studies regarding the vinylidene free radical, its role and importance as a reactive intermediate is not well characterized. Laufer (1980, 1983) has reported the absorption spectrum of metastable H2CC(3B2), the lowest excited state, in the vacuum ultraviolet and has measured several aspects of its quenching properties. The present study provides a measurement of the extinction coefficient of H2CC(3B2). Knowledge of the vinylidene concentration is required to convert readily available absorption data into an extinction coefficient or cross section. In the current work, the H2CC(3B2) concentration was determined in an investigation of the photodissociation of vinyl chloride.

  11. 77 FR 41795 - Exercise of Authority Under Section 212(d)(3)(B)(i) of the Immigration and Nationality Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-16

    ... SECURITY Office of the Secretary Exercise of Authority Under Section 212(d)(3)(B)(i) of the Immigration and...(d)(3)(B)(i) of the Immigration and ] Nationality Act (INA), 8 U.S.C. 1182(d)(3)(B)(i), as amended.... Implementation of this determination will be made by U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS),...

  12. 76 FR 2130 - Exercise of Authority Under Section 212(d)(3)(B)(i) of the Immigration and Nationality Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-12

    ... SECURITY Office of the Secretary Exercise of Authority Under Section 212(d)(3)(B)(i) of the Immigration and...(d)(3)(B)(i) of the Immigration and Nationality Act (INA), 8 U.S.C. 1182(d)(3)(B)(i), as amended, as... Immigration Services (USCIS), in consultation with U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE), or by...

  13. 76 FR 2131 - Exercise of Authority Under Section 212(d)(3)(B)(i) of the Immigration and Nationality Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-12

    ... SECURITY Office of the Secretary Exercise of Authority Under Section 212(d)(3)(B)(i) of the Immigration and...(d)(3)(B)(i) of the Immigration and Nationality Act (INA), 8 U.S.C. 1182(d)(3)(B)(i), as amended, as.... Implementation of this determination will be made by U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS),...

  14. 76 FR 14418 - Exercise of Authority Under Section 212(d)(3)(B)(i) of the Immigration and Nationality Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-16

    ... SECURITY Office of the Secretary Exercise of Authority Under Section 212(d)(3)(B)(i) of the Immigration and...(d)(3)(B)(i) of the Immigration and Nationality Act (INA), 8 U.S.C. 1182(d)(3)(B)(i), as amended, as... determination will be made by U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS), in consultation with...

  15. 76 FR 14419 - Exercise of Authority Under Section 212(d)(3)(B)(i) of the Immigration and Nationality Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-16

    ... SECURITY Office of the Secretary Exercise of Authority Under Section 212(d)(3)(B)(i) of the Immigration and...(d)(3)(B)(i) of the Immigration and Nationality Act (INA), 8 U.S.C. 1182(d)(3)(B)(i), as amended, as.... Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS), in consultation with U.S. Immigration and Customs...

  16. CFD Growth of 3C-SiC on 4H/6H Mesas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neudeck, Philip G.; Trunek, Andrew J.; Spry, David J.; Powell, J. Anthony; Du, Hui; Skowronski, Marek; Huang, XianRong; Dudley, Michael

    2006-01-01

    This article describes growth and characterization of the highest quality reproducible 3C-SiC heteroepitaxial films ever reported. By properly nucleating 3C-SiC growth on top of perfectly on-axis (0001) 4H-SiC mesa surfaces completely free of atomic scale steps and extended defects, growth of 3C-SiC mesa heterofilms completely free of extended crystal defects can be achieved. In contrast, nucleation and growth of 3C-SiC mesa heterofilms on top of 4H-SiC mesas with atomic-scale steps always results in numerous observable dislocations threading through the 3C-SiC epilayer. High-resolution X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy measurements indicate non-trivial in-plane lattice mismatch between the 3C and 4H layers. This mismatch is somewhat relieved in the step-free mesa case via misfit dislocations confined to the 3C/4H interfacial region without dislocations threading into the overlying 3C-SiC layer. These results indicate that the presence or absence of steps at the 3C/4H heteroepitaxial interface critically impacts the quality, defect structure, and relaxation mechanisms of single-crystal heteroepitaxial 3C-SiC films.

  17. CVD Growth of 3C-SiC on 4H/6H Mesas

    SciTech Connect

    Neudeck,P.; Trunek, A.; Spry, D.; Powell, J.; Du, H.; Skowronski, M.; Huang, X.; Dudley, M.

    2006-01-01

    This article describes growth and characterization of the highest quality reproducible 3C-SiC heteroepitaxial films ever reported. By properly nucleating 3C-SiC growth on top of perfectly on-axis (0001) 4H-SiC mesa surfaces completely free of atomic scale steps and extended defects, growth of 3C-SiC mesa heterofilms completely free of extended crystal defects can be achieved. In contrast, nucleation and growth of 3C-SiC mesa heterofilms on top of 4H-SiC mesas with atomic-scale steps always results in numerous observable dislocations threading through the 3C-SiC epilayer. High-resolution X-ray diffraction (HRXRD) and high resolution cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (HRXTEM) measurements indicate non-trivial, in-plane, lattice mismatch between the 3C and 4H layers. This mismatch is somewhat relieved in the step-free mesa case via misfit dislocations confined to the 3C/4H interfacial region without dislocations threading into the overlying 3C-SiC layer. These results indicate that the presence or absence of steps at the 3C/4H heteroepitaxial interface critically impacts the quality, defect structure, and relaxation mechanisms of single-crystal heteroepitaxial 3C-SiC films.

  18. Pyrano-[2,3b]-pyridines as potassium channel antagonists.

    PubMed

    Finlay, Heather J; Lloyd, John; Nyman, Michael; Conder, Mary Lee; West, Tonya; Levesque, Paul; Atwal, Karnail

    2008-04-15

    The design and synthesis of a series of highly functionalized pyrano-[2,3b]-pyridines is described. These compounds were assayed for their ability to block the I(Kur) channel encoded by the gene hKV1.5 in patch-clamped L-929 cells. Six of the compounds in this series showed sub-micromolar activity, the most potent being 4-(4-ethyl-benzenesulfonylamino)-3-hydroxy-2,2-dimethyl-3,4-dihydro-2H-pyrano[2,3b]-pyridine-6-carboxylic acid ethyl-phenyl-amide with an IC(50) of 378 nM.

  19. Analyzing the Effects of Nitrogen Deficiency on the PHB Production of Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kyauk, E.

    2011-12-01

    Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) is a biodegradable thermoplastic that is produced by various microorganisms. Because of its potential to replace conventional plastics, it has been closely researched in the past few years. Methanotrophic bacteria, bacteria that consume methane, produce this bioplastic when it lacks certain nutrients. The utilization of methane to produce PHB shows much promise as methane is a cheap, plentiful gas. In this study, we observed the methanotroph, Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b , and its yield of PHB in the absence of nitrogen. The optical density of Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b was measured in order to observe cell growth and PHB production patterns over a 48 hour period.

  20. Antigens of monoclonal antibody NB3C4 are novel markers for oligodendrocytes.

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, K; Kametani, F; Shimoda, Y; Fujimaki, K; Sakurai, Y; Kitamura, K; Asou, H; Nomura, M

    2001-02-12

    We produced NB3C4, a novel monoclonal antibody specific for oligodendrocytes, using human neuroblastoma IMR-32 cells. NB3C4 specifically recognized oligodendrocytes in the CNS, although it bound to neuroblastoma IMR-32 cells and oligodendrocytes in vitro. Double immunofluorescence staining of rat brain using NB3C4 and anti-GST-pi, anti-glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), or anti-neurofilament 200 (NF) antibody revealed that anti-GST-pi antibody identified an oligodendrocyte marker recognizing NB3C4-positive cells, while both anti-GFAP and anti-NF antibody did not. Western blotting of rat brain homogenates showed that NB3C4 bound three proteins of 22-28 kDa, while the anti-GST-pi recognized a 27 kDa protein. Therefore, antigens recognized by NB3C4 could be novel markers for oligodendrocytes.

  1. Uptake and effect of rare earth elements on gene expression in Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b.

    PubMed

    Gu, Wenyu; Farhan Ul Haque, Muhammad; DiSpirito, Alan A; Semrau, Jeremy D

    2016-07-01

    It is well known that Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b has two forms of methane monooxygenase (MMO) responsible for the initial conversion of methane to methanol, a cytoplasmic (soluble) methane monooxygenase and a membrane-associated (particulate) methane monooxygenase, and that copper strongly regulates expression of these alternative forms of MMO. More recently, it has been discovered that M. trichosporium OB3b has multiple types of the methanol dehydrogenase (MeDH), i.e. the Mxa-type MeDH (Mxa-MeDH) and Xox-type MeDH (Xox-MeDH), and the expression of these two forms is regulated by the availability of the rare earth element (REE), cerium. Here, we extend these studies and show that lanthanum, praseodymium, neodymium and samarium also regulate expression of alternative forms of MeDH. The effect of these REEs on MeDH expression, however, was only observed in the absence of copper. Further, a mutant of M. trichosporium OB3b, where the Mxa-MeDH was knocked out, was able to grow in the presence of lanthanum, praseodymium and neodymium, but was not able to grow in the presence of samarium. Collectively, these data suggest that multiple levels of gene regulation by metals exist in M. trichosporium OB3b, but that copper overrides the effect of other metals by an as yet unknown mechanism. PMID:27190151

  2. The 46359CT polymorphism of DNMT3B is associated with the risk of cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Sotelo, Daniel; García-Aguilar, Rubén; Castro-Coronel, Yaneth; Magaña, Jonathan J; Leyva-Vazquez, Marco Antonio; Alarcón-Romero, Luz del Carmen; López-Bayghen, Esther; Illades-Aguiar, Berenice

    2013-07-01

    Abnormal methylation is related to cancer development. Since DNMT3B is an enzyme that modulates genomic methylation, we hypothesized that genetic variants of the promoter DNMT3B may be associated with an increased risk of developing cervical cancer. Our aim was to investigate the association between -579GT and 46359CT polymorphisms of DNMT3B and cervical cancer, high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL), and low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL). Samples from 200 healthy women and 130 women with squamous intraepithelial lesions (70 with cervical cancer, 30 with HSIL, and 30 with LSIL) were analyzed. Polymorphism genotyping was performed using PCR and restriction fragment length polymorphism. The -579GT polymorphism was not associated with cervical cancer, HSIL, or LSIL. The CT genotype of 46359CT polymorphism was significantly associated with cervical cancer risk (OR 8.75, CI 1.27-374.1), whereas the TT genotype was associated with a significantly decreased risk of HSIL (OR 0.66, CI 0.01-0.32) and LSIL (OR 0.11, CI 0.026-0.45). Our results suggest that genotyping the 46359CT polymorphism in DNMT3B may help identify women who are genetically susceptible to cervical cancer development. Additional studies with larger sample sizes are necessary to confirm our findings.

  3. Blocked versus randomized presentation modes differentially modulate feedback-related negativity and P3b amplitudes

    PubMed Central

    Pfabigan, Daniela M.; Zeiler, Michael; Lamm, Claus; Sailer, Uta

    2014-01-01

    Objective Electrophysiological studies on feedback processing typically use a wide range of feedback stimuli which might not always be comparable. The current study investigated whether two indicators of feedback processing – feedback-related negativity (FRN) and P3b – differ for feedback stimuli with explicit (facial expressions) or assigned valence information (symbols). In addition, we assessed whether presenting feedback in either a trial-by-trial or a block-wise fashion affected these ERPs. Methods EEG was recorded in three experiments while participants performed a time estimation task and received two different types of performance feedback. Results Only P3b amplitudes varied consistently in response to feedback type for both presentation types. Moreover, the blocked feedback type presentation yielded more distinct FRN peaks, higher effect sizes, and a significant relation between FRN amplitudes and behavioral task performance measures. Conclusion Both stimulus type and presentation mode may provoke systematic changes in feedback-related ERPs. The current findings point at important potential confounds that need to be controlled for when designing FRN or P3b studies. Significance Studies investigating P3b amplitudes using mixed types of stimuli have to be interpreted with caution. Furthermore, we suggest implementing a blocked presentation format when presenting different feedback types within the same experiment. PMID:24144779

  4. Online / Offline reconstruction of trigger-less readout in the R3B experiment at FAIR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kresan, Dmytro; Al-Turany, Mohammad; Uhlig, Florian

    2015-12-01

    The R3B (Reactions with Rare Radioactive Beams) experiment is one of the planned experiments at the future FAIR facility at GSI Darmstadt. R3B will cover experimental reaction studies with exotic nuclei far off stability, thus enabling a broad physics program with rare-isotope beams with emphasis on nuclear structure and dynamics. Several different detection subsystems as well as sophisticated DAQ system and data-analysis software are being developed for this purpose. The data analysis software for R3B is based on FairRoot framework and called R3BRoot. R3BRoot is being used for simulation and detector design studies for the last few years. Recently, it was successfully used directly with the data acquisition and for the analysis of the R3B test beam-time in April 2014. For the future beam times the framework has to deal with the free streaming readout of the detectors. The implementation within R3BRoot to fulfil this trigger-less run mode will be discussed in this paper, as well as the set of tools developed for the online reconstruction and quality assurance of the data during the run.

  5. Uptake and effect of rare earth elements on gene expression in Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b.

    PubMed

    Gu, Wenyu; Farhan Ul Haque, Muhammad; DiSpirito, Alan A; Semrau, Jeremy D

    2016-07-01

    It is well known that Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b has two forms of methane monooxygenase (MMO) responsible for the initial conversion of methane to methanol, a cytoplasmic (soluble) methane monooxygenase and a membrane-associated (particulate) methane monooxygenase, and that copper strongly regulates expression of these alternative forms of MMO. More recently, it has been discovered that M. trichosporium OB3b has multiple types of the methanol dehydrogenase (MeDH), i.e. the Mxa-type MeDH (Mxa-MeDH) and Xox-type MeDH (Xox-MeDH), and the expression of these two forms is regulated by the availability of the rare earth element (REE), cerium. Here, we extend these studies and show that lanthanum, praseodymium, neodymium and samarium also regulate expression of alternative forms of MeDH. The effect of these REEs on MeDH expression, however, was only observed in the absence of copper. Further, a mutant of M. trichosporium OB3b, where the Mxa-MeDH was knocked out, was able to grow in the presence of lanthanum, praseodymium and neodymium, but was not able to grow in the presence of samarium. Collectively, these data suggest that multiple levels of gene regulation by metals exist in M. trichosporium OB3b, but that copper overrides the effect of other metals by an as yet unknown mechanism.

  6. 49 CFR 178.38 - Specification 3B seamless steel cylinders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., and service pressure. A DOT 3B cylinder is seamless steel cylinder with a water capacity (nominal) of...: carbon, 0.55; phosphorus, 0.045; sulphur, 0.050. (c) Identification of material. Material must be... by water-jacket, or other suitable method, operated so as to obtain accurate data. The pressure...

  7. 49 CFR 178.38 - Specification 3B seamless steel cylinders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., and service pressure. A DOT 3B cylinder is seamless steel cylinder with a water capacity (nominal) of...: carbon, 0.55; phosphorus, 0.045; sulphur, 0.050. (c) Identification of material. Material must be... by water-jacket, or other suitable method, operated so as to obtain accurate data. The pressure...

  8. 49 CFR 178.38 - Specification 3B seamless steel cylinders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., and service pressure. A DOT 3B cylinder is seamless steel cylinder with a water capacity (nominal) of...: carbon, 0.55; phosphorus, 0.045; sulphur, 0.050. (c) Identification of material. Material must be... by water-jacket, or other suitable method, operated so as to obtain accurate data. The pressure...

  9. 49 CFR 178.38 - Specification 3B seamless steel cylinders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., and service pressure. A DOT 3B cylinder is seamless steel cylinder with a water capacity (nominal) of...: carbon, 0.55; phosphorus, 0.045; sulphur, 0.050. (c) Identification of material. Material must be... by water-jacket, or other suitable method, operated so as to obtain accurate data. The pressure...

  10. 12 CFR 563d.3b-6 - Liability for certain statements by savings associations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... savings associations. This section replaces adherence to 17 CFR 240.3b-6 and applies as follows: (a) A... registration statement filed with the Office under the Act on Form 10 (17 CFR 249.210); in part I of a quarterly report filed with the Office on Form 10-Q (17 CFR 241.308a); in an annual report to...

  11. 12 CFR 563d.3b-6 - Liability for certain statements by savings associations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... savings associations. This section replaces adherence to 17 CFR 240.3b-6 and applies as follows: (a) A... registration statement filed with the Office under the Act on Form 10 (17 CFR 249.210); in part I of a quarterly report filed with the Office on Form 10-Q (17 CFR 241.308a); in an annual report to...

  12. 17 CFR 240.3b-12 - Definition of OTC derivatives dealer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Definition of OTC derivatives... Securities Exchange Act of 1934 Definitions § 240.3b-12 Definition of OTC derivatives dealer. The term OTC derivatives dealer means any dealer that is affiliated with a registered broker or dealer (other than an...

  13. 17 CFR 240.3b-12 - Definition of OTC derivatives dealer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definition of OTC derivatives... Securities Exchange Act of 1934 Definitions § 240.3b-12 Definition of OTC derivatives dealer. The term OTC derivatives dealer means any dealer that is affiliated with a registered broker or dealer (other than an...

  14. 12 CFR 563d.3b-6 - Liability for certain statements by savings associations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... savings associations. This section replaces adherence to 17 CFR 240.3b-6 and applies as follows: (a) A... registration statement filed with the Office under the Act on Form 10 (17 CFR 249.210); in part I of a quarterly report filed with the Office on Form 10-Q (17 CFR 241.308a); in an annual report to...

  15. Polymorphism in Serotonin Receptor 3B Is Associated with Pain Catastrophizing

    PubMed Central

    Horjales-Araujo, Emilia; Demontis, Ditte; Lund, Ellen Kielland; Finnerup, Nanna Brix; Børglum, Anders D.; Jensen, Troels Staehelin; Svensson, Peter; Vase, Lene

    2013-01-01

    Pain catastrophizing, a coping style characterized by excessively negative thoughts and emotions in relation to pain, is one of the psychological factors that most markedly predicts variability in the perception of pain; however, only little is known about the underlying neurobiology. The aim of this study was to test for associations between psychological variables, such as pain catastrophizing, anxiety and depression, and selected polymorphisms in genes related to monoaminergic neurotransmission, in particular serotonin pathway genes. Three hundred seventy-nine healthy participants completed a set of psychological questionnaires: the Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS), the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and Beck’s Depression Inventory, and were genotyped for 15 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in nine genes. The SNP rs1176744 located in the serotonin receptor 3B gene (5-HTR3B) was found to be associated with pain catastrophizing scores: both the global score and the subscales of magnification and helplessness. This is the first study to show an association between 5-HTR3B and PCS scores, thus suggesting a role of the serotonin pathway in pain catastrophizing. Since 5-HTR3B has previously been associated with descending pain modulation pathways, future studies will be of great interest to elucidate the molecular pathways involved in the relation between serotonin, its receptors and pain catastrophizing. PMID:24244382

  16. 3C-SiC/ZnS heterostructured nanospheres with high photocatalytic activity and enhancement mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, J.; Wu, X. L. E-mail: paul.chu@cityu.edu.hk; Liu, L. Z.; Yang, L.; Gan, Z. X.; Chu, Paul K. E-mail: paul.chu@cityu.edu.hk

    2015-03-15

    3C-SiC/n-type ZnS heterostructured nanospheres synthesized hydrothermally deliver enhanced photocatalytic performance under visible light excitation. The heterostructured catalysts consisting of 3C-SiC and ZnS nanocrystals with a mean size being less than 5 nm exhibit extended light absorption to the visible range. The proper band structure of the 3C-SiC and ZnS nanocrystals and intrinsic electric field induced by the heterojunction promote separation of photoexcited electrons and holes in the ZnS and 3C-SiC nanocrystals resulting in the increased photocatalytic efficiency. The associated mechanism is studied and proposed.

  17. Synthesis and X-ray studies of novel 3-C-nitromethyl-hexofuranoses.

    PubMed

    Turks, Māris; Vēze, Krista; Kiseļovs, Gļebs; Mackeviča, Jevgeņija; Lugiņina, Jevgeņija; Mishnev, Anatoly; Marković, Dean

    2014-06-01

    A practical method for the synthesis of three novel 3-C-nitromethyl-hexofuranoses is reported. The Henry reaction on a 1,2:5,6-di-O-isopropylidene-α-d-gulofuranose-derived ketone provided a 3-C-branched gulo-isomer as the sole reaction product. The dehydration-rehydration of the latter yielded an isopropylidene-protected 3-C-nitromethyl-galactofuranose. The reaction sequence can be also used for the synthesis of a 3-deoxy-3-C-nitromethyl-hexofuranose derivative with a gulo-configuration. Two of the newly obtained carbohydrate derivatives were characterized by X-ray crystallography.

  18. The nature of the optical variations of Seyfert galaxy 3C 120

    SciTech Connect

    Webb, J.R. Austin State Univ., TX )

    1990-01-01

    Results are presented from 61 years of optical observations of the Seyfert galaxy 3C 120. A previously published model of the 3C 120 light curve, derived from power spectrum analysis, is found to be valid for historical as well as current data. It is concluded that the optical variations of 3C 120 can be separated into a linear component, a sinusoidal component, and rapid, high-amplitude flares. Possible sources of the regular variations observed in 3C 120 are also suggested in the context of accretion models and other theoretical models. 15 refs.

  19. ARID3B: a Novel Regulator of the Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus Lytic Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Jennifer J.; Boyne, James R.; Paulus, Christina; Jackson, Brian R.; Nevels, Michael M.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is the causative agent of commonly fatal malignancies of immunocompromised individuals, including primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) and Kaposi's sarcoma (KS). A hallmark of all herpesviruses is their biphasic life cycle—viral latency and the productive lytic cycle—and it is well established that reactivation of the KSHV lytic cycle is associated with KS pathogenesis. Therefore, a thorough appreciation of the mechanisms that govern reactivation is required to better understand disease progression. The viral protein replication and transcription activator (RTA) is the KSHV lytic switch protein due to its ability to drive the expression of various lytic genes, leading to reactivation of the entire lytic cycle. While the mechanisms for activating lytic gene expression have received much attention, how RTA impacts cellular function is less well understood. To address this, we developed a cell line with doxycycline-inducible RTA expression and applied stable isotope labeling of amino acids in cell culture (SILAC)-based quantitative proteomics. Using this methodology, we have identified a novel cellular protein (AT-rich interacting domain containing 3B [ARID3B]) whose expression was enhanced by RTA and that relocalized to replication compartments upon lytic reactivation. We also show that small interfering RNA (siRNA) knockdown or overexpression of ARID3B led to an enhancement or inhibition of lytic reactivation, respectively. Furthermore, DNA affinity and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays demonstrated that ARID3B specifically interacts with A/T-rich elements in the KSHV origin of lytic replication (oriLyt), and this was dependent on lytic cycle reactivation. Therefore, we have identified a novel cellular protein whose expression is enhanced by KSHV RTA with the ability to inhibit KSHV reactivation. IMPORTANCE Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is the causative agent of fatal malignancies of

  20. Physicochemical characterization of C3b receptors isolated from human erythrocytes by immunoprecipitation.

    PubMed Central

    Gerdes, J; Stein, H

    1980-01-01

    A high yield of active C3b receptors was obtained by solubilizing human erythrocyte membranes with 2 M KBr, whereas other solubilization agents yielded no, or significantly less activity. Gel filtration of the KBr lysates revealed that the apparent molecular wieght of biologically active C3b receptor molecules was greater than 1 x 10(6). Immunoprecipitates prepared with radio-iodinated KBr lysates and anti-C3 receptor sera (AC3RS) were subjected to sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) or sodium dodecyl gel filtration. Unreduced SDS-PAGE and gel filtration profiles showed three predominant peaks with apparent mol. wts of 1--1.3 x 10(6), 80,000 and 60,000. Whereas the high mol. wt component decreased only slightly after reduction, the 80,000 and 60,000 mol. wt components disappeared and two new peaks with apparent mol. wts of 38,000 and 18,000 appeared in SDS-PAGE profiles. Although the high mol. wt component present in reduced SDS-PAGE profiles was detectable in some of the control experiments, none of the other peaks could be precipitated with control sera, and these components could be demonstrated only when KBr lysates of C3b receptor-positive erythrocytes and AC3RS that were able to inhibit ligand binding of the C3b receptors were used for precipitation. These findings suggest that (a) the C3b receptor of human erythrocytes in its biologically active state is a macromolecule with an apparent mol. wt higher than 1 x 10(6) and (b) the protein moiety consists predominantly of non-covalently linked protein molecules with apparent mol wts of 80,000 and 60,000. These protein molecules are composed of disulphide-bridged polypeptide chains with apparent mol. wts of 38,000 and 18,000. PMID:7461716

  1. Antibody-mediated complement C3b/iC3b binding to group B Streptococcus in paired mother and baby serum samples in a refugee population on the Thailand-Myanmar border.

    PubMed

    Herbert, Jenny; Thomas, Stephen; Brookes, Charlotte; Turner, Claudia; Turner, Paul; Nosten, Francois; Le Doare, Kirsty; Hudson, Michael; Heath, Paul T; Gorringe, Andrew; Taylor, Stephen

    2015-03-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococcus [GBS]) is the leading cause of neonatal sepsis and meningitis. In this study, we determined antibody-mediated deposition of complement C3b/iC3b onto the bacterial cell surface of GBS serotypes Ia, Ib, II, III, and V. This was determined for 520 mother and umbilical cord serum sample pairs obtained at the time of birth from a population on the Thailand-Myanmar border. Antibody-mediated deposition of complement C3b/iC3b was detected to at least one serotype in 91% of mothers, despite a known carriage rate in this population of only 12%. Antibody-mediated C3b/iC3b deposition corresponded to known carriage rates, with the highest levels of complement deposition observed onto the most prevalent serotype (serotype II) followed by serotypes Ia, III, V, and Ib. Finally, neonates born to mothers carrying serotype II GBS at the time of birth showed higher antibody-mediated C3b/iC3b deposition against serotype II GBS than neonates born to mothers with no serotype II carriage. Assessment of antibody-mediated C3b/iC3b deposition against GBS may provide insights into the seroepidemiology of anti-GBS antibodies in mothers and infants in different populations. PMID:25589553

  2. Antibody-Mediated Complement C3b/iC3b Binding to Group B Streptococcus in Paired Mother and Baby Serum Samples in a Refugee Population on the Thailand-Myanmar Border

    PubMed Central

    Herbert, Jenny; Thomas, Stephen; Brookes, Charlotte; Turner, Claudia; Turner, Paul; Nosten, Francois; Le Doare, Kirsty; Hudson, Michael; Heath, Paul T.; Gorringe, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococcus [GBS]) is the leading cause of neonatal sepsis and meningitis. In this study, we determined antibody-mediated deposition of complement C3b/iC3b onto the bacterial cell surface of GBS serotypes Ia, Ib, II, III, and V. This was determined for 520 mother and umbilical cord serum sample pairs obtained at the time of birth from a population on the Thailand-Myanmar border. Antibody-mediated deposition of complement C3b/iC3b was detected to at least one serotype in 91% of mothers, despite a known carriage rate in this population of only 12%. Antibody-mediated C3b/iC3b deposition corresponded to known carriage rates, with the highest levels of complement deposition observed onto the most prevalent serotype (serotype II) followed by serotypes Ia, III, V, and Ib. Finally, neonates born to mothers carrying serotype II GBS at the time of birth showed higher antibody-mediated C3b/iC3b deposition against serotype II GBS than neonates born to mothers with no serotype II carriage. Assessment of antibody-mediated C3b/iC3b deposition against GBS may provide insights into the seroepidemiology of anti-GBS antibodies in mothers and infants in different populations. PMID:25589553

  3. Role of the single deaminase domain APOBEC3A in virus restriction, retrotransposition, DNA damage and cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yaqiong; Schmitt, Kimberly; Guo, Kejun; Santiago, Mario L; Stephens, Edward B

    2016-01-01

    The apolipoprotein mRNA editing enzyme catalytic polypeptide-like 3 (APOBEC3; A3) proteins are a family of seven cytidine deaminases (A3A, A3B, A3C, A3D, A3F, A3G and A3H) that restrict certain viral infections. These innate defence factors are best known for their ability to restrict the replication of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) lacking a functional Vif protein (HIV-1Δvif) through the deamination of cytidine residues to uridines during reverse transcription, ultimately leading to lethal G → A changes in the viral genome. The best studied of the A3 proteins has been APOBEC3G because of its potent activity against HIV-1Δvif. However, one member of this family, A3A, has biological properties that make it unique among the A3 proteins. In this review, we will focus on the structural and phylogenetic features of the human and non-human primate A3A proteins, their role in the restriction of retroviruses and other viruses, and current findings on other biological properties affected by this protein.

  4. 17 CFR 270.3c-2 - Definition of beneficial ownership in small business investment companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definition of beneficial ownership in small business investment companies. 270.3c-2 Section 270.3c-2 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) RULES AND REGULATIONS, INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT...

  5. 17 CFR 270.3c-2 - Definition of beneficial ownership in small business investment companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Definition of beneficial ownership in small business investment companies. 270.3c-2 Section 270.3c-2 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) RULES AND REGULATIONS, INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT...

  6. 50 CFR Table 3c to Part 680 - Crab Product Codes for Economic Data Reports

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Crab Product Codes for Economic Data... EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 680, Table 3c Table 3c to Part 680—Crab Product Codes for Economic Data Reports Code Description 01 Whole crab. 80 Sections. 81 Meats. 97 Other (specify)....

  7. 50 CFR Table 3c to Part 680 - Crab Product Codes for Economic Data Reports

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Crab Product Codes for Economic Data... EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 680, Table 3c Table 3c to Part 680—Crab Product Codes for Economic Data Reports Code Description 01 Whole crab. 80 Sections. 81 Meats. 97 Other (specify)....

  8. 50 CFR Table 3c to Part 680 - Crab Product Codes for Economic Data Reports

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Crab Product Codes for Economic Data... EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 680, Table 3c Table 3c to Part 680—Crab Product Codes for Economic Data Reports Code Description 01 Whole crab. 80 Sections. 81 Meats. 97 Other (specify)....

  9. Effects of Lu-Do-Huang Extract (LDHE) on Apoptosis Induction in Human Hep3B Cells.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hui-Yu; Chen, Li-Han; Liu, Chen-Wei; Chien, Ting-Yi; Yu, Yu-Ping; Kao, Yu-Yu; Yang, Jo-Hsuan; Tsai, Ying-Chieh

    2015-06-30

    Lu-Do-Huang (Pracparatum mungo) is a fermented mung bean [corrected] (Vigna radiata) and has long been used as a traditional and functional food in Traditional Chinese Medicine, especially for treating a variety of liver disorders. The present study aimed to evaluate the apoptotic effects of Lu-Do-Huang ethanol extract (LDHE) on Hep3B cells, a human hepatoma cell line. A variety of cellular assays, flow cytometry and immunoblotting were used. Our results showed that LDHE significantly inhibited Hep3B cells growth. Additionally, the cell cycle assay showed that LDHE prevented Hep3B cell entry into S phase and led to an arrest of Hep3B cells in the G₀/G₁ phase. LDHE induced Hep3B cells to undergo apoptosis as determined through Hep3B cell morphology changes, increase of apoptotic bodies, apoptotic cells, DNA fragmentations and caspase activity. We further examined the protein expression of TRADD, FADD, and Bax to verify the possible apoptotic pathways. The results indicated that LDHE-induced apoptosis in Hep3B cells might be mediated [corrected] by an extrinsic signaling pathway leading to an induction of apoptosis in Hep3B cells. In conclusion, LDHE induced apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in Hep3B cells. Our data provide the evidences regarding the anti-hepatoma potential of LDHE in Hep3B cells.

  10. THERMAL EMISSION AND TIDAL HEATING OF THE HEAVY AND ECCENTRIC PLANET XO-3b

    SciTech Connect

    Machalek, Pavel; Greene, Tom; McCullough, Peter R.; Burrows, Adam; Burke, Christopher J.; Hora, Joseph L.; Johns-Krull, Christopher M.; Deming, Drake L.

    2010-03-01

    We determined the flux ratios of the heavy and eccentric planet XO-3b to its parent star in the four Infrared Array Camera bands of the Spitzer Space Telescope: 0.101% +- 0.004% at 3.6 {mu}m; 0.143% +- 0.006% at 4.5 {mu}m; 0.134% +- 0.049% at 5.8 {mu}m; and 0.150% +- 0.036% at 8.0 {mu}m. The flux ratios are within [-2.2, 0.3, -0.8, and -1.7]sigma of the model of XO-3b with a thermally inverted stratosphere in the 3.6 {mu}m, 4.5 {mu}m, 5.8 {mu}m, and 8.0 {mu}m channels, respectively. XO-3b has a high illumination from its parent star (F{sub p} {approx} (1.9-4.2) x 10{sup 9} erg cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}) and is thus expected to have a thermal inversion, which we indeed observe. When combined with existing data for other planets, the correlation between the presence of an atmospheric temperature inversion and the substellar flux is insufficient to explain why some high insolation planets like TrES-3 do not have stratospheric inversions and some low insolation planets like XO-1b do have inversions. Secondary factors such as sulfur chemistry, atmospheric metallicity, amounts of macroscopic mixing in the stratosphere, or even dynamical weather effects likely play a role. Using the secondary eclipse timing centroids, we determined the orbital eccentricity of XO-3b as e = 0.277 +- 0.009. The model radius-age trajectories for XO-3b imply that at least some amount of tidal heating is required to inflate the radius of XO-3b, and the tidal heating parameter of the planet is constrained to Q{sub p} {approx}< 10{sup 6}.

  11. The new silver borate Ag{sub 3}B{sub 5}O{sub 9}

    SciTech Connect

    Sohr, Gerhard; Falkowski, Viktoria; Huppertz, Hubert

    2015-05-15

    Single crystals of Ag{sub 3}B{sub 5}O{sub 9} were obtained via high-pressure synthesis at 3 GPa and 600 °C, using a Walker-type multianvil high-pressure device. Ag{sub 3}B{sub 5}O{sub 9} crystalizes with a=674.7(2), b=943.5(2), c=1103.5(2) pm, V=0.7025(2) nm{sup 3}, and Z=4 in the noncentrosymmetric space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1} (no. 19). The orthorhombic structure was refined from 3740 independent reflections with R1=0.0496 and wR2=0.587 (all data). It is built up from infinite corner-sharing chains of BO{sub 4} tetrahedra along the a axis, which are interconnected by BO{sub 3} groups to form a network. In the structure, three crystallographically independent sites are occupied with Ag{sup +} cations exhibiting argentophillic interactions. The synthetic conditions as well as the results of the single crystal structure analysis are presented. - Graphical abstract: Noncentrosymmetric silver borate: During investigations in the system Ag–B–O, a new noncentrosymmetric silver borate Ag{sub 3}B{sub 5}O{sub 9} was discovered. The new structure type is built up from corner-sharing BO{sub 3} and BO{sub 4} groups, forming a network. Argentophillic interactions are clearly indicated by the Ag{sup +}⋯Ag{sup +} distances present in the structure. - Highlights: • A noncentrosymmetric borate Ag{sub 3}B{sub 5}O{sub 9} is accessible via high-pressure synthesis. • Ag{sub 3}B{sub 5}O{sub 9} is the second high-pressure silver borate. • Ag{sup +}⋯Ag{sup +} distances in Ag3B5O9 clearly indicate the presence of argentophillic interactions.

  12. Eukaryotic initiation factor 3C silencing inhibits cell proliferation and promotes apoptosis in human glioma.

    PubMed

    Hao, Jinmin; Wang, Zhiming; Wang, Yaowu; Liang, Zhaohui; Zhang, Xin; Zhao, Zongmao; Jiao, Baohua

    2015-06-01

    Eukaryotic initiation factor 3, subunit c (eIF3c), an oncogene overexpressed in human cancers, plays an important role in cell tumorigenesis and proliferation. However, studies assessing its function in gliomas are scarce. The present study evaluated for the first time, the role of eIF3c in gliomas. Immunohistochemistry was carried out to assess eIF3c expression in 95 human glioma samples and normal brain tissues. Then, the eIF3c mRNA levels were detected in tumor and normal brain specimens by quantitative RT-PCR. In addition, eIF3c mRNA levels were assessed in four glioma cell lines (U87, U251, A172 and U373) by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. The RNA interference (RNAi) technology was employed to knock down the eIF3c gene in the U251 cells. Western blot analysis, BrdU assay and flow cytometry were used to measure eIF3c protein levels, cell proliferation, cell apoptosis and cell cycle, respectively. The eIF3c protein was overexpressed in the human glioma specimens. In agreement, the eIF3c mRNA expression levels were significantly higher in the human glioma tissues compared with the normal brain samples (P<0.0001). In addition, eIF3c mRNA was detected in all the glioma cell lines. Silencing the eIF3c gene in the U251 cells by RNAi significantly suppressed cell proliferation (P<0.01) and increased apoptosis (P<0.01). Finally, a stark decrease was observed in the G1 phase cell number (P<0.01), while the S and G2 phase cells were significantly increased (P<0.01) after eIF3c knockdown. These findings suggest that eIF3c is overexpressed in human gliomas and essential for their proliferation and survival. Therefore, inhibiting eIF3c expression may constitute an effective therapy for human glioma.

  13. Photoelectrochemical CO2 reduction on 3C-SiC photoanode in aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Jun Tae; Iwasaki, Takayuki; Hatano, Mutsuko

    2015-04-01

    Photoelectrochemical (PEC) carbon dioxide (CO2) reduction on a 3C-SiC photoanode is demonstrated in aqueous solution with Pt and Ag counter electrodes. It is demonstrated that 3C-SiC has sufficient potential for CO2 reduction by confirming the band-edge structure. Then, the CO2 reduction is realized by connecting the 3C-SiC photoanode with the counter electrode. As the products of the PEC reaction with an applied bias of 1 V (vs counter electrode) to the 3C-SiC photoanode, hydrogen (H2) and carbon monoxide (CO) were analyzed by highly sensitive micro-gas chromatography, by which the time dependence of the gas products can be analyzed. Under light illumination of the 3C-SiC photoanode, CO2 reduction occurred while producing 2.5 and 9 nmol of CO gas with the Pt and Ag counter electrodes, respectively, after the reaction for 3000 s.

  14. Synthesis and photoluminescence properties of Ca3B2O6:Tb3+ nanophosphors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manhas, Mohit; Kumar, Vinay; Ntwaeaborwa, O. M.; Swart, H. C.

    2014-04-01

    The green light emitting Tb3+ doped Ca3B2O6 nanophosphors have been synthesized by combustion method at 600°C, and their luminescent properties have been studied. The formation of phosphors has been confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The photoluminescence (PL) spectra show four emission peaks at 491 nm, 544 nm, 587 and 621 nm. It exhibited a strong green emission located at 544 nm. The effect of different dopant concentrations on emission intensity has also been studied. The maximum photo emission intensity of the Ca3B2O6:Tb3+ was obtained at a dopant concentration of 1.5 mol% of Tb3+.

  15. Evaluation of T3B fingerprinting for identification of clinical and environmental Sporothrix species.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Manoel Marques Evangelista; Franco-Duarte, Ricardo; Romeo, Orazio; Pais, Célia; Criseo, Giuseppe; Sampaio, Paula; Zancope-Oliveira, Rosely Maria

    2015-03-01

    In this study, PCR fingerprinting using the universal primer T3B was applied to distinguish among clinical and environmental species of the Sporothrix complex, Sporothrix brasiliensis, S. globosa, S. mexicana, S. pallida, S. luriei and S. schenckii sensu stricto. The T3B fingerprinting generated clearly distinct banding patterns, allowing the correct identification of all 43 clinical and environmental isolates at the species level, what was confirmed by partial calmodulin gene sequence analyses. This technique is reproducible and provides the identification of all species of the Sporothrix complex with sufficient accuracy to be applied in clinical mycology laboratories as well as in epidemiological studies in order to obtain a better understanding of the epidemiology of sporotrichosis.

  16. Investigation on the decolorizing mechanism of Pseudomonas sp. R1 on reactive red X-3B.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Xinping; Zhang, Min; Li, Weihao; Li, Chang; Tang, Wenwei

    2014-01-01

    A strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Pseudomonas sp. R1), which can efficiently decolorize reactive red X-3B, was isolated from activated sludge in a dye plant, and the decolorizing mechanism was explored in this paper. The result shows that Pseudomonas sp. R1 has very good capability for decolorization of reactive red X-3B and the decolorization rate is increased by 9.1% after optimization of the experimental parameters, which means that 89.6% of the reactive red can be removed. Investigation on decolorization mechanism showed that the decolorizing capability of Pseudomonassp. R1 was significantly affected after plasmids in Pseudomonassp. R1 were eliminated by acridine orange (AO). Meanwhile, E. coli DH5a could gain decolorizing capability after transformed with the plasmids. Plasmid elimination and transformation tests proved that the decolorizing gene in Pseudomonas sp. R1 exists in the plasmid.

  17. Batch conversion of methane to methanol using Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b as biocatalyst.

    PubMed

    Hwang, In Yeub; Hur, Dong Hoon; Lee, Jae Hoon; Park, Chang-Ho; Chang, In Seop; Lee, Jin Won; Lee, Eun Yeol

    2015-03-01

    Recently, methane has attracted much attention as an alternative carbon feedstock since it is the major component of abundant shale and natural gas. In this work, we produced methanol from methane using whole cells of Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b as the biocatalyst. M. trichosporium OB3b was cultured on NMS medium with a supply of 7:3 air/methane ratio at 30°C. The optimal concentrations of various methanol dehydrogenase inhibitors such as potassium phosphate and EDTA were determined to be 100 and 0.5 mM, respectively, for an efficient production of methanol. Sodium formate (40 mM) as a reducing power source was added to enhance the conversion efficiency. A productivity of 49.0 mg/l·h, titer of 0.393 g methanol/l, and conversion of 73.8% (mol methanol/mol methane) were obtained under the optimized batch condition. PMID:25563419

  18. Sorption of wastewater containing reactive red X-3B on inorgano-organo pillared bentonite.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Xiu-qiong

    2006-04-01

    Bentonite is a kind of natural clay with good exchanging ability. By exchanging its interlamellar cations with various soluble cations, such as quaternary ammonium cations and inorganic metal ions, the properties of natural bentonite can be greatly improved. In this study, hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (HDTMA), CaCl(2), MgCl(2), FeCl(3), AlCl(3) were used as organic and inorganic pillared materials respectively to produce several kinds of Ca-, Mg-, Fe-, Al-organo pillared bentonites. Sorption of reactive red X-3B on them was studied to determine their potential application as sorbents in wastewater treatment. The results showed that these pillared bentonites had much improved sorption properties, and that the dye solutions' pH value had some effect on the performance of these inorgano-organo pillared bentonites. Isotherms of reactive X-3B on these pillared bentonites suggested a Langmuir-type sorption mechanism. PMID:16532535

  19. Crystal structure of DPF3b in complex with an acetylated histone peptide.

    PubMed

    Li, Weiguo; Zhao, Anthony; Tempel, Wolfram; Loppnau, Peter; Liu, Yanli

    2016-09-01

    Histone acetylation plays an important role in chromatin dynamics and is associated with active gene transcription. This modification is written by acetyltransferases, erased by histone deacetylases and read out by bromodomain containing proteins, and others such as tandem PHD fingers of DPF3b. Here we report the high resolution crystal structure of the tandem PHD fingers of DPF3b in complex with an H3K14ac peptide. In the complex structure, the histone peptide adopts an α-helical conformation, unlike previously observed by NMR, but similar to a previously reported MOZ-H3K14ac complex structure. Our crystal structure adds to existing evidence that points to the α-helix as a natural conformation of histone tails as they interact with histone-associated proteins. PMID:27402533

  20. RL10A-3-3B high mixture ratio qualification program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vogel, T.; Varella, D.; Smith, C.

    1987-01-01

    The results of the high mixture ratio qualification testing of the RL10 engine for the Shuttle/Centaur program are presented. The objective of the engine qualification test was to demonstrate the suitability of the RL10A-3-3B engine for space vehicle flight by subjecting it to the testing specified in RL10A-3-3B Model Specification Number 2295 dated February 1986. The applicable section of the specification is presented. Due to payload volume advantages which can be achieved by increasing the operating mixture ratio of the RL10, a decision was made to qualify the engine to run at a higher mixture ratio. A program was created to qualify the RL10 engine for operation at 15,000 pounds thrust and a nominal 6.0 to 1 mixture ratio. This model of the engine was designated the RL10A-3-3B. The qualification program included three test series as follows: (1) hardware durability and limits test in which the engine completed 23 firings and 4605.7 seconds with 1588.7 seconds at less than 6.6 mixture ratio; (2) preliminary qualification test in which the engine completed 26 firings and 5750 seconds; and (3) qualification test in which the engine completed 26 hot firings and 5693.4 seconds with 905.9 seconds at 6.7 mixture ratio. Several changes in engine hardware were required for operation of the RL10A-3-3B engine in the Space Shuttle which include a duel pressure switch ignition, an oxidizer flow control, and helium plumbing changes.

  1. The standards process: Technical committee X3B5 digital magnetic tape

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheatham, Sam

    1993-01-01

    The definition of X3B5, where it fits in the national and international standards development process, and how it interfaces and influences the world community of standards developers are provided. Details concerning the focus of the committee, how it operates, and what the group sees as the future trends in the area of interchange standards utilizing the multifaceted, ubiquitous magnetic tape are presented.

  2. Schwann Cells Metabolize Extracellular 2',3'-cAMP to 2'-AMP.

    PubMed

    Verrier, Jonathan D; Kochanek, Patrick M; Jackson, Edwin K

    2015-08-01

    The 3',5'-cAMP-adenosine pathway (3',5'-cAMP→5'-AMP→adenosine) and the 2',3'-cAMP-adenosine pathway (2',3'-cAMP→2'-AMP/3'-AMP→adenosine) are active in the brain. Oligodendrocytes participate in the brain 2',3'-cAMP-adenosine pathway via their robust expression of 2',3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase (CNPase; converts 2',3'-cAMP to 2'-AMP). Because Schwann cells also express CNPase, it is conceivable that the 2',3'-cAMP-adenosine pathway exists in the peripheral nervous system. To test this and to compare the 2',3'-cAMP-adenosine pathway to the 3',5'-cAMP-adenosine pathway in Schwann cells, we examined the metabolism of 2',3'-cAMP, 2'-AMP, 3'-AMP, 3',5'-cAMP, and 5'-AMP in primary rat Schwann cells in culture. Addition of 2',3'-cAMP (3, 10, and 30 µM) to Schwann cells increased levels of 2'-AMP in the medium from 0.006 ± 0.002 to 21 ± 2, 70 ± 3, and 187 ± 10 nM/µg protein, respectively; in contrast, Schwann cells had little ability to convert 2',3'-cAMP to 3'-AMP or 3',5'-cAMP to either 3'-AMP or 5'-AMP. Although Schwann cells slightly converted 2',3'-cAMP and 2'-AMP to adenosine, they did so at very modest rates (e.g., 5- and 3-fold, respectively, more slowly compared with our previously reported studies in oligodendrocytes). Using transected myelinated rat sciatic nerves in culture medium, we observed a time-related increase in endogenous intracellular 2',3'-cAMP and extracellular 2'-AMP. These findings indicate that Schwann cells do not have a robust 3',5'-cAMP-adenosine pathway but do have a 2',3'-cAMP-adenosine pathway; however, because the pathway mostly involves 2'-AMP formation rather than 3'-AMP, and because the conversion of 2'-AMP to adenosine is slow, metabolism of 2',3'-cAMP mostly results in the accumulation of 2'-AMP. Accumulation of 2'-AMP in peripheral nerves postinjury could have pathophysiological consequences. PMID:25998049

  3. MiR-221 promotes stemness of breast cancer cells by targeting DNMT3b

    PubMed Central

    Roscigno, Giuseppina; Quintavalle, Cristina; Donnarumma, Elvira; Puoti, Ilaria; Diaz-Lagares, Angel; Iaboni, Margherita; Fiore, Danilo; Russo, Valentina; Todaro, Matilde; Romano, Giulia; Thomas, Renato; Cortino, Giuseppina; Gaggianesi, Miriam; Esteller, Manel; Croce, Carlo M.; Condorelli, Gerolama

    2016-01-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are a small part of the heterogeneous tumor cell population possessing self-renewal and multilineage differentiation potential as well as a great ability to sustain tumorigenesis. The molecular pathways underlying CSC phenotype are not yet well characterized. MicroRNAs (miRs) are small noncoding RNAs that play a powerful role in biological processes. Early studies have linked miRs to the control of self-renewal and differentiation in normal and cancer stem cells. We aimed to study the functional role of miRs in human breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs), also named mammospheres. We found that miR-221 was upregulated in BCSCs compared to their differentiated counterpart. Similarly, mammospheres from T47D cells had an increased level of miR-221 compared to differentiated cells. Transfection of miR-221 in T47D cells increased the number of mammospheres and the expression of stem cell markers. Among miR-221's targets, we identified DNMT3b. Furthermore, in BCSCs we found that DNMT3b repressed the expression of various stemness genes, such as Nanog and Oct 3/4, acting on the methylation of their promoters, partially reverting the effect of miR-221 on stemness. We hypothesize that miR-221 contributes to breast cancer tumorigenicity by regulating stemness, at least in part through the control of DNMT3b expression. PMID:26556862

  4. Photoluminescence and thermoluminescence characteristics of Sr3 B2 O6 :Eu(2+) yellow phosphor.

    PubMed

    Ho Van, Tuyen; Nguyen Manh, Son; Vu Xuan, Quang; Bounyavong, Sengthong

    2016-08-01

    Sr3 B2 O6 :Eu(2+) yellow phosphor was prepared by the combustion method. The crystalline structure, photoluminescence and thermoluminescence properties of Sr3 B2 O6 :Eu(2+) were investigated extensively. The X-ray diffraction result indicates that the Sr3 B2 O6 :Eu(2+) phosphor exhibited a rhombohedral crystal structure. The emission spectra under a 435 nm excited wavelength showed an intense broad band peaking at 574 nm, which corresponds to the 4f(6) 5d(1) → 4f(7) transition of Eu(2+) ion. There were two different sites of Sr replaced by Eu in host lattice. The concentration quenching process between Eu(2+) ions is determined and the corresponding concentration quenching mechanism was verified as dipole-quadrupole interaction. The glow curve under 3 Gy β- ray irradiation had the glow peak at 160°C and the average activation energy was defined as about 0.98 eV. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Chemical synthesis of Nd2Fe14B/Fe3B nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, L. Q.; Zhang, Y. P.; Yang, Z.; He, J. D.; Dong, K. T.; Hou, Y.

    2016-06-01

    High exchange-coupled Nd2Fe14B/Fe3B nanocomposites were synthesized by an integrative procedure of thermal decomposition and reductive annealing processes. The molar ratio of the resulting products of Nd/Fe/B can be tuned by adjusting the raw material proportion. The as-prepared nanocomposites exhibited an exchanged coupled effect with a large coercivity of 11 100 Gs, enhanced remanence Mr of 42.0 emu g-1, and Mr/M3T of 0.59.High exchange-coupled Nd2Fe14B/Fe3B nanocomposites were synthesized by an integrative procedure of thermal decomposition and reductive annealing processes. The molar ratio of the resulting products of Nd/Fe/B can be tuned by adjusting the raw material proportion. The as-prepared nanocomposites exhibited an exchanged coupled effect with a large coercivity of 11 100 Gs, enhanced remanence Mr of 42.0 emu g-1, and Mr/M3T of 0.59. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental details, XPS spectra of α-Fe@Fe3B nanoalloys and SEM images and EDS for nanocomposites. See DOI: 10.1039/c6nr03172b

  6. Thermoluminescent responses of Li3B7O12:Cu to proton beam.

    PubMed

    Koba, Y; Shinsho, K; Tamatsu, S; Fukuda, S; Wakabayashi, G

    2014-10-01

    A thermoluminescent (TL) phosphor Li3B7O12:Cu was irradiated by a proton beam at NIRS-HIMAC in Japan. Irradiation was performed at different water-equivalent depths using range shifters made of polymethyl methacrylate. The thermoluminescent responses of Li3B7O12:Cu were analysed, focusing on the TL efficiency and glow curve. The irradiated samples were heated from room temperature to 200°C at 0.16°C s(-1). The high-temperature area of the glow curve under proton irradiation changed in comparison with that under (60)Co gamma-ray irradiation. The relative TL efficiency of the main peak slightly varied between 0.8 and 1.1. The relationship between the relative TL efficiency of the main peak and the high-temperature area ratio (HTR) value, the relative TL ratio of the main peak to the high-temperature area, showed approximate linearity for proton dosimetry. Using correction based on the HTR method, the TL phosphor Li3B7O12:Cu can become a useful dosimetric tool for therapeutic proton beams. PMID:24759914

  7. APOBEC3B: pathological consequences of an innate immune DNA mutator.

    PubMed

    Burns, Michael B; Leonard, Brandon; Harris, Reuben S

    2015-01-01

    Cancer is a disease that results from alterations in the cellular genome. Several recent studies have identified mutational signatures that implicate a variety of mutagenic processes in cancer, a major one of which is explained by the enzymatic activity of the DNA cytosine deaminase, APOBEC3B. As a deaminase, APOBEC3B converts cytosines to uracils in single-stranded DNA. Failure to properly repair these uracil lesions can result in a diverse array of mutations. For instance, DNA uracils can template the insertion of complementary adenines leading to C-to-T transition mutations. DNA uracils can also be converted into abasic sites that, depending upon the DNA polymerase recruited to bypass this lesion in the template strand, can lead to adenine insertion and C-to-T mutations as well as cytosine insertion and C-to-G transversion mutations. Finally, DNA uracils can also be converted into DNA breaks that may precipitate some types of larger chromosomal aberrations observed in cancer. These studies cumulatively demonstrate that APOBEC3B is a major source of genetic heterogeneity in several human cancers and, as such, this enzyme may prove to be a critical diagnostic and therapeutic target.

  8. Copper-responsive gene expression in the methanotroph Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b.

    PubMed

    Kenney, Grace E; Sadek, Monica; Rosenzweig, Amy C

    2016-09-01

    Methanotrophic bacteria convert methane to methanol using methane monooxygenase (MMO) enzymes. In many strains, either an iron-containing soluble (sMMO) or a copper-containing particulate (pMMO) enzyme can be produced depending on copper availability; the mechanism of this copper switch has not been elucidated. A key player in methanotroph copper homeostasis is methanobactin (Mbn), a ribosomally produced, post-translationally modified natural product with a high affinity for copper. The Mbn precursor peptide is encoded within an operon that contains a range of putative transporters, regulators, and biosynthetic proteins, but the involvement of these genes in Mbn-related processes remains unclear. Extensive time-dependent qRT-PCR studies of Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b and the constitutive sMMO-producing mutant M. trichosporium OB3b PP358 show that the Mbn operon is indeed copper-regulated, providing experimental support for its bioinformatics-based identification. Moreover, the Mbn operon is co-regulated with the sMMO operon and reciprocally regulated with the pMMO operon. Within the Mbn and sMMO operons, a subset of regulatory genes exhibits a distinct and shared pattern of expression, consistent with their proposed functions as internal regulators. In addition, genome sequencing of the M. trichosporium OB3b PP358 mutant provides new evidence for the involvement of genes adjacent to the pMMO operon in methanotroph copper homeostasis.

  9. Photoluminescence and thermoluminescence characteristics of Sr3 B2 O6 :Eu(2+) yellow phosphor.

    PubMed

    Ho Van, Tuyen; Nguyen Manh, Son; Vu Xuan, Quang; Bounyavong, Sengthong

    2016-08-01

    Sr3 B2 O6 :Eu(2+) yellow phosphor was prepared by the combustion method. The crystalline structure, photoluminescence and thermoluminescence properties of Sr3 B2 O6 :Eu(2+) were investigated extensively. The X-ray diffraction result indicates that the Sr3 B2 O6 :Eu(2+) phosphor exhibited a rhombohedral crystal structure. The emission spectra under a 435 nm excited wavelength showed an intense broad band peaking at 574 nm, which corresponds to the 4f(6) 5d(1) → 4f(7) transition of Eu(2+) ion. There were two different sites of Sr replaced by Eu in host lattice. The concentration quenching process between Eu(2+) ions is determined and the corresponding concentration quenching mechanism was verified as dipole-quadrupole interaction. The glow curve under 3 Gy β- ray irradiation had the glow peak at 160°C and the average activation energy was defined as about 0.98 eV. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26669720

  10. Zebrafish Tshz3b negatively regulates Hox function in the developing hindbrain.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Timothy; Pillay, Laura M; Waskiewicz, Andrew J

    2011-09-01

    In flies, the zinc-finger protein Teashirt promotes trunk segmental identities, in part, by repressing the expression and function of anterior hox paralog group (PG) 1-4 genes that specify head fates. Anterior-posterior patterning of the vertebrate hindbrain also requires Hox PG 1-4 function, but the role of vertebrate teashirt-related genes in this process has not been investigated. In this work, we use overexpression and structure-function analyses to show that zebrafish tshz3b antagonizes Hox-dependent hindbrain segmentation. Ectopic Tshz3b perturbs the specification of rhombomere identities and leads to the caudal expansion of r1, the only rhombomere whose identity is specified independently of Hox function. This overexpression phenotype does not require the homeodomain and C-terminal zinc fingers that are unique to vertebrate Teashirt-related proteins, but does require that Tshz3b function as a repressor. Together, these results argue that the negative regulation of Hox PG 1-4 function is a conserved characteristic of Teashirt-related proteins.

  11. Copper-responsive gene expression in the methanotroph Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b.

    PubMed

    Kenney, Grace E; Sadek, Monica; Rosenzweig, Amy C

    2016-09-01

    Methanotrophic bacteria convert methane to methanol using methane monooxygenase (MMO) enzymes. In many strains, either an iron-containing soluble (sMMO) or a copper-containing particulate (pMMO) enzyme can be produced depending on copper availability; the mechanism of this copper switch has not been elucidated. A key player in methanotroph copper homeostasis is methanobactin (Mbn), a ribosomally produced, post-translationally modified natural product with a high affinity for copper. The Mbn precursor peptide is encoded within an operon that contains a range of putative transporters, regulators, and biosynthetic proteins, but the involvement of these genes in Mbn-related processes remains unclear. Extensive time-dependent qRT-PCR studies of Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b and the constitutive sMMO-producing mutant M. trichosporium OB3b PP358 show that the Mbn operon is indeed copper-regulated, providing experimental support for its bioinformatics-based identification. Moreover, the Mbn operon is co-regulated with the sMMO operon and reciprocally regulated with the pMMO operon. Within the Mbn and sMMO operons, a subset of regulatory genes exhibits a distinct and shared pattern of expression, consistent with their proposed functions as internal regulators. In addition, genome sequencing of the M. trichosporium OB3b PP358 mutant provides new evidence for the involvement of genes adjacent to the pMMO operon in methanotroph copper homeostasis. PMID:27087171

  12. Punctate LC3B expression is a common feature of solid tumors and associated with proliferation, metastasis and poor outcome

    PubMed Central

    Lazova, Rossitza; Camp, Robert L.; Klump, Vincent; Siddiqui, Summar F.; Amaravadi, Ravi K.; Pawelek, John M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Measurement of autophagy in cancer and correlation with histopathologic grading or clinical outcomes has been limited. Accordingly, we investigated LC3B as an autophagosome marker by analyzing nearly 1400 tumors from 20 types of cancer, focussing on correlations with clinical outcomes in melanoma and breast cancer. Experimental Design Staining protocols were developed for automated quantitative analysis (AQUA) using antibodies vs LC3 isoform B (LC3B) and Ki-67. Clinically annotated breast and melanoma TMA’s and a multitumor array were employed. An AQUA program was developed to quantitate LC3B distribution in punctate and diffuse compartments of the cell. Results LC3B staining was moderate to high in the large majority of tumors. The % area occupied by punctate LC3B was elevated 3–5 fold at high LC3B intensities. In breast cancer and melanoma TMAs, LC3B and Ki-67 showed strong correlations (p < 0.0001) and in multitumor TMAs mitotic figures were most often seen in tumors with highest LC3B expression (p < 0.002). In breast cancer, LC3B expression was elevated in node-positive vs node-negative primaries and associated with increased nuclear grade and shortened survival. In a melanoma TMA with no survival data, LC3B levels were highest in nodal, visceral and cutaneous metastases. Conclusions The results reveal a common expression of LC3B in malignancy and support emerging evidence that autophagy plays a significant role in cancer progression. High LC3B was associated proliferation, invasion and metastasis, high nuclear grade and worse outcome. Thus autophagy presents a key target of therapeutic vulnerability in solid tumors. PMID:22080440

  13. Antiferromagnetic resonance in the Mott insulator fcc-Cs3C60.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Yuta; Shibasaki, Seiji; Kubozono, Yoshihiro; Kambe, Takashi

    2013-09-11

    The magnetic ground state of the fcc phase of the Mott insulator Cs3C60 was studied using a low-temperature electron spin resonance technique, and antiferromagnetic resonance (AFMR) below 1.57 K was directly observed at ambient pressure. The AFMR modes for the fcc phase of Cs3C60 were investigated using a conventional two-sublattice model with uniaxial anisotropy, and the spin-flop field was determined to be 4.7 kOe at 1.57 K. The static magnetic exchange interactions and anisotropy field for fcc-Cs3C60 were also estimated.

  14. Structural Basis for Molecular Discrimination by a 3',3'-cGAMP Sensing Riboswitch

    SciTech Connect

    Ren, Aiming; Wang, Xin  C.; Kellenberger, Colleen  A.; Rajashankar, Kanagalaghatta  R.; Jones, Roger  A.; Hammond, Ming  C.; Patel, Dinshaw  J.

    2015-04-07

    Cyclic dinucleotides are second messengers that target the adaptor STING and stimulate the innate immune response in mammals. Besides protein receptors, there are bacterial riboswitches that selectively recognize cyclic dinucleotides. We recently discovered a natural riboswitch that targets 3',3'-cGAMP, which is distinguished from the endogenous mammalian signal 2',3'-cGAMP by its backbone connectivity. Here, we report on structures of the aptamer domain of the 3',3'-cGAMP riboswitch from Geobacter in the 3',3'-cGAMP and c-di-GMP bound states. The riboswitch adopts a tuning forklike architecture with a junctional ligand-binding pocket and different orientations of the arms are correlated with the identity of the bound cyclic dinucleotide. Subsequent biochemical experiments revealed that specificity of ligand recognition can be affected by point mutations outside of the binding pocket, which has implications for both the assignment and reengineering of riboswitches in this structural class.

  15. Are 3C 120 and Other Active Galactic Nuclei Overweight Microquasars?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marscher, Alan P.

    2005-11-01

    The appearance of superluminal radio knots follows drops in the X-ray flux in the FR1 radio galaxy 3C 120 and possibly the FR2 source 3C 111. This corresponds in a very general way to the behavior of the X-ray binary GRS 1915 + 105, but the light curves of the microquasar are much richer in detail. Starting in 2003.7, the character of the radio and X-ray light curves of 3C 120 changed, perhaps signaling a new stage of activity. I discuss here what one might expect when a microquasar is scaled up to AGN dimensions, and compare this with what we see in 3C 120. There is a mismatch between expectations and observations.

  16. Regio- and stereoselective Pd-catalyzed direct arylation of unactivated sp(3) C(3)-H bonds of tetrahydrofuran and 1,4-benzodioxane systems.

    PubMed

    Parella, Ramarao; Babu, Srinivasarao Arulananda

    2015-02-20

    An auxiliary-enabled Pd-catalyzed highly regio- and stereoselective sp(3) C-H activation and the direct arylation of the C3-position of oxygen heterocycles, such as tetrahydrofuran and 1,4-benzodioxane systems, are reported. An efficient stereoselective construction of cis 2,3-disubstituted tetrahydrofuran derivatives (analogues of norlignans) and cis 2,3-disubstituted 1,4-benzodioxane derivatives (analogues of neolignans) is described. The direct C(sp(3))-H arylation of the C3-position of (R)- or (S)- tetrahydrofuran-2-carboxamides furnished the corresponding (2R,3R) and (2S,3S) C3-arylated THF scaffolds as major compounds with very high regio- and diastereoselectivities. The stereochemistry of the products obtained in this work were unambiguously assigned on the basis of the X-ray structure analyses of representative compounds 3b, 3e, 4p, and 7.

  17. Target Cell APOBEC3C Can Induce Limited G-to-A Mutation in HIV-1

    PubMed Central

    Bourara, Khaoula; Liegler, Teri J; Grant, Robert M

    2007-01-01

    The evolutionary success of primate lentiviruses reflects their high capacity to mutate and adapt to new host species, immune responses within individual hosts, and, in recent years, antiviral drugs. APOBEC3G (A3G) and APOBEC3F (A3F) are host cell DNA-editing enzymes that induce extensive HIV-1 mutation that severely attenuates viral replication. The HIV-1 virion infectivity factor (Vif), expressed in vivo, counteracts the antiviral activity of A3G and A3F by inducing their degradation. Other APOBECs may contribute more to viral diversity by inducing less extensive mutations allowing viral replication to persist. Here we show that in APOBEC3C (A3C)-expressing cells infected with the patient-derived HIV-1 molecular clones 210WW, 210WM, 210MW, and 210MM, and the lab-adapted molecular clone LAI, viral G-to-A mutations were detected in the presence of Vif expression. Mutations occurred primarily in the GA context and were relatively infrequent, thereby allowing for spreading infection. The mutations were absent in cells lacking A3C but were induced after transient expression of A3C in the infected target cell. Inhibiting endogenous A3C by RNA interference in Magi cells prevented the viral mutations. Thus, A3C is necessary and sufficient for G-to-A mutations in some HIV-1 strains. A3C-induced mutations occur at levels that allow replication to persist and may therefore contribute to viral diversity. Developing drugs that inhibit A3C may be a novel strategy for delaying viral escape from immune or antiretroviral inhibition. PMID:17967058

  18. AN ASYMMETRICAL SYNCHROTRON MODEL FOR KNOTS IN THE 3C 273 JET

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Wen-Po; Chen, Y. J.; Wang, Chun-Cheng

    2015-06-20

    To interpret the emission of knots in the 3C 273 jet from radio to X-rays, we propose a synchrotron model in which, owing to the shock compression effect, the injection spectra from a shock into the upstream and downstream emission regions are asymmetric. Our model could well explain the spectral energy distributions of knots in the 3C 273 jet, and predictions regarding the knots’ spectra could be tested by future observations.

  19. Picornaviral 3C cysteine proteinases have a fold similar to the chymotrypsin-like serine proteinases

    SciTech Connect

    Allaire,M.; Chernaia, M.; Malcolm, B.; James, M.

    1994-01-01

    The picornavirus family includes several pathogens such as poliovirus, rhinovirus (the major cause of the common cold), hepatitis A virus and the foot-and-mouth disease virus. Picornaviral proteins are expressed by direct translation of the genomic RNA into a single, large polyprotein precursor. Proteolysis of the viral polyprotein into the mature proteins is assured by the viral 3C enzymes, which are cysteine proteinases. Here we report the X-ray crystal structure at 2.3 {angstrom} resolution of the 3C proteinase from hepatitis A virus (HAV-3C). The overall architecture of HAV-3C reveals a fold resembling that of the chymotrypsin family of serine proteinases, which is consistent with earlier predictions. Catalytic residues include Cys 172 as nucleophile and His 44 as general base. The 3C cleavage specificity for glutamine residues is defined primarily by His 191. The overall structure suggests that an inter-molecular (trans) cleavage releases 3C and that there is an active proteinase in the polyprotein.

  20. Diabetes mellitus secondary to pancreatic diseases (Type 3c)--are we neglecting an important disease?

    PubMed

    Ewald, Nils; Bretzel, Reinhard G

    2013-04-01

    Type 3c diabetes mellitus (T3cDM) is a clinically relevant condition with a prevalence of 5-10% among all diabetic subjects in Western populations. Its prevalence and clinical importance have been underestimated and underappreciated so far. In contrast to the management of type 1 or type 2 diabetes, the endocrinopathy in T3cDM is very complex and complicated by additional present comorbidities such as maldigestion and concommitant qualitative malnutrition. The failure to correctly diagnose T3cDM leads to failure to implement an appropriate medical therapy of these patients. Physicians should screen for important and easily reversable pathological conditions such as exocrine insufficiency, lack of fat-soluble vitamins (especially vitamin D) and impairment of fat hydrolysis and incretin secretion which are found very commonly in T3cDM. Since most patients with T3cDM suffer from chronic pancreatitis, physicians must additionally be aware of the elevated risk of pancreatic cancer in this subset of patients.

  1. Cleavage of interferon regulatory factor 7 by enterovirus 71 3C suppresses cellular responses.

    PubMed

    Lei, Xiaobo; Xiao, Xia; Xue, Qinghua; Jin, Qi; He, Bin; Wang, Jianwei

    2013-02-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a positive-stranded RNA virus which is capable of inhibiting innate immunity. Among virus-encoded proteins, the 3C protein compromises the type I interferon (IFN-I) response mediated by retinoid acid-inducible gene-I (RIG-I) or Toll-like receptor 3 that activates interferon regulatory 3 (IRF3) and IRF7. In the present study, we report that enterovirus 71 downregulates IRF7 through the 3C protein, which inhibits the function of IRF7. When expressed in mammalian cells, the 3C protein mediates cleavage of IRF7 rather than that of IRF3. This process is insensitive to inhibitors of caspase, proteasome, lysosome, and autophagy. H40D substitution in the 3C active site abolishes its activity, whereas R84Q or V154S substitution in the RNA binding motif has no effect. Furthermore, 3C-mediated cleavage occurs at the Q189-S190 junction within the constitutive activation domain of IRF7, resulting in two cleaved IRF7 fragments that are incapable of activating IFN expression. Ectopic expression of wild-type IRF7 limits EV71 replication. On the other hand, expression of the amino-terminal domain of IRF7 enhances EV71 infection, which correlates with its ability to interact with and inhibit IRF3. These results suggest that control of IRF7 by the 3C protein may represent a viral mechanism to escape cellular responses. PMID:23175366

  2. Synthesis and electrochemical performance of Ti3C2Tx with hydrothermal process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Libo; Zhang, Heng; Wang, Bo; Shen, Changjie; Zhang, Chuanxiang; Hu, Qianku; Zhou, Aiguo; Liu, Baozhong

    2016-09-01

    In this study, a simple hydrothermal method has been developed to prepare Ti3C2Tx from Ti3AlC2 as a high-performance electrode material for supercapacitors. This method is environmentally friendly and has a low level of danger. The morphology and structure of the Ti3C2Tx can be controlled by hydrothermal reaction time, temperature and NH4F amounts. The prepared Ti3C2Tx was characterized by X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Brunauer-Emmet-Teller. The results show that the prepared Ti3C2Tx is terminated by O, OH, and F groups. The electrochemical properties of the Ti3C2Tx sample exhibit specific capacitance up to 141 Fcm-3 in 3 M KOH aqueous electrolyte, and even after 1000 cycles, no significant degradation of the volumetric capacitance was observed. These results indicate that the Ti3C2Tx material prepared by this hydrothermal method can be used in high performance supercapacitors.

  3. Binary WC- and Cr3C2-containing hardmetal compositions for thermally sprayed coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, L.-M.

    2016-03-01

    Compositions of thermally sprayed hardmetal coatings for wear protection are based on the hard materials WC and Cr3C2 with Co and Ni as the most important binders, which are often alloyed with Cr. There are a few commercial compositions containing WC and Cr3C2 together, which have a high potential for the improvement of coating properties, in particular for service in corrosive environments and high temperature applications. However, the combined application of WC and Cr3C2 in the coating compositions leads to very complex reactions between these components both during feedstock powder preparation and the spray process. This contribution summarizes the knowledge about the interactions of WC and Cr3C2 for the most important commercially available compositions: WC-10Co-4Cr, WC-20‘CrC’-7Ni, 45Cr3C2- 37WC-18NiCo. These three compositions show remarkable differences of the interaction between WC and Cr3C2 and the coating properties.

  4. Synthesis and electrochemical performance of Ti3C2Tx with hydrothermal process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Libo; Zhang, Heng; Wang, Bo; Shen, Changjie; Zhang, Chuanxiang; Hu, Qianku; Zhou, Aiguo; Liu, Baozhong

    2016-08-01

    In this study, a simple hydrothermal method has been developed to prepare Ti3C2Tx from Ti3AlC2 as a high-performance electrode material for supercapacitors. This method is environmentally friendly and has a low level of danger. The morphology and structure of the Ti3C2Tx can be controlled by hydrothermal reaction time, temperature and NH4F amounts. The prepared Ti3C2Tx was characterized by X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Brunauer-Emmet-Teller. The results show that the prepared Ti3C2Tx is terminated by O, OH, and F groups. The electrochemical properties of the Ti3C2Tx sample exhibit specific capacitance up to 141 Fcm-3 in 3 M KOH aqueous electrolyte, and even after 1000 cycles, no significant degradation of the volumetric capacitance was observed. These results indicate that the Ti3C2Tx material prepared by this hydrothermal method can be used in high performance supercapacitors. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  5. Atomic-scale recognition of surface structure and intercalation mechanism of Ti3C2X.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xuefeng; Shen, Xi; Gao, Yurui; Wang, Zhaoxiang; Yu, Richeng; Chen, Liquan

    2015-02-25

    MXenes represent a large family of functionalized two-dimensional (2D) transition-metal carbides and carbonitrides. However, most of the understanding on their unique structures and applications stops at the theoretical suggestion and lack of experimental support. Herein, the surface structure and intercalation chemistry of Ti3C2X are clarified at the atomic scale by aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The STEM studies show that the functional groups (e.g., OH(-), F(-), O(-)) and the intercalated sodium (Na) ions prefer to stay on the top sites of the centro-Ti atoms and the C atoms of the Ti3C2 monolayer, respectively. Double Na-atomic layers are found within the Ti3C2X interlayer upon extensive Na intercalation via two-phase transition and solid-solution reactions. In addition, aluminum (Al)-ion intercalation leads to horizontal sliding of the Ti3C2X monolayer. On the basis of these observations, the previous monolayer surface model of Ti3C2X is modified. DFT calculations using the new modeling help to understand more about their physical and chemical properties. These findings enrich the understanding of the MXenes and shed light on future material design and applications. Moreover, the Ti3C2X exhibits prominent rate performance and long-term cycling stability as an anode material for Na-ion batteries. PMID:25688582

  6. LC3B is indispensable for selective autophagy of p62 but not basal autophagy

    SciTech Connect

    Maruyama, Yoko; Sou, Yu-Shin; Kageyama, Shun; Takahashi, Takao; Ueno, Takashi; Tanaka, Keiji; Komatsu, Masaaki; Ichimura, Yoshinobu

    2014-03-28

    Highlights: • Knockdown of LC3 or GABARAP families did not affect the basal autophagy. • LC3B has a higher affinity for the autophagy-specific substrate, p62, than GABARAPs. • siRNA-mediated knockdown of LC3B, but not that of GABARAPs, resulted in significant accumulation of p62. - Abstract: Autophagy is a unique intracellular protein degradation system accompanied by autophagosome formation. Besides its important role through bulk degradation in supplying nutrients, this system has an ability to degrade certain proteins, organelles, and invading bacteria selectively to maintain cellular homeostasis. In yeasts, Atg8p plays key roles in both autophagosome formation and selective autophagy based on its membrane fusion property and interaction with autophagy adaptors/specific substrates. In contrast to the single Atg8p in yeast, mammals have 6 homologs of Atg8p comprising LC3 and GABARAP families. However, it is not clear these two families have different or similar functions. The aim of this study was to determine the separate roles of LC3 and GABARAP families in basal/constitutive and/or selective autophagy. While the combined knockdown of LC3 and GABARAP families caused a defect in long-lived protein degradation through lysosomes, knockdown of each had no effect on the degradation. Meanwhile, knockdown of LC3B but not GABARAPs resulted in significant accumulation of p62/Sqstm1, one of the selective substrate for autophagy. Our results suggest that while mammalian Atg8 homologs are functionally redundant with regard to autophagosome formation, selective autophagy is regulated by specific Atg8 homologs.

  7. Comparative proteomic analysis of drug sodium iron chlorophyllin addition to Hep 3B cell line.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jun; Wang, Wenhai; Yang, Fengying; Zhou, Xinwen; Jin, Hong; Yang, Peng-yuan

    2012-09-21

    The human hepatoma 3B cell line was chosen as an experimental model for in vitro test of drug screening. The drugs included chlorophyllin and its derivatives such as fluo-chlorophyllin, sodium copper chlorophyllin, and sodium iron chlorophyllin. The 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) method was used in this study to obtain the primary screening results. The results showed that sodium iron chlorophyllin had the best LC(50) value. Proteomic analysis was then performed for further investigation of the effect of sodium iron chlorophyllin addition to the Hep 3B cell line. The proteins identified from a total protein extract of Hep 3B before and after the drug addition were compared by two-dimensional-gel-electrophoresis. Then 32 three-fold differentially expressed proteins were successfully identified by MALDI-TOF-TOF-MS. There are 29 unique proteins among those identified proteins. These proteins include proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), T-complex protein, heterogeneous nuclear protein, nucleophosmin, heat shock protein A5 (HspA5) and peroxiredoxin. HspA5 is one of the proteins which are involved in protecting cancer cells against stress-induced apoptosis in cultured cells, protecting them against apoptosis through various mechanisms. Peroxiredoxin has anti-oxidant function and is related to cell proliferation, and signal transduction. It can protect the oxidation of other proteins. Peroxiredoxin has a close relationship with cancer and can eventually become a disease biomarker. This might help to develop a novel treatment method for carcinoma cancer.

  8. Birefringence Bragg Binary (3B) grating, quasi-Bragg grating and immersion gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebizuka, Noboru; Morita, Shin-ya; Yamagata, Yutaka; Sasaki, Minoru; Bianco, Andorea; Tanabe, Ayano; Hashimoto, Nobuyuki; Hirahara, Yasuhiro; Aoki, Wako

    2014-07-01

    A volume phase holographic (VPH) grating achieves high angular dispersion and very high diffraction efficiency for the first diffraction order and for S or P polarization. However the VPH grating could not achieve high diffraction efficiency for non-polarized light at a large diffraction angle because properties of diffraction efficiencies for S and P polarizations are different. Furthermore diffraction efficiency of the VPH grating extinguishes toward a higher diffraction order. A birefringence binary Bragg (3B) grating is a thick transmission grating with optically anisotropic material such as lithium niobate or liquid crystal. The 3B grating achieves diffraction efficiency up to 100% for non-polarized light by tuning of refractive indices for S and P polarizations, even in higher diffraction orders. We fabricated 3B grating with liquid crystal and evaluated the performance of the liquid crystal grating. A quasi-Bragg (QB) grating, which consists long rectangle mirrors aligned in parallel precisely such as a window shade, also achieves high diffraction efficiency toward higher orders. We fabricated QB grating by laminating of silica glass substrates and glued by pressure fusion of gold films. A quasi-Bragg immersion (QBI) grating has smooth mirror hypotenuse and reflector array inside the hypotenuse, instead of step-like grooves of a conventional immersion grating. An incident beam of the QBI grating reflects obliquely at a reflector, then reflects vertically at the mirror surface and reflects again at the same reflector. We are going to fabricate QBI gratings by laminating of mirror plates as similar to fabrication of the QB grating. We will also fabricate silicon and germanium immersion gratings with conventional step-like grooves by means of the latest diamond machining methods. We introduce characteristics and performance of these gratings.

  9. SPITZER IMAGING OF THE NEARBY RICH YOUNG CLUSTER, Cep OB3b

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, Thomas S.; Kryukova, Erin; Thomas Megeath, S.; Gutermuth, Robert A.; Pipher, Judith L.; Naylor, Tim; Jeffries, R. D.; Wolk, Scott J.; Spitzbart, Brad; Muzerolle, James

    2012-05-10

    We map the full extent of a rich massive young cluster in the Cep OB3b association with the Infrared Array Camera and Multi-band Imaging Photometer System instruments aboard the Spitzer Space Telescope and the ACIS instrument aboard the Chandra X-Ray Observatory. At 700 pc, it is revealed to be the second nearest large (>1000 member), young (<5 Myr) cluster known. In contrast to the nearest large cluster, the Orion Nebula Cluster, Cep OB3b is only lightly obscured and is mostly located in a large cavity carved out of the surrounding molecular cloud. Our infrared and X-ray data sets, as well as visible photometry from the literature, are used to take a census of the young stars in Cep OB3b. We find that the young stars within the cluster are concentrated in two sub-clusters; an eastern sub-cluster, near the Cep B molecular clump, and a western sub-cluster, near the Cep F molecular clump. Using our census of young stars, we examine the fraction of young stars with infrared excesses indicative of circumstellar disks. We create a map of the disk fraction throughout the cluster and find that it is spatially variable. Due to these spatial variations, the two sub-clusters exhibit substantially different average disk fractions from each other: 32% {+-} 4% and 50% {+-} 6%. We discuss whether the discrepant disk fractions are due to the photodestruction of disks by the high mass members of the cluster or whether they result from differences in the ages of the sub-clusters. We conclude that the discrepant disk fractions are most likely due to differences in the ages.

  10. Stimulus-Rate Sensitivity Discerns Area 3b of the Human Primary Somatosensory Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Hlushchuk, Yevhen; Simões-Franklin, Cristina; Nangini, Cathy; Hari, Riitta

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that the hemodynamic response of the primary somatosensory cortex (SI) to electrical median nerve stimulation doubles in strength when the stimulus rate (SR) increases from 1 to 5 Hz. Here we investigated whether such sensitivity to SR is homogenous within the functionally different subareas of the SI cortex, and whether SR sensitivity would help discern area 3b among the other SI subareas. We acquired 3-tesla functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data from nine healthy adults who received pneumotactile stimuli in 25-s blocks to three right-hand fingers, either at 1, 4, or 10 Hz. The main contrast (all stimulations pooled vs. baseline), applied to the whole brain, first limited the search to the whole SI cortex. The conjunction of SR-sensitive contrasts [4 Hz − 1 Hz] > 0 and [10 Hz − 1 Hz] > 0 ([4Hz − 1Hz] + [10Hz − 1Hz] > 0), applied to the SI cluster, then revealed an anterior-ventral subcluster that reacted more strongly to both 10-Hz and 4-Hz stimuli than to the 1-Hz stimuli. No other SR-sensitive clusters were found at the group-level in the whole-brain analysis. The site of the SR-sensitive SI subcluster corresponds to the canonical position of area 3b; such differentiation was also possible at the individual level in 5 out of 9 subjects. Thus the SR sensitivity of the BOLD response appears to discern area 3b among other subareas of the human SI cortex. PMID:26020639

  11. Purification and physical-chemical properties of methanobactin: a chalkophore from Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyung J; Galeva, Nadezhda; Larive, Cynthia K; Alterman, Michail; Graham, David W

    2005-04-01

    Methanobactin is an extracellular, copper-binding chromopeptide from the methane-oxidizing bacterium, Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b, believed to be involved in copper detoxification, sequestration, and uptake. Although small (1217.2 Da), methanobactin possesses a complex three-dimensional macrocyclic structure with several unusual moieties. The molecule binds one copper and has the N-2-isopropylester-(4-thionyl-5-hydroxyimidazolate)-Gly(1)-Ser(2)-Cys(3)-Tyr(4)-pyrrolidine-(4-hydroxy-5-thionylimidazolate)-Ser(5)-Cys(6)-Met(7) sequence [Kim, H. J., et al. (2004) Science 305, 1612-1615]. We report methods for purifying methanobactin from M. trichosporium OB3b and present initial evidence of its physiological function. MALDI-TOF MS was used to systematically monitor samples for optimizing purification conditions, and for detecting and analyzing specific metal-methanobactin complexes. Purification was performed by first stabilizing the extracted compound with copper followed by separation using reversed-phase HPLC in neutral pH buffers. Purified methanobactin exhibited UV-visible maxima at 342 nm, a shoulder at 388 nm, and a broad peak at 282 nm. These features were lost upon CuCl(2) titration with appearance of new features at 335, 356, 290, and 255 nm. Furthermore, methanobactin contains two fluorescent moieties, which exhibit broad emissions at 440-460 nm (lambda(max)(ex) at 388 nm) and 390-430 nm (lambda(max)(ex) = 342 nm), respectively. Finally, methanobactin eliminates the growth lag in M. trichosporium OB3b and substantially increases growth rates when cultures are exposed to elevated copper levels. PMID:15794651

  12. Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 3A promotes cellular proliferation by repression of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21WAF1/CIP1.

    PubMed

    Tursiella, Melissa L; Bowman, Emily R; Wanzeck, Keith C; Throm, Robert E; Liao, Jason; Zhu, Junjia; Sample, Clare E

    2014-10-01

    Latent infection by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is highly associated with the endemic form of Burkitt lymphoma (eBL), which typically limits expression of EBV proteins to EBNA-1 (Latency I). Interestingly, a subset of eBLs maintain a variant program of EBV latency - Wp-restricted latency (Wp-R) - that includes expression of the EBNA-3 proteins (3A, 3B and 3C), in addition to EBNA-1. In xenograft assays, Wp-R BL cell lines were notably more tumorigenic than their counterparts that maintain Latency I, suggesting that the additional latency-associated proteins expressed in Wp-R influence cell proliferation and/or survival. Here, we evaluated the contribution of EBNA-3A. Consistent with the enhanced tumorigenic potential of Wp-R BLs, knockdown of EBNA-3A expression resulted in abrupt cell-cycle arrest in G0/G1 that was concomitant with conversion of retinoblastoma protein (Rb) to its hypophosphorylated state, followed by a loss of Rb protein. Comparable results were seen in EBV-immortalized B lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs), consistent with the previous observation that EBNA-3A is essential for sustained growth of these cells. In agreement with the known ability of EBNA-3A and EBNA-3C to cooperatively repress p14(ARF) and p16(INK4a) expression, knockdown of EBNA-3A in LCLs resulted in rapid elevation of p14(ARF) and p16I(NK4a). By contrast, p16(INK4a) was not detectably expressed in Wp-R BL and the low-level expression of p14(ARF) was unchanged by EBNA-3A knockdown. Amongst other G1/S regulatory proteins, only p21(WAF1/CIP1), a potent inducer of G1 arrest, was upregulated following knockdown of EBNA-3A in Wp-R BL Sal cells and LCLs, coincident with hypophosphorylation and destabilization of Rb and growth arrest. Furthermore, knockdown of p21(WAF1/CIP1) expression in Wp-R BL correlated with an increase in cellular proliferation. This novel function of EBNA-3A is distinct from the functions previously described that are shared with EBNA-3C, and likely contributes to the

  13. DNMT3B7 Expression Promotes Tumor Progression to a More Aggressive Phenotype in Breast Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Brambert, Patrick R.; Kelpsch, Daniel J.; Hameed, Rabia; Desai, Charmi V.; Calafiore, Gianfranco; Godley, Lucy A.; Raimondi, Stacey L.

    2015-01-01

    Epigenetic changes, such as DNA methylation, have been shown to promote breast cancer progression. However, the mechanism by which cancer cells acquire and maintain abnormal DNA methylation is not well understood. We have previously identified an aberrant splice form of a DNA methyltransferase, DNMT3B7, expressed in virtually all cancer cell lines but at very low levels in normal cells. Furthermore, aggressive MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells have been shown to express increased levels of DNMT3B7 compared to poorly invasive MCF-7 cells, indicating that DNMT3B7 may have a role in promoting a more invasive phenotype. Using data gathered from The Cancer Genome Atlas, we show that DNMT3B7 expression is increased in breast cancer patient tissues compared to normal tissue. To determine the mechanism by which DNMT3B7 was functioning in breast cancer cells, two poorly invasive breast cancer cell lines, MCF-7 and T-47D, were stably transfected with a DNMT3B7 expression construct. Expression of DNMT3B7 led to hypermethylation and down-regulation of E-cadherin, altered localization of β-catenin, as well as increased adhesion turnover, cell proliferation, and anchorage-independent growth. The novel results presented in this study suggest a role for DNMT3B7 in the progression of breast cancer to a more aggressive state and the potential for future development of novel therapeutics. PMID:25607950

  14. Methane and Trichloroethylene Degradation by Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b Expressing Particulate Methane Monooxygenase

    PubMed Central

    Lontoh, Sonny; Semrau, Jeremy D.

    1998-01-01

    Whole-cell assays of methane and trichloroethylene (TCE) consumption have been performed on Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b expressing particulate methane monooxygenase (pMMO). From these assays it is apparent that varying the growth concentration of copper causes a change in the kinetics of methane and TCE degradation. For M. trichosporium OB3b, increasing the copper growth concentration from 2.5 to 20 μM caused the maximal degradation rate of methane (Vmax) to decrease from 300 to 82 nmol of methane/min/mg of protein. The methane concentration at half the maximal degradation rate (Ks) also decreased from 62 to 8.3 μM. The pseudo-first-order rate constant for methane, Vmax/Ks, doubled from 4.9 × 10−3 to 9.9 × 10−3 liters/min/mg of protein, however, as the growth concentration of copper increased from 2.5 to 20 μM. TCE degradation by M. trichosporium OB3b was also examined with varying copper and formate concentrations. M. trichosporium OB3b grown with 2.5 μM copper was unable to degrade TCE in both the absence and presence of an exogenous source of reducing equivalents in the form of formate. Cells grown with 20 μM copper, however, were able to degrade TCE regardless of whether formate was provided. Without formate the Vmax for TCE was 2.5 nmol/min/mg of protein, while providing formate increased the Vmax to 4.1 nmol/min/mg of protein. The affinity for TCE also increased with increasing copper, as seen by a change in Ks from 36 to 7.9 μM. Vmax/Ks for TCE degradation by pMMO also increased from 6.9 × 10−5 to 5.2 × 10−4 liters/min/mg of protein with the addition of formate. From these whole-cell studies it is apparent that the amount of copper available is critical in determining the oxidation of substrates in methanotrophs that are expressing only pMMO. PMID:16349516

  15. Comparison of aerosol behavior during sodium fires in CSTF with the HAA-3B code. [LMFBR

    SciTech Connect

    Postma, A.K.; Owen, R.K.

    1980-03-01

    Four large-scale tests using sodium fire aerosol sources have been carried out in the Containment System Test Facility (CSTF). Two of the tests employed pool fires and two used spray fires as the aerosol source. Because the CSTF containment vessel is approximately half-scale (20.3 m in height) of a typical reactor building, the CSTF results have provided a large-scale proof test of the HAA-3B Code. For the two pool fire tests, the measured and predicted airborne concentrations were in good agreement when the aerosol source term was based on post-test measurements of aerosol formation, accounting for water vapor uptake.

  16. A full CI treatment of the 1A1-3B1 separation in methylene

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Taylor, Peter R.

    1986-01-01

    The accuracy of recent theoretical computations of the total energies and the adiabatic separation of the 1A1 and 3B1 states of CH2 is investigated on the basis of complete CI calculations using the double-zeta basis sets of Dunning (1970). The results are presented in a table and characterized in detail. The errors in the separation values are found to range from less than 0.01 kcal/mol for a CASSCF/MRSDCI calculation, to 0.38 kcal/mol for a Davidson-corrected SCF/SDCI calculation, to 14.17 kcal/mol for an uncorrected SCF calculation.

  17. The research of remote sensing duststorm with FY-3B three infrared channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Hui; Yu, Tao; Cheng, Tianhai; Li, Jiaguo; Lai, Jibao; Liu, Qian

    2012-12-01

    April 8, 2012, the east region of Inner Mongolia out broke a strong sandstorm. Based on the analysis of the spectral characteristics of dust, cloud and surface, this paper propose a duststorm mask algorithm for the identification of dust coverage region by using three infrared channels of FY-3B. By utilizing diurnal variation of brightness temperature of dust aerosol, the bi-temporal thermal dust index was established to represent the intensity of duststorm. Through the analysis we found that BTDI has a high negative correlation with aerosol optical depth which can be used as an effective means to monitor the duststorm.

  18. Occupational dermatitis from Synacril Red 3b liquid (CI Basic Red 22).

    PubMed

    Sadhra, S; Duhra, P; Foulds, I S

    1989-11-01

    A carpet factory worker, exposed to a number of different dyes, developed a severe hand dermatitis. The handling of warm, wet and freshly-dyed yarn with unprotected hands was thought to have caused the onset of dermatitis. Patch testing indicated that the patient was sensitive to only one of the dyes handled, namely Synacril Red 3B liquid, which is based on the single dyestuff Basic Red 22 (CI 11055). Chemical analysis revealed the dyestuff to be of high purity (greater than 95%), suggesting that sensitization was caused by the Basic Red 22 dyestuff itself and not by an avoidable impurity.

  19. Image reconstruction algorithm for optically stimulated luminescence 2D dosimetry using laser-scanned Al2O3:C and Al2O3:C,Mg films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, M. F.; Schnell, E.; Ahmad, S.; Yukihara, E. G.

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this work was to develop an image reconstruction algorithm for 2D dosimetry using Al2O3:C and Al2O3:C,Mg optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) films imaged using a laser scanning system. The algorithm takes into account parameters associated with detector properties and the readout system. Pieces of Al2O3:C films (~8 mm  ×  8 mm  ×  125 µm) were irradiated and used to simulate dose distributions with extreme dose gradients (zero and non-zero dose regions). The OSLD film pieces were scanned using a custom-built laser-scanning OSL reader and the data obtained were used to develop and demonstrate a dose reconstruction algorithm. The algorithm includes corrections for: (a) galvo hysteresis, (b) photomultiplier tube (PMT) linearity, (c) phosphorescence, (d) ‘pixel bleeding’ caused by the 35 ms luminescence lifetime of F-centers in Al2O3, (e) geometrical distortion inherent to Galvo scanning system, and (f) position dependence of the light collection efficiency. The algorithm was also applied to 6.0 cm  ×  6.0 cm  ×  125 μm or 10.0 cm  ×  10.0 cm  ×  125 µm Al2O3:C and Al2O3:C,Mg films exposed to megavoltage x-rays (6 MV) and 12C beams (430 MeV u‑1). The results obtained using pieces of irradiated films show the ability of the image reconstruction algorithm to correct for pixel bleeding even in the presence of extremely sharp dose gradients. Corrections for geometric distortion and position dependence of light collection efficiency were shown to minimize characteristic limitations of this system design. We also exemplify the application of the algorithm to more clinically relevant 6 MV x-ray beam and a 12C pencil beam, demonstrating the potential for small field dosimetry. The image reconstruction algorithm described here provides the foundation for laser-scanned OSL applied to 2D dosimetry.

  20. Role of CNPase in the oligodendrocytic extracellular 2',3'-cAMP-adenosine pathway.

    PubMed

    Verrier, Jonathan D; Jackson, Travis C; Gillespie, Delbert G; Janesko-Feldman, Keri; Bansal, Rashmi; Goebbels, Sandra; Nave, Klaus-Armin; Kochanek, Patrick M; Jackson, Edwin K

    2013-10-01

    Extracellular adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (3',5'-cAMP) is an endogenous source of localized adenosine production in many organs. Recent studies suggest that extracellular 2',3'-cAMP (positional isomer of 3',5'-cAMP) is also a source of adenosine, particularly in the brain in vivo post-injury. Moreover, in vitro studies show that both microglia and astrocytes can convert extracellular 2',3'-cAMP to adenosine. Here, we examined the ability of primary mouse oligodendrocytes and neurons to metabolize extracellular 2',3'-cAMP and their respective adenosine monophosphates (2'-AMP and 3'-AMP). Cells were also isolated from mice deficient in 2',3'-cyclic nucleotide-3'-phosphodiesterase (CNPase). Oligodendrocytes metabolized 2',3'-cAMP to 2'-AMP with 10-fold greater efficiency than did neurons (and also more than previously examined microglia and astrocytes); whereas, the production of 3'-AMP was minimal in both oligodendrocytes and neurons. The production of 2'-AMP from 2',3'-cAMP was reduced by 65% in CNPase -/- versus CNPase +/+ oligodendrocytes. Oligodendrocytes also converted 2'-AMP to adenosine, and this was also attenuated in CNPase -/- oligodendrocytes. Inhibition of classic 3',5'-cAMP-3'-phosphodiesterases with 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine did not block metabolism of 2',3'-cAMP to 2'-AMP and inhibition of classic ecto-5'-nucleotidase (CD73) with α,β-methylene-adenosine-5'-diphosphate did not attenuate the conversion of 2'-AMP to adenosine. These studies demonstrate that oligodendrocytes express the extracellular 2',3'-cAMP-adenosine pathway (2',3'-cAMP → 2'-AMP → adenosine). This pathway is more robustly expressed in oligodendrocytes than in all other CNS cell types because CNPase is the predominant enzyme that metabolizes 2',3'-cAMP to 2-AMP in CNS cells. By reducing levels of 2',3'-cAMP (a mitochondrial toxin) and increasing levels of adenosine (a neuroprotectant), oligodendrocytes may protect axons from injury. PMID:23922219

  1. Inhibition of lysine acetyltransferase KAT3B/p300 activity by a naturally occurring hydroxynaphthoquinone, plumbagin.

    PubMed

    Ravindra, Kodihalli C; Selvi, B Ruthrotha; Arif, Mohammed; Reddy, B A Ashok; Thanuja, Gali R; Agrawal, Shipra; Pradhan, Suman Kalyan; Nagashayana, Natesh; Dasgupta, Dipak; Kundu, Tapas K

    2009-09-01

    Lysine acetyltransferases (KATs), p300 (KAT3B), and its close homologue CREB-binding protein (KAT3A) are probably the most widely studied KATs with well documented roles in various cellular processes. Hence, the dysfunction of p300 may result in the dysregulation of gene expression leading to the manifestation of many disorders. The acetyltransferase activity of p300/CREB-binding protein is therefore considered as a target for new generation therapeutics. We describe here a natural compound, plumbagin (RTK1), isolated from Plumbago rosea root extract, that inhibits histone acetyltransferase activity potently in vivo. Interestingly, RTK1 specifically inhibits the p300-mediated acetylation of p53 but not the acetylation by another acetyltransferase, p300/CREB-binding protein -associated factor, PCAF, in vivo. RTK1 inhibits p300 histone acetyltransferase activity in a noncompetitive manner. Docking studies and site-directed mutagenesis of the p300 histone acetyltransferase domain suggest that a single hydroxyl group of RTK1 makes a hydrogen bond with the lysine 1358 residue of this domain. In agreement with this, we found that indeed the hydroxyl group-substituted plumbagin derivatives lost the acetyltransferase inhibitory activity. This study describes for the first time the chemical entity (hydroxyl group) required for the inhibition of acetyltransferase activity.

  2. Optimization and characterization of biosurfactant production from marine Vibrio sp. strain 3B-2

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Xiaoke; Wang, Caixia; Wang, Peng

    2015-01-01

    A biosurfactant-producing bacterium, designated 3B-2, was isolated from marine sediment and identified as Vibrio sp. by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The culture medium composition was optimized to increase the capability of 3B-2 for producing biosurfactant. The produced biosurfactant was characterized in terms of protein concentration, surface tension, and oil-displacement efficiency. The optimal medium for biosurfactant production contained: 0.5% lactose, 1.1% yeast extract, 2% sodium chloride, and 0.1% disodium hydrogen phosphate. Under optimal conditions (28°C), the surface tension of crude biosurfactant could be reduced to 41 from 71.5 mN/m (water), while its protein concentration was increased to up to 6.5 g/L and the oil displacement efficiency was improved dramatically at 6.5 cm. Two glycoprotein fractions with the molecular masses of 22 and 40 kDa were purified from the biosurfactant, which held great potential for applications in microbial enhanced oil recovery and bioremediation. PMID:26441908

  3. A spin-orbit alignment for the hot Jupiter HATS-3b

    SciTech Connect

    Addison, B. C.; Tinney, C. G.; Wright, D. J.; Bayliss, D.

    2014-09-10

    We have measured the alignment between the orbit of HATS-3b (a recently discovered, slightly inflated Hot Jupiter) and the spin axis of its host star. Data were obtained using the CYCLOPS2 optical-fiber bundle and its simultaneous calibration system feeding the UCLES spectrograph on the Anglo-Australian Telescope. The sky-projected spin-orbit angle of λ = 3° ± 25° was determined from spectroscopic measurements of the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect. This is the first exoplanet discovered through the HATSouth transit survey to have its spin-orbit angle measured. Our results indicate that the orbital plane of HATS-3b is consistent with being aligned to the spin axis of its host star. The low obliquity of the HATS-3 system, which has a relatively hot mid F-type host star, agrees with the general trend observed for Hot Jupiter host stars with effective temperatures >6250 K to have randomly distributed spin-orbit angles.

  4. Physical aging effects on the compressive linear viscoelastic creep of IM7/K3B composite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veazie, David R.; Gates, Thomas S.

    1995-01-01

    An experimental study was undertaken to establish the viscoelastic behavior of 1M7/K3B composite in compression at elevated temperature. Creep compliance, strain recovery and the effects of physical aging on the time dependent response was measured for uniaxial loading at several isothermal conditions below the glass transition temperature (T(g)). The IM7/K3B composite is a graphite reinforced thermoplastic polyimide with a T(g) of approximately 240 C. In a composite, the two matrix dominated compliance terms associated with time dependent behavior occur in the transverse and shear directions. Linear viscoelasticity was used to characterize the creep/recovery behavior and superposition techniques were used to establish the physical aging related material constants. Creep strain was converted to compliance and measured as a function of test time and aging time. Results included creep compliance master curves, physical aging shift factors and shift rates. The description of the unique experimental techniques required for compressive testing is also given.

  5. Trichloroethylene degradation using recombinant bacteria expressing the soluble methane monooxygenase from methylosinus trichosporium OB3b

    SciTech Connect

    Jahng, D.; Kim, C.; Wood, T.K.

    1995-12-01

    Soluble methane monooxygenase (sMMO) from M. trichosporium OB3b has the ability to degrade many halogenated aliphatic compounds that are found in contaminated soil and groundwater. For efficient trichloroethylene (TCE) degradation in a foreign host, efforts are being made to improve inconsistent and low sMMO activity of the recombinant strain constructed previously (Pseudomonas putida F1/pSMMO20). Additional smmo-containing recombinant strains have been constructed including various Pseudomonas, Agrobacterium, and Rhizobium strains. Recombinant facultative methylotrophs containing the smmo locus were also constructed through electroporation and tri-parental mating using a new plasmid pSMMO50. TCE degradation by these recombinant strains was examined. The effect of metal ions on in vitro sMMO activity was also discerned to optimize the expression medium. Among the metal ions examined, Cu(I), Cu(II), Ni(II), and Zn(II) inhibited sMMO purified from trichosporium OB3b, and the effect of the metal ions on each of the components of sMMO will also be discussed. In addition, the post-segregational killing locus (hok/sok) from E. coli plasmid R1 was inserted downstream of the smmo locus to stabilize the recombinant plasmid in these host cells, and chemostat cultures were used to optimize expression of active sMMO by varying the growth rate.

  6. HATS-3b: AN INFLATED HOT JUPITER TRANSITING AN F-TYPE STAR

    SciTech Connect

    Bayliss, D.; Zhou, G.; Schmidt, B.; Penev, K.; Bakos, G. Á.; Hartman, J. D.; Csubry, Z.; Jordán, A.; Suc, V.; Rabus, M.; Brahm, R.; Espinoza, N.; Mancini, L.; Mohler-Fischer, M.; Henning, T.; Nikolov, N.; Csák, B.; Béky, B.; Noyes, R. W.; Buchhave, L.; and others

    2013-11-01

    We report the discovery by the HATSouth survey of HATS-3b, a transiting extrasolar planet orbiting a V = 12.4 F dwarf star. HATS-3b has a period of P = 3.5479 days, mass of M{sub p} = 1.07 M {sub J}, and radius of R{sub p} = 1.38 R {sub J}. Given the radius of the planet, the brightness of the host star, and the stellar rotational velocity (vsin i = 9.0 km s{sup –1}), this system will make an interesting target for future observations to measure the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect and determine its spin-orbit alignment. We detail the low-/medium-resolution reconnaissance spectroscopy that we are now using to deal with large numbers of transiting planet candidates produced by the HATSouth survey. We show that this important step in discovering planets produces log g and T {sub eff} parameters at a precision suitable for efficient candidate vetting, as well as efficiently identifying stellar mass eclipsing binaries with radial velocity semi-amplitudes as low as 1 km s{sup –1}.

  7. CALIFA, a Dedicated Calorimeter for the R{sup 3}B/FAIR

    SciTech Connect

    Cortina-Gil, D.; Alvarez-Pol, H.; Aumann, T.; Avdeichikov, V.; Bendel, M.; Benlliure, J.; Bertini, D.; Bezbakh, A.; Bloch, T.; Böhmer, M.; Borge, M.J.G.; Briz, J.A.; Cabanelas, P.; Casarejos, E.; Carmona Gallardo, M.; Cederkäll, J.; Chulkov, L.; Dierigl, M.; Di Julio, D.; Durán, I.; and others

    2014-06-15

    The R{sup 3}B experiment (Reactions with Relativistic Radioactive Beams) at FAIR (Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research) is a versatile setup dedicated to the study of reactions induced by high-energy radioactive beams. It will provide kinematically complete measurements with high efficiency, acceptance and resolution, making possible a broad physics program with rare-isotopes. CALIFA (CALorimeter for In-Flight detection of gamma-rays and high energy charged pArticles), is a complex detector based on scintillation crystals, that will surround the target of the R{sup 3}B experiment. CALIFA will act as a total absorption gamma-calorimeter and spectrometer, as well as identifier of charged particles from target residues. This versatility is its most challenging requirement, demanding a huge dynamic range, to cover from low energy gamma-rays up to 300 MeV protons. This fact, along with the high-energy of the beams determine the conceptual design of the detector, presented in this paper, together with the technical solutions proposed for its construction.

  8. Smarcd3b and Gata5 promote a cardiac progenitor fate in the zebrafish embryo.

    PubMed

    Lou, Xin; Deshwar, Ashish R; Crump, J Gage; Scott, Ian C

    2011-08-01

    Development of the heart requires recruitment of cardiovascular progenitor cells (CPCs) to the future heart-forming region. CPCs are the building blocks of the heart, and have the potential to form all the major cardiac lineages. However, little is known regarding what regulates CPC fate and behavior. Activity of GATA4, SMARCD3 and TBX5 - the `cardiac BAF' (cBAF) complex, can promote myocardial differentiation in embryonic mouse mesoderm. Here, we exploit the advantages of the zebrafish embryo to gain mechanistic understanding of cBAF activity. Overexpression of smarcd3b and gata5 in zebrafish results in an enlarged heart, whereas combinatorial loss of cBAF components inhibits cardiac differentiation. In transplantation experiments, cBAF acts cell autonomously to promote cardiac fate. Remarkably, cells overexpressing cBAF migrate to the developing heart and differentiate as cardiomyocytes, endocardium and smooth muscle. This is observed even in host embryos that lack endoderm or cardiac mesoderm. Our results reveal an evolutionarily conserved role for cBAF activity in cardiac differentiation. Importantly, they demonstrate that Smarcd3b and Gata5 can induce a primitive, CPC-like state. PMID:21715426

  9. Theoretical Rotation-Vibration Energies of X3B1NH 2+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jensen, Per

    1997-01-01

    The present work reports rotation-vibration energies for the electronic ground state X3B1of the amidogen ion, NH 2+, predicted by means of the MORBID Hamiltonian and computer program (see P. Jensen in"Molecules in the Stellar Environment" (U. G. Jørgensen, Ed.), Lecture Notes in Physics, No. 428. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1994, and references therein). The predictions are based on a potential energy function obtained by Barclay et al.( J. Chem. Phys.99,9709-9719 (1993)) in a least-squares fit to the available high-resolution rotation-vibration data for X3B1NH 2+(M. Okumura, B. D. Rehfuss, B. M. Dinelli, M. G. Bawendi, and T. Oka, J. Chem. Phys.90,5918-5923 (1989); Y. Kabbadj, T. R. Huet, D. Uy, and T. Oka, J. Mol. Spectrosc.175,277-288 (1996)). We hope that the predicted energies will facilitate the assignment of further rotation-vibration transitions of this interesting, extremely floppy molecule. Further, we give a detailed discussion of the correlation between the linear-molecule and the bent-molecule quantum numbers which have been used in the literature to label the energy levels of the quasilinear NH 2+ion.

  10. Communal action of microbial cultures for Red HE3B degradation.

    PubMed

    Patil, P S; Phugare, S S; Jadhav, S B; Jadhav, J P

    2010-09-15

    The consortium PMB11 consisting of three bacterial species, originally isolated from dye contaminated soil was identified as Bacillus odysseyi SUK3, Morganella morganii SUK5 and Proteus sp. SUK7. The consortium possessed the ability to decolorize various textile dyes as well as mixtures of dyes. PMB11 could decolorize Red HE3B (50 mg l(-1)) with 99% of decolorization within 12 h in nutrient broth, while in mineral medium it could decolorize up to 97% within 24h. Induction in the activities of various oxidative and reductive enzymes indicates the involvement of these enzymes in decolorization. Biodegradation of the dye was monitored using UV-vis spectroscopy, HPLC and FTIR analysis. The Red HE3B degradation pathway was proposed by GC-MS analysis. Various metabolites formed after the degradation were identified as 2,5-diaminobenzene 6-aminotriazine, aniline 2-sulfate, aniline 3-sulfate, 2-amino 5-chlorotriazine and naphthalene. Phytotoxicity studies revealed that metabolites formed after degradation were significantly less toxic in nature.

  11. Certification procedures for sirius red F3B (CI 35780, Direct red 80).

    PubMed

    Dapson, R W; Fagan, C; Kiernan, J A; Wickersham, T W

    2011-06-01

    Sirius red F3B (CI 35780, Direct red 80) is a polyazo dye used principally in staining methods for collagen and amyloid. For certification by the Biological Stain Commission, a sample of the dye must exhibit an absorption spectrum of characteristic shape with a maximum at 528-529 nm, a small shoulder near 500 nm and narrow peaks at 372, 281-282 and 230-235 nm. Spot tests (color changes with addition of concentrated H(2)SO(4) or HCl and subsequent dilution or neutralization) also are applied. The dye must perform satisfactorily in the picro-sirius red method for collagen by providing red staining of all types of collagen with yellow and green birefringence of fibers. Llewellyn's alkaline sirius red method applied to tissue known to contain amyloid must show red coloration of the products with green birefringence. Dye content, which does not influence significantly the staining properties of sirius red F3B, is not assayed. PMID:21417582

  12. KELT-3b: A HOT JUPITER TRANSITING A V = 9.8 LATE-F STAR

    SciTech Connect

    Pepper, Joshua; Siverd, Robert J.; Stassun, Keivan G.; Cargile, Phillip A.; Dhital, Saurav; Beatty, Thomas G.; Gaudi, B. Scott; Eastman, Jason; Fulton, Benjamin J.; Collins, Karen; Latham, David W.; Bieryla, Allyson; Calkins, Michael L.; Esquerdo, Gilbert A.; Berlind, Perry; Buchhave, Lars A.; Jensen, Eric L. N.; Manner, Mark; Penev, Kaloyan; Crepp, Justin R.; and others

    2013-08-10

    We report the discovery of KELT-3b, a moderately inflated transiting hot Jupiter with a mass of 1.477{sub -0.067}{sup +0.066} M{sub J}, radius of 1.345 {+-} 0.072 R{sub J}, and an orbital period of 2.7033904 {+-} 0.000010 days. The host star, KELT-3, is a V = 9.8 late F star with M{sub *} = 1.278{sub -0.061}{sup +0.063} M{sub sun}, R{sub *} = 1.472{sub -0.067}{sup +0.065} R{sub sun}, T{sub eff}= 6306{sub -49}{sup +50} K, log (g) = 4.209{sub -0.031}{sup +0.033}, and [Fe/H] = 0.044{sub -0.082}{sup +0.080}, and has a likely proper motion companion. KELT-3b is the third transiting exoplanet discovered by the KELT survey, and is orbiting one of the 20 brightest known transiting planet host stars, making it a promising candidate for detailed characterization studies. Although we infer that KELT-3 is significantly evolved, a preliminary analysis of the stellar and orbital evolution of the system suggests that the planet has likely always received a level of incident flux above the empirically identified threshold for radius inflation suggested by Demory and Seager.

  13. On the last explosions of carbonatite pipe G3b, Gross Brukkaros, Namibia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenz, Volker; Kurszlaukis, Stephan

    Pipe G3b is part of the Upper Cretaceous carbonatitic Gross Brukkaros Volcanic Field in southern Namibia. The pipe represents the root zone of a diatreme and is located 2800m west of the rim of Gross Brukkaros, a downsag caldera. The pipe is exposed approximately 550m below the original Upper Cretaceous land surface. It cuts down into its own feeder dyke, 0.3m thick. The pipe coalesced from two small pipes and in plan view is 19m long and 12m wide. It consists of fragmented Cambrian Nama quartzites and shales of the Fish River subgroup. Despite intensive brecciation, the stratigraphic sequence of the country rocks is almost preserved in the pipe. In addition, the feeder dyke became fragmented too and can be traced in a 2- to 3-m-wide zone full of carbonatite blocks along the southern margin of the pipe. The void space of the breccia is 30-50% in volume. Finally, after the disruption of country rocks and feeder dyke, a little carbonatite magma intruded some of the void space. The breccia of pipe G3b is considered to represent a root zone at the transition from the feeder dyke into a diatreme above. Formation of the breccia required a shock wave thought to have been associated with a last explosion of the diatreme immediately above the present level of exposure. The explosion can be shown to have been phreatomagmatic in origin.

  14. Antifungal effects of synthetic human β-defensin 3-C15 peptide

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Ki-Bum; Kim, Christine; Kum, Jong-Won; Gu, Yu; Han, Seung Hyun; Shon, Won-Jun; Lee, Woocheol; Zhu, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this ex vivo study was to compare the antifungal activity of a synthetic peptide consisting of 15 amino acids at the C-terminus of human β-defensin 3 (HBD3-C15) with calcium hydroxide (CH) and Nystatin (Nys) against Candida albicans (C. albicans) biofilm. Materials and Methods C. albicans were grown on cover glass bottom dishes or human dentin disks for 48 hr, and then treated with HBD3-C15 (0, 12.5, 25, 50, 100, 150, 200, and 300 µg/mL), CH (100 µg/mL), and Nys (20 µg/mL) for 7 days at 37℃. On cover glass, live and dead cells in the biomass were measured by the FilmTracer Biofilm viability assay, and observed by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). On dentin, normal, diminished and ruptured cells were observed by field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). The results were subjected to a two-tailed t-test, a one way analysis variance and a post hoc test at a significance level of p = 0.05. Results C. albicans survival on dentin was inhibited by HBD3-C15 in a dose-dependent manner. There were fewer aggregations of C. albicans in the groups of Nys and HBD3-C15 (≥ 100 µg/mL). CLSM showed C. albicans survival was reduced by HBD3-C15 in a dose dependent manner. Nys and HBD3-C15 (≥ 100 µg/mL) showed significant fungicidal activity compared to CH group (p < 0.05). Conclusions Synthetic HBD3-C15 peptide (≥ 100 µg/mL) and Nys exhibited significantly higher antifungal activity than CH against C. albicans by inhibiting cell survival and biofilm. PMID:27200276

  15. Experimental Investigation of the Cr3C2 C Peritectic Fixed Point

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, W.; Yamada, Y.; Wang, Y.

    2008-06-01

    The Cr3C2 C (1,826°C) peritectic point was investigated for its performance as a high-temperature fixed point. Dependence on the impurity content was observed, although it was less severe for the higher of the two equilibrium temperatures obtained with the same cell, the Cr3C2 C peritectic point, than for the lower, the Cr7C3 Cr3C2 eutectic point. Thermal history had an effect on the melting plateau duration, but not on the point-of-inflection temperature nor on the melting range. The melting rate had no apparent effect. The repeatability evaluated as the standard deviation of the repeated melting plateaux within a day was 20 mK for the Cr3C2 C peritectic point, while for the Cr7C3 Cr3C2 eutectic point, this was 210 mK. For both the Cr3C2 C peritectic and the Cr7C3 Cr3C2 eutectic, the freezing plateaux often showed deep supercools, which made them unsuitable for use. The observed good repeatability shows the peritectic-point performance to be comparable to the best MC-eutectic high-temperature fixed points investigated so far. The insensitivity to thermal history constitutes an important and practical advantage. The low price of chromium is a clear benefit as compared to Pt C (1,738°C) or Ru C (1,953°C) eutectic points, the M C eutectic points in this temperature range.

  16. a Bayesian Approach for Calibration of Trmm 3B42 Over North Amazonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linguet, L.; Marie-Joseph, I.; Becker, M.; Seyler, F.

    2013-12-01

    Northern Amazonian regions experience extremes conditions like floods and droughts. These regions are also characterized by the limited spatial coverage of ground based rain gauges, and unavailability of real-time rainfall data. Satellite-based rainfall estimates (SRE) may be one of the best and appropriate approaches in detecting rainfall distribution. However SRE data need specific calibration and validation for use in flood and drought monitoring activities. This study aimed to calibrate of TRMM 3B42 RT rainfall products over northern Amazonia with a Bayesian filtering approach [1] [2]. The study area is located north of the Amazon River and includes the three Guianas and northern states of Brazil. A set of daily satellite rainfall products with spatial resolution of 0.25°x0.25° (TRMM 3B42 RT) from the year 2000 to 2010 has been selected. Ground reference data are located in French Guiana (27 ground stations from French national meteorological agency) and in the northern Brazilian states (70 ground stations from Brazilian Agência Nacional de Aguas). A lot of bias-adjustment methods rely on computing the difference between satellite and gauge-based precipitation [3] [4]. In this study we defend the idea that an inverse approach based on sequential Monte Carlo filtering helps to calibrate of TRMM 3B42 RT rainfall products. The developed method combines a model of the rainfall process at rain gauge locations with a stochastic observation model based on the joint distribution between ground reference data of the state variable (rainfall data) and the observed satellite data. 50% of the total ground based rainfall measurements were used for the joint distribution and the remaining 50% were used for validation purposes. Validation of the method has been done by comparing the corrected satellite data against independent observed data from rain gauges using the standard verification techniques: mean bias error, root mean square error, and correlation coefficient

  17. 75 FR 1017 - Airworthiness Directives; General Electric Company (GE) CF34-1A, CF34-3A, and CF34-3B Series...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-08

    ... service certain part number (P/N) and serial number (S/N) fan blades within compliance times specified in the AD, inspecting the fan blade abradable rub strip on certain engines for wear, inspecting the fan... corrects the effectivity for certain fan blades requiring corrective actions and changes the effective...

  18. Soil moisture from the recent AMSR2 and FY3B multi-frequency passive microwave sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parinussa, Robert; Wang, Guojie; de Jeu, Richard

    2014-05-01

    Over the years several different multi-frequency passive microwave sensors were used to estimate surface soil moisture. An historical multi-frequency passive microwave database from these satellite platforms was already used to generate a long term (32 years) surface soil moisture dataset. The Land Parameter Retrieval Algorithm (LPRM) was applied to this historical multi-frequency passive microwave database, including the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer - Earth Observing System (AMSR-E), that plays a dominant role in the 2002-2011 period. The Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer 2 (AMSR2) shares a similar design with its predecessor, it was improved based on general technical development as well as the valuable heritage that AMSR-E left behind. Most recently, the Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) started offering brightness temperature observations from the AMSR2 radiometer. In the recent years, China's National Satellite Meteorological Center (NSMC) developed meteorological satellites. The NSMC has polar orbiting sun-synchronized meteorological satellites in operation since 1988 in the so-called FengYun (FY) satellite series. FY3 is China's 2nd generation polar orbiting satellite series, its design was based on the previous polar orbiting satellite series and FY3 will ultimately become series of four satellites (FY3A to FY3D). The FY3B satellite is the 2nd satellite of the FY3 series and it's the 1st in the series to carry a microwave imager (MWRI) onboard observing the Earth's surface in 10 microwave channels. Brightness temperature observations of these recently developed sensors were compared to the existing database. An inter-calibration step was performed in order to overcome small difference in brightness temperature observations as a result of the different sensor calibration procedures. The LPRM was applied to observations made by the FY3B and AMSR2 sensors resulting in global soil moisture products. After the implementation of the

  19. A Single Nucleotide Polymorphism in Human APOBEC3C Enhances Restriction of Lentiviruses

    PubMed Central

    Wittkopp, Cristina J.; Adolph, Madison B.; Wu, Lily I.; Chelico, Linda; Emerman, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Humans express seven human APOBEC3 proteins, which can inhibit viruses and endogenous retroelements through cytidine deaminase activity. The seven paralogs differ in the potency of their antiviral effects, as well as in their antiviral targets. One APOBEC3, APOBEC3C, is exceptional as it has been found to only weakly block viruses and endogenous retroelements compared to other APOBEC3s. However, our positive selection analyses suggest that APOBEC3C has played a role in pathogen defense during primate evolution. Here, we describe a single nucleotide polymorphism in human APOBEC3C, a change from serine to isoleucine at position 188 (I188) that confers potent antiviral activity against HIV-1. The gain-of-function APOBEC3C SNP results in increased enzymatic activity and hypermutation of target sequences when tested in vitro, and correlates with increased dimerization of the protein. The I188 is widely distributed in human African populations, and is the ancestral primate allele, but is not found in chimpanzees or gorillas. Thus, while other hominids have lost activity of this antiviral gene, it has been maintained, or re-acquired, as a more active antiviral gene in a subset of humans. Taken together, our results suggest that APOBEC3C is in fact involved in protecting hosts from lentiviruses. PMID:27732658

  20. Subcellular object quantification with Squassh3C and SquasshAnalyst.

    PubMed

    Rizk, Aurélien; Mansouri, Maysam; Ballmer-Hofer, Kurt; Berger, Philipp

    2015-11-01

    Quantitative image analysis plays an important role in contemporary biomedical research. Squassh is a method for automatic detection, segmentation, and quantification of subcellular structures and analysis of their colocalization. Here we present the applications Squassh3C and SquasshAnalyst. Squassh3C extends the functionality of Squassh to three fluorescence channels and live-cell movie analysis. SquasshAnalyst is an interactive web interface for the analysis of Squassh3C object data. It provides segmentation image overview and data exploration, figure generation, object and image filtering, and a statistical significance test in an easy-to-use interface. The overall procedure combines the Squassh3C plug-in for the free biological image processing program ImageJ and a web application working in conjunction with the free statistical environment R, and it is compatible with Linux, MacOS X, or Microsoft Windows. Squassh3C and SquasshAnalyst are available for download at www.psi.ch/lbr/SquasshAnalystEN/SquasshAnalyst.zip.

  1. Subcellular object quantification with Squassh3C and SquasshAnalyst.

    PubMed

    Rizk, Aurélien; Mansouri, Maysam; Ballmer-Hofer, Kurt; Berger, Philipp

    2015-11-01

    Quantitative image analysis plays an important role in contemporary biomedical research. Squassh is a method for automatic detection, segmentation, and quantification of subcellular structures and analysis of their colocalization. Here we present the applications Squassh3C and SquasshAnalyst. Squassh3C extends the functionality of Squassh to three fluorescence channels and live-cell movie analysis. SquasshAnalyst is an interactive web interface for the analysis of Squassh3C object data. It provides segmentation image overview and data exploration, figure generation, object and image filtering, and a statistical significance test in an easy-to-use interface. The overall procedure combines the Squassh3C plug-in for the free biological image processing program ImageJ and a web application working in conjunction with the free statistical environment R, and it is compatible with Linux, MacOS X, or Microsoft Windows. Squassh3C and SquasshAnalyst are available for download at www.psi.ch/lbr/SquasshAnalystEN/SquasshAnalyst.zip. PMID:26554508

  2. Capacitance of Ti3C2Tx MXene in ionic liquid electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Zifeng; Barbara, Daffos; Taberna, Pierre-Louis; Van Aken, Katherine L.; Anasori, Babak; Gogotsi, Yury; Simon, Patrice

    2016-09-01

    Ti3C2Tx MXene, a two-dimensional (2D) early transition metal carbide, has shown an extremely high volumetric capacitance in aqueous electrolytes, but in a narrow voltage window (less than 1.23 V). The utilization of MXene materials in ionic liquid electrolytes with a large voltage window has never been addressed. Here, we report the preparation of the Ti3C2Tx MXene ionogel film by vacuum filtration for use as supercapacitor electrodes operating in 1-Ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (EMI-TFSI) neat ionic liquid electrolyte. Due to the disordered structure of the Ti3C2Tx hydrogel film and a stable spacing after vacuum drying, achieved through ionic liquid electrolyte immersion of the Ti3C2Tx hydrogel film, the Ti3C2Tx surface became accessible to EMI+ and TFSI- ions. A capacitance of 70 F g-1 together with a large voltage window of 3 V was obtained at a scan rate of 20 mV s-1 in neat EMI-TFSI electrolyte. The electrochemical signature indicates a capacitive behavior even at a high scan rate (500 mV s-1) and a high power performance. This work opens up the possibilities of using MXene materials with various ionic liquid electrolytes.

  3. Metagenomic chromosome conformation capture (meta3C) unveils the diversity of chromosome organization in microorganisms

    PubMed Central

    Marbouty, Martial; Cournac, Axel; Flot, Jean-François; Marie-Nelly, Hervé; Mozziconacci, Julien; Koszul, Romain

    2014-01-01

    Genomic analyses of microbial populations in their natural environment remain limited by the difficulty to assemble full genomes of individual species. Consequently, the chromosome organization of microorganisms has been investigated in a few model species, but the extent to which the features described can be generalized to other taxa remains unknown. Using controlled mixes of bacterial and yeast species, we developed meta3C, a metagenomic chromosome conformation capture approach that allows characterizing individual genomes and their average organization within a mix of organisms. Not only can meta3C be applied to species already sequenced, but a single meta3C library can be used for assembling, scaffolding and characterizing the tridimensional organization of unknown genomes. By applying meta3C to a semi-complex environmental sample, we confirmed its promising potential. Overall, this first meta3C study highlights the remarkable diversity of microorganisms chromosome organization, while providing an elegant and integrated approach to metagenomic analysis. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.03318.001 PMID:25517076

  4. EBNA3C regulates p53 through induction of Aurora kinase B.

    PubMed

    Jha, Hem C; Yang, Karren; El-Naccache, Darine W; Sun, Zhiguo; Robertson, Erle S

    2015-03-20

    In multicellular organisms p53 maintains genomic integrity through activation of DNA repair, and apoptosis. EBNA3C can down regulate p53 transcriptional activity. Aurora kinase (AK) B phosphorylates p53, which leads to degradation of p53. Aberrant expression of AK-B is a hallmark of numerous human cancers. Therefore changes in the activities of p53 due to AK-B and EBNA3C expression is important for understanding EBV-mediated cell transformation. Here we show that the activities of p53 and its homolog p73 are dysregulated in EBV infected primary cells which can contribute to increased cell transformation. Further, we showed that the ETS-1 binding site is crucial for EBNA3C-mediated up-regulation of AK-B transcription. Further, we determined the Ser 215 residue of p53 is critical for functional regulation by AK-B and EBNA3C and that the kinase domain of AK-B which includes amino acid residues 106, 111 and 205 was important for p53 regulation. AK-B with a mutation at residue 207 was functionally similar to wild type AK-B in terms of its kinase activities and knockdown of AK-B led to enhanced p73 expression independent of p53. This study explores an additional mechanism by which p53 is regulated by AK-B and EBNA3C contributing to EBV-induced B-cell transformation.

  5. Structure, electronic, mechanical and optical properties of ternary YAl3C3 carbide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussain, Altaf; Javed, Athar; Mehmood, Salman; Rasool, M. Nasir; Khan, Muhammad Azhar; Iqbal, Faisal

    2016-05-01

    The electronic structure, mechanical and optical properties of ternary yttrium aluminum carbide (YAl3C3) has been studied by first principles approach. The crystal structure and elastic properties are studied by using Vienna ab initio simulation package (VASP). An orthogonalized linear combination of atomic orbitals (OLCAO) method based on the density functional theory (DFT) is implemented to elucidate the electronic structure and optical properties of ternary YAl3C3 carbide. The YAl3C3 carbide exhibits a narrow indirect band gap, Eg=0.12 eV which shows its poor metallic and/or semiconductor behavior. The effective charge (Q*) calculation reveals more charge transfer from Al-sites as compared to Y-sites which indicates dominant ionic character of Al-sites. The analysis of structure and bond order (BO) calculations show that the Al-C bonds in the basal plane are much stronger as compared to Al-C bonds along the c-axis. The Al-C bonds lying in the basal plane have main contribution into the overall stiffness of YAl3C3 carbide. The effective mass of charge carriers (electrons and holes) and inter-band optical properties (complex dielectric function and optical conductivity) are also studied which show high degree of anisotropy in YAl3C3.

  6. Stress-mediated Sin3B activation leads to negative regulation of subset of p53 target genes.

    PubMed

    Kadamb, Rama; Mittal, Shilpi; Bansal, Nidhi; Saluja, Daman

    2015-01-01

    The multiprotein SWI-independent 3 (Sin3)-HDAC (histone deacetylase) corepressor complex mediates gene repression through its interaction with DNA-binding factors and recruitment of chromatin-modifying proteins on to the promoters of target gene. Previously, an increased expression of Sin3B and tumour suppressor protein, p53 has been established upon adriamycin treatment. We, now provide evidence that Sin3B expression is significantly up-regulated under variety of stress conditions and this response is not stress-type specific. We observed that Sin3B expression is significantly up-regulated both at transcript and at protein level upon DNA damage induced by bleomycin drug, a radiomimetic agent. This increase in Sin3B expression upon stress is found to be p53-dependent and is associated with enhanced interaction of Sin3B with Ser(15) phosphorylated p53. Binding of Sin3-HDAC repressor complex on to the promoters of p53 target genes influences gene regulation by altering histone modifications (H3K9me3 and H3K27me3) at target genes. Furthermore, knockdown of Sin3B by shRNA severely compromises p53-mediated gene repression under stress conditions. Taken together, these results suggest that stress-induced Sin3B activation is p53-dependent and is essential for p53-mediated repression of its selective target genes. The present study has an implication in understanding the transrepression mechanism of p53 under DNA damaging conditions.

  7. Stringent Regulation of Complement Lectin Pathway C3/C5 Convertase By C4b-Binding Protein (C4bp)

    PubMed Central

    Rawal, Nenoo; Rajagopalan, Rema; Salvi, Veena P.

    2009-01-01

    The complement lectin pathway, an essential component of the innate immune system, is geared for rapid recognition of infections as each C4b deposited via this pathway is capable of forming a C3/C5 convertase. In the present study, role of C4b-binding protein (C4BP) in regulating the lectin pathway C3/C5 convertase assembled on zymosan and sheep erythrocytes coated with mannan (EMan) was examined. While the C4BP concentration for inhibiting 50% (IC50) formation of surface-bound C3 convertase on the two surfaces was similar to that obtained for the soluble C3 convertase (1.05 nM), ∼3- and 41-fold more was required to inhibit assembly of the C5 convertase on zymosan (2.81 nM) and EMan (42.66 nM). No difference in binding interactions between C4BP and surface-bound C4b alone or in complex with C3b was observed. Increasing the C4b density on zymosan (14,000-431,000 C4b/Zym) increased the number of C4b bound per C4BP from 2.87 to 8.23 indicating that at high C4b density all seven α-chains of C4BP are engaged in C4b-binding. In contrast, the number of C4b bound per C4BP remained constant (3.79 ± 0.60) when the C4b density on EMan was increased. The data also show that C4BP regulates assembly and decay of the lectin pathway C3/C5 convertase more stringently than the classical pathway C3/C5 convertase because of a ∼7 to 13-fold greater affinity for C4b deposited via the lectin pathway than the classical pathway. C4BP thus regulates efficiently the four times greater potential of the lectin pathway than the classical pathway in generating the C3/C5 convertase and hence production of pro-inflammatory products, which are required to fight infections but occasionally cause pathological inflammatory reactions. PMID:19660812

  8. Precipitation comparison for the CFSR, MERRA, TRMM3B42 and Combined Scheme datasets in Bolivia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blacutt, Luis A.; Herdies, Dirceu L.; de Gonçalves, Luis Gustavo G.; Vila, Daniel A.; Andrade, Marcos

    2015-09-01

    An overwhelming number of applications depend on reliable precipitation estimations. However, over complex terrain in regions such as the Andes or the southwestern Amazon, the spatial coverage of rain gauges is scarce. Two reanalysis datasets, a satellite algorithm and a scheme that combines surface observations with satellite estimations were selected for studying rainfall in the following areas of Bolivia: the central Andes, Altiplano, southwestern Amazonia, and Chaco. These Bolivian regions can be divided into three main basins: the Altiplano, La Plata, and Amazon. The selected reanalyses were the Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications, which has a horizontal resolution (~ 50 km) conducive for studying rainfall in relatively small precipitation systems, and the Climate Forecast System Reanalysis and Reforecast, which features an improved horizontal resolution (~ 38 km). The third dataset was the seventh version of the Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission 3B42 algorithm, which is conducive for studying rainfall at an ~ 25 km horizontal resolution. The fourth dataset utilizes a new technique known as the Combined Scheme, which successfully removes satellite bias. All four of these datasets were aggregated to a coarser resolution. Additionally, the daily totals were calculated to match the cumulative daily values of the ground observations. This research aimed to describe and compare precipitations in the two reanalysis datasets, the satellite-algorithm dataset, and the Combined Scheme with ground observations. Two seasons were selected for studying the precipitation estimates: the rainy season (December-February) and the dry season (June-August). The average, bias, standard deviation, correlation coefficient, and root mean square error were calculated. Moreover, a contingency table was generated to calculate the accuracy, bias frequency, probability of detection, false alarm ratio, and equitable threat score. All four datasets correctly

  9. Monocrystalline NbN nanofilms on a 3C-SiC/Si substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, J. R.; Hajenius, M.; Tichelaar, F. D.; Klapwijk, T. M.; Voronov, B.; Grishin, E.; Gol'tsman, G.; Zorman, C. A.; Mehregany, M.

    2007-08-01

    The authors have realized NbN (100) nanofilms on a 3C-SiC (100)/Si(100) substrate by dc reactive magnetron sputtering at 800°C. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) is used to characterize the films, showing a monocrystalline structure and confirming epitaxial growth on the 3C-SiC layer. A film ranging in thickness from 3.4to4.1nm shows a superconducting transition temperature of 11.8K, which is the highest reported for NbN films of comparable thickness. The NbN nano-films on 3C-SiC offer a promising alternative to improve terahertz detectors. For comparison, NbN nanofilms grown directly on Si substrates are also studied by HRTEM.

  10. Spitzer and near-infrared observations of the young supernova remnant 3C397

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rho, Jeonghee; Jarrett, Tom

    2016-06-01

    We present Spitzer IRS, IRAC and MIPS observations and near-infrared imaging and spectroscopy of the young supernova remnant 3C397 (G41.1-0.2). Near-infrared observations were made using the Palomar 200 inch telescope. Both mid- and near-infrared spectra are dominated by Fe lines and near-infrared imaging shows bright Fe emission with a shell-like morphology. There is no molecular hydrogen line belong to the SNR and some are in background. The Ni, Ar, S and Si lines are detected using IRS and hydrogen recombination lines are detected in near-infrared. Two nickel lines at 18.24 and 10.69 micron are detected. 3C397 is ejecta-dominated, and our observations support 3C397 to be a Type Ia supernova.

  11. The origin of hyper-ferroelectricity in Li BO3 (B=V, Nb, Ta, Os)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Lixin; Li, Pengfei; Ren, Xinguo; Guo, G.-C.

    The electronic and structural properties of Li BO3 (B=V, Nb, Ta, Os) are investigated via first-principles methods. We show that Li BO3 are belong to the recently proposed hyperferroelectrics, i.e., they all have unstable longitudinal optical phonon modes. Especially, the ferroelectric-like instability in the metal LiOsO3 is a limiting case of a hyperferroelectrics, whose optical dielectric constant goes to infinity. We further show via an effective Hamiltonian that in contrast to normal proper ferroelectricity, in which the ferroelectric instability usually comes from long range coulomb interactions, the hyperferroelectric instability is due to the structure instability driven by the short range interactions. This could happen in systems with large ion size mismatches, which therefore provides a useful guidance in searching for novel hyperferroelectrics.

  12. Dynamic Wind-Tunnel Testing of a Sub-Scale Iced S-3B Viking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Sam; Barnhart, Billy; Ratvasky, Thomas P.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of ice accretion on a 1/12-scale complete aircraft model of S-3B Viking was studied in a rotary-balance wind tunnel. Two types of ice accretions were considered: ice protection system failure shape and runback shapes that form downstream of the thermal ice protection system. The results showed that the ice shapes altered the stall characteristics of the aircraft. The ice shapes also reduced the control surface effectiveness, but mostly near the stall angle of attack. There were some discrepancies with the data with the flaps deflected that were attributed to the low Reynolds number of the test. Rotational and forced-oscillation studies showed that the effects of ice were mostly in the longitudinal forces, and the effects on the lateral forces were relatively minor.

  13. Non-Abelian quasigapless modes localized on mass vortices in superfluid He3-B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nitta, Muneto; Shifman, Mikhail; Vinci, Walter

    2013-04-01

    Kelvin waves, or Kelvons, have been known for a long time as gapless excitations propagating along superfluid vortices. These modes can be interpreted as the Nambu-Goldstone excitations arising from the spontaneous breaking of the translational symmetry. Recently a different type of gapless excitation localized on strings—the so-called non-Abelian mode—attracted much attention in high-energy physics. We discuss their relevance in condensed matter physics. Non-Abelian rotational quasigapless excitations could appear on the mass vortices in the B phase of the superfluid He3, due to the fact that the order parameter in He3-B is tensorial. While the U(1) rotational excitations are well established in vortices with asymmetric cores, the non-Abelian rotational excitations belonging to the same family were not considered.

  14. Inhibition of DYRK1A and GSK3B induces human β-cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Shen, Weijun; Taylor, Brandon; Jin, Qihui; Nguyen-Tran, Van; Meeusen, Shelly; Zhang, You-Qing; Kamireddy, Anwesh; Swafford, Austin; Powers, Andrew F; Walker, John; Lamb, John; Bursalaya, Badry; DiDonato, Michael; Harb, George; Qiu, Minhua; Filippi, Christophe M; Deaton, Lisa; Turk, Carolina N; Suarez-Pinzon, Wilma L; Liu, Yahu; Hao, Xueshi; Mo, Tingting; Yan, Shanshan; Li, Jing; Herman, Ann E; Hering, Bernhard J; Wu, Tom; Martin Seidel, H; McNamara, Peter; Glynne, Richard; Laffitte, Bryan

    2015-01-01

    Insufficient pancreatic β-cell mass or function results in diabetes mellitus. While significant progress has been made in regulating insulin secretion from β-cells in diabetic patients, no pharmacological agents have been described that increase β-cell replication in humans. Here we report aminopyrazine compounds that stimulate robust β-cell proliferation in adult primary islets, most likely as a result of combined inhibition of DYRK1A and GSK3B. Aminopyrazine-treated human islets retain functionality in vitro and after transplantation into diabetic mice. Oral dosing of these compounds in diabetic mice induces β-cell proliferation, increases β-cell mass and insulin content, and improves glycaemic control. Biochemical, genetic and cell biology data point to Dyrk1a as the key molecular target. This study supports the feasibility of treating diabetes with an oral therapy to restore β-cell mass, and highlights a tractable pathway for future drug discovery efforts. PMID:26496802

  15. [Transporting models of reactive X-3B red dye in water-soil-crop continuums].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qixing

    2002-02-01

    Reactive X-3B red dye entering into environment is a typical persistent organic pollutant(POPs). Transport of the dye from water to soil and from soil to crop compartment is a continuous ecological process. According to the cognitionm, the quantitative depiction of the process using mathematical models was theoretically discussed. Some of the mathematical models were also verified using burozem-soybean, cinnamon soil-wheat, krasnozem-radish, aquorizem-rice systems. In particular, transference of the dye from water compartment to soil compartment by way of adsorbent mechanisms was accorded with the Langmuir model, and movement of the dye from soil compartment to crop compartment on the basis of root-absorbing mechanisms could be expressed using logarithmic crop-soil accumulation factor(CSAF) models. PMID:11993110

  16. Selenium regulation of glutathione peroxidase in human hepatoma cell line Hep3B.

    PubMed

    Baker, R D; Baker, S S; LaRosa, K; Whitney, C; Newburger, P E

    1993-07-01

    Glutathione peroxidase is an important enzyme in cellular antioxidant defense systems, detoxifying peroxides and hydroperoxides. As a component of the glutathione cycle, it protects the liver from reactive oxygen metabolites. Selenocysteine is present at the catalytic site of glutathione peroxidase, and selenium availability regulates glutathione peroxidase enzyme activity. Hep3B cells, a well-differentiated human hepatoma-derived cell line, exhibited time-dependent decrease in glutathione peroxidase activity (nmol NADPH oxidized/min/mg protein, mean +/- SE) when incubated in selenium-free medium for 10 days (Day 0, 21.8 +/- 7.3; Day 2, 10.9 +/- 1.2; Day 4, 7.9 +/- 0.8; Day 6, 4.0 +/- 0.7; Day 8, 4.5 +/- 0.6; Day 10, 1.6 +/- 0.4). With the reintroduction of selenium, glutathione peroxidase activity returned. A second human hepatoma cell line, HepG2, demonstrated a similar pattern when depleted of and then repleted with selenium. To assess protein synthesis, glutathione peroxidase activity was measured in deficient and replete Hep3B cells incubated with and without selenium and with and without cycloheximide. Deficient cells (mean +/- SE) (4.9 +/- 0.2) showed an increase in glutathione peroxidase activity after 24 h in selenium-containing medium (11.6 +/- 0.2), but not when cycloheximide was included in the medium (6.9 +/- 0.5) or when cycloheximide and no selenium was included (5.3 +/- 0.8). Replete Hep3B cells (40.1 +/- 1.1) demonstrated decreased glutathione peroxidase after 24 h in medium without selenium (34.0 +/- 1.4), medium with both cycloheximide and selenium (34.0 +/- 2.6), and medium without selenium and containing cycloheximide (37.6 +/- 1.3). These data suggest that protein synthesis is needed for selenium repletion to exert control on glutathione peroxidase activity. Using a cDNA for human glutathione peroxidase (GPx1), selenium-deficient and replete Hep3B cell RNA was analyzed by Northern blot. mRNA for GPx was quantified by densitometry. The steady

  17. Preparation of integrated multifunction Pb3B10O16[OH]4 whisker by solvothermal method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Qing; Zhang, Quan-Ping; Zheng, Jian; Zhou, Dong; Li, Yin-Tao; Zhou, Yuan-Lin

    2016-03-01

    Elaborate design of multifunction materials is of great scientific and technological significance; but it is a great challenge. Here, a lead borate is successfully prepared via a facile solvothermal method. The results of XRD, SEM and TEM show the product is a kind of whiskers with uniform structure and high length-diameter ratio, which is represented as Pb3B10O16[OH]4. The whisker is capable of attenuating both γ-rays and neutrons and shows a little difference with that of the equal molar mass of Pb and B in mixture. In addition, the whisker displays good photoluminescence properties, especially for luminescent intensity. These significant results indicate an integrated multifunction whisker that will stimulate new application research.

  18. Intermediate type excitons in Schottky barriers of A3B6 layer semiconductors and UV photodetectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alekperov, O. Z.; Guseinov, N. M.; Nadjafov, A. I.

    2006-09-01

    Photoelectric and photovoltaic spectra of Schottky barrier (SB) structures of InSe, GaSe and GaS layered semiconductors (LS) are investigated at quantum energies from the band edge excitons of corresponding materials up to 6.5eV. Spectral dependences of photoconductivity (PC) of photo resistors and barrier structures are strongly different at the quantum energies corresponding to the intermediate type excitons (ITE) observed in these semiconductors. It was suggested that high UV photoconductivity of A3B6 LS is due to existence of high mobility light carriers in the depth of the band structure. It is shown that SB of semitransparent Au-InSe is high sensitive photo detector in UV region of spectra.

  19. RAMONA-3B calculations for Browns Ferry ATWS (Anticipated Transient Without Scram) study

    SciTech Connect

    Saha, P; Slovik, G C; Neymotin, L Y

    1987-02-01

    Several aspects of the Anticipated Transient Without Scram (ATWS) initiated by an inadvertent closure of all Main Steam Isolation Valves (MSIV) in a typical BWR/4 are analyzed in the report. The analysis is performed using the Brookhaven National Laboratory code, RAMONA-3B, which employs a three-dimensional neutron kinetics model coupled with a parallel-channel thermal hydraulics in representing a Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) Core. Four different transient scenarios have been investigated: (a) downcomer water level and reactor pressure control, (b) manual control rod insertion transient, (c) high pressure boil-off, and (d) recirculation pump trip failure. Results of these calculations should provide better understanding of mitigative effects of operator actions during ATWS, thus helping in the development of adequate Emergency Procedure Guidelines (EPG) required for the BWR plant safety. A few unresolved questions subject to future investigations are also discussed.

  20. Processing, compositional range, and mechanical behavior of the Mo(5)Si(3)C intermetallic compound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, Eli Nickerson

    The intermetallic compound Mo5Si3C was studied in order to examine optimal processing methods, elevated temperature mechanical behavior, and the influence of crystal symmetry on the potential for improved room temperature ductility/toughness in ternary silicides. During the course of the investigation, samples were produced using nonconsumable arc melting and vacuum hot pressing of either blended or mechanically alloyed powders. The most significant challenge to the production of single-phase Mo5 Si3C was the significantly narrower range of homogeneity for the ternary compound than originally reported. The primary reason for this discrepancy is thought to be the use of x-ray diffraction (XRD) as the sole means of phase identification in the original study, whereas the current work augmented XRD with other microstructural analysis techniques. Further complicating the processing of Mo5Si3C was the occurrence of composition shifts during powder processing. These shifts in stoichiometry were correlated to observed microstructural features and likely the result of thermodynamically favored reactions between silica present in the starting powders and carbon. Because of these complications, materials for mechanical testing typically contained between one and 6 volume percent of phases other than Mo5Si3C, with samples having the nominal composition Mo4.8Si3C0.87 closest to single phase. An average microhardness value of 13.2 GPa was recorded for the ternary phase at room temperature, and an indentation fracture toughness of approximately 2.5 MPa·m1/2 was determined. In the temperature range 1000 to 1300°C, materials tested in compression displayed properties that were highly strain rate and grain size dependent, indicating the influence of boundary-controlled deformation mechanisms. The behavior of samples tested in four-point bending at 1200°C showed similar behavior, with larger grain size materials failing after limited deformation while finer grain size materials

  1. NGC 1068, 3C 273, and Scorpius X-1 - Circular polarization disputed.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kemp, J. C.; Wolstencroft, R. D.; Swedlund, J. B.

    1972-01-01

    Discussion of data for the Seyfert galaxy NGC 1068, the quasar 3C 273, and the X-ray source Sco X-1, for all of which it has been claimed or strongly suggested that they have large circular polarization of the order of 1% (Severny et al., 1971). In contrast the present authors obtained unambiguously null results with upper limits about 0.05% for NGC 1068 and 3C 273. For Sco X-1 no statistically significant polarization was found on three nights, and only some marginal evidence for a fluctuation or transient polarization on one night.

  2. SATCOM antenna siting study on P-3C aircraft, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bensman, D. A.; Marhefka, R. J.

    1991-01-01

    The NEC-BSC (Basic Scattering Code) was used to study the performance of a SATCOM antenna on a P-3C aircraft. After plate cylinder fields are added to version 3.1 of the NEC-BSC, it is shown that the NEC-BSC can be used to accurately predict the performance of a SATCOM antenna system on a P-3C aircraft. The study illustrates that the NEC-BSC gives good results when compared with scale model measurements provided by Boeing and Lockheed.

  3. New Filling Technique and Performance Evaluations of the Cr3C2-C Peritectic Fixed Point

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasajima, N.; Lowe, D.; Bai, C.; Yamada, Y.; Ara, C.

    2011-12-01

    The Cr3C2-C peritectic fixed point was investigated to test its capability to serve as a practical high-temperature fixed point. An improved filling technique where C/C sheet works as a wick and graphite paper as a hopper was applied successfully, and the long-term stability of the peritectic cell was evaluated by means of radiation thermometry. The repeatability of the melting point in one day was 7 mK with a melting range of approximately 100 mK. The cell was aged for 7 days, and the evaluated 56 melting temperatures during this period all fall within 90 mK, with a standard deviation of 19 mK. X-ray transmission photos showed that the ingot was filled uniformly in the crucible. After the evaluation of long-term stability, no clear degradation of the ingot shape and no leakage of molten metal were observed. From these results, it can be concluded that the Cr3C2-C peritectic cell has good stability and robustness, and the new filling technique was established. The impurity effect on the Cr3C2-C peritectic cell was also investigated by adding tungsten powder to another cell as the impurity component. After the observation of melting and freezing plateaux, the cell was cut in half to analyze the microstructure by means of electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (LA-ICP-MS). The high concentration of impurity was observed in the area of the chromium-rich domain (eutectic mixture of Cr7C3 and Cr3C2), which suggests that impurities were rejected from the Cr3C2 peritectic phase during the peritectic freezing and were accumulated in the Cr7C3-Cr3C2 eutectic phase. This explains why the impurity effect is more severe for the Cr7C3-Cr3C2 eutectic point than for the Cr3C2-C peritectic point.

  4. SATCOM antenna siting study on P-3C aircraft, volume 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bensman, D. A.; Marhefka, R. J.

    1991-09-01

    The NEC-BSC (Basic Scattering Code) was used to study the performance of a SATCOM antenna on a P-3C aircraft. After plate cylinder fields are added to version 3.1 of the NEC-BSC, it is shown that the NEC-BSC can be used to accurately predict the performance of a SATCOM antenna system on a P-3C aircraft. The study illustrates that the NEC-BSC gives good results when compared with scale model measurements provided by Boeing and Lockheed.

  5. The Hard X-Ray and Coordinated Multifrequency Properties of the Blazar 3C279

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collmar, W.; Boettcher, Markus

    2004-01-01

    Upon our successful AO-1 proposal no. 120085, the quasar 3C 279 has been observed in a coordinated multiwavelength campaign, including INTEGRAL, Chandra, and ground-based radio, near-infrared, and optical observations in June 2003. INTEGRAL observed 3C279 continuously for 300 ksec in INTEGRAL AO-1 between June 1 and June 5,2003. In addition, a Chandra pointing of 5 ksec was done on June 2, the Metsiihovi radio telescope contributed high-frequency radio observations, the SEST observed the source at mm wavelengths, and the 80 cm Turola telescope at La Palma and the 2.3 m telescope at Siding Springs, Australia contributed optical observations.

  6. Proinsulin C-peptide inhibits lipolysis in diabetic rat adipose tissue through phosphodiestrase-3B enzyme.

    PubMed

    Ghorbani, A; Omrani, G R; Hadjzadeh, M A; Varedi, M

    2013-03-01

    We have previously reported that C-peptide modulates insulin-mediated inhibition of lipolysis and glucose consumption but has no significant effects per se on adipose tissue of normal rats. It has been repeatedly observed that certain actions of C-peptide are restricted to the diabetic states. In the present study, therefore, we examined whether C-peptide alters lipolysis in adipose tissue of diabetic rats. Rats were rendered diabetic by streptozotocin and divided into 2 groups; insulin treated and untreated. Retroperitoneal adipose tissue was excised aseptically, subjected to organ culture and incubated with rat C-peptide, insulin, or a combination of both peptides in the presence or absence of isoproterenol. Tissue lipolysis was assessed by the rate of glycerol release into the culture media. The cultures were pretreated with cilostamide, a phosphodiesterase-3B enzyme inhibitor, when the role of this enzyme was to be examined. C-Peptide on its own, like insulin, significantly inhibited isoproterenol-stimulated lipolysis in the adipose tissue of untreated diabetic rats. The effect was enhanced by a combination of C-peptide and insulin. Notably, the C-peptide's effect was totally blocked in the presence of cilostamide. In the adipose tissue of insulin treated rats, however, C-peptide failed to show any significant antilipolytic effects. These data show that C-peptide has the potential to act, conditionally, as an antilipolytic hormone by activating phosphodiesterase-3B and suggest that the action may contribute to the C-peptide's beneficial effects on diabetes-induced complications. PMID:22990990

  7. Cerium Regulates Expression of Alternative Methanol Dehydrogenases in Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b

    PubMed Central

    Farhan Ul Haque, Muhammad; Kalidass, Bhagyalakshmi; Bandow, Nathan; Turpin, Erick A.; DiSpirito, Alan A.

    2015-01-01

    Methanotrophs have multiple methane monooxygenases that are well known to be regulated by copper, i.e., a “copper switch.” At low copper/biomass ratios the soluble methane monooxygenase (sMMO) is expressed while expression and activity of the particulate methane monooxygenase (pMMO) increases with increasing availability of copper. In many methanotrophs there are also multiple methanol dehydrogenases (MeDHs), one based on Mxa and another based on Xox. Mxa-MeDH is known to have calcium in its active site, while Xox-MeDHs have been shown to have rare earth elements in their active site. We show here that the expression levels of Mxa-MeDH and Xox-MeDH in Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b significantly decreased and increased, respectively, when grown in the presence of cerium but the absence of copper compared to the absence of both metals. Expression of sMMO and pMMO was not affected. In the presence of copper, the effect of cerium on gene expression was less significant, i.e., expression of Mxa-MeDH in the presence of copper and cerium was slightly lower than in the presence of copper alone, but Xox-MeDH was again found to increase significantly. As expected, the addition of copper caused sMMO and pMMO expression levels to significantly decrease and increase, respectively, but the simultaneous addition of cerium had no discernible effect on MMO expression. As a result, it appears Mxa-MeDH can be uncoupled from methane oxidation by sMMO in M. trichosporium OB3b but not from pMMO. PMID:26296730

  8. The Arctic Boundary Layer Expedition (ABLE-3B): July-August 1990

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harriss, R. C.; Wofsy, S. C.; Hoell, J. M.; Bendura, R. J.; Drewry, J. W.; McNeal, R. J.; Pierce, D.; Rabine, V.; Snell, R. L.

    1994-01-01

    The Arctic Boundary Layer Expedition (ABLE) 3B used data from ground-based, aircraft, and satellite platforms to characterize the chemistry and dynamics of the troposphere in subarctic and Arctic regions of midcontinent and eastern Canada during July-August 1990. This paper reports the experimental design for ABLE 3B and a brief overview of results. The detailed results are presented in a series of papers in this issue. The chemical composition of the atmospheric mixed layer over remote tundra, boreal wetland, and forested environments was influenced by emissions of CH4 and nonmethane hydrocarbons from biogenic sources, emissions of gases and aerosols from local biomass burning, and transport of pollutants into the study areas from urban/industrial sources. Minimum concentrations of both trace gas and aerosol species in boundary layer air were associated with Arctic source areas. In the free troposphere the biospheric influence was undetectable, and major sources of chemical variability were related to long-range transport of pollutants into the study areas from biomass burning and industrial sources in Alaska and the Great Lakes regions, respectively. Minimum concentrations of both trace gas and aerosol species in the free troposphere were associated with a persistent, widespread air mass which both chemistry and air mass trajectory analyses suggested had originated in the tropical Pacific. Subsidence of air from the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere frequently enhanced ozone and influenced other trace gas and aerosol species at midtropospheric altitudes. The North American Arctic is a complex dynamical and chemical environment with considerable spatial and temporal variability in aerosol and trace gas concentrations. The use of atmospheric chemical indicators for climate change detection will require a much more comprehensive Arctic monitoring program than currently exists.

  9. Study on the Retrieval of Snow Depth from FY3B/MWRI in the Atctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Lele; Chen, Haihua; Guan, Lei

    2016-06-01

    temperatures. Given the high albedo and low thermal conductivity, snow is regarded as one of the key reasons for the amplification of the warming in polar regions. The distributions of sea ice and snow depth are essential to the whole thermal conduction in the Arctic. This study focused on the retrieval of snow depth on sea ice from brightness temperatures of the MicroWave Radiometer Imager (MWRI) onboard the FengYun (FY)-3B satellite during the period from December 1, 2010 to April 30, 2011. After cross calibrated to the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer-EOS (AMSR-E) Level 2A data, the MWRI brightness temperatures were applied to calculate the sea ice concentrations based on the Arctic Radiation and Turbulence Interaction Study Sea Ice (ASI) algorithm. According to the proportional relationship between the snow depth and the surface scattering in 18.7 and 36.5 GHz, the snow depths were derived. In order to eliminate the influence of uncertainties in grain sizes of snow as well as sporadic weather effects, the seven-day averaged snow depths were calculated. Then the results were compared with the snow depths from the AMSR-E Level 3 Sea Ice products. The bias of differences between the MWRI and the AMSR-E Level 3 products are ranged between -1.09 and -0.32 cm while the standard deviations and the correlation coefficients are ranged from 2.47 to 2.88 cm and from 0.78 to 0.90 for different months. As a result, it could be summarized that FY3B/MWRI showed a promising prospect in retrieving snow depth on sea ice.

  10. Cerium regulates expression of alternative methanol dehydrogenases in Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b.

    PubMed

    Farhan Ul Haque, Muhammad; Kalidass, Bhagyalakshmi; Bandow, Nathan; Turpin, Erick A; DiSpirito, Alan A; Semrau, Jeremy D

    2015-11-01

    Methanotrophs have multiple methane monooxygenases that are well known to be regulated by copper, i.e., a "copper switch." At low copper/biomass ratios the soluble methane monooxygenase (sMMO) is expressed while expression and activity of the particulate methane monooxygenase (pMMO) increases with increasing availability of copper. In many methanotrophs there are also multiple methanol dehydrogenases (MeDHs), one based on Mxa and another based on Xox. Mxa-MeDH is known to have calcium in its active site, while Xox-MeDHs have been shown to have rare earth elements in their active site. We show here that the expression levels of Mxa-MeDH and Xox-MeDH in Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b significantly decreased and increased, respectively, when grown in the presence of cerium but the absence of copper compared to the absence of both metals. Expression of sMMO and pMMO was not affected. In the presence of copper, the effect of cerium on gene expression was less significant, i.e., expression of Mxa-MeDH in the presence of copper and cerium was slightly lower than in the presence of copper alone, but Xox-MeDH was again found to increase significantly. As expected, the addition of copper caused sMMO and pMMO expression levels to significantly decrease and increase, respectively, but the simultaneous addition of cerium had no discernible effect on MMO expression. As a result, it appears Mxa-MeDH can be uncoupled from methane oxidation by sMMO in M. trichosporium OB3b but not from pMMO. PMID:26296730

  11. HATS-3b: An Inflated Hot Jupiter Transiting an F-type Star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayliss, D.; Zhou, G.; Penev, K.; Bakos, G. Á.; Hartman, J. D.; Jordán, A.; Mancini, L.; Mohler-Fischer, M.; Suc, V.; Rabus, M.; Béky, B.; Csubry, Z.; Buchhave, L.; Henning, T.; Nikolov, N.; Csák, B.; Brahm, R.; Espinoza, N.; Noyes, R. W.; Schmidt, B.; Conroy, P.; Wright, D. J.; Tinney, C. G.; Addison, B. C.; Sackett, P. D.; Sasselov, D. D.; Lázár, J.; Papp, I.; Sári, P.

    2013-11-01

    We report the discovery by the HATSouth survey of HATS-3b, a transiting extrasolar planet orbiting a V = 12.4 F dwarf star. HATS-3b has a period of P = 3.5479 days, mass of Mp = 1.07 M J, and radius of Rp = 1.38 R J. Given the radius of the planet, the brightness of the host star, and the stellar rotational velocity (vsin i = 9.0 km s-1), this system will make an interesting target for future observations to measure the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect and determine its spin-orbit alignment. We detail the low-/medium-resolution reconnaissance spectroscopy that we are now using to deal with large numbers of transiting planet candidates produced by the HATSouth survey. We show that this important step in discovering planets produces log g and T eff parameters at a precision suitable for efficient candidate vetting, as well as efficiently identifying stellar mass eclipsing binaries with radial velocity semi-amplitudes as low as 1 km s-1. The HATSouth network is operated by a collaboration consisting of Princeton University (PU), the Max Planck Institute für Astronomie (MPIA), and the Australian National University (ANU). The station at Las Campanas Observatory (LCO) of the Carnegie Institute is operated by PU in conjunction with collaborators at the Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile (PUC), the station at the High Energy Spectroscopic Survey (HESS) site is operated in conjunction with MPIA, and the station at Siding Spring Observatory (SSO) is operated jointly with ANU.

  12. Jet-induced star formation in 3C 285 and Minkowski's Object

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salomé, Q.; Salomé, P.; Combes, F.

    2015-02-01

    How efficiently star formation proceeds in galaxies is still an open question. Recent studies suggest that active galactic nucleus (AGN) can regulate the gas accretion and thus slow down star formation (negative feedback). However, evidence of AGN positive feedback has also been observed in a few radio galaxies (e.g. Centaurus A, Minkowski's Object, 3C 285, and the higher redshift 4C 41.17). Here we present CO observations of 3C 285 and Minkowski's Object, which are examples of jet-induced star formation. A spot (named 3C 285/09.6 in the present paper) aligned with the 3C 285 radio jet at a projected distance of ~70 kpc from the galaxy centre shows star formation that is detected in optical emission. Minkowski's Object is located along the jet of NGC 541 and also shows star formation. Knowing the distribution of molecular gas along the jets is a way to study the physical processes at play in the AGN interaction with the intergalactic medium. We observed CO lines in 3C 285, NGC 541, 3C 285/09.6, and Minkowski's Object with the IRAM 30 m telescope. In the central galaxies, the spectra present a double-horn profile, typical of a rotation pattern, from which we are able to estimate the molecular gas density profile of the galaxy. The molecular gas appears to be in a compact reservoir, which could be evidence of an early phase of the gas accretion after a recent merger event in 3C 285. No kinematic signature of a molecular outflow is detected by the 30 m telescope. Interestingly, 3C 285/09.6 and Minkowski's Object are not detected in CO. The cold gas mass upper limits are consistent with a star formation induced by the compression of dense ambient material by the jet. The depletion time scales in 3C 285/09.6 and Minkowski's Object are of the order of and even shorter than what is found in 3C 285, NGC 541, and local spiral galaxies (109 yr). The upper limit of the molecular gas surface density in 3C 285/09.6 at least follows a Schmidt-Kennicutt law if the emitting region

  13. The ‘de novo’ DNA methyltransferase Dnmt3b compensates the Dnmt1-deficient intestinal epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, Ellen N; Sheaffer, Karyn L; Kaestner, Klaus H

    2016-01-01

    Dnmt1 is critical for immediate postnatal intestinal development, but is not required for the survival of the adult intestinal epithelium, the only rapidly dividing somatic tissue for which this has been shown. Acute Dnmt1 deletion elicits dramatic hypomethylation and genomic instability. Recovery of DNA methylation state and intestinal health is dependent on the de novo methyltransferase Dnmt3b. Ablation of both Dnmt1 and Dnmt3b in the intestinal epithelium is lethal, while deletion of either Dnmt1 or Dnmt3b has no effect on survival. These results demonstrate that Dnmt1 and Dnmt3b cooperate to maintain DNA methylation and genomic integrity in the intestinal epithelium. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.12975.001 PMID:26808831

  14. Epstein-Barr virus nuclear protein 3C binds to the N-terminal (NTD) and beta trefoil domains (BTD) of RBP/CSL; Only the NTD interaction is essential for lymphoblastoid cell growth

    SciTech Connect

    Calderwood, Michael A.; Lee, Sungwook; Holthaus, Amy M.; Blacklow, Stephen C.; Kieff, Elliott; Johannsen, Eric

    2011-05-25

    Association of EBV nuclear proteins EBNA2, EBNA3A and EBNA3C with RBP/CSL, is essential for lymphoblastoid cell line (LCL) proliferation. Conserved residues in the EBNA3 homology domain, required for RBP/CSL interaction, lack the W{Phi}P motif that mediates EBNA2 and Notch binding to the RBP/CSL beta-trefoil domain (BTD). We map RBP/CSL interacting residues within EBNA3A(aa128-204) and EBNA3C(aa211-233). The EBNA3A results are consistent with an earlier report (aa125-222), but the EBNA3C domain is unexpectedly small and includes a 'WTP' sequence. This EBNA3C WTP motif confers RBP/CSL binding in vitro, in yeast, and in mammalian cells. Further, an EBNA3C WTP {yields} STP(W227S) mutation impaired BTD binding whereas EBNA3 homology domain mutations disrupted RBP/CSL N-terminal domain (NTD) binding. WTP was not essential for EBNA3C repression of EBNA2 in reporter assays or for maintenance of LCL growth. Our results indicate that EBNA3 proteins interact with multiple RBP/CSL domains, but only NTD interactions are required for LCL growth.

  15. Synthesis, structure and properties of Li{sub 2}Rh{sub 3}B{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, Mark S. Lobkovsky, Emil B.; Hinks, David G.; Claus, Helmut; Hor, Yew San; Schlueter, John A.; Mitchell, John F.

    2007-04-15

    Li{sub 2}Rh{sub 3}B{sub 2} has been synthesized at 1000 deg. C from a stoichiometric mix of rhodium and boron and an excess of lithium. Li{sub 2}Rh{sub 3}B{sub 2} crystallizes in the orthorhombic space group Pbam (no. 55, Z=2) with room temperature lattice constants a=5.7712(1) A, b=9.4377(2) A, c=2.8301(1) A and cell volume 154.149(6) A{sup 3}. The structure was solved from single crystal X-ray diffraction yielding the final R indices (all data) R1=2.8% and wR2=4.7%. The structure is a distortion of the CeCo{sub 3}B{sub 2} structure type, containing a network of Rh{sub 6}B trigonal prisms and short Li-Li contacts of 2.28(2) A. Li{sub 2}Rh{sub 3}B{sub 2} is a diamagnetic metal with a room temperature resistivity of 19 {mu}{omega} cm, as determined by magnetic susceptibility and single crystal transport measurements. The measured diamagnetism and electronic structure calculations show that Li{sub 2}Rh{sub 3}B{sub 2} contains rhodium in a d {sup 10} configuration. - Graphical abstract: Li{sub 2}Rh{sub 3}B{sub 2}, a diamagnetic metal, has been synthesized from a lithium flux. It adopts a distortion of the CeCo{sub 3}B{sub 2} structure type and is closely related to the 3 K superconductor, LaRh{sub 3}B{sub 2}. Pairs of lithium ions (white) fill the channels formed by rhodium-boron trigonal prisms (gray)

  16. Measurement of OH, H2SO4, MSA, and HNO3 Aboard the P-3B Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eisele, F. L.

    2003-01-01

    This paper addresses the measurement of OH, H2SO4, MSA, and HNO3 aboard the P-3B aircraft under the following headings: 1) Performance Report; 2) Highlights of OH, H2SO4, and MSA Measurements Made Aboard the NASA P-3B During TRACE-P; 3) Development and characteristics of an airborne-based instrument used to measure nitric acid during the NASA TRACE-P field experiment.

  17. Crystal structure of a 3B3 variant - A broadly neutralizing HIV-1 scFv antibody

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, K. Reed; Walsh, Scott T.R.

    2009-12-10

    We present the crystal structure determination of an anti-HIV-1 gp120 single-chain variable fragment antibody variant, 3B3, at 2.5 {angstrom} resolution. This 3B3 variant was derived from the b12 antibody, using phage display and site-directed mutagenesis of the variable heavy chain (V{sub H}) complementary-determining regions (CDRs). 3B3 exhibits enhanced binding affinity and neutralization activity against several cross-clade primary isolates of HIV-1 by interaction with the recessed CD4-binding site on the gp120 envelope protein. Comparison with the structures of the unbound and bound forms of b12, the 3B3 structure closely resembles these structures with minimal differences with two notable exceptions. First, there is a reorientation of the CDR-H3 of the V{sub H} domain where the primary sequences evolved from b12 to 3B3. The structural changes in CDR-H3 of 3B3, in light of the b12-gp120 complex structure, allow for positioning an additional Trp side chain in the binding interface with gp120. Finally, the second region of structural change involves two peptide bond flips in CDR-L3 of the variable light (VL) domain triggered by a point mutation in CDR-H3 of Q100eY resulting in changes in the intramolecular hydrogen bonding patterning between the VL and VH domains. Thus, the enhanced binding affinities and neutralization capabilities of 3B3 relative to b12 probably result from higher hydrophobic driving potential by burying more aromatic residues at the 3B3-gp120 interface and by indirect stabilization of intramolecular contacts of the core framework residues between the VL and VH domains possibly through more favorable entropic effect through the expulsion of water.

  18. The singular gas-phase structure of 1-aminocyclopropanecarboxylic acid (Ac3c).

    PubMed

    Jiménez, Ana I; Vaquero, Vanesa; Cabezas, Carlos; López, Juan C; Cativiela, Carlos; Alonso, José L

    2011-07-13

    The natural nonproteinogenic α-amino acid 1-aminocyclopropanecarboxylic acid (Ac(3)c) has been vaporized by laser ablation and studied in the gas phase by molecular-beam Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy. Comparison of the experimental rotational and (14)N nuclear quadrupole coupling constants with the values predicted ab initio for these parameters has allowed the unambiguous identification of three Ac(3)c conformers differing in the hydrogen bonding pattern. Two of them resemble those characterized before for the coded aliphatic α-amino acids. Remarkably, a third conformer predicted to be energetically accessible for all of these amino acids but never observed (the so-called "missing conformer") has been found for Ac(3)c, close in energy to the global minimum. This is the first time that such a conformer, stabilized by an N-H···O(H) hydrogen bond, is detected in the rotational spectrum of a gaseous α-amino acid with a nonpolar side chain. The conjugative interaction established between the cyclopropane ring and the adjacent carbonyl group seems to be responsible for the unique conformational properties exhibited by Ac(3)c.

  19. Ti3C2Tx Filler Effect on the Proton Conduction Property of Polymer Electrolyte Membrane.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yahua; Zhang, Jiakui; Zhang, Xiang; Li, Yifan; Wang, Jingtao

    2016-08-10

    Conductive polymer electrolyte membranes are increasingly attractive for a wide range of applications in hydrogen-relevant devices, for instance hydrogen fuel cells. In this study, two-dimensional Ti3C2Tx, a typical representative of the recently developed MXene family, is synthesized and employed as a universal filler for its features of large specific surface area, high aspect ratio, and sufficient terminated -OH groups. The Ti3C2Tx is incorporated into polymer matrix to explore its function on membrane microstructure and proton conduction property. Both phase-separated (acidic Nafion and sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone)) and non-phase-separated (basic chitosan) polymers are utilized as membrane matrixes. The microstructures, physicochemical properties, and proton conduction properties of the membranes are extensively investigated. It is demonstrated that Ti3C2Tx generates significant promotion effect on proton conduction of the composite membrane by facilitating both vehicle-type and Grotthuss-type proton transfer, yielding several times increased proton conductivity for every polymer-based composite membrane under various conditions, and the composite membrane achieves elevated hydrogen fuel cell performance. The stable Ti3C2Tx also reinforces the thermal and mechanical stabilities of these composite membranes. Since the MXene family includes more than 70 members, this exploration is expected to open up new perspectives for expanding their applications, especially as membrane modifiers and proton conductors. PMID:27430190

  20. PIK3C2B inhibition improves function and prolongs survival in myotubular myopathy animal models.

    PubMed

    Sabha, Nesrin; Volpatti, Jonathan R; Gonorazky, Hernan; Reifler, Aaron; Davidson, Ann E; Li, Xingli; Eltayeb, Nadine M; Dall'Armi, Claudia; Di Paolo, Gilbert; Brooks, Susan V; Buj-Bello, Ana; Feldman, Eva L; Dowling, James J

    2016-09-01

    Myotubular myopathy (MTM) is a devastating pediatric neuromuscular disorder of phosphoinositide (PIP) metabolism resulting from mutations of the PIP phosphatase MTM1 for which there are no treatments. We have previously shown phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate (PI3P) accumulation in animal models of MTM. Here, we tested the hypothesis that lowering PI3P levels may prevent or reverse the MTM disease process. To test this, we targeted class II and III PI3 kinases (PI3Ks) in an MTM1-deficient mouse model. Muscle-specific ablation of Pik3c2b, but not Pik3c3, resulted in complete prevention of the MTM phenotype, and postsymptomatic targeting promoted a striking rescue of disease. We confirmed this genetic interaction in zebrafish, and additionally showed that certain PI3K inhibitors prevented development of the zebrafish mtm phenotype. Finally, the PI3K inhibitor wortmannin improved motor function and prolonged lifespan of the Mtm1-deficient mice. In all, we have identified Pik3c2b as a genetic modifier of Mtm1 mutation and demonstrated that PIK3C2B inhibition is a potential treatment strategy for MTM. In addition, we set the groundwork for similar reciprocal inhibition approaches for treating other PIP metabolic disorders and highlight the importance of modifier gene pathways as therapeutic targets. PMID:27548528

  1. An increase of Optical Activity in the Quasar 3C454.3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jorstad, Svetlana

    2016-06-01

    The quasar 3C454.3 shows an increase of the optical activity during the last three nights. According to our observations at the Perkins telescope of the Lowell Observatory (Flagstaff, AZ) the brightness of the source on June 10 (JD 2457549.8770) in R band was 15.817+-0.018 with a of polarization of 2.27+-0.39%.

  2. 17 CFR 270.3c-5 - Beneficial ownership by knowledgeable employees and certain other persons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) RULES AND REGULATIONS, INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF 1940 § 270.3c... section 2(a)(3) of the Act , that manages the investment activities of a Covered Company. For purposes of this definition, the term “investment company” as used in section 2(a)(3) of the Act includes a...

  3. 40 CFR 152.112 - Approval of registration under FIFRA sec. 3(c)(5).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Approval of registration under FIFRA sec. 3(c)(5). 152.112 Section 152.112 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... to, evidence of compliance with subpart E of this part; (b) The Agency has reviewed all relevant...

  4. Ti3C2Tx Filler Effect on the Proton Conduction Property of Polymer Electrolyte Membrane.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yahua; Zhang, Jiakui; Zhang, Xiang; Li, Yifan; Wang, Jingtao

    2016-08-10

    Conductive polymer electrolyte membranes are increasingly attractive for a wide range of applications in hydrogen-relevant devices, for instance hydrogen fuel cells. In this study, two-dimensional Ti3C2Tx, a typical representative of the recently developed MXene family, is synthesized and employed as a universal filler for its features of large specific surface area, high aspect ratio, and sufficient terminated -OH groups. The Ti3C2Tx is incorporated into polymer matrix to explore its function on membrane microstructure and proton conduction property. Both phase-separated (acidic Nafion and sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone)) and non-phase-separated (basic chitosan) polymers are utilized as membrane matrixes. The microstructures, physicochemical properties, and proton conduction properties of the membranes are extensively investigated. It is demonstrated that Ti3C2Tx generates significant promotion effect on proton conduction of the composite membrane by facilitating both vehicle-type and Grotthuss-type proton transfer, yielding several times increased proton conductivity for every polymer-based composite membrane under various conditions, and the composite membrane achieves elevated hydrogen fuel cell performance. The stable Ti3C2Tx also reinforces the thermal and mechanical stabilities of these composite membranes. Since the MXene family includes more than 70 members, this exploration is expected to open up new perspectives for expanding their applications, especially as membrane modifiers and proton conductors.

  5. 40 CFR 59.1 - Final determinations under Section 183(e)(3)(C) of the CAA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Final determinations under Section 183(e)(3)(C) of the CAA. 59.1 Section 59.1 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND EMISSION STANDARDS FOR CONSUMER...

  6. Structural Basis for Molecular Discrimination by a 3',3'-cGAMP Sensing Riboswitch

    DOE PAGES

    Ren, Aiming; Wang, Xin  C.; Kellenberger, Colleen  A.; Rajashankar, Kanagalaghatta  R.; Jones, Roger  A.; Hammond, Ming  C.; Patel, Dinshaw  J.

    2015-04-07

    Cyclic dinucleotides are second messengers that target the adaptor STING and stimulate the innate immune response in mammals. Besides protein receptors, there are bacterial riboswitches that selectively recognize cyclic dinucleotides. We recently discovered a natural riboswitch that targets 3',3'-cGAMP, which is distinguished from the endogenous mammalian signal 2',3'-cGAMP by its backbone connectivity. Here, we report on structures of the aptamer domain of the 3',3'-cGAMP riboswitch from Geobacter in the 3',3'-cGAMP and c-di-GMP bound states. The riboswitch adopts a tuning forklike architecture with a junctional ligand-binding pocket and different orientations of the arms are correlated with the identity of the boundmore » cyclic dinucleotide. Subsequent biochemical experiments revealed that specificity of ligand recognition can be affected by point mutations outside of the binding pocket, which has implications for both the assignment and reengineering of riboswitches in this structural class.« less

  7. Fast optical brightening of the blazar 3C 454.3 (2251+158)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirzaqulov, D. O.; Ehgamberdiev, Sh. A.; Villata, M.; Raiteri, C. M.

    2013-09-01

    With reference to ATel #5411, the GLAST-AGILE Support Program (GASP) of the Whole Earth Blazar Telescope (WEBT) reports on the recent observation of a strong optical brightening of the gamma-loud quasar 3C 454.3. This is one of the 28 blazars for which the GASP performs a long-term, multiwavelength monitoring.

  8. Identification of γ-ray emission from 3C 345 and NRAO 512

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schinzel, F. K.; Sokolovsky, K. V.; D'Ammando, F.; Burnett, T. H.; Max-Moerbeck, W.; Cheung, C. C.; Fegan, S. J.; Casandjian, J. M.; Reyes, L. C.; Villata, M.; Raiteri, C. M.; Agudo, I.; Bravo Calle, O. J. A.; Carosati, D.; Casas, R.; Gómez, J. L.; Gurwell, M. A.; Hsiao, H. Y.; Jorstad, S. G.; Kimeridze, G.; Konstantinova, T. S.; Kopatskaya, E. N.; Koptelova, E.; Kurtanidze, O. M.; Kurtanidze, S. O.; Larionov, V. M.; Larionova, E. G.; Larionova, L. V.; Marscher, A. P.; Morozova, D. A.; Nikolashvili, M. G.; Roca-Sogorb, M.; Ros, J. A.; Sigua, L. A.; Spiridonova, O.; Troitsky, I. S.; Vlasyuk, V. V.; Lobanov, A. P.; Zensus, J. A.

    2011-08-01

    For more than 15 years, since the days of the Energetic Gamma-Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET) on board the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory (CGRO; 1991-2000), it has remained an open question why the prominent blazar 3C 345 was not reliably detected at γ-ray energies ≥ 20 MeV. Recently a bright γ-ray source (0FGL J1641.4+3939/1FGL J1642.5+3947), potentially associated with 3C 345, was detected by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on Fermi. Multiwavelength observations from radio bands to X-rays (mainly GASP-WEBT and Swift) of possible counterparts (3C 345, NRAO 512, B3 1640 + 396) were combined with 20 months of Fermi-LAT monitoring data (August 2008 - April 2010) to associate and identify the dominating γ-ray emitting counterpart of 1FGL J1642.5+3947. The source 3C 345 is identified as the main contributor for this γ-ray emitting region. However, after November 2009 (15 months), a significant excess of photons from the nearby quasar NRAO 512 started to contribute and thereafter was detected with increasing γ-ray activity, possibly adding flux to 1FGL J1642.5+3947. For the same time period and during the summer of 2010, an increase of radio, optical and X-ray activity of NRAO 512 was observed. No γ-ray emission from B3 1640 + 396 was detected.

  9. Distance and age of the pulsar wind nebula 3C 58

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kothes, R.

    2013-12-01

    Context. A growing number of researchers present evidence that the pulsar wind nebula 3C 58 is much older than predicted by its proposed connection to the historical supernova of A.D. 1181. There is also a great diversity of arguments. The strongest of these arguments rely heavily on the assumed distance of 3.2 kpc determined with H i absorption measurements. Aims: This publication aims at determining a more accurate distance for 3C 58 and at re-evaluating the arguments for an older age. Methods: I have re-visited the distance determination of 3C 58 based on new H i data from the Canadian Galactic Plane Survey and our recent improvements in the knowledge of the rotation curve of the outer Milky Way Galaxy. I also used newly determined distances to objects in the neighbourhood, which are based on direct measurements by trigonometric parallax. Results: I have derived a new more reliable distance estimate of 2 kpc for 3C 58. This makes the connection between the pulsar wind nebula and the historical event from A.D. 1181 once again much more viable. With permission of Crown Copyright 2013 NRC Canada.

  10. Renewed gamma-ray activity of the Blazar 3C 454.3 detected by AGILE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulgarelli, A.; Parmiggiani, N.; Fioretti, V.; Zoli, A.; Lucarelli, F.; Verrecchia, F.; Pittori, C.; Vercellone, S.; Piano, G.; Munar-Adrover, P.; Tavani, M.; Donnarumma, I.; Striani, E.; Cardillo, M.; Gianotti, F.; Trifoglio, M.; Giuliani, A.; Mereghetti, S.; Caraveo, P.; Perotti, F.; Chen, A.; Argan, A.; Costa, E.; Del Monte, E.; Evangelista, Y.; Feroci, M.; Lazzarotto, F.; Lapshov, I.; Pacciani, L.; Soffitta, P.; Sabatini, S.; Vittorini, V.; Pucella, G.; Rapisarda, M.; Di Cocco, G.; Fuschino, F.; Galli, M.; Labanti, C.; Marisaldi, M.; Pellizzoni, A.; Pilia, M.; Trois, A.; Barbiellini, G.; Vallazza, E.; Longo, F.; Morselli, A.; Picozza, P.; Prest, M.; Lipari, P.; Zanello, D.; Cattaneo, P. W.; Rappoldi, A.; Colafrancesco, S.; Ferrari, A.; Antonelli, A.; Giommi, P.; Salotti, L.; Valentini, G.; D'Amico, F.

    2016-06-01

    The AGILE satellite is detecting a significant enhancement in gamma-ray activity from the FSRQ 3C 454.3 (known as 1AGLR J2254+1609) since the recent AGILE ATel #9157, and the optical activity reported in ATel #9150.

  11. Finite-Element Modeling of 3C-SiC Membranes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeAnna, R. G.; Mitchell, J.; Zorman, C. A.; Mehregany, M.

    2000-01-01

    Finite-element modeling (FEM) of 3C-SiC thin-film membranes on Si substrates was used to determine the residual stress and center deflection with applied pressure. The anisotropic, three-dimensional model includes the entire 3C-SiC membrane and Si substrate with appropriate material properties and boundary conditions. Residual stress due to the thermal-expansion-coefficient mismatch between the3C-SiC film and Si substrate was included in the model. Both before-and after-etching, residual stresses were calculated. In-plane membrane stress and normal deflection with applied pressure were also calculated. FEM results predict a tensile residual stress fo 259 MPa in the 3C-SiC membrane before etching. This decreases to 247 MPa after etching the substrate below the membrane. The residual stress experimentally measured on sample made at Case Western Reserve University was 280 MPa on post-etched membranes. This is excellent agreement when an additional 30-40 MPa of residual stress to account for lattice mismatch is added to the FEM results.

  12. 40 CFR 152.112 - Approval of registration under FIFRA sec. 3(c)(5).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Approval of registration under FIFRA sec. 3(c)(5). 152.112 Section 152.112 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... effects on the environment, and that, when used in accordance with widespread and commonly...

  13. 40 CFR 152.112 - Approval of registration under FIFRA sec. 3(c)(5).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Approval of registration under FIFRA sec. 3(c)(5). 152.112 Section 152.112 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... effects on the environment, and that, when used in accordance with widespread and commonly...

  14. Semipolar (202̅3) nitrides grown on 3C-SiC/(001) Si substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinh, Duc V.; Presa, S.; Akhter, M.; Maaskant, P. P.; Corbett, B.; Parbrook, P. J.

    2015-12-01

    Heteroepitaxial growth of GaN buffer layers on 3C-SiC/(001) Si templates (4°-offcut towards [110]) by metalorganic vapour phase epitaxy has been investigated. High-temperature grown Al0.5Ga0.5N/AlN interlayers were employed to produce a single (202̅3) GaN surface orientation. Specular crack-free GaN layers showed undulations along [11̅0]{}3{{C}-{SiC}/{Si}} with a root mean square roughness of about 13.5 nm (50 × 50 μm2). The orientation relationship determined by x-ray diffraction (XRD) was found to be [1̅21̅0]GaN ∥[11̅0]{}3{{C}-{SiC}/{Si}} and [3̅034]GaN ∥[110]3C - SiC/Si . Low-temperature photoluminescence (PL) and XRD measurements showed the presence of basal-plane stacking faults in the layers. PL measurements of (202̅3) multiple-quantum-well and light-emitting diode structures showed uniform luminescence at about 500 nm emission wavelength. A small peak shift of about 3 nm was observed in the electroluminescence when the current was increased from 5 to 50 mA (25-250 A cm-2).

  15. 17 CFR 270.3c-5 - Beneficial ownership by knowledgeable employees and certain other persons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... unit, division or function (such as sales, administration or finance), any other officer who performs a... with respect to any Covered Company means any natural person who is: (i) An Executive Officer, director... for the exclusion provided by section 3(c)(7) of the Act . (b) For purposes of determining the...

  16. 32 CFR 989.26 - Classified actions (40 CFR 1507.3(c)).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Classified actions (40 CFR 1507.3(c)). 989.26... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ANALYSIS PROCESS (EIAP) § 989.26 Classified actions (40 CFR 1507.3... classified, the EPF must make a report of the matter to SAF/IEE, including proposed modifications of...

  17. 32 CFR 989.26 - Classified actions (40 CFR 1507.3(c)).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Classified actions (40 CFR 1507.3(c)). 989.26... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ANALYSIS PROCESS (EIAP) § 989.26 Classified actions (40 CFR 1507.3... classified, the EPF must make a report of the matter to SAF/IEE, including proposed modifications of...

  18. 32 CFR 989.26 - Classified actions (40 CFR 1507.3(c)).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Classified actions (40 CFR 1507.3(c)). 989.26... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ANALYSIS PROCESS (EIAP) § 989.26 Classified actions (40 CFR 1507.3... classified, the EPF must make a report of the matter to SAF/IEE, including proposed modifications of...

  19. 32 CFR 989.26 - Classified actions (40 CFR 1507.3(c)).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Classified actions (40 CFR 1507.3(c)). 989.26... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ANALYSIS PROCESS (EIAP) § 989.26 Classified actions (40 CFR 1507.3... classified, the EPF must make a report of the matter to SAF/IEI, including proposed modifications of...

  20. 32 CFR 989.26 - Classified actions (40 CFR 1507.3(c)).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Classified actions (40 CFR 1507.3(c)). 989.26... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ANALYSIS PROCESS (EIAP) § 989.26 Classified actions (40 CFR 1507.3... classified, the EPF must make a report of the matter to SAF/IEE, including proposed modifications of...