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Sample records for 3a cyp3a enzymes

  1. Prediction of CYP3A4 enzyme activity using haplotype tag SNPs in African Americans.

    PubMed

    Perera, M A; Thirumaran, R K; Cox, N J; Hanauer, S; Das, S; Brimer-Cline, C; Lamba, V; Schuetz, E G; Ratain, M J; Di Rienzo, A

    2009-02-01

    The CYP3A locus encodes hepatic enzymes that metabolize many clinically used drugs. However, there is marked interindividual variability in enzyme expression and clearance of drugs metabolized by these enzymes. We utilized comparative genomics and computational prediction of transcriptional factor binding sites to evaluate regions within CYP3A that were most likely to contribute to this variation. We then used a haplotype tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms (htSNPs) approach to evaluate the entire locus with the fewest number of maximally informative SNPs. We investigated the association between these htSNPs and in vivo CYP3A enzyme activity using a single-point IV midazolam clearance assay. We found associations between the midazolam phenotype and age, diagnosis of hypertension and one htSNP (141689) located upstream of CYP3A4. 141689 lies near the xenobiotic responsive enhancer module (XREM) regulatory region of CYP3A4. Cell-based studies show increased transcriptional activation with the minor allele at 141689, in agreement with the in vivo association study findings. This study marks the first systematic evaluation of coding and noncoding variation that may contribute to CYP3A phenotypic variability.

  2. Metabolic Pathways of Inhaled Glucocorticoids by the CYP3A Enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Chad D.; Roberts, Jessica K.; Orton, Christopher R.; Murai, Takahiro; Fidler, Trevor P.; Reilly, Christopher A.; Ward, Robert M.

    2013-01-01

    Asthma is one of the most prevalent diseases in the world, for which the mainstay treatment has been inhaled glucocorticoids (GCs). Despite the widespread use of these drugs, approximately 30% of asthma sufferers exhibit some degree of steroid insensitivity or are refractory to inhaled GCs. One hypothesis to explain this phenomenon is interpatient variability in the clearance of these compounds. The objective of this research is to determine how metabolism of GCs by the CYP3A family of enzymes could affect their effectiveness in asthmatic patients. In this work, the metabolism of four frequently prescribed inhaled GCs, triamcinolone acetonide, flunisolide, budesonide, and fluticasone propionate, by the CYP3A family of enzymes was studied to identify differences in their rates of clearance and to identify their metabolites. Both interenzyme and interdrug variability in rates of metabolism and metabolic fate were observed. CYP3A4 was the most efficient metabolic catalyst for all the compounds, and CYP3A7 had the slowest rates. CYP3A5, which is particularly relevant to GC metabolism in the lungs, was also shown to efficiently metabolize triamcinolone acetonide, budesonide, and fluticasone propionate. In contrast, flunisolide was only metabolized via CYP3A4, with no significant turnover by CYP3A5 or CYP3A7. Common metabolites included 6β-hydroxylation and Δ6-dehydrogenation for triamcinolone acetonide, budesonide, and flunisolide. The structure of Δ6-flunisolide was unambiguously established by NMR analysis. Metabolism also occurred on the D-ring substituents, including the 21-carboxy metabolites for triamcinolone acetonide and flunisolide. The novel metabolite 21-nortriamcinolone acetonide was also identified by liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry and NMR analysis. PMID:23143891

  3. Metabolic pathways of inhaled glucocorticoids by the CYP3A enzymes.

    PubMed

    Moore, Chad D; Roberts, Jessica K; Orton, Christopher R; Murai, Takahiro; Fidler, Trevor P; Reilly, Christopher A; Ward, Robert M; Yost, Garold S

    2013-02-01

    Asthma is one of the most prevalent diseases in the world, for which the mainstay treatment has been inhaled glucocorticoids (GCs). Despite the widespread use of these drugs, approximately 30% of asthma sufferers exhibit some degree of steroid insensitivity or are refractory to inhaled GCs. One hypothesis to explain this phenomenon is interpatient variability in the clearance of these compounds. The objective of this research is to determine how metabolism of GCs by the CYP3A family of enzymes could affect their effectiveness in asthmatic patients. In this work, the metabolism of four frequently prescribed inhaled GCs, triamcinolone acetonide, flunisolide, budesonide, and fluticasone propionate, by the CYP3A family of enzymes was studied to identify differences in their rates of clearance and to identify their metabolites. Both interenzyme and interdrug variability in rates of metabolism and metabolic fate were observed. CYP3A4 was the most efficient metabolic catalyst for all the compounds, and CYP3A7 had the slowest rates. CYP3A5, which is particularly relevant to GC metabolism in the lungs, was also shown to efficiently metabolize triamcinolone acetonide, budesonide, and fluticasone propionate. In contrast, flunisolide was only metabolized via CYP3A4, with no significant turnover by CYP3A5 or CYP3A7. Common metabolites included 6β-hydroxylation and Δ(6)-dehydrogenation for triamcinolone acetonide, budesonide, and flunisolide. The structure of Δ(6)-flunisolide was unambiguously established by NMR analysis. Metabolism also occurred on the D-ring substituents, including the 21-carboxy metabolites for triamcinolone acetonide and flunisolide. The novel metabolite 21-nortriamcinolone acetonide was also identified by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and NMR analysis. PMID:23143891

  4. Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Inhibit the Cytochrome P450 Enzyme, CYP3A4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Sayed, Ramy; Bhattacharya, Kunal; Gu, Zonglin; Yang, Zaixing; Weber, Jeffrey K.; Li, Hu; Leifer, Klaus; Zhao, Yichen; Toprak, Muhammet S.; Zhou, Ruhong; Fadeel, Bengt

    2016-02-01

    We report a detailed computational and experimental study of the interaction of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) with the drug-metabolizing cytochrome P450 enzyme, CYP3A4. Dose-dependent inhibition of CYP3A4-mediated conversion of the model compound, testosterone, to its major metabolite, 6β-hydroxy testosterone was noted. Evidence for a direct interaction between SWCNTs and CYP3A4 was also provided. The inhibition of enzyme activity was alleviated when SWCNTs were pre-coated with bovine serum albumin. Furthermore, covalent functionalization of SWCNTs with polyethylene glycol (PEG) chains mitigated the inhibition of CYP3A4 enzymatic activity. Molecular dynamics simulations suggested that inhibition of the catalytic activity of CYP3A4 is mainly due to blocking of the exit channel for substrates/products through a complex binding mechanism. This work suggests that SWCNTs could interfere with metabolism of drugs and other xenobiotics and provides a molecular mechanism for this toxicity. Our study also suggests means to reduce this toxicity, eg., by surface modification.

  5. Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Inhibit the Cytochrome P450 Enzyme, CYP3A4

    PubMed Central

    El-Sayed, Ramy; Bhattacharya, Kunal; Gu, Zonglin; Yang, Zaixing; Weber, Jeffrey K.; Li, Hu; Leifer, Klaus; Zhao, Yichen; Toprak, Muhammet S.; Zhou, Ruhong; Fadeel, Bengt

    2016-01-01

    We report a detailed computational and experimental study of the interaction of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) with the drug-metabolizing cytochrome P450 enzyme, CYP3A4. Dose-dependent inhibition of CYP3A4-mediated conversion of the model compound, testosterone, to its major metabolite, 6β-hydroxy testosterone was noted. Evidence for a direct interaction between SWCNTs and CYP3A4 was also provided. The inhibition of enzyme activity was alleviated when SWCNTs were pre-coated with bovine serum albumin. Furthermore, covalent functionalization of SWCNTs with polyethylene glycol (PEG) chains mitigated the inhibition of CYP3A4 enzymatic activity. Molecular dynamics simulations suggested that inhibition of the catalytic activity of CYP3A4 is mainly due to blocking of the exit channel for substrates/products through a complex binding mechanism. This work suggests that SWCNTs could interfere with metabolism of drugs and other xenobiotics and provides a molecular mechanism for this toxicity. Our study also suggests means to reduce this toxicity, eg., by surface modification. PMID:26899743

  6. High frequency and founder effect of the CYP3A4*20 loss-of-function allele in the Spanish population classifies CYP3A4 as a polymorphic enzyme.

    PubMed

    Apellániz-Ruiz, M; Inglada-Pérez, L; Naranjo, M E G; Sánchez, L; Mancikova, V; Currás-Freixes, M; de Cubas, A A; Comino-Méndez, I; Triki, S; Rebai, A; Rasool, M; Moya, G; Grazina, M; Opocher, G; Cascón, A; Taboada-Echalar, P; Ingelman-Sundberg, M; Carracedo, A; Robledo, M; Llerena, A; Rodríguez-Antona, C

    2015-06-01

    Cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) is a key drug-metabolizing enzyme. Loss-of-function variants have been reported as rare events, and the first demonstration of a CYP3A4 protein lacking functional activity is caused by CYP3A4*20 allele. Here we characterized the world distribution and origin of CYP3A4*20 mutation. CYP3A4*20 was determined in more than 4000 individuals representing different populations, and haplotype analysis was performed using CYP3A polymorphisms and microsatellite markers. CYP3A4*20 allele was present in 1.2% of the Spanish population (up to 3.8% in specific regions), and all CYP3A4*20 carriers had a common haplotype. This is compatible with a Spanish founder effect and classifies CYP3A4 as a polymorphic enzyme. This constitutes the first description of a CYP3A4 loss-of-function variant with high frequency in a population. CYP3A4*20 results together with the key role of CYP3A4 in drug metabolism support screening for rare CYP3A4 functional alleles among subjects with adverse drug events in certain populations. PMID:25348618

  7. Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) induction of CYP3A4 enzyme activity in healthy Faroese adults

    SciTech Connect

    Petersen, Maria Skaalum Halling, Jonrit; Damkier, Per; Nielsen, Flemming; Grandjean, Philippe; Weihe, Pal; Brosen, Kim

    2007-10-15

    The CYP3A4 enzyme is, along with other cytochrome P450 enzymes, involved in the metabolism of environmental pollutants and is highly inducible by these substances. A commercial polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) mixture, 1,1,1,-trichloro-2-(o-chlorophenyl), 2-(p'-chlorophenyl)ethane (o,p'-DDT) and 1,1,-dichloro-2,2-bis (p-chlorophenyl)ethene (p,p'-DDE) are known to induce CYP3A4 activity through activation of nuclear receptors, such as the pregnane X receptor. However, this induction of CYP3A4 has not yet been investigated in humans. Thus, the aim of the study was to determine the variability of the CYP3A4 phenotype in regard to increased concentrations of PCBs and other persistent organohalogen pollutants (POPs) in healthy Faroese adults. In 310 randomly selected Faroese residents aged 18-60 years, the CYP3A4 activity was determined based on the urinary 6{beta}-hydroxycortisol/cortisol (6{beta}-OHC/FC) ratio. POP exposures were assessed by measuring their concentrations in serum lipid. The results showed a unimodal distribution of the 6{beta}-OHC/FC ratio with values ranging from 0.58 to 27.38. Women had a slightly higher 6{beta}-OHC/FC ratio than men (p = 0.07). Confounder-adjusted multiple regression analysis showed significant associations between 6{beta}-OHC/FC ratios and {sigma}PCB, PCB-TEQ and p,p'-DDE, o,p'-DDT and HCB, respectively, but the associations were statistically significant for men only.

  8. 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) interacts with therapeutic drugs on CYP3A by inhibition of pregnane X receptor (PXR) activation and catalytic enzyme inhibition.

    PubMed

    Antolino-Lobo, Irene; Meulenbelt, Jan; Nijmeijer, Sandra M; Maas-Bakker, Roel F; Meijerman, Irma; van den Berg, Martin; van Duursen, Majorie B M

    2011-05-30

    Metabolism of MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, Ecstasy) by the major hepatic drug-metabolizing enzyme cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A), plays an important role in MDMA-induced liver toxicity. In the present study, we investigated interactions between MDMA and several therapeutic and recreational drugs on CYP3A and its regulator pregnane X receptor (PXR), using a human PXR-mediated CYP3A4-reporter gene assay, rat primary hepatocytes and microsomes. MDMA significantly inhibited hPXR-mediated CYP3A4-reporter gene expression induced by the human PXR activator rifampicin (IC₅₀ 1.26 ± 0.36 mM) or the therapeutic drugs paroxetine, fluoxetine, clozapine, diazepam and risperidone. All these drugs concentration-dependently inhibited CYP3A activity in rat liver microsomes, but in combination with MDMA this inhibition became more efficient for clozapine and risperidone. In rat primary hepatocytes that were pretreated with or without the rodent PXR activator pregnenolone 16alpha-carbonitrile (PCN), MDMA inhibited CYP3A catalytic activity with IC₅₀ values of 0.06 ± 0.12 and 0.09 ± 0.13 mM MDMA, respectively. This decrease appeared to be due to decreased activation of PXR and subsequent decreased CYP3A gene expression, and catalytic inhibition of CYP3A activity. These data suggest that in situations of repeated MDMA use in combination with other (therapeutic) drugs, adverse drug-drug interactions through interactions with PXR and/or CYP3A cannot be excluded.

  9. CYP3A5 mediates bioactivation and cytotoxicity of tetrandrine.

    PubMed

    Tian, Ye; Shen, Shuijie; Jiang, Yan; Shen, Qi; Zeng, Su; Zheng, Jiang

    2016-07-01

    Tetrandrine is a diaryl ether-type bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloid and has shown multiple pharmacological activities. Our early work demonstrated that tetrandrine produced acute pulmonary toxicity and that tetrandrine was biotransformed to a quinone methide-derived metabolite mediated by CYP3A enzymes. The formation of the reactive intermediate is suggested to be responsible for the pulmonary toxicity induced by tetrandrine. In the present study, a WI-38-based Cyp3a5 transgenic cell line (WI-38/Cyp3a5) was established to investigate the role of CYP3A5 in tetrandrine-induced cytotoxicity. The transgenic cells were found to be more susceptible to the cytotoxicity of tetrandrine than the wild-type cells (WI-38/Vector). WI-38/Cyp3a5 cells showed higher cellular ROS levels, higher LDH activities in culture media, but lower cellular GSH contents than those observed in WI-38/Vector cells after exposure to tetrandrine. And severer apoptosis were observed in WI-38/Cyp3a5 cells after treatment with tetrandrine: WI-38/Cyp3a5 cells had higher proportion of early and late apoptotic cells, higher expression levels of caspase-3, but lower level of Bcl-2 than WI-38/Vector cells. This study provided strong evidence that CYP3A5 participated in tetrandrine-induced cytotoxicity. PMID:26302866

  10. Cross-sectional study of hepatic CYP1A and CYP3A enzymes in hybrid striped bass, channel catfish and Nile tilapia following oxytetracycline treatment.

    PubMed

    Topic Popovic, N; Howell, T; Babish, J G; Bowser, P R

    2012-04-01

    Terramycin for Fish® (oxytetracycline, OTC) is one of three approved drugs for therapeutic treatment of fish in the United States. Nothing is known, however, of the effects of this therapeutic on drug metabolizing enzymes in fish post-treatment. The main purpose of the study was to examine whether the fish CYP1A and CYP3A enzymes would cross-react with antibodies to known mammalian cytochrome P-450 forms (CYP1A1 and CYP3A). Observational feeding studies of OTC effects were conducted in hybrid striped bass, channel catfish and Nile tilapia. Oxytetracycline was mixed into the feed to achieve a daily dose of 82.8 mg per kg body weight at a feeding rate of 1% body weight per day. Hepatic microsomes of each fish were prepared and Western blotting of CYP1A1 and CYP3A4 and enzyme assays of CYP1A2 and CYP3A4 were performed prior to OTC treatment and on post-treatment days 1, 6, 11 and 21. Both goat anti-rat CYP1A1 and rabbit anti-human CYP3A4 showed good cross-reactivity with all three species in this study. All three species exhibited distinct perturbations in one or more of the variables examined on day 1 post-treatment. Immediately following the 10-day medication period, relative liver weight (RLW) of hybrid striped bass was increased 44% and remained elevated through post-treatment day 21. Increased CYP3A4 enzyme activity and protein abundance were noted in channel catfish and Nile tilapia, respectively. This observational approach demonstrated species differences both in control activities and in the timing and extent of hepatic responses to OTC. The unique perturbations of hepatic CYP450 enzymes in different fish species to OTC treatment observed in this study may have relevance for the use of additional antibiotics or other therapeutics used in aquaculture. PMID:21458012

  11. Cross-sectional study of hepatic CYP1A and CYP3A enzymes in hybrid striped bass, channel catfish and Nile tilapia following oxytetracycline treatment.

    PubMed

    Topic Popovic, N; Howell, T; Babish, J G; Bowser, P R

    2012-04-01

    Terramycin for Fish® (oxytetracycline, OTC) is one of three approved drugs for therapeutic treatment of fish in the United States. Nothing is known, however, of the effects of this therapeutic on drug metabolizing enzymes in fish post-treatment. The main purpose of the study was to examine whether the fish CYP1A and CYP3A enzymes would cross-react with antibodies to known mammalian cytochrome P-450 forms (CYP1A1 and CYP3A). Observational feeding studies of OTC effects were conducted in hybrid striped bass, channel catfish and Nile tilapia. Oxytetracycline was mixed into the feed to achieve a daily dose of 82.8 mg per kg body weight at a feeding rate of 1% body weight per day. Hepatic microsomes of each fish were prepared and Western blotting of CYP1A1 and CYP3A4 and enzyme assays of CYP1A2 and CYP3A4 were performed prior to OTC treatment and on post-treatment days 1, 6, 11 and 21. Both goat anti-rat CYP1A1 and rabbit anti-human CYP3A4 showed good cross-reactivity with all three species in this study. All three species exhibited distinct perturbations in one or more of the variables examined on day 1 post-treatment. Immediately following the 10-day medication period, relative liver weight (RLW) of hybrid striped bass was increased 44% and remained elevated through post-treatment day 21. Increased CYP3A4 enzyme activity and protein abundance were noted in channel catfish and Nile tilapia, respectively. This observational approach demonstrated species differences both in control activities and in the timing and extent of hepatic responses to OTC. The unique perturbations of hepatic CYP450 enzymes in different fish species to OTC treatment observed in this study may have relevance for the use of additional antibiotics or other therapeutics used in aquaculture.

  12. Interactions between CYP3A4 and Dietary Polyphenols

    PubMed Central

    Basheer, Loai; Kerem, Zohar

    2015-01-01

    The human cytochrome P450 enzymes (P450s) catalyze oxidative reactions of a broad spectrum of substrates and play a critical role in the metabolism of xenobiotics, such as drugs and dietary compounds. CYP3A4 is known to be the main enzyme involved in the metabolism of drugs and most other xenobiotics. Dietary compounds, of which polyphenolics are the most studied, have been shown to interact with CYP3A4 and alter its expression and activity. Traditionally, the liver was considered the prime site of CYP3A-mediated first-pass metabolic extraction, but in vitro and in vivo studies now suggest that the small intestine can be of equal or even greater importance for the metabolism of polyphenolics and drugs. Recent studies have pointed to the role of gut microbiota in the metabolic fate of polyphenolics in human, suggesting their involvement in the complex interactions between dietary polyphenols and CYP3A4. Last but not least, all the above suggests that coadministration of drugs and foods that are rich in polyphenols is expected to stimulate undesirable clinical consequences. This review focuses on interactions between dietary polyphenols and CYP3A4 as they relate to structural considerations, food-drug interactions, and potential negative consequences of interactions between CYP3A4 and polyphenols. PMID:26180597

  13. Interactions between CYP3A4 and Dietary Polyphenols.

    PubMed

    Basheer, Loai; Kerem, Zohar

    2015-01-01

    The human cytochrome P450 enzymes (P450s) catalyze oxidative reactions of a broad spectrum of substrates and play a critical role in the metabolism of xenobiotics, such as drugs and dietary compounds. CYP3A4 is known to be the main enzyme involved in the metabolism of drugs and most other xenobiotics. Dietary compounds, of which polyphenolics are the most studied, have been shown to interact with CYP3A4 and alter its expression and activity. Traditionally, the liver was considered the prime site of CYP3A-mediated first-pass metabolic extraction, but in vitro and in vivo studies now suggest that the small intestine can be of equal or even greater importance for the metabolism of polyphenolics and drugs. Recent studies have pointed to the role of gut microbiota in the metabolic fate of polyphenolics in human, suggesting their involvement in the complex interactions between dietary polyphenols and CYP3A4. Last but not least, all the above suggests that coadministration of drugs and foods that are rich in polyphenols is expected to stimulate undesirable clinical consequences. This review focuses on interactions between dietary polyphenols and CYP3A4 as they relate to structural considerations, food-drug interactions, and potential negative consequences of interactions between CYP3A4 and polyphenols. PMID:26180597

  14. Expression of CYP3A4 and CYP3A7 in Human Foetal Tissues and its Correlation with Nuclear Receptors.

    PubMed

    Betts, Stina; Björkhem-Bergman, Linda; Rane, Anders; Ekström, Lena

    2015-10-01

    Previous reports have suggested that the nuclear receptors vitamin D receptor (VDR), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα), pregnane X receptor (PXR) and constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) are involved in the regulation of the drug-metabolizing enzyme cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 expression in adults. The aim of this study was to investigate the gene expression of CYP3A4 and the foetal CYP3A7 in human foetal tissues and their relation to gene expression and genetic variations in the nuclear receptors VDR, PPARα, PXR and CAR. We determined the relative expression of CYP3A4 and CYP3A7 and these nuclear receptors in foetal livers, intestines and adrenals, using quantitative PCR. In addition, the expression of these enzymes was also analysed in adult liver. There was a high interindividual variability in CYP3A4 and CYP3A7, 49 times and 326 times, respectively. Both CYP3A4 and CYP3A7 had the highest expression in the liver. There were significant correlations (p < 0.001) between the nuclear receptors studied and the expression of CYP3A4 and CYP3A7 in foetal liver, as well as the expression of CYP3A4 in foetal intestine. Polymorphisms in the VDR gene, rs1544410 and rs1523130 (TaqI), in the PXR gene, rs1523130, and in the PPARα gene, rs4253728, were not correlated with CYP3A4 or CYP3A7 expression. However, C-homozygous individuals of the TaqI VDR polymorphism had 60% lower VDR gene expression (p < 0.05), than individuals carrying one or two T alleles. In conclusion, differences in the expression of nuclear receptors might determine the variability in CYP3A4 and CYP3A7 expression observed in foetal liver.

  15. Expression and Activity of CYP3A Enzymes in the Liver of Piglets Fed Dairy- or Soy-Based Formula in Comparison to Breast Feeding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have published previous data showing that feeding soy protein isolate, the major protein source in soy-infant formula, to rats during early development results in increased expression and activity of the major liver enzyme involved in breakdown and removal of pediatric medications, CYP3A. This s...

  16. Mechanistic insight from in silico pharmacokinetic experiments: roles of P-glycoprotein, Cyp3A4 enzymes, and microenvironments.

    PubMed

    Lam, Tai Ning; Hunt, C Anthony

    2010-02-01

    Saquinavir exhibits paradoxical transport across modified Caco-2 cell monolayers (doi: 10.1124/jpet.103.056390) expressing P-glycoprotein and Cyp3A4. The data implicate complicated intracellular transport mechanisms. Drawing on recent discrete event modeling and simulation advances, we built an in silico analog of the confluent, asymmetric cell monolayer used in the cited work. We call it in silico experimental Caco-2 (cell monolayer) culture (ISECC). Concrete, working, hypothesized spatial mechanisms were implemented. Validation was achieved when in silico experimental results met similarity measure (SM) expectations that targeted 16 wet-lab experimental conditions. Initial mechanistic hypotheses turned out to be necessary parts of a more complicated explanation. We progressed through four stages of an iterative refinement and validation protocol that enabled and facilitated discovery of plausible, new mechanistic details. The process exercised abductive reasoning, a primary means of scientific knowledge creation and creative cognition. The ISECC that survived the most stringent SM challenge produced transport data that was statistically indistinguishable from referent wet-lab observations. It required a 7:1 ratio of apical transporters to metabolizing enzymes, a 97% reduction of efflux activity by an inhibitor, a biased distribution of metabolizing enzymes, heterogeneous intracellular spaces, and restrictions on intracellular drug movement. Experimenting on synthetic analogs such as ISECC provides a former unavailable means of discovering new mechanistic details and testing their plausibility. The approach thus provides a powerful new expansion of the scientific method: an independent, scientific means to challenge, explore, better understand, and improve any inductive mechanism and, importantly, the assumptions on which it rests. PMID:19864617

  17. Differential gene expression of CYP3A isoforms in equine liver and intestines.

    PubMed

    Tydén, E; Löfgren, M; Pegolo, S; Capolongo, F; Tjälve, H; Larsson, P

    2012-12-01

    Recently, seven CYP3A isoforms - CYP3A89, CYP3A93, CYP3A94, CYP3A95, CYP3A96, CYP3A97 and CYP129 - have been isolated from the horse genome. In this study, we have examined the hepatic and intestinal gene expression of these CYP3A isoforms using TaqMan probes. We have also studied the enzyme activity using luciferin-isopropyl acetal (LIPA) as a substrate. The results show a differential gene expression of the CYP3A isoforms in the liver and intestines in horses. In the liver, CYP3A89, CYP3A94, CYP3A96 and CYP3A97 were highly expressed, while in the intestine there were only two dominating isoforms, CYP3A93 and CYP3A96. The isoform CYP3A129 was not detected in the liver or the intestine, although this gene consists of a complete set of exons and should therefore code for a functional protein. It is possible that this gene is expressed in tissues other than the liver and intestines. In the intestine, both CYP3A96 and CYP3A93 showed the highest gene expression in the duodenum and the proximal parts of the jejunum. This correlated with a high protein expression in these tissues. Studies of the enzyme activity showed the same K(m) for the LIPA substrate in the liver and the intestine, while the maximum velocity (V(max)) in the liver was higher than in the intestine. Our finding of a differential gene expression of the CYP3A isoforms in the liver and the intestines contributes to a better understanding of drug metabolism in horses.

  18. Cytochrome P450 3A4 and CYP3A5-Catalyzed Bioactivation of Lapatinib.

    PubMed

    Towles, Joanna K; Clark, Rebecca N; Wahlin, Michelle D; Uttamsingh, Vinita; Rettie, Allan E; Jackson, Klarissa D

    2016-10-01

    Metabolic activation of the dual-tyrosine kinase inhibitor lapatinib by cytochromes CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 has been implicated in lapatinib-induced idiosyncratic hepatotoxicity; however, the relative enzyme contributions have not been established. The objective of this study was to examine the roles of CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 in lapatinib bioactivation leading to a reactive, potentially toxic quinoneimine. Reaction phenotyping experiments were performed using individual human recombinant P450 enzymes and P450-selective chemical inhibitors. Lapatinib metabolites and quinoneimine-glutathione (GSH) adducts were analyzed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. A screen of cDNA-expressed P450s confirmed that CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 are the primary enzymes responsible for quinoneimine-GSH adduct formation using lapatinib or O-dealkylated lapatinib as the substrate. The mean kinetic parameters (Km and kcat) of lapatinib O-dealkylation revealed that CYP3A4 was 5.2-fold more efficient than CYP3A5 at lapatinib O-dealkylation (CYP3A4 kcat/Km = 6.8 μM(-1) min(-1) versus CYP3A5 kcat/Km = 1.3 μM(-1) min(-1)). Kinetic analysis of GSH adduct formation indicated that CYP3A4 was also 4-fold more efficient at quinoneimine-GSH adduct formation as measured by kcat (maximum relative GSH adduct levels)/Km (CYP3A4 = 0.0082 vs. CYP3A5 = 0.0021). In human liver microsomal (HLM) incubations, CYP3A4-selective inhibitors SR-9186 and CYP3cide reduced formation of GSH adducts by 78% and 72%, respectively, compared with >90% inhibition by the pan-CYP3A inhibitor ketoconazole. The 16%-22% difference between CYP3A- and CYP3A4-selective inhibition indicates the involvement of remaining CYP3A5 activity in generating reactive metabolites from lapatinib in pooled HLMs. Collectively, these findings support the conclusion that both CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 are quantitatively important contributors to lapatinib bioactivation. PMID:27450182

  19. Pharmacogenomics of CYP3A: considerations for HIV treatment

    PubMed Central

    Lakhman, Sukhwinder S; Ma, Qing

    2009-01-01

    The understanding of the cytochrome P450 3A SNP in antiretroviral therapy is important, because it is highly inducible, extremely polymorphic and metabolizes many of the drugs that are key components of highly active antiretroviral therapy regimens. This enzyme is prolific and promiscuous towards drug and xenobiotic substrate selection and it is also unpredictable among individuals, having a 5- to 20-fold variability in its ability to contribute to drug clearance. The importance of human CYP3A pharmacogenetics is also gaining attention in other established areas of pharmacotherapy as it may contribute to the goal of predicting efficacy and/or toxicity, specifically with the discovery of null allele CYP3A4*20. This review summarizes the current understanding, implications of genetic variation in the CYP3A enzymes, the central role of CYP3A in linking human genetics, the pharmacokinetics and resulting pharmacodynamic responses to certain antiretroviral drugs, and their eventual place in applied clinical pharmacotherapy. PMID:19663676

  20. Cytochrome P450 CYP3A in marsupials: cloning and characterisation of the second identified CYP3A subfamily member, isoform 3A78 from koala (Phascolarctos cinereus).

    PubMed

    El-Merhibi, Adaweyah; Ngo, Suong N T; Crittenden, Tamara A; Marchant, Ceilidh L; Stupans, Ieva; McKinnon, Ross A

    2011-11-01

    Cytochromes P450 (CYPs) are critically important in the oxidative metabolism of a diverse array of xenobiotics and endogenous substrates. Previously, we cloned and characterised the CYP2C, CYP4A, and CYP4B gene subfamilies from marsupials and demonstrated important species-differences in both activity and tissue expression of these CYP enzymes. Recently, we isolated the Eastern grey kangaroo CYP3A70. Here we have cloned and characterised the second identified member of marsupial CYP3A gene subfamily, CYP3A78 from the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus). In addition, we have examined the gender-differences in microsomal erythromycin N-demethylation activity (a CYP3A marker) and CYP3A protein expression across test marsupial species. Significant differences in hepatic erythromycin N-demethylation activity were observed between male and female koalas, with the activity detected in female koalas being 2.5-fold higher compared to that in male koalas (p<0.01). No gender-differences were observed in tammar wallaby or Eastern grey kangaroo. Immunoblot analysis utilising anti-human CYP3A4 antibody detected immunoreactive proteins in liver microsomes from all test male and female marsupials including the koala, tammar wallaby, and Eastern grey kangaroo, with no gender-differences detected across test marsupials. A 1610 bp koala hepatic CYP3A complete cDNA, designated CYP3A78, was cloned by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction approaches. It displays 64% nucleotide and 57% amino acid sequence identity to the Eastern grey kangaroo CYP3A70. The CYP3A78 cDNA encodes a protein of 515 amino acids, shares approximately 68% nucleotide and 56% amino acid sequence identity to human CYP3A4, and displays high sequence similarity to other published mammalian CYP3As from human, monkey, cow, pig, dog, rat, rabbit, mouse, hamster, and guinea pig. Collectively, this study provides primary molecular data regarding koala hepatic CYP3A78 gene and enables further functional analyses of CYP

  1. Auto-Induction Effect of Chloroxoquinoline on the Cytochrome P450 Enzymes of Rats Associated with CYP 3A and 1A.

    PubMed

    Li, Xin; Li, Ying; Gong, Wei; Yang, Mei Yan; Yang, Yang; Li, Zhi Ping; Wang, Yu Li; Zhang, Zhen Qing

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the auto-induction of cytochrome P450 (CYP450) by Chloroxoquinoline (CXL), a novel anticancer drug. Three experiments related to the induction of CYP450 were performed: a) In vitro use of the rat fresh hepatocytes model; b) In vivo 'cocktail' of CYP450 probe model; c) Pharmacokinetic (PK) study of the single and multiple doses. Some typical CYP enzyme probes and inducers were used in these experiments and were all determined by HPLC-MS/MS. The expression levels of CYP3A and CYP1A mRNA were analyzed by the real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) technique. The PK studies showed that the area under the curve (AUC0-t) and the peak concentration (Cmax) of the multiple doses were approximately 2.4-fold and 1.9-fold lower than those of the single dose, respectively (p < 0.05). Subsequent studies were conducted to study the possible induction of CXL on CYP 450. The in vivo 'cocktail' administration of CYP450 probe model indicated that 5 d pretreatment with CXL resulted in a mean 4.6 times increase in the metabolites/probe plasma ratios for CYP 3A and a 336% increase for CYP 1A than those of the negative control (p < 0.05). The induction effect of CXL on CYP450 was further evaluated on rat hepatocytes with four concentrations (1, 10, 50 and 100 μmol/L). Compared with the negative control, the mRNA levels of CYP 1A2 increased significantly in rat hepatocytes after treatment with 10, 50 and 100 μmol/L CXL (p < 0.05). While significant inductions of CYP 3A1 were observed in the entire treated groups. The results of the present study demonstrate enhanced and induced expression of CYP 3A and CYP 1A in response to CXL exposure in rats, suggesting that CXL is an auto-inducer of CYP 3A and CYP 1A.

  2. Role of CYP3A in isoniazid metabolism in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ke; Li, Feng; Lu, Jie; Gao, Zhiwei; Klaassen, Curtis D.; Ma, Xiaochao

    2014-01-01

    Summary Isoniazid (INH), a first-line drug for tuberculosis control, frequently causes liver injury. Multiple previous reports suggest that CYP3A is involved in INH metabolism, bioactivation and hepatotoxicity, although direct evidence is unavailable. In the current study, wild-type and Cyp3a-null mice were used to determine the potential role of Cyp3a in INH metabolism in vivo. Compared to wild-type mice, there were no significant differences in the pharmacokinetic profiles of INH and acetyl-isoniazid in Cyp3a-null mice after an oral administration of 50 mg/kg INH. With the same treatment, distribution of INH and its major metabolites was similar in the liver of wild-type and Cyp3a-null mice. A reactive metabolite of INH was trapped by N-α-acetyl-L-lysine in mouse liver microsomes, but Cyp3a does not contribute to this bioactivation pathway. In addition, no liver injury was observed in wild-type and Cyp3a-null mice treated with 60 or 120 mg/kg INH. In summary, Cyp3a has no effect on systemic pharmacokinetics of INH in mice. Further studies are needed to determine whether and how exactly CYP3A is involved in INH bioactivation and hepatotoxicity. PMID:24172716

  3. The revised human liver cytochrome P450 "Pie": absolute protein quantification of CYP4F and CYP3A enzymes using targeted quantitative proteomics.

    PubMed

    Michaels, Scott; Wang, Michael Zhuo

    2014-08-01

    The CYP4F subfamily of enzymes has been identified recently to be involved in the metabolism of endogenous compounds (arachidonic acid and leukotriene B4), nutrients (vitamins K1 and E), and xenobiotics (pafuramidine and fingolimod). CYP4F2 and CYP4F3B are reported to be expressed in the human liver. However, absolute concentrations of these enzymes in human liver microsomes (HLMs) and their interindividual variability have yet to be determined because of the lack of specific antibodies. Here, an liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)-based targeted quantitative proteomic approach was employed to determine the absolute protein concentrations of CYP4F2 and CYP4F3B compared with CYP3A in two panels of HLMs (n = 31). As a result, the human hepatic cytochrome P450 (P450) "pie" has been revised to include the contribution of CYP4F enzymes, which amounts to 15% of the total hepatic cytochrome P450 enzymes. CYP4F3B displayed low interindividual variability (3.3-fold) in the HLM panels whereas CYP4F2 displayed large variability (21-fold). However, CYP4F2 variability decreased to 3.4-fold if the two donors with the lowest expression were excluded. In contrast, CYP3A exhibited 29-fold interindividual variability in the same HLM panels. The proposed marker reaction for CYP4F enzymes pafuramidine/DB289 M1 formation did not correlate with CYP4F protein content, suggesting alternate metabolic pathways for DB289 M1 formation in HLMs. In conclusion, CYP4F enzymes are highly expressed in the human liver and their physiologic and pharmacologic roles warrant further investigation.

  4. Thalidomide-induced limb abnormalities in a humanized CYP3A mouse model.

    PubMed

    Kazuki, Yasuhiro; Akita, Masaharu; Kobayashi, Kaoru; Osaki, Mitsuhiko; Satoh, Daisuke; Ohta, Ryo; Abe, Satoshi; Takehara, Shoko; Kazuki, Kanako; Yamazaki, Hiroshi; Kamataki, Tetsuya; Oshimura, Mitsuo

    2016-02-23

    Thalidomide is a teratogen in humans but not in rodents. It causes multiple birth defects including malformations of limbs, ears, and other organs. However, the species-specific mechanism of thalidomide teratogenicity is not completely understood. Reproduction of the human teratogenicity of thalidomide in rodents has previously failed because of the lack of a model reflecting human drug metabolism. In addition, because the maternal metabolic effect cannot be eliminated, the migration of unchanged thalidomide to embryos is suppressed, and the metabolic activation is insufficient to develop teratogenicity. Previously, we generated transchromosomic mice containing a human cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A cluster in which the endogenous mouse Cyp3a genes were deleted. Here, we determined whether human CYP3A or mouse Cyp3a enzyme expression was related to the species difference in a whole embryo culture system using humanized CYP3A mouse embryos. Thalidomide-treated embryos with the human CYP3A gene cluster showed limb abnormalities, and human CYP3A was expressed in the placenta, suggesting that human CYP3A in the placenta may contribute to the teratogenicity of thalidomide. These data suggest that the humanized CYP3A mouse is a useful model to predict embryonic toxicity in humans.

  5. Thalidomide-induced limb abnormalities in a humanized CYP3A mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Kazuki, Yasuhiro; Akita, Masaharu; Kobayashi, Kaoru; Osaki, Mitsuhiko; Satoh, Daisuke; Ohta, Ryo; Abe, Satoshi; Takehara, Shoko; Kazuki, Kanako; Yamazaki, Hiroshi; Kamataki, Tetsuya; Oshimura, Mitsuo

    2016-01-01

    Thalidomide is a teratogen in humans but not in rodents. It causes multiple birth defects including malformations of limbs, ears, and other organs. However, the species-specific mechanism of thalidomide teratogenicity is not completely understood. Reproduction of the human teratogenicity of thalidomide in rodents has previously failed because of the lack of a model reflecting human drug metabolism. In addition, because the maternal metabolic effect cannot be eliminated, the migration of unchanged thalidomide to embryos is suppressed, and the metabolic activation is insufficient to develop teratogenicity. Previously, we generated transchromosomic mice containing a human cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A cluster in which the endogenous mouse Cyp3a genes were deleted. Here, we determined whether human CYP3A or mouse Cyp3a enzyme expression was related to the species difference in a whole embryo culture system using humanized CYP3A mouse embryos. Thalidomide-treated embryos with the human CYP3A gene cluster showed limb abnormalities, and human CYP3A was expressed in the placenta, suggesting that human CYP3A in the placenta may contribute to the teratogenicity of thalidomide. These data suggest that the humanized CYP3A mouse is a useful model to predict embryonic toxicity in humans. PMID:26903378

  6. Characterization of equine cytochrome P450: role of CYP3A in the metabolism of diazepam.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, S M M; Ikenaka, Y; Hayami, A; Mizukawa, H; Darwish, W S; Watanabe, K P; Kawai, Y K; Ishizuka, M

    2016-10-01

    Research on drug metabolism and pharmacokinetics in large animal species including the horse is scarce because of the challenges in conducting in vivo studies. The metabolic reactions catalyzed by cytochrome P450s (CYPs) are central to drug pharmacokinetics. This study elucidated the characteristics of equine CYPs using diazepam (DZP) as a model compound as this drug is widely used as an anesthetic and sedative in horses, and is principally metabolized by CYPs. Diazepam metabolic activities were measured in vitro using horse and rat liver microsomes to clarify the species differences in enzyme kinetic parameters of each metabolite (temazepam [TMZ], nordiazepam [NDZ], p-hydroxydiazepam [p-OH-DZP], and oxazepam [OXZ]). In both species microsomes, TMZ was the major metabolite, but the formation rate of p-OH-DZP was significantly less in the horse. Inhibition assays with a CYP-specific inhibitors and antibody suggested that CYP3A was the main enzyme responsible for DZP metabolism in horse. Four recombinant equine CYP3A isoforms expressed in Cos-7 cells showed that CYP3A96, CYP3A94, and CYP3A89 were important for TMZ formation, whereas CYP3A97 exhibited more limited activity. Phylogenetic analysis suggested diversification of CYP3As in each mammalian order. Further study is needed to elucidate functional characteristics of each equine CYP3A isoform for effective use of diazepam in horses.

  7. Characterization of the genetic variation present in CYP3A4 in three South African populations.

    PubMed

    Drögemöller, Britt; Plummer, Marieth; Korkie, Lundi; Agenbag, Gloudi; Dunaiski, Anke; Niehaus, Dana; Koen, Liezl; Gebhardt, Stefan; Schneider, Nicol; Olckers, Antonel; Wright, Galen; Warnich, Louise

    2013-01-01

    The CYP3A4 enzyme is the most abundant human cytochrome P450 (CYP) and is regarded as the most important enzyme involved in drug metabolism. Inter-individual and inter-population variability in gene expression and enzyme activity are thought to be influenced, in part, by genetic variation. Although Southern African individuals have been shown to exhibit the highest levels of genetic diversity, they have been under-represented in pharmacogenetic research to date. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify genetic variation within CYP3A4 in three South African population groups comprising of 29 Khoisan, 65 Xhosa and 65 Mixed Ancestry (MA) individuals. To identify known and novel CYP3A4 variants, 15 individuals were randomly selected from each of the population groups for bi-directional Sanger sequencing of ~600 bp of the 5'-upstream region and all thirteen exons including flanking intronic regions. Genetic variants detected were genotyped in the rest of the cohort. In total, 24 SNPs were detected, including CYP3A4(*)12, CYP3A4(*)15, and the reportedly functional CYP3A4(*)1B promoter polymorphism, as well as two novel non-synonymous variants. These putatively functional variants, p.R162W and p.Q200H, were present in two of the three populations and all three populations, respectively, and in silico analysis predicted that the former would damage the protein product. Furthermore, the three populations were shown to exhibit distinct genetic profiles. These results confirm that South African populations show unique patterns of variation in the genes encoding xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes. This research suggests that population-specific genetic profiles for CYP3A4 and other drug metabolizing genes would be essential to make full use of pharmacogenetics in Southern Africa. Further investigation is needed to determine if the identified genetic variants influence CYP3A4 metabolism phenotype in these populations. PMID:23423246

  8. Inhibitory Effects of Vegetable Juices on CYP3A4 Activity in Recombinant CYP3A4 and LS180 Cells.

    PubMed

    Tsujimoto, Masayuki; Uchida, Tomoe; Kozakai, Hiroyuki; Yamamoto, Saori; Minegaki, Tetsuya; Nishiguchi, Kohshi

    2016-01-01

    It is thought that eating habits induces individual variation in intestinal absorption and metabolism of drugs. The objective of this research was to clarify the influence of vegetables juices on CYP3A4 activity, which is an important enzyme in intestine. Five vegetables juices (VJ-o, Kagome Original(®); VJ-g, Kagome 30 kinds of vegetables and fruits(®); VJ-p, Kagome Purple vegetables(®); VJ-r, Kagome Sweet Tomato(®); and VJ-y, Kagome Fruity Salada(®); KAGOME Co., Ltd., Aichi, Japan) were centrifuged (1630×g, 10 min) and filtered using filter paper and 0.45-µm membrane filters. In this study, recombinant CYP3A4 and LS180 cells were used for the evaluation of CYP3A4 activity. The metabolisms to 6β-hydroxytestosterone by recombinant CYP3A4 were significantly inhibited by VJ-o, VJ-g, and VJ-y in a preincubation time-dependent manner, and CYP3A4 activity in LS180 cells were significantly inhibited by VJ-o and VJ-y. These results show that the difference in ingestion volume of vegetable juices and vegetables might partially induce individual difference in intestinal drug metabolism.

  9. Inhibitory Effects of Vegetable Juices on CYP3A4 Activity in Recombinant CYP3A4 and LS180 Cells.

    PubMed

    Tsujimoto, Masayuki; Uchida, Tomoe; Kozakai, Hiroyuki; Yamamoto, Saori; Minegaki, Tetsuya; Nishiguchi, Kohshi

    2016-01-01

    It is thought that eating habits induces individual variation in intestinal absorption and metabolism of drugs. The objective of this research was to clarify the influence of vegetables juices on CYP3A4 activity, which is an important enzyme in intestine. Five vegetables juices (VJ-o, Kagome Original(®); VJ-g, Kagome 30 kinds of vegetables and fruits(®); VJ-p, Kagome Purple vegetables(®); VJ-r, Kagome Sweet Tomato(®); and VJ-y, Kagome Fruity Salada(®); KAGOME Co., Ltd., Aichi, Japan) were centrifuged (1630×g, 10 min) and filtered using filter paper and 0.45-µm membrane filters. In this study, recombinant CYP3A4 and LS180 cells were used for the evaluation of CYP3A4 activity. The metabolisms to 6β-hydroxytestosterone by recombinant CYP3A4 were significantly inhibited by VJ-o, VJ-g, and VJ-y in a preincubation time-dependent manner, and CYP3A4 activity in LS180 cells were significantly inhibited by VJ-o and VJ-y. These results show that the difference in ingestion volume of vegetable juices and vegetables might partially induce individual difference in intestinal drug metabolism. PMID:27582329

  10. CYP3A Specifically Catalyzes 1β-Hydroxylation of Deoxycholic Acid: Characterization and Enzymatic Synthesis of a Potential Novel Urinary Biomarker for CYP3A Activity.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Martin A; Li, Xue-Qing; Grönberg, Gunnar; Diczfalusy, Ulf; Andersson, Tommy B

    2016-09-01

    The endogenous bile acid metabolite 1β-hydroxy-deoxycholic acid (1β-OH-DCA) excreted in human urine may be used as a sensitive CYP3A biomarker in drug development reflecting in vivo CYP3A activity. An efficient and stereospecific enzymatic synthesis of 1β-OH-DCA was developed using a Bacillus megaterium (BM3) cytochrome P450 (P450) mutant, and its structure was confirmed by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. A [(2)H4]-labeled analog of 1β-OH-DCA was also prepared. The major hydroxylated metabolite of deoxycholic acid (DCA) in human liver microsomal incubations was identified as 1β-OH-DCA by comparison with the synthesized reference analyzed by UPLC-HRMS. Its formation was strongly inhibited by CYP3A inhibitor ketoconazole. Screening of 21 recombinant human cytochrome P450 (P450) enzymes showed that, with the exception of extrahepatic CYP46A1, the most abundant liver P450 subfamily CYP3A, including CYP3A4, 3A5, and 3A7, specifically catalyzed 1β-OH-DCA formation. This indicated that 1β-hydroxylation of DCA may be a useful marker reaction for CYP3A activity in vitro. The metabolic pathways of DCA and 1β-OH-DCA in human hepatocytes were predominantly via glycine and, to a lesser extent, via taurine and sulfate conjugation. The potential utility of 1β-hydroxylation of DCA as a urinary CYP3A biomarker was illustrated by comparing the ratio of 1β-OH-DCA:DCA in a pooled spot urine sample from six healthy control subjects to a sample from one patient treated with carbamazepine, a potent CYP3A inducer; 1β-OH-DCA:DCA was considerably higher in the patient versus controls (ratio 2.8 vs. 0.4). Our results highlight the potential of 1β-OH-DCA as a urinary biomarker in clinical CYP3A DDI studies. PMID:27402728

  11. The effects on metabolic clearance when administering a potent CYP3A autoinducer with the prototypic CYP3A inhibitor, ketoconazole.

    PubMed

    Ayan-Oshodi, Mosun A; Willis, Brian A; Annes, William F; Lowe, Stephen L; Friedrich, Stuart; de la Peña, Amparo; Zhang, Wei; Brown, Thomas; Wise, Stephen D; Hall, Stephen D

    2012-10-01

    Ketoconazole is recognized as the prototypical CYP3A inhibitor and is often used to determine the metabolic CYP3A liabilities of new chemical entities in preclinical and clinical studies. Ketoconazole has been commercially available for approximately 30 years and was marketed before drug-metabolizing enzymes were well characterized; consequently, little is known about its metabolic profile. Semagacestat, a γ-secretase inhibitor investigated as a potential therapy for Alzheimer's disease, was determined to be a potent CYP3A autoinducer in human hepatocytes. Two human studies were conducted to assess the induction potential of semagacestat. In the first study (study 1, n = 20), semagacestat increased the mean apparent clearance (CL/F) of oral midazolam (76-324 l/h) and nifedipine (63-229 l/h) as predicted from hepatocytes. In a second (steady-state) study (study 2, n = 20), semagacestat CL/F increased from 22 after a single dose to 31 l/h. Ketoconazole decreased semagacestat CL/F by 32% after a single dose of semagacestat [geometric means ratio estimate, 0.68; 90% confidence interval (CI). 0.64, 0.73] and 46% at steady state (geometric means ratio estimate. 0.54; 90% CI, 0.51, 0.58). Ketoconazole area under the concentration-time curve over 8 h decreased 49% from first to last day of semagacestat dosing. Semagacestat significantly increases the oral clearance of CYP3A substrates, confirming its inducer designation. More importantly, when administered with a potent CYP3A inducer at steady state, ketoconazole's plasma exposure decreased, indicating that it may also be cleared by CYP3A, other inducible enzymes or transporters, or both. PMID:22789530

  12. Cytochrome P450 CYP3A in marsupials: cloning and identification of the first CYP3A subfamily member, isoform 3A70 from Eastern gray kangaroo (Macropus giganteus).

    PubMed

    El-Merhibi, Adaweyah; Ngo, Suong N T; Marchant, Ceilidh L; Height, Tamara A; Stupans, Ieva; McKinnon, Ross A

    2012-09-15

    Australian marsupials are unique fauna that have evolved and adapted to unique environments and thus it is likely that their detoxification systems differ considerably from those of well-studied eutherian mammals. Knowledge of these processes in marsupials is therefore vital to understanding the consequences of exposure to xenobiotics. Cytochromes P450 (CYPs) are critically important in the oxidative metabolism of a diverse array of both xenobiotics and endogenous substrates. In this study we have cloned and characterized CYP3A70, the first identified member of the CYP3A gene subfamily from Eastern gray kangaroo (Macropus giganteus). A 1665 base pair kangaroo hepatic CYP3A complete cDNA, designated CYP3A70, was cloned by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction approaches, which encodes a protein of 506 amino acids. The CYP3A70 cDNA shares approximately 71% nucleotide and 65% amino acid sequence homology to human CYP3A4 and displays high sequence similarity to other published mammalian CYP3As from human, monkey, cow, pig, dog, rat, rabbit, mouse, hamster, and guinea pig. Transfection of the CYP3A70 cDNAs into 293T cells resulted in stable cell lines expressing a CYP3A immuno-reactive protein that was recognized by a goat anti-human CYP3A4 polyclonal antibody. The anti-human CYP3A4 antibody also detected immunoreactive proteins in liver microsomes from all test marsupials, including the kangaroo, koala, wallaby, and wombat, with multiple CYP3A immunoreactive bands observed in kangaroo and wallaby tissues. Relatively, very low CYP catalytic activity was detected for the kangaroo CYP3A70 cDNA-expressed proteins (19.6 relative luminescent units/μg protein), which may be due to low protein expression levels. Collectively, this study provides primary molecular data regarding the Eastern kangaroo hepatic CYP3A70 gene and enables further functional analyses of CYP3A enzymes in marsupials.

  13. Downregulation of Mouse Hepatic CYP3A Protein by 3-Methylcholanthrene Does Not Require Cytochrome P450-Dependent Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chunja; Ding, Xinxin

    2013-01-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR)–dependent induction of cytochromes P450 (P450) such as CYP1A1 by 3-methylcholanthrene (MC) and related polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons is well characterized. We reported previously that MC treatment triggers a pronounced downregulation, particularly at the protein level, of mouse hepatic Cyp3a11, a counterpart of the key human drug-metabolizing enzyme CYP3A4. To determine whether this effect of MC requires hepatic microsomal P450 activity, we studied liver Cpr-null (LCN) mice with hepatocyte-specific conditional deletion of the NADPH-cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase gene. In vehicle-treated animals, basal levels of CYP3A11 mRNA and CYP3A protein immunoreactivity were elevated by approximately 9-fold in LCN mice compared with wild-type (WT) mice, whereas CYP3A catalytic activity was profoundly compromised in LCN mice. MC treatment caused suppression of CYP3A11 mRNA, CYP3A protein immunoreactivity, and CYP3A catalytic activity in WT mice, and the MC effects at the mRNA and protein levels were maintained in LCN mice. Flavin-containing monooxygenase-3 (Fmo3) induction by MC was suggested previously to occur via an AHR-dependent mechanism requiring conversion of the parent compound to DNA-damaging reactive metabolites; however, hepatic FMO3 mRNA levels were dramatically increased by MC in both WT and LCN mice. MC did not function as a mechanism-based inactivator of CYP3A enzymes in hepatic microsomes prepared from untreated WT mice, under conditions in which 1-aminobenzotriazole caused marked NADPH-dependent loss of total P450 content and CYP3A catalytic activity. These results indicate that MC downregulates mouse hepatic CYP3A protein via a pretranslational mechanism that does not require hepatic microsomal P450-dependent activity. PMID:23846873

  14. Predicting the "First dose in children" of CYP3A-metabolized drugs: Evaluation of scaling approaches and insights into the CYP3A7-CYP3A4 switch at young ages.

    PubMed

    Strougo, Ashley; Yassen, Ashraf; Monnereau, Claire; Danhof, Meindert; Freijer, Jan

    2014-09-01

    First-dose-in-children relies on the prediction of clearance from adults for which little information is available on the accuracy of the scaling-approaches applied. For CYP3A-metabolized compounds, scaling of clearance is further challenged by different isoforms and by the CYP3A7 to CYP3A4 switch at young ages. This investigation aimed to evaluate the accuracy of two frequently used scaling approaches and to gain insights into the ontogeny of CYP3A. Hence, a literature database was compiled containing 203 clearance values from term-neonates to adults for 18 CYP3A-metabolized compounds. The clearances in adults were scaled to children using (i) allometric scaling plus maturation function and (ii) a mechanistic approach based on the well-stirred model. Three maturation functions were separately evaluated. In children >3 months, all approaches were interchangeable heeding the maturation function applied and biases were mostly observed in children <3 months. The results from a sensitivity analysis indicate that these biases are possibly caused by disregarding the CYP3A7 activity which could account for up to 86% of the metabolism in term-neonates. Only the mechanistic approach using an overall-CYP3A maturation function led to unbiased predictions of clearances across all ages. The current investigation adds to the predictions of the first-dose-in-children of compounds (partially) metabolized by CYP3A.

  15. Immunohistochemical Markers of CYP3A4 and CYP3A7: A New Tool Towards Personalized Pharmacotherapy of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Fanni, D.; Manchia, M.; Lai, F.; Gerosa, C.; Ambu, R.; Faa, G.

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) represents a major global health problem, since more than 90% of primary liver cancers worldwide are HCC. Most cases of HCC are secondary to viral hepatitis infection (hepatitis B or C), alcoholism and cirrhosis. Sorafenib, an oral tyrosine kinase inhibitor that suppresses tumor proliferation and angiogenesis, emerged as the first effective systemic treatment for HCC after 30 years of research, and is currently the standard-of-care for patients with advanced HCC. Sorafenib is metabolized by cytochrome P450 (CYP450), particularly from the 3A4 isoform, producing two main metabolites: the N-oxide and the N-hydroxymethyl metabolite. We studied 11 HCC sample showing the presence of CYP3A4 and CYP3A7 in most of the samples analysed. Specifically, the immunoreactivity of CYP3A4 was stronger and more widespread than that of CYP3A7. The CYP3A4 immunoreactivity was observed in surrounding hepatocytes in 8 out of 11 cases; while the CYP3A7 immunostaining was found in normal liver cells, in 7 out of 11 cases. These results suggest the existence of a marked inter-individual variability regarding the presence of the isoforms of CYP3A. In addition, since sorafenib is metabolized by CYP3A4, but not by CYP3A7, an overexpression of CYP3A4 may lead to an increase in the degradation of the drug and then to clinical ineffectiveness. These results might implicate the necessity of an individualized approach in the treatment of HCC as positivity to CYP3A4 in HCC liver samples might predict a scarce response to sorafenib. PMID:27349315

  16. Pharmacogenetics in American Indian Populations: Analysis of CYP2D6, CYP3A4, CYP3A5, and CYP2C9 in the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes

    PubMed Central

    Fohner, Alison; Muzquiz, LeeAnna I.; Austin, Melissa A.; Gaedigk, Andrea; Gordon, Adam; Thornton, Timothy; Rieder, Mark J.; Pershouse, Mark A.; Putnam, Elizabeth A.; Howlett, Kevin; Beatty, Patrick; Thummel, Kenneth E.; Woodahl, Erica L.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Cytochrome P450 enzymes play a dominant role in drug elimination and variation in these genes is a major source of interindividual differences in drug response. Little is known, however, about pharmacogenetic variation in American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) populations. We have developed a partnership with the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes (CSKT) in northwestern Montana to address this knowledge gap. Methods We resequenced CYP2D6 in 187 CSKT subjects and CYP3A4, CYP3A5, and CYP2C9 in 94 CSKT subjects. Results We identified 67 variants in CYP2D6, 15 in CYP3A4, 10 in CYP3A5, and 41 in CYP2C9. The most common CYP2D6 alleles were CYP2D6*4 and *41 (20.86 and 11.23%, respectively). CYP2D6*3, *5, *6, *9, *10, *17, *28, *33, *35, *49, *1xN, *2xN, and *4xN frequencies were less than 2%. CYP3A5*3, CYP3A4*1G, and *1B were detected with frequencies of 92.47, 26.81, and 2.20%, respectively. Allelic variation in CYP2C9 was low: CYP2C9*2 (5.17%) and *3 (2.69%). In general, allele frequencies in CYP2D6, CYP2C9 and CYP3A5 were similar to those observed in European Americans. There was, however, a marked divergence in CYP3A4 for the CYP3A4*1G allele. We also observed low levels of linkage between CYP3A4*1G and CYP3A5*1 in the CSKT. The combination of nonfunctional CYP3A5*3 and putative reduced function CYP3A4*1G alleles may predict diminished clearance of CYP3A substrates. Conclusions These results highlight the importance of conducting pharmacogenomic research in AI/AN populations and demonstrate that extrapolation from other populations is not appropriate. This information could help to optimize drug therapy for the CSKT population. PMID:23778323

  17. Comparison of Paeoniflorin and Albiflorin on Human CYP3A4 and CYP2D6

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Li-Na; Zhang, Ye; Cui, Yuan-Lu; Akinyi, Olunga Mary

    2015-01-01

    Peony (Paeonia lactiflora Pall-) is a plant medicine and a functional food ingredient with wide application for more than 2000 years. It can be coadministrated with many other drugs, composed of traditional Chinese medicine compound such as shaoyao-gancao decoction. In order to explore the efficacy and safety of peony, effects of paeoniflorin and albiflorin (the principal components of peony) on cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 and CYP2D6 were analyzed in human hepatoma HepG2 cells and evaluated from the level of recombinant CYP enzymes in vitro. The findings indicated that albiflorin possessed stronger regulation on the mRNA expression of CYP3A4 and CYP2D6 than paeoniflorin. For the protein level of CYP3A4, albiflorin showed significant induction or inhibition with the concentration increasing from 10−7 M to 10−5 M, but no remarkable variation was observed in paeoniflorin-treated group. Enzyme activity assay implied that both paeoniflorin and albiflorin could regulate CYP3A4 and CYP2D6 with varying degrees. The results showed that albiflorin should be given more attention because it may play a vital role on the overall efficacy of peony. The whole behavior of both paeoniflorin and albiflorin should be focused on ensuring the rationality and effectiveness of clinical application. PMID:26089940

  18. Comparison of Paeoniflorin and Albiflorin on Human CYP3A4 and CYP2D6.

    PubMed

    Gao, Li-Na; Zhang, Ye; Cui, Yuan-Lu; Akinyi, Olunga Mary

    2015-01-01

    Peony (Paeonia lactiflora Pall-) is a plant medicine and a functional food ingredient with wide application for more than 2000 years. It can be coadministrated with many other drugs, composed of traditional Chinese medicine compound such as shaoyao-gancao decoction. In order to explore the efficacy and safety of peony, effects of paeoniflorin and albiflorin (the principal components of peony) on cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 and CYP2D6 were analyzed in human hepatoma HepG2 cells and evaluated from the level of recombinant CYP enzymes in vitro. The findings indicated that albiflorin possessed stronger regulation on the mRNA expression of CYP3A4 and CYP2D6 than paeoniflorin. For the protein level of CYP3A4, albiflorin showed significant induction or inhibition with the concentration increasing from 10(-7) M to 10(-5) M, but no remarkable variation was observed in paeoniflorin-treated group. Enzyme activity assay implied that both paeoniflorin and albiflorin could regulate CYP3A4 and CYP2D6 with varying degrees. The results showed that albiflorin should be given more attention because it may play a vital role on the overall efficacy of peony. The whole behavior of both paeoniflorin and albiflorin should be focused on ensuring the rationality and effectiveness of clinical application. PMID:26089940

  19. Modulation of CYP3a expression and activity in mice models of type 1 and type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Patoine, Dany; Petit, Michaël; Pilote, Sylvie; Picard, Frédéric; Drolet, Benoit; Simard, Chantale

    2014-01-01

    CYP3A4, the most abundant cytochrome P450 enzyme in the human liver and small intestine, is responsible for the metabolism of about 50% of all marketed drugs. Numerous pathophysiological factors, such as diabetes and obesity, were shown to affect CYP3A activity. Evidences suggest that drug disposition is altered in type 1 (T1D) and type 2 diabetes (T2D). The objective was to evaluate the effect of T1D and T2D on hepatic and intestinal CYP3a drug-metabolizing activity/expression in mice. Hepatic and intestinal microsomes were prepared from streptozotocin-induced T1D, db/db T2D and control mice. Domperidone was selected as a probe substrate for CYP3a and formation of five of its metabolites was evaluated using high performance liquid chromatography. Hepatic CYP3a protein and mRNA expression were assessed by Western blot and reverse-transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction respectively. Hepatic microsomal CYP3a activity was significantly increased in both T1D and T2D groups versus control group. Intestinal CYP3a activity was also significantly increased in both T1D and T2D groups. Moreover, significant increases of both hepatic CYP3a mRNAs and protein expression were observed in both T1D and T2D groups versus control group. Additional experiments with testosterone further validated the increased activity of CYP3a under the effect of both T1D and T2D. Although differences exist in the pathophysiological insults associated with T1D and T2D, our results suggest that these two distinct diseases may have the same modulating effect on the regulation of CYP3a, ultimately leading to variability in drug response, ranging from lack of effect to life-threatening toxicity. PMID:25505621

  20. Cytochrome P450 CYP3A in human renal cell cancer

    PubMed Central

    Murray, G I; McFadyen, M C E; Mitchell, R T; Cheung, Y-L; Kerr, A C; Melvin, W T

    1999-01-01

    Renal cell cancer is the main malignant tumour of the kidney and has an increasing incidence. This type of tumour has a poor prognosis and shows intrinsic resistance to several anti-cancer drugs. The CYP3A P450 family, which consists of three closely related forms, is involved in the oxidative activation and deactivation of a variety of carcinogens and several anti-cancer drugs. In this study the presence and cellular localization of CYP3A has been investigated using a combination of immunohistochemistry, immunoblotting and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in renal cell cancer and corresponding normal kidney. CYP3A was consistently expressed in both renal call cancer and in normal kidney. In renal cell cancer, CYP3A was localized to tumour cells and in normal kidney the predominant cellular localization of CYP3A was to proximal tubular epithelial cells. RT-PCR showed that both CYP3A5 mRNA and CYP3A7 mRNA were consistently present in both tumour and normal samples, while CYP3A4 mRNA was present in 65% of tumours and 90% of normal samples. This study indicates that individual members of the CYP3A family are expressed in renal cell cancer. The presence of CYP3A in renal cell cancer might be important in the metabolic potentiation as well as the detoxification of chemotherapeutic agents used to renal cancer. © 1999 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10206301

  1. Constitutive and xenobiotics-induced expression of a novel CYP3A gene from zebrafish larva

    SciTech Connect

    Tseng, H.-P.; Hseu, Tzong-Hsiung; Buhler, Donald R.; Wang, W.-D.; Hu, C.-H. . E-mail: chhu@mail.ntou.edu.tw

    2005-06-15

    In mammals, CYP3A isozymes collectively comprise the largest portion of the liver and small intestinal CYP protein. They are involved in the metabolism of an extensive range of endogenous substrates and xenobiotics and make a significant contribution to the termination of the action of steroid hormones. A full-length cDNA of CYP3A gene, named CYP3A65, was cloned from zebrafish by RT-PCR. The CYP3A65 mRNA was initially transcribed only in the liver and intestine upon hatching of the zebrafish embryos. Like the human CYP3A genes, CYP3A65 transcription in the foregut region was enhanced by treatment of the zebrafish larvae with the steroid dexamethasone and the macrocyclic antibiotic rifampicin. Differing from mammalian CYP3A genes, CYP3A65 transcription was also elicited by 2,3,7,8-tetrachloro-dibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) during early larval stages. Repression of AHR2 translation by antisense morpholino oligonucleotides abrogated both of constitutive and TCDD-stimulated CYP3A65 transcription in larval intestine. These findings suggested that the AHR2 signaling pathway plays an essential role in CYP3A65 transcription.

  2. Individual and combined associations of genetic variants in CYP3A4, CYP3A5, and SLCO1B1 with simvastatin and simvastatin acid plasma concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Luzum, Jasmine A.; Theusch, Elizabeth; Taylor, Kent D.; Wang, Ann; Sadee, Wolfgang; Binkley, Philip F.; Krauss, Ronald M.; Medina, Marisa W.; Kitzmiller, Joseph P.

    2015-01-01

    Our objective was to evaluate the associations of genetic variants affecting simvastatin (SV) and simvastatin acid (SVA) metabolism (CYP3A4*22 and CYP3A5*3) and transport (SLCO1B1 T521C) with 12-hour plasma SV and SVA concentrations. The variants were genotyped, and concentrations were quantified by HPLC-MS/MS in 646 participants of the Cholesterol and Pharmacogenetics clinical trial of 40 mg/day SV for 6 weeks. The genetic variants were tested for association with 12-hour plasma SV, SVA, or the SVA/SV ratio using general linear models. CYP3A5*3 was not significantly associated with 12-hour plasma SV or SVA concentration. CYP3A4*1/*22 participants had 58% higher 12-hour plasma SV concentration compared to CYP3A4*1/*1 participants (p=0.006). SLCO1B1 521T/C and 521C/C participants had 71% (p<0.001) and 248% (p<0.001) higher 12-hour plasma SVA compared to SLCO1B1 521T/T participants, respectively. CYP3A4 and SLCO1B1 genotypes combined categorized participants into low (<1), intermediate (≈1), and high (>1) SVA/SV ratio groups (p=0.001). In conclusion, CYP3A4*22 and SLCO1B1 521C were significantly associated with increased plasma 12-hour concentrations of SV and SVA, respectively. CYP3A5*3 was not significantly associated with 12-hour plasma SV or SVA concentrations. The combination of CYP3A4*22 and SLCO1B1 521C was significantly associated with SVA/SV ratio, which may translate into different clinical SV risk/benefit profiles. PMID:26164721

  3. Combination Analysis in Genetic Polymorphisms of Drug-Metabolizing Enzymes CYP1A2, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6 and CYP3A5 in the Japanese Population

    PubMed Central

    Ota, Tomoko; Kamada, Yuka; Hayashida, Mariko; Iwao-Koizumi, Kyoko; Murata, Shigenori; Kinoshita, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    The Cytochrome P450 is the major enzyme involved in drug metabolism. CYP enzymes are responsible for the metabolism of most clinically used drugs. Individual variability in CYP activity is one important factor that contributes to drug therapy failure. We have developed a new straightforward TaqMan PCR genotyping assay to investigate the prevalence of the most common allelic variants of polymorphic CYP enzymes CYP1A2, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6 and CYP3A5 in the Japanese population. Moreover, we focused on the combination of each genotype for clinical treatment. The genotype analysis identified a total of 139 out of 483 genotype combinations of five genes in the 1,003 Japanese subjects. According to our results, most of subjects seemed to require dose modification during clinical treatment. In the near future, modifications should be considered based on the individual patient genotype of each treatment. PMID:25552922

  4. BDE47 induces rat CYP3A1 by targeting the transcriptional regulation of miR-23b.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhenzhen; Zhang, Zhan; Ji, Minghui; Yang, Hongbao; Cromie, Meghan; Gu, Jun; Wang, Chao; Yang, Lu; Yu, Yongquan; Gao, Weimin; Wang, Shou-Lin

    2016-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A) is the most abundant CYP450 enzyme in the liver and is involved in the metabolism of over 50% of xenobiotics. Our previous studies revealed that 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE47) could induce rat CYP3A1 expression, but the molecular basis remains unclear. Using in silico analysis, we identified a potential miR-23b recognition element (MRE23b) in the 3'-UTR region of CYP3A1 mRNA, which was verified by the luciferase assay. The miR-23b mimic and inhibitor significantly down- and up-regulated the expression of CYP3A1, respectively. Additionally, BDE47 significantly down-regulated the expression of miR-23b in rats and in hepatic H4IIE cells. Induction or blockage of CYP3A1 by a miR-23b inhibitor or mimic could correspondingly alter BDE47-induced expression of CYP3A1 and cytotoxicity in H4IIE cells. Furthermore, LV-anti-miR-23b significantly decreased endogenous levels of miR-23b and increased the expression and activity of CYP3A1 in rat liver. LV-anti-miR-23b also significantly increased the hydroxylated metabolites of BDE47 (3-OH-BDE47, 4-OH-BDE42, and 4'-OH-BDE49) in rat serum. In conclusion, we first found that BDE47 induced rat CYP3A1 expression by targeting the transcriptional regulation of miR-23b. This study helps provide a better understanding of CYP3A regulation and offers novel clues for the role of miRNAs in the metabolism and distribution of environmental pollutants. PMID:27546062

  5. BDE47 induces rat CYP3A1 by targeting the transcriptional regulation of miR-23b

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Zhenzhen; Zhang, Zhan; Ji, Minghui; Yang, Hongbao; Cromie, Meghan; Gu, Jun; Wang, Chao; Yang, Lu; Yu, Yongquan; Gao, Weimin; Wang, Shou-Lin

    2016-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A) is the most abundant CYP450 enzyme in the liver and is involved in the metabolism of over 50% of xenobiotics. Our previous studies revealed that 2,2′,4,4′-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE47) could induce rat CYP3A1 expression, but the molecular basis remains unclear. Using in silico analysis, we identified a potential miR-23b recognition element (MRE23b) in the 3′-UTR region of CYP3A1 mRNA, which was verified by the luciferase assay. The miR-23b mimic and inhibitor significantly down- and up-regulated the expression of CYP3A1, respectively. Additionally, BDE47 significantly down-regulated the expression of miR-23b in rats and in hepatic H4IIE cells. Induction or blockage of CYP3A1 by a miR-23b inhibitor or mimic could correspondingly alter BDE47-induced expression of CYP3A1 and cytotoxicity in H4IIE cells. Furthermore, LV-anti-miR-23b significantly decreased endogenous levels of miR-23b and increased the expression and activity of CYP3A1 in rat liver. LV-anti-miR-23b also significantly increased the hydroxylated metabolites of BDE47 (3-OH-BDE47, 4-OH-BDE42, and 4′-OH-BDE49) in rat serum. In conclusion, we first found that BDE47 induced rat CYP3A1 expression by targeting the transcriptional regulation of miR-23b. This study helps provide a better understanding of CYP3A regulation and offers novel clues for the role of miRNAs in the metabolism and distribution of environmental pollutants. PMID:27546062

  6. BDE47 induces rat CYP3A1 by targeting the transcriptional regulation of miR-23b

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Zhenzhen; Zhang, Zhan; Ji, Minghui; Yang, Hongbao; Cromie, Meghan; Gu, Jun; Wang, Chao; Yang, Lu; Yu, Yongquan; Gao, Weimin; Wang, Shou-Lin

    2016-08-01

    Cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A) is the most abundant CYP450 enzyme in the liver and is involved in the metabolism of over 50% of xenobiotics. Our previous studies revealed that 2,2‧,4,4‧-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE47) could induce rat CYP3A1 expression, but the molecular basis remains unclear. Using in silico analysis, we identified a potential miR-23b recognition element (MRE23b) in the 3‧-UTR region of CYP3A1 mRNA, which was verified by the luciferase assay. The miR-23b mimic and inhibitor significantly down- and up-regulated the expression of CYP3A1, respectively. Additionally, BDE47 significantly down-regulated the expression of miR-23b in rats and in hepatic H4IIE cells. Induction or blockage of CYP3A1 by a miR-23b inhibitor or mimic could correspondingly alter BDE47-induced expression of CYP3A1 and cytotoxicity in H4IIE cells. Furthermore, LV-anti-miR-23b significantly decreased endogenous levels of miR-23b and increased the expression and activity of CYP3A1 in rat liver. LV-anti-miR-23b also significantly increased the hydroxylated metabolites of BDE47 (3-OH-BDE47, 4-OH-BDE42, and 4‧-OH-BDE49) in rat serum. In conclusion, we first found that BDE47 induced rat CYP3A1 expression by targeting the transcriptional regulation of miR-23b. This study helps provide a better understanding of CYP3A regulation and offers novel clues for the role of miRNAs in the metabolism and distribution of environmental pollutants.

  7. Monoester-Diterpene Aconitum Alkaloid Metabolism in Human Liver Microsomes: Predominant Role of CYP3A4 and CYP3A5

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Ling; Yang, Xiao-Shan; Lu, Lin-lin; Chen, Wei-Ying; Zeng, Shan; Yan, Tong-Meng; Dong, Ling-Na; Peng, Xiao-Juan; Shi, Jian; Liu, Zhong-Qiu

    2013-01-01

    Aconitum, widely used to treat rheumatoid arthritis for thousands of years, is a toxic herb that can frequently cause fatal cardiac poisoning. Aconitum toxicity could be decreased by properly hydrolyzing diester-diterpene alkaloids into monoester-diterpene alkaloids. Monoester-diterpene alkaloids, including benzoylaconine (BAC), benzoylmesaconine (BMA), and benzoylhypaconine (BHA), are the primary active and toxic constituents of processed Aconitum. Cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes protect the human body by functioning as the defense line that limits the invasion of toxicants. Our purposes were to identify the CYP metabolites of BAC, BMA, and BHA in human liver microsomes and to distinguish which isozymes are responsible for their metabolism through the use of chemical inhibitors, monoclonal antibodies, and cDNA-expressed CYP enzyme. High-resolution mass spectrometry was used to characterize the metabolites. A total of 7, 8, and 9 metabolites were detected for BAC, BMA, and BHA, respectively. The main metabolic pathways were demethylation, dehydrogenation, demethylation-dehydrogenation, hydroxylation and didemethylation, which produced less toxic metabolites by decomposing the group responsible for the toxicity of the parent compound. Taken together, the results of the chemical inhibitors, monoclonal antibodies, and cDNA-expressed CYP enzymes experiments demonstrated that CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 have essential functions in the metabolism of BAC, BMA, and BHA. PMID:23864901

  8. Amlodipine metabolism in human liver microsomes and roles of CYP3A4/5 in the dihydropyridine dehydrogenation.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yanlin; Wang, Fen; Li, Quan; Zhu, Mingshe; Du, Alicia; Tang, Wei; Chen, Weiqing

    2014-02-01

    Amlodipine is a commonly prescribed calcium channel blocker for the treatment of hypertension and ischemic heart disease. The drug is slowly cleared in humans primarily via dehydrogenation of its dihydropyridine moiety to a pyridine derivative (M9). Results from clinical drug-drug interaction studies suggest that CYP3A4/5 mediate metabolism of amlodipine. However, attempts to identify a role of CYP3A5 in amlodipine metabolism in humans based on its pharmacokinetic differences between CYP3A5 expressers and nonexpressers failed. Objectives of this study were to determine the metabolite profile of amlodipine (a racemic mixture and S-isomer) in human liver microsomes (HLM), and to identify the cytochrome P450 (P450) enzyme(s) involved in the M9 formation. Liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis showed that amlodipine was mainly converted to M9 in HLM incubation. M9 underwent further O-demethylation, O-dealkylation, and oxidative deamination to various pyridine derivatives. This observation is consistent with amlodipine metabolism in humans. Incubations of amlodipine with HLM in the presence of selective P450 inhibitors showed that both ketoconazole (an inhibitor of CYP3A4/5) and CYP3cide (an inhibitor of CYP3A4) completely blocked the M9 formation, whereas chemical inhibitors of other P450 enzymes had little effect. Furthermore, metabolism of amlodipine in expressed human P450 enzymes showed that only CYP3A4 had significant activity in amlodipine dehydrogenation. Metabolite profiles and P450 reaction phenotyping data of a racemic mixture and S-isomer of amlodipine were very similar. The results from this study suggest that CYP3A4, rather than CYP3A5, plays a key role in metabolic clearance of amlodipine in humans. PMID:24301608

  9. A simultaneous assessment of CYP3A4 metabolism and induction in the DPX-2 cell line.

    PubMed

    Trubetskoy, Olga; Marks, Bryan; Zielinski, Thomas; Yueh, Mei-Fei; Raucy, Judy

    2005-03-04

    The DPX-2 cell line, a derivative of HepG2 cells, harbors human PXR and a luciferase-linked CYP3A4 promoter. These cells were used in a panel of cell-based assays for a parallel assessment of CYP3A4 induction, metabolism, and inhibition at the cellular level. CYP3A4 induction in the DPX-2 cell line by various agents was monitored in 96-well plates by a luciferase-based transcriptional activation assay. Of the prototypical CYP3A4 inducers examined, all exhibited elevated luciferase activity in DPX-2 cells. CYP3A4 enzyme activity in noninduced and rifampicin-induced DPX-2 cells was also assessed using Vivid fluorogenic substrates. Significantly elevated CYP3A4 activity levels (2.8-fold +/- 0.2-fold above DMSO-treated cells) were found in DPX-2 cells after 48 hours of exposure to rifampicin, but were undetectable in parental HepG2 cells. Rifampicin-induced activity levels were found to be suitable for assessing the inhibitory potential of new chemical entities in downstream CYP3A4 inhibition assays. The elevated CYP3A4 activity was inhibited 85% by 10 microM ketoconazole. In addition, a cytotoxicity assay to correct for possible toxic effects of compounds at the cellular level was applied. The comparative data obtained with a combination of the above assays suggests that the application of several independent in vitro technologies used in DPX-2 cells is the best possible strategy for the assessment of the complex phenomena of CYP3A4 induction and inhibition.

  10. Troglitazone quinone formation catalyzed by human and rat CYP3A: an atypical CYP oxidation reaction.

    PubMed

    He, K; Woolf, T F; Kindt, E K; Fielder, A E; Talaat, R E

    2001-07-15

    Oxidative ring opening of troglitazone (TGZ)(1) a thiazolidine 2,4-dione derivative used for the treatment of type II diabetes mellitus, leads to the formation of a quinone metabolite. The formation of TGZ quinone was shown to be NADPH dependent and to require active microsomal enzymes. Quinone formation was not affected by co-incubation with catalase or sodium azide and was partially inhibited (25%) by superoxide dismutase (SOD). Kinetic analysis of TGZ quinone formation in human liver microsomes implied single enzyme involvement. CYP3A isoforms were characterized as the primary enzymes involved in quinone formation by several lines of evidence including: (a) troleandomycin and ketoconazole almost completely inhibited microsomal quinone formation when SOD was present, whereas other CYP inhibitors had minimal effects (<20%); (b) TGZ quinone formation was highly correlated with regard to both contents (r(2): 0.9374) and activities (r(2): 0.7951) of CYP3A4 in human liver microsomes (HLM); (c) baculovirus insect cell-expressed human CYP3A4 was able to catalyze TGZ quinone formation at a higher capacity (V(max)/K(m)) than other human CYPs with the relative contribution of CYP3A4 in HLM estimated to be 20-fold higher than that of other CYPs; (d) TGZ quinone formation was increased by 350% in liver microsomes from rats pretreated with dexamethasone (DEX); and (e) plasma concentrations of TGZ quinone were increased by 260-680% in rats pretreated with DEX. The chemical nature of the quinone metabolite suggests an atypical CYP reaction consistent with a one-electron oxidation mechanism where an intermediate phenoxy radical combines with ferryl oxygen to subsequently form the quinone metabolite.

  11. Interaction between Darunavir and Etravirine Is Partly Mediated by CYP3A5 Polymorphism

    PubMed Central

    Belkhir, Leïla; Elens, Laure; Zech, Francis; Panin, Nadtha; Vincent, Anne; Yombi, Jean Cyr

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To assess the impact of the loss-of-function CYP3A5*3 allele (rs776746, 6986A>G SNP) on darunavir (DRV) plasma concentrations. Methods 135 HIV-1 infected patients treated with DRV-based therapy were included in the study and plasma samples were obtained immediately before drug intake in order to determine DRV trough concentrations using an ultra performance liquid chromatography method (UPLC) with diode-array detection (DAD). Noteworthy is the fact that in 16 (11.9%) patients, etravirine (ETR) was combined with DRV. CYP3A5 genotypes were determined using real time PCR method (TaqMan® genotyping assay). The patients were then classified into CYP3A5 expressors (CYP3A5*1 allele carriers) and non-expressors (CYP3A5*3 homozygous). Subsequently, the association between DRV plasma trough concentration ([DRV]plasma) and CYP3A5 genotype-based expression status was analyzed. Results 45% of the patients were classified as CYP3A5 expressors. In the whole cohort, mean [DRV]plasma was not different between CYP3A5 expressors and non-expressors (1894ng/ml [CI95%: 1566–2290] versus 1737ng/ml [CI95%: 1468–2057], p = 0.43). However, in the subgroup of the 16 patients receiving DRV combined with ETR, a significantly lower [DRV]plasma was observed for CYP3A5 expressors when compared to non-expressors (1385ng/ml [CI95%:886.3–2165] versus 3141ng/ml [CI95%:2042–4831], p = 0.007). Conclusions Interaction between DRV and ETR is partly mediated by CYP3A5 polymorphism with lower DRV plasma trough concentrations in CYP3A5 expressors suggesting a specific ETR-driven CYP3A5 activation only in CYP3A5 expressors. Consequently, these patients might be more at risk of infra-therapeutic [DRV]plasma. This potentially important observation is a good illustration of a genotype-based drug interaction, which could also have considerable consequences if translated to other CYP3A5-metabolized drugs. Further investigations are thus needed to confirm this association and to explore its

  12. Global pharmacogenomics: distribution of CYP3A5 polymorphisms and phenotypes in the Brazilian population.

    PubMed

    Suarez-Kurtz, Guilherme; Vargens, Daniela D; Santoro, Ana Beatriz; Hutz, Mara H; de Moraes, Maria Elisabete; Pena, Sérgio D J; Ribeiro-dos-Santos, Ândrea; Romano-Silva, Marco A; Struchiner, Claudio José

    2014-01-01

    The influence of self-reported "race/color", geographical origin and genetic ancestry on the distribution of three functional CYP3A5 polymorphisms, their imputed haplotypes and inferred phenotypes was examined in 909 healthy, adult Brazilians, self-identified as White, Brown or Black ("race/color" categories of the Brazilian census). The cohort was genotyped for CYP3A5*3 (rs776746), CYP3A5*6 (rs10264272) and CYP3A5*7 (rs41303343), CYP3A5 haplotypes were imputed and CYP3A5 metabolizer phenotypes were inferred according to the number of defective CYP3A5 alleles. Estimates of the individual proportions of Amerindian, African and European ancestry were available for the entire cohort. Multinomial log-linear regression models were applied to infer the statistical association between the distribution of CYP3A5 alleles, haplotypes and phenotypes (response variables), and self-reported Color, geographical region and ancestry (explanatory variables). We found that Color per se or in combination with geographical region associates significantly with the distribution of CYP3A5 variant alleles and CYP3A5 metabolizer phenotypes, whereas geographical region per se influences the frequency distribution of CYP3A5 variant alleles. The odds of having the default CYP3A5*3 allele and the poor metabolizer phenotype increases continuously with the increase of European ancestry and decrease of African ancestry. The opposite trend is observed in relation to CYP3A5*6, CYP3A5*7, the default CYP3A5*1 allele, and both the extensive and intermediate phenotypes. No significant effect of Amerindian ancestry on the distribution of CYP3A5 alleles or phenotypes was observed. In conclusion, this study strongly supports the notion that the intrinsic heterogeneity of the Brazilian population must be acknowledged in the design and interpretation of pharmacogenomic studies, and dealt with as a continuous variable, rather than proportioned in arbitrary categories that do not capture the diversity of the

  13. Regulation of zebrafish CYP3A65 transcription by AHR2

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Chin-Teng; Chung, Hsin-Yu; Su, Hsiao-Ting; Tseng, Hua-Pin; Tzou, Wen-Shyong; Hu, Chin-Hwa

    2013-07-15

    CYP3A proteins are the most abundant CYPs in the liver and intestines, and they play a pivotal role in drug metabolism. In mammals, CYP3A genes are induced by various xenobiotics through processes mediated by PXR. We previously identified zebrafish CYP3A65 as a CYP3A ortholog that is constitutively expressed in gastrointestinal tissues, and is upregulated by treatment with dexamethasone, rifampicin or tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). However, the underlying mechanism of TCDD-mediated CYP3A65 transcription is unclear. Here we generated two transgenic zebrafish, Tg(CYP3A65S:EGFP) and Tg(CYP3A65L:EGFP), which contain 2.1 and 5.4 kb 5′ flanking sequences, respectively, of the CYP3A65 gene upstream of EGFP. Both transgenic lines express EGFP in larval gastrointestinal tissues in a pattern similar to that of the endogenous CYP3A65 gene. Moreover, EGFP expression can be significantly induced by TCDD exposure during the larval stage. In addition, EGFP expression can be stimulated by kynurenine, a putative AHR ligand produced during tryptophan metabolism. AHRE elements in the upstream regulatory region of the CYP3A65 gene are indispensible for basal and TCDD-induced transcription. Furthermore, the AHR2 DNA and ligand-binding domains are required to mediate effective CYP3A65 transcription. AHRE sequences are present in the promoters of many teleost CYP3 genes, but not of mammalian CYP3 genes, suggesting that AHR/AHR2-mediated transcription is likely a common regulatory mechanism for teleost CYP3 genes. It may also reflect the different environments that terrestrial and aquatic organisms encounter. - Highlights: • Tg(CYP3A65:EGFP) and CYP3A65 exhibits identical expression pattern. • CYP3A65 can be significantly induced by TCDD or kynurenine. • The AHRE elements are required to mediate CYP3A65 transcription. • The AHR2 DNA and ligand-binding domains are required for CYP3A65 transcription. • AHRE elements are present in many teleost CYP3 genes, but not in

  14. Global pharmacogenomics: distribution of CYP3A5 polymorphisms and phenotypes in the Brazilian population.

    PubMed

    Suarez-Kurtz, Guilherme; Vargens, Daniela D; Santoro, Ana Beatriz; Hutz, Mara H; de Moraes, Maria Elisabete; Pena, Sérgio D J; Ribeiro-dos-Santos, Ândrea; Romano-Silva, Marco A; Struchiner, Claudio José

    2014-01-01

    The influence of self-reported "race/color", geographical origin and genetic ancestry on the distribution of three functional CYP3A5 polymorphisms, their imputed haplotypes and inferred phenotypes was examined in 909 healthy, adult Brazilians, self-identified as White, Brown or Black ("race/color" categories of the Brazilian census). The cohort was genotyped for CYP3A5*3 (rs776746), CYP3A5*6 (rs10264272) and CYP3A5*7 (rs41303343), CYP3A5 haplotypes were imputed and CYP3A5 metabolizer phenotypes were inferred according to the number of defective CYP3A5 alleles. Estimates of the individual proportions of Amerindian, African and European ancestry were available for the entire cohort. Multinomial log-linear regression models were applied to infer the statistical association between the distribution of CYP3A5 alleles, haplotypes and phenotypes (response variables), and self-reported Color, geographical region and ancestry (explanatory variables). We found that Color per se or in combination with geographical region associates significantly with the distribution of CYP3A5 variant alleles and CYP3A5 metabolizer phenotypes, whereas geographical region per se influences the frequency distribution of CYP3A5 variant alleles. The odds of having the default CYP3A5*3 allele and the poor metabolizer phenotype increases continuously with the increase of European ancestry and decrease of African ancestry. The opposite trend is observed in relation to CYP3A5*6, CYP3A5*7, the default CYP3A5*1 allele, and both the extensive and intermediate phenotypes. No significant effect of Amerindian ancestry on the distribution of CYP3A5 alleles or phenotypes was observed. In conclusion, this study strongly supports the notion that the intrinsic heterogeneity of the Brazilian population must be acknowledged in the design and interpretation of pharmacogenomic studies, and dealt with as a continuous variable, rather than proportioned in arbitrary categories that do not capture the diversity of the

  15. Global Pharmacogenomics: Distribution of CYP3A5 Polymorphisms and Phenotypes in the Brazilian Population

    PubMed Central

    Suarez-Kurtz, Guilherme; Vargens, Daniela D.; Santoro, Ana Beatriz; Hutz, Mara H.; de Moraes, Maria Elisabete; Pena, Sérgio D. J.; Ribeiro-dos-Santos, Ândrea; Romano-Silva, Marco A.; Struchiner, Claudio José

    2014-01-01

    The influence of self-reported “race/color”, geographical origin and genetic ancestry on the distribution of three functional CYP3A5 polymorphisms, their imputed haplotypes and inferred phenotypes was examined in 909 healthy, adult Brazilians, self-identified as White, Brown or Black (“race/color” categories of the Brazilian census). The cohort was genotyped for CYP3A5*3 (rs776746), CYP3A5*6 (rs10264272) and CYP3A5*7 (rs41303343), CYP3A5 haplotypes were imputed and CYP3A5 metabolizer phenotypes were inferred according to the number of defective CYP3A5 alleles. Estimates of the individual proportions of Amerindian, African and European ancestry were available for the entire cohort. Multinomial log-linear regression models were applied to infer the statistical association between the distribution of CYP3A5 alleles, haplotypes and phenotypes (response variables), and self-reported Color, geographical region and ancestry (explanatory variables). We found that Color per se or in combination with geographical region associates significantly with the distribution of CYP3A5 variant alleles and CYP3A5 metabolizer phenotypes, whereas geographical region per se influences the frequency distribution of CYP3A5 variant alleles. The odds of having the default CYP3A5*3 allele and the poor metabolizer phenotype increases continuously with the increase of European ancestry and decrease of African ancestry. The opposite trend is observed in relation to CYP3A5*6, CYP3A5*7, the default CYP3A5*1 allele, and both the extensive and intermediate phenotypes. No significant effect of Amerindian ancestry on the distribution of CYP3A5 alleles or phenotypes was observed. In conclusion, this study strongly supports the notion that the intrinsic heterogeneity of the Brazilian population must be acknowledged in the design and interpretation of pharmacogenomic studies, and dealt with as a continuous variable, rather than proportioned in arbitrary categories that do not capture the diversity

  16. In vitro metabolism of piperaquine is primarily mediated by CYP3A4

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Tina Ming-Na; Huang, Liusheng; Johnson, Marla K.; Lizak, Patricia; Kroetz, Deanna; Aweeka, Francesca; Parikh, Sunil

    2016-01-01

    Piperaquine (PQ) is part of a first-line treatment regimen for Plasmodium falciparum malaria recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO). We aimed to determine the major metabolic pathway(s) of PQ in vitro. A reliable, validated tandem mass spectrometry method was developed. Concentrations of PQ were measured after incubation with both human liver microsomes (HLMs) and expressed cytochrome P450 enzymes (P450s). In pooled HLMs, incubations with an initial PQ concentration of 0.3 µM resulted in a 34.8 ± 4.9% loss of substrate over 60 min, corresponding to a turnover rate of 0.009 min−1 (r2 = 0.9223). Miconazole, at nonspecific P450 inhibitory concentrations, resulted in almost complete inhibition of PQ metabolism. The greatest inhibition was demonstrated with selective CYP3A4 (100%) and CYP2C8 (66%) inhibitors. Using a mixture of recombinant P450 enzymes, turnover for PQ metabolism was estimated as 0.0099 min−1; recombinant CYP3A4 had a higher metabolic rate (0.017 min−1) than recombinant CYP2C8 (p < .0001). Inhibition of CYP3A4-mediated PQ loss was greatest using the selective inhibitor ketoconazole (9.1 ± 3.5% loss with ketoconazole vs 60.7 ± 5.9% with no inhibitor, p < .0001). In summary, the extent of inhibition of in vitro metabolism with ketoconazole (83%) denotes that PQ appears to be primarily catalyzed by CYP3A4. Further studies to support these findings through the identification and characterization of PQ metabolites are planned. PMID:22671777

  17. Arsenite decreases CYP3A23 induction in cultured rat hepatocytes by transcriptional and translational mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Noreault, Trisha L.; Nichols, Ralph C.; Trask, Heidi W.; Wrighton, Steven A.; Sinclair, Peter R.; Evans, Ronald M.; Sinclair, Jacqueline F. . E-mail: JSINC@dartmouth.edu

    2005-12-01

    Arsenic is a naturally occurring, worldwide contaminant implicated in numerous pathological conditions in humans, including cancer and several forms of liver disease. One of the contributing factors to these disorders may be the alteration of cytochrome P450 (CYP) levels by arsenic. In rat and human hepatocyte cultures, arsenic, in the form of arsenite, decreases the induction of several CYPs. The present study investigated whether arsenite utilizes transcriptional or post-transcriptional mechanisms to decrease CYP3A23 in primary cultures of rat hepatocytes. In these cultures, a 6-h treatment with 5 {mu}M arsenite abolished dexamethasone (DEX)-mediated induction of CYP3A23 protein and activity, but did not inhibit general protein synthesis. However, arsenite treatment only reduced DEX-induced levels of CYP3A23 mRNA by 30%. The effects of arsenite on CYP3A23 transcription were examined using a luciferase reporter construct containing 1.4 kb of the CYP3A23 promoter. Arsenite caused a 30% decrease in DEX-induced luciferase expression of this reporter. Since arsenite abolished induction of CYP3A23 protein, but caused only a small decrease in CYP3A23 mRNA, the effects of arsenite on translation of CYP3A23 mRNA were investigated. Polysomal distribution analysis showed that arsenite decreased translation by decreasing the DEX-mediated increase in CYP3A23 mRNA association with polyribosomes. Arsenite did not decrease intracellular glutathione or increase lipid peroxidation, suggesting that the effect of arsenite on CYP3A23 does not involve oxidative stress. Overall, the results suggest that low-level arsenite decreases both transcription and translation of CYP3A23 in primary rat hepatocyte cultures.

  18. CYP3A4*1B polymorphism and cancer risk: a HuGE review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Li-Ping; Yao, Fan; Luan, Hong; Wang, Yin-Ling; Dong, Xi-Hua; Zhou, Wen-Wen; Wang, Qi-Hui

    2013-04-01

    CYP450 3A4 (CYP3A4), encoded by the CYP3A4 gene, is a major enzyme catalyzing the metabolism of both endogenous and exogenous agents that may play a role in the etiology of carcinogenesis. Several potentially functional polymorphisms of the CYP3A4 gene have been implicated in cancer risk, but individually published studies have shown inconclusive results. The aim of this Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) review and meta-analysis was to investigate the association between CYP3A4*1B (rs2740574 A > G) polymorphism and cancer risk. Eleven studies were included with a total of 3,810 cancer patients and 3,173 healthy controls. We found that the G allele and GG genotype of CYP3A4*1B polymorphism were associated with increased risk of cancers using the fixed effects model (allele model: odds ratio (OR) = 1.24, 95 %CI: 1.09-1.42, P = 0.001; recessive model: OR = 1.77, 95 %CI: 1.30-2.41, P < 0.001; homozygous model: OR = 1.72, 95 %CI: 1.19-2.47, P = 0.004). Subgroup analyses by cancer type showed that the G allele and G carrier (AG + GG) of CYP3A4*1B polymorphism had significant associations with increased risk of prostate cancer, but not with breast cancer, leukemia, or other cancers. With further subgroup analysis based on different ethnicities, the results indicated that the GG genotype of CYP3A4*1B polymorphism might increase the risk of cancer among African populations. However, similar associations were not observed among Caucasian and Asian populations. Results from the current meta-analysis indicate that the G allele and GG genotype of CYP3A4*1B polymorphism might be associated with increased cancer risk, especially for prostate cancer among African populations.

  19. Deconvoluting the effects of P-glycoprotein on intestinal CYP3A: a major challenge.

    PubMed

    Knight, Beverly; Troutman, Matthew; Thakker, Dhiren R

    2006-10-01

    Metabolism by cytochrome P4503A (CYP3A) and P-glycoprotein (P-gp)-mediated efflux are two important biochemical barriers to drug absorption from the intestine. CYP3A, the most important family of drug-metabolizing enzymes, shares many substrates with the efflux transporter P-gp. Although the individual impact of these two systems on drug disposition is routinely assessed, the effect of both systems acting together during intestinal absorption is difficult to ascertain. Pharmacokinetic theory predicts that the effect of efflux on overall metabolism depends on substrate concentrations relative to the respective kinetic parameters of these processes (i.e. affinities for transport and metabolism, as well as the capacities of these processes). Researchers have published conflicting findings on how efflux affects metabolism. Furthermore, the in vitro parameters that have been used to explain or predict this interation are more relevant for describing overall changes in extraction efficiency of the system (intestinal epithelium), rather than deconvoluting the effect of P-gp on CYP3A-mediated metabolism. Developing a more refined way to understand this interplay and its potential relevance to drug absorption is an important goal, as a large proportion of marketed drugs and many modern drug discovery candidates are known to be affected by one or both of these proteins.

  20. [CYP2D6, CYP3A5, and CYP3A4 gene polymorphism in Russian, Tatar, and Bashkir populations].

    PubMed

    Mustafina, O E; Tuktarova, I A; Karimov, D D; Somova, R sh; Nasibullin, T R

    2015-01-01

    The allele and genotype frequency distribution at polymorphic loci rs3892097 (184G>A) of CYP2D6 gene, rs776746 (6986A>G) of the CYP3A5 gene and rs2740574 (-392A>G) of the CYP3A4 gene in Russians, Tatars, and Bashkirs was examined. Samples were taken from residents of Bashkortostan Republic (1240 men and women aged from 20 to 109 years and consisted of 443 Russians, 517 Tatars, and 280 Bashkirs). Allele identification was conducted using PCR-RFLP or PCR with TaqMan probes. The "nonfunctional" allele rs3892097*A of the CYP2D6 gene was detected in populations of Russians, Tatars, and Bashkirs in 17.2, 9.5, and 7.1% cases, respectively. The rs776746*G allele of the CYP3A5 gene encoding the CYP3A5 isoenzyme with decreased activity was revealed with a frequency of 94.6% in populations of Russians, 94.3% in the Tatar population, and 91.5% in the Bashkir population. The share of the minor allele rs2740574*G of the CYP3A4 was 4.0% in populations of Russians, 0.5% in the Tatar population, and 0.9% in the Bashkir population. It has been previously shown that the rs3892097*A, rs776746*G, and rs2740574*G allele frequencies vary significantly in different world populations. Since allele variants of CYP2D6, CYP3A5, and CYP3A4 genes can play essential role in interindividual and in interethnic differences in the metabolism of many therapeutic agents, the obtained results could be used in the prognosis of pharmacotherapy efficacy in populations of Russians, Tatars, and Bashkirs.

  1. Isolation and identification of intestinal CYP3A inhibitors from cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) using human intestinal microsomes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eunkyung; Sy-Cordero, Arlene; Graf, Tyler N; Brantley, Scott J; Paine, Mary F; Oberlies, Nicholas H

    2011-02-01

    Cranberry juice is used routinely, especially among women and the elderly, to prevent and treat urinary tract infections. These individuals are likely to be taking medications concomitantly with cranberry juice, leading to concern about potential drug-dietary substance interactions, particularly in the intestine, which, along with the liver, is rich in expression of the prominent drug metabolizing enzyme, cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A). Using a systematic in vitro-in vivo approach, a cranberry juice product was identified recently that elicited a pharmacokinetic interaction with the CYP3A probe substrate midazolam in 16 healthy volunteers. Relative to water, cranberry juice inhibited intestinal first-pass midazolam metabolism. In vitro studies were initiated to identify potential enteric CYP3A inhibitors from cranberry via a bioactivity-directed fractionation approach involving dried whole cranberry [Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait. (Ericaceae)], midazolam, and human intestinal microsomes (HIM). Three triterpenes (maslinic acid, corosolic acid, and ursolic acid) were isolated. The inhibitory potency (IC(50)) of maslinic acid, corosolic acid, and ursolic acid was 7.4, 8.8, and < 10 µM, respectively, using HIM as the enzyme source and 2.8, 4.3, and < 10 µM, respectively, using recombinant CYP3A4 as the enzyme source. These in vitro inhibitory potencies, which are within the range of those reported for two CYP3A inhibitory components in grapefruit juice, suggest that these triterpenes may have contributed to the midazolam-cranberry juice interaction observed in the clinical study.

  2. Evaluation of CYP3A4 inhibition and hepatotoxicity using DMSO-treated human hepatoma HuH-7 cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yitong; Flynn, Thomas J; Xia, Menghang; Wiesenfeld, Paddy L; Ferguson, Martine S

    2015-10-01

    A human hepatoma cell line (HuH-7) was evaluated as a metabolically competent cell model to investigate cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) inhibition, induction, and hepatotoxicity. First, CYP3A4 gene expression and activity were determined in HuH-7 cells under three culture conditions: 1-week culture, 3-week culture, or 1 % dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) treatment. HuH-7 cells treated with DMSO for 2 weeks after confluence expressed the highest CYP3A4 gene expression and activity compared to the other two culture conditions. Furthermore, CYP3A4 activity in DMSO-treated HuH-7 cells was compared to that in a human hepatoma cell line (HepG2/C3A) and human bipotent progenitor cell line (HepaRG), which yielded the following ranking: HepaRG > DMSO-treated HuH-7 > HepG2/C3A cells. The effects of three known CYP3A4 inhibitors were evaluated using DMSO-treated HuH-7 cells. CYP3A4 enzyme inhibition in HuH-7 cells was further compared to human recombinant CYP3A4, indicating similar potency for reversible inhibitors (IC 50 within 2.5-fold), but different potency for the irreversible inhibitor. Next, induction of CYP3A4 activity was compared between DMSO-treated HuH-7 and HepaRG cells using two known inducers. DMSO-treated HuH-7 cells yielded minimal CYP3A4 induction compared to that in the HepaRG cells after 48-h treatments. Finally, the cytotoxicity of five known hepatotoxicants was evaluated in DMSO-treated HuH-7, HepG2/C3A, and HepaRG cells, and significant differences in cytotoxic sensitivity were observed. Overall, DMSO-treated HuH-7 cells are a valuable model for medium- or high-throughput screening of chemicals for CYP3A4 inhibition and hepatotoxicity.

  3. Evaluation of CYP3A4 inhibition and hepatotoxicity using DMSO-treated human hepatoma HuH-7 cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yitong; Flynn, Thomas J.; Xia, Menghang; Wiesenfeld, Paddy L.; Ferguson, Martine S.

    2016-01-01

    A human hepatoma cell line (HuH-7) was evaluated as a metabolically competent cell model to investigate cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) inhibition, induction, and hepatotoxicity. First, CYP3A4 gene expression and activity were determined in HuH-7 cells under three culture conditions: 1-week culture, 3-week culture, or 1% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) treatment. HuH-7 cells treated with DMSO for 2 weeks after confluence expressed the highest CYP3A4 gene expression and activity compared to the other two culture conditions. Furthermore, CYP3A4 activity in DMSO-treated HuH-7 cells was compared to that in a human hepatoma cell line (HepG2/C3A) and human bipotent progenitor cell line (HepaRG), which yielded the following ranking: HepaRG > DMSO-treated HuH-7 >> HepG2/C3A cells. The effects of three known CYP3A4 inhibitors were evaluated using DMSO-treated HuH-7 cells. CYP3A4 enzyme inhibition in HuH-7 cells was further compared to human recombinant CYP3A4, indicating similar potency for reversible inhibitors (IC50 within 2.5 fold), but different potency for the irreversible inhibitor. Next, induction of CYP3A4 activity was compared between DMSO-treated HuH-7 and HepaRG cells using two known inducers. DMSO-treated HuH-7 cells yielded minimal CYP3A4 induction compared to that in the HepaRG cells after 48-h treatments. Finally, the cytotoxicity of five known hepatotoxicants was evaluated in DMSO-treated HuH-7 cells, HepG2/C3A, and HepaRG cells, and significant differences in cytotoxic sensitivity were observed. Overall, DMSO-treated HuH-7 cells are a valuable model for medium- or high-throughput screening of chemicals for CYP3A4 inhibition and hepatotoxicity. PMID:26377104

  4. Pivotal Role of P450-P450 Interactions in CYP3A4 Allostery: the Case of α-Naphthoflavone

    PubMed Central

    Davydov, Dmitri R.; Davydova, Nadezhda Y.; Sineva, Elena V.; Kufareva, Irina; Halpert, James R.

    2014-01-01

    SYNOPSIS We investigated the relationship between oligomerization of cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) and its response to α-naphthoflavone (ANF), a prototypical heterotropic activator. Addition of ANF resulted in over a two-fold increase in the rate of CYP3A4-dependent debenzylation of 7-benzyloxy-4-(trifluoromethyl)coumarin (7-BFC) in human liver microsomes (HLM) but failed to produce activation in BD Supersomes™ or Baculosomes® containing recombinant CYP3A4 and NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR). However, incorporation of purified CYP3A4 into Supersomes containing only recombinant CPR reproduced the behavior observed with HLM. The activation in this system was dependent on the surface density of the enzyme. While no activation was detectable at a lipid:P450 (L/P) ratio ≥ 750, it reached 225% at an L/P ratio of 140. To explore the relationship between this effect and CYP3A4 oligomerization we probed P450-P450 interactions with a new technique based on luminescence resonance energy transfer (LRET). The amplitude of LRET in mixed oligomers of the heme protein labeled with donor and acceptor fluorophores exhibited a sigmoidal dependence on the surface density of CYP3A4 in Supersomes. Addition of ANF eliminated this sigmoidal character and increased the degree of oligomerization at low enzyme concentrations. Therefore, the mechanisms of CYP3A4 allostery with ANF involve effector-dependent modulation of P450-P450 interactions. PMID:23651100

  5. Aloe vera juice: IC₅₀ and dual mechanistic inhibition of CYP3A4 and CYP2D6.

    PubMed

    Djuv, Ane; Nilsen, Odd Georg

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the inhibitory potency (IC₅₀ values) of ethanol extracts of two commercially available aloe vera juice (AVJ) products, on CYP3A4 and CYP2D6 activities in vitro and to determine if such inhibitions could be mechanism-based. Recombinant human CYP3A4 and CYP2D6 enzymes were used and the activities were expressed by the metabolism of testosterone and dextromethorphan with ketoconazole and quinidine as positive inhibitor controls, respectively. The formed metabolites were quantified by validated HPLC techniques. Time- and NADPH- dependent inhibition assays were performed to evaluate a possible mechanism-based inhibition. One of the AVJ extracts showed about twice the inhibitory potency towards both CYP enzymes over the other with IC₅₀ values of 8.35 ± 0.72 and 12.5 ± 2.1 mg/mL for CYP3A4 and CYP2D6, respectively. The AVJ was found to exert both CYP mediated and non-CYP mediated inhibition of both CYP3A4 and CYP2D6. This dual mechanistic inhibition, however, seems to be governed by different mechanisms for CYP3A4 and CYP2D6. Estimated IC₅₀ inhibition values indicate no major interference of AVJ with drug metabolism in man, but the dual mechanistic inhibition of both enzymes might be of clinical significance.

  6. Effect of Methamphetamine on Spectral Binding, Ligand Docking and Metabolism of Anti-HIV Drugs with CYP3A4

    PubMed Central

    Ande, Anusha; Wang, Lei; Vaidya, Naveen K.; Li, Weihua; Kumar, Santosh; Kumar, Anil

    2016-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) is the major drug metabolic enzyme, and is involved in the metabolism of antiretroviral drugs, especially protease inhibitors (PIs). This study was undertaken to examine the effect of methamphetamine on the binding and metabolism of PIs with CYP3A4. We showed that methamphetamine exhibits a type I spectral change upon binding to CYP3A4 with δAmax and KD of 0.016±0.001 and 204±18 μM, respectively. Methamphetamine-CYP3A4 docking showed that methamphetamine binds to the heme of CYP3A4 in two modes, both leading to N-demethylation. We then studied the effect of methamphetamine binding on PIs with CYP3A4. Our results showed that methamphetamine alters spectral binding of nelfinavir but not the other type I PIs (lopinavir, atazanavir, tipranavir). The change in spectral binding for nelfinavir was observed at both δAmax (0.004±0.0003 vs. 0.0068±0.0001) and KD (1.42±0.36 vs.2.93±0.08 μM) levels. We further tested effect of methamphetamine on binding of 2 type II PIs; ritonavir and indinavir. Our results showed that methamphetamine alters the ritonavir binding to CYP3A4 by decreasing both the δAmax (0.0038±0.0003 vs. 0.0055±0.0003) and KD (0.043±0.0001 vs. 0.065±0.001 nM), while indinavir showed only reduced KD in presence of methamphetamine (0.086±0.01 vs. 0.174±0.03 nM). Furthermore, LC-MS/MS studies in high CYP3A4 human liver microsomes showed a decrease in the formation of hydroxy ritonavir in the presence of methamphetamine. Finally, CYP3A4 docking with lopinavir and ritonavir in the absence and presence of methamphetamine showed that methamphetamine alters the docking of ritonavir, which is consistent with the results obtained from spectral binding and metabolism studies. Overall, our results demonstrated differential effects of methamphetamine on the binding and metabolism of PIs with CYP3A4. These findings have clinical implication in terms of drug dose adjustment of antiretroviral medication, especially with ritonavir

  7. Effect of Methamphetamine on Spectral Binding, Ligand Docking and Metabolism of Anti-HIV Drugs with CYP3A4.

    PubMed

    Nookala, Anantha R; Li, Junhao; Ande, Anusha; Wang, Lei; Vaidya, Naveen K; Li, Weihua; Kumar, Santosh; Kumar, Anil

    2016-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) is the major drug metabolic enzyme, and is involved in the metabolism of antiretroviral drugs, especially protease inhibitors (PIs). This study was undertaken to examine the effect of methamphetamine on the binding and metabolism of PIs with CYP3A4. We showed that methamphetamine exhibits a type I spectral change upon binding to CYP3A4 with δAmax and KD of 0.016±0.001 and 204±18 μM, respectively. Methamphetamine-CYP3A4 docking showed that methamphetamine binds to the heme of CYP3A4 in two modes, both leading to N-demethylation. We then studied the effect of methamphetamine binding on PIs with CYP3A4. Our results showed that methamphetamine alters spectral binding of nelfinavir but not the other type I PIs (lopinavir, atazanavir, tipranavir). The change in spectral binding for nelfinavir was observed at both δAmax (0.004±0.0003 vs. 0.0068±0.0001) and KD (1.42±0.36 vs.2.93±0.08 μM) levels. We further tested effect of methamphetamine on binding of 2 type II PIs; ritonavir and indinavir. Our results showed that methamphetamine alters the ritonavir binding to CYP3A4 by decreasing both the δAmax (0.0038±0.0003 vs. 0.0055±0.0003) and KD (0.043±0.0001 vs. 0.065±0.001 nM), while indinavir showed only reduced KD in presence of methamphetamine (0.086±0.01 vs. 0.174±0.03 nM). Furthermore, LC-MS/MS studies in high CYP3A4 human liver microsomes showed a decrease in the formation of hydroxy ritonavir in the presence of methamphetamine. Finally, CYP3A4 docking with lopinavir and ritonavir in the absence and presence of methamphetamine showed that methamphetamine alters the docking of ritonavir, which is consistent with the results obtained from spectral binding and metabolism studies. Overall, our results demonstrated differential effects of methamphetamine on the binding and metabolism of PIs with CYP3A4. These findings have clinical implication in terms of drug dose adjustment of antiretroviral medication, especially with ritonavir

  8. Investigating the binding interactions of the anti-Alzheimer's drug donepezil with CYP3A4 and P-glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    McEneny-King, Alanna; Edginton, Andrea N; Rao, Praveen P N

    2015-01-15

    The anti-Alzheimer's agent donepezil is known to bind to the hepatic enzyme CYP3A4, but its relationship with the efflux transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is not as well elucidated. We conducted in vitro inhibition studies of donepezil using human recombinant CYP3A4 and P-gp. These studies show that donepezil is a weak inhibitor of CYP3A4 (IC50=54.68±1.00μM) whereas the reference agent ketoconazole exhibited potent inhibition (CYP3A4 IC50=0.20±0.01μM). P-gp inhibition studies indicate that donepezil exhibits better inhibition relative to CYP3A4 (P-gp EC50=34.85±4.63μM) although it was less potent compared to ketoconazole (P-gp EC50=9.74±1.23μM). At higher concentrations, donepezil exhibited significant inhibition of CYP3A4 (69%, 84% and 87% inhibition at 100, 250 and 500μM, respectively). This indicates its potential to cause drug-drug interactions with other CYP3A4 substrates upon co-administration; however, this scenario is unlikely in vivo due to the low therapeutic concentrations of donepezil. Similarly, donepezil co-administration with P-gp substrates or inhibitors is unlikely to result in beneficial or adverse drug interactions. The molecular docking studies show that the 5,6-dimethoxyindan-1-one moiety of donepezil was oriented closer to the heme center in CYP3A4 whereas in the P-gp binding site, the protonated benzylpiperidine pharmacophore of donepezil played a major role in its binding ability. Energy parameters indicate that donepezil complex with both CYP3A4 and P-gp was less stable (CDOCKER energies=-15.05 and -4.91kcal/mol, respectively) compared to the ketoconazole-CYP3A4 and P-gp complex (CDOCKER energies=-41.89 and -20.03kcal/mol, respectively).

  9. Milk thistle's active components silybin and isosilybin: novel inhibitors of PXR-mediated CYP3A4 induction.

    PubMed

    Mooiman, Kim D; Maas-Bakker, Roel F; Moret, Ed E; Beijnen, Jos H; Schellens, Jan H M; Meijerman, Irma

    2013-08-01

    Because cancer is often treated with combination therapy, unexpected pharmacological effects can occur because of drug-drug interactions. Several drugs are able to cause upregulation or downregulation of drug transporters or cytochrome P450 enzymes, particularly CYP3A4. Induction of CYP3A4 may result in decreased plasma levels and therapeutic efficacy of anticancer drugs. Since the pregnane X receptor (PXR) is one of the major transcriptional regulators of CYP3A4, PXR antagonists can possibly prevent CYP3A4 induction. Currently, a limited number of PXR antagonists are available. Some of these antagonists, such as sulphoraphane and coumestrol, belong to the so-called complementary and alternative medicines (CAM). Therefore, the aim was to determine the potential of selected CAM (β-carotene, Echinacea purpurea, garlic, Ginkgo biloba, ginseng, grape seed, green tea, milk thistle, saw palmetto, valerian, St. John's Wort, and vitamins B6, B12, and C) to inhibit PXR-mediated CYP3A4 induction at the transcriptional level, using a reporter gene assay and a real-time polymerase chain reaction assay in LS180 colon adenocarcinoma cells. Furthermore, computational molecular docking and a LanthaScreen time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer (TR-FRET) PXR competitive binding assay were performed to explore whether the inhibiting CAM components interact with PXR. The results demonstrated that milk thistle is a strong inhibitor of PXR-mediated CYP3A4 induction. The components of milk thistle responsible for this effect were identified as silybin and isosilybin. Furthermore, computational molecular docking revealed a strong interaction between both silybin and isosilybin and PXR, which was confirmed in the TR-FRET PXR assay. In conclusion, silybin and isosilybin might be suitable candidates to design potent PXR antagonists to prevent drug-drug interactions via CYP3A4 in cancer patients.

  10. Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium (CPIC) Guidelines for CYP3A5 Genotype and Tacrolimus Dosing

    PubMed Central

    Birdwell, Kelly A.; Decker, Brian; Barbarino, Julia M.; Peterson, Josh F.; Stein, C. Michael; Sadee, Wolfgang; Wang, Danxin; Vinks, Alexander A.; He, Yijing; Swen, Jesse J.; Leeder, J. Steven; van Schaik, RHN; Thummel, Kenneth E.; Klein, Teri E.; Caudle, Kelly E.; MacPhee, Iain A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Tacrolimus is the mainstay immunosuppressant drug used after solid organ and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Individuals who express CYP3A5 (extensive and intermediate metabolizers) generally have decreased dose-adjusted trough concentrations of tacrolimus as compared to those who are CYP3A5 non-expressers (poor metabolizers), possibly delaying achievement of target blood concentrations. We summarize evidence from the published literature supporting this association and provide dosing recommendations for tacrolimus based on CYP3A5 genotype when known (updates at www.pharmgkb.org). PMID:25801146

  11. Unexpected contribution of cytochrome P450 enzymes CYP11B2 and CYP21, as well as CYP3A4 in xenobiotic androgen elimination - insights from metandienone metabolism.

    PubMed

    Parr, Maria Kristina; Zöllner, Andy; Fusshöller, Gregor; Opfermann, Georg; Schlörer, Nils; Zorio, Mirela; Bureik, Matthias; Schänzer, Wilhelm

    2012-09-18

    The metabolism of a variety of anabolic steroids frequently misused for doping purposes has been investigated in the last years. This research mainly focused on main and long-term metabolites suitable for detection, but detailed clearance mechanisms have rarely been elucidated. Recent studies on metandienone focused on the identification of 17β-hydroxymethyl-17α-methyl-18-norandrosta-1,4,13-trien-3-one (20βOH-NorMD) as long-term metabolite, however, the metabolic pathway of its generation remained unclear. Metandienone and its Wagner-Meerwein rearrangement product 17,17-dimethyl-18-norandrosta-1,4,13-trien-3-one (NorMD) were hydroxylated by different human cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYPs). Some of their hydroxylation products were chemically synthesized and characterized by mass spectrometry to allow for their trace detection in urine samples. Following oral administration of metandienone or NorMD in one human volunteer each the post administration urines were checked for the presence of those hydroxylated metabolites using GC-MS/MS analysis. The human mitochondrial steroid hydroxylating enzymes CYP11B1 and CYP11B2 were capable to metabolize metandienone leading to the formation of 11β-hydroxymetandienone and 18-hydroxymetandienone. Following Wagner-Meerwein rearrangement, the resulting products could be assigned to 20βOH-NorMD and 11βOH-NorMD. The contribution of CYP11B1 and CYP11B2 in human metabolism of metandienone was confirmed by analysis of post-administration samples of metandienone and NorMD. Combined with the results from a previous study, enzymatic pathways were identified that involve CYP21 and CYP3A4 in the hydroxylation of NorMD, while CYP21, CYP3A4 and CYP11B2 take part in 20βOH-NorMD generation from MD. The current study represents a valuable contribution to the elucidation of clearance mechanisms of anabolic steroids and also indicates that mainly non-liver CYPs seem to be involved in these processes. PMID:22885098

  12. Genomewide Association Study of Tacrolimus Concentrations in African American Kidney Transplant Recipients Identifies Multiple CYP3A5 Alleles

    PubMed Central

    Oetting, W. S.; Schladt, D. P.; Guan, W.; Miller, M. B.; Remmel, R. P.; Dorr, C.; Sanghavi, K.; Mannon, R. B.; Herrera, B.; Matas, A. J.; Salomon, D. R.; Kwok, P.-Y.; Keating, B. J.; Israni, A. K.; Jacobson, P. A.

    2016-01-01

    We previously reported that tacrolimus (TAC) trough blood concentrations for African American (AA) kidney allograft recipients were lower than those observed in white patients. Subtherapeutic TAC troughs may be associated with acute rejection (AR) and AR-associated allograft failure. This variation in TAC troughs is due, in part, to differences in the frequency of the cytochrome P450 CYP3A5*3 allele (rs776746, expresses nonfunctional enzyme) between white and AA recipients; however, even after accounting for this variant, variability in AA-associated troughs is significant. We conducted a genomewide association study of TAC troughs in AA kidney allograft recipients to search for additional genetic variation. We identified two additional CYP3A5 variants in AA recipients independently associated with TAC troughs: CYP3A5*6 (rs10264272) and CYP3A5*7 (rs41303343). All three variants and clinical factors account for 53.9% of the observed variance in troughs, with 19.8% of the variance coming from demographic and clinical factors including recipient age, glomerular filtration rate, anti-cytomegalovirus drug use, simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplant and antibody induction. There was no evidence of common genetic variants in AA recipients significantly influencing TAC troughs aside from the CYP3A gene. These results reveal that additional and possibly rare functional variants exist that account for the additional variation. PMID:26485092

  13. CYP3A4 drug interactions: correlation of 10 in vitro probe substrates

    PubMed Central

    Kenworthy, K E; Bloomer, J C; Clarke, S E; Houston, J B

    1999-01-01

    Aims Many substrates of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 are used for in vitro investigations of drug metabolism and potential drug–drug interactions. The aim of the present study was to determine the relationship between 10 commonly used CYP3A4 probes using modifiers with a range of inhibitory potency. Methods The effects of 34 compounds on CYP3A4-mediated metabolism were investigated in a recombinant CYP3A4 expression system. Inhibition of erythromycin, dextromethorphan and diazepam N-demethylation, testosterone 6β-hydroxylation, midazolam 1-hydroxylation, triazolam 4-hydroxylation, nifedipine oxidation, cyclosporin oxidation, terfenadine C-hydroxylation and N-dealkylation and benzyloxyresorufin O-dealkylation was evaluated at the apparent Km or S50 (for substrates showing sigmoidicity) value for each substrate and at an inhibitor concentration of 30 μm. Results While all CYP3A4 probe substrates demonstrate some degree of similarity, examination of the coefficients of determination, together with difference and cluster analysis highlighted that seven substrates can be categorized into two distinct substrate groups. Erythromycin, cyclosporin and testosterone form the most closely related group and dextromethorphan, diazepam, midazolam and triazolam form a second group. Terfenadine can be equally well placed in either group, while nifedipine shows a distinctly different relationship. Benzyloxyresorufin shows the weakest correlation with all the other CYP3A4 probes. Modifiers that caused negligible inhibition or potent inhibition are generally comparable in all assays, however, the greatest variability is apparent with compounds causing, on average, intermediate inhibition. Modifiers of this type may cause substantial inhibition, no effect or even activation depending on the substrate employed. Conclusions It is recommended that multiple CYP3A4 probes, representing each substrate group, are used for the in vitro assessment of CYP3A4-mediated drug interactions. PMID

  14. A comparative study of CYP3A4 polymorphisms in Mexican Amerindian and Mestizo populations.

    PubMed

    Reyes-Hernández, Octavio D; Lares-Asseff, Ismael; Sosa-Macias, Martha; Vega, Libia; Albores, Arnulfo; Elizondo, Guillermo

    2008-01-01

    Cytochrome P-450 3A4 (CYP3A4) contributes to the metabolism of approximately half the drugs in clinical use today. The aim of the present study was to determine the frequency of the CYP3A4*1B, *2, *4, *5, and *18 alleles amongst both Tepehuan Amerindians, a native group that has inhabited northern Mexico for thousands of years, and Mestizo Mexicans, and to compare the data with those of other populations. Genotyping experiments revealed that 8.8 and 8.0% of the Mestizo and Tepehuano subjects, respectively, carried the CYP3A4*1B allele. Only one Mestizo subject was heterozygous for the CYP3A4*2 variant, while CYP3A4*4, *5 and *18 allelic variants were not detected in either group. On the other hand, the frequencies of the CYP3A4*1B variant in Mestizos and Tepehuanos were similar to those reported for Caucasians, but different from those observed for African and Asian populations.

  15. Transient inhibition of cyp3a in rats by star fruit juice.

    PubMed

    Hidaka, Muneaki; Okumura, Manabu; Ogikubo, Tetsuya; Kai, Hirofumi; Fujita, Ken-ichi; Iwakiri, Tomomi; Yamasaki, Keishi; Setoguchi, Nao; Matsunaga, Naoya; Arimori, Kazuhiko

    2006-03-01

    Star fruit juice is a potent in vitro inhibitor of CYP3A; however, few reports are available on the inhibition of CYP3A activities by star fruit juice in vivo. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the CYP3A-mediated star fruit-drug interaction in vivo. The effect of star fruit juice on carbamazepine pharmacokinetics was examined in rats. In comparison with water, the area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) of carbamazepine was approximately 1.3-fold greater when star fruit juice (2 ml) was orally administered 1 h before the oral administration of carbamazepine (50 mg/kg). In contrast, the elimination half-life of carbamazepine and the AUC ratio of carbamazepine 10,11-epoxide to carbamazepine were not altered by the administration of star fruit juice. These results suggest that star fruit juice impairs the function of enteric CYP3A, but not of hepatic CYP3A. In addition, we evaluated the time course of recovery of CYP3A activity that was reduced after the treatment with star fruit juice. The inhibition by star fruit juice was recovered within approximately 24 h. These data suggest that the effect of star fruit juice is mainly reversible and transient. Thus, we discovered that star fruit juice alters the carbamazepine pharmacokinetics in rats.

  16. Oxidase uncoupling in heme monooxygenases: Human cytochrome P450 CYP3A4 in Nanodiscs

    SciTech Connect

    Grinkova, Yelena V.; Denisov, Ilia G.; McLean, Mark A.; Sligar, Stephen G.

    2013-01-25

    reconstituted in Nanodiscs. We discovered that the “oxidase” uncoupling pathway is also operating in the substrate free form of the enzyme with rate of this pathway substantially increasing with the first substrate binding event. Surprisingly, a large fraction of the reducing equivalents used by the P450 system is wasted in this oxidase pathway. In addition, the overall coupling with testosterone and bromocryptine as substrates is significantly higher in the presence of anionic lipids, which is attributed to the changes in the redox potential of CYP3A4 and reductase.

  17. Cytochrome P450 Allele CYP3A7*1C Associates with Adverse Outcomes in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia, Breast, and Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Nichola; De Ieso, Paolo; Migliorini, Gabriele; Orr, Nick; Broderick, Peter; Catovsky, Daniel; Matakidou, Athena; Eisen, Timothy; Goldsmith, Christy; Dudbridge, Frank; Peto, Julian; Dos-Santos-Silva, Isabel; Ashworth, Alan; Ross, Gillian; Houlston, Richard S; Fletcher, Olivia

    2016-03-15

    CYP3A enzymes metabolize endogenous hormones and chemotherapeutic agents used to treat cancer, thereby potentially affecting drug effectiveness. Here, we refined the genetic basis underlying the functional effects of a CYP3A haplotype on urinary estrone glucuronide (E1G) levels and tested for an association between CYP3A genotype and outcome in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), breast, or lung cancers. The most significantly associated SNP was rs45446698, an SNP that tags the CYP3A7*1C allele; this SNP was associated with a 54% decrease in urinary E1G levels. Genotyping this SNP in 1,008 breast cancer, 1,128 lung cancer, and 347 CLL patients, we found that rs45446698 was associated with breast cancer mortality (HR, 1.74; P = 0.03), all-cause mortality in lung cancer patients (HR, 1.43; P = 0.009), and CLL progression (HR, 1.62; P = 0.03). We also found borderline evidence of a statistical interaction between the CYP3A7*1C allele, treatment of patients with a cytotoxic agent that is a CYP3A substrate, and clinical outcome (Pinteraction = 0.06). The CYP3A7*1C allele, which results in adult expression of the fetal CYP3A7 gene, is likely to be the functional allele influencing levels of circulating endogenous sex hormones and outcome in these various malignancies. Further studies confirming these associations and determining the mechanism by which CYP3A7*1C influences outcome are required. One possibility is that standard chemotherapy regimens that include CYP3A substrates may not be optimal for the approximately 8% of cancer patients who are CYP3A7*1C carriers. PMID:26964624

  18. Cytochrome P450 allele CYP3A7*1C associates with adverse outcomes in chronic lymphocytic leukemia, breast and lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Orr, Nick; Broderick, Peter; Catovsky, Daniel; Matakidou, Athena; Eisen, Timothy; Goldsmith, Christy; Dudbridge, Frank; Peto, Julian; dos-Santos-Silva, Isabel; Ashworth, Alan; Ross, Gillian; Houlston, Richard S; Fletcher, Olivia

    2016-01-01

    CYP3A enzymes metabolize endogenous hormones and chemotherapeutic agents used to treat cancer, thereby potentially impacting drug effectiveness. Here we refined the genetic basis underlying the functional effects of a CYP3A haplotype on urinary estrone glucuronide (E1G) levels and tested for an association between CYP3A genotype and outcome in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), breast, or lung cancers. The most significantly associated single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) was rs45446698, a SNP that tags the CYP3A7*1C allele; this SNP was associated with a 54% decrease in urinary E1G levels. Genotyping this SNP in 1,008 breast cancer, 1,128 lung cancer, and 347 CLL patients, we found that rs45446698 was associated with breast cancer mortality (hazard ratio [HR]=1.74, P=0.03), all-cause mortality in lung cancer patients (HR=1.43, P=0.009), and CLL progression (HR=1.62, P=0.03). We also found borderline evidence of a statistical interaction between the CYP3A7*1C allele, treatment of patients with a cytotoxic agent that is a CYP3A substrate and clinical outcome (Pinteraction=0.06). The CYP3A7*1C allele, which results in adult expression of the fetal CYP3A7 gene, is likely to be the functional allele influencing levels of circulating endogenous sex hormones and outcome in these various malignancies. Further studies confirming these associations and determining the mechanism by which CYP3A7*1C influences outcome are required. One possibility is that standard chemotherapy regimens that include CYP3A substrates may not be optimal for the approximately 8% of cancer patients who are CYP3A7*1C carriers. PMID:26964624

  19. Labeled content of two furanocoumarins in dietary supplements correlates with neither actual content nor CYP3A inhibitory activity.

    PubMed

    VanderMolen, Karen M; Ainslie, Garrett R; Paine, Mary F; Oberlies, Nicholas H

    2014-09-01

    Dietary supplements are a multi-billion dollar business, with yearly profit increases. Allegedly safe, these supplements are marketed to a variety of niches, encompassing claims from immune support to weight loss. Six sports nutrition supplements were acquired that were labeled to contain the furanocoumarin(s) bergamottin and/or 6',7'-dihydroxybergamottin (DHB), both of which are potent irreversible inhibitors of the prominent drug metabolizing enzyme cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A). Both furanocoumarins are typically present in grapefruit juice, which has been shown to inhibit intestinal CYP3A, perpetrating an increase in the systemic exposure of certain concomitant 'victim' drugs. The acquired supplements were analyzed using ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to both a photodiode array (PDA) detector and a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer (MS). Contrary to the product labeling, four of the supplements contained no detectable quantities of either furanocoumarin (LOD 0.060μg/capsule), while two of the supplements contained minimal amounts (one contained 12.13 (±0.23) μg bergamottin and 65.51 (±0.64) μg DHB per capsule; the other contained 2.705 (±0.069) μg bergamottin per capsule and no detectable quantities of DHB). A CYP3A inhibition bioassay was used to assess whether the actual content of the furanocoumarins correlated with CYP3A inhibitory activity. Despite the low amounts of bergamottin and DHB, CYP3A inhibition by the supplements was greater than could be accounted for by the two furanocoumarins. The additional activity suggests the presence of other potent or highly abundant CYP3A inhibitors.

  20. Labeled Content of Two Furanocoumarins in Dietary Supplements Correlates with neither Actual Content nor CYP3A Inhibitory Activity

    PubMed Central

    VanderMolen, Karen M.; Ainslie, Garrett R.; Paine, Mary F.; Oberlies, Nicholas H.

    2014-01-01

    Dietary supplements are a multi-billion dollar business, with yearly profit increases. Allegedly safe, these supplements are marketed to a variety of niches, encompassing claims from immune support to weight loss. Six sports nutrition supplements were acquired that were labeled to contain the furanocoumarin(s) bergamottin and/or 6′,7′-dihydroxybergamottin (DHB), both of which are potent irreversible inhibitors of the prominent drug metabolizing enzyme cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A). Both furanocoumarins are typically present in grapefruit juice, which has been shown to inhibit intestinal CYP3A, perpetrating an increase in the systemic exposure of certain concomitant ‘victim’ drugs. The acquired supplements were analyzed using ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to both a photodiode array (PDA) detector and a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer (MS). Contrary to the product labeling, four of the supplements contained no detectable quantities of either furanocoumarin (LOD 0.060 μg/capsule), while two of the supplements contained minimal amounts (one contained 12.13 (± 0.23) μg bergamottin and 65.51 (± 0.64) μg DHB per capsule; the other contained 2.705 (± 0.069) μg bergamottin per capsule and no detectable quantities of DHB). A CYP3A inhibition bioassay was used to assess whether the actual content of the furanocoumarins correlated with CYP3A inhibitory activity. Despite the low amounts of bergamottin and DHB, CYP3A inhibition by the supplements was greater than could be accounted for by the two furanocoumarins. The additional activity suggests the presence of other potent or highly abundant CYP3A inhibitors. PMID:24951959

  1. Regulation of CYP3A4 by pregnane X receptor: The role of nuclear receptors competing for response element binding

    SciTech Connect

    Istrate, Monica A.; Nussler, Andreas K.; Eichelbaum, Michel; Burk, Oliver

    2010-03-19

    Induction of the major drug metabolizing enzyme CYP3A4 by xenobiotics contributes to the pronounced interindividual variability of its expression and often results in clinically relevant drug-drug interactions. It is mainly mediated by PXR, which regulates CYP3A4 expression by binding to several specific elements in the 5' upstream regulatory region of the gene. Induction itself shows a marked interindividual variability, whose underlying determinants are only partly understood. In this study, we investigated the role of nuclear receptor binding to PXR response elements in CYP3A4, as a potential non-genetic mechanism contributing to interindividual variability of induction. By in vitro DNA binding experiments, we showed that several nuclear receptors bind efficiently to the proximal promoter ER6 and distal xenobiotic-responsive enhancer module DR3 motifs. TR{alpha}1, TR{beta}1, COUP-TFI, and COUP-TFII further demonstrated dose-dependent repression of PXR-mediated CYP3A4 enhancer/promoter reporter activity in transient transfection in the presence and absence of the PXR inducer rifampin, while VDR showed this effect only in the absence of treatment. By combining functional in vitro characterization with hepatic expression analysis, we predict that TR{alpha}1, TR{beta}1, COUP-TFI, and COUP-TFII show a strong potential for the repression of PXR-mediated activation of CYP3A4 in vivo. In summary, our results demonstrate that nuclear receptor binding to PXR response elements interferes with PXR-mediated expression and induction of CYP3A4 and thereby contributes to the interindividual variability of induction.

  2. Indirubin, a component of Ban-Lan-Gen, activates CYP3A4 gene transcription through the human pregnane X receptor.

    PubMed

    Kumagai, Takeshi; Aratsu, Yusuke; Sugawara, Ryosuke; Sasaki, Takamitsu; Miyairi, Shinichi; Nagata, Kiyoshi

    2016-04-01

    Ban-Lan-Gen is the common name for the dried roots of indigo plants, including Polygonum tinctorium, Isatis indigotica, Isatis tinctoria, and Strobilanthes cusia. Ban-Lan-Gen is frequently used as an anti-inflammatory and an anti-viral for the treatment of hepatitis, influenza, and various types of inflammation. One of the cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes, CYP3A4, is responsible for the metabolism of a wide variety of xenobiotics, including an estimated 60% of all clinically used drugs. In this study, we investigated the effect of Ban-Lan-Gen on the transcriptional activation of the CYP3A4 gene. Ban-Lan-Gen extract increased CYP3A4 gene reporter activity in a dose-dependent manner. Indirubin, one of the biologically active ingredients in the Ban-Lan-Gen, also dose-dependently increased CYP3A4 gene reporter activity. Expression of short hairpin RNA for the human pregnane X receptor (hPXR-shRNA) inhibited CYP3A4 gene reporter activity, and overexpression of human PXR increased indirubin- and rifampicin-induced CYP3A4 gene reporter activity. Furthermore, indirubin induced CYP3A4 mRNA expression in HepG2 cells. Taken together, these results indicate that indirubin, a component of Ban-Lan-Gen, activated CYP3A4 gene transcription through the activation of the human PXR. PMID:26987505

  3. Indirubin, a component of Ban-Lan-Gen, activates CYP3A4 gene transcription through the human pregnane X receptor.

    PubMed

    Kumagai, Takeshi; Aratsu, Yusuke; Sugawara, Ryosuke; Sasaki, Takamitsu; Miyairi, Shinichi; Nagata, Kiyoshi

    2016-04-01

    Ban-Lan-Gen is the common name for the dried roots of indigo plants, including Polygonum tinctorium, Isatis indigotica, Isatis tinctoria, and Strobilanthes cusia. Ban-Lan-Gen is frequently used as an anti-inflammatory and an anti-viral for the treatment of hepatitis, influenza, and various types of inflammation. One of the cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes, CYP3A4, is responsible for the metabolism of a wide variety of xenobiotics, including an estimated 60% of all clinically used drugs. In this study, we investigated the effect of Ban-Lan-Gen on the transcriptional activation of the CYP3A4 gene. Ban-Lan-Gen extract increased CYP3A4 gene reporter activity in a dose-dependent manner. Indirubin, one of the biologically active ingredients in the Ban-Lan-Gen, also dose-dependently increased CYP3A4 gene reporter activity. Expression of short hairpin RNA for the human pregnane X receptor (hPXR-shRNA) inhibited CYP3A4 gene reporter activity, and overexpression of human PXR increased indirubin- and rifampicin-induced CYP3A4 gene reporter activity. Furthermore, indirubin induced CYP3A4 mRNA expression in HepG2 cells. Taken together, these results indicate that indirubin, a component of Ban-Lan-Gen, activated CYP3A4 gene transcription through the activation of the human PXR.

  4. Dual effects of ketoconazole cis-enantiomers on CYP3A4 in human hepatocytes and HepG2 Cells.

    PubMed

    Novotná, Aneta; Krasulová, Kristýna; Bartoňková, Iveta; Korhoňová, Martina; Bachleda, Petr; Anzenbacher, Pavel; Dvořák, Zdeněk

    2014-01-01

    Antifungal drug ketoconazole causes severe drug-drug interactions by influencing gene expression and catalytic activity of major drug-metabolizing enzyme cytochrome P450 CYP3A4. Ketoconazole is administered in the form of racemic mixture of two cis-enantiomers, i.e. (+)-ketoconazole and (-)-ketoconazole. Many enantiopure drugs were introduced to human pharmacotherapy in last two decades. In the current paper, we have examined the effects of ketoconazole cis-enantiomers on the expression of CYP3A4 in human hepatocytes and HepG2 cells and on catalytic activity of CYP3A4 in human liver microsomes. We show that both ketoconazole enantiomers induce CYP3A4 mRNA and protein in human hepatocytes and HepG2 cells. Gene reporter assays revealed partial agonist activity of ketoconazole enantiomers towards pregnane X receptor PXR. Catalytic activity of CYP3A4/5 towards two prototypic substrates of CYP3A enzymes, testosterone and midazolam, was determined in presence of both (+)-ketoconazole and (-)-ketoconazole in human liver microsomes. Overall, both ketoconazole cis-enantiomers induced CYP3A4 in human cells and inhibited CYP3A4 in human liver microsomes. While interaction of ketoconazole with PXR and induction of CYP3A4 did not display enantiospecific pattern, inhibition of CYP3A4 catalytic activity by ketoconazole differed for ketoconazole cis-enantiomers ((+)-ketoconazole IC₅₀ 1.69 µM, Ki 0.92 µM for testosterone, IC₅₀ 1.46 µM, Ki 2.52 µM for midazolam; (-)-ketoconazole IC₅₀ 0.90 µM, Ki 0.17 µM for testosterone, IC₅₀ 1.04 µM, Ki 1.51 µM for midazolam).

  5. Effects of Commonly Used Excipients on the Expression of CYP3A4 in Colon and Liver Cells

    PubMed Central

    Tompkins, Leslie; Lynch, Caitlin; Haidar, Sam; Polli, James; Wang, Hongbing

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The objective of this investigation was to assess whether common pharmaceutical excipients regulate the expression of drug-metabolizing enzymes in human colon and liver cells. Methods Nineteen commonly used excipients were evaluated using a panel of experiments including cell-based human PXR activation assays, real-time RT-PCR assays for CYP3A4 mRNA expression, and immunoblot analysis of CYP3A4 protein expression in immortalized human liver cells (HepG2 and Fa2N4), human primary hepatocytes, and the intestinal LS174T cell models. Results No excipient activated human PXR or practically induced CYP3A4. However, three excipients (polysorbate 80, pregelatinized starch, and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose) tended to decrease mRNA and protein expression across experimental models. Conclusion This study represents the first investigation of the potential role of excipients in the expression of drug-metabolizing enzymes. Findings imply that some excipients may hold potential for excipient-drug interactions by repression of CYP3A4 expression. PMID:20503067

  6. Altered CYP2C9 Activity Following Modulation of CYP3A4 Levels in Human Hepatocytes: an Example of Protein-Protein Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Tweedie, Donald J.; Chan, Tom S.; Tracy, Timothy S.

    2014-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 (P450) protein-protein interactions resulting in modulation of enzyme activities have been well documented using recombinant isoforms. This interaction has been less clearly demonstrated in a more physiologic in vitro system such as human hepatocytes. As an expansion of earlier work (Subramanian et al., 2010), in which recombinant CYP2C9 activity decreased with increasing levels of CYP3A4, the current study modulated CYP3A4 content in human hepatocytes to determine the impact on CYP2C9. Modulation of CYP3A4 levels in situ was enabled by the use of a long-term human hepatocyte culture model (HepatoPac) shown to retain phenotypic hepatocyte function over a number of weeks. The extended period of culture allowed time for knockdown of CYP3A4 protein by small interfering RNA (siRNA) with subsequent recovery, as well as upregulation through induction with a recovery period. CYP3A4 gene silencing resulted in a 60% decrease in CYP3A4 activity and protein levels with a concomitant 74% increase in CYP2C9 activity, with no change in CYP2C9 mRNA levels. Upon removal of siRNA, both CYP2C9 and CYP3A4 activities returned to pre-knockdown levels. Importantly, modulation of CYP3A4 protein levels had no impact on cytochrome P450 reductase activities or levels. However, the possibility for competition for limiting reductase cannot be ruled out. Interestingly, lowering CYP3A4 levels also increased UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B7 activity. These studies clearly demonstrate that alterations in CYP3A4 levels can modulate CYP2C9 activity in situ and suggest that further studies are warranted to evaluate the possible clinical consequences of these findings. PMID:25157098

  7. A Semi-Mechanistic Metabolism Model of CYP3A Substrates in Pregnancy: Predicting Changes in Midazolam and Nifedipine Pharmacokinetics

    PubMed Central

    Quinney, S K; Mohamed, A N; Hebert, M F; Haas, D M; Clark, S; Umans, J G; Caritis, S N; Li, L

    2012-01-01

    Physiological changes in pregnancy, including changes in body composition and metabolic enzyme activity, can alter drug pharmacokinetics. A semi-mechanistic metabolism model was developed to describe the pharmacokinetics of two cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A) substrates, midazolam and nifedipine, in obstetrics patients. The model parameters were optimized to fit the data of oral midazolam pharmacokinetics in pregnant women, by increasing CYP3A-induced hepatic metabolism 1.6-fold in the model with no change in gut wall metabolism. Fetal metabolism had a negligible effect on maternal plasma drug concentrations. Validation of the model was performed by applying changes in volume of distribution and metabolism, consistent with those observed for midazolam, to the pharmacokinetics parameters of immediate-release nifedipine in healthy volunteers. The predicted steady-state areas under the concentration–time curve (AUCs) for nifedipine were within 15% of the data observed in pregnant women undergoing treatment for preterm labor. This model predicts the pharmacokinetics of two CYP3A substrates in pregnancy, and may be applicable to other CYP3A substrates as well. PMID:23835882

  8. CYP3A variation and the evolution of salt-sensitivity variants.

    PubMed

    Thompson, E E; Kuttab-Boulos, H; Witonsky, D; Yang, L; Roe, B A; Di Rienzo, A

    2004-12-01

    Members of the cytochrome P450 3A subfamily catalyze the metabolism of endogenous substrates, environmental carcinogens, and clinically important exogenous compounds, such as prescription drugs and therapeutic agents. In particular, the CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 genes play an especially important role in pharmacogenetics, since they metabolize >50% of the drugs on the market. However, known genetic variants at these two loci are not sufficient to account for the observed phenotypic variability in drug response. We used a comparative genomics approach to identify conserved coding and noncoding regions at these genes and resequenced them in three ethnically diverse human populations. We show that remarkable interpopulation differences exist with regard to frequency spectrum and haplotype structure. The non-African samples are characterized by a marked excess of rare variants and the presence of a homogeneous group of long-range haplotypes at high frequency. The CYP3A5*1/*3 polymorphism, which is likely to influence salt and water retention and risk for salt-sensitive hypertension, was genotyped in >1,000 individuals from 52 worldwide population samples. The results reveal an unusual geographic pattern whereby the CYP3A5*3 frequency shows extreme variation across human populations and is significantly correlated with distance from the equator. Furthermore, we show that an unlinked variant, AGT M235T, previously implicated in hypertension and pre-eclampsia, exhibits a similar geographic distribution and is significantly correlated in frequency with CYP3A5*1/*3. Taken together, these results suggest that variants that influence salt homeostasis were the targets of a shared selective pressure that resulted from an environmental variable correlated with latitude.

  9. Effects of pomegranate juice on human cytochrome p450 3A (CYP3A) and carbamazepine pharmacokinetics in rats.

    PubMed

    Hidaka, Muneaki; Okumura, Manabu; Fujita, Ken-Ichi; Ogikubo, Tetsuya; Yamasaki, Keishi; Iwakiri, Tomomi; Setoguchi, Nao; Arimori, Kazuhiko

    2005-05-01

    In this study, we investigated whether components of pomegranate could inhibit CYP3A-mediated drug metabolism. The ability of pomegranate to inhibit the carbamazepine 10,11-epoxidase activity of CYP3A was examined using human liver microsomes, and pomegranate juice was shown to be a potent inhibitor of human CYP3A. Addition of 25 microl (5.0% v/v) of pomegranate juice resulted in almost complete inhibition of the carbamazepine 10,11-epoxidase activity of human CYP3A (1.8%). The inhibition potency of pomegranate juice was similar to that of grapefruit juice. In addition, we investigated the in vivo interaction between pomegranate juice and carbamazepine pharmacokinetics using rats. In comparison with water, the area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) of carbamazepine was approximately 1.5-fold higher when pomegranate juice (2 ml) was orally injected 1 h before the oral administration of the carbamazepine (50 mg/kg). On the other hand, the elimination half-life of carbamazepine and the AUC ratio of carbamazepine 10,11-epoxide to carbamazepine were not altered by the injection of pomegranate juice. These data suggest that pomegranate juice component(s) impairs the function of enteric but not hepatic CYP3A. Thus, we discovered that a component(s) of pomegranate inhibits the human CYP3A-mediated metabolism of carbamazepine. Furthermore, pomegranate juice alters the carbamazepine pharmacokinetics in rats.

  10. Endosulfan induces CYP2B6 and CYP3A4 by activating the pregnane X receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Casabar, Richard C.T.; Das, Parikshit C.; DeKrey, Gregory K.; Gardiner, Catherine S.; Cao Yan; Rose, Randy L.; Wallace, Andrew D.

    2010-06-15

    Endosulfan is an organochlorine pesticide commonly used in agriculture. Endosulfan has affects on vertebrate xenobiotic metabolism pathways that may be mediated, in part, by its ability to activate the pregnane X receptor (PXR) and/or the constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) which can elevate expression of cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes. This study examined the dose-dependency and receptor specificity of CYP induction in vitro and in vivo. The HepG2 cell line was transiently transfected with CYP2B6- and CYP3A4-luciferase promoter reporter plasmids along with human PXR (hPXR) or hCAR expression vectors. In the presence of hPXR, endosulfan-alpha exposure caused significant induction of CYP2B6 (16-fold) and CYP3A4 (11-fold) promoter activities over control at 10 {mu}M. The metabolite endosulfan sulfate also induced CYP2B6 (12-fold) and CYP3A4 (6-fold) promoter activities over control at 10 {mu}M. In the presence of hCAR-3, endosulfan-alpha induced CYP2B6 (2-fold) promoter activity at 10 {mu}M, but not at lower concentrations. These data indicate that endosulfan-alpha significantly activates hPXR strongly and hCAR weakly. Using western blot analysis of human hepatocytes, the lowest concentrations at which CYP2B6 and CYP3A4 protein levels were found to be significantly elevated by endosulfan-alpha were 1.0 {mu}M and 10 {mu}M, respectively. In mPXR-null/hPXR-transgenic mice, endosulfan-alpha exposure (2.5 mg/kg/day) caused a significant reduction of tribromoethanol-induced sleep times by approximately 50%, whereas no significant change in sleep times was observed in PXR-null mice. These data support the role of endosulfan-alpha as a strong activator of PXR and inducer of CYP2B6 and CYP3A4, which may impact metabolism of CYP2B6 or CYP3A4 substrates.

  11. Substrate-specific modulation of CYP3A4 activity by genetic variants of cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR)

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Vishal; Choi, Ji Ha; Giacomini, Kathleen M.; Miller, Walter L.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives CYP3A4 receives electrons from P450 oxidoreductase (POR) to metabolize about 50% of clinically used drugs. There is substantial inter-individual variation in CYP3A4 catalytic activity that is not explained by CYP3A4 genetic variants. CYP3A4 is flexible and distensible, permitting it to accommodate substrates varying in shape and size. To elucidate mechanisms of variability in CYP3A4 catalysis, we examined the effects of genetic variants of POR, and explored the possibility that substrate-induced conformational changes in CYP3A4 differentially affect the ability of POR variants to support catalysis. Methods We expressed human CYP3A4 and four POR variants (Q153R, A287P, R457H, A503V) in bacteria, reconstituted them in vitro and measured the Michaelis constant and maximum velocity with testosterone, midazolam, quinidine and erythromycin as substrates. Results POR A287P and R457H had low activity with all substrates; Q153R had 76–94% of wild type (WT) activity with midazolam and erythromycin, but 129–150% activity with testosterone and quinidine. The A503V polymorphism reduced CYP3A4 activity to 61–77% of wild type with testosterone and midazolam, but had nearly wild type activity with quinidine and erythromycin. Conclusion POR variants affect CYP3A4 activities. The impact of a POR variant on catalysis by CYP3A4 is substrate-specific, probably due to substrate-induced conformational changes in CYP3A4. PMID:20697309

  12. Hemopericardium with tamponade following rivaroxaban administration and its attenuation by CYP3A4 inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Menendez, Denisse

    2016-01-01

    Novel oral anticoagulants including the factor Xa inhibitor rivaroxaban are important alternatives to warfarin for the prevention of thromboembolic stroke in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation. The pharmacology and metabolism of these agents differ from those of the vitamin K antagonists used over the decades preceding their introduction. We present a case of spontaneous hemopericardium and cardiac tamponade following administration of rivaroxaban. A review of the patient's medications revealed a total of seven agents known to be metabolized through cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4), the major pathway for rivaroxaban metabolism. While most physicians are familiar with recommendations to monitor renal function in patients prescribed rivaroxaban, we suspect that many fail to evaluate possible interactions with other agents having CYP3A4 inhibitory or inducer activity. PMID:27695181

  13. Hemopericardium with tamponade following rivaroxaban administration and its attenuation by CYP3A4 inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Menendez, Denisse

    2016-01-01

    Novel oral anticoagulants including the factor Xa inhibitor rivaroxaban are important alternatives to warfarin for the prevention of thromboembolic stroke in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation. The pharmacology and metabolism of these agents differ from those of the vitamin K antagonists used over the decades preceding their introduction. We present a case of spontaneous hemopericardium and cardiac tamponade following administration of rivaroxaban. A review of the patient's medications revealed a total of seven agents known to be metabolized through cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4), the major pathway for rivaroxaban metabolism. While most physicians are familiar with recommendations to monitor renal function in patients prescribed rivaroxaban, we suspect that many fail to evaluate possible interactions with other agents having CYP3A4 inhibitory or inducer activity.

  14. Inhibition of heme oxygenase-1 partially reverses the arsenite-mediated decrease of CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP3A23, and CYP3A2 catalytic activity in isolated rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Anwar-Mohamed, Anwar; Klotz, Lars-Oliver; El-Kadi, Ayman O S

    2012-03-01

    Heme oxygenase (HO-1), the rate-limiting enzyme in the physiological breakdown of heme, is ubiquitous, and its expression can be increased by arsenite [As(III)], and similar other stimuli that induce cellular oxidative stress. Interestingly, it has been shown that the As(III)-induced HO-1 is inversely correlated with a decrease in cytochromes P450 (P450s) activity; however, the direct role for HO-1 in the inhibition of P450 enzymes remains unknown. Our results showed that As(III) at a concentration of 5 μM decreased the constitutive and inducible expression of CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP3A23, and CYP3A2 at the mRNA, protein, and catalytic activity levels. Moreover, As(III) decreased the nuclear accumulation of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and pregnane X receptor without increasing their degradation. As(III) also increased the binding of cytosolic AhR to heat shock protein 90 and hepatitis B virus X-associated protein 2. In the presence of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin as an inducer for CYP1A and rifampin as an inducer for CYP3A, As(III) decreased the enzymatic activity of the four P450s more than it decreased their mRNA or protein expression levels. It is noteworthy that treatment with the competitive HO-1 inhibitor, tin-mesoporphyrin, or supplementing external heme partially reversed the As(III)-mediated decrease in activities of the four P450s. In conclusion, the current study provides the first evidence that As(III) decreases CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP3A23, and CYP3A2 expression in freshly isolated rat primary hepatocytes. Furthermore, inhibiting the As(III)-mediated induction of HO-1 partially restores the enzymatic activity of these P450s that was initially decreased by As(III), confirming the direct role of HO-1 in the inhibition of P450s.

  15. GW4064, an Agonist of Farnesoid X Receptor, Represses CYP3A4 Expression in Human Hepatocytes by Inducing Small Heterodimer Partner Expression

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shu; Pan, Xian

    2015-01-01

    Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) functions as a regulator of bile acid and lipid homeostasis and is recognized as a promising therapeutic target for metabolic diseases. The biologic function of FXR is mediated in part by a small heterodimer partner (SHP); ligand-activated FXR enhances SHP expression, and SHP in turn represses the activity of multiple transcription factors. This study aimed to investigate the effect of FXR activation on expression of the major drug-metabolizing enzyme CYP3A4. The effects of 3-(2,6-dichlorophenyl)-4-(3′-carboxy-2-chlorostilben-4-yl)oxymethyl-5-isopropylisoxazole (GW4064), a synthetic agonist of FXR, on the expression and activity of CYP3A4 were examined in primary human hepatocytes by using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and S9 phenotyping. In human hepatocytes, treatment of GW4064 (1 μM) for 48 hours resulted in a 75% decrease in CYP3A4 mRNA expression and a 25% decrease in CYP3A4 activity, accompanied by ∼3-fold increase in SHP mRNA expression. In HepG2 cells, SHP repressed transactivation of CYP3A4 promoter by pregnane X receptor (PXR), constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), and glucocorticoid receptor. Interestingly, GW4064 did not repress expression of CYP2B6, another target gene of PXR and CAR; GW4064 enhanced CYP2B6 promoter activity. In conclusion, GW4064 represses CYP3A4 expression in human hepatocytes, potentially through upregulation of SHP expression and subsequent repression of CYP3A4 promoter activity. Clinically significant drug-drug interaction involving FXR agonists and CYP3A4 substrates may occur. PMID:25725071

  16. GW4064, an agonist of farnesoid X receptor, represses CYP3A4 expression in human hepatocytes by inducing small heterodimer partner expression.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shu; Pan, Xian; Jeong, Hyunyoung

    2015-05-01

    Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) functions as a regulator of bile acid and lipid homeostasis and is recognized as a promising therapeutic target for metabolic diseases. The biologic function of FXR is mediated in part by a small heterodimer partner (SHP); ligand-activated FXR enhances SHP expression, and SHP in turn represses the activity of multiple transcription factors. This study aimed to investigate the effect of FXR activation on expression of the major drug-metabolizing enzyme CYP3A4. The effects of 3-(2,6-dichlorophenyl)-4-(3'-carboxy-2-chlorostilben-4-yl)oxymethyl-5-isopropylisoxazole (GW4064), a synthetic agonist of FXR, on the expression and activity of CYP3A4 were examined in primary human hepatocytes by using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and S9 phenotyping. In human hepatocytes, treatment of GW4064 (1 μM) for 48 hours resulted in a 75% decrease in CYP3A4 mRNA expression and a 25% decrease in CYP3A4 activity, accompanied by ∼3-fold increase in SHP mRNA expression. In HepG2 cells, SHP repressed transactivation of CYP3A4 promoter by pregnane X receptor (PXR), constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), and glucocorticoid receptor. Interestingly, GW4064 did not repress expression of CYP2B6, another target gene of PXR and CAR; GW4064 enhanced CYP2B6 promoter activity. In conclusion, GW4064 represses CYP3A4 expression in human hepatocytes, potentially through upregulation of SHP expression and subsequent repression of CYP3A4 promoter activity. Clinically significant drug-drug interaction involving FXR agonists and CYP3A4 substrates may occur.

  17. PXR-Mediated Upregulation of CYP3A Expression by Herb Compound Praeruptorin C from Peucedanum praeruptorum Dunn

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ling; Wu, Qian; Li, Yu-Hua; Wang, Yi-Tao; Bi, Hui-Chang

    2013-01-01

    We recently reported that Praeruptorin C effectively transactivated the mRNA, protein expression, and catalytic activity of CYP3A4 via the CAR-mediated pathway, but whether and how PC could affect the expression and catalytic activity of CYP3A4 via PXR pathway remains unknown. Therefore, in this study, the effect of PC on the CYP3A gene expression was investigated in mice primary hepatocytes after knockdown of PXR by transient transfection of PXR siRNA, and the gene expression, protein expression, and catalytic activity of CYP3A4 in the LS174T cells with PXR overexpression were determined by real-time PCR, western blot analysis, and LC-MS/MS-based CYP3A4 substrate assay, respectively. We found that the level of CYP3a11 gene expression in mouse primary hepatocytes was significantly increased by praeruptorin C, but such an induction was suppressed after knockdown of pregnane X receptor by its siRNA. In PXR-overexpressed LS174T cells, PC significantly enhanced CYP3A4 mRNA, protein expression, and functional activity through PXR-mediated pathway; conversely, no such increase was found in the untransfected cells. These findings suggest that PC can significantly upregulate CYP3A level via the PXR-mediated pathway, and this should be taken into consideration to predict any potential herb-drug interactions between PC, Qianhu, and the other coadministered drugs. PMID:24379885

  18. Effect of proteasome inhibition on toxicity and CYP3A23 induction in cultured rat hepatocytes: Comparison with arsenite

    SciTech Connect

    Noreault-Conti, Trisha L.; Jacobs, Judith M.; Trask, Heidi W.; Wrighton, Steven A.; Sinclair, Jacqueline F.; Nichols, Ralph C. . E-mail: ralph.c.nichols@dartmouth.edu

    2006-12-15

    Previous work in our laboratory has shown that acute exposure of primary rat hepatocyte cultures to non-toxic concentrations of arsenite causes major decreases in the DEX-mediated induction of CYP3A23 protein, with minor decreases in CYP3A23 mRNA. To elucidate the mechanism for these effects of arsenite, the effects of arsenite and proteasome inhibition, separately and in combination, on induction of CYP3A23 protein were compared. The proteasome inhibitor, MG132, inhibited proteasome activity, but also decreased CYP3A23 mRNA and protein. Lactacystin, another proteasome inhibitor, decreased CYP3A23 protein without affecting CYP3A23 mRNA at a concentration that effectively inhibited proteasome activity. This result, suggesting that the action of lactacystin is similar to arsenite and was post-transcriptional, was confirmed by the finding that lactacystin decreased association of DEX-induced CYP3A23 mRNA with polyribosomes. Both MG132 and lactacystin inhibited total protein synthesis, but did not affect MTT reduction. Arsenite had no effect on ubiquitination of proteins, nor did arsenite significantly affect proteasomal activity. These results suggest that arsenite and lactacystin act by similar mechanisms to inhibit translation of CYP3A23.

  19. Evidence of CYP3A Allosterism In Vivo: Analysis of Fluconazole and Midazolam Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jing; Atkins, William M.; Isoherranen, Nina; Paine, Mary F.; Thummel, Kenneth E.

    2013-01-01

    The allosteric effect of fluconazole (effector) on the formation of 1’-hydroxymidazolam (1’-OH-MDZ) and 4-hydroxymidazolam (4-OH-MDZ) from the CYP3A4/5 substrate, midazolam (MDZ), was examined in healthy volunteers. Following pre-treatment of fluconazole, AUC4-OH/AUCMDZ increased 35–62%, while AUC1’-OH/AUCMDZ decreased 5–37%; AUC1’-OH/AUC4-OH ratio decreased 46–58% by fluconazole and had no association with CYP3A5 genotype. 1’-OH-MDZ formation in vitro was more susceptible than 4-OH-MDZ formation to inhibition by fluconazole. Fluconazole decreased the intrinsic formation clearance ratio of 1’-OH-MDZ/4-OH-MDZ to an extent that was quantitatively comparable to in vivo observations. The elimination clearance of midazolam metabolites appeared unaffected by fluconazole. This study demonstrated that fluconazole alters midazolam product formation both in vivo and in vitro in a manner consistent with an allosteric interaction. The 1'-OH-MDZ/4-OH-MDZ ratio may serve as a biomarker of such interactions between midazolam, CYP3A4/5 and other putative effectors. PMID:22048224

  20. Diindolylmethane, a naturally occurring compound, induces CYP3A4 and MDR1 gene expression by activating human PXR

    PubMed Central

    Pondugula, Satyanarayana R.; Flannery, Patrick C.; Abbott, Kodye L.; Coleman, Elaine S.; Mani, Sridhar; Samuel, Temesgen; Xie, Wen

    2015-01-01

    Activation of human pregnane X receptor (hPXR)-regulated expression of cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) and multidrug resistance protein 1 (MDR1) plays an important role in mediating adverse drug interactions. Given the common use of natural products as part of adjunct human health behavior, there is a growing concern about natural products for their potential to induce undesired drug interactions through the activation of hPXR-regulated CYP3A4 and MDR1. Here, we studied whether 3,3′-diindolylmethane (DIM), a natural health supplement, could induce hPXR-mediated regulation of CYP3A4 and MDR1 in human hepatocytes and intestinal cells. DIM, at its physiologically relevant concentrations, not only induced hPXR transactivation of CYP3A4 promoter activity but also induced gene expression of CYP3A4 and MDR1. DIM decreased intracellular accumulation of MDR1 substrate rhodamine 123, suggesting that DIM induces the functional expression of MDR1. Pharmacologic inhibition or genetic knockdown of hPXR resulted in attenuation of DIM induced CYP3A4 and MDR1 gene expression, suggesting that DIM induces CYP3A4 and MDR1 in an hPXR-dependent manner. Together, these results support our conclusion that DIM induces hPXR-regulated CYP3A4 and MDR1 gene expression. The inductive effects of DIM on CYP3A4 and MDR1 expression caution the use of DIM in conjunction with other medications metabolized and transported via CYP3A4 and MDR1, respectively. PMID:25542144

  1. A Fibroblast Growth Factor 21-Pregnane X Receptor Pathway Downregulates Hepatic CYP3A4 in Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

    PubMed

    Woolsey, Sarah J; Beaton, Melanie D; Mansell, Sara E; Leon-Ponte, Matilde; Yu, Janice; Pin, Christopher L; Adams, Paul C; Kim, Richard B; Tirona, Rommel G

    2016-10-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) alters drug response. We previously reported that NAFLD is associated with reduced in vivo CYP3A drug-metabolism activity and hepatic CYP3A4 expression in humans as well as mouse and human hepatoma models of the disease. Here, we investigated the role of the lipid- and glucose-modulating hormone fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) in the molecular mechanism regulating CYP3A4 expression in NAFLD. In human subjects, mouse and cellular NAFLD models with lower CYP3A4 expression, circulating FGF21, or hepatic FGF21 mRNA levels were elevated. Administration of recombinant FGF21 or transient hepatic overexpression of FGF21 resulted in reduced liver CYP3A4 luciferase reporter activity in mice and decreased CYP3A4 mRNA expression and activity in cultured Huh7 hepatoma cells. Blocking canonical FGF21 signaling by pharmacological inhibition of MEK1 kinase in Huh7 cells caused de-repression of CYP3A4 mRNA expression with FGF21 treatment. Mice with high-fat diet-induced simple hepatic steatosis and lipid-loaded Huh7 cells had reduced nuclear localization of the pregnane X receptor (PXR), a key transcriptional regulator of CYP3A4 Furthermore, decreased nuclear PXR was observed in mouse liver and Huh7 cells after FGF21 treatment or FGF21 overexpression. Decreased PXR binding to the CYP3A4 proximal promoter was found in FGF21-treated Huh7 cells. An FGF21-PXR signaling pathway may be involved in decreased hepatic CYP3A4 metabolic activity in NAFLD. PMID:27482056

  2. Time-dependent inhibition of CYP3A4 by gallic acid in human liver microsomes and recombinant systems.

    PubMed

    Pu, Qiang-Hong; Shi, Liang; Yu, Chao

    2015-03-01

    1.Gallic acid is a main polyphenol in various fruits and plants. Inhibitory characteristics of gallic acid on CYP3A4 were still unclear. The objective of this work is hence to investigate inhibitory characteristics of gallic acid on CYP3A4 using testosterone as the probe substrate in human liver microsomes (HLMs) and recombinant CYP3A4 (rCYP3A4) systems. 2.Gallic acid caused concentration-dependent loss of CYP3A4 activity with IC50 values of 615.2 μM and 669.5 μM in HLM and rCYP3A4 systems, respectively. IC50-shift experiments showed that pre-incubation with gallic acid in the absence of NADPH contributed to 12- or 14-fold reduction of IC50 in HLM and rCYP3A4 systems, respectively, supporting a time-dependent inhibition. In HLM, time-dependent inactivation variables KI and Kinact were 485.8 μM and 0.05 min(-1), respectively. 3.Compared with the presence of NADPH, pre-incubation of gallic acid in the absence of NADPH markedly increased its inhibitory effects in HLM and rCYP3A4 systems. Those results indicate that CYP3A4 inactivation by gallic acid was independent on NADPH and was mainly mediated its oxidative products. 4.In conclusion, we showed that gallic acid weakly and time-dependently inactivated CYP3A4 via its oxidative products.

  3. A Fibroblast Growth Factor 21-Pregnane X Receptor Pathway Downregulates Hepatic CYP3A4 in Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

    PubMed

    Woolsey, Sarah J; Beaton, Melanie D; Mansell, Sara E; Leon-Ponte, Matilde; Yu, Janice; Pin, Christopher L; Adams, Paul C; Kim, Richard B; Tirona, Rommel G

    2016-10-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) alters drug response. We previously reported that NAFLD is associated with reduced in vivo CYP3A drug-metabolism activity and hepatic CYP3A4 expression in humans as well as mouse and human hepatoma models of the disease. Here, we investigated the role of the lipid- and glucose-modulating hormone fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) in the molecular mechanism regulating CYP3A4 expression in NAFLD. In human subjects, mouse and cellular NAFLD models with lower CYP3A4 expression, circulating FGF21, or hepatic FGF21 mRNA levels were elevated. Administration of recombinant FGF21 or transient hepatic overexpression of FGF21 resulted in reduced liver CYP3A4 luciferase reporter activity in mice and decreased CYP3A4 mRNA expression and activity in cultured Huh7 hepatoma cells. Blocking canonical FGF21 signaling by pharmacological inhibition of MEK1 kinase in Huh7 cells caused de-repression of CYP3A4 mRNA expression with FGF21 treatment. Mice with high-fat diet-induced simple hepatic steatosis and lipid-loaded Huh7 cells had reduced nuclear localization of the pregnane X receptor (PXR), a key transcriptional regulator of CYP3A4 Furthermore, decreased nuclear PXR was observed in mouse liver and Huh7 cells after FGF21 treatment or FGF21 overexpression. Decreased PXR binding to the CYP3A4 proximal promoter was found in FGF21-treated Huh7 cells. An FGF21-PXR signaling pathway may be involved in decreased hepatic CYP3A4 metabolic activity in NAFLD.

  4. Cobicistat (GS-9350): A Potent and Selective Inhibitor of Human CYP3A as a Novel Pharmacoenhancer

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Cobicistat (3, GS-9350) is a newly discovered, potent, and selective inhibitor of human cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A) enzymes. In contrast to ritonavir, 3 is devoid of anti-HIV activity and is thus more suitable for use in boosting anti-HIV drugs without risking selection of potential drug-resistant HIV variants. Compound 3 shows reduced liability for drug interactions and may have potential improvements in tolerability over ritonavir. In addition, 3 has high aqueous solubility and can be readily coformulated with other agents. PMID:24900196

  5. Investigation of CYP3A4 and CYP2D6 Interactions of Withania somnifera and Centella asiatica in Human Liver Microsomes.

    PubMed

    Savai, Jay; Varghese, Alice; Pandita, Nancy; Chintamaneni, Meena

    2015-05-01

    Withania somnifera is commonly used as a rejuvenator, whereas Centella asiatica is well known for its anxiolytic and nootropic effects. The present study aims at investigating the effect of crude extracts and principal phytoconstituents of both the medicinal plants with CYP3A4 and CYP2D6 enzyme activity in human liver microsomes (HLM). Phytoconstituents were quantified in the crude extracts of both the medicinal plants using reverse phase HPLC. Crude extracts and phytoconstituents of W. somnifera showed no significant interaction with both CYP3A4 and CYP2D6 enzymes in HLM. Of the crude extracts of C. asiatica screened in vitro, methanolic extract showed potent noncompetitive inhibition of only CYP3A4 enzyme (Ki-64.36 ± 1.82 µg/mL), whereas ethanol solution extract showed potent noncompetitive inhibition of only CYP2D6 enzyme (Ki-36.3 ± 0.44 µg/mL). The flavonoids, quercetin, and kaempferol showed potent (IC50 values less than 100 μM) inhibition of CYP3A4 activity, whereas quercetin alone showed potent inhibition of CYP2D6 activity in HLM. Because methanolic extract of C. asiatica showed a relatively high percentage content of quercetin and kaempferol than ethanol solution extract, the inhibitory effect of methanolic extract on CYP3A4 enzyme activity could be attributed to the flavonoids. Thus, co-administration of the alcoholic extracts of C. asiatica with drugs that are substrates of CYP3A4 and CYP2D6 enzymes may lead to undesirable herb-drug interactions in humans.

  6. Size and surface modification of amorphous silica particles determine their effects on the activity of human CYP3A4 in vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imai, Shunji; Yoshioka, Yasuo; Morishita, Yuki; Yoshida, Tokuyuki; Uji, Miyuki; Nagano, Kazuya; Mukai, Yohei; Kamada, Haruhiko; Tsunoda, Shin-ichi; Higashisaka, Kazuma; Tsutsumi, Yasuo

    2014-12-01

    Because of their useful chemical and physical properties, nanomaterials are widely used around the world - for example, as additives in food and medicines - and such uses are expected to become more prevalent in the future. Therefore, collecting information about the effects of nanomaterials on metabolic enzymes is important. Here, we examined the effects of amorphous silica particles with various sizes and surface modifications on cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) activity by means of two different in vitro assays. Silica nanoparticles with diameters of 30 and 70 nm (nSP30 and nSP70, respectively) tended to inhibit CYP3A4 activity in human liver microsomes (HLMs), but the inhibitory activity of both types of nanoparticles was decreased by carboxyl modification. In contrast, amine-modified nSP70 activated CYP3A4 activity. In HepG2 cells, nSP30 inhibited CYP3A4 activity more strongly than the larger silica particles did. Taken together, these results suggest that the size and surface characteristics of the silica particles determined their effects on CYP3A4 activity and that it may be possible to develop silica particles that do not have undesirable effects on metabolic enzymes by altering their size and surface characteristics.

  7. Augmented Inhibition of CYP3A4 in Human Primary Hepatocytes by Ritonavir Solid Drug Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Martin, Philip; Giardiello, Marco; McDonald, Tom O; Smith, Darren; Siccardi, Marco; Rannard, Steven P; Owen, Andrew

    2015-10-01

    Ritonavir is a protease inhibitor utilized primarily as a pharmaco-enhancer with concomitantly administered antiviral drugs including other protease inhibitors. However, poor tolerance, serious side effects, and toxicities associated with drug-drug interactions are common during exposure to ritonavir. The aim of this work was to investigate the impact of nanoformulation on ritonavir pharmacological properties. Emulsion-templated freeze-drying techniques were used to generate ritonavir (10 wt %) solid drug nanoparticle formulations. A total of 68 ritonavir formulations containing various mixtures of excipients were assessed for inhibition of CYP3A4 in baculosomes and primary human hepatocytes. Accumulation and cytotoxicity were assessed in HepG2 (hepatocytes), Caco-2 (intestinal), THP-1 (monocytes), A-THP-1 (macrophage), and CEM (lymphocytes). Transcellular permeation across Caco-2 cells was also assessed. From 68 solid drug nanoparticle formulations tested, 50 (73.5%) for baculosome and 44 (64.7%) for human primary hepatocytes exhibited enhanced CYP3A4 inhibition relative to an aqueous ritonavir solution. Sixty-one (89.7%) and 49 (72%) solid drug nanoformulations had higher apical to basal permeation across Caco-2 cells than aqueous solution of ritonavir after 60 and 120 min, respectively. No significant difference in cellular accumulation was observed for any solid drug nanoparticle for any cell type compared to aqueous ritonavir. However, incubation with the vast majority of solid drug nanoparticle formulations resulted in lower cytotoxicity of ritonavir than detected with an aqueous solution. These data provide in vitro proof of concept for improved inhibition of CYP3A4 by ritonavir through formation of solid drug nanoparticles. Nanodispersions also showed enhanced permeability across Caco-2 cells lower cytotoxicity across hepatic, intestinal, and immune cell types compared to an aqueous solution of ritonavir.

  8. The influence of standardized Valeriana officinalis extract on the CYP3A1 gene expression by nuclear receptors in in vivo model.

    PubMed

    Bogacz, Anna; Mrozikiewicz, Przemyslaw M; Karasiewicz, Monika; Bartkowiak-Wieczorek, Joanna; Majchrzycki, Marian; Mikolajczak, Przemyslaw L; Ozarowski, Marcin; Grzeskowiak, Edmund

    2014-01-01

    Valeriana officinalis is one of the most popular medicinal plants commonly used as a sedative and sleep aid. It is suggested that its pharmacologically active compounds derived from the root may modulate the CYP3A4 gene expression by activation of pregnane X receptor (PXR) or constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) and lead to pharmacokinetic herb-drug interactions. The aim of the study was to determine the influence of valerian on the expression level of CYP3A1 (homologue to human CYP3A4) as well as nuclear receptors PXR, CAR, RXR, GR, and HNF-4α. Male Wistar rats were given standardized valerian extract (300 mg/kg/day, p.o.) for 3 and 10 days. The expression in liver tissue was analyzed by using real-time PCR. Our result showed a decrease of CYP3A1 expression level by 35% (P = 0.248) and 37% (P < 0.001), respectively. Moreover, Valeriana exhibited statistically significant reduction in RXR (approximately 28%) only after 3-day treatment. We also demonstrated a decrease in the amount HNF-4α by 22% (P = 0.005) and 32% (P = 0.012), respectively. In case of CAR, the increase of expression level by 46% (P = 0.023) was noted. These findings suggest that Valeriana officinalis extract can decrease the CYP3A4 expression and therefore may lead to interactions with synthetic drugs metabolized by this enzyme. PMID:25302309

  9. Reductive metabolism of oxymatrine is catalyzed by microsomal CYP3A4

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wenqin; Shi, Jian; Zhu, Lijun; Dong, Lingna; Luo, Feifei; Zhao, Min; Wang, Ying; Hu, Ming; Lu, Linlin; Liu, Zhongqiu

    2015-01-01

    Oxymatrine (OMT) is a pharmacologically active primary quinolizidine alkaloid with various beneficial and toxic effects. It is confirmed that, after oral administration, OMT could be transformed to the more toxic metabolite matrine (MT), and this process may be through the reduction reaction, but the study on the characteristics of this transformation is limited. The aim of this study was to investigate the characteristics of this transformation of OMT in the human liver microsomes (HLMs) and human intestinal microsomes (HIMs) and the cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoforms involved in this transformation. The current studies demonstrated that OMT could be metabolized to MT rapidly in HLMs and HIMs and CYP3A4 greatly contributed to this transformation. All HLMs, HIMs, and CYP3A4 isoform mediated reduction reaction followed typical biphasic kinetic model, and Km, Vmax, and CL were significant higher in HLMs than those in HIMs. Importantly, different oxygen contents could significantly affect the metabolism of OMT, and with the oxygen content decreased, the formation of metabolite was increased, suggesting this transformation was very likely a reduction reaction. Results of this in vitro study elucidated the metabolic pathways and characteristics of metabolism of OMT to MT and would provide a theoretical basis and guidance for the safe application of OMT. PMID:26586934

  10. Effect of brivaracetam on CYP3A activity, measured by oral midazolam.

    PubMed

    Stockis, Armel; Watanabe, Shikiko; Scheen, André J

    2015-05-01

    Brivaracetam is a synaptic vesicle protein 2A ligand in phase III development for epilepsy. A phase I, open-label, randomized study was conducted in 42 healthy male participants to assess the effect of brivaracetam on CYP3A activity using midazolam as a probe. Participants were randomized to oral brivaracetam 5, 50, or 150 mg/day from Day 8 to Day 14. A single oral dose (7.5 mg) of midazolam was administered on Days 1, 13, and 20, and full pharmacokinetic profiles were obtained. For all brivaracetam doses, the areas under the plasma concentration-time curves from 0 to infinity (AUCinf ) for midazolam and 1'-hydroxymidazolam were similar on Days 13 and 20 compared with Day 1. Following brivaracetam 150 mg/day, the Day 13/Day 1 AUCinf ratio (90% confidence interval) was 1.09 (0.97, 1.21) and 1.04 (0.93, 1.17) for midazolam and 1'-hydroxymidazolam, respectively. For the Day 20/Day 1 comparison, the corresponding AUCinf ratios were 1.10 (0.98, 1.23) and 1.07 (0.97, 1.18). Maximum midazolam plasma concentration was increased on both Day 13 and Day 20 vs. Day 1 but the relevance of this finding was unclear. This study indicates that brivaracetam up to 150 mg/day has no significant inducing or inhibiting effect on CYP3A activity.

  11. CYP3A5 mediates basal and acquired therapy resistance in different subtypes of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Noll, Elisa M.; Eisen, Christian; Stenzinger, Albrecht; Espinet, Elisa; Muckenhuber, Alexander; Klein, Corinna; Vogel, Vanessa; Klaus, Bernd; Nadler, Wiebke; Rösli, Christoph; Lutz, Christian; Kulke, Michael; Engelhardt, Jan; Zickgraf, Franziska M.; Espinosa, Octavio; Schlesner, Matthias; Jiang, Xiaoqi; Kopp-Schneider, Annette; Neuhaus, Peter; Bahra, Marcus; Sinn, Bruno V.; Eils, Roland; Giese, Nathalia A.; Hackert, Thilo; Strobel, Oliver; Werner, Jens; Büchler, Markus W.; Weichert, Wilko; Trumpp, Andreas; Sprick, Martin R.

    2016-01-01

    Although subtypes of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) were described, this malignancy is clinically still treated as a single disease. Here, we present patient-derived models representing the full spectrum of previously identified quasi-mesenchymal (QM-PDA), classical and exocrine-like PDAC subtypes, and identify two markers—HNF1A and KRT81—that enable stratification of tumors into different subtypes by immunohistochemistry. Individuals bearing tumors of these subtypes show significant differences in overall survival and their tumors differ in drug sensitivity, with the exocrine-like subtype being resistant to tyrosine kinase inhibitors and paclitaxel. Cytochrome P450 3A5 (CYP3A5) metabolizes these compounds in tumors of the exocrine-like subtype, and pharmacological or shRNA-mediated CYP3A5 inhibition sensitizes tumor cells to these drugs. Whereas hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 alpha (HNF4A) controls basal expression of CYP3A5, drug-induced CYP3A5 upregulation is mediated by the nuclear receptor NR1I2. CYP3A5 also contributes to acquired drug resistance in QM-PDA and classical PDAC, and is highly expressed in several additional malignancies. These findings designate CYP3A5 as predictor of therapy response and as a tumor cell-autonomous detoxification mechanism that must be overcome to prevent drug resistance. PMID:26855150

  12. CYP3A5 mediates basal and acquired therapy resistance in different subtypes of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Noll, Elisa M; Eisen, Christian; Stenzinger, Albrecht; Espinet, Elisa; Muckenhuber, Alexander; Klein, Corinna; Vogel, Vanessa; Klaus, Bernd; Nadler, Wiebke; Rösli, Christoph; Lutz, Christian; Kulke, Michael; Engelhardt, Jan; Zickgraf, Franziska M; Espinosa, Octavio; Schlesner, Matthias; Jiang, Xiaoqi; Kopp-Schneider, Annette; Neuhaus, Peter; Bahra, Marcus; Sinn, Bruno V; Eils, Roland; Giese, Nathalia A; Hackert, Thilo; Strobel, Oliver; Werner, Jens; Büchler, Markus W; Weichert, Wilko; Trumpp, Andreas; Sprick, Martin R

    2016-03-01

    Although subtypes of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) have been described, this malignancy is clinically still treated as a single disease. Here we present patient-derived models representing the full spectrum of previously identified quasi-mesenchymal (QM-PDA), classical and exocrine-like PDAC subtypes, and identify two markers--HNF1A and KRT81--that enable stratification of tumors into different subtypes by using immunohistochemistry. Individuals with tumors of these subtypes showed substantial differences in overall survival, and their tumors differed in drug sensitivity, with the exocrine-like subtype being resistant to tyrosine kinase inhibitors and paclitaxel. Cytochrome P450 3A5 (CYP3A5) metabolizes these compounds in tumors of the exocrine-like subtype, and pharmacological or short hairpin RNA (shRNA)-mediated CYP3A5 inhibition sensitizes tumor cells to these drugs. Whereas hepatocyte nuclear factor 4, alpha (HNF4A) controls basal expression of CYP3A5, drug-induced CYP3A5 upregulation is mediated by the nuclear receptor NR1I2. CYP3A5 also contributes to acquired drug resistance in QM-PDA and classical PDAC, and it is highly expressed in several additional malignancies. These findings designate CYP3A5 as a predictor of therapy response and as a tumor cell-autonomous detoxification mechanism that must be overcome to prevent drug resistance. PMID:26855150

  13. Polymorphisms in the cytochrome P450 genes CYP1A2, CYP1B1, CYP3A4, CYP3A5, CYP11A1, CYP17A1, CYP19A1 and colorectal cancer risk

    PubMed Central

    Bethke, Lara; Webb, Emily; Sellick, Gabrielle; Rudd, Matthew; Penegar, Stephen; Withey, Laura; Qureshi, Mobshra; Houlston, Richard

    2007-01-01

    Background Cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes have the potential to affect colorectal cancer (CRC) risk by determining the genotoxic impact of exogenous carcinogens and levels of sex hormones. Methods To investigate if common variants of CYP1A2, CYP1B1, CYP3A4, CYP3A5, CYP11A1, CYP17A1 and CYP19A1 influence CRC risk we genotyped 2,575 CRC cases and 2,707 controls for 20 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that have not previously been shown to have functional consequence within these genes. Results There was a suggestion of increased risk, albeit insignificant after correction for multiple testing, of CRC for individuals homozygous for CYP1B1 rs162558 and heterozygous for CYP1A2 rs2069522 (odds ratio [OR] = 1.36, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.03–1.80 and OR = 1.34, 95% CI: 1.00–1.79 respectively). Conclusion This study provides some support for polymorphic variation in CYP1A2 and CYP1B1 playing a role in CRC susceptibility. PMID:17615053

  14. Inclusion of CYP3A5 genotyping in a nonparametric population model improves dosing of tacrolimus early after transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Åsberg, Anders; Midtvedt, Karsten; van Guilder, Mike; Størset, Elisabet; Bremer, Sara; Bergan, Stein; Jelliffe, Roger; Hartmann, Anders; Neely, Michael N

    2013-01-01

    Following organ engraftment, initial dosing of tacrolimus is based on recipient weight and adjusted by measured C0 concentrations. The bioavailability and elimination of tacrolimus are affected by the patients CYP3A5 genotype. Prospective data of the clinical advantage of knowing patient's CYP3A5 genotype prior to transplantation are lacking. A nonparametric population model was developed for tacrolimus in renal transplant recipients. Data from 99 patients were used for model development and validation. A three-compartment model with first-order absorption and lag time from the dosing compartment described the data well. Clearances and volumes of distribution were allometrically scaled to body size. The final model included fat-free mass, body mass index, hematocrit, time after transplantation, and CYP3A5 genotype as covariates. The bias and imprecision were 0.35 and 1.38, respectively, in the external data set. Patients with functional CYP3A5 had 26% higher clearance and 37% lower bioavailability. Knowledge of CYP3A5 genotype provided an initial advantage, but only until 3-4 tacrolimus concentrations were known. After this, a model without CYP3A5 genotype predicted just as well. The present models seem applicable for clinical individual dose predictions but need a prospective evaluation. PMID:24118301

  15. The independent contribution of miRNAs to the missing heritability in CYP3A4/5 functionality and the metabolism of atorvastatin

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ju-E; Ren, Bin; Tang, Lan; Tang, Qian-Jie; Liu, Xiao-Ying; Li, Xin; Bai, Xue; Zhong, Wan-Ping; Meng, Jin-Xiu; Lin, Hao-Ming; Wu, Hong; Chen, Ji-Yan; Zhong, Shi-Long

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the independent contribution of miRNAs to the missing heritability in CYP3A4/5 functionality and atorvastatin metabolism, the relationships among three levels of factors, namely (1) clinical characteristics, CYP3A4/5 genotypes, and miRNAs, (2) CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 mRNAs, and (3) CYP3A activity, as well as their individual impacts on atorvastatin metabolism, were assessed in 55 human liver tissues. MiR-27b, miR-206, and CYP3A4 mRNA respectively accounted for 20.0%, 5.8%, and 9.5% of the interindividual variations in CYP3A activity. MiR-142 was an independent contributor to the expressions of CYP3A4 mRNA (partial R2 = 0.12, P = 0.002) and CYP3A5 mRNA (partial R2 = 0.09, P = 0.005) but not CYP3A activity or atorvastatin metabolism. CYP3A activity was a unique independent predictor of variability of atorvastatin metabolism, explaining the majority of the variance in reduction of atorvastatin (60.0%) and formation of ortho-hydroxy atorvastatin (78.8%) and para-hydroxy atorvastatin (83.9%). MiR-27b and miR-206 were found to repress CYP3A4 gene expression and CYP3A activity by directly binding to CYP3A4 3′-UTR, while miR-142 was found to indirectly repress CYP3A activity. Our study indicates that miRNAs play significant roles in bridging the gap between epigenetic effects and missing heritability in CYP3A functionality. PMID:27211076

  16. The independent contribution of miRNAs to the missing heritability in CYP3A4/5 functionality and the metabolism of atorvastatin.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ju-E; Ren, Bin; Tang, Lan; Tang, Qian-Jie; Liu, Xiao-Ying; Li, Xin; Bai, Xue; Zhong, Wan-Ping; Meng, Jin-Xiu; Lin, Hao-Ming; Wu, Hong; Chen, Ji-Yan; Zhong, Shi-Long

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the independent contribution of miRNAs to the missing heritability in CYP3A4/5 functionality and atorvastatin metabolism, the relationships among three levels of factors, namely (1) clinical characteristics, CYP3A4/5 genotypes, and miRNAs, (2) CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 mRNAs, and (3) CYP3A activity, as well as their individual impacts on atorvastatin metabolism, were assessed in 55 human liver tissues. MiR-27b, miR-206, and CYP3A4 mRNA respectively accounted for 20.0%, 5.8%, and 9.5% of the interindividual variations in CYP3A activity. MiR-142 was an independent contributor to the expressions of CYP3A4 mRNA (partial R(2) = 0.12, P = 0.002) and CYP3A5 mRNA (partial R(2) = 0.09, P = 0.005) but not CYP3A activity or atorvastatin metabolism. CYP3A activity was a unique independent predictor of variability of atorvastatin metabolism, explaining the majority of the variance in reduction of atorvastatin (60.0%) and formation of ortho-hydroxy atorvastatin (78.8%) and para-hydroxy atorvastatin (83.9%). MiR-27b and miR-206 were found to repress CYP3A4 gene expression and CYP3A activity by directly binding to CYP3A4 3'-UTR, while miR-142 was found to indirectly repress CYP3A activity. Our study indicates that miRNAs play significant roles in bridging the gap between epigenetic effects and missing heritability in CYP3A functionality. PMID:27211076

  17. Arsenite and its metabolites, MMA{sup III} and DMA{sup III}, modify CYP3A4, PXR and RXR alpha expression in the small intestine of CYP3A4 transgenic mice

    SciTech Connect

    Medina-Diaz, I.M.; Estrada-Muniz, E.; Reyes-Hernandez, O.D.; Ramirez, P.; Vega, L.; Elizondo, G.

    2009-09-01

    Arsenic is an environmental pollutant that has been associated with an increased risk for the development of cancer and several other diseases through alterations of cellular homeostasis and hepatic function. Cytochrome P450 (P450) modification may be one of the factors contributing to these disorders. Several reports have established that exposure to arsenite modifies P450 expression by decreasing or increasing mRNA and protein levels. Cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4), the predominant P450 expressed in the human liver and intestines, which is regulated mainly by the Pregnane X Receptor-Retinoid X Receptor alpha (PXR-RXR alpha) heterodimer, contributes to the metabolism of approximately half the drugs in clinical use today. The present study investigates the effect of sodium arsenite and its metabolites monomethylarsonous acid (MMA{sup III}) and dimethylarsinous acid (DMA{sup III}) on CYP3A4, PXR, and RXR alpha expression in the small intestine of CYP3A4 transgenic mice. Sodium arsenite treatment increases mRNA, protein and CYP3A4 activity in a dose-dependent manner. However, the increase in protein expression was not as marked as compared to the increase in mRNA levels. Arsenite treatment induces the accumulation of Ub-protein conjugates, indicating that the activation of this mechanism may explain the differences observed between the mRNA and protein expression of CYP3A4 induction. Treatment with 0.05 mg/kg of DMA{sup III} induces CYP3A4 in a similar way, while treatment with 0.05 mg/kg of MMA{sup III} increases mostly mRNA, and to a lesser degree, CYP3A4 activity. Sodium arsenite and both its metabolites increase PXR mRNA, while only DMA{sup III} induces RXR alpha expression. Overall, these results suggest that sodium arsenite and its metabolites induce CYP3A4 expression by increasing PXR expression in the small intestine of CYP3A4 transgenic mice.

  18. Association between urinary 6β-hydroxycortisol/cortisol ratio and CYP3A5 genotypes in a normotensive population.

    PubMed

    Rais, Naushad; Hussain, Arif; Chawla, Yogesh Kumar; Kohli, Krishan K

    2013-02-01

    Genetic polymorphism of genes involved in renal salt handling and arterial vessel tone is considered to be one of the causes of hypertension. Numerous reports suggest that cytochrome P4503A5 (CYP3A5) catalyzes 6β-hydroxylation of endogenous cortisol (CS), which is associated with sodium and water retention in the kidney and involved in the regulation of blood pressure. The purpose of the present study was to study the associations of single nucleotide polymorphisms in the CYP3A5 gene with the urinary 6β-hydroxycortisol/cortisol (6β-OH-CS/CS) ratio considered as quantitative phenotypes. CS measurements of three hundred (n=300) healthy, normotensive North Indian individuals was performed on morning spot urine samples by high-performance liquid chromatography. Furthermore, genotyping for CYP3A5*3 and CYP3A5*6 was performed by PCR-RFLP. The results indicated a unimodal distribution of CYP3A phenotypes in the North Indian population. In further analysis, all the phenotypes were distributed into three groups, demonstrating low (n=75), intermediate (n=150) and high CYP3A activity (n=75) based on CS and 6β-OH-CS levels and log 6β-OH-CS/CS ratios. The subjects in the low and high activity groups were genotyped for the CYP3A5*3 and *6 alleles. The present study demonstrated that the allele frequencies of CYP3A5*1 and *3 were 0.29 (95% CI, 0.22-0.36) and 0.71 (95% CI, 0.64-0.78), respectively. Notably, the frequency of normal homozygotes (CYP3A5*1/*1) was significantly higher in the high activity than the low activity group (11% vs. 5%). Similarly, the frequency of mutant homozygotes (CYP3A5*3/*3) was significantly higher in the low activity group than the high activity group (57% vs. 44%). The allele frequency of CYP3A5*3 was significantly higher in the low activity group (0.76) than the high activity group (0.67). The mean 6β-OH-CS/CS ratios were 110, 76 and 69 in wild-type homozygotes (n=12), heterozygotes (n=62) and mutant homozygotes (n=76), respectively. The

  19. Association between urinary 6β-hydroxycortisol/cortisol ratio and CYP3A5 genotypes in a normotensive population

    PubMed Central

    RAIS, NAUSHAD; HUSSAIN, ARIF; CHAWLA, YOGESH KUMAR; KOHLI, KRISHAN K.

    2013-01-01

    Genetic polymorphism of genes involved in renal salt handling and arterial vessel tone is considered to be one of the causes of hypertension. Numerous reports suggest that cytochrome P4503A5 (CYP3A5) catalyzes 6β-hydroxylation of endogenous cortisol (CS), which is associated with sodium and water retention in the kidney and involved in the regulation of blood pressure. The purpose of the present study was to study the associations of single nucleotide polymorphisms in the CYP3A5 gene with the urinary 6β-hydroxycortisol/cortisol (6β-OH-CS/CS) ratio considered as quantitative phenotypes. CS measurements of three hundred (n=300) healthy, normotensive North Indian individuals was performed on morning spot urine samples by high-performance liquid chromatography. Furthermore, genotyping for CYP3A5*3 and CYP3A5*6 was performed by PCR-RFLP. The results indicated a unimodal distribution of CYP3A phenotypes in the North Indian population. In further analysis, all the phenotypes were distributed into three groups, demonstrating low (n=75), intermediate (n=150) and high CYP3A activity (n=75) based on CS and 6β-OH-CS levels and log 6β-OH-CS/CS ratios. The subjects in the low and high activity groups were genotyped for the CYP3A5*3 and *6 alleles. The present study demonstrated that the allele frequencies of CYP3A5*1 and *3 were 0.29 (95% CI, 0.22–0.36) and 0.71 (95% CI, 0.64–0.78), respectively. Notably, the frequency of normal homozygotes (CYP3A5*1/*1) was significantly higher in the high activity than the low activity group (11% vs. 5%). Similarly, the frequency of mutant homozygotes (CYP3A5*3/*3) was significantly higher in the low activity group than the high activity group (57% vs. 44%). The allele frequency of CYP3A5*3 was significantly higher in the low activity group (0.76) than the high activity group (0.67). The mean 6β-OH-CS/CS ratios were 110, 76 and 69 in wild-type homozygotes (n=12), heterozygotes (n=62) and mutant homozygotes (n=76), respectively. The

  20. Rifampicin-activated human pregnane X receptor and CYP3A4 induction enhance acetaminophen-induced toxicity.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jie; Ma, Xiaochao; Krausz, Kristopher W; Idle, Jeffrey R; Gonzalez, Frank J

    2009-08-01

    Acetaminophen (APAP) is safe at therapeutic levels but causes hepatotoxicity via N-acetyl-p-benzoquinone imine-induced oxidative stress upon overdose. To determine the effect of human (h) pregnane X receptor (PXR) activation and CYP3A4 induction on APAP-induced hepatotoxicity, mice humanized for PXR and CYP3A4 (TgCYP3A4/hPXR) were treated with APAP and rifampicin. Human PXR activation and CYP3A4 induction enhanced APAP-induced hepatotoxicity as revealed by hepatic alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities elevated in serum, and hepatic necrosis after coadministration of rifampicin and APAP, compared with APAP administration alone. In contrast, hPXR mice, wild-type mice, and Pxr-null mice exhibited significantly lower ALT/AST levels compared with TgCYP3A4/hPXR mice after APAP administration. Toxicity was coincident with depletion of hepatic glutathione and increased production of hydrogen peroxide, suggesting increased oxidative stress upon hPXR activation. Moreover, mRNA analysis demonstrated that CYP3A4 and other PXR target genes were significantly induced by rifampicin treatment. Urinary metabolomic analysis indicated that cysteine-APAP and its metabolite S-(5-acetylamino-2-hydroxyphenyl)mercaptopyruvic acid were the major contributors to the toxic phenotype. Quantification of plasma APAP metabolites indicated that the APAP dimer formed coincident with increased oxidative stress. In addition, serum metabolomics revealed reduction of lysophosphatidylcholine in the APAP-treated groups. These findings demonstrated that human PXR is involved in regulation of APAP-induced toxicity through CYP3A4-mediated hepatic metabolism of APAP in the presence of PXR ligands.

  1. Co-medication of statins and CYP3A4 inhibitors before and after introduction of new reimbursement policy

    PubMed Central

    Devold, Helene M; Molden, Espen; Skurtveit, Svetlana; Furu, Kari

    2009-01-01

    AIMS To assess the prevalence of co-medication of statins and CYP3A4 inhibitors before and after introduction of a new Norwegian reimbursement policy, which states that all patients should be prescribed simvastatin as first-line lipid-lowering therapy. METHODS Data from patients receiving simvastatin, lovastatin, pravastatin, fluvastatin or atorvastatin in 2004 and 2006, including co-medication of potent CYP3A4 inhibitors, were retrieved from the Norwegian Prescription Database covering the total population of Norway. Key measurements were prevalence of continuous statin use (two or more prescriptions on one statin) and proportions of different statin types among all patients and those co-medicated with CYP3A4 inhibitors. RESULTS In 2004, 5.9% (n = 272 342) of the Norwegian population received two or more prescriptions on one statin compared with 7.0% (n = 324 267) in 2006. The relative number of simvastatin users increased from 39.7% (n = 112 122) in 2004 to 63.1% (n = 226 672) in 2006. A parallel increase was observed within the subpopulation co-medicated with statins and CYP3A4 inhibitors, i.e. from 42.9% (n = 7706) in 2004 to 63.6% (n = 13 367) in 2006. For all other statins the number of overall users decreased to a similar extent to those co-medicated with CYP3A4 inhibitors. CONCLUSIONS In both 2004 and 2006, the choice of statin type did not depend on whether the patient used a CYP3A4 inhibitor or not. Considering the pronounced interaction potential of simvastatin with CYP3A4 inhibitors, a negative influence of the new policy on overall statin safety seems likely. PMID:19220274

  2. Effect of Curcuma longa on CYP2D6- and CYP3A4-mediated metabolism of dextromethorphan in human liver microsomes and healthy human subjects.

    PubMed

    Al-Jenoobi, Fahad Ibrahim; Al-Thukair, Areej A; Alam, Mohd Aftab; Abbas, Fawkeya A; Al-Mohizea, Abdullah M; Alkharfy, Khalid M; Al-Suwayeh, Saleh A

    2015-03-01

    Effect of Curcuma longa rhizome powder and its ethanolic extract on CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 metabolic activity was investigated in vitro using human liver microsomes and clinically in healthy human subjects. Dextromethorphan (DEX) was used as common probe for CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 enzymes. Metabolic activity of CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 was evaluated through in vitro study; where microsomes were incubated with NADPH in presence and absence of Curcuma extract. In clinical study phase-I, six healthy human subjects received a single dose (30 mg) of DEX syrup, and in phase-II DEX syrup was administered with Curcuma powder. The enzyme CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 mediated O- and N-demethylation of dextromethorphan into dextrorphan (DOR) and 3-methoxymorphinan (3-MM), respectively. Curcuma extract significantly inhibited the formation of DOR and 3-MM, in a dose-dependent and linear fashion. The 100 μg/ml dose of curcuma extract produced highest inhibition, which was about 70 % for DOR and 80 % for 3-MM. Curcuma significantly increases the urine metabolic ratio of DEX/DOR but the change in DEX/3-MM ratio was statistically insignificant. Present findings suggested that curcuma significantly inhibits the activity of CYP2D6 in in vitro as well as in vivo; which indicates that curcuma has potential to interact with CYP2D6 substrates.

  3. Effect of CYP2C19 and CYP3A4 gene polymorphisms on the efficacy of bortezomib-based regimens in patients with multiple myeloma

    PubMed Central

    ZHOU, WEIWEI; AN, GUANGYU; JIAN, YUAN; GUO, HUAN; CHEN, WENMING

    2015-01-01

    Bortezomib is used to treat patients with multiple myeloma. It is primarily metabolized by the enzyme cytochrome P450 (CYP). Variations in the capacity of bortezomib metabolism affect the treatment outcomes and the side-effects experienced by patients. In the present study, polymorphisms in the CYP3A4 and CYP2C19 genes were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction in 56 newly-diagnosed patients with multiple myeloma. The polymorphisms analyzed included the c.681G>A, c.636G>A and c.-806C>T polymorphisms of CYP2C19. The CYP3A4 gene was sequenced after amplification and was classified into normal and mutant types. Associations between the metabolizer genotypes of CYP3A4 and CYP2C19, the therapeutic efficacy of bortezomib-based regimens, and the occurrence of peripheral neuropathy were studied. The results identified no significant differences in gender, serum β2 microglobulin, creatinine, blood albumin, isotypes, and the Durie-Salmon and International Staging System stages between the CYP2C19 poor + intermediate metabolizer types and the extensive + ultrarapid metabolizer types. In addition, it was revealed that the CYP2C19 and CYP3A4 phenotypes did not affect the efficacy of bortezomib-based regimens, nor were they correlated with peripheral neuropathy. Additional large-scale studies are required in order to evaluate the role of CYP enzymes in bortezomib treatments for patients with multiple myeloma. PMID:26622646

  4. Oral intake of curcumin markedly activated CYP 3A4: in vivo and ex-vivo studies.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Yow-Wen; Huang, Ching-Ya; Yang, Shih-Ying; Peng, Yu-Hsuan; Yu, Chung-Ping; Chao, Pei-Dawn Lee; Hou, Yu-Chi

    2014-10-10

    Curcumin, a specific secondary metabolite of Curcuma species, has potentials for a variety of beneficial health effects. It is nowadays used as a dietary supplement. Everolimus (EVL) is an immunosuppressant indicated for allograft rejection and cancer therapy, but with narrow therapeutic window. EVL is a substrate of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4). This study investigated the effect of coadministration of curcumin on the pharmacokinetics of EVL in rats and the underlying mechanisms. EVL (0.5 mg/kg) was orally administered without and with 50 and 100 mg/kg of curcumin, respectively, in rats. Blood samples were collected at specific time points and EVL concentrations in blood were determined by QMS immunoassay. The underlying mechanisms were evaluated using cell model and recombinant CYP 3A4 isozyme. The results indicated that 50 and 100 mg/kg of curcumin significantly decreased the AUC0-540 of EVL by 70.6% and 71.5%, respectively, and both dosages reduced the Cmax of EVL by 76.7%. Mechanism studies revealed that CYP3A4 was markedly activated by curcumin metabolites, which apparently overrode the inhibition effects of curcumin on P-gp. In conclusion, oral intake of curcumin significantly decreased the bioavailability of EVL, a probe substrate of P-gp/CYP 3A4, mainly through marked activation on CYP 3A4.

  5. Evaluation of calibration curve-based approaches to predict clinical inducers and noninducers of CYP3A4 with plated human hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, J George; Ho, Thuy; Callendrello, Alanna L; Clark, Robert J; Santone, Elizabeth A; Kinsman, Sarah; Xiao, Deqing; Fox, Lisa G; Einolf, Heidi J; Stresser, David M

    2014-09-01

    Cytochrome P450 (P450) induction is often considered a liability in drug development. Using calibration curve-based approaches, we assessed the induction parameters R3 (a term indicating the amount of P450 induction in the liver, expressed as a ratio between 0 and 1), relative induction score, Cmax/EC50, and area under the curve (AUC)/F2 (the concentration causing 2-fold increase from baseline of the dose-response curve), derived from concentration-response curves of CYP3A4 mRNA and enzyme activity data in vitro, as predictors of CYP3A4 induction potential in vivo. Plated cryopreserved human hepatocytes from three donors were treated with 20 test compounds, including several clinical inducers and noninducers of CYP3A4. After the 2-day treatment, CYP3A4 mRNA levels and testosterone 6β-hydroxylase activity were determined by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis, respectively. Our results demonstrated a strong and predictive relationship between the extent of midazolam AUC change in humans and the various parameters calculated from both CYP3A4 mRNA and enzyme activity. The relationships exhibited with non-midazolam in vivo probes, in aggregate, were unsatisfactory. In general, the models yielded better fits when unbound rather than total plasma Cmax was used to calculate the induction parameters, as evidenced by higher R(2) and lower root mean square error (RMSE) and geometric mean fold error. With midazolam, the R3 cut-off value of 0.9, as suggested by US Food and Drug Administration guidance, effectively categorized strong inducers but was less effective in classifying midrange or weak inducers. This study supports the use of calibration curves generated from in vitro mRNA induction response curves to predict CYP3A4 induction potential in human. With the caveat that most compounds evaluated here were not strong inhibitors of enzyme activity, testosterone 6β-hydroxylase activity was

  6. The CYP3A4*22 C>T single nucleotide polymorphism is associated with reduced midazolam and tacrolimus clearance in stable renal allograft recipients.

    PubMed

    de Jonge, H; Elens, L; de Loor, H; van Schaik, R H; Kuypers, D R J

    2015-04-01

    Tacrolimus, a dual substrate of CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 has a narrow therapeutic index and is characterized by high between-subject variability in oral bioavailability. This study investigated the effects of the recently described CYP3A4*22 intron 6 C>T single nucleotide polymorphism on in vivo CYP3A4 activity as measured by midazolam (MDZ) clearance and tacrolimus pharmacokinetics in two cohorts of renal allograft recipients, taking into account the CYP3A5*1/*3 genotype and other determinants of drug disposition. In CYP3A5 non-expressers, the presence of one CYP3A4*22T-allele was associated with a 31.7-33.6% reduction in MDZ apparent oral clearance, reflecting reduced in vivo CYP3A4 activity. In addition, at ⩾12 months after transplantation, steady-state clearance of tacrolimus was 36.8% decreased compared with homozygous CYP3A4*22CC-wild type patients, leading to 50% lower dose requirements. Both concurrent observations in stable renal allograft recipients are consistent with a reduced in vivo CYP3A4 activity for the CYP3A4*22T-allele.

  7. Pretreatment with turmeric modulates the inhibitory influence of cisplatin and paclitaxel on CYP2E1 and CYP3A1/2 in isolated rat hepatic microsomes.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Enas M; EL-Maraghy, Shohda A; Teleb, Zakaria A; Shaheen, Amira A

    2014-09-01

    Previous animal studies have shown that turmeric can significantly modulate the activity of several drug metabolizing enzymes, this may dramatically affect the bioavailability of several drugs resulting in over dose or less therapeutic effects. This study was directed to evaluate the inhibitory effects of cisplatin and paclitaxel on two CYP450 enzymes namely CYP2E1 and CYP3A1/2 in hepatic microsomes isolated from normal and turmeric pretreated rats. Cisplatin and paclitaxel were added by different concentrations to hepatic microsomes isolated from untreated and turmeric (100 mg/kg/day) pretreated rats for 15 days after receiving pyrazole or dexamethasone for induction of CYP2E1 and CYP3A1/2 respectively. The kinetic potency of these drugs as CYP inhibitors was determined by analysis of Lineweaver-Burk plot. Addition of cisplatin or paclitaxel by (10, 50 and 100 μM) to hepatic microsomes from normal or turmeric pretreated rats caused a concentration dependent inhibition of CYP2E1, with an evidence of less inhibition in turmeric pretreated microsomes particularly at higher concentration. Both drugs at 100 μM displayed a mixed type of inhibition of CYP2E1 in normal or turmeric pretreated microsomes where paclitaxel was the most potent inhibitor. Cisplatin (10, 50 and 100 μM) caused a concentration dependant inhibition of CYP3A1/2 that was enhanced by turmeric pretreatment. The inhibition of CYP3A1/2 by cisplatin (100 μM) was in non-competitive manner with a smaller Ki value in turmeric pretreated microsomes. The inhibitory influence of paclitaxel (10, 50 and 100 μM) on CYP3A1/2 decreased with increasing the drug concentration and this inhibition was augmented by turmeric pretreatment. Interestingly, the inhibition of this enzyme by paclitaxel (10 μM) was switched from mixed type in normal microsomes to competitive manner in turmeric pretreated ones with a marked reduction of Ki values reflecting greater inhibitory influence of paclitaxel on CYP3A1/2 by turmeric

  8. Intestinal CYP3A4 protects against lithocholic acid-induced hepatotoxicity in intestine-specific VDR-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jie; Fang, Zhong-Ze; Kim, Jung-Hwan; Krausz, Kristopher W; Tanaka, Naoki; Chiang, John Y L; Gonzalez, Frank J

    2014-03-01

    Vitamin D receptor (VDR) mediates vitamin D signaling involved in bone metabolism, cellular growth and differentiation, cardiovascular function, and bile acid regulation. Mice with an intestine-specific disruption of VDR (Vdr(ΔIEpC)) have abnormal body size, colon structure, and imbalance of bile acid metabolism. Lithocholic acid (LCA), a secondary bile acid that activates VDR, is among the most toxic of the bile acids that when overaccumulated in the liver causes hepatotoxicity. Because cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) is a target gene of VDR-involved bile acid metabolism, the role of CYP3A4 in VDR biology and bile acid metabolism was investigated. The CYP3A4 gene was inserted into Vdr(ΔIEpC) mice to produce the Vdr(ΔIEpC)/3A4 line. LCA was administered to control, transgenic-CYP3A4, Vdr(ΔIEpC), and Vdr(ΔIEpC)/3A4 mice, and hepatic toxicity and bile acid levels in the liver, intestine, bile, and urine were measured. VDR deficiency in the intestine of the Vdr(ΔIEpC) mice exacerbates LCA-induced hepatotoxicity manifested by increased necrosis and inflammation, due in part to over-accumulation of hepatic bile acids including taurocholic acid and taurodeoxycholic acid. Intestinal expression of CYP3A4 in the Vdr(ΔIEpC)/3A4 mouse line reduces LCA-induced hepatotoxicity through elevation of LCA metabolism and detoxification, and suppression of bile acid transporter expression in the small intestine. This study reveals that intestinal CYP3A4 protects against LCA hepatotoxicity.

  9. Echinacea purpurea up-regulates CYP1A2, CYP3A4 and MDR1 gene expression by activation of pregnane X receptor pathway

    PubMed Central

    Awortwe, Charles; Manda, Vamshi K.; Avonto, Cristina; Khan, Shabana I.; Khan, Ikhlas A.; Walker, Larry A.; Bouic, Patrick J.; Rosenkranz, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the mechanism underlying Echinacea-mediated induction of CYP1A2, CYP3A4 and MDR1 in terms of human pregnane X receptor (PXR) activation. Crude extracts and fractions of Echinacea purpurea were tested for PXR activation in HepG2 cells by a reporter gene assay. Quantitative real-time PCR was carried out to determine their effects on CYP1A2 and CYP3A4 mRNA expressions. Capsules and fractions were risk ranked as high, intermediate and remote risk of drug-metabolizing enzymes induction based on EC50 values determined for respective CYPs. Fractions F1, F2 and capsule (2660) strongly activated PXR with 5-, 4- and 3.5-fold increase in activity, respectively. Echinacea preparations potentiated up-regulation of CYP1A2, CYP3A4 and MDR1 via PXR activation. Thus E. purpurea preparations cause herb–drug interaction by up-regulating CYP1A2, CYP3A4 and P-gp via PXR activation. PMID:25377539

  10. The use of isomeric testosterone dimers to explore allosteric effects in substrate binding to cytochrome P450 CYP3A4.

    PubMed

    Denisov, Ilia G; Mak, Piotr J; Grinkova, Yelena V; Bastien, Dominic; Bérubé, Gervais; Sligar, Stephen G; Kincaid, James R

    2016-05-01

    Cytochrome P450 CYP3A4 is the main drug-metabolizing enzyme in the human liver, being responsible for oxidation of 50% of all pharmaceuticals metabolized by human P450 enzymes. Possessing a large substrate binding pocket, it can simultaneously bind several substrate molecules and often exhibits a complex pattern of drug-drug interactions. In order to better understand structural and functional aspects of binding of multiple substrate molecules to CYP3A4 we used resonance Raman and UV-VIS spectroscopy to document the effects of binding of synthetic testosterone dimers of different configurations, cis-TST2 and trans-TST2. We directly demonstrate that the binding of two steroid molecules, which can assume multiple possible configurations inside the substrate binding pocket of monomeric CYP3A4, can lead to active site structural changes that affect functional properties. Using resonance Raman spectroscopy, we have documented perturbations in the ferric and Fe-CO states by these substrates, and compared these results with effects caused by binding of monomeric TST. While the binding of trans-TST2 yields results similar to those obtained with monomeric TST, the binding of cis-TST2 is much tighter and results in significantly more pronounced conformational changes of the porphyrin side chains and Fe-CO unit. In addition, binding of an additional monomeric TST molecule in the remote allosteric site significantly improves binding affinity and the overall spin shift for CYP3A4 with trans-TST2 dimer bound inside the substrate binding pocket. This result provides the first direct evidence for an allosteric effect of the peripheral binding site at the protein-membrane interface on the functional properties of CYP3A4. PMID:26774838

  11. Demethylation of neferine in human liver microsomes and formation of quinone methide metabolites mediated by CYP3A4 accentuates its cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Shen, Qi; Zuo, Minjuan; Ma, Li; Tian, Ye; Wang, Lu; Jiang, Huidi; Zhou, Quan; Zhou, Hui; Yu, Lushan; Zeng, Su

    2014-12-01

    Neferine is a bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloid isolated from the seed embryos of Nelumbonucifera Gaertn (Lotus) with various potent pharmacological effects. Recently, neferine has attracted attention for its anti-tumor activities. Our study explored its metabolism and cytotoxicity mechanism. Approaches using chemical inhibitors and recombinant human enzymes to characterize the involved enzymes and kinetic studies indicated that the demethylation of neferine by cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2D6 and CYP3A4 fitted a biphasic kinetic profile. Glutathione (GSH) was used as a trapping agent to identify reactive metabolites of neferine, and four novel GSH conjugates were detected with [M+H](+) ions at m/z 902.4, 916.2, 916.1, and 930.4. Based on its structure containing para-methylene phenol and results from a product ion scan, GSH tends to conjugate with C9' after undergoing oxidative metabolism to form the binding site predominated by CYP3A4. Furthermore, the addition of recombinant human GSTA1, GSTT1, and GSTP1 had little effect on the production of the GSH conjugates. In a 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5 diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, combined with the GSH modulators l-buthionine sulfoximine or N-acetyl-l-cysteine, neferine treatment of MDCK-hCYP3A4 and HepG2 cells revealed that CYP3A4 expression and cellular GSH content could cause an EC50 shift. Metabolic activation mediated by CYP3A4 and GSH depletion significantly enhanced neferine-induced cytotoxicity. PMID:25451576

  12. Analysis of genetic variations in CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6 and CYP3A5 genes using oligonucleotide microarray

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Yuanyuan; Xiao, Huasheng; Wang, Qi; Zhang, Chunxiu; Liu, Xiuming; Yao, Na; Sheng, Haihui; Li, Haiyan

    2015-01-01

    The cytochrome P450 enzymes play a critical role in the metabolism of many commonly prescribed drugs. Among them, the most important enzymes are highly polymorphic CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6 and CYP3A5, which are responsible for about 40% of the metabolism of clinical used drugs. Here we developed a novel CYP450 oligonucleotide microarray that allow for detection of 32 known variations of CYP genes from a single multiplex reaction, including 19 polymorphisms of CYP2D6 gene, 8 polymorphisms of CYP2C9 gene, 4 polymorphisms of CYP2C19 gene and 1 polymorphism of CYP3A5 gene. 229 genomic DNA samples from unrelated Han subjects were analyzed. The microarray results showed to have high call rate and accuracy according to concordance with genotypes identified by independent bidirectional sequencing. Furthermore, we found that the major CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6 and CYP3A5 alleles in Chinese Han population were CYP2C9*3 (allelic frequency of 10.7%), CYP2C9*2 (20.31%), CYP2C19*2 (5.68%), CYP2D6*10 (58.52%), CYP2D6*2 (13.76) and CYP3A5*3 (70.69%). With flexible DNA preparation, the microarray can significantly facilitates the process of detecting genetics variations in CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6 and CYP3A5 gene and provide safe and effective therapy for individual patients. PMID:26770516

  13. Trainable structure-activity relationship model for virtual screening of CYP3A4 inhibition.

    PubMed

    Didziapetris, Remigijus; Dapkunas, Justas; Sazonovas, Andrius; Japertas, Pranas

    2010-11-01

    A new structure-activity relationship model predicting the probability for a compound to inhibit human cytochrome P450 3A4 has been developed using data for >800 compounds from various literature sources and tested on PubChem screening data. Novel GALAS (Global, Adjusted Locally According to Similarity) modeling methodology has been used, which is a combination of baseline global QSAR model and local similarity based corrections. GALAS modeling method allows forecasting the reliability of prediction thus defining the model applicability domain. For compounds within this domain the statistical results of the final model approach the data consistency between experimental data from literature and PubChem datasets with the overall accuracy of 89%. However, the original model is applicable only for less than a half of PubChem database. Since the similarity correction procedure of GALAS modeling method allows straightforward model training, the possibility to expand the applicability domain has been investigated. Experimental data from PubChem dataset served as an example of in-house high-throughput screening data. The model successfully adapted itself to both data classified using the same and different IC₅₀ threshold compared with the training set. In addition, adjustment of the CYP3A4 inhibition model to compounds with a novel chemical scaffold has been demonstrated. The reported GALAS model is proposed as a useful tool for virtual screening of compounds for possible drug-drug interactions even prior to the actual synthesis. PMID:20814717

  14. In silico and in vitro screening for inhibition of cytochrome P450 CYP3A4 by comedications commonly used by patients with cancer.

    PubMed

    Marechal, Jean-Didier; Yu, Jinglei; Brown, Simon; Kapelioukh, Iouri; Rankin, Elaine M; Wolf, C Roland; Roberts, Gordon C K; Paine, Mark J I; Sutcliffe, Michael J

    2006-04-01

    Cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) is the major enzyme responsible for phase I drug metabolism of many anticancer agents. It is also a major route for metabolism of many drugs used by patients to treat the symptoms caused by cancer and its treatment as well as their other illnesses, for example, cardiovascular disease. To assess the ability to inhibit CYP3A4 of drugs most commonly used by our patients during cancer therapy, we have made in silico predictions based on the crystal structures of CYP3A4. From this set of 33 common comedicated drugs, 10 were predicted to be inhibitors of CYP3A4, with the antidiarrheal drug loperamide predicted to be the most potent. There was significant correlation (r(2) = 0.75-0.66) between predicted affinity and our measured IC(50) values, and loperamide was confirmed as a potent inhibitor (IC(50) of 0.050 +/- 0.006 microM). Active site docking studies predicted an orientation of loperamide consistent with formation of the major (N-demethylated) metabolite, where it interacts with the phenylalanine cluster and Arg-212 and Glu-374; experimental evidence for the latter interaction comes from the approximately 12-fold increase in K(M) for loperamide observed for the Glu-374-Gln mutant. The commonly prescribed drugs loperamide, amitriptyline, diltiazem, domperidone, lansoprazole, omeprazole, and simvastatin were identified by our in silico and in vitro screens as relatively potent inhibitors of CYP3A4 that have the potential to interact with cytotoxic agents to cause adverse effects, highlighting the likelihood of drug-drug interactions affecting chemotherapy treatment.

  15. Selective role for tumor necrosis factor-α, but not interleukin-1 or Kupffer cells, in down-regulation of CYP3A11 and CYP3A25 in livers of mice infected with a noninvasive intestinal pathogen.

    PubMed

    Kinloch, Ryan D; Lee, Choon-Myung; van Rooijen, Nico; Morgan, Edward T

    2011-08-01

    Hepatic cytochrome P450 (P450) gene and protein expression are modulated during inflammation and infection. Oral infection of C57BL/6 mice with Citrobacter rodentium produces mild clinical symptoms while selectively regulating hepatic P450 expression and elevating levels of proinflammatory cytokines. Here, we explored the role of cytokines in the regulation of hepatic P450 expression by orally infecting tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) receptor 1 null mice (TNFR1-/-), interleukin-1 (IL1) receptor null mice (IL1R1-/-), and Kupffer cell depleted mice with C. rodentium. CYP4A mRNA and protein levels and flavin monooxygenase (FMO)3 mRNA expression levels were down-regulated, while CYP2D9 and CYP4F18 mRNAs remained elevated during infection in wild-type, receptor knockout, and Kupffer cell depleted mice. CYPs 3A11 and 3A25 mRNA levels were down-regulated during infection in wild-type mice but not in TNFR1-/- mice. Consistent with this observation, CYPs 3A11 and 3A25 were potently down-regulated in mouse hepatocytes treated with TNFα. Oral infection of IL1R1-/- mice and studies with mouse hepatocytes indicated that IL1 does not directly regulate CYP3A11 or CYP3A25 expression. Uninfected mice injected with clodronate liposomes had a significantly reduced number of Kupffer cells in their livers. Infection increased the Kupffer cell count, which was attenuated by clodronate treatment. The P450 mRNA and cytokine levels in infected Kupffer cell depleted mice were comparable to those in infected mice receiving no clodronate. The results indicate that TNFα is involved in the regulation of CYPs 3A11 and 3A25, but IL1β and Kupffer cells may not be relevant to hepatic P450 regulation in oral C. rodentium infection.

  16. Selective Role for Tumor Necrosis Factor-α, but Not Interleukin-1 or Kupffer Cells, in Down-Regulation of CYP3A11 and CYP3A25 in Livers of Mice Infected with a Noninvasive Intestinal Pathogen

    PubMed Central

    Kinloch, Ryan D.; Lee, Choon-Myung; van Rooijen, Nico; Morgan, Edward T.

    2011-01-01

    Hepatic cytochrome P450 (P450) gene and protein expression are modulated during inflammation and infection. Oral infection of C57BL/6 mice with Citrobacter rodentium produces mild clinical symptoms while selectively regulating hepatic P450 expression and elevating levels of proinflammatory cytokines. Here, we explored the role of cytokines in the regulation of hepatic P450 expression by orally infecting tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) receptor 1 null mice (TNFR1−/−), interleukin-1 (IL1) receptor null mice (IL1R−/−), and Kupffer cell depleted mice with C. rodentium. CYP4A mRNA and protein levels and flavin monooxygenase (FMO)3 mRNA expression levels were down-regulated, while CYP2D9 and CYP4F18 mRNAs remained elevated during infection in wild-type, receptor knockout, and Kupffer cell depleted mice. CYPs 3A11 and 3A25 mRNA levels were down-regulated during infection in wild-type mice but not in TNFR1−/− mice. Consistent with this observation, CYPs 3A11 and 3A25 were potently down-regulated in mouse hepatocytes treated with TNFα. Oral infection of IL1R−/− mice and studies with mouse hepatocytes indicated that IL1 does not directly regulate CYP3A11 or CYP3A25 expression. Uninfected mice injected with clodronate liposomes had a significantly reduced number of Kupffer cells in their livers. Infection increased the Kupffer cell count, which was attenuated by clodronate treatment. The P450 mRNA and cytokine levels in infected Kupffer cell depleted mice were comparable to those in infected mice receiving no clodronate. The results indicate that TNFα is involved in the regulation of CYPs 3A11 and 3A25, but IL1β and Kupffer cells may not be relevant to hepatic P450 regulation in oral C. rodentium infection. PMID:21570957

  17. Pharmacokinetic interaction studies of fenugreek with CYP3A substrates cyclosporine and carbamazepine.

    PubMed

    Al-Jenoobi, Fahad I; Alam, Mohd Aftab; Alkharfy, Khalid M; Al-Suwayeh, Saleh A; Korashy, Hesham M; Al-Mohizea, Abdullah M; Iqbal, Muzaffar; Ahad, Abdul; Raish, Mohammad

    2014-06-01

    The present study investigated the effect of fenugreek seed powder on disposition of CYP3A substrates, cyclosporine and carbamazepine. Rabbits were treated with fenugreek seed powder (300 mg/kg p.o.) for 8 days and on 8th day the single dose of cyclosporine (30 mg/kg, p.o.) and carbamazepine (40 mg/kg, p.o.) were administered to the corresponding group after 1 h of fenugreek administration. Blood samples were drawn at several time points and analyzed by using UPLC-MS (cyclosporine) and HPLC (carbamazepine). Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated by using PK Solver. The present investigation reveals that there was no statistically significant difference between pre- and post-treated pharmacokinetic parameters such as AUC(o-t), AUC(o-∞), C(max), T(max), T(1/2), K(el), MRT(o-∞) , V(z/F), and Cl/F for cyclosporine and carbamazepine. Two tailed "P" values for all these pharmacokinetic parameters were more than 0.05, indicating insignificant impact of fenugreek treatment on the disposition of cyclosporine and carbamazepine. Further, fenugreek may also not have any significant effect on the functionality of P-glycoprotein as cyclosporine is a substrate to P-glycoprotein. The outcomes of present study suggested that fenugreek may not likely to interfere cyclosporine and carbamazepine pharmacokinetics, when co-administered with these drugs. PMID:24022709

  18. Relevance of in vitro and clinical data for predicting CYP3A4-mediated herb-drug interactions in cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Goey, Andrew K L; Mooiman, Kim D; Beijnen, Jos H; Schellens, Jan H M; Meijerman, Irma

    2013-11-01

    The use of complementary and alternative medicines (CAM) by cancer patients is increasing. Concomitant use of CAM and anticancer drugs could lead to serious safety issues in patients. CAM have the potential to cause pharmacokinetic interactions with anticancer drugs, leading to either increased or decreased plasma levels of anticancer drugs. This could result in unexpected toxicities or a reduced efficacy. Significant pharmacokinetic interactions have already been shown between St. John's Wort (SJW) and the anticancer drugs imatinib and irinotecan. Most pharmacokinetic CAM-drug interactions, involve drug metabolizing cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes, in particular CYP3A4. The effect of CAM on CYP3A4 activity and expression can be assessed in vitro. However, no data have been reported yet regarding the relevance of these in vitro data for the prediction of CAM-anticancer drug interactions in clinical practice. To address this issue, a literature research was performed to evaluate the relevance of in vitro data to predict clinical effects of CAM frequently used by cancer patients: SJW, milk thistle, garlic and Panax ginseng (P. ginseng). Furthermore, in clinical studies the sensitive CYP3A4 substrate probe midazolam is often used to determine pharmacokinetic interactions. Results of these clinical studies with midazolam are used to predict pharmacokinetic interactions with other drugs metabolized by CYP3A4. Therefore, this review also explored whether clinical trials with midazolam are useful to predict clinical pharmacokinetic CAM-anticancer drug interactions. In vitro data of SJW have shown CYP3A4 inhibition after short-term exposure and induction after long-term exposure. In clinical studies using midazolam or anticancer drugs (irinotecan and imatinib) as known CYP3A4 substrates in combination with SJW, decreased plasma levels of these drugs were observed, which was expected as a consequence of CYP3A4 induction. For garlic, no effect on CYP3A4 has been shown in vitro

  19. Priapism Induced by Boceprevir-CYP3A4 Inhibition and α-Adrenergic Blockade: Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Hammond, Kyle P.; Nielsen, Craig; Linnebur, Sunny A.; Langness, Jacob A.; Ray, Graham; Maroni, Paul; Kiser, Jennifer J.

    2014-01-01

    A 44-year-old white man presented to the emergency department with a 3-day history of priapism requiring a surgically performed distal penile shunt. A drug–drug interaction is the suspected cause whereby CYP3A4 inhibition by boceprevir led to increased exposures of doxazosin, tamsulosin, and/or quetiapine, resulting in additional α-adrenergic blockade. PMID:24092799

  20. Priapism induced by boceprevir-CYP3A4 inhibition and α-adrenergic blockade: case report.

    PubMed

    Hammond, Kyle P; Nielsen, Craig; Linnebur, Sunny A; Langness, Jacob A; Ray, Graham; Maroni, Paul; Kiser, Jennifer J

    2014-01-01

    A 44-year-old white man presented to the emergency department with a 3-day history of priapism requiring a surgically performed distal penile shunt. A drug-drug interaction is the suspected cause whereby CYP3A4 inhibition by boceprevir led to increased exposures of doxazosin, tamsulosin, and/or quetiapine, resulting in additional α-adrenergic blockade.

  1. Analysis of CYP3A inhibitory components of star fruit (Averrhoa carambola L.) using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Hosoi, Shinzo; Shimizu, Eri; Arimori, Kazuhiko; Okumura, Manabu; Hidaka, Muneaki; Yamada, Mitsuko; Sakushima, Akiyo

    2008-07-01

    In this study, we analyzed the CYP3A inhibitory components of star fruit Averrhoa carambola L., using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). The stereoisomer of procyanidin B1 and B2 and/or the trimer consisting of catechin and/or epicatechin were suggested to be potent inhibitory components.

  2. Evaluation of CYP3A-mediated drug-drug interactions with romidepsin in patients with advanced cancer.

    PubMed

    Laille, Eric; Patel, Manish; Jones, Suzanne F; Burris, Howard A; Infante, Jeffrey; Lemech, Charlotte; Liu, Liangang; Arkenau, Hendrik-Tobias

    2015-12-01

    Two multicenter, single-arm, single-infusion, open-label studies were conducted to evaluate the effect of ketoconazole (a strong CYP3A inhibitor) or rifampin (a strong CYP3A inducer) daily for 5 days on the pharmacokinetics (PK) and safety of romidepsin (8 mg/m(2) intravenous 4-hour infusion for the ketoconazole study or a 14 mg/m(2) intravenous 4-hour infusion for the rifampin study) in patients with advanced cancer. Romidepsin coadministered with ketoconazole (400 mg) or rifampin (600 mg) was not bioequivalent to romidepsin alone. With ketoconazole, the mean romidepsin AUC and Cmax were increased by approximately 25% and 10%, respectively. With rifampin, the mean romidepsin AUC and Cmax were unexpectedly increased by approximately 80% and 60%, respectively; this is likely because of inhibition of active liver uptake. For both studies, romidepsin clearance and volume of distribution were decreased, terminal half-life was comparable, and median Tmax was similar. Overall, the safety profile of romidepsin was not altered by coadministration with ketoconazole or rifampin, except that a higher incidence and greater severity of thrombocytopenia was observed when romidepsin was given with rifampin. The use of romidepsin with rifampin and strong CYP3A inducers should be avoided. Toxicity related to romidepsin exposure should be monitored when romidepsin is given with strong CYP3A inhibitors.

  3. Effect of myricetin on cytochrome P450 isoforms CYP1A2, CYP2C9 and CYP3A4 in rats.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yu-Jin; Zheng, Shuang-Li

    2014-04-01

    Myricetin is one of the main ingredients of Chinese bayberry, which is used as a traditional medicine. The purpose of this study was to find out whether myricetin influences the rat cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes (CYP1A2, CYP2C9 and CYP3A4) by using cocktail probe drugs in vivo. A cocktail solution at a dose of 5 mL/kg, which contained phenacetin (20 mg/kg), tolbutamide (5 mg/kg) and midazolam (10 mg/kg), was orally administered to rats treated for 14 days with myricetin. Blood samples were collected at a series of time-points and the concentrations of probe drugs in plasma were determined by HPLC-MS/MS. The corresponding pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated by the software of DAS 2.0. Our study showed that treatment with multiple doses of myricetin had no effects on rat CYP1A2. However, CYP2C9 and CYP3A4 enzyme activities were inhibited after multiple doses of myricetin. Therefore, caution is needed when myricetin is co-administered with CYP2C9 or CYP3A4 substrates, which may result in herb-drug interactions.

  4. Influence of Various Polymorphic Variants of Cytochrome P450 Oxidoreductase (POR) on Drug Metabolic Activity of CYP3A4 and CYP2B6

    PubMed Central

    Naranmandura, Hua; Zeng, Su; Chen, Shu Qing

    2012-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) is known as the sole electron donor in the metabolism of drugs by cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes in human. However, little is known about the effect of polymorphic variants of POR on drug metabolic activities of CYP3A4 and CYP2B6. In order to better understand the mechanism of the activity of CYPs affected by polymorphic variants of POR, six full-length mutants of POR (e.g., Y181D, A287P, K49N, A115V, S244C and G413S) were designed and then co-expressed with CYP3A4 and CYP2B6 in the baculovirus-Sf9 insect cells to determine their kinetic parameters. Surprisingly, both mutants, Y181D and A287P in POR completely inhibited the CYP3A4 activity with testosterone, while the catalytic activity of CYP2B6 with bupropion was reduced to approximately ∼70% of wild-type activity by Y181D and A287P mutations. In addition, the mutant K49N of POR increased the CLint (Vmax/Km) of CYP3A4 up to more than 31% of wild-type, while it reduced the catalytic efficiency of CYP2B6 to 74% of wild-type. Moreover, CLint values of CYP3A4-POR (A115V, G413S) were increased up to 36% and 65% of wild-type respectively. However, there were no appreciable effects observed by the remaining two mutants of POR (i.e., A115V and G413S) on activities of CYP2B6. In conclusion, the extent to which the catalytic activities of CYP were altered did not only depend on the specific POR mutations but also on the isoforms of different CYP redox partners. Thereby, we proposed that the POR-mutant patients should be carefully monitored for the activity of CYP3A4 and CYP2B6 on the prescribed medication. PMID:22719896

  5. Role of cytochrome B5 in modulating peroxide-supported cyp3a4 activity: evidence for a conformational transition and cytochrome P450 heterogeneity.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Santosh; Davydov, Dmitri R; Halpert, James R

    2005-08-01

    The role of cytochrome b(5) (b(5)) in the alpha-naphthoflavone (alpha-NF)-mediated inhibition of H(2)O(2)-supported 7-benzyloxyquinoline (7-BQ) debenzylation by heterologously expressed and purified cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) was studied. Although alpha-NF showed negligible effect in an NADPH-dependent reconstituted system, inhibition of 7-BQ oxidation was observed in the H(2)O(2) system. Analysis of the effect of various constituents of a standard reconstituted system on H(2)O(2)-supported activity showed that b(5) alone resulted in a 2.5-fold increase in the k(cat) value and reversed the inhibitory effect of alpha-NF. In addition, titration with b(5) suggested that only 65% of the CYP3A4 participated in the interaction with b(5), consistent with cytochrome P450 (P450) heterogeneity. Study of the influence of b(5) on the kinetics of H(2)O(2)-dependent destruction of the P450 heme moiety suggested two distinct conformers of CYP3A4 with different sensitivity to heme loss. In the absence of b(5), 66% of the wild-type enzyme was bleached in the fast phase, whereas the addition of b(5) decreased the fraction of the fast phase to 16%. Finally, to locate amino acid residues that might influence b(5) action, several active site mutants were tested. Substitution of Ser-119, Ile-301, Ala-305, Ile-369, or Ala-370 with the larger Phe or Trp decreased or even abolished the activation by b(5). Ser-119 is in the B'-C loop, a predicted b(5)-P450 interaction site, and Ile-301 and Ala-305 are closest to the heme. In conclusion, the interaction of b(5) with P450 apparently leads to a conformational transition, which results in redistribution of the CYP3A4 pool. PMID:15870379

  6. Sex differences in the clearance of CYP3A4 substrates: exploring possible reasons for the substrate dependency and lack of consensus.

    PubMed

    Chetty, Manoranjenni; Mattison, Donald; Rostami-Hodjegan, Amin

    2012-07-01

    Sex differences in the clearance of substrates of Cytochrome P4503A (CYP3A4) have been reported frequently although there has been no consensus on reasons for variation in observations amongst drugs which are seemingly all dependent on this enzyme for their metabolism. Moreover, these observations could not be replicated in all studies even when investigating the same drugs. Differing study designs and inadequate power to identify the sex differences may explain the conflicting reports. The aim of the current study was to use in vitro data on a number of CYP3A4 substrates to develop mechanistic population pharmacokinetic models which are capable of integrating various attributes of drugs and estimating the statistical power of in vivo studies designed to discern sex differences in the clearance of CYP3A4 substrates. Midazolam, triazolam, alprazolam, nifedipine and zolpidem were selected as test substrates. These compounds are predominantly metabolized by CYP3A4, unaffected by p-glycoprotein and have abundant clinical studies which can be used for validation purposes. Simulated apparent clearance, obtained by use of the Simcyp® Population-based Simulator and in vitro in vivo extrapolation (IVIVE) techniques, was compared in males and females after correcting for weight (CL/wt) in 1560 trials. Results suggested that about 105 subjects per study are required for an 80% probability of identifying a higher CL/wt in females with alprazolam, while the corresponding numbers for a similar power were 120, about 150 and 300 for nifedipine, triazolam and oral midazolam, respectively. The results were consistent with outcomes in published clinical studies and support the view that many of the published studies have inadequate power to detect these sex differences in drug clearance, thereby contributing to the lack of consensus on this subject.

  7. Effects of chlorpyrifos on the transcription of CYP3A cDNA, activity of acetylcholinesterase, and oxidative stress response of goldfish (Carassius auratus).

    PubMed

    Ma, Junguo; Liu, Yang; Niu, Daichun; Li, Xiaoyu

    2015-04-01

    Chlorpyrifos (CPF) is the widely used organophosphate pesticide in agriculture throughout the world. It has been found that CPF is relatively safe to human but highly toxic to fish. In this study, acute toxicity of CPF on goldfish was determined and then the transcription of goldfish cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A was evaluated after 96 h of CPF exposure at concentrations of 15.3 [1/10 50% lethal concentration (LC50 )] or 51 μg L(-1) (1/3 LC50 ) of CPF. Meanwhile, the enzymatic activities of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT), total antioxidant activity (T-AOC), and the contents of malondialdehyde (MDA) in the liver or brain of goldfish were also determined. The results of acute toxicity testing showed that the 96-h LC50 of CPF to the goldfish was 153 μg L(-1) . Moreover, a length sequence of 1243 bp CYP3A cDNA encoding for 413 amino acids from goldfish liver was cloned. Polymerase chain reaction results reveal that CPF exposure downregulates CYP 3A transcription in goldfish liver, suggesting that goldfish CYP 3A may be not involved in CPF bioactivation. Finally, the results of biochemical assays indicate that 96 h of CPF exposure remarkably inhibits AChE activity in fish liver or brain, alters hepatic antioxidant enzyme activities, decreases brain T-AOC, and causes lipid peroxidation in fish liver. These results suggest that oxidative stress might be involved in CPF toxicity on goldfish.

  8. Structural Optimization of Ghrelin Receptor Inverse Agonists to Improve Lipophilicity and Avoid Mechanism-Based CYP3A4 Inactivation.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Bitoku; Funami, Hideaki; Shibata, Makoto; Maruoka, Hiroshi; Koyama, Makoto; Kanki, Satomi; Muto, Tsuyoshi

    2015-01-01

    Structural optimization of 2-aminonicotinamide derivatives as ghrelin receptor inverse agonists is reported. So as to avoid mechanism-based inactivation (MBI) of CYP3A4, 1,3-benzodioxol ring of the lead compound was modified. Improvement of the main activity and lipophilicity was achieved simultaneously, leading to compound 18a, which showed high lipophilic ligand efficiency (LLE) and low MBI activity. PMID:26423040

  9. The CYP3A4 inhibitor intraconazole does not affect the pharmacokinetics of a new calcium-sensitizing drug levosimendan.

    PubMed

    Antila, S; Honkanen, T; Lehtonen, L; Neuvonen, P J

    1998-08-01

    Itraconazole is a potent inhibitor of CYP3A4 isoenzyme and it can cause clinically significant interactions with some other drugs. Levosimendan is a new calcium-sensitizing drug intended for congestive heart failure. We aimed to study possible interactions of itraconazole with levosimendan in healthy volunteers. Twelve healthy male volunteers were included into a randomized, double-blind, two-phase crossover study. A wash-out period of 4 weeks was held between the phases. The subjects were given orally itraconazole 200 mg or placebo daily for 5 days. On the fifth day, they received a single oral dose of 2 mg of levosimendan. Levosimendan plasma concentrations were determined up to 12 hours and ECG, heart rate, and blood pressure followed-up to 8 hours after intake of levosimendan. Itraconazole had no significant effects on the pharmacokinetic parameters of levosimendan. Neither were there any differences in heart rate, PQ-, QTc- or QRS intervals between the placebo and itraconazole phases. The systolic blood pressure was decreased slightly more (p < 0.05) during the itraconazole phase than during the placebo phase. In conclusion, because the potent CYP3A4 inhibitor itraconazole had no significant pharmacokinetic interaction with levosimendan, interactions with CYP3A4 inhibitor, and oral levosimendan are unlikely.

  10. Kidney transplant recipients carrying the CYP3A4*22 allelic variant have reduced tacrolimus clearance and often reach supratherapeutic tacrolimus concentrations.

    PubMed

    Pallet, N; Jannot, A-S; El Bahri, M; Etienne, I; Buchler, M; de Ligny, B H; Choukroun, G; Colosio, C; Thierry, A; Vigneau, C; Moulin, B; Le Meur, Y; Heng, A-E; Subra, J-F; Legendre, C; Beaune, P; Alberti, C; Loriot, M A; Thervet, E

    2015-03-01

    CYP3A4*22 is an allelic variant of the cytochrome P450 3A4 associated with a decreased activity. Carriers of this polymorphism may require reduced tacrolimus (Tac) doses to reach the target residual concentrations (Co). We tested this hypothesis in a population of kidney transplant recipients extracted from a multicenter, prospective and randomized study. Among the 186 kidney transplant recipients included, 9.3% (18 patients) were heterozygous for the CYP3A4*22 genotype and none were homozygous (allele frequency of 4.8%). Ten days after transplantation (3 days after starting treatment with Tac), 11% of the CYP3A4*22 carriers were within the target range of Tac Co (10-15 ng/mL), whereas among the CYP3A4*1/*1 carriers, 40% were within the target range (p = 0.02, OR = 0.19 [0.03; 0.69]). The mean Tac Co at day 10 in the CYP3A4*1/*22 group was 23.5 ng/mL (16.6-30.9) compared with 15.1 ng/mL (14-16.3) in the CYP3A4*1/*1 group, p < 0.001. The Tac Co/dose significantly depended on the CYP3A4 genotype during the follow-up (random effects model, p < 0.001) with the corresponding equivalent dose for patients heterozygous for CYP3A4*22 being 0.67 [0.54; 0.84] times the dose for CYP3A4*1/*1 carriers. In conclusion, the CYP3A4*22 allelic variant is associated with a significantly altered Tac metabolism and carriers of this polymorphism often reach supratherapeutic concentrations. PMID:25588704

  11. Substrate-dependent modulation of CYP3A4 catalytic activity: analysis of 27 test compounds with four fluorometric substrates.

    PubMed

    Stresser, D M; Blanchard, A P; Turner, S D; Erve, J C; Dandeneau, A A; Miller, V P; Crespi, C L

    2000-12-01

    Inhibition of cytochrome P450 catalytic activity is a principal mechanism for pharmacokinetic drug-drug interactions. Rapid, in vitro testing for cytochrome P450 inhibition potential is part of the current paradigm for identifying drug candidates likely to give such interactions. We have explored the extent that qualitative and quantitative inhibition parameters are dependent on the cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 probe substrate. Inhibition potential (e.g., IC(50) values from 8-point inhibition curves) or activation potential for most compounds varied dramatically depending on the fluorometric probe substrates for CYP3A4 [benzyloxyresorufin (BzRes), 7-benzyloxy-4-trifluoromethylcoumarin (BFC), 7-benzyloxyquinoline (BQ), and dibenzylfluorescein (DBF)]. For 21 compounds that were primarily inhibitors, the range of IC(50) values for the four substrates varied from 2.1- to 195-fold with an average of 29-fold. While the rank order of sensitivity among the fluorometric substrates varied among the individual inhibitors, on average, BFC dealkylation was the most sensitive to inhibition, while BQ dealkylation was least sensitive. Partial inhibition was observed with BzRes and BQ but not for BFC and DBF. BzRes was more prone to activation, whereas dramatic changes in IC(50) values were observed when the BQ concentration was below the S(50). Three different correlation analyses indicated that IC(50) values with BFC, BQ, and DBF correlated well with each other, whereas the response with BzRes correlated more weakly with the other substrates. One of these correlation analyses was extended to the percent inhibition of 10 microM inhibitor with the standard CYP3A4 probe substrates testosterone, midazolam, and nifedipine. In this analysis the responses with BQ, BFC and DBF correlated well with testosterone and midazolam but more poorly with nifedipine. In the aggregate, BFC and DBF appear more suitable as an initial screen for CYP3A4 inhibition. However, the substrate-dependent effects

  12. Fucoxanthin Attenuates Rifampin-Induced Cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) and Multiple Drug Resistance 1 (MDR1) Gene Expression Through Pregnane X Receptor (PXR)-Mediated Pathways in Human Hepatoma HepG2 and Colon Adenocarcinoma LS174T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Cheng-Ling; Lim, Yun-Ping; Hu, Miao-Lin

    2012-01-01

    Pregnane X receptor (PXR) has been reported to regulate the expression of drug-metabolizing enzymes, such as the cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A) family and transporters, such as multiple drug resistance 1 (MDR1). Fucoxanthin, the major carotenoid in brown sea algae, is a putative chemopreventive agent. In this study, we determined whether fucoxanthin could overcome drug resistance through attenuation of rifampin-induced CYP3A4 and MDR1 gene expression by PXR-mediated pathways in HepG2 hepatoma cells. We found that fucoxanthin (1–10 μM) significantly attenuated rifampin (20 μM)-induced CYP3A4, MDR1 mRNA and CYP3A4 protein expression at 24 h of incubation. Mechanistically, fucoxanthin strongly attenuated the PXR-mediated CYP3A4 promoter activity in HepG2 cells. In addition, fucoxanthin attenuated constitutive androstane receptor (CAR)- and rPXR-mediated CYP3A4 promoter activity in this cell line. Using the mammalian two-hybrid assay, we found that fucoxanthin significantly decreased the interaction between PXR and SRC-1, a PXR co-activator. Thus, fucoxanthin can decrease rifampin-induced CYP3A4 and MDR1 expression through attenuation of PXR-mediated CYP3A4 promoter activation and interaction between PXR and co-activator. These findings could lead to potentially important new therapeutic and dietary approaches to reduce the frequency of adverse drug reactions. PMID:22363234

  13. Transport and uptake of clausenamide enantiomers in CYP3A4-transfected Caco-2 cells: An insight into the efflux-metabolism alliance.

    PubMed

    Hua, Fang; Shi, Mei-jun; Zhu, Xiao-lu; Li, Meng; Wang, Hong-xu; Yu, Xiao-ming; Li, Yan; Zhu, Chuan-jiang

    2015-11-01

    The present study developed a CYP3A4-expressed Caco-2 monolayer model at which effects of the efflux-metabolism alliance on the transport and uptake of clausenamide (CLA) enantiomers as CYP3A4 substrates were investigated. The apparent permeability coefficients (Papp) of (-) and (+)CLA were higher in the absorptive direction than those in the secretory direction with efflux ratios (ER) of 0.709±0.411 and 0.867±0.250 (×10(-6)cm/s), respectively. Their bidirectional transports were significantly reduced by 75.6-87.5% after treatment with verapamil (a P-glycoprotein inhibitor) that increased the rate of metabolism by CYP3A4, whereas the CYP3A4 inhibitor ketoconazole treatment markedly enhanced the basolateral to apical flux of (-) and (+)CLA with ERs being 2.934±1.432 and 1.877±0.148(×10(-6)cm/s) respectively. These changes could be blocked by the duel CYP3A4/P-glycoprotein inhibitor cyclosporine A, consequently, Papp values for CLA enantiomers in both directions were significantly greater than those obtained by using verapamil or ketoconazole, and their ERs were similar to those following (-) or (+)-isomer treatment alone. Furthermore, the uptake of (-)CLA was more than that of (+)CLA in the transfected cells. Incubation with ketoconazole decreased the intracellular concentrations of the two enantiomers. This effect disappeared in the presence of a CYP3A4 inducer dexamethasone. These results indicated that CYP3A4 could influence P-gp efflux, transport and uptake of CLA enantiomers as CYP3A4 substrates and that a duel inhibition to CYP3A4/ P-glycoprotein could enhance their absorption and bioavailability, which provides new insight into the efflux-metabolism alliance and will benefit the clinical pharmacology of (-)CLA as a candidate drug for treatment of Alzheimer's disease. PMID:26301745

  14. Transport and uptake of clausenamide enantiomers in CYP3A4-transfected Caco-2 cells: An insight into the efflux-metabolism alliance.

    PubMed

    Hua, Fang; Shi, Mei-jun; Zhu, Xiao-lu; Li, Meng; Wang, Hong-xu; Yu, Xiao-ming; Li, Yan; Zhu, Chuan-jiang

    2015-11-01

    The present study developed a CYP3A4-expressed Caco-2 monolayer model at which effects of the efflux-metabolism alliance on the transport and uptake of clausenamide (CLA) enantiomers as CYP3A4 substrates were investigated. The apparent permeability coefficients (Papp) of (-) and (+)CLA were higher in the absorptive direction than those in the secretory direction with efflux ratios (ER) of 0.709±0.411 and 0.867±0.250 (×10(-6)cm/s), respectively. Their bidirectional transports were significantly reduced by 75.6-87.5% after treatment with verapamil (a P-glycoprotein inhibitor) that increased the rate of metabolism by CYP3A4, whereas the CYP3A4 inhibitor ketoconazole treatment markedly enhanced the basolateral to apical flux of (-) and (+)CLA with ERs being 2.934±1.432 and 1.877±0.148(×10(-6)cm/s) respectively. These changes could be blocked by the duel CYP3A4/P-glycoprotein inhibitor cyclosporine A, consequently, Papp values for CLA enantiomers in both directions were significantly greater than those obtained by using verapamil or ketoconazole, and their ERs were similar to those following (-) or (+)-isomer treatment alone. Furthermore, the uptake of (-)CLA was more than that of (+)CLA in the transfected cells. Incubation with ketoconazole decreased the intracellular concentrations of the two enantiomers. This effect disappeared in the presence of a CYP3A4 inducer dexamethasone. These results indicated that CYP3A4 could influence P-gp efflux, transport and uptake of CLA enantiomers as CYP3A4 substrates and that a duel inhibition to CYP3A4/ P-glycoprotein could enhance their absorption and bioavailability, which provides new insight into the efflux-metabolism alliance and will benefit the clinical pharmacology of (-)CLA as a candidate drug for treatment of Alzheimer's disease.

  15. Identification of rifampin-inducible P450IIIA4 (CYP3A4) in human small bowel enterocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Kolars, J C; Schmiedlin-Ren, P; Schuetz, J D; Fang, C; Watkins, P B

    1992-01-01

    Enzymes within the P450IIIA (CYP3A) subfamily appear to account for significant "first pass" metabolism of some drugs in the intestine. To identify which of the known P450IIIA genes are expressed in intestine, enterocyte RNA was hybridized on Northern blots with synthetic oligonucleotides complementary to hypervariable regions of hepatic P450IIIA4, P450IIIA5, and P450IIIA7 cDNAs. Hybridization was detected only with the P450IIIA4-specific oligonucleotide. The identity of the hybridizing mRNA was confirmed to be P450IIIA4 by direct sequencing of a DNA fragment amplified from enterocyte cDNA by the polymerase chain reaction. To determine if enterocyte P450IIIA4 is inducible, biopsies of small bowel mucosa were obtained from five volunteers before and after they received 7d of treatment with rifampin, a known inducer of P450IIIA4 in liver. Rifampin treatment resulted in a five- or eightfold mean increase (P < 0.05) in the biopsy concentration of P450IIIA4 mRNA when normalized for content of sucrase isomaltase or intestinal fatty acid binding protein mRNAs, respectively. Rifampin also induced P450IIIA immunoreactive protein in enterocytes in each of the subjects, as judged by immunohistochemistry, and resulted in a 10-fold increase in P450IIIA4-specific catalytic activity (erythromycin N-demethylation) in the one patient studied. Our identification of inducible P450IIIA4 in enterocytes may in part account for drug interactions characteristic of P450IIIA4 substrates and suggests a strategy for controlling entry into the body of a major class of xenobiotics. Images PMID:1430211

  16. Frog intestinal perfusion to evaluate drug permeability: application to p-gp and cyp3a4 substrates

    PubMed Central

    Yerasi, Neelima; Vurimindi, Himabindu; Devarakonda, Krishna

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the reliability of using in situ frog intestinal perfusion technique for permeability assessment of carrier transported drugs which are also substrates for CYP enzymes. Single Pass Intestinal Perfusion (SPIP) studies were performed in frogs of the species Rana tigrina using established method for rats with some modifications after inducing anesthesia. Effective permeability coefficient (Peff) of losartan and midazolam was calculated in the presence and absence of inhibitors using the parallel-tube model. Peff of losartan when perfused alone was found to be 0.427 ± 0.27 × 10-4cm/s and when it was co-perfused with inhibitors, significant change in Peff was observed. Peff of midazolam when perfused alone was found to be 2.03 ± 0.07 × 10-4cm/s and when it was co-perfused with inhibitors, no significant change in Peff was observed. Comparison of Peff calculated in frog with that of other available models and also humans suggested that the Peff-values are comparable and reflected well with human intestinal permeability. It is possible to determine the Peff-value for compounds which are dual substrates of P-glycoprotein and CYP3A4 using in situ frog intestinal perfusion technique. The calculated Peff-values correlated well with reported Peff-values of probe drugs. comparison of the Peff-value of losartan obtained with that of reported human’s Peff and Caco 2 cell data, and comparison of the Peff-value of midazolam with that of reported rat’s Peff, we could conclude that SPIP from model can be reliably used in preclinical studies for permeability estimation. This model may represent a valuable alternative to the low speed and high cost of conventional animal models (typically rodents) for the assessment of intestinal permeability. PMID:26236236

  17. Drug membrane transporters and CYP3A4 are affected by hypericin, hyperforin or aristoforin in colon adenocarcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Šemeláková, M; Jendželovský, R; Fedoročko, P

    2016-07-01

    Our previous results have shown that the combination of hypericin-mediated photodynamic therapy (HY-PDT) at sub-optimal dose with hyperforin (HP) (compounds of Hypericum sp.), or its stable derivative aristoforin (AR) stimulates generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) leading to antitumour activity. This enhanced oxidative stress evoked the need for an explanation for HY accumulation in colon cancer cells pretreated with HP or AR. Generally, the therapeutic efficacy of chemotherapeutics is limited by drug resistance related to the overexpression of drug efflux transporters in tumour cells. Therefore, the impact of non-activated hypericin (HY), HY-PDT, HP and AR on cell membrane transporter systems (Multidrug resistance-associated protein 1-MRP1/ABCC1, Multidrug resistance-associated protein 2-MRP2/ABCC2, Breast cancer resistance protein - BCRP/ABCG2, P-glycoprotein-P-gp/ABCC1) and cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) was evaluated. The different effects of the three compounds on their expression, protein level and activity was determined under specific PDT light (T0+, T6+) or dark conditions (T0- T6-). We found that HP or AR treatment affected the protein levels of MRP2 and P-gp, whereas HP decreased MRP2 and P-gp expression mostly in the T0+ and T6+ conditions, while AR decreased MRP2 in T0- and T6+. Moreover, HY-PDT treatment induced the expression of MRP1. Our data demonstrate that HP or AR treatment in light or dark PDT conditions had an inhibitory effect on the activity of individual membrane transport proteins and significantly decreased CYP3A4 activity in HT-29 cells. We found that HP or AR significantly affected intracellular accumulation of HY in HT-29 colon adenocarcinoma cells. These results suggest that HY, HP and AR might affect the efficiency of anti-cancer drugs, through interaction with membrane transporters and CYP3A4. PMID:27261575

  18. Inhibitory effect of single and repeated doses of nilotinib on the pharmacokinetics of CYP3A substrate midazolam.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hefei; Sheng, Jennifer; Ko, Jin H; Zheng, Cheng; Zhou, Wei; Priess, Petra; Lin, Wen; Novick, Steven

    2015-04-01

    Effects of single and repeated doses of nilotinib on the pharmacokinetics of midazolam, a cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A) substrate, were assessed in 2 separate studies. In the single-dose nilotinib study, 18 healthy subjects were randomized to 6 treatment sequences to receive single dose of nilotinib 600 mg, midazolam 4 mg, and coadministration of both in a crossover manner. In the repeated-dose nilotinib study, 19 chronic myeloid leukemia patients took a single dose of midazolam 2 mg on days 1 and 13, and nilotinib 400 mg twice daily from days 2-13. In the single-dose study, the geometric mean ratio of the area under the plasma concentration time curve extrapolated to infinity (AUC(inf)) of midazolam plus nilotinib vs. midazolam was 1.3 (90%CI, 1.2-1.5) and the maximum observed serum concentration (C(max)) was 1.2 (90%CI, 1.0-1.4). In the repeated-dose study, the values for AUC(inf) and C(max) were 2.6 (90%CI, 2.1-3.3) and 2.0 (90%CI, 1.7-2.4), respectively. These results indicate that single-dose and repeated-dose administration of nilotinib results in weak and moderate inhibition of CYP3A, respectively. Therefore, appropriate monitoring and dose adjustment may be needed for drugs that are mainly metabolized by CYP3A, and have narrow therapeutic index, when coadministered with nilotinib.

  19. Development and validation of a LC-MS/MS method for the in vitro analysis of 1-hydroxymidazolam in human liver microsomes: application for determining CYP3A4 inhibition in complex matrix mixtures.

    PubMed

    Mooiman, K D; Maas-Bakker, R F; Rosing, H; Beijnen, J H; Schellens, J H M; Meijerman, I

    2013-09-01

    Complementary and alternative medicines (CAM) can affect the pharmacokinetics of anticancer drugs by interacting with the metabolizing enzyme cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4. To evaluate changes in the activity of CYP3A4 in patients, levels of 1-hydroxymidazolam in plasma are often determined with liquid chromatography-quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). However, validated LC-MS/MS methods to determine in vitro CYP3A4 inhibition in human liver microsomes are scarce and not optimized for evaluating CYP3A4 inhibition by CAM. The latter is necessary because CAM are often complex mixtures of numerous compounds that can interfere with the selective measurement of 1-hydroxymidazolam. Therefore, the aim was to validate and optimize an LC-MS/MS method for the adequate determination of CYP3A4 inhibition by CAM in human liver microsomes. After incubation of human liver microsomes with midazolam, liquid-liquid extraction with tert-butyl methyl ether was applied and dried samples were reconstituted in 50% methanol. These samples were injected onto a reversed-phase chromatography consisting of a Zorbax Extend-C18 column (2.1 × 150 mm, 5.0 µm particle size), connected to a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer with electrospray ionization. The described LC-MS/MS method was validated over linear range of 1.0-500 nm for 1-hydroxymidazolam. The results revealed good inter-assay accuracy (≥85% and ≤115%) and within-day and between-day precisions (coefficient of variation ≤ 4.43%). Furthermore, the applicability of this assay for the determination of CYP3A4 inhibition in complex matrix mixtures was successfully demonstrated in an in vitro experiment in which CYP3A4 inhibition by known CAM (β-carotene, green tea, milk thistle and St. John's wort) was determined.

  20. Fentanyl Enhances Hepatotoxicity of Paclitaxel via Inhibition of CYP3A4 and ABCB1 Transport Activity in Mice.

    PubMed

    Xie, Jing-Dun; Huang, Yang; Chen, Dong-Tai; Pan, Jia-Hao; Bi, Bing-Tian; Feng, Kun-Yao; Huang, Wan; Zeng, Wei-An

    2015-01-01

    Fentanyl, a potent opioid analgesic that is used to treat cancer pain, is commonly administered with paclitaxel in advanced tumors. However, the effect of fentanyl on the hepatotoxicity of paclitaxel and its potential mechanism of action is not well studied. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of fentanyl on the hepatotoxicity of paclitaxel and its potential mechanisms of action. Pharmacokinetic parameters of paclitaxel were tested using reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). Aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and mouse liver histopathology were examined. Moreover, the cytotoxicity of anti-carcinogens was examined using 1-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-3,5-diphenylformazan (MTT), and the intracellular accumulation of doxorubicin and rhodamine 123 was detected by flow cytometry. Furthermore, the expression of ABCB1 and the activity of ABCB1 ATPase and CYP3A4 were also examined. In this study, the co-administration of fentanyl and paclitaxel prolonged the half-life (t1/2) of paclitaxel from 1.455 hours to 2.344 hours and decreased the clearance (CL) from 10.997 ml/h to 7.014 ml/h in mice. Fentanyl significantly increased the levels of ALT in mice to 88.2 U/L, which is more than 2-fold higher than the level detected in the control group, and it increased the histological damage in mouse livers. Furthermore, fentanyl enhanced the cytotoxicity of anti-carcinogens that are ABCB1 substrates and increased the accumulation of doxorubicin and rhodamine 123. Additionally, fentanyl stimulated ABCB1 ATPase activity and inhibited CYP3A4 activity in the liver microsomes of mice. Our study indicates that the obvious hepatotoxicity during this co-administration was due to the inhibition of CYP3A4 activity and ABCB1 transport activity. These findings suggested that the accumulation-induced hepatotoxicity of paclitaxel when it is combined with fentanyl should be avoided.

  1. Mechanism of Drug-Drug Interactions Mediated by Human Cytochrome P450 CYP3A4 Monomer

    PubMed Central

    Denisov, Ilia G.; Grinkova, Yelena V.; Baylon, Javier L.; Tajkhorshid, Emad; Sligar, Stephen G.

    2016-01-01

    Using Nanodiscs, we quantitate the heterotropic interaction between two different drugs mediated by monomeric CYP3A4 incorporated into a native-like membrane environment. The mechanism of this interaction is deciphered by global analysis of multiple turnover experiments performed under identical conditions using the pure substrates progesterone (PGS) and carbamazepine (CBZ) and their mixtures. Activation of CBZ epoxidation and simultaneous inhibition of PGS hydroxylation are measured and quantitated through differences in their respective affinities towards both a remote allosteric site and the productive catalytic site near the heme iron. Preferred binding of PGS at the allosteric site and higher preference of CBZ binding at the productive site give rise to a non-trivial drug-drug interaction. Molecular dynamics simulations indicate functionally important conformational changes caused by PGS binding at the allosteric site and by two CBZ molecules positioned inside the substrate binding pocket. Structural changes involving Phe-213, Phe-219, and Phe-241 are suggested to be responsible for the observed synergetic effects and positive allosteric interactions between these two substrates. Such a mechanism is likely of general relevance to the mutual heterotropic effects caused by biologically active compounds which exhibit different patterns of interaction with the distinct allosteric and productive sites of CYP3A4, as well as other xenobiotic metabolizing cytochromes P450 that are also involved in drug-drug interactions. Importantly, this work demonstrates that a monomeric CYP3A4 can display the full spectrum of activation and cooperative effects that are observed in hepatic membranes. PMID:25777547

  2. The truth about the lower plasma concentration of the (-)-isomer after racemic doxazosin administration in rats: Stereoselective inhibition of the (-)-isomer by the (+)-isomer at CYP3A.

    PubMed

    Kong, Dezhi; Li, Qing; Zhang, Panpan; Zhang, Wei; Zhen, Yaqin; Ren, Leiming

    2015-09-18

    Doxazosin (DOX), a long-lasting α1-adrenoceptor antagonist, is used clinically as a racemate that consists of two optical isomers. In humans and rats, following oral administration of racemic DOX [(±)-DOX], the plasma concentration of the (-)-isomer is lower than that of the (+)-isomer, but the mechanism for this interaction is not known. In this study, a chiral HPLC with fluorescence detection was used to measure the drug concentrations for analysis of the stereoselective metabolism of DOX in in vivo and in vitro experiments. We found that the plasma levels of the (-)-isomer were significantly lower than those of the (+)-enantiomer following i.v. administration of (±)-DOX to the rats and that the depletion rate constant (kdep) of (-)-DOX (0.0107±0.0007L/min) was significantly larger than that of (+)-DOX (kdep 0.0088±0.0005L/min) (p<0.05) when (±)-DOX was incubated with rat liver microsomes (RLMs). However, (-)-DOX was not depleted faster than (+)-DOX following their separate incubation with RLMs. The metabolism of (-)- or (+)-isomer in RLMs was catalysed by CYP3A because the depletion of the compounds was inhibited by ketoconazole (a potent CYP3A-selective inhibitor) similarly. More importantly, the kdep of (+)-DOX in the 1.0/2.0 and 0.5/2.5 (+)-DOX/(-)-DOX mixtures was significantly lower than that of (-)-DOX in the 1.0/2.0 and 0.5/2.5 (-)-DOX/(+)-DOX mixtures (p<0.05). In conclusion, although (-)-DOX is not depleted faster than (+)-DOX when only a single isomer of DOX is incubated with rat liver microsomes, it is depleted much faster than (+)-DOX when a mixture of the two isomers was used, suggesting a prominent and stereoselective inhibition of the (-)-isomer over the (+)-isomer at the CYP3A enzyme.

  3. A food contaminant ochratoxin A suppresses pregnane X receptor (PXR)-mediated CYP3A4 induction in primary cultures of human hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Doricakova, Aneta; Vrzal, Radim

    2015-11-01

    Ochratoxin A (OCHA) is a mycotoxin, which can be found in food such as coffee, wine, cereals, meat, nuts. Since it is absorbed via gastrointestinal tract, it is reasonable to anticipate that the liver will be the first organ to which OCHA comes into the contact before systemic circulation. Many xenobiotics are metabolically modified after the passage of the liver to biologically more active substances, sometimes with more harmful activity. Promoting own metabolism is often achieved via transcriptional regulation of biotransformation enzymes through ligand-activated transcription factors. Pregnane X receptor (PXR) belongs to such a group of regulators and it was demonstrated to be activated by many compounds of synthetic as well as natural origin. Our intention was to investigate if OCHA is capable of activating the PXR with consequent induction of PXR-regulated CYP3A4 gene. We found that OCHA does not activate PXR but displays antagonist-like behavior when combined with rifampicin (RIF) in gene reporter assay in human embryonal kidney cells (Hek293T). It was very weak inducer of CYP3A4 mRNA in primary cultures of human hepatocytes and it antagonized RIF-mediated CYP3A4 induction of mRNA as well as protein. In addition, it caused the decline of PXR protein as well as mRNA which was faster than that with actinomycin D, a transcription inhibitor. Since we found that OCHA induced the expression of miR-148a, which was described to regulate PXR expression, we conclude that antagonist-like behavior of OCHA is not due to the antagonism itself but due to the downregulation of PXR gene expression. Herein we provide important findings which bring a piece of puzzle into the understanding of mechanism of toxic action of ochratoxin A.

  4. A food contaminant ochratoxin A suppresses pregnane X receptor (PXR)-mediated CYP3A4 induction in primary cultures of human hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Doricakova, Aneta; Vrzal, Radim

    2015-11-01

    Ochratoxin A (OCHA) is a mycotoxin, which can be found in food such as coffee, wine, cereals, meat, nuts. Since it is absorbed via gastrointestinal tract, it is reasonable to anticipate that the liver will be the first organ to which OCHA comes into the contact before systemic circulation. Many xenobiotics are metabolically modified after the passage of the liver to biologically more active substances, sometimes with more harmful activity. Promoting own metabolism is often achieved via transcriptional regulation of biotransformation enzymes through ligand-activated transcription factors. Pregnane X receptor (PXR) belongs to such a group of regulators and it was demonstrated to be activated by many compounds of synthetic as well as natural origin. Our intention was to investigate if OCHA is capable of activating the PXR with consequent induction of PXR-regulated CYP3A4 gene. We found that OCHA does not activate PXR but displays antagonist-like behavior when combined with rifampicin (RIF) in gene reporter assay in human embryonal kidney cells (Hek293T). It was very weak inducer of CYP3A4 mRNA in primary cultures of human hepatocytes and it antagonized RIF-mediated CYP3A4 induction of mRNA as well as protein. In addition, it caused the decline of PXR protein as well as mRNA which was faster than that with actinomycin D, a transcription inhibitor. Since we found that OCHA induced the expression of miR-148a, which was described to regulate PXR expression, we conclude that antagonist-like behavior of OCHA is not due to the antagonism itself but due to the downregulation of PXR gene expression. Herein we provide important findings which bring a piece of puzzle into the understanding of mechanism of toxic action of ochratoxin A. PMID:26341324

  5. Long-Term Clinical Impact of Adaptation of Initial Tacrolimus Dosing to CYP3A5 Genotype.

    PubMed

    Pallet, N; Etienne, I; Buchler, M; Bailly, E; Hurault de Ligny, B; Choukroun, G; Colosio, C; Thierry, A; Vigneau, C; Moulin, B; Le Meur, Y; Heng, A-E; Legendre, C; Beaune, P; Loriot, M A; Thervet, E

    2016-09-01

    Pretransplantation adaptation of the daily dose of tacrolimus to CYP3A5 genotype is associated with improved achievement of target trough concentration (C0 ), but whether this improvement affects clinical outcomes is unknown. In the present study, we have evaluated the long-term clinical impact of the adaptation of initial tacrolimus dosing according to CYP3A5 genotype: The transplantation outcomes of the 236 kidney transplant recipients included in the Tactique study were retrospectively investigated over a period of more than 5 years. In the Tactique study, patients were randomly assigned to receive tacrolimus at either a fixed dosage or a dosage determined by their genotype, and the primary efficacy end point was the proportion of patients for whom tacrolimus C0 was within target range (10-15 ng/mL) at day 10. Our results indicate that the incidence of biopsy-proven acute rejection and graft survival were similar between the control and the adapted tacrolimus dose groups, as well as between the patients who achieve the tacrolimus C0 target ranges earlier. Patients' death, cancer, cardiovascular events, and infections were also similar, and renal function did not change. We conclude that optimization of initial tacrolimus dose using pharmacogenetic testing does not improve clinical outcomes. PMID:26990694

  6. Capsaicin pretreatment increased the bioavailability of cyclosporin in rats: involvement of P-glycoprotein and CYP 3A inhibition.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Xue-jia; Shi, Fang; Chen, Fen; Lu, Yong-ning

    2013-12-01

    Capsaicin (CAP), the main ingredient responsible for the hot pungent taste of chilli peppers. This study investigated the effect of CAP on the pharmacokinetics of Cyclosporin A (CyA) in rats and the mechanism of this food-drug interaction. The results indicated that after 7 days of low or middle dose of CAP (0.3 or 1.0 mg/kg), the blood concentration of CyA was not significantly changed compared with that of vehicle-treated rats, whereas the blood concentration of CyA in high dose group (3.0 mg/kg) was significantly increased. The total clearance (CL/F) of CyA was decreased, and the bioavailability was significantly increased to about 1.44-fold of that in vehicle-treated rats after 7 days of high dose CAP treatment. At this time, the P-gp and CYP3A1/2 in the liver and intestine were decreased at both the mRNA and protein levels. These results demonstrated that chronic ingestion of high doses of CAP will increase the bioavailability of CyA to a significant extent in rats and the food-drug interaction between CAP and CyA appears to be due to modulation of P-gp and CYP3A gene expression by CAP, with differential dose-dependence.

  7. Quercetin, an in vitro inhibitor of CYP3A, does not contribute to the interaction between nifedipine and grapefruit juice.

    PubMed Central

    Rashid, J; McKinstry, C; Renwick, A G; Dirnhuber, M; Waller, D G; George, C F

    1993-01-01

    Quercetin, a flavonoid present in various fruits, is a potent in vitro inhibitor of CYP3A. Its role in the reported interaction between grapefruit juice and nifedipine has been determined in vivo in humans. Eight healthy volunteers were given in random order 10 mg nifedipine orally, either alone or with 200 ml double strength grapefruit juice, or with 400 mg quercetin. The area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) for nifedipine with grapefruit juice (mean 320 ng ml(-1) h) was increased significantly (P < 0.01) compared with the AUC when nifedipine was given alone (mean 218 ng ml(-1) h). The time to peak plasma concentration for nifedipine with grapefruit juice (1.5 h) was also increased (P < 0.05) compared with control (0.5 h) suggesting delayed absorption. Although quercetin delayed the time to peak nifedipine concentration (1.3 h) it did not alter the AUC of either the parent drug (mean 209 ng ml(-1) h) or its first-pass metabolite. The results suggest that quercetin does not contribute to the effects of grapefruit juice (which contains <10 mg of quercetin 200 ml(-1)) on the metabolism of nifedipine. Oral doses of quercetin, similar to those possible from the ingestion of other fruits such as strawberries, do not produce in vivo inhibition of CYP3A mediated metabolism of nifedipine. PMID:12959295

  8. Establishment of In Silico Prediction Models for CYP3A4 and CYP2B6 Induction in Human Hepatocytes by Multiple Regression Analysis Using Azole Compounds.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Mika; Konno, Yoshihiro; Satsukawa, Masahiro; Yamashita, Shinji; Yoshinari, Kouichi

    2016-08-01

    Drug-drug interactions (DDIs) via cytochrome P450 (P450) induction are one clinical problem leading to increased risk of adverse effects and the need for dosage adjustments and additional therapeutic monitoring. In silico models for predicting P450 induction are useful for avoiding DDI risk. In this study, we have established regression models for CYP3A4 and CYP2B6 induction in human hepatocytes using several physicochemical parameters for a set of azole compounds with different P450 induction as characteristics as model compounds. To obtain a well-correlated regression model, the compounds for CYP3A4 or CYP2B6 induction were independently selected from the tested azole compounds using principal component analysis with fold-induction data. Both of the multiple linear regression models obtained for CYP3A4 and CYP2B6 induction are represented by different sets of physicochemical parameters. The adjusted coefficients of determination for these models were of 0.8 and 0.9, respectively. The fold-induction of the validation compounds, another set of 12 azole-containing compounds, were predicted within twofold limits for both CYP3A4 and CYP2B6. The concordance for the prediction of CYP3A4 induction was 87% with another validation set, 23 marketed drugs. However, the prediction of CYP2B6 induction tended to be overestimated for these marketed drugs. The regression models show that lipophilicity mostly contributes to CYP3A4 induction, whereas not only the lipophilicity but also the molecular polarity is important for CYP2B6 induction. Our regression models, especially that for CYP3A4 induction, might provide useful methods to avoid potent CYP3A4 or CYP2B6 inducers during the lead optimization stage without performing induction assays in human hepatocytes.

  9. Cecropin B Represses CYP3A29 Expression through Activation of the TLR2/4-NF-κB/PXR Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xiaoqiao; Li, Xiaowen; Wang, Xiliang; Jin, Xiue; Shi, Deshi; Wang, Jun; Bi, Dingren

    2016-01-01

    Cecropins are peptide antibiotics used as drugs and feed additives. Cecropin B can inhibit the expression of CYP3A29, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. The present study was designed to determine the mechanisms responsible for the effects of cecropin B on CYP3A29 expression, focusing on the Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and NF-κB pathways. Our results indicated that the CYP3A29 expression was inhibited by cecropin B, which was regulated by pregnane X receptor (PXR) in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Cecropin B-induced NF-κB activation played a pivotal role in the suppression of CYP3A29 through disrupting the association of the PXR/retinoid X receptor alpha (RXR-α) complex with DNA sequences. NF-κB p65 directly interacted with the DNA-binding domain of PXR, suppressed its expression, and inhibited its transactivation, leading to the downregulation of the PXR-regulated CYP3A29 expression. Furthermore, cecropin B activated pig liver cells by interacting with TLRs 2 and 4, which modulated NF-κB-mediated signaling pathways. In conclusion, cecropin B inhibited the expression of CYP3A29 in a TLR/NF-κB/PXR-dependent manner, which should be considered in future development of cecropins and other antimicrobial peptides. PMID:27296244

  10. Racial Differences in CYP3A4 Genotype and Survival Among Men Treated on Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 9202: A Phase III Randomized Trial

    SciTech Connect

    Roach, Mack Silvio, Michelle de; Rebbick, Timothy; Grignon, David; Rotman, Marvin; Wolkov, Harvey; Fisher, Barbara; Hanks, Gerald; Shipley, William U.; Pollack, Alan; Sandler, Howard; Watkins-Bruner, Deborah Ph.D.

    2007-09-01

    Purpose: Inherited genotypes may explain the inferior outcomes of African American (AA) men with prostate cancer. To understand how variation in CYP3A4 correlated with outcomes, a retrospective examination of the CYP3A4*1B genotype was performed on men treated with Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 92-02. Methods and Materials: From 1,514 cases, we evaluated 56 (28.4%) of 197 AA and 54 (4.3%) of 1,274 European American (EA) patients. All patients received goserelin and flutamide for 2 months before and during RT (STAD-RT) {+-} 24 months of goserelin (long-term androgen deprivation plus radiation [LTAD-RT]). Events studied included overall survival and biochemical progression using American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology consensus guidelines. Results: There were no differences in outcome in patients in with or without CYP3A4 data. There was an association between race and CYP3A4 polymorphisms with 75% of EAs having the Wild Type compared to only 25% of AA men (p <0.0001). There was no association between CYP3A4 classification or race and survival or progression. Conclusions: The samples analyzed support previously reported observations about the distribution of CYP3A4*1B genotype by race, but race was not associated with poorer outcome. However, patient numbers were limited, and selection bias cannot be completely ruled out.

  11. Reduction in hepatic drug metabolizing CYP3A4 activities caused by P450 oxidoreductase mutations identified in patients with disordered steroid metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Flueck, Christa E.; Mullis, Primus E.; Pandey, Amit V.

    2010-10-08

    Research highlights: {yields} Cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4), metabolizes 50% of drugs in clinical use and requires NADPH-P450 reductase (POR). {yields} Mutations in human POR cause congenital adrenal hyperplasia from diminished activities of steroid metabolizing P450s. {yields} We are reporting that mutations in POR may reduce CYP3A4 activity. {yields} POR mutants Y181D, A457H, Y459H, V492E and R616X lost 99%, while A287P, C569Y and V608F lost 60-85% CYP3A4 activity. {yields} Reduction of CYP3A4 activity may cause increased risk of drug toxicities/adverse drug reactions in patients with POR mutations. -- Abstract: Cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4), the major P450 present in human liver metabolizes approximately half the drugs in clinical use and requires electrons supplied from NADPH through NADPH-P450 reductase (POR, CPR). Mutations in human POR cause a rare form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia from diminished activities of steroid metabolizing P450s. In this study we examined the effect of mutations in POR on CYP3A4 activity. We used purified preparations of wild type and mutant human POR and in vitro reconstitution with purified CYP3A4 to perform kinetic studies. We are reporting that mutations in POR identified in patients with disordered steroidogenesis/Antley-Bixler syndrome (ABS) may reduce CYP3A4 activity, potentially affecting drug metabolism in individuals carrying mutant POR alleles. POR mutants Y181D, A457H, Y459H, V492E and R616X had more than 99% loss of CYP3A4 activity, while POR mutations A287P, C569Y and V608F lost 60-85% activity. Loss of CYP3A4 activity may result in increased risk of drug toxicities and adverse drug reactions in patients with POR mutations.

  12. Fentanyl Enhances Hepatotoxicity of Paclitaxel via Inhibition of CYP3A4 and ABCB1 Transport Activity in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Jia-Hao; Bi, Bing-Tian; Feng, Kun-Yao; Huang, Wan; Zeng, Wei-An

    2015-01-01

    Fentanyl, a potent opioid analgesic that is used to treat cancer pain, is commonly administered with paclitaxel in advanced tumors. However, the effect of fentanyl on the hepatotoxicity of paclitaxel and its potential mechanism of action is not well studied. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of fentanyl on the hepatotoxicity of paclitaxel and its potential mechanisms of action. Pharmacokinetic parameters of paclitaxel were tested using reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). Aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and mouse liver histopathology were examined. Moreover, the cytotoxicity of anti-carcinogens was examined using 1-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-3,5-diphenylformazan (MTT), and the intracellular accumulation of doxorubicin and rhodamine 123 was detected by flow cytometry. Furthermore, the expression of ABCB1 and the activity of ABCB1 ATPase and CYP3A4 were also examined. In this study, the co-administration of fentanyl and paclitaxel prolonged the half-life (t1/2) of paclitaxel from 1.455 hours to 2.344 hours and decreased the clearance (CL) from 10.997 ml/h to 7.014 ml/h in mice. Fentanyl significantly increased the levels of ALT in mice to 88.2 U/L, which is more than 2-fold higher than the level detected in the control group, and it increased the histological damage in mouse livers. Furthermore, fentanyl enhanced the cytotoxicity of anti-carcinogens that are ABCB1 substrates and increased the accumulation of doxorubicin and rhodamine 123. Additionally, fentanyl stimulated ABCB1 ATPase activity and inhibited CYP3A4 activity in the liver microsomes of mice. Our study indicates that the obvious hepatotoxicity during this co-administration was due to the inhibition of CYP3A4 activity and ABCB1 transport activity. These findings suggested that the accumulation-induced hepatotoxicity of paclitaxel when it is combined with fentanyl should be avoided. PMID:26633878

  13. Effects of capsicine on rat cytochrome P450 isoforms CYP1A2, CYP2C19, and CYP3A4.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Hui-dan; Gu, Ni; Wang, Meng; Kong, Hong-ru; Zhou, Meng-tao

    2015-01-01

    Due to the frequent consumption of capsaicin (CAP) and its current therapeutic application, the correct assessment of this compound is important from a public health standpoint. The purpose of this study was to find out whether CAP affects rat cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes (CYP1A2, CYP2C19, and CYP3A4) by using cocktail probe drugs in vivo. A cocktail solution at a dose of 5 mL/kg, which contained phenacetin (15 mg/kg), omeprazole (15 mg/kg), and midazolam (10 mg/kg), was given orally to rats treated for 7 d with oral administration of CAP. Blood samples were collected at a series of time-points and the concentrations of probe drugs in plasma were determined by HPLC-MS. The results showed that treatment with multiple doses of CAP had no significant effect on rat CYP1A2. However, CAP had a significant inhibitory effect on CYP2C19 and an inductive effect on CYP3A4. Therefore, caution is needed when CAP is co-administered with some CYP substrates clinically because of potential drug-CAP interactions.

  14. Towards a Best Practice Approach in PBPK Modeling: Case Example of Developing a Unified Efavirenz Model Accounting for Induction of CYPs 3A4 and 2B6.

    PubMed

    Ke, A; Barter, Z; Rowland-Yeo, K; Almond, L

    2016-07-01

    In this study, we present efavirenz physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model development as an example of our best practice approach that uses a stepwise approach to verify the different components of the model. First, a PBPK model for efavirenz incorporating in vitro and clinical pharmacokinetic (PK) data was developed to predict exposure following multiple dosing (600 mg q.d.). Alfentanil i.v. and p.o. drug-drug interaction (DDI) studies were utilized to evaluate and refine the CYP3A4 induction component in the liver and gut. Next, independent DDI studies with substrates of CYP3A4 (maraviroc, atazanavir, and clarithromycin) and CYP2B6 (bupropion) verified the induction components of the model (area under the curve [AUC] ratios within 1.0-1.7-fold of observed). Finally, the model was refined to incorporate the fractional contribution of enzymes, including CYP2B6, propagating autoinduction into the model (Racc 1.7 vs. 1.7 observed). This validated mechanistic model can now be applied in clinical pharmacology studies to prospectively assess both the victim and perpetrator DDI potential of efavirenz. PMID:27435752

  15. Towards a Best Practice Approach in PBPK Modeling: Case Example of Developing a Unified Efavirenz Model Accounting for Induction of CYPs 3A4 and 2B6

    PubMed Central

    Ke, A; Barter, Z; Rowland‐Yeo, K

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we present efavirenz physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model development as an example of our best practice approach that uses a stepwise approach to verify the different components of the model. First, a PBPK model for efavirenz incorporating in vitro and clinical pharmacokinetic (PK) data was developed to predict exposure following multiple dosing (600 mg q.d.). Alfentanil i.v. and p.o. drug‐drug interaction (DDI) studies were utilized to evaluate and refine the CYP3A4 induction component in the liver and gut. Next, independent DDI studies with substrates of CYP3A4 (maraviroc, atazanavir, and clarithromycin) and CYP2B6 (bupropion) verified the induction components of the model (area under the curve [AUC] ratios within 1.0–1.7‐fold of observed). Finally, the model was refined to incorporate the fractional contribution of enzymes, including CYP2B6, propagating autoinduction into the model (Racc 1.7 vs. 1.7 observed). This validated mechanistic model can now be applied in clinical pharmacology studies to prospectively assess both the victim and perpetrator DDI potential of efavirenz. PMID:27435752

  16. Towards a Best Practice Approach in PBPK Modeling: Case Example of Developing a Unified Efavirenz Model Accounting for Induction of CYPs 3A4 and 2B6.

    PubMed

    Ke, A; Barter, Z; Rowland-Yeo, K; Almond, L

    2016-07-01

    In this study, we present efavirenz physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model development as an example of our best practice approach that uses a stepwise approach to verify the different components of the model. First, a PBPK model for efavirenz incorporating in vitro and clinical pharmacokinetic (PK) data was developed to predict exposure following multiple dosing (600 mg q.d.). Alfentanil i.v. and p.o. drug-drug interaction (DDI) studies were utilized to evaluate and refine the CYP3A4 induction component in the liver and gut. Next, independent DDI studies with substrates of CYP3A4 (maraviroc, atazanavir, and clarithromycin) and CYP2B6 (bupropion) verified the induction components of the model (area under the curve [AUC] ratios within 1.0-1.7-fold of observed). Finally, the model was refined to incorporate the fractional contribution of enzymes, including CYP2B6, propagating autoinduction into the model (Racc 1.7 vs. 1.7 observed). This validated mechanistic model can now be applied in clinical pharmacology studies to prospectively assess both the victim and perpetrator DDI potential of efavirenz.

  17. CYP3A4-transfected Caco-2 cells as a tool for understanding biochemical absorption barriers: studies with sirolimus and midazolam.

    PubMed

    Cummins, Carolyn L; Jacobsen, Wolfgang; Christians, Uwe; Benet, Leslie Z

    2004-01-01

    CYP3A4-transfected Caco-2 cells were used as an in vitro system to predict the importance of drug metabolism and transport on overall drug absorption. We examined the transport and metabolism of two drugs; midazolam, an anesthetic agent and CYP3A4 substrate, and sirolimus, an immunosuppressant and a dual CYP3A4/P-glycoprotein (P-gp) substrate, in the presence of cyclosporine (CsA, a CYP3A4/P-gp inhibitor) or N-[4-[2-(1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-6,7-dimethoxy-2-isoquinolinyl)-ethyl]-phenyl]-9,10-dihydro-5-methoxy-9-oxo-4-acridine carboxamine (GG918) (an inhibitor of P-gp and not CYP3A4). All major CYP3A4 metabolites were formed in the cells (1-OH > 4-OH midazolam and 39-O-desmethyl > 12-OH > 11-OH sirolimus), consistent with results from human liver microsomes. There was no bidirectional transport of midazolam across CYP3A4-transfected Caco-2 cells, whereas there was a 2.5-fold net efflux of sirolimus (1 microM) that disappeared in the presence of CsA or GG918. No change in the absorption rate or extraction ratio (ER) for midazolam was observed when P-gp was inhibited with GG918. Addition of GG918 had a modest impact on the absorption rate and ER for sirolimus (increased 58% and decreased 25%, respectively), whereas a 6.1-fold increase in the absorption rate and a 75% decrease in the ER were found when sirolimus was combined with CsA. Although both midazolam and sirolimus metabolites were preferentially excreted to the apical compartment, only sirolimus metabolites were transported by P-gp as determined from inhibition studies with GG918. Using CYP3A4-transfected Caco-2 cells we determined that, in contrast to P-gp, CYP3A4 is the major factor limiting sirolimus absorption. The integration of CYP3A4 and P-gp into a combined in vitro system was critical to unveil the relative importance of each biochemical barrier. PMID:14569063

  18. The enhanced atorvastatin hepatotoxicity in diabetic rats was partly attributed to the upregulated hepatic Cyp3a and SLCO1B1.

    PubMed

    Shu, Nan; Hu, Mengyue; Ling, Zhaoli; Liu, Peihua; Wang, Fan; Xu, Ping; Zhong, Zeyu; Sun, Binbin; Zhang, Mian; Li, Feng; Xie, Qiushi; Liu, Xiaodong; Liu, Li

    2016-01-01

    Liver injury is a common adverse effect of atorvastatin. This study aimed to investigate atorvastatin-induced hepatotoxicity in diabetic rats induced by high-fat diet combined with streptozotocin. The results showed that 40 mg/kg atorvastatin was lethal to diabetic rats, whose mean survival time was 6.2 days. Severe liver injury also occurred in diabetic rats treated with 10 mg/kg and 20 mg/kg atorvastatin. The in vitro results indicated that atorvastatin cytotoxicity in hepatocytes of diabetic rats was more severe than normal and high-fat diet feeding rats. Expressions and activities of hepatic Cyp3a and SLCO1B1 were increased in diabetic rats, which were highly correlated with hepatotoxicity. Antioxidants (glutathione and N-Acetylcysteine), Cyp3a inhibitor ketoconazole and SLCO1B1 inhibitor gemfibrozil suppressed cytotoxicity and ROS formation in primary hepatocytes of diabetic rats. In HepG2 cells, up-regulations of CYP3A4 and SLCO1B1 potentiated hepatotoxicity and ROS generation, whereas knockdowns of CYP3A4 and SLCO1B1 as well as CYP3A4/SLCO1B1 inhibitions showed the opposite effects. Phenobarbital pretreatment was used to induce hepatic Cyp3a and SLCO1B1 in rats. Phenobarbital aggravated atorvastatin-induced hepatotoxicity, while decreased plasma exposure of atorvastatin. All these findings demonstrated that the upregulations of hepatic Cyp3a and SLCO1B1 in diabetic rats potentiated atorvastatin-induced hepatotoxicity via increasing ROS formation.

  19. The enhanced atorvastatin hepatotoxicity in diabetic rats was partly attributed to the upregulated hepatic Cyp3a and SLCO1B1.

    PubMed

    Shu, Nan; Hu, Mengyue; Ling, Zhaoli; Liu, Peihua; Wang, Fan; Xu, Ping; Zhong, Zeyu; Sun, Binbin; Zhang, Mian; Li, Feng; Xie, Qiushi; Liu, Xiaodong; Liu, Li

    2016-01-01

    Liver injury is a common adverse effect of atorvastatin. This study aimed to investigate atorvastatin-induced hepatotoxicity in diabetic rats induced by high-fat diet combined with streptozotocin. The results showed that 40 mg/kg atorvastatin was lethal to diabetic rats, whose mean survival time was 6.2 days. Severe liver injury also occurred in diabetic rats treated with 10 mg/kg and 20 mg/kg atorvastatin. The in vitro results indicated that atorvastatin cytotoxicity in hepatocytes of diabetic rats was more severe than normal and high-fat diet feeding rats. Expressions and activities of hepatic Cyp3a and SLCO1B1 were increased in diabetic rats, which were highly correlated with hepatotoxicity. Antioxidants (glutathione and N-Acetylcysteine), Cyp3a inhibitor ketoconazole and SLCO1B1 inhibitor gemfibrozil suppressed cytotoxicity and ROS formation in primary hepatocytes of diabetic rats. In HepG2 cells, up-regulations of CYP3A4 and SLCO1B1 potentiated hepatotoxicity and ROS generation, whereas knockdowns of CYP3A4 and SLCO1B1 as well as CYP3A4/SLCO1B1 inhibitions showed the opposite effects. Phenobarbital pretreatment was used to induce hepatic Cyp3a and SLCO1B1 in rats. Phenobarbital aggravated atorvastatin-induced hepatotoxicity, while decreased plasma exposure of atorvastatin. All these findings demonstrated that the upregulations of hepatic Cyp3a and SLCO1B1 in diabetic rats potentiated atorvastatin-induced hepatotoxicity via increasing ROS formation. PMID:27624558

  20. The Effect of microRNAs in the Regulation of Human CYP3A4: a Systematic Study using a Mathematical Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Zhiyun; Jiang, Songshan; Zhang, Yiting; Wang, Xiaofei; Peng, Xueling; Meng, Chunjie; Liu, Yichen; Wang, Honglian; Guo, Luo; Qin, Shengying; He, Lin; Shao, Fengmin; Zhang, Lirong; Xing, Qinghe

    2014-03-01

    CYP3A4 metabolizes more than 50% of the drugs on the market. The large inter-individual differences of CYP3A4 expression may contribute to the variability of human drug responses. Post-transcriptional regulation of CYP3A4 is poorly understood, whereas transcriptional regulation has been studied much more thoroughly. In this study, we used multiple software programs to predict miRNAs that might bind to CYP3A4 and identified 112 potentially functional miRNAs. Then a luciferase reporter system was used to assess the effect of the overexpression of each potentially functional miRNA in HEK 293T cells. Fourteen miRNAs that significantly decreased reporter activity were measured in human liver samples (N = 27) as candidate miRNAs. To establish a more effective way to analyze in vivo data for miRNA candidates, the relationship between functional miRNA and target mRNA was modeled mathematically. Taking advantage of this model, we found that hsa-miR-577, hsa-miR-1, hsa-miR-532-3p and hsa-miR-627 could significantly downregulate the translation efficiency of CYP3A4 mRNA in liver. This study used in silico, in vitro and in vivo methods to progressively screen functional miRNAs for CYP3A4 and to enhance our understanding of molecular events underlying the large inter-individual differences of CYP3A4 expression in human populations.

  1. The enhanced atorvastatin hepatotoxicity in diabetic rats was partly attributed to the upregulated hepatic Cyp3a and SLCO1B1

    PubMed Central

    Shu, Nan; Hu, Mengyue; Ling, Zhaoli; Liu, Peihua; Wang, Fan; Xu, Ping; Zhong, Zeyu; Sun, Binbin; Zhang, Mian; Li, Feng; Xie, Qiushi; Liu, Xiaodong; Liu, Li

    2016-01-01

    Liver injury is a common adverse effect of atorvastatin. This study aimed to investigate atorvastatin-induced hepatotoxicity in diabetic rats induced by high-fat diet combined with streptozotocin. The results showed that 40 mg/kg atorvastatin was lethal to diabetic rats, whose mean survival time was 6.2 days. Severe liver injury also occurred in diabetic rats treated with 10 mg/kg and 20 mg/kg atorvastatin. The in vitro results indicated that atorvastatin cytotoxicity in hepatocytes of diabetic rats was more severe than normal and high-fat diet feeding rats. Expressions and activities of hepatic Cyp3a and SLCO1B1 were increased in diabetic rats, which were highly correlated with hepatotoxicity. Antioxidants (glutathione and N-Acetylcysteine), Cyp3a inhibitor ketoconazole and SLCO1B1 inhibitor gemfibrozil suppressed cytotoxicity and ROS formation in primary hepatocytes of diabetic rats. In HepG2 cells, up-regulations of CYP3A4 and SLCO1B1 potentiated hepatotoxicity and ROS generation, whereas knockdowns of CYP3A4 and SLCO1B1 as well as CYP3A4/SLCO1B1 inhibitions showed the opposite effects. Phenobarbital pretreatment was used to induce hepatic Cyp3a and SLCO1B1 in rats. Phenobarbital aggravated atorvastatin-induced hepatotoxicity, while decreased plasma exposure of atorvastatin. All these findings demonstrated that the upregulations of hepatic Cyp3a and SLCO1B1 in diabetic rats potentiated atorvastatin-induced hepatotoxicity via increasing ROS formation. PMID:27624558

  2. Investigation of drug-drug interactions caused by human pregnane X receptor-mediated induction of CYP3A4 and CYP2C subfamilies in chimeric mice with a humanized liver.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Maki; Tahara, Harunobu; Inoue, Ryo; Kakuni, Masakazu; Tateno, Chise; Ushiki, Junko

    2012-03-01

    The induction of cytochrome P450 (P450) enzymes is one of the risk factors for drug-drug interactions (DDIs). To date, the human pregnane X receptor (PXR)-mediated CYP3A4 induction has been well studied. In addition to CYP3A4, the expression of CYP2C subfamily is also regulated by PXR, and the DDIs caused by the induction of CYP2C enzymes have been reported to have a major clinical impact. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether chimeric mice with a humanized liver (PXB mice) can be a suitable animal model for investigating the PXR-mediated induction of CYP2C subfamily, together with CYP3A4. We evaluated the inductive effect of rifampicin (RIF), a typical human PXR ligand, on the plasma exposure to the four P450 substrate drugs (triazolam/CYP3A4, pioglitazone/CYP2C8, (S)-warfarin/CYP2C9, and (S)-(-)-mephenytoin/CYP2C19) by cassette dosing in PXB mice. The induction of several drug-metabolizing enzymes and transporters in the liver was also examined by measuring the enzyme activity and mRNA expression levels. Significant reductions in the exposure to triazolam, pioglitazone, and (S)-(-)-mephenytoin, but not to (S)-warfarin, were observed. In contrast to the in vivo results, all the four P450 isoforms, including CYP2C9, were elevated by RIF treatment. The discrepancy in the (S)-warfarin results between in vivo and in vitro studies may be attributed to the relatively small contribution of CYP2C9 to (S)-warfarin elimination in the PXB mice used in this study. In summary, PXB mice are a useful animal model to examine DDIs caused by PXR-mediated induction of CYP2C and CYP3A4. PMID:22126990

  3. Effects of the CYP3A4*1B Genetic Polymorphism on the Pharmacokinetics of Tacrolimus in Adult Renal Transplant Recipients: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Wei-Long; Tang, Hui-Lin; Zhai, Suo-Di

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objective The association between the CYP3A4*1B single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and tacrolimus pharmacokinetics in different studies is controversial. Therefore, a meta-analysis was employed to evaluate the correlation between the CYP3A4*1B genetic polymorphism and tacrolimus pharmacokinetics at different post-transplantation times in adult renal transplant recipients. Methods Studies evaluating the CYP3A4*1B genetic polymorphism and tacrolimus pharmacokinetics were retrieved through a systematical search of Embase, PubMed, the Cochrane Library, ClinicalTrials.gov and three Chinese literature databases (up to Sept. 2014). The pharmacokinetic parameters (weight-adjusted tacrolimus daily dose and tacrolimus trough concentration/weight-adjusted tacrolimus daily dose ratio) were extracted, and the meta-analysis was performed using Stata 12.1. Results Seven studies (involving 1182 adult renal transplant recipients) were included in this meta-analysis. For the weight-adjusted tacrolimus daily dose, in all included renal transplant recipients (European & Indian populations), CYP3A4*1/*1 recipients required a significantly lower weight-adjusted tacrolimus daily dose than did CYP3A4*1B carriers at 7 days (WMD -0.048; 95% CI -0.083 ~ -0.014), 6 months (WMD -0.058; 95% CI -0.081 ~ -0.036) and 12 months (WMD - 0.061; 95% CI -0.096 ~ -0.027) post-transplantation. In light of the heterogeneity, the analysis was repeated after removing the only study in an Indian population, and CYP3A4*1/*1 European recipients (mostly Caucasian) required a lower weight-adjusted tacrolimus daily dose within the first year post-transplantation. The tacrolimus trough concentration/weight-adjusted tacrolimus daily dose ratio (C0/Dose ratio) was significantly higher in CYP3A4*1/*1 recipients than in CYP3A4*1B carriers at 6 months (WMD 52.588; 95% CI 22.387 ~ 82.789) and 12 months (WMD 62.219; 95% CI 14.218 ~ 110.221) post-transplantation. When the only study in an Indian population

  4. Systematic and quantitative assessment of the effect of chronic kidney disease on CYP2D6 and CYP3A4/5

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, K; Sun, B; Zhang, L; Zhao, P; Abernethy, DR; Nolin, TD; Rostami‐Hodjegan, A; Zineh, I

    2016-01-01

    Recent reviews suggest that chronic kidney disease (CKD) can affect the pharmacokinetics of nonrenally eliminated drugs, but the impact of CKD on individual elimination pathways has not been systematically evaluated. In this study we developed a comprehensive dataset of the effect of CKD on the pharmacokinetics of CYP2D6‐ and CYP3A4/5‐metabolized drugs. Drugs for evaluation were selected based on clinical drug–drug interaction (CYP3A4/5 and CYP2D6) and pharmacogenetic (CYP2D6) studies. Information from dedicated CKD studies was available for 13 and 18 of the CYP2D6 and CYP3A4/5 model drugs, respectively. Analysis of these data suggested that CYP2D6‐mediated clearance is generally decreased in parallel with the severity of CKD. There was no apparent relationship between the severity of CKD and CYP3A4/5‐mediated clearance. The observed elimination‐route dependency in CKD effects between CYP2D6 and CYP3A4/5 may inform the need to conduct clinical CKD studies with nonrenally eliminated drugs for optimal use of drugs in patients with CKD. PMID:26800425

  5. Prilocaine- and lidocaine-induced methemoglobinemia is caused by human carboxylesterase-, CYP2E1-, and CYP3A4-mediated metabolic activation.

    PubMed

    Higuchi, Ryota; Fukami, Tatsuki; Nakajima, Miki; Yokoi, Tsuyoshi

    2013-06-01

    Prilocaine and lidocaine are classified as amide-type local anesthetics for which serious adverse effects include methemoglobinemia. Although the hydrolyzed metabolites of prilocaine (o-toluidine) and lidocaine (2,6-xylidine) have been suspected to induce methemoglobinemia, the metabolic enzymes that are involved remain uncharacterized. In the present study, we aimed to identify the human enzymes that are responsible for prilocaine- and lidocaine-induced methemoglobinemia. Our experiments revealed that prilocaine was hydrolyzed by recombinant human carboxylesterase (CES) 1A and CES2, whereas lidocaine was hydrolyzed by only human CES1A. When the parent compounds (prilocaine and lidocaine) were incubated with human liver microsomes (HLM), methemoglobin (Met-Hb) formation was lower than when the hydrolyzed metabolites were incubated with HLM. In addition, Met-Hb formation when prilocaine and o-toluidine were incubated with HLM was higher than that when lidocaine and 2,6-xylidine were incubated with HLM. Incubation with diisopropyl fluorophosphate and bis-(4-nitrophenyl) phosphate, which are general inhibitors of CES, significantly decreased Met-Hb formation when prilocaine and lidocaine were incubated with HLM. An anti-CYP3A4 antibody further decreased the residual formation of Met-Hb. Met-Hb formation after the incubation of o-toluidine and 2,6-xylidine with HLM was only markedly decreased by incubation with an anti-CYP2E1 antibody. o-Toluidine and 2,6-xylidine were further metabolized by CYP2E1 to 4- and 6-hydroxy-o-toluidine and 4-hydroxy-2,6-xylidine, respectively, and these metabolites were shown to more efficiently induce Met-Hb formation than the parent compounds. Collectively, we found that the metabolites produced by human CES-, CYP2E1-, and CYP3A4-mediated metabolism were involved in prilocaine- and lidocaine-induced methemoglobinemia.

  6. Effect of Tacrolimus on the pharmacokinetics of bioactive lignans of Wuzhi tablet (Schisandra sphenanthera extract) and the potential roles of CYP3A and P-gp.

    PubMed

    Qin, Xiao-ling; Chen, Xiao; Zhong, Guo-ping; Fan, Xiao-mei; Wang, Ying; Xue, Xin-ping; Wang, Ying; Huang, Min; Bi, Hui-chang

    2014-04-15

    We recently reported that Wuzhi tablet (WZ), a preparation of the ethanol extract of Wuweizi (Schisandra sphenanthera), had significant effects on blood concentrations of Tacrolimus (FK506) in renal transplant recipients and rats. The active lignans in WZ are schisandrin A, schisandrin B, schisandrin C, schisandrol A, schisandrol B, schisantherin A, and schisantherin B. Until now, whether the pharmacokinetics of these lignans in WZ would be affected by FK506 remained unknown. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate whether and how FK506 affected pharmacokinetics of lignans in WZ in rats and the potential roles of CYP3A and P-gp. After a single oral co-administration of FK506 and WZ, the blood concentration of lignans in WZ was decreased by FK506; furthermore, the AUC of schisantherin A, schisandrin A, schisandrol A and schisandrol B was only 64.5%, 47.2%, 55.1% and 57.4% of that of WZ alone group, respectively. Transport study in Caco-2 cells showed that these lignans were not substrates of P-gp, suggesting decreased blood concentration of lignans by FK506 was not via P-gp pathway. Metabolism study in the human recombinant CYP 3A showed that these lignans had higher affinity to CYP3A than that of FK506, and thus had a stronger CYP3A-mediated metabolism. It was concluded that the blood concentrations of these lignans were decreased and their CYP3A-mediated metabolisms were increased in the presence of FK506 since these lignans had higher affinity to CYP3A.

  7. Inhibition of CYP2C19 and CYP3A4 by Omeprazole Metabolites and Their Contribution to Drug-Drug Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Shirasaka, Yoshiyuki; Sager, Jennifer E.; Lutz, Justin D.; Davis, Connie

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the contribution of metabolites to drug-drug interactions (DDI) using the inhibition of CYP2C19 and CYP3A4 by omeprazole and its metabolites as a model. Of the metabolites identified in vivo, 5-hydroxyomeprazole, 5′-O-desmethylomeprazole, omeprazole sulfone, and carboxyomeprazole had a metabolite to parent area under the plasma concentration–time curve (AUCm/AUCp) ratio ≥ 0.25 when either total or unbound concentrations were measured after a single 20-mg dose of omeprazole in a cocktail. All of the metabolites inhibited CYP2C19 and CYP3A4 reversibly. In addition omeprazole, omeprazole sulfone, and 5′-O-desmethylomeprazole were time dependent inhibitors (TDI) of CYP2C19, whereas omeprazole and 5′-O-desmethylomeprazole were found to be TDIs of CYP3A4. The in vitro inhibition constants and in vivo plasma concentrations were used to evaluate whether characterization of the metabolites affected DDI risk assessment. Identifying omeprazole as a TDI of both CYP2C19 and CYP3A4 was the most important factor in DDI risk assessment. Consideration of reversible inhibition by omeprazole and its metabolites would not identify DDI risk with CYP3A4, and with CYP2C19, reversible inhibition values would only identify DDI risk if the metabolites were included in the assessment. On the basis of inactivation data, CYP2C19 and CYP3A4 inhibition by omeprazole would be sufficient to identify risk, but metabolites were predicted to contribute 30–63% to the in vivo hepatic interactions. Therefore, consideration of metabolites may be important in quantitative predictions of in vivo DDIs. The results of this study show that, although metabolites contribute to in vivo DDIs, their relative abundance in circulation or logP values do not predict their contribution to in vivo DDI risk. PMID:23620487

  8. P-glycoprotein, CYP3A, and Plasma Carboxylesterase Determine Brain Disposition and Oral Availability of the Novel Taxane Cabazitaxel (Jevtana) in Mice.

    PubMed

    Tang, Seng Chuan; Kort, Anita; Cheung, Ka Lei; Rosing, Hilde; Fukami, Tatsuki; Durmus, Selvi; Wagenaar, Els; Hendrikx, Jeroen J M A; Nakajima, Miki; van Vlijmen, Bart J M; Beijnen, Jos H; Schinkel, Alfred H

    2015-10-01

    We aimed to clarify the roles of the multidrug-detoxifying proteins ABCB1, ABCG2, ABCC2, and CYP3A in oral availability and brain accumulation of cabazitaxel, a taxane developed for improved therapy of docetaxel-resistant prostate cancer. Cabazitaxel pharmacokinetics were studied in Abcb1a/1b, Abcg2, Abcc2, Cyp3a, and combination knockout mice. We found that human ABCB1, but not ABCG2, transported cabazitaxel in vitro. Upon oral cabazitaxel administration, total plasma levels were greatly increased due to binding to plasma carboxylesterase Ces1c, which is highly upregulated in several knockout strains. Ces1c inhibition and in vivo hepatic Ces1c knockdown reversed these effects. Correcting for Ces1c effects, Abcb1a/1b, Abcg2, and Abcc2 did not restrict cabazitaxel oral availability, whereas Abcb1a/1b, but not Abcg2, dramatically reduced cabazitaxel brain accumulation (>10-fold). Coadministration of the ABCB1 inhibitor elacridar completely reversed this brain accumulation effect. After correction for Ces1c effects, Cyp3a knockout mice demonstrated a strong (six-fold) increase in cabazitaxel oral availability, which was completely reversed by transgenic human CYP3A4 in intestine and liver. Cabazitaxel markedly inhibited mouse Ces1c, but human CES1 and CES2 only weakly. Ces1c upregulation can thus complicate preclinical cabazitaxel studies. In summary, ABCB1 limits cabazitaxel brain accumulation and therefore potentially therapeutic efficacy against (micro)metastases or primary tumors positioned wholly or partly behind a functional blood-brain barrier. This can be reversed with elacridar coadministration, and similar effects may apply to ABCB1-expressing tumors. CYP3A4 profoundly reduces the oral availability of cabazitaxel. This may potentially be greatly improved by coadministering ritonavir or other CYP3A inhibitors, suggesting the option of patient-friendly oral cabazitaxel therapy.

  9. Pharmacokinetics of a Once-Daily Dose of Tacrolimus Early After Liver Transplantation: With Special Reference to CYP3A5 and ABCB1 Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms.

    PubMed

    Miyata, Yoichi; Akamatsu, Nobuhisa; Sugawara, Yasuhiko; Kaneko, Junichi; Yamamoto, Takehito; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Arita, Junichi; Sakamoto, Yoshihiro; Hasegawa, Kiyoshi; Tamura, Sumihito; Kokudo, Norihiro

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND The aim of the present study was to investigate the pharmacokinetics of the once-daily tacrolimus formulation (QD form) in relation to polymorphisms of the donor cytochrome P450 family 3 sub-family A polypeptide 5 (CYP3A5) gene and recipient adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette sub-family B member 1 (ABCB1) gene. MATERIAL AND METHODS A total of 80 consecutive living-donor liver transplant (LDLT) recipients were started on the QD form of tacrolimus (day 1), and 60 patients were completely followed for 7 days early after liver transplantation in order to evaluate the pharmacokinetics. RESULTS The concentration/dose (C/D) ratio in recipients with the donor CYP3A5 *1 allele was significantly lower throughout the observation period compared with those with the CYP3A5 genotype *3/*3 (p<0.001), while no effect of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of ABCB1 was observed. The administered doses required to achieve the target trough level were significantly higher on day 7 than on day 1 among all groups, regardless of the differences in the SNPs, especially among those with donor CYP3A5 *1 allele. The tacrolimus concentration was kept within the targeted level all through the study regardless of SNPs. CONCLUSIONS The donor CYP3A5 *1 allele correlated with the lower C/D ratio after administration of the QD form, and higher doses of QD-form tacrolimus and careful monitoring for the trough level should be considered, especially in recipients with the donor CYP3A5 *1 allele. PMID:27503662

  10. Capability of Utilizing CYP3A5 Polymorphisms to Predict Therapeutic Dosage of Tacrolimus at Early Stage Post-Renal Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Niioka, Takenori; Kagaya, Hideaki; Saito, Mitsuru; Inoue, Takamitsu; Numakura, Kazuyuki; Habuchi, Tomonori; Satoh, Shigeru; Miura, Masatomo

    2015-01-01

    While CYP3A5 polymorphisms are used to predict the initial dosage of tacrolimus therapy, the predictive capability of genetic information for dosing at early stage post-renal transplantation is unknown. We investigated the influence of polymorphisms over time. An initial oral dose of modified-release once-daily tacrolimus formulation (0.20 mg/kg) was administered to 50 Japanese renal transplant patients every 24 h. Stepwise multiple linear regression analysis for tacrolimus dosing was performed each week to determine the effect of patient clinical characteristics. The dose-adjusted trough concentration was approximately 70% higher for patients with the CYP3A5*3/*3 than patients with the CYP3A5*1 allele before the second pre-transplantation tacrolimus dose (0.97 (0.78–1.17) vs. 0.59 (0.45–0.87) ng/mL/mg; p < 0.001). The contribution of genetic factors (CYP3A5*1 or *3) for tacrolimus dosing showed increased variation from Day 14 to Day 28 after transplantation: 7.2%, 18.4% and 19.5% on Days 14, 21 and 28, respectively. The influence of CYP3A5 polymorphisms on the tacrolimus maintenance dosage became evident after Day 14 post-transplantation, although the tacrolimus dosage was determined based only on patient body weight for the first three days after surgery. Tacrolimus dosage starting with the initial administration should be individualized using the CYP3A5 genotype information. PMID:25594874

  11. CYP1A1 induction and CYP3A4 inhibition by the fungicide imazalil in the human intestinal Caco-2 cells-comparison with other conazole pesticides.

    PubMed

    Sergent, Thérèse; Dupont, Isabelle; Jassogne, Coralie; Ribonnet, Laurence; van der Heiden, Edwige; Scippo, Marie-Louise; Muller, Marc; McAlister, Dan; Pussemier, Luc; Larondelle, Yvan; Schneider, Yves-Jacques

    2009-02-10

    Imazalil (IMA) is a widely used imidazole-antifungal pesticide and, therefore, a food contaminant. This compound is also used as a drug (enilconazole). As intestine is the first site of exposure to ingested drugs and pollutants, we have investigated the effects of IMA, at realistic intestinal concentrations, on xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes and efflux pumps by using Caco-2 cells, as a validated in vitro model of the human intestinal absorptive epithelium. For comparison, other conazole fungicides, i.e. ketoconazole, propiconazole and tebuconazole, were also studied. IMA induced cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A1 activity to the same extent as benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P) or 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Cell-free aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) binding assay and reporter gene assay suggested that IMA is not an AhR-ligand, implying that IMA-mediated induction should involve an AhR-independent pathway. Moreover, IMA strongly inhibited the CYP3A4 activity in 1,25-vitamin D(3)-induced Caco-2 cells. The other fungicides had weak or nil effects on CYP activities. Study of the apical efflux pump activities revealed that ketoconazole inhibited both P-glycoprotein (Pgp) and multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (MRP-2) or breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), whereas IMA and other fungicides did not. Our results imply that coingestion of IMA-contaminated food and CYP3A4- or CYP1A1-metabolizable drugs or chemicals could lead to drug bioavailability modulation or toxicological interactions, with possible adverse effects for human health.

  12. A novel in vitro approach for simultaneous evaluation of CYP3A4 inhibition and kinetic aqueous solubility.

    PubMed

    Pérez, José; Díaz, Caridad; Asensio, Francisco; Palafox, Alexandra; Genilloud, Olga; Vicente, Francisca

    2015-02-01

    In the early stages of the drug discovery process, evaluation of the drug metabolism and physicochemical properties of new chemical entities is crucial to prioritize those candidates displaying a better profile for further development. In terms of metabolism, drug-drug interactions mediated through CYP450 inhibition are a significant safety concern, and therefore the effect of new candidate drugs on CYP450 activity should be screened early. In the initial stages of drug discovery, when physicochemical properties such as aqueous solubility have not been optimized yet, there might be a large number of candidate compounds showing artificially low CYP450 inhibition, and consequently potential drug-drug interaction toxicity might be overlooked. In this work, we present a novel in vitro approach for simultaneous evaluation of CYP3A4 inhibition potential and kinetic aqueous solubility (NIVA-CYPI-KS). This new methodology is based on fluorogenic CYP450 activities and turbidimetric measurements for compound solubility, and it provides a significant improvement in the use of resources and a better understanding of CYP450 inhibition data.

  13. Content of CYP3A4 inhibitors, naringin, naringenin and bergapten in grapefruit and grapefruit juice products.

    PubMed

    Ho, P C; Saville, D J; Coville, P F; Wanwimolruk, S

    2000-04-01

    The flavonoids, naringin and naringenin and the furanocoumarin, bergapten (5-methoxypsoralen), were detected in some fresh grapefruit and commercial grapefruit juices but were not detected in other fruit juices tested (orange; orange with apple base; dark grape; orange and mango with apple base; orange, peach, passion fruit juice). The contents of these three grapefruit constituents in commercial juice and fresh grapefruit varied from brand to brand and also from lot to lot. Juice was prepared from the fresh fruit via different methods (by hand, squeezer or blender). The naringin content, after hand-squeeze, ranged from 115 to 384 mg/l. With hand-squeeze juice production, bergapten was not detected (less than 0.5 mg/l) in two varieties of grapefruit, and naringenin was usually not in detectable levels (less than 2 mg/l) in three varieties. All three constituents were present in New Zealand grapefruit preparations (including juice by hand-squeeze) and different lots showed variation in content (1.5-, 2.3- and 4.7-fold for naringin, naringenin and bergapten, respectively). Differences in the concentrations of these three constituents, which have potential for drug interaction, may contribute to the variability in pharmacokinetics of CYP3A4 drugs and some contradictory results of drug interaction studies with grapefruit juice. PMID:10812937

  14. Lack of effect of brivanib on the pharmacokinetics of midazolam, a CYP3A4 substrate, administered intravenously and orally in healthy participants.

    PubMed

    Syed, Shariq; Clemens, Pamela L; Lathers, Deanne; Kollia, Georgia; Dhar, Arindam; Walters, Ian; Masson, Eric

    2012-06-01

    Brivanib alaninate is the orally available prodrug of brivanib, a dual inhibitor of fibroblast growth factor and vascular endothelial growth factor signaling pathways that is under therapeutic investigation for various malignancies. Brivanib alaninate inhibits CYP3A4 in vitro, and thus there is potential for drug-drug interaction with CYP3A4 substrates, such as midazolam. The present study evaluated pharmacokinetic parameters and safety/tolerability upon coadministration of brivanib alaninate and midazolam. Healthy participants received intravenous (IV) or oral midazolam with and without oral brivanib alaninate. Blood samples for pharmacokinetic analysis were collected up to 12 hours after midazolam and up to 48 hours after brivanib alaninate. Twenty-four participants were administered study drugs; 21 completed the trial. No clinically relevant effect of brivanib alaninate on the overall exposure to midazolam following IV or oral administration was observed. Orally administered brivanib alaninate was generally well tolerated in the presence of IV or oral midazolam. The lack of a pharmacokinetic interaction between brivanib and midazolam indicates that brivanib alaninate does not influence either intestinal or hepatic CYP3A4 and confirms that brivanib alaninate may be safely coadministered with midazolam and other CYP3A4 substrates. PMID:21659627

  15. Integrated transcriptional and proteomic analysis with in vitro biochemical assay reveal the important role of CYP3A46 in T-2 toxin hydroxylation in porcine primary hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianshe; Jiang, Jun; Zhang, Hongxia; Wang, Junping; Cai, Hua; Li, Cheng; Li, Kangbai; Liu, Jing; Guo, Xuejiang; Zou, Guangxun; Wang, Dazhi; Deng, Yiqun; Dai, Jiayin

    2011-09-01

    Both T-2 toxin and its metabolites are highly potent mycotoxins that can cause severe human and animal diseases upon exposure. Understanding the toxic mechanism and biotransformation process of T-2 toxin at a cellular level is essential for the development of counter-measures. We investigated the effect of T-2 toxin in porcine primary hepatocytes using porcine genome array and two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization tandem time of flight mass spectrometry. Integrated transcriptional and proteomic analysis demonstrated that T-2 toxin adversely affected porcine hepatocytes by initiating lipid metabolism disorder, oxidative stress response, and apoptosis. In addition, xenobiotic metabolism genes, including cytochrome P450 3As (CYP3A46 and CYP3A39), carboxylesterase 1Cs (CES1C4 and CES1C5), and epoxide hydrolase (EPHX1), increased in T-2 toxin treatment cells. Using HepG2 cells to over-express the recombinant xenobiotic metabolism genes above and rapid resolution liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry to detect metabolites of T-2 toxin, we determined that porcine CYP3A46 mainly catalyzed T-2 to form 3'-hydroxy-T-2, which was further confirmed by purified CYP3A46 protein. However, recombinant porcine CES1C5 and EPHX1 did not enhance hydrolysis and de-epoxidation of T-2 implying that other esterases and epoxide hydrolases may play dominant roles in those reactions.

  16. Aspartame Administration and Insulin Treatment Altered Brain Levels of CYP2E1 and CYP3A2 in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats.

    PubMed

    Nosti-Palacios, Rosario; Gómez-Garduño, Josefina; Molina-Ortiz, Dora; Calzada-León, Raúl; Dorado-González, Víctor Manuel; Vences-Mejía, Araceli

    2014-07-17

    This study demonstrates that aspartame consumption and insulin treatment in a juvenile diabetic rat model leads to increase in cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2E1 and CYP3A2 isozymes in brain. Diabetes mellitus was induced in postweaned 21-day-old Wistar male rat by streptozotocin. Animals were randomly assigned to one of the following groups: untreated control, diabetic (D), D-insulin, D-aspartame, or the D-insulin + aspartame-treated group. Brain and liver tissue samples were used to analyze the activity of CYP2E1 and CYP3A2 and protein levels. Our results indicate that combined treatment with insulin and aspartame in juvenile diabetic rats significantly induced CYP2E1 in the cerebrum and cerebellum without modifying it in the liver, while CYP3A2 protein activity increased both in the brain and in the liver. The induction of CYP2E1 in the brain could have important in situ toxicological effects, given that this CYP isoform is capable of bioactivating various toxic substances. Additionally, CYP3A2 induction in the liver and brain could be considered a decisive factor in the variation of drug response and toxicity.

  17. A Systematic Approach to Evaluate Herb-Drug Interaction Mechanisms: Investigation of Milk Thistle Extracts and Eight Isolated Constituents as CYP3A Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Brantley, Scott J.; Graf, Tyler N.; Oberlies, Nicholas H.

    2013-01-01

    Despite increasing recognition of potential untoward interactions between herbal products and conventional medications, a standard system for prospective assessment of these interactions remains elusive. This information gap was addressed by evaluating the drug interaction liability of the model herbal product milk thistle (Silybum marianum) with the CYP3A probe substrate midazolam. The inhibitory effects of commercially available milk thistle extracts and isolated constituents on midazolam 1′-hydroxylation were screened using human liver and intestinal microsomes. Relative to vehicle, the extract silymarin and constituents silybin A, isosilybin A, isosilybin B, and silychristin at 100 μM demonstrated >50% inhibition of CYP3A activity with at least one microsomal preparation, prompting IC50 determination. The IC50s for isosilybin B and silychristin were ∼60 and 90 μM, respectively, whereas those for the remaining constituents were >100 μM. Extracts and constituents that contained the 1,4-dioxane moiety demonstrated a >1.5-fold shift in IC50 when tested as potential mechanism-based inhibitors. The semipurified extract, silibinin, and the two associated constituents (silybin A and silybin B) demonstrated mechanism-based inhibition of recombinant CYP3A4 (KI, ∼100 μM; kinact, ∼0.20 min−1) but not microsomal CYP3A activity. The maximum predicted increases in midazolam area under the curve using the static mechanistic equation and recombinant CYP3A4 data were 1.75-fold, which may necessitate clinical assessment. Evaluation of the interaction liability of single herbal product constituents, in addition to commercially available extracts, will enable elucidation of mechanisms underlying potential clinically significant herb-drug interactions. Application of this framework to other herbal products would permit predictions of herb-drug interactions and assist in prioritizing clinical evaluation. PMID:23801821

  18. Interactions of endosulfan and methoxychlor involving CYP3A4 and CYP2B6 in human HepaRG cells.

    PubMed

    Savary, Camille C; Jossé, Rozenn; Bruyère, Arnaud; Guillet, Fabrice; Robin, Marie-Anne; Guillouzo, André

    2014-08-01

    Humans are usually exposed to several pesticides simultaneously; consequently, combined actions between pesticides themselves or between pesticides and other chemicals need to be addressed in the risk assessment. Many pesticides are efficient activators of pregnane X receptor (PXR) and/or constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), two major nuclear receptors that are also activated by other substrates. In the present work, we searched for interactions between endosulfan and methoxychlor, two organochlorine pesticides whose major routes of metabolism involve CAR- and PXR-regulated CYP3A4 and CYP2B6, and whose mechanisms of action in humans remain poorly understood. For this purpose, HepaRG cells were treated with both pesticides separately or in mixture for 24 hours or 2 weeks at concentrations relevant to human exposure levels. In combination they exerted synergistic cytotoxic effects. Whatever the duration of treatment, both compounds increased CYP3A4 and CYP2B6 mRNA levels while differently affecting their corresponding activities. Endosulfan exerted a direct reversible inhibition of CYP3A4 activity that was confirmed in human liver microsomes. By contrast, methoxychlor induced this activity. The effects of the mixture on CYP3A4 activity were equal to the sum of those of each individual compound, suggesting an additive effect of each pesticide. Despite CYP2B6 activity being unchanged and increased with endosulfan and methoxychlor, respectively, no change was observed with their mixture, supporting an antagonistic effect. Altogether, our data suggest that CAR and PXR activators endosulfan and methoxychlor can interact together and with other exogenous substrates in human hepatocytes. Their effects on CYP3A4 and CYP2B6 activities could have important consequences if extrapolated to the in vivo situation.

  19. A systematic approach to evaluate herb-drug interaction mechanisms: investigation of milk thistle extracts and eight isolated constituents as CYP3A inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Brantley, Scott J; Graf, Tyler N; Oberlies, Nicholas H; Paine, Mary F

    2013-09-01

    Despite increasing recognition of potential untoward interactions between herbal products and conventional medications, a standard system for prospective assessment of these interactions remains elusive. This information gap was addressed by evaluating the drug interaction liability of the model herbal product milk thistle (Silybum marianum) with the CYP3A probe substrate midazolam. The inhibitory effects of commercially available milk thistle extracts and isolated constituents on midazolam 1'-hydroxylation were screened using human liver and intestinal microsomes. Relative to vehicle, the extract silymarin and constituents silybin A, isosilybin A, isosilybin B, and silychristin at 100 μM demonstrated >50% inhibition of CYP3A activity with at least one microsomal preparation, prompting IC50 determination. The IC50s for isosilybin B and silychristin were ∼60 and 90 μM, respectively, whereas those for the remaining constituents were >100 μM. Extracts and constituents that contained the 1,4-dioxane moiety demonstrated a >1.5-fold shift in IC50 when tested as potential mechanism-based inhibitors. The semipurified extract, silibinin, and the two associated constituents (silybin A and silybin B) demonstrated mechanism-based inhibition of recombinant CYP3A4 (KI, ∼100 μM; kinact, ∼0.20 min(-1)) but not microsomal CYP3A activity. The maximum predicted increases in midazolam area under the curve using the static mechanistic equation and recombinant CYP3A4 data were 1.75-fold, which may necessitate clinical assessment. Evaluation of the interaction liability of single herbal product constituents, in addition to commercially available extracts, will enable elucidation of mechanisms underlying potential clinically significant herb-drug interactions. Application of this framework to other herbal products would permit predictions of herb-drug interactions and assist in prioritizing clinical evaluation.

  20. Recommendations on the Development of a Bioanalytical Assay for 4β-Hydroxycholesterol, an Emerging Endogenous Biomarker of CYP3A Activity.

    PubMed

    Aubry, Anne-Françoise; Dean, Brian; Diczfalusy, Ulf; Goodenough, Angela; Iffland, André; McLeod, James; Weng, Naidong; Yang, Ziping

    2016-09-01

    The availability of reliable assays for measuring 4β-hydroxycholesterol (4β-HC), a CYP3A metabolite of cholesterol, is an important step in qualifying this endogenous moiety as a biomarker of CYP3A activity. Liquid and gas chromatographic methods with mass spectrometric detection have been developed with varying sensitivities, with or without derivatization. Care must be taken to chromatographically resolve 4β-HC from the multiple isobaric cholesterol oxidation products present in plasma, including 4α-hydroxycholesterol (4α-HC). Plasma concentrations of 4β-HC are low in humans (10-60 ng/ml), lower than many other cholesterol metabolites and far less than cholesterol itself. Stability of 4β-HC has been established for at least 12 months at -20°C in plasma samples obtained with a typical clinical workflow. Oxidation of plasma cholesterol during storage produces both 4β-HC and 4α-HC, and 4α-HC may be used as assessment of sample quality. As 4β-HC concentrations over time in untreated individuals have low intra-individual variability, assay precision and reproducibility are the key assay attributes in assessing CYP3A4 induction, and potentially inhibition. Assessment of CYP3A4/5 activity with 4β-HC relies on the differences between pre- and post-dose concentrations, in which each subject acts as their own control. To reduce analytical variability, samples from a single subject should be analyzed together to facilitate interpretation of study results. As an endogenous biomarker, 4β-HC offers the opportunity for less invasive assessment of CYP3A induction potential of new drugs during clinical development. PMID:27350147

  1. Different effects of proton pump inhibitors and famotidine on the clopidogrel metabolic activation by recombinant CYP2B6, CYP2C19 and CYP3A4.

    PubMed

    Ohbuchi, Masato; Noguchi, Kiyoshi; Kawamura, Akio; Usui, Takashi

    2012-07-01

    Inhibitory potential of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) and famotidine, an H(2) receptor antagonist, on the metabolic activation of clopidogrel was evaluated using recombinant CYP2B6, CYP2C19 and CYP3A4. Formation of the active metabolite from an intermediate metabolite, 2-oxo-clopidogrel, was investigated by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and three peaks corresponding to the pharmacologically active metabolite and its stereoisomers were detected. Omeprazole potently inhibited clopidogrel activation by CYP2C19 with an IC(50) of 12.8 μmol/L and more weakly inhibited that by CYP2B6 and CYP3A4. IC(50) of omeprazole for CYP2C19 and CYP3A4 was decreased about two- and three-fold, respectively, by 30-min preincubation with NADPH. Lansoprazole, esomeprazole, pantoprazole, rabeprazole and rabeprazole thioether, a major metabolite, also inhibited metabolic activation by CYP2C19, with an IC(50) of 4.3, 8.9, 48.3, 36.2 and 30.5 μmol/L, respectively. In contrast, famotidine showed no more than 20% inhibition of clopidogrel activation by CYP2B6, CYP2C19 and CYP3A4 at up to 100 μmol/L and had no time-dependent CYP2C19 and CYP3A4 inhibition. These results provide direct evidence that PPIs inhibit clopidogrel metabolic activation and suggest that CYP2C19 inhibition is the main cause of drug-drug interaction between clopidogrel and omeprazole. Famotidine is considered as a safe anti-acid agent for patients taking clopidogrel. PMID:22313038

  2. Prediction of Drug-Drug Interactions Arising from CYP3A induction Using a Physiologically Based Dynamic Model.

    PubMed

    Almond, Lisa M; Mukadam, Sophie; Gardner, Iain; Okialda, Krystle; Wong, Susan; Hatley, Oliver; Tay, Suzanne; Rowland-Yeo, Karen; Jamei, Masoud; Rostami-Hodjegan, Amin; Kenny, Jane R

    2016-06-01

    Using physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling, we predicted the magnitude of drug-drug interactions (DDIs) for studies with rifampicin and seven CYP3A4 probe substrates administered i.v. (10 studies) or orally (19 studies). The results showed a tendency to underpredict the DDI magnitude when the victim drug was administered orally. Possible sources of inaccuracy were investigated systematically to determine the most appropriate model refinement. When the maximal fold induction (Indmax) for rifampicin was increased (from 8 to 16) in both the liver and the gut, or when the Indmax was increased in the gut but not in liver, there was a decrease in bias and increased precision compared with the base model (Indmax = 8) [geometric mean fold error (GMFE) 2.12 vs. 1.48 and 1.77, respectively]. Induction parameters (mRNA and activity), determined for rifampicin, carbamazepine, phenytoin, and phenobarbital in hepatocytes from four donors, were then used to evaluate use of the refined rifampicin model for calibration. Calibration of mRNA and activity data for other inducers using the refined rifampicin model led to more accurate DDI predictions compared with the initial model (activity GMFE 1.49 vs. 1.68; mRNA GMFE 1.35 vs. 1.46), suggesting that robust in vivo reference values can be used to overcome interdonor and laboratory-to-laboratory variability. Use of uncalibrated data also performed well (GMFE 1.39 and 1.44 for activity and mRNA). As a result of experimental variability (i.e., in donors and protocols), it is prudent to fully characterize in vitro induction with prototypical inducers to give an understanding of how that particular system extrapolates to the in vivo situation when using an uncalibrated approach. PMID:27026679

  3. Prediction of Drug-Drug Interactions Arising from CYP3A induction Using a Physiologically Based Dynamic Model

    PubMed Central

    Mukadam, Sophie; Gardner, Iain; Okialda, Krystle; Wong, Susan; Hatley, Oliver; Tay, Suzanne; Rowland-Yeo, Karen; Jamei, Masoud; Rostami-Hodjegan, Amin; Kenny, Jane R.

    2016-01-01

    Using physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling, we predicted the magnitude of drug-drug interactions (DDIs) for studies with rifampicin and seven CYP3A4 probe substrates administered i.v. (10 studies) or orally (19 studies). The results showed a tendency to underpredict the DDI magnitude when the victim drug was administered orally. Possible sources of inaccuracy were investigated systematically to determine the most appropriate model refinement. When the maximal fold induction (Indmax) for rifampicin was increased (from 8 to 16) in both the liver and the gut, or when the Indmax was increased in the gut but not in liver, there was a decrease in bias and increased precision compared with the base model (Indmax = 8) [geometric mean fold error (GMFE) 2.12 vs. 1.48 and 1.77, respectively]. Induction parameters (mRNA and activity), determined for rifampicin, carbamazepine, phenytoin, and phenobarbital in hepatocytes from four donors, were then used to evaluate use of the refined rifampicin model for calibration. Calibration of mRNA and activity data for other inducers using the refined rifampicin model led to more accurate DDI predictions compared with the initial model (activity GMFE 1.49 vs. 1.68; mRNA GMFE 1.35 vs. 1.46), suggesting that robust in vivo reference values can be used to overcome interdonor and laboratory-to-laboratory variability. Use of uncalibrated data also performed well (GMFE 1.39 and 1.44 for activity and mRNA). As a result of experimental variability (i.e., in donors and protocols), it is prudent to fully characterize in vitro induction with prototypical inducers to give an understanding of how that particular system extrapolates to the in vivo situation when using an uncalibrated approach. PMID:27026679

  4. The effect of CYP3A inhibitors and inducers on the pharmacokinetics of telaprevir in healthy volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Garg, Varun; Chandorkar, Gurudatt; Yang, Yijun; Adda, Nathalie; McNair, Lindsay; Alves, Katia; Smith, Frances; Heeswijk, Rolf P G

    2013-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the effects of ketoconazole, rifampicin and efavirenz on the pharmacokinetics of telaprevir in healthy volunteers. METHOD Results from three clinical studies are described. (1) Volunteers received a single 750 mg dose telaprevir with and without a single 400 mg dose ketoconazole. (2) Volunteers received (a) 1250 mg telaprevir followed by three 750 mg doses given every 8 h and (b) four 1250 mg telaprevir doses given every 8 h, with a single 400 mg dose ketoconazole given with the fourth dose of telaprevir. (3) Volunteers received either a single 750 mg dose telaprevir with or without 600 mg once daily rifampicin, or 750 mg every 8 h telaprevir with and without 600 mg once daily efavirenz. RESULTS A single 400 mg dose of ketoconazole increased single dose telaprevir exposure: the geometric least-squares mean ratio (GLSMR, with 90% confidence limits) was 1.24 (1.10, 1.41) for Cmax and 1.62 (1.45, 1.81) for AUC(0,∞). However, after multiple doses of telaprevir, there was no discernible effect of ketoconazole on telaprevir exposure. Co-administration of rifampicin at steady-state markedly reduced single dose telaprevir exposure with GLSMRs of 0.14 (0.11, 0.18) for Cmax and 0.08 (0.07, 0.11) for AUC(0,∞), whereas efavirenz had a smaller effect on telaprevir exposure when both drugs were co-administered at steady-state, with GLSMRs of 0.91 (0.81, 1.02) for Cmax, 0.53 (0.44, 0.65) for Cmin, and 0.74 (0.65, 0.84) for AUC(0,8 h). CONCLUSION CYP3A inducers, rifampicin and efavirenz, can reduce telaprevir exposure to varying degrees based on their potency. The effect of ketoconazole as an inhibitor of telaprevir metabolism is more pronounced after a single dose of telaprevir than after repeated administration. PMID:22642697

  5. Milk thistle, a herbal supplement, decreases the activity of CYP3A4 and uridine diphosphoglucuronosyl transferase in human hepatocyte cultures.

    PubMed

    Venkataramanan, R; Ramachandran, V; Komoroski, B J; Zhang, S; Schiff, P L; Strom, S C

    2000-11-01

    Milk thistle extract is one of the most commonly used nontraditional therapies, particularly in Germany. Milk thistle is known to contain a number of flavonolignans. We evaluated the effect of silymarin, on the activity of various hepatic drug-metabolizing enzymes in human hepatocyte cultures. Treatment with silymarin (0.1 and 0.25 mM) significantly reduced the activity of CYP3A4 enzyme (by 50 and 100%, respectively) as determined by the formation of 6-beta-hydroxy testosterone and the activity of uridine diphosphoglucuronosyl transferase (UGT1A6/9) (by 65 and 100%, respectively) as measured by the formation of 4-methylumbelliferone glucuronide. Silymarin (0.5 mM) also significantly decreased mitochondrial respiration as determined by MTT reduction in human hepatocytes. These observations point to the potential of silymarin to impair hepatic metabolism of certain coadministered drugs in humans. Indiscriminate use of herbal products may lead to altered pharmacokinetics of certain drugs and may result in increased toxicity of certain drugs.

  6. Contribution of the activities of CYP3A, CYP2D6, CYP1A2 and other potential covariates to the disposition of methadone in patients undergoing methadone maintenance treatment

    PubMed Central

    Shiran, Mohammad-Reza; Lennard, Martin S; Iqbal, Mohammad-Zafar; Lagundoye, Oldwale; Seivewright, Nicholas; Tucker, Geoffrey T; Rostami-Hodjegan, Amin

    2009-01-01

    AIMS To investigate the influence of different cytochrome P450 (CYP) activities and other potential covariates on the disposition of methadone in patients on methadone maintenance therapy (MMT). METHODS Eighty-eight patients (58 male; 21–55 years; 84 White) on MMT were studied. CYP2D6 activity [3 h plasma metabolic ratio of dextromethorphan (DEX) to dextrorphan (DOR)] was determined in 44 patients (29 male; 24–55 years), CYP1A2 activity (salivary caffeine elimination half-life) in 44 patients (21 male; 24–55 years) and CYP3A activity (oral clearance of midazolam) in 49 patients (33 male; 23–55 years). Data on all three CYPs were obtained from 32 subjects. Total plasma concentrations of (RS)-methadone and total and unbound plasma concentrations of both enantiomers were measured by LC/MS. Population pharmacokinetics and subsequent multiple regression analysis were used to calculate methadone oral clearance and to identify its covariates. RESULTS Between 61 and 68% of the overall variation in total plasma trough concentrations of (RS)-, (R)- and (S)-methadone was explained by methadone dose, duration of addiction before starting MMT, CYP3A activity and illicit morphine use. CYP3A activity explained 22, 16, 15 and 23% of the variation in unbound (R)-, unbound (S)-, total (RS)- and total (S)-methadone clearances, respectively. Neither CYP2D6 nor CYP1A2 activity was related to methadone disposition. CONCLUSIONS CYP3A activity has a modest influence on methadone disposition. Inhibitors and inducers of this enzyme should be monitored in patients taking methadone. PMID:19133059

  7. Population pharmacokinetic approach to evaluate the effect of CYP2D6, CYP3A, ABCB1, POR and NR1I2 genotypes on donepezil clearance

    PubMed Central

    Noetzli, Muriel; Guidi, Monia; Ebbing, Karsten; Eyer, Stephan; Wilhelm, Laurence; Michon, Agnès; Thomazic, Valérie; Stancu, Ioana; Alnawaqil, Abdel-Messieh; Bula, Christophe; Zumbach, Serge; Gaillard, Michel; Giannakopoulos, Panteleimon; von Gunten, Armin; Csajka, Chantal; Eap, Chin B

    2014-01-01

    Aims A large interindividual variability in plasma concentrations has been reported in patients treated with donepezil, the most frequently prescribed antidementia drug. We aimed to evaluate clinical and genetic factors influencing donepezil disposition in a patient population recruited from a naturalistic setting. Methods A population pharmacokinetic study was performed including data from 129 older patients treated with donepezil. The patients were genotyped for common polymorphisms in the metabolic enzymes CYP2D6 and CYP3A, in the electron transferring protein POR and the nuclear factor NR1I2 involved in CYP activity and expression, and in the drug transporter ABCB1. Results The average donepezil clearance was 7.3 l h−1 with a 30% interindividual variability. Gender markedly influenced donepezil clearance (P < 0.01). Functional alleles of CYP2D6 were identified as unique significant genetic covariate for donepezil clearance (P < 0.01), with poor metabolizers and ultrarapid metabolizers demonstrating, respectively, a 32% slower and a 67% faster donepezil elimination compared with extensive metabolizers. Conclusion The pharmacokinetic parameters of donepezil were well described by the developed population model. Functional alleles of CYP2D6 significantly contributed to the variability in donepezil disposition in the patient population and should be further investigated in the context of individual dose optimization to improve clinical outcome and tolerability of the treatment. PMID:24433464

  8. Prediction of the intestinal first-pass metabolism of CYP3A and UGT substrates in humans from in vitro data.

    PubMed

    Nishimuta, Haruka; Sato, Kimihiko; Yabuki, Masashi; Komuro, Setsuko

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to establish a practical and simplified method of predicting intestinal availability in humans (F(g,human)) at the drug discovery stage using in vitro metabolic clearance values and permeability clearance values. A prediction model for F(g,human) of 19 CYP3A substrates and 5 UGT substrates was constructed based on the concept that the permeability clearance values mean the permeability across the basal membrane with a pH of 7.4 on both sides. Permeability clearance values were obtained by parallel artificial membrane permeability assay (PAMPA) at pH 7.4. PAMPA is widely used in the pharmaceutical industry as the earliest primary screening stage and enables estimation of the kinetics of transport by passive diffusion. For CYP3A substrates, the metabolic clearance was obtained from in vitro intrinsic clearance values in human intestinal or hepatic microsomes (CL(int,HIM) or CL(int,HLM), respectively). Using metabolic clearances corrected by the ratio of CL(int,HIM) to CL(int,HLM), HLM showed equivalent predictability to that of HIM for CYP3A substrates. For UGT substrates, the clearance was obtained from alamethicin-activated HIM using one incubation with both NADPH and UDPGA cofactors. The method proposed in this study could predict F(g,human) for the compounds investigated and represents a simplified method based on a new concept applicable to lower permeability compounds.

  9. Influence of Panax ginseng on cytochrome P450 (CYP)3A and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) activity in healthy participants.

    PubMed

    Malati, Christine Y; Robertson, Sarah M; Hunt, Jennifer D; Chairez, Cheryl; Alfaro, Raul M; Kovacs, Joseph A; Penzak, Scott R

    2012-06-01

    A number of herbal preparations have been shown to interact with prescription medications secondary to modulation of cytochrome P450 (CYP) and/or P-glycoprotein (P-gp). The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of Panax ginseng on CYP3A and P-gp function using the probe substrates midazolam and fexofenadine, respectively. Twelve healthy participants (8 men) completed this open-label, single-sequence pharmacokinetic study. Healthy volunteers received single oral doses of midazolam 8 mg and fexofenadine 120 mg, before and after 28 days of P ginseng 500 mg twice daily. Midazolam and fexofenadine pharmacokinetic parameter values were calculated and compared before and after P ginseng administration. Geometric mean ratios (postginseng/preginseng) for midazolam area under the concentration-time curve from zero to infinity (AUC(0-∞)), half-life (t(1/2)), and maximum concentration (C(max)) were significantly reduced at 0.66 (0.55-0.78), 0.71 (0.53-0.90), and 0.74 (0.56-0.93), respectively. Conversely, fexofenadine pharmacokinetics were unaltered by P ginseng administration. Based on these results, P ginseng appeared to induce CYP3A activity in the liver and possibly the gastrointestinal tract. Patients taking P ginseng in combination with CYP3A substrates with narrow therapeutic ranges should be monitored closely for adequate therapeutic response to the substrate medication. PMID:21646440

  10. Modeling chemical interaction profiles: II. Molecular docking, spectral data-activity relationship, and structure-activity relationship models for potent and weak inhibitors of cytochrome P450 CYP3A4 isozyme.

    PubMed

    Tie, Yunfeng; McPhail, Brooks; Hong, Huixiao; Pearce, Bruce A; Schnackenberg, Laura K; Ge, Weigong; Buzatu, Dan A; Wilkes, Jon G; Fuscoe, James C; Tong, Weida; Fowler, Bruce A; Beger, Richard D; Demchuk, Eugene

    2012-03-15

    Polypharmacy increasingly has become a topic of public health concern, particularly as the U.S. population ages. Drug labels often contain insufficient information to enable the clinician to safely use multiple drugs. Because many of the drugs are bio-transformed by cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes, inhibition of CYP activity has long been associated with potentially adverse health effects. In an attempt to reduce the uncertainty pertaining to CYP-mediated drug-drug/chemical interactions, an interagency collaborative group developed a consensus approach to prioritizing information concerning CYP inhibition. The consensus involved computational molecular docking, spectral data-activity relationship (SDAR), and structure-activity relationship (SAR) models that addressed the clinical potency of CYP inhibition. The models were built upon chemicals that were categorized as either potent or weak inhibitors of the CYP3A4 isozyme. The categorization was carried out using information from clinical trials because currently available in vitro high-throughput screening data were not fully representative of the in vivo potency of inhibition. During categorization it was found that compounds, which break the Lipinski rule of five by molecular weight, were about twice more likely to be inhibitors of CYP3A4 compared to those, which obey the rule. Similarly, among inhibitors that break the rule, potent inhibitors were 2-3 times more frequent. The molecular docking classification relied on logistic regression, by which the docking scores from different docking algorithms, CYP3A4 three-dimensional structures, and binding sites on them were combined in a unified probabilistic model. The SDAR models employed a multiple linear regression approach applied to binned 1D ¹³C-NMR and 1D ¹⁵N-NMR spectral descriptors. Structure-based and physical-chemical descriptors were used as the basis for developing SAR models by the decision forest method. Thirty-three potent inhibitors and 88 weak

  11. VX-509 (Decernotinib)-Mediated CYP3A Time-Dependent Inhibition: An Aldehyde Oxidase Metabolite as a Perpetrator of Drug-Drug Interactions.

    PubMed

    Zetterberg, Craig; Maltais, Francois; Laitinen, Leena; Liao, Shengkai; Tsao, Hong; Chakilam, Ananthsrinivas; Hariparsad, Niresh

    2016-08-01

    (R)-2-((2-(1H-pyrrolo[2,3-b]pyridin-3-yl)pyrimidin-4-yl)amino)-2-methyl-N-(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl)butanamide (VX-509, decernotinib) is an oral Janus kinase 3 inhibitor that has been studied in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Patients with rheumatoid arthritis often receive multiple medications, such as statins and steroids, to manage the signs and symptoms of comorbidities, which increases the chances of drug-drug interactions (DDIs). Mechanism-based inhibition is a subset of time-dependent inhibition (TDI) and occurs when a molecule forms a reactive metabolite which irreversibly binds and inactivates drug-metabolizing enzymes, potentially increasing the systemic load to toxic concentrations. Traditionally, perpetrating compounds are screened using human liver microsomes (HLMs); however, this system may be inadequate when the precipitant is activated by a non-cytochrome P450 (P450)-mediated pathway. Even though studies assessing competitive inhibition and TDI using HLM suggested a low risk for CYP3A4-mediated DDI in the clinic, VX-509 increased the area under the curve of midazolam, atorvastatin, and methyl-prednisolone by approximately 12.0-, 2.7-, and 4.3-fold, respectively. Metabolite identification studies using human liver cytosol indicated that VX-509 is converted to an oxidative metabolite, which is the perpetrator of the DDIs observed in the clinic. As opposed to HLM, hepatocytes contain the full complement of drug-metabolizing enzymes and transporters and can be used to assess TDI arising from non-P450-mediated metabolic pathways. In the current study, we highlight the role of aldehyde oxidase in the formation of the hydroxyl-metabolite of VX-509, which is involved in clinically significant TDI-based DDIs and represents an additional example in which a system-dependent prediction of TDI would be evident.

  12. VX-509 (Decernotinib)-Mediated CYP3A Time-Dependent Inhibition: An Aldehyde Oxidase Metabolite as a Perpetrator of Drug-Drug Interactions.

    PubMed

    Zetterberg, Craig; Maltais, Francois; Laitinen, Leena; Liao, Shengkai; Tsao, Hong; Chakilam, Ananthsrinivas; Hariparsad, Niresh

    2016-08-01

    (R)-2-((2-(1H-pyrrolo[2,3-b]pyridin-3-yl)pyrimidin-4-yl)amino)-2-methyl-N-(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl)butanamide (VX-509, decernotinib) is an oral Janus kinase 3 inhibitor that has been studied in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Patients with rheumatoid arthritis often receive multiple medications, such as statins and steroids, to manage the signs and symptoms of comorbidities, which increases the chances of drug-drug interactions (DDIs). Mechanism-based inhibition is a subset of time-dependent inhibition (TDI) and occurs when a molecule forms a reactive metabolite which irreversibly binds and inactivates drug-metabolizing enzymes, potentially increasing the systemic load to toxic concentrations. Traditionally, perpetrating compounds are screened using human liver microsomes (HLMs); however, this system may be inadequate when the precipitant is activated by a non-cytochrome P450 (P450)-mediated pathway. Even though studies assessing competitive inhibition and TDI using HLM suggested a low risk for CYP3A4-mediated DDI in the clinic, VX-509 increased the area under the curve of midazolam, atorvastatin, and methyl-prednisolone by approximately 12.0-, 2.7-, and 4.3-fold, respectively. Metabolite identification studies using human liver cytosol indicated that VX-509 is converted to an oxidative metabolite, which is the perpetrator of the DDIs observed in the clinic. As opposed to HLM, hepatocytes contain the full complement of drug-metabolizing enzymes and transporters and can be used to assess TDI arising from non-P450-mediated metabolic pathways. In the current study, we highlight the role of aldehyde oxidase in the formation of the hydroxyl-metabolite of VX-509, which is involved in clinically significant TDI-based DDIs and represents an additional example in which a system-dependent prediction of TDI would be evident. PMID:27298338

  13. Downregulation of CYP3A and P-glycoprotein in the secondary inflammatory response of mice with dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis and its contribution to cyclosporine A blood concentrations.

    PubMed

    Kawauchi, Shoji; Nakamura, Tsutomu; Miki, Ikuya; Inoue, Jun; Hamaguchi, Tsuneo; Tanahashi, Toshihito; Mizuno, Shigeto

    2014-01-01

    CYP3A and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) play important roles in drug metabolism and excretion; however, their functions in pathological conditions remain unclear. Hepatobiliary abnormalities have been described in patients with ulcerative colitis, which may affect drug metabolism and excretion in the liver and small intestine. We examined the functions of CYP3A and P-gp in the liver and small intestine of mice with dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis. Up to day 7, inflammatory markers were significantly increased in the livers of DSS-treated mice, accompanied by decreased CYP3A. Additionally hepatobiliary transporters and Pregnane X receptor, which regulates the transcriptional activation of CYP3A, were reduced. Both CYP3A and P-gp were significantly decreased in the upper small intestine of DSS-treated mice on day 7. This was associated with the increased expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase, but not changes in nuclear receptor expression. On day 7 of DSS treatment, the concentrations of cyclosporine A (CsA), a substrate of both CYP3A and P-gp, were significantly higher than controls. These results indicated the existence of a second inflammatory response in the liver and upper small intestine of mice with DSS-induced colitis, and bioavailability of CsA was increased by the dysfunction of CYP3A and P-gp in these organs.

  14. Prevalence of CYP2D6*2, CYP2D6*4, CYP2D6*10, and CYP3A5*3 in Thai breast cancer patients undergoing tamoxifen treatment

    PubMed Central

    Charoenchokthavee, Wanaporn; Panomvana, Duangchit; Sriuranpong, Virote; Areepium, Nutthada

    2016-01-01

    Background Tamoxifen (TAM) is used in breast cancer treatment, but interindividual variabilities in TAM-metabolizing enzymes exist and have been linked to single nucleotide polymorphisms in the respective encoding genes. The different alleles and genotypes of these genes have been presented for Caucasians and Asians. This study aimed to explore the prevalence of the incomplete functional alleles and genotypes of the CYP2D6 and CYP3A5 genes in Thai breast cancer patients undergoing TAM treatment. Patients and methods In total, 134 Thai breast cancer patients were randomly invited to join the Thai Tamoxifen Project. Their blood samples were collected and extracted for individual DNA. The alleles and genotypes were determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction with TaqMan® Drug Metabolism Genotyping Assays. Results The patients were aged from 27.0 years to 82.0 years with a body mass index range from 15.4 to 40.0, with the majority (103/134) in the early stage (stages 0–II) of breast cancer. The median duration of TAM administration was 17.2 months (interquartile range 16.1 months). Most (53%) of the patients were premenopausal with an estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) status of ER+/PR+ (71.7%), ER+/PR− (26.9%), ER−/PR+ (0.7%), and ER−/PR− (0.7%). The allele frequencies of CYP2D6*1, CYP2D6*2, CYP2D6*4, CYP2D6*10, CYP3A5*1, and CYP3A5*3 were 72.9%, 3.2%, 1.1%, 22.8%, 37.3%, and 62.7%, respectively, while the genotype frequencies of CYP2D6*1/*1, CYP2D6*1/*2, CYP2D6*2/*2, CYP2D6*4/*4, CYP2D6*1/*10, CYP2D6*2/*10, CYP2D6*4/*10, CYP2D6*10/*10, CYP3A5*1/*1, CYP3A5*1/*3, and CYP3A5*3/*3 were 9.7%, 2.2%, 3.7%, 1.5%, 15.7%, 9.7%, 3.7%, 53.7%, 13.4%, 47.8%, and 38.8%, respectively. Conclusion The majority (97.8%) of Thai breast cancer patients undergoing TAM treatment carry at least one incomplete functional allele, including 20.9% of the patients who carry only incomplete functional alleles for both the CYP2D6 and CYP3A5 genes. This research

  15. Modulation of human cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in Caco-2 cell monolayers by selected commercial-source milk thistle and goldenseal products.

    PubMed

    Budzinski, Jason W; Trudeau, Vance L; Drouin, Cathy E; Panahi, Mitra; Arnason, J Thor; Foster, Brian C

    2007-09-01

    In this study, we used an in vitro Caco-2 cell monolayer model to evaluate aqueous extracts of commercial-source goldenseal (Hydrastis canadensis) and milk thistle (Silybum marianum) capsule formulations, their marker phytochemicals (berberine and silibinin, respectively), as well as dillapiol, vinblastine, and the HIV protease inhibitor saquinavir for their ability to modulate CYP3A4 and ABCB1 expression after short-term exposure (48 h). Both upregulation and downregulation of CYP3A4 expression was observed with extracts of varying concentrations of the two natural health products (NHPs). CYP3A4 was highly responsive in our system, showing a strong dose-dependent modulation by the CYP3A4 inhibitor dillapiol (upregulation) and the milk thistle flavonolignan silibinin (downregulation). ABCB1 was largely unresponsive in this cellular model and appears to be of little value as a biomarker under our experimental conditions. Therefore, the modulation of CYP3A4 gene expression can serve as an important marker for the in vitro assessment of NHP-drug interactions.

  16. The Absence of CYP3A5*3 Is a Protective Factor to Anticonvulsants Hypersensitivity Reactions: A Case-Control Study in Brazilian Subjects.

    PubMed

    Tanno, Luciana Kase; Kerr, Daniel Shikanai; dos Santos, Bernardo; Talib, Leda Leme; Yamaguti, Célia; Rodrigues, Helcio; Gattaz, Wagner Farid; Kalil, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Although aromatic anticonvulsants are usually well tolerated, they can cause cutaneous adverse drug reactions in up to 10% of patients. The clinical manifestations of the antiepileptics-induced hypersensitivity reactions (AHR) vary from mild skin rashes to severe cutaneous drug adverse reactions which are related to high mortality and significant morbidity. Genetic polymorphisms in cytochrome P450 genes are associated with altered enzymatic activity and may contribute to the risk of AHR. Here we present a case-control study in which we genotyped SNPs of CYP2C19, 2C9 and 3A5 of 55 individuals with varying severities of AHR, 83 tolerant, and 366 healthy control subjects from São Paulo, Brazil. Clinical characterization was based on standardized scoring systems and drug patch test. All in vivo investigation followed the ENDA (European Network of Drug Allergy) recommendations. Genotype was determined by real time PCR using peripheral blood DNA as a template. Of all 504 subjects, 65% were females, 45% self-identified as Afro-American, 38% as Caucasian and 17% as having non-African mixed ascendancy. Amongst 55 subjects with AHR, 44 had severe cutaneous drug adverse reactions. Of the 46 drug patch tests performed, 29 (63%) were positive. We found a strong association between the absence of CYP3A5*3 and tolerant subjects when compared to AHR (p = 0.0002, OR = 5.28 [CI95% 2.09-14.84]). None of our groups presented positive association with CYP2C19 and 2C9 polymorphisms, however, both SNPs contributed to separation of cases and tolerants in a Classification and Regression Tree. Our findings indicate that drug metabolism genes can contribute in the tolerability of antiepileptics. CYP3A5*3 is the most prevalent CYP3A5 allele associated with reduced enzymatic function. The current study provides evidence that normal CYP3A5 activity might be a protective factor to aromatic antiepileptics-induced hypersensitivity reactions in Brazilian subjects. PMID:26291084

  17. CYP3A-mediated apoptosis of dauricine in cultured human bronchial epithelial cells and in lungs of CD-1 mice

    SciTech Connect

    Jin, Hua; Shen, Shuijie; Chen, Xiaoyan; Zhong, Dafang; Zheng, Jiang

    2012-06-15

    Dauricine is the major bioactive component isolated from the root of Menispermum dauricum DC and has shown promising pharmacologic activities with a great potential for clinical use. Recently, we found that intraperitoneal exposure of dauricine produced selective pulmonary injury in mice. A quinone methide metabolite of dauricine was identified and is suggested to be associated with the pulmonary toxicity of dauricine. The present study evaluated the apoptotic effect of dauricine in cultured cells and mice, determined the change in cellular glutathione (GSH) contents after exposure to dauricine, investigated the role of GSH depletion in dauricine-induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis, and examined the role of CYP3A in dauricine-induced GSH depletion and apoptosis. Dauricine was found to induce apoptosis in NL-20 cells. Additionally, intraperitoneal administration of dauricine caused GSH depletion and apoptosis in lungs of mice. Treatment with ketoconazole, an inhibitor of CYP3A, reversed cellular GSH depletion in lungs of mice given dauricine and showed protective effect on dauricine-induced apoptosis in lungs of mice. This indicates that metabolic activation is involved in dauricine-induced GSH-depletion, cytotoxicity and apoptosis. The glutathione depletor L-buthionine sulfoximine showed potentiating effect on cytotoxicity and apoptosis induced by dauricine. We propose that dauricine is metabolized to a quinone methide intermediate which depletes cellular GSH, and the depletion of GSH may trigger and/or intensify the cytotoxicity and apoptosis induced by dauricine. -- Highlights: ► Dauricine induced apoptosis in lungs in mice and in cultured human pulmonary cells. ► Dauricine depleted cellular GSH in lungs of mice and in the human pulmonary cells. ► CYP3A subfamily mediated GSH depletion and apoptosis induced by dauricine. ► L-Buthionine sulfoximine potentiated dauricine-induced GSH depletion and apoptosis.

  18. Comparative inhibitory potential of selected dietary bioactive polyphenols, phytosterols on CYP3A4 and CYP2D6 with fluorometric high-throughput screening.

    PubMed

    Vijayakumar, Thangavel Mahalingam; Kumar, Ramasamy Mohan; Agrawal, Aruna; Dubey, Govind Prasad; Ilango, Kaliappan

    2015-07-01

    Cytochrome P450 (CYP450) inhibition by the bioactive molecules of dietary supplements or herbal products leading to greater potential for toxicity of co-administered drugs. The present study was aimed to compare the inhibitory potential of selected common dietary bioactive molecules (Gallic acid, Ellagic acid, β-Sitosterol, Stigmasterol, Quercetin and Rutin) on CYP3A4 and CYP2D6 to assess safety through its inhibitory potency and to predict interaction potential with co-administered drugs. CYP450-CO complex assay was carried out for all the selected dietary bioactive molecules in isolated rat microsomes. CYP450 concentration of the rat liver microsome was found to be 0.474 nmol/mg protein, quercetin in DMSO has shown maximum inhibition on CYP450 (51.02 ± 1.24 %) but less when compared with positive control (79.02 ± 1.61 %). In high throughput fluorometric assay, IC50 value of quercetin (49.08 ± 1.02-54.36 ± 0.85 μg/ml) and gallic acid (78.46 ± 1.32-83.84 ± 1.06 μg/ml) was lower than other bioactive compounds on CYP3A4 and CYP2D6 respectively but it was higher than positive controls (06.28 ± 1.76-07.74 ± 1.32 μg/ml). In comparison of in vitro inhibitory potential on CYP3A4 and CYP2D6, consumption of food or herbal or dietary supplements containing quercetin and gallic acid without any limitation should be carefully considered when narrow therapeutic drugs are administered together. PMID:26139922

  19. Sulforaphane- and phenethyl isothiocyanate-induced inhibition of aflatoxin B1-mediated genotoxicity in human hepatocytes: role of GSTM1 genotype and CYP3A4 gene expression.

    PubMed

    Gross-Steinmeyer, Kerstin; Stapleton, Patricia L; Tracy, Julia H; Bammler, Theo K; Strom, Stephen C; Eaton, David L

    2010-08-01

    Primary cultures of human hepatocytes were used to investigate whether the dietary isothiocyanates, sulforaphane (SFN), and phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC) can reduce DNA adduct formation of the hepatocarcinogen aflatoxin B(1) (AFB). Following 48 h of pretreatment, 10 and 50 microM SFN greatly decreased AFB-DNA adduct levels, whereas 25muM PEITC decreased AFB-DNA adducts in some but not all hepatocyte preparations. Microarray and quantitative reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR analyses of gene expression in SFN and PEITC-treated hepatocytes demonstrated that SFN greatly decreased cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 mRNA but did not induce the expression of either glutathione S-transferase (GST) M1 or GSTT1. The protective effects of SFN required pretreatment; cotreatment of hepatocytes with SFN and AFB in the absence of pretreatment had no effect on AFB-DNA adduct formation. When AFB-DNA adduct formation was evaluated by GST genotype, the presence of one or two functional alleles of GSTM1 was associated with a 75% reduction in AFB-DNA adducts, compared with GSTM1 null. In conclusion, these results demonstrate that the inhibition of AFB-DNA adduct formation by SFN is dependent on changes in gene expression rather than direct inhibition of catalytic activity. Transcriptional repression of genes involved in AFB bioactivation (CYP3A4 and CYP1A2), but not transcriptional activation of GSTs, may be responsible for the protective effects of SFN. Although GSTM1 expression was not induced by SFN, the presence of a functional GSTM1 allele can afford substantial protection against AFB-DNA damage in human liver. The downregulation of CYP3A4 by SFN may have important implications for drug interactions. PMID:20442190

  20. Evaluation of various static in vitro-in vivo extrapolation models for risk assessment of the CYP3A inhibition potential of an investigational drug.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Md L T; Kirby, B; Ragueneau-Majlessi, I; Galetin, A; Chien, J Y L; Einolf, H J; Fahmi, O A; Fischer, V; Fretland, A; Grime, K; Hall, S D; Higgs, R; Plowchalk, D; Riley, R; Seibert, E; Skordos, K; Snoeys, J; Venkatakrishnan, K; Waterhouse, T; Obach, R S; Berglund, E G; Zhang, L; Zhao, P; Reynolds, K S; Huang, S-M

    2014-02-01

    Nine static models (seven basic and two mechanistic) and their respective cutoff values used for predicting cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A) inhibition, as recommended by the US Food and Drug Administration and the European Medicines Agency, were evaluated using data from 119 clinical studies with orally administered midazolam as a substrate. Positive predictive error (PPE) and negative predictive error (NPE) rates were used to assess model performance, based on a cutoff of 1.25-fold change in midazolam area under the curve (AUC) by inhibitor. For reversible inhibition, basic models using total or unbound systemic inhibitor concentration [I] had high NPE rates (46-47%), whereas those using intestinal luminal ([I]gut) values had no NPE but a higher PPE. All basic models for time-dependent inhibition had no NPE and reasonable PPE rates (15-18%). Mechanistic static models that incorporate all interaction mechanisms and organ specific [I] values (enterocyte and hepatic inlet) provided a higher predictive precision, a slightly increased NPE, and a reasonable PPE. Various cutoffs for predicting the likelihood of CYP3A inhibition were evaluated for mechanistic models, and a cutoff of 1.25-fold change in midazolam AUC appears appropriate. PMID:24048277

  1. The effect of induction of CYP3A4 by St John's wort on ambrisentan plasma pharmacokinetics in volunteers of known CYP2C19 genotype.

    PubMed

    Markert, Christoph; Kastner, Ida Maria; Hellwig, Regina; Kalafut, Peter; Schweizer, Yvonne; Hoffmann, Michael Marcus; Burhenne, Jürgen; Weiss, Johanna; Mikus, Gerd; Haefeli, Walter Emil

    2015-05-01

    To evaluate the impact of CYP2C19 polymorphisms on ambrisentan exposure and to assess its modification by St. John's wort (SJW), 20 healthy volunteers (10 CYP2C19 extensive, four poor and six ultrarapid metabolizers) received therapeutic doses of ambrisentan (5 mg qd po) for 20 days and concomitantly SJW (300 mg tid po) for the last 10 days. To quantify changes of CYP3A4 activity, midazolam (3 mg po) as a probe drug was used. Ambrisentan pharmacokinetics was assessed on days 1, 10 and 20, and midazolam pharmacokinetics before and on days 1, 10, 17 and 20. At steady state, ambrisentan exposure was similar in extensive and ultrarapid metabolizers but 43% larger in poor metabolizers (p < 0.01). In all volunteers, SJW reduced ambrisentan exposure and the relative change (17-26%) was similar in all genotype groups. The extent of this interaction did not correlate with the changes in CYP3A activity (midazolam clearance) (rs = 0.23, p = 0.34). Ambrisentan had no effect on midazolam pharmacokinetics. In conclusion, SJW significantly reduced exposure with ambrisentan irrespective of the CYP2C19 genotype. The extent of this interaction was small and thus likely without clinical relevance.

  2. Assessment of competitive and mechanism-based inhibition by clarithromycin: use of domperidone as a CYP3A probe-drug substrate and various enzymatic sources including a new cell-based assay with freshly isolated human hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Michaud, Veronique; Turgeon, Jacques

    2010-04-01

    Clarithromycin is involved in a large number of clinically relevant drug-drug interactions. Discrepancies are observed between the magnitude of drug interactions predicted from in vitro competitive inhibition studies and changes observed clinically in the plasma levels of affected CYP3A substrates. The formation of metabolic-intermediate complexes has been proposed to explain these differences. The objectives of our study were: 1) to determine the competitive inhibition potency of clarithromycin on the metabolism of domperidone as a CYP3A probe drug using human recombinant CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 isoenzymes, human liver microsomes and cultured human hepatocytes; 2) to establish the modulatory role of cytochrome b5 on the competitive inhibition potency of clarithromycin; 3) to demonstrate the clarithromycin-induced formation of CYP450 metabolic-intermediate complexes in human liver microsomes; and 4) to determine the extent of CYP3A inhibition due to metabolic-intermediate complex formation using human liver microsomes and cultured human hepatocytes. At high concentrations (100 µM), clarithromycin had weak competitive inhibition potency towards CYP3A4 and CYP3A5. Inhibition potency was further decreased by the addition of cytochrome b5 (9-19%). Clarithromycin-induced metabolic-intermediate complexes were revealed by spectrophotometry analysis using human liver microsomes while time- and concentration-dependent mechanism-based inhibitions were quantified using isolated hepatocytes. These results indicate that mechanism-based but not competitive inhibition of CYP3As is the major underlying mechanism of drug-drug interactions observed clinically with clarithromycin. Drug interactions between clarithromycin and several CYP3A substrates are predicted to be insidious; the risk of severe adverse events should increase over time and persist for a few days after cessation of the drug.

  3. Modeling chemical interaction profiles: I. Spectral data-activity relationship and structure-activity relationship models for inhibitors and non-inhibitors of cytochrome P450 CYP3A4 and CYP2D6 isozymes.

    PubMed

    McPhail, Brooks; Tie, Yunfeng; Hong, Huixiao; Pearce, Bruce A; Schnackenberg, Laura K; Ge, Weigong; Valerio, Luis G; Fuscoe, James C; Tong, Weida; Buzatu, Dan A; Wilkes, Jon G; Fowler, Bruce A; Demchuk, Eugene; Beger, Richard D

    2012-03-15

    An interagency collaboration was established to model chemical interactions that may cause adverse health effects when an exposure to a mixture of chemicals occurs. Many of these chemicals--drugs, pesticides, and environmental pollutants--interact at the level of metabolic biotransformations mediated by cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes. In the present work, spectral data-activity relationship (SDAR) and structure-activity relationship (SAR) approaches were used to develop machine-learning classifiers of inhibitors and non-inhibitors of the CYP3A4 and CYP2D6 isozymes. The models were built upon 602 reference pharmaceutical compounds whose interactions have been deduced from clinical data, and 100 additional chemicals that were used to evaluate model performance in an external validation (EV) test. SDAR is an innovative modeling approach that relies on discriminant analysis applied to binned nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectral descriptors. In the present work, both 1D ¹³C and 1D ¹⁵N-NMR spectra were used together in a novel implementation of the SDAR technique. It was found that increasing the binning size of 1D ¹³C-NMR and ¹⁵N-NMR spectra caused an increase in the tenfold cross-validation (CV) performance in terms of both the rate of correct classification and sensitivity. The results of SDAR modeling were verified using SAR. For SAR modeling, a decision forest approach involving from 6 to 17 Mold2 descriptors in a tree was used. Average rates of correct classification of SDAR and SAR models in a hundred CV tests were 60% and 61% for CYP3A4, and 62% and 70% for CYP2D6, respectively. The rates of correct classification of SDAR and SAR models in the EV test were 73% and 86% for CYP3A4, and 76% and 90% for CYP2D6, respectively. Thus, both SDAR and SAR methods demonstrated a comparable performance in modeling a large set of structurally diverse data. Based on unique NMR structural descriptors, the new SDAR modeling method complements the existing SAR

  4. Associations of CYP3A4, NR1I2, CYP2C19 and P2RY12 polymorphisms with clopidogrel resistance in Chinese patients with ischemic stroke

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Rui; Zhou, Zi-yi; Chen, Yi-bei; Li, Jia-li; Yu, Wei-bang; Chen, Xin-meng; Zhao, Min; Zhao, Yuan-qi; Cai, Ye-feng; Jin, Jing; Huang, Min

    2016-01-01

    Aim: There is a high incidence of the antiplatelet drug clopidogrel resistance (CR) in Asian populations. Because clopidogrel is a prodrug, polymorphisms of genes encoding the enzymes involved in its biotransformation may be the primary influential factors. The goal of this study was to investigate the associations of polymorphisms of CYP3A4, NR1I2, CYP2C19 and P2RY12 genes with CR in Chinese patients with ischemic stroke. Methods: A total of 191 patients with ischemic stroke were enrolled. The patients were treated with clopidogrel for at least 5 days. Platelet function was measured by light transmission aggregometry. The SNPs NR1I2 (rs13059232), CYP3A4*1G (rs2242480), CYP2C19*2 (rs4244285) and P2RY12 (rs2046934) were genotyped. Results: The CR rate in this population was 36%. The CYP2C19*2 variant was a risk factor for CR (*2/*2+wt/*2 vs wt/wt, OR: 2.366, 95% CI: 1.180–4.741, P=0.014), whereas the CYP3A4*1G variant had a protective effect on CR (*1/*1 vs *1G/*1G+*1/*1G, OR: 2.360, 95% CI: 1.247–4.468, P=0.008). The NR1I2 (rs13059232) polymorphism was moderately associated with CR (CC vs TT+TC, OR: 0.533, 95% CI: 0.286–0.991, P=0.046). The C allele in P2RY12 (rs2046934) was predicted to be a protective factor for CR (CC+TC vs TT, OR: 0.407, 95% CI: 0.191–0.867, P=0.018). In addition, an association was found between hypertension and CR (P=0.022). Conclusion: The individuals with both the CYP2C19*2 allele and hypertension are at high risk of CR during anti-thrombosis therapy. The CYP3A4*1G allele, P2RY12 (rs2046934) C allele and NR1I2 (rs13059232) CC genotype may be protective factors for CR. The associated SNPs studied may be useful to predict clopidogrel resistance in Chinese patients with ischemic stroke. PMID:27133299

  5. Effect of Ethanol on the Metabolic Characteristics of HIV-1 Integrase Inhibitor Elvitegravir and Elvitegravir/Cobicistat with CYP3A: An Analysis Using a Newly Developed LC-MS/MS Method.

    PubMed

    Midde, Narasimha M; Rahman, Mohammad A; Rathi, Chetan; Li, Junhao; Meibohm, Bernd; Li, Weihua; Kumar, Santosh

    2016-01-01

    Elvitegravir (EVG), an integrase inhibitor for the treatment HIV infection, is increasingly becoming the part of first-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimen. EVG is mainly metabolized through cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4. Previously, we have shown that ethanol alters ART-CYP3A4 interactions with protease inhibitors thereby altering their metabolisms. However, as EVG is a fairly new class of drug, its kinetic characteristics and the effect of ethanol on EVG-CYPP3A4 interaction is poorly understood. In this study, we characterized EVG and cobicistat (COBI)-boosted EVG metabolism in human microsomes followed by ethanol-EVG, ethanol-COBI-EVG interaction with CYP3A. First, we developed and validated a simple, sensitive, and robust liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for the quantification of EVG in the human liver microsomes. The lower limit of quantification for the drug was at 0.003 μM (1.34 ng/ml). Extraction yield, matrix effects, drug stability, and calibration curves for the proposed method were validated according to the FDA guidelines. Time dependent kinetics data showed that 20mM ethanol decreases the apparent half-life of EVG degradation by ~50% compared to EVG alone. Our substrate kinetic results revealed that ethanol mildly decreases the catalytic efficiency for EVG metabolism. Inhibition studies demonstrated that EVG inhibits CYP3A4, and 20 mM ethanol causes a decrease in the IC50 of EVG. However, in the presence of COBI we were unable to determine these parameters effectively because COBI, being a strong inhibitor of CYP3A4, blocked the EVG/ethanol-CYP3A4 interactions. Docking studies predicted a shift of EVG or COBI binding to the active site of CYP3A4 in the presence of ethanol. Taken together, these results suggest that ethanol interacts with microsomal CYP3A and alters EVG-CYP3A4 interaction thereby altering EVG metabolism and inhibition of CYP3A4 by EVG. This finding has clinical significance because alcohol use is

  6. Effect of Ethanol on the Metabolic Characteristics of HIV-1 Integrase Inhibitor Elvitegravir and Elvitegravir/Cobicistat with CYP3A: An Analysis Using a Newly Developed LC-MS/MS Method.

    PubMed

    Midde, Narasimha M; Rahman, Mohammad A; Rathi, Chetan; Li, Junhao; Meibohm, Bernd; Li, Weihua; Kumar, Santosh

    2016-01-01

    Elvitegravir (EVG), an integrase inhibitor for the treatment HIV infection, is increasingly becoming the part of first-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimen. EVG is mainly metabolized through cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4. Previously, we have shown that ethanol alters ART-CYP3A4 interactions with protease inhibitors thereby altering their metabolisms. However, as EVG is a fairly new class of drug, its kinetic characteristics and the effect of ethanol on EVG-CYPP3A4 interaction is poorly understood. In this study, we characterized EVG and cobicistat (COBI)-boosted EVG metabolism in human microsomes followed by ethanol-EVG, ethanol-COBI-EVG interaction with CYP3A. First, we developed and validated a simple, sensitive, and robust liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for the quantification of EVG in the human liver microsomes. The lower limit of quantification for the drug was at 0.003 μM (1.34 ng/ml). Extraction yield, matrix effects, drug stability, and calibration curves for the proposed method were validated according to the FDA guidelines. Time dependent kinetics data showed that 20mM ethanol decreases the apparent half-life of EVG degradation by ~50% compared to EVG alone. Our substrate kinetic results revealed that ethanol mildly decreases the catalytic efficiency for EVG metabolism. Inhibition studies demonstrated that EVG inhibits CYP3A4, and 20 mM ethanol causes a decrease in the IC50 of EVG. However, in the presence of COBI we were unable to determine these parameters effectively because COBI, being a strong inhibitor of CYP3A4, blocked the EVG/ethanol-CYP3A4 interactions. Docking studies predicted a shift of EVG or COBI binding to the active site of CYP3A4 in the presence of ethanol. Taken together, these results suggest that ethanol interacts with microsomal CYP3A and alters EVG-CYP3A4 interaction thereby altering EVG metabolism and inhibition of CYP3A4 by EVG. This finding has clinical significance because alcohol use is

  7. Polymorphism of CYP3A4 and ABCB1 genes increase the risk of neuropathy in breast cancer patients treated with paclitaxel and docetaxel

    PubMed Central

    Kus, Tulay; Aktas, Gokmen; Kalender, Mehmet Emin; Demiryurek, Abdullah Tuncay; Ulasli, Mustafa; Oztuzcu, Serdar; Sevinc, Alper; Kul, Seval; Camci, Celaletdin

    2016-01-01

    Background Interindividual variability of pharmacogenetics may account for unpredictable neurotoxicities of taxanes. Methods From March 2011 to June 2015, female patients with operable breast cancer who had received docetaxel- or paclitaxel-containing adjuvant chemotherapy were included in this study. All patients were treated with single-agent paclitaxel intravenously (IV) 175 mg/m2 every 3 weeks for four cycles, or IV 80 mg/m2 weekly for 12 cycles, and IV 100 mg/m2 docetaxel for four cycles as adjuvant treatment. We evaluated the relationship between neurotoxicity of taxanes and single-nucleotide polymorphisms of ABCB1, CYP3A4, ERCC1, ERCC2, FGFR4, TP53, ERBB2, and CYP2C8 genes. Taxane-induced neurotoxicity during the treatment was evaluated according to the National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria version 4.03 prior to each cycle. Chi-squared tests were used to compare the two groups, and multivariate binary logistic regression models were used for determining possible risk factors of neuropathy. Results Pharmacogenetic analysis was performed in 219 females. ABCB1 3435 TT genotype had significantly higher risk for grade ≥2 neurotoxicity (odds ratio [OR]: 2.759, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.172–6.493, P: 0.017) compared to TC and CC genotype, and also CYP3A4 392 AA and AG genotype had significantly higher risk for grade ≥2 neurotoxicity (OR: 2.259, 95% CI: 1.033–4.941, P: 0.038) compared to GG genotype. For FDGF4 gene with AG and GG genotype, OR was 1.879 (95% CI: 1.001–3.525, P: 0.048) compared to AA genotype with regard to any grade of neuropathy risk. We could not find any other association of other genotypes with neurotoxicity grades. Conclusion ABCB1 3435 TT genotype and CYP3A4 392 AA/AG genotypes may be used as predictors of neurotoxicity during taxane chemotherapy. PMID:27574448

  8. Regulation of pregnane-X-receptor, CYP3A and P-glycoprotein genes in the PCB-resistant killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) population from New Bedford Harbor.

    PubMed

    Gräns, Johanna; Wassmur, Britt; Fernández-Santoscoy, María; Zanette, Juliano; Woodin, Bruce R; Karchner, Sibel I; Nacci, Diane E; Champlin, Denise; Jayaraman, Saro; Hahn, Mark E; Stegeman, John J; Celander, Malin C

    2015-02-01

    Killifish survive and reproduce in the New Bedford Harbor (NBH) in Massachusetts (MA), USA, a site severely contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) for decades. Levels of 22 different PCB congeners were analyzed in liver from killifish collected in 2008. Concentrations of dioxin-like PCBs in liver of NBH killifish were ∼400 times higher, and the levels of non-dioxin-like PCBs ∼3000 times higher than in killifish from a reference site, Scorton Creek (SC), MA. The NBH killifish are known to be resistant to the toxicity of dioxin-like compounds and to have a reduced aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) signaling response. Little is known about the responses of these fish to non-dioxin-like PCBs, which are at extraordinarily high levels in NBH fish. In mammals, some non-dioxin-like PCB congeners act through nuclear receptor 1I2, the pregnane-X-receptor (PXR). To explore this pathway in killifish, a PXR cDNA was sequenced and its molecular phylogenetic relationship to other vertebrate PXRs was determined. Killifish were also collected in 2009 from NBH and SC, and after four months in the laboratory they were injected with a single dose of either the dioxin-like PCB 126 (an AhR agonist) or the non-dioxin-like PCB 153 (a mammalian PXR agonist). Gills and liver were sampled three days after injection and transcript levels of genes encoding PXR, cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A), P-glycoprotein (Pgp), AhR2 and cytochrome P450 1A (CYP1A) were measured by quantitative PCR. As expected, there was little effect of PCB exposure on mRNA expression of AhR2 or CYP1A in liver and gills of NBH fish. In NBH fish, but not in SC fish, there was increased mRNA expression of hepatic PXR, CYP3A and Pgp upon exposure to either of the two PCB congeners. However, basal PXR and Pgp mRNA levels in liver of NBH fish were significantly lower than in SC fish. A different pattern was seen in gills, where there were no differences in basal mRNA expression of these genes between the two

  9. Identification of stable and reactive metabolite(s) of nelfinavir in human liver microsomes and rCYP3A4.

    PubMed

    Jhajra, Shalu; Singh, Saranjit

    2016-01-25

    The present study was performed to detect trace level stable and reactive metabolites of nelfinavir in human liver microsomes and rCYP3A4. Initially, chromatographic and MS parameters were optimized and fragmentation pattern of the drug was delineated. The structures of metabolites were then elucidated by comparison of their MS/MS fragmentation patterns with the drug. A total of thirty nine stable metabolites were formed, of which twelve were established to be monohydroxylated, eighteen dihydroxy, two dehydrogenated, and one each a diquinone, keto, carboxylic, N-deacylated, dealkylated, oxo and dehydro monohydroxyl metabolite. Previously, a biotransformation product with hydroxylation at tert-butyl group of nelfinavir is reported as an active metabolite of the drug. In our case, ortho-diquinone and N-oxide metabolites were detected, which are known to be reactive in nature. However, these metabolites did not show any interaction with nucleophiles, possibly due to steric hindrance at the site of interface.

  10. Identification of nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) inhibitors with no evidence of CYP3A4 time-dependent inhibition and improved aqueous solubility.

    PubMed

    Zak, Mark; Liederer, Bianca M; Sampath, Deepak; Yuen, Po-Wai; Bair, Kenneth W; Baumeister, Timm; Buckmelter, Alexandre J; Clodfelter, Karl H; Cheng, Eric; Crocker, Lisa; Fu, Bang; Han, Bingsong; Li, Guangkun; Ho, Yen-Ching; Lin, Jian; Liu, Xiongcai; Ly, Justin; O'Brien, Thomas; Reynolds, Dominic J; Skelton, Nicholas; Smith, Chase C; Tay, Suzanne; Wang, Weiru; Wang, Zhongguo; Xiao, Yang; Zhang, Lei; Zhao, Guiling; Zheng, Xiaozhang; Dragovich, Peter S

    2015-02-01

    Herein we report the optimization efforts to ameliorate the potent CYP3A4 time-dependent inhibition (TDI) and low aqueous solubility exhibited by a previously identified lead compound from our NAMPT inhibitor program (1, GNE-617). Metabolite identification studies pinpointed the imidazopyridine moiety present in 1 as the likely source of the TDI signal, and replacement with other bicyclic systems was found to reduce or eliminate the TDI finding. A strategy of reducing the number of aromatic rings and/or lowering cLogD7.4 was then employed to significantly improve aqueous solubility. These efforts culminated in the discovery of 42, a compound with no evidence of TDI, improved aqueous solubility, and robust efficacy in tumor xenograft studies.

  11. In vitro Effects of Four Native Brazilian Medicinal Plants in CYP3A4 mRNA Gene Expression, Glutathione Levels, and P-Glycoprotein Activity.

    PubMed

    Mazzari, Andre L D A; Milton, Flora; Frangos, Samantha; Carvalho, Ana C B; Silveira, Dâmaris; de Assis Rocha Neves, Francisco; Prieto, Jose M

    2016-01-01

    Erythrina mulungu Benth. (Fabaceae), Cordia verbenacea A. DC. (Boraginaceae), Solanum paniculatum L. (Solanaceae) and Lippia sidoides Cham. (Verbenaceae) are medicinal plant species native to Brazil shortlisted by the Brazilian National Health System for future clinical use. However, nothing is known about their effects in metabolic and transporter proteins, which could potentially lead to herb-drug interactions (HDI). In this work, we assess non-toxic concentrations (100 μg/mL) of the plant infusions for their in vitro ability to modulate CYP3A4 mRNA gene expression and intracellular glutathione levels in HepG2 cells, as well as P-glycoprotein (P-gp) activity in vincristine-resistant Caco-2 cells (Caco-2 VCR). Their mechanisms of action were further studied by measuring the activation of human pregnane X receptor (hPXR) in transiently co-transfected HeLa cells and the inhibition of γ-glutamyl transferase (GGT) in HepG2 cells. Our results show that P-gp activity was not affected in any case and that only Solanum paniculatum was able to significantly change CYP3A4 mRNA gene expression (twofold decrease, p < 0.05), this being correlated with an antagonist effect upon hPXR (EC50 = 0.38 mg/mL). Total intracellular glutathione levels were significantly depleted by exposure to Solanum paniculatum (-44%, p < 0.001), Lippia sidoides (-12%, p < 0.05) and Cordia verbenacea (-47%, p < 0.001). The latter plant extract was able to decrease GGT activity (-48%, p < 0.01). In conclusion, this preclinical study shows that the administration of some of these herbal medicines may be able to cause disturbances to metabolic mechanisms in vitro. Although Erythrina mulungu appears safe in our tests, active pharmacovigilance is recommended for the other three species, especially in the case of Solanum paniculatum. PMID:27594838

  12. In vitro Effects of Four Native Brazilian Medicinal Plants in CYP3A4 mRNA Gene Expression, Glutathione Levels, and P-Glycoprotein Activity.

    PubMed

    Mazzari, Andre L D A; Milton, Flora; Frangos, Samantha; Carvalho, Ana C B; Silveira, Dâmaris; de Assis Rocha Neves, Francisco; Prieto, Jose M

    2016-01-01

    Erythrina mulungu Benth. (Fabaceae), Cordia verbenacea A. DC. (Boraginaceae), Solanum paniculatum L. (Solanaceae) and Lippia sidoides Cham. (Verbenaceae) are medicinal plant species native to Brazil shortlisted by the Brazilian National Health System for future clinical use. However, nothing is known about their effects in metabolic and transporter proteins, which could potentially lead to herb-drug interactions (HDI). In this work, we assess non-toxic concentrations (100 μg/mL) of the plant infusions for their in vitro ability to modulate CYP3A4 mRNA gene expression and intracellular glutathione levels in HepG2 cells, as well as P-glycoprotein (P-gp) activity in vincristine-resistant Caco-2 cells (Caco-2 VCR). Their mechanisms of action were further studied by measuring the activation of human pregnane X receptor (hPXR) in transiently co-transfected HeLa cells and the inhibition of γ-glutamyl transferase (GGT) in HepG2 cells. Our results show that P-gp activity was not affected in any case and that only Solanum paniculatum was able to significantly change CYP3A4 mRNA gene expression (twofold decrease, p < 0.05), this being correlated with an antagonist effect upon hPXR (EC50 = 0.38 mg/mL). Total intracellular glutathione levels were significantly depleted by exposure to Solanum paniculatum (-44%, p < 0.001), Lippia sidoides (-12%, p < 0.05) and Cordia verbenacea (-47%, p < 0.001). The latter plant extract was able to decrease GGT activity (-48%, p < 0.01). In conclusion, this preclinical study shows that the administration of some of these herbal medicines may be able to cause disturbances to metabolic mechanisms in vitro. Although Erythrina mulungu appears safe in our tests, active pharmacovigilance is recommended for the other three species, especially in the case of Solanum paniculatum.

  13. In vitro Effects of Four Native Brazilian Medicinal Plants in CYP3A4 mRNA Gene Expression, Glutathione Levels, and P-Glycoprotein Activity

    PubMed Central

    Mazzari, Andre L. D. A.; Milton, Flora; Frangos, Samantha; Carvalho, Ana C. B.; Silveira, Dâmaris; de Assis Rocha Neves, Francisco; Prieto, Jose M.

    2016-01-01

    Erythrina mulungu Benth. (Fabaceae), Cordia verbenacea A. DC. (Boraginaceae), Solanum paniculatum L. (Solanaceae) and Lippia sidoides Cham. (Verbenaceae) are medicinal plant species native to Brazil shortlisted by the Brazilian National Health System for future clinical use. However, nothing is known about their effects in metabolic and transporter proteins, which could potentially lead to herb-drug interactions (HDI). In this work, we assess non-toxic concentrations (100 μg/mL) of the plant infusions for their in vitro ability to modulate CYP3A4 mRNA gene expression and intracellular glutathione levels in HepG2 cells, as well as P-glycoprotein (P-gp) activity in vincristine-resistant Caco-2 cells (Caco-2 VCR). Their mechanisms of action were further studied by measuring the activation of human pregnane X receptor (hPXR) in transiently co-transfected HeLa cells and the inhibition of γ-glutamyl transferase (GGT) in HepG2 cells. Our results show that P-gp activity was not affected in any case and that only Solanum paniculatum was able to significantly change CYP3A4 mRNA gene expression (twofold decrease, p < 0.05), this being correlated with an antagonist effect upon hPXR (EC50 = 0.38 mg/mL). Total intracellular glutathione levels were significantly depleted by exposure to Solanum paniculatum (-44%, p < 0.001), Lippia sidoides (-12%, p < 0.05) and Cordia verbenacea (-47%, p < 0.001). The latter plant extract was able to decrease GGT activity (-48%, p < 0.01). In conclusion, this preclinical study shows that the administration of some of these herbal medicines may be able to cause disturbances to metabolic mechanisms in vitro. Although Erythrina mulungu appears safe in our tests, active pharmacovigilance is recommended for the other three species, especially in the case of Solanum paniculatum.

  14. Contribution of Baicalin on the Plasma Protein Binding Displacement and CYP3A Activity Inhibition to the Pharmacokinetic Changes of Nifedipine in Rats In Vivo and In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Jie; Li, Hong-Meng; Jia, Lin-Jing; Qiao, Hai-Ling

    2014-01-01

    Baicalin purified from the root of Radix scutellariae is widely used in clinical practices. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of baicalin on the pharmacokinetics of nifedipine, a CYP3A probe substrate, in rats in vivo and in vitro. In a randomised, three-period crossover study, significant changes in the pharmacokinetics of nifedipine (2 mg/kg) were observed after treatment with a low (0.225 g/kg) or high (0.45 g/kg) dose of baicalin in rats. In the low- and high-dose groups of baicalin-treated rats, Cmax of total nifedipine decreased by 40%±14% (P<0.01) and 65%±14% (P<0.01), AUC0–∞ decreased by 41%±8% (P<0.01) and 63%±7% (P<0.01), Vd increased by 85%±43% (P<0.01) and 224%±231% (P<0.01), and CL increased by 97%±78% (P<0.01) and 242%±135% (P<0.01), respectively. Plasma protein binding experiments in vivo showed that Cmax of unbound nifedipine significantly increased by 25%±19% (P<0.01) and 44%±29% (P<0.01), respectively, and there was a good correlation between the unbound nifedipine (%) and baicalin concentrations (P<0.01). Furthermore, in vitro results revealed that baicalin was a competitive displacer of nifedipine from plasma proteins. In vitro incubation experiments demonstrated that baicalin could also competitively inhibit CYP3A activity in rat liver microsomes in a concentration-dependent manner. In conclusion, the pharmacokinetic changes of nifedipine may be modulated by the inhibitory effects of baicalin on plasma protein binding and CYP3A–mediated metabolism. PMID:24498050

  15. In vitro Effects of Four Native Brazilian Medicinal Plants in CYP3A4 mRNA Gene Expression, Glutathione Levels, and P-Glycoprotein Activity

    PubMed Central

    Mazzari, Andre L. D. A.; Milton, Flora; Frangos, Samantha; Carvalho, Ana C. B.; Silveira, Dâmaris; de Assis Rocha Neves, Francisco; Prieto, Jose M.

    2016-01-01

    Erythrina mulungu Benth. (Fabaceae), Cordia verbenacea A. DC. (Boraginaceae), Solanum paniculatum L. (Solanaceae) and Lippia sidoides Cham. (Verbenaceae) are medicinal plant species native to Brazil shortlisted by the Brazilian National Health System for future clinical use. However, nothing is known about their effects in metabolic and transporter proteins, which could potentially lead to herb-drug interactions (HDI). In this work, we assess non-toxic concentrations (100 μg/mL) of the plant infusions for their in vitro ability to modulate CYP3A4 mRNA gene expression and intracellular glutathione levels in HepG2 cells, as well as P-glycoprotein (P-gp) activity in vincristine-resistant Caco-2 cells (Caco-2 VCR). Their mechanisms of action were further studied by measuring the activation of human pregnane X receptor (hPXR) in transiently co-transfected HeLa cells and the inhibition of γ-glutamyl transferase (GGT) in HepG2 cells. Our results show that P-gp activity was not affected in any case and that only Solanum paniculatum was able to significantly change CYP3A4 mRNA gene expression (twofold decrease, p < 0.05), this being correlated with an antagonist effect upon hPXR (EC50 = 0.38 mg/mL). Total intracellular glutathione levels were significantly depleted by exposure to Solanum paniculatum (-44%, p < 0.001), Lippia sidoides (-12%, p < 0.05) and Cordia verbenacea (-47%, p < 0.001). The latter plant extract was able to decrease GGT activity (-48%, p < 0.01). In conclusion, this preclinical study shows that the administration of some of these herbal medicines may be able to cause disturbances to metabolic mechanisms in vitro. Although Erythrina mulungu appears safe in our tests, active pharmacovigilance is recommended for the other three species, especially in the case of Solanum paniculatum. PMID:27594838

  16. Assessment of a Candidate Marker Constituent Predictive of a Dietary Substance–Drug Interaction: Case Study with Grapefruit Juice and CYP3A4 Drug Substrates

    PubMed Central

    Ainslie, Garrett R.; Wolf, Kristina K.; Li, Yingxin; Connolly, Elizabeth A.; Scarlett, Yolanda V.; Hull, J. Heyward

    2014-01-01

    Dietary substances, including herbal products and citrus juices, can perpetrate interactions with conventional medications. Regulatory guidances for dietary substance–drug interaction assessment are lacking. This deficiency is due in part to challenges unique to dietary substances, a lack of requisite human-derived data, and limited jurisdiction. An in vitro–in vivo extrapolation (IVIVE) approach to help address some of these hurdles was evaluated using the exemplar dietary substance grapefruit juice (GFJ), the candidate marker constituent 6′,7′-dihydroxybergamottin (DHB), and the purported victim drug loperamide. First, the GFJ-loperamide interaction was assessed in 16 healthy volunteers. Loperamide (16 mg) was administered with 240 ml of water or GFJ; plasma was collected from 0 to 72 hours. Relative to water, GFJ increased the geometric mean loperamide area under the plasma concentration–time curve (AUC) significantly (1.7-fold). Second, the mechanism-based inhibition kinetics for DHB were recovered using human intestinal microsomes and the index CYP3A4 reaction, loperamide N-desmethylation (KI [concentration needed to achieve one-half kinact], 5.0 ± 0.9 µM; kinact [maximum inactivation rate constant], 0.38 ± 0.02 minute−1). These parameters were incorporated into a mechanistic static model, which predicted a 1.6-fold increase in loperamide AUC. Third, the successful IVIVE prompted further application to 15 previously reported GFJ-drug interaction studies selected according to predefined criteria. Twelve of the interactions were predicted to within the 25% predefined criterion. Results suggest that DHB could be used to predict the CYP3A4-mediated effect of GFJ. This time- and cost-effective IVIVE approach could be applied to other dietary substance–drug interactions to help prioritize new and existing drugs for more advanced (dynamic) modeling and simulation and clinical assessment. PMID:25253884

  17. Stereoselective Metabolism of α-, β-, and γ-Hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs) by Human Liver Microsomes and CYP3A4.

    PubMed

    Erratico, Claudio; Zheng, Xiaobo; van den Eede, Nele; Tomy, Gregg; Covaci, Adrian

    2016-08-01

    This is the first study investigating the in vitro metabolism of α-, β-, and γ-hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) stereoisomers in humans and providing semiquantitative metabolism data. Human liver microsomes were incubated with individual racemic mixtures and with individual stereoisomers of α-, β-, and γ-HBCDs, the hydroxylated metabolites formed were analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, and the value of the intrinsic in vitro clearance (Clint,vitro) was calculated. Several mono- and dihydroxylated metabolites of α-, β-, and γ-HBCDs were formed, with mono-OH-HBCDs being the major metabolites. No stereoisomerization of any of the six α-, β-, and γ-HBCD isomers catalyzed by cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes occurred. The value of Clint,vitro of α-HBCDs was significantly lower than that of β-HBCDs, which, in turn, was significantly lower than that of γ-HBCDs (p < 0.05). Such differences were explained by the significantly lower values of Clint,vitro of each α-HBCD stereoisomer than those of the β- and γ-HBCD stereoisomers. In addition, significantly lower values of Clint,vitro of the (-) over the (+)α- and β-HBCD stereoisomers, but not γ-HBCDs, were obtained. Our data offer a possible explanation of the enrichment of α-HBCDs over β- and γ-HBCDs on the one hand and, on the other hand, of (-)α-HBCDs over (+)α-HBCDs previously reported in human samples. It also offers information about the mechanism resulting in such enrichments, the stereoisomer-selective metabolism of α-, β-, and γ-HBCDs catalyzed by CYPs with the lack of stereoisomerization.

  18. In Silico Prediction of Cytochrome P450-Drug Interaction: QSARs for CYP3A4 and CYP2C9

    PubMed Central

    Nembri, Serena; Grisoni, Francesca; Consonni, Viviana; Todeschini, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Cytochromes P450 (CYP) are the main actors in the oxidation of xenobiotics and play a crucial role in drug safety, persistence, bioactivation, and drug-drug/food-drug interaction. This work aims to develop Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship (QSAR) models to predict the drug interaction with two of the most important CYP isoforms, namely 2C9 and 3A4. The presented models are calibrated on 9122 drug-like compounds, using three different modelling approaches and two types of molecular description (classical molecular descriptors and binary fingerprints). For each isoform, three classification models are presented, based on a different approach and with different advantages: (1) a very simple and interpretable classification tree; (2) a local (k-Nearest Neighbor) model based classical descriptors and; (3) a model based on a recently proposed local classifier (N-Nearest Neighbor) on binary fingerprints. The salient features of the work are (1) the thorough model validation and the applicability domain assessment; (2) the descriptor interpretation, which highlighted the crucial aspects of P450-drug interaction; and (3) the consensus aggregation of models, which largely increased the prediction accuracy. PMID:27294921

  19. Amine-free melanin-concentrating hormone receptor 1 antagonists: Novel 1-(1H-benzimidazol-6-yl)pyridin-2(1H)-one derivatives and design to avoid CYP3A4 time-dependent inhibition.

    PubMed

    Igawa, Hideyuki; Takahashi, Masashi; Shirasaki, Mikio; Kakegawa, Keiko; Kina, Asato; Ikoma, Minoru; Aida, Jumpei; Yasuma, Tsuneo; Okuda, Shoki; Kawata, Yayoi; Noguchi, Toshihiro; Yamamoto, Syunsuke; Fujioka, Yasushi; Kundu, Mrinalkanti; Khamrai, Uttam; Nakayama, Masaharu; Nagisa, Yasutaka; Kasai, Shizuo; Maekawa, Tsuyoshi

    2016-06-01

    Melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) is an attractive target for antiobesity agents, and numerous drug discovery programs are dedicated to finding small-molecule MCH receptor 1 (MCHR1) antagonists. We recently reported novel pyridine-2(1H)-ones as aliphatic amine-free MCHR1 antagonists that structurally featured an imidazo[1,2-a]pyridine-based bicyclic motif. To investigate imidazopyridine variants with lower basicity and less potential to inhibit cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4), we designed pyridine-2(1H)-ones bearing various less basic bicyclic motifs. Among these, a lead compound 6a bearing a 1H-benzimidazole motif showed comparable binding affinity to MCHR1 to the corresponding imidazopyridine derivative 1. Optimization of 6a afforded a series of potent thiophene derivatives (6q-u); however, most of these were found to cause time-dependent inhibition (TDI) of CYP3A4. As bioactivation of thiophenes to form sulfoxide or epoxide species was considered to be a major cause of CYP3A4 TDI, we introduced electron withdrawing groups on the thiophene and found that a CF3 group on the ring or a Cl adjacent to the sulfur atom helped prevent CYP3A4 TDI. Consequently, 4-[(5-chlorothiophen-2-yl)methoxy]-1-(2-cyclopropyl-1-methyl-1H-benzimidazol-6-yl)pyridin-2(1H)-one (6s) was identified as a potent MCHR1 antagonist without the risk of CYP3A4 TDI, which exhibited a promising safety profile including low CYP3A4 inhibition and exerted significant antiobesity effects in diet-induced obese F344 rats. PMID:27112449

  20. Amine-free melanin-concentrating hormone receptor 1 antagonists: Novel 1-(1H-benzimidazol-6-yl)pyridin-2(1H)-one derivatives and design to avoid CYP3A4 time-dependent inhibition.

    PubMed

    Igawa, Hideyuki; Takahashi, Masashi; Shirasaki, Mikio; Kakegawa, Keiko; Kina, Asato; Ikoma, Minoru; Aida, Jumpei; Yasuma, Tsuneo; Okuda, Shoki; Kawata, Yayoi; Noguchi, Toshihiro; Yamamoto, Syunsuke; Fujioka, Yasushi; Kundu, Mrinalkanti; Khamrai, Uttam; Nakayama, Masaharu; Nagisa, Yasutaka; Kasai, Shizuo; Maekawa, Tsuyoshi

    2016-06-01

    Melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) is an attractive target for antiobesity agents, and numerous drug discovery programs are dedicated to finding small-molecule MCH receptor 1 (MCHR1) antagonists. We recently reported novel pyridine-2(1H)-ones as aliphatic amine-free MCHR1 antagonists that structurally featured an imidazo[1,2-a]pyridine-based bicyclic motif. To investigate imidazopyridine variants with lower basicity and less potential to inhibit cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4), we designed pyridine-2(1H)-ones bearing various less basic bicyclic motifs. Among these, a lead compound 6a bearing a 1H-benzimidazole motif showed comparable binding affinity to MCHR1 to the corresponding imidazopyridine derivative 1. Optimization of 6a afforded a series of potent thiophene derivatives (6q-u); however, most of these were found to cause time-dependent inhibition (TDI) of CYP3A4. As bioactivation of thiophenes to form sulfoxide or epoxide species was considered to be a major cause of CYP3A4 TDI, we introduced electron withdrawing groups on the thiophene and found that a CF3 group on the ring or a Cl adjacent to the sulfur atom helped prevent CYP3A4 TDI. Consequently, 4-[(5-chlorothiophen-2-yl)methoxy]-1-(2-cyclopropyl-1-methyl-1H-benzimidazol-6-yl)pyridin-2(1H)-one (6s) was identified as a potent MCHR1 antagonist without the risk of CYP3A4 TDI, which exhibited a promising safety profile including low CYP3A4 inhibition and exerted significant antiobesity effects in diet-induced obese F344 rats.

  1. An antioxidant Trolox restores decreased oral absorption of cyclosporine A after liver ischemia-reperfusion through distinct mechanisms between CYP3A and P-glycoprotein in the small intestine.

    PubMed

    Ikemura, Kenji; Inoue, Koichi; Mizutani, Hideki; Oka, Hisao; Iwamoto, Takuya; Okuda, Masahiro

    2012-09-01

    Oxidative stress is a critical mediator of various injuries following ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) associated with organ transplantation. Although oral bioavailability of cyclosporine A (CsA) was decreased by increased first-pass metabolism through CYP3A and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) specifically in the upper small intestine after liver I/R, the mechanism responsible for them remained to be clarified. In the present study, the effect of Trolox (an α-tocopherol analogue) on the decreased oral absorption of CsA through elevated intestinal CYP3A and P-gp after liver I/R and their regulations were investigated. Rats were subjected to 60 min of liver ischemia followed by 12h of reperfusion. Trolox was administered intravenously 5 min before reperfusion. Trolox diminished the increased malondialdehyde and total glutathione levels in plasma by liver I/R and concomitantly prevented the decreased area under the blood concentration-time curve of orally administered CsA as well as initial absorption rate of CsA from upper small intestine. The elevated CYP3A mRNA and activity in the upper small intestine as well as expression levels of P-gp in upper, middle, and lower small intestines after liver I/R were attenuated by Trolox administration. The elevations of CYP3A levels specifically in the upper small intestine of I/R rats were correlated with the lithocholic acid levels in the bile. These results demonstrate that Trolox ameliorates the decreased oral absorption of CsA through elevated intestinal CYP3A and P-gp by preventing oxidative stress, where the biliary lithocholic acid may be responsible for the elevated transcription of CYP3A specifically in the upper small intestine after liver I/R.

  2. The isolation of minor-occurring furanocoumarins in grapefruit and analysis of their inhibition of cyp 3a4 and p-glycoprotein transport of talinolol from caco-2 cells

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of grapefruit juice on the disposition of certain prescription drugs in humans have been mainly attributed to the inhibition of intestinal cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP 3A4) by linear furanocoumarins. A number of the main furanocoumarins in grapefruit juice have been identified and analyzed ...

  3. RS-Predictor: A new tool for predicting sites of cytochrome P450-mediated metabolism applied to CYP 3A4

    PubMed Central

    Zaretzki, Jed; Bergeron, Charles; Rydberg, Patrik; Huang, Tao-wei; Bennett, Kristin P.; Breneman, Curt M.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes RegioSelectivity-Predictor (RS-Predictor), a new in silico method for generating predictive models of P450-mediated metabolism for drug-like compounds. Within this method, potential sites of metabolism (SOMs) are represented as “metabolophores”: A concept that describes the hierarchical combination of topological and quantum chemical descriptors needed to represent the reactivity of potential metabolic reaction sites. RS-Predictor modeling involves the use of metabolophore descriptors together with multiple-instance ranking (MIRank) to generate an optimized descriptor weight vector that encodes regioselectivity trends across all cases in a training set. The resulting pathway-independent,i isozyme-specific regioselectivity model may be used to predict potential metabolic liabilities. In the present work, cross-validated RS-Predictor models were generated for a set of 394 substrates of CYP 3A4 as a proof-of-principle for the method. Rank aggregation was then employed to merge independently generated predictions for each substrate into a single consensus prediction. The resulting consensus RS-Predictor models were shown to reliably identify at least one observed site of metabolism in the top two rank-positions on 78% of the substrates. Comparisons between RS-Predictor and previously described regioselectivity prediction methods reveal new insights into how in silico metabolite prediction methods should be compared. PMID:21528931

  4. Building Structure Feature-based Models for Predicting Isoform-specific Human Cytochrome P-450 (hCYP 3A4, 2D6 and 2C9) Inhibition Assay Results in ToxCast

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA’s ToxCast project is using high-throughput screening (HTS) to profile and prioritize chemicals for further testing. ToxCast Phase I evaluated 309 unique chemicals, the majority pesticide actives, in over 500 HTS assays. These included 3 human cytochrome P450 (hCYP3A4, hCYP2...

  5. Hyperconjugation with lone pair of morpholine nitrogen stabilizes transition state for phenyl hydroxylation in CYP3A4 metabolism of ( S)- N-[1-(3-morpholin-4-yl phenyl) ethyl]-3-phenylacrylamide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaikh, Abdul Rajjak; Broclawik, Ewa; Ismael, Mohamed; Tsuboi, Hideyuki; Koyama, Michihisa; Kubo, Momoji; Del Carpio, Carlos A.; Miyamoto, Akira

    2006-02-01

    Using quantum chemical modelling we describe a novel effect in the mechanism of CYP3A4 metabolism for the arene substrate with o-substituent yielding a lone pair donation to conjugate π system; this will compensate for the loss of aromaticity on formation of the tetrahedral complex and lower the rate-determining energy barrier.

  6. Faster clearance of omeprazole in rats with acute renal failure induced by uranyl nitrate: contribution of increased expression of hepatic cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A1 and intestinal CYP1A and 3A subfamilies.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dae Y; Jung, Young S; Shin, Hyun S; Lee, Inchul; Kim, Young C; Lee, Myung G

    2008-07-01

    It has been reported that omeprazole is mainly metabolized via hepatic cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A1/2, CYP2D1 and CYP3A1/2 in male Sprague-Dawley rats, and the expression of hepatic CYP3A1 is increased in male Sprague-Dawley rats with acute renal failure induced by uranyl nitrate (U-ARF rats). Thus, the metabolism of omeprazole would be expected to increase in U-ARF rats. After intravenous administration of omeprazole (20 mgkg(-1)) to U-ARF rats, the area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time zero to infinity (AUC) was significantly reduced (371 vs 494 microg min mL(-1)), possibly due to the significantly faster non-renal clearance (56.6 vs 41.2 mL min(-1) kg(-1)) compared with control rats. This could have been due to increased expression of hepatic CYP3A1 in U-ARF rats. After oral administration of omeprazole (40 mgkg(-1)) to U-ARF rats, the AUC was also significantly reduced (89.3 vs 235 microg min mL(-1)) compared with control rats. The AUC difference after oral administration (62.0% decrease) was greater than that after intravenous administration (24.9% decrease). This may have been primarily due to increased intestinal metabolism of omeprazole caused by increased expression of intestinal CYP1A and 3A subfamilies in U-ARF rats, in addition to increased hepatic metabolism.

  7. Genetic variation at CYP3A is associated with age at menarche and breast cancer risk: a case-control study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction We have previously shown that a tag single nucleotide polymorphism (rs10235235), which maps to the CYP3A locus (7q22.1), was associated with a reduction in premenopausal urinary estrone glucuronide levels and a modest reduction in risk of breast cancer in women age ≤50 years. Methods We further investigated the association of rs10235235 with breast cancer risk in a large case control study of 47,346 cases and 47,570 controls from 52 studies participating in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium. Genotyping of rs10235235 was conducted using a custom Illumina Infinium array. Stratified analyses were conducted to determine whether this association was modified by age at diagnosis, ethnicity, age at menarche or tumor characteristics. Results We confirmed the association of rs10235235 with breast cancer risk for women of European ancestry but found no evidence that this association differed with age at diagnosis. Heterozygote and homozygote odds ratios (ORs) were OR = 0.98 (95% CI 0.94, 1.01; P = 0.2) and OR = 0.80 (95% CI 0.69, 0.93; P = 0.004), respectively (Ptrend = 0.02). There was no evidence of effect modification by tumor characteristics. rs10235235 was, however, associated with age at menarche in controls (Ptrend = 0.005) but not cases (Ptrend = 0.97). Consequently the association between rs10235235 and breast cancer risk differed according to age at menarche (Phet = 0.02); the rare allele of rs10235235 was associated with a reduction in breast cancer risk for women who had their menarche age ≥15 years (ORhet = 0.84, 95% CI 0.75, 0.94; ORhom = 0.81, 95% CI 0.51, 1.30; Ptrend = 0.002) but not for those who had their menarche age ≤11 years (ORhet = 1.06, 95% CI 0.95, 1.19, ORhom = 1.07, 95% CI 0.67, 1.72; Ptrend = 0.29). Conclusions To our knowledge rs10235235 is the first single nucleotide polymorphism to be associated with both breast cancer risk and age at menarche consistent with the well-documented association between later age at

  8. An ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric assay for quantifying 3-ketocholanoic acid: Application to the human liver microsomal CYP3A-dependent lithocholic acid 3-oxidation assay.

    PubMed

    Bansal, Sumit; Chai, Swee Fen; Lau, Aik Jiang

    2016-06-15

    Lithocholic acid (LCA), a hepatotoxic and carcinogenic bile acid, is metabolized to 3-ketocholanoic acid (3-KCA) by cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A). In the present study, the objectives were to develop and validate an ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric (UPLC-MS/MS) method to quantify 3-KCA and apply it to the human liver microsomal CYP3A-dependent LCA 3-oxidation assay. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a Waters ACQUITY™ UPLC C18 column (50×2.1mm, 1.7μm) with a gradient system consisting of 0.1% v/v formic acid in water (solvent A) and 0.1% v/v formic acid in acetonitrile (solvent B). The retention time was 3.73min for 3-KCA and 2.73min for cortisol (internal standard). Positive electrospray ionization with multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode was used to quantify 3-KCA (m/z 375.4→135.2) and cortisol (m/z 363.5→121.0). The limit of detection of 3-KCA was 10μM, the lower limit of quantification was 33.3μM, and the calibration curve was linear from 0.05-10μM with r(2)>0.99. Intra-day and inter-day accuracy and precision were <13.7%. The quality control samples were stable when assessed after 4h at room temperature, 24h at 4°C, 14days at -20°C, and three freeze-thaw cycles. The liver microsomal matrix did not affect 3-KCA quantification. The amount of KCA formed in the human liver microsomal LCA 3-oxidation assay was linear with respect to the amount of microsomal protein (up to 40μg) and incubation time (5-30min). Enzyme kinetics experiment indicated that LCA 3-oxidation followed the Michaelis-Menten model with an apparent Km of 26±7μM and Vmax of 303±50pmol/min/mg protein. This novel UPLC-MS/MS method for quantifying 3-KCA offers a specific, sensitive, and fast approach to determine liver microsomal LCA 3-oxidation.

  9. Role of genetic polymorphisms of CYP1A1, CYP3A5, CYP2C9, CYP2D6, and PON1 in the modulation of DNA damage in workers occupationally exposed to organophosphate pesticides

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Satyender; Kumar, Vivek; Vashisht, Kapil; Singh, Priyanka; Banerjee, Basu Dev; Rautela, Rajender Singh; Grover, Shyam Sunder; Rawat, Devendra Singh; Pasha, Syed Tazeen; Jain, Sudhir Kumar; Rai, Arvind

    2011-11-15

    Organophosphate pesticides (OPs) are primarily metabolized by several xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes (XMEs). Very few studies have explored genetic polymorphisms of XMEs and their association with DNA damage in pesticide-exposed workers. The present study was designed to determine the role of genetic polymorphisms of CYP1A1, CYP3A5, CYP2C9, CYP2D6, and PON1 in the modulation of DNA damage in workers occupationally exposed to OPs. We examined 284 subjects including 150 workers occupationally exposed to OPs and 134 normal healthy controls. The DNA damage was evaluated using the alkaline comet assay and genotyping was done using PCR-RFLP. The results revealed that the PONase activity toward paraoxonase and AChE activity was found significantly lowered in workers as compared to control subjects (p < 0.001). Workers showed significantly higher DNA damage compared to control subjects (14.37 {+-} 2.15 vs. 6.24 {+-} 1.37 tail% DNA, p < 0.001). Further, the workers with CYP2D6*3 PM and PON1 (QQ and MM) genotypes were found to have significantly higher DNA damage when compared to other genotypes (p < 0.05). In addition, significant increase in DNA damage was also observed in workers with concomitant presence of certain CYP2D6 and PON1 (Q192R and L55M) genotypes which need further extensive studies. In conclusion, the results indicate that the PON1 and CYP2D6 genotypes can modulate DNA damage elicited by some OPs possibly through gene-environment interactions. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Role of CYP1A1, CYP3A5, CYP2C, CYP2D6 and PON1 genotypes on DNA damage. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Workers exposed to some OPs demonstrated increased DNA damage. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CYP2D6 *3 PM and PON1 (Q192R and L55M) genotypes are associated with DNA damage. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Concomitant presence of certain CYP2D6 and PON1 genotypes can increase DNA damage.

  10. In Silico Predictions and In Vivo Results of Drug-Drug Interactions by Ketoconazole and Verapamil on AZD1305, a Combined Ion Channel Blocker and a Sensitive CYP3A4 Substrate.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Susanne; Löfberg, Boel; Aunes, Maria; Lunde, Helen; Frison, Lars; Edvardsson, Nils; Cullberg, Marie

    2016-09-01

    The objectives were to estimate and compare, in silico and in vivo, the effects of a strong and a moderate CYP3A4 inhibitor on AZD1305 pharmacokinetics. In silico, simulations were performed with the computer software Simcyp, and the predicted outcome was compared with the results observed in healthy male subjects. In silico, the geometric mean plasma exposure of AZD1305 + ketoconazole showed a 7.1-fold higher AUC and a 4.4-fold higher Cmax compared with AZD1305 alone. Coadministration with verapamil gave a 1.9-fold higher AUC and a 1.7-fold higher Cmax compared with AZD1305 alone. In vivo, the plasma exposure of AZD1305 + ketoconazole showed a 7.7-fold higher AUC and a 4.8 -fold higher Cmax compared with AZD1305 alone. Coadministration with verapamil gave a 2.2-fold higher AUC and a 2.0-fold higher Cmax compared with AZD1305 alone. The mean maximum QTcF increase from baseline was 407, 487, and 437 milliseconds for AZD1305, alone and in combination with verapamil or ketoconazole, respectively. Simcyp predicted the effects of ketoconazole and verapamil on the sensitive CYP3A4 substrate AZD1305 pharmacokinetics well. Both the in vivo study and the Simcyp predictions suggest a contraindication for strong CYP3A4 inhibitors and AZD1305 when given in combination. PMID:27627192

  11. Effects of Panax notoginseng saponins on the activities of CYP1A2, CYP2C9, CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 in rats in vivo.

    PubMed

    Liu, Rui; Qin, Mengnan; Hang, Pengzhou; Liu, Yan; Zhang, Zhiren; Liu, Gaofeng

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the influence of the Panax notoginseng saponins (PNS) on the activities of the drug-metabolizing enzymes cytochrome P450 (CYP450) 1A2, 2 C9, 2D6 and 3A4 in rats. The activities of CYP1A2, 2 C9, 2D6 and 3A4 were measured using specific probe drugs. After pretreatment for 1 week with PNS or physiological saline (control group), probe drugs caffeine (10 mg/kg; CYP1A2 activity), tolbutamide (15 mg/kg; CYP2C9 activity), metoprolol (20 mg/kg; CYP2D6 activity) and dapsone (10 mg/kg; CYP3A4 activity) were administered to rats by intraperitoneal injection. The blood was then collected at different times for ultra performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) analysis. The data showed that PNS exhibited an induction effect on CYP1A2 by decreasing caffeine C(max) (36.3%, p < 0.01) and AUC(0-∞) (22.77%, p < 0.05) and increasing CL/F (27.03%, p < 0.05) compared with those of the control group. Western blot analysis was used to detect the effect of PNS on the protein level of CYP1A2, and the results showed that PNS could upregulate the protein expression of CYP1A2. However, no significant changes in CYP2C9, 2D6 or 3A4 activities were observed. In conclusion, the results indicate that PNS could induce CYP1A2, which may affect the disposition of medicines primarily dependent on the CYP1A2 pathway. Our work may be the basis of related herb-drug interactions in the clinic.

  12. Role of genetic polymorphisms of CYP1A1, CYP3A5, CYP2C9, CYP2D6, and PON1 in the modulation of DNA damage in workers occupationally exposed to organophosphate pesticides.

    PubMed

    Singh, Satyender; Kumar, Vivek; Vashisht, Kapil; Singh, Priyanka; Banerjee, Basu Dev; Rautela, Rajender Singh; Grover, Shyam Sunder; Rawat, Devendra Singh; Pasha, Syed Tazeen; Jain, Sudhir Kumar; Rai, Arvind

    2011-11-15

    Organophosphate pesticides (OPs) are primarily metabolized by several xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes (XMEs). Very few studies have explored genetic polymorphisms of XMEs and their association with DNA damage in pesticide-exposed workers. The present study was designed to determine the role of genetic polymorphisms of CYP1A1, CYP3A5, CYP2C9, CYP2D6, and PON1 in the modulation of DNA damage in workers occupationally exposed to OPs. We examined 284 subjects including 150 workers occupationally exposed to OPs and 134 normal healthy controls. The DNA damage was evaluated using the alkaline comet assay and genotyping was done using PCR-RFLP. The results revealed that the PONase activity toward paraoxonase and AChE activity was found significantly lowered in workers as compared to control subjects (p<0.001). Workers showed significantly higher DNA damage compared to control subjects (14.37±2.15 vs. 6.24±1.37 tail% DNA, p<0.001). Further, the workers with CYP2D6*3PM and PON1 (QQ and MM) genotypes were found to have significantly higher DNA damage when compared to other genotypes (p<0.05). In addition, significant increase in DNA damage was also observed in workers with concomitant presence of certain CYP2D6 and PON1 (Q192R and L55M) genotypes which need further extensive studies. In conclusion, the results indicate that the PON1 and CYP2D6 genotypes can modulate DNA damage elicited by some OPs possibly through gene-environment interactions.

  13. Impact of fraction unbound, CYP3A, and CYP2D6 in vivo activities, and other potential covariates to the clearance of tramadol enantiomers in patients with neuropathic pain.

    PubMed

    de Moraes, Natália V; Lauretti, Gabriela R; Coelho, Eduardo B; Godoy, Ana Leonor P C; Neves, Daniel V; Lanchote, Vera L

    2016-04-01

    The pharmacokinetics of tramadol is characterized by a large interindividual variability, which is partially attributed to polymorphic CYP2D6 metabolism. The contribution of CYP3A, CYP2B6, fraction unbound, and other potential covariates remains unknown. This study aimed to investigate the contribution of in vivo activities of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2D6 and 3A as well as other potential covariates (CYP2B6 genotype to the SNP g.15631G>T, fraction unbound, age, body weight, creatinine clearance) to the enantioselective pharmacokinetics of tramadol. Thirty patients with neuropathic pain and phenotyped as CYP2D6 extensive metabolizers were treated with a single oral dose of 100 mg tramadol. Multiple linear regressions were performed to determine the contribution of CYP activities and other potential covariates to the clearance of tramadol enantiomers. The apparent total clearances were 44.9 (19.1-102-2) L/h and 55.2 (14.8-126.0) L/h for (+)- and (-)-tramadol, respectively [data presented as median (minimum-maximum)]. Between 79 and 83% of the overall variation in apparent clearance of tramadol enantiomers was explained by fraction unbound, CYP2D6, and CYP3A in vivo activities and body weight. Fraction unbound explained 47 and 41% of the variation in clearance of (+)-tramadol and (-)-tramadol, respectively. Individually, CYP2D6 and CYP3A activities were shown to have moderate contribution on clearance of tramadol enantiomers (11-16% and 11-18%, respectively). In conclusion, factors affecting fraction unbound of drugs (such as hyperglycemia or co-administration of drugs highly bound to plasma proteins) should be monitored, because this parameter dominates the elimination of tramadol enantiomers.

  14. An evaluation of the CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 inhibition potential of metoprolol metabolites and their contribution to drug-drug and drug-herb interaction by LC-ESI/MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Borkar, Roshan M; Bhandi, Murali Mohan; Dubey, Ajay P; Ganga Reddy, V; Komirishetty, Prashanth; Nandekar, Prajwal P; Sangamwar, Abhay T; Kamal, Ahmed; Banerjee, Sanjay K; Srinivas, R

    2016-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the contribution of metabolites to drug-drug interaction and drug-herb interaction using the inhibition of CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 by metoprolol (MET) and its metabolites. The peak concentrations of unbound plasma concentration of MET, α-hydroxy metoprolol (HM), O-desmethyl metoprolol (ODM) and N-desisopropyl metoprolol (DIM) were 90.37 ± 2.69, 33.32 ± 1.92, 16.93 ± 1.70 and 7.96 ± 0.94 ng/mL, respectively. The metabolites identified, HM and ODM, had a ratio of metabolic area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) to parent AUC of ≥0.25 when either total or unbound concentration of metabolite was considered. In vitro CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 inhibition by MET, HM and ODM study revealed that MET, HM and ODM were not inhibitors of CYP3A4-catalyzed midazolam metabolism and CYP2D6-catalyzed dextromethorphan metabolism. However, DIM only met the criteria of >10% of the total drug related material and <25% of the parent using unbound concentrations. If CYP inhibition testing is solely based on metabolite exposure, DIM metabolite would probably not be considered. However, the present study has demonstrated that DIM contributes significantly to in vitro drug-drug interaction. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Impact of inhalational exposure to ethanol fuel on the pharmacokinetics of verapamil, ibuprofen and fluoxetine as in vivo probe drugs for CYP3A, CYP2C and CYP2D in rats.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Juciane Lauren Cavalcanti; Lanchote, Vera Lucia; Pereira, Maria Paula Marques; Capela, Jorge Manuel Vieira; de Moraes, Natália Valadares; Lepera, José Salvador

    2015-10-01

    Occupational toxicology and clinical pharmacology integration will be useful to understand potential exposure-drug interaction and to shape risk assessment strategies in order to improve occupational health. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of exposure to ethanol fuel on in vivo activities of cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoenzymes CYP3A, CYP2C and CYP2D by the oral administration of the probe drugs verapamil, ibuprofen and fluoxetine. Male Wistar rats exposed to filtered air or to 2000 ppm ethanol in a nose-only inhalation chamber during (6 h/day, 5 days/week, 6 weeks) received single oral doses of 10 mg/kg verapamil or 25 mg/kg ibuprofen or 10 mg/kg fluoxetine. The enantiomers of verapamil, norverapamil, ibuprofen and fluoxetine in plasma were analyzed by LC-MS/MS. The area under the curve plasma concentration versus time extrapolated to infinity (AUC(0-∞)) was calculated using the Gauss-Laguerre quadrature. Inhalation exposure to ethanol reduces the AUC of both verapamil (approximately 2.7 fold) and norverapamil enantiomers (>2.5 fold), reduces the AUC(0-∞) of (+)-(S)-IBU (approximately 2 fold) and inhibits preferentially the metabolism of (-)-(R)-FLU. In conclusion, inhalation exposure of ethanol at a concentration of 2 TLV-STEL (6 h/day for 6 weeks) induces CYP3A and CYP2C but inhibits CYP2D in rats.

  16. Evaluation of first-pass cytochrome P4503A (CYP3A) and P-glycoprotein activities using felodipine and hesperetin in combination in Wistar rats and everted rat gut sacs in vitro.

    PubMed

    Sridhar, V; Surya Sandeep, M; Ravindra Babu, P; Naveen Babu, K

    2014-05-01

    The effects of hesperetin on the pharmacokinetics and the role of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in the transport of felodipine were investigated in rats and in vitro. Felodipine was administered orally (10 mg/kg) without or with hesperetin (25, 50 and 100 mg/kg) to rats for 15 consecutive days. Blood samples were collected at different time intervals on 1(st) day in single dose pharmacokinetic study (SDS) and on 15(th) day in multiple dose pharmacokinetic study (MDS). The area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC0-∞ ) and the peak plasma concentration (Cmax ) of felodipine were dose-dependently increased in SDS and MDS with hesperetin compared to control ( p < 0.001). The half-life (t1/2 ) and mean residence time was longer than the control group in both studies. The role of P-gp determined using everted rat gut sacs in vitro by incubating felodipine with or without hesperetin and verapamil (typical P-gp and CYP3A4 inhibitor). The in vitro experiments revealed that the verapamil and hesperetin increased the intestinal absorption of felodipine (p < 0.01). Concurrent use of hesperetin dramatically altered the pharmacokinetics of felodipine leading to an increase in systemic exposure. The likely mechanism is inhibition of CYP3A4-mediated first-pass metabolism and P-gp in the intestine and the liver.

  17. Effects of Radix Astragali and Radix Rehmanniae, the components of an anti-diabetic foot ulcer herbal formula, on metabolism of model CYP1A2, CYP2C9, CYP2D6, CYP2E1 and CYP3A4 probe substrates in pooled human liver microsomes and specific CYP isoforms.

    PubMed

    Or, Penelope M Y; Lam, Francis F Y; Kwan, Y W; Cho, C H; Lau, C P; Yu, H; Lin, G; Lau, Clara B S; Fung, K P; Leung, P C; Yeung, John H K

    2012-04-15

    The present study investigated the effects of Radix Astragali (RA) and Radix Rehmanniae (RR), the major components of an anti-diabetic foot ulcer herbal formula (NF3), on the metabolism of model probe substrates of human CYP isoforms, CYP1A2, CYP2C9, CYP2D6, CYP2E1 and CYP3A4, which are important in the metabolism of a variety of xenobiotics. The effects of RA or RR on human CYP1A2 (phenacetin O-deethylase), CYP2C9 (tolbutamide 4-hydroxylase), CYP2D6 (dextromethorphan O-demethylase), CYP2E1 (chlorzoxazone 6-hydroxylase) and CYP3A4 (testosterone 6β-hydroxylase) activities were investigated using pooled human liver microsomes. NF3 competitively inhibited activities of CYP2C9 (IC(50)=0.98mg/ml) and CYP3A4 (IC(50)=0.76mg/ml), with K(i) of 0.67 and 1.0mg/ml, respectively. With specific human CYP2C9 and CYP3A4 isoforms, NF3 competitively inhibited activities of CYP2C9 (IC(50)=0.86mg/ml) and CYP3A4 (IC(50)=0.88mg/ml), with K(i) of 0.57 and 1.6mg/ml, respectively. Studies on RA or RR individually showed that RR was more important in the metabolic interaction with the model CYP probe substrates. RR dose-dependently inhibited the testosterone 6β-hydroxylation (K(i)=0.33mg/ml) while RA showed only minimal metabolic interaction potential with the model CYP probe substrates studied. This study showed that RR and the NF3 formula are metabolized mainly by CYP2C9 and/or CYP3A4, but weakly by CYP1A2, CYP2D6 and CYP2E1. The relatively high K(i) values of NF3 (for CYP2C9 and CYP3A4 metabolism) and RR (for CYP3A4 metabolism) would suggest a low potential for NF3 to cause herb-drug interaction involving these CYP isoforms.

  18. Genetic polymorphisms of the drug-metabolizing enzyme cytochrome P450 3A5 in a Uyghur Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhengshuai; Li, Jingjie; Chen, Peng; Wang, Fengjiao; Zhang, Ning; Yang, Min; Jin, Tianbo; Chen, Chao

    2016-09-01

    1.  Detection of CYP3A5 variant alleles, and knowledge about their allelic frequency in Uyghur ethnic groups, is important to establish the clinical relevance of screening for these polymorphisms to optimize pharmacotherapy. 2. We used DNA sequencing to investigate the promoter, exons and surrounding introns, and 3'-untranslated region of the CYP3A5 gene in 96 unrelated healthy Uyghur individuals. We also used SIFT and PolyPhen-2 to predict the protein function of the novel non-synonymous mutation in CYP3A5 coding regions. 3. We found 24 different CYP3A5 polymorphisms in the Uyghur population, three of which were novel: the synonymous mutation 43C > T in exon 1, two mutations 32120C > G and 32245T > C in 3'-untranslated region, and we detected the allele frequencies of CYP3A5*1 and *3 as 64.58% and 35.42%, respectively. While no subjects with CYP3A5*6 were identified. Other identified genotypes included the heterozygous genotype 1A/3A (59.38%) and 1A/3E (11.46%), which lead to decreased enzyme activity. In addition, the frequency of haplotype "TTAGGT" was the most prevalent with 0.781. 4. Our data provide new information regarding CYP3A5 genetic polymorphisms in Uyghur individuals, which may help to improve individualization of drug therapy and offer a preliminary basis for more rational use of drugs. PMID:26739429

  19. Genetic polymorphisms of the drug-metabolizing enzyme cytochrome P450 3A5 in a Uyghur Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhengshuai; Li, Jingjie; Chen, Peng; Wang, Fengjiao; Zhang, Ning; Yang, Min; Jin, Tianbo; Chen, Chao

    2016-09-01

    1.  Detection of CYP3A5 variant alleles, and knowledge about their allelic frequency in Uyghur ethnic groups, is important to establish the clinical relevance of screening for these polymorphisms to optimize pharmacotherapy. 2. We used DNA sequencing to investigate the promoter, exons and surrounding introns, and 3'-untranslated region of the CYP3A5 gene in 96 unrelated healthy Uyghur individuals. We also used SIFT and PolyPhen-2 to predict the protein function of the novel non-synonymous mutation in CYP3A5 coding regions. 3. We found 24 different CYP3A5 polymorphisms in the Uyghur population, three of which were novel: the synonymous mutation 43C > T in exon 1, two mutations 32120C > G and 32245T > C in 3'-untranslated region, and we detected the allele frequencies of CYP3A5*1 and *3 as 64.58% and 35.42%, respectively. While no subjects with CYP3A5*6 were identified. Other identified genotypes included the heterozygous genotype 1A/3A (59.38%) and 1A/3E (11.46%), which lead to decreased enzyme activity. In addition, the frequency of haplotype "TTAGGT" was the most prevalent with 0.781. 4. Our data provide new information regarding CYP3A5 genetic polymorphisms in Uyghur individuals, which may help to improve individualization of drug therapy and offer a preliminary basis for more rational use of drugs.

  20. Gene expression and enzyme function of two cytochrome P450 3A isoenzymes in rat and cattle precision cut liver slices.

    PubMed

    Maté, María Laura; Ballent, Mariana; Larsen, Karen; Lifschitz, Adrian; Lanusse, Carlos; Virkel, Guillermo

    2015-01-01

    1. Precision-cut liver slices are one of the in vitro models used in studies concerning xenobiotic metabolism. Sparse information on this field is actually available for cattle and other veterinary species. 2. The aim of the current work was to study the effect of dexamethasone (DEX) on the gene expression and function of CYP3A23 (in rat), CYP3A28 (in cattle) and the transcriptional factors involved in their regulation. 3. DEX (at 100 µM) up-regulated CYP3A23 mRNA (3.2-fold, p = 0.028) in rat liver slices after 12 h culture, whereas the gene expression profiles of transcriptional factors involved in CYP3A regulation were unaffected. A CYP3A-dependent enzyme activity (triacetyl-oleandomycin N-demethylase) increased 3.4-fold (p < 0.05) in rat liver slices cultured in the presence of DEX. 4. The protocol used for rat liver slices was used as reference to study the expression of a CYP3A isoenzyme in cattle liver slices. Oppositely, DEX did neither affect the gene expression profile of CYP3A28 nor the CYP3A activity tested in cattle liver slices. 5. The data reported here are a further contribution to demonstrate the usefulness of liver slices as an in vitro tool for studies on the expression and function of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes in cattle and in other ruminant species. PMID:25630049

  1. Inactivation of Human Cytochrome P450 3A4 and 3A5 by Dronedarone and N-Desbutyl Dronedarone.

    PubMed

    Hong, Yanjun; Chia, Yvonne Mei Fen; Yeo, Ray Hng; Venkatesan, Gopalakrishnan; Koh, Siew Kwan; Chai, Christina Li Lin; Zhou, Lei; Kojodjojo, Pipin; Chan, Eric Chun Yong

    2016-01-01

    Dronedarone is an antiarrhythmic agent approved in 2009 for the treatment of atrial fibrillation. An in-house preliminary study demonstrated that dronedarone inhibits cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 and 3A5 in a time-dependent manner. This study aimed to investigate the inactivation of CYP450 by dronedarone. We demonstrated for the first time that both dronedarone and its main metabolite N-desbutyl dronedarone (NDBD) inactivate CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 in a time-, concentration-, and NADPH-dependent manner. For the inactivation of CYP3A4, the inactivator concentration at the half-maximum rate of inactivation and inactivation rate constant at an infinite inactivator concentration are 0.87 µM and 0.039 minute(-1), respectively, for dronedarone, and 6.24 µM and 0.099 minute(-1), respectively, for NDBD. For CYP3A5 inactivation, the inactivator concentration at the half-maximum rate of inactivation and inactivation rate constant at an infinite inactivator concentration are 2.19 µM and 0.0056 minute(-1) for dronedarone and 5.45 µM and 0.056 minute(-1) for NDBD. The partition ratios for the inactivation of CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 by dronedarone are 51.1 and 32.2, and the partition ratios for the inactivation of CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 by NDBD are 35.3 and 36.6. Testosterone protected both CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 from inactivation by dronedarone and NDBD. Although the presence of Soret peak confirmed the formation of a quasi-irreversible metabolite-intermediate complex between dronedarone/NDBD and CYP3A4/CYP3A5, partial recovery of enzyme activity by potassium ferricyanide illuminated an alternative irreversible mechanism-based inactivation (MBI). MBI of CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 was further supported by the discovery of glutathione adducts derived from the quinone oxime intermediates of dronedarone and NDBD. In conclusion, dronedarone and NDBD inactivate CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 via unique dual mechanisms of MBI and formation of the metabolite-intermediate complex. Our novel findings contribute new knowledge for

  2. In vitro inhibition of cytochrome P450 3A4 by Aronia melanocarpa constituents.

    PubMed

    Bräunlich, Marie; Christensen, Hege; Johannesen, Siri; Slimestad, Rune; Wangensteen, Helle; Malterud, Karl E; Barsett, Hilde

    2013-01-01

    Extracts, subfractions, isolated anthocyanins and procyanidins, and two phenolic acids from aronia [Aronia melanocarpa] were investigated for their CYP3A4 inhibitory effects, using midazolam as the probe substrate and recombinant insect cell microsomes expressing CYP3A4 as the enzyme source. Procyanidin B5 was a considerably stronger CYP3A4 inhibitor in vitro than the isomeric procyanidin B2 and comparable to bergamottin, a known CYP3A4 inhibitor from grapefruit juice. The inhibitory activity of proanthocyanidin-containing fractions was correlated to the degree of polymerization. Among the anthocyanins, cyanidin 3-arabinoside showed stronger CYP3A4 inhibition than cyanidin 3-galactoside and cyanidin 3-glucoside. Thus, the ability to inhibit CYP3A4 in vitro seems to be influenced by the sugar unit linked to the anthocyanidin.

  3. Three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship analysis for human pregnane X receptor for the prediction of CYP3A4 induction in human hepatocytes: structure-based comparative molecular field analysis.

    PubMed

    Handa, Koichi; Nakagome, Izumi; Yamaotsu, Noriyuki; Gouda, Hiroaki; Hirono, Shuichi

    2015-01-01

    The pregnane X receptor [PXR (NR1I2)] induces the expression of xenobiotic metabolic genes and transporter genes. In this study, we aimed to establish a computational method for quantifying the enzyme-inducing potencies of different compounds via their ability to activate PXR, for the application in drug discovery and development. To achieve this purpose, we developed a three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (3D-QSAR) model using comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA) for predicting enzyme-inducing potencies, based on computer-ligand docking to multiple PXR protein structures sampled from the trajectory of a molecular dynamics simulation. Molecular mechanics-generalized born/surface area scores representing the ligand-protein-binding free energies were calculated for each ligand. As a result, the predicted enzyme-inducing potencies for compounds generated by the CoMFA model were in good agreement with the experimental values. Finally, we concluded that this 3D-QSAR model has the potential to predict the enzyme-inducing potencies of novel compounds with high precision and therefore has valuable applications in the early stages of the drug discovery process.

  4. Molecular diversity and population structure at the Cytochrome P450 3A5 gene in Africa

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Cytochrome P450 3A5 (CYP3A5) is an enzyme involved in the metabolism of many therapeutic drugs. CYP3A5 expression levels vary between individuals and populations, and this contributes to adverse clinical outcomes. Variable expression is largely attributed to four alleles, CYP3A5*1 (expresser allele); CYP3A5*3 (rs776746), CYP3A5*6 (rs10264272) and CYP3A5*7 (rs41303343) (low/non-expresser alleles). Little is known about CYP3A5 variability in Africa, a region with considerable genetic diversity. Here we used a multi-disciplinary approach to characterize CYP3A5 variation in geographically and ethnically diverse populations from in and around Africa, and infer the evolutionary processes that have shaped patterns of diversity in this gene. We genotyped 2538 individuals from 36 diverse populations in and around Africa for common low/non-expresser CYP3A5 alleles, and re-sequenced the CYP3A5 gene in five Ethiopian ethnic groups. We estimated the ages of low/non-expresser CYP3A5 alleles using a linked microsatellite and assuming a step-wise mutation model of evolution. Finally, we examined a hypothesis that CYP3A5 is important in salt retention adaptation by performing correlations with ecological data relating to aridity for the present day, 10,000 and 50,000 years ago. Results We estimate that ~43% of individuals within our African dataset express CYP3A5, which is lower than previous independent estimates for the region. We found significant intra-African variability in CYP3A5 expression phenotypes. Within Africa the highest frequencies of high-activity alleles were observed in equatorial and Niger-Congo speaking populations. Ethiopian allele frequencies were intermediate between those of other sub-Saharan African and non-African groups. Re-sequencing of CYP3A5 identified few additional variants likely to affect CYP3A5 expression. We estimate the ages of CYP3A5*3 as ~76,400 years and CYP3A5*6 as ~218,400 years. Finally we report that global CYP3A5 expression

  5. Meclizine, a pregnane X receptor agonist, is a direct inhibitor and mechanism-based inactivator of human cytochrome P450 3A.

    PubMed

    Foo, Winnie Yin Bing; Tay, Hwee Ying; Chan, Eric Chun Yong; Lau, Aik Jiang

    2015-10-01

    Meclizine is an agonist of human pregnane X receptor (PXR). It increases CYP3A4 mRNA expression, but decreases CYP3A-catalyzed testosterone 6β-hydroxylation in primary cultures of human hepatocytes, as assessed at 24h after the last dose of meclizine. Therefore, the hypothesis to be tested is that meclizine inactivates human CYP3A enzymes. Our findings indicated that meclizine directly inhibited testosterone 6β-hydroxylation catalyzed by human liver microsomes, recombinant CYP3A4, and recombinant CYP3A5. The inhibition of human liver microsomal testosterone 6β-hydroxylation by meclizine occurred by a mixed mode and with an apparent Ki of 31±6μM. Preincubation of meclizine with human liver microsomes and NADPH resulted in a time- and concentration-dependent decrease in testosterone 6β-hydroxylation. The extent of inactivation required the presence of NADPH, was unaffected by nucleophilic trapping agents or reactive oxygen species scavengers, attenuated by a CYP3A substrate, and not reversed by dialysis. Meclizine selectively inactivated CYP3A4, but not CYP3A5. In contrast to meclizine, which has a di-substituted piperazine ring, norchlorcyclizine, which is a N-debenzylated meclizine metabolite with a mono-substituted piperazine ring, did not inactivate but directly inhibited hepatic microsomal CYP3A activity. In conclusion, meclizine inhibited human CYP3A enzymes by both direct inhibition and mechanism-based inactivation. In contrast, norchlorcyclizine is a direct inhibitor but not a mechanism-based inactivator. Furthermore, a PXR agonist may also be an inhibitor of a PXR-regulated enzyme, thereby giving rise to opposing effects on the functional activity of the enzyme and indicating the importance of measuring the catalytic activity of nuclear receptor-regulated enzymes. PMID:26239802

  6. Mechanism of interactions of α-naphthoflavone with cytochrome P450 3A4 explored with an engineered enzyme bearing a fluorescent probe†

    PubMed Central

    Tsalkova, Tamara N.; Davydova, Nadezhda Y.; Halpert, James R.; Davydov, Dmitri R.

    2008-01-01

    Design of a partially cysteine-depleted C98S/C239S/C377S/C468A cytochrome P450 3A4 mutant designated CYP3A4(C58,C64) allowed site-directed incorporation of thiol-reactive fluorescent probes into α-helix A‥ The site of modification was identified as Cys-64 with the help of CYP3A4(C58) and CYP3A4(C64), each bearing only one accessible cysteine. Changes in the fluorescence of CYP3A4(C58,C64) labeled with 6-bromoacetyl-2-dimethylaminonaphthalene (BADAN), 7-diethylamino-3-(4’-maleimidylphenyl)-4-methylcoumarin (CPM), or monobromobimane (mBBr) were used to study the interactions with bromocriptine (BCT), 1-pyrenebutanol (1-PB), testosterone (TST), and α-naphthoflavone (ANF). Of these substrates only ANF has a specific effect, causing a considerable decrease in fluorescence intensity of BADAN and CPM and increasing the fluorescence of mBBr. This ANF-binding event in the case of BADAN-modified enzyme is characterized by an S50 of 18.2 ± 0.7, compared with the value of 2.2 ± 0.3 for the ANF-induced spin transition, thus revealing an additional low affinity binding site. Studies of the effect of TST, 1-PB, and BCT on the interactions of ANF monitored by changes in fluorescence of CYP3A4(C58,C64)-BADAN or by the ANF-induced spin transition revealed no competition by these substrates. Investigation of the kinetics of fluorescence increase upon H2O2-dependent heme depletion suggests that labeled CYP3A4(C58,C64) is represented by two conformers, one of which has the fluorescence of the BADAN and CPM labels completely quenched, presumably by photoinduced electron transfer from the neighboring Trp-72 and/or Tyr-68 residues. The binding of ANF to the newly discovered binding site appears to affect the interactions of the label with the above residue(s), thus modulating the fraction of the fluorescent conformer. PMID:17198380

  7. Cytochrome P450 2D6 and 3A4 enzyme inhibition by amine stimulants in dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yitong; Santillo, Michael F

    2016-01-01

    A number of dietary supplements used for weight loss and athletic performance enhancement have been recently shown to contain a variety of stimulants, for which there is a lack of pharmacological and toxicological information. One concern for these emerging compounds is their potential to inhibit metabolic enzymes in the liver such as cytochromes P450 (CYP), which can lead to unexpected interactions among dietary supplements, drugs, and other xenobiotics. In this study, inhibition of human recombinant CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 by 27 amine stimulants associated with dietary supplements and their analogs was evaluated by luminescence assays. The strongest CYP2D6 inhibitors were coclaurine (IC50  = 0.14 ± 0.01 μM) and N-benzylphenethylamine (IC50  = 0.7 ± 0.2 μM), followed by several other relatively strong inhibitors (IC50 , 2-12 μM) including β-methylphenethylamine, N,β-dimethylphenethylamine (phenpromethamine), 1,3-dimethylamylamine (DMAA), N,α-diethylphenethylamine, higenamine (norcoclaurine) and N,N-diethylphenethylamine. Only nine compounds inhibited CYP3A4 by 20-55% at 100 μM. Results of this study illustrate that several amine stimulants associated with dietary supplements inhibit CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 in vitro, and these compounds may participate in adverse drug-dietary supplement interactions in vivo. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Pharmacogenetic biomarkers: cytochrome P450 3A5.

    PubMed

    MacPhee, Iain A M

    2012-09-01

    The immunosuppressive drugs used for solid organ transplantation all have a narrow therapeutic index with wide variation between individuals in the blood concentration achieved by a given dose. Therapeutic drug monitoring is employed routinely but may not allow optimisation of drug exposure during the critical period two to three days following transplantation. A key factor in the inter-individual variability for tacrolimus, and probably sirolimus, is whether an individual is genetically predicted to express the drug metabolising enzyme cytochrome P450 3A5 (CYP3A5). Individuals predicted to express CYP3A5 by possession of at least one wild-type CYP3A5*1 allele require 1.5-2 times higher doses of tacrolimus to achieve target blood concentrations than individuals homozygous for the CYP3A5*3 allele who are functional non-expressers of CYP3A5. Planning the initial tacrolimus dose based on the CYP3A5 genotype has been shown to allow more rapid achievement of target blood concentrations after transplantation than a standard dose given to all patients. However, it remains to be demonstrated that use of this approach as an adjunct to therapeutic drug monitoring can reduce either efficacy failure (transplant rejection) or toxicity. Use of a pharmacogenetic approach to dosing sirolimus awaits testing and it is unlikely to be useful for ciclosporin or everolimus.

  9. The effect of interferon-{alpha} on the expression of cytochrome P450 3A4 in human hepatoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Flaman, Anathea S.; Gravel, Caroline; Hashem, Anwar M.; Tocchi, Monika; Li Xuguang

    2011-06-01

    Interferon {alpha} (IFN{alpha}) is used to treat malignancies and chronic viral infections. It has been found to decrease the rate of drug metabolism by acting on cytochrome P450 enzymes, but no studies have investigated the consequences of IFN{alpha} treatment on the CYP3A4 isoform, responsible for the metabolism of a majority of drugs. In this study, we have examined the effect of IFN{alpha} on CYP3A4 catalytic activity and expression in human hepatoma cells. We found that IFN{alpha} inhibits CYP3A4 activity and rapidly down-regulates the expression of CYP3A4, independent of de novo protein synthesis. Pharmacologic inhibitors and a dominant-negative mutant expression plasmid were used to dissect the molecular pathway required for CYP3A4 suppression, revealing roles for Jak1 and Stat1 and eliminating the involvement of the p38 mitogen-activated and extracellular regulated kinases. Treatment of hepatoma cells with IFN{alpha} did not affect the nuclear localization or relative abundance of Sp1 and Sp3 transcription factors, suggesting that the suppression of CYP3A4 by IFN{alpha} does not result from inhibitory Sp3 out-competing Sp1. To our knowledge, this is the first report that IFN{alpha} down-regulates CYP3A4 expression largely through the JAK-STAT pathway. Since IFN{alpha} suppresses CYP3A4 expression, caution is warranted when IFN{alpha} is administered in combination with CYP3A4 substrates to avoid the occurrence of adverse drug interactions.

  10. Pungent ginger components modulates human cytochrome P450 enzymes in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Li, Mian; Chen, Pei-zhan; Yue, Qing-xi; Li, Jing-quan; Chu, Rui-ai; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Hui

    2013-01-01

    Aim: Ginger rhizome is used worldwide as a spicy flavor agent. This study was designed to explore the potential effects of pungent ginger components, 6-, 8-, and 10-gingerol, on human cytochrome P450 (CYP450) enzymes that are responsible for the metabolism of many prescription drugs. Methods: The activities of human CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, and CYP3A4 were analyzed using Vivid P450 assay kits. The mRNA expression of CYP3A4 in human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line HepG2 was measured using quantitative real-time PCR assay. Results: All three gingerols potently inhibited CYP2C9 activity, exerted moderate inhibition on CYP2C19 and CYP3A4, and weak inhibion on CYP2D6. 8-Gingerol was the most potent in inhibition of P450 enzymes with IC50 values of 6.8, 12.5, 8.7, and 42.7 μmol/L for CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP3A4, and CYP2D6, respectively. By comparing the effects of gingerols on CYP3A4 with three different fluorescent substrate probes, it was demonstrated that the inhibition of gingerols on CYP3A4 had no substrate-dependence. In HepG2 cells, 8-gingerol and 10-gingerol inhibited, but 6-gingerol induced mRNA expression of CYP3A4. Conclusion: 6-, 8-, and 10-gingerol suppress human cytochrome P450 activity, while 8- and 10-gingerol inhibit CYP3A4 expression. The results may have an implication for the use of ginger or ginger products when combined with therapeutic drugs that are metabolized by cytochrome P450 enzymes. PMID:23770984

  11. In Silico Docking of Ligands to Drug Oxidation Enzymes Cytochrome P450 3A4 and Cytochrome P450 1A2.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, David; Guglielmon, Jonathan; Glenn, Marsch; Peter, Guengerich F.

    2009-03-01

    Cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) and Cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP1A2) oxidize most drugs in humans. Protein modeling toolkits from OpenEye Scientific Software were used to examine the interaction of drug substrates with CYP3A4 and CYP1A2. Conformers and partial atomic charges were generated for each drug molecule. User-defined volumes were defined around CYP3A4 and CYP1A2 active sites. Ligands were docked assuming protein and substrates as rigid bodies. To assess rigid docking accuracy, x-ray diffraction coordinates of CYP3A4-erythromycin and CYP3A4-metyrapone complexes were obtained. Rigid re-docking of erythromycin and metyrapone into CYP3A4 yielded poses similar to the crystal structures. Rigid docking revealed two other energetically-favorable CYP3A4-metyrapone poses. The best poses were obtained by using all the Open Eye scoring functions. Optimization of protein-ligand interactions within 5-10 Angstroms of the docked ligand was then performed using the Merck Molecular Force Field in which the protein was assumed to be flexible and the ligand to be rigid. Nearby protein residues pulled slightly closer to the substrate, reducing the volume of the active site.

  12. Current Approaches for Investigating and Predicting Cytochrome P450 3A4-Ligand Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Poulos, Thomas L.

    2015-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) is the major and most important drug-metabolizing enzyme in humans that oxidizes and clears over a half of all administered pharmaceuticals. This is possible because CYP3A4 is promiscuous with respect to substrate binding and has the ability to catalyze diverse oxidative chemistries in addition to traditional hydroxylation reactions. Furthermore, CYP3A4 binds and oxidizes a number of substrates in a cooperative manner and can be both induced and inactivated by drugs. In vivo, CYP3A4 inhibition could lead to undesired drug-drug interactions and drug toxicity, a major reason for late-stage clinical failures and withdrawal of marketed pharmaceuticals. Owing to its central role in drug metabolism, many aspects of CYP3A4 catalysis have been extensively studied by various techniques. Here, we give an overview of experimental and theoretical methods currently used for investigation and prediction of CYP3A4-ligand interactions, a defining factor in drug metabolism, with an emphasis on the problems addressed and conclusions derived from the studies. PMID:26002732

  13. Study of the upregulation of the activity of cytochrome P450 3A isoforms by Astragalus injection and Astragalus granules in rats and in cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yongli; Huang, Ling; Bi, Huichang; Cui, Yuqiang; Li, Jingqing; Wang, Xiangsheng; Qin, Xiaoling; Chen, Jiangying; Huang, Min

    2013-06-01

    Astragalus injection (AI) and Astragalus granules (AG) are the two representative clinical preparations from Astragali Radix. In order to investigate the regulation of metabolism, AI and AG were tested for their ability to affect the major enzyme cytochrome P450 3A isoforms in vivo and in vitro. In the study of CYP3A1 enzyme activity, male rats were pretreated with AI and AG. The "cocktail" approach-based LC-MS/MS results showed that AI pretreatment at 0.16, 0.8 and 4 g kg(-1) day(-1) significantly increased the rat liver microsome CYP3A1 activity by 1.62-, 1.68- and 2.00-fold, and AG pretreatment at 32, 160 and 800 mg kg(-1) day(-1) significantly increased the rat CYP3A1 activity by 1.86-, 2.16- and 1.76-fold. The effects of AI and AG on liver microsome CYP3A1 mRNA expression in rats were analyzed using real-time PCR technique. The results showed that AI and AG pretreatments significantly increased the CYP3A1 mRNA expression. The induction of CYP3A4 enzyme activity by AI and AG in vitro was measured using a CYP3A4 luciferase reporter gene assay in transiently transfected human intestinal LS174T cells. Compared to the control group, AI at 62.5-1,000 mg/ml could significantly induce CYP3A4 reporter gene luciferase activity of 1.36- to 1.88-fold for 48-h incubated PXR-transfected LS174T cells, and AG at 62.5-1,000 μg/ml significantly transactivated CYP3A4 reporter gene luciferase activity of 1.36- to 2.05-fold. However, the CYP3A4 reporter gene construct was not significantly transactivated by the AI and AG in CAR-transfected LS174T cells. These CYP3A isoforms upregulation results can help us to use AI and AG rationally in the clinic.

  14. Short communication: Hepatic progesterone-metabolizing enzymes cytochrome P450 2C and 3A in lactating cows during thermoneutral and heat stress conditions.

    PubMed

    McCracken, V L; Xie, G; Deaver, S E; Baumgard, L H; Rhoads, R P; Rhoads, M L

    2015-05-01

    Two experiments were performed to determine the effects of heat stress (HS) and insulin on hepatic mRNA abundance of enzymes responsible for metabolizing progesterone [cytochrome P450 2C and 3A (CYP2C and CYP3A)]. To distinguish the direct effects of HS from decreased dry matter intake, cohorts were pair fed (PF) in thermoneutral conditions to match the intake of the HS cows during both experiments. In the first experiment, multiparous late-lactation Holstein cows (n=12, 305±33 d in milk) housed in climate-controlled chambers were subjected to 2 experimental periods: (1) thermoneutral (TN) conditions (18°C, 20% humidity) with ad libitum intake (TN and well fed) for 9 d; and (2) either HS conditions (cyclical temperature 31-40°C, 20% humidity) fed for ad libitum intake (n=6), or TN conditions and PF to match the HS animal (n=6) for 9 d. To evaluate hepatic gene expression during experiment 1, biopsies were obtained at the end of each period. In the second experiment, multiparous mid-lactation Holstein cows (n=12, 136±8 DIM) were housed and fed in conditions similar to those described for the first experiment. Liver biopsies were obtained immediately before and after an insulin tolerance test administered on d 6 of each period. No effects of exogenous insulin were observed on any of the tested variables, nor were there interactions between environment (TN/HS or well fed/PF) and insulin administration. Heat stress decreased hepatic CYP2C expression during both experiments. The relative abundance of CYP3A was not affected by environmental conditions in the late-lactation cows (first experiment), but was reduced by HS in the mid-lactation cows (second experiment). Interestingly, during experiment 2, hepatic CYP3A expression also decreased during PF. These results suggest that HS reduces the capacity of the liver to metabolize progesterone through distinct effects on CYP2C and CYP3A, and that the effects appear to vary based upon stage of lactation. Ultimately, HS

  15. Short communication: Hepatic progesterone-metabolizing enzymes cytochrome P450 2C and 3A in lactating cows during thermoneutral and heat stress conditions.

    PubMed

    McCracken, V L; Xie, G; Deaver, S E; Baumgard, L H; Rhoads, R P; Rhoads, M L

    2015-05-01

    Two experiments were performed to determine the effects of heat stress (HS) and insulin on hepatic mRNA abundance of enzymes responsible for metabolizing progesterone [cytochrome P450 2C and 3A (CYP2C and CYP3A)]. To distinguish the direct effects of HS from decreased dry matter intake, cohorts were pair fed (PF) in thermoneutral conditions to match the intake of the HS cows during both experiments. In the first experiment, multiparous late-lactation Holstein cows (n=12, 305±33 d in milk) housed in climate-controlled chambers were subjected to 2 experimental periods: (1) thermoneutral (TN) conditions (18°C, 20% humidity) with ad libitum intake (TN and well fed) for 9 d; and (2) either HS conditions (cyclical temperature 31-40°C, 20% humidity) fed for ad libitum intake (n=6), or TN conditions and PF to match the HS animal (n=6) for 9 d. To evaluate hepatic gene expression during experiment 1, biopsies were obtained at the end of each period. In the second experiment, multiparous mid-lactation Holstein cows (n=12, 136±8 DIM) were housed and fed in conditions similar to those described for the first experiment. Liver biopsies were obtained immediately before and after an insulin tolerance test administered on d 6 of each period. No effects of exogenous insulin were observed on any of the tested variables, nor were there interactions between environment (TN/HS or well fed/PF) and insulin administration. Heat stress decreased hepatic CYP2C expression during both experiments. The relative abundance of CYP3A was not affected by environmental conditions in the late-lactation cows (first experiment), but was reduced by HS in the mid-lactation cows (second experiment). Interestingly, during experiment 2, hepatic CYP3A expression also decreased during PF. These results suggest that HS reduces the capacity of the liver to metabolize progesterone through distinct effects on CYP2C and CYP3A, and that the effects appear to vary based upon stage of lactation. Ultimately, HS

  16. Homotropic cooperativity of monomeric cytochrome P450 3A4

    SciTech Connect

    Baas, Bradley J.; Denisov, Ilia G.; Sligar, Stephen G.

    2010-11-16

    Mechanistic studies of mammalian cytochrome P450s are often obscured by the phase heterogeneity of solubilized preparations of membrane enzymes. The various protein-protein aggregation states of microsomes, detergent solubilized cytochrome or a family of aqueous multimeric complexes can effect measured substrate binding events as well as subsequent steps in the reaction cycle. In addition, these P450 monooxygenases are normally found in a membrane environment and the bilayer composition and dynamics can also effect these catalytic steps. Here, we describe the structural and functional characterization of a homogeneous monomeric population of cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP 3A4) in a soluble nanoscale membrane bilayer, or Nanodisc [Nano Lett. 2 (2002) 853]. Cytochrome P450 3A4:Nanodisc assemblies were formed and purified to yield a 1:1 ratio of CYP 3A4 to Nanodisc. Solution small angle X-ray scattering was used to structurally characterize this monomeric CYP 3A4 in the membrane bilayer. The purified CYP 3A4:Nanodiscs showed a heretofore undescribed high level of homotropic cooperativity in the binding of testosterone. Soluble CYP 3A4:Nanodisc retains its known function and shows prototypic hydroxylation of testosterone when driven by hydrogen peroxide. This represents the first functional characterization of a true monomeric preparation of cytochrome P450 monooxygenase in a phospholipid bilayer and elucidates new properties of the monomeric form.

  17. Developmental changes in the expression and function of cytochrome P450 3A isoforms: evidence from in vitro and in vivo investigations.

    PubMed

    Ince, Ibrahim; Knibbe, Catherijne A J; Danhof, Meindert; de Wildt, Saskia N

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this review is to discuss our current understanding of the developmental changes of the drug-metabolizing enzyme cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A and its impact on drug therapy. In the last 10 years, several methods have been used to study the ontogeny of specific CYP3A isoforms in vitro and in vivo. Although most studies confirm previous findings that CYP3A4/5 activity is low at birth and reaches adult values in the first years of life, there are still important gaps in our knowledge of the exact developmental patterns of individual CYP3A isoforms, especially in this age range. Moreover, most in vivo clinical studies have also failed to cover the whole pediatric age range. To date, this information gap still hampers the design of age-specific dosing guidelines of CYP3A substrate drugs, especially in neonates and infants. Innovative study methods, including opportunistic sampling and sensitive analytical assays used in combination with physiologically based pharmacokinetics, and population pharmacokinetic model concepts may help to improve our understanding of the ontogeny of CYP3A and aid the application of this knowledge in clinical practice.

  18. Study Liver Cytochrome P450 3A4 Inhibition and Hepatotoxicity Using DMSO-Differentiated HuH-7 Cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yitong

    2016-01-01

    Metabolically competent, inexpensive, and robust in vitro cell models are needed for studying liver drug-metabolizing enzymes and hepatotoxicity. Human hepatoma HuH-7 cells develop into a differentiated in vitro model resembling primary human hepatocytes after a 2-week dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) treatment. DMSO-treated HuH-7 cells express elevated cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) enzyme gene expression and activity compared to untreated HuH-7 cells. This cell model could be used to study CYP3A4 inhibition by reversible and time-dependent inhibitors, including drugs, food-related substances, and environmental chemicals. The DMSO-treated HuH-7 model is also a suitable tool for investigating hepatotoxicity. This chapter describes a detailed methodology for developing DMSO-treated HuH-7 cells, which are subsequently used for CYP3A4 inhibition and hepatotoxicity studies. PMID:27518624

  19. Identification of human liver cytochrome P450 enzymes involved in the metabolism of SCH 530348 (Vorapaxar), a potent oral thrombin protease-activated receptor 1 antagonist.

    PubMed

    Ghosal, Anima; Lu, Xiaowen; Penner, Natalia; Gao, Lan; Ramanathan, Ragu; Chowdhury, Swapan K; Kishnani, Narendra S; Alton, Kevin B

    2011-01-01

    Vorapaxar (SCH 530348), a potent oral thrombin protease-activated receptor 1 antagonist, is being developed as an antiplatelet agent for patients with established vascular disease. The objective of this study was to identify the human liver cytochrome P450 (P450) enzyme(s) responsible for the metabolism of SCH 530348. Human liver microsomes metabolized SCH 530348 to M19, an amine metabolite formed via carbamate cleavage, and M20 (monohydroxy-SCH 530348). Recombinant human CYP3A4 exhibited the most activity (11.5% profiled radioactivity) for the formation of M19, followed by markedly less substrate conversion with CYP1A1 and CYP2C19. Trace levels of M19, a major excreted human metabolite, were detected with CYP1A2, CYP3A5, and CYP4F3A. Formation of M19 by human liver microsomes was inhibited 89% by ketoconazole (IC(50), 0.73 μM), 34% by tranylcypromine, and 89% by anti-CYP3A4 monoclonal antibody. There was a significant correlation between the rate of M19 formation and midazolam 1'-hydroxylation (r = 0.75) or M19 formation and testosterone 6β-hydroxylation (r = 0.92). The results of screening, inhibition, and correlation studies confirmed that CYP3A4 is the major P450 enzyme responsible for M19 formation from SCH 530348. In contrast, formation of M20, a major circulating human metabolite at steady state, was primarily catalyzed by CYP3A4 and CYP2J2. M20 is pharmacologically equipotent to SCH 530348, whereas M19 is an inactive metabolite. Formation of M20 by human liver microsomes was inhibited 89% by ketoconazole, 75% by astemizole (a CYP2J2 inhibitor), and 43% by CYP3A4 monoclonal antibody. These results suggest that CYP3A4 and CYP2J2 are both involved in the formation of M20 metabolite. PMID:20926621

  20. Characterization of the cytochrome P450 enzymes involved in the metabolism of a new cardioprotective agent KR-33028.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyojin; Yoon, Yune-Jung; Kim, Hyunmi; Kang, Suil; Cheon, Hyae Gyeong; Yoo, Sung-Eun; Shin, Jae-Gook; Liu, Kwang-Hyeon

    2006-10-10

    KR-33028 (N-[4-cyano-benzo[b]thiophene-2-carbonyl]guanidine) is a new cardioprotective agent for preventing ischemia-reperfusion injury. This study was performed to characterize the cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes that are involved in the metabolism of KR-33028. Hydroxylation (5-hydroxy- and 7-hydroxy-KR-33028) is major pathways for the metabolism of KR-33028 in human liver microsomes. Among the nine c-DNA expressed CYP isoforms tested, KR-33028 was 5-hydroxylated by CYP3A4 and 7-hydroxylated by CYP1A2, CYP3A4, and CYP2C19. These findings were supported by the combination of chemical inhibition studies in human liver microsomes and correlation analysis. Furafylline and ketoconazole potently inhibited hydroxylation of KR-33028 in human liver microsomes. Correlation analysis between the known CYP enzyme activities and the rates of the formation of 5-hydroxy- and 7-hydroxy-KR-33028 in the 16 human liver microsomes has showed significant correlations with CYP3A4-mediated midazolam 1'-hydroxylation and CYP1A2-mediated phenacetin O-deethylation, respectively. A 7-hydroxy-KR-33028 formation is also weakly correlated with CYP3A4-mediated midazolam 1'-hydroxylation. The kinetics of the major biotransformation of KR-33028 were studied: CYP3A4 mediated the formation of 5-hydroxy-KR-33028 from KR-33028 with Cl(int)=0.22microl/min/pmol CYP. The intrinsic clearance for 7-hydroxy-KR-33028 formation by CYP1A2, CYP2C19, and CYP3A4 were 0.26, 0.19, and 0.03microl/min/pmol CYP, respectively. Taken together, these results provide evidence that CYP3A4 and CYP1A2 are the major isoforms responsible for the hydroxy metabolites formation from KR-33028.

  1. Gomisin A is a Novel Isoform-Specific Probe for the Selective Sensing of Human Cytochrome P450 3A4 in Liver Microsomes and Living Cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jing-Jing; Ge, Guang-Bo; He, Yu-Qi; Wang, Ping; Dai, Zi-Ru; Ning, Jing; Hu, Liang-Hai; Yang, Ling

    2016-01-01

    Nearly half of prescription medicines are metabolized by human cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A. CYP3A4 and 3A5 are two major isoforms of human CYP3A and share most of the substrate spectrum. A very limited previous study distinguished the activity of CYP3A4 and CYP3A5, identifying the challenge in predicting CYP3A-mediated drug clearance and drug-drug interaction. In the present study, we introduced gomisin A (GA) with a dibenzocyclooctadiene skeleton as a novel selective probe of CYP3A4. The major metabolite of GA was fully characterized as 8-hydroxylated GA by LC-MS and NMR. CYP3A4 was assigned as the predominant isozyme involved in GA 8-hydroxylation by reaction phenotyping assays, chemical inhibition assays, and correlation studies. GA 8-hydroxylation in both recombinant human CYP3A4 and human liver microsomes followed classic Michaelis-Menten kinetics. The intrinsic clearance values indicated that CYP3A4 contributed 12.8-fold more than CYP3A5 to GA 8-hydroxylation. Molecular docking studies indicated different hydrogen bonds and π-π interactions between CYP3A4 and CYP3A5, which might result in the different catalytic activity for GA 8-hydroxylation. Furthermore, GA exhibited a stronger inhibitory activity towards CYP3A4 than CYP3A5, which further suggested a preferred selectivity of CYP3A4 for the transformation of GA. More importantly, GA has been successfully applied to selectively monitor the modulation of CYP3A4 activities by the inducer rifampin in hepG2 cells, which is consistent with the level change of CYP3A4 mRNA expression. In summary, our results suggested that GA could be used as a novel probe for the selective sensing of CYP3A4 in tissue and cell preparations.

  2. Quantitative Prediction of Regioselectivity Toward Cytochrome P450/3A4 Using Machine Learning Approaches.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Kiyoshi; Koyama, Michio; Funatsu, Kimito

    2010-03-15

    In the drug discovery process, it is important to know the properties of both drug candidates and their metabolites. Fast and precise prediction of metabolites is essential. However, it has been difficult to predict metabolites because of the complexity of the mechanism of cytochrome P450/3A4 (CYP 3A4), which is the main metabolite enzyme of drugs. In this study, we focus on the regioselectivity of CYP 3A4, i.e., the selectivity of metabolic sites. We have developed a model to predict the regioselectivity of drug candidates by using machine learning (ML) approaches.

  3. Effects of triclosan on the detoxification system in the yellow catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco): expressions of CYP and GST genes and corresponding enzyme activity in phase I, II and antioxidant system.

    PubMed

    Ku, Peijia; Wu, Xiaoyan; Nie, Xiangping; Ou, Ruikang; Wang, Lan; Su, Tian; Li, Yigang

    2014-11-01

    Triclosan (TCS), a broad-spectrum antibacterial agent widely used in pharmaceuticals and personal case products (PPCPs), has been universally detected in aquatic ecosystem in recent years. Unfortunately, there is limited information about its potential impacts on responses of genes and enzymes related to fish detoxification. In the present work, we cloned CYP3A and alpha-GST of yellow catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco) and tested the transcriptional expression of CYP1A, CYP3A and GST as well as the alterations of their corresponding enzymes, including ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD), aminopyrine N-demethylase (APND), erythromycin N-demethylase (ERND), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and catalase (CAT), and also the oxidative product malondialdehyde (MDA) content in the liver of P. fulvidraco exposed to TCS. Amino acids of CYP3A and GST were deduced and phylogenetic tree was constructed respectively. High identity percent was exhibited between P. fulvidraco and other species, such as other fish, birds and mammals. Results indicated that TCS significantly elevated CYP1A and GST but decreased CYP3A expression, EROD activity and MDA content at lower concentrations of TCS at 24h. Moreover, CYP3A and GST were significantly inhibited at 72 h but induced at 168 h at lower concentrations. However, CYP3A was always induced at the highest concentration during the exposure period. Furthermore, CYP3A, GST, GST enzyme and MDA content exhibited a dose-effect relationship to some extent, but no significant responses were observed in ERND, APND and CAT except for individual treatments. Taken together, EROD was the most sensitive to TCS exposure as compared to other enzymes. Meanwhile, mRNA responses were more sensitive in yellow catfish.

  4. CYP450 Enzyme-Mediated Metabolism of TCAS and Its Inhibitory and Induced Effects on Metabolized Enzymes in Vitro.

    PubMed

    Shen, Guolin; Wang, Cheng; Zhou, Lili; Li, Lei; Chen, Huiming; Yu, Wenlian; Li, Haishan

    2015-09-02

    In this study, we investigated the enzymes catalyzing the phase I metabolism of thiacalixarene (TCAS) based on in vitro system including cDNA-expressed P450 enzymes, human liver microsomes plus inhibitors and monoclonal antibodies. In addition, the inhibitory potential of TCAS on major CYP450 drug metabolizing enzymes (CYP1A2, CYP2C9, CYP2B6, CYP2D6 and CYP3A4) was assessed. The results showed that CYP1A2 and CYP2C9 mediated TCAS hydroxylation. IC50 values for TCAS in rat and human liver microsomes were greater than 50 µM, and it demonstrated a weak inhibition of rat and human CYP450 enzymes. Finally, sandwiched hepatocytes were used to evaluate the induction of CYP1A and CYP3A to define the function of TCAS in vivo. The results showed that incubation of TCAS at different concentrations for 72 h failed to induce CYP1A and CYP3A. However, incubation of the cells with 50 and 100 µM TCAS caused a profound decrease in the activities of CYP1A and CYP3A, which was probably due to cytotoxic effects, suggesting that exposure to TCAS might be a health concern.

  5. CYP450 Enzyme-Mediated Metabolism of TCAS and Its Inhibitory and Induced Effects on Metabolized Enzymes in Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Guolin; Wang, Cheng; Zhou, Lili; Li, Lei; Chen, Huiming; Yu, Wenlian; Li, Haishan

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the enzymes catalyzing the phaseⅠmetabolism of thiacalixarene (TCAS) based on in vitro system including cDNA-expressed P450 enzymes, human liver microsomes plus inhibitors and monoclonal antibodies. In addition, the inhibitory potential of TCAS on major CYP450 drug metabolizing enzymes (CYP1A2, CYP2C9, CYP2B6, CYP2D6 and CYP3A4) was assessed. The results showed that CYP1A2 and CYP2C9 mediated TCAS hydroxylation. IC50 values for TCAS in rat and human liver microsomes were greater than 50 µM, and it demonstrated a weak inhibition of rat and human CYP450 enzymes. Finally, sandwiched hepatocytes were used to evaluate the induction of CYP1A and CYP3A to define the function of TCAS in vivo. The results showed that incubation of TCAS at different concentrations for 72 h failed to induce CYP1A and CYP3A. However, incubation of the cells with 50 and 100 µM TCAS caused a profound decrease in the activities of CYP1A and CYP3A, which was probably due to cytotoxic effects, suggesting that exposure to TCAS might be a health concern. PMID:26404338

  6. A Large-Scale Allosteric Transition in Cytochrome P450 3A4 Revealed by Luminescence Resonance Energy Transfer (LRET)

    PubMed Central

    Sineva, Elena V.; Rumfeldt, Jessica A. O.; Halpert, James R.; Davydov, Dmitri R.

    2013-01-01

    Effector-induced allosteric transitions in cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) were investigated by luminescence resonance energy transfer (LRET) between two SH-reactive probes attached to various pairs of distantly located cysteine residues, namely the double-cysteine mutants CYP3A4(C64/C468), CYP3A4(C377/C468) and CYP3A4(C64/C121). Successive equimolar labeling of these proteins with the phosphorescent probe erythrosine iodoacetamide (donor) and the near-infrared fluorophore DY-731 maleimide (acceptor) allowed us to establish donor/acceptor pairs sensitive to conformational motions. The interactions of all three double-labeled mutants with the allosteric activators α-naphthoflavone and testosterone resulted in an increase in the distance between the probes. A similar effect was elicited by cholesterol. These changes in distance vary from 1.3 to 8.5 Å, depending on the position of the donor/acceptor pair and the nature of the effector. In contrast, the changes in the interprobe distance caused by such substrates as bromocriptine or 1-pyrenebutanol were only marginal. Our results provide a decisive support to the paradigm of allosteric modulation of CYP3A4 and indicate that the conformational transition caused by allosteric effectors increases the spatial separation between the beta-domain of the enzyme (bearing residues Cys64 and Cys377) and the alpha-domain, where Cys121 and Cys468 are located. PMID:24376769

  7. Immunochemical detection of cytochrome P450 enzymes in liver microsomes of 27 cynomolgus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Uehara, Shotaro; Murayama, Norie; Nakanishi, Yasuharu; Zeldin, Darryl C; Yamazaki, Hiroshi; Uno, Yasuhiro

    2011-11-01

    The cynomolgus monkey is widely used as a primate model in preclinical studies because of its evolutionary closeness to humans. Despite their importance in drug metabolism, the content of each cytochrome P450 (P450) enzyme has not been systematically determined in cynomolgus monkey livers. In this study, liver microsomes of 27 cynomolgus monkeys were analyzed by immunoblotting using selective P450 antibodies. The specificity of each antibody was confirmed by analyzing the cross-reactivity against 19 CYP1-3 subfamily enzymes using recombinant proteins. CYP2A, CYP2B6, CYP2C9/19, CYP2C76, CYP2D, CYP2E, CYP3A4, and CYP3A5 were detected in all 27 animals. In contrast, CYP1A, CYP1D, and CYP2J were below detectable levels in all liver samples. The average content of each P450 showed that among the P450s analyzed CYP3A (3A4 and 3A5) was the most abundant (40% of total immunoquantified P450), followed by CYP2A (25%), CYP2C (14%), CYP2B6 (13%), CYP2E1 (11%), and CYP2D (3%). No apparent sex differences were found for any P450. Interanimal variations ranged from 2.6-fold (CYP3A) to 11-fold (CYP2C9/19), and most P450s (CYP2A, CYP2D, CYP2E, CYP3A4, and CYP3A5) varied 3- to 4-fold. To examine the correlations of P450 content with enzyme activities, metabolic assays were performed in 27 cynomolgus monkey livers using 7-ethoxyresorufin, coumarin, pentoxyresorufin, flurbiprofen, bufuralol, dextromethorphan, and midazolam. CYP2D and CYP3A4 contents were significantly correlated with typical reactions of human CYP2D (bufuralol 1'-hydroxylation and dextromethorphan O-deethylation) and CYP3A (midazolam 1'-hydroxylation and 4-hydroxylation). The results presented in this study provide useful information for drug metabolism studies using cynomolgus monkeys.

  8. Metabolism of anabolic steroids by recombinant human cytochrome P450 enzymes. Gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric determination of metabolites.

    PubMed

    Rendic, S; Nolteernsting, E; Schänzer, W

    1999-11-26

    Metabolism of steroid hormones with anabolic properties was studied in vitro using human recombinant CYP3A4, CYP2C9 and 2B6 enzymes. The enzyme formats used for CYP3A4 and CYP2C9 were insect cell microsomes expressing human CYP enzymes and purified recombinant human CYP enzymes in a reconstituted system. CYP3A4 enzyme formats incubated with anabolic steroids, testosterone, 17alpha-methyltestosterone, metandienone, boldenone and 4-chloro-1,2-dehydro-17alpha-methyltestosterone, produced 6beta-hydroxyl metabolites identified as trimethylsilyl (TMS)-ethers by a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method. When the same formats of CYP2C9 were incubated with the anabolic steroids, no 6beta-hydroxyl metabolites were formed. Human lymphoblast cell microsomes expressing human CYP2B6 incubated with the steroids investigated produced traces of 6beta-hydroxyl metabolites with testosterone and 17alpha-methyltestosterone only. We suggest that the electronic effects of the 3-keto-4-ene structural moiety contribute to the selectivity within the active site of CYP3A4 enzyme resulting in selective 6beta-hydroxylation. PMID:10630892

  9. Assessing the clinical significance of botanical supplementation on human cytochrome P450 3A activity: comparison of a milk thistle and black cohosh product to rifampin and clarithromycin.

    PubMed

    Gurley, Bill; Hubbard, Martha A; Williams, D Keith; Thaden, John; Tong, Yudong; Gentry, W Brooks; Breen, Philip; Carrier, Danielle J; Cheboyina, Shreekar

    2006-02-01

    Phytochemical-mediated modulation of cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYPs) may underlie many herb-drug interactions. This study's purpose was to assess the effects of milk thistle and black cohosh supplementation on CYP3A activity and compare them to a clinically recognized inducer, rifampin, and inhibitor, clarithromycin. Healthy volunteers were randomly assigned to receive a standardized milk thistle (900 mg) or black cohosh (80 mg) supplement for 14 days. Subjects also received rifampin (600 mg) and clarithromycin (1000 mg) for 7 days as positive controls for CYP3A induction and inhibition, respectively. Midazolam was administered orally before and after each supplementation and control period. The effects of milk thistle, black cohosh, rifampin, and clarithromycin on midazolam pharmacokinetics were determined using noncompartmental techniques. Unlike those observed for rifampin and clarithromycin, midazolam pharmacokinetics was unaffected by milk thistle or black cohosh. Milk thistle and black cohosh appear to have no clinically relevant effect on CYP3A activity in vivo.

  10. Differential expression of cytochrome P450 enzymes in normal and tumor tissues from childhood rhabdomyosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Molina-Ortiz, Dora; Camacho-Carranza, Rafael; González-Zamora, José Francisco; Shalkow-Kalincovstein, Jaime; Cárdenas-Cardós, Rocío; Ností-Palacios, Rosario; Vences-Mejía, Araceli

    2014-01-01

    Intratumoral expression of genes encoding Cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYP) might play a critical role not only in cancer development but also in the metabolism of anticancer drugs. The purpose of this study was to compare the mRNA expression patterns of seven representative CYPs in paired tumor and normal tissue of child patients with rabdomyosarcoma (RMS). Using real time quantitative RT-PCR, the gene expression pattern of CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP1B1, CYP2E1, CYP2W1, CYP3A4, and CYP3A5 were analyzed in tumor and adjacent non-tumor tissues from 13 child RMS patients. Protein concentration of CYPs was determined using Western blot. The expression levels were tested for correlation with the clinical and pathological data of the patients. Our data showed that the expression levels of CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 were negligible. Elevated expression of CYP1B1 mRNA and protein was detected in most RMS tumors and adjacent normal tissues. Most cancerous samples exhibit higher levels of both CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 compared with normal tissue samples. Expression of CYP2E1 mRNA was found to be significantly higher in tumor tissue, however no relation was found with protein levels. CYP2W1 mRNA and/or protein are mainly expressed in tumors. In conclusion, we defined the CYP gene expression profile in tumor and paired normal tissue of child patients with RMS. The overexpression of CYP2W1, CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 in tumor tissues suggests that they may be involved in RMS chemoresistance; furthermore, they may be exploited for the localized activation of anticancer prodrugs.

  11. Differential expression of cytochrome P450 enzymes in normal and tumor tissues from childhood rhabdomyosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Molina-Ortiz, Dora; Camacho-Carranza, Rafael; González-Zamora, José Francisco; Shalkow-Kalincovstein, Jaime; Cárdenas-Cardós, Rocío; Ností-Palacios, Rosario; Vences-Mejía, Araceli

    2014-01-01

    Intratumoral expression of genes encoding Cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYP) might play a critical role not only in cancer development but also in the metabolism of anticancer drugs. The purpose of this study was to compare the mRNA expression patterns of seven representative CYPs in paired tumor and normal tissue of child patients with rabdomyosarcoma (RMS). Using real time quantitative RT-PCR, the gene expression pattern of CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP1B1, CYP2E1, CYP2W1, CYP3A4, and CYP3A5 were analyzed in tumor and adjacent non-tumor tissues from 13 child RMS patients. Protein concentration of CYPs was determined using Western blot. The expression levels were tested for correlation with the clinical and pathological data of the patients. Our data showed that the expression levels of CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 were negligible. Elevated expression of CYP1B1 mRNA and protein was detected in most RMS tumors and adjacent normal tissues. Most cancerous samples exhibit higher levels of both CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 compared with normal tissue samples. Expression of CYP2E1 mRNA was found to be significantly higher in tumor tissue, however no relation was found with protein levels. CYP2W1 mRNA and/or protein are mainly expressed in tumors. In conclusion, we defined the CYP gene expression profile in tumor and paired normal tissue of child patients with RMS. The overexpression of CYP2W1, CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 in tumor tissues suggests that they may be involved in RMS chemoresistance; furthermore, they may be exploited for the localized activation of anticancer prodrugs. PMID:24699256

  12. Enzyme kinetic study of a new cardioprotective agent, KR-32570 using human liver microsomes and recombinant CYP isoforms.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyojin; Seo, Kyung-Ah; Kim, Hyunmi; Lee, Hye Suk; Lee, Choong-Hwan; Shin, Jae-Gook; Liu, Kwang-Hyeon

    2007-04-01

    KR-32570 (5-(2-Methoxy-5-chlorophenyl)furan-2-ylcarbonyl)guanidine) is a new cardioprotective agent for preventing ischemia-reperfusion injury. Human liver microsomal incubation of KR-32570 in the presence of NADPH resulted in the formation of two metabolites, hydroxy-KR-32570 and O-desmethyl-KR-32570. In this study, a kinetic analysis of the metabolism of two metabolites from KR-32570 was performed in human liver microsomes, and recombinant CYP1A2, and CYP3A4. The metabolism for hydroxy- and O-desmethyl-KR-32570 formation from KR-32570 by human liver microsomes was best described by a Michaelis-Menten equation and a Hill equation, respectively. The Cl(int) values of hydroxy- and O-desmethyl-KR-32570 formation were similar to each other (0.03 vs 0.04 microL/min/pmol CYP, respectively). CYP3A4 mediated the formation of hydroxy-KR-32570 from KR-32570 with Cl(int) = 0.24 microL/min/pmol CYP3A4. The intrinsic clearance for O-desmethyl-KR-32570 formation by CYP1A2 was 0.83 AL/min/pmol CYP1A2. These findings suggest that CYP3A4 and CYP1A2 enzymes are major enzymes contributing to the metabolism of KR-32570.

  13. Eletriptan metabolism by human hepatic CYP450 enzymes and transport by human P-glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Evans, David C; O'Connor, Desmond; Lake, Brian G; Evers, Raymond; Allen, Christopher; Hargreaves, Richard

    2003-07-01

    "Reaction phenotyping" studies were performed with eletriptan (ETT) to determine its propensity to interact with coadministered medications. Its ability to serve as a substrate for human P-glycoprotein (P-gp) was also investigated since a central mechanism of action has been proposed for this "triptan" class of drug. In studies with a characterized bank of human liver microsome preparations, a good correlation (r2 = 0.932) was obtained between formation of N-desmethyl eletriptan (DETT) and CYP3A4-catalyzed testosterone 6 beta-hydroxylation. DETT was selected to be monitored in our studies since it represents a significant ETT metabolite in humans, circulating at concentrations 10 to 20% of those observed for parent drug. ETT was metabolized to DETT by recombinant CYP2D6 (rCYP2D6) and rCYP3A4, and to a lesser extent by rCYP2C9 and rCYP2C19. The metabolism of ETT to DETT in human liver microsomes was markedly inhibited by troleandomycin, erythromycin, miconazole, and an inhibitory antibody to CYP3A4, but not by inhibitors of other major P450 enzymes. ETT had little inhibitory effect on any of the P450 enzymes investigated. ETT was determined to be a good substrate for human P-gp in vitro. In bidirectional transport studies across LLC-MDR1 and LLC-Mdr1a cell monolayers, ETT had a BA/AB transport ratio in the range 9 to 11. This finding had significance in vivo since brain exposure to ETT was reduced 40-fold in Mdr1a+/+ relative to Mdr1a-/- mice. ETT metabolism to DETT is therefore catalyzed primarily by CYP3A4, and plasma concentrations are expected to be increased when coadministered with inhibitors of CYP3A4 and P-gp activity. PMID:12814962

  14. Structure, genetic mapping, and function of the cytochrome P450 3A37 gene in the turkey (Meleagris gallopavo).

    PubMed

    Rawal, S; Mendoza, K M; Reed, K M; Coulombe, R A

    2009-01-01

    Cytochromes P450 (P450 for protein; CYP for gene) are a superfamily of membrane-bound hemoproteins that oxidize a large number of endogenous and exogenous compounds. Through oxidation reactions, these enzymes are often responsible for the toxic and carcinogenic effects of natural food-borne toxicants, such as the mycotoxin aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). Previous studies in our laboratory have shown that the extreme sensitivity of turkeys to AFB1 is in part explained by efficient hepatic P450-mediated epoxidation to the toxic and reactive metabolite the exo-AFB1-8,9-epoxide (AFBO). Using 3'-5'-rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE), we amplified CYP3A37 from turkey liver RNA, the E. coli-expressed protein which efficiently epoxidates AFB(1). Turkey CYP3A37 has an ORF of 1512 bp, and the protein is predicted to be 504 amino acids with 97% homology to chicken CYP3A37. The turkey gene is organized into 13 exons and 12 introns. A single nucleotide polymorphism in the 11th intron was used to assign CYP3A37 to turkey linkage group 10 (corresponding to chicken chromosome 14, GGA14). Because of the important role of P450s in the extreme sensitivity of turkeys to the toxic effects of AFB(1), this study will contribute to the identifying allelic variants of this important gene in poultry.

  15. In vivo effect of triptolide combined with glycyrrhetinic acid on rat cytochrome P450 enzymes.

    PubMed

    Han, Feng-Mei; Peng, Zhi-Hong; Wang, Jun-Jun; Chen, Yong

    2013-07-01

    Triptolide (TP) is a major active component in Tripterygium root, but its therapeutic window was very narrow due to its severe multi-organ toxicity. In this work, the effect of TP combined with glycyrrhetic acid (GA) on mRNA expression and activity of four cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes in rat liver was studied after intragastric administration of TP (0.05, 0.3 and 0.6 mg x kg(-1) x day(-1)) and TP (0.6 mg x kg(-1) x day(-1)) combined with GA (30 mg x kg(-1) x day(-1)) for 7 consecutive days. Compared with the control, the high dose of TP significantly up-regulated the mRNA expression levels of CYP2E1, 1A2, 3A1 and 2C11, the co-administration of TP and GA further up-regulated the mRNA expression levels of CYP3A1, 2C11 and 2E1 as compared with the high dose of TP. Meanwhile, TP at high dose and combined with GA significantly increased CYP3A-associated testosterone 6beta-hydroxylation activity (2.2-fold and 4.1-fold, respectively) as compared with the control. Because TP is mainly metabolized by CYP3A2 in male rats, the present work indicated that TP-induced increase of CYP3A activity might be an important reason for the rapidly metabolic clearance of TP in rat liver, and GA can reduce the hepatotoxicity of TP by promoting its hepatic metabolic clearance. Furthermore, the results also suggest that the drug interactions might be occurred when TP and GA were co-administered with other CYP3A substrate drug.

  16. Application of Micropatterned Cocultured Hepatocytes to Evaluate the Inductive Potential and Degradation Rate of Major Xenobiotic Metabolizing Enzymes.

    PubMed

    Dixit, Vaishali; Moore, Amanda; Tsao, Hong; Hariparsad, Niresh

    2016-02-01

    Long-term coculture models of hepatocytes are promising tools to study drug transport, clearance, and hepatoxicity. In this report we compare the basal expression of drug disposition genes and the inductive response of prototypical inducers (rifampin, phenobarbital, phenytoin) in hepatocyte two-dimensional monocultures and the long-term coculture model (HepatoPac). All the inducers used in the study increased the expression and activity of CYP3A4, CYP2B6 and CYP2C enzymes in the HepatoPac cultures. The coculture model showed a consistent and higher induction of CYP2C enzymes compared with the monocultures. The EC50 of rifampin for CYP3A4 and CYP2C9 was up to 10-fold lower in HepatoPac than the monocultures. The EC50 of rifampin calculated from the clinical drug interaction studies correlated well with the EC50 observed in the HepatoPac cultures. Owing to the long-term stability of the HepatoPac cultures, we were able to directly measure a half-life (t1/2) for both CYP3A4 and CYP2B6 using the depletion kinetics of mRNA and functional activity. The t1/2 for CYP3A4 mRNA was 26 hours and that for the functional protein was 49 hours. The t1/2 of CYP2B6 was 38 hours (mRNA) and 68 hours (activity), which is longer than CYP3A4 and shows the differential turnover of these two proteins. This is the first study to our knowledge to report the turnover rate of CYP2B6 in human hepatocytes. The data presented here demonstrate that the HepatoPac cultures have the potential to be used in long-term culture to mimic complex clinical scenarios. PMID:26658225

  17. Differential Interactions of Cytochrome P450 3A5 and 3A4 with Chemotherapeutic Agent-Vincristine: A Comparative Molecular Dynamics Study.

    PubMed

    Saba, Nikhat; Bhuyan, Rajabrata; Nandy, Suman Kumar; Seal, Alpana

    2015-01-01

    The chemotherapeutic agent vincristine, used for treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia is metabolized preferentially by polymorphic cytochrome P450 3A5 (CYP3A5) with higher clearance rate than cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4). As a result, CYP3A5 expressers have a reduced amount of vincristine-induced peripheral neuropathy than non-expressers. We modeled the structure of CYP3A5 and its interaction with vincristine, compared with CYP3A4-vincristine complex using molecular docking and simulation studies. This relative study helped us to understand the molecular mechanisms behind the interaction at the atomic level through interaction energy, binding free energy, hydrogen bond and solvent accessible surface area analysis - giving an insight into the binding mode and the main residues involved in this particular interaction. Our results show that the interacting groups get closer in CYP3A5-vincristine complex due to different orientation of vincristine. This leads to higher binding affinity of vincristine towards CYP3A5 compared to CYP3A4 and explains the preferential metabolism of vincristine by CYP3A5. We believe that, the results of the current study will be helpful for future studies on structure-based drug design in this area.

  18. Effects of icaritin on cytochrome P450 enzymes in rats.

    PubMed

    Liang, Dong-Lou; Zheng, Shuang-Li

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to find out whether icaritin influences the effect on rat cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes (CYP1A2, CYP2C9, CYP2E1 and CYP3A4) using cocktail probe drugs in vivo. A cocktail solution at a dose of 5 mL/kg, which contained phenacetin (20 mg/kg), tolbutamide (5 mg/kg), chlorzoxazone (20 mg/kg) and midazolam (10 mg/kg), was orally administered to rats treated with multiple doses of icaritin. Blood samples were collected at a series of time-points and the concentrations of probe drugs in plasma were determined by HPLC-MS/MS. The corresponding pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated by the software of DAS 2.0. Treatment with multiple doses of icaritin had inhibitive effects on rat CYP1A2, CYP2C9 and CYP3A4 enzyme activities. However, icaritin has no inductive or inhibitory effect on the activity of CYP2E1. Therefore, caution is needed when icaritin is co-administered with some CYP1A2, CYP2C9 or CYP3A4 substrates, which may result in treatment failure and herb-drug interactions.

  19. Inhibition of CYP3A4 and CYP1A2 b Aegle marmelos and its constituents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aegle marmelos (bael) is a popular tree in India and other Southeast Asian countries. The fruit is usually consumed as dried, fresh or juice and is reported to have a high nutritional value and many perceived health benefits. Despite of the edible nature and therapeutic properties of A. marmelos, no...

  20. Screening of Drug Metabolizing Enzymes for the Ginsenoside Compound K In Vitro: An Efficient Anti-Cancer Substance Originating from Panax Ginseng

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Xiu-Xian; Peng, Shi-Fang; Xiao, Mei-Fang; Huang, Wei-Hua; Wang, Yi-Cheng; Peng, Jing-Bo; Zhang, Wei; Ouyang, Dong-Sheng; Chen, Yao

    2016-01-01

    Ginsenoside compound K (CK), a rare ginsenoside originating from Panax Ginseng, has been found to possess unique pharmacological activities specifically as anti-cancers. However, the role of cytochrome P450s (CYPs) in the metabolism of CK is unclear. In this study, we screened the CYPs for the metabolism of CK in vitro using human liver microsomes (HLMs) or human recombinant CYPs. The results showed that CK inhibited the enzyme activities of CYP2C9 and CYP3A4 in the HLMs. The Km and Vmax values of CK were 84.20±21.92 μM and 0.28±0.04 nmol/mg protein/min, respectively, for the HLMs; 34.63±10.48 μM and 0.45±0.05 nmol/nmol P450/min, respectively, for CYP2C9; and 27.03±5.04 μM and 0.68±0.04 nmol/nmol P450/min, respectively, for CYP3A4. The IC50 values were 16.00 μM and 9.83 μM, and Ki values were 14.92 μM and 11.42μM for CYP2C9 and CYP3A4, respectively. Other human CYP isoforms, including CYP1A2, CYP2A6, CYP2D6, CYP2E1, and CYP2C19, showed minimal or no effect on CK metabolism. The results suggested that CK was a substrate and also inhibitors for both CYP2C9 and CYP3A4. Patients using CK in combination with therapeutic drugs that are substrates of CYP2C9 and CYP3A4 for different reasons should be careful, although the inhibiting potency of CK is much poorer than that of enzyme-specific inhibitors. PMID:26845774

  1. Screening of Drug Metabolizing Enzymes for the Ginsenoside Compound K In Vitro: An Efficient Anti-Cancer Substance Originating from Panax Ginseng.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Jian; Chen, Dan; Lin, Xiu-Xian; Peng, Shi-Fang; Xiao, Mei-Fang; Huang, Wei-Hua; Wang, Yi-Cheng; Peng, Jing-Bo; Zhang, Wei; Ouyang, Dong-Sheng; Chen, Yao

    2016-01-01

    Ginsenoside compound K (CK), a rare ginsenoside originating from Panax Ginseng, has been found to possess unique pharmacological activities specifically as anti-cancers. However, the role of cytochrome P450s (CYPs) in the metabolism of CK is unclear. In this study, we screened the CYPs for the metabolism of CK in vitro using human liver microsomes (HLMs) or human recombinant CYPs. The results showed that CK inhibited the enzyme activities of CYP2C9 and CYP3A4 in the HLMs. The Km and Vmax values of CK were 84.20±21.92 μM and 0.28±0.04 nmol/mg protein/min, respectively, for the HLMs; 34.63±10.48 μM and 0.45±0.05 nmol/nmol P450/min, respectively, for CYP2C9; and 27.03±5.04 μM and 0.68±0.04 nmol/nmol P450/min, respectively, for CYP3A4. The IC50 values were 16.00 μM and 9.83 μM, and Ki values were 14.92 μM and 11.42μM for CYP2C9 and CYP3A4, respectively. Other human CYP isoforms, including CYP1A2, CYP2A6, CYP2D6, CYP2E1, and CYP2C19, showed minimal or no effect on CK metabolism. The results suggested that CK was a substrate and also inhibitors for both CYP2C9 and CYP3A4. Patients using CK in combination with therapeutic drugs that are substrates of CYP2C9 and CYP3A4 for different reasons should be careful, although the inhibiting potency of CK is much poorer than that of enzyme-specific inhibitors.

  2. Suppression of cytochrome P450 3A protein levels by proteasome inhibitors.

    SciTech Connect

    Zangar, Richard C. ); Kocarek, Thomas A.; Shen, Shang; Bollinger, Nikki ); Dahn, Michael S.; Lee, Donna W.

    2003-06-01

    We have previously reported that CYP3A cross-links with polyubiquitinated proteins in microsomes from nicardipine-treated rats in a process that is distinct from classical polyubiquitination. To further examine the role of the proteasome in CYP3A degradation, we investigated the effects of proteasome inhibitors lactacystin, MG132, proteasome inhibitor 1, and hemin in primary cultures of rat and human hepatocytes. With the exception of hemin, these agents increased the total pool of ubiquitinated proteins in microsomes isolated from rat hepatocytes, indicating that lactacystin, MG132, and proteasome inhibitor 1 effectively inhibited the proteasome in these cells. All four agents caused a reduction in the amount of the major approximately 55-kDa CYP3A band, opposite to what would be expected if the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway degraded CYP3A. Only hemin treatment caused an increase in high molecular mass (HMM) CYP3A bands. Because hemin treatment did not alter levels of ubiquitin in CYP3 A immunoprecipitates, the HMM CYP3A bands formed in response to hemin treatment clearly were not due to proteasome inhibition. Rather, because hemin treatment also caused an increase in HMM CYP3A in the detergent-insoluble fraction of the 10,000g pellet, the HMM CYP3A seems to represent a large protein complex that is unlikely to primarily represent ubiquitination.

  3. Suppression of cytochrome P450 3A protein levels by proteasome inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Zangar, Richard C; Kocarek, Thomas A; Shen, Shang; Bollinger, Nikki; Dahn, Michael S; Lee, Donna W

    2003-06-01

    We have previously reported that CYP3A cross-links with polyubiquitinated proteins in microsomes from nicardipine-treated rats in a process that is distinct from classical polyubiquitination. To further examine the role of the proteasome in CYP3A degradation, we investigated the effects of proteasome inhibitors lactacystin, MG132, proteasome inhibitor 1, and hemin in primary cultures of rat and human hepatocytes. With the exception of hemin, these agents increased the total pool of ubiquitinated proteins in microsomes isolated from rat hepatocytes, indicating that lactacystin, MG132, and proteasome inhibitor 1 effectively inhibited the proteasome in these cells. All four agents caused a reduction in the amount of the major approximately 55-kDa CYP3A band, opposite to what would be expected if the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway degraded CYP3A. Only hemin treatment caused an increase in high molecular mass (HMM) CYP3A bands. Because hemin treatment did not alter levels of ubiquitin in CYP3A immunoprecipitates, the HMM CYP3A bands formed in response to hemin treatment clearly were not due to proteasome inhibition. Rather, because hemin treatment also caused an increase in HMM CYP3A in the detergent-insoluble fraction of the 10,000g pellet, the HMM CYP3A seems to represent a large protein complex that is unlikely to primarily represent ubiquitination.

  4. Metabolism of risperidone to 9-hydroxyrisperidone by human cytochromes P450 2D6 and 3A4.

    PubMed

    Fang, J; Bourin, M; Baker, G B

    1999-02-01

    Risperidone is a relatively new antipsychotic drug that has been reported to improve both the positive and the negative symptoms of schizophrenia and produces relatively few extrapyramidal side effects at low doses. Formation of 9-hydroxyrisperidone, an active metabolite, is the most important metabolic pathway of risperidone in human. In the present study, in vitro metabolism of risperidone (100 microM) was investigated using the recombinant human cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP2C8, CYP2C9-arg144, CYP2C9-cys144, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 supplemented with an NADPH-generating system. 9-Hydroxyrisperidone was determined by a new HPLC method with an Hypersil CN column and a UV detector. Of these enzymes, CYPs 2D6, 3A4 and 3A5 were found to be the ones capable of metabolising risperidone to 9-hydroxyrisperidone, with activities of 7.5, 0.4 and 0.2 pmol pmol(-1) CYP min(-1), respectively. A correlation study using a panel of human liver microsomes showed that the formation of 9-hydroxyrisperidone is highly correlated with CYP2D6 and 3A activities. Thus, both CYP2D6 and 3A4 are involved in the 9-hydroxylation of risperidone at the concentration of risperidone used in this study. This observation is confirmed by the findings that both quinidine (inhibitor of CYP2D6) and ketoconazole (inhibitor of CYP3A4) can inhibit the formation of 9-hydroxyrisperidone. Furthermore, inducers of CYP can significantly increase the formation of 9-hydroxyrisperidone in rat. The formation of 9-hydroxyrisperidone is highly correlated with testosterone 6beta-hydroxylase activities, suggesting that inducible CYP3A contributes significantly to the metabolism of risperidone in rat.

  5. Xyloketal B, a marine compound, acts on a network of molecular proteins and regulates the activity and expression of rat cytochrome P450 3a: a bioinformatic and animal study.

    PubMed

    Su, Junhui; Chang, Cui; Xiang, Qi; Zhou, Zhi-Wei; Luo, Rong; Yang, Lun; He, Zhi-Xu; Yang, Hongtu; Li, Jianan; Bei, Yu; Xu, Jinmei; Zhang, Minjing; Zhang, Qihao; Su, Zhijian; Huang, Yadong; Pang, Jiyan; Zhou, Shu-Feng

    2014-01-01

    Natural compounds are becoming popular for the treatment of illnesses and health promotion, but the mechanisms of action and safety profiles are often unknown. Xyloketal B (XKB) is a novel marine compound isolated from the mangrove fungus Xylaria sp., with potent antioxidative, neuroprotective, and cardioprotective effects. However, its molecular targets and effects on drug-metabolizing enzymes are unknown. This study aimed to investigate the potential molecular targets of XKB using bioinformatic approaches and to examine the effect of XKB on the expression and activity of rat cytochrome P450 3a (Cyp3a) subfamily members using midazolam as a model probe. DDI-CPI, a server that can predict drug-drug interactions via the chemical-protein interactome, was employed to predict the targets of XKB, and the Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery (DAVID) was used to analyze the pathways of the predicted targets of XKB. Homology modeling was performed using the Discovery Studio program 3.1. The activity and expression of rat hepatic Cyp3a were examined after the rats were treated with XKB at 7 and 14 mg/kg for 8 consecutive days. Rat plasma concentrations of midazolam and its metabolite 1'-OH-midazolam were determined using a validated high-performance liquid chromatographic method. Bioinformatic analysis showed that there were over 324 functional proteins and 61 related signaling pathways that were potentially regulated by XKB. A molecular docking study showed that XKB bound to the active site of human cytochrome P450 3A4 and rat Cyp3a2 homology model via the formation of hydrogen bonds. The in vivo study showed that oral administration of XKB at 14 mg/kg to rats for 8 days significantly increased the area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) of midazolam, with a concomitant decrease in the plasma clearance and AUC ratio of 1'-OH-midazolam over midazolam. Further, oral administration of 14 mg/kg XKB for 8 days markedly reduced the

  6. Xyloketal B, a marine compound, acts on a network of molecular proteins and regulates the activity and expression of rat cytochrome P450 3a: a bioinformatic and animal study

    PubMed Central

    Su, Junhui; Chang, Cui; Xiang, Qi; Zhou, Zhi-Wei; Luo, Rong; Yang, Lun; He, Zhi-Xu; Yang, Hongtu; Li, Jianan; Bei, Yu; Xu, Jinmei; Zhang, Minjing; Zhang, Qihao; Su, Zhijian; Huang, Yadong; Pang, Jiyan; Zhou, Shu-Feng

    2014-01-01

    Natural compounds are becoming popular for the treatment of illnesses and health promotion, but the mechanisms of action and safety profiles are often unknown. Xyloketal B (XKB) is a novel marine compound isolated from the mangrove fungus Xylaria sp., with potent antioxidative, neuroprotective, and cardioprotective effects. However, its molecular targets and effects on drug-metabolizing enzymes are unknown. This study aimed to investigate the potential molecular targets of XKB using bioinformatic approaches and to examine the effect of XKB on the expression and activity of rat cytochrome P450 3a (Cyp3a) subfamily members using midazolam as a model probe. DDI-CPI, a server that can predict drug–drug interactions via the chemical–protein interactome, was employed to predict the targets of XKB, and the Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery (DAVID) was used to analyze the pathways of the predicted targets of XKB. Homology modeling was performed using the Discovery Studio program 3.1. The activity and expression of rat hepatic Cyp3a were examined after the rats were treated with XKB at 7 and 14 mg/kg for 8 consecutive days. Rat plasma concentrations of midazolam and its metabolite 1′-OH-midazolam were determined using a validated high-performance liquid chromatographic method. Bioinformatic analysis showed that there were over 324 functional proteins and 61 related signaling pathways that were potentially regulated by XKB. A molecular docking study showed that XKB bound to the active site of human cytochrome P450 3A4 and rat Cyp3a2 homology model via the formation of hydrogen bonds. The in vivo study showed that oral administration of XKB at 14 mg/kg to rats for 8 days significantly increased the area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) of midazolam, with a concomitant decrease in the plasma clearance and AUC ratio of 1′-OH-midazolam over midazolam. Further, oral administration of 14 mg/kg XKB for 8 days markedly reduced the

  7. Cytochrome P450 3A Conjugation to Ubiquitin in a Process Distinct from Classical Ubiquitination Pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Zangar, Richard C. ); Kimzey, Amy L.; Okita, Janice R.; Wunschel, David S. ); Edwards, Robert J.; Kim, Hyesook; Okita, Richard T.

    2001-12-01

    We characterize a novel microsome system that forms high-molecular-mass (HMM) CYP3A, CYP2E1, and ubiquitin conjugates, but does not alter CYP4A or most other microsomal proteins. The formation of the HMM bands was observed in hepatic microsomes isolated from rats treated 1 week or more with high doses (50 mg/kg/day) of nicardipine, clotrimazole, or pregnenolone 16alpha-carbonitrile, but not microsomes from control, dexamethasone-, nifedipine-, or diltiazem-treated rats. Extensive washing of the microsomes to remove loosely attached proteins or cytosolic contaminants did not prevent the conjugation reaction. In contrast to prototypical ubiquitination pathways, this reaction did not require addition of ubiquitin, ATP, Mg(2+), or cytosol. Addition of cytosol did result in the degradation of the HMM CYP3A bands in a process that was not blocked by proteasome inhibitors. Immunoprecipitated CYP3A contained HMM ubiquitin. Even so, mass spectrometric analysis of tryptic peptides indicated that the HMM CYP3A was in molar excess to ubiquitin, suggesting that the formation of the HMM CYP3A may have resulted from conjugation to itself or a diffuse pool of ubiquitinated proteins already present in the microsomes. Addition of CYP3A substrates inhibited the formation of the HMM CYP3A and the cytosol-dependent degradation of HMM CYP3A. These results suggest that after extended periods of elevated CYP3A expression, microsomal factors are induced that catalyze the formation of HMM CYP3A conjugates that contain ubiquitin. This conjugation reaction, however, seems to be distinct from the classical ubiquitination pathway but may be related to the substrate-dependent stabilization of CYP3A observed in vivo.

  8. Identification of the rat liver cytochrome P450 enzymes involved in the metabolism of the calcium channel blocker dipfluzine hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Guo, Wei; Shi, Xiaowei; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Weili; Li, Junxia

    2014-11-01

    This study aimed to identify the specific cytochrome P450 (CYP450) enzymes involved in the metabolism of dipfluzine hydrochloride using the combination of a chemical inhibition study, a correlation analysis and a panel of recombinant rat CYP450 enzymes. The incubation of Dip with rat liver microsomes yielded four metabolites, which were identified by liquid chromatography-coupled tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). The results from the assays involving eight selective inhibitors indicated that CYP3A and CYP2A1 contributed most to the metabolism of Dip, followed by CYP2C11, CYP2E1 and CYP1A2; however, CYP2B1, CYP2C6 and CYP2D1 did not contribute to the formation of the metabolites. The results of the correlation analysis and the assays involving the recombinant CYP450 enzymes further confirmed the above results and concluded that CYP3A2 contributed more than CYP3A1. The results will be valuable in understanding drug-drug interactions when Dip is coadministered with other drugs.

  9. Statistical methods for analysis of time-dependent inhibition of cytochrome p450 enzymes.

    PubMed

    Yates, Phillip; Eng, Heather; Di, Li; Obach, R Scott

    2012-12-01

    Time-dependent inhibition (TDI) of cytochrome P450 (P450) enzymes, especially CYP3A4, is an important attribute of drugs in evaluating the potential for pharmacokinetic drug-drug interactions. The analysis of TDI data for P450 enzymes can be challenging, yet it is important to be able to reliably evaluate whether a drug is a TDI or not, and if so, how best to derive the inactivation kinetic parameters K(I) and k(inact). In the present investigation a two-step statistical evaluation was developed to evaluate CYP3A4 TDI data. In the first step, a two-sided two-sample z-test is used to compare the k(obs) values measured in the absence and presence of the test compound to answer the question of whether the test compound is a TDI or not. In the second step, k(obs) values are plotted versus both [I] and ln[I] to determine whether a significant correlation exists, which can then inform the investigator of whether the inactivation kinetic parameters, K(I) and k(inact), can be reliably estimated. Use of this two-step statistical evaluation is illustrated with the examination of five drugs of varying capabilities to inactivate CYP3A4: ketoconazole, erythromycin, raloxifene, rosiglitazone, and pioglitazone. The use of a set statistical algorithm offers a more robust and objective approach to the analysis of P450 TDI data than frequently employed empirically derived or heuristic approaches.

  10. Inhibition of cytochrome P450 3A by acetoxylated analogues of resveratrol in in vitro and in silico models.

    PubMed

    Basheer, Loai; Schultz, Keren; Kerem, Zohar

    2016-01-01

    Many dietary compounds, including resveratrol, are potent inhibitors of CYP3A4. Here we examined the potential to predict inhibition capacity of dietary polyphenolics using an in silico and in vitro approaches and synthetic model compounds. Mono, di, and tri-acetoxy resveratrol were synthesized, a cell line of human intestine origin and microsomes from rat liver served to determine their in vitro inhibition of CYP3A4, and compared to that of resveratrol. Docking simulation served to predict the affinity of the synthetic model compounds to the enzyme. Modelling of the enzyme's binding site revealed three types of interaction: hydrophobic, electrostatic and H-bonding. The simulation revealed that each of the examined acetylations of resveratrol led to the loss of important interactions of all types. Tri-acetoxy resveratrol was the weakest inhibitor in vitro despite being the more lipophilic and having the highest affinity for the binding site. The simulation demonstrated exclusion of all interactions between tri-acetoxy resveratrol and the heme due to distal binding, highlighting the complexity of the CYP3A4 binding site, which may allow simultaneous accommodation of two molecules. Finally, the use of computational modelling may serve as a quick predictive tool to identify potential harmful interactions between dietary compounds and prescribed drugs. PMID:27530542

  11. Fungal lactone ring opening of 6', 7'-dihydroxybergamottin diminishes cytochrome P450 3A4 inhibitory activity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Furanocoumarins (FCs) are a class of aromatic compounds in grapefruit that inhibit human intestinal cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4). Since fungi metabolize polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, we hypothesized that certain fungi might also metabolize FCs into forms that may be inactive as CYP3A4 inhibitors...

  12. Inhibition of human cytochrome P450 enzymes by the natural hepatotoxin safrole.

    PubMed

    Ueng, Yune-Fang; Hsieh, Chih-Hang; Don, Ming-Jaw

    2005-05-01

    The hepatotoxin, safrole is a methylenedioxy phenyl compound, found in sassafras oil and certain other essential oils. Recombinant cytochrome P450 (CYP, P450) and human liver microsomes were studied to investigate the selective inhibitory effects of safrole on human P450 enzymes and the mechanisms of action. Using Escherichia coli-expressed human P450, our results demonstrated that safrole was a non-selective inhibitor of CYP1A2, CYP2A6, CYP2D6, CYP2E1, and CYP3A4 in the IC(50) order CYP2E1 < CYP1A2 < CYP2A6 < CYP3A4 < CYP2D6. Safrole strongly inhibited CYP1A2, CYP2A6, and CYP2E1 activities with IC(50) values less than 20 microM. Safrole caused competitive, non-competitive, and non-competitive inhibition of CYP1A2, CYP2A6 and CYP2E1 activities, respectively. The inhibitor constants were in the order CYP1A2 < CYP2E1 < CYP2A6. In human liver microsomes, 50 microM safrole strongly inhibited 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylation, coumarin hydroxylation, and chlorzoxazone hydroxylation activities. These results revealed that safrole was a potent inhibitor of human CYP1A2, CYP2A6, and CYP2E1. With relatively less potency, CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 were also inhibited.

  13. Reversible inhibition of three important human liver cytochrome p450 enzymes by tiliroside.

    PubMed

    Sun, Dong-Xue; Lu, Jin-Cai; Fang, Zhong-Ze; Zhang, Yan-Yan; Cao, Yun-Feng; Mao, Yu-Xi; Zhu, Liang-Liang; Yin, Jun; Yang, Ling

    2010-11-01

    Tiliroside, an active flavonoid extensively found in many medicinal plants including Helichrysum italicum, Geranium mexicanum and Helianthemum glomeratum, has been demonstrated to exert multiple biological effects including antiinflammatory, antimicrobial, antioxidant and antitumor activities. Cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes play an important role in the Phase I oxidation metabolism of a wide range of xenobiotics and inhibition of CYP isoforms might influence the elimination of drugs and induce serious adverse drug response. The inhibition of seven CYP isoforms (CYP3A4, CYP1A2, CYP2A6, CYP2D6, CYP2C9, CYP2C8 and CYP2E1) by tiliroside was investigated using in vitro human liver microsomal incubation assays. The results showed that tiliroside strongly inhibited the activity of CYP3A4 (IC(50) = 9.0 ± 1.7 μm), CYP2C8 (IC(50) = 12.1 ± 0.9 μm) and CYP2C9 (IC(50) = 10.2 ± 0.9 μm) with other CYP isoforms negligibly influenced. Further kinetic analysis showed that inhibition of these three CYP isoforms by tiliroside is best fit to a competitive way. The K(i) value was calculated to be 5.5 μm, 3.3 μm, 9.4 μm for CYP3A4, CYP2C9 and CYP2C8, respectively. The relatively low K(i) values suggested that tiliroside might induce drug-drug interactions with many clinically used drugs which are mainly metabolized by these three CYP isoforms. Therefore, attention should be given to the probable drug-drug interaction between tiliroside-containing herbs and substrates of CYP3A4, CYP2C9 and CYP2C8.

  14. Inhibition of cytochrome P450 3A by acetoxylated analogues of resveratrol in in vitro and in silico models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basheer, Loai; Schultz, Keren; Kerem, Zohar

    2016-08-01

    Many dietary compounds, including resveratrol, are potent inhibitors of CYP3A4. Here we examined the potential to predict inhibition capacity of dietary polyphenolics using an in silico and in vitro approaches and synthetic model compounds. Mono, di, and tri-acetoxy resveratrol were synthesized, a cell line of human intestine origin and microsomes from rat liver served to determine their in vitro inhibition of CYP3A4, and compared to that of resveratrol. Docking simulation served to predict the affinity of the synthetic model compounds to the enzyme. Modelling of the enzyme’s binding site revealed three types of interaction: hydrophobic, electrostatic and H-bonding. The simulation revealed that each of the examined acetylations of resveratrol led to the loss of important interactions of all types. Tri-acetoxy resveratrol was the weakest inhibitor in vitro despite being the more lipophilic and having the highest affinity for the binding site. The simulation demonstrated exclusion of all interactions between tri-acetoxy resveratrol and the heme due to distal binding, highlighting the complexity of the CYP3A4 binding site, which may allow simultaneous accommodation of two molecules. Finally, the use of computational modelling may serve as a quick predictive tool to identify potential harmful interactions between dietary compounds and prescribed drugs.

  15. Inhibition of cytochrome P450 3A by acetoxylated analogues of resveratrol in in vitro and in silico models

    PubMed Central

    Basheer, Loai; Schultz, Keren; Kerem, Zohar

    2016-01-01

    Many dietary compounds, including resveratrol, are potent inhibitors of CYP3A4. Here we examined the potential to predict inhibition capacity of dietary polyphenolics using an in silico and in vitro approaches and synthetic model compounds. Mono, di, and tri-acetoxy resveratrol were synthesized, a cell line of human intestine origin and microsomes from rat liver served to determine their in vitro inhibition of CYP3A4, and compared to that of resveratrol. Docking simulation served to predict the affinity of the synthetic model compounds to the enzyme. Modelling of the enzyme’s binding site revealed three types of interaction: hydrophobic, electrostatic and H-bonding. The simulation revealed that each of the examined acetylations of resveratrol led to the loss of important interactions of all types. Tri-acetoxy resveratrol was the weakest inhibitor in vitro despite being the more lipophilic and having the highest affinity for the binding site. The simulation demonstrated exclusion of all interactions between tri-acetoxy resveratrol and the heme due to distal binding, highlighting the complexity of the CYP3A4 binding site, which may allow simultaneous accommodation of two molecules. Finally, the use of computational modelling may serve as a quick predictive tool to identify potential harmful interactions between dietary compounds and prescribed drugs. PMID:27530542

  16. Spectroscopic studies and molecular docking on the interaction of organotin antitumor compound bis[2,4-difluoro-N-(hydroxy-⟨κ⟩O)benzamidato-⟨κ⟩O]diphenyltin(IV) with human cytochrome P450 3A4 protease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Ying; Niu, Lin; Liu, Xinxin; Zhou, Hongyan; Dong, Hongzhou; Kong, Depeng; Li, Yunlan; Li, Qingshan

    2016-06-01

    A novel organotin DFDPT was synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, IR, 1H, 13C, 119Sn, NMR techniques,etc. In order to investigate profoundly the relationship between DFDPT with human CYP3A4 proteaset and anticancer molecular mechanism of DFDPT, the intercalative mode of binding of DFDPT with CYP3A4 under physiological conditions were comprehensively evaluated using steady state, synchronous, three-dimensional fluorescence spectroscopy,circular dichroism and molecular docking. Fluorescence emission data showed that CYP3A4 fluorescence affected by DFDPT was a static quenching procedure, which implied that DFDPT-CYP3A4 complex had been formed. Apparent binding constants Kb of CYP3A4 with compound at 298 and 310 K were 2.51 × 107 and 3.09 × 105, respectively. The binding sites number n was 1.64 and 1.22, respectively. The thermodynamic parameters ΔH and ΔS of the DFDPT-CYP3A4 complex were negative, which indicated that their interaction was driven mainly by hydrogen bonding and van der Waals force. The binding of DFDPT-CYP3A4 was spontaneous process in which ΔG was negative. The synchronous results showed DFDPT induced conformational changes of CYP3A4 protein. Three-dimensional fluorescence and circular dichroism spectra results also revealed conformation of CYP3A4 protein had been possible changed in the presence of DFDPT. Molecular docking was used to study the interaction orientation between DFDPT and CYP3A4 protease. The results indicated that DFDPT interacted with a panel of amino acids in the active sites of CYP3A4 protein mainly through formation of hydrogen bond. Furthermore, the predicted binding mode of DFDPT into CYP3A4 appeared to adopt an orientation with interactions among Arg105, Ser119 and Thr309.

  17. [Protein-protein interactions of cytochromes P450 3A4 and 3A5 with their intermediate redox partners cytochromes b5].

    PubMed

    Gnedenko, O V; Ivanov, A S; Iablokov, E O; Usanov, S A; Mukha, D V; Sergeev, G V; Kuzikov, A V; Moskaleva, N E; Bulko, T V; Shumiantseva, V V; Archakov, A I

    2014-01-01

    Molecular interactions between proteins redox partners (cytochromes P450 3A4, 3A5 and cytochrome b5) within the monooxygenase system, which is known to be involved in drug biotransformation, were investigated. Human cytochromes P450 3A4 and 3A5 (CYP3A4 and CYP3A5) form complexes with various cytochromes b5: the microsomal (b5mc) and mitochondrial (b5om) forms of this protein, as well as with 2 "chimeric" proteins, b5(om-mc), b5(mc-om). Kinetic constants and equilibrium dissociation constants were determined by the SPR biosensor. Essential distinction between CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 was only observed upon their interactions with cytochrome b5om. Electroanalytical characteristics of electrodes with immobilized hemoproteins were obtained. The electrochemical analysis of CYP3A4, CYP3A5, b5mc, b5om, b5(om-mc), and b5(mc-om) immobilized on screen printed graphite electrodes modified with membranous matrix revealed that these proteins have very close reduction potentials -0.435 - -0.350 V (vs. Ag/AgCl). Cytochrome b5mc was shown to be capable of stimulating the electrocatalytic activity of CYP3A4 to testosterone.

  18. Inhibitory effect of mitragynine on human cytochrome P450 enzyme activities

    PubMed Central

    Hanapi, N. A.; Ismail, S.; Mansor, S. M.

    2013-01-01

    Context: To date, many findings reveal that most of the modern drugs have the ability to interact with herbal drugs. Aims: This study was conducted to determine the inhibitory effects of mitragynine on cytochrome P450 2C9, 2D6 and 3A4 activities. Methods and Material: The in vitro study was conducted using a high-throughput luminescence assay. Statistical Analysis: Statistical analysis was conducted using one-way ANOVA and Dunnett's test with P < 0.05 vs. control. The IC50 values were calculated using the GraphPad Prism® 5 (Version 5.01, GraphPad Software, Inc., USA). Results: Assessment using recombinant enzymes showed that mitragynine gave the strongest inhibitory effect on CYP2D6 with an IC50 value of 0.45±0.33 mM, followed by CYP2C9 and CYP3A4 with IC50 values of 9.70±4.80 and 41.32±6.74 μM respectively. Positive inhibitors appropriate for CYP2C9, CYP2D6, and CYP3A4 which are sulfaphenazole, quinidine and ketoconazole were used respectively. Vmax values of CYP2C9, CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 were 0.0005, 0.01155 and 0.0137 μM luciferin formed/pmol/min respectively. Km values of CYP2C9, CYP2D6, and CYP3A4 were 32.65, 56.01, and 103.30 μM respectively. Mitragynine noncompetitively inhibits CYP2C9 and CYP2D6 activities with the Ki values of 61.48 and 12.86 μM respectively. On the other hand, mitragynine inhibits CYP3A4 competitively with a Ki value of 379.18 μM. Conclusions: The findings of this study reveal that mitragynine might inhibit cytochrome P450 enzyme activities, specifically CYP2D6. Therefore, administration of mitragynine together with herbal or modern drugs which follow the same metabolic pathway may contribute to herb-drug interactions. PMID:24174816

  19. Chemoprotective activity of boldine: modulation of drug-metabolizing enzymes.

    PubMed

    Kubínová, R; Machala, M; Minksová, K; Neca, J; Suchý, V

    2001-03-01

    Possible chemoprotective effects of the naturally occurring alkaloid boldine, a major alkaloid of boldo (Peumus boldus Mol.) leaves and bark, including in vitro modulations of drug-metabolizing enzymes in mouse hepatoma Hepa-1 cell line and mouse hepatic microsomes, were investigated. Boldine manifested inhibition activity on hepatic microsomal CYP1A-dependent 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase and CYP3A-dependent testosterone 6 beta-hydroxylase activities and stimulated glutathione S-transferase activity in Hepa-1 cells. In addition to the known antioxidant activity, boldine could decrease the metabolic activation of other xenobiotics including chemical mutagens. PMID:11265593

  20. Structure-Activity Relationship and Substrate-Dependent Phenomena in Effects of Ginsenosides on Activities of Drug-Metabolizing P450 Enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Miao; Zhao, Yuqing; Chen, Peizhan; Huang, He; Liu, Hong; Jiang, Hualiang; Zhang, Ruiwen; Wang, Hui

    2008-01-01

    Ginseng, a traditional herbal medicine, may interact with several co-administered drugs in clinical settings, and ginsenosides, the major active components of ginseng, may be responsible for these ginseng-drug interactions (GDIs). Results from previous studies on ginsenosides' effects on human drug-metabolizing P450 enzymes are inconsistent and confusing. Herein, we first evaluated the inhibitory effects of fifteen ginsenosides and sapogenins on human CYP1A2, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 enzymes by using commercially available fluorescent probes. The structure-activity relationship of their effects on the P450s was also explored and a pharmacophore model was established for CYP3A4. Moreover, substrate-dependent phenomena were found in ginsenosides' effects on CYP3A4 when another fluorescent probe was used, and were further confirmed in tests with conventional drug probes and human liver microsomes. These substrate-dependent effects of the ginsenosides may provide an explanation for the inconsistent results obtained in previous GDI reports. PMID:18628990

  1. Evaluation of memory enhancing clinically available standardized extract of Bacopa monniera on P-glycoprotein and cytochrome P450 3A in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rajbir; Panduri, Jagadeesh; Kumar, Devendra; Kumar, Deepak; Chandsana, Hardik; Ramakrishna, Rachumallu; Bhatta, Rabi Sankar

    2013-01-01

    Bacopa monniera is a traditional Ayurvedic herbal medicine used to treat various mental ailments from ancient times. Recently, chemically standardized alcoholic extract of Bacopa monniera (BM) has been developed and currently available as over the counter herbal remedy for memory enhancement in children and adults. However, the consumption of herbal drugs has been reported to alter the expression of drug metabolizing enzymes and membrane transporters. Present study in male Sprague-Dawley rat was performed to evaluate the effect of memory enhancing standardized extract of BM on hepatic and intestinal cytochrome P450 3A and P-glycoprotein expression and activity. The BM (31 mg/kg/day) was orally administered for one week in BM pre-treated group while the control group received the same amount of vehicle for the same time period. The BM treatment decreased the cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A) mediated testosterone 6β-hydroxylation activity of the liver and intestine by 2 and 1.5 fold, respectively compared to vehicle treated control. Similarly pretreatment with BM extract decreased the expression of intestinal P-glycoprotein (Pgp) as confirmed by Western blot analysis but did not alter the expression of hepatic Pgp. To investigate whether this BM pretreatment mediated decrease in activity of CYP3A and Pgp would account for the alteration of respective substrate or not, pharmacokinetic study with carbamazepine and digoxin was performed in BM pre-treated rats and vehicle treated rats. Carbamazepine and digoxin were used as CYP3A and Pgp probe drugs, respectively. Significant increase in AUC and Cmax of carbamazepine (4 and 1.8 fold) and digoxin (1.3 and 1.2 fold), respectively following the BM pre-treatment confirmed the down regulation of CYP3A and Pgp.

  2. Evaluation of Memory Enhancing Clinically Available Standardized Extract of Bacopa monniera on P-Glycoprotein and Cytochrome P450 3A in Sprague-Dawley Rats

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Rajbir; Panduri, Jagadeesh; Kumar, Devendra; Kumar, Deepak; Chandsana, Hardik; Ramakrishna, Rachumallu; Bhatta, Rabi Sankar

    2013-01-01

    Bacopa monniera is a traditional Ayurvedic herbal medicine used to treat various mental ailments from ancient times. Recently, chemically standardized alcoholic extract of Bacopa monniera (BM) has been developed and currently available as over the counter herbal remedy for memory enhancement in children and adults. However, the consumption of herbal drugs has been reported to alter the expression of drug metabolizing enzymes and membrane transporters. Present study in male Sprague-Dawley rat was performed to evaluate the effect of memory enhancing standardized extract of BM on hepatic and intestinal cytochrome P450 3A and P-glycoprotein expression and activity. The BM (31 mg/kg/day) was orally administered for one week in BM pre-treated group while the control group received the same amount of vehicle for the same time period. The BM treatment decreased the cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A) mediated testosterone 6β-hydroxylation activity of the liver and intestine by 2 and 1.5 fold, respectively compared to vehicle treated control. Similarly pretreatment with BM extract decreased the expression of intestinal P-glycoprotein (Pgp) as confirmed by Western blot analysis but did not alter the expression of hepatic Pgp. To investigate whether this BM pretreatment mediated decrease in activity of CYP3A and Pgp would account for the alteration of respective substrate or not, pharmacokinetic study with carbamazepine and digoxin was performed in BM pre-treated rats and vehicle treated rats. Carbamazepine and digoxin were used as CYP3A and Pgp probe drugs, respectively. Significant increase in AUC and Cmax of carbamazepine (4 and 1.8 fold) and digoxin (1.3 and 1.2 fold), respectively following the BM pre-treatment confirmed the down regulation of CYP3A and Pgp. PMID:24015255

  3. A Mechanism-Based Model for the Prediction of the Metabolic Sites of Steroids Mediated by Cytochrome P450 3A4.

    PubMed

    Dai, Zi-Ru; Ai, Chun-Zhi; Ge, Guang-Bo; He, Yu-Qi; Wu, Jing-Jing; Wang, Jia-Yue; Man, Hui-Zi; Jia, Yan; Yang, Ling

    2015-06-30

    Early prediction of xenobiotic metabolism is essential for drug discovery and development. As the most important human drug-metabolizing enzyme, cytochrome P450 3A4 has a large active cavity and metabolizes a broad spectrum of substrates. The poor substrate specificity of CYP3A4 makes it a huge challenge to predict the metabolic site(s) on its substrates. This study aimed to develop a mechanism-based prediction model based on two key parameters, including the binding conformation and the reaction activity of ligands, which could reveal the process of real metabolic reaction(s) and the site(s) of modification. The newly established model was applied to predict the metabolic site(s) of steroids; a class of CYP3A4-preferred substrates. 38 steroids and 12 non-steroids were randomly divided into training and test sets. Two major metabolic reactions, including aliphatic hydroxylation and N-dealkylation, were involved in this study. At least one of the top three predicted metabolic sites was validated by the experimental data. The overall accuracy for the training and test were 82.14% and 86.36%, respectively. In summary, a mechanism-based prediction model was established for the first time, which could be used to predict the metabolic site(s) of CYP3A4 on steroids with high predictive accuracy.

  4. Piperine activates human pregnane X receptor to induce the expression of cytochrome P450 3A4 and multidrug resistance protein 1

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yue-Ming; Lin, Wenwei; Chai, Sergio C.; Wu, Jing; Ong, Su Sien; Schuetz, Erin G.; Chen, Taosheng

    2013-01-01

    Activation of the pregnane X receptor (PXR) and subsequently its target genes, including those encoding drug transporters and metabolizing enzymes, while playing substantial roles in xenobiotics detoxification, might cause undesired drug-drug interactions. Recently, an increased awareness has been given to dietary components for potential induction of diet-drug interactions through activation of PXR. Here, we studied, whether piperine (PIP), a major component extracted from the widely-used daily spice black pepper, could induce PXR-mediated expression of cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) and multidrug resistance protein 1 (MDR1). Our results showed that PIP activated human PXR (hPXR)-mediated CYP3A4 and MDR1 expression in human hepatocytes, intestine cells, and a mouse model; PIP activated hPXR by recruiting its coactivator SRC-1 in both cellular and cell-free systems; PIP bound to the hPXR ligand binding domain in a competitive ligand binding assay in vitro. The dichotomous effects of PIP on induction of CYP3A4 and MDR1 expression observed here and inhibition of their activity reported elsewhere challenges the potential use of PIP as a bioavailability enhancer and suggests that cautions should be taken for PIP consumption during drug treatment in patients, particularly those who favor daily pepper spice or rely on certain pepper remedies. PMID:23707768

  5. A Mechanism-Based Model for the Prediction of the Metabolic Sites of Steroids Mediated by Cytochrome P450 3A4

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Zi-Ru; Ai, Chun-Zhi; Ge, Guang-Bo; He, Yu-Qi; Wu, Jing-Jing; Wang, Jia-Yue; Man, Hui-Zi; Jia, Yan; Yang, Ling

    2015-01-01

    Early prediction of xenobiotic metabolism is essential for drug discovery and development. As the most important human drug-metabolizing enzyme, cytochrome P450 3A4 has a large active cavity and metabolizes a broad spectrum of substrates. The poor substrate specificity of CYP3A4 makes it a huge challenge to predict the metabolic site(s) on its substrates. This study aimed to develop a mechanism-based prediction model based on two key parameters, including the binding conformation and the reaction activity of ligands, which could reveal the process of real metabolic reaction(s) and the site(s) of modification. The newly established model was applied to predict the metabolic site(s) of steroids; a class of CYP3A4-preferred substrates. 38 steroids and 12 non-steroids were randomly divided into training and test sets. Two major metabolic reactions, including aliphatic hydroxylation and N-dealkylation, were involved in this study. At least one of the top three predicted metabolic sites was validated by the experimental data. The overall accuracy for the training and test were 82.14% and 86.36%, respectively. In summary, a mechanism-based prediction model was established for the first time, which could be used to predict the metabolic site(s) of CYP3A4 on steroids with high predictive accuracy. PMID:26133240

  6. Relationship between Differential Hepatic microRNA Expression and Decreased Hepatic Cytochrome P450 3A Activity in Cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Goswami, Chirayu Pankaj; Nalamasu, Rohit; Li, Lang; Jones, David; Wei, Rongrong; Liu, Wanqing; Sarasani, Vishal; Janga, Sarath Chandra; Chalasani, Naga

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aim Liver cirrhosis is associated with decreased hepatic cytochrome P4503A (CYP3A) activity but the pathogenesis of this phenomenon is not well elucidated. In this study, we examined if certain microRNAs (miRNA) are associated with decreased hepatic CYP3A activity in cirrhosis. Methods Hepatic CYP3A activity and miRNA microarray expression profiles were measured in cirrhotic (n=28) and normal (n=12) liver tissue. Hepatic CYP3A activity was measured via midazolam hydroxylation in human liver microsomes. Additionally, hepatic CYP3A4 protein concentration and the expression of CYP3A4 mRNA were measured. Analyses were conducted to identify miRNAs which were differentially expressed between two groups but also were significantly associated with lower hepatic CYP3A activity. Results Hepatic CYP3A activity in cirrhotic livers was 1.7-fold lower than in the normal livers (0.28 ± 0.06 vs. 0.47 ± 0.07mL* min-1*mg protein-1 (mean ± SEM), P=0.02). Six microRNAs (miR-155, miR-454, miR-582-5p, let-7f-1*, miR-181d, and miR-500) had >1.2-fold increase in cirrhotic livers and also had significant negative correlation with hepatic CYP3A activity (range of r = -0.44 to -0.52, P <0.05). Notably, miR-155, a known regulator of liver inflammation, had the highest fold increase in cirrhotic livers (2.2-fold, P=4.16E-08) and significantly correlated with hepatic CYP3A activity (r=-0.50, P=0.017). The relative expression (2-ΔΔCt mean ± SEM) of hepatic CYP3A4 mRNA was significantly higher in cirrhotic livers (21.76 ± 2.65 vs. 5.91 ± 1.29, P=2.04E-07) but their levels did not significantly correlate with hepatic CYP3A activity (r=-0.43, P=0.08). Conclusion The strong association between certain miRNAs, notably miR-155, and lower hepatic CYP3A activity suggest that altered miRNA expression may regulate hepatic CYP3A activity. PMID:24058572

  7. Evaluation of the effects of Mitragyna speciosa alkaloid extract on cytochrome P450 enzymes using a high throughput assay.

    PubMed

    Kong, Wai Mun; Chik, Zamri; Ramachandra, Murali; Subramaniam, Umarani; Aziddin, Raja Elina Raja; Mohamed, Zahurin

    2011-01-01

    The extract from Mitragyna speciosa has been widely used as an opium substitute, mainly due to its morphine-like pharmacological effects. This study investigated the effects of M. speciosa alkaloid extract (MSE) on human recombinant cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzyme activities using a modified Crespi method. As compared with the liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method, this method has shown to be a fast and cost-effective way to perform CYP inhibition studies. The results indicated that MSE has the most potent inhibitory effect on CYP3A4 and CYP2D6, with apparent half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) values of 0.78 µg/mL and 0.636 µg/mL, respectively. In addition, moderate inhibition was observed for CYP1A2, with an IC(50) of 39 µg/mL, and weak inhibition was detected for CYP2C19. The IC(50) of CYP2C19 could not be determined, however, because inhibition was <50%. Competitive inhibition was found for the MSE-treated CYP2D6 inhibition assay, whereas non-competitive inhibition was shown in inhibition assays using CYP3A4, CYP1A2 and CYP2C19. Quinidine (CYP2D6), ketoconazole (CYP3A4), tranylcypromine (CYP2C19) and furafylline (CYP1A2) were ACCESSused as positive controls throughout the experiments. This study shows that MSE may contribute to an herb-drug interaction if administered concomitantly with drugs that are substrates for CYP3A4, CYP2D6 and CYP1A2. PMID:21876481

  8. Characterization and biological properties of NanoCUR formulation and its effect on major human cytochrome P450 enzymes.

    PubMed

    Shamsi, Suhaili; Chen, Yan; Lim, Lee Yong

    2015-11-10

    Curcumin (CUR) has been formulated into a host of nano-sized formulations in a bid to improve its in vivo solubility, stability and bioavailability. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the encapsulation of CUR in nanocarriers would impede its biological interactivity, specifically its potential anti-cancer adjuvant activity via the modulation of CYP enzymes in vitro. NanoCUR, a micellar dispersion prepared via a thin film method using only Pluronic F127 as excipient, was amenable to lyophilization, and retained its nano-sized spherical dimensions (17-33 nm) upon reconstitution with water followed by dilution to 5 μM with HBSS or EMEM. NanoCUR was a weaker cytotoxic agent compared to CUR in solution (sCUR), affecting HepG2 cell viability only when the incubation time was prolonged from 4h to 48 h. Correlation with 2h uptake data suggests this was due to a lower cellular uptake rate of CUR from NanoCUR than from sCUR. The poorer CUR accessibility might also account for NanoCUR being a weaker inhibitor of CYP2C9 and CYP2D6 than sCUR. NanoCUR was, however, 1.76-fold more potent against the CYP3A4 (IC50 5.13 ± 0.91 μM) metabolic function. The higher activity against CYP3A4 might be attributed to the synergistic action of Pluronic F127, since the blank micellar dispersion also inhibited CYP3A4 activity. Both sCUR and NanoCUR had no effect on the CYP3A4 mRNA levels in the HepG2 cells. NanoCUR therefore, maintained most of the biological activities of CUR in vitro, albeit at a lower potency and response rate. PMID:26319630

  9. Piperine activates human pregnane X receptor to induce the expression of cytochrome P450 3A4 and multidrug resistance protein 1

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yue-Ming; Lin, Wenwei; Chai, Sergio C.; Wu, Jing; Ong, Su Sien; Schuetz, Erin G.; Chen, Taosheng

    2013-10-01

    Activation of the pregnane X receptor (PXR) and subsequently its target genes, including those encoding drug transporters and metabolizing enzymes, while playing substantial roles in xenobiotic detoxification, might cause undesired drug-drug interactions. Recently, an increased awareness has been given to dietary components for potential induction of diet–drug interactions through activation of PXR. Here, we studied, whether piperine (PIP), a major component extracted from the widely-used daily spice black pepper, could induce PXR-mediated expression of cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) and multidrug resistance protein 1 (MDR1). Our results showed that PIP activated human PXR (hPXR)-mediated CYP3A4 and MDR1 expression in human hepatocytes, intestine cells, and a mouse model; PIP activated hPXR by recruiting its coactivator SRC-1 in both cellular and cell-free systems; PIP bound to the hPXR ligand binding domain in a competitive ligand binding assay in vitro. The dichotomous effects of PIP on induction of CYP3A4 and MDR1 expression observed here and inhibition of their activity reported elsewhere challenges the potential use of PIP as a bioavailability enhancer and suggests that caution should be taken in PIP consumption during drug treatment in patients, particularly those who favor daily pepper spice or rely on certain pepper remedies. - Highlights: • Piperine induces PXR-mediated CYP3A4 and MDR1 expression. • Piperine activates PXR by binding to PXR and recruiting coactivator SRC-1. • Piperine induces PXR activation in vivo. • Caution should be taken in piperine consumption during drug treatment.

  10. [Protein-protein interactions of cytochromes P450 3A4 and 3A5 with their intermediate redox partners cytochromes b5].

    PubMed

    Gnedenko, O V; Ivanov, A S; Yablokov, E O; Usanov, S A; Mukha, D V; Sergeev, G V; Kuzikov, A V; Bulko, T V; Moskaleva, N E; Shumyantseva, V V; Archakov, A I

    2015-01-01

    Molecular interactions between proteins redox partners (cytochromes Р450 3А4, 3А5 and cytochrome b5) within the monooxygenase system, which is known to be involved in drug biotransformation, were investigated. Human cytochromes Р450 3А4 and 3А5 (CYP3A4 and CYP3A5) form complexes with various cytochromes b5: the microsomal (b5mc) and mitochondrial (b5om) forms of this protein, as well as with 2 "chimeric" proteins, b5(om-mc), b5(mc-om). Kinetic constants and equilibrium dissociation constants were determined by the SPR biosensor. Essential distinction between CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 was only observed upon their interactions with cytochrome b5om. Electroanalytical characteristics of electrodes with immobilized hemoproteins were obtained. The electrochemical analysis of CYP3A4, CYP3A5, b5mc, b5om, b5(om-mc), and b5(mc-om) immobilized on screen printed graphite electrodes modified with membranous matrix revealed that these proteins have very close reduction potentials -0.435  -0.350 V (vs. Ag/AgCl). Cytochrome b5mc was shown to be capable of stimulating the electrocatalytic activity of CYP3A4 in the presence of its substrate testosterone.

  11. Use of mRNA expression to detect the induction of drug metabolising enzymes in rat and human hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Richert, L. Tuschl, G.; Pekthong, D.; Mantion, G.; Weber, J.-C.; Mueller, S.O.

    2009-02-15

    It is important to investigate the induction of cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes by drugs. The most relevant end point is enzyme activity; however, this requires many cells and is low throughput. We have compared the CYP1A, CYP2B and CYP3A induction response to eight inducers in rat and human hepatocytes using enzyme activities (CYP1A2 (ethoxyresorufin), 2B (benzoxyresorufin for rat and bupropion for human) and CYP3A (testosterone)) and Taqman{sup TM} Low Density Array (TLDA) analysis. There was a good correlation between the induction of CYP1A2, CYP2B6 and CYP3A4 enzyme activities and mRNA expression in human hepatocytes. In contrast, BROD activities and mRNA expression in rat hepatocytes correlated poorly. However, bupropion hydroxylation correlated well with Cyp2b1 expression in rat hepatocytes. TLDA analysis of a panel of mRNAs encoding for CYPs, phase 2 enzymes, nuclear receptors and transporters revealed that the main genes induced by the 8 compounds tested were the CYPs. AhR ligands also induced UDP-glucuronosyltransferases and glutathione S-transferases in rat and human hepatocytes. The transporters, MDR1, MDR3 and OATPA were the only transporter genes significantly up-regulated in human hepatocytes. In rat hepatocytes Bsep, Mdr2, Mrp2, Mrp3 and Oatp2 were up-regulated. We could then show a good in vivo:in vitro correlation in the induction response of isolated rat hepatocytes and ex-vivo hepatic microsomes for the drug development candidate, EMD392949. In conclusion, application of TLDA methodology to investigate the potential of compounds to induce enzymes in rat and human hepatocytes increases the throughput and information gained from one assay, without reducing the predictive capacity.

  12. Assessing the clinical significance of botanical supplementation on human cytochrome P450 3A activity: Comparison of a milk thistle and black cohosh product to rifampin and clarithromycin

    PubMed Central

    Gurley, Bill; Hubbard, Martha A.; Williams, D. Keith; Thaden, John; Tong, Yudong; Gentry, W. Brooks; Breen, Philip; Carrier, Danielle J.; Cheboyina, Shreekar

    2007-01-01

    Phytochemical-mediated modulation of cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYPs) may underlie many herb-drug interactions. This study’s purpose was to assess the effects of milk thistle and black cohosh supplementation on CYP3A activity and compare them to a clinically recognized inducer, rifampin, and inhibitor, clarithromycin. Healthy volunteers were randomly assigned to receive a standardized milk thistle (900 mg) or black cohosh (80 mg) supplement for 14 days. Subjects also received rifampin (600 mg) and clarithromycin (1000 mg) for 7 days as positive controls for CYP3A induction and inhibition, respectively. Midazolam was administered orally before and after each supplementation and control period. The effects of milk thistle, black cohosh, rifampin, and clarithromycin on midazolam pharmacokinetics were determined using noncompartmental techniques. Unlike those observed for rifampin and clarithromycin, midazolam pharmacokinetics were unaffected by milk thistle or black cohosh. Milk thistle and black cohosh appear to have no clinically relevant effect on CYP3A activity in vivo. PMID:16432272

  13. Peripheral ligand-binding site in cytochrome P450 3A4 located with fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET).

    PubMed

    Davydov, Dmitri R; Rumfeldt, Jessica A O; Sineva, Elena V; Fernando, Harshica; Davydova, Nadezhda Y; Halpert, James R

    2012-02-24

    The mechanisms of ligand binding and allostery in the major human drug-metabolizing enzyme cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) were explored with fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) using a laser dye, fluorol-7GA (F7GA), as a model substrate. Incorporation into the enzyme of a thiol-reactive FRET probe, pyrene iodoacetamide, allowed us to monitor the binding by FRET from the pyrene donor to the F7GA acceptor. Cooperativity of the interactions detected by FRET indicates that the enzyme possesses at least two F7GA-binding sites that have different FRET efficiencies and are therefore widely separated. To probe spatial localization of these sites, we studied FRET in a series of mutants bearing pyrene iodoacetamide at different positions, and we measured the distances from each of the sites to the donor. Our results demonstrate the presence of a high affinity binding site at the enzyme periphery. Analysis of the set of measured distances complemented with molecular modeling and docking allowed us to pinpoint the most probable peripheral site. It is located in the vicinity of residues 217-220, similar to the position of the progesterone molecule bound at the distal surface of the CYP3A4 in a prior x-ray crystal structure. Peripheral binding of F7GA causes a substantial spin shift and serves as a prerequisite for the binding in the active site. This is the first indication of functionally important ligand binding outside of the active site in cytochromes P450. The findings strongly suggest that the mechanisms of CYP3A4 cooperativity involve a conformational transition triggered by an allosteric ligand.

  14. Expression of cytochromes P450 3A and P-glycoprotein in human large intestine in paired tumour and normal samples.

    PubMed

    Canaparo, Roberto; Nordmark, Anna; Finnström, Niklas; Lundgren, Stefan; Seidegård, Janeric; Jeppsson, Bengt; Edwards, Robert J; Boobis, Alan R; Rane, Anders

    2007-04-01

    Our objective was to investigate the expression of different cytochromes P450 3A (CYP3A4, CYP3A5, and CYP3A7) and P-glycoprotein (ABCB1) genes along the human large intestine in paired tumour and normal samples. Real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction was used to measure CYP3A4-, CYP3A5-, CYP3A7- and ABCB1-specific mRNA expression, and Western blot analysis was used to measure membrane protein levels of CYP3A4/7, CYP3A5 and P-glycoprotein. Levels of mRNA and membrane protein fractions in the large intestine were compared with those of normal human liver. The mRNA expressions of CYP3A4, CYP3A5, CYP3A7 and ABCB1 in the large intestine were found to be highly variable, but overall the levels were significantly lower than those measured in liver (P < 0.0001, P < 0.001, P < 0.0001 and P < 0.01, respectively). At the membrane protein level, CYP3A4/7 was detected in all large intestine samples examined and the levels were substantially higher than those of the liver (P < 0.01). Although expression of CYP3A5 was detected in all large intestine samples, in most the levels were too low to allow quantification. P-glycoprotein was readily detected at levels slightly higher than those of liver (P < 0.05). Comparison between paired samples of normal and tumour in large intestine showed no significant differences in either the mRNA or membrane protein levels of these genes. In conclusion, this work suggests a potential role of the large intestine in the absorption and metabolism of xenobiotics and nutrients and no difference in the CYP3A and P-glycoprotein membrane protein fractions and mRNA expression between normal and tumour tissues.

  15. Development and validation of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the quantification of cytochrome 3A4 in human liver microsomes.

    PubMed

    De Bock, Lies; Colin, Pieter; Boussery, Koen; Van Bocxlaer, Jan

    2012-09-15

    Little is known about the influence of hepatic pathologies on cytochrome P450 (CYP) mediated drug metabolism in children. The determination of the abundance of the different isoforms in pediatric microsomes may provide valuable information on the mechanisms of possible changes in activity. Until now, western blotting was mostly used for abundance measurements, but this technique only provides semi-quantitative data. Therefore, this study aimed to develop and validate an indirect ELISA for the quantification of the most important CYP isoform, CYP3A4, in human liver microsomes, using commercially available reagents. Samples, calibrators and validation samples were diluted to a final concentration of 10 μg microsomal protein/ml. A polyclonal antibody raised against the full length human protein was used as primary antibody; horseradish peroxidase conjugated secondary antibodies for detection. The assay was validated for sensitivity, working range and calibration, accuracy and precision. Amounts of CYP3A4 between 2 and 300 pmol/mg microsomal protein could be quantified with a 5-parameter logistics function with 1/x weighting factor. Coefficients of variation of intra and inter assay variability were between 9.54 and 13.98% (16.34% at LLOQ), and between 10.51 and 14.55% (19.44% at LLOQ), respectively. The relative error (%RE) varied between -5.96 and 6.68% (11.53% at LLOQ), and the total error between 11.93 and 21.23% (30.97% at LLOQ). The cross-reactivity of the method with human CYP2E1 showed to have no significant effect on the accuracy of the results. Successful analysis of five samples from an ongoing study demonstrated the usefulness of the method.

  16. Metabolism of diosbulbin B in vitro and in vivo in rats: formation of reactive metabolites and human enzymes involved.

    PubMed

    Yang, Baohua; Liu, Wei; Chen, Kaixian; Wang, Zhengtao; Wang, Changhong

    2014-10-01

    Diosbulbin B (DB), a major constituent of the furano-norditerpenes in Dioscorea bulbifera Linn, exhibits potential antineoplasmic activity and hepatotoxicity. The metabolism and reactive metabolites of DB in vitro (with human and animal liver microsomes) and in vivo in rats were investigated. The human enzymes involved in DB metabolism were identified. DB was first catalyzed into reactive metabolites of 2-butene-1,4-dial derivatives dependent on NADPH and then trapped by Tris base or oxidized to hemiacetal lactones (M12 and M13) in microsomal incubations. Tris base was used as buffer constituent and as a trapping agent for aldehyde. Methoxylamine and glutathione (GSH) were also used as trapping agents. DB metabolism in vivo in rats after oral administration was consistent with that in vitro. The structures of M12 and M13, as well as mono-GSH conjugates of DB (M31), were confirmed by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the chemically synthesized products. The bioactivation enzymes of DB were identified as CYP3A4/5, 2C9, and 2C19. CYP3A4 was found to be the primary enzyme using human recombinant cytochrome P450 enzymes, specific inhibitory studies, and a relative activity factor approach for pooled human liver microsomes. Michaelis-Menten constants K(m) and V(max) were determined by the formation of M31. The reactive metabolites may be related to the hepatotoxicity of DB. The gender difference in CYP3A expression in mice and rats contributed to the gender-related liver injury and pharmacokinetics in mice and rats, respectively. PMID:25053620

  17. Simultaneous determination of cytochrome P450 1A, 2A and 3A activities in porcine liver microsomes.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Monika; Tomankova, Jana; Li, Shengjie; Zamaratskaia, Galia

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a robust method for the simultaneous determination of the activities of three porcine CYP450 enzymes in hepatic microsomes. A cocktail consisting of three selective CYP450 probe substrates, 7-ethoxyresorufin (CYP1A), coumarin (CYP2A) and 7-benzyloxy-4-trifluoromethylcoumarin (BFC; CYP3A), was incubated with porcine liver microsomes. The presence of 7-ethoxyresorufin appears to significantly influence the kinetics of coumarin hydroxylation and BFC O-debenzylation. These results indicate that the use of 7-ethoxyresorufin in substrate cocktails together with coumarin and BFC should be avoided.

  18. UNDERSTANDING THE MECHANISM OF CYTOCHROME P450 3A4: RECENT ADVANCES AND REMAINING PROBLEMS

    PubMed Central

    Sevrioukova, Irina F.; Poulos, Thomas L.

    2013-01-01

    Cytochromes P450 (CYPs) represent a diverse group of heme-thiolate proteins found in almost all organisms. CYPs share a common protein fold but differ in substrate selectivity and catalyze a wide variety of monooxygenation reactions via activation of molecular oxygen. Among 57 human P450s, the 3A4 isoform (CYP3A4) is the most abundant and the most important because it metabolizes the majority of the administered drugs. A remarkable feature of CYP3A4 is its extreme promiscuity in substrate specificity and cooperative substrate binding, which often leads to undesirable drug-drug interactions and toxic side effects. Owing to its importance in drug development and therapy, CYP3A4 has been the most extensively studied mammalian P450. In this review we provide an overview on recent progress and remaining problems in the CYP3A4 research. PMID:23018626

  19. Inhibition of human cytochrome P450 enzymes by Bacopa monnieri standardized extract and constituents.

    PubMed

    Ramasamy, Seetha; Kiew, Lik Voon; Chung, Lip Yong

    2014-02-24

    Bacopa monnieri and the constituents of this plant, especially bacosides, possess various neuropharmacological properties. Like drugs, some herbal extracts and the constituents of their extracts alter cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes, causing potential herb-drug interactions. The effects of Bacopa monnieri standardized extract and the bacosides from the extract on five major CYP isoforms in vitro were analyzed using a luminescent CYP recombinant human enzyme assay. B. monnieri extract exhibited non-competitive inhibition of CYP2C19 (IC50/Ki = 23.67/9.5 µg/mL), CYP2C9 (36.49/12.5 µg/mL), CYP1A2 (52.20/25.1 µg/mL); competitive inhibition of CYP3A4 (83.95/14.5 µg/mL) and weak inhibition of CYP2D6 (IC50 = 2061.50 µg/mL). However, the bacosides showed negligible inhibition of the same isoforms. B. monnieri, which is orally administered, has a higher concentration in the gut than the liver; therefore, this herb could exhibit stronger inhibition of intestinal CYPs than hepatic CYPs. At an estimated gut concentration of 600 µg/mL (based on a daily dosage of 300 mg/day), B. monnieri reduced the catalytic activities of CYP3A4, CYP2C9 and CYP2C19 to less than 10% compared to the total activity (without inhibitor = 100%). These findings suggest that B. monnieri extract could contribute to herb-drug interactions when orally co-administered with drugs metabolized by CYP1A2, CYP3A4, CYP2C9 and CYP2C19.

  20. Effect of crude extract of Eugenia jambolana Lam. on human cytochrome P450 enzymes.

    PubMed

    Chinni, Santhivardhan; Dubala, Anil; Kosaraju, Jayasankar; Khatwal, Rizwan Basha; Satish Kumar, M N; Kannan, Elango

    2014-11-01

    The fruit of Eugenia jambolana Lam. is very popular for its anti-diabetic property. Previous studies on the crude extract of E. jambolana (EJE) have successfully explored the scientific basis for some of its traditional medicinal uses. Considering its wide use and consumption as a seasonal fruit, the present study investigates the ability of E. jambolana to interact with cytochrome P450 enzymes. The standardized EJE was incubated with pooled human liver microsomes to assess the CYP2C9-, CYP2D6-, and CYP3A4-mediated metabolism of diclofenac, dextromethorphan, and testosterone, respectively. The metabolites formed after the enzymatic reactions were quantified by high performance liquid chromatography. EJE showed differential effect on cytochrome P450 activities with an order of inhibitory potential as CYP2C9 > CYP3A4 > CYP2D6 having IC50 of 76.69, 359.02, and 493.05 µg/mL, respectively. The selectivity of EJE for CYP2C9 rather than CYP3A4 and CYP2D6 led to perform the enzyme kinetics to explicate the mechanism underlying the inhibition of CYP2C9-mediated diclofenac 4'-hydroxylation. EJE was notably potent in inhibiting the reaction in a non-competitive manner with Ki of 84.85 ± 5.27 µg/mL. The results revealed the CYP2C9 inhibitory potential of EJE with lower Ki value suggesting that EJE should be examined for its potential pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions when concomitantly administered with other drugs. PMID:24590863

  1. Oral delivery of paclitaxel nanocrystal (PNC) with a dual Pgp-CYP3A4 inhibitor: preparation, characterization and antitumor activity.

    PubMed

    Patel, Ketan; Patil, Anand; Mehta, Miten; Gota, Vikram; Vavia, Pradeep

    2014-09-10

    Several molecular inheritances have severely restrained the peroral delivery of taxanes. The main objective of the present investigation was to develop a paclitaxel (PTX) formulation which can circumvent the hurdles of its extremely poor solubility and permeability, Pgp efflux and high pre-systemic metabolism. Positively charged PTX nanocrystals of 209 nm were prepared by sonoprecipitation with high pressure homogenization technique, wherein an arginine based surfactant was explored as a stabilizer. The BET surface area analysis revealed that the surface area of PNC was 8.53 m(2)/gm, reflecting significant rise in surface area with nanonization of PTX. The DSC and XRD pattern suggested that the PTX is in the form of the most stable dihydrate crystal. The PNC showed very rapid dissolution profile compared to plain PTX in both sinks and non-sink conditions. Clarithromycin (CLM) was evaluated as a better alternative to cyclosporin A in improving PTX permeability. The PNC-CLM showed remarkable enhancement of 453% in relative bioavailability along with maintaining the therapeutic concentration of PTX for 8h. Efficacy data in B16 F10 melanoma tumor bearing mice showed substantial reduction in tumor volume and improvement in percentage survival compared to the control group.

  2. CROSS-SPECIES COMPARISON OF CONAZOLE FUNGICIDE METABOLITES USING RAT AND RAINBOW TROUT (ONCHLORHYNCHUS MYKISS) HEPATIC MICROSOMES AND PURIFIED HUMAN CYP 3A4

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ecological risk assessment frequently relies on cross-species extrapolation to predict acute toxicity from chemical exposures. A major concern for environmental risk characterization is the degree of uncertainty in assessing xenobiotic biotansformation processes. Although inheren...

  3. THE PUTATIVE HIGH ACTIVITY VARIANT CYP3A4*1B PREDICTS THE ONSET OF PUBERTY IN YOUNG GIRLS. (R825816)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  4. Enzyme- and transporter-mediated drug interactions with small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Shao, Jie; Markowitz, John S; Bei, Di; An, Guohua

    2014-12-01

    Among the novel and target-specific classes of anticancer drugs, small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) represent an extremely promising and rapidly expanding group. TKIs attack cancer-specific targets and therefore have a favorable safety profile. However, as TKIs are taken orally along with other medications on a daily basis, there is an elevated risk of potentially significant drug-drug interactions. Most TKIs are metabolized primarily through CYP3A4. In addition, many TKIs are also CYP3A4 inhibitors at the same time. In addition to drug metabolizing enzymes (DMEs), another determinant of TKI disposition are drug transporters. There is accumulating evidence showing that the majority of currently marketed TKIs interact with ATP-binding cassette transporters, particularly P-glycoprotein as well as Breast Cancer Resistance Protein and serve as both substrates and inhibitors. Considering the dual roles of TKIs on both DMEs and drug transporters, and the importance of these enzyme and transporters in drug disposition, the potential for enzyme- and transporter-mediated TKI-drug interactions in patients with cancer is an important consideration. This review provides a comprehensive overview of drug interactions with small molecule TKIs mediated by DMEs and drug transporters. The TKI-drug interactions with TKIs being victims and/or perpetrators are summarized.

  5. Human bone marrow niche chemoprotection mediated by cytochrome p450 enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Alonso, Salvador; Su, Meng; Jones, Jace W.; Ganguly, Sudipto; Kane, Maureen A.; Jones, Richard J.; Ghiaur, Gabriel

    2015-01-01

    Substantial evidence now demonstrates that interactions between the tumor microenvironment and malignant cells are a critical component of clinical drug resistance. However, the mechanisms responsible for microenvironment-mediated chemoprotection remain unclear. We showed that bone marrow (BM) stromal cytochrome P450 (CYP)26 enzymes protect normal hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) from the pro-differentiation effects of retinoic acid. Here, we investigated if stromal expression of CYPs is a general mechanism of chemoprotection. We found that similar to human hepatocytes, human BM-derived stromal cells expressed a variety of drug-metabolizing enzymes. CYP3A4, the liver's major drug-metabolizing enzyme, was at least partially responsible for BM stroma's ability to protect multiple myeloma (MM) and leukemia cells from bortezomib and etoposide, respectively, both in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, clarithromycin overcame stromal-mediated MM resistance to dexamethasone, suggesting that CYP3A4 inhibition plays a role in its ability to augment the activity of lenalidomide and dexamethasone as part of the BiRd regimen. We uncovered a novel mechanism of microenvironment-mediated drug resistance, whereby the BM niche creates a sanctuary site from drugs. Targeting these sanctuaries holds promise for eliminating minimal residual tumor and improving cancer outcomes. PMID:25915157

  6. Mechanism-based inactivation of CYP450 enzymes: a case study of lapatinib

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Han Kiat; Chan, Chun Yip; Hardy, Klarissa D; Chan, Eric Chun Yong

    2015-01-01

    Mechanism-based inactivation (MBI) of CYP450 enzymes is a unique form of inhibition in which the enzymatic machinery of the victim is responsible for generation of the reactive metabolite. This precondition sets up a time-dependency for the inactivation process, a hallmark feature that characterizes all MBI. Yet, MBI itself is a complex biochemical phenomenon that operates in different modes, namely covalent binding to apoprotein, covalent binding of the porphyrin group, and also complexation of the catalytic iron. Using lapatinib as a recent example of toxicological interest, we present an example of a mixed-function MBI that can confound clinical drug-drug interactions manifestation. Lapatinib exhibits both covalent binding to the apoprotein, and formation of a metabolite-intermediate (MI) complex in an enzyme-selective manner (CYP3A4 versus CYP3A5), each with different reactive metabolites. The clinical implication of this effect is also contingent upon genetic polymorphisms of the enzyme involved as well as the co-administration of other substrates, inhibitors or inducers, culminating in drug-drug interactions. This understanding recapitulates the importance of applying isoform-specific mechanistic investigations to develop customized strategies to manage such outcomes. PMID:25639891

  7. Mechanism-based inactivation of CYP450 enzymes: a case study of lapatinib.

    PubMed

    Ho, Han Kiat; Chan, James Chun Yip; Hardy, Klarissa D; Chan, Eric Chun Yong

    2015-02-01

    Mechanism-based inactivation (MBI) of CYP450 enzymes is a unique form of inhibition in which the enzymatic machinery of the victim is responsible for generation of the reactive metabolite. This precondition sets up a time-dependency for the inactivation process, a hallmark feature that characterizes all MBI. Yet, MBI itself is a complex biochemical phenomenon that operates in different modes, namely, covalent binding to apoprotein, covalent binding of the porphyrin group and also complexation of the catalytic iron. Using lapatinib as a recent example of toxicological interest, we present an example of a mixed-function MBI that can confound clinical drug-drug interactions manifestation. Lapatinib exhibits both covalent binding to the apoprotein and formation of a metabolite-intermediate complex in an enzyme-selective manner (CYP3A4 versus CYP3A5), each with different reactive metabolites. The clinical implication of this effect is also contingent upon genetic polymorphisms of the enzyme involved as well as the co-administration of other substrates, inhibitors or inducers, culminating in drug-drug interactions. This understanding recapitulates the importance of applying isoform-specific mechanistic investigations to develop customized strategies to manage such outcomes. PMID:25639891

  8. Can bioactive compounds of Crocus sativus L. influence the metabolic activity of selected CYP enzymes in the rat?

    PubMed

    Dovrtělová, G; Nosková, K; Juřica, J; Turjap, M; Zendulka, O

    2015-01-01

    Safranal and crocin are biologically active compounds isolated from Crocus sativus L., commonly known as saffron. Clinical trials confirm that saffron has antidepressant effect, thus being a potential valuable alternative in the treatment of depression. The aim of the present study was to determine, whether systemic administration of safranal and crocin can influence the metabolic activity of CYP3A, CYP2C11, CYP2B, and CYP2A in rat liver microsomes (RLM). The experiments were carried out on male Wistar albino rats intragastrically administered with safranal (4, 20, and 100 mg/kg/day) or with intraperitoneal injections of crocin (4, 20, and 100 mg/kg/day). Our results demonstrate the ability of safranal and crocin to increase the total protein content and to change the metabolic activity of several CYP enzymes assessed as CYP specific hydroxylations of testosterone in RLM. Crocin significantly decreased the metabolic activity of all selected CYP enzymes, while safranal significantly increased the metabolic activity of CYP2B, CYP2C11 and CYP3A enzymes. Therefore, both substances could increase the risk of interactions with co-administered substances metabolized by cytochrome P450 enzymes.

  9. A Cytochrome P450 3A4 Biosensor Based on Generation 4.0 PAMAM Dendrimers for the Detection of Caffeine

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Michael; Agarwal, Neha; Kim, Jungtae

    2016-01-01

    Cytochromes P450 (CYP, P450) are a large family of heme-active-site proteins involved in many catalytic processes, including steroidogenesis. In humans, four primary enzymes are involved in the metabolism of almost all xenobiotics. Among these enzymes, CYP3A4 is responsible for the inactivation of the majority of used drugs which makes this enzyme an interesting target for many fields of research, especially pharmaceutical research. Since the late 1970s, attempts have been made to construct and develop electrochemical sensors for the determination of substrates. This paper is concerned with the establishment of such a CYP3A4-containing biosensor. The sensor was constructed by adsorption of alternating layers of sub-nanometer gold particle-modified PAMAM (poly-amido-amine) dendrimers of generation 4.0, along with the enzyme by a layer-by-layer assembly technique. Atomic force microscopy (AFM), quartz crystal microbalance (QCM), and Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were employed to elucidate the sensor assembly. Additionally, the biosensor was tested by cyclic voltammetry using caffeine as a substrate. PMID:27548239

  10. A Cytochrome P450 3A4 Biosensor Based on Generation 4.0 PAMAM Dendrimers for the Detection of Caffeine.

    PubMed

    Müller, Michael; Agarwal, Neha; Kim, Jungtae

    2016-01-01

    Cytochromes P450 (CYP, P450) are a large family of heme-active-site proteins involved in many catalytic processes, including steroidogenesis. In humans, four primary enzymes are involved in the metabolism of almost all xenobiotics. Among these enzymes, CYP3A4 is responsible for the inactivation of the majority of used drugs which makes this enzyme an interesting target for many fields of research, especially pharmaceutical research. Since the late 1970s, attempts have been made to construct and develop electrochemical sensors for the determination of substrates. This paper is concerned with the establishment of such a CYP3A4-containing biosensor. The sensor was constructed by adsorption of alternating layers of sub-nanometer gold particle-modified PAMAM (poly-amido-amine) dendrimers of generation 4.0, along with the enzyme by a layer-by-layer assembly technique. Atomic force microscopy (AFM), quartz crystal microbalance (QCM), and Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were employed to elucidate the sensor assembly. Additionally, the biosensor was tested by cyclic voltammetry using caffeine as a substrate. PMID:27548239

  11. Concurrent cooperativity and substrate inhibition in the epoxidation of carbamazepine by cytochrome P450 3A4 active site mutants inspired by molecular dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    Müller, Christian S; Knehans, Tim; Davydov, Dmitri R; Bounds, Patricia L; von Mandach, Ursula; Halpert, James R; Caflisch, Amedeo; Koppenol, Willem H

    2015-01-27

    Cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) is the major human P450 responsible for the metabolism of carbamazepine (CBZ). To explore the mechanisms of interactions of CYP3A4 with this anticonvulsive drug, we carried out multiple molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, starting with the complex of CYP3A4 manually docked with CBZ. On the basis of these simulations, we engineered CYP3A4 mutants I369F, I369L, A370V, and A370L, in which the productive binding orientation was expected to be stabilized, thus leading to increased turnover of CBZ to the 10,11-epoxide product. In addition, we generated CYP3A4 mutant S119A as a control construct with putative destabilization of the productive binding pose. Evaluation of the kinetics profiles of CBZ epoxidation demonstrate that CYP3A4-containing bacterial membranes (bactosomes) as well as purified CYP3A4 (wild-type and mutants I369L/F) exhibit substrate inhibition in reconstituted systems. In contrast, mutants S119A and A370V/L exhibit S-shaped profiles that are indicative of homotropic cooperativity. MD simulations with two to four CBZ molecules provide evidence that the substrate-binding pocket of CYP3A4 can accommodate more than one molecule of CBZ. Analysis of the kinetics profiles of CBZ metabolism with a model that combines the formalism of the Hill equation with an allowance for substrate inhibition demonstrates that the mechanism of interactions of CBZ with CYP3A4 involves multiple substrate-binding events (most likely three). Despite the retention of the multisite binding mechanism in the mutants, functional manifestations reveal an exquisite sensitivity to even minor structural changes in the binding pocket that are introduced by conservative substitutions such as I369F, I369L, and A370V.

  12. Approaches to enzyme and substrate design of the murine Dnmt3a DNA methyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Jurkowska, Renata Z; Siddique, Abu Nasar; Jurkowski, Tomasz P; Jeltsch, Albert

    2011-07-01

    Dnmt3a-C, the catalytic domain of the Dnmt3a DNA-(cytosine-C5)-methyltransferase, is active in an isolated form but, like the full-length Dnmt3a, shows only weak DNA methylation activity. To improve this activity by directed evolution, we set up a selection system in which Dnmt3a-C methylated its own expression plasmid in E. coli, and protected it from cleavage by methylation-sensitive restriction enzymes. However, despite screening about 400 clones that were selected in three rounds from a random mutagenesis library of 60 000 clones, we were not able to isolate a variant with improved activity, most likely because of a background of uncleaved plasmids and plasmids that had lost the restriction sites. To improve the catalytic activity of Dnmt3a-C by optimization of the sequence of the DNA substrate, we analyzed its flanking-sequence preference in detail by bisulfite DNA-methylation analysis and sequencing of individual clones. Based on the enrichment and depletion of certain bases in the positions flanking >1300 methylated CpG sites, we were able to define a sequence-preference profile for Dnmt3a-C from the -6 to the +6 position of the flanking sequence. This revealed preferences for T over a purine at position -2, A over G at -1, a pyrimidine at +1, and A and T over G at +3. We designed one "good" substrate optimized for methylation and one "bad" substrate designed not to be efficiently methylated, and showed that the optimized substrate is methylated >20 times more rapidly at its central CpG site. The optimized Dnmt3a-C substrate can be applied in enzymatic high-throughput assays with Dnmt3a-C (e.g., for inhibitor screening), because the increased activity provides an improved dynamic range and better signal/noise ratio.

  13. In vitro inhibition and induction of human cytochrome P450 enzymes by mirabegron, a potent and selective β3-adrenoceptor agonist.

    PubMed

    Takusagawa, Shin; Miyashita, Aiji; Iwatsubo, Takafumi; Usui, Takashi

    2012-12-01

    The potential for mirabegron, a β(3)-adrenoceptor agonist for the treatment of overactive bladder, to cause drug-drug interactions via inhibition or induction of cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes was investigated in vitro. Mirabegron was shown to be a time-dependent inhibitor of CYP2D6 in the presence of NADPH as the IC(50) value in human liver microsomes decreased from 13 to 4.3 μM after 30-min pre-incubation. Further evaluation indicated that mirabegron may act partly as an irreversible or quasi-irreversible metabolism-dependent inhibitor of CYP2D6. Therefore, the potential of mirabegron to inhibit the metabolism of CYP2D6 substrates in vivo cannot be excluded. Mirabegron was predicted not to cause clinically significant metabolic drug-drug interactions via inhibition of CYP1A2, CYP2B6, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2E1, or CYP3A4/5 because the IC(50) values for these enzymes both with and without pre-incubation were >100 μM (370 times maximum human plasma concentration [C(max)]). Whereas positive controls (100 µM omeprazole and 10 µM rifampin) caused the anticipated CYP induction, the highest concentration of mirabegron (10 µM; 37 times plasma C(max)) had minimal effect on CYP1A2 and CYP3A4/5 activity, and CYP1A2 and CYP3A4 mRNA levels in freshly isolated human hepatocytes, suggesting that mirabegron is not an inducer of these enzymes.

  14. Reaction phenotyping: advances in the experimental strategies used to characterize the contribution of drug-metabolizing enzymes.

    PubMed

    Zientek, Michael A; Youdim, Kuresh

    2015-01-01

    During the process of drug discovery, the pharmaceutical industry is faced with numerous challenges. One challenge is the successful prediction of the major routes of human clearance of new medications. For compounds cleared by metabolism, accurate predictions help provide an early risk assessment of their potential to exhibit significant interpatient differences in pharmacokinetics via routes of metabolism catalyzed by functionally polymorphic enzymes and/or clinically significant metabolic drug-drug interactions. This review details the most recent and emerging in vitro strategies used by drug metabolism and pharmacokinetic scientists to better determine rates and routes of metabolic clearance and how to translate these parameters to estimate the amount these routes contribute to overall clearance, commonly referred to as fraction metabolized. The enzymes covered in this review include cytochrome P450s together with other enzymatic pathways whose involvement in metabolic clearance has become increasingly important as efforts to mitigate cytochrome P450 clearance are successful. Advances in the prediction of the fraction metabolized include newly developed methods to differentiate CYP3A4 from the polymorphic enzyme CYP3A5, scaling tools for UDP-glucuronosyltranferase, and estimation of fraction metabolized for substrates of aldehyde oxidase.

  15. Effect of standardized cranberry extract on the activity and expression of selected biotransformation enzymes in rat liver and intestine.

    PubMed

    Bártíková, Hana; Boušová, Iva; Jedličková, Pavla; Lněničková, Kateřina; Skálová, Lenka; Szotáková, Barbora

    2014-09-18

    The use of dietary supplements containing cranberry extract is a common way to prevent urinary tract infections. As consumption of these supplements containing a mixture of concentrated anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins has increased, interest in their possible interactions with drug-metabolizing enzymes has grown. In this in vivo study, rats were treated with a standardized cranberry extract (CystiCran®) obtained from Vaccinium macrocarpon in two dosage schemes (14 days, 0.5 mg of proanthocyanidins/kg/day; 1 day, 1.5 mg of proanthocyanidins/kg/day). The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins contained in this extract on the activity and expression of intestinal and hepatic biotransformation enzymes: cytochrome P450 (CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP2B and CYP3A), carbonyl reductase 1 (CBR1), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and UDP-glucuronosyl transferase (UGT). Administration of cranberry extract led to moderate increases in the activities of hepatic CYP3A (by 34%), CYP1A1 (by 38%), UGT (by 40%), CBR1 (by 17%) and GST (by 13%), while activities of these enzymes in the small intestine were unchanged. No changes in the relative amounts of these proteins were found. Taken together, the interactions of cranberry extract with simultaneously administered drugs seem not to be serious.

  16. CYP 450 enzyme induction by chronic oral musk xylene in adult and developing rats.

    PubMed

    Suter-Eichenberger, R; Boelsterli, U A; Conscience-Egli, M; Lichtensteiger, W; Schlumpf, M

    2000-04-10

    Developmental and adult toxicity of musk xylene was studied in Long Evans (LE) rats fed with chow containing musk xylene (MX) in food pellets in concentrations of 1 mg, 10 mg, 33 mg, 100 mg and 1000 mg MX per 1 kg chow corresponding to a daily intake of 0.07-0.08 mg MX/kg up to 70-80 mg MX/kg body weight. Adult male and female rats were MX exposed for a minimum of 10 weeks before mating. Exposure continued throughout pregnancy, birth and lactation. The effects of MX on CYP1A1/1A2 were studied in liver microsomes by EROD (7-ethoxyresorufin-rosomes deethylase) for CYP1A1 and by MROD (methoxyresorufin-o-demethylase) for CYP1A2 activity and by Western blotting. MX induced these enzymes dose dependently in adult and developing rats at PN (postnatal day) 1 and 14. The lowest effective maternal dose was 2-3 mg MX/kg/day. Western blot data of CYP2B and CYP3A indicated the induction of both P450 enzyme proteins in developing rats at PN 14 at the higher dose of 70-80 mg MX/kg/day. In contrast, upon high MX exposure CYP2B but not CYP3A was found to be induced in adult first generation male and female rats, indicating differential sensitivity to MX in development.

  17. CYP 450 enzyme induction by chronic oral musk xylene in adult and developing rats.

    PubMed

    Suter-Eichenberger, R; Boelsterli, U A; Conscience-Egli, M; Lichtensteiger, W; Schlumpf, M

    1999-12-20

    Developmental and adult toxicity of musk xylene was studied in Long Evans (LE) rats fed with chow containing musk xylene (MX) in food pellets in concentrations of 1 mg, 10 mg, 33 mg, 100 mg and 1000 mg MX per 1 kg chow corresponding to a daily intake of 0.07-0.08 mg MX/kg up to 70-80 mg MX/kg body weight. Adult male and female rats were MX exposed for a minimum of 10 weeks before mating. Exposure continued throughout pregnancy, birth and lactation. The effects of MX on CYP1A1/1A2 were studied in liver microsomes by EROD (7-ethoxyresorufin-o-deethylase) for CYP1A1 and by MROD (methoxyresorufin-o-demethylase) for CYP1A2 activity and by Western blotting. MX induced these enzymes dose dependently in adult and developing rats at PN (postnatal day) 1 and 14. The lowest effective maternal dose was 2-3 mg MX/kg/day. Western blot data of CYP2B and CYP3A indicated the induction of both P450 enzyme proteins in developing rats at PN 14 at the higher dose of 70-80 mg MX/kg/day. In contrast, upon high MX exposure CYP2B but not CYP3A was found to be induced in adult first generation male and female rats, indicating differential sensitivity to MX in development.

  18. Mechanism-Based Inactivation of Human Cytochrome P450 3A4 by Two Piperazine-Containing Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Bolles, Amanda K.; Fujiwara, Rina; Briggs, Erran D.; Nomeir, Amin A.

    2014-01-01

    Human cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) is responsible for the metabolism of more than half of pharmaceutic drugs, and inactivation of CYP3A4 can lead to adverse drug-drug interactions. The substituted imidazole compounds 5-fluoro-2-[4-[(2-phenyl-1H-imidazol-5-yl)methyl]-1-piperazinyl]pyrimidine (SCH 66712) and 1-[(2-ethyl-4-methyl-1H-imidazol-5-yl)methyl]-4-[4-(trifluoromethyl)-2-pyridinyl]piperazine (EMTPP) have been previously identified as mechanism-based inactivators (MBI) of CYP2D6. The present study shows that both SCH 66712 and EMTPP are also MBIs of CYP3A4. Inhibition of CYP3A4 by SCH 66712 and EMTPP was determined to be concentration, time, and NADPH dependent. In addition, inactivation of CYP3A4 by SCH 66712 was shown to be unaffected by the presence of electrophile scavengers. SCH 66712 displays type I binding to CYP3A4 with a spectral binding constant (Ks) of 42.9 ± 2.9 µM. The partition ratios for SCH 66712 and EMTPP were 11 and 94, respectively. Whole protein mass spectrum analysis revealed 1:1 binding stoichiometry of SCH 66712 and EMTPP to CYP3A4 and a mass increase consistent with adduction by the inactivators without addition of oxygen. Heme adduction was not apparent. Multiple mono-oxygenation products with each inactivator were observed; no other products were apparent. These are the first MBIs to be shown to be potent inactivators of both CYP2D6 and CYP3A4. PMID:25273356

  19. Mechanism-based inactivation of human cytochrome P450 3A4 by two piperazine-containing compounds.

    PubMed

    Bolles, Amanda K; Fujiwara, Rina; Briggs, Erran D; Nomeir, Amin A; Furge, Laura Lowe

    2014-12-01

    Human cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) is responsible for the metabolism of more than half of pharmaceutic drugs, and inactivation of CYP3A4 can lead to adverse drug-drug interactions. The substituted imidazole compounds 5-fluoro-2-[4-[(2-phenyl-1H-imidazol-5-yl)methyl]-1-piperazinyl]pyrimidine (SCH 66712) and 1-[(2-ethyl-4-methyl-1H-imidazol-5-yl)methyl]-4-[4-(trifluoromethyl)-2-pyridinyl]piperazine (EMTPP) have been previously identified as mechanism-based inactivators (MBI) of CYP2D6. The present study shows that both SCH 66712 and EMTPP are also MBIs of CYP3A4. Inhibition of CYP3A4 by SCH 66712 and EMTPP was determined to be concentration, time, and NADPH dependent. In addition, inactivation of CYP3A4 by SCH 66712 was shown to be unaffected by the presence of electrophile scavengers. SCH 66712 displays type I binding to CYP3A4 with a spectral binding constant (Ks) of 42.9 ± 2.9 µM. The partition ratios for SCH 66712 and EMTPP were 11 and 94, respectively. Whole protein mass spectrum analysis revealed 1:1 binding stoichiometry of SCH 66712 and EMTPP to CYP3A4 and a mass increase consistent with adduction by the inactivators without addition of oxygen. Heme adduction was not apparent. Multiple mono-oxygenation products with each inactivator were observed; no other products were apparent. These are the first MBIs to be shown to be potent inactivators of both CYP2D6 and CYP3A4. PMID:25273356

  20. Resveratrol modulates drug- and carcinogen-metabolizing enzymes in a healthy volunteer study.

    PubMed

    Chow, H-H Sherry; Garland, Linda L; Hsu, Chiu-Hsieh; Vining, Donna R; Chew, Wade M; Miller, Jessica A; Perloff, Marjorie; Crowell, James A; Alberts, David S

    2010-09-01

    Resveratrol has been shown to exhibit cancer-preventive activities in preclinical studies. We conducted a clinical study to determine the effect of pharmacologic doses of resveratrol on drug- and carcinogen-metabolizing enzymes. Forty-two healthy volunteers underwent baseline assessment of cytochrome P450 (CYP) and phase II detoxification enzymes. CYP1A2, CYP2D6, CYP2C9, and CYP3A4 enzyme activities were measured by the metabolism of caffeine, dextromethorphan, losartan, and buspirone, respectively. Blood lymphocyte glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity and GST-pi level and serum total and direct bilirubin, a surrogate for UDP-glucuronosyl transferase (UGT) 1A1 activity, were measured to assess phase II enzymes. After the baseline evaluation, study participants took 1 g of resveratrol once daily for 4 weeks. Enzyme assessment was repeated upon intervention completion. Resveratrol intervention was found to inhibit the phenotypic indices of CYP3A4, CYP2D6, and CYP2C9 and to induce the phenotypic index of 1A2. Overall, GST and UGT1A1 activities were minimally affected by the intervention, although an induction of GST-pi level and UGT1A1 activity was observed in individuals with low baseline enzyme level/activity. We conclude that resveratrol can modulate enzyme systems involved in carcinogen activation and detoxification, which may be one mechanism by which resveratrol inhibits carcinogenesis. However, pharmacologic doses of resveratrol could potentially lead to increased adverse drug reactions or altered drug efficacy due to inhibition or induction of certain CYPs. Further clinical development of resveratrol for cancer prevention should consider evaluation of lower doses of resveratrol to minimize adverse metabolic drug interactions. PMID:20716633

  1. Strain differences in hepatic cytochrome P450 1A and 3A expression between Sprague-Dawley and Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Kishida, Tomoyuki; Muto, Shin-ichi; Hayashi, Morimichi; Tsutsui, Masaru; Tanaka, Satoru; Murakami, Makoto; Kuroda, Junji

    2008-10-01

    Expression of hepatic cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoforms was compared in Sprague-Dawley (SD) and Wistar (WI) rats, which are commonly used strains in preclinical studies. Basal CYP1A1, CYP1A2, and CYP3A2 mRNA levels were higher in WI rats than in SD rats (by 8-, 3- and 2-fold, respectively). Treatment with phenobarbital, a potent CYP inducer, increased the predominance of expression of these three mRNAs in WI rats (by 26-, 4-, and 2-fold, respectively) along with the predominance of increased microsomal total P450 contents and smooth-surface endoplasmic reticulum in the centrilobular hepatocytes. CYP1A enzymatic activity was also higher in WI rats than in SD rats. No strain differences were observed in phenobarbital induction of CYP2B1/2, CYP2C6, or CYP3A1. CYP3A2 mRNA was more strongly induced by dexamethasone, a typical inducer of CYP3A, together with CYP3A1 mRNA, in WI rats than in SD rats (by 2-fold), whereas the CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 mRNA expression induced by beta-naphtoflavone, a typical inducer of CYP1A, did not differ between the two strains. Furthermore, WI rats exhibited predominantly arylhydrocarbon receptor, pregnane X receptor, and constitutive androstane receptor mRNAs, responsible for CYP1A or CYP3A induction, with phenobarbital or dexamethasone induction. In conclusion, significant, predominant expression of hepatic CYP1A and CYP3A mRNAs in WI rats was observed, possibly related to nuclear receptor-mediated induction. Considering the pharmacokinetic and toxicological importance of CYP1A and CYP3A, different outcomes might arise depending on the rat strains used in preclinical studies of drugs metabolized typically or mainly by both isoforms.

  2. Toxicity of xanthene food dyes by inhibition of human drug-metabolizing enzymes in a noncompetitive manner.

    PubMed

    Mizutani, Takaharu

    2009-01-01

    The synthetic food dyes studied were rose bengal (RB), phroxine (PL), amaranth, erythrosine B (ET), allura red, new coccine, acid red (AR), tartrazine, sunset yellow FCF, brilliant blue FCF, and indigo carmine. First, data confirmed that these dyes were not substrates for CYP2A6, UGT1A6, and UGT2B7. ET inhibited UGT1A6 (glucuronidation of p-nitrophenol) and UGT2B7 (glucuronidation of androsterone). We showed the inhibitory effect of xanthene dye on human UGT1A6 activity. Basic ET, PL, and RB in those food dyes strongly inhibited UGT1A6 activity, with IC(50) values = 0.05, 0.04, and 0.015 mM, respectively. Meanwhile, AR of an acidic xanthene food dye showed no inhibition. Next, we studied the inhibition of CYP3A4 of a major phase I drug-metabolizing enzyme and P-glycoprotein of a major transporter by synthetic food dyes. Human CYP3A4 and P-glycoprotein were also inhibited by basic xanthene food dyes. The IC(50) values of these dyes to inhibit CYP3A4 and P-glycoprotein were the same as the inhibition level of UGT1A6 by three halogenated xanthene food dyes (ET, PL, and RB) described above, except AR, like the results with UGT1A6 and UGT2B7. We also confirmed the noninhibition of CYP3A4 and P-gp by other synthetic food dyes. Part of this inhibition depended upon the reaction of (1)O(2) originating on xanthene dyes by light irradiation, because inhibition was prevented by (1)O(2) quenchers. We studied the influence of superoxide dismutase and catalase on this inhibition by dyes and we found prevention of inhibition by superoxide dismutase but not catalase. This result suggests that superoxide anions, originating on dyes by light irradiation, must attack drug-metabolizing enzymes. It is possible that red cosmetics containing phloxine, erythrosine, or rose bengal react with proteins on skin under lighting and may lead to rough skin.

  3. Toxicity of Xanthene Food Dyes by Inhibition of Human Drug-Metabolizing Enzymes in a Noncompetitive Manner

    PubMed Central

    Mizutani, Takaharu

    2009-01-01

    The synthetic food dyes studied were rose bengal (RB), phroxine (PL), amaranth, erythrosine B (ET), allura red, new coccine, acid red (AR), tartrazine, sunset yellow FCF, brilliant blue FCF, and indigo carmine. First, data confirmed that these dyes were not substrates for CYP2A6, UGT1A6, and UGT2B7. ET inhibited UGT1A6 (glucuronidation of p-nitrophenol) and UGT2B7 (glucuronidation of androsterone). We showed the inhibitory effect of xanthene dye on human UGT1A6 activity. Basic ET, PL, and RB in those food dyes strongly inhibited UGT1A6 activity, with IC50 values = 0.05, 0.04, and 0.015 mM, respectively. Meanwhile, AR of an acidic xanthene food dye showed no inhibition. Next, we studied the inhibition of CYP3A4 of a major phase I drug-metabolizing enzyme and P-glycoprotein of a major transporter by synthetic food dyes. Human CYP3A4 and P-glycoprotein were also inhibited by basic xanthene food dyes. The IC50 values of these dyes to inhibit CYP3A4 and P-glycoprotein were the same as the inhibition level of UGT1A6 by three halogenated xanthene food dyes (ET, PL, and RB) described above, except AR, like the results with UGT1A6 and UGT2B7. We also confirmed the noninhibition of CYP3A4 and P-gp by other synthetic food dyes. Part of this inhibition depended upon the reaction of 1O2 originating on xanthene dyes by light irradiation, because inhibition was prevented by 1O2 quenchers. We studied the influence of superoxide dismutase and catalase on this inhibition by dyes and we found prevention of inhibition by superoxide dismutase but not catalase. This result suggests that superoxide anions, originating on dyes by light irradiation, must attack drug-metabolizing enzymes. It is possible that red cosmetics containing phloxine, erythrosine, or rose bengal react with proteins on skin under lighting and may lead to rough skin. PMID:20041016

  4. Thiazide-like diuretic drug metolazone activates human pregnane X receptor to induce cytochrome 3A4 and multidrug-resistance protein 1

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Monimoy; Chen, Taosheng

    2014-01-01

    Human pregnane X receptor (hPXR) regulates the expression of drug-metabolizing enzyme cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) and drug transporters such as multidrug-resistance protein 1 (MDR1). PXR can be modulated by small molecules, including Federal Drug Administration (FDA)–approved drugs, thus altering drug metabolism and causing drug-drug interactions. To determine the role of FDA-approved drugs in PXR-mediated regulation of drug metabolism and clearance, we screened 1481 FDA-approved small-molecule drugs by using a luciferase reporter assay in HEK293T cells and identified the diuretic drug metolazone as an activator of PXR. Our data showed that metolazone activated hPXR-mediated expression of CYP3A4 and MDR1 in human hepatocytes and intestine cells and increased CYP3A4 promoter activity in various cell lines. Mammalian two-hybrid assays showed that hPXR recruits its co-activator SRC-1 upon metolazone binding in HepG2 cells, explaining the mechanism of hPXR activation. To understand the role of other commonly-used diuretics in PXR activation and the structure-activity relationship of metolazone, thiazide and non-thiazide diuretics drugs were also tested but only metolazone activates PXR. To understand the molecular mechanism, docking studies and mutational analysis were carried out and showed that metolazone binds in the ligand-binding pocket and interacts with mostly hydrophobic amino acid residues. This is the first report showing that metolazone activates PXR. Because activation of hPXR might cause drug-drug interactions, metolazone should be used with caution for drug treatment in patients undergoing combination therapy. PMID:25181459

  5. Thiazide-like diuretic drug metolazone activates human pregnane X receptor to induce cytochrome 3A4 and multidrug-resistance protein 1.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Monimoy; Chen, Taosheng

    2014-11-15

    Human pregnane X receptor (hPXR) regulates the expression of drug-metabolizing enzyme cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) and drug transporters such as multidrug-resistance protein 1 (MDR1). PXR can be modulated by small molecules, including Federal Drug Administration (FDA)-approved drugs, thus altering drug metabolism and causing drug-drug interactions. To determine the role of FDA-approved drugs in PXR-mediated regulation of drug metabolism and clearance, we screened 1481 FDA-approved small-molecule drugs by using a luciferase reporter assay in HEK293T cells and identified the diuretic drug metolazone as an activator of hPXR. Our data showed that metolazone activated hPXR-mediated expression of CYP3A4 and MDR1 in human hepatocytes and intestine cells and increased CYP3A4 promoter activity in various cell lines. Mammalian two-hybrid assays showed that hPXR recruits its co-activator SRC-1 upon metolazone binding in HepG2 cells, explaining the mechanism of hPXR activation. To understand the role of other commonly-used diuretics in hPXR activation and the structure-activity relationship of metolazone, thiazide and non-thiazide diuretics drugs were also tested but only metolazone activates hPXR. To understand the molecular mechanism, docking studies and mutational analysis were carried out and showed that metolazone binds in the ligand-binding pocket and interacts with mostly hydrophobic amino acid residues. This is the first report showing that metolazone activates hPXR. Because activation of hPXR might cause drug-drug interactions, metolazone should be used with caution for drug treatment in patients undergoing combination therapy.

  6. Inhibitory effects of kale ingestion on metabolism by cytochrome P450 enzymes in rats.

    PubMed

    Yamasaki, Izumi; Yamada, Masayoshi; Uotsu, Nobuo; Teramoto, Sachiyuki; Takayanagi, Risa; Yamada, Yasuhiko

    2012-01-01

    Kale (Brassica oleracea L. var acephala DC) is a leafy green vegetable belonging to the cabbage family (Brassicaceae) that contains a large amount of health-promoting phytochemicals. There are any reports about the effects of kale ingestion on the chemoprevention function and mechanism, but the interactions between kale and drugs have not been researched. We investigated the effects of kale intake on cytochrome P450 (CYP) metabolism by using cocktail probe drugs, including midazolam (for CYP3A4), caffeine (for CYP1A2), dextromethorphan (for CYP2D6), tolbutamide (for CYP2C9), omeprazole (for CYP2C19), and chlorzoxazone (for CYP2E1). Cocktail drugs were administered into rats treated with kale and cabbage (2000 mg/kg) for a week. The results showed that kale intake induced a significant increase in plasma levels and the AUC of midazolam, caffeine, and dextromethorphan. In addition, the plasma concentration and AUC of omeprazole tended to increase. Additionally, no almost differences in the mRNA expression levels of CYP enzymes in the liver were observed. In conclusion, kale ingestion was considered to have an inhibitory effect on the activities of CYP3A4, 1A2, 2D6, and 2C19 for a reason competitive inhibition than inhibitory changes in the mRNA expressions.

  7. A Combined Molecular Docking/Dynamics Approach to Probe the Binding Mode of Cancer Drugs with Cytochrome P450 3A4.

    PubMed

    Panneerselvam, Suresh; Yesudhas, Dhanusha; Durai, Prasannavenkatesh; Anwar, Muhammad Ayaz; Gosu, Vijayakumar; Choi, Sangdun

    2015-08-14

    Cytarabine, daunorubicin, doxorubicin and vincristine are clinically used for combinatorial therapies of cancers in different combinations. However, the knowledge about the interaction of these drugs with the metabolizing enzyme cytochrome P450 is limited. Therefore, we utilized computational methods to predict and assess the drug-binding modes. In this study, we performed docking, MD simulations and free energy landscape analysis to understand the drug-enzyme interactions, protein domain motions and the most populated free energy minimum conformations of the docked protein-drug complexes, respectively. The outcome of docking and MD simulations predicted the productive, as well as the non-productive binding modes of the selected drugs. Based on these interaction studies, we observed that S119, R212 and R372 are the major drug-binding residues in CYP3A4. The molecular mechanics Poisson-Boltzmann surface area analysis revealed the dominance of hydrophobic forces in the CYP3A4-drug association. Further analyses predicted the residues that may contain favorable drug-specific interactions. The probable binding modes of the cancer drugs from this study may extend the knowledge of the protein-drug interaction and pave the way to design analogs with reduced toxicity. In addition, they also provide valuable insights into the metabolism of the cancer drugs.

  8. The stress response of human proximal tubule cells to cadmium involves up-regulation of haemoxygenase 1 and metallothionein but not cytochrome P450 enzymes.

    PubMed

    Boonprasert, Kanyarat; Satarug, Soisungwan; Morais, Christudas; Gobe, Glenda C; Johnson, David W; Na-Bangchang, Kesara; Vesey, David A

    2016-05-13

    Enzymes of the cytochrome P450 (CYP) super-family are implicated in cadmium (Cd) -induced nephrotoxicity, however, direct evidence is lacking. This study investigated the endogenous expression of various CYP proteins together with the stress-response proteins, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and metallothionein (MT) in human kidney sections and in cadmium-exposed primary cultures of human proximal tubular epithelial cells (PTC). By immunohistochemistry, the CYP members 2B6, 4A11 and 4F2 were prominently expressed in the cortical proximal tubular cells and to a lesser extent in distal tubular cells. Low levels of CYPs 2E1 and 3A4 were also detected. In PTC, in the absence of Cd, CYP2E1, CYP3A4, CYP4F2 and MT were expressed, but HO-1, CYP2B6 and CYP4A11 were not detected. A range of cadmium concentrations (0-100μM) were utilized to induce stress conditions. MT protein was further induced by as little as 0.5μM cadmium, reaching a 6-fold induction at 20μM, whereas for HO-1, a 5μM cadmium concentration was required for initial induction and at 20μM cadmium reached a 15-fold induction. The expression of CYP2E1, CYP3A4, and CYP4F2 were not altered by any cadmium concentrations tested at 48h. Cadmium caused a reduction in cell viability at concentrations above 10μM. In conclusion although cultured PTC, do express CYP proteins, (CYP2E1, CYP3A4, and CYP4F2), Cd-induced cell stress as indicted by induction of HO-1 and MT does not alter expression of these CYP proteins at 48h.

  9. Effect of triacontanol on the pharmacokinetics of docetaxel in rats associated with induction of cytochrome P450 3A1/2.

    PubMed

    Deng, Shuhua; Wang, Chunfeng; Zhang, Wei; Gao, Wenchao; Fan, Ali; Zhang, Qiuyang; Zhang, Yongjie; Liu, Qingwang; Li, Ning; Liu, Qi; Zhao, Jie; Li, Cuiyun; Wen, Xingyuan; Zhao, Di; Chen, Xijing

    2014-07-01

    Triacontanol was confirmed to have a potential anti-cancer effect, the aim was to assess whether the co-administration of triacontanol alters the exposure of docetaxel via inducing hepatic CYP3A1/2 activity. The concentration of docetaxel in rats pretreated with triacontanol for seven successive days was determined, and the expression levels of CYP3A protein and mRNA were analyzed by the western blot and real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) technique, respectively. 2.  The concentrations of docetaxel in rats pretreated with triacontanol were decreased, with 61.5%, 61.9% decrease in AUC0-24h and 65.7%, 54.9% reduction in Cmax (120 and 180 mg kg(-1), respectively) compared with the control. Hepatic clearance of docetaxel was enhanced in vitro and in vivo at dosage of 120 and 180 mg kg(-1), and CYP3A activity was up-regulated by measuring the formation rate of 1-hydroxymidazolam. Triacontanol preferentially induced protein expression level of CYP3A2 in a dose-dependent manner and of CYP 3A1 at dosage of 120 and 180 mg kg(-1). The mRNA expression of CYP3A1 was moderately different with the western blot results, but the trends appeared similar. CYP3A2 mRNA level was not markedly affected by triacontanol. 3.  The significant triacontanol-docetaxel interaction was largely due to the induction of CYP3A1/2, which brought useful information in the clinical therapy when the combination is administered in human.

  10. Enzyme

    MedlinePlus

    Enzymes are complex proteins that cause a specific chemical change in all parts of the body. For ... use them. Blood clotting is another example of enzymes at work. Enzymes are needed for all body ...

  11. In vitro inhibition and induction of human liver cytochrome P450 enzymes by gentiopicroside: potent effect on CYP2A6.

    PubMed

    Deng, Yating; Wang, Lu; Yang, Yong; Sun, Wenji; Xie, Renming; Liu, Xueying; Wang, Qingwei

    2013-01-01

    Gentiopicroside (GE), a naturally occurring iridoid glycoside, has been developed into a Novel Traditional Chinese Drug named gentiopicroside injection, and it was approved for the treatment of acute jaundice and chronic active hepatitis by SFDA. However, the inhibitory and inducible effects of GE on the activity of cytochrome P450 (CYP450) are unclear. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ability of GE to inhibit and induce human cytochrome P450 enzymes in vitro. In human liver microsomes, GE inhibited CYP2A6 and CYP2E1 in a concentration-dependent manner, with IC₅₀ values of 21.8 µg/ml and 594 µg/ml, respectively, and the IC₅₀ of CYP2A6 was close to the C(max) value observed clinically. GE was a non-competitive inhibitor of CYP2A6 at lower concentrations and a competitive inhibitor at higher concentrations. GE did not produce inhibition of CYP2C9, CYP2D6, CYP1A2 or CYP3A4 activities. However, a significant increase of CYP1A2 and CYP3A4 activity was observed at high concentrations. In cultured human hepatocytes no significant induction of CYP1A2, CYP3A4 or CYP2B6 was observed. Given these results, the in vivo potential inhibition of GE on CYP2A6 deserves further investigation, and it seems that the hepatoprotective effect of GE is irrelevant to its effect on P450s.

  12. Cytochrome P450 2D6 enzyme neuroprotects against 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium toxicity in SH-SY5Y neuronal cells.

    PubMed

    Mann, Amandeep; Tyndale, Rachel F

    2010-04-01

    Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2D6 is an enzyme that is expressed in liver and brain. It can inactivate neurotoxins such as 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine, 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline and beta-carbolines. Genetically slow CYP2D6 metabolizers are at higher risk for developing Parkinson's disease, a risk that increases with exposure to pesticides. The goal of this study was to investigate the neuroprotective role of CYP2D6 in an in-vitro neurotoxicity model. SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells express CYP2D6 as determined by western blotting, immunocytochemistry and enzymatic activity. CYP2D6 metabolized 3-[2-(N,N-diethyl-N-methylammonium)ethyl]-7-methoxy-4-methylcoumarin and the CYP2D6-specific inhibitor quinidine (1 microM) blocked 96 +/- 1% of this metabolism, indicating that CYP2D6 is functional in this cell line. Treatment of cells with CYP2D6 inhibitors (quinidine, propanolol, metoprolol or timolol) at varying concentrations significantly increased the neurotoxicity caused by 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+) at 10 and 25 microM by between 9 +/- 1 and 22 +/- 5% (P < 0.01). We found that CYP3A is also expressed in SH-SY5Y cells and inhibiting CYP3A with ketoconazole significantly increased the cell death caused by 10 and 25 microM of MPP+ by between 8 +/- 1 and 30 +/- 3% (P < 0.001). Inhibiting both CYP2D6 and CYP3A showed an additive effect on MPP+ neurotoxicity. These data further support a possible role for CYP2D6 in neuroprotection from Parkinson's disease-causing neurotoxins, especially in the human brain where expression of CYP2D6 is high in some regions (e.g. substantia nigra). PMID:20345925

  13. Optimized on-line enantioselective capillary electrophoretic method for kinetic and inhibition studies of drug metabolism mediated by cytochrome P450 enzymes.

    PubMed

    Řemínek, Roman; Glatz, Zdeněk; Thormann, Wolfgang

    2015-06-01

    Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of a chiral drug can significantly differ between application of the racemate and single enantiomers. During drug development, the characteristics of candidate compounds have to be assessed prior to clinical testing. Since biotransformation significantly influences drug actions in an organism, metabolism studies represent a crucial part of such tests. Hence, an optimized and economical capillary electrophoretic method for on-line studies of the enantioselective drug metabolism mediated by cytochrome P450 enzymes was developed. It comprises a diffusion-based procedure, which enables mixing of the enzyme with virtually any compound inside the nanoliter-scale capillary reactor and without the need of additional optimization of mixing conditions. For CYP3A4, ketamine as probe substrate and highly sulfated γ-cyclodextrin as chiral selector, improved separation conditions for ketamine and norketamine enantiomers compared to a previously published electrophoretically mediated microanalysis method were elucidated. The new approach was thoroughly validated for the CYP3A4-mediated N-demethylation pathway of ketamine and applied to the determination of its kinetic parameters and the inhibition characteristics in presence of ketoconazole and dexmedetomidine. The determined parameters were found to be comparable to literature data obtained with different techniques. The presented method constitutes a miniaturized and cost-effective tool, which should be suitable for the assessment of the stereoselective aspects of kinetic and inhibition studies of cytochrome P450-mediated metabolic steps within early stages of the development of a new drug.

  14. A Multiscale Approach to Modelling Drug Metabolism by Membrane-Bound Cytochrome P450 Enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Sansom, Mark S. P.; Mulholland, Adrian J.

    2014-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 enzymes are found in all life forms. P450s play an important role in drug metabolism, and have potential uses as biocatalysts. Human P450s are membrane-bound proteins. However, the interactions between P450s and their membrane environment are not well-understood. To date, all P450 crystal structures have been obtained from engineered proteins, from which the transmembrane helix was absent. A significant number of computational studies have been performed on P450s, but the majority of these have been performed on the solubilised forms of P450s. Here we present a multiscale approach for modelling P450s, spanning from coarse-grained and atomistic molecular dynamics simulations to reaction modelling using hybrid quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) methods. To our knowledge, this is the first application of such an integrated multiscale approach to modelling of a membrane-bound enzyme. We have applied this protocol to a key human P450 involved in drug metabolism: CYP3A4. A biologically realistic model of CYP3A4, complete with its transmembrane helix and a membrane, has been constructed and characterised. The dynamics of this complex have been studied, and the oxidation of the anticoagulant R-warfarin has been modelled in the active site. Calculations have also been performed on the soluble form of the enzyme in aqueous solution. Important differences are observed between the membrane and solution systems, most notably for the gating residues and channels that control access to the active site. The protocol that we describe here is applicable to other membrane-bound enzymes. PMID:25033460

  15. Swertianlarin, isolated from Swertia mussotii Franch, increases detoxification enzymes and efflux transporters expression in rats

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Xin-Chan; Du, Xiaohuang; Chen, Sheng; Yue, Dongmei; Cheng, Ying; Zhang, Liangjun; Gao, Yu; Li, Shaoxue; Chen, Lei; Peng, Zhihong; Yang, Yong; Luo, Weizao; Wang, Rongquan; Chen, Wensheng; Chai, Jin

    2015-01-01

    Swertianlarin, isolated from Swertia mussotii Franch and Enicostemma axillare, has hepatoprotective effects against cholestasis in rat models of hepatotoxicity. However, the underlying molecular mechanism is not clear. We then treated rats with swertianlarin for 7 d and then measured serum liver injury markers, lipids, and bile salts, as well as the expression of bile acid synthesis and detoxification enzymes (e.g. Cyp7a1 and Cyp3a), membrane influx and efflux transporters (e.g. Ntcp and Mrp3), nuclear receptors (e.g. Pxr and Fxr/Shp) and transcriptional factors (e.g. Nrf2 and Hnf3β) in the liver. We found a significant induction of the expression of the basolateral efflux transporters Mrp3 and Mrp4 and canalicular transporter Mdr1 in rats treated with swertianlarin, compared with the controls (1.9-fold and 2.2-fold, P < 0.005, and 3.4-fold, P < 0.05, respectively). The expression of detoxification enzymes Cyp3a, Ugt2b, Sult2a1 and Gsta1 in rats treated with swertianlarin was significantly higher than that in controls (3.7-fold, 2.8-fold, 2.1-fold, and 1.7-fold, respectively, all P < 0.05). Expression of the synthetic enzyme, Cyp8b1, was higher in rats treated with swertianlarin than that in controls (1.8-fold at mRNA level and 3.4-flod at protein level, P < 0.05). Elevated serum levels of the conjugated bile acids, taurocholic acid and taurodeoxycholic acid, and a reduction in levels of serum ALP, unconjugated bile acid αMCA, and TG were observed (all P < 0.05). In conclusion, swertianlarin significantly up-regulates hepatic bile acid detoxification enzymes and efflux transporters in rats, which can increase the water solubility of hydrophobic bile acids and elimination of conjugated bile acids. PMID:25755705

  16. Bioactivation and Regioselectivity of Pig Cytochrome P450 3A29 towards Aflatoxin B₁.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jun; Chen, Ruohong; Zhang, Caihui; Li, Kangbai; Xu, Weiying; Wang, Lijuan; Chen, Qingmei; Mu, Peiqiang; Jiang, Jun; Wen, Jikai; Deng, Yiqun

    2016-01-01

    Due to unavoidable contaminations in feedstuff, pigs are easily exposed to aflatoxin B₁ (AFB₁) and suffer from poisoning, thus the poisoned products potentially affect human health. Heretofore, the metabolic process of AFB₁ in pigs remains to be clarified, especially the principal cytochrome P450 oxidases responsible for its activation. In this study, we cloned CYP3A29 from pig liver and expressed it in Escherichia coli, and its activity has been confirmed with the typical P450 CO-reduced spectral characteristic and nifedipine-oxidizing activity. The reconstituted membrane incubation proved that the recombinant CYP3A29 was able to oxidize AFB₁ to form AFB₁-exo-8,9-epoxide in vitro. The structural basis for the regioselective epoxidation of AFB₁ by CYP3A29 was further addressed. The T309A mutation significantly decreased the production of AFBO, whereas F304A exhibited an enhanced activation towards AFB₁. In agreement with the mutagenesis study, the molecular docking simulation suggested that Thr309 played a significant role in stabilization of AFB₁ binding in the active center through a hydrogen bond. In addition, the bulk phenyl group of Phe304 potentially imposed steric hindrance on the binding of AFB₁. Our study demonstrates the bioactivation of pig CYP3A29 towards AFB₁ in vitro, and provides the insight for understanding regioselectivity of CYP3A29 to AFB₁. PMID:27626447

  17. Bioactivation and Regioselectivity of Pig Cytochrome P450 3A29 towards Aflatoxin B1

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jun; Chen, Ruohong; Zhang, Caihui; Li, Kangbai; Xu, Weiying; Wang, Lijuan; Chen, Qingmei; Mu, Peiqiang; Jiang, Jun; Wen, Jikai; Deng, Yiqun

    2016-01-01

    Due to unavoidable contaminations in feedstuff, pigs are easily exposed to aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and suffer from poisoning, thus the poisoned products potentially affect human health. Heretofore, the metabolic process of AFB1 in pigs remains to be clarified, especially the principal cytochrome P450 oxidases responsible for its activation. In this study, we cloned CYP3A29 from pig liver and expressed it in Escherichia coli, and its activity has been confirmed with the typical P450 CO-reduced spectral characteristic and nifedipine-oxidizing activity. The reconstituted membrane incubation proved that the recombinant CYP3A29 was able to oxidize AFB1 to form AFB1-exo-8,9-epoxide in vitro. The structural basis for the regioselective epoxidation of AFB1 by CYP3A29 was further addressed. The T309A mutation significantly decreased the production of AFBO, whereas F304A exhibited an enhanced activation towards AFB1. In agreement with the mutagenesis study, the molecular docking simulation suggested that Thr309 played a significant role in stabilization of AFB1 binding in the active center through a hydrogen bond. In addition, the bulk phenyl group of Phe304 potentially imposed steric hindrance on the binding of AFB1. Our study demonstrates the bioactivation of pig CYP3A29 towards AFB1 in vitro, and provides the insight for understanding regioselectivity of CYP3A29 to AFB1. PMID:27626447

  18. Effects of prior oral contraceptive use and soy isoflavonoids on estrogen-metabolizing cytochrome P450 enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Scott, LM; Durant, P; Leone-Kabler, S; Wood, CE; Register, TC; Townsend, A; Cline, JM

    2009-01-01

    Estrogen exposure and metabolism may play an important role in the development of estrogen-sensitive cancers in postmenopausal women. In this study we investigated whether past oral contraceptive (OC) administration or current dietary isoflavonoids (IF) affected expression and/or activity of steroid hormone-metabolizing cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes using complementary primate and cell culture models. One-hundred-eighty-one female cynomolgus macaques were randomized to receive OC or nothing for 26 months premenopausally, then ovariectomized and randomized to one of three diets for 36 months: an IF-depleted soy protein isolate (Soy−) diet, a Soy diet with IF (Soy+), or a Soy− diet supplemented with conjugated equine estrogens (CEE). Prior OC-treatment significantly reduced CYP gene expression in the mammary gland (≤60% of OC−). Dietary IFs had no effect on CYP expression, while CEE-treatment decreased CYP1A1 and increased CYP3A4 mRNA in a tissue-specific manner. For in vitro studies, we measured effects of the isoflavonoids genistein, daidzein and equol on CYP activity using intact V79 cells stably transfected to express CYP1A1, CYP1B1, or CYP3A4. All three IFs significantly altered CYP activity in a dose-dependent and isoform-specific manner (20–95% inhibition vs. controls). These results suggest potential mechanisms for prior OC and dietary IF effects on cancer risk in estrogen-responsive tissues. PMID:18955142

  19. Effects of capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin on human and rat liver microsomal CYP450 enzyme activities in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qing-Hao; Hu, Jin-Ping; Wang, Bao-Lian; Li, Yan

    2012-01-01

    Capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin, the two most abundant members of capsaicinoids in chili peppers, are widely used as food additives and for other purposes. In this study, we examined the inhibitory potentials of capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin against CYP1A2, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, CYP2E1, and CYP3A4/5 activities in human liver microsomes. The effects of these two capsaicinoids on CYP450 enzymes were also evaluated in vivo in rats. The results demonstrated that capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin moderately inhibited five isozymes (IC₅₀) values ranging from 4.4 to 61.8 μM), with the exception of CYP2E1 (IC₅₀ > 200 μM). Both capsaicinoids exhibited competitive, mixed, and noncompetitive inhibition on these isozymes (K (i) = 3.1 ± 0.5 - 78.6 ± 8.4 μM). Time-dependent inhibition of CYP3A4/5 by capsaicin was found. After multiple administrations of capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin (1, 4, and 10 mg/kg) to rats, chlorzoxazone 6-hydroxylase activity and the expression of CYP2E1 were increased in liver microsomes. Our findings indicated that the possibility of food-drug interactions mediated by capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin could not be excluded, and provided the useful information for evaluating the anticarcinogenic potentials of these two capsaicinoids. PMID:22375877

  20. Differentiation of monkey embryonic stem cells to hepatocytes by feeder-free dispersion culture and expression analyses of cytochrome p450 enzymes responsible for drug metabolism.

    PubMed

    Maruyama, Junya; Matsunaga, Tamihide; Yamaori, Satoshi; Sakamoto, Sakae; Kamada, Noboru; Nakamura, Katsunori; Kikuchi, Shinji; Ohmori, Shigeru

    2013-01-01

    We reported previously that monkey embryonic stem cells (ESCs) were differentiated into hepatocytes by formation of embryoid bodies (EBs). However, this EB formation method is not always efficient for assays using a large number of samples simultaneously. A dispersion culture system, one of the differentiation methods without EB formation, is able to more efficiently provide a large number of feeder-free undifferentiated cells. A previous study demonstrated the effectiveness of the Rho-associated kinase inhibitor Y-27632 for feeder-free dispersion culture and induction of differentiation of monkey ESCs into neural cells. In the present study, the induction of differentiation of cynomolgus monkey ESCs (cmESCs) into hepatocytes was performed by the dispersion culture method, and the expression and drug inducibility of cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes in these hepatocytes were examined. The cmESCs were successfully differentiated into hepatocytes under feeder-free dispersion culture conditions supplemented with Y-27632. The hepatocytes differentiated from cmESCs expressed the mRNAs for three hepatocyte marker genes (α-fetoprotein, albumin, CYP7A1) and several CYP enzymes, as measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction. In particular, the basal expression of cmCYP3A4 (3A8) in these hepatocytes was detected at mRNA and enzyme activity (testosterone 6β-hydroxylation) levels. Furthermore, the expression and activity of cmCYP3A4 (3A8) were significantly upregulated by rifampicin. These results indicated the effectiveness of Y-27632 supplementation for feeder-free dispersed culture and induction of differentiation into hepatocytes, and the expression of functional CYP enzyme(s) in cmESC-derived hepatic cells.

  1. Ethylbenzene induces microsomal oxygen free radical generation: antibody-directed characterization of the responsible cytochrome P450 enzymes.

    PubMed

    Serron, S C; Dwivedi, N; Backes, W L

    2000-05-01

    Small aromatic hydrocarbons cause changes in oxidative metabolism by modulating the levels of cytochrome P450 enzymes, with the changes in these enzymes being responsible for qualitative changes in aromatic hydrocarbon metabolism. The goal of this study was to determine if exposure to the small alkylbenzene ethylbenzene (EB) leads to an increase in hepatic free radical production. Male F344 rats were treated with ip injections of EB (10 mmol/kg) and compared to corn oil controls. Hepatic free radical production was examined by measuring the conversion of 2',7'-dichlorofluorescin diacetate (DCFH-DA) to its fluorescent product 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein (DCF). A significant elevation of fluorescent DCF production was observed after treatment with EB, despite the lack of effect on overall cytochrome P450 levels. This process was shown to be inhibitable by metyrapone, an inhibitor of P450. DCF production was also inhibited by catalase, suggesting that hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) is one of the reactive oxygen intermediates involved in EB-mediated reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation. Interestingly, superoxide dismutase (SOD) did not inhibit DCF production in corn oil-treated rats but was an effective inhibitor in the EB-treated groups. In an effort to determine if the increase in ROS production was related to changes in specific P450 enzymes, DCF production was measured in the presence of anti-CYP2B, anti-CYP2C11, anti-CYP2E1, and anti-CYP3A2 inhibitory antibodies. Anti-CYP2B antibodies inhibited DCF production in EB-treated, but not corn oil groups, which is consistent with the low constitutive levels of this enzyme and its induction by EB. The data also demonstrate that CYP2B contributes to ROS production. Anti-CYP2C11 did not influence DCF production in either group. ROS formation in corn oil-treated rats as well as in ethylbenzene-treated rats was also inhibited with antibodies to anti-CYP2E1 and anti-CYP3A2. These results suggest that CYP2C11 does not appear to

  2. Effect of honokiol on the induction of drug-metabolizing enzymes in human hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Cho, Yong-Yeon; Jeong, Hyeon-Uk; Kim, Jeong-Han; Lee, Hye Suk

    2014-01-01

    Honokiol, 2-(4-hydroxy-3-prop-2-enyl-phenyl)-4-prop-2-enyl-phenol, an active component of Magnolia officinalis and Magnolia grandiflora, exerts various pharmacological activities such as antitumorigenic, antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, neurotrophic, and antithrombotic effects. To investigate whether honokiol acts as a perpetrator in drug interactions, messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) levels of phase I and II drug-metabolizing enzymes, including cytochrome P450 (CYP), UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT), and sulfotransferase 2A1 (SULT2A1), were analyzed by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction following 48-hour honokiol exposure in three independent cryopreserved human hepatocyte cultures. Honokiol treatment at the highest concentration tested (50 μM) increased the CYP2B6 mRNA level and CYP2B6-catalyzed bupropion hydroxylase activity more than two-fold in three different hepatocyte cultures, indicating that honokiol induces CYP2B6 at higher concentrations. However, honokiol treatment (0.5-50 μM) did not significantly alter the mRNA levels of phase I enzymes (CYP1A2, CYP3A4, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, and CYP2C19) or phase II enzymes (UGT1A1, UGT1A4, UGT1A9, UGT2B7, and SULT2A1) in cryopreserved human hepatocyte cultures. CYP1A2-catalyzed phenacetin O-deethylase and CYP3A4-catalyzed midazolam 1'-hydroxylase activities were not affected by 48-hour honokiol treatment in cryopreserved human hepatocytes. These results indicate that honokiol is a weak CYP2B6 inducer and is unlikely to increase the metabolism of concomitant CYP2B6 substrates and cause pharma