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Sample records for 3a cyp3a enzymes

  1. In vitro and pharmacophore insights into CYP3A enzymes.

    PubMed

    Ekins, Sean; Stresser, David M; Williams, J Andrew

    2003-04-01

    The cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A) enzymes have a major role in the metabolism of drugs in humans. Their wide substrate specificity and induction by a vast array of structurally diverse compounds presents the possibility of metabolic drug-drug interactions. Understanding the enzymes themselves is crucial. Over the past decade, this has occurred mostly with in vitro studies, although more recent approaches incorporate computational models to predict CYP inhibition and substrate potential. The three-dimensional displacement, or pharmacophore, of chemical features in space that are derived from inhibition data have produced pharmacophores for CYP3A4, CYP3A5 and CYP3A7, and provide new insights into ligand binding for each enzyme. PMID:12707001

  2. Metabolic pathways of inhaled glucocorticoids by the CYP3A enzymes.

    PubMed

    Moore, Chad D; Roberts, Jessica K; Orton, Christopher R; Murai, Takahiro; Fidler, Trevor P; Reilly, Christopher A; Ward, Robert M; Yost, Garold S

    2013-02-01

    Asthma is one of the most prevalent diseases in the world, for which the mainstay treatment has been inhaled glucocorticoids (GCs). Despite the widespread use of these drugs, approximately 30% of asthma sufferers exhibit some degree of steroid insensitivity or are refractory to inhaled GCs. One hypothesis to explain this phenomenon is interpatient variability in the clearance of these compounds. The objective of this research is to determine how metabolism of GCs by the CYP3A family of enzymes could affect their effectiveness in asthmatic patients. In this work, the metabolism of four frequently prescribed inhaled GCs, triamcinolone acetonide, flunisolide, budesonide, and fluticasone propionate, by the CYP3A family of enzymes was studied to identify differences in their rates of clearance and to identify their metabolites. Both interenzyme and interdrug variability in rates of metabolism and metabolic fate were observed. CYP3A4 was the most efficient metabolic catalyst for all the compounds, and CYP3A7 had the slowest rates. CYP3A5, which is particularly relevant to GC metabolism in the lungs, was also shown to efficiently metabolize triamcinolone acetonide, budesonide, and fluticasone propionate. In contrast, flunisolide was only metabolized via CYP3A4, with no significant turnover by CYP3A5 or CYP3A7. Common metabolites included 6β-hydroxylation and Δ(6)-dehydrogenation for triamcinolone acetonide, budesonide, and flunisolide. The structure of Δ(6)-flunisolide was unambiguously established by NMR analysis. Metabolism also occurred on the D-ring substituents, including the 21-carboxy metabolites for triamcinolone acetonide and flunisolide. The novel metabolite 21-nortriamcinolone acetonide was also identified by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and NMR analysis. PMID:23143891

  3. Metabolic Pathways of Inhaled Glucocorticoids by the CYP3A Enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Chad D.; Roberts, Jessica K.; Orton, Christopher R.; Murai, Takahiro; Fidler, Trevor P.; Reilly, Christopher A.; Ward, Robert M.

    2013-01-01

    Asthma is one of the most prevalent diseases in the world, for which the mainstay treatment has been inhaled glucocorticoids (GCs). Despite the widespread use of these drugs, approximately 30% of asthma sufferers exhibit some degree of steroid insensitivity or are refractory to inhaled GCs. One hypothesis to explain this phenomenon is interpatient variability in the clearance of these compounds. The objective of this research is to determine how metabolism of GCs by the CYP3A family of enzymes could affect their effectiveness in asthmatic patients. In this work, the metabolism of four frequently prescribed inhaled GCs, triamcinolone acetonide, flunisolide, budesonide, and fluticasone propionate, by the CYP3A family of enzymes was studied to identify differences in their rates of clearance and to identify their metabolites. Both interenzyme and interdrug variability in rates of metabolism and metabolic fate were observed. CYP3A4 was the most efficient metabolic catalyst for all the compounds, and CYP3A7 had the slowest rates. CYP3A5, which is particularly relevant to GC metabolism in the lungs, was also shown to efficiently metabolize triamcinolone acetonide, budesonide, and fluticasone propionate. In contrast, flunisolide was only metabolized via CYP3A4, with no significant turnover by CYP3A5 or CYP3A7. Common metabolites included 6β-hydroxylation and Δ6-dehydrogenation for triamcinolone acetonide, budesonide, and flunisolide. The structure of Δ6-flunisolide was unambiguously established by NMR analysis. Metabolism also occurred on the D-ring substituents, including the 21-carboxy metabolites for triamcinolone acetonide and flunisolide. The novel metabolite 21-nortriamcinolone acetonide was also identified by liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry and NMR analysis. PMID:23143891

  4. A useful model capable of predicting the clearance of cytochrome 3A4 (CYP3A4) substrates in humans: validity of CYP3A4 transgenic mice lacking their own Cyp3a enzymes.

    PubMed

    Mitsui, Tetsuya; Nemoto, Takayuki; Miyake, Taiji; Nagao, Shunsuke; Ogawa, Kotaro; Kato, Motohiro; Ishigai, Masaki; Yamada, Hideyuki

    2014-09-01

    The accurate prediction for the body clearance of a novel drug candidate by humans during the preclinical stage contributes to its successful development. To improve the predictability of human hepatic clearance, we focused on CYP3A4, which is involved in the metabolism of more than 50% of all currently marketed drugs. In this study, we investigated the validity of the in vivo model using transgenic mice carrying the human CYP3A4 gene and lacking their own Cyp3a genes (CYP3A4-Tg mice). The CYP3A4 activity toward its substrates in liver microsomes was similar in CYP3A4-Tg mice and humans. As for the clearance, six CYP3A4 substrates (alprazolam, felodipine, midazolam, nifedipine, nitrendipine, and quinidine) were given intravenously to CYP3A4-Tg mice, and their hepatic intrinsic clearance (CLint,h) was evaluated. A regression analysis of the data obtained indicated that the CLint,h values of six substrates in CYP3A4-Tg mice were highly correlated with those in humans (R(2) = 0.95). This correlation could be improved by correcting the CLint,h values by the relative contribution of artificially expressed CYP3A4 to the overall metabolism in the mice. From these findings, it is reasonable to expect that the CLint,h of a particular drug in humans is predictable by applying the CLint,h obtained in CYP3A4-Tg mice to a regression line prepared in advance. The variance of the CLint,h prediction by this method was evaluated and found to be within a range of 2-fold of the regression value. These results suggest that the CYP3A4-Tg mouse model has the potential to accurately predict the human hepatic clearance of CYP3A4 substrates. PMID:25005602

  5. Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Inhibit the Cytochrome P450 Enzyme, CYP3A4.

    PubMed

    El-Sayed, Ramy; Bhattacharya, Kunal; Gu, Zonglin; Yang, Zaixing; Weber, Jeffrey K; Li, Hu; Leifer, Klaus; Zhao, Yichen; Toprak, Muhammet S; Zhou, Ruhong; Fadeel, Bengt

    2016-01-01

    We report a detailed computational and experimental study of the interaction of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) with the drug-metabolizing cytochrome P450 enzyme, CYP3A4. Dose-dependent inhibition of CYP3A4-mediated conversion of the model compound, testosterone, to its major metabolite, 6β-hydroxy testosterone was noted. Evidence for a direct interaction between SWCNTs and CYP3A4 was also provided. The inhibition of enzyme activity was alleviated when SWCNTs were pre-coated with bovine serum albumin. Furthermore, covalent functionalization of SWCNTs with polyethylene glycol (PEG) chains mitigated the inhibition of CYP3A4 enzymatic activity. Molecular dynamics simulations suggested that inhibition of the catalytic activity of CYP3A4 is mainly due to blocking of the exit channel for substrates/products through a complex binding mechanism. This work suggests that SWCNTs could interfere with metabolism of drugs and other xenobiotics and provides a molecular mechanism for this toxicity. Our study also suggests means to reduce this toxicity, eg., by surface modification. PMID:26899743

  6. Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Inhibit the Cytochrome P450 Enzyme, CYP3A4

    PubMed Central

    El-Sayed, Ramy; Bhattacharya, Kunal; Gu, Zonglin; Yang, Zaixing; Weber, Jeffrey K.; Li, Hu; Leifer, Klaus; Zhao, Yichen; Toprak, Muhammet S.; Zhou, Ruhong; Fadeel, Bengt

    2016-01-01

    We report a detailed computational and experimental study of the interaction of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) with the drug-metabolizing cytochrome P450 enzyme, CYP3A4. Dose-dependent inhibition of CYP3A4-mediated conversion of the model compound, testosterone, to its major metabolite, 6β-hydroxy testosterone was noted. Evidence for a direct interaction between SWCNTs and CYP3A4 was also provided. The inhibition of enzyme activity was alleviated when SWCNTs were pre-coated with bovine serum albumin. Furthermore, covalent functionalization of SWCNTs with polyethylene glycol (PEG) chains mitigated the inhibition of CYP3A4 enzymatic activity. Molecular dynamics simulations suggested that inhibition of the catalytic activity of CYP3A4 is mainly due to blocking of the exit channel for substrates/products through a complex binding mechanism. This work suggests that SWCNTs could interfere with metabolism of drugs and other xenobiotics and provides a molecular mechanism for this toxicity. Our study also suggests means to reduce this toxicity, eg., by surface modification. PMID:26899743

  7. Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Inhibit the Cytochrome P450 Enzyme, CYP3A4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Sayed, Ramy; Bhattacharya, Kunal; Gu, Zonglin; Yang, Zaixing; Weber, Jeffrey K.; Li, Hu; Leifer, Klaus; Zhao, Yichen; Toprak, Muhammet S.; Zhou, Ruhong; Fadeel, Bengt

    2016-02-01

    We report a detailed computational and experimental study of the interaction of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) with the drug-metabolizing cytochrome P450 enzyme, CYP3A4. Dose-dependent inhibition of CYP3A4-mediated conversion of the model compound, testosterone, to its major metabolite, 6β-hydroxy testosterone was noted. Evidence for a direct interaction between SWCNTs and CYP3A4 was also provided. The inhibition of enzyme activity was alleviated when SWCNTs were pre-coated with bovine serum albumin. Furthermore, covalent functionalization of SWCNTs with polyethylene glycol (PEG) chains mitigated the inhibition of CYP3A4 enzymatic activity. Molecular dynamics simulations suggested that inhibition of the catalytic activity of CYP3A4 is mainly due to blocking of the exit channel for substrates/products through a complex binding mechanism. This work suggests that SWCNTs could interfere with metabolism of drugs and other xenobiotics and provides a molecular mechanism for this toxicity. Our study also suggests means to reduce this toxicity, eg., by surface modification.

  8. High frequency and founder effect of the CYP3A4*20 loss-of-function allele in the Spanish population classifies CYP3A4 as a polymorphic enzyme.

    PubMed

    Apellániz-Ruiz, M; Inglada-Pérez, L; Naranjo, M E G; Sánchez, L; Mancikova, V; Currás-Freixes, M; de Cubas, A A; Comino-Méndez, I; Triki, S; Rebai, A; Rasool, M; Moya, G; Grazina, M; Opocher, G; Cascón, A; Taboada-Echalar, P; Ingelman-Sundberg, M; Carracedo, A; Robledo, M; Llerena, A; Rodríguez-Antona, C

    2015-06-01

    Cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) is a key drug-metabolizing enzyme. Loss-of-function variants have been reported as rare events, and the first demonstration of a CYP3A4 protein lacking functional activity is caused by CYP3A4*20 allele. Here we characterized the world distribution and origin of CYP3A4*20 mutation. CYP3A4*20 was determined in more than 4000 individuals representing different populations, and haplotype analysis was performed using CYP3A polymorphisms and microsatellite markers. CYP3A4*20 allele was present in 1.2% of the Spanish population (up to 3.8% in specific regions), and all CYP3A4*20 carriers had a common haplotype. This is compatible with a Spanish founder effect and classifies CYP3A4 as a polymorphic enzyme. This constitutes the first description of a CYP3A4 loss-of-function variant with high frequency in a population. CYP3A4*20 results together with the key role of CYP3A4 in drug metabolism support screening for rare CYP3A4 functional alleles among subjects with adverse drug events in certain populations. PMID:25348618

  9. Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) induction of CYP3A4 enzyme activity in healthy Faroese adults

    SciTech Connect

    Petersen, Maria Skaalum Halling, Jonrit; Damkier, Per; Nielsen, Flemming; Grandjean, Philippe; Weihe, Pal; Brosen, Kim

    2007-10-15

    The CYP3A4 enzyme is, along with other cytochrome P450 enzymes, involved in the metabolism of environmental pollutants and is highly inducible by these substances. A commercial polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) mixture, 1,1,1,-trichloro-2-(o-chlorophenyl), 2-(p'-chlorophenyl)ethane (o,p'-DDT) and 1,1,-dichloro-2,2-bis (p-chlorophenyl)ethene (p,p'-DDE) are known to induce CYP3A4 activity through activation of nuclear receptors, such as the pregnane X receptor. However, this induction of CYP3A4 has not yet been investigated in humans. Thus, the aim of the study was to determine the variability of the CYP3A4 phenotype in regard to increased concentrations of PCBs and other persistent organohalogen pollutants (POPs) in healthy Faroese adults. In 310 randomly selected Faroese residents aged 18-60 years, the CYP3A4 activity was determined based on the urinary 6{beta}-hydroxycortisol/cortisol (6{beta}-OHC/FC) ratio. POP exposures were assessed by measuring their concentrations in serum lipid. The results showed a unimodal distribution of the 6{beta}-OHC/FC ratio with values ranging from 0.58 to 27.38. Women had a slightly higher 6{beta}-OHC/FC ratio than men (p = 0.07). Confounder-adjusted multiple regression analysis showed significant associations between 6{beta}-OHC/FC ratios and {sigma}PCB, PCB-TEQ and p,p'-DDE, o,p'-DDT and HCB, respectively, but the associations were statistically significant for men only.

  10. SOY PROTEIN ISOLATE INDUCES CYP3A1 AND CYP3A2 IN PREPUBERTAL RATS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Feeding soy diets has been shown to induce cytochrome P450s in gene family CYP3A in Sprague-Dawley rat liver. We compared expression of CYP3A enzymes on PND33 rats fed casein or soy protein isolate (SPI+)-based AIN-93G diets continuously from gestational day 4 through PND 33 or the diets were switc...

  11. CYP3A in horse intestines.

    PubMed

    Tydén, Eva; Olsén, Lena; Tallkvist, Jonas; Larsson, Pia; Tjälve, Hans

    2004-12-01

    The intestinal enterocytes provide the initial site for cytochrome P450 (CYP)-mediated metabolism of orally absorbed xenobiotics. In man and some animal species, the CYP3A subfamily is highly expressed in the intestines and considered to be important in the first-pass metabolism of drugs and other xenobiotics. The aim of the present study was to investigate the mRNA expression, immunohistochemical localization and catalytic activity of CYP3A in the intestines of horse. Real-time RT-PCR analyses showed that the highest CYP3A mRNA expression was present in the duodenum with a decreasing level towards jejunum, ileum, cecum, and colon. The CYP3A mRNA expression in the liver was similar as in the anterior part of the jejunum, but about 4.5 times lower than in the anterior part of the duodenum. Immunohistochemistry showed CYP3A immunoreactivity in the cytoplasm of the enterocytes, which decreased distally along the intestinal tract. CYP3A-dependent metabolic activity rose slightly from the anterior to the distal part of the duodenum and the anterior part of the jejunum and then declined to the middle and distal parts of the jejunum and the ileum, cecum, and colon. Our results suggest that CYP3A in the small intestine plays a major role in first-pass metabolism and may affect bioavailability and therapeutic efficiency of some orally administrated drugs in horse. PMID:15541751

  12. CYP3A5 mediates bioactivation and cytotoxicity of tetrandrine.

    PubMed

    Tian, Ye; Shen, Shuijie; Jiang, Yan; Shen, Qi; Zeng, Su; Zheng, Jiang

    2016-07-01

    Tetrandrine is a diaryl ether-type bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloid and has shown multiple pharmacological activities. Our early work demonstrated that tetrandrine produced acute pulmonary toxicity and that tetrandrine was biotransformed to a quinone methide-derived metabolite mediated by CYP3A enzymes. The formation of the reactive intermediate is suggested to be responsible for the pulmonary toxicity induced by tetrandrine. In the present study, a WI-38-based Cyp3a5 transgenic cell line (WI-38/Cyp3a5) was established to investigate the role of CYP3A5 in tetrandrine-induced cytotoxicity. The transgenic cells were found to be more susceptible to the cytotoxicity of tetrandrine than the wild-type cells (WI-38/Vector). WI-38/Cyp3a5 cells showed higher cellular ROS levels, higher LDH activities in culture media, but lower cellular GSH contents than those observed in WI-38/Vector cells after exposure to tetrandrine. And severer apoptosis were observed in WI-38/Cyp3a5 cells after treatment with tetrandrine: WI-38/Cyp3a5 cells had higher proportion of early and late apoptotic cells, higher expression levels of caspase-3, but lower level of Bcl-2 than WI-38/Vector cells. This study provided strong evidence that CYP3A5 participated in tetrandrine-induced cytotoxicity. PMID:26302866

  13. Interactions between CYP3A4 and Dietary Polyphenols

    PubMed Central

    Basheer, Loai; Kerem, Zohar

    2015-01-01

    The human cytochrome P450 enzymes (P450s) catalyze oxidative reactions of a broad spectrum of substrates and play a critical role in the metabolism of xenobiotics, such as drugs and dietary compounds. CYP3A4 is known to be the main enzyme involved in the metabolism of drugs and most other xenobiotics. Dietary compounds, of which polyphenolics are the most studied, have been shown to interact with CYP3A4 and alter its expression and activity. Traditionally, the liver was considered the prime site of CYP3A-mediated first-pass metabolic extraction, but in vitro and in vivo studies now suggest that the small intestine can be of equal or even greater importance for the metabolism of polyphenolics and drugs. Recent studies have pointed to the role of gut microbiota in the metabolic fate of polyphenolics in human, suggesting their involvement in the complex interactions between dietary polyphenols and CYP3A4. Last but not least, all the above suggests that coadministration of drugs and foods that are rich in polyphenols is expected to stimulate undesirable clinical consequences. This review focuses on interactions between dietary polyphenols and CYP3A4 as they relate to structural considerations, food-drug interactions, and potential negative consequences of interactions between CYP3A4 and polyphenols. PMID:26180597

  14. Interactions between CYP3A4 and Dietary Polyphenols.

    PubMed

    Basheer, Loai; Kerem, Zohar

    2015-01-01

    The human cytochrome P450 enzymes (P450s) catalyze oxidative reactions of a broad spectrum of substrates and play a critical role in the metabolism of xenobiotics, such as drugs and dietary compounds. CYP3A4 is known to be the main enzyme involved in the metabolism of drugs and most other xenobiotics. Dietary compounds, of which polyphenolics are the most studied, have been shown to interact with CYP3A4 and alter its expression and activity. Traditionally, the liver was considered the prime site of CYP3A-mediated first-pass metabolic extraction, but in vitro and in vivo studies now suggest that the small intestine can be of equal or even greater importance for the metabolism of polyphenolics and drugs. Recent studies have pointed to the role of gut microbiota in the metabolic fate of polyphenolics in human, suggesting their involvement in the complex interactions between dietary polyphenols and CYP3A4. Last but not least, all the above suggests that coadministration of drugs and foods that are rich in polyphenols is expected to stimulate undesirable clinical consequences. This review focuses on interactions between dietary polyphenols and CYP3A4 as they relate to structural considerations, food-drug interactions, and potential negative consequences of interactions between CYP3A4 and polyphenols. PMID:26180597

  15. Expression and Activity of CYP3A Enzymes in the Liver of Piglets Fed Dairy- or Soy-Based Formula in Comparison to Breast Feeding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have published previous data showing that feeding soy protein isolate, the major protein source in soy-infant formula, to rats during early development results in increased expression and activity of the major liver enzyme involved in breakdown and removal of pediatric medications, CYP3A. This s...

  16. Expression of CYP3A4 and CYP3A7 in Human Foetal Tissues and its Correlation with Nuclear Receptors.

    PubMed

    Betts, Stina; Björkhem-Bergman, Linda; Rane, Anders; Ekström, Lena

    2015-10-01

    Previous reports have suggested that the nuclear receptors vitamin D receptor (VDR), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα), pregnane X receptor (PXR) and constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) are involved in the regulation of the drug-metabolizing enzyme cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 expression in adults. The aim of this study was to investigate the gene expression of CYP3A4 and the foetal CYP3A7 in human foetal tissues and their relation to gene expression and genetic variations in the nuclear receptors VDR, PPARα, PXR and CAR. We determined the relative expression of CYP3A4 and CYP3A7 and these nuclear receptors in foetal livers, intestines and adrenals, using quantitative PCR. In addition, the expression of these enzymes was also analysed in adult liver. There was a high interindividual variability in CYP3A4 and CYP3A7, 49 times and 326 times, respectively. Both CYP3A4 and CYP3A7 had the highest expression in the liver. There were significant correlations (p < 0.001) between the nuclear receptors studied and the expression of CYP3A4 and CYP3A7 in foetal liver, as well as the expression of CYP3A4 in foetal intestine. Polymorphisms in the VDR gene, rs1544410 and rs1523130 (TaqI), in the PXR gene, rs1523130, and in the PPARα gene, rs4253728, were not correlated with CYP3A4 or CYP3A7 expression. However, C-homozygous individuals of the TaqI VDR polymorphism had 60% lower VDR gene expression (p < 0.05), than individuals carrying one or two T alleles. In conclusion, differences in the expression of nuclear receptors might determine the variability in CYP3A4 and CYP3A7 expression observed in foetal liver. PMID:25689036

  17. Contribution of three CYP3A isoforms to metabolism of R- and S-warfarin.

    PubMed

    Jones, Drew R; Kim, So-Young; Boysen, Gunnar; Yun, Chul-Ho; Miller, Grover P

    2010-12-01

    Effective coumadin (R/S-warfarin) therapy is complicated by inter-individual variability in metabolism. Recent studies have demonstrated that CYP3A isoforms likely contribute to patient responses and clinical outcomes. Despite a significant focus on CYP3A4, little is known about CYP3A5 and CYP3A7 metabolism of warfarin. Based on our studies, recombinant CYP3A4, CYP3A5 and CYP3A7 metabolized R- and S-warfarin to 10- and 4'-hydroxywarfarin with efficiencies that depended on the individual enzymes. For R-warfarin, CYP3A4, CYP3A7, and CYP3A5 demonstrated decreasing preference for 10-hydroxylation over 4'-hydroxylation. By contrast, there was no regioselectivity toward S-warfarin. While all enzymes preferentially metabolized R-warfarin, CYP3A4 was the most efficient at metabolizing all reactions. Individuals, namely African-Americans and children, with higher relative levels of CYP3A5 and/or CYP3A7, respectively, compared to CYP3A4 may metabolize warfarin less efficiently and thus may require lower doses and be at risk for adverse drug-drug interactions related to the contributions of the respective enzymes. PMID:20615193

  18. Cytochrome P450 3A4 and CYP3A5-Catalyzed Bioactivation of Lapatinib.

    PubMed

    Towles, Joanna K; Clark, Rebecca N; Wahlin, Michelle D; Uttamsingh, Vinita; Rettie, Allan E; Jackson, Klarissa D

    2016-10-01

    Metabolic activation of the dual-tyrosine kinase inhibitor lapatinib by cytochromes CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 has been implicated in lapatinib-induced idiosyncratic hepatotoxicity; however, the relative enzyme contributions have not been established. The objective of this study was to examine the roles of CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 in lapatinib bioactivation leading to a reactive, potentially toxic quinoneimine. Reaction phenotyping experiments were performed using individual human recombinant P450 enzymes and P450-selective chemical inhibitors. Lapatinib metabolites and quinoneimine-glutathione (GSH) adducts were analyzed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. A screen of cDNA-expressed P450s confirmed that CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 are the primary enzymes responsible for quinoneimine-GSH adduct formation using lapatinib or O-dealkylated lapatinib as the substrate. The mean kinetic parameters (Km and kcat) of lapatinib O-dealkylation revealed that CYP3A4 was 5.2-fold more efficient than CYP3A5 at lapatinib O-dealkylation (CYP3A4 kcat/Km = 6.8 μM(-1) min(-1) versus CYP3A5 kcat/Km = 1.3 μM(-1) min(-1)). Kinetic analysis of GSH adduct formation indicated that CYP3A4 was also 4-fold more efficient at quinoneimine-GSH adduct formation as measured by kcat (maximum relative GSH adduct levels)/Km (CYP3A4 = 0.0082 vs. CYP3A5 = 0.0021). In human liver microsomal (HLM) incubations, CYP3A4-selective inhibitors SR-9186 and CYP3cide reduced formation of GSH adducts by 78% and 72%, respectively, compared with >90% inhibition by the pan-CYP3A inhibitor ketoconazole. The 16%-22% difference between CYP3A- and CYP3A4-selective inhibition indicates the involvement of remaining CYP3A5 activity in generating reactive metabolites from lapatinib in pooled HLMs. Collectively, these findings support the conclusion that both CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 are quantitatively important contributors to lapatinib bioactivation. PMID:27450182

  19. Phenotype-genotype variability in the human CYP3A locus as assessed by the probe drug quinine and analyses of variant CYP3A4 alleles

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez-Antona, Cristina . E-mail: cristina.rodriguez-antona@cnio.es; Sayi, Jane G.; Gustafsson, Lars L.; Bertilsson, Leif; Ingelman-Sundberg, Magnus

    2005-12-09

    The human cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A) enzymes, which metabolize 50% of currently used therapeutic drugs, exhibit great interindividual differences in activity that have a major impact on drug treatment outcome, but hitherto no genetic background importantly contributing to this variation has been identified. In this study we show that CYP3A4 mRNA and hnRNA contents with a few exceptions vary in parallel in human liver, suggesting that mechanisms affecting CYP3A4 transcription, such as promoter polymorphisms, are relevant for interindividual differences in CYP3A4 expression. Tanzanian (n = 143) healthy volunteers were phenotyped using quinine as a CYP3A probe and the results were used for association studies with CYP3A4 genotypes. Carriers of CYP3A4*1B had a significantly lower activity than those with CYP3A4*1 whereas no differences were seen for five other SNPs investigated. Nuclear proteins from the B16A2 hepatoma cells were found to bind with less affinity to the CYP3A4*1B element around -392 bp as compared to CYP3A4*1. The data indicate the existence of a genetic CYP3A4 polymorphism with functional importance for interindividual differences in enzyme expression.

  20. Dynamics of Cytosine Methylation in the Proximal Promoters of CYP3A4 and CYP3A7 in Pediatric and Prenatal Livers.

    PubMed

    Vyhlidal, Carrie A; Bi, Chengpeng; Ye, Shui Qing; Leeder, J Steven

    2016-07-01

    Members of the human CYP3A family of metabolizing enzymes exhibit developmental changes in expression whereby CYP3A7 is expressed in fetal tissues, followed by a transition to expression of CYP3A4 in the first months of life. Despite knowledge about the general pattern of CYP3A activity in human development, the mechanisms that regulate developmental expression remain poorly understood. Epigenetic changes, including cytosine methylation, have been suggested to play a role in the regulation of CYP3A expression. The objective of this study was to investigate changes in cytosine methylation of the CYP3A4 and CYP3A7 genes in human pediatric and prenatal livers. The methylation status of cytosine-phospho-guanine dinucleotides was determined in 16 pediatric liver samples using methyl-seq and confirmed by bisulfite sequencing of 48 pediatric and 34 prenatal liver samples. Samples were separated by age into five groups (prenatal, < 1 year of age, 1.8-6 years, 7-11 years, and 12-17 years). Methyl-seq anaylsis revealed that cytosines in the proximal promoter of CYP3A7 are hypomethylated in neonates compared with adolescents (P < 0.001). In contrast, a cytosine 383 base pair upstream of CYP3A4 is hypermethylated in liver samples from neonates compared with adolescents (P = 0.00001). Developmental changes in methylation of cytosines in the proximal promoters of CYP3A4 and CYP3A7 in pediatric livers were confirmed by bisulfite sequencing. In addition, the methylation status of cytosine in the CYP3A4 and CYP3A7 proximal promoters correlated with changes in developmental expression of mRNA for the two enzymes. PMID:26772622

  1. Cytochrome P450 CYP3A in marsupials: cloning and characterisation of the second identified CYP3A subfamily member, isoform 3A78 from koala (Phascolarctos cinereus).

    PubMed

    El-Merhibi, Adaweyah; Ngo, Suong N T; Crittenden, Tamara A; Marchant, Ceilidh L; Stupans, Ieva; McKinnon, Ross A

    2011-11-01

    Cytochromes P450 (CYPs) are critically important in the oxidative metabolism of a diverse array of xenobiotics and endogenous substrates. Previously, we cloned and characterised the CYP2C, CYP4A, and CYP4B gene subfamilies from marsupials and demonstrated important species-differences in both activity and tissue expression of these CYP enzymes. Recently, we isolated the Eastern grey kangaroo CYP3A70. Here we have cloned and characterised the second identified member of marsupial CYP3A gene subfamily, CYP3A78 from the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus). In addition, we have examined the gender-differences in microsomal erythromycin N-demethylation activity (a CYP3A marker) and CYP3A protein expression across test marsupial species. Significant differences in hepatic erythromycin N-demethylation activity were observed between male and female koalas, with the activity detected in female koalas being 2.5-fold higher compared to that in male koalas (p<0.01). No gender-differences were observed in tammar wallaby or Eastern grey kangaroo. Immunoblot analysis utilising anti-human CYP3A4 antibody detected immunoreactive proteins in liver microsomes from all test male and female marsupials including the koala, tammar wallaby, and Eastern grey kangaroo, with no gender-differences detected across test marsupials. A 1610 bp koala hepatic CYP3A complete cDNA, designated CYP3A78, was cloned by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction approaches. It displays 64% nucleotide and 57% amino acid sequence identity to the Eastern grey kangaroo CYP3A70. The CYP3A78 cDNA encodes a protein of 515 amino acids, shares approximately 68% nucleotide and 56% amino acid sequence identity to human CYP3A4, and displays high sequence similarity to other published mammalian CYP3As from human, monkey, cow, pig, dog, rat, rabbit, mouse, hamster, and guinea pig. Collectively, this study provides primary molecular data regarding koala hepatic CYP3A78 gene and enables further functional analyses of CYP

  2. Analysis of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in human CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 genes: potential implications for the metabolism of HIV drugs

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Drug metabolism via the cytochrome P450 (CYP450) system has emerged as an important determinant in the occurrence of several drug interactions (adverse drug reactions, reduced pharmacological effect, drug toxicities). In particular, CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 (interacting with more than 60% of licensed drugs) exhibit the most individual variations of gene expression, mostly caused by single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the regulatory region of the CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 genes which might affect the level of enzyme production. In this study, we sought to improve the performance of sensitive screening for CYP3A polymorphism detection in twenty HIV-1 infected patients undergoing lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) monotherapy. Methods The study was performed by an effective, easy and inexpensive home-made Polymerase Chain Reaction Direct Sequencing approach for analyzing CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 genes which can detect both reported and unreported genetic variants potentially associated with altered or decreased functions of CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 proteins. Proportions and tests of association were used. Results Among the genetic variants considered, CYP3A4*1B (expression of altered function) was only found in 3 patients (15%) and CYP3A5*3 (expression of splicing defect) in 3 other patients (15%). CYP3A5*3 did not appear to be associated with decreased efficacy of LPV/r in any patient, since none of the patients carrying this variant showed virological rebound during LPV/r treatment or low levels of TDM. In contrast, low-level virological rebound was observed in one patient and a low TDM level was found in another; both were carrying CYP3A4*1B. Conclusions Our method exhibited an overall efficiency of 100% (DNA amplification and sequencing in our group of patients). This may contribute to producing innovative results for better understanding the inter-genotypic variability in gene coding for CYP3A, and investigating SNPs as biological markers of individual response to drugs

  3. Identification of CYP3A7 for Glyburide Metabolism in Human Fetal Livers

    PubMed Central

    Shuster, Diana L.; Risler, Linda J.; Prasad, Bhagwat; Calamia, Justina C.; Voellinger, Jenna L.; Kelly, Edward J.; Unadkat, Jashvant D.; Hebert, Mary F.; Shen, Danny D.; Thummel, Kenneth E.; Mao, Qingcheng

    2014-01-01

    Glyburide is commonly prescribed for the treatment of gestational diabetes mellitus; however, fetal exposure to glyburide is not well understood and may have short- and long-term consequences for the health of the child. Glyburide can cross the placenta; fetal concentrations at term are nearly comparable to maternal levels. Whether or not glyburide is metabolized in the fetus and by what mechanisms has yet to be determined. In this study, we determined the kinetic parameters for glyburide depletion by CYP3A isoenzymes; characterized glyburide metabolism by human fetal liver tissues collected during the first or early second trimester of pregnancy; and identified the major enzyme responsible for glyburide metabolism in human fetal livers. CYP3A4 had the highest metabolic capacity towards glyburide, followed by CYP3A7 and CYP3A5 (Clint,u = 37.1, 13.0, and 8.7 ml/min/nmol P450, respectively). M5 was the predominant metabolite generated by CYP3A7 and human fetal liver microsomes (HFLMs) with approximately 96% relative abundance. M5 was also the dominant metabolite generated by CYP3A4, CYP3A5, and adult liver microsomes; however, M1-M4 were also present, with up to 15% relative abundance. CYP3A7 protein levels in HFLMs were highly correlated with glyburide Clint, 16α-OH DHEA formation, and 4′-OH midazolam formation. Likewise, glyburide Clint was highly correlated with 16α-OH DHEA formation. Fetal demographics as well as CYP3A5 and CYP3A7 genotype did not alter CYP3A7 protein levels or glyburide Clint. These results indicate that human fetal livers metabolize glyburide predominantly to M5 and that CYP3A7 is the major enzyme responsible for glyburide metabolism in human fetal livers. PMID:25450675

  4. Gene-gene-environment interactions between drugs, transporters, receptors, and metabolizing enzymes: Statins, SLCO1B1, and CYP3A4 as an example.

    PubMed

    Sadee, Wolfgang

    2013-09-01

    Pharmacogenetic biomarker tests include mostly specific single gene-drug pairs, capable of accounting for a portion of interindividual variability in drug response and toxicity. However, multiple genes are likely to contribute, either acting independently or epistatically, with the CYP2C9-VKORC1-warfarin test panel, an example of a clinically used gene-gene-dug interaction. I discuss here further instances of gene-gene-drug interactions, including a proposed dynamic effect on statin therapy by genetic variants in both a transporter (SLCO1B1) and a metabolizing enzyme (CYP3A4) in liver cells, the main target site where statins block cholesterol synthesis. These examples set a conceptual framework for developing diagnostic panels involving multiple gene-drug combinations. PMID:23436703

  5. Inhibitory effects of fruit juices on CYP3A activity.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyunmi; Yoon, Yune-Jung; Shon, Ji-Hong; Cha, In-June; Shin, Jae-Gook; Liu, Kwang-Hyeon

    2006-04-01

    There have been very limited reports on the effects of commercial fruit juices on human CYP3A activity. Therefore, the inhibitory effects of readily available commercial fruit juices on midazolam 1'-hydroxylase activity, a marker of CYP3A, were evaluated in pooled human liver microsomes. The fruit juices investigated were black raspberry, black mulberry, plum, and wild grape. White grapefruit, pomegranate, and orange juice were used as positive and negative controls. The black mulberry juice showed the most potent inhibition of CYP3A except for grapefruit juice. The inhibition depended on the amount of a fruit juice added to the incubation mixture. The inhibitory potential of human CYP3A was in the order: grapefruit > black mulberry > wild grape > pomegranate > black raspberry. The IC(50) values of all fruit juices tested were reduced after preincubation with microsomes in the presence of the NADPH-generating system, suggesting that a mechanism-based inhibitory component was present in these fruit juices, as in the case of grapefruit. The results suggest that, like grapefruit juice, commercial fruit juices also have the potential to inhibit CYP3A-catalzyed midazolam 1'-hydroxylation. Therefore, in vivo studies investigating the interactions between fruit juices such as black mulberry and wild grape and CYP3A substrates are necessary to determine whether inhibition of CYP3A activity by fruit juices is clinically relevant. PMID:16415112

  6. Thalidomide-induced limb abnormalities in a humanized CYP3A mouse model.

    PubMed

    Kazuki, Yasuhiro; Akita, Masaharu; Kobayashi, Kaoru; Osaki, Mitsuhiko; Satoh, Daisuke; Ohta, Ryo; Abe, Satoshi; Takehara, Shoko; Kazuki, Kanako; Yamazaki, Hiroshi; Kamataki, Tetsuya; Oshimura, Mitsuo

    2016-01-01

    Thalidomide is a teratogen in humans but not in rodents. It causes multiple birth defects including malformations of limbs, ears, and other organs. However, the species-specific mechanism of thalidomide teratogenicity is not completely understood. Reproduction of the human teratogenicity of thalidomide in rodents has previously failed because of the lack of a model reflecting human drug metabolism. In addition, because the maternal metabolic effect cannot be eliminated, the migration of unchanged thalidomide to embryos is suppressed, and the metabolic activation is insufficient to develop teratogenicity. Previously, we generated transchromosomic mice containing a human cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A cluster in which the endogenous mouse Cyp3a genes were deleted. Here, we determined whether human CYP3A or mouse Cyp3a enzyme expression was related to the species difference in a whole embryo culture system using humanized CYP3A mouse embryos. Thalidomide-treated embryos with the human CYP3A gene cluster showed limb abnormalities, and human CYP3A was expressed in the placenta, suggesting that human CYP3A in the placenta may contribute to the teratogenicity of thalidomide. These data suggest that the humanized CYP3A mouse is a useful model to predict embryonic toxicity in humans. PMID:26903378

  7. Thalidomide-induced limb abnormalities in a humanized CYP3A mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Kazuki, Yasuhiro; Akita, Masaharu; Kobayashi, Kaoru; Osaki, Mitsuhiko; Satoh, Daisuke; Ohta, Ryo; Abe, Satoshi; Takehara, Shoko; Kazuki, Kanako; Yamazaki, Hiroshi; Kamataki, Tetsuya; Oshimura, Mitsuo

    2016-01-01

    Thalidomide is a teratogen in humans but not in rodents. It causes multiple birth defects including malformations of limbs, ears, and other organs. However, the species-specific mechanism of thalidomide teratogenicity is not completely understood. Reproduction of the human teratogenicity of thalidomide in rodents has previously failed because of the lack of a model reflecting human drug metabolism. In addition, because the maternal metabolic effect cannot be eliminated, the migration of unchanged thalidomide to embryos is suppressed, and the metabolic activation is insufficient to develop teratogenicity. Previously, we generated transchromosomic mice containing a human cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A cluster in which the endogenous mouse Cyp3a genes were deleted. Here, we determined whether human CYP3A or mouse Cyp3a enzyme expression was related to the species difference in a whole embryo culture system using humanized CYP3A mouse embryos. Thalidomide-treated embryos with the human CYP3A gene cluster showed limb abnormalities, and human CYP3A was expressed in the placenta, suggesting that human CYP3A in the placenta may contribute to the teratogenicity of thalidomide. These data suggest that the humanized CYP3A mouse is a useful model to predict embryonic toxicity in humans. PMID:26903378

  8. CYP3A isoforms in Ewing's sarcoma tumours: an immunohistochemical study with clinical correlation

    PubMed Central

    Zia, Hamid; Murray, Graeme I; Vyhlidal, Carrie A; Leeder, J Steven; Anwar, Ahmed E; Bui, Marilyn M; Ahmed, Atif A

    2015-01-01

    Ewing's sarcoma is an aggressive malignancy of bone and soft tissue with high incidence of metastasis and resistance to chemotherapy. Cytochrome P450 (CYP) monooxygenases are a family of enzymes that are involved in the metabolism of exogenous and endogenous compounds, including anti-cancer drugs, and have been implicated in the aggressive behaviour of various malignancies. Tumour samples and clinical information including age, sex, tumour site, tumour size, clinical stage and survival were collected from 36 adult and paediatric patients with Ewing's sarcoma family tumours. Tissue microarrays slides were processed for immunohistochemical labelling for CYP3A4, CYP3A5 and CYP3A7 using liver sections as positive control. The intensity of staining was scored as negative, low or high expression and was analysed statistically for any association with patients' clinical information. Four cases were later excluded due to inadequate viable tissue. CYP3A4 staining was present in 26 (81%) cases with high expression noted in 13 (40%) of 32 cases. High expression was significantly associated with distant metastases (P < 0.05). CYP3A5 and CYP3A7 were expressed in 5 and 13 cases respectively (15.6%, 40.6%). There was no association between the expression of CYP3A isoforms and age, sex, tumour size, or location (pelvic or extra-pelvic). None of the biomarkers showed any correlation with overall or disease-free survival. In conclusion, expression of CYP3A isoforms is noted in Ewing's sarcoma tumours and high CYP3A4 expression may be associated with metastasis. Additional studies are needed to further investigate the role of CYP3A4 in the prognosis of these tumours. PMID:25670065

  9. CYP3A isoforms in Ewing's sarcoma tumours: an immunohistochemical study with clinical correlation.

    PubMed

    Zia, Hamid; Murray, Graeme I; Vyhlidal, Carrie A; Leeder, J Steven; Anwar, Ahmed E; Bui, Marilyn M; Ahmed, Atif A

    2015-04-01

    Ewing's sarcoma is an aggressive malignancy of bone and soft tissue with high incidence of metastasis and resistance to chemotherapy. Cytochrome P450 (CYP) monooxygenases are a family of enzymes that are involved in the metabolism of exogenous and endogenous compounds, including anti-cancer drugs, and have been implicated in the aggressive behaviour of various malignancies. Tumour samples and clinical information including age, sex, tumour site, tumour size, clinical stage and survival were collected from 36 adult and paediatric patients with Ewing's sarcoma family tumours. Tissue microarrays slides were processed for immunohistochemical labelling for CYP3A4, CYP3A5 and CYP3A7 using liver sections as positive control. The intensity of staining was scored as negative, low or high expression and was analysed statistically for any association with patients' clinical information. Four cases were later excluded due to inadequate viable tissue. CYP3A4 staining was present in 26 (81%) cases with high expression noted in 13 (40%) of 32 cases. High expression was significantly associated with distant metastases (P < 0.05). CYP3A5 and CYP3A7 were expressed in 5 and 13 cases respectively (15.6%, 40.6%). There was no association between the expression of CYP3A isoforms and age, sex, tumour size, or location (pelvic or extra-pelvic). None of the biomarkers showed any correlation with overall or disease-free survival. In conclusion, expression of CYP3A isoforms is noted in Ewing's sarcoma tumours and high CYP3A4 expression may be associated with metastasis. Additional studies are needed to further investigate the role of CYP3A4 in the prognosis of these tumours. PMID:25670065

  10. Drug-metabolising enzymes are down-regulated by hypoxia in differentiated human hepatoma HepaRG cells: HIF-1alpha involvement in CYP3A4 repression.

    PubMed

    Legendre, Claire; Hori, Tamaki; Loyer, Pascal; Aninat, Caroline; Ishida, Seiichi; Glaise, Denise; Lucas-Clerc, Catherine; Boudjema, Karim; Guguen-Guillouzo, Christiane; Corlu, Anne; Morel, Fabrice

    2009-11-01

    Weak blood irrigation within solid tumours including hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) plays an important role in resistance to anticancer drugs by decreasing accessibility of cytotoxic agents to tumour cells. Reduced oxygen levels, or hypoxia, also contribute to drug resistance because many anticancer drugs require molecular oxygen to be cytotoxic. Our aim was to develop a new in vitro model mimicking hypoxic cells within HCCs in order to further explore the molecular responses to hypoxia, including regulation of drug-metabolising enzymes (DMEs) expression. For this purpose, we used the highly differentiated human hepatoma HepaRG cells cultured under either normoxic or hypoxic (24h at 1% O(2)) conditions. Gene and protein expressions were investigated by quantitative PCR and immunoblotting, respectively. We showed that HepaRG cells adapt to prolonged moderate hypoxia by a switch from aerobic to anaerobic glycolysis and a repression of critical genes involved in amino acid, lipid and ethanol metabolisms. Importantly, expression of several DMEs (particularly cytochromes P450 (CYPs) and phase II enzymes) and xenosensors (CAR, PXR and AhR) was down-regulated and CYPs activities (using testosterone and paclitaxel as substrates) were decreased during hypoxia. In addition, a new role for HIF-1alpha in the repression of CYP3A4 is demonstrated in cells treated with chemical inducers of HIF-1alpha, cobalt chloride or desferrioxamine, and by transfecting untreated HepaRG cells with HIF-1alpha expression vector. In conclusion, HepaRG cells cultured under hypoxia might mimic metabolic changes occurring within poorly irrigated differentiated HCCs. Furthermore, hypoxia down-regulates hepatic DMEs, a phenomenon that might compromise chemotherapy effectiveness in HCC treatment. Thus, HepaRG cells might represent a new in vitro model to test anticancer agents in hypoxic versus normoxic conditions. PMID:19695866

  11. Inhibitory Effects of Vegetable Juices on CYP3A4 Activity in Recombinant CYP3A4 and LS180 Cells.

    PubMed

    Tsujimoto, Masayuki; Uchida, Tomoe; Kozakai, Hiroyuki; Yamamoto, Saori; Minegaki, Tetsuya; Nishiguchi, Kohshi

    2016-01-01

    It is thought that eating habits induces individual variation in intestinal absorption and metabolism of drugs. The objective of this research was to clarify the influence of vegetables juices on CYP3A4 activity, which is an important enzyme in intestine. Five vegetables juices (VJ-o, Kagome Original(®); VJ-g, Kagome 30 kinds of vegetables and fruits(®); VJ-p, Kagome Purple vegetables(®); VJ-r, Kagome Sweet Tomato(®); and VJ-y, Kagome Fruity Salada(®); KAGOME Co., Ltd., Aichi, Japan) were centrifuged (1630×g, 10 min) and filtered using filter paper and 0.45-µm membrane filters. In this study, recombinant CYP3A4 and LS180 cells were used for the evaluation of CYP3A4 activity. The metabolisms to 6β-hydroxytestosterone by recombinant CYP3A4 were significantly inhibited by VJ-o, VJ-g, and VJ-y in a preincubation time-dependent manner, and CYP3A4 activity in LS180 cells were significantly inhibited by VJ-o and VJ-y. These results show that the difference in ingestion volume of vegetable juices and vegetables might partially induce individual difference in intestinal drug metabolism. PMID:27582329

  12. CYP3A Specifically Catalyzes 1β-Hydroxylation of Deoxycholic Acid: Characterization and Enzymatic Synthesis of a Potential Novel Urinary Biomarker for CYP3A Activity.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Martin A; Li, Xue-Qing; Grönberg, Gunnar; Diczfalusy, Ulf; Andersson, Tommy B

    2016-09-01

    The endogenous bile acid metabolite 1β-hydroxy-deoxycholic acid (1β-OH-DCA) excreted in human urine may be used as a sensitive CYP3A biomarker in drug development reflecting in vivo CYP3A activity. An efficient and stereospecific enzymatic synthesis of 1β-OH-DCA was developed using a Bacillus megaterium (BM3) cytochrome P450 (P450) mutant, and its structure was confirmed by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. A [(2)H4]-labeled analog of 1β-OH-DCA was also prepared. The major hydroxylated metabolite of deoxycholic acid (DCA) in human liver microsomal incubations was identified as 1β-OH-DCA by comparison with the synthesized reference analyzed by UPLC-HRMS. Its formation was strongly inhibited by CYP3A inhibitor ketoconazole. Screening of 21 recombinant human cytochrome P450 (P450) enzymes showed that, with the exception of extrahepatic CYP46A1, the most abundant liver P450 subfamily CYP3A, including CYP3A4, 3A5, and 3A7, specifically catalyzed 1β-OH-DCA formation. This indicated that 1β-hydroxylation of DCA may be a useful marker reaction for CYP3A activity in vitro. The metabolic pathways of DCA and 1β-OH-DCA in human hepatocytes were predominantly via glycine and, to a lesser extent, via taurine and sulfate conjugation. The potential utility of 1β-hydroxylation of DCA as a urinary CYP3A biomarker was illustrated by comparing the ratio of 1β-OH-DCA:DCA in a pooled spot urine sample from six healthy control subjects to a sample from one patient treated with carbamazepine, a potent CYP3A inducer; 1β-OH-DCA:DCA was considerably higher in the patient versus controls (ratio 2.8 vs. 0.4). Our results highlight the potential of 1β-OH-DCA as a urinary biomarker in clinical CYP3A DDI studies. PMID:27402728

  13. The effects on metabolic clearance when administering a potent CYP3A autoinducer with the prototypic CYP3A inhibitor, ketoconazole.

    PubMed

    Ayan-Oshodi, Mosun A; Willis, Brian A; Annes, William F; Lowe, Stephen L; Friedrich, Stuart; de la Peña, Amparo; Zhang, Wei; Brown, Thomas; Wise, Stephen D; Hall, Stephen D

    2012-10-01

    Ketoconazole is recognized as the prototypical CYP3A inhibitor and is often used to determine the metabolic CYP3A liabilities of new chemical entities in preclinical and clinical studies. Ketoconazole has been commercially available for approximately 30 years and was marketed before drug-metabolizing enzymes were well characterized; consequently, little is known about its metabolic profile. Semagacestat, a γ-secretase inhibitor investigated as a potential therapy for Alzheimer's disease, was determined to be a potent CYP3A autoinducer in human hepatocytes. Two human studies were conducted to assess the induction potential of semagacestat. In the first study (study 1, n = 20), semagacestat increased the mean apparent clearance (CL/F) of oral midazolam (76-324 l/h) and nifedipine (63-229 l/h) as predicted from hepatocytes. In a second (steady-state) study (study 2, n = 20), semagacestat CL/F increased from 22 after a single dose to 31 l/h. Ketoconazole decreased semagacestat CL/F by 32% after a single dose of semagacestat [geometric means ratio estimate, 0.68; 90% confidence interval (CI). 0.64, 0.73] and 46% at steady state (geometric means ratio estimate. 0.54; 90% CI, 0.51, 0.58). Ketoconazole area under the concentration-time curve over 8 h decreased 49% from first to last day of semagacestat dosing. Semagacestat significantly increases the oral clearance of CYP3A substrates, confirming its inducer designation. More importantly, when administered with a potent CYP3A inducer at steady state, ketoconazole's plasma exposure decreased, indicating that it may also be cleared by CYP3A, other inducible enzymes or transporters, or both. PMID:22789530

  14. Structure-Based Inhibitor Design for Evaluation of a CYP3A4 Pharmacophore Model.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Parminder; Chamberlin, A Richard; Poulos, Thomas L; Sevrioukova, Irina F

    2016-05-12

    Human cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) is a key xenobiotic-metabolizing enzyme that oxidizes and clears the majority of drugs. CYP3A4 inhibition may lead to drug-drug interactions, toxicity, and other adverse effects but, in some cases, could be beneficial and enhance therapeutic efficiency of coadministered pharmaceuticals that are metabolized by CYP3A4. On the basis of our investigations of analogs of ritonavir, a potent CYP3A4 inactivator and pharmacoenhancer, we have built a pharmacophore model for a CYP3A4-specific inhibitor. This study is the first attempt to test this model using a set of rationally designed compounds. The functional and structural data presented here agree well with the proposed pharmacophore. In particular, we confirmed the importance of a flexible backbone, the H-bond donor/acceptor moiety, and aromaticity of the side group analogous to Phe-2 of ritonavir and demonstrated the leading role of hydrophobic interactions at the sites adjacent to the heme and phenylalanine cluster in the ligand binding process. The X-ray structures of CYP3A4 bound to the rationally designed inhibitors provide deeper insights into the mechanism of the CYP3A4-ligand interaction. Most importantly, two of our compounds (15a and 15b) that are less complex than ritonavir have comparable submicromolar affinity and inhibitory potency for CYP3A4 and, thus, could serve as templates for synthesis of second generation inhibitors for further evaluation and optimization of the pharmacophore model. PMID:26371436

  15. Food-drug interactions via human cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A).

    PubMed

    Fujita, Ken-ichi

    2004-01-01

    Food-drug interactions have been reported to occur in various systems in the body. The causes of these interactions are mainly divided into pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic processes. Among these processes, drug metabolism plays a crucial role in drug interactions. Metabolic food-drug interactions occur when a certain food alters the activity of a drug-metabolizing enzyme, leading to a modulation of the pharmacokinetics of drugs metabolized by the enzyme. A variety of interactions have been documented so far. Foods consisting of complex chemical mixtures, such as fruits, alcoholic beverages, teas, and herbs, possess the ability to inhibit or induce the activity of drug-metabolizing enzymes. According to results obtained thus far, cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) appears to be a key enzyme in food-drug interactions. For example, interactions of grapefruit juice with felodipine and cyclosporine, red wine with cyclosporine, and St John's wort with various medicines including cyclosporine, have been demonstrated. The results indicate the requirement of dosage adjustment to maintain drug concentrations within their therapeutic windows. The CYP3A4-related interaction by food components may be related to the high level of expression of CYP3A4 in the small intestine, as well as its broad substrate specificity, as CYP3A4 is responsible for the metabolism of more than 50% of clinical pharmaceuticals. This review article summarizes the findings obtained to date concerning food-drug interactions and their clinical implications. It seems likely that more information regarding such interactions will accumulate in the future, and awareness is necessary for achieving optimal drug therapy. PMID:15663291

  16. Effects of CYP3A4 polymorphisms on the plasma concentration of voriconazole.

    PubMed

    He, H-R; Sun, J-Y; Ren, X-D; Wang, T-T; Zhai, Y-J; Chen, S-Y; Dong, Y-L; Lu, J

    2015-04-01

    Voriconazole is frequently utilized for the prevention and treatment of invasive fungal infections (IFIs), and is extensively metabolized by the cytochrome P450 (CYP) system. The impact of activity of the genes encoding CYP3A4, CYP3A5, and CYP2C9 on the pharmacokinetics of voriconazole cannot be ignored because, second to CYP2C19, they are the most important enzymes involved in voriconazole metabolism. The influence of genetic polymorphisms in CYP3A4, CYP3A5, and CYP2C9 on the plasma concentrations of voriconazole was evaluated in the present study. The study cohort comprised 158 patients with IFIs in whom 22 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in CYP3A4, CYP3A5, and CYP2C9 were genotyped using the Sequenom MassARRAY RS1000 system, and voriconazole plasma concentrations were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). 40, 91, and 27 patients presented with low (<1 mg/L), normal (1-4 mg/L), and high (>4 mg/L) plasma voriconazole concentrations, respectively. Correlation analysis between polymorphisms and the plasma voriconazole concentration revealed an association between the presence of the rs4646437 T allele and a higher plasma voriconazole concentration [p = 0.033, odds ratio (OR) = 2.832, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.086-7.384]. This study has identified a new SNP related to the metabolism of voriconazole, potentially providing novel insight into the influence of CYP3A4 on the pharmacokinetics of this antifungal agent. PMID:25515945

  17. Cytochrome P450 CYP3A in marsupials: cloning and identification of the first CYP3A subfamily member, isoform 3A70 from Eastern gray kangaroo (Macropus giganteus).

    PubMed

    El-Merhibi, Adaweyah; Ngo, Suong N T; Marchant, Ceilidh L; Height, Tamara A; Stupans, Ieva; McKinnon, Ross A

    2012-09-15

    Australian marsupials are unique fauna that have evolved and adapted to unique environments and thus it is likely that their detoxification systems differ considerably from those of well-studied eutherian mammals. Knowledge of these processes in marsupials is therefore vital to understanding the consequences of exposure to xenobiotics. Cytochromes P450 (CYPs) are critically important in the oxidative metabolism of a diverse array of both xenobiotics and endogenous substrates. In this study we have cloned and characterized CYP3A70, the first identified member of the CYP3A gene subfamily from Eastern gray kangaroo (Macropus giganteus). A 1665 base pair kangaroo hepatic CYP3A complete cDNA, designated CYP3A70, was cloned by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction approaches, which encodes a protein of 506 amino acids. The CYP3A70 cDNA shares approximately 71% nucleotide and 65% amino acid sequence homology to human CYP3A4 and displays high sequence similarity to other published mammalian CYP3As from human, monkey, cow, pig, dog, rat, rabbit, mouse, hamster, and guinea pig. Transfection of the CYP3A70 cDNAs into 293T cells resulted in stable cell lines expressing a CYP3A immuno-reactive protein that was recognized by a goat anti-human CYP3A4 polyclonal antibody. The anti-human CYP3A4 antibody also detected immunoreactive proteins in liver microsomes from all test marsupials, including the kangaroo, koala, wallaby, and wombat, with multiple CYP3A immunoreactive bands observed in kangaroo and wallaby tissues. Relatively, very low CYP catalytic activity was detected for the kangaroo CYP3A70 cDNA-expressed proteins (19.6 relative luminescent units/μg protein), which may be due to low protein expression levels. Collectively, this study provides primary molecular data regarding the Eastern kangaroo hepatic CYP3A70 gene and enables further functional analyses of CYP3A enzymes in marsupials. PMID:22759518

  18. Downregulation of Mouse Hepatic CYP3A Protein by 3-Methylcholanthrene Does Not Require Cytochrome P450-Dependent Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chunja; Ding, Xinxin

    2013-01-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR)–dependent induction of cytochromes P450 (P450) such as CYP1A1 by 3-methylcholanthrene (MC) and related polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons is well characterized. We reported previously that MC treatment triggers a pronounced downregulation, particularly at the protein level, of mouse hepatic Cyp3a11, a counterpart of the key human drug-metabolizing enzyme CYP3A4. To determine whether this effect of MC requires hepatic microsomal P450 activity, we studied liver Cpr-null (LCN) mice with hepatocyte-specific conditional deletion of the NADPH-cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase gene. In vehicle-treated animals, basal levels of CYP3A11 mRNA and CYP3A protein immunoreactivity were elevated by approximately 9-fold in LCN mice compared with wild-type (WT) mice, whereas CYP3A catalytic activity was profoundly compromised in LCN mice. MC treatment caused suppression of CYP3A11 mRNA, CYP3A protein immunoreactivity, and CYP3A catalytic activity in WT mice, and the MC effects at the mRNA and protein levels were maintained in LCN mice. Flavin-containing monooxygenase-3 (Fmo3) induction by MC was suggested previously to occur via an AHR-dependent mechanism requiring conversion of the parent compound to DNA-damaging reactive metabolites; however, hepatic FMO3 mRNA levels were dramatically increased by MC in both WT and LCN mice. MC did not function as a mechanism-based inactivator of CYP3A enzymes in hepatic microsomes prepared from untreated WT mice, under conditions in which 1-aminobenzotriazole caused marked NADPH-dependent loss of total P450 content and CYP3A catalytic activity. These results indicate that MC downregulates mouse hepatic CYP3A protein via a pretranslational mechanism that does not require hepatic microsomal P450-dependent activity. PMID:23846873

  19. In vitro effects of the citrus flavonoids diosmin, naringenin and naringin on the hepatic drug-metabolizing CYP3A enzyme in human, pig, mouse and fish.

    PubMed

    Burkina, Viktoriia; Zlabek, Vladimir; Halsne, Ruth; Ropstad, Erik; Zamaratskaia, Galia

    2016-06-15

    Flavonoids are known to have effects on cytochrome P450 enzymatic activity. However, little effort has been made to examine species differences and the relevance of studies on mammalian and fish microsomes so that extrapolations can be made to humans. Therefore, the effects of several naturally occurring flavonoids on the activity of CYP3A-dependent 7-benzyloxy-4-trifluoromethylcoumarin O-debenzylase (BFCOD) were evaluated in human, pig, mouse, and juvenile rainbow trout sources of hepatic microsomes. Each was exposed to three concentrations (1, 10, and 100μM) of diosmin, naringin, and naringenin. Naringenin competitively inhibited BFCOD activity (Ki values were 24.6μM in human, 15.6μM in pig, and 19.6μM in mouse microsomes). In fish, BFCOD activity was inhibited in a noncompetitive manner (Ki=7μM). Neither diosmin nor naringenin affected BFCOD activity in hepatic microsomes from the studied model organisms. These results suggest that dietary flavonoids potentially inhibit the metabolism of clinical drugs. PMID:27107807

  20. Predicting the "First dose in children" of CYP3A-metabolized drugs: Evaluation of scaling approaches and insights into the CYP3A7-CYP3A4 switch at young ages.

    PubMed

    Strougo, Ashley; Yassen, Ashraf; Monnereau, Claire; Danhof, Meindert; Freijer, Jan

    2014-09-01

    First-dose-in-children relies on the prediction of clearance from adults for which little information is available on the accuracy of the scaling-approaches applied. For CYP3A-metabolized compounds, scaling of clearance is further challenged by different isoforms and by the CYP3A7 to CYP3A4 switch at young ages. This investigation aimed to evaluate the accuracy of two frequently used scaling approaches and to gain insights into the ontogeny of CYP3A. Hence, a literature database was compiled containing 203 clearance values from term-neonates to adults for 18 CYP3A-metabolized compounds. The clearances in adults were scaled to children using (i) allometric scaling plus maturation function and (ii) a mechanistic approach based on the well-stirred model. Three maturation functions were separately evaluated. In children >3 months, all approaches were interchangeable heeding the maturation function applied and biases were mostly observed in children <3 months. The results from a sensitivity analysis indicate that these biases are possibly caused by disregarding the CYP3A7 activity which could account for up to 86% of the metabolism in term-neonates. Only the mechanistic approach using an overall-CYP3A maturation function led to unbiased predictions of clearances across all ages. The current investigation adds to the predictions of the first-dose-in-children of compounds (partially) metabolized by CYP3A. PMID:24676942

  1. Identification of genomic polymorphisms in upstream elements of the bovine CYP3A28 gene

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzyme family consists of a group of heme-containing monooxygenases that participate in metabolism and phase I detoxification. Previously, our group reported that the coding sequence for the CYP3A28 gene in cattle was polymorphic and related to cattle performance on toxic t...

  2. Immunohistochemical Markers of CYP3A4 and CYP3A7: A New Tool Towards Personalized Pharmacotherapy of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Fanni, D.; Manchia, M.; Lai, F.; Gerosa, C.; Ambu, R.; Faa, G.

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) represents a major global health problem, since more than 90% of primary liver cancers worldwide are HCC. Most cases of HCC are secondary to viral hepatitis infection (hepatitis B or C), alcoholism and cirrhosis. Sorafenib, an oral tyrosine kinase inhibitor that suppresses tumor proliferation and angiogenesis, emerged as the first effective systemic treatment for HCC after 30 years of research, and is currently the standard-of-care for patients with advanced HCC. Sorafenib is metabolized by cytochrome P450 (CYP450), particularly from the 3A4 isoform, producing two main metabolites: the N-oxide and the N-hydroxymethyl metabolite. We studied 11 HCC sample showing the presence of CYP3A4 and CYP3A7 in most of the samples analysed. Specifically, the immunoreactivity of CYP3A4 was stronger and more widespread than that of CYP3A7. The CYP3A4 immunoreactivity was observed in surrounding hepatocytes in 8 out of 11 cases; while the CYP3A7 immunostaining was found in normal liver cells, in 7 out of 11 cases. These results suggest the existence of a marked inter-individual variability regarding the presence of the isoforms of CYP3A. In addition, since sorafenib is metabolized by CYP3A4, but not by CYP3A7, an overexpression of CYP3A4 may lead to an increase in the degradation of the drug and then to clinical ineffectiveness. These results might implicate the necessity of an individualized approach in the treatment of HCC as positivity to CYP3A4 in HCC liver samples might predict a scarce response to sorafenib. PMID:27349315

  3. Pharmacogenetics in American Indian Populations: Analysis of CYP2D6, CYP3A4, CYP3A5, and CYP2C9 in the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes

    PubMed Central

    Fohner, Alison; Muzquiz, LeeAnna I.; Austin, Melissa A.; Gaedigk, Andrea; Gordon, Adam; Thornton, Timothy; Rieder, Mark J.; Pershouse, Mark A.; Putnam, Elizabeth A.; Howlett, Kevin; Beatty, Patrick; Thummel, Kenneth E.; Woodahl, Erica L.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Cytochrome P450 enzymes play a dominant role in drug elimination and variation in these genes is a major source of interindividual differences in drug response. Little is known, however, about pharmacogenetic variation in American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) populations. We have developed a partnership with the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes (CSKT) in northwestern Montana to address this knowledge gap. Methods We resequenced CYP2D6 in 187 CSKT subjects and CYP3A4, CYP3A5, and CYP2C9 in 94 CSKT subjects. Results We identified 67 variants in CYP2D6, 15 in CYP3A4, 10 in CYP3A5, and 41 in CYP2C9. The most common CYP2D6 alleles were CYP2D6*4 and *41 (20.86 and 11.23%, respectively). CYP2D6*3, *5, *6, *9, *10, *17, *28, *33, *35, *49, *1xN, *2xN, and *4xN frequencies were less than 2%. CYP3A5*3, CYP3A4*1G, and *1B were detected with frequencies of 92.47, 26.81, and 2.20%, respectively. Allelic variation in CYP2C9 was low: CYP2C9*2 (5.17%) and *3 (2.69%). In general, allele frequencies in CYP2D6, CYP2C9 and CYP3A5 were similar to those observed in European Americans. There was, however, a marked divergence in CYP3A4 for the CYP3A4*1G allele. We also observed low levels of linkage between CYP3A4*1G and CYP3A5*1 in the CSKT. The combination of nonfunctional CYP3A5*3 and putative reduced function CYP3A4*1G alleles may predict diminished clearance of CYP3A substrates. Conclusions These results highlight the importance of conducting pharmacogenomic research in AI/AN populations and demonstrate that extrapolation from other populations is not appropriate. This information could help to optimize drug therapy for the CSKT population. PMID:23778323

  4. Comparison of Paeoniflorin and Albiflorin on Human CYP3A4 and CYP2D6

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Li-Na; Zhang, Ye; Cui, Yuan-Lu; Akinyi, Olunga Mary

    2015-01-01

    Peony (Paeonia lactiflora Pall-) is a plant medicine and a functional food ingredient with wide application for more than 2000 years. It can be coadministrated with many other drugs, composed of traditional Chinese medicine compound such as shaoyao-gancao decoction. In order to explore the efficacy and safety of peony, effects of paeoniflorin and albiflorin (the principal components of peony) on cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 and CYP2D6 were analyzed in human hepatoma HepG2 cells and evaluated from the level of recombinant CYP enzymes in vitro. The findings indicated that albiflorin possessed stronger regulation on the mRNA expression of CYP3A4 and CYP2D6 than paeoniflorin. For the protein level of CYP3A4, albiflorin showed significant induction or inhibition with the concentration increasing from 10−7 M to 10−5 M, but no remarkable variation was observed in paeoniflorin-treated group. Enzyme activity assay implied that both paeoniflorin and albiflorin could regulate CYP3A4 and CYP2D6 with varying degrees. The results showed that albiflorin should be given more attention because it may play a vital role on the overall efficacy of peony. The whole behavior of both paeoniflorin and albiflorin should be focused on ensuring the rationality and effectiveness of clinical application. PMID:26089940

  5. Unique CYP3A4 genetic variant in Brazilian tuberculosis patients with/without HIV.

    PubMed

    Jeovanio-Silva, André L; Monteiro, Thaís P; El-Jaick, Kênia B; do Brasil, Pedro E A A; Rolla, Valéria C; de Castro, Liane

    2012-01-01

    CYP3A4 is involved in tuberculosis (TB) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drug metabolism. Transcriptional activation by rifampicin involves the CYP3A4 gene 5'-upstream region. Consequently, variation may interfere with transcription and enzymatic activity and even drug response. However, genetic polymorphisms and distribution of CYP3A4 allelic frequencies in individuals from Rio de Janeiro remain unknown. The aim of this study was to conduct research into sequencing the CYP3A4 5'-upstream region in Brazilian patients with and without HIV. This follow-up study involved 106 individuals undergoing treatment for TB and/or HIV. The CYP3A4 5'-upstream region was analyzed using PCR, sequencing and clinical data. Male patients revealed a higher HIV frequency (p=0.021). The TB forms observed were pulmonary (48.1%), extrapulmonary (22.64%) and disseminated (27.36%). Lymph node form was the most frequent (70.83%) extrapulmonary form of TB. The only single nucleotide polymorphism detected in the population was c.-392A>G. Genotypes observed were CYP3A4*1A/CYP3A4*1A (45.3%), CYP3A4*1A/CYP3A4*1B (40.6%) and CYP3A4*1B/CYP3A4*1B (14.2%), revealing a different distribution with extrapulmonary TB cases (17.6% CYP3A4*1A/CYP3A4*1B and 23.5% CYP3A4*1B/CYP3A4*1B). The CYP3A4*1A allele was found to be associated with tobacco use. The CYP3A4*1B mutant allele occurred in 34% of patients. This study revealed that the CYP3A4 5'-upstream regulatory region was highly conserved with the exception of the -392 position. Genotype association with tobacco suggests that CYP3A4 may participate in tobacco metabolism. Genotype distribution inversion in extrapulmonary TB cases suggests that CYP3A4 may be involved in TB prognosis. PMID:21964586

  6. Modulation of CYP3a expression and activity in mice models of type 1 and type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Patoine, Dany; Petit, Michaël; Pilote, Sylvie; Picard, Frédéric; Drolet, Benoit; Simard, Chantale

    2014-01-01

    CYP3A4, the most abundant cytochrome P450 enzyme in the human liver and small intestine, is responsible for the metabolism of about 50% of all marketed drugs. Numerous pathophysiological factors, such as diabetes and obesity, were shown to affect CYP3A activity. Evidences suggest that drug disposition is altered in type 1 (T1D) and type 2 diabetes (T2D). The objective was to evaluate the effect of T1D and T2D on hepatic and intestinal CYP3a drug-metabolizing activity/expression in mice. Hepatic and intestinal microsomes were prepared from streptozotocin-induced T1D, db/db T2D and control mice. Domperidone was selected as a probe substrate for CYP3a and formation of five of its metabolites was evaluated using high performance liquid chromatography. Hepatic CYP3a protein and mRNA expression were assessed by Western blot and reverse-transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction respectively. Hepatic microsomal CYP3a activity was significantly increased in both T1D and T2D groups versus control group. Intestinal CYP3a activity was also significantly increased in both T1D and T2D groups. Moreover, significant increases of both hepatic CYP3a mRNAs and protein expression were observed in both T1D and T2D groups versus control group. Additional experiments with testosterone further validated the increased activity of CYP3a under the effect of both T1D and T2D. Although differences exist in the pathophysiological insults associated with T1D and T2D, our results suggest that these two distinct diseases may have the same modulating effect on the regulation of CYP3a, ultimately leading to variability in drug response, ranging from lack of effect to life-threatening toxicity. PMID:25505621

  7. Acetaminophen induces accumulation of functional rat CYP3A via polyubiquitination dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Santoh, Masataka; Sanoh, Seigo; Takagi, Masashi; Ejiri, Yoko; Kotake, Yaichiro; Ohta, Shigeru

    2016-01-01

    Acetaminophen (APAP) is extensively used as an analgesic and antipyretic drug. APAP is partly metabolized to N-acetyl-p-benzoquinone imine, a reactive metabolite, by cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A2, 2E1 and 3A4. Some reports have indicated that CYP3A protein production and its metabolic activity are induced by APAP in rats in vivo. The CYP3A subfamily is believed to be transcriptionally regulated by chemical compounds. However, the mechanism underlying these responses is not completely understood. To clarify these mechanisms, we assessed the effects of APAP on CYP3A1/23 protein levels according to mRNA synthesis and protein degradation in rat hepatocyte spheroids, a model of liver tissue, in vivo. APAP induced CYP3A1/23 protein levels and metabolic activity. However, no change in CYP3A1/23 mRNA levels was observed. Moreover, APAP prolonged the half-life of CYP3A1/23 protein. CYP3A is known to be degraded via the ubiquitin-proteasome system. APAP significantly was found to decrease levels of polyubiquitinated CYP3A1/23 and glycoprotein 78, an E3 ligase of CYP3A1/23. These findings demonstrate that APAP induces accumulation of functional CYP3A protein via inhibition of protein degradation. Our findings may lead to the determination of novel drug-drug interactions with APAP. PMID:26900149

  8. Acetaminophen induces accumulation of functional rat CYP3A via polyubiquitination dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Santoh, Masataka; Sanoh, Seigo; Takagi, Masashi; Ejiri, Yoko; Kotake, Yaichiro; Ohta, Shigeru

    2016-01-01

    Acetaminophen (APAP) is extensively used as an analgesic and antipyretic drug. APAP is partly metabolized to N-acetyl-p-benzoquinone imine, a reactive metabolite, by cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A2, 2E1 and 3A4. Some reports have indicated that CYP3A protein production and its metabolic activity are induced by APAP in rats in vivo. The CYP3A subfamily is believed to be transcriptionally regulated by chemical compounds. However, the mechanism underlying these responses is not completely understood. To clarify these mechanisms, we assessed the effects of APAP on CYP3A1/23 protein levels according to mRNA synthesis and protein degradation in rat hepatocyte spheroids, a model of liver tissue, in vivo. APAP induced CYP3A1/23 protein levels and metabolic activity. However, no change in CYP3A1/23 mRNA levels was observed. Moreover, APAP prolonged the half-life of CYP3A1/23 protein. CYP3A is known to be degraded via the ubiquitin-proteasome system. APAP significantly was found to decrease levels of polyubiquitinated CYP3A1/23 and glycoprotein 78, an E3 ligase of CYP3A1/23. These findings demonstrate that APAP induces accumulation of functional CYP3A protein via inhibition of protein degradation. Our findings may lead to the determination of novel drug–drug interactions with APAP. PMID:26900149

  9. Cytochrome P450 CYP3A in human renal cell cancer

    PubMed Central

    Murray, G I; McFadyen, M C E; Mitchell, R T; Cheung, Y-L; Kerr, A C; Melvin, W T

    1999-01-01

    Renal cell cancer is the main malignant tumour of the kidney and has an increasing incidence. This type of tumour has a poor prognosis and shows intrinsic resistance to several anti-cancer drugs. The CYP3A P450 family, which consists of three closely related forms, is involved in the oxidative activation and deactivation of a variety of carcinogens and several anti-cancer drugs. In this study the presence and cellular localization of CYP3A has been investigated using a combination of immunohistochemistry, immunoblotting and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in renal cell cancer and corresponding normal kidney. CYP3A was consistently expressed in both renal call cancer and in normal kidney. In renal cell cancer, CYP3A was localized to tumour cells and in normal kidney the predominant cellular localization of CYP3A was to proximal tubular epithelial cells. RT-PCR showed that both CYP3A5 mRNA and CYP3A7 mRNA were consistently present in both tumour and normal samples, while CYP3A4 mRNA was present in 65% of tumours and 90% of normal samples. This study indicates that individual members of the CYP3A family are expressed in renal cell cancer. The presence of CYP3A in renal cell cancer might be important in the metabolic potentiation as well as the detoxification of chemotherapeutic agents used to renal cancer. © 1999 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10206301

  10. Constitutive and xenobiotics-induced expression of a novel CYP3A gene from zebrafish larva.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Hua-Pin; Hseu, Tzong-Hsiung; Buhler, Donald R; Wang, Wen-Der; Hu, Chin-Hwa

    2005-06-15

    In mammals, CYP3A isozymes collectively comprise the largest portion of the liver and small intestinal CYP protein. They are involved in the metabolism of an extensive range of endogenous substrates and xenobiotics and make a significant contribution to the termination of the action of steroid hormones. A full-length cDNA of CYP3A gene, named CYP3A65, was cloned from zebrafish by RT-PCR. The CYP3A65 mRNA was initially transcribed only in the liver and intestine upon hatching of the zebrafish embryos. Like the human CYP3A genes, CYP3A65 transcription in the foregut region was enhanced by treatment of the zebrafish larvae with the steroid dexamethasone and the macrocyclic antibiotic rifampicin. Differing from mammalian CYP3A genes, CYP3A65 transcription was also elicited by 2,3,7,8-tetrachloro-dibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) during early larval stages. Repression of AHR2 translation by antisense morpholino oligonucleotides abrogated both of constitutive and TCDD-stimulated CYP3A65 transcription in larval intestine. These findings suggested that the AHR2 signaling pathway plays an essential role in CYP3A65 transcription. PMID:15922010

  11. Constitutive and xenobiotics-induced expression of a novel CYP3A gene from zebrafish larva

    SciTech Connect

    Tseng, H.-P.; Hseu, Tzong-Hsiung; Buhler, Donald R.; Wang, W.-D.; Hu, C.-H. . E-mail: chhu@mail.ntou.edu.tw

    2005-06-15

    In mammals, CYP3A isozymes collectively comprise the largest portion of the liver and small intestinal CYP protein. They are involved in the metabolism of an extensive range of endogenous substrates and xenobiotics and make a significant contribution to the termination of the action of steroid hormones. A full-length cDNA of CYP3A gene, named CYP3A65, was cloned from zebrafish by RT-PCR. The CYP3A65 mRNA was initially transcribed only in the liver and intestine upon hatching of the zebrafish embryos. Like the human CYP3A genes, CYP3A65 transcription in the foregut region was enhanced by treatment of the zebrafish larvae with the steroid dexamethasone and the macrocyclic antibiotic rifampicin. Differing from mammalian CYP3A genes, CYP3A65 transcription was also elicited by 2,3,7,8-tetrachloro-dibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) during early larval stages. Repression of AHR2 translation by antisense morpholino oligonucleotides abrogated both of constitutive and TCDD-stimulated CYP3A65 transcription in larval intestine. These findings suggested that the AHR2 signaling pathway plays an essential role in CYP3A65 transcription.

  12. CYP3A4 Mediates Oxidative Metabolism of the Synthetic Cannabinoid AKB-48.

    PubMed

    Holm, Niels Bjerre; Nielsen, Line Marie; Linnet, Kristian

    2015-09-01

    Synthetic cannabinoid designer drugs have emerged as drugs of abuse during the last decade, and acute intoxication cases are documented in the scientific literature. Synthetic cannabinoids are extensively metabolized, but our knowledge of the involved enzymes is limited. Here, we investigated the metabolism of N-(1-adamantyl)-1-pentyl-1H-indazole-3-carboxamide (AKB-48), a compound identified in herbal blends from 2012 and onwards. We screened for metabolite formation using a panel of nine recombinant cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes (CYP1A2, 2B6, 2C8, 2C9, 2C18, 2C19, 2D6, 2E1, and 3A4) and compared the formed metabolites to human liver microsomal (HLM) incubations with specific inhibitors against CYP2D6, 2C19, and 3A4, respectively. The data reported here demonstrate CYP3A4 to be the major CYP enzyme responsible for the oxidative metabolism of AKB-48, preferentially performing the oxidation on the adamantyl moiety. Genetic polymorphisms are likely not important with regard to toxicity given the major involvement of CYP3A4. Adverse drug-drug interactions (DDIs) could potentially occur in cases with co-intake of strong CYP3A4 inhibitors, e.g., HIV antivirals and azole antifungal agents. PMID:26002511

  13. BDE47 induces rat CYP3A1 by targeting the transcriptional regulation of miR-23b.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhenzhen; Zhang, Zhan; Ji, Minghui; Yang, Hongbao; Cromie, Meghan; Gu, Jun; Wang, Chao; Yang, Lu; Yu, Yongquan; Gao, Weimin; Wang, Shou-Lin

    2016-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A) is the most abundant CYP450 enzyme in the liver and is involved in the metabolism of over 50% of xenobiotics. Our previous studies revealed that 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE47) could induce rat CYP3A1 expression, but the molecular basis remains unclear. Using in silico analysis, we identified a potential miR-23b recognition element (MRE23b) in the 3'-UTR region of CYP3A1 mRNA, which was verified by the luciferase assay. The miR-23b mimic and inhibitor significantly down- and up-regulated the expression of CYP3A1, respectively. Additionally, BDE47 significantly down-regulated the expression of miR-23b in rats and in hepatic H4IIE cells. Induction or blockage of CYP3A1 by a miR-23b inhibitor or mimic could correspondingly alter BDE47-induced expression of CYP3A1 and cytotoxicity in H4IIE cells. Furthermore, LV-anti-miR-23b significantly decreased endogenous levels of miR-23b and increased the expression and activity of CYP3A1 in rat liver. LV-anti-miR-23b also significantly increased the hydroxylated metabolites of BDE47 (3-OH-BDE47, 4-OH-BDE42, and 4'-OH-BDE49) in rat serum. In conclusion, we first found that BDE47 induced rat CYP3A1 expression by targeting the transcriptional regulation of miR-23b. This study helps provide a better understanding of CYP3A regulation and offers novel clues for the role of miRNAs in the metabolism and distribution of environmental pollutants. PMID:27546062

  14. BDE47 induces rat CYP3A1 by targeting the transcriptional regulation of miR-23b

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Zhenzhen; Zhang, Zhan; Ji, Minghui; Yang, Hongbao; Cromie, Meghan; Gu, Jun; Wang, Chao; Yang, Lu; Yu, Yongquan; Gao, Weimin; Wang, Shou-Lin

    2016-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A) is the most abundant CYP450 enzyme in the liver and is involved in the metabolism of over 50% of xenobiotics. Our previous studies revealed that 2,2′,4,4′-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE47) could induce rat CYP3A1 expression, but the molecular basis remains unclear. Using in silico analysis, we identified a potential miR-23b recognition element (MRE23b) in the 3′-UTR region of CYP3A1 mRNA, which was verified by the luciferase assay. The miR-23b mimic and inhibitor significantly down- and up-regulated the expression of CYP3A1, respectively. Additionally, BDE47 significantly down-regulated the expression of miR-23b in rats and in hepatic H4IIE cells. Induction or blockage of CYP3A1 by a miR-23b inhibitor or mimic could correspondingly alter BDE47-induced expression of CYP3A1 and cytotoxicity in H4IIE cells. Furthermore, LV-anti-miR-23b significantly decreased endogenous levels of miR-23b and increased the expression and activity of CYP3A1 in rat liver. LV-anti-miR-23b also significantly increased the hydroxylated metabolites of BDE47 (3-OH-BDE47, 4-OH-BDE42, and 4′-OH-BDE49) in rat serum. In conclusion, we first found that BDE47 induced rat CYP3A1 expression by targeting the transcriptional regulation of miR-23b. This study helps provide a better understanding of CYP3A regulation and offers novel clues for the role of miRNAs in the metabolism and distribution of environmental pollutants. PMID:27546062

  15. Amlodipine metabolism in human liver microsomes and roles of CYP3A4/5 in the dihydropyridine dehydrogenation.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yanlin; Wang, Fen; Li, Quan; Zhu, Mingshe; Du, Alicia; Tang, Wei; Chen, Weiqing

    2014-02-01

    Amlodipine is a commonly prescribed calcium channel blocker for the treatment of hypertension and ischemic heart disease. The drug is slowly cleared in humans primarily via dehydrogenation of its dihydropyridine moiety to a pyridine derivative (M9). Results from clinical drug-drug interaction studies suggest that CYP3A4/5 mediate metabolism of amlodipine. However, attempts to identify a role of CYP3A5 in amlodipine metabolism in humans based on its pharmacokinetic differences between CYP3A5 expressers and nonexpressers failed. Objectives of this study were to determine the metabolite profile of amlodipine (a racemic mixture and S-isomer) in human liver microsomes (HLM), and to identify the cytochrome P450 (P450) enzyme(s) involved in the M9 formation. Liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis showed that amlodipine was mainly converted to M9 in HLM incubation. M9 underwent further O-demethylation, O-dealkylation, and oxidative deamination to various pyridine derivatives. This observation is consistent with amlodipine metabolism in humans. Incubations of amlodipine with HLM in the presence of selective P450 inhibitors showed that both ketoconazole (an inhibitor of CYP3A4/5) and CYP3cide (an inhibitor of CYP3A4) completely blocked the M9 formation, whereas chemical inhibitors of other P450 enzymes had little effect. Furthermore, metabolism of amlodipine in expressed human P450 enzymes showed that only CYP3A4 had significant activity in amlodipine dehydrogenation. Metabolite profiles and P450 reaction phenotyping data of a racemic mixture and S-isomer of amlodipine were very similar. The results from this study suggest that CYP3A4, rather than CYP3A5, plays a key role in metabolic clearance of amlodipine in humans. PMID:24301608

  16. Potent inhibition by star fruit of human cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A) activity.

    PubMed

    Hidaka, Muneaki; Fujita, Ken-ichi; Ogikubo, Tetsuya; Yamasaki, Keishi; Iwakiri, Tomomi; Okumura, Manabu; Kodama, Hirofumi; Arimori, Kazuhiko

    2004-06-01

    There has been very limited information on the capacities of tropical fruits to inhibit human cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A) activity. Thus, the inhibitory effects of tropical fruits on midazolam 1'-hydroxylase activity of CYP3A in human liver microsomes were evaluated. Eight tropical fruits such as common papaw, dragon fruit, kiwi fruit, mango, passion fruit, pomegranate, rambutan, and star fruit were tested. We also examined the inhibition of CYP3A activity by grapefruit (white) and Valencia orange as controls. The juice of star fruit showed the most potent inhibition of CYP3A. The addition of a star fruit juice (5.0%, v/v) resulted in the almost complete inhibition of midazolam 1'-hydroxylase activity (residual activity of 0.1%). In the case of grape-fruit, the residual activity was 14.7%. The inhibition depended on the amount of fruit juice added to the incubation mixture (0.2-6.0%, v/v). The elongation of the preincubation period of a juice from star fruit (1.25 or 2.5%, v/v) with the microsomal fraction did not alter the CYP3A inhibition, suggesting that the star fruit did not contain a mechanism-based inhibitor. Thus, we discovered filtered extracts of star fruit juice to be inhibitors of human CYP3A activity in vitro. PMID:15155547

  17. Rate of onset of inhibition of gut-wall and hepatic CYP3A by clarithromycin

    PubMed Central

    Quinney, Sara K.; Malireddy, Srikar R.; Vuppalanchi, Raj; Hamman, Mitchell A.; Chalasani, Naga; Gorski, J. Christopher; Hall, Stephen D.

    2013-01-01

    Aims To determine the extent and time-course of hepatic and intestinal cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A) inactivation due to the mechanism-based inhibitor clarithromycin. Methods Intestinal and hepatic CYP3A inhibition was examined in 12 healthy volunteers following the administration of single and multiple doses of oral clarithromycin (500 mg). Intestinal biopsies were obtained under intravenous midazolam sedation at baseline and after the first dose, on days 2–4, and on days 6–8 of the clarithromycin treatment. The formation of 1′-hydroxymidazolam in biopsy tissue and the serum 1′-hydroxymidazolam:midazolam ratio were indicators of intestinal and hepatic CYP3A activity, respectively. Results Intestinal CYP3A activity decreased by 64 % (p=0.0029) following the first dose of clarithromycin, but hepatic CYP3A activity did not significantly decrease. Repeated dosing of clarithromycin caused a significant decrease in hepatic CYP3A activity (p=0.005), while intestinal activity showed little further decline. The CYP3A5 or CYP3A4*1B genotype were unable to account for inter-individual variability in CYP3A activity. Conclusions Following the administration of clarithromycin, the onset of hepatic CYP3A inactivation is delayed compared to that of intestinal CYP3A. The time-course of drug–drug interactions due to clarithromycin will vary with the relative contribution of intestinal and hepatic CYP3A to the clearance and bioavailability of a victim substrate. PMID:22777148

  18. Regulation of zebrafish CYP3A65 transcription by AHR2

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Chin-Teng; Chung, Hsin-Yu; Su, Hsiao-Ting; Tseng, Hua-Pin; Tzou, Wen-Shyong; Hu, Chin-Hwa

    2013-07-15

    CYP3A proteins are the most abundant CYPs in the liver and intestines, and they play a pivotal role in drug metabolism. In mammals, CYP3A genes are induced by various xenobiotics through processes mediated by PXR. We previously identified zebrafish CYP3A65 as a CYP3A ortholog that is constitutively expressed in gastrointestinal tissues, and is upregulated by treatment with dexamethasone, rifampicin or tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). However, the underlying mechanism of TCDD-mediated CYP3A65 transcription is unclear. Here we generated two transgenic zebrafish, Tg(CYP3A65S:EGFP) and Tg(CYP3A65L:EGFP), which contain 2.1 and 5.4 kb 5′ flanking sequences, respectively, of the CYP3A65 gene upstream of EGFP. Both transgenic lines express EGFP in larval gastrointestinal tissues in a pattern similar to that of the endogenous CYP3A65 gene. Moreover, EGFP expression can be significantly induced by TCDD exposure during the larval stage. In addition, EGFP expression can be stimulated by kynurenine, a putative AHR ligand produced during tryptophan metabolism. AHRE elements in the upstream regulatory region of the CYP3A65 gene are indispensible for basal and TCDD-induced transcription. Furthermore, the AHR2 DNA and ligand-binding domains are required to mediate effective CYP3A65 transcription. AHRE sequences are present in the promoters of many teleost CYP3 genes, but not of mammalian CYP3 genes, suggesting that AHR/AHR2-mediated transcription is likely a common regulatory mechanism for teleost CYP3 genes. It may also reflect the different environments that terrestrial and aquatic organisms encounter. - Highlights: • Tg(CYP3A65:EGFP) and CYP3A65 exhibits identical expression pattern. • CYP3A65 can be significantly induced by TCDD or kynurenine. • The AHRE elements are required to mediate CYP3A65 transcription. • The AHR2 DNA and ligand-binding domains are required for CYP3A65 transcription. • AHRE elements are present in many teleost CYP3 genes, but not in

  19. Global Pharmacogenomics: Distribution of CYP3A5 Polymorphisms and Phenotypes in the Brazilian Population

    PubMed Central

    Suarez-Kurtz, Guilherme; Vargens, Daniela D.; Santoro, Ana Beatriz; Hutz, Mara H.; de Moraes, Maria Elisabete; Pena, Sérgio D. J.; Ribeiro-dos-Santos, Ândrea; Romano-Silva, Marco A.; Struchiner, Claudio José

    2014-01-01

    The influence of self-reported “race/color”, geographical origin and genetic ancestry on the distribution of three functional CYP3A5 polymorphisms, their imputed haplotypes and inferred phenotypes was examined in 909 healthy, adult Brazilians, self-identified as White, Brown or Black (“race/color” categories of the Brazilian census). The cohort was genotyped for CYP3A5*3 (rs776746), CYP3A5*6 (rs10264272) and CYP3A5*7 (rs41303343), CYP3A5 haplotypes were imputed and CYP3A5 metabolizer phenotypes were inferred according to the number of defective CYP3A5 alleles. Estimates of the individual proportions of Amerindian, African and European ancestry were available for the entire cohort. Multinomial log-linear regression models were applied to infer the statistical association between the distribution of CYP3A5 alleles, haplotypes and phenotypes (response variables), and self-reported Color, geographical region and ancestry (explanatory variables). We found that Color per se or in combination with geographical region associates significantly with the distribution of CYP3A5 variant alleles and CYP3A5 metabolizer phenotypes, whereas geographical region per se influences the frequency distribution of CYP3A5 variant alleles. The odds of having the default CYP3A5*3 allele and the poor metabolizer phenotype increases continuously with the increase of European ancestry and decrease of African ancestry. The opposite trend is observed in relation to CYP3A5*6, CYP3A5*7, the default CYP3A5*1 allele, and both the extensive and intermediate phenotypes. No significant effect of Amerindian ancestry on the distribution of CYP3A5 alleles or phenotypes was observed. In conclusion, this study strongly supports the notion that the intrinsic heterogeneity of the Brazilian population must be acknowledged in the design and interpretation of pharmacogenomic studies, and dealt with as a continuous variable, rather than proportioned in arbitrary categories that do not capture the diversity

  20. Global pharmacogenomics: distribution of CYP3A5 polymorphisms and phenotypes in the Brazilian population.

    PubMed

    Suarez-Kurtz, Guilherme; Vargens, Daniela D; Santoro, Ana Beatriz; Hutz, Mara H; de Moraes, Maria Elisabete; Pena, Sérgio D J; Ribeiro-dos-Santos, Ândrea; Romano-Silva, Marco A; Struchiner, Claudio José

    2014-01-01

    The influence of self-reported "race/color", geographical origin and genetic ancestry on the distribution of three functional CYP3A5 polymorphisms, their imputed haplotypes and inferred phenotypes was examined in 909 healthy, adult Brazilians, self-identified as White, Brown or Black ("race/color" categories of the Brazilian census). The cohort was genotyped for CYP3A5*3 (rs776746), CYP3A5*6 (rs10264272) and CYP3A5*7 (rs41303343), CYP3A5 haplotypes were imputed and CYP3A5 metabolizer phenotypes were inferred according to the number of defective CYP3A5 alleles. Estimates of the individual proportions of Amerindian, African and European ancestry were available for the entire cohort. Multinomial log-linear regression models were applied to infer the statistical association between the distribution of CYP3A5 alleles, haplotypes and phenotypes (response variables), and self-reported Color, geographical region and ancestry (explanatory variables). We found that Color per se or in combination with geographical region associates significantly with the distribution of CYP3A5 variant alleles and CYP3A5 metabolizer phenotypes, whereas geographical region per se influences the frequency distribution of CYP3A5 variant alleles. The odds of having the default CYP3A5*3 allele and the poor metabolizer phenotype increases continuously with the increase of European ancestry and decrease of African ancestry. The opposite trend is observed in relation to CYP3A5*6, CYP3A5*7, the default CYP3A5*1 allele, and both the extensive and intermediate phenotypes. No significant effect of Amerindian ancestry on the distribution of CYP3A5 alleles or phenotypes was observed. In conclusion, this study strongly supports the notion that the intrinsic heterogeneity of the Brazilian population must be acknowledged in the design and interpretation of pharmacogenomic studies, and dealt with as a continuous variable, rather than proportioned in arbitrary categories that do not capture the diversity of the

  1. A PBPK Model to Predict Disposition of CYP3A-Metabolized Drugs in Pregnant Women: Verification and Discerning the Site of CYP3A Induction.

    PubMed

    Ke, A B; Nallani, S C; Zhao, P; Rostami-Hodjegan, A; Unadkat, J D

    2012-01-01

    Besides logistical and ethical concerns, evaluation of safety and efficacy of medications in pregnant women is complicated by marked changes in pharmacokinetics (PK) of drugs. For example, CYP3A activity is induced during the third trimester (T3). We explored whether a previously published physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model could quantitatively predict PK profiles of CYP3A-metabolized drugs during T3, and discern the site of CYP3A induction (i.e., liver, intestine, or both). The model accounted for gestational age-dependent changes in maternal physiological function and hepatic CYP3A activity. For model verification, mean plasma area under the curve (AUC), peak plasma concentration (Cmax), and trough plasma concentration (Cmin) of midazolam (MDZ), nifedipine (NIF), and indinavir (IDV) were predicted and compared with published studies. The PBPK model successfully predicted MDZ, NIF, and IDV disposition during T3. A sensitivity analysis suggested that CYP3A induction in T3 is most likely hepatic and not intestinal. Our PBPK model is a useful tool to evaluate different dosing regimens during T3 for drugs cleared primarily via CYP3A metabolism.CPT: Pharmacometrics & Systems Pharmacology (2012) 1, e3; doi:10.1038/psp.2012.2; advance online publication 26 September 2012. PMID:23835883

  2. In vitro and in vivo drug interactions involving human CYP3A.

    PubMed

    Thummel, K E; Wilkinson, G R

    1998-01-01

    Cytochrome P4503A (CYP3A) is importantly involved in the metabolism of many chemically diverse drugs administered to humans. Moreover, its localization in high amounts both in the small intestinal epithelium and liver makes it a major contributor to presystemic elimination following oral drug administration. Drug interactions involving enzyme inhibition or induction are common following the coadministration of two or more CYP3A substrates. Studies using in vitro preparations are useful in identifying such potential interactions and possibly permitting extrapolation of in vitro findings to the likely in vivo situation. Even if accurate quantitative predictions cannot be made, several classes of drugs can be expected to result in a drug interaction based on clinical experience. In many instances, the extent of such drug interactions is sufficiently pronounced to contraindicate the therapeutic use of the involved drugs. PMID:9597161

  3. In Vitro Approaches to Study Regulation of Hepatic Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A Expression by Paclitaxel and Rifampicin.

    PubMed

    Ghose, Romi; Mallick, Pankajini; Taneja, Guncha; Chu, Chun; Moorthy, Bhagavatula

    2016-01-01

    Cancer is the second leading cause of mortality worldwide; however the response rate to chemotherapy treatment remains slow, mainly due to narrow therapeutic index and multidrug resistance. Paclitaxel (taxol) has a superior outcome in terms of response rates and progression-free survival. However, numerous cancer patients are resistant to this drug. In this investigation, we tested the hypothesis that induction of cytochrome P450 (Cyp)3a11 gene by paclitaxel is downregulated by the inflammatory mediator, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and that the pro-inflammatory cytokine, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, attenuates human CYP3A4 gene induction by rifampicin. Primary mouse hepatocytes were pretreated with LPS (1 μg/ml) for 10 min, followed by paclitaxel (20 μM) or vehicle for 24 h. RNA was extracted from the cells by trizol method followed by cDNA synthesis and analysis by real-time PCR. Paclitaxel significantly induced gene expression of Cyp3a11 (~30-fold) and this induction was attenuated in LPS-treated samples. Induction and subsequent downregulation of CYP3A enzyme can impact paclitaxel treatment in cancer patients where inflammatory mediators are activated. It has been shown that the nuclear receptor, pregnane X receptor (PXR), plays a role in the induction of CYP enzymes. In order to understand the mechanisms of regulation of human CYP3A4 gene, we co-transfected HepG2 cells (human liver cell line) with CYP3A4-luciferase construct and a PXR expression plasmid. The cells were then treated with the pro-inflammatory cytokine, TNFα, followed by the prototype CYP3A inducer rifampicin. It is well established that rifampicin activates PXR, leading to CYP3A4 induction. We found that induction of CYP3A4-luciferase activity by rifampicin was significantly attenuated by TNFα. In conclusion, we describe herein several in vitro approaches entailing primary and cultured hepatocytes, real-time PCR, and transcriptional activation (transfection) assays to investigate the

  4. Association of CYP3A4 genotype with treatment-related leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Felix, Carolyn A.; Walker, Amy H.; Lange, Beverly J.; Williams, Terence M.; Winick, Naomi J.; Cheung, Nai-Kong V.; Lovett, Brian D.; Nowell, Peter C.; Blair, Ian A.; Rebbeck, Timothy R.

    1998-01-01

    Epipodophyllotoxins are associated with leukemias characterized by translocations of the MLL gene at chromosome band 11q23 and other translocations. Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A metabolizes epipodophyllotoxins and other chemotherapeutic agents. CYP3A metabolism generates epipodophyllotoxin catechol and quinone metabolites, which could damage DNA. There is a polymorphism in the 5′ promoter region of the CYP3A4 gene (CYP3A4-V) that might alter the metabolism of anticancer drugs. We examined 99 de novo and 30 treatment-related leukemias with a conformation-sensitive gel electrophoresis assay for the presence of the CYP3A4-V. In all treatment-related cases, there was prior exposure to one or more anticancer drugs metabolized by CYP3A. Nineteen of 99 de novo (19%) and 1 of 30 treatment-related (3%) leukemias carried the CYP3A4-V (P = 0.026; Fisher’s Exact Test, FET). Nine of 42 de novo leukemias with MLL gene translocations (21%), and 0 of 22 treatment-related leukemias with MLL gene translocations carried the CYP3A4-V (P = 0.016, FET). This relationship remained significant when 19 treatment-related leukemias with MLL gene translocations that followed epipodophyllotoxin exposure were compared with the same 42 de novo cases (P = 0.026, FET). These data suggest that individuals with CYP3A4-W genotype may be at increased risk for treatment-related leukemia and that epipodophyllotoxin metabolism by CYP3A4 may contribute to the secondary cancer risk. The CYP3A4-W genotype may increase production of potentially DNA-damaging reactive intermediates. The variant may decrease production of the epipodophyllotoxin catechol metabolite, which is the precursor of the potentially DNA-damaging quinone. PMID:9789061

  5. Arsenite decreases CYP3A23 induction in cultured rat hepatocytes by transcriptional and translational mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Noreault, Trisha L.; Nichols, Ralph C.; Trask, Heidi W.; Wrighton, Steven A.; Sinclair, Peter R.; Evans, Ronald M.; Sinclair, Jacqueline F. . E-mail: JSINC@dartmouth.edu

    2005-12-01

    Arsenic is a naturally occurring, worldwide contaminant implicated in numerous pathological conditions in humans, including cancer and several forms of liver disease. One of the contributing factors to these disorders may be the alteration of cytochrome P450 (CYP) levels by arsenic. In rat and human hepatocyte cultures, arsenic, in the form of arsenite, decreases the induction of several CYPs. The present study investigated whether arsenite utilizes transcriptional or post-transcriptional mechanisms to decrease CYP3A23 in primary cultures of rat hepatocytes. In these cultures, a 6-h treatment with 5 {mu}M arsenite abolished dexamethasone (DEX)-mediated induction of CYP3A23 protein and activity, but did not inhibit general protein synthesis. However, arsenite treatment only reduced DEX-induced levels of CYP3A23 mRNA by 30%. The effects of arsenite on CYP3A23 transcription were examined using a luciferase reporter construct containing 1.4 kb of the CYP3A23 promoter. Arsenite caused a 30% decrease in DEX-induced luciferase expression of this reporter. Since arsenite abolished induction of CYP3A23 protein, but caused only a small decrease in CYP3A23 mRNA, the effects of arsenite on translation of CYP3A23 mRNA were investigated. Polysomal distribution analysis showed that arsenite decreased translation by decreasing the DEX-mediated increase in CYP3A23 mRNA association with polyribosomes. Arsenite did not decrease intracellular glutathione or increase lipid peroxidation, suggesting that the effect of arsenite on CYP3A23 does not involve oxidative stress. Overall, the results suggest that low-level arsenite decreases both transcription and translation of CYP3A23 in primary rat hepatocyte cultures.

  6. Association of CYP3A4 genotype with treatment-related leukemia.

    PubMed

    Felix, C A; Walker, A H; Lange, B J; Williams, T M; Winick, N J; Cheung, N K; Lovett, B D; Nowell, P C; Blair, I A; Rebbeck, T R

    1998-10-27

    Epipodophyllotoxins are associated with leukemias characterized by translocations of the MLL gene at chromosome band 11q23 and other translocations. Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A metabolizes epipodophyllotoxins and other chemotherapeutic agents. CYP3A metabolism generates epipodophyllotoxin catechol and quinone metabolites, which could damage DNA. There is a polymorphism in the 5' promoter region of the CYP3A4 gene (CYP3A4-V) that might alter the metabolism of anticancer drugs. We examined 99 de novo and 30 treatment-related leukemias with a conformation-sensitive gel electrophoresis assay for the presence of the CYP3A4-V. In all treatment-related cases, there was prior exposure to one or more anticancer drugs metabolized by CYP3A. Nineteen of 99 de novo (19%) and 1 of 30 treatment-related (3%) leukemias carried the CYP3A4-V (P = 0.026; Fisher's Exact Test, FET). Nine of 42 de novo leukemias with MLL gene translocations (21%), and 0 of 22 treatment-related leukemias with MLL gene translocations carried the CYP3A4-V (P = 0. 016, FET). This relationship remained significant when 19 treatment-related leukemias with MLL gene translocations that followed epipodophyllotoxin exposure were compared with the same 42 de novo cases (P = 0.026, FET). These data suggest that individuals with CYP3A4-W genotype may be at increased risk for treatment-related leukemia and that epipodophyllotoxin metabolism by CYP3A4 may contribute to the secondary cancer risk. The CYP3A4-W genotype may increase production of potentially DNA-damaging reactive intermediates. The variant may decrease production of the epipodophyllotoxin catechol metabolite, which is the precursor of the potentially DNA-damaging quinone. PMID:9789061

  7. Regulation of zebrafish CYP3A65 transcription by AHR2.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chin-Teng; Chung, Hsin-Yu; Su, Hsiao-Ting; Tseng, Hua-Pin; Tzou, Wen-Shyong; Hu, Chin-Hwa

    2013-07-15

    CYP3A proteins are the most abundant CYPs in the liver and intestines, and they play a pivotal role in drug metabolism. In mammals, CYP3A genes are induced by various xenobiotics through processes mediated by PXR. We previously identified zebrafish CYP3A65 as a CYP3A ortholog that is constitutively expressed in gastrointestinal tissues, and is upregulated by treatment with dexamethasone, rifampicin or tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). However, the underlying mechanism of TCDD-mediated CYP3A65 transcription is unclear. Here we generated two transgenic zebrafish, Tg(CYP3A65S:EGFP) and Tg(CYP3A65L:EGFP), which contain 2.1 and 5.4 kb 5' flanking sequences, respectively, of the CYP3A65 gene upstream of EGFP. Both transgenic lines express EGFP in larval gastrointestinal tissues in a pattern similar to that of the endogenous CYP3A65 gene. Moreover, EGFP expression can be significantly induced by TCDD exposure during the larval stage. In addition, EGFP expression can be stimulated by kynurenine, a putative AHR ligand produced during tryptophan metabolism. AHRE elements in the upstream regulatory region of the CYP3A65 gene are indispensible for basal and TCDD-induced transcription. Furthermore, the AHR2 DNA and ligand-binding domains are required to mediate effective CYP3A65 transcription. AHRE sequences are present in the promoters of many teleost CYP3 genes, but not of mammalian CYP3 genes, suggesting that AHR/AHR2-mediated transcription is likely a common regulatory mechanism for teleost CYP3 genes. It may also reflect the different environments that terrestrial and aquatic organisms encounter. PMID:23624173

  8. Molecular docking of chemotherapeutic agents to CYP3A4 in non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Subhani, Syed; Jamil, Kaiser

    2015-07-01

    CYP3A4, a "heme" containing isoform, abundantly found in the liver, gastro-intestinal tract, lungs and renal cells, also known as drug metabolising enzyme (DME) may be responsible for the disease progression in cancers such as lung cancer. Hence, we have targeted this protein for improving drug selection and in preventing adverse reactions. The aim of this study was to examine chemotherapeutic drug binding to CYP3A4 and the interactions therein. We have used Schrödinger suite 2014, to perform molecular docking of human CYP3A4, by Induced Fit Docking using gemcitabine, cisplatin, carboplatin, docetaxel and paclitaxel drugs. We evaluated drug-binding affinities using Prime/MMGBSA and using these scores we compared the affinities of combination therapies against CYP3A4. Analysis of the docking results showed gemcitabine>carboplatin>cisplatin as the order of binding affinities, with gemcitabine having the best docking score. Interestingly, docetaxel and paclitaxel did not bind to CYP3A4*1B. The combination drug-binding affinity analysis showed gemcitabine+carboplatin to have the best docking score and hence, efficacy. Our investigation has identified the residue Arg 105 to be more frequently involved in drug binding to CYP3A4. Our results suggest that gemcitabine or combination of gemcitabine+carboplatin could serve as an excellent therapy against CYP3A4 in NSCLC patients. Thus, our study depicts binding of chemotherapeutic drugs to CYP3A4 and has identified the residues that may be targeted for therapy in NSCLC patients. PMID:26211584

  9. Interactions between xenoestrogens and ketoconazole on hepatic CYP1A and CYP3A, in juvenile Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua)

    PubMed Central

    Hasselberg, Linda; Grøsvik, Bjørn E; Goksøyr, Anders; Celander, Malin C

    2005-01-01

    Background Xenoestrogens and antifungal azoles probably share a common route of metabolism, through hepatic cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes. Chemical interactions with metabolic pathways may affect clearance of both xenobiotics and endobiotics. This study was carried out to identify possible chemical interactions by those substances on CYP1A and CYP3A, in Atlantic cod liver. We investigated effects of two xenoestrogens (nonylphenol and ethynylestradiol) and of the model imidazole ketoconazole, alone and in combination. Results Treatment with ketoconazole resulted in 60% increase in CYP1A-mediated ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity. Treatment with nonylphenol resulted in 40% reduction of CYP1A activity. Combined exposure to ketoconazole and nonylphenol resulted in 70% induction of CYP1A activities and 93% increase in CYP1A protein levels. Ketoconazole and nonylphenol alone or in combination had no effect on CYP3A expression, as analyzed by western blots. However, 2-dimensional (2D) gel electrophoresis revealed the presence of two CYP3A-immunoreactive proteins, with a more basic isoform induced by ketoconazole. Treatment with ketoconazole and nonylphenol alone resulted in 54% and 35% reduction of the CYP3A-mediated benzyloxy-4-[trifluoromethyl]-coumarin-O-debenzyloxylase (BFCOD) activity. Combined exposure of ketoconazole and nonylphenol resulted in 98% decrease in CYP3A activity. This decrease was greater than the additive effect of each compound alone. In vitro studies revealed that ketoconazole was a potent non-competitive inhibitor of both CYP1A and CYP3A activities and that nonylphenol selectively non-competitively inhibited CYP1A activity. Treatment with ethynylestradiol resulted in 46% decrease in CYP3A activity and 22% decrease in protein expression in vivo. In vitro inhibition studies in liver microsomes showed that ethynylestradiol acted as a non-competitive inhibitor of CYP1A activity and as an uncompetitive inhibitor of CYP3A activity. Conclusions

  10. In vitro inhibition of CYP3A4 by herbal remedies frequently used by cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Engdal, Silje; Nilsen, Odd Georg

    2009-07-01

    The herbal remedies Natto K2, Agaricus, mistletoe, noni juice, green tea and garlic, frequently used by cancer patients, were investigated for their in vitro inhibition potential of cytochrome P-450 3A4 (CYP3A4) metabolism. To our knowledge, only garlic and green tea had available data on the possible inhibition of CYP3A4 metabolism. Metabolic studies were performed with human c-DNA baculovirus expressed CYP3A4. Testosterone was used as a substrate and ketoconazole as a positive quantitative inhibition control. The formation of 6-beta-OH-testosterone was quantified by a validated HPLC methodology. Green tea was the most potent inhibitor of CYP3A4 metabolism (IC(50): 73 microg/mL), followed by Agaricus, mistletoe and noni juice (1324, 3594, >10 000 microg/mL, respectively). All IC(50) values were high compared with those determined for crude extracts of other herbal remedies. The IC(50)/IC(25) ratios for the inhibiting herbal remedies ranged from 2.15 to 2.67, indicating similar inhibition profiles of the herbal inhibitors of CYP3A4. Garlic and Natto K2 were classified as non-inhibitors. Although Agaricus, noni juice, mistletoe and green tea inhibited CYP3A4 metabolism in vitro, clinically relevant systemic or intestinal interactions with CYP3A4 were considered unlikely, except for a probable inhibition of intestinal CYP3A4 by the green tea product. PMID:19170155

  11. A mechanism-based pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic model for CYP3A1/2 induction by dexamethasone in rats

    PubMed Central

    Li, Liang; Li, Zai-quan; Deng, Chen-hui; Ning, Miao-ran; Li, Han-qing; Bi, Shan-shan; Zhou, Tian-yan; Lu, Wei

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To develop a pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) model describing the receptor/gene-mediated induction of CYP3A1/2 by dexamethasone (DEX) in rats. Methods: A group of male Sprague-Dawley rats receiving DEX (100 mg/kg, ip) were sacrificed at various time points up to 60 h post-treatment. Their blood sample and liver were collected. The plasma concentration of DEX was determined with a reverse phase HPLC method. CYP3A1/2 mRNA, protein levels and enzyme activity were measured using RT-PCR, ELISA and the testosterone substrate assay, respectively. Data analyses were performed using a first-order conditional estimate (FOCE) with INTERACTION method in NONMEM version 7.1.2. Results: A two-compartment model with zero-order absorption was applied to describe the pharmacokinetic characteristics of DEX. Systemic clearance, the apparent volume of distribution and the duration of zero-order absorption were calculated to be 172.7 mL·kg−1·h−1, 657.4 mL/kg and 10.47 h, respectively. An indirect response model with a series of transit compartments was developed to describe the induction of CYP3A1/2 via PXR transactivation by DEX. The maximum induction of CYP3A1 and CYP3A2 mRNA levels was achieved, showing nearly 21.29- and 8.67-fold increases relative to the basal levels, respectively. The CYP3A1 and CYP3A2 protein levels were increased by 8.02-fold and 2.49-fold, respectively. The total enzyme activities of CYP3A1/2 were shown to increase by up to 2.79-fold, with a lag time of 40 h from the Tmax of the DEX plasma concentration. The final PK/PD model was able to recapitulate the delayed induction of CYP3A1/2 mRNA, protein and enzyme activity by DEX. Conclusion: A mechanism-based PK/PD model was developed to characterize the complex concentration-induction response relationship between DEX and CYP3A1/2 and to resolve the drug- and system-specific PK/PD parameters for the course of induction. PMID:22212433

  12. CYP3A4-based drug-drug interaction: CYP3A4 substrates' pharmacokinetic properties and ketoconazole dose regimen effect.

    PubMed

    Boulenc, Xavier; Nicolas, Olivier; Hermabessière, Stéphanie; Zobouyan, Isabelle; Martin, Valérie; Donazzolo, Yves; Ollier, Céline

    2016-02-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the magnitude of the CYP3A4 inhibitory effect of 2 dosing regimens of ketoconazole and the influence of the pharmacokinetic properties of the CYP3A4 substrate on the extent of the substrate exposure increase. For this purpose, a clinical study was conducted and PBPK modeling simulations were performed. A crossover study was conducted in healthy subjects. The study was designed to compare the effects of different regimens of reversible CYP3A4 inhibitors, i.e., ketoconazole 400 mg OD, ketoconazole 200 mg BID, on two CYP3A4 substrates, alprazolam and midazolam, reflecting different pharmacokinetic properties in terms of first-pass effect and elimination. In parallel, time-based simulations were performed using the Simcyp population-based Simulator to address the usefulness of modeling to assess interaction clinical study design with CYP3A4 substrates. Comparison of the OD versus BID regimens for ketoconazole showed an opposite trend for the 2 substrates: BID (200 mg) dosing regimen provided the maximal clearance inhibition for alprazolam, while it was OD (400 mg) dosing regimen for midazolam. However, these effects are moderate despite the well-known pharmacokinetic differences between these substrates, suggesting that these differences are not enough. In the other way round, these investigations show how two CYP3A4 substrates can be different without leading to a major impact of the ketoconazole dosing regimen. The clinical findings are consistent with the Simcyp predictions, in particular the opposite trend observed with midazolam and alprazolam and the ketoconazole dosing regimen. These clinical investigations showed the influence of the CYP3A4 substrates' pharmacokinetic properties and the relevance of ketoconazole dose regimen on the magnitude of the interaction ratios. In addition, PBPK Simcyp simulations demonstrated how they can be used to help clinical study design assessment to capture the maximum effect. PMID:25374256

  13. The distribution and gender difference of CYP3A activity in Chinese subjects

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Bing; Liu, Zhao-Qian; Chen, Guo-Lin; Chen, Xiao-Ping; Ou-Yang, Dong-Sheng; Wang, Lian-Sheng; Huang, Song-Lin; Tan, Zhi-Rong; Zhou, Hong-Hao

    2003-01-01

    Aims To investigate the distribution of CYP3A activity in the Chinese population, and to test for gender-related differences in CYP3A activity. Methods Using midazolam as a probe drug, CYP3A activity in 202 Chinese healthy subjects (104 men) was measured by plasma 1′-hydroxymidazolam:midazolam (1′-OH-MDZ:MDZ) ratio at 1 h after oral administration of 7.5 mg midazolam. The different phases of the menstrual cycle including preovulatory, ovulatory and luteal phases of 66 women phenotyped with midazolam were recorded. The concentrations of 1′-OH-MDZ and MDZ in plasma were measured by HPLC Results A 13-fold variation of CYP3A activity (log1′-OH-MDZ:MDZ: range −0.949–0.203) was shown. The CYP3A activity was normally distributed as indicated by the frequency distribution histogram, the probit plot and the Kolmogorov–Smirnov test (P > 0.05). The CYP3A activity of women was higher than that of men (median: −0.36 vs −0.43, P < 0.05; 95% CI for difference: −0.127, −0.012). There was a significant difference in CYP3A activity between the three phases of the menstrual cycle. The activity was highest in the preovulatory phase and decreased sequentially in the ovulatory and luteal phases (P < 0.05). Conclusions A normal distribution of CYP3A activity was observed in the Chinese population. The CYP3A activity is higher in female subjects than in males. CYP3A activity differed across the phases of the menstrual cycle. PMID:12630976

  14. Evaluation of CYP3A4 inhibition and hepatotoxicity using DMSO-treated human hepatoma HuH-7 cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yitong; Flynn, Thomas J.; Xia, Menghang; Wiesenfeld, Paddy L.; Ferguson, Martine S.

    2016-01-01

    A human hepatoma cell line (HuH-7) was evaluated as a metabolically competent cell model to investigate cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) inhibition, induction, and hepatotoxicity. First, CYP3A4 gene expression and activity were determined in HuH-7 cells under three culture conditions: 1-week culture, 3-week culture, or 1% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) treatment. HuH-7 cells treated with DMSO for 2 weeks after confluence expressed the highest CYP3A4 gene expression and activity compared to the other two culture conditions. Furthermore, CYP3A4 activity in DMSO-treated HuH-7 cells was compared to that in a human hepatoma cell line (HepG2/C3A) and human bipotent progenitor cell line (HepaRG), which yielded the following ranking: HepaRG > DMSO-treated HuH-7 >> HepG2/C3A cells. The effects of three known CYP3A4 inhibitors were evaluated using DMSO-treated HuH-7 cells. CYP3A4 enzyme inhibition in HuH-7 cells was further compared to human recombinant CYP3A4, indicating similar potency for reversible inhibitors (IC50 within 2.5 fold), but different potency for the irreversible inhibitor. Next, induction of CYP3A4 activity was compared between DMSO-treated HuH-7 and HepaRG cells using two known inducers. DMSO-treated HuH-7 cells yielded minimal CYP3A4 induction compared to that in the HepaRG cells after 48-h treatments. Finally, the cytotoxicity of five known hepatotoxicants was evaluated in DMSO-treated HuH-7 cells, HepG2/C3A, and HepaRG cells, and significant differences in cytotoxic sensitivity were observed. Overall, DMSO-treated HuH-7 cells are a valuable model for medium- or high-throughput screening of chemicals for CYP3A4 inhibition and hepatotoxicity. PMID:26377104

  15. Aloe vera juice: IC₅₀ and dual mechanistic inhibition of CYP3A4 and CYP2D6.

    PubMed

    Djuv, Ane; Nilsen, Odd Georg

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the inhibitory potency (IC₅₀ values) of ethanol extracts of two commercially available aloe vera juice (AVJ) products, on CYP3A4 and CYP2D6 activities in vitro and to determine if such inhibitions could be mechanism-based. Recombinant human CYP3A4 and CYP2D6 enzymes were used and the activities were expressed by the metabolism of testosterone and dextromethorphan with ketoconazole and quinidine as positive inhibitor controls, respectively. The formed metabolites were quantified by validated HPLC techniques. Time- and NADPH- dependent inhibition assays were performed to evaluate a possible mechanism-based inhibition. One of the AVJ extracts showed about twice the inhibitory potency towards both CYP enzymes over the other with IC₅₀ values of 8.35 ± 0.72 and 12.5 ± 2.1 mg/mL for CYP3A4 and CYP2D6, respectively. The AVJ was found to exert both CYP mediated and non-CYP mediated inhibition of both CYP3A4 and CYP2D6. This dual mechanistic inhibition, however, seems to be governed by different mechanisms for CYP3A4 and CYP2D6. Estimated IC₅₀ inhibition values indicate no major interference of AVJ with drug metabolism in man, but the dual mechanistic inhibition of both enzymes might be of clinical significance. PMID:21842479

  16. Effect of Methamphetamine on Spectral Binding, Ligand Docking and Metabolism of Anti-HIV Drugs with CYP3A4

    PubMed Central

    Ande, Anusha; Wang, Lei; Vaidya, Naveen K.; Li, Weihua; Kumar, Santosh; Kumar, Anil

    2016-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) is the major drug metabolic enzyme, and is involved in the metabolism of antiretroviral drugs, especially protease inhibitors (PIs). This study was undertaken to examine the effect of methamphetamine on the binding and metabolism of PIs with CYP3A4. We showed that methamphetamine exhibits a type I spectral change upon binding to CYP3A4 with δAmax and KD of 0.016±0.001 and 204±18 μM, respectively. Methamphetamine-CYP3A4 docking showed that methamphetamine binds to the heme of CYP3A4 in two modes, both leading to N-demethylation. We then studied the effect of methamphetamine binding on PIs with CYP3A4. Our results showed that methamphetamine alters spectral binding of nelfinavir but not the other type I PIs (lopinavir, atazanavir, tipranavir). The change in spectral binding for nelfinavir was observed at both δAmax (0.004±0.0003 vs. 0.0068±0.0001) and KD (1.42±0.36 vs.2.93±0.08 μM) levels. We further tested effect of methamphetamine on binding of 2 type II PIs; ritonavir and indinavir. Our results showed that methamphetamine alters the ritonavir binding to CYP3A4 by decreasing both the δAmax (0.0038±0.0003 vs. 0.0055±0.0003) and KD (0.043±0.0001 vs. 0.065±0.001 nM), while indinavir showed only reduced KD in presence of methamphetamine (0.086±0.01 vs. 0.174±0.03 nM). Furthermore, LC-MS/MS studies in high CYP3A4 human liver microsomes showed a decrease in the formation of hydroxy ritonavir in the presence of methamphetamine. Finally, CYP3A4 docking with lopinavir and ritonavir in the absence and presence of methamphetamine showed that methamphetamine alters the docking of ritonavir, which is consistent with the results obtained from spectral binding and metabolism studies. Overall, our results demonstrated differential effects of methamphetamine on the binding and metabolism of PIs with CYP3A4. These findings have clinical implication in terms of drug dose adjustment of antiretroviral medication, especially with ritonavir

  17. Modulation of CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 metabolic activities by Ferula asafetida resin

    PubMed Central

    Al-Jenoobi, Fahad I.; Al-Thukair, Areej A.; Alam, Mohd Aftab; Abbas, Fawkeya A.; Al-Mohizea, Abdullah M.; Alkharfy, Khalid M.; Al-Suwayeh, Saleh A.

    2014-01-01

    Present study investigated the potential effects of Ferula asafetida resin on metabolic activities of human drug metabolizing enzymes: CYP2D6 and CYP3A4. Dextromethorphan (DEX) was used as a marker to assess metabolic activities of these enzymes, based on its CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 mediated metabolism to dextrorphan (DOR) and 3-methoxymorphinan (3-MM), respectively. In vitro study was conducted by incubating DEX with human liver microsomes and NADPH in the presence or absence of Asafetida alcoholic extract. For clinical study, healthy human volunteers received a single dose of DEX alone (phase-I) and repeated the same dose after a washout period and four-day Asafetida treatment (phase-II). Asafetida showed a concentration dependent inhibition on DOR formation (in vitro) and a 33% increase in DEX/DOR urinary metabolic ratio in clinical study. For CYP3A4, formation of 3-MM in microsomes was increased at low Asafetida concentrations (10, 25 and 50 μg/ml) but slightly inhibited at the concentration of 100 μg/ml. On the other hand, in vivo observations revealed that Asafetida significantly increased DEX/3-MM urinary metabolic ratio. The findings of this study suggest that Asafetida may have a significant effect on CYP3A4 metabolic activity. Therefore, using Ferula asafetida with CYP3A4 drug substrates should be cautioned especially those with narrow therapeutic index such as cyclosporine, tacrolimus and carbamazepine. PMID:25561870

  18. Pinelliae rhizoma, a toxic chinese herb, can significantly inhibit CYP3A activity in rats.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jinjun; Cheng, Zaixing; He, Shugui; Shi, Jian; Liu, Shuqiang; Zhang, Guiyu; Zhu, Lijun; Liu, Liang; Liu, Zhongqiu; Lin, Na; Lu, Linlin

    2015-01-01

    Raw Pinelliae Rhizoma (RPR) is a representative toxic herb that is widely used for eliminating phlegm or treating cough and vomiting. Given its irritant toxicity, its processed products, including Pinelliae Rhizoma Praeparatum (PRP) and Pinelliae Rhizoma Praeparatum cum Zingibere et Alumine (PRPZA), are more commonly applied and administered concomitantly with other chemical drugs, such as cough medications. This study aimed to investigate the effects of RPR, PRP, and PRPZA on CYP3A activity. Testosterone (Tes) and buspirone (BP) were used as specific probe substrates ex vivo and in vivo, respectively. CYP3A activity was determined by the metabolite formation ratios from the substrates. Ex vivo results show that the metabolite formation ratios from Tes significantly decreased, indicating that RPR, PRP, and PRPZA could inhibit CYP3A activity in rats. CYP3A protein and mRNA levels were determined to explore the underlying mechanism. These levels showed marked and consistent down-regulation with CYP3A activity. A significant decrease in metabolite formation ratios from BP was also found in PRPZA group in vivo, implying that PRPZA could inhibit CYP3A activity. Conclusively, co-administration of PR with other CYP3A-metabolizing drugs may cause drug-drug interactions. Clinical use of PR-related formulae should be monitored carefully to avoid adverse interactions. PMID:25574821

  19. Loss of CYP3A7 gene induction by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 is caused by less binding of VDR to the proximal ER6 in CYP3A7 gene.

    PubMed

    Hara, Hirokazu; Yasunami, Yoko; Adachi, Tetsuo

    2004-09-01

    Cytochrome P450 3A4 and 3A7 (CYP3A4 and CYP3A7, respectively) are predominant forms in the human adult and fetal liver, respectively. 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D(3) (1,25(OH)(2)D(3)) is known to be a potent inducer of CYP3A4 in human colon carcinoma Caco-2 via vitamin D receptor (VDR). However, whether CYP3A7 is inducible by 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) has not yet been elucidated. In the present study, we examined the effect of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) on CYP3A7 gene expression in Caco-2 cells, which express CYP3A4 and CYP3A7 mRNAs. 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) hardly induced the expression of CYP3A7 mRNA in contrast to the marked induction of CYP3A4 mRNA. Reporter assay using 5'-franking region CYP3A4 and CYP3A7 genes also revealed that 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) activates CYP3A4 promoter, but not CYP3A7 promoter, which has two mutations in the proximal ER6 site compared with CYP3A4 promoter. In addition, we found that the binding of VDR to the proximal ER6 in CYP3A7 gene was markedly less than that to the proximal ER6 in CYP3A4 gene using gel shift assay. Taken together, the decrease of VDR binding to the proximal ER6 caused by the mutation results in the loss of CYP3A7 gene activation by 1,25(OH)(2)D(3). PMID:15358113

  20. Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium (CPIC) Guidelines for CYP3A5 Genotype and Tacrolimus Dosing

    PubMed Central

    Birdwell, Kelly A.; Decker, Brian; Barbarino, Julia M.; Peterson, Josh F.; Stein, C. Michael; Sadee, Wolfgang; Wang, Danxin; Vinks, Alexander A.; He, Yijing; Swen, Jesse J.; Leeder, J. Steven; van Schaik, RHN; Thummel, Kenneth E.; Klein, Teri E.; Caudle, Kelly E.; MacPhee, Iain A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Tacrolimus is the mainstay immunosuppressant drug used after solid organ and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Individuals who express CYP3A5 (extensive and intermediate metabolizers) generally have decreased dose-adjusted trough concentrations of tacrolimus as compared to those who are CYP3A5 non-expressers (poor metabolizers), possibly delaying achievement of target blood concentrations. We summarize evidence from the published literature supporting this association and provide dosing recommendations for tacrolimus based on CYP3A5 genotype when known (updates at www.pharmgkb.org). PMID:25801146

  1. Unexpected contribution of cytochrome P450 enzymes CYP11B2 and CYP21, as well as CYP3A4 in xenobiotic androgen elimination - insights from metandienone metabolism.

    PubMed

    Parr, Maria Kristina; Zöllner, Andy; Fusshöller, Gregor; Opfermann, Georg; Schlörer, Nils; Zorio, Mirela; Bureik, Matthias; Schänzer, Wilhelm

    2012-09-18

    The metabolism of a variety of anabolic steroids frequently misused for doping purposes has been investigated in the last years. This research mainly focused on main and long-term metabolites suitable for detection, but detailed clearance mechanisms have rarely been elucidated. Recent studies on metandienone focused on the identification of 17β-hydroxymethyl-17α-methyl-18-norandrosta-1,4,13-trien-3-one (20βOH-NorMD) as long-term metabolite, however, the metabolic pathway of its generation remained unclear. Metandienone and its Wagner-Meerwein rearrangement product 17,17-dimethyl-18-norandrosta-1,4,13-trien-3-one (NorMD) were hydroxylated by different human cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYPs). Some of their hydroxylation products were chemically synthesized and characterized by mass spectrometry to allow for their trace detection in urine samples. Following oral administration of metandienone or NorMD in one human volunteer each the post administration urines were checked for the presence of those hydroxylated metabolites using GC-MS/MS analysis. The human mitochondrial steroid hydroxylating enzymes CYP11B1 and CYP11B2 were capable to metabolize metandienone leading to the formation of 11β-hydroxymetandienone and 18-hydroxymetandienone. Following Wagner-Meerwein rearrangement, the resulting products could be assigned to 20βOH-NorMD and 11βOH-NorMD. The contribution of CYP11B1 and CYP11B2 in human metabolism of metandienone was confirmed by analysis of post-administration samples of metandienone and NorMD. Combined with the results from a previous study, enzymatic pathways were identified that involve CYP21 and CYP3A4 in the hydroxylation of NorMD, while CYP21, CYP3A4 and CYP11B2 take part in 20βOH-NorMD generation from MD. The current study represents a valuable contribution to the elucidation of clearance mechanisms of anabolic steroids and also indicates that mainly non-liver CYPs seem to be involved in these processes. PMID:22885098

  2. Genomewide Association Study of Tacrolimus Concentrations in African American Kidney Transplant Recipients Identifies Multiple CYP3A5 Alleles

    PubMed Central

    Oetting, W. S.; Schladt, D. P.; Guan, W.; Miller, M. B.; Remmel, R. P.; Dorr, C.; Sanghavi, K.; Mannon, R. B.; Herrera, B.; Matas, A. J.; Salomon, D. R.; Kwok, P.-Y.; Keating, B. J.; Israni, A. K.; Jacobson, P. A.

    2016-01-01

    We previously reported that tacrolimus (TAC) trough blood concentrations for African American (AA) kidney allograft recipients were lower than those observed in white patients. Subtherapeutic TAC troughs may be associated with acute rejection (AR) and AR-associated allograft failure. This variation in TAC troughs is due, in part, to differences in the frequency of the cytochrome P450 CYP3A5*3 allele (rs776746, expresses nonfunctional enzyme) between white and AA recipients; however, even after accounting for this variant, variability in AA-associated troughs is significant. We conducted a genomewide association study of TAC troughs in AA kidney allograft recipients to search for additional genetic variation. We identified two additional CYP3A5 variants in AA recipients independently associated with TAC troughs: CYP3A5*6 (rs10264272) and CYP3A5*7 (rs41303343). All three variants and clinical factors account for 53.9% of the observed variance in troughs, with 19.8% of the variance coming from demographic and clinical factors including recipient age, glomerular filtration rate, anti-cytomegalovirus drug use, simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplant and antibody induction. There was no evidence of common genetic variants in AA recipients significantly influencing TAC troughs aside from the CYP3A gene. These results reveal that additional and possibly rare functional variants exist that account for the additional variation. PMID:26485092

  3. SPR and electrochemical analyses of interactions between CYP3A4 or 3A5 and cytochrome b5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gnedenko, O. V.; Yablokov, E. O.; Usanov, S. A.; Mukha, D. V.; Sergeev, G. V.; Bulko, T. V.; Kuzikov, A. V.; Moskaleva, N. E.; Shumyantseva, V. V.; Ivanov, A. S.; Archakov, A. I.

    2014-02-01

    The combination of SPR biosensor with electrochemical analysis was used for the study of protein-protein interaction between cytochromes CYP3A4 or 3А5 and cytochromes b5: the microsomal, mitochondrial forms of this protein, and 2 ≪chimeric≫ proteins. Kinetic constants of CYP3A4 and CYP3А5 complex formation with cytochromes b5 were determined by the SPR biosensor. Essential distinction between CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 was observed upon their interactions with mitochondrial cytochrome b5. The electrochemical analysis of CYP3A4, CYP3A5, and cytochromes b5 immobilized on screen printed graphite electrodes modified with membranous matrix revealed that these proteins have very close reduction potentials -0.435 to -0.350 V (vs. Ag/AgCl).

  4. CYP3A4 drug interactions: correlation of 10 in vitro probe substrates

    PubMed Central

    Kenworthy, K E; Bloomer, J C; Clarke, S E; Houston, J B

    1999-01-01

    Aims Many substrates of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 are used for in vitro investigations of drug metabolism and potential drug–drug interactions. The aim of the present study was to determine the relationship between 10 commonly used CYP3A4 probes using modifiers with a range of inhibitory potency. Methods The effects of 34 compounds on CYP3A4-mediated metabolism were investigated in a recombinant CYP3A4 expression system. Inhibition of erythromycin, dextromethorphan and diazepam N-demethylation, testosterone 6β-hydroxylation, midazolam 1-hydroxylation, triazolam 4-hydroxylation, nifedipine oxidation, cyclosporin oxidation, terfenadine C-hydroxylation and N-dealkylation and benzyloxyresorufin O-dealkylation was evaluated at the apparent Km or S50 (for substrates showing sigmoidicity) value for each substrate and at an inhibitor concentration of 30 μm. Results While all CYP3A4 probe substrates demonstrate some degree of similarity, examination of the coefficients of determination, together with difference and cluster analysis highlighted that seven substrates can be categorized into two distinct substrate groups. Erythromycin, cyclosporin and testosterone form the most closely related group and dextromethorphan, diazepam, midazolam and triazolam form a second group. Terfenadine can be equally well placed in either group, while nifedipine shows a distinctly different relationship. Benzyloxyresorufin shows the weakest correlation with all the other CYP3A4 probes. Modifiers that caused negligible inhibition or potent inhibition are generally comparable in all assays, however, the greatest variability is apparent with compounds causing, on average, intermediate inhibition. Modifiers of this type may cause substantial inhibition, no effect or even activation depending on the substrate employed. Conclusions It is recommended that multiple CYP3A4 probes, representing each substrate group, are used for the in vitro assessment of CYP3A4-mediated drug interactions. PMID

  5. Integrin Receptors Play a Key Role in the Regulation of Hepatic CYP3A.

    PubMed

    Jonsson-Schmunk, Kristina; Wonganan, Piynauch; Choi, Jin Huk; Callahan, Shellie M; Croyle, Maria A

    2016-05-01

    Landmark studies describing the effect of microbial infection on the expression and activity of hepatic CYP3A used bacterial lipopolysaccharide as a model antigen. Our efforts to determine whether these findings were translatable to viral infections led us to observations suggesting that engagement of integrin receptors is key in the initiation of processes responsible for changes in hepatic CYP3A4 during infection and inflammation. Studies outlined in this article were designed to evaluate whether engagement of integrins, receptors commonly used by a variety of microbes to enter cellular targets, is vital in the regulation of CYP3A in the presence and absence of virus infection. Mice infected with a recombinant adenovirus (AdlacZ) experienced a 70% reduction in hepatic CYP3A catalytic activity. Infection with a mutant virus with integrin-binding arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) sequences deleted from the penton base protein of the virus capsid (AdΔRGD) did not alter CYP3A activity. CYP3A mRNA and protein levels in AdlacZ-treated animals were also suppressed, whereas those of mice given AdΔRGD were not significantly different from uninfected control mice. Silencing of the integrinβ-subunit reverted adenovirus-mediated CYP3A4 suppression in vitro. Silencing of theα-subunit did not. Suppression of integrin subunits had a profound effect on nuclear receptors pregnane X receptor and constitutive androstane receptor, whereas retinoid X receptorαwas largely unaffected. To our knowledge, this is the first time that extracellular receptors, like integrins, have been indicated in the regulation of CYP3A. This finding has several implications owing to the important role of integrins in normal physiologic process and in many disease states. PMID:26868618

  6. Cytochrome P450 Allele CYP3A7*1C Associates with Adverse Outcomes in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia, Breast, and Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Nichola; De Ieso, Paolo; Migliorini, Gabriele; Orr, Nick; Broderick, Peter; Catovsky, Daniel; Matakidou, Athena; Eisen, Timothy; Goldsmith, Christy; Dudbridge, Frank; Peto, Julian; Dos-Santos-Silva, Isabel; Ashworth, Alan; Ross, Gillian; Houlston, Richard S; Fletcher, Olivia

    2016-03-15

    CYP3A enzymes metabolize endogenous hormones and chemotherapeutic agents used to treat cancer, thereby potentially affecting drug effectiveness. Here, we refined the genetic basis underlying the functional effects of a CYP3A haplotype on urinary estrone glucuronide (E1G) levels and tested for an association between CYP3A genotype and outcome in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), breast, or lung cancers. The most significantly associated SNP was rs45446698, an SNP that tags the CYP3A7*1C allele; this SNP was associated with a 54% decrease in urinary E1G levels. Genotyping this SNP in 1,008 breast cancer, 1,128 lung cancer, and 347 CLL patients, we found that rs45446698 was associated with breast cancer mortality (HR, 1.74; P = 0.03), all-cause mortality in lung cancer patients (HR, 1.43; P = 0.009), and CLL progression (HR, 1.62; P = 0.03). We also found borderline evidence of a statistical interaction between the CYP3A7*1C allele, treatment of patients with a cytotoxic agent that is a CYP3A substrate, and clinical outcome (Pinteraction = 0.06). The CYP3A7*1C allele, which results in adult expression of the fetal CYP3A7 gene, is likely to be the functional allele influencing levels of circulating endogenous sex hormones and outcome in these various malignancies. Further studies confirming these associations and determining the mechanism by which CYP3A7*1C influences outcome are required. One possibility is that standard chemotherapy regimens that include CYP3A substrates may not be optimal for the approximately 8% of cancer patients who are CYP3A7*1C carriers. PMID:26964624

  7. Transient inhibition of cyp3a in rats by star fruit juice.

    PubMed

    Hidaka, Muneaki; Okumura, Manabu; Ogikubo, Tetsuya; Kai, Hirofumi; Fujita, Ken-ichi; Iwakiri, Tomomi; Yamasaki, Keishi; Setoguchi, Nao; Matsunaga, Naoya; Arimori, Kazuhiko

    2006-03-01

    Star fruit juice is a potent in vitro inhibitor of CYP3A; however, few reports are available on the inhibition of CYP3A activities by star fruit juice in vivo. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the CYP3A-mediated star fruit-drug interaction in vivo. The effect of star fruit juice on carbamazepine pharmacokinetics was examined in rats. In comparison with water, the area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) of carbamazepine was approximately 1.3-fold greater when star fruit juice (2 ml) was orally administered 1 h before the oral administration of carbamazepine (50 mg/kg). In contrast, the elimination half-life of carbamazepine and the AUC ratio of carbamazepine 10,11-epoxide to carbamazepine were not altered by the administration of star fruit juice. These results suggest that star fruit juice impairs the function of enteric CYP3A, but not of hepatic CYP3A. In addition, we evaluated the time course of recovery of CYP3A activity that was reduced after the treatment with star fruit juice. The inhibition by star fruit juice was recovered within approximately 24 h. These data suggest that the effect of star fruit juice is mainly reversible and transient. Thus, we discovered that star fruit juice alters the carbamazepine pharmacokinetics in rats. PMID:16326816

  8. Oxidase uncoupling in heme monooxygenases: Human cytochrome P450 CYP3A4 in Nanodiscs

    SciTech Connect

    Grinkova, Yelena V.; Denisov, Ilia G.; McLean, Mark A.; Sligar, Stephen G.

    2013-01-25

    reconstituted in Nanodiscs. We discovered that the “oxidase” uncoupling pathway is also operating in the substrate free form of the enzyme with rate of this pathway substantially increasing with the first substrate binding event. Surprisingly, a large fraction of the reducing equivalents used by the P450 system is wasted in this oxidase pathway. In addition, the overall coupling with testosterone and bromocryptine as substrates is significantly higher in the presence of anionic lipids, which is attributed to the changes in the redox potential of CYP3A4 and reductase.

  9. The effects of CYP2D6 and CYP3A activities on the pharmacokinetics of immediate release oxycodone

    PubMed Central

    Samer, CF; Daali, Y; Wagner, M; Hopfgartner, G; Eap, CB; Rebsamen, MC; Rossier, MF; Hochstrasser, D; Dayer, P; Desmeules, JA

    2010-01-01

    Background and purpose: There is high interindividual variability in the activity of drug-metabolizing enzymes catalysing the oxidation of oxycodone [cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2D6 and 3A], due to genetic polymorphisms and/or drug–drug interactions. The effects of CYP2D6 and/or CYP3A activity modulation on the pharmacokinetics of oxycodone remains poorly explored. Experimental approach: A randomized crossover double-blind placebo-controlled study was performed with 10 healthy volunteers genotyped for CYP2D6 [six extensive (EM), two deficient (PM/IM) and two ultrarapid metabolizers (UM)]. The volunteers randomly received on five different occasions: oxycodone 0.2 mg·kg−1 and placebo; oxycodone and quinidine (CYP2D6 inhibitor); oxycodone and ketoconazole (CYP3A inhibitor); oxycodone and quinidine+ketoconazole; placebo. Blood samples for plasma concentrations of oxycodone and metabolites (oxymorphone, noroxycodone and noroxymorphone) were collected for 24 h after dosing. Phenotyping for CYP2D6 (with dextromethorphan) and CYP3A (with midazolam) were assessed at each session. Key results: CYP2D6 activity was correlated with oxymorphone and noroxymorphone AUCs and Cmax (−0.71 < Spearman correlation coefficient ρs < −0.92). Oxymorphone Cmax was 62% and 75% lower in PM than EM and UM. Noroxymorphone Cmax reduction was even more pronounced (90%). In UM, oxymorphone and noroxymorphone concentrations increased whereas noroxycodone exposure was halved. Blocking CYP2D6 (with quinidine) reduced oxymorphone and noroxymorphone Cmax by 40% and 80%, and increased noroxycodone AUC∞ by 70%. Blocking CYP3A4 (with ketoconazole) tripled oxymorphone AUC∞ and reduced noroxycodone and noroxymorphone AUCs by 80%. Shunting to CYP2D6 pathway was observed after CYP3A4 inhibition. Conclusions and implications: Drug–drug interactions via CYP2D6 and CYP3A affected oxycodone pharmacokinetics and its magnitude depended on CYP2D6 genotype. PMID:20590587

  10. Labeled Content of Two Furanocoumarins in Dietary Supplements Correlates with neither Actual Content nor CYP3A Inhibitory Activity

    PubMed Central

    VanderMolen, Karen M.; Ainslie, Garrett R.; Paine, Mary F.; Oberlies, Nicholas H.

    2014-01-01

    Dietary supplements are a multi-billion dollar business, with yearly profit increases. Allegedly safe, these supplements are marketed to a variety of niches, encompassing claims from immune support to weight loss. Six sports nutrition supplements were acquired that were labeled to contain the furanocoumarin(s) bergamottin and/or 6′,7′-dihydroxybergamottin (DHB), both of which are potent irreversible inhibitors of the prominent drug metabolizing enzyme cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A). Both furanocoumarins are typically present in grapefruit juice, which has been shown to inhibit intestinal CYP3A, perpetrating an increase in the systemic exposure of certain concomitant ‘victim’ drugs. The acquired supplements were analyzed using ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to both a photodiode array (PDA) detector and a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer (MS). Contrary to the product labeling, four of the supplements contained no detectable quantities of either furanocoumarin (LOD 0.060 μg/capsule), while two of the supplements contained minimal amounts (one contained 12.13 (± 0.23) μg bergamottin and 65.51 (± 0.64) μg DHB per capsule; the other contained 2.705 (± 0.069) μg bergamottin per capsule and no detectable quantities of DHB). A CYP3A inhibition bioassay was used to assess whether the actual content of the furanocoumarins correlated with CYP3A inhibitory activity. Despite the low amounts of bergamottin and DHB, CYP3A inhibition by the supplements was greater than could be accounted for by the two furanocoumarins. The additional activity suggests the presence of other potent or highly abundant CYP3A inhibitors. PMID:24951959

  11. Dipeptide Prodrug Approach to Evade Efflux Pumps and CYP3A4 Metabolism of Lopinavir

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Mitesh; Sheng, Ye; Mandava, Nanda K.; Pal, Dhananjay; Mitra, Ashim K.

    2014-01-01

    Oral absorption of lopinavir (LPV) is limited due to P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and multidrug resistance-associated protein2 (MRP2) mediated efflux by intestinal epithelial cells. Moreover, LPV is extensively metabolized by CYP3A4 enzymes. In the present study, dipeptide prodrug approach was employed to circumvent efflux pumps (P-gp and MRP2) and CYP3A4 mediated metabolism of LPV. Valine-isoleucine-LPV (Val-Ile-LPV) was synthesized and identified by LCMS and NMR techniques. The extent of LPV and Val-Ile-LPV interactions with P-gp and MRP2 was studied by uptake and transport studies across MDCK-MDR1 and MDCK-MRP2 cells. To determine the metabolic stability, time and concentration dependent degradation study was performed in liver microsomes. Val-Ile-LPV exhibited significantly higher aqueous solubility relative to LPV. This prodrug generated higher stability under acidic pH. Val-Ile-LPV demonstrated significantly lower affinity towards P-gp and MRP2 relative to LPV. Transepithelial transport of Val-Ile-LPV was significantly higher in the absorptive direction (apical to basolateral) relative to LPV. Importantly, Val-Ile-LPV was recognized as an excellent substrate by peptide transporter. Moreover, Val-Ile-LPV displayed significantly higher metabolic stability relative to LPV. Results obtained from this study suggested that dipeptide prodrug approach is a viable option to elevate systemic levels of LPV following oral administration PMID:25261710

  12. Regulation of CYP3A4 by pregnane X receptor: The role of nuclear receptors competing for response element binding

    SciTech Connect

    Istrate, Monica A.; Nussler, Andreas K.; Eichelbaum, Michel; Burk, Oliver

    2010-03-19

    Induction of the major drug metabolizing enzyme CYP3A4 by xenobiotics contributes to the pronounced interindividual variability of its expression and often results in clinically relevant drug-drug interactions. It is mainly mediated by PXR, which regulates CYP3A4 expression by binding to several specific elements in the 5' upstream regulatory region of the gene. Induction itself shows a marked interindividual variability, whose underlying determinants are only partly understood. In this study, we investigated the role of nuclear receptor binding to PXR response elements in CYP3A4, as a potential non-genetic mechanism contributing to interindividual variability of induction. By in vitro DNA binding experiments, we showed that several nuclear receptors bind efficiently to the proximal promoter ER6 and distal xenobiotic-responsive enhancer module DR3 motifs. TR{alpha}1, TR{beta}1, COUP-TFI, and COUP-TFII further demonstrated dose-dependent repression of PXR-mediated CYP3A4 enhancer/promoter reporter activity in transient transfection in the presence and absence of the PXR inducer rifampin, while VDR showed this effect only in the absence of treatment. By combining functional in vitro characterization with hepatic expression analysis, we predict that TR{alpha}1, TR{beta}1, COUP-TFI, and COUP-TFII show a strong potential for the repression of PXR-mediated activation of CYP3A4 in vivo. In summary, our results demonstrate that nuclear receptor binding to PXR response elements interferes with PXR-mediated expression and induction of CYP3A4 and thereby contributes to the interindividual variability of induction.

  13. Indirubin, a component of Ban-Lan-Gen, activates CYP3A4 gene transcription through the human pregnane X receptor.

    PubMed

    Kumagai, Takeshi; Aratsu, Yusuke; Sugawara, Ryosuke; Sasaki, Takamitsu; Miyairi, Shinichi; Nagata, Kiyoshi

    2016-04-01

    Ban-Lan-Gen is the common name for the dried roots of indigo plants, including Polygonum tinctorium, Isatis indigotica, Isatis tinctoria, and Strobilanthes cusia. Ban-Lan-Gen is frequently used as an anti-inflammatory and an anti-viral for the treatment of hepatitis, influenza, and various types of inflammation. One of the cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes, CYP3A4, is responsible for the metabolism of a wide variety of xenobiotics, including an estimated 60% of all clinically used drugs. In this study, we investigated the effect of Ban-Lan-Gen on the transcriptional activation of the CYP3A4 gene. Ban-Lan-Gen extract increased CYP3A4 gene reporter activity in a dose-dependent manner. Indirubin, one of the biologically active ingredients in the Ban-Lan-Gen, also dose-dependently increased CYP3A4 gene reporter activity. Expression of short hairpin RNA for the human pregnane X receptor (hPXR-shRNA) inhibited CYP3A4 gene reporter activity, and overexpression of human PXR increased indirubin- and rifampicin-induced CYP3A4 gene reporter activity. Furthermore, indirubin induced CYP3A4 mRNA expression in HepG2 cells. Taken together, these results indicate that indirubin, a component of Ban-Lan-Gen, activated CYP3A4 gene transcription through the activation of the human PXR. PMID:26987505

  14. Stereospecific Metabolism of Itraconazole by CYP3A4: Dioxolane Ring Scission of Azole Antifungals

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Chi-Chi; Shi, Wei; Lutz, Justin D.; Kunze, Kent L.; Liu, Jun O.; Nelson, Wendel L.

    2012-01-01

    Itraconazole (ITZ) is a mixture of four cis-stereoisomers that inhibit CYP3A4 potently and coordinate CYP3A4 heme via the triazole nitrogen. However, (2R,4S,2′R)-ITZ and (2R,4S,2′S)-ITZ also undergo stereoselective sequential metabolism by CYP3A4 at a site distant from the triazole ring to 3′-OH-ITZ, keto-ITZ, and N-desalkyl-ITZ. This stereoselective metabolism demonstrates specific interactions of ITZ within the CYP3A4 active site. To further investigate this process, the binding and metabolism of the four trans-ITZ stereoisomers by CYP3A4 were characterized. All four trans-ITZ stereoisomers were tight binding inhibitors of CYP3A4-mediated midazolam hydroxylation (IC50 16–26 nM), and each gave a type II spectrum upon binding to CYP3A4. However, instead of formation of 3′-OH-ITZ, they were oxidized at the dioxolane ring, leading to ring scission and formation of two new metabolites of ITZ. These two metabolites were also formed from the four cis-ITZ stereoisomers, although not as efficiently. The catalytic rates of dioxolane ring scission were similar to the dissociation rates of ITZ stereoisomers from CYP3A4, suggesting that the heme iron is reduced while the triazole moiety coordinates to it and no dissociation of ITZ is necessary before catalysis. The triazole containing metabolite [1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-2-(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)ethanone] also inhibited CYP3A4 (IC50 >15 μM) and showed type II binding with CYP3A4. The dioxolane ring scission appears to be clinically relevant because this metabolite was detected in urine samples from subjects that had been administered the mixture of cis-ITZ isomers. These data suggest that the dioxolane ring scission is a metabolic pathway for drugs that contain this moiety. PMID:22106171

  15. Energetics of Heterotropic Cooperativity between α-Naphthoflavone and Testosterone Binding to CYP3A4

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Arthur G.; Atkins, William M.

    2007-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) is involved in the metabolism of a majority of drugs. Heterotropic cooperativity of drug binding to CYP3A4 was examined with the flavanoid, α-naphthoflavone (ANF) and the steroid, testosterone (TST). UV-vis and EPR spectroscopy of CYP3A4 show that ANF binding to CYP3A4 occurs with apparent negative cooperativity and that there are at least two binding sites: 1) a relatively tight spin-state insensitive binding site (CYP●ANF) and 2) a relatively low affinity spin-state sensitive binding site (CYP●ANF●ANF). Since binding to the spin-state insensitive binding site is considerably tighter for ANF than TST, the spin-state insensitive binding site could be occupied by ANF, while titrating TST at the other site(s). The spin-state insensitive binding site of ANF appears to compete with the spin-state insensitive binding site of TST. The formation of the spin-state insensitive CYP●ANF complex is strongly temperature dependent, when compared to the formation of the CYP●TST complex, suggesting that the formation of the CYP3A4●ANF complex leads to long-range conformational changes within the protein. When the CYP●ANF complex is titrated with TST, the formation of CYP●ANF●TST is favored by 3:1 over the formation of CYP●TST●TST, suggesting that there is an allosteric interaction between ANF and TST. A model of heterotropic cooperativity of CYP3A4 is presented, where the spin-state insensitive binding of ANF occurs at the same peripheral binding site of CYP3A4 as TST. PMID:17459328

  16. Effects of Commonly Used Excipients on the Expression of CYP3A4 in Colon and Liver Cells

    PubMed Central

    Tompkins, Leslie; Lynch, Caitlin; Haidar, Sam; Polli, James; Wang, Hongbing

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The objective of this investigation was to assess whether common pharmaceutical excipients regulate the expression of drug-metabolizing enzymes in human colon and liver cells. Methods Nineteen commonly used excipients were evaluated using a panel of experiments including cell-based human PXR activation assays, real-time RT-PCR assays for CYP3A4 mRNA expression, and immunoblot analysis of CYP3A4 protein expression in immortalized human liver cells (HepG2 and Fa2N4), human primary hepatocytes, and the intestinal LS174T cell models. Results No excipient activated human PXR or practically induced CYP3A4. However, three excipients (polysorbate 80, pregelatinized starch, and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose) tended to decrease mRNA and protein expression across experimental models. Conclusion This study represents the first investigation of the potential role of excipients in the expression of drug-metabolizing enzymes. Findings imply that some excipients may hold potential for excipient-drug interactions by repression of CYP3A4 expression. PMID:20503067

  17. Isolation and identification of intestinal CYP3A inhibitors from cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) using human intestinal microsomes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eunkyung; Sy-Cordero, Arlene; Graf, Tyler N; Brantley, Scott J; Paine, Mary F; Oberlies, Nicholas H

    2011-02-01

    Cranberry juice is used routinely, especially among women and the elderly, to prevent and treat urinary tract infections. These individuals are likely to be taking medications concomitantly with cranberry juice, leading to concern about potential drug-dietary substance interactions, particularly in the intestine, which, along with the liver, is rich in expression of the prominent drug metabolizing enzyme, cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A). Using a systematic in vitro-in vivo approach, a cranberry juice product was identified recently that elicited a pharmacokinetic interaction with the CYP3A probe substrate midazolam in 16 healthy volunteers. Relative to water, cranberry juice inhibited intestinal first-pass midazolam metabolism. In vitro studies were initiated to identify potential enteric CYP3A inhibitors from cranberry via a bioactivity-directed fractionation approach involving dried whole cranberry [Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait. (Ericaceae)], midazolam, and human intestinal microsomes (HIM). Three triterpenes (maslinic acid, corosolic acid, and ursolic acid) were isolated. The inhibitory potency (IC(50)) of maslinic acid, corosolic acid, and ursolic acid was 7.4, 8.8, and < 10 µM, respectively, using HIM as the enzyme source and 2.8, 4.3, and < 10 µM, respectively, using recombinant CYP3A4 as the enzyme source. These in vitro inhibitory potencies, which are within the range of those reported for two CYP3A inhibitory components in grapefruit juice, suggest that these triterpenes may have contributed to the midazolam-cranberry juice interaction observed in the clinical study. PMID:20717876

  18. Isolation and Identification of Intestinal CYP3A Inhibitors from Cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) using Human Intestinal Microsomes

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eunkyung; Sy-Cordero, Arlene; Graf, Tyler N.; Brantley, Scott J.; Paine, Mary F.; Oberlies, Nicholas H.

    2010-01-01

    Cranberry juice is used routinely, especially among women and the elderly, to prevent and treat urinary tract infections. These individuals are likely to be taking medications concomitantly with cranberry juice, leading to concern about potential drug-dietary substance interactions, particularly in the intestine, which, along with the liver, is rich in expression of the prominent drug metabolizing enzyme, cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A). Using a systematic in vitro-in vivo approach, a cranberry juice product was identified recently that elicited a pharmacokinetic interaction with the CYP3A probe substrate midazolam in 16 healthy volunteers. Relative to water, a cranberry juice inhibited intestinal first-pass midazolam metabolism. In vitro studies were initiated to identify potential enteric CYP3A inhibitors from cranberry via a bioactivity-directed fractionation approach involving dried whole cranberry [Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait. (Ericaceae)], midazolam, and human intestinal microsomes (HIM). Three triterpenes (maslinic acid, corosolic acid, and ursolic acid) were isolated. The inhibitory potency (IC50) of maslinic acid, corosolic acid, and ursolic acid was 7.4, 8.8, and <10 μM, respectively, using HIM as the enzyme source and was 2.8, 4.3, and <10 μM, respectively, using recombinant CYP3A4 as the enzyme source. These in vitro inhibitory potencies, which are within the range of those reported for two CYP3A inhibitory components in grapefruit juice, suggest that these triterpenes may have contributed to the midazolam-cranberry juice interaction observed in the clinical study. PMID:20717876

  19. Metabolic behavior prediction of pazopanib by cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 by molecular docking.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xing-Jie; Lu, Hua; Sun, Ju-Xiang; Wang, Su-Rong; Mo, Yan-Shuai; Yang, Xing-Sheng; Shi, Ben-Kang

    2016-08-01

    Metabolism-mediated drug adverse effects (e.g., drug-drug interaction, bioactivation, etc.) strongly limit the utilization of clinical drugs. The present study aims to predict the metabolic capability of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 toward pazopanib which is an excellent drug exhibiting therapeutic role toward various cancers especially for ovarian cancer. Pazopanib can be well docked into the activity cavity of CYP3A4, and the interaction structure in pazopanib was methyl group located besides nitrogen in the five-membered ring. The distance between the hydrogen atom in methyl group and active center is 3.64 Å. The interaction amino acid is Glu374. Furthermore, both pazopanib and ketoconazole were docked into the activity cavity of CYP3A4 to compare their binding potential. The distance between ketoconazole and activity center (2.10 Å) is closer than the distance between pazopanib and activity center of CYP3A4, indicating the easy influence of CYP3A4 inhibitor toward the metabolism of pazopanib. All these data were helpful for the clinical application of pazopanib, and R&D of other tinib drug candidates as new anti-tumor drugs. PMID:25737032

  20. CYP3A5 genotyping for assessing the efficacy of treatment with simvastatin and atorvastatin

    PubMed Central

    Kolovou, Genovefa; Kolovou, Vana; Ragia, Georgia; Mihas, Constantinos; Diakoumakou, Olga; Vasiliadis, Ioannis; Mavrogeni, Sophie; Vartela, Vassiliki; Manolopoulos, Vangelis G

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we examined the impact of polymorphism in the cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A5 gene, CYP3A5*1 (6986A > G, rs 776746), on the reduction in the lipid levels caused by simvastatin and atorvastatin. We studied 350 hyperlipidemic patients who received 10-40 mg of atorvastatin (n = 175) or simvastatin (n = 175) daily. Genotyping for CYP3A5 was done by PCR-RFLP analysis. Differences in the lipid profile before and after treatment were expressed as the % difference. The frequency of CYP3A5polymorphism was 13.4% for heterozygotes and 86.6% for homozygotes. Comparison of the responses to same dose of each drug showed that the highest % difference was associated with total cholesterol (TC) in subjects receiving atorvastatin 40 mg compared with simvastatin 40 mg (p = 0.048). However, comparison of the responses to equivalent doses of atorvastatin vs. simvastatin revealed no difference in the % change in any of the lipid parameters examined. In individuals with the same CYP3A5 genotype, a head to head comparison of the efficacy of the same dose of simvastatin vs. atorvastatin revealed an advantage for atorvastatin. For equivalent doses of atorvastatin vs. simvastatin there was no difference in the % change in any of the lipid parameters examined. Within the same genotype there was a significant difference in the % change related to the drug treatment. PMID:26273214

  1. Substrate-dependent modulation of the catalytic activity of CYP3A by erlotinib

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Pei-pei; Fang, Zhong-ze; Zhang, Yan-yan; Ge, Guang-bo; Mao, Yu-xi; Zhu, Liang-liang; Qu, Yan-qing; Li, Wei; Wang, Li-ming; Liu, Chang-xiao; Yang, Ling

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To ascertain the effects of erlotinib on CYP3A, to investigate the amplitude and kinetics of erlotinib-mediated inhibition of seven major CYP isoforms in human liver microsomes (HLMs) for evaluating the magnitude of erlotinib in drug-drug interaction in vivo. Methods: The activities of 7 major CYP isoforms (CYP1A2, CYP2A6, CYP3A, CYP2C9, CYP2D6, CYP2C8, and CYP2E1) were assessed in HLMs using HPLC or UFLC analysis. A two-step incubation method was used to examine the time-dependent inhibition of erlotinib on CYP3A. Results: The activity of CYP2C8 was inhibited with an IC50 value of 6.17±2.0 μmol/L. Erlotinib stimulated the midazolam 1′-hydroxy reaction, but inhibited the formation of 6β-hydroxytestosterone and oxidized nifedipine. Inhibition of CYP3A by erlotinib was substrate-dependent: the IC50 values for inhibiting testosterone 6β-hydroxylation and nifedipine metabolism were 31.3±8.0 and 20.5±5.3 μmol/L, respectively. Erlotinib also exhibited the time-dependent inhibition on CYP3A, regardless of the probe substrate used: the value of KI and kinact were 6.3 μmol/L and 0.035 min−1 for midazolam; 9.0 μmol/L and 0.045 min−1 for testosterone; and 10.1 μmol/L and 0.058 min−1 for nifedipine. Conclusion: The inhibition of CYP3A by erlotinib was substrate-dependent, while its time-dependent inhibition on CYP3A was substrate-independent. The time-dependent inhibition of CYP3A may be a possible cause of drug-drug interaction, suggesting that attention should be paid to the evaluation of erlotinib's safety, especially in the context of combination therapy. PMID:21372830

  2. Safety of Herbal Medicinal Products: Echinacea and Selected Alkylamides Do Not Induce CYP3A4 mRNA Expression.

    PubMed

    Modarai, Maryam; Silva, Elisabete; Suter, Andy; Heinrich, Michael; Kortenkamp, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    A major safety concern with the use of herbal medicinal products (HMP) is their interactions with conventional medicines, which are often mediated via the cytochrome P450 (CYP) system. Echinacea is a widely used over-the-counter HMP, with proven immunomodulatory properties. Its increasing use makes research into its safety an urgent concern. Previously, we showed that Echinacea extracts and its alkylamides (thought to be important for Echinacea's immunomodulatory activity) mildly inhibit the enzymatic activity of the main drug metabolising CYP isoforms, but to this date, there is insufficient work on its ability to alter CYP expression levels. We now report for the first time the effect of a commercial Echinacea extract (Echinaforce) and four Echinacea alkylamides on the transcription of the major drug metabolizing enzyme CYP3A4. HepG2 cells were exposed for 96 h to clinically relevant concentrations of Echinaforce (22, 11.6 and 1.16 μg mL(-1)) or the alkylamides (1.62 and 44 nM). CYP3A4 mRNA levels were quantified using real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Neither Echinaforce nor the alkylamides produced any significant changes in the steady-state CYP3A4 mRNA levels, under these conditions. In contrast, treatment with 50 μM rifampicin resulted in a 3.8-fold up-regulation over the vehicle control. We conclude that Echinaforce is unlikely to affect CYP3A4 transcriptional levels, even at concentrations which can inhibit the enzymatic activity of CYP3A4. Overall, our data provides further evidence for the lack of interactions between Echinacea and conventional drugs. PMID:19906827

  3. Induction of human CYP3A4 by huperzine A, ligustrazine and oridonin through pregnane X receptor-mediated pathways.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi-Wen; Bao, Mei-Hua; Wang, Guo; Qu, Qiang; Zhou, Hong-Hao

    2014-07-01

    The pregnane X receptor (PXR) is a key regulator of CYP3A4, which is involved in catalyzing the metabolic conversion of a number of endogenous substrates. In this study, we screened 22 compounds isolated from traditional Chinese herbal medicines using luciferase reporter gene assays for inspecting their capabilities in inducing PXR-mediated transactivation of CYP3A4 expression. In addition, the mRNA and protein expressions of CYP3A4 and PXR as well as the enzymatic activites of CYP3A4 were analyzed by real-time PCR, Western blot analysis and UPLC-MS/MS-based metabolite assay in LS174T cells. Huperzine A, ligustrazine and oridonin were identified to be the inducers of CYP3A4. These compounds induced the CYP3A4 reporter luciferase activity, and up-regulated CYP3A4 mRNA and protein levels significantly. Besides, huperzine A, ligustrazine and oridonin significantly up-regulated enzymatic activities of CYP3A4. However, the three compounds showed no effects on PXR mRNA and protein expression. To our knowledge, it is the first identification of these three compounds as PXR activators to induce CYP3A4. These results indicate that huperzine A, ligustrazine and oridonin induced CYP3A4 expression and activation via PXR dependent pathways, and might contribute to drug-drug interactions. PMID:25073399

  4. Knockout of mouse Cyp3a gene enhances synthesis of cholesterol and bile acid in the liver[S

    PubMed Central

    Hashimoto, Mari; Kobayashi, Kaoru; Watanabe, Mio; Kazuki, Yasuhiro; Takehara, Shoko; Inaba, Asumi; Nitta, Shin-ichiro; Senda, Naoto; Oshimura, Mitsuo; Chiba, Kan

    2013-01-01

    Here, we studied the effects of cytochrome P450 (CYP)3A deficiency on the mRNA expression of genes encoding regulators of hepatic cholesterol levels using Cyp3a-knockout (Cyp3a−/−) mice. The mRNA expression levels of genes encoding enzymes involved in cholesterol biosynthesis in the livers of Cyp3a−/− mice were higher than those of wild-type (WT) mice. Nuclear levels of sterol regulatory element-binding protein-2 (SREBP-2), which enhances cholesterol biosynthesis, were also higher in the livers of Cyp3a−/− mice. Binding of SREBP-2 to the Hmgcs1 gene promoter was more abundant in the livers of Cyp3a−/− mice. These results suggest that deficiency of CYP3A enzymes enhances transcription of genes encoding enzymes involved in cholesterol biosynthesis via activation of SREBP-2. On the other hand, hepatic cholesterol levels in Cyp3a−/− mice were 20% lower than those in WT mice. The mRNA expression levels of genes encoding enzymes involved in bile acid synthesis, plasma levels of 7α-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one and hepatic levels of total bile acid were significantly higher in Cyp3a−/− mice than in WT mice. These findings suggest that reduction of hepatic total cholesterol in Cyp3a−/− mice would be the consequence of enhanced bile acid synthesis. Therefore, CYP3A enzymes appear to play roles in the synthesis of cholesterol and bile acid in vivo. PMID:23709690

  5. Selection of alternative CYP3A4 probe substrates for clinical drug interaction studies using in vitro data and in vivo simulation.

    PubMed

    Foti, Robert S; Rock, Dan A; Wienkers, Larry C; Wahlstrom, Jan L

    2010-06-01

    Understanding the potential for cytochrome P450-mediated drug-drug interactions (DDIs) is a critical step in the drug discovery process. DDIs of CYP3A4 are of particular importance because of the number of marketed drugs that are cleared by this enzyme. In response to studies that suggested the presence of several binding regions within the CYP3A4 active site, multiple probe substrates are often used for in vitro CYP3A4 DDI studies, including midazolam (the clinical standard), felodipine/nifedipine, and testosterone. However, the design of clinical CYP3A4 DDI studies may be confounded for cases such as 1-(2-hydroxy-2-methylpropyl)-N-[5-(7-methoxyquinolin-4-yloxy)pyridin-2-yl]-5-methyl-3-oxo-2-phenyl-2,3-dihydro-1H-pyrazole-4-carboxamide (AMG 458), with which testosterone is predicted to exhibit a clinically relevant DDI whereas midazolam and felodipine/nifedipine are not. To develop an appropriate path forward for such clinical DDI studies, the inhibition potency of 20 known inhibitors of CYP3A4 were measured in vitro using 8 clinically relevant CYP3A4 probe substrates and testosterone. Hierarchical clustering suggested four probe substrate clusters: testosterone; felodipine; midazolam, buspirone, quinidine, and sildenafil; and simvastatin, budesonide, and fluticasone. The in vivo sensitivities of six clinically relevant CYP3A4 probe substrates (buspirone, cyclosporine, nifedipine, quinidine, sildenafil, and simvastatin) were determined in relation to midazolam from literature DDI data. Buspirone, sildenafil, and simvastatin exhibited similar or greater sensitivity than midazolam to CYP3A4 inhibition in vivo. Finally, Simcyp was used to predict the in vivo magnitude of CYP3A4 DDIs caused by AMG 458 using midazolam, sildenafil, simvastatin, and testosterone as probe substrates. PMID:20203109

  6. Modeling of Rifampicin-Induced CYP3A4 Activation Dynamics for the Prediction of Clinical Drug-Drug Interactions from In Vitro Data

    PubMed Central

    Yamashita, Fumiyoshi; Sasa, Yukako; Yoshida, Shuya; Hisaka, Akihiro; Asai, Yoshiyuki; Kitano, Hiroaki; Hashida, Mitsuru; Suzuki, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    Induction of cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) expression is often implicated in clinically relevant drug-drug interactions (DDI), as metabolism catalyzed by this enzyme is the dominant route of elimination for many drugs. Although several DDI models have been proposed, none have comprehensively considered the effects of enzyme transcription/translation dynamics on induction-based DDI. Rifampicin is a well-known CYP3A4 inducer, and is commonly used as a positive control for evaluating the CYP3A4 induction potential of test compounds. Herein, we report the compilation of in vitro induction data for CYP3A4 by rifampicin in human hepatocytes, and the transcription/translation model developed for this enzyme using an extended least squares method that can account for inherent inter-individual variability. We also developed physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models for the CYP3A4 inducer and CYP3A4 substrates. Finally, we demonstrated that rifampicin-induced DDI can be predicted with reasonable accuracy, and that a static model can be used to simulate DDI once the blood concentration of the inducer reaches a steady state following repeated dosing. This dynamic PBPK-based DDI model was implemented on a new multi-hierarchical physiology simulation platform named PhysioDesigner. PMID:24086247

  7. Role of furanocoumarin derivatives on grapefruit juice-mediated inhibition of human CYP3A activity.

    PubMed

    Guo, L Q; Fukuda, K; Ohta, T; Yamazoe, Y

    2000-07-01

    With juices of grapefruit and related fruits, possible relationships between contents of six different furanocoumarins and extents of inhibition of microsomal CYP3A activity have been studied in vitro. Microsomal CYP3A-mediated testosterone 6beta-hydroxylation was inhibited by the addition of a fruit juice (2.5%, v/v) from eight different grapefruit sources, two sweeties, three pomelos, and one sour orange, whereas no clear inhibition was observed with two sweet orange juices. The inhibitory component in grapefruit juice resides mainly in the precipitate rather than in the supernatant after centrifugation. Higher amounts of (R)-6',7'-dihydroxybergamottin (DHB) were distributed in the supernatant, whereas GF-I-1, GF-I-2, GF-I-4, and the newly isolated GF-I-5 and GF-I-6 were detected predominantly in the precipitate. Mixing of five representative furanocoumarins at their detectable levels in grapefruit juice reproduced roughly the inhibitory potencies of grapefruit juice, but omission of any of the components resulted in decreased potencies. These results suggested that all the major furanocoumarins contributed to the CYP3A inhibitory properties of grapefruit juice. Furthermore, all six furanocoumarins showed stronger CYP3A inhibitory potencies after preincubation in the presence of NADPH, suggesting that both competitive and mechanism-based inhibition occur in a grapefruit juices-drug interaction. PMID:10859150

  8. Effect of CYP3A perpetrators on ibrutinib exposure in healthy participants

    PubMed Central

    de Jong, Jan; Skee, Donna; Murphy, Joe; Sukbuntherng, Juthamas; Hellemans, Peter; Smit, Johan; de Vries, Ronald; Jiao, Juhui James; Snoeys, Jan; Mannaert, Erik

    2015-01-01

    Ibrutinib (PCI-32765), a potent covalent inhibitor of Bruton’s tyrosine kinase, has shown efficacy against a variety of B-cell malignancies. Given the prominent role of CYP3A in ibrutinib metabolism, effect of coadministration of CYP3A perpetrators with ibrutinib was evaluated in healthy adults. Ibrutinib (120 mg [Study 1, fasted], 560 mg [studies 2 (fasted), and 3 (nonfasted)]) was given alone and with ketoconazole [Study 1; 400 mg q.d.], rifampin [Study 2; 600 mg q.d.], and grapefruit juice [GFJ, Study 3]. Lower doses of ibrutinib were used together with CYP3A inhibitors [Study 1: 40 mg; Study 3: 140 mg], as safety precaution. Under fasted condition, ketoconazole increased ibrutinib dose-normalized (DN) exposure [DN-AUClast: 24-fold; DN-Cmax: 29-fold], rifampin decreased ibrutinib exposure [Cmax: 13-fold; AUClast: 10-fold]. Under nonfasted condition, GFJ caused a moderate increase [DN-Cmax: 3.5-fold; DN-AUC: 2.2-fold], most likely through inhibition of intestinal CYP3A. Half-life was not affected by CYP perpetrators indicating the interaction was mainly on first-pass extraction. All treatments were well-tolerated. PMID:26171235

  9. Hepatic and intestinal CYP3A expression and activity in broilers.

    PubMed

    Osselaere, A; De Bock, L; Eeckhaut, V; De Backer, P; Van Bocxlaer, J; Boussery, K; Croubels, S

    2013-12-01

    Cytochrome P450 is involved in drug metabolism. Subfamily CYP3A shows a degree of similarity across different animal species. However, little information is available about its expression and activity in broiler chickens. A RT-PCR method was developed for the quantification of CYP3A37 expression in the liver and small intestine of broilers. A higher expression in the jejunum was observed compared with that in the ileum. In the liver, a significantly lower expression compared with that in the jejunum was noticed. Thus, the role of the small bowel in drug metabolism cannot be neglected in broilers. CYP3A activity was studied in vitro using midazolam as a substrate. Two protocols for the preparation of intestinal microsomes were compared. Mincing of the tissues before ultracentrifugation seemed to be more appropriate than a protocol based on ethylenediaminetetra-acetic acid separation. CYP3A activity revealed to be the highest in the duodenum with a decreasing trend towards the ileum. Activity in liver was comparable to duodenal activity. PMID:23330986

  10. Hydroxylation of 20-hydroxyvitamin D3 by human CYP3A4.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Chloe Y S; Slominski, Andrzej T; Tuckey, Robert C

    2016-05-01

    20S-Hydroxyvitamin D3 [20(OH)D3] is the biologically active major product of the action of CYP11A1 on vitamin D3 and is present in human plasma. 20(OH)D3 displays similar therapeutic properties to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3], but without causing hypercalcaemia and therefore has potential for development as a therapeutic drug. CYP24A1, the kidney mitochondrial P450 involved in inactivation of 1,25(OH)2D3, can hydroxylate 20(OH)D3 at C24 and C25, with the products displaying more potent inhibition of melanoma cell proliferation than 20(OH)D3. CYP3A4 is the major drug-metabolising P450 in liver endoplasmic reticulum and can metabolise other active forms of vitamin D, so we examined its ability to metabolise 20(OH)D3. We found that CYP3A4 metabolises 20(OH)D3 to three major products, 20,24R-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [20,24R(OH)2D3], 20,24S-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [20,24S(OH)2D3] and 20,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [20,25(OH)2D3]. 20,24R(OH)2D3 and 20,24S(OH)2D3, but not 20,25(OH)2D3, were further metabolised to trihydroxyvitamin D3 products by CYP3A4 but with low catalytic efficiency. The same three primary products, 20,24R(OH)2D3, 20,24S(OH)2D3 and 20,25(OH)2D3, were observed for the metabolism of 20(OH)D3 by human liver microsomes, in which CYP3A4 is a major CYP isoform present. Addition of CYP3A family-specific inhibitors, troleandomycin and azamulin, almost completely inhibited production of 20,24R(OH)2D3, 20,24S(OH)2D3 and 20,25(OH)2D3 by human liver microsomes, further supporting that CYP3A4 plays the major role in 20(OH)D3 metabolism by microsomes. Since both 20,24R(OH)2D3 and 20,25(OH)2D3 have previously been shown to display enhanced biological activity in inhibiting melanoma cell proliferation, our results show that CYP3A4 further activates, rather than inactivates, 20(OH)D3. PMID:26970587

  11. Inhibitory effects of citrus fruits on cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A) activity in humans.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Ken-Ichi; Hidaka, Muneaki; Takamura, Norito; Yamasaki, Keishi; Iwakiri, Tomomi; Okumura, Manabu; Kodama, Hirofumi; Yamaguchi, Masatoshi; Ikenoue, Tsuyomu; Arimori, Kazuhiko

    2003-09-01

    The capacities of citrus fruits to inhibit midazolam 1'-hydroxylase activity of cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A) expressed in human liver microsomes were evaluated. Eight citrus fruits such as ama-natsu, banpeiyu, Dekopon, hassaku, hyuga-natsu, completely matured kinkan (Tamatama), takaoka-buntan and unshu-mikan were tested. We also examined the inhibition of CYP3A activity by grapefruit (white) and grapefruit juice (white, Tropicana-Kirin). The addition of a fruit juice prepared from banpeiyu, hassaku, takaoka-buntan or Tamatama caused the inhibition of the microsomal CYP3A activity. The inhibition depended on the amount of a fruit juice added to the incubation mixture (2.5 and 5.0%, v/v). The fruit juice from banpeiyu showed the most potent inhibition of CYP3A. The addition of a banpeiyu juice (5.0%, v/v) resulted in the inhibition of midazolam 1'-hydroxylase activity to about 20% of control without a fruit juice. The elongation of the preincubation period of a fruit juice from banpeiyu (5.0%, v/v) with the microsomal fraction (5 to 15 min) led to the enhancement of the CYP3A inhibition (5% of control). Thus, we discovered ingredients of banpeiyu to be inhibitor(s) or mechanism-based inhibitor(s) of human CYP3A activity, but the inhibitory effects of them were somewhat lower than those of grapefruit. PMID:12951492

  12. Sertraline-induced potentiation of the CYP3A4-dependent neurotoxicity of carbamazepine: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Chaitali; Hossain, Mohammad; Spriggs, Addison; Ghosh, Arnab; Grant, Gerald A.; Marchi, Nicola; Perucca, Emilio; Janigro, Damir

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Objective Drug toxicity is a hurdle to drug development and to clinical translation of basic research. Antiepileptic drugs such as carbamazepine (CBZ) and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors such as sertraline (SRT) are commonly co-prescribed to patients with epilepsy and comorbid depression. Because SRT may interfere with cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzyme activity and CYPs have been implicated in the conversion of CBZ to reactive cytotoxic metabolites, we investigated in vitro models to determine whether SRT affects the neurotoxic potential of CBZ and the mechanisms involved. Methods Human fetal brain-derived dopaminergic neurons, human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMECs), and embryonic kidney (HEK) cells were used to evaluate cytotoxicity of CBZ and SRT individually and in combination. Nitrite and glutathione (GSH) levels were measured with drug exposure. To validate the role of CYP3A4 in causing neurotoxicity, drug metabolism was compared to cell death in HEK CYP3A4 overex-pressed and cells pretreated with the CYP3A4 inhibitor ketoconazole. Results In all cellular systems tested, exposure to CBZ (127 μM) or SRT (5 μM) alone caused negligible cytotoxicity. By contrast CBZ, tested at a much lower concentration (17 μM) in combination with SRT (5 μM), produced prominent cytotoxicity within 15 min exposure. In neurons and HBMECs, cytotoxicity was associated with increased nitrite levels, suggesting involvement of free radicals as a pathogenetic mechanism. Pretreatment of HBMECs with reduced GSH or with the GSH precursor N-acetyl-L-cysteine prevented cytotoxic response. In HEK cells, the cytotoxic response to the CBZ + SRT combination correlated with the rate of CBZ biotransformation and production of 2-hydroxy CBZ, further suggesting a causative role of reactive metabolites. In the same system, cytotoxicity was potentiated by overexpression of CYP3A4, and prevented by CYP3A4 inhibitor. Significance These results demonstrate an unexpected

  13. Endosulfan induces CYP2B6 and CYP3A4 by activating the pregnane X receptor.

    PubMed

    Casabar, Richard C T; Das, Parikshit C; Dekrey, Gregory K; Gardiner, Catherine S; Cao, Yan; Rose, Randy L; Wallace, Andrew D

    2010-06-15

    Endosulfan is an organochlorine pesticide commonly used in agriculture. Endosulfan has affects on vertebrate xenobiotic metabolism pathways that may be mediated, in part, by its ability to activate the pregnane X receptor (PXR) and/or the constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) which can elevate expression of cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes. This study examined the dose-dependency and receptor specificity of CYP induction in vitro and in vivo. The HepG2 cell line was transiently transfected with CYP2B6- and CYP3A4-luciferase promoter reporter plasmids along with human PXR (hPXR) or hCAR expression vectors. In the presence of hPXR, endosulfan-alpha exposure caused significant induction of CYP2B6 (16-fold) and CYP3A4 (11-fold) promoter activities over control at 10 microM. The metabolite endosulfan sulfate also induced CYP2B6 (12-fold) and CYP3A4 (6-fold) promoter activities over control at 10 microM. In the presence of hCAR-3, endosulfan-alpha induced CYP2B6 (2-fold) promoter activity at 10 microM, but not at lower concentrations. These data indicate that endosulfan-alpha significantly activates hPXR strongly and hCAR weakly. Using western blot analysis of human hepatocytes, the lowest concentrations at which CYP2B6 and CYP3A4 protein levels were found to be significantly elevated by endosulfan-alpha were 1.0 microM and 10 microM, respectively. In mPXR-null/hPXR-transgenic mice, endosulfan-alpha exposure (2.5mg/kg/day) caused a significant reduction of tribromoethanol-induced sleep times by approximately 50%, whereas no significant change in sleep times was observed in PXR-null mice. These data support the role of endosulfan-alpha as a strong activator of PXR and inducer of CYP2B6 and CYP3A4, which may impact metabolism of CYP2B6 or CYP3A4 substrates. PMID:20361990

  14. Endosulfan induces CYP2B6 and CYP3A4 by activating the pregnane X receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Casabar, Richard C.T.; Das, Parikshit C.; DeKrey, Gregory K.; Gardiner, Catherine S.; Cao Yan; Rose, Randy L.; Wallace, Andrew D.

    2010-06-15

    Endosulfan is an organochlorine pesticide commonly used in agriculture. Endosulfan has affects on vertebrate xenobiotic metabolism pathways that may be mediated, in part, by its ability to activate the pregnane X receptor (PXR) and/or the constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) which can elevate expression of cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes. This study examined the dose-dependency and receptor specificity of CYP induction in vitro and in vivo. The HepG2 cell line was transiently transfected with CYP2B6- and CYP3A4-luciferase promoter reporter plasmids along with human PXR (hPXR) or hCAR expression vectors. In the presence of hPXR, endosulfan-alpha exposure caused significant induction of CYP2B6 (16-fold) and CYP3A4 (11-fold) promoter activities over control at 10 {mu}M. The metabolite endosulfan sulfate also induced CYP2B6 (12-fold) and CYP3A4 (6-fold) promoter activities over control at 10 {mu}M. In the presence of hCAR-3, endosulfan-alpha induced CYP2B6 (2-fold) promoter activity at 10 {mu}M, but not at lower concentrations. These data indicate that endosulfan-alpha significantly activates hPXR strongly and hCAR weakly. Using western blot analysis of human hepatocytes, the lowest concentrations at which CYP2B6 and CYP3A4 protein levels were found to be significantly elevated by endosulfan-alpha were 1.0 {mu}M and 10 {mu}M, respectively. In mPXR-null/hPXR-transgenic mice, endosulfan-alpha exposure (2.5 mg/kg/day) caused a significant reduction of tribromoethanol-induced sleep times by approximately 50%, whereas no significant change in sleep times was observed in PXR-null mice. These data support the role of endosulfan-alpha as a strong activator of PXR and inducer of CYP2B6 and CYP3A4, which may impact metabolism of CYP2B6 or CYP3A4 substrates.

  15. Modeling of drug-mediated CYP3A4 induction by using human iPS cell-derived enterocyte-like cells.

    PubMed

    Negoro, Ryosuke; Takayama, Kazuo; Nagamoto, Yasuhito; Sakurai, Fuminori; Tachibana, Masashi; Mizuguchi, Hiroyuki

    2016-04-15

    Many drugs have potential to induce the expression of drug-metabolizing enzymes, particularly cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4), in small intestinal enterocytes. Therefore, a model that can accurately evaluate drug-mediated CYP3A4 induction is urgently needed. In this study, we overlaid Matrigel on the human induced pluripotent stem cells-derived enterocyte-like cells (hiPS-ELCs) to generate the mature hiPS-ELCs that could be applied to drug-mediated CYP3A4 induction test. By overlaying Matrigel in the maturation process of enterocyte-like cells, the gene expression levels of intestinal markers (VILLIN, sucrase-isomaltase, intestine-specific homeobox, caudal type homeobox 2, and intestinal fatty acid-binding protein) were enhanced suggesting that the enterocyte-like cells were maturated by Matrigel overlay. The percentage of VILLIN-positive cells in the hiPS-ELCs found to be approximately 55.6%. To examine the CYP3A4 induction potential, the hiPS-ELCs were treated with various drugs. Treatment with dexamethasone, phenobarbital, rifampicin, or 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 resulted in 5.8-fold, 13.4-fold, 9.8-fold, or 95.0-fold induction of CYP3A4 expression relative to that in the untreated controls, respectively. These results suggest that our hiPS-ELCs would be a useful model for CYP3A4 induction test. PMID:26966071

  16. Prediction of variability in CYP3A4 induction using a combined 1H NMR metabonomics and targeted UPLC-MS approach.

    PubMed

    Rahmioglu, Nilufer; Le Gall, Gwénaëlle; Heaton, James; Kay, Kristine L; Smith, Norman W; Colquhoun, Ian J; Ahmadi, Kourosh R; Kemsley, E Kate

    2011-06-01

    The activity of Cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) enzyme is associated with many adverse or poor therapeutic responses to drugs. We used (1)H NMR-based metabonomics to identify a metabolic signature associated with variation in induced CYP3A4 activity. A total of 301 female twins, aged 45--84, participated in this study. Each volunteer was administered a potent inducer of CYP3A4 (St. John's Wort) for 14 days and the activity of CYP3A4 was quantified through the metabolism of the exogenously administered probe drug quinine sulfate (300 mg). Pre- and postintervention fasting urine samples were used to obtain metabolite profiles, using (1)H NMR spectroscopy, and were analyzed using UPLC--MS to obtain a marker for CYP3A4 induction, via the ratio of 3-hydroxyquinine to quinine (3OH-Q:Q). Multiple linear regression was used to build a predictive model for 3OH-Q:Q values based on the preintervention metabolite profiles. A combination of seven metabolites and seven covariates showed a strong (r = 0.62) relationship with log(3OH-Q:Q). This regression model demonstrated significant (p < 0.00001) predictive ability when applied to an independent validation set. Our results highlight the promise of metabonomics for predicting CYP3A4-mediated drug response. PMID:21491888

  17. Substrate-specific modulation of CYP3A4 activity by genetic variants of cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR)

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Vishal; Choi, Ji Ha; Giacomini, Kathleen M.; Miller, Walter L.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives CYP3A4 receives electrons from P450 oxidoreductase (POR) to metabolize about 50% of clinically used drugs. There is substantial inter-individual variation in CYP3A4 catalytic activity that is not explained by CYP3A4 genetic variants. CYP3A4 is flexible and distensible, permitting it to accommodate substrates varying in shape and size. To elucidate mechanisms of variability in CYP3A4 catalysis, we examined the effects of genetic variants of POR, and explored the possibility that substrate-induced conformational changes in CYP3A4 differentially affect the ability of POR variants to support catalysis. Methods We expressed human CYP3A4 and four POR variants (Q153R, A287P, R457H, A503V) in bacteria, reconstituted them in vitro and measured the Michaelis constant and maximum velocity with testosterone, midazolam, quinidine and erythromycin as substrates. Results POR A287P and R457H had low activity with all substrates; Q153R had 76–94% of wild type (WT) activity with midazolam and erythromycin, but 129–150% activity with testosterone and quinidine. The A503V polymorphism reduced CYP3A4 activity to 61–77% of wild type with testosterone and midazolam, but had nearly wild type activity with quinidine and erythromycin. Conclusion POR variants affect CYP3A4 activities. The impact of a POR variant on catalysis by CYP3A4 is substrate-specific, probably due to substrate-induced conformational changes in CYP3A4. PMID:20697309

  18. GW4064, an agonist of farnesoid X receptor, represses CYP3A4 expression in human hepatocytes by inducing small heterodimer partner expression.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shu; Pan, Xian; Jeong, Hyunyoung

    2015-05-01

    Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) functions as a regulator of bile acid and lipid homeostasis and is recognized as a promising therapeutic target for metabolic diseases. The biologic function of FXR is mediated in part by a small heterodimer partner (SHP); ligand-activated FXR enhances SHP expression, and SHP in turn represses the activity of multiple transcription factors. This study aimed to investigate the effect of FXR activation on expression of the major drug-metabolizing enzyme CYP3A4. The effects of 3-(2,6-dichlorophenyl)-4-(3'-carboxy-2-chlorostilben-4-yl)oxymethyl-5-isopropylisoxazole (GW4064), a synthetic agonist of FXR, on the expression and activity of CYP3A4 were examined in primary human hepatocytes by using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and S9 phenotyping. In human hepatocytes, treatment of GW4064 (1 μM) for 48 hours resulted in a 75% decrease in CYP3A4 mRNA expression and a 25% decrease in CYP3A4 activity, accompanied by ∼3-fold increase in SHP mRNA expression. In HepG2 cells, SHP repressed transactivation of CYP3A4 promoter by pregnane X receptor (PXR), constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), and glucocorticoid receptor. Interestingly, GW4064 did not repress expression of CYP2B6, another target gene of PXR and CAR; GW4064 enhanced CYP2B6 promoter activity. In conclusion, GW4064 represses CYP3A4 expression in human hepatocytes, potentially through upregulation of SHP expression and subsequent repression of CYP3A4 promoter activity. Clinically significant drug-drug interaction involving FXR agonists and CYP3A4 substrates may occur. PMID:25725071

  19. Itraconazole and clarithromycin as ketoconazole alternatives for clinical CYP3A inhibition studies.

    PubMed

    Ke, A B; Zamek-Gliszczynski, M J; Higgins, J W; Hall, S D

    2014-05-01

    High-dose ketoconazole (400 mg q.d. for ≥5 days) has been the gold-standard strong cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A) inhibitor in drug development drug-drug interaction (DDI) studies. In 2013, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the European Medicines Agency (EMA) advised against using this ketoconazole regimen following review of clinical safety reports. We systematically evaluated 19 strong CYP3A inhibitors from regulatory guidances and a literature database to identify itraconazole (200 mg b.i.d. on day 1, q.d. on days 2-6) and clarithromycin (500 mg b.i.d. for 7 days) as acceptable ketoconazole alternatives. PMID:24747234

  20. Tamoxifen-associated hot flash severity is inversely correlated with endoxifen concentration and CYP3A4*22.

    PubMed

    Baxter, Simon D; Teft, Wendy A; Choi, Yun-Hee; Winquist, Eric; Kim, Richard B

    2014-06-01

    Tamoxifen use is often limited in some patients due to adverse effects including severe hot flash symptoms. Tamoxifen undergoes hepatic bioactivation by CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 to form the active metabolite endoxifen. It remains unclear whether the extent of attained endoxifen level or genetic polymorphisms in drug metabolizing enzymes is associated with the frequency and severity of hot flashes. We conducted a prospective study using self-reported surveys to assess tamoxifen side effects experienced during the week prior to clinic visits of 132 female breast cancer patients on tamoxifen therapy, and hot flash severity scores were tabulated. At the time of clinic visit, blood samples were obtained to determine tamoxifen and its metabolite levels and to determine CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 genotypes. The majority of participants (77 %) experienced hot flashes, with 11 % experiencing severe or very severe symptoms. We observed an inverse correlation between endoxifen concentration and hot flash severity score following adjustment for age, BMI, and menopausal status in patients with non-zero scores (p < 0.001). Interestingly, CYP2D6 genotype was not significantly associated with hot flash scores in patients on no known inhibitory medications. However, CYP3A4*22 carriers were less likely to have hot flashes with an odds ratio of 8.87 (p < 0.01) even when compared to a cohort with similar endoxifen levels. Our data demonstrate that patients with higher endoxifen levels tended to predict lower hot flash severity scores. Importantly, this is the first study to show CYP3A4*22 genotype as an independent predictor of hot flash severity during tamoxifen therapy. PMID:24744093

  1. The role of CYP3A4 in the biotransformation of bile acids and therapeutic implication for cholestasis

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Kong-Nan; Chen, Chen

    2014-01-01

    CYP3A4 is a major cytochrome P450. It catalyses a broad range of substrates including xenobiotics such as clinically used drugs and endogenous compounds bile acids. Its function to detoxify bile acids could be used for treating cholestasis, which is a condition characterised by accumulation of bile acids. Although bile acids have important physiological functions, they are very toxic when their concentrations are excessively high. The accumulated bile acids in cholestasis can cause liver and other tissue injuries. Thus, control of the concentrations of bile acids is critical for treatment of cholestasis. CYP3A4 is responsively upregulated in cholestasis mediated by the nuclear receptors farnesol X receptor (FXR) and pregnane X receptor (PXR) as a defence mechanism. However, the regulation of CYP3A4 is complicated by estrogen, which is increased in cholestasis and down regulates CYP3A4 expression. The activity of CYP3A4 is also inhibited by accumulated bile acids due to their property of detergent effect. In some cholestasis cases, genetic polymorphisms of the CYP3A4 and PXR genes may interfere with the adaptive response. Further stimulation of CYP3A4 activity in cholestasis could be an effective approach for treatment of the disease. In this review, we summarise recent progress about the roles of CYP3A4 in the metabolism of bile acids, its regulation and possible implication in the treatment of cholestasis. PMID:25332983

  2. Effect of proteasome inhibition on toxicity and CYP3A23 induction in cultured rat hepatocytes: Comparison with arsenite

    SciTech Connect

    Noreault-Conti, Trisha L.; Jacobs, Judith M.; Trask, Heidi W.; Wrighton, Steven A.; Sinclair, Jacqueline F.; Nichols, Ralph C. . E-mail: ralph.c.nichols@dartmouth.edu

    2006-12-15

    Previous work in our laboratory has shown that acute exposure of primary rat hepatocyte cultures to non-toxic concentrations of arsenite causes major decreases in the DEX-mediated induction of CYP3A23 protein, with minor decreases in CYP3A23 mRNA. To elucidate the mechanism for these effects of arsenite, the effects of arsenite and proteasome inhibition, separately and in combination, on induction of CYP3A23 protein were compared. The proteasome inhibitor, MG132, inhibited proteasome activity, but also decreased CYP3A23 mRNA and protein. Lactacystin, another proteasome inhibitor, decreased CYP3A23 protein without affecting CYP3A23 mRNA at a concentration that effectively inhibited proteasome activity. This result, suggesting that the action of lactacystin is similar to arsenite and was post-transcriptional, was confirmed by the finding that lactacystin decreased association of DEX-induced CYP3A23 mRNA with polyribosomes. Both MG132 and lactacystin inhibited total protein synthesis, but did not affect MTT reduction. Arsenite had no effect on ubiquitination of proteins, nor did arsenite significantly affect proteasomal activity. These results suggest that arsenite and lactacystin act by similar mechanisms to inhibit translation of CYP3A23.

  3. PXR-Mediated Upregulation of CYP3A Expression by Herb Compound Praeruptorin C from Peucedanum praeruptorum Dunn

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ling; Wu, Qian; Li, Yu-Hua; Wang, Yi-Tao; Bi, Hui-Chang

    2013-01-01

    We recently reported that Praeruptorin C effectively transactivated the mRNA, protein expression, and catalytic activity of CYP3A4 via the CAR-mediated pathway, but whether and how PC could affect the expression and catalytic activity of CYP3A4 via PXR pathway remains unknown. Therefore, in this study, the effect of PC on the CYP3A gene expression was investigated in mice primary hepatocytes after knockdown of PXR by transient transfection of PXR siRNA, and the gene expression, protein expression, and catalytic activity of CYP3A4 in the LS174T cells with PXR overexpression were determined by real-time PCR, western blot analysis, and LC-MS/MS-based CYP3A4 substrate assay, respectively. We found that the level of CYP3a11 gene expression in mouse primary hepatocytes was significantly increased by praeruptorin C, but such an induction was suppressed after knockdown of pregnane X receptor by its siRNA. In PXR-overexpressed LS174T cells, PC significantly enhanced CYP3A4 mRNA, protein expression, and functional activity through PXR-mediated pathway; conversely, no such increase was found in the untransfected cells. These findings suggest that PC can significantly upregulate CYP3A level via the PXR-mediated pathway, and this should be taken into consideration to predict any potential herb-drug interactions between PC, Qianhu, and the other coadministered drugs. PMID:24379885

  4. Pharmacokinetics of ruboxistaurin are significantly altered by rifampicin-mediated CYP3A4 induction

    PubMed Central

    Yeo, Kwee Poo; Lowe, Stephen L; Lim, Ming Tung; Voelker, James R; Burkey, Jennifer L; Wise, Stephen D

    2006-01-01

    Aims The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of rifampicin co-administration on the pharmacokinetics of ruboxistaurin and its active metabolite, N-desmethyl ruboxistaurin and, in addition, to compare the changes in pharmacokinetics of ruboxistaurin and N-desmethyl ruboxistaurin with the urinary 6β-hydroxycortisol : cortisol ratio. Ruboxistaurin is a specific protein-kinase-C β inhibitor in clinical development for the treatment of diabetic microvascular complications. Methods This was a two-period, one-sequence study. Sixteen healthy male subjects completed both study periods. In period one, a single 64 mg oral dose of ruboxistaurin was administered. In period two, 600 mg rifampicin was administered daily for 9 days, during which another single 64 mg ruboxistaurin dose was administered on day 7. Blood samples were collected and assayed for ruboxistaurin and N-desmethyl ruboxistaurin. CYP3A4 induction was assessed by ratios of urinary 6β-hydroxycortisol : cortisol (6β-OHC : C) obtained via 24 h and morning-spot sampling techniques. Results Following repeated doses of rifampicin, both the mean Cmax and AUC(0,∞) of ruboxistaurin were significantly reduced by approximately 95% (P ≤ 0.001). For the metabolite, the mean Cmax decreased by 68% (P ≤ 0.001), and AUC(0,∞) decreased by 77% (P ≤ 0.001). The tmax values did not appear affected. The 6β-OHC : C ratios from both 24 h and morning spot methods increased significantly, consistent with CYP3A4 induction. Conclusions The effect of rifampicin co-administration on the exposure of ruboxistaurin is consistent with ruboxistaurin being a substrate of CYP3A4. Therefore, co-administration with known CYP3A4 inducing agents (rifampicin, carbamazepine, phenobarbital, etc.) may decrease the concentrations of ruboxistaurin and N-desmethyl-ruboxistaurin. In this study, 6β OHC : C ratios substantially underestimated the impact of rifampicin on ruboxistaurin. PMID:16433874

  5. Trichostatin A, a histone deacetylase inhibitor stimulate CYP3A4 proximal promoter activity in Hepa-I cells.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Mee Ryung; Kim, Dae-Kee; Sheen, Yhun Yhong

    2004-04-01

    Cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) is the most abundant CYPs in human liver, comprising approximately 30% of the total liver CYPs contents and is involved in the metabolism of more than 60% of currently used therapeutic drugs. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying regulation of CYP3A4 gene expression have not been understood. Thus, this study has been carried out to gain the insight of the molecular mechanism of CYP3A4 gene expression, investigating if the histone deacetylation is involved in the regulation of CYP3A4 gene expression by proximal promoter. Also SXR was investigated to see if they were involved in the regulation of CYP3A4 proximal promoter activity. Hepa-I cells were transfected with a plasmid containing approximately 1 kb of the human CYP3A4 proximal promoter region (863 to +64 bp) cloned in front of a reporter gene, luciferase, in the presence or absence of SXR. Transfected cells were treated with CYP3A4 inducers such as rifampicin, PCN and RU 486, in order to examine the regulation of CYP3A4 gene expression in the presence or absence of trichostatin A (TSA). In Hepa-I cells, CYP3A4 inducers increased modestly the luciferase activity when TSA was co-treated, but this increment was not enhanced by SXR cotransfection. Taken together, these results indicated that the inhibition of histone deacetylation was required to SXR-mediated increase in CYP3A4 proximal promoter region when rifampicin, or PCN was treated. Further a trans-activation by SXR may demand other species-specific transcription factors. PMID:15180307

  6. Diindolylmethane, a naturally occurring compound, induces CYP3A4 and MDR1 gene expression by activating human PXR

    PubMed Central

    Pondugula, Satyanarayana R.; Flannery, Patrick C.; Abbott, Kodye L.; Coleman, Elaine S.; Mani, Sridhar; Samuel, Temesgen; Xie, Wen

    2015-01-01

    Activation of human pregnane X receptor (hPXR)-regulated expression of cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) and multidrug resistance protein 1 (MDR1) plays an important role in mediating adverse drug interactions. Given the common use of natural products as part of adjunct human health behavior, there is a growing concern about natural products for their potential to induce undesired drug interactions through the activation of hPXR-regulated CYP3A4 and MDR1. Here, we studied whether 3,3′-diindolylmethane (DIM), a natural health supplement, could induce hPXR-mediated regulation of CYP3A4 and MDR1 in human hepatocytes and intestinal cells. DIM, at its physiologically relevant concentrations, not only induced hPXR transactivation of CYP3A4 promoter activity but also induced gene expression of CYP3A4 and MDR1. DIM decreased intracellular accumulation of MDR1 substrate rhodamine 123, suggesting that DIM induces the functional expression of MDR1. Pharmacologic inhibition or genetic knockdown of hPXR resulted in attenuation of DIM induced CYP3A4 and MDR1 gene expression, suggesting that DIM induces CYP3A4 and MDR1 in an hPXR-dependent manner. Together, these results support our conclusion that DIM induces hPXR-regulated CYP3A4 and MDR1 gene expression. The inductive effects of DIM on CYP3A4 and MDR1 expression caution the use of DIM in conjunction with other medications metabolized and transported via CYP3A4 and MDR1, respectively. PMID:25542144

  7. Magic-Angle Spinning Solid-State NMR Spectroscopy of Nanodisc– Embedded Human CYP3A4†

    PubMed Central

    Kijac, Aleksandra; Li, Ying; Sligar, Stephen G.; Rienstra, Chad M.

    2008-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 contributes to the metabolism of approximately 50% of commercial drugs by oxidizing a large number of structurally diverse substrates. Like other endoplasmic reticulum-localized P450s, CYP3A4 contains a membrane-anchoring N-terminal helix and a significant number of hydrophobic domains, important for the interaction between CYP3A4 and the membrane. Although the membrane affects specificity of CYP3A4 ligand binding, the structural details of the interaction have not been revealed so far because x-ray crystallography studies are available only for the soluble domain of CYP3A4. Here we report sample preparation and initial magic-angle spinning (MAS) solid-state NMR (SSNMR) of CYP3A4 (Δ3−12) embedded in a nanoscale membrane bilayer, or Nanodisc. The growth protocol yields ∼2.5 mg of the enzymatically active, uniformly 13C, 15N-enriched CYP3A4 from a liter of growth medium. Polyethylene glycol 3350-precipitated CYP3A4 in Nanodiscs yields spectra of high resolution and sensitivity, consistent with a folded, homogeneous protein. CYP3A4 in Nanodiscs remains enzymatically active throughout the precipitation protocol as monitored by bromocriptine binding. The 13C line widths measured from 13C-13C 2D chemical shift correlation spectra are ∼0.5 ppm. The secondary structure distribution within several amino acid types determined from 13C chemical shifts is consistent with the ligand-free x-ray structures. These results demonstrate that MAS SSNMR can be performed on Nanodisc-embedded membrane proteins in a folded, active state. The combination of SSNMR and Nanodisc methodologies opens up new possibilities for obtaining structural information on CYP3A4 and other integral membrane proteins with full retention of functionality. PMID:17985934

  8. Genetic variation of CYP3A5 influences paclitaxel/carboplatin-induced toxicity in Chinese epithelial ovarian cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Hu, Lei; Lv, Qiao-Li; Guo, Ying; Cheng, Lin; Wu, Na-Yiyuan; Qin, Chong-Zhen; Zhou, Hong-Hao

    2016-03-01

    Combination chemotherapy with platinum and taxane is the first-line treatment for ovarian cancer. The dose-limiting toxicities of these drugs include neuropathy, leukopenia, and neutropenia, but they exhibit substantial interindividual variability. This study investigated the relationship between CYP3A5 polymorphisms and paclitaxel/carboplatin-induced toxicity in Chinese epithelial ovarian cancer patients. Seventy-five patients with epithelial ovarian cancer were recruited. After combination chemotherapy, genotype analysis was conducted, and toxic effects were evaluated according to the Common Toxicity Criteria. A significant association was found between myelosuppression and the CYP3A5*3 genotype. CYP3A5*3/*1 patients showed a significantly higher risk of developing leukopenia (P < .001; Pearson's χ(2) test) and neutropenia (P < .001; Pearson's χ(2) test) than CYP3A5*3*3 patients. CYP3A5*3/*3 patients had significantly higher median leukocyte and neutrophil nadir counts than CYP3A5*3*1 patients (P < .001, Mann-Whitney U test). However, we did not observe an association between neuropathy and CYP3A5*3 in this study (P =.64; Pearson's χ(2) test). This is the first study to verify the influence of CYP3A5 polymorphisms on paclitaxel/carboplatin-induced toxicity in Chinese epithelial ovarian cancer patients. Our findings suggest that interindividual variability in paclitaxel/carboplatin-induced myelosuppression can be predicted by CYP3A5*3 genotyping and that incorporation of CYP3A5*3 genetic data in treatment selection could help to reduce myelosuppression events, thereby individualizing paclitaxel/carboplatin pharmacotherapy. PMID:26179145

  9. A Fibroblast Growth Factor 21-Pregnane X Receptor Pathway Downregulates Hepatic CYP3A4 in Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

    PubMed

    Woolsey, Sarah J; Beaton, Melanie D; Mansell, Sara E; Leon-Ponte, Matilde; Yu, Janice; Pin, Christopher L; Adams, Paul C; Kim, Richard B; Tirona, Rommel G

    2016-10-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) alters drug response. We previously reported that NAFLD is associated with reduced in vivo CYP3A drug-metabolism activity and hepatic CYP3A4 expression in humans as well as mouse and human hepatoma models of the disease. Here, we investigated the role of the lipid- and glucose-modulating hormone fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) in the molecular mechanism regulating CYP3A4 expression in NAFLD. In human subjects, mouse and cellular NAFLD models with lower CYP3A4 expression, circulating FGF21, or hepatic FGF21 mRNA levels were elevated. Administration of recombinant FGF21 or transient hepatic overexpression of FGF21 resulted in reduced liver CYP3A4 luciferase reporter activity in mice and decreased CYP3A4 mRNA expression and activity in cultured Huh7 hepatoma cells. Blocking canonical FGF21 signaling by pharmacological inhibition of MEK1 kinase in Huh7 cells caused de-repression of CYP3A4 mRNA expression with FGF21 treatment. Mice with high-fat diet-induced simple hepatic steatosis and lipid-loaded Huh7 cells had reduced nuclear localization of the pregnane X receptor (PXR), a key transcriptional regulator of CYP3A4 Furthermore, decreased nuclear PXR was observed in mouse liver and Huh7 cells after FGF21 treatment or FGF21 overexpression. Decreased PXR binding to the CYP3A4 proximal promoter was found in FGF21-treated Huh7 cells. An FGF21-PXR signaling pathway may be involved in decreased hepatic CYP3A4 metabolic activity in NAFLD. PMID:27482056

  10. Investigation of CYP3A4 and CYP2D6 Interactions of Withania somnifera and Centella asiatica in Human Liver Microsomes.

    PubMed

    Savai, Jay; Varghese, Alice; Pandita, Nancy; Chintamaneni, Meena

    2015-05-01

    Withania somnifera is commonly used as a rejuvenator, whereas Centella asiatica is well known for its anxiolytic and nootropic effects. The present study aims at investigating the effect of crude extracts and principal phytoconstituents of both the medicinal plants with CYP3A4 and CYP2D6 enzyme activity in human liver microsomes (HLM). Phytoconstituents were quantified in the crude extracts of both the medicinal plants using reverse phase HPLC. Crude extracts and phytoconstituents of W. somnifera showed no significant interaction with both CYP3A4 and CYP2D6 enzymes in HLM. Of the crude extracts of C. asiatica screened in vitro, methanolic extract showed potent noncompetitive inhibition of only CYP3A4 enzyme (Ki-64.36 ± 1.82 µg/mL), whereas ethanol solution extract showed potent noncompetitive inhibition of only CYP2D6 enzyme (Ki-36.3 ± 0.44 µg/mL). The flavonoids, quercetin, and kaempferol showed potent (IC50 values less than 100 μM) inhibition of CYP3A4 activity, whereas quercetin alone showed potent inhibition of CYP2D6 activity in HLM. Because methanolic extract of C. asiatica showed a relatively high percentage content of quercetin and kaempferol than ethanol solution extract, the inhibitory effect of methanolic extract on CYP3A4 enzyme activity could be attributed to the flavonoids. Thus, co-administration of the alcoholic extracts of C. asiatica with drugs that are substrates of CYP3A4 and CYP2D6 enzymes may lead to undesirable herb-drug interactions in humans. PMID:25684704

  11. DDPH, a novel antihypertensive agent, is a potential dual inhibitor of hepatic CYP2D and CYP3A.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yinsong; Hu, Jiong; He, Wenjuan; Gao, Xiujuan; Ren, Ping; Chen, Hui

    2016-03-01

    DDPH (1-(2, 6-dimethylphenoxy)-2-(3, 4-dimethoxyphenylethylamino) propane hydrochloride) is a promising novel antihypertensive agent, with potent antihypertensive, neuroprotective and cardioprotective effects. This study aimed to investigate the effects of DDPH on the expression and activity of hepatic cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoforms and evaluate the metabolic drug-drug interactions of DDPH with propafenone. Our results showed that orally administered DDPH (12.5-50 mg/kg/d) for 7 days significantly inhibited CYP2D1 and CYP3A1 activity and mRNA and protein expression but weakly increased CYP1A2 activity and expression in rats. Enzyme kinetics studies showed that DDPH was a competitive inhibitor of CYP2D1 and mixed inhibitor of CYP3A1 in rat liver microsomes with Ki values of 3.70 ± 0.42 μM and 4.79 ± 1.10 μM respectively. With human liver microsomes, DDPH was a noncompetitive inhibitor of CYP2D6 (Ki = 0.85 ± 0.06 μM) and mixed inhibitor of CYP3A (Ki = 2.15 ± 0.41 μM). Further in vivo study showed that oral administration of DDPH (12.5-50 mg/kg/d) for 7 days in rats significantly increased the area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) of propafenone by 25.4%-63.9%, with a concomitant decrease in the plasma clearance. In conclusion, the results indicated that DDPH inhibited CYP2D and CYP3A activities and down-regulated their protein expression and mRNA transcription. DDPH might cause metabolic drug-drug interactions through modulation of the activity and expression of CYP2D and CYP3A. This information could be important in the prediction of possible drug-drug interactions as well as for the effective therapy and the limitation of toxicity of DDPH in clinical practice. PMID:26827781

  12. Size and surface modification of amorphous silica particles determine their effects on the activity of human CYP3A4 in vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imai, Shunji; Yoshioka, Yasuo; Morishita, Yuki; Yoshida, Tokuyuki; Uji, Miyuki; Nagano, Kazuya; Mukai, Yohei; Kamada, Haruhiko; Tsunoda, Shin-ichi; Higashisaka, Kazuma; Tsutsumi, Yasuo

    2014-12-01

    Because of their useful chemical and physical properties, nanomaterials are widely used around the world - for example, as additives in food and medicines - and such uses are expected to become more prevalent in the future. Therefore, collecting information about the effects of nanomaterials on metabolic enzymes is important. Here, we examined the effects of amorphous silica particles with various sizes and surface modifications on cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) activity by means of two different in vitro assays. Silica nanoparticles with diameters of 30 and 70 nm (nSP30 and nSP70, respectively) tended to inhibit CYP3A4 activity in human liver microsomes (HLMs), but the inhibitory activity of both types of nanoparticles was decreased by carboxyl modification. In contrast, amine-modified nSP70 activated CYP3A4 activity. In HepG2 cells, nSP30 inhibited CYP3A4 activity more strongly than the larger silica particles did. Taken together, these results suggest that the size and surface characteristics of the silica particles determined their effects on CYP3A4 activity and that it may be possible to develop silica particles that do not have undesirable effects on metabolic enzymes by altering their size and surface characteristics.

  13. Comparison of effects of VDR versus PXR, FXR and GR ligands on the regulation of CYP3A isozymes in rat and human intestine and liver.

    PubMed

    Khan, Ansar A; Chow, Edwin C Y; van Loenen-Weemaes, Anne-miek M A; Porte, Robert J; Pang, K Sandy; Groothuis, Geny M M

    2009-05-12

    In this study, we compared the regulation of CYP3A isozymes by the vitamin D receptor (VDR) ligand 1 alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) (1,25(OH)(2)D(3)) against ligands of the pregnane X receptor (PXR), the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and the farnesoid X receptor (FXR) in precision-cut tissue slices of the rat jejunum, ileum, colon and liver, and human ileum and liver. In the rat, 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) strongly induced CYP3A1 mRNA, quantified by qRT-PCR, along the entire length of the intestine, induced CYP3A2 only in ileum but had no effect on CYP3A9. In contrast, the PXR/GR ligand, dexamethasone (DEX), the PXR ligand, pregnenolone-16 alpha carbonitrile (PCN), and the FXR ligand, chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA), but not the GR ligand, budesonide (BUD), induced CYP3A1 only in the ileum, none of them influenced CYP3A2 expression, and PCN, DEX and BUD but not CDCA induced CYP3A9 in jejunum, ileum and colon. In rat liver, CYP3A1, CYP3A2 and CYP3A9 mRNA expression was unaffected by 1,25(OH)(2)D(3), whereas CDCA decreased the mRNA of all CYP3A isozymes; PCN induced CYP3A1 and CYP3A9, BUD induced CYP3A9, and DEX induced all three CYP3A isozymes. In human ileum and liver, 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) and DEX induced CYP3A4 expression, whereas CDCA induced CYP3A4 expression in liver only. In conclusion, the regulation of rat CYP3A isozymes by VDR, PXR, FXR and GR ligands differed for different segments of the rat and human intestine and liver, and the changes did not parallel expression levels of the nuclear receptors. PMID:19429418

  14. High-dose green tea polyphenol intake decreases CYP3A expression in a liver-specific manner with increases in blood substrate drug concentrations.

    PubMed

    Ikarashi, Nobutomo; Ogawa, Sosuke; Hirobe, Ryuta; Kusunoki, Yoshiki; Kon, Risako; Ochiai, Wataru; Sugiyama, Kiyoshi

    2016-06-30

    In recent years, the intake of functional foods containing high-doses of green tea polyphenols (GP) has been increasing. In this study, the long-term safety of high-dose GP was assessed from a pharmacokinetic point of view by focusing on the drug-metabolizing enzyme, cytochrome P450 (CYP). Mice were fed a diet containing 3% GP for 4weeks, and the CYP expression levels and activity were determined. The GP-treated group showed a significant decrease in the hepatic CYP3A and an increase in the hepatic CYP2C expression compared with the control group. CYP1A, CYP2D, and CYP2E expression were not different between the GP-treated and the control groups. In the small intestine, there were no differences in the CYP3A protein levels between the groups. The increase in the plasma triazolam concentration in the GP-treated group was observed. Although no changes were found in the hepatic CYP3A levels in mice receiving a diet containing 0.1% GP for 4weeks, a significant decrease was seen in the hepatic CYP3A level in mice receiving a diet containing 3% GP for only 1week. This study revealed that the intake of a high-dose GP results in a liver-specific decrease in the CYP3A expression level. The results also indicated that the effects of GP on CYP3A were not observed following the intake of a low-dose GP. In the future, caution should be taken in cases when functional foods containing a high-dose GP are concomitantly consumed with a CYP3A substrate drug. PMID:27130545

  15. Effect of the CYP3A inhibitors, diltiazem and ketoconazole, on ticagrelor pharmacokinetics in healthy volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Teng, Renli; Butler, Kathleen

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Two open-label, two-period, crossover studies in healthy volunteers were designed to determine the pharmacokinetic interactions between ticagrelor, a P2Y12 receptor antagonist, and a moderate (diltiazem) and a strong (ketoconazole) cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A inhibitor. Methods Seventeen volunteers received diltiazem (240 mg once daily) for 14 days. In the second study, ketoconazole (n = 14) 200 mg twice daily was given for 10 days. A single oral 90-mg ticagrelor dose was administered on day 8 (diltiazem) or day 4 (ketoconazole). In each study, volunteers received a single 90-mg oral dose of ticagrelor before or after washout (≥14 days). Pharmacokinetic parameters for ticagrelor, AR-C124910XX (primary metabolite), diltiazem, and ketoconazole were assessed. Results Compared with ticagrelor alone, diltiazem co-administration significantly increased the mean maximum concentration (Cmax) and mean area under the plasma concentration–time curve (AUC) for ticagrelor by 69% and 174%, respectively. Diltiazem co-administration reduced Cmax by 38% but had no significant effect on AUC for AR-C124910XX. Cmax and AUC for ticagrelor were increased by 135% and 632%, respectively, by ketoconazole co-administration, whereas these parameters were reduced by 89% and 56%, respectively, for AR-C124910XX. Diltiazem and ketoconazole pharmacokinetic parameters were not significantly affected by the presence of ticagrelor. Conclusions These results suggest that ticagrelor can be co-administered with moderate CYP3A inhibitors. However, co-administration of strong CYP3A inhibitors with ticagrelor is not recommended.

  16. The influence of standardized Valeriana officinalis extract on the CYP3A1 gene expression by nuclear receptors in in vivo model.

    PubMed

    Bogacz, Anna; Mrozikiewicz, Przemyslaw M; Karasiewicz, Monika; Bartkowiak-Wieczorek, Joanna; Majchrzycki, Marian; Mikolajczak, Przemyslaw L; Ozarowski, Marcin; Grzeskowiak, Edmund

    2014-01-01

    Valeriana officinalis is one of the most popular medicinal plants commonly used as a sedative and sleep aid. It is suggested that its pharmacologically active compounds derived from the root may modulate the CYP3A4 gene expression by activation of pregnane X receptor (PXR) or constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) and lead to pharmacokinetic herb-drug interactions. The aim of the study was to determine the influence of valerian on the expression level of CYP3A1 (homologue to human CYP3A4) as well as nuclear receptors PXR, CAR, RXR, GR, and HNF-4α. Male Wistar rats were given standardized valerian extract (300 mg/kg/day, p.o.) for 3 and 10 days. The expression in liver tissue was analyzed by using real-time PCR. Our result showed a decrease of CYP3A1 expression level by 35% (P = 0.248) and 37% (P < 0.001), respectively. Moreover, Valeriana exhibited statistically significant reduction in RXR (approximately 28%) only after 3-day treatment. We also demonstrated a decrease in the amount HNF-4α by 22% (P = 0.005) and 32% (P = 0.012), respectively. In case of CAR, the increase of expression level by 46% (P = 0.023) was noted. These findings suggest that Valeriana officinalis extract can decrease the CYP3A4 expression and therefore may lead to interactions with synthetic drugs metabolized by this enzyme. PMID:25302309

  17. The Influence of Standardized Valeriana officinalis Extract on the CYP3A1 Gene Expression by Nuclear Receptors in In Vivo Model

    PubMed Central

    Mrozikiewicz, Przemyslaw M.; Karasiewicz, Monika; Mikolajczak, Przemyslaw L.; Ozarowski, Marcin; Grzeskowiak, Edmund

    2014-01-01

    Valeriana officinalis is one of the most popular medicinal plants commonly used as a sedative and sleep aid. It is suggested that its pharmacologically active compounds derived from the root may modulate the CYP3A4 gene expression by activation of pregnane X receptor (PXR) or constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) and lead to pharmacokinetic herb-drug interactions. The aim of the study was to determine the influence of valerian on the expression level of CYP3A1 (homologue to human CYP3A4) as well as nuclear receptors PXR, CAR, RXR, GR, and HNF-4α. Male Wistar rats were given standardized valerian extract (300 mg/kg/day, p.o.) for 3 and 10 days. The expression in liver tissue was analyzed by using real-time PCR. Our result showed a decrease of CYP3A1 expression level by 35% (P = 0.248) and 37% (P < 0.001), respectively. Moreover, Valeriana exhibited statistically significant reduction in RXR (approximately 28%) only after 3-day treatment. We also demonstrated a decrease in the amount HNF-4α by 22% (P = 0.005) and 32% (P = 0.012), respectively. In case of CAR, the increase of expression level by 46% (P = 0.023) was noted. These findings suggest that Valeriana officinalis extract can decrease the CYP3A4 expression and therefore may lead to interactions with synthetic drugs metabolized by this enzyme. PMID:25302309

  18. Population pharmacokinetic modelling to assess the impact of CYP2D6 and CYP3A metabolic phenotypes on the pharmacokinetics of tamoxifen and endoxifen

    PubMed Central

    ter Heine, Rob; Binkhorst, Lisette; de Graan, Anne Joy M; de Bruijn, Peter; Beijnen, Jos H; Mathijssen, Ron H J; Huitema, Alwin D R

    2014-01-01

    Aims Tamoxifen is considered a pro-drug of its active metabolite endoxifen. The major metabolic enzymes involved in endoxifen formation are CYP2D6 and CYP3A. There is considerable evidence that variability in activity of these enzymes influences endoxifen exposure and thereby may influence the clinical outcome of tamoxifen treatment. We aimed to quantify the impact of metabolic phenotype on the pharmacokinetics of tamoxifen and endoxifen. Methods We assessed the CYP2D6 and CYP3A metabolic phenotypes in 40 breast cancer patients on tamoxifen treatment with a single dose of dextromethorphan as a dual phenotypic probe for CYP2D6 and CYP3A. The pharmacokinetics of dextromethorphan, tamoxifen and their relevant metabolites were analyzed using non-linear mixed effects modelling. Results Population pharmacokinetic models were developed for dextromethorphan, tamoxifen and their metabolites. In the final model for tamoxifen, the dextromethorphan derived metabolic phenotypes for CYP2D6 as well as CYP3A significantly (P < 0.0001) explained 54% of the observed variability in endoxifen formation (inter-individual variability reduced from 55% to 25%). Conclusions We have shown that not only CYP2D6, but also CYP3A enzyme activity influences the tamoxifen to endoxifen conversion in breast cancer patients. Our developed model may be used to assess separately the impact of CYP2D6 and CYP3A mediated drug–drug interactions with tamoxifen without the necessity of administering this anti-oestrogenic drug and to support Bayesian guided therapeutic drug monitoring of tamoxifen in routine clinical practice. PMID:24697814

  19. PXR variants and artemisinin use in Vietnamese subjects: frequency distribution and impact on the interindividual variability of CYP3A induction by artemisinin.

    PubMed

    Piedade, Rita; Schaeffeler, Elke; Winter, Stefan; Asimus, Sara; Schwab, Matthias; Ashton, Michael; Burk, Oliver; Gil, José P

    2012-04-01

    Artemisinins induce drug metabolism through the activation of the pregnane X receptor (PXR) in vitro. Here, we report the resequencing and genotyping of PXR variants in 75 Vietnamese individuals previously characterized for CYP3A enzyme activity after artemisinin exposure. We identified a total of 31 PXR variants, including 5 novel single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), and we identified significantly different allele frequencies relative to other ethnic groups. A trend of significance was observed between the level of CYP3A4 induction by artemisinin and two PXR variants, the 8118C→T (Y328Y) and 10719A→G variants. PMID:22252826

  20. Genetic polymorphisms and drug interactions modulating CYP2D6 and CYP3A activities have a major effect on oxycodone analgesic efficacy and safety

    PubMed Central

    Samer, CF; Daali, Y; Wagner, M; Hopfgartner, G; Eap, CB; Rebsamen, MC; Rossier, MF; Hochstrasser, D; Dayer, P; Desmeules, JA

    2010-01-01

    Background and purpose: The major drug-metabolizing enzymes for the oxidation of oxycodone are CYP2D6 and CYP3A. A high interindividual variability in the activity of these enzymes because of genetic polymorphisms and/or drug–drug interactions is well established. The possible role of an active metabolite in the pharmacodynamics of oxycodone has been questioned and the importance of CYP3A-mediated effects on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of oxycodone has been poorly explored. Experimental approach: We conducted a randomized crossover (five arms) double-blind placebo-controlled study in 10 healthy volunteers genotyped for CYP2D6. Oral oxycodone (0.2 mg·kg−1) was given alone or after inhibition of CYP2D6 (with quinidine) and/or of CYP3A (with ketoconazole). Experimental pain (cold pressor test, electrical stimulation, thermode), pupil size, psychomotor effects and toxicity were assessed. Key results: CYP2D6 activity was correlated with oxycodone experimental pain assessment. CYP2D6 ultra-rapid metabolizers experienced increased pharmacodynamic effects, whereas cold pressor test and pupil size were unchanged in CYP2D6 poor metabolizers, relative to extensive metabolizers. CYP2D6 blockade reduced subjective pain threshold (SPT) for oxycodone by 30% and the response was similar to placebo. CYP3A4 blockade had a major effect on all pharmacodynamic assessments and SPT increased by 15%. Oxymorphone Cmax was correlated with SPT assessment (ρS= 0.7) and the only independent positive predictor of SPT. Side-effects were observed after CYP3A4 blockade and/or in CYP2D6 ultra-rapid metabolizers. Conclusions and implications: The modulation of CYP2D6 and CYP3A activities had clear effects on oxycodone pharmacodynamics and these effects were dependent on CYP2D6 genetic polymorphism. PMID:20590588

  1. Pitavastatin Concentrations Are Not Increased by CYP3A4 Inhibitor Itraconazole in Healthy Subjects.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Shunji; Gosho, Masahiko; Inazu, Yuji; Hounslow, Neil

    2013-04-01

    Itraconazole is a synthetic triazole antifungal agent which is known to be a potent inhibitor of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4, and may cause drug-drug interactions with the many drugs metabolized by this route, including some statins. In this study, the influence of concomitant administration of a single oral dose of pitavastatin with itraconazole at steady state was investigated to determine the potential for pharmacokinetic interaction and any effects on safety. Eighteen subjects were enrolled into the study. The AUC and Cmax of pitavastatin alone were 138 ng h/mL and 63.8 ng/mL, and pitavastatin with itraconazole were 106 ng h/mL and 49.5 ng/mL, respectively. Comparison of the 90% confidence interval of the geometric mean ratio of AUC0-t and Cmax against a standard reference of 0.80-1.25 demonstrated that the lower limit was breached for both pitavastatin and its lactone metabolite (0.71-0.84 and 0.69-0.88 for AUC0-t and Cmax , respectively, for pitavastatin, 0.86-0.97 and 0.76-0.86 for AUC0-t and Cmax , respectively, for pitavastatin lactone). The safety and tolerability of pitavastatin was not affected by co-administration with itraconazole. This study suggests that pitavastatin is not a CYP3A4 substrate in humans. PMID:27121674

  2. Reductive metabolism of oxymatrine is catalyzed by microsomal CYP3A4

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wenqin; Shi, Jian; Zhu, Lijun; Dong, Lingna; Luo, Feifei; Zhao, Min; Wang, Ying; Hu, Ming; Lu, Linlin; Liu, Zhongqiu

    2015-01-01

    Oxymatrine (OMT) is a pharmacologically active primary quinolizidine alkaloid with various beneficial and toxic effects. It is confirmed that, after oral administration, OMT could be transformed to the more toxic metabolite matrine (MT), and this process may be through the reduction reaction, but the study on the characteristics of this transformation is limited. The aim of this study was to investigate the characteristics of this transformation of OMT in the human liver microsomes (HLMs) and human intestinal microsomes (HIMs) and the cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoforms involved in this transformation. The current studies demonstrated that OMT could be metabolized to MT rapidly in HLMs and HIMs and CYP3A4 greatly contributed to this transformation. All HLMs, HIMs, and CYP3A4 isoform mediated reduction reaction followed typical biphasic kinetic model, and Km, Vmax, and CL were significant higher in HLMs than those in HIMs. Importantly, different oxygen contents could significantly affect the metabolism of OMT, and with the oxygen content decreased, the formation of metabolite was increased, suggesting this transformation was very likely a reduction reaction. Results of this in vitro study elucidated the metabolic pathways and characteristics of metabolism of OMT to MT and would provide a theoretical basis and guidance for the safe application of OMT. PMID:26586934

  3. CYP3A5 mediates basal and acquired therapy resistance in different subtypes of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Noll, Elisa M; Eisen, Christian; Stenzinger, Albrecht; Espinet, Elisa; Muckenhuber, Alexander; Klein, Corinna; Vogel, Vanessa; Klaus, Bernd; Nadler, Wiebke; Rösli, Christoph; Lutz, Christian; Kulke, Michael; Engelhardt, Jan; Zickgraf, Franziska M; Espinosa, Octavio; Schlesner, Matthias; Jiang, Xiaoqi; Kopp-Schneider, Annette; Neuhaus, Peter; Bahra, Marcus; Sinn, Bruno V; Eils, Roland; Giese, Nathalia A; Hackert, Thilo; Strobel, Oliver; Werner, Jens; Büchler, Markus W; Weichert, Wilko; Trumpp, Andreas; Sprick, Martin R

    2016-03-01

    Although subtypes of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) have been described, this malignancy is clinically still treated as a single disease. Here we present patient-derived models representing the full spectrum of previously identified quasi-mesenchymal (QM-PDA), classical and exocrine-like PDAC subtypes, and identify two markers--HNF1A and KRT81--that enable stratification of tumors into different subtypes by using immunohistochemistry. Individuals with tumors of these subtypes showed substantial differences in overall survival, and their tumors differed in drug sensitivity, with the exocrine-like subtype being resistant to tyrosine kinase inhibitors and paclitaxel. Cytochrome P450 3A5 (CYP3A5) metabolizes these compounds in tumors of the exocrine-like subtype, and pharmacological or short hairpin RNA (shRNA)-mediated CYP3A5 inhibition sensitizes tumor cells to these drugs. Whereas hepatocyte nuclear factor 4, alpha (HNF4A) controls basal expression of CYP3A5, drug-induced CYP3A5 upregulation is mediated by the nuclear receptor NR1I2. CYP3A5 also contributes to acquired drug resistance in QM-PDA and classical PDAC, and it is highly expressed in several additional malignancies. These findings designate CYP3A5 as a predictor of therapy response and as a tumor cell-autonomous detoxification mechanism that must be overcome to prevent drug resistance. PMID:26855150

  4. CYP3A5 mediates basal and acquired therapy resistance in different subtypes of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Noll, Elisa M.; Eisen, Christian; Stenzinger, Albrecht; Espinet, Elisa; Muckenhuber, Alexander; Klein, Corinna; Vogel, Vanessa; Klaus, Bernd; Nadler, Wiebke; Rösli, Christoph; Lutz, Christian; Kulke, Michael; Engelhardt, Jan; Zickgraf, Franziska M.; Espinosa, Octavio; Schlesner, Matthias; Jiang, Xiaoqi; Kopp-Schneider, Annette; Neuhaus, Peter; Bahra, Marcus; Sinn, Bruno V.; Eils, Roland; Giese, Nathalia A.; Hackert, Thilo; Strobel, Oliver; Werner, Jens; Büchler, Markus W.; Weichert, Wilko; Trumpp, Andreas; Sprick, Martin R.

    2016-01-01

    Although subtypes of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) were described, this malignancy is clinically still treated as a single disease. Here, we present patient-derived models representing the full spectrum of previously identified quasi-mesenchymal (QM-PDA), classical and exocrine-like PDAC subtypes, and identify two markers—HNF1A and KRT81—that enable stratification of tumors into different subtypes by immunohistochemistry. Individuals bearing tumors of these subtypes show significant differences in overall survival and their tumors differ in drug sensitivity, with the exocrine-like subtype being resistant to tyrosine kinase inhibitors and paclitaxel. Cytochrome P450 3A5 (CYP3A5) metabolizes these compounds in tumors of the exocrine-like subtype, and pharmacological or shRNA-mediated CYP3A5 inhibition sensitizes tumor cells to these drugs. Whereas hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 alpha (HNF4A) controls basal expression of CYP3A5, drug-induced CYP3A5 upregulation is mediated by the nuclear receptor NR1I2. CYP3A5 also contributes to acquired drug resistance in QM-PDA and classical PDAC, and is highly expressed in several additional malignancies. These findings designate CYP3A5 as predictor of therapy response and as a tumor cell-autonomous detoxification mechanism that must be overcome to prevent drug resistance. PMID:26855150

  5. Polymorphisms in the cytochrome P450 genes CYP1A2, CYP1B1, CYP3A4, CYP3A5, CYP11A1, CYP17A1, CYP19A1 and colorectal cancer risk

    PubMed Central

    Bethke, Lara; Webb, Emily; Sellick, Gabrielle; Rudd, Matthew; Penegar, Stephen; Withey, Laura; Qureshi, Mobshra; Houlston, Richard

    2007-01-01

    Background Cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes have the potential to affect colorectal cancer (CRC) risk by determining the genotoxic impact of exogenous carcinogens and levels of sex hormones. Methods To investigate if common variants of CYP1A2, CYP1B1, CYP3A4, CYP3A5, CYP11A1, CYP17A1 and CYP19A1 influence CRC risk we genotyped 2,575 CRC cases and 2,707 controls for 20 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that have not previously been shown to have functional consequence within these genes. Results There was a suggestion of increased risk, albeit insignificant after correction for multiple testing, of CRC for individuals homozygous for CYP1B1 rs162558 and heterozygous for CYP1A2 rs2069522 (odds ratio [OR] = 1.36, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.03–1.80 and OR = 1.34, 95% CI: 1.00–1.79 respectively). Conclusion This study provides some support for polymorphic variation in CYP1A2 and CYP1B1 playing a role in CRC susceptibility. PMID:17615053

  6. The independent contribution of miRNAs to the missing heritability in CYP3A4/5 functionality and the metabolism of atorvastatin

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ju-E; Ren, Bin; Tang, Lan; Tang, Qian-Jie; Liu, Xiao-Ying; Li, Xin; Bai, Xue; Zhong, Wan-Ping; Meng, Jin-Xiu; Lin, Hao-Ming; Wu, Hong; Chen, Ji-Yan; Zhong, Shi-Long

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the independent contribution of miRNAs to the missing heritability in CYP3A4/5 functionality and atorvastatin metabolism, the relationships among three levels of factors, namely (1) clinical characteristics, CYP3A4/5 genotypes, and miRNAs, (2) CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 mRNAs, and (3) CYP3A activity, as well as their individual impacts on atorvastatin metabolism, were assessed in 55 human liver tissues. MiR-27b, miR-206, and CYP3A4 mRNA respectively accounted for 20.0%, 5.8%, and 9.5% of the interindividual variations in CYP3A activity. MiR-142 was an independent contributor to the expressions of CYP3A4 mRNA (partial R2 = 0.12, P = 0.002) and CYP3A5 mRNA (partial R2 = 0.09, P = 0.005) but not CYP3A activity or atorvastatin metabolism. CYP3A activity was a unique independent predictor of variability of atorvastatin metabolism, explaining the majority of the variance in reduction of atorvastatin (60.0%) and formation of ortho-hydroxy atorvastatin (78.8%) and para-hydroxy atorvastatin (83.9%). MiR-27b and miR-206 were found to repress CYP3A4 gene expression and CYP3A activity by directly binding to CYP3A4 3′-UTR, while miR-142 was found to indirectly repress CYP3A activity. Our study indicates that miRNAs play significant roles in bridging the gap between epigenetic effects and missing heritability in CYP3A functionality. PMID:27211076

  7. The independent contribution of miRNAs to the missing heritability in CYP3A4/5 functionality and the metabolism of atorvastatin.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ju-E; Ren, Bin; Tang, Lan; Tang, Qian-Jie; Liu, Xiao-Ying; Li, Xin; Bai, Xue; Zhong, Wan-Ping; Meng, Jin-Xiu; Lin, Hao-Ming; Wu, Hong; Chen, Ji-Yan; Zhong, Shi-Long

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the independent contribution of miRNAs to the missing heritability in CYP3A4/5 functionality and atorvastatin metabolism, the relationships among three levels of factors, namely (1) clinical characteristics, CYP3A4/5 genotypes, and miRNAs, (2) CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 mRNAs, and (3) CYP3A activity, as well as their individual impacts on atorvastatin metabolism, were assessed in 55 human liver tissues. MiR-27b, miR-206, and CYP3A4 mRNA respectively accounted for 20.0%, 5.8%, and 9.5% of the interindividual variations in CYP3A activity. MiR-142 was an independent contributor to the expressions of CYP3A4 mRNA (partial R(2) = 0.12, P = 0.002) and CYP3A5 mRNA (partial R(2) = 0.09, P = 0.005) but not CYP3A activity or atorvastatin metabolism. CYP3A activity was a unique independent predictor of variability of atorvastatin metabolism, explaining the majority of the variance in reduction of atorvastatin (60.0%) and formation of ortho-hydroxy atorvastatin (78.8%) and para-hydroxy atorvastatin (83.9%). MiR-27b and miR-206 were found to repress CYP3A4 gene expression and CYP3A activity by directly binding to CYP3A4 3'-UTR, while miR-142 was found to indirectly repress CYP3A activity. Our study indicates that miRNAs play significant roles in bridging the gap between epigenetic effects and missing heritability in CYP3A functionality. PMID:27211076

  8. Sex differences in constitutive mRNA levels of CYP2B22, CYP2C33, CYP2C49, CYP3A22, CYP3A29 and CYP3A46 in the pig liver: Comparison between Meishan and Landrace pigs.

    PubMed

    Kojima, Misaki; Degawa, Masakuni

    2016-06-01

    Breed and sex differences in hepatic mRNA levels of cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoforms (CYP2B22, CYP2C33, CYP2C49, CYP3A22, CYP3A29 and CYP3A46) were examined in 5-month-old Meishan, Landrace, and their crossbred F1 (LM and ML) pigs. Serum testosterone levels in male Meishan, LM, and ML pigs were 2.5-3.5-fold higher than in Landrace pigs. CYP3A46 mRNA was breed-specifically detected only in Landrace, LM, and ML pigs. In Meishan, LM, and ML pigs only, male-predominant expressions of CYP2B22, CYP2C33, CYP2C49 and CYP3A29 mRNAs were observed; CYP3A22 mRNA expression showed the opposite pattern. Male-dominant mRNA expression was also observed in LM and ML pigs for CYP3A46. The sex differences in CYP mRNA levels in Meishan pigs disappeared when males were castrated and were restored by testosterone propionate (TP) administration to the castrated males. In Landrace pigs, TP administration to castrated males and intact females significantly increased the levels of CYP2B22, CYP2C33, and CYP3A46 mRNAs. Immature (1-month-old) pigs showed no breed or sex differences in CYP mRNA expressions. The results demonstrated that androgen is an important determinant of sex-associated expression of several CYPs and suggested that breed differences in sex-associated expression could be caused by differences in serum androgen level and by other genetic traits. PMID:27080814

  9. Midazolam microdose to determine systemic and pre-systemic metabolic CYP3A activity in humans

    PubMed Central

    Hohmann, Nicolas; Kocheise, Franziska; Carls, Alexandra; Burhenne, Jürgen; Haefeli, Walter E; Mikus, Gerd

    2015-01-01

    Aim We aimed to establish a method to assess systemic and pre-systemic cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A activity using ineffective microgram doses of midazolam. Methods In an open, one sequence, crossover study, 16 healthy participants received intravenous and oral midazolam at microgram (0.001 mg intravenous and 0.003 mg oral) and regular milligram (1 mg intravenous and 3 mg oral) doses to assess the linearity of plasma and urine pharmacokinetics. Results Dose-normalized AUC and Cmax were 37.1 ng ml−1 h [95% CI 35.5, 40.6] and 39.1 ng ml−1 [95% CI 30.4, 50.2] for the microdose and 39.0 ng ml−1 h [95% CI 36.1, 42.1] and 37.1 ng ml−1 [95% CI 26.9, 51.3] for the milligram dose. CLmet was 253 ml min−1 [95% CI 201, 318] vs. 278 ml min−1 [95% CI 248, 311] for intravenous doses and 1880 ml min−1 [95% CI 1590, 2230] vs. 2050 ml min−1 [95% CI 1720, 2450] for oral doses. Oral bioavailability of a midazolam microdose was 23.4% [95% CI 20.0, 27.3] vs. 20.9% [95% CI 17.1, 25.5] after the regular dose. Hepatic and gut extraction ratios for microgram doses were 0.44 [95% CI 0.39, 0.49] and 0.53 [95% CI 0.45, 0.63] and compared well with those for milligram doses (0.43 [95% CI 0.37, 0.49] and 0.61 [95% CI 0.53, 0.70]). Conclusion The pharmacokinetics of an intravenous midazolam microdose is linear to the applied regular doses and can be used to assess safely systemic CYP3A activity and, in combination with oral microdoses, pre-systemic CYP3A activity. PMID:25588320

  10. Arsenite and its metabolites, MMA{sup III} and DMA{sup III}, modify CYP3A4, PXR and RXR alpha expression in the small intestine of CYP3A4 transgenic mice

    SciTech Connect

    Medina-Diaz, I.M.; Estrada-Muniz, E.; Reyes-Hernandez, O.D.; Ramirez, P.; Vega, L.; Elizondo, G.

    2009-09-01

    Arsenic is an environmental pollutant that has been associated with an increased risk for the development of cancer and several other diseases through alterations of cellular homeostasis and hepatic function. Cytochrome P450 (P450) modification may be one of the factors contributing to these disorders. Several reports have established that exposure to arsenite modifies P450 expression by decreasing or increasing mRNA and protein levels. Cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4), the predominant P450 expressed in the human liver and intestines, which is regulated mainly by the Pregnane X Receptor-Retinoid X Receptor alpha (PXR-RXR alpha) heterodimer, contributes to the metabolism of approximately half the drugs in clinical use today. The present study investigates the effect of sodium arsenite and its metabolites monomethylarsonous acid (MMA{sup III}) and dimethylarsinous acid (DMA{sup III}) on CYP3A4, PXR, and RXR alpha expression in the small intestine of CYP3A4 transgenic mice. Sodium arsenite treatment increases mRNA, protein and CYP3A4 activity in a dose-dependent manner. However, the increase in protein expression was not as marked as compared to the increase in mRNA levels. Arsenite treatment induces the accumulation of Ub-protein conjugates, indicating that the activation of this mechanism may explain the differences observed between the mRNA and protein expression of CYP3A4 induction. Treatment with 0.05 mg/kg of DMA{sup III} induces CYP3A4 in a similar way, while treatment with 0.05 mg/kg of MMA{sup III} increases mostly mRNA, and to a lesser degree, CYP3A4 activity. Sodium arsenite and both its metabolites increase PXR mRNA, while only DMA{sup III} induces RXR alpha expression. Overall, these results suggest that sodium arsenite and its metabolites induce CYP3A4 expression by increasing PXR expression in the small intestine of CYP3A4 transgenic mice.

  11. Arsenite and its metabolites, MMA(III) and DMA(III), modify CYP3A4, PXR and RXR alpha expression in the small intestine of CYP3A4 transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Medina-Díaz, I M; Estrada-Muñiz, E; Reyes-Hernández, O D; Ramírez, P; Vega, L; Elizondo, G

    2009-09-01

    Arsenic is an environmental pollutant that has been associated with an increased risk for the development of cancer and several other diseases through alterations of cellular homeostasis and hepatic function. Cytochrome P450 (P450) modification may be one of the factors contributing to these disorders. Several reports have established that exposure to arsenite modifies P450 expression by decreasing or increasing mRNA and protein levels. Cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4), the predominant P450 expressed in the human liver and intestines, which is regulated mainly by the Pregnane X Receptor-Retinoid X Receptor alpha (PXR-RXR alpha) heterodimer, contributes to the metabolism of approximately half the drugs in clinical use today. The present study investigates the effect of sodium arsenite and its metabolites monomethylarsonous acid (MMA(III)) and dimethylarsinous acid (DMA(III)) on CYP3A4, PXR, and RXR alpha expression in the small intestine of CYP3A4 transgenic mice. Sodium arsenite treatment increases mRNA, protein and CYP3A4 activity in a dose-dependent manner. However, the increase in protein expression was not as marked as compared to the increase in mRNA levels. Arsenite treatment induces the accumulation of Ub-protein conjugates, indicating that the activation of this mechanism may explain the differences observed between the mRNA and protein expression of CYP3A4 induction. Treatment with 0.05 mg/kg of DMA(III) induces CYP3A4 in a similar way, while treatment with 0.05 mg/kg of MMA(III) increases mostly mRNA, and to a lesser degree, CYP3A4 activity. Sodium arsenite and both its metabolites increase PXR mRNA, while only DMA(III) induces RXR alpha expression. Overall, these results suggest that sodium arsenite and its metabolites induce CYP3A4 expression by increasing PXR expression in the small intestine of CYP3A4 transgenic mice. PMID:19084030

  12. Enhancement of CYP3A4 Activity in Hep G2 Cells by Lentiviral Transfection of Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor-1 Alpha

    PubMed Central

    Chiang, Tsai-Shin; Yang, Kai-Chiang; Chiou, Ling-Ling; Huang, Guan-Tarn; Lee, Hsuan-Shu

    2014-01-01

    Human hepatoma cell lines are commonly used as alternatives to primary hepatocytes for the study of drug metabolism in vitro. However, the phase I cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzyme activities in these cell lines occur at a much lower level than their corresponding activities in primary hepatocytes, and thus these cell lines may not accurately predict drug metabolism. In the present study, we selected hepatocyte nuclear factor-1 alpha (HNF1α) from six transcriptional regulators for lentiviral transfection into Hep G2 cells to optimally increase their expression of the CYP3A4 enzyme, which is the major CYP enzyme in the human body. We subsequently found that HNF1α-transfected Hep G2 enhanced the CYP3A4 expression in a time- and dose-dependent manner and the activity was noted to increase with time and peaked 7 days. With a multiplicity of infection (MOI) of 100, CYP3A4 expression increased 19-fold and enzyme activity more than doubled at day 7. With higher MOI (1,000 to 3,000), the activity increased 8- to 10-fold; however, it was noted the higher MOI, the higher cell death rate and lower cell survival. Furthermore, the CYP3A4 activity in the HNF1α-transfected cells could be induced by CYP3A4-specific inducer, rifampicin, and metabolized nifedipine in a dose-dependent manner. With an MOI of 3,000, nifedipine-metabolizing activity was 6-fold of control and as high as 66% of primary hepatocytes. In conclusion, forceful delivery of selected transcriptional regulators into human hepatoma cells might be a valuable method to enhance the CYP activity for a more accurate determination of drug metabolism in vitro. PMID:24733486

  13. MDR- and CYP3A4-mediated drug-herbal interactions.

    PubMed

    Pal, Dhananjay; Mitra, Ashim K

    2006-03-27

    According to recent epidemiological reports, almost 40% of American population use complimentary and alternative medicine (CAM) during their lifetime. Patients detected with HIV or cancer often consume herbal products especially St. John's wort (SJW) for antidepressants in combination with prescription medicines. Such self-administered herbal products along with prescribed medicines raise concerns of therapeutic activity due to possible drug-herbal interactions. P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) together constitute a highly efficient barrier for many orally absorbed drugs. Available literature, clinical reports and in vitro studies from our laboratory indicate that many drugs and herbal active constituents are substrates for both P-gp and CYP3A4. Results from clinical studies and case reports indicate that self-administered SJW reduce steady state plasma concentrations of amitriptyline, cyclosporine, digoxin, fexofenadine, amprenavir, indonavir, lopinavir, ritonavir, saquinavir, benzodiazepines, theophyline, irinotecan, midazolan and warfarin. This herbal agent has been also reported to cause bleeding and unwanted pregnancies when concomitantly administered with oral contraceptives. Most of these medicinal agents and SJW are substrates for P-gp and/or CYP3A4. In vitro studies from our laboratory suggest that short-term exposure with pure herbal agents such as hypericin, kaempferol and quercetin or extract of SJW resulted in higher uptake or influx of ritonavir and erythromycin. Hypericin, kaempferol and quercetin also caused a remarkable inhibition of cortisol metabolism with the percent intact cortisol values of 64.58%, 89.6% and 90.1%, respectively, during short-term in vitro experiments. Conversely, long-term exposure of herbal agents (hyperforin, kaempferol and quercetin) showed enhanced expression of CYP3A4 mRNA in Caco-2 cells. In another study, we observed that long-term exposure of hypericin, kaempferol, quercetin and silibinin resulted

  14. Co-medication of statins and CYP3A4 inhibitors before and after introduction of new reimbursement policy

    PubMed Central

    Devold, Helene M; Molden, Espen; Skurtveit, Svetlana; Furu, Kari

    2009-01-01

    AIMS To assess the prevalence of co-medication of statins and CYP3A4 inhibitors before and after introduction of a new Norwegian reimbursement policy, which states that all patients should be prescribed simvastatin as first-line lipid-lowering therapy. METHODS Data from patients receiving simvastatin, lovastatin, pravastatin, fluvastatin or atorvastatin in 2004 and 2006, including co-medication of potent CYP3A4 inhibitors, were retrieved from the Norwegian Prescription Database covering the total population of Norway. Key measurements were prevalence of continuous statin use (two or more prescriptions on one statin) and proportions of different statin types among all patients and those co-medicated with CYP3A4 inhibitors. RESULTS In 2004, 5.9% (n = 272 342) of the Norwegian population received two or more prescriptions on one statin compared with 7.0% (n = 324 267) in 2006. The relative number of simvastatin users increased from 39.7% (n = 112 122) in 2004 to 63.1% (n = 226 672) in 2006. A parallel increase was observed within the subpopulation co-medicated with statins and CYP3A4 inhibitors, i.e. from 42.9% (n = 7706) in 2004 to 63.6% (n = 13 367) in 2006. For all other statins the number of overall users decreased to a similar extent to those co-medicated with CYP3A4 inhibitors. CONCLUSIONS In both 2004 and 2006, the choice of statin type did not depend on whether the patient used a CYP3A4 inhibitor or not. Considering the pronounced interaction potential of simvastatin with CYP3A4 inhibitors, a negative influence of the new policy on overall statin safety seems likely. PMID:19220274

  15. Effect of Garden Cress Seeds Powder and Its Alcoholic Extract on the Metabolic Activity of CYP2D6 and CYP3A4

    PubMed Central

    Al-Jenoobi, Fahad I.; Al-Thukair, Areej A.; Abbas, Fawkeya A.; Al-Mohizea, Abdullah M.; Alkharfy, Khalid M.; Al-Suwayeh, Saleh A.

    2014-01-01

    The powder and alcoholic extract of dried seeds of garden cress were investigated for their effect on metabolic activity of CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 enzymes. In vitro and clinical studies were conducted on human liver microsomes and healthy human subjects, respectively. Dextromethorphan was used as a common marker for measuring metabolic activity of CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 enzymes. In in vitro studies, microsomes were incubated with NADPH in presence and absence of different concentrations of seeds extract. Clinical investigations were performed in two phases. In phase I, six healthy female volunteers were administered a single dose of dextromethorphan and in phase II volunteers were treated with seeds powder for seven days and dextromethorphan was administered with last dose. The O-demethylated and N-demethylated metabolites of dextromethorphan were measured as dextrorphan (DOR) and 3-methoxymorphinan (3-MM), respectively. Observations suggested that garden cress inhibits the formation of DOR and 3-MM metabolites. This inhibition of metabolite level was attributed to the inhibition of CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 activity. Garden cress decreases the level of DOR and 3-MM in urine and significantly increases the urinary metabolic ratio of DEX/DOR and DEX/3-MM. The findings suggested that garden cress seeds powder and ethanolic extract have the potential to interact with CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 substrates. PMID:24711855

  16. Experimental Adjustment on Drug Interactions through Intestinal CYP3A Activity in Rat: Impacts of Kampo Medicines Repeat Administered

    PubMed Central

    Kinoshita, Natsumi; Yamaguchi, Yuriko; Hou, Xiao-Long; Takahashi, Kyoko; Takahashi, Koichi

    2011-01-01

    To provide the information that is necessary for making the proper use of kampo medicines, we have proposed the adequate methodology focused on the following issues: (i) kampo medicines emphasize the effects produced by the combination of herbal drugs rather than the individual effect of any single herb and (ii) Intestinal CYP3A has become a key factor for the bioavailability of orally administrated drugs. In the present study, we investigated both the in vivo and in vitro effects of Saireito and Hochuekkito (kampo formulas) on CYP3A activities. From our study, oral pre-treatment with Saireito or Hochuekkito did not affect the pharmacokinetics of nifedipine after intravenous administration to rats. When nifedipine was administered to rat intrajejunum, a significant decrease of AUC was showed by pre-treatment with both kampo formulas. Saireito pre-treatment led to 80% decrease in Cmax of nifedipine. Saireito caused significant increases in both protein expression and metabolic activity of CYP3A in intestinal microsome, whereas it had no effect on CYP3A in hepatic microsome. Our result also showed that this affect of Saireito can be gone by wash-out with 1 week. These findings demonstrated that Saireito may induce CYP3A activity of intestine but not of liver in rats. When resources for research are limited, well-designed scientific studies except clinical trials also have many advantages. PMID:19884115

  17. Experimental Adjustment on Drug Interactions through Intestinal CYP3A Activity in Rat: Impacts of Kampo Medicines Repeat Administered.

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, Natsumi; Yamaguchi, Yuriko; Hou, Xiao-Long; Takahashi, Kyoko; Takahashi, Koichi

    2011-01-01

    TO PROVIDE THE INFORMATION THAT IS NECESSARY FOR MAKING THE PROPER USE OF KAMPO MEDICINES, WE HAVE PROPOSED THE ADEQUATE METHODOLOGY FOCUSED ON THE FOLLOWING ISSUES: (i) kampo medicines emphasize the effects produced by the combination of herbal drugs rather than the individual effect of any single herb and (ii) Intestinal CYP3A has become a key factor for the bioavailability of orally administrated drugs. In the present study, we investigated both the in vivo and in vitro effects of Saireito and Hochuekkito (kampo formulas) on CYP3A activities. From our study, oral pre-treatment with Saireito or Hochuekkito did not affect the pharmacokinetics of nifedipine after intravenous administration to rats. When nifedipine was administered to rat intrajejunum, a significant decrease of AUC was showed by pre-treatment with both kampo formulas. Saireito pre-treatment led to 80% decrease in C(max) of nifedipine. Saireito caused significant increases in both protein expression and metabolic activity of CYP3A in intestinal microsome, whereas it had no effect on CYP3A in hepatic microsome. Our result also showed that this affect of Saireito can be gone by wash-out with 1 week. These findings demonstrated that Saireito may induce CYP3A activity of intestine but not of liver in rats. When resources for research are limited, well-designed scientific studies except clinical trials also have many advantages. PMID:19884115

  18. The role of CYP 3A4 and 1A1 in amiodarone-induced hepatocellular toxicity.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qiangen; Ning, Baitang; Xuan, Jiekun; Ren, Zhen; Guo, Lei; Bryant, Matthew S

    2016-06-24

    Amiodarone is a widely used potent antiarrhythmic for the treatment of cardiac disease; however, its use is often discontinued due to numerous adverse effects, including hepatotoxicity. To investigate the role of drug metabolism in this liver toxicity, amiodarone and its major metabolite desethylamiodarone were incubated with HepG2 cells overexpressing a series of cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoforms. Significantly higher cytotoxicity of amiodarone was observed in HepG2 cells overexpressing CYP3A4 or CYP1A1, compared with that observed in empty vector transduced control cells. Further, higher levels of the more potent hepatotoxic metabolite desethylamiodarone were detected in CYP3A4 or CYP1A1 expressed cells. The CYP3A4 inhibitor ketoconazole and the CYP1A1 inhibitor α-naphthoflavone drastically inhibited the metabolism of amiodarone to desethylamiodarone. Along with the inhibition of CYP1A1 or CYP3A4, the cytotoxicity of amiodarone was significantly reduced. These data indicate that the metabolism of amiodarone to desethylamiodarone by CYP1A1 or CYP3A4 plays an important role in the hepatocellular toxicity of amiodarone. PMID:27113703

  19. Intestinal CYP3A4 protects against lithocholic acid-induced hepatotoxicity in intestine-specific VDR-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jie; Fang, Zhong-Ze; Kim, Jung-Hwan; Krausz, Kristopher W; Tanaka, Naoki; Chiang, John Y L; Gonzalez, Frank J

    2014-03-01

    Vitamin D receptor (VDR) mediates vitamin D signaling involved in bone metabolism, cellular growth and differentiation, cardiovascular function, and bile acid regulation. Mice with an intestine-specific disruption of VDR (Vdr(ΔIEpC)) have abnormal body size, colon structure, and imbalance of bile acid metabolism. Lithocholic acid (LCA), a secondary bile acid that activates VDR, is among the most toxic of the bile acids that when overaccumulated in the liver causes hepatotoxicity. Because cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) is a target gene of VDR-involved bile acid metabolism, the role of CYP3A4 in VDR biology and bile acid metabolism was investigated. The CYP3A4 gene was inserted into Vdr(ΔIEpC) mice to produce the Vdr(ΔIEpC)/3A4 line. LCA was administered to control, transgenic-CYP3A4, Vdr(ΔIEpC), and Vdr(ΔIEpC)/3A4 mice, and hepatic toxicity and bile acid levels in the liver, intestine, bile, and urine were measured. VDR deficiency in the intestine of the Vdr(ΔIEpC) mice exacerbates LCA-induced hepatotoxicity manifested by increased necrosis and inflammation, due in part to over-accumulation of hepatic bile acids including taurocholic acid and taurodeoxycholic acid. Intestinal expression of CYP3A4 in the Vdr(ΔIEpC)/3A4 mouse line reduces LCA-induced hepatotoxicity through elevation of LCA metabolism and detoxification, and suppression of bile acid transporter expression in the small intestine. This study reveals that intestinal CYP3A4 protects against LCA hepatotoxicity. PMID:24343899

  20. Echinacea purpurea up-regulates CYP1A2, CYP3A4 and MDR1 gene expression by activation of pregnane X receptor pathway

    PubMed Central

    Awortwe, Charles; Manda, Vamshi K.; Avonto, Cristina; Khan, Shabana I.; Khan, Ikhlas A.; Walker, Larry A.; Bouic, Patrick J.; Rosenkranz, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the mechanism underlying Echinacea-mediated induction of CYP1A2, CYP3A4 and MDR1 in terms of human pregnane X receptor (PXR) activation. Crude extracts and fractions of Echinacea purpurea were tested for PXR activation in HepG2 cells by a reporter gene assay. Quantitative real-time PCR was carried out to determine their effects on CYP1A2 and CYP3A4 mRNA expressions. Capsules and fractions were risk ranked as high, intermediate and remote risk of drug-metabolizing enzymes induction based on EC50 values determined for respective CYPs. Fractions F1, F2 and capsule (2660) strongly activated PXR with 5-, 4- and 3.5-fold increase in activity, respectively. Echinacea preparations potentiated up-regulation of CYP1A2, CYP3A4 and MDR1 via PXR activation. Thus E. purpurea preparations cause herb–drug interaction by up-regulating CYP1A2, CYP3A4 and P-gp via PXR activation. PMID:25377539

  1. The use of isomeric testosterone dimers to explore allosteric effects in substrate binding to cytochrome P450 CYP3A4.

    PubMed

    Denisov, Ilia G; Mak, Piotr J; Grinkova, Yelena V; Bastien, Dominic; Bérubé, Gervais; Sligar, Stephen G; Kincaid, James R

    2016-05-01

    Cytochrome P450 CYP3A4 is the main drug-metabolizing enzyme in the human liver, being responsible for oxidation of 50% of all pharmaceuticals metabolized by human P450 enzymes. Possessing a large substrate binding pocket, it can simultaneously bind several substrate molecules and often exhibits a complex pattern of drug-drug interactions. In order to better understand structural and functional aspects of binding of multiple substrate molecules to CYP3A4 we used resonance Raman and UV-VIS spectroscopy to document the effects of binding of synthetic testosterone dimers of different configurations, cis-TST2 and trans-TST2. We directly demonstrate that the binding of two steroid molecules, which can assume multiple possible configurations inside the substrate binding pocket of monomeric CYP3A4, can lead to active site structural changes that affect functional properties. Using resonance Raman spectroscopy, we have documented perturbations in the ferric and Fe-CO states by these substrates, and compared these results with effects caused by binding of monomeric TST. While the binding of trans-TST2 yields results similar to those obtained with monomeric TST, the binding of cis-TST2 is much tighter and results in significantly more pronounced conformational changes of the porphyrin side chains and Fe-CO unit. In addition, binding of an additional monomeric TST molecule in the remote allosteric site significantly improves binding affinity and the overall spin shift for CYP3A4 with trans-TST2 dimer bound inside the substrate binding pocket. This result provides the first direct evidence for an allosteric effect of the peripheral binding site at the protein-membrane interface on the functional properties of CYP3A4. PMID:26774838

  2. Feed-forward regulation of bile acid detoxification by CYP3A4: studies in humanized transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Stedman, Catherine; Robertson, Graham; Coulter, Sally; Liddle, Christopher

    2004-03-19

    Bile acids are potentially toxic end products of cholesterol metabolism and their concentrations must be tightly regulated. Homeostasis is maintained by both feed-forward regulation and feedback regulation. We used humanized transgenic mice incorporating 13 kb of the 5' regulatory flanking sequence of CYP3A4 linked to a lacZ reporter gene to explore the in vivo relationship between bile acids and physiological adaptive CYP3A gene regulation in acute cholestasis after bile duct ligation (BDL). Male transgenic mice were subjected to BDL or sham surgery prior to sacrifice on days 3, 6, and 10, and others were injected with intraperitoneal lithocholic acid (LCA) or vehicle alone. BDL resulted in marked hepatic activation of the CYP3A4/lacZ transgene in pericentral hepatocytes, with an 80-fold increase in transgene activation by day 10. Individual bile acids were quantified by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. Serum 6beta-hydroxylated bile acids were increased following BDL, confirming the physiological relevance of endogenous Cyp3a induction to bile acid detoxification. Although concentrations of conjugated primary bile acids increased after BDL, there was no increase in LCA, a putative PXR ligand, indicating that this cannot be the only endogenous bile acid mediating this protective response. Moreover, in LCA-treated animals, 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl-beta-d-galactopyranoside staining showed hepatic activation of the CYP3A4 transgene only on the liver capsular surface, and minimal parenchymal induction, despite significant liver injury. This study demonstrates that CYP3A up-regulation is a significant in vivo adaptive response to cholestasis. However, this up-regulation is not dependent on increases in circulating LCA and the role of other bile acids as regulatory molecules requires further exploration. PMID:14681232

  3. Effect of voriconazole and other azole antifungal agents on CYP3A activity and metabolism of tacrolimus in human liver microsomes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shimin; Pillai, Venkateswaran C; Mada, Sripal Reddy; Strom, Steve; Venkataramanan, Raman

    2012-05-01

    Azole antifungal agents are known to inhibit cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A) enzymes. Limited information is available regarding the effect of voriconazole on CYP3A activity. We examined the effect of voriconazole on CYP3A activity in human liver microsomes as measured by the formation of 6β-hydroxytestosterone from testosterone. We also evaluated the interaction between voriconazole and tacrolimus, an immunosuppressive drug, using human liver microsomes. The effect of voriconazole on CYP3A activity and tacrolimus metabolism was compared to that of other azole antifungal agents. CYP3A4 activity and the metabolism of tacrolimus were measured in the absence and in the presence of various concentrations of voriconazole (0-1.43 mM), fluconazole (0-1.63 mM), itraconazole (0-14 µM) and ketoconazole (0-0.19 µM). At a concentration of 21.2 ± 15.4 µM and 29.8 ± 12.3 µM, voriconazole inhibited the formation of 6β-hydroxytestosterone from testosterone and the metabolism of tacrolimus by 50%, respectively. The rank order of inhibition of 6β-hydroxytestosterone formation from testosterone and the metabolism of tacrolimus, is ketoconazole > itraconazole > voriconazole > fluconazole. Our observations suggest that voriconazole at clinically relevant concentrations will inhibit the hepatic metabolism of tacrolimus and increase the concentration of tacrolimus more than two-fold. Close monitoring of the blood concentrations and adjustment in the dose of tacrolimus are warranted when transplant patients receiving tacrolimus are treated with voriconazole. PMID:22106961

  4. Trainable structure-activity relationship model for virtual screening of CYP3A4 inhibition.

    PubMed

    Didziapetris, Remigijus; Dapkunas, Justas; Sazonovas, Andrius; Japertas, Pranas

    2010-11-01

    A new structure-activity relationship model predicting the probability for a compound to inhibit human cytochrome P450 3A4 has been developed using data for >800 compounds from various literature sources and tested on PubChem screening data. Novel GALAS (Global, Adjusted Locally According to Similarity) modeling methodology has been used, which is a combination of baseline global QSAR model and local similarity based corrections. GALAS modeling method allows forecasting the reliability of prediction thus defining the model applicability domain. For compounds within this domain the statistical results of the final model approach the data consistency between experimental data from literature and PubChem datasets with the overall accuracy of 89%. However, the original model is applicable only for less than a half of PubChem database. Since the similarity correction procedure of GALAS modeling method allows straightforward model training, the possibility to expand the applicability domain has been investigated. Experimental data from PubChem dataset served as an example of in-house high-throughput screening data. The model successfully adapted itself to both data classified using the same and different IC₅₀ threshold compared with the training set. In addition, adjustment of the CYP3A4 inhibition model to compounds with a novel chemical scaffold has been demonstrated. The reported GALAS model is proposed as a useful tool for virtual screening of compounds for possible drug-drug interactions even prior to the actual synthesis. PMID:20814717

  5. Pharmacokinetic interaction studies of fenugreek with CYP3A substrates cyclosporine and carbamazepine.

    PubMed

    Al-Jenoobi, Fahad I; Alam, Mohd Aftab; Alkharfy, Khalid M; Al-Suwayeh, Saleh A; Korashy, Hesham M; Al-Mohizea, Abdullah M; Iqbal, Muzaffar; Ahad, Abdul; Raish, Mohammad

    2014-06-01

    The present study investigated the effect of fenugreek seed powder on disposition of CYP3A substrates, cyclosporine and carbamazepine. Rabbits were treated with fenugreek seed powder (300 mg/kg p.o.) for 8 days and on 8th day the single dose of cyclosporine (30 mg/kg, p.o.) and carbamazepine (40 mg/kg, p.o.) were administered to the corresponding group after 1 h of fenugreek administration. Blood samples were drawn at several time points and analyzed by using UPLC-MS (cyclosporine) and HPLC (carbamazepine). Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated by using PK Solver. The present investigation reveals that there was no statistically significant difference between pre- and post-treated pharmacokinetic parameters such as AUC(o-t), AUC(o-∞), C(max), T(max), T(1/2), K(el), MRT(o-∞) , V(z/F), and Cl/F for cyclosporine and carbamazepine. Two tailed "P" values for all these pharmacokinetic parameters were more than 0.05, indicating insignificant impact of fenugreek treatment on the disposition of cyclosporine and carbamazepine. Further, fenugreek may also not have any significant effect on the functionality of P-glycoprotein as cyclosporine is a substrate to P-glycoprotein. The outcomes of present study suggested that fenugreek may not likely to interfere cyclosporine and carbamazepine pharmacokinetics, when co-administered with these drugs. PMID:24022709

  6. Identification and in silico prediction of metabolites of the model compound, tebufenozide by human CYP3A4 and CYP2C19.

    PubMed

    Shirotani, Naoki; Togawa, Moe; Ikushiro, Shinichi; Sakaki, Toshiyuki; Harada, Toshiyuki; Miyagawa, Hisashi; Matsui, Masayoshi; Nagahori, Hirohisa; Mikata, Kazuki; Nishioka, Kazuhiko; Hirai, Nobuhiro; Akamatsu, Miki

    2015-10-15

    The metabolites of tebufenozide, a model compound, formed by the yeast-expressed human CYP3A4 and CYP2C19 were identified to clarify the substrate recognition mechanism of the human cytochrome P450 (CYP) isozymes. We then determined whether tebufenozide metabolites may be predicted in silico. Hydrogen abstraction energies were calculated with the density functional theory method B3LYP/6-31G(∗). A docking simulation was performed using FRED software. Several alkyl sites of tebufenozide were hydroxylated by CYP3A4 whereas only one site was modified by CYP2C19. The accessibility of each site of tebufenozide to the reaction center of CYP enzymes and the susceptibility of each hydrogen atom for metabolism by CYP enzymes were evaluated by a docking simulation and hydrogen abstraction energy estimation, respectively. PMID:26404412

  7. Exploratory effects of a strong CYP3A inhibitor (ketoconazole), a strong CYP3A inducer (rifampicin), and concomitant ethanol on piragliatin pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics in type 2 diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Zhi, Jianguo; Zhai, Suoping; Georgy, Angela; Liang, Zhenming; Boldrin, Mark

    2016-05-01

    Piragliatin is a CYP3A substrate; its inactive metabolite M4, formed through cytosolic reductase, is reversibly metabolized back to piragliatin through CYP3A. The impact of concomitant CYP3A modifiers thus cannot be predicted. Drinking alcohol under fasting conditions is associated with a recognized glucose-lowering effect, which might be synergistic with piragliatin's hypoglycemic effect. Two exploratory studies were conducted to examine these potential interactions in type 2 diabetes (T2D) patients: 16 completed an open-label, sequential 2-way crossover, 2-arm (randomized to ketoconazole and rifampicin) CYP3A study; another 18 participated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized 3-way crossover ethanol study. Administration of piragliatin (100-mg single dose) resulted in a 32% Cmax and 44% area under the curve (AUC∞ ) increase in piragliatin exposure without affecting glucose AUC0-6h following ketoconazole (400 mg QD × 5 days); 30% Cmax and 72% AUC∞ decrease in piragliatin exposure with a 13% increase in glucose AUC0-6h following rifampicin (600 mg QD × 5 days); and, unexpectedly, a 32% Cmax and 23% AUC0-6h decrease (no change in AUC∞ ) in piragliatin exposure with a 13% increase in glucose AUC0-6h following alcohol (40-g single dose). In conclusion, a strong CYP3A modifier or concomitant alcohol could lead to a change in exposure to piragliatin with a potential alteration in glucose-lowering effect. PMID:26272330

  8. Mechanism-based inhibition of CYP3A4 and CYP2D6 by Indonesian medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Subehan; Usia, Tepy; Iwata, Hiroshi; Kadota, Shigetoshi; Tezuka, Yasuhiro

    2006-05-24

    Thirty samples of Indonesian medicinal plants were tested for their mechanism-based inhibition on cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) and CYP2D6 via erythromycin N-demethylation and dextromethorphan O-demethylation activities in human liver microsomes. From screening with 0 and 20min preincubation at 0.5mg/ml of methanol extracts, five plants (Cinnamomum burmani bark, Foeniculum vulgare seed, Strychnos ligustrina wood, Tinospora crispa stem, and Zingiber cassumunar rhizome) showed more than 30% increase of CYP3A4 inhibition, while three (Alpinia galanga rhizome, Melaleuca leucadendron leaf, and Piper nigrum fruit) showed more than 30% increase of CYP2D6 inhibition. In these eight plants, Foeniculum vulgare seed, Cinnamomum burmani bark, and Strychnos ligustrina wood showed time-dependent inhibition on CYP3A4 and Piper nigrum fruit and Melaleuca leucadendron leaf on CYP2D6. Among these, four plants other than Melaleuca leucadendron revealed NADPH-dependent inhibition. Thus, Foeniculum vulgare, Cinnamomum burmani, and Strychnos ligustrina should contain mechanism-based inhibitors on CYP3A4 and Piper nigrum contain that on CYP2D6. PMID:16414224

  9. Priapism Induced by Boceprevir-CYP3A4 Inhibition and α-Adrenergic Blockade: Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Hammond, Kyle P.; Nielsen, Craig; Linnebur, Sunny A.; Langness, Jacob A.; Ray, Graham; Maroni, Paul; Kiser, Jennifer J.

    2014-01-01

    A 44-year-old white man presented to the emergency department with a 3-day history of priapism requiring a surgically performed distal penile shunt. A drug–drug interaction is the suspected cause whereby CYP3A4 inhibition by boceprevir led to increased exposures of doxazosin, tamsulosin, and/or quetiapine, resulting in additional α-adrenergic blockade. PMID:24092799

  10. Herb-drug interaction of 50 Chinese herbal medicines on CYP3A4 activity in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Pao, Li-Heng; Hu, Oliver Yoa-Pu; Fan, Hsien-Yuan; Lin, Chang-Ching; Liu, Liang-Chun; Huang, Pei-Wei

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effects of Chinese herbal medicines on the enzymatic activity of CYP3A4 and the possible metabolism-based herb-drug interactions in human liver microsomes and in rats. Fifty single-herbal preparations were screened for the activity of CYP3A4 using human liver microsomes for an in vitro probe reaction study. The enzymatic activity of CYP3A4 was estimated by determing the 6β-hydroxytestosterone metabolized from testosterone performed on a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Huang Qin (Scutellaria baicalensis Geprgi), Mu Dan Pi (Paeonia suffruticosa Andr.), Ji Shiee Terng (Spatholobus suberectus Dunn.) and Huang Qi (Astragalus membranaceus [Fisch] Bge) have been demonstrated to have remarkable inhibiting effects on the metabolism of CYP3A4, whereas Xi Yi Hua (Magnolia biondii Pamp.) exhibited a moderate inhibition. These five single herbs were further investigated in an animal study using midazolam. Mu Dan Pi, Ji Shiee Terng and Huang Qi were observed to have greatly increased in the C(max) and AUC of midazolam. This study provides evidence of possible herb-drug interactions involved with certain single herbs. PMID:22298448

  11. Genomic comparisons of bovine CYP3A28 of Angus, Brahman, and reciprocal crosses and milk characteristics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cytochrome P450s are a group of heme-containing monooxygenases necessary for the oxidative metabolism of foreign biological substances. Our goal was to determine the frequency of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) 994 in the CYP3A28 sequence of three breed types of cattle. The distribution of geno...

  12. Rhubarb decreased the systemic exposure of cyclosporine, a probe substrate of P-glycoprotein and CYP 3A.

    PubMed

    Yu, Chung-Ping; Lin, Hui-Ju; Lin, Shiuan-Pey; Shia, Chi-Sheng; Chang, Pei-Hua; Hou, Yu-Chi; Hsieh, Yo-Wen

    2016-08-01

    1. Rhubarb, rhizome of Rheum palmatum L. (RP), is an important herb in clinical Chinese medicine. 2. Cyclosporine (CSP) is an immunosuppressant with narrow therapeutic window. The oral bioavailability of CSP was associated with P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and CYP 3A4. CSP was used as a probe substrate to investigate the in vivo modulation effects of RP on P-gp and CYP 3A. 3. Rats were orally administered 2.5 mg/kg of CSP with and without 0.25 and 1.0 g/kg of RP. The blood CSP concentration was determined by a specific monoclonal fluorescence polarization immunoassay. 4. Both dosages of RP significantly decreased the Cmax and AUC0-t of CSP in rats. Mechanism studies indicated that RP activated the functions of P-gp and CYP 3A. 5. RP ingestion reduced the systemic exposure of CSP through activating P-gp and CYP 3A. PMID:26634287

  13. Identification of a Cranberry Juice Product that Inhibits Enteric CYP3A-Mediated First-Pass Metabolism in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Ngo, Ngoc; Yan, Zhixia; Graf, Tyler N.; Carrizosa, Daniel R.; Kashuba, Angela D. M.; Dees, E. Claire; Oberlies, Nicholas H.; Paine, Mary F.

    2009-01-01

    An in vivo study in rats showed a cranberry juice product to inhibit the intestinal first-pass metabolism of the CYP3A substrate nifedipine. However, a clinical study involving the CYP3A probe substrate midazolam and a different cranberry juice product showed no interaction. Because the composition of bioactive components in natural products can vary substantially, a systematic in vitro-in vivo approach was taken to identify a cranberry juice capable of inhibiting enteric CYP3A in humans. First, the effects of five cranberry juices, coded A through E, were evaluated on midazolam 1′-hydroxylation activity in human intestinal microsomes. Juice E was the most potent, ablating activity at 0.5% juice (v/v) relative to control. Second, juice E was fractionated to generate hexane-, chloroform-, butanol-, and aqueous-soluble fractions. The hexane- and chloroform-soluble fractions at 50 μg/ml were the most potent, inhibiting by 77 and 63%, respectively, suggesting that the CYP3A inhibitors reside largely in these more lipophilic fractions. Finally, juice E was evaluated on the oral pharmacokinetics of midazolam in 16 healthy volunteers. Relative to water, juice E significantly increased the geometric mean area under the curve (AUC)0-∞ of midazolam by ∼30% (p = 0.001), decreased the geometric mean 1′-hydroxymidazolam/midazolam AUC0-∞ ratio by ∼40% (p < 0.001), and had no effect on geometric mean terminal half-life, indicating inhibition of enteric, but not hepatic, CYP3A-mediated first-pass metabolism of midazolam. This approach both showed a potential drug interaction liability with cranberry juice and substantiated that rigorous in vitro characterization of dietary substances is required before initiation of clinical drug-diet interaction studies. PMID:19114462

  14. Fluoxetine reduces CES1, CES2, and CYP3A4 expression through decreasing PXR and increasing DEC1 in HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Shang, Wei; Liu, Jie; Chen, Ruini; Ning, Rui; Xiong, Jing; Liu, Wei; Mao, Zhao; Hu, Gang; Yang, Jian

    2016-05-01

    1. This study investigated the mechanisms of the decreases of carboxylesterases (CES) and cytochrome P4503A4 (CYP3A4) and the enzymatic activities induced by fluoxetine (FLX) in HepG2 cells. We found that FLX decreased the carboxylesterase 1 (CES1) and carboxylesterase 2 (CES2) expression and the hydrolytic activity. 2. FLX decreased the pregnane X receptor (PXR) expression which regulated the target genes such as CYP3A4, whereas increased the differentiated embryonic chondrocyte-expressed gene 1 (DEC1) expression. 3. FLX repressed the PXR at transcriptional level. 4. Overexpression of PXR alone increased the expression of CES1, CES2, and CYP3A4 and attenuated the decreases of CES1, CES2, and CYP3A4 induced by FLX. On the contrary, knockdown of PXR alone decreased the expression of CES1, CES2, and CYP3A4 and almost abolished the decreases of CES1, CES2, and CYP3A4 induced by FLX. 5. Knockdown of DEC1 alone increased the expression of PXR and CYP3A4 and almost abolished the decreases of CES1, CES2, and CYP3A4 induced by FLX. 6. Taken together, the decreases of CES and CYP3A4 expression and enzymatic activities induced by FLX are through decreasing PXR and increasing DEC1 in HepG2 cells. PMID:26340669

  15. Two CYP3A-like genes in the marine mussel Mytilus edulis: mRNA expression modulation following short-term exposure to endocrine disruptors.

    PubMed

    Cubero-Leon, Elena; Puinean, A Mirel; Labadie, Pierre; Ciocan, Corina; Itoh, Naoki; Kishida, Mitsuyo; Osada, Makoto; Minier, Christophe; Hill, Elizabeth M; Rotchell, Jeanette M

    2012-03-01

    Members of the vertebrate CYP3A subfamily are involved in the metabolism of steroids and a wide range of xenobiotics. In this study two CYP3A-like mRNAs have been isolated from the mussel (Mytilus edulis), and their seasonal expression profile and modulation by estrogens examined. Sexual dimorphism of CYP3A-like mRNA expression was not observed in mussel gonads of individuals collected throughout a year. Nevertheless, natural variation in gonadal CYP3A-like mRNA expression was observed, with highest levels of CYP3A isoform1 and lowest levels of CYP3A isoform2 mRNA during the maturation and spawning season. Exposure to a 10% sewage treatment works extract did not result in any significant changes in mRNA expression of CYP3A-like. In contrast, exposure to E2 (200 ng/L) and TBT (100 ng/L) significantly down-regulated the expression of CYP3A-like isoform1 but not CYP3A-like isoform2 suggesting differential regulation. PMID:22189070

  16. Effects of chlorpyrifos on the transcription of CYP3A cDNA, activity of acetylcholinesterase, and oxidative stress response of goldfish (Carassius auratus).

    PubMed

    Ma, Junguo; Liu, Yang; Niu, Daichun; Li, Xiaoyu

    2015-04-01

    Chlorpyrifos (CPF) is the widely used organophosphate pesticide in agriculture throughout the world. It has been found that CPF is relatively safe to human but highly toxic to fish. In this study, acute toxicity of CPF on goldfish was determined and then the transcription of goldfish cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A was evaluated after 96 h of CPF exposure at concentrations of 15.3 [1/10 50% lethal concentration (LC50 )] or 51 μg L(-1) (1/3 LC50 ) of CPF. Meanwhile, the enzymatic activities of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT), total antioxidant activity (T-AOC), and the contents of malondialdehyde (MDA) in the liver or brain of goldfish were also determined. The results of acute toxicity testing showed that the 96-h LC50 of CPF to the goldfish was 153 μg L(-1) . Moreover, a length sequence of 1243 bp CYP3A cDNA encoding for 413 amino acids from goldfish liver was cloned. Polymerase chain reaction results reveal that CPF exposure downregulates CYP 3A transcription in goldfish liver, suggesting that goldfish CYP 3A may be not involved in CPF bioactivation. Finally, the results of biochemical assays indicate that 96 h of CPF exposure remarkably inhibits AChE activity in fish liver or brain, alters hepatic antioxidant enzyme activities, decreases brain T-AOC, and causes lipid peroxidation in fish liver. These results suggest that oxidative stress might be involved in CPF toxicity on goldfish. PMID:24190793

  17. Mechanism of ritonavir changes in methadone pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics: II. Ritonavir effects on CYP3A and P-glycoprotein activities.

    PubMed

    Kharasch, E D; Bedynek, P S; Walker, A; Whittington, D; Hoffer, C

    2008-10-01

    Ritonavir diminishes methadone plasma concentrations, an effect attributed to CYP3A induction, but the actual mechanisms are unknown. We determined short-term (2-day) and steady-state (2-week) ritonavir effects on intestinal and hepatic CYP3A4/5 (probed with intravenous (IV) and oral alfentanil (ALF) and with miosis) and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) (fexofenadine), and on methadone pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics in healthy volunteers. Acute ritonavir increased the area under the concentration-time curve (AUC)(0-infinity)/dose ratio (ritonavir/control) for oral ALF 25-fold. Steady-state ritonavir increased the AUC(0-Infinity)/dose ratio for IV and oral ALF 4- and 10-fold, respectively; reduced hepatic extraction (from 0.26 to 0.07) and intestinal extraction (from 0.51 to 0); and increased bioavailability (from 37 to 95%). Acute ritonavir inhibits first-pass CYP3A > 96%. Chronic ritonavir inhibits hepatic CYP3A (> 70%) and first-pass CYP3A (> 90%). Acute and steady-state ritonavir increased the fexofenadine AUC(0-infinity) 2.8- and 1.4-fold, respectively, suggesting P-gp inhibition. Steady-state compared with acute ritonavir caused mild apparent induction of P-gp and hepatic CYP3A, but net inhibition still predominated. Ritonavir inhibited both intestinal and hepatic CYP3A and drug transport. ALF miosis noninvasively determined CYP3A inhibition by ritonavir. PMID:19238656

  18. Furocoumarins from grapefruit juice and their effect on human CYP 3A4 and CYP 1B1 isoenzymes.

    PubMed

    Girennavar, Basavaraj; Poulose, Shibu M; Jayaprakasha, Guddadarangavvanahally K; Bhat, Narayan G; Patil, Bhimanagouda S

    2006-04-15

    Bioactive compounds present in grapefruit juice are known to increase the bioavailability of certain medications by acting as potent CYP 3A4 inhibitors. An efficient technique has been developed for isolation and purification of three furocoumarins. The isolated compounds have been tested for the inhibition of human CYP 1B1 isoform using specific substrates. Grapefruit juice was extracted with ethyl acetate (EtOAc) and the dried extract was loaded onto silica gel column chromatography. Further, column fractions were subjected to preparative HPLC to obtain three compounds. The purity of these compounds was analyzed by HPLC and structures were determined by NMR studies. The identified compounds, bergamottin, 6',7'-dihydroxybergamottin (DHB), and paradisin-A, were tested for their inhibitory effects on hydroxylase and O-dealkylase activities of human cytochrome P450 isoenzymes CYP 3A4 and CYP 1B1. Paradisin-A was found to be a potent CYP 3A4 inhibitor with an IC50 of 1.2 microM followed by DHB and bergamottin. All three compounds showed a substantial inhibitory effect on CYP 3A4 below 10 microM. Inhibitory effects on CYP 1B1 exhibited a greater variation due to the specificity of substrates. Paradisin A showed an IC50 of 3.56+/-0.12 microM for the ethoxy resorufin O-dealkylase (EROD) activity and 33.56+/-0.72 microM for the benzyloxy resorufin (BROD). DHB and bergamottin showed considerable variations for EROD and BROD activities with an IC50 of 7.17 microM and 13.86 microM, respectively. PMID:16338240

  19. Structural Optimization of Ghrelin Receptor Inverse Agonists to Improve Lipophilicity and Avoid Mechanism-Based CYP3A4 Inactivation.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Bitoku; Funami, Hideaki; Shibata, Makoto; Maruoka, Hiroshi; Koyama, Makoto; Kanki, Satomi; Muto, Tsuyoshi

    2015-01-01

    Structural optimization of 2-aminonicotinamide derivatives as ghrelin receptor inverse agonists is reported. So as to avoid mechanism-based inactivation (MBI) of CYP3A4, 1,3-benzodioxol ring of the lead compound was modified. Improvement of the main activity and lipophilicity was achieved simultaneously, leading to compound 18a, which showed high lipophilic ligand efficiency (LLE) and low MBI activity. PMID:26423040

  20. Analysis of Mechanism-Based Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by a Series of Fluoroquinolone Antibacterial Agents.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Akiko; Takakusa, Hideo; Kimura, Takako; Inoue, Shin-Ichi; Kusuhara, Hiroyuki; Ando, Osamu

    2016-10-01

    A series of fluoroquinolone compounds (compounds 1-9), which contain a common quinolone scaffold, inactivated the metabolic activity of CYP3A. The purpose of this study was to identify mechanism-based inhibition (MBI) among these fluoroquinolone compounds by metabolite profiling to elucidate the association of the substructure and MBI potential. Reversibility of MBI after incubation with potassium ferricyanide differed among the test compounds. Representative quasi-irreversible inhibitors form a metabolite-intermediate (MI) complex with the heme of CYP3A4 according to absorption analysis. Metabolite profiling identified the cyclopropane ring-opened metabolites from representative irreversible inhibitors, suggesting irreversible binding of the carbon-centered radical species with CYP3A4. On the other hand, the oxime form of representative quasi-irreversible inhibitors was identified, suggesting generation of a nitroso intermediate that could form the MI complex. Metabolites of compound 10 with a methyl group at the carbon atom at the root of the amine moiety of compound 8 include the oxime form, but compound 10 did not show quasi-irreversible inhibition. The docking study with CYP3A4 suggested that a methyl moiety introduced at the carbon atom at the root of the primary amine disrupts formation of the MI complex between the heme and the nitroso intermediate because of steric hindrance. This study identified substructures of fluoroquinolone compounds associated with the MBI mechanism; introduction of substituted groups inducing steric hindrance with the heme of P450 can prevent formation of an MI complex. Our series of experiments may be broadly applicable to prevention of MBI at the drug discovery stage. PMID:27469000

  1. Influence of Panax ginseng on Cytochrome P450 (CYP)3A and P-glycoprotein (Pgp) Activity in Healthy Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Malati, Christine Y.; Robertson, Sarah M.; Hunt, Jennifer D.; Chairez, Cheryl; Alfaro, Raul M.; Kovacs, Joseph A.; Penzak, Scott R.

    2012-01-01

    A number of herbal preparations have been shown to interact with prescription medications secondary to modulation of cytochrome P450 (CYP) and/or P-glycoprotein (P-gp). The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of Panax ginseng on CYP3A and P-gp function using the probe substrates midazolam and fexofenadine, respectively. Twelve healthy subjects (8 males) completed this open label, single sequence pharmacokinetic study. Healthy volunteers received single oral doses of midazolam 8 mg and fexofenadine 120 mg, before and after 28 days of P. ginseng 500 mg twice daily. Midazolam and fexofenadine pharmacokinetic parameter values were calculated and compared pre-and post P. ginseng administration. Geometric mean ratios (post-ginseng/pre-ginseng) for midazolam area under the concentration vs. time curve from zero to infinity (AUC0-∞), half life (T1/2), and maximum concentration (Cmax) were significantly reduced at 0.66 (0.55 – 0.78), 0.71 (0.53 – 0.90), and 0.74 (0.56 – 0.93), respectively. Conversely, fexofenadine pharmacokinetics were unaltered by P. ginseng administration. Based on these results, Panax ginseng appeared to induce CYP3A activity in the liver and possibly the gastrointestinal tract. Patients taking Panax ginseng in combination with CYP3A substrates with narrow therapeutic ranges should be monitored closely for adequate therapeutic response to the substrate medication. PMID:21646440

  2. Decreased exposure of atorvastatin in diabetic rats partly due to induction of hepatic Cyp3a and Oatp2.

    PubMed

    Shu, Nan; Hu, Mengyue; Liu, Can; Zhang, Mian; Ling, Zhaoli; Zhang, Ji; Xu, Ping; Zhong, Zeyu; Chen, Yang; Liu, Li; Liu, Xiaodong

    2016-10-01

    1. Atorvastatin is frequently prescribed for lowering blood cholesterol and for prevention of events associated with cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the pharmacokinetics of atorvastatin in diabetic rats. 2. Diabetes was induced in rats by combination of high-fat diet and low-dose streptozotocin (35 mg/kg). Plasma concentrations of atorvastatin following oral (10 mg/kg) and intravenous (2 mg/kg) administrations to rats were measured by LC-MS. Metabolism and uptake of atorvastatin in primary hepatocytes of experimental rats were assessed. Protein expressions and activities of hepatic Cyp3a and Oatp2 were further investigated. 3. Clearances of atorvastatin in diabetic rats following oral and intravenous administrations were remarkably increased, leading to marked decreases in area-under-the-plasma concentration-time curve (AUC). The estimated oral and systematic clearances of atorvastatin in diabetic rats were 4.5-fold and 2.0-fold of control rats, respectively. Metabolism and uptake of atorvastatin in primary hepatocytes isolated from diabetic rats were significantly increased, which were consistent with the up-regulated protein expressions and activities of hepatic Cyp3a and Oatp2. 4. All these results demonstrated that the plasma exposure of atorvastatin was significantly decreased in diabetic rats, which was partly due to the up-regulated activities and expressions of both hepatic Cyp3a and Oatp2. PMID:26864241

  3. Supplementation with goldenseal (Hydrastis canadensis), but not kava kava (Piper methysticum), inhibits human CYP3A activity in vivo.

    PubMed

    Gurley, B J; Swain, A; Hubbard, M A; Hartsfield, F; Thaden, J; Williams, D K; Gentry, W B; Tong, Y

    2008-01-01

    The effects of goldenseal (Hydrastis canadensis) and kava kava (Piper methysticum) supplementation on human CYP3A activity were evaluated using midazolam (MDZ) as a phenotypic probe. Sixteen healthy volunteers were randomly assigned to receive either goldenseal or kava kava for 14 days. Each supplementation phase was followed by a 30-day washout period. MDZ (8 mg, per os) was administered before and after each phase, and pharmacokinetic parameters were determined using standard non-compartmental methods. Comparisons of pre- and post-supplementation MDZ pharmacokinetic parameters revealed significant inhibition of CYP3A by goldenseal (AUC(0-infinity), 107.9+/-43.3 vs 175.3+/-74.8 ng x h/ml; Cl/F/kg, 1.26+/-0.59 vs 0.81+/-0.45 l/h/kg; T(1/2), 2.01+/-0.42 vs 3.15+/-1.12 h; Cmax, 50.6+/-26.9 vs 71.2+/-50.5 ng/ml). MDZ disposition was not affected by kava kava supplementation. These findings suggest that significant herb-drug interactions may result from the concomitant ingestion of goldenseal and CYP3A substrates. PMID:17495878

  4. Simultaneous evaluation of human CYP3A4 and ABCB1 induction by reporter assay in LS174T cells, stably expressing their reporter genes.

    PubMed

    Inami, Keita; Sasaki, Takamitsu; Kumagai, Takeshi; Nagata, Kiyoshi

    2015-04-01

    The bioavailability of orally administered therapies are often significantly limited in the human intestine by the metabolic activities of cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) and P-glycoprotein (P-gp). Predicting whether candidate compounds induce CYP3A4 and P-gp is a crucial stage in the drug development process, as drug-drug interactions may result in the induction of intestinal CYP3A4 and P-gp. However, the assay systems needed to evaluate both CYP3A4 and P-gp induction in the intestine are yet to be established. To address this urgent requirement, LS174T cells were used to create two stable cell lines expressing the CYP3A4 or ATP-binding cassette subfamily B member 1 (ABCB1, encoding P-gp) reporter genes. First, these stable cells were tested by treatment with 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3), all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) and 9-cis-retinoic acid (9-cis RA) that induce CYP3A4 and P-gp in the intestines. All these compounds significantly increased both CYP3A4 and ABCB1 reporter activities in the stable cell lines. To simultaneously assess the induction of CYP3A4 and ABCB1, both stable cells were co-cultivated to measure their reporter activities. The mixed cells showed a significant increase in the CYP3A4 and ABCB1 reporter activities following treatment with 1,25(OH)2 D3, ATRA, and 9-cis RA. These activity levels were maintained after passaging more than 20 times and following multiple freeze-thaw cycles. These results demonstrate that our established cell lines can be used to evaluate simultaneously CYP3A4 and ABCB1 induction in the intestines, providing a valuable in vitro model for the evaluation of future drug candidates. PMID:25410880

  5. Urinary 6β-Hydroxycortisol/Cortisol Ratio Most Highly Correlates With Midazolam Clearance Under Hepatic CYP3A Inhibition and Induction in Females: A Pharmacometabolomics Approach.

    PubMed

    Shin, Kwang-Hee; Ahn, Li Young; Choi, Man Ho; Moon, Ju-Yeon; Lee, Jieon; Jang, In-Jin; Yu, Kyung-Sang; Cho, Joo-Youn

    2016-09-01

    Endogenous metabolites of cytochrome P450 (CYP3A) are useful in predicting drug-drug interactions between in vivo CYP3A inhibitors and inducers for clinical applications of CYP3A substrate drugs. This study aimed to develop predictable markers of the magnitude of hepatic CYP3A induction and inhibition in healthy female subjects using pharmacometabolomics. Twelve female subjects received midazolam during three study phases: 1 mg midazolam (control phase), 1 mg midazolam after pretreatment with 400 mg ketoconazole once daily for 4 days (CYP3A inhibition phase), and 2.5 mg midazolam after pretreatment with 600 mg rifampicin once daily for 10 days (CYP3A induction phase). Throughout the study, blood samples were collected 24 h after midazolam administration and urine samples at 12-h intervals during the 24 h before and after midazolam administration for the analysis of endogenous steroid metabolites. A statistical model was generated to predict midazolam clearance using measurements of endogenous metabolites associated with the inhibition and induction of CYP3A. Mean midazolam clearance decreased to ∼20% of control levels during the inhibition phase and increased more than 2-fold during the induction phase. Of the urine and plasma metabolites measured, the 6β-hydroxycortisol/cortisol ratio was most significantly correlated with midazolam clearance during hepatic CYP3A inhibition and induction. Our results suggest that the urinary 6β-hydroxycortisol/cortisol ratio is the best predictor of hepatic CYP3A activity under both maximal inhibition and maximal induction. Furthermore, the predictive model including 6β-hydroxycortisol/cortisol as a covariate could be applied to predict the magnitude of CYP3A-mediated drug interactions. PMID:27317471

  6. Reduced Methylprednisolone Clearance Causing Prolonged Pharmacodynamics in a Healthy Subject Was Not Associated With CYP3A5*3 Allele or a Change in Diet Composition

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Su-Jun; Jusko, William J.; Salaita, Christine G.; Calis, Karim A.; Jann, Michael W.; Spratlin, Vicky E.; Goldstein, Joyce A.; Hon, Yuen Yi

    2014-01-01

    The influence of diet and genetics was investigated in a healthy white person who had distinctly low methylprednisolone clearance. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameter values were similar on 2 occasions during the consumption of a low-carbohydrate diet and a Weight Watchers diet, indicating that the decreased clearance was unlikely attributable to a change in diet composition. Although the subject was found to be homozygous for CYP3A5*3, genetic findings were not significant for a number of other CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 allelic variants. Because of the high prevalence of CYP3A5*3/*3 in whites and because 5 of 7 white control subjects are also homozygous for CYP3A5*3, this genotype cannot fully explain the reduced metabolism of the drug. Other genetic or contributing factors might have been involved. New polymerase chain reaction–based genotyping methods for functionally defective CYP3A5*6, *8, *9, and *10 alleles were developed in this study. These assays will be useful for CYP3A5 genotype analysis in future clinical studies. PMID:16638735

  7. Transport and uptake of clausenamide enantiomers in CYP3A4-transfected Caco-2 cells: An insight into the efflux-metabolism alliance.

    PubMed

    Hua, Fang; Shi, Mei-jun; Zhu, Xiao-lu; Li, Meng; Wang, Hong-xu; Yu, Xiao-ming; Li, Yan; Zhu, Chuan-jiang

    2015-11-01

    The present study developed a CYP3A4-expressed Caco-2 monolayer model at which effects of the efflux-metabolism alliance on the transport and uptake of clausenamide (CLA) enantiomers as CYP3A4 substrates were investigated. The apparent permeability coefficients (Papp) of (-) and (+)CLA were higher in the absorptive direction than those in the secretory direction with efflux ratios (ER) of 0.709±0.411 and 0.867±0.250 (×10(-6)cm/s), respectively. Their bidirectional transports were significantly reduced by 75.6-87.5% after treatment with verapamil (a P-glycoprotein inhibitor) that increased the rate of metabolism by CYP3A4, whereas the CYP3A4 inhibitor ketoconazole treatment markedly enhanced the basolateral to apical flux of (-) and (+)CLA with ERs being 2.934±1.432 and 1.877±0.148(×10(-6)cm/s) respectively. These changes could be blocked by the duel CYP3A4/P-glycoprotein inhibitor cyclosporine A, consequently, Papp values for CLA enantiomers in both directions were significantly greater than those obtained by using verapamil or ketoconazole, and their ERs were similar to those following (-) or (+)-isomer treatment alone. Furthermore, the uptake of (-)CLA was more than that of (+)CLA in the transfected cells. Incubation with ketoconazole decreased the intracellular concentrations of the two enantiomers. This effect disappeared in the presence of a CYP3A4 inducer dexamethasone. These results indicated that CYP3A4 could influence P-gp efflux, transport and uptake of CLA enantiomers as CYP3A4 substrates and that a duel inhibition to CYP3A4/ P-glycoprotein could enhance their absorption and bioavailability, which provides new insight into the efflux-metabolism alliance and will benefit the clinical pharmacology of (-)CLA as a candidate drug for treatment of Alzheimer's disease. PMID:26301745

  8. A CAR-responsive enhancer element locating approximately 31 kb upstream in the 5'-flanking region of rat cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A1 gene.

    PubMed

    Gamou, Toshie; Habano, Wataru; Terashima, Jun; Ozawa, Shogo

    2015-04-01

    Constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) is one of the principal regulators of hepatic cytochrome P450s (CYPs) 3A (CYP3A). cDNA-mediated expression of a mature rat CAR (rCAR) into rat hepatoma cells induced CYP3A1 and CYP2B mRNAs. Aberrant rCAR failed in these inductions. Three important human CYP3A4 regulatory elements (REs), proximal ER6 (proER6), xenobiotic responsive enhancer module (XREM) and constitutive liver enhancer module (CLEM), support constitutive and inducible expression of CYP3As mediated by CAR and pregnane X receptor (PXR). NHR-scan software predicted proER6, XREM and CLEM at -255 b, -8 kb and -11.5 kb, respectively of CYP3A4, but neither XREM nor CLEM was predicted in rat CYP3A. A luciferase reporter construct carrying a 5'-flanking sequence of CYP3A1 (-31,739 to -31,585 from its transcription initiation site) revealed important for the rCAR-dependent transactivation of CYP3A1. This region includes two putative binding motifs of nuclear receptors (DR4 and DR2), a putative hepatocyte nuclear factor-1 binding motif (HNF1), nuclear factor-kappa B binding motif (NFκB), activator protein 1 binding motif (AP-1), and ecotropic viral integration site 1 binding motif (Evi1). We hereby conclude DR4 and/or DR2 motifs being primarily responsible and HNF1 being synergistically functioning elements for the rCAR-mediated transcription of CYP3A1. PMID:25989892

  9. Identification of rifampin-inducible P450IIIA4 (CYP3A4) in human small bowel enterocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Kolars, J C; Schmiedlin-Ren, P; Schuetz, J D; Fang, C; Watkins, P B

    1992-01-01

    Enzymes within the P450IIIA (CYP3A) subfamily appear to account for significant "first pass" metabolism of some drugs in the intestine. To identify which of the known P450IIIA genes are expressed in intestine, enterocyte RNA was hybridized on Northern blots with synthetic oligonucleotides complementary to hypervariable regions of hepatic P450IIIA4, P450IIIA5, and P450IIIA7 cDNAs. Hybridization was detected only with the P450IIIA4-specific oligonucleotide. The identity of the hybridizing mRNA was confirmed to be P450IIIA4 by direct sequencing of a DNA fragment amplified from enterocyte cDNA by the polymerase chain reaction. To determine if enterocyte P450IIIA4 is inducible, biopsies of small bowel mucosa were obtained from five volunteers before and after they received 7d of treatment with rifampin, a known inducer of P450IIIA4 in liver. Rifampin treatment resulted in a five- or eightfold mean increase (P < 0.05) in the biopsy concentration of P450IIIA4 mRNA when normalized for content of sucrase isomaltase or intestinal fatty acid binding protein mRNAs, respectively. Rifampin also induced P450IIIA immunoreactive protein in enterocytes in each of the subjects, as judged by immunohistochemistry, and resulted in a 10-fold increase in P450IIIA4-specific catalytic activity (erythromycin N-demethylation) in the one patient studied. Our identification of inducible P450IIIA4 in enterocytes may in part account for drug interactions characteristic of P450IIIA4 substrates and suggests a strategy for controlling entry into the body of a major class of xenobiotics. Images PMID:1430211

  10. Modulation of CYP3A4 activity alters the cytotoxicity of lipophilic phycotoxins in human hepatic HepaRG cells.

    PubMed

    Ferron, P J; Hogeveen, K; De Sousa, G; Rahmani, R; Dubreil, E; Fessard, V; Le Hegarat, L

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate (i) the cytotoxic effects of lipophilic phycotoxins, including okadaic acid (OA) and dinophysistoxin-1 and -2 (DTX-1 and DTX-2), pectenotoxin-2 (PTX-2), yessotoxin (YTX), spirolide (SPX), and azaspiracids-1, -2 and -3 (AZA-1, AZA-2 and AZA-3), in human HepaRG cells using a multiparametric high content analysis approach, (ii) the ability of nine lipophilic phycotoxins to act as PXR agonists in a HepG2-PXR cell line, (iii) their potential to induce CYP450 activity, and (iv) the role of CYP3A4 in cytotoxicity induced by lipophilic phycotoxins. Our results indicate that while OA, DTX-1 and DTX-2 activated PXR-dependent transcriptional activity in HepG2 cells, no increase of CYP450 (1A2, 3A4, 2C9, 2C19) activities were observed in HepaRG cell following a 72h treatment with these toxins. Multiparametric analysis showed that OA, DTX-1, DTX-2, and PTX-2 were highly cytotoxic in HepaRG cells; inducing cell loss, activation of caspase-3 and γ-H2AX formation. However, no toxicity was observed for YTX, SPX, and AZAs. Moreover, we found that inhibition of CYP3A4 activity by ketoconazole enhances the toxic effects of OA, DTX-1, DTX-2, and PTX-2 in HepaRG cells. Taken together, these results suggest that CYP3A4-mediated metabolism of some lipophilic phycotoxins decreases their in vitro toxicity. PMID:26956883

  11. Drug membrane transporters and CYP3A4 are affected by hypericin, hyperforin or aristoforin in colon adenocarcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Šemeláková, M; Jendželovský, R; Fedoročko, P

    2016-07-01

    Our previous results have shown that the combination of hypericin-mediated photodynamic therapy (HY-PDT) at sub-optimal dose with hyperforin (HP) (compounds of Hypericum sp.), or its stable derivative aristoforin (AR) stimulates generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) leading to antitumour activity. This enhanced oxidative stress evoked the need for an explanation for HY accumulation in colon cancer cells pretreated with HP or AR. Generally, the therapeutic efficacy of chemotherapeutics is limited by drug resistance related to the overexpression of drug efflux transporters in tumour cells. Therefore, the impact of non-activated hypericin (HY), HY-PDT, HP and AR on cell membrane transporter systems (Multidrug resistance-associated protein 1-MRP1/ABCC1, Multidrug resistance-associated protein 2-MRP2/ABCC2, Breast cancer resistance protein - BCRP/ABCG2, P-glycoprotein-P-gp/ABCC1) and cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) was evaluated. The different effects of the three compounds on their expression, protein level and activity was determined under specific PDT light (T0+, T6+) or dark conditions (T0- T6-). We found that HP or AR treatment affected the protein levels of MRP2 and P-gp, whereas HP decreased MRP2 and P-gp expression mostly in the T0+ and T6+ conditions, while AR decreased MRP2 in T0- and T6+. Moreover, HY-PDT treatment induced the expression of MRP1. Our data demonstrate that HP or AR treatment in light or dark PDT conditions had an inhibitory effect on the activity of individual membrane transport proteins and significantly decreased CYP3A4 activity in HT-29 cells. We found that HP or AR significantly affected intracellular accumulation of HY in HT-29 colon adenocarcinoma cells. These results suggest that HY, HP and AR might affect the efficiency of anti-cancer drugs, through interaction with membrane transporters and CYP3A4. PMID:27261575

  12. Inhibitory effect of single and repeated doses of nilotinib on the pharmacokinetics of CYP3A substrate midazolam.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hefei; Sheng, Jennifer; Ko, Jin H; Zheng, Cheng; Zhou, Wei; Priess, Petra; Lin, Wen; Novick, Steven

    2015-04-01

    Effects of single and repeated doses of nilotinib on the pharmacokinetics of midazolam, a cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A) substrate, were assessed in 2 separate studies. In the single-dose nilotinib study, 18 healthy subjects were randomized to 6 treatment sequences to receive single dose of nilotinib 600 mg, midazolam 4 mg, and coadministration of both in a crossover manner. In the repeated-dose nilotinib study, 19 chronic myeloid leukemia patients took a single dose of midazolam 2 mg on days 1 and 13, and nilotinib 400 mg twice daily from days 2-13. In the single-dose study, the geometric mean ratio of the area under the plasma concentration time curve extrapolated to infinity (AUC(inf)) of midazolam plus nilotinib vs. midazolam was 1.3 (90%CI, 1.2-1.5) and the maximum observed serum concentration (C(max)) was 1.2 (90%CI, 1.0-1.4). In the repeated-dose study, the values for AUC(inf) and C(max) were 2.6 (90%CI, 2.1-3.3) and 2.0 (90%CI, 1.7-2.4), respectively. These results indicate that single-dose and repeated-dose administration of nilotinib results in weak and moderate inhibition of CYP3A, respectively. Therefore, appropriate monitoring and dose adjustment may be needed for drugs that are mainly metabolized by CYP3A, and have narrow therapeutic index, when coadministered with nilotinib. PMID:25418605

  13. CYP3A5*3 and MDR1 C3435T are influencing factors of inter-subject variability in rupatadine pharmacokinetics in healthy Chinese volunteers.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Yuqing; Yuan, Zhao; Yang, Jingzhi; Xia, Chunhua; Li, Xinhua; Huang, Shibo; Zhang, Hong; Liu, Mingyi

    2016-04-01

    Rupatadine (RUP) is an oral antihistamine and platelet-activating factor antagonist and is shown as the substrate of CYP3A5 and P-gp. The significant interindividual differences of CYP3A5 and P-gp often cause bioavailability differences of some clinical drugs. The present study is aimed to evaluate the effect of genetic polymorphisms of CYP3A5 and MDR1 on RUP pharmacokinetics in healthy male Chinese volunteer subjects. Blood samples were collected from 36 subjects before and after a single, oral RUP 10 mg dose. A PCR-RFLP assay was used to genotype CYP3A5*3 and assess MDR1 C3435T variation. A validated LC-MS/MS method quantified plasma RUP concentration. The relationship between RUP plasma concentration, pharmacokinetic parameters, and polymorphic alleles (CYP3A5 and MDR1) were assessed. Plasma RUP concentrations were lower for CYP3A5*1/*1 carriers than for CYP3A5*3/*3 and CYP3A5*1/*3 carriers. Mean C(max), AUC(0-t) and AUC(0-∞) were significantly lower, and the CLz and Vd were significantly higher in the CYP3A5 wild-type group, than in the CYP3A5 mutated group. MDR1 CT and MDR1 TT carriers had lower plasma RUP concentrations than MDR1 CC carriers. The mean C(max), AUC(0-t), AUC(0-∞) and T max were significantly lower in the TT group than in the CC and CT groups. The mean CLz was higher in the TT group than in the CC and CT groups, but not significantly. These results suggest that CYP3A5 and MDR1 may play a key role in the variability of RUP metabolism and transport, respectively. CYP3A5 and MDR1 polymorphisms may be the main explanation for the differences observed in RUP pharmacokinetics, and therefore may provide a rationale for safe and effective clinical use of RUP. Our research lays down a solid theory foundation to guide the safe and effective clinical use of RUP and a route to achieve individualized therapy. PMID:25427746

  14. Carbamazepine-Induced Liver Injury Requires CYP3A-Mediated Metabolism and Glutathione Depletion in Rats.

    PubMed

    Iida, Azumi; Sasaki, Eita; Yano, Azusa; Tsuneyama, Koichi; Fukami, Tatsuki; Nakajima, Miki; Yokoi, Tsuyoshi

    2015-07-01

    Carbamazepine (CBZ) is widely used as an antiepileptic agent and causes rare but severe liver injury in humans. It has been generally recognized that reactive metabolites formed via the metabolic activation reaction contribute to the onset of liver injuries by several drugs. However, the role of CBZ metabolism in the development of liver injury is not fully understood. In this study, we developed a novel rat model of CBZ-induced liver injury and attempted to elucidate the associated mechanisms by focusing on the metabolism of CBZ. The repeated administration of CBZ for 5 days in combination with l-buthionine sulfoximine (BSO), a glutathione (GSH) synthesis inhibitor, resulted in increases in the plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels and centrilobular necrosis in the liver that were observed in various degrees. The CBZ and 2-hydroxy-CBZ concentrations in the plasma after the last CBZ administration were lower in the rats with high plasma ALT levels compared with those with normal plasma ALT levels, showing the possibility that the further metabolism of CBZ and/or 2-hydroxy-CBZ is associated with the liver injury. Although a single administration of CBZ did not affect the plasma ALT levels, even when cotreated with BSO, pretreatment with dexamethasone, a CYP3A inducer, increased the plasma ALT levels. In addition, the rats cotreated with troleandomycin or ketoconazole, CYP3A inhibitors, suppressed the increased plasma ALT levels. In conclusion, reactive metabolite(s) of CBZ produced by CYP3A under the GSH-depleted condition might be involved in the development of liver injury in rats. PMID:25870103

  15. Mechanism of Drug-Drug Interactions Mediated by Human Cytochrome P450 CYP3A4 Monomer

    PubMed Central

    Denisov, Ilia G.; Grinkova, Yelena V.; Baylon, Javier L.; Tajkhorshid, Emad; Sligar, Stephen G.

    2016-01-01

    Using Nanodiscs, we quantitate the heterotropic interaction between two different drugs mediated by monomeric CYP3A4 incorporated into a native-like membrane environment. The mechanism of this interaction is deciphered by global analysis of multiple turnover experiments performed under identical conditions using the pure substrates progesterone (PGS) and carbamazepine (CBZ) and their mixtures. Activation of CBZ epoxidation and simultaneous inhibition of PGS hydroxylation are measured and quantitated through differences in their respective affinities towards both a remote allosteric site and the productive catalytic site near the heme iron. Preferred binding of PGS at the allosteric site and higher preference of CBZ binding at the productive site give rise to a non-trivial drug-drug interaction. Molecular dynamics simulations indicate functionally important conformational changes caused by PGS binding at the allosteric site and by two CBZ molecules positioned inside the substrate binding pocket. Structural changes involving Phe-213, Phe-219, and Phe-241 are suggested to be responsible for the observed synergetic effects and positive allosteric interactions between these two substrates. Such a mechanism is likely of general relevance to the mutual heterotropic effects caused by biologically active compounds which exhibit different patterns of interaction with the distinct allosteric and productive sites of CYP3A4, as well as other xenobiotic metabolizing cytochromes P450 that are also involved in drug-drug interactions. Importantly, this work demonstrates that a monomeric CYP3A4 can display the full spectrum of activation and cooperative effects that are observed in hepatic membranes. PMID:25777547

  16. Effects of cytokines on CYP3A4 expression and reversal of the effects by anti-cytokine agents in the three-dimensionally cultured human hepatoma cell line FLC-4.

    PubMed

    Mimura, Hanaka; Kobayashi, Kaoru; Xu, Linxiaoqing; Hashimoto, Mari; Ejiri, Yoko; Hosoda, Masaya; Chiba, Kan

    2015-02-01

    The expression of hepatic cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes is altered under pathological conditions with increased levels of cytokines. In this study, we analyzed the effects of cytokines (interleukin [IL]-1β, IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor α) on the expression of CYP3A4 using newly introduced three-dimensionally cultured human hepatocarcinoma FLC-4 cells. The mRNA level of CYP3A4 was significantly decreased by IL-1β, IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α. Formation of α-hydroxytriazolam catalyzed by CYP3A was decreased by IL-1β and IL-6. Pre-treatment with IL-6 enhanced the cytotoxic effects of gefitinib and paclitaxel. In addition, tocilizumab and IL-1 receptor antagonist restored the decreased expression of CYP3A4 mRNA by IL-6 and IL-1β, respectively. These results obtained by using three-dimensionally cultured FLC-4 cells are consistent with results obtained by using primary human hepatocytes and results of clinical studies. Therefore, three-dimensionally cultured FLC-4 cell system may be a promising cellular tool to assess the effects of cytokines on CYP3A4 expression. PMID:25760537

  17. A food contaminant ochratoxin A suppresses pregnane X receptor (PXR)-mediated CYP3A4 induction in primary cultures of human hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Doricakova, Aneta; Vrzal, Radim

    2015-11-01

    Ochratoxin A (OCHA) is a mycotoxin, which can be found in food such as coffee, wine, cereals, meat, nuts. Since it is absorbed via gastrointestinal tract, it is reasonable to anticipate that the liver will be the first organ to which OCHA comes into the contact before systemic circulation. Many xenobiotics are metabolically modified after the passage of the liver to biologically more active substances, sometimes with more harmful activity. Promoting own metabolism is often achieved via transcriptional regulation of biotransformation enzymes through ligand-activated transcription factors. Pregnane X receptor (PXR) belongs to such a group of regulators and it was demonstrated to be activated by many compounds of synthetic as well as natural origin. Our intention was to investigate if OCHA is capable of activating the PXR with consequent induction of PXR-regulated CYP3A4 gene. We found that OCHA does not activate PXR but displays antagonist-like behavior when combined with rifampicin (RIF) in gene reporter assay in human embryonal kidney cells (Hek293T). It was very weak inducer of CYP3A4 mRNA in primary cultures of human hepatocytes and it antagonized RIF-mediated CYP3A4 induction of mRNA as well as protein. In addition, it caused the decline of PXR protein as well as mRNA which was faster than that with actinomycin D, a transcription inhibitor. Since we found that OCHA induced the expression of miR-148a, which was described to regulate PXR expression, we conclude that antagonist-like behavior of OCHA is not due to the antagonism itself but due to the downregulation of PXR gene expression. Herein we provide important findings which bring a piece of puzzle into the understanding of mechanism of toxic action of ochratoxin A. PMID:26341324

  18. Diazepam metabolism by human liver microsomes is mediated by both S-mephenytoin hydroxylase and CYP3A isoforms.

    PubMed Central

    Andersson, T; Miners, J O; Veronese, M E; Birkett, D J

    1994-01-01

    1. The primary metabolism of diazepam was studied in human liver microsomes in order to investigate the kinetics and to identify the cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoforms responsible for the formation of the main diazepam metabolites, temazepam and N-desmethyldiazepam. 2. The formation kinetics of both metabolites were atypical and consistent with the occurrence of substrate activation. A sigmoid Vmax model equivalent to the Hill equation was used to fit the data. The degree of sigmoidicity was greater for temazepam formation than for N-desmethyldiazepam formation, so that the ratio of desmethyldiazepam:temazepam formation increased as the substrate (diazepam) concentration decreased. 3. alpha-Naphthoflavone activated both reactions but with a greater effect on temazepam formation than on N-desmethyldiazepam formation. In the presence of 25 microM alpha-naphthoflavone the kinetics for both pathways were approximated by Michaelis-Menten kinetics. 4. Studies with a series of CYP isoform selective inhibitors and with an inhibitory anti-CYP2C antibody indicated that temazepam formation was carried out mainly by CYP3A isoforms, whereas the formation of N-desmethyldiazepam was mediated by both CYP3A isoforms and S-mephenytoin hydroxylase. PMID:7981013

  19. Long-Term Clinical Impact of Adaptation of Initial Tacrolimus Dosing to CYP3A5 Genotype.

    PubMed

    Pallet, N; Etienne, I; Buchler, M; Bailly, E; Hurault de Ligny, B; Choukroun, G; Colosio, C; Thierry, A; Vigneau, C; Moulin, B; Le Meur, Y; Heng, A-E; Legendre, C; Beaune, P; Loriot, M A; Thervet, E

    2016-09-01

    Pretransplantation adaptation of the daily dose of tacrolimus to CYP3A5 genotype is associated with improved achievement of target trough concentration (C0 ), but whether this improvement affects clinical outcomes is unknown. In the present study, we have evaluated the long-term clinical impact of the adaptation of initial tacrolimus dosing according to CYP3A5 genotype: The transplantation outcomes of the 236 kidney transplant recipients included in the Tactique study were retrospectively investigated over a period of more than 5 years. In the Tactique study, patients were randomly assigned to receive tacrolimus at either a fixed dosage or a dosage determined by their genotype, and the primary efficacy end point was the proportion of patients for whom tacrolimus C0 was within target range (10-15 ng/mL) at day 10. Our results indicate that the incidence of biopsy-proven acute rejection and graft survival were similar between the control and the adapted tacrolimus dose groups, as well as between the patients who achieve the tacrolimus C0 target ranges earlier. Patients' death, cancer, cardiovascular events, and infections were also similar, and renal function did not change. We conclude that optimization of initial tacrolimus dose using pharmacogenetic testing does not improve clinical outcomes. PMID:26990694

  20. Capsaicin pretreatment increased the bioavailability of cyclosporin in rats: involvement of P-glycoprotein and CYP 3A inhibition.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Xue-jia; Shi, Fang; Chen, Fen; Lu, Yong-ning

    2013-12-01

    Capsaicin (CAP), the main ingredient responsible for the hot pungent taste of chilli peppers. This study investigated the effect of CAP on the pharmacokinetics of Cyclosporin A (CyA) in rats and the mechanism of this food-drug interaction. The results indicated that after 7 days of low or middle dose of CAP (0.3 or 1.0 mg/kg), the blood concentration of CyA was not significantly changed compared with that of vehicle-treated rats, whereas the blood concentration of CyA in high dose group (3.0 mg/kg) was significantly increased. The total clearance (CL/F) of CyA was decreased, and the bioavailability was significantly increased to about 1.44-fold of that in vehicle-treated rats after 7 days of high dose CAP treatment. At this time, the P-gp and CYP3A1/2 in the liver and intestine were decreased at both the mRNA and protein levels. These results demonstrated that chronic ingestion of high doses of CAP will increase the bioavailability of CyA to a significant extent in rats and the food-drug interaction between CAP and CyA appears to be due to modulation of P-gp and CYP3A gene expression by CAP, with differential dose-dependence. PMID:24013073

  1. Aldrin epoxidation in flathead mullet (Mugil cephalus): possible involvement of CYP1A and CYP3A.

    PubMed

    Bozcaarmutlu, Azra; Turna, Sema; Sapmaz, Canan; Arinc, Emel; Yenisoy-Karakaş, Serpil

    2014-06-01

    The primary objective of this study was to determine specific cytochrome P450 isozyme(s) involved in the metabolism of aldrin to its toxic metabolite dieldrin in flathead mullet (Mugil cephalus) liver microsomes. To identify the cytochrome P450 isozyme responsible for the aldrin metabolism in mullet liver, the effects of mammalian-specific cytochrome P450 inhibitors and substrates were determined in the epoxidation reaction of aldrin. CYP3A-related inhibitors, ketoconazole, SKF-525A, and cimetidine, inhibited the metabolism of aldrin. The contribution of CYP1A to the aldrin metabolism was shown by the inhibition of 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity in the presence of aldrin. The results indicate that CY1A and CYP3A are the cytochrome P450s involved in aldrin epoxidase activity in mullet. In addition, the suitability of aldrin epoxidase activity for monitoring of environmental pollution was also assessed in the fish samples caught from four different locations of the West Black Sea coast of Turkey. PMID:24756956

  2. Quercetin, an in vitro inhibitor of CYP3A, does not contribute to the interaction between nifedipine and grapefruit juice.

    PubMed Central

    Rashid, J; McKinstry, C; Renwick, A G; Dirnhuber, M; Waller, D G; George, C F

    1993-01-01

    Quercetin, a flavonoid present in various fruits, is a potent in vitro inhibitor of CYP3A. Its role in the reported interaction between grapefruit juice and nifedipine has been determined in vivo in humans. Eight healthy volunteers were given in random order 10 mg nifedipine orally, either alone or with 200 ml double strength grapefruit juice, or with 400 mg quercetin. The area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) for nifedipine with grapefruit juice (mean 320 ng ml(-1) h) was increased significantly (P < 0.01) compared with the AUC when nifedipine was given alone (mean 218 ng ml(-1) h). The time to peak plasma concentration for nifedipine with grapefruit juice (1.5 h) was also increased (P < 0.05) compared with control (0.5 h) suggesting delayed absorption. Although quercetin delayed the time to peak nifedipine concentration (1.3 h) it did not alter the AUC of either the parent drug (mean 209 ng ml(-1) h) or its first-pass metabolite. The results suggest that quercetin does not contribute to the effects of grapefruit juice (which contains <10 mg of quercetin 200 ml(-1)) on the metabolism of nifedipine. Oral doses of quercetin, similar to those possible from the ingestion of other fruits such as strawberries, do not produce in vivo inhibition of CYP3A mediated metabolism of nifedipine. PMID:12959295

  3. Establishment of In Silico Prediction Models for CYP3A4 and CYP2B6 Induction in Human Hepatocytes by Multiple Regression Analysis Using Azole Compounds.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Mika; Konno, Yoshihiro; Satsukawa, Masahiro; Yamashita, Shinji; Yoshinari, Kouichi

    2016-08-01

    Drug-drug interactions (DDIs) via cytochrome P450 (P450) induction are one clinical problem leading to increased risk of adverse effects and the need for dosage adjustments and additional therapeutic monitoring. In silico models for predicting P450 induction are useful for avoiding DDI risk. In this study, we have established regression models for CYP3A4 and CYP2B6 induction in human hepatocytes using several physicochemical parameters for a set of azole compounds with different P450 induction as characteristics as model compounds. To obtain a well-correlated regression model, the compounds for CYP3A4 or CYP2B6 induction were independently selected from the tested azole compounds using principal component analysis with fold-induction data. Both of the multiple linear regression models obtained for CYP3A4 and CYP2B6 induction are represented by different sets of physicochemical parameters. The adjusted coefficients of determination for these models were of 0.8 and 0.9, respectively. The fold-induction of the validation compounds, another set of 12 azole-containing compounds, were predicted within twofold limits for both CYP3A4 and CYP2B6. The concordance for the prediction of CYP3A4 induction was 87% with another validation set, 23 marketed drugs. However, the prediction of CYP2B6 induction tended to be overestimated for these marketed drugs. The regression models show that lipophilicity mostly contributes to CYP3A4 induction, whereas not only the lipophilicity but also the molecular polarity is important for CYP2B6 induction. Our regression models, especially that for CYP3A4 induction, might provide useful methods to avoid potent CYP3A4 or CYP2B6 inducers during the lead optimization stage without performing induction assays in human hepatocytes. PMID:27208383

  4. Cecropin B Represses CYP3A29 Expression through Activation of the TLR2/4-NF-κB/PXR Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xiaoqiao; Li, Xiaowen; Wang, Xiliang; Jin, Xiue; Shi, Deshi; Wang, Jun; Bi, Dingren

    2016-01-01

    Cecropins are peptide antibiotics used as drugs and feed additives. Cecropin B can inhibit the expression of CYP3A29, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. The present study was designed to determine the mechanisms responsible for the effects of cecropin B on CYP3A29 expression, focusing on the Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and NF-κB pathways. Our results indicated that the CYP3A29 expression was inhibited by cecropin B, which was regulated by pregnane X receptor (PXR) in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Cecropin B-induced NF-κB activation played a pivotal role in the suppression of CYP3A29 through disrupting the association of the PXR/retinoid X receptor alpha (RXR-α) complex with DNA sequences. NF-κB p65 directly interacted with the DNA-binding domain of PXR, suppressed its expression, and inhibited its transactivation, leading to the downregulation of the PXR-regulated CYP3A29 expression. Furthermore, cecropin B activated pig liver cells by interacting with TLRs 2 and 4, which modulated NF-κB-mediated signaling pathways. In conclusion, cecropin B inhibited the expression of CYP3A29 in a TLR/NF-κB/PXR-dependent manner, which should be considered in future development of cecropins and other antimicrobial peptides. PMID:27296244

  5. Cecropin B Represses CYP3A29 Expression through Activation of the TLR2/4-NF-κB/PXR Signaling Pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiaoqiao; Li, Xiaowen; Wang, Xiliang; Jin, Xiue; Shi, Deshi; Wang, Jun; Bi, Dingren

    2016-01-01

    Cecropins are peptide antibiotics used as drugs and feed additives. Cecropin B can inhibit the expression of CYP3A29, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. The present study was designed to determine the mechanisms responsible for the effects of cecropin B on CYP3A29 expression, focusing on the Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and NF-κB pathways. Our results indicated that the CYP3A29 expression was inhibited by cecropin B, which was regulated by pregnane X receptor (PXR) in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Cecropin B-induced NF-κB activation played a pivotal role in the suppression of CYP3A29 through disrupting the association of the PXR/retinoid X receptor alpha (RXR-α) complex with DNA sequences. NF-κB p65 directly interacted with the DNA-binding domain of PXR, suppressed its expression, and inhibited its transactivation, leading to the downregulation of the PXR-regulated CYP3A29 expression. Furthermore, cecropin B activated pig liver cells by interacting with TLRs 2 and 4, which modulated NF-κB-mediated signaling pathways. In conclusion, cecropin B inhibited the expression of CYP3A29 in a TLR/NF-κB/PXR-dependent manner, which should be considered in future development of cecropins and other antimicrobial peptides. PMID:27296244

  6. Racial Differences in CYP3A4 Genotype and Survival Among Men Treated on Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 9202: A Phase III Randomized Trial

    SciTech Connect

    Roach, Mack Silvio, Michelle de; Rebbick, Timothy; Grignon, David; Rotman, Marvin; Wolkov, Harvey; Fisher, Barbara; Hanks, Gerald; Shipley, William U.; Pollack, Alan; Sandler, Howard; Watkins-Bruner, Deborah Ph.D.

    2007-09-01

    Purpose: Inherited genotypes may explain the inferior outcomes of African American (AA) men with prostate cancer. To understand how variation in CYP3A4 correlated with outcomes, a retrospective examination of the CYP3A4*1B genotype was performed on men treated with Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 92-02. Methods and Materials: From 1,514 cases, we evaluated 56 (28.4%) of 197 AA and 54 (4.3%) of 1,274 European American (EA) patients. All patients received goserelin and flutamide for 2 months before and during RT (STAD-RT) {+-} 24 months of goserelin (long-term androgen deprivation plus radiation [LTAD-RT]). Events studied included overall survival and biochemical progression using American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology consensus guidelines. Results: There were no differences in outcome in patients in with or without CYP3A4 data. There was an association between race and CYP3A4 polymorphisms with 75% of EAs having the Wild Type compared to only 25% of AA men (p <0.0001). There was no association between CYP3A4 classification or race and survival or progression. Conclusions: The samples analyzed support previously reported observations about the distribution of CYP3A4*1B genotype by race, but race was not associated with poorer outcome. However, patient numbers were limited, and selection bias cannot be completely ruled out.

  7. Differential roles of P-glycoprotein, multidrug resistance-associated protein 2, and CYP3A on saquinavir oral absorption in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Usansky, Helen H; Hu, Peidi; Sinko, Patrick J

    2008-05-01

    The objective of this investigation was to differentiate the roles of P-glycoprotein (Pgp), multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (Mrp2), and CYP3A on saquinavir (SQV) oral absorption. With use of single-pass jejunal perfusion (in situ) and portal vein-cannulated rats (in vivo), SQV absorption was studied under chemical inhibition of Pgp [N-(4-[2-(1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-6,7-dimethoxy-2 isoquinolinyl)-ethyl]-phenyl)-9,10-dihydro-5-methoxy-9-oxo-4-acridine carboxamide (GF120918)], Mrp2 [(3-(((3-(2-(7-chloro-2-quinolinyl)-(E)-ethenyl)phenyl) ((3-(dimethylamino-3-oxopropyl)thio)methyl)-thio) propanoic acid (MK571)], and/or CYP3A (midazolam). Plasma concentrations of SQV and related metabolites were analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. When given alone, SQV absorption was extremely low both in situ (F(a) = 0.07%) and in vivo [C(max) = 0.068 microg/ml; area under the curve (AUC) = 6.8 microg x min/ml]. Coadministration of GF120918 boosted SQV absorption by more than 20-fold with decreased variation in AUCs (percent coefficient of variation = 30% versus 100%). In contrast, coadministration of MK571 or midazolam increased SQV absorption only 2- to 3-fold without improving the variation in AUCs. SQV oral absorption was not further improved when it was given with GF120918 and midazolam or with GF120918 and MK571. The current results provide, for the first time, direct and explicit evidence that the low oral absorption of SQV is controlled by a secretory transporter, Pgp, and not by limited passive diffusion owing to its poor physicochemical properties. Pgp-mediated transport is also responsible for the highly variable oral bioavailability of SQV. In contrast, intestinal Mrp2 and intestinal CYP3A appear to play minor roles in SQV oral bioavailability. Given the differential and complex roles of Pgp and CYP3A in SQV oral absorption, the optimization of AIDS boosting regimens requires careful consideration to avoid therapy-limiting drug-drug transporter

  8. Differential regulation of CYP3A4 promoter activity by a new class of natural product derivatives binding to pregnane X receptor

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Monimoy; Chen, Taosheng

    2013-01-01

    The pregnane X receptor (PXR) regulates drug metabolism by regulating the expression of drug-metabolizing enzymes such as cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4), which is involved in the metabolism of >50% of clinically prescribed drugs. The activity of PXR can be controlled by the binding of small molecule agonists or antagonists. Because of its unique ligand binding pocket, PXR binds promiscuously to structurally diverse chemicals. To study the structure-activity relationship, novel modulators for PXR are needed. Here we report the virtual screening of ~25,000 natural product derivatives from the ZINC database using the Molecular Operating Environment docking software tool against the PXR-rifampicin complex x-ray crystal structure. Our screening resulted in identification of compounds based on the lowest S score, which measures Gibbs free energy. Interestingly, we found that the compounds that bind directly to PXR, as revealed in an intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence assay, modulate CYP3A4 promoter activity differentially in HepG2 cells. Mutational analysis and docking studies showed that these compounds bind broadly in the ligand binding pocket but interact with different amino acid residues. We further investigated the mechanism of binding by analyzing the functional groups that are important for distinguishing agonists from antagonists. The approach we used to identify novel modulators that bind to PXR can be useful for finding novel modulators of PXR. PMID:23928187

  9. Reduction in hepatic drug metabolizing CYP3A4 activities caused by P450 oxidoreductase mutations identified in patients with disordered steroid metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Flueck, Christa E.; Mullis, Primus E.; Pandey, Amit V.

    2010-10-08

    Research highlights: {yields} Cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4), metabolizes 50% of drugs in clinical use and requires NADPH-P450 reductase (POR). {yields} Mutations in human POR cause congenital adrenal hyperplasia from diminished activities of steroid metabolizing P450s. {yields} We are reporting that mutations in POR may reduce CYP3A4 activity. {yields} POR mutants Y181D, A457H, Y459H, V492E and R616X lost 99%, while A287P, C569Y and V608F lost 60-85% CYP3A4 activity. {yields} Reduction of CYP3A4 activity may cause increased risk of drug toxicities/adverse drug reactions in patients with POR mutations. -- Abstract: Cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4), the major P450 present in human liver metabolizes approximately half the drugs in clinical use and requires electrons supplied from NADPH through NADPH-P450 reductase (POR, CPR). Mutations in human POR cause a rare form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia from diminished activities of steroid metabolizing P450s. In this study we examined the effect of mutations in POR on CYP3A4 activity. We used purified preparations of wild type and mutant human POR and in vitro reconstitution with purified CYP3A4 to perform kinetic studies. We are reporting that mutations in POR identified in patients with disordered steroidogenesis/Antley-Bixler syndrome (ABS) may reduce CYP3A4 activity, potentially affecting drug metabolism in individuals carrying mutant POR alleles. POR mutants Y181D, A457H, Y459H, V492E and R616X had more than 99% loss of CYP3A4 activity, while POR mutations A287P, C569Y and V608F lost 60-85% activity. Loss of CYP3A4 activity may result in increased risk of drug toxicities and adverse drug reactions in patients with POR mutations.

  10. Towards a Best Practice Approach in PBPK Modeling: Case Example of Developing a Unified Efavirenz Model Accounting for Induction of CYPs 3A4 and 2B6.

    PubMed

    Ke, A; Barter, Z; Rowland-Yeo, K; Almond, L

    2016-07-01

    In this study, we present efavirenz physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model development as an example of our best practice approach that uses a stepwise approach to verify the different components of the model. First, a PBPK model for efavirenz incorporating in vitro and clinical pharmacokinetic (PK) data was developed to predict exposure following multiple dosing (600 mg q.d.). Alfentanil i.v. and p.o. drug-drug interaction (DDI) studies were utilized to evaluate and refine the CYP3A4 induction component in the liver and gut. Next, independent DDI studies with substrates of CYP3A4 (maraviroc, atazanavir, and clarithromycin) and CYP2B6 (bupropion) verified the induction components of the model (area under the curve [AUC] ratios within 1.0-1.7-fold of observed). Finally, the model was refined to incorporate the fractional contribution of enzymes, including CYP2B6, propagating autoinduction into the model (Racc 1.7 vs. 1.7 observed). This validated mechanistic model can now be applied in clinical pharmacology studies to prospectively assess both the victim and perpetrator DDI potential of efavirenz. PMID:27435752

  11. Effects of EPHX1 and CYP3A4*22 genetic polymorphisms on carbamazepine metabolism and drug response among Tunisian epileptic patients.

    PubMed

    Chbili, Chahra; Fathallah, Neila; Laouani, Aicha; Nouira, Manel; Hassine, Anis; Ben Amor, Sana; Ben Ammou, Sofiene; Ben Salem, Chaker; Saguem, Saad

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of polymorphisms in the EPHX1 (c.416A > G, c.337T > C) and CYP3A4*22 genes involved in carbamazepine (CBZ) metabolism and pharmacoresistance among 118 Tunisian patients with epilepsy under maintenance dose of CBZ. These genetic polymorphisms were analyzed by PCR-RFLP. Associations between plasma CBZ concentration, CBZ-E concentration, maintenance doses and metabolic ratio (CBZ-E:CBZ, CBZ-D:CBZ-E) were analyzed with each polymorphism. Both variants of EPHX1 c.416A > G and c.337T > C are significantly associated with higher metabolic ratio CBZ-E:CBZ and seem to decrease the activity of the epoxide hydrolase. The CYP3A4*22 variant allele is significantly associated with lower CBZ-D:CBZ-E ratio and seems also to be associated with less activity of the cytochrome. Our data suggest that certain polymorphisms of metabolizing enzyme genes could influence inter-individual variability of CBZ metabolism. PMID:27276192

  12. Towards a Best Practice Approach in PBPK Modeling: Case Example of Developing a Unified Efavirenz Model Accounting for Induction of CYPs 3A4 and 2B6

    PubMed Central

    Ke, A; Barter, Z; Rowland‐Yeo, K

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we present efavirenz physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model development as an example of our best practice approach that uses a stepwise approach to verify the different components of the model. First, a PBPK model for efavirenz incorporating in vitro and clinical pharmacokinetic (PK) data was developed to predict exposure following multiple dosing (600 mg q.d.). Alfentanil i.v. and p.o. drug‐drug interaction (DDI) studies were utilized to evaluate and refine the CYP3A4 induction component in the liver and gut. Next, independent DDI studies with substrates of CYP3A4 (maraviroc, atazanavir, and clarithromycin) and CYP2B6 (bupropion) verified the induction components of the model (area under the curve [AUC] ratios within 1.0–1.7‐fold of observed). Finally, the model was refined to incorporate the fractional contribution of enzymes, including CYP2B6, propagating autoinduction into the model (Racc 1.7 vs. 1.7 observed). This validated mechanistic model can now be applied in clinical pharmacology studies to prospectively assess both the victim and perpetrator DDI potential of efavirenz. PMID:27435752

  13. CYP3A4-transfected Caco-2 cells as a tool for understanding biochemical absorption barriers: studies with sirolimus and midazolam.

    PubMed

    Cummins, Carolyn L; Jacobsen, Wolfgang; Christians, Uwe; Benet, Leslie Z

    2004-01-01

    CYP3A4-transfected Caco-2 cells were used as an in vitro system to predict the importance of drug metabolism and transport on overall drug absorption. We examined the transport and metabolism of two drugs; midazolam, an anesthetic agent and CYP3A4 substrate, and sirolimus, an immunosuppressant and a dual CYP3A4/P-glycoprotein (P-gp) substrate, in the presence of cyclosporine (CsA, a CYP3A4/P-gp inhibitor) or N-[4-[2-(1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-6,7-dimethoxy-2-isoquinolinyl)-ethyl]-phenyl]-9,10-dihydro-5-methoxy-9-oxo-4-acridine carboxamine (GG918) (an inhibitor of P-gp and not CYP3A4). All major CYP3A4 metabolites were formed in the cells (1-OH > 4-OH midazolam and 39-O-desmethyl > 12-OH > 11-OH sirolimus), consistent with results from human liver microsomes. There was no bidirectional transport of midazolam across CYP3A4-transfected Caco-2 cells, whereas there was a 2.5-fold net efflux of sirolimus (1 microM) that disappeared in the presence of CsA or GG918. No change in the absorption rate or extraction ratio (ER) for midazolam was observed when P-gp was inhibited with GG918. Addition of GG918 had a modest impact on the absorption rate and ER for sirolimus (increased 58% and decreased 25%, respectively), whereas a 6.1-fold increase in the absorption rate and a 75% decrease in the ER were found when sirolimus was combined with CsA. Although both midazolam and sirolimus metabolites were preferentially excreted to the apical compartment, only sirolimus metabolites were transported by P-gp as determined from inhibition studies with GG918. Using CYP3A4-transfected Caco-2 cells we determined that, in contrast to P-gp, CYP3A4 is the major factor limiting sirolimus absorption. The integration of CYP3A4 and P-gp into a combined in vitro system was critical to unveil the relative importance of each biochemical barrier. PMID:14569063

  14. Fentanyl Enhances Hepatotoxicity of Paclitaxel via Inhibition of CYP3A4 and ABCB1 Transport Activity in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Jia-Hao; Bi, Bing-Tian; Feng, Kun-Yao; Huang, Wan; Zeng, Wei-An

    2015-01-01

    Fentanyl, a potent opioid analgesic that is used to treat cancer pain, is commonly administered with paclitaxel in advanced tumors. However, the effect of fentanyl on the hepatotoxicity of paclitaxel and its potential mechanism of action is not well studied. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of fentanyl on the hepatotoxicity of paclitaxel and its potential mechanisms of action. Pharmacokinetic parameters of paclitaxel were tested using reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). Aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and mouse liver histopathology were examined. Moreover, the cytotoxicity of anti-carcinogens was examined using 1-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-3,5-diphenylformazan (MTT), and the intracellular accumulation of doxorubicin and rhodamine 123 was detected by flow cytometry. Furthermore, the expression of ABCB1 and the activity of ABCB1 ATPase and CYP3A4 were also examined. In this study, the co-administration of fentanyl and paclitaxel prolonged the half-life (t1/2) of paclitaxel from 1.455 hours to 2.344 hours and decreased the clearance (CL) from 10.997 ml/h to 7.014 ml/h in mice. Fentanyl significantly increased the levels of ALT in mice to 88.2 U/L, which is more than 2-fold higher than the level detected in the control group, and it increased the histological damage in mouse livers. Furthermore, fentanyl enhanced the cytotoxicity of anti-carcinogens that are ABCB1 substrates and increased the accumulation of doxorubicin and rhodamine 123. Additionally, fentanyl stimulated ABCB1 ATPase activity and inhibited CYP3A4 activity in the liver microsomes of mice. Our study indicates that the obvious hepatotoxicity during this co-administration was due to the inhibition of CYP3A4 activity and ABCB1 transport activity. These findings suggested that the accumulation-induced hepatotoxicity of paclitaxel when it is combined with fentanyl should be avoided. PMID:26633878

  15. Investigation of drug-drug interactions caused by human pregnane X receptor-mediated induction of CYP3A4 and CYP2C subfamilies in chimeric mice with a humanized liver.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Maki; Tahara, Harunobu; Inoue, Ryo; Kakuni, Masakazu; Tateno, Chise; Ushiki, Junko

    2012-03-01

    The induction of cytochrome P450 (P450) enzymes is one of the risk factors for drug-drug interactions (DDIs). To date, the human pregnane X receptor (PXR)-mediated CYP3A4 induction has been well studied. In addition to CYP3A4, the expression of CYP2C subfamily is also regulated by PXR, and the DDIs caused by the induction of CYP2C enzymes have been reported to have a major clinical impact. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether chimeric mice with a humanized liver (PXB mice) can be a suitable animal model for investigating the PXR-mediated induction of CYP2C subfamily, together with CYP3A4. We evaluated the inductive effect of rifampicin (RIF), a typical human PXR ligand, on the plasma exposure to the four P450 substrate drugs (triazolam/CYP3A4, pioglitazone/CYP2C8, (S)-warfarin/CYP2C9, and (S)-(-)-mephenytoin/CYP2C19) by cassette dosing in PXB mice. The induction of several drug-metabolizing enzymes and transporters in the liver was also examined by measuring the enzyme activity and mRNA expression levels. Significant reductions in the exposure to triazolam, pioglitazone, and (S)-(-)-mephenytoin, but not to (S)-warfarin, were observed. In contrast to the in vivo results, all the four P450 isoforms, including CYP2C9, were elevated by RIF treatment. The discrepancy in the (S)-warfarin results between in vivo and in vitro studies may be attributed to the relatively small contribution of CYP2C9 to (S)-warfarin elimination in the PXB mice used in this study. In summary, PXB mice are a useful animal model to examine DDIs caused by PXR-mediated induction of CYP2C and CYP3A4. PMID:22126990

  16. The Effect of microRNAs in the Regulation of Human CYP3A4: a Systematic Study using a Mathematical Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Zhiyun; Jiang, Songshan; Zhang, Yiting; Wang, Xiaofei; Peng, Xueling; Meng, Chunjie; Liu, Yichen; Wang, Honglian; Guo, Luo; Qin, Shengying; He, Lin; Shao, Fengmin; Zhang, Lirong; Xing, Qinghe

    2014-03-01

    CYP3A4 metabolizes more than 50% of the drugs on the market. The large inter-individual differences of CYP3A4 expression may contribute to the variability of human drug responses. Post-transcriptional regulation of CYP3A4 is poorly understood, whereas transcriptional regulation has been studied much more thoroughly. In this study, we used multiple software programs to predict miRNAs that might bind to CYP3A4 and identified 112 potentially functional miRNAs. Then a luciferase reporter system was used to assess the effect of the overexpression of each potentially functional miRNA in HEK 293T cells. Fourteen miRNAs that significantly decreased reporter activity were measured in human liver samples (N = 27) as candidate miRNAs. To establish a more effective way to analyze in vivo data for miRNA candidates, the relationship between functional miRNA and target mRNA was modeled mathematically. Taking advantage of this model, we found that hsa-miR-577, hsa-miR-1, hsa-miR-532-3p and hsa-miR-627 could significantly downregulate the translation efficiency of CYP3A4 mRNA in liver. This study used in silico, in vitro and in vivo methods to progressively screen functional miRNAs for CYP3A4 and to enhance our understanding of molecular events underlying the large inter-individual differences of CYP3A4 expression in human populations.

  17. The enhanced atorvastatin hepatotoxicity in diabetic rats was partly attributed to the upregulated hepatic Cyp3a and SLCO1B1.

    PubMed

    Shu, Nan; Hu, Mengyue; Ling, Zhaoli; Liu, Peihua; Wang, Fan; Xu, Ping; Zhong, Zeyu; Sun, Binbin; Zhang, Mian; Li, Feng; Xie, Qiushi; Liu, Xiaodong; Liu, Li

    2016-01-01

    Liver injury is a common adverse effect of atorvastatin. This study aimed to investigate atorvastatin-induced hepatotoxicity in diabetic rats induced by high-fat diet combined with streptozotocin. The results showed that 40 mg/kg atorvastatin was lethal to diabetic rats, whose mean survival time was 6.2 days. Severe liver injury also occurred in diabetic rats treated with 10 mg/kg and 20 mg/kg atorvastatin. The in vitro results indicated that atorvastatin cytotoxicity in hepatocytes of diabetic rats was more severe than normal and high-fat diet feeding rats. Expressions and activities of hepatic Cyp3a and SLCO1B1 were increased in diabetic rats, which were highly correlated with hepatotoxicity. Antioxidants (glutathione and N-Acetylcysteine), Cyp3a inhibitor ketoconazole and SLCO1B1 inhibitor gemfibrozil suppressed cytotoxicity and ROS formation in primary hepatocytes of diabetic rats. In HepG2 cells, up-regulations of CYP3A4 and SLCO1B1 potentiated hepatotoxicity and ROS generation, whereas knockdowns of CYP3A4 and SLCO1B1 as well as CYP3A4/SLCO1B1 inhibitions showed the opposite effects. Phenobarbital pretreatment was used to induce hepatic Cyp3a and SLCO1B1 in rats. Phenobarbital aggravated atorvastatin-induced hepatotoxicity, while decreased plasma exposure of atorvastatin. All these findings demonstrated that the upregulations of hepatic Cyp3a and SLCO1B1 in diabetic rats potentiated atorvastatin-induced hepatotoxicity via increasing ROS formation. PMID:27624558

  18. The effect of piperine on midazolam plasma concentration in healthy volunteers, a research on the CYP3A-involving metabolism

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Some studies showed that piperine (the alkaloid of piper nigrum) can change the activities of microsomal enzymes. Midazolam concentration is applied as a probe to determine the CYP3A enzyme activity. This study was done to determine piperine pretreatment role on midazolam plasma concentration. Twenty healthy volunteers (14 men and 6 women) received oral dose of piperine (15 mg) or placebo for three days as pretreatment and midazolam (10 mg) on fourth day of study and the blood samples were taken at 0.5, 2.5 and 5 h after midazolam administration. The midazolam plasma levels were assayed using HPLC method (C18 analytical column, 75:25 methanol:water as mobile phase, UV detector at 242 nm wavelength and diazepam as internal standard). Data were fit in a “one-compartment PK model” using P-Pharm 1.5 software and analyzed under statistical tests. The mean ±SD of the age and body mass index were 24.3 ± 1.83 years (range: 21–28 years) and 23.46± 2.85, respectively. The duration of sedation in piperine receiving group was greater that the placebo group (188±59 vs. 102±43 min, p<0.0001). Half-life and clearance of midazolam were higher in piperine pretreatment group compared to placebo [1.88±0.03 vs. 1.71± 0.04 h (p<0.0001) and 33.62 ± 0.4 vs. 37.09 ± 1.07 ml/min (p<0.0001), respectively]. According to the results, piperine can significantly increases half-life and decreases clearance of midazolam compared to placebo. It is suggested that piperine can demonstrate those effects by inhibition CYP3A4 enzyme activity in liver microsomal system. PMID:24398010

  19. Pregnane X receptor mediated-transcription regulation of CYP3A by glycyrrhizin: a possible mechanism for its hepatoprotective property against lithocholic acid-induced injury.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu-Guang; Zhou, Jian-Ming; Ma, Zeng-Chun; Li, Hua; Liang, Qian-De; Tan, Hong-Ling; Xiao, Cheng-Rong; Zhang, Bo-Li; Gao, Yue

    2012-10-25

    Licorice (LE) has been commonly used in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) for over 4000 years to reconcile various drugs and for hepatic disorders. Glycyrrhizin is the main bioactive component isolated from LE herbs. In the present study we examined the effects of glycyrrhizin on pregnane X receptor (PXR)-mediated CYP3A expression and its hepatoprotective activity. Treatment of HepG2 cells with glycyrrhizin resulted in marked increase in both CYP3A4 mRNA and protein levels. The transcriptional activation of the CYP3A4 gene through glycyrrhizin is PXR-dependent, as shown in transient transfection experiments. Glycyrrhizin activates the DNA-binding capacity of the PXR for the CYP3A4 element responding to xenobiotic signals, as measured by the electrophoretic-mobility shift assay (EMSA). These results indicate that the induction of the hepatic CYP3A4 by glycyrrhizin is mediated through the activation of PXR. The next aim of the current study was to determine whether the activation of PXR and induction of CYP3A by glycyrrhizin prevents hepatotoxicity during cholestasis as a mechanism of hepatoprotection. Mice were pretreated with glycyrrhizin prior to induction of intrahepatic cholestasis using lithocholic acid (LCA). Pre-treatment with glycyrrhizin, as well as the PXR activator pregnenolone 16α-carbontrile (PCN), prevents the increase in plasma ALT and AST activity, multifocal necrosis and prevents an increase in a level of serum LCA level in mice, as compared with the results in the mice treated with LCA alone. Activation of the PXR by glycyrrhizin results in induction of CYP3A11 (CYP3A4 for human) expression and inhibition of CYP7A1 through an increase in small heterodimer partner (SHP) expression. Glycyrrhizin regulates the expression of the gene mentioned above to prevent toxic accumulation of bile acids in the liver and it also protects mouse livers from the harmful effects of LCA. In conclusion, PXR-mediated effects on CYP3A and CYP7A may contribute to the

  20. Systematic and quantitative assessment of the effect of chronic kidney disease on CYP2D6 and CYP3A4/5.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, K; Sun, B; Zhang, L; Zhao, P; Abernethy, D R; Nolin, T D; Rostami-Hodjegan, A; Zineh, I; Huang, S-M

    2016-07-01

    Recent reviews suggest that chronic kidney disease (CKD) can affect the pharmacokinetics of nonrenally eliminated drugs, but the impact of CKD on individual elimination pathways has not been systematically evaluated. In this study we developed a comprehensive dataset of the effect of CKD on the pharmacokinetics of CYP2D6- and CYP3A4/5-metabolized drugs. Drugs for evaluation were selected based on clinical drug-drug interaction (CYP3A4/5 and CYP2D6) and pharmacogenetic (CYP2D6) studies. Information from dedicated CKD studies was available for 13 and 18 of the CYP2D6 and CYP3A4/5 model drugs, respectively. Analysis of these data suggested that CYP2D6-mediated clearance is generally decreased in parallel with the severity of CKD. There was no apparent relationship between the severity of CKD and CYP3A4/5-mediated clearance. The observed elimination-route dependency in CKD effects between CYP2D6 and CYP3A4/5 may inform the need to conduct clinical CKD studies with nonrenally eliminated drugs for optimal use of drugs in patients with CKD. PMID:26800425

  1. Intestinal CYP3A4 protects against lithocholic acid-induced hepatotoxicity in intestine-specific VDR-deficient mice[S

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Jie; Fang, Zhong-Ze; Kim, Jung-Hwan; Krausz, Kristopher W.; Tanaka, Naoki; Chiang, John Y. L.; Gonzalez, Frank J.

    2014-01-01

    Vitamin D receptor (VDR) mediates vitamin D signaling involved in bone metabolism, cellular growth and differentiation, cardiovascular function, and bile acid regulation. Mice with an intestine-specific disruption of VDR (VdrΔIEpC) have abnormal body size, colon structure, and imbalance of bile acid metabolism. Lithocholic acid (LCA), a secondary bile acid that activates VDR, is among the most toxic of the bile acids that when overaccumulated in the liver causes hepatotoxicity. Because cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) is a target gene of VDR-involved bile acid metabolism, the role of CYP3A4 in VDR biology and bile acid metabolism was investigated. The CYP3A4 gene was inserted into VdrΔIEpC mice to produce the VdrΔIEpC/3A4 line. LCA was administered to control, transgenic-CYP3A4, VdrΔIEpC, and VdrΔIEpC/3A4 mice, and hepatic toxicity and bile acid levels in the liver, intestine, bile, and urine were measured. VDR deficiency in the intestine of the VdrΔIEpC mice exacerbates LCA-induced hepatotoxicity manifested by increased necrosis and inflammation, due in part to over-accumulation of hepatic bile acids including taurocholic acid and taurodeoxycholic acid. Intestinal expression of CYP3A4 in the VdrΔIEpC/3A4 mouse line reduces LCA-induced hepatotoxicity through elevation of LCA metabolism and detoxification, and suppression of bile acid transporter expression in the small intestine. This study reveals that intestinal CYP3A4 protects against LCA hepatotoxicity. PMID:24343899

  2. Application of CYP3A4 in vitro data to predict clinical drug–drug interactions; predictions of compounds as objects of interaction

    PubMed Central

    Youdim, Kuresh A; Zayed, Aref; Dickins, Maurice; Phipps, Alex; Griffiths, Michelle; Darekar, Amanda; Hyland, Ruth; Fahmi, Odette; Hurst, Susan; Plowchalk, David R; Cook, Jack; Guo, Feng; Obach, R Scott

    2008-01-01

    obtained using estimates of enzyme Ki, inhibitor and substrate concentrations and absorption rate for substrate and inhibitor. WHAT THIS STUDY ADDS Using a generic approach for all test compounds, the findings from the current study showed the use of recombinant P450s provide a more robust in vitro measure of P450 contribution (fraction metabolized, fm) than that achieved when using chemical inhibitors in combination with human liver microsomes, for the prediction of potential CYP3A4 drug–drug interactions prior to clinical investigation. The current study supported the use of SIMCYP®, a modelling and simulation software in utilizing the in vitro measures in the prediction of potential drug–drug interactions. PMID:18279465

  3. No Impact of Vitamin D on the CYP3A Biomarker 4β-Hydroxycholesterol in Patients with Abnormal Glucose Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Mannheimer, Buster; Wagner, Henrik; Östenson, Claes-Göran; Diczfalusy, Ulf

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the effect of vitamin D3 on hepatic Cytochrome P450 enzyme (CYP) 3A4 in patients with abnormal glucose regulation using the endogenous marker 4β-hydroxycholesterol (4β-OHC):cholesterol ratio. Methods The present study took advantage of a trial primarily aiming to investigate the effect of vitamin D3 on beta cell function and insulin sensitivity in patients with abnormal glucose regulation. 44 subjects were randomized to receive vitamin D3, 30000 IU given orally once weekly or placebo for 8 weeks. The two sample t-test was used to test the means of the intra-individual differences of 4β-OHC:cholesterol ratio between the two groups. Results Mean (SD) 4β-OHC in the whole group of patients before and after the intervention was 26 (11) ng/ml and 26 (12). Mean (SD) 4β-OHC:cholesterol ratio in the whole group of patients before and after the intervention was 0.12 (0.046) and 0.13 (0.047). In the Vitamin D group mean (SD) serum 25-OH-vitamin D3 increased from 46 (16) to 85nM (13) during the corresponding time period. To investigate the impact of vitamin D3 on hepatic CYP3A4 we calculated the mean intra-individual differences in 4β-OHC:cholesterol ratio (delta 4β-OHC:cholesterol ratio) before versus after the intervention in the two treatment groups. The difference (95% CI) between delta 4β-OHC:cholesterol ratio in the control group and intervention group was -0.0010 (-0.0093, 0.0072), a difference being not statistically significant (p = 0.80). Conclusions We provide further evidence that vitamin D3 may not substantially affect hepatic CYP3A4. This does not exclude the possibility of an impact of intestinal first-pass metabolism of orally administered drugs which should be investigated. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01497132 PMID:25835492

  4. Evacetrapib: in vitro and clinical disposition, metabolism, excretion, and assessment of drug interaction potential with strong CYP3A and CYP2C8 inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Cannady, Ellen A; Wang, Ming-Dauh; Friedrich, Stuart; Rehmel, Jessica L F; Yi, Ping; Small, David S; Zhang, Wei; Suico, Jeffrey G

    2015-10-01

    Evacetrapib is an investigational cholesteryl ester transfer protein inhibitor (CETPi) for reduction of risk of major adverse cardiovascular events in patients with high-risk vascular disease. Understanding evacetrapib disposition, metabolism, and the potential for drug-drug interactions (DDI) may help guide prescribing recommendations. In vitro, evacetrapib metabolism was investigated with a panel of human recombinant cytochromes P450 (CYP). The disposition, metabolism, and excretion of evacetrapib following a single 100-mg oral dose of (14)C-evacetrapib were determined in healthy subjects, and the pharmacokinetics of evacetrapib were evaluated in the presence of strong CYP3A or CYP2C8 inhibitors. In vitro, CYP3A was responsible for about 90% of evacetrapib's CYP-associated clearance, while CYP2C8 accounted for about 10%. In the clinical disposition study, only evacetrapib and two minor metabolites circulated in plasma. Evacetrapib metabolism was extensive. A mean of 93.1% and 2.30% of the dose was excreted in feces and urine, respectively. In clinical DDI studies, the ratios of geometric least squares means for evacetrapib with/without the CYP3A inhibitor ketoconazole were 2.37 for area under the curve (AUC)(0-∞) and 1.94 for C max. There was no significant difference in evacetrapib AUC(0-τ) or C max with/without the CYP2C8 inhibitor gemfibrozil, with ratios of 0.996 and 1.02, respectively. Although in vitro results indicated that both CYP3A and CYP2C8 metabolized evacetrapib, clinical studies confirmed that evacetrapib is primarily metabolized by CYP3A. However, given the modest increase in evacetrapib exposure and robust clinical safety profile to date, there is a low likelihood of clinically relevant DDI with concomitant use of strong CYP3A or CYP2C8 inhibitors. PMID:26516590

  5. Evacetrapib: in vitro and clinical disposition, metabolism, excretion, and assessment of drug interaction potential with strong CYP3A and CYP2C8 inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Cannady, Ellen A; Wang, Ming-Dauh; Friedrich, Stuart; Rehmel, Jessica L F; Yi, Ping; Small, David S; Zhang, Wei; Suico, Jeffrey G

    2015-01-01

    Evacetrapib is an investigational cholesteryl ester transfer protein inhibitor (CETPi) for reduction of risk of major adverse cardiovascular events in patients with high-risk vascular disease. Understanding evacetrapib disposition, metabolism, and the potential for drug–drug interactions (DDI) may help guide prescribing recommendations. In vitro, evacetrapib metabolism was investigated with a panel of human recombinant cytochromes P450 (CYP). The disposition, metabolism, and excretion of evacetrapib following a single 100-mg oral dose of 14C-evacetrapib were determined in healthy subjects, and the pharmacokinetics of evacetrapib were evaluated in the presence of strong CYP3A or CYP2C8 inhibitors. In vitro, CYP3A was responsible for about 90% of evacetrapib's CYP-associated clearance, while CYP2C8 accounted for about 10%. In the clinical disposition study, only evacetrapib and two minor metabolites circulated in plasma. Evacetrapib metabolism was extensive. A mean of 93.1% and 2.30% of the dose was excreted in feces and urine, respectively. In clinical DDI studies, the ratios of geometric least squares means for evacetrapib with/without the CYP3A inhibitor ketoconazole were 2.37 for area under the curve (AUC)(0–∞) and 1.94 for Cmax. There was no significant difference in evacetrapib AUC(0–τ) or Cmax with/without the CYP2C8 inhibitor gemfibrozil, with ratios of 0.996 and 1.02, respectively. Although in vitro results indicated that both CYP3A and CYP2C8 metabolized evacetrapib, clinical studies confirmed that evacetrapib is primarily metabolized by CYP3A. However, given the modest increase in evacetrapib exposure and robust clinical safety profile to date, there is a low likelihood of clinically relevant DDI with concomitant use of strong CYP3A or CYP2C8 inhibitors. PMID:26516590

  6. Pharmacokinetics of a Once-Daily Dose of Tacrolimus Early After Liver Transplantation: With Special Reference to CYP3A5 and ABCB1 Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms.

    PubMed

    Miyata, Yoichi; Akamatsu, Nobuhisa; Sugawara, Yasuhiko; Kaneko, Junichi; Yamamoto, Takehito; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Arita, Junichi; Sakamoto, Yoshihiro; Hasegawa, Kiyoshi; Tamura, Sumihito; Kokudo, Norihiro

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND The aim of the present study was to investigate the pharmacokinetics of the once-daily tacrolimus formulation (QD form) in relation to polymorphisms of the donor cytochrome P450 family 3 sub-family A polypeptide 5 (CYP3A5) gene and recipient adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette sub-family B member 1 (ABCB1) gene. MATERIAL AND METHODS A total of 80 consecutive living-donor liver transplant (LDLT) recipients were started on the QD form of tacrolimus (day 1), and 60 patients were completely followed for 7 days early after liver transplantation in order to evaluate the pharmacokinetics. RESULTS The concentration/dose (C/D) ratio in recipients with the donor CYP3A5 *1 allele was significantly lower throughout the observation period compared with those with the CYP3A5 genotype *3/*3 (p<0.001), while no effect of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of ABCB1 was observed. The administered doses required to achieve the target trough level were significantly higher on day 7 than on day 1 among all groups, regardless of the differences in the SNPs, especially among those with donor CYP3A5 *1 allele. The tacrolimus concentration was kept within the targeted level all through the study regardless of SNPs. CONCLUSIONS The donor CYP3A5 *1 allele correlated with the lower C/D ratio after administration of the QD form, and higher doses of QD-form tacrolimus and careful monitoring for the trough level should be considered, especially in recipients with the donor CYP3A5 *1 allele. PMID:27503662

  7. Effects of CYP3A5 genetic polymorphism and smoking on the prognosis of non-small-cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Li-Peng; Zhu, Zhi-Tu; He, Chun-Yan

    2016-01-01

    Objective We aimed to explore the impacts of the rs776746 polymorphism in the CYP3A5 gene and smoking on the prognosis of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Materials and methods Our study enrolled 104 early NSCLC patients undergoing surgery and 107 advanced NSCLC patients undergoing chemotherapy, hospitalized between December 2009 and December 2012 at the First Affiliated Hospital of Liaoning Medical University. All subjects with complete follow-up data were pathologically diagnosed. The rs776746 polymorphism and different genotypes (*1/*1, *1/*3, and *3/*3) were identified by polymerase chain-reaction restriction fragment-length polymorphism. Results Clinical response to chemotherapy in NSCLC patients with *1/*1 + *1/*3 genotypes were significantly worse than in those with the *3/*3 genotype (17.78% vs 56.45%, P<0.001), and after Bonferroni adjustment, the differences still showed significance (Pc<0.01). The mortality risk of NSCLC patients undergoing chemotherapy with the *3/*3 genotype was 0.617 times those with *1/*1 + *1/*3 genotypes (relative risk [RR] 0.617, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.402–0.948; P=0.028), while the mortality risk of smoking patients was 1.743 times greater than that of nonsmoker patients (RR 1.743, 95% CI 1.133–2.679; P=0.042). Furthermore, a 3.087-fold mortality risk was found in NSCLC patients undergoing surgery with the *3/*3 genotype compared with those with *1/*1 + *1/*3 genotypes (RR 3.087, 95% CI 1.197–7.961; P=0.020). In NSCLC patients undergoing surgery, the mortality risk of smokers was 1.896 times greater than nonsmokers (RR 1.896, 95% CI 1.040–3.455; P=0.037). Conclusion Our study demonstrated that the CYP3A5 rs776746 polymorphism and smoking may influence the prognosis of NSCLC patients undergoing chemotherapy and surgery. PMID:27042114

  8. Echinacea Purpurea Significantly Induces Cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A) but does not alter Lopinavir-Ritonavir Exposure in Healthy Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Penzak, Scott R.; Robertson, Sarah M.; Hunt, Jennifer D.; Chairez, Cheryl; Malati, Christine Y.; Alfaro, Raul M.; Stevenson, James M.; Candidate, Pharm.D.; Kovacs, Joseph A.

    2012-01-01

    Study Objective To determine the influence of Echinacea purpurea on the pharmacokinetics of lopinavir-ritonavir, and on CYP3A and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) activity using the probe substrates midazolam, and fexofenadine, respectively. Design Open label, single-sequence pharmacokinetic study. Setting Outpatient clinic in a Federal Government research hospital. Subjects Thirteen (8 males) healthy volunteers (median age: 31 yrs). Measurements and main results Healthy volunteers received lopinavir-ritonavir (400/100 mg) twice daily for 30 days. On study day 16, subjects began taking Echinacea purpurea 500 mg three times daily, which they continued for four weeks, the first two weeks in combination with lopinavir-ritonavir. On days 15 and 30 of lopinavir-ritonavir administration (pre and post-Echinacea, respectively), serial blood samples were collected over 12 hrs to determine lopinavir and ritonavir concentrations and subsequent pharmacokinetic parameters using non-compartmental methods. Study subjects also received single doses of midazolam (8 mg orally) and fexofenadine (120 mg orally) before- and after 28 days of Echinacea purpurea to assess CYP3A and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) activity, respectively. Neither lopinavir nor ritonavir pharmacokinetics were significantly altered by 2 weeks of Echinacea coadministration. The geometric mean ratios (GMR, 90% CI) for lopinavir area under the concentration vs. time curve from zero to 12 hrs (AUC0–12) and maximum concentration (post-Echinacea/pre-Echinacea) were 0.96 (0.83, 1.10) and 1.00 (0.88, 1.12), respectively (P > 0.05). Conversely, GMRs (90% CIs) for midazolam AUC from time zero to infinity (AUC0-∞) and oral clearance were 0.73 (0.61, 0.85) (P = 0.008) and 1.37 (1.10, 1.63) (P = 0.02), respectively. Fexofenadine pharmacokinetics did not significantly differ pre- and post-echinacea administration (P > 0.05). Conclusion Echinacea purpurea induced CYP3A activity but did not alter lopinavir concentrations, most likely due to

  9. Content of CYP3A4 inhibitors, naringin, naringenin and bergapten in grapefruit and grapefruit juice products.

    PubMed

    Ho, P C; Saville, D J; Coville, P F; Wanwimolruk, S

    2000-04-01

    The flavonoids, naringin and naringenin and the furanocoumarin, bergapten (5-methoxypsoralen), were detected in some fresh grapefruit and commercial grapefruit juices but were not detected in other fruit juices tested (orange; orange with apple base; dark grape; orange and mango with apple base; orange, peach, passion fruit juice). The contents of these three grapefruit constituents in commercial juice and fresh grapefruit varied from brand to brand and also from lot to lot. Juice was prepared from the fresh fruit via different methods (by hand, squeezer or blender). The naringin content, after hand-squeeze, ranged from 115 to 384 mg/l. With hand-squeeze juice production, bergapten was not detected (less than 0.5 mg/l) in two varieties of grapefruit, and naringenin was usually not in detectable levels (less than 2 mg/l) in three varieties. All three constituents were present in New Zealand grapefruit preparations (including juice by hand-squeeze) and different lots showed variation in content (1.5-, 2.3- and 4.7-fold for naringin, naringenin and bergapten, respectively). Differences in the concentrations of these three constituents, which have potential for drug interaction, may contribute to the variability in pharmacokinetics of CYP3A4 drugs and some contradictory results of drug interaction studies with grapefruit juice. PMID:10812937

  10. Prednisone has no effect on the pharmacokinetics of CYP3A4 metabolized drugs - midazolam and odanacatib.

    PubMed

    Marcantonio, Eugene E; Ballard, Jeanine; Gibson, Christopher R; Kassahun, Kelem; Palamanda, Jairam; Tang, Cuyue; Evers, Raymond; Liu, Chengcheng; Zajic, Stefan; Mahon, Chantal; Mostoller, Kate; Hreniuk, David; Mehta, Anish; Morris, Denise; Wagner, John A; Stoch, S Aubrey

    2014-11-01

    We evaluated the effect of prednisone on midazolam and odanacatib pharmacokinetics. In this open-label, 2-period crossover study in healthy male subjects, midazolam 2 mg was administered (Day -1) followed by odanacatib 50 mg (Day 1) during Part 1. In Period 2, prednisone 10 mg once daily (qd) was administered on Days 1-28; odanacatib was co-administered on Day 14 and midazolam 2 mg was co-administered on Days 1 and 28. Subjects were administered midazolam 2 mg on Days 42 and 56. Safety and tolerability were assessed throughout the study. A physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model was also built. There were 15 subjects enrolled; mean age was 31 years. The odanacatib AUC(0- ∞) GMR (90% CI) [odanacatib + prednisone (Day 14, Period 2)/odanacatib alone (Day 1, Period 1] was 1.06 (0.96, 1.17). AUC(0-∞) GMR (90%CI) [midazolam + prednisone (Day 28, Period 2)/midazolam alone (Day -1, Period 1] was 1.08 (0.93,1.26). There were no serious AEs or AEs leading to discontinuation. PBPK modeling showed that prednisone does not cause significant effects on the exposure of sensitive CYP3A4 substrates in vivo at therapeutic doses. Co-administration of prednisone 10 mg qd had no effect on pharmacokinetics of either odanacatib 10 mg or midazolam 2 mg. PMID:24895078

  11. Effects of cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A) and the drug transporters P-glycoprotein (MDR1/ABCB1) and MRP2 (ABCC2) on the pharmacokinetics of lopinavir

    PubMed Central

    van Waterschoot, RAB; ter Heine, R; Wagenaar, E; van der Kruijssen, CMM; Rooswinkel, RW; Huitema, ADR; Beijnen, JH; Schinkel, AH

    2010-01-01

    Background and purpose: Lopinavir is extensively metabolized by cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A) and is considered to be a substrate for the drug transporters ABCB1 (P-glycoprotein) and ABCC2 (MRP2). Here, we have assessed the individual and combined effects of CYP3A, ABCB1 and ABCC2 on the pharmacokinetics of lopinavir and the relative importance of intestinal and hepatic metabolism. We also evaluated whether ritonavir increases lopinavir oral bioavailability by inhibition of CYP3A, ABCB1 and/or ABCC2. Experimental approach: Lopinavir transport was measured in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells expressing ABCB1 or ABCC2. Oral lopinavir kinetics (+/− ritonavir) was studied in mice with genetic deletions of Cyp3a, Abcb1a/b and/or Abcc2, or in transgenic mice expressing human CYP3A4 exclusively in the liver and/or intestine. Key results: Lopinavir was transported by ABCB1 but not by ABCC2 in vitro. Lopinavir area under the plasma concentration – time curve (AUC)oral was increased in Abcb1a/b−/− mice (approximately ninefold vs. wild-type) but not in Abcc2−/− mice. Increased lopinavir AUCoral (>2000-fold) was observed in cytochrome P450 3A knockout (Cyp3a−/−) mice compared with wild-type mice. No difference in AUCoral between Cyp3a−/− and Cyp3a/Abcb1a/b/Abcc2−/− mice was observed. CYP3A4 activity in intestine or liver, separately, reduced lopinavir AUCoral (>100-fold), compared with Cyp3a−/− mice. Ritonavir markedly increased lopinavir AUCoral in all CYP3A-containing mouse strains. Conclusions and implications: CYP3A was the major determinant of lopinavir pharmacokinetics, far more than Abcb1a/b. Both intestinal and hepatic CYP3A activity contributed importantly to low oral bioavailability of lopinavir. Ritonavir increased lopinavir bioavailability primarily by inhibiting CYP3A. Effects of Abcb1a/b were only detectable in the presence of CYP3A, suggesting saturation of Abcb1a/b in the absence of CYP3A activity. PMID:20590614

  12. Semiphysiologically based pharmacokinetic model for midazolam and CYP3A mediated metabolite 1-OH-midazolam in morbidly obese and weight loss surgery patients.

    PubMed

    Brill, M J E; Välitalo, P A J; Darwich, A S; van Ramshorst, B; van Dongen, H P A; Rostami-Hodjegan, A; Danhof, M; Knibbe, C A J

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to describe the pharmacokinetics of midazolam and its cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A) mediated metabolite 1-OH-midazolam in morbidly obese patients receiving oral and i.v. midazolam before (n = 20) and one year after weight loss surgery (n = 18), thereby providing insight into the influence of weight loss surgery on CYP3A activity in the gut wall and liver. In a semiphysiologically based pharmacokinetic (semi-PBPK) model in which different blood flow scenarios were evaluated, intrinsic hepatic clearance of midazolam (CLint,H) was 2 (95% CI 1.40-1.64) times higher compared to morbidly obese patients before surgery (P < 0.01). Midazolam gut wall clearance (CLint,G) was slightly lower in patients after surgery (P > 0.05), with low values for both groups. The results of the semi-PBPK model suggest that, in patients after weight loss surgery, CYP3A hepatic metabolizing capacity seems to recover compared to morbidly obese patients, whereas CYP3A mediated CLint,G was low for both populations and showed large interindividual variability. PMID:26844012

  13. In vitro inhibition of human CYP1A2, CYP2D6, and CYP3A4 by six herbs commonly used in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Langhammer, Astrid Jordet; Nilsen, Odd Georg

    2014-04-01

    Black elderberry, cranberry, fennel, ginger, horsetail, and raspberry leaf, herbs frequently used in pregnancy, were investigated for their in vitro CYP1A2, 2D6, and 3A4 inhibitory potential. Aqueous or ethanolic extracts were made from commercially available herbal products, and incubations were performed with recombinant cDNA-expressed human CYP enzymes in the presence of positive inhibitory controls. Metabolite formation was determined by validated LCMS/MS or HPLC methodologies. IC50 inhibition constants were estimated from CYP activity inhibition plots using non-linear regression. The most potent inhibition was shown for fennel towards CYP2D6 and 3A4 with respective IC50 constants of 23 ± 2 and 40 ± 4 µg/ml, horsetail towards CYP1A2 with an IC50 constant of 27 ± 1 µg/ml, and raspberry leaf towards CYP1A2, 2D6, and 3A4 with IC50 constants of 44 ± 2, 47 ± 8, and 81 ± 11 µg/ml, respectively. Based on the recommended dosing of the different commercial herbal products, clinically relevant systemic CYP inhibitions could be possible for fennel, horsetail, and raspberry leaf. In addition, fennel and raspberry leaf might cause a clinically relevant inhibition of intestinal CYP3A4. The in vivo inhibitory potential of these herbs towards specific CYP enzymes should be further investigated. PMID:23843424

  14. The effect of pomelo mix ethyl acetate extract on CYP3A6 and P-glycoprotein gene transcripts in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Irshaid, Yacoub M; Zihlef, Malek A; Zmeili, Suheil M; Al-Antary, Eman T; Zmaily, Mais G; Al-Embideen, Somya N; Amireh, Abdallah O

    2014-07-01

    Pomelo fruit juice and pomelo ethylacetate extract have been shown to increase the bioavailability of some CYP3A substrates. The purpose of this study was to investigate if this effect might be contributed to by changes in CYP3A and p-glycoprotein mRNAs levels in the liver and proximal small intestine. The ethyl acetate extract of pomelo mix was administered for 7 days to 10 rabbits. Nine rabbits were administered tap water for 7 days. The administration was through oral intubation to the stomach. On the 8(th) day, the rabbits were sacrificed, and the liver and the proximal 15 cm of the small intestine were dissected. Total RNA was extracted from the specimens and cDNA was prepared by quantitative real-time-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using specific primers. The ethyl acetate extract of pomelo mix reduced the mRNA expression of CYP3A6 almost 5-folds in the intestine and 2-folds in the liver. In contrast, a 1-fold increase to the p-glycoprotein mRNA expression was observed under the same experimental conditions. In conclusion, the ethyl acetate extract of pomelo mix reduced the mRNA expression of CYP3A6 in both intestine and liver but to different degrees, while the p-glycoprotein mRNA expression was not reduced. PMID:24856265

  15. Lack of effect of brivanib on the pharmacokinetics of midazolam, a CYP3A4 substrate, administered intravenously and orally in healthy participants.

    PubMed

    Syed, Shariq; Clemens, Pamela L; Lathers, Deanne; Kollia, Georgia; Dhar, Arindam; Walters, Ian; Masson, Eric

    2012-06-01

    Brivanib alaninate is the orally available prodrug of brivanib, a dual inhibitor of fibroblast growth factor and vascular endothelial growth factor signaling pathways that is under therapeutic investigation for various malignancies. Brivanib alaninate inhibits CYP3A4 in vitro, and thus there is potential for drug-drug interaction with CYP3A4 substrates, such as midazolam. The present study evaluated pharmacokinetic parameters and safety/tolerability upon coadministration of brivanib alaninate and midazolam. Healthy participants received intravenous (IV) or oral midazolam with and without oral brivanib alaninate. Blood samples for pharmacokinetic analysis were collected up to 12 hours after midazolam and up to 48 hours after brivanib alaninate. Twenty-four participants were administered study drugs; 21 completed the trial. No clinically relevant effect of brivanib alaninate on the overall exposure to midazolam following IV or oral administration was observed. Orally administered brivanib alaninate was generally well tolerated in the presence of IV or oral midazolam. The lack of a pharmacokinetic interaction between brivanib and midazolam indicates that brivanib alaninate does not influence either intestinal or hepatic CYP3A4 and confirms that brivanib alaninate may be safely coadministered with midazolam and other CYP3A4 substrates. PMID:21659627

  16. Cytotoxicity of luteolin in primary rat hepatocytes: the role of CYP3A-mediated ortho-benzoquinone metabolite formation and glutathione depletion.

    PubMed

    Shi, Fuguo; Zhao, Peng; Li, Xiaobing; Pan, Hong; Ma, Shiping; Ding, Li

    2015-11-01

    Luteolin (LUT), an active ingredient in traditional Chinese medicines and an integral part of the human diet, has shown promising pharmacological activities with a great potential for clinical use. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of cytochrome P450 (CYP450)-mediated reactive ortho-benzoquinone metabolites formation and glutathione (GSH) depletion in LUT-induced cytotoxicity in primary rat hepatocytes. A reactive ortho-benzoquinone metabolite was identified by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in rat liver microsomes (RLMs) and rat hepatocytes. Using a specific chemical inhibitor method, the CYP3A subfamily was found to be responsible for the reactive metabolite formation in RLMs. Induction of CYP3A by dexamethasone enhanced LUT-induced cytotoxicity, whereas inhibition of CYP3A by ketoconazole (Keto) decreased the cytotoxicity. The cytotoxicity and cell apoptosis induced by LUT were related to the amount of reactive metabolite formation. Furthermore, Keto inhibited the LUT-induced GSH exhaustion. The cytotoxicity was significantly enhanced by pretreatment with L-buthionine sulfoximine to deplete the intracellular GSH. A time course experiment showed that GSH depletion by LUT was not via oxidation of GSH and occurred prior to the increase in 2', 7'-dichlorofluorescein in hepatocytes. Collectively, these data suggest that CYP3A-mediated reactive metabolite formation plays a critical role in LUT-induced hepatotoxicity, and the direct GSH depletion is an initiating event in LUT-mediated cytotoxicity in primary rat hepatocytes. PMID:25612170

  17. Integrated Transcriptional and Proteomic Analysis with In Vitro Biochemical Assay Reveal the Important Role of CYP3A46 in T-2 Toxin Hydroxylation in Porcine Primary Hepatocytes*

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jianshe; Jiang, Jun; Zhang, Hongxia; Wang, Junping; Cai, Hua; Li, Cheng; Li, Kangbai; Liu, Jing; Guo, Xuejiang; Zou, Guangxun; Wang, Dazhi; Deng, Yiqun; Dai, Jiayin

    2011-01-01

    Both T-2 toxin and its metabolites are highly potent mycotoxins that can cause severe human and animal diseases upon exposure. Understanding the toxic mechanism and biotransformation process of T-2 toxin at a cellular level is essential for the development of counter-measures. We investigated the effect of T-2 toxin in porcine primary hepatocytes using porcine genome array and two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization tandem time of flight mass spectrometry. Integrated transcriptional and proteomic analysis demonstrated that T-2 toxin adversely affected porcine hepatocytes by initiating lipid metabolism disorder, oxidative stress response, and apoptosis. In addition, xenobiotic metabolism genes, including cytochrome P450 3As (CYP3A46 and CYP3A39), carboxylesterase 1Cs (CES1C4 and CES1C5), and epoxide hydrolase (EPHX1), increased in T-2 toxin treatment cells. Using HepG2 cells to over-express the recombinant xenobiotic metabolism genes above and rapid resolution liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry to detect metabolites of T-2 toxin, we determined that porcine CYP3A46 mainly catalyzed T-2 to form 3′-hydroxy-T-2, which was further confirmed by purified CYP3A46 protein. However, recombinant porcine CES1C5 and EPHX1 did not enhance hydrolysis and de-epoxidation of T-2 implying that other esterases and epoxide hydrolases may play dominant roles in those reactions. PMID:21685020

  18. Effects of Flavonoids in Lysimachia clethroides Duby on the Activities of Cytochrome P450 CYP2E1 and CYP3A4 in Rat Liver Microsomes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhi-Juan; Xia, Zhao-Yang; Wang, Jin-Mei; Song, Xue-Ting; Wei, Jin-Feng; Kang, Wen-Yi

    2016-01-01

    Incubation systems were established to investigate the effects of quercetin, kaempferol, isoquercitrin and astragalin in Lysimachia clethroides Duby on the activities of CYP2E1 and CYP3A4 in rat liver microsomes in vitro. Probe substrates of 4-nitrophenol and testosterone as well as flavonoids at different concentrations were added to the incubation systems. After incubation, a validated high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was applied to separate and determine the relevant metabolites. The results suggested that kaempferol exhibited a weak inhibition of CYP2E1 activity with an IC50 of 60.26 ± 2.54 μM, while quercetin and kaempferol caused a moderate inhibition of CYP3A4 activity with IC50 values of 18.77 ± 1.69 μM and 32.65 ± 1.32 μM, respectively. Isoquercitrin and astragalin had no effects on the activities of either CYP2E1 or CYP3A4. It could be speculated from these results that the inhibitory effects of quercetin and kaempferol on the activities of CYP2E1 and CYP3A4 could be the mechanisms underlying the hepatoprotective effects of L. clethroides. PMID:27314315

  19. Relationship between the plasma fentanyl and serum 4β-hydroxycholesterol based on CYP3A5 genotype and gender in patients with cancer pain.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Takuya; Naito, Takafumi; Sato, Hikaru; Kawakami, Junichi

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between the concentrations of plasma fentanyl and serum 4β-hydroxycholesterol based on CYP3A5 genotype and gender in cancer patients. Thirty-three Japanese cancer patients treated with transdermal fentanyl were enrolled. The concentrations of plasma fentanyl and norfentanyl, and serum 4β-hydroxycholesterol and total cholesterol were determined at day 8 or later after starting the medication. The plasma fentanyl concentration was significantly higher in the CYP3A5*3/*3 group than in the *1 allele carrier group. The *3/*3 group had a lower metabolic ratio of fentanyl. The serum 4β-hydroxycholesterol concentration and its ratio to total cholesterol were significantly lower in the CYP3A5*3/*3 group than in the *1 allele carrier group. The concentrations of plasma fentanyl and serum 4β-hydroxycholesterol were significantly higher in women than in men. Gender did not affect the metabolic ratio of fentanyl or the concentration ratio of 4β-hydroxycholesterol. The plasma fentanyl concentration was not correlated with the serum 4β-hydroxycholesterol concentration, while the metabolic ratio of fentanyl was slightly correlated with the serum concentration ratio of 4β-hydroxycholesterol. In conclusion, CYP3A5*3 and gender affected the plasma fentanyl and serum 4β-hydroxycholesterol concentrations in cancer patients. However, the plasma disposition of fentanyl was not determined using the serum 4β-hydroxycholesterol concentration. PMID:27236640

  20. A Systematic Approach to Evaluate Herb-Drug Interaction Mechanisms: Investigation of Milk Thistle Extracts and Eight Isolated Constituents as CYP3A Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Brantley, Scott J.; Graf, Tyler N.; Oberlies, Nicholas H.

    2013-01-01

    Despite increasing recognition of potential untoward interactions between herbal products and conventional medications, a standard system for prospective assessment of these interactions remains elusive. This information gap was addressed by evaluating the drug interaction liability of the model herbal product milk thistle (Silybum marianum) with the CYP3A probe substrate midazolam. The inhibitory effects of commercially available milk thistle extracts and isolated constituents on midazolam 1′-hydroxylation were screened using human liver and intestinal microsomes. Relative to vehicle, the extract silymarin and constituents silybin A, isosilybin A, isosilybin B, and silychristin at 100 μM demonstrated >50% inhibition of CYP3A activity with at least one microsomal preparation, prompting IC50 determination. The IC50s for isosilybin B and silychristin were ∼60 and 90 μM, respectively, whereas those for the remaining constituents were >100 μM. Extracts and constituents that contained the 1,4-dioxane moiety demonstrated a >1.5-fold shift in IC50 when tested as potential mechanism-based inhibitors. The semipurified extract, silibinin, and the two associated constituents (silybin A and silybin B) demonstrated mechanism-based inhibition of recombinant CYP3A4 (KI, ∼100 μM; kinact, ∼0.20 min−1) but not microsomal CYP3A activity. The maximum predicted increases in midazolam area under the curve using the static mechanistic equation and recombinant CYP3A4 data were 1.75-fold, which may necessitate clinical assessment. Evaluation of the interaction liability of single herbal product constituents, in addition to commercially available extracts, will enable elucidation of mechanisms underlying potential clinically significant herb-drug interactions. Application of this framework to other herbal products would permit predictions of herb-drug interactions and assist in prioritizing clinical evaluation. PMID:23801821

  1. Different effects of proton pump inhibitors and famotidine on the clopidogrel metabolic activation by recombinant CYP2B6, CYP2C19 and CYP3A4.

    PubMed

    Ohbuchi, Masato; Noguchi, Kiyoshi; Kawamura, Akio; Usui, Takashi

    2012-07-01

    Inhibitory potential of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) and famotidine, an H(2) receptor antagonist, on the metabolic activation of clopidogrel was evaluated using recombinant CYP2B6, CYP2C19 and CYP3A4. Formation of the active metabolite from an intermediate metabolite, 2-oxo-clopidogrel, was investigated by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and three peaks corresponding to the pharmacologically active metabolite and its stereoisomers were detected. Omeprazole potently inhibited clopidogrel activation by CYP2C19 with an IC(50) of 12.8 μmol/L and more weakly inhibited that by CYP2B6 and CYP3A4. IC(50) of omeprazole for CYP2C19 and CYP3A4 was decreased about two- and three-fold, respectively, by 30-min preincubation with NADPH. Lansoprazole, esomeprazole, pantoprazole, rabeprazole and rabeprazole thioether, a major metabolite, also inhibited metabolic activation by CYP2C19, with an IC(50) of 4.3, 8.9, 48.3, 36.2 and 30.5 μmol/L, respectively. In contrast, famotidine showed no more than 20% inhibition of clopidogrel activation by CYP2B6, CYP2C19 and CYP3A4 at up to 100 μmol/L and had no time-dependent CYP2C19 and CYP3A4 inhibition. These results provide direct evidence that PPIs inhibit clopidogrel metabolic activation and suggest that CYP2C19 inhibition is the main cause of drug-drug interaction between clopidogrel and omeprazole. Famotidine is considered as a safe anti-acid agent for patients taking clopidogrel. PMID:22313038

  2. Recommendations on the Development of a Bioanalytical Assay for 4β-Hydroxycholesterol, an Emerging Endogenous Biomarker of CYP3A Activity.

    PubMed

    Aubry, Anne-Françoise; Dean, Brian; Diczfalusy, Ulf; Goodenough, Angela; Iffland, André; McLeod, James; Weng, Naidong; Yang, Ziping

    2016-09-01

    The availability of reliable assays for measuring 4β-hydroxycholesterol (4β-HC), a CYP3A metabolite of cholesterol, is an important step in qualifying this endogenous moiety as a biomarker of CYP3A activity. Liquid and gas chromatographic methods with mass spectrometric detection have been developed with varying sensitivities, with or without derivatization. Care must be taken to chromatographically resolve 4β-HC from the multiple isobaric cholesterol oxidation products present in plasma, including 4α-hydroxycholesterol (4α-HC). Plasma concentrations of 4β-HC are low in humans (10-60 ng/ml), lower than many other cholesterol metabolites and far less than cholesterol itself. Stability of 4β-HC has been established for at least 12 months at -20°C in plasma samples obtained with a typical clinical workflow. Oxidation of plasma cholesterol during storage produces both 4β-HC and 4α-HC, and 4α-HC may be used as assessment of sample quality. As 4β-HC concentrations over time in untreated individuals have low intra-individual variability, assay precision and reproducibility are the key assay attributes in assessing CYP3A4 induction, and potentially inhibition. Assessment of CYP3A4/5 activity with 4β-HC relies on the differences between pre- and post-dose concentrations, in which each subject acts as their own control. To reduce analytical variability, samples from a single subject should be analyzed together to facilitate interpretation of study results. As an endogenous biomarker, 4β-HC offers the opportunity for less invasive assessment of CYP3A induction potential of new drugs during clinical development. PMID:27350147

  3. Interactions of endosulfan and methoxychlor involving CYP3A4 and CYP2B6 in human HepaRG cells.

    PubMed

    Savary, Camille C; Jossé, Rozenn; Bruyère, Arnaud; Guillet, Fabrice; Robin, Marie-Anne; Guillouzo, André

    2014-08-01

    Humans are usually exposed to several pesticides simultaneously; consequently, combined actions between pesticides themselves or between pesticides and other chemicals need to be addressed in the risk assessment. Many pesticides are efficient activators of pregnane X receptor (PXR) and/or constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), two major nuclear receptors that are also activated by other substrates. In the present work, we searched for interactions between endosulfan and methoxychlor, two organochlorine pesticides whose major routes of metabolism involve CAR- and PXR-regulated CYP3A4 and CYP2B6, and whose mechanisms of action in humans remain poorly understood. For this purpose, HepaRG cells were treated with both pesticides separately or in mixture for 24 hours or 2 weeks at concentrations relevant to human exposure levels. In combination they exerted synergistic cytotoxic effects. Whatever the duration of treatment, both compounds increased CYP3A4 and CYP2B6 mRNA levels while differently affecting their corresponding activities. Endosulfan exerted a direct reversible inhibition of CYP3A4 activity that was confirmed in human liver microsomes. By contrast, methoxychlor induced this activity. The effects of the mixture on CYP3A4 activity were equal to the sum of those of each individual compound, suggesting an additive effect of each pesticide. Despite CYP2B6 activity being unchanged and increased with endosulfan and methoxychlor, respectively, no change was observed with their mixture, supporting an antagonistic effect. Altogether, our data suggest that CAR and PXR activators endosulfan and methoxychlor can interact together and with other exogenous substrates in human hepatocytes. Their effects on CYP3A4 and CYP2B6 activities could have important consequences if extrapolated to the in vivo situation. PMID:24832206

  4. Investigation of the effect of the uneven distribution of CYP3A4 and P-glycoprotein in the intestine on the barrier function against xenobiotics: a simulation study.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Takao; Maeda, Kazuya; Nakai, Chikako; Sugiyama, Yuichi

    2013-09-01

    CYP3A4 and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) have similar substrate specificities and work together to form an intestinal absorption barrier against xenobiotics. Previous reports have indicated that CYP3A4 expression decreases gradually, whereas P-gp expression increases, from the upper to lower small intestine. The physiological rationale for this uneven distribution of CYP3A4 and P-gp as a barrier against xenobiotics has not been determined. To clarify the effect of these distribution patterns on barrier function, we constructed a mathematical model that included passive membrane permeation, P-gp-mediated apical efflux, and CYP3A4-mediated metabolism, and we simulated the effects of these distribution patterns on the fraction absorbed of co-substrates without changing their overall activities. The simulation showed that the physiological distribution patterns of both CYP3A4 and P-gp result in the lowest fraction absorbed, but not for drugs with low CYP3A4 and high P-gp-mediated clearances. These results suggest that the distribution pattern of CYP3A4 is especially important for the barrier function. On the other hand, physiological distribution pattern of P-gp exerts the maximum barrier function for dual good substrates for P-gp and CYP3A4, but even distribution of P-gp mostly suppresses the intestinal absorption of good P-gp, but poor CYP3A4 substrates. PMID:23754337

  5. Prediction of Drug-Drug Interactions Arising from CYP3A induction Using a Physiologically Based Dynamic Model.

    PubMed

    Almond, Lisa M; Mukadam, Sophie; Gardner, Iain; Okialda, Krystle; Wong, Susan; Hatley, Oliver; Tay, Suzanne; Rowland-Yeo, Karen; Jamei, Masoud; Rostami-Hodjegan, Amin; Kenny, Jane R

    2016-06-01

    Using physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling, we predicted the magnitude of drug-drug interactions (DDIs) for studies with rifampicin and seven CYP3A4 probe substrates administered i.v. (10 studies) or orally (19 studies). The results showed a tendency to underpredict the DDI magnitude when the victim drug was administered orally. Possible sources of inaccuracy were investigated systematically to determine the most appropriate model refinement. When the maximal fold induction (Indmax) for rifampicin was increased (from 8 to 16) in both the liver and the gut, or when the Indmax was increased in the gut but not in liver, there was a decrease in bias and increased precision compared with the base model (Indmax = 8) [geometric mean fold error (GMFE) 2.12 vs. 1.48 and 1.77, respectively]. Induction parameters (mRNA and activity), determined for rifampicin, carbamazepine, phenytoin, and phenobarbital in hepatocytes from four donors, were then used to evaluate use of the refined rifampicin model for calibration. Calibration of mRNA and activity data for other inducers using the refined rifampicin model led to more accurate DDI predictions compared with the initial model (activity GMFE 1.49 vs. 1.68; mRNA GMFE 1.35 vs. 1.46), suggesting that robust in vivo reference values can be used to overcome interdonor and laboratory-to-laboratory variability. Use of uncalibrated data also performed well (GMFE 1.39 and 1.44 for activity and mRNA). As a result of experimental variability (i.e., in donors and protocols), it is prudent to fully characterize in vitro induction with prototypical inducers to give an understanding of how that particular system extrapolates to the in vivo situation when using an uncalibrated approach. PMID:27026679

  6. The effect of CYP3A inhibitors and inducers on the pharmacokinetics of telaprevir in healthy volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Garg, Varun; Chandorkar, Gurudatt; Yang, Yijun; Adda, Nathalie; McNair, Lindsay; Alves, Katia; Smith, Frances; Heeswijk, Rolf P G

    2013-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the effects of ketoconazole, rifampicin and efavirenz on the pharmacokinetics of telaprevir in healthy volunteers. METHOD Results from three clinical studies are described. (1) Volunteers received a single 750 mg dose telaprevir with and without a single 400 mg dose ketoconazole. (2) Volunteers received (a) 1250 mg telaprevir followed by three 750 mg doses given every 8 h and (b) four 1250 mg telaprevir doses given every 8 h, with a single 400 mg dose ketoconazole given with the fourth dose of telaprevir. (3) Volunteers received either a single 750 mg dose telaprevir with or without 600 mg once daily rifampicin, or 750 mg every 8 h telaprevir with and without 600 mg once daily efavirenz. RESULTS A single 400 mg dose of ketoconazole increased single dose telaprevir exposure: the geometric least-squares mean ratio (GLSMR, with 90% confidence limits) was 1.24 (1.10, 1.41) for Cmax and 1.62 (1.45, 1.81) for AUC(0,∞). However, after multiple doses of telaprevir, there was no discernible effect of ketoconazole on telaprevir exposure. Co-administration of rifampicin at steady-state markedly reduced single dose telaprevir exposure with GLSMRs of 0.14 (0.11, 0.18) for Cmax and 0.08 (0.07, 0.11) for AUC(0,∞), whereas efavirenz had a smaller effect on telaprevir exposure when both drugs were co-administered at steady-state, with GLSMRs of 0.91 (0.81, 1.02) for Cmax, 0.53 (0.44, 0.65) for Cmin, and 0.74 (0.65, 0.84) for AUC(0,8 h). CONCLUSION CYP3A inducers, rifampicin and efavirenz, can reduce telaprevir exposure to varying degrees based on their potency. The effect of ketoconazole as an inhibitor of telaprevir metabolism is more pronounced after a single dose of telaprevir than after repeated administration. PMID:22642697

  7. Prediction of Drug-Drug Interactions Arising from CYP3A induction Using a Physiologically Based Dynamic Model

    PubMed Central

    Mukadam, Sophie; Gardner, Iain; Okialda, Krystle; Wong, Susan; Hatley, Oliver; Tay, Suzanne; Rowland-Yeo, Karen; Jamei, Masoud; Rostami-Hodjegan, Amin; Kenny, Jane R.

    2016-01-01

    Using physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling, we predicted the magnitude of drug-drug interactions (DDIs) for studies with rifampicin and seven CYP3A4 probe substrates administered i.v. (10 studies) or orally (19 studies). The results showed a tendency to underpredict the DDI magnitude when the victim drug was administered orally. Possible sources of inaccuracy were investigated systematically to determine the most appropriate model refinement. When the maximal fold induction (Indmax) for rifampicin was increased (from 8 to 16) in both the liver and the gut, or when the Indmax was increased in the gut but not in liver, there was a decrease in bias and increased precision compared with the base model (Indmax = 8) [geometric mean fold error (GMFE) 2.12 vs. 1.48 and 1.77, respectively]. Induction parameters (mRNA and activity), determined for rifampicin, carbamazepine, phenytoin, and phenobarbital in hepatocytes from four donors, were then used to evaluate use of the refined rifampicin model for calibration. Calibration of mRNA and activity data for other inducers using the refined rifampicin model led to more accurate DDI predictions compared with the initial model (activity GMFE 1.49 vs. 1.68; mRNA GMFE 1.35 vs. 1.46), suggesting that robust in vivo reference values can be used to overcome interdonor and laboratory-to-laboratory variability. Use of uncalibrated data also performed well (GMFE 1.39 and 1.44 for activity and mRNA). As a result of experimental variability (i.e., in donors and protocols), it is prudent to fully characterize in vitro induction with prototypical inducers to give an understanding of how that particular system extrapolates to the in vivo situation when using an uncalibrated approach. PMID:27026679

  8. Pregnane X receptor dependent up-regulation of CYP2C9 and CYP3A4 in tumor cells by antitumor acridine agents, C-1748 and C-1305, selectively diminished under hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Niemira, Magdalena; Dastych, Jarosław; Mazerska, Zofia

    2013-07-15

    Induction of proteins involved in drug metabolism and in drug delivery has a significant impact on drug-drug interactions and on the final therapeutic effects. Two antitumor acridine derivatives selected for present studies, C-1748 (9-(2'-hydroxyethylamino)-4-methyl-1-nitroacridine) and C-1305 (5-dimethylaminopropylamino-8-hydroxy-triazoloacridinone), expressed high and low susceptibility to metabolic transformations with liver microsomes, respectively. In the current study, we examined the influence of these compounds on cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) and 2C9 (CYP2C9) enzymatic activity and gene expression in HepG2 tumor cells. Luminescence and HPLC examination, real-time RT-PCR and western blot analyses along with transfection of pregnane X receptor (PXR) siRNA and CYP3A4 reporter gene assays were applied. We found that both compounds strongly induced CYP3A4 and CYP2C9 activity and expression as well as expression of UGT1A1 and MDR1 in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. C-1748-mediated CYP3A4 and CYP2C9 mRNA induction equal to rifampicin occurred at extremely low concentrations (0.001 and 0.01μM), whereas 10μM C-1305 induced three-times higher CYP3A4 and CYP2C9 mRNA levels than rifampicin did. CYP3A4 and CYP2C9 expressions were shown to be PXR-dependent; however, neither compound influenced PXR expression. Thus, the observed drug-mediated induction of isoenzymes occurs on a PXR-mediated regulatory level. Furthermore, C-1748 and C-1305 were demonstrated to be selective PXR agonists. These effects are hypoxia-inhibited only in the case of C-1748, which is sensitive to P450 metabolism. In summary, PXR was found to be a new target of the studied compounds. Thus, possible combinations of these compounds with other therapeutics might lead to the PXR-dependent enzyme-mediated drug-drug interactions. PMID:23688499

  9. Dynamically simulating the interaction of midazolam and the CYP3A4 inhibitor itraconazole using individual coupled whole-body physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (WB-PBPK) models

    PubMed Central

    Vossen, Michaela; Sevestre, Michael; Niederalt, Christoph; Jang, In-Jin; Willmann, Stefan; Edginton, Andrea N

    2007-01-01

    Background Drug-drug interactions resulting from the inhibition of an enzymatic process can have serious implications for clinical drug therapy. Quantification of the drugs internal exposure increase upon administration with an inhibitor requires understanding to avoid the drug reaching toxic thresholds. In this study, we aim to predict the effect of the CYP3A4 inhibitors, itraconazole (ITZ) and its primary metabolite, hydroxyitraconazole (OH-ITZ) on the pharmacokinetics of the anesthetic, midazolam (MDZ) and its metabolites, 1' hydroxymidazolam (1OH-MDZ) and 1' hydroxymidazolam glucuronide (1OH-MDZ-Glu) using mechanistic whole body physiologically-based pharmacokinetic simulation models. The model is build on MDZ, 1OH-MDZ and 1OH-MDZ-Glu plasma concentration time data experimentally determined in 19 CYP3A5 genotyped adult male individuals, who received MDZ intravenously in a basal state. The model is then used to predict MDZ, 1OH-MDZ and 1OH-MDZ-Glu concentrations in an CYP3A-inhibited state following ITZ administration. Results For the basal state model, three linked WB-PBPK models (MDZ, 1OH-MDZ, 1OH-MDZ-Glu) for each individual were elimination optimized that resulted in MDZ and metabolite plasma concentration time curves that matched individual observed clinical data. In vivo Km and Vmax optimized values for MDZ hydroxylation were similar to literature based in vitro measures. With the addition of the ITZ/OH-ITZ model to each individual coupled MDZ + metabolite model, the plasma concentration time curves were predicted to greatly increase the exposure of MDZ as well as to both increase exposure and significantly alter the plasma concentration time curves of the MDZ metabolites in comparison to the basal state curves. As compared to the observed clinical data, the inhibited state curves were generally well described although the simulated concentrations tended to exceed the experimental data between approximately 6 to 12 hours following MDZ administration. This

  10. Identification of the Residue in Human CYP3A4 That Is Covalently Modified by Bergamottin and the Reactive Intermediate That Contributes to the Grapefruit Juice Effect

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Hsia-lien; Kenaan, Cesar

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that bergamottin (BG), a component of grapefruit juice, is a mechanism-based inactivator of CYP3A4 and contributes, in part, to the grapefruit juice-drug interaction. Although the covalent binding of [14C]BG to the CYP3A4 apoprotein has been demonstrated by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, the identity of the modified amino acid residue and the reactive intermediate species of BG responsible for the inactivation have not been reported. In the present study, we show that inactivation of CYP3A4 by BG results in formation of a modified apoprotein-3A4 and a GSH conjugate, both exhibiting mass increases of 388 Da, which corresponds to the mass of 6′,7′-dihydroxybergamottin (DHBG), a metabolite of BG, plus one oxygen atom. To identify the adducted residue, BG-inactivated 3A4 was digested with trypsin, and the digests were then analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). A mass shift of 388 Da was used for the SEQUEST database search, which revealed a mass increase of 388 Da for the peptide with the sequence 272LQLMIDSQNSK282, and MS/MS analysis of the adducted peptide demonstrated that Gln273 is the residue modified. Mutagenesis studies showed that the Gln273 to Val mutant was resistant to inactivation by BG and DHBG and did not generate two of the major metabolites of BG formed by 3A4 wild type. In conclusion, we have determined that the reactive intermediate, oxygenated DHBG, covalently binds to Gln273 and thereby contributes to the mechanism-based inactivation of CYP3A4 by BG. PMID:22344702

  11. Inhibition of the metabolism of brotizolam by erythromycin in humans: in vivo evidence for the involvement of CYP3A4 in brotizolam metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Tokairin, Takaki; Fukasawa, Takashi; Yasui-Furukori, Norio; Aoshima, Toshiaki; Suzuki, Akihito; Inoue, Yoshimasa; Tateishi, Tomonori; Otani, Koichi

    2005-01-01

    Aims To obtain in vivo evidence for the involvement of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 in the metabolism of brotizolam. Methods Fourteen healthy male volunteers received erythromycin 1200 mg day−1 or placebo for 7 days in a double-blind randomized crossover manner. On the 6th day they received a single oral 0.5-mg dose of brotizolam, and blood samplings were performed for 24 h. Results Erythromycin treatment significantly increased the peak plasma concentration (P < 0.05), total area under the plasma concentration-time curve (P < 0.01), and elimination half-life (P < 0.01) of brotizolam. Conclusions The present study provides in vivo evidence for the involvement of CYP3A4 in brotizolam metabolism. PMID:16042670

  12. Transcriptional Regulation of CYP3A4/2B6/2C9 Mediated via Nuclear Receptor PXR by Helicid and Its Metabolites

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Qun; Xie, Hai-tang; Li, Yan; Wang, Guo; Xu, Zhe; Pu, Zhi-chen; Hu, Hua

    2015-01-01

    Objective. This study aims at establishing and validating an in vitro system to screen drug inducers of CYPs mediated via hPXR, as well as studying transcriptional regulation of CYPs mediated via hPXR by helicid and its two metabolites. Methods. Cloning the nuclear receptor hPXR and the promoters of CYP3A4, CYP2B6, CYP2C9, and inserting the trans-element to the upstream of firefly luciferase reporter gene of the pGL4.17 vectors, then cotransfecting the report vectors and hPXR expression plasmid to HepG2 cell line. After 24 hours, the transfected cells were treated with helicid (0.004, 0.04, and 0.4 μmol/L) and its metabolite I and metabolite II (0.0004, 0.004, and 0.04 μmol/L) for 48 h, while rifampin (10 μmol/L) was included as the positive control and 0.1% DMSO as the negative control group. Cells were lysized and luciferase activity was determined using a dual luciferase reporter assay kit. Results. Helicid and its metabolites did not significantly increase promoter activities of CYP3A4, CYP2B6, and CYP2C9 in HepG2 cells transfected with PXR expression plasmid (P > 0.05). Conclusion. PXR-expressed CYP3A4, CYP2B6, and CYP2C9 dual luciferase reporter gene platforms were successfully established, and helicid and its metabolites I, II do not significantly induce the transcription of CYP3A4, CYP2B6, and CYP2C9. PMID:25977700

  13. A Randomized Controlled Trial Comparing the Efficacy of Cyp3a5 Genotype-Based With Body-Weight-Based Tacrolimus Dosing After Living Donor Kidney Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Shuker, N; Bouamar, R; van Schaik, R H N; Clahsen-van Groningen, M C; Damman, J; Baan, C C; van de Wetering, J; Rowshani, A T; Weimar, W; van Gelder, T; Hesselink, D A

    2016-07-01

    Patients expressing the cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A5 gene require a higher tacrolimus dose to achieve therapeutic exposure compared with nonexpressers. This randomized-controlled study investigated whether adaptation of the tacrolimus starting dose according to CYP3A5 genotype increases the proportion of kidney transplant recipients being within the target tacrolimus predose concentration range (10-15 ng/mL) at first steady-state. Two hundred forty living-donor, renal transplant recipients were assigned to either receive a standard, body-weight-based or a CYP3A5 genotype-based tacrolimus starting dose. At day 3, no difference in the proportion of patients having a tacrolimus exposure within the target range was observed between the standard-dose and genotype-based groups: 37.4% versus 35.6%, respectively; p = 0.79. The proportion of patients with a subtherapeutic (i.e. <10 ng/mL) or a supratherapeutic (i.e. >15 ng/mL) Tac predose concentration in the two groups was also not significantly different. The incidence of acute rejection was comparable between both groups (p = 0.82). Pharmacogenetic adaptation of the tacrolimus starting dose does not increase the number of patients having therapeutic tacrolimus exposure early after transplantation and does not lead to improved clinical outcome in a low immunological risk population. PMID:26714287

  14. Influence of Panax ginseng on cytochrome P450 (CYP)3A and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) activity in healthy participants.

    PubMed

    Malati, Christine Y; Robertson, Sarah M; Hunt, Jennifer D; Chairez, Cheryl; Alfaro, Raul M; Kovacs, Joseph A; Penzak, Scott R

    2012-06-01

    A number of herbal preparations have been shown to interact with prescription medications secondary to modulation of cytochrome P450 (CYP) and/or P-glycoprotein (P-gp). The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of Panax ginseng on CYP3A and P-gp function using the probe substrates midazolam and fexofenadine, respectively. Twelve healthy participants (8 men) completed this open-label, single-sequence pharmacokinetic study. Healthy volunteers received single oral doses of midazolam 8 mg and fexofenadine 120 mg, before and after 28 days of P ginseng 500 mg twice daily. Midazolam and fexofenadine pharmacokinetic parameter values were calculated and compared before and after P ginseng administration. Geometric mean ratios (postginseng/preginseng) for midazolam area under the concentration-time curve from zero to infinity (AUC(0-∞)), half-life (t(1/2)), and maximum concentration (C(max)) were significantly reduced at 0.66 (0.55-0.78), 0.71 (0.53-0.90), and 0.74 (0.56-0.93), respectively. Conversely, fexofenadine pharmacokinetics were unaltered by P ginseng administration. Based on these results, P ginseng appeared to induce CYP3A activity in the liver and possibly the gastrointestinal tract. Patients taking P ginseng in combination with CYP3A substrates with narrow therapeutic ranges should be monitored closely for adequate therapeutic response to the substrate medication. PMID:21646440

  15. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic consequences of inhibition of terazosin metabolism via CYP3A1 and/or 3A2 by DA-8159, an erectogenic, in rats

    PubMed Central

    Oh, E Y; Bae, S K; Kwon, J W; You, M; Lee, D C; Lee, M G

    2007-01-01

    Background and purpose: Recently, orthostatic hypotension was observed in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia who are taking vardenafil (a PDE 5 inhibitor) and terazosin (a long acting alpha blocker). Therefore, this study was performed with DA-8159 (a long acting PDE 5 inhibitor) and terazosin in rats to find whether or not pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions between the two drugs were observed. Experimental approach: Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic (changes in blood pressure) interactions between DA-8159 and terazosin were evaluated after simultaneous i.v. and p.o. administration of DA-8159 (30 mg kg−1) and terazosin (5 mg kg−1) to male Sprague–Dawley rats. Key results: After simultaneous i.v. and p.o. administration of terazosin and DA-8159, the total area under the plasma concentration–time curve from time zero to time infinity (AUC) of terazosin became significantly greater (57.4 and 75.4% increase for i.v. and p.o. administration, respectively) than those of without DA-8159. The blood pressure dropping effect was considerable after simultaneous p.o. administration of DA-8159 and terazosin compared with each drug alone. Conclusions and implications: The significantly greater AUC of terazosin after both simultaneous i.v. and p.o. administration of both drugs could be due to the hepatic (both i.v. and p.o.) and intestinal (p.o.) inhibition of the metabolism of terazosin via CYP3A1 and/or 3A2 by DA-8159, since both DA-8159 and terazosin are metabolized via CYP3A1 and/or 3A2 in rats. The blood pressure lowering effect after simultaneous p.o. administration of both drugs could be due to significant increase in plasma concentrations of terazosin. PMID:17351661

  16. Two surfaces of cytochrome b5 with major and minor contributions to CYP3A4-catalyzed steroid and nifedipine oxygenation chemistries

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Hwei-Ming; Auchus, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    Conserved human cytochrome b5 (b5) residues D58 and D65 are critical for interactions with CYP2E1 and CYP2C19, whereas E48 and E49 are essential for stimulating the 17,20-lyase activity of CYP17A1. Here, we show that b5 mutations E48G, E49G, D58G, and D65G have reduced capacity to stimulate CYP3A4-catalyzed progesterone and testosterone 6β-hydroxylation or nifedipine oxidation. The b5 double mutation D58G/D65G fails to stimulate these reactions, similar to CYP2E1 and CYP2C19, whereas mutation E48G/E49G retains 23–42% of wild-type stimulation. Neither mutation impairs the activity stimulation of wild-type b5, nor does mutation D58G/D65G impair the partial stimulation of mutations E48G or E48G/E49G. For assays reconstituted with a single phospholipid, phosphatidyl serine afforded the highest testosterone 6β-hydroxylase activity with wild-type b5 but the poorest activity with b5 mutation E48G/E49G, and the activity stimulation of mutation E48G/E49G was lost at [NaCl] > 50 mM. Cross-linking of CYP3A4 and b5 decreased in the order wild-type > E48G/E49G > D58G/D65G and varied with phospholipid. We conclude that two b5 acidic surfaces, primarily the domain including residues D58-D65, participate in the stimulation of CYP3A4 activities. Our data suggest that a minor population of CYP3A4 molecules remains sensitive to b5 mutation E48G/E49G, consistent with phospholipid-dependent conformational heterogeneity of CYP3A4. PMID:24256945

  17. Two surfaces of cytochrome b5 with major and minor contributions to CYP3A4-catalyzed steroid and nifedipine oxygenation chemistries.

    PubMed

    Peng, Hwei-Ming; Auchus, Richard J

    2014-01-01

    Conserved human cytochrome b5 (b5) residues D58 and D65 are critical for interactions with CYP2E1 and CYP2C19, whereas E48 and E49 are essential for stimulating the 17,20-lyase activity of CYP17A1. Here, we show that b5 mutations E48G, E49G, D58G, and D65G have reduced capacity to stimulate CYP3A4-catalyzed progesterone and testosterone 6β-hydroxylation or nifedipine oxidation. The b5 double mutation D58G/D65G fails to stimulate these reactions, similar to CYP2E1 and CYP2C19, whereas mutation E48G/E49G retains 23-42% of wild-type stimulation. Neither mutation impairs the activity stimulation of wild-type b5, nor does mutation D58G/D65G impair the partial stimulation of mutations E48G or E48G/E49G. For assays reconstituted with a single phospholipid, phosphatidyl serine afforded the highest testosterone 6β-hydroxylase activity with wild-type b5 but the poorest activity with b5 mutation E48G/E49G, and the activity stimulation of mutation E48G/E49G was lost at [NaCl]>50mM. Cross-linking of CYP3A4 and b5 decreased in the order wild-type>E48G/E49G>D58G/D65G and varied with phospholipid. We conclude that two b5 acidic surfaces, primarily the domain including residues D58-D65, participate in the stimulation of CYP3A4 activities. Our data suggest that a minor population of CYP3A4 molecules remains sensitive to b5 mutation E48G/E49G, consistent with phospholipid-dependent conformational heterogeneity of CYP3A4. PMID:24256945

  18. VX-509 (Decernotinib)-Mediated CYP3A Time-Dependent Inhibition: An Aldehyde Oxidase Metabolite as a Perpetrator of Drug-Drug Interactions.

    PubMed

    Zetterberg, Craig; Maltais, Francois; Laitinen, Leena; Liao, Shengkai; Tsao, Hong; Chakilam, Ananthsrinivas; Hariparsad, Niresh

    2016-08-01

    (R)-2-((2-(1H-pyrrolo[2,3-b]pyridin-3-yl)pyrimidin-4-yl)amino)-2-methyl-N-(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl)butanamide (VX-509, decernotinib) is an oral Janus kinase 3 inhibitor that has been studied in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Patients with rheumatoid arthritis often receive multiple medications, such as statins and steroids, to manage the signs and symptoms of comorbidities, which increases the chances of drug-drug interactions (DDIs). Mechanism-based inhibition is a subset of time-dependent inhibition (TDI) and occurs when a molecule forms a reactive metabolite which irreversibly binds and inactivates drug-metabolizing enzymes, potentially increasing the systemic load to toxic concentrations. Traditionally, perpetrating compounds are screened using human liver microsomes (HLMs); however, this system may be inadequate when the precipitant is activated by a non-cytochrome P450 (P450)-mediated pathway. Even though studies assessing competitive inhibition and TDI using HLM suggested a low risk for CYP3A4-mediated DDI in the clinic, VX-509 increased the area under the curve of midazolam, atorvastatin, and methyl-prednisolone by approximately 12.0-, 2.7-, and 4.3-fold, respectively. Metabolite identification studies using human liver cytosol indicated that VX-509 is converted to an oxidative metabolite, which is the perpetrator of the DDIs observed in the clinic. As opposed to HLM, hepatocytes contain the full complement of drug-metabolizing enzymes and transporters and can be used to assess TDI arising from non-P450-mediated metabolic pathways. In the current study, we highlight the role of aldehyde oxidase in the formation of the hydroxyl-metabolite of VX-509, which is involved in clinically significant TDI-based DDIs and represents an additional example in which a system-dependent prediction of TDI would be evident. PMID:27298338

  19. [Furanocoumarins contents and cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A) inhibitory activities of various processed fruit peel products: outflow of 6',7'-Dihydroxybergamottin during processing treatment of peel].

    PubMed

    Ishihara, Masaru; Toda, Hikaru; Sunagane, Nobuyoshi; Ohta, Takafumi

    2011-01-01

    Furanocoumarins (FCs) such as bergamottin (BG) and 6',7'-dihydroxybergamottin (DHBG) contained in grapefruits are known to be cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) inhibitors. These are contained in larger quantity in peel than in pulp, and therefore, processed peel products possibly have strong CYP3A4 inhibitory activity. The CYP3A4 inhibitory potency of these processed peel products, however, remains to be elucidated. The FC content and CYP3A inhibitory activities of various processed fruit peel products were investigated. CYP3A inhibitory activities of crystallized grapefruit peel, grapefruit marmalade, lemon peel and bitter orange slice were close to that of 100% grapefruit juice, while the activities of yuzu slice, pomelo (buntan) marmalade and crystallized iyokan peel were very weak, 1/8-1/20 of 100% grapefruit juice. The maximum BG content was 5.6 µg/g in lemon peel. The maximum DHBG content was 7.2 µg/g in crystallized grapefruit peel, about 1/30 that of raw peel. Grapefruit marmalade and crystallized grapefruit peel contained similar amounts of FCs to 100% grapefruit juice, but FCs were not detected in pomelo (buntan) marmalade or crystallized iyokan peel. Good correlation (r=0.78) was observed between the FC contents of these peel products and those CYP3A inhibitory activities. Preparation of homemade grapefruit marmalade and crystallized peel revealed that considerably lower DHBG content in these products and lower CYP3A inhibitory activity than anticipated were attributable to outflow of DHBG to broth during boiling of the raw peel. PMID:21532264

  20. Prevalence of CYP2D6*2, CYP2D6*4, CYP2D6*10, and CYP3A5*3 in Thai breast cancer patients undergoing tamoxifen treatment

    PubMed Central

    Charoenchokthavee, Wanaporn; Panomvana, Duangchit; Sriuranpong, Virote; Areepium, Nutthada

    2016-01-01

    Background Tamoxifen (TAM) is used in breast cancer treatment, but interindividual variabilities in TAM-metabolizing enzymes exist and have been linked to single nucleotide polymorphisms in the respective encoding genes. The different alleles and genotypes of these genes have been presented for Caucasians and Asians. This study aimed to explore the prevalence of the incomplete functional alleles and genotypes of the CYP2D6 and CYP3A5 genes in Thai breast cancer patients undergoing TAM treatment. Patients and methods In total, 134 Thai breast cancer patients were randomly invited to join the Thai Tamoxifen Project. Their blood samples were collected and extracted for individual DNA. The alleles and genotypes were determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction with TaqMan® Drug Metabolism Genotyping Assays. Results The patients were aged from 27.0 years to 82.0 years with a body mass index range from 15.4 to 40.0, with the majority (103/134) in the early stage (stages 0–II) of breast cancer. The median duration of TAM administration was 17.2 months (interquartile range 16.1 months). Most (53%) of the patients were premenopausal with an estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) status of ER+/PR+ (71.7%), ER+/PR− (26.9%), ER−/PR+ (0.7%), and ER−/PR− (0.7%). The allele frequencies of CYP2D6*1, CYP2D6*2, CYP2D6*4, CYP2D6*10, CYP3A5*1, and CYP3A5*3 were 72.9%, 3.2%, 1.1%, 22.8%, 37.3%, and 62.7%, respectively, while the genotype frequencies of CYP2D6*1/*1, CYP2D6*1/*2, CYP2D6*2/*2, CYP2D6*4/*4, CYP2D6*1/*10, CYP2D6*2/*10, CYP2D6*4/*10, CYP2D6*10/*10, CYP3A5*1/*1, CYP3A5*1/*3, and CYP3A5*3/*3 were 9.7%, 2.2%, 3.7%, 1.5%, 15.7%, 9.7%, 3.7%, 53.7%, 13.4%, 47.8%, and 38.8%, respectively. Conclusion The majority (97.8%) of Thai breast cancer patients undergoing TAM treatment carry at least one incomplete functional allele, including 20.9% of the patients who carry only incomplete functional alleles for both the CYP2D6 and CYP3A5 genes. This research

  1. Modulation of human cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in Caco-2 cell monolayers by selected commercial-source milk thistle and goldenseal products.

    PubMed

    Budzinski, Jason W; Trudeau, Vance L; Drouin, Cathy E; Panahi, Mitra; Arnason, J Thor; Foster, Brian C

    2007-09-01

    In this study, we used an in vitro Caco-2 cell monolayer model to evaluate aqueous extracts of commercial-source goldenseal (Hydrastis canadensis) and milk thistle (Silybum marianum) capsule formulations, their marker phytochemicals (berberine and silibinin, respectively), as well as dillapiol, vinblastine, and the HIV protease inhibitor saquinavir for their ability to modulate CYP3A4 and ABCB1 expression after short-term exposure (48 h). Both upregulation and downregulation of CYP3A4 expression was observed with extracts of varying concentrations of the two natural health products (NHPs). CYP3A4 was highly responsive in our system, showing a strong dose-dependent modulation by the CYP3A4 inhibitor dillapiol (upregulation) and the milk thistle flavonolignan silibinin (downregulation). ABCB1 was largely unresponsive in this cellular model and appears to be of little value as a biomarker under our experimental conditions. Therefore, the modulation of CYP3A4 gene expression can serve as an important marker for the in vitro assessment of NHP-drug interactions. PMID:18066144

  2. The Absence of CYP3A5*3 Is a Protective Factor to Anticonvulsants Hypersensitivity Reactions: A Case-Control Study in Brazilian Subjects

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, Bernardo; Talib, Leda Leme; Yamaguti, Célia; Rodrigues, Helcio; Gattaz, Wagner Farid; Kalil, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Although aromatic anticonvulsants are usually well tolerated, they can cause cutaneous adverse drug reactions in up to 10% of patients. The clinical manifestations of the antiepileptics-induced hypersensitivity reactions (AHR) vary from mild skin rashes to severe cutaneous drug adverse reactions which are related to high mortality and significant morbidity. Genetic polymorphisms in cytochrome P450 genes are associated with altered enzymatic activity and may contribute to the risk of AHR. Here we present a case-control study in which we genotyped SNPs of CYP2C19, 2C9 and 3A5 of 55 individuals with varying severities of AHR, 83 tolerant, and 366 healthy control subjects from São Paulo, Brazil. Clinical characterization was based on standardized scoring systems and drug patch test. All in vivo investigation followed the ENDA (European Network of Drug Allergy) recommendations. Genotype was determined by real time PCR using peripheral blood DNA as a template. Of all 504 subjects, 65% were females, 45% self-identified as Afro-American, 38% as Caucasian and 17% as having non-African mixed ascendancy. Amongst 55 subjects with AHR, 44 had severe cutaneous drug adverse reactions. Of the 46 drug patch tests performed, 29 (63%) were positive. We found a strong association between the absence of CYP3A5*3 and tolerant subjects when compared to AHR (p = 0.0002, OR = 5.28 [CI95% 2.09–14.84]). None of our groups presented positive association with CYP2C19 and 2C9 polymorphisms, however, both SNPs contributed to separation of cases and tolerants in a Classification and Regression Tree. Our findings indicate that drug metabolism genes can contribute in the tolerability of antiepileptics. CYP3A5*3 is the most prevalent CYP3A5 allele associated with reduced enzymatic function. The current study provides evidence that normal CYP3A5 activity might be a protective factor to aromatic antiepileptics-induced hypersensitivity reactions in Brazilian subjects. PMID:26291084

  3. Defining CYP3A4 structural responses to substrate binding. Raman spectroscopic studies of a nanodisc-incorporated mammalian Cytochrome P450

    PubMed Central

    Mak, Piotr J.; Denisov, Ilia G.; Grinkova, Yelena V.; Sligar, Stephen G.; Kincaid, James R.

    2011-01-01

    Resonance Raman (RR) spectroscopy is used to help define active site structural responses of nanodisc-incorporated CYP3A4 to the binding of three substrates; bromocriptine (BC), erythromycin (ERY) and testosterone (TST). We demonstrate that nanodisc-incorporated assemblies reveal much more well-defined active site RR spectroscopic responses compared to those normally obtained with the conventional, detergent-stabilized, sampling strategies. While, ERY and BC are known to bind to CYP3A4 with a 1:1 stoichiometry, only the BC induces a substantial conversion from low- to high-spin state, as clearly manifested in the RR spectra acquired herein. The third substrate, TST, displays significant homotropic interactions within CYP3A4, the active site binding up to 3 molecules of this substrate, with the functional properties varying in response to binding of individual substrate molecules. While such behavior seemingly suggests the possibility that each substrate binding event induces functionally important heme structural changes, up to this time spectroscopic evidence for such structural changes has not been available. The current RR spectroscopic studies show clearly that accommodation of different size substrates, and different loading of TST, do not significantly affect the structure of the substrate-bound ferric heme. However, it is here demonstrated that the nature and number of bound substrates do have an extraordinary influence on the conformation of bound exogenous ligands, such as CO or dioxygen and its reduced forms, implying an effective mechanism whereby substrate structure can impact reactivity of intermediates so as to influence function, as reflected in the diverse reactivity of this drug metabolizing cytochrome. PMID:21207936

  4. CYP3A-mediated apoptosis of dauricine in cultured human bronchial epithelial cells and in lungs of CD-1 mice

    SciTech Connect

    Jin, Hua; Shen, Shuijie; Chen, Xiaoyan; Zhong, Dafang; Zheng, Jiang

    2012-06-15

    Dauricine is the major bioactive component isolated from the root of Menispermum dauricum DC and has shown promising pharmacologic activities with a great potential for clinical use. Recently, we found that intraperitoneal exposure of dauricine produced selective pulmonary injury in mice. A quinone methide metabolite of dauricine was identified and is suggested to be associated with the pulmonary toxicity of dauricine. The present study evaluated the apoptotic effect of dauricine in cultured cells and mice, determined the change in cellular glutathione (GSH) contents after exposure to dauricine, investigated the role of GSH depletion in dauricine-induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis, and examined the role of CYP3A in dauricine-induced GSH depletion and apoptosis. Dauricine was found to induce apoptosis in NL-20 cells. Additionally, intraperitoneal administration of dauricine caused GSH depletion and apoptosis in lungs of mice. Treatment with ketoconazole, an inhibitor of CYP3A, reversed cellular GSH depletion in lungs of mice given dauricine and showed protective effect on dauricine-induced apoptosis in lungs of mice. This indicates that metabolic activation is involved in dauricine-induced GSH-depletion, cytotoxicity and apoptosis. The glutathione depletor L-buthionine sulfoximine showed potentiating effect on cytotoxicity and apoptosis induced by dauricine. We propose that dauricine is metabolized to a quinone methide intermediate which depletes cellular GSH, and the depletion of GSH may trigger and/or intensify the cytotoxicity and apoptosis induced by dauricine. -- Highlights: ► Dauricine induced apoptosis in lungs in mice and in cultured human pulmonary cells. ► Dauricine depleted cellular GSH in lungs of mice and in the human pulmonary cells. ► CYP3A subfamily mediated GSH depletion and apoptosis induced by dauricine. ► L-Buthionine sulfoximine potentiated dauricine-induced GSH depletion and apoptosis.

  5. Comparative inhibitory potential of selected dietary bioactive polyphenols, phytosterols on CYP3A4 and CYP2D6 with fluorometric high-throughput screening.

    PubMed

    Vijayakumar, Thangavel Mahalingam; Kumar, Ramasamy Mohan; Agrawal, Aruna; Dubey, Govind Prasad; Ilango, Kaliappan

    2015-07-01

    Cytochrome P450 (CYP450) inhibition by the bioactive molecules of dietary supplements or herbal products leading to greater potential for toxicity of co-administered drugs. The present study was aimed to compare the inhibitory potential of selected common dietary bioactive molecules (Gallic acid, Ellagic acid, β-Sitosterol, Stigmasterol, Quercetin and Rutin) on CYP3A4 and CYP2D6 to assess safety through its inhibitory potency and to predict interaction potential with co-administered drugs. CYP450-CO complex assay was carried out for all the selected dietary bioactive molecules in isolated rat microsomes. CYP450 concentration of the rat liver microsome was found to be 0.474 nmol/mg protein, quercetin in DMSO has shown maximum inhibition on CYP450 (51.02 ± 1.24 %) but less when compared with positive control (79.02 ± 1.61 %). In high throughput fluorometric assay, IC50 value of quercetin (49.08 ± 1.02-54.36 ± 0.85 μg/ml) and gallic acid (78.46 ± 1.32-83.84 ± 1.06 μg/ml) was lower than other bioactive compounds on CYP3A4 and CYP2D6 respectively but it was higher than positive controls (06.28 ± 1.76-07.74 ± 1.32 μg/ml). In comparison of in vitro inhibitory potential on CYP3A4 and CYP2D6, consumption of food or herbal or dietary supplements containing quercetin and gallic acid without any limitation should be carefully considered when narrow therapeutic drugs are administered together. PMID:26139922

  6. Physiologically based predictions of the impact of inhibition of intestinal and hepatic metabolism on human pharmacokinetics of CYP3A substrates.

    PubMed

    Fenneteau, Frederique; Poulin, Patrick; Nekka, Fahima

    2010-01-01

    The first objective of the present study was to predict the pharmacokinetics of selected CYP3A substrates administered at a single oral dose to human. The second objective was to predict pharmacokinetics of the selected drugs in presence of inhibitors of the intestinal and/or hepatic CYP3A activity. We developed a whole-body physiologically based pharmacokinetics (WB-PBPK) model accounting for presystemic elimination of midazolam (MDZ), alprazolam (APZ), triazolam (TRZ), and simvastatin (SMV). The model also accounted for concomitant administration of the above-mentioned drugs with CYP3A inhibitors, namely ketoconazole (KTZ), itraconazole (ITZ), diltiazem (DTZ), saquinavir (SQV), and a furanocoumarin contained in grape-fruit juice (GFJ), namely 6',7'-dihydroxybergamottin (DHB). Model predictions were compared to published clinical data. An uncertainty analysis was performed to account for the variability and uncertainty of model parameters when predicting the model outcomes. We also briefly report on the results of our efforts to develop a global sensitivity analysis and its application to the current WB-PBPK model. Considering the current criterion for a successful prediction, judged satisfied once the clinical data are captured within the 5th and 95th percentiles of the predicted concentration-time profiles, a successful prediction has been obtained for a single oral administration of MDZ and SMV. For APZ and TRZ, however, a slight deviation toward the 95th percentile was observed especially for C(max) but, overall, the in vivo profiles were well captured by the PBPK model. Moreover, the impact of DHB-mediated inhibition on the extent of intestinal pre-systemic elimination of MDZ and SMV has been accurately predicted by the proposed PBPK model. For concomitant administrations of MDZ and ITZ, APZ and KTZ, as well as SMV and DTZ, the in vivo concentration-time profiles were accurately captured by the model. A slight deviation was observed for SMV when

  7. High Content Imaging and Analysis Enable Quantitative In Situ Assessment of CYP3A4 Using Cryopreserved Differentiated HepaRG Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ranade, Aarati R.; Wilson, Melinda S.; McClanahan, Amy M.; Ball, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    High-throughput imaging-based hepatotoxicity studies capable of analyzing individual cells in situ hold enormous promise for drug safety testing but are frequently limited by a lack of sufficient metabolically competent human cells. This study examined cryopreserved HepaRG cells, a human liver cell line which differentiates into both hepatocytes and biliary epithelial cells, to determine if these cells may represent a suitable metabolically competent cellular model for novel High Content Analysis (HCA) applications. Characterization studies showed that these cells retain many features characteristic of primary human hepatocytes and display significant CYP3A4 and CYP1A2 induction, unlike the HepG2 cell line commonly utilized for HCA studies. Furthermore, this study demonstrates that CYP3A4 induction can be quantified via a simple image analysis-based method, using HepaRG cells as a model system. Additionally, data demonstrate that the hepatocyte and biliary epithelial subpopulations characteristic of HepaRG cultures can be separated during analysis simply on the basis of nuclear size measurements. Proof of concept studies with fluorescent cell function reagents indicated that further multiparametric image-based assessment is achievable with HepaRG. In summary, image-based screening of metabolically competent human hepatocyte models cells such as HepaRG offers novel approaches for hepatotoxicity assessment and improved drug screening tools. PMID:25276124

  8. Assessment of competitive and mechanism-based inhibition by clarithromycin: use of domperidone as a CYP3A probe-drug substrate and various enzymatic sources including a new cell-based assay with freshly isolated human hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Michaud, Veronique; Turgeon, Jacques

    2010-04-01

    Clarithromycin is involved in a large number of clinically relevant drug-drug interactions. Discrepancies are observed between the magnitude of drug interactions predicted from in vitro competitive inhibition studies and changes observed clinically in the plasma levels of affected CYP3A substrates. The formation of metabolic-intermediate complexes has been proposed to explain these differences. The objectives of our study were: 1) to determine the competitive inhibition potency of clarithromycin on the metabolism of domperidone as a CYP3A probe drug using human recombinant CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 isoenzymes, human liver microsomes and cultured human hepatocytes; 2) to establish the modulatory role of cytochrome b5 on the competitive inhibition potency of clarithromycin; 3) to demonstrate the clarithromycin-induced formation of CYP450 metabolic-intermediate complexes in human liver microsomes; and 4) to determine the extent of CYP3A inhibition due to metabolic-intermediate complex formation using human liver microsomes and cultured human hepatocytes. At high concentrations (100 µM), clarithromycin had weak competitive inhibition potency towards CYP3A4 and CYP3A5. Inhibition potency was further decreased by the addition of cytochrome b5 (9-19%). Clarithromycin-induced metabolic-intermediate complexes were revealed by spectrophotometry analysis using human liver microsomes while time- and concentration-dependent mechanism-based inhibitions were quantified using isolated hepatocytes. These results indicate that mechanism-based but not competitive inhibition of CYP3As is the major underlying mechanism of drug-drug interactions observed clinically with clarithromycin. Drug interactions between clarithromycin and several CYP3A substrates are predicted to be insidious; the risk of severe adverse events should increase over time and persist for a few days after cessation of the drug. PMID:20446912

  9. Associations of CYP3A4, NR1I2, CYP2C19 and P2RY12 polymorphisms with clopidogrel resistance in Chinese patients with ischemic stroke

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Rui; Zhou, Zi-yi; Chen, Yi-bei; Li, Jia-li; Yu, Wei-bang; Chen, Xin-meng; Zhao, Min; Zhao, Yuan-qi; Cai, Ye-feng; Jin, Jing; Huang, Min

    2016-01-01

    Aim: There is a high incidence of the antiplatelet drug clopidogrel resistance (CR) in Asian populations. Because clopidogrel is a prodrug, polymorphisms of genes encoding the enzymes involved in its biotransformation may be the primary influential factors. The goal of this study was to investigate the associations of polymorphisms of CYP3A4, NR1I2, CYP2C19 and P2RY12 genes with CR in Chinese patients with ischemic stroke. Methods: A total of 191 patients with ischemic stroke were enrolled. The patients were treated with clopidogrel for at least 5 days. Platelet function was measured by light transmission aggregometry. The SNPs NR1I2 (rs13059232), CYP3A4*1G (rs2242480), CYP2C19*2 (rs4244285) and P2RY12 (rs2046934) were genotyped. Results: The CR rate in this population was 36%. The CYP2C19*2 variant was a risk factor for CR (*2/*2+wt/*2 vs wt/wt, OR: 2.366, 95% CI: 1.180–4.741, P=0.014), whereas the CYP3A4*1G variant had a protective effect on CR (*1/*1 vs *1G/*1G+*1/*1G, OR: 2.360, 95% CI: 1.247–4.468, P=0.008). The NR1I2 (rs13059232) polymorphism was moderately associated with CR (CC vs TT+TC, OR: 0.533, 95% CI: 0.286–0.991, P=0.046). The C allele in P2RY12 (rs2046934) was predicted to be a protective factor for CR (CC+TC vs TT, OR: 0.407, 95% CI: 0.191–0.867, P=0.018). In addition, an association was found between hypertension and CR (P=0.022). Conclusion: The individuals with both the CYP2C19*2 allele and hypertension are at high risk of CR during anti-thrombosis therapy. The CYP3A4*1G allele, P2RY12 (rs2046934) C allele and NR1I2 (rs13059232) CC genotype may be protective factors for CR. The associated SNPs studied may be useful to predict clopidogrel resistance in Chinese patients with ischemic stroke. PMID:27133299

  10. Modeling chemical interaction profiles: I. Spectral data-activity relationship and structure-activity relationship models for inhibitors and non-inhibitors of cytochrome P450 CYP3A4 and CYP2D6 isozymes.

    PubMed

    McPhail, Brooks; Tie, Yunfeng; Hong, Huixiao; Pearce, Bruce A; Schnackenberg, Laura K; Ge, Weigong; Valerio, Luis G; Fuscoe, James C; Tong, Weida; Buzatu, Dan A; Wilkes, Jon G; Fowler, Bruce A; Demchuk, Eugene; Beger, Richard D

    2012-01-01

    An interagency collaboration was established to model chemical interactions that may cause adverse health effects when an exposure to a mixture of chemicals occurs. Many of these chemicals--drugs, pesticides, and environmental pollutants--interact at the level of metabolic biotransformations mediated by cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes. In the present work, spectral data-activity relationship (SDAR) and structure-activity relationship (SAR) approaches were used to develop machine-learning classifiers of inhibitors and non-inhibitors of the CYP3A4 and CYP2D6 isozymes. The models were built upon 602 reference pharmaceutical compounds whose interactions have been deduced from clinical data, and 100 additional chemicals that were used to evaluate model performance in an external validation (EV) test. SDAR is an innovative modeling approach that relies on discriminant analysis applied to binned nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectral descriptors. In the present work, both 1D ¹³C and 1D ¹⁵N-NMR spectra were used together in a novel implementation of the SDAR technique. It was found that increasing the binning size of 1D ¹³C-NMR and ¹⁵N-NMR spectra caused an increase in the tenfold cross-validation (CV) performance in terms of both the rate of correct classification and sensitivity. The results of SDAR modeling were verified using SAR. For SAR modeling, a decision forest approach involving from 6 to 17 Mold2 descriptors in a tree was used. Average rates of correct classification of SDAR and SAR models in a hundred CV tests were 60% and 61% for CYP3A4, and 62% and 70% for CYP2D6, respectively. The rates of correct classification of SDAR and SAR models in the EV test were 73% and 86% for CYP3A4, and 76% and 90% for CYP2D6, respectively. Thus, both SDAR and SAR methods demonstrated a comparable performance in modeling a large set of structurally diverse data. Based on unique NMR structural descriptors, the new SDAR modeling method complements the existing SAR

  11. Effect of pluronic P123 and F127 block copolymer on P-glycoprotein transport and CYP3A metabolism.

    PubMed

    Guan, Yanbin; Huang, Jiangeng; Zuo, Lan; Xu, Jiaqiang; Si, Luqin; Qiu, Jun; Li, Gao

    2011-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of pluronic P123 (P123) and pluronic F127 (F127) on intestinal P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and cytochrome P450 3A using the specific substrates rhodamine-123 (R-123) and midazolam, respectively. Caco-2 cells and everted gut sacs were used as models of intestinal mucosa to assess intestinal absorption of R-123, while rat intestinal microsomes were utilized to examine the effect of P123 and F127 on in vitro midazolam metabolism. P123 and F127 were observed to increase the intracellular accumulation of R-123 in Caco-2 cells in a dose-dependent manner. P123 significantly lowered the efflux ratio of R-123 at two concentrations in Caco-2 monolayers, whereas F127 lowered the efflux ratio only at 1%. Moreover, both pluronics markedly enhanced mucosal to serosal absorption of R-123 in excised ileum of rats. However, no significant difference in relative enzyme activity were observed between P123- or F127-treated and control groups, regardless of the concentrations of P123 and F127 studied. Collectively, these results obtained from the present study demonstrated that P123 and F127 were capable of inhibiting the intestinal P-gp activity, but had little or no effect on intestinal cytochrome P450 3A activity, indicating that P123 and F127 can potentially be used as pharmaceutical ingredients to improve the oral bioavailability of coadministered P-gp substrates via P-gp efflux pump inhibition. PMID:22076772

  12. Alteration in the Expression of Cytochrome P450s (CYP1A1, CYP2E1, and CYP3A11) in the Liver of Mouse Induced by Microcystin-LR

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Bangjun; Liu, Yang; Li, Xiaoyu

    2015-01-01

    Microcystins (MCs) are cyclic heptapeptide toxins and can accumulate in the liver. Cytochrome P450s (CYPs) play an important role in the biotransformation of endogenous substances and xenobiotics in animals. It is unclear if the CYPs are affected by MCs exposure. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of microcystin-LR (MCLR) on cytochrome P450 isozymes (CYP1A1, CYP2E1, and CYP3A11) at mRNA level, protein content, and enzyme activity in the liver of mice the received daily, intraperitoneally, 2, 4, and 8 µg/kg body weight of MCLR for seven days. The result showed that MCLR significantly decreased ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) (CYP1A1) and erythromycin N-demthylase (ERND) (CYP3A11) activities and increased aniline hydroxylase (ANH) activity (CYP2E1) in the liver of mice during the period of exposure. Our findings suggest that MCLR exposure may disrupt the function of CYPs in liver, which may be partly attributed to the toxicity of MCLR in mice. PMID:25831226

  13. Effect of Ethanol on the Metabolic Characteristics of HIV-1 Integrase Inhibitor Elvitegravir and Elvitegravir/Cobicistat with CYP3A: An Analysis Using a Newly Developed LC-MS/MS Method.

    PubMed

    Midde, Narasimha M; Rahman, Mohammad A; Rathi, Chetan; Li, Junhao; Meibohm, Bernd; Li, Weihua; Kumar, Santosh

    2016-01-01

    Elvitegravir (EVG), an integrase inhibitor for the treatment HIV infection, is increasingly becoming the part of first-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimen. EVG is mainly metabolized through cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4. Previously, we have shown that ethanol alters ART-CYP3A4 interactions with protease inhibitors thereby altering their metabolisms. However, as EVG is a fairly new class of drug, its kinetic characteristics and the effect of ethanol on EVG-CYPP3A4 interaction is poorly understood. In this study, we characterized EVG and cobicistat (COBI)-boosted EVG metabolism in human microsomes followed by ethanol-EVG, ethanol-COBI-EVG interaction with CYP3A. First, we developed and validated a simple, sensitive, and robust liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for the quantification of EVG in the human liver microsomes. The lower limit of quantification for the drug was at 0.003 μM (1.34 ng/ml). Extraction yield, matrix effects, drug stability, and calibration curves for the proposed method were validated according to the FDA guidelines. Time dependent kinetics data showed that 20mM ethanol decreases the apparent half-life of EVG degradation by ~50% compared to EVG alone. Our substrate kinetic results revealed that ethanol mildly decreases the catalytic efficiency for EVG metabolism. Inhibition studies demonstrated that EVG inhibits CYP3A4, and 20 mM ethanol causes a decrease in the IC50 of EVG. However, in the presence of COBI we were unable to determine these parameters effectively because COBI, being a strong inhibitor of CYP3A4, blocked the EVG/ethanol-CYP3A4 interactions. Docking studies predicted a shift of EVG or COBI binding to the active site of CYP3A4 in the presence of ethanol. Taken together, these results suggest that ethanol interacts with microsomal CYP3A and alters EVG-CYP3A4 interaction thereby altering EVG metabolism and inhibition of CYP3A4 by EVG. This finding has clinical significance because alcohol use is

  14. Effect of Ethanol on the Metabolic Characteristics of HIV-1 Integrase Inhibitor Elvitegravir and Elvitegravir/Cobicistat with CYP3A: An Analysis Using a Newly Developed LC-MS/MS Method

    PubMed Central

    Midde, Narasimha M.; Rahman, Mohammad A.; Rathi, Chetan; Li, Junhao; Meibohm, Bernd; Li, Weihua; Kumar, Santosh

    2016-01-01

    Elvitegravir (EVG), an integrase inhibitor for the treatment HIV infection, is increasingly becoming the part of first-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimen. EVG is mainly metabolized through cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4. Previously, we have shown that ethanol alters ART-CYP3A4 interactions with protease inhibitors thereby altering their metabolisms. However, as EVG is a fairly new class of drug, its kinetic characteristics and the effect of ethanol on EVG-CYPP3A4 interaction is poorly understood. In this study, we characterized EVG and cobicistat (COBI)-boosted EVG metabolism in human microsomes followed by ethanol-EVG, ethanol-COBI-EVG interaction with CYP3A. First, we developed and validated a simple, sensitive, and robust liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for the quantification of EVG in the human liver microsomes. The lower limit of quantification for the drug was at 0.003 μM (1.34ng/ml). Extraction yield, matrix effects, drug stability, and calibration curves for the proposed method were validated according to the FDA guidelines. Time dependent kinetics data showed that 20mM ethanol decreases the apparent half-life of EVG degradation by ~50% compared to EVG alone. Our substrate kinetic results revealed that ethanol mildly decreases the catalytic efficiency for EVG metabolism. Inhibition studies demonstrated that EVG inhibits CYP3A4, and 20 mM ethanol causes a decrease in the IC50 of EVG. However, in the presence of COBI we were unable to determine these parameters effectively because COBI, being a strong inhibitor of CYP3A4, blocked the EVG/ethanol-CYP3A4 interactions. Docking studies predicted a shift of EVG or COBI binding to the active site of CYP3A4 in the presence of ethanol. Taken together, these results suggest that ethanol interacts with microsomal CYP3A and alters EVG-CYP3A4 interaction thereby altering EVG metabolism and inhibition of CYP3A4 by EVG. This finding has clinical significance because alcohol use is

  15. Polymorphism of CYP3A4 and ABCB1 genes increase the risk of neuropathy in breast cancer patients treated with paclitaxel and docetaxel

    PubMed Central

    Kus, Tulay; Aktas, Gokmen; Kalender, Mehmet Emin; Demiryurek, Abdullah Tuncay; Ulasli, Mustafa; Oztuzcu, Serdar; Sevinc, Alper; Kul, Seval; Camci, Celaletdin

    2016-01-01

    Background Interindividual variability of pharmacogenetics may account for unpredictable neurotoxicities of taxanes. Methods From March 2011 to June 2015, female patients with operable breast cancer who had received docetaxel- or paclitaxel-containing adjuvant chemotherapy were included in this study. All patients were treated with single-agent paclitaxel intravenously (IV) 175 mg/m2 every 3 weeks for four cycles, or IV 80 mg/m2 weekly for 12 cycles, and IV 100 mg/m2 docetaxel for four cycles as adjuvant treatment. We evaluated the relationship between neurotoxicity of taxanes and single-nucleotide polymorphisms of ABCB1, CYP3A4, ERCC1, ERCC2, FGFR4, TP53, ERBB2, and CYP2C8 genes. Taxane-induced neurotoxicity during the treatment was evaluated according to the National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria version 4.03 prior to each cycle. Chi-squared tests were used to compare the two groups, and multivariate binary logistic regression models were used for determining possible risk factors of neuropathy. Results Pharmacogenetic analysis was performed in 219 females. ABCB1 3435 TT genotype had significantly higher risk for grade ≥2 neurotoxicity (odds ratio [OR]: 2.759, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.172–6.493, P: 0.017) compared to TC and CC genotype, and also CYP3A4 392 AA and AG genotype had significantly higher risk for grade ≥2 neurotoxicity (OR: 2.259, 95% CI: 1.033–4.941, P: 0.038) compared to GG genotype. For FDGF4 gene with AG and GG genotype, OR was 1.879 (95% CI: 1.001–3.525, P: 0.048) compared to AA genotype with regard to any grade of neuropathy risk. We could not find any other association of other genotypes with neurotoxicity grades. Conclusion ABCB1 3435 TT genotype and CYP3A4 392 AA/AG genotypes may be used as predictors of neurotoxicity during taxane chemotherapy. PMID:27574448

  16. Regulation of pregnane-X-receptor, CYP3A and P-glycoprotein genes in the PCB-resistant killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) population from New Bedford Harbor1

    PubMed Central

    Gräns, Johanna; Wassmur, Britt; Fernández-Santoscoy, María; Zanette, Juliano; Woodin, Bruce R.; Karchner, Sibel I.; Nacci, Diane E.; Champlin, Denise; Jayaraman, Saro; Hahn, Mark E.; Stegeman, John J.; Celander, Malin C.

    2015-01-01

    Killifish survive and reproduce in the New Bedford Harbor (NBH) in Massachusetts (MA), USA, a site severely contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) for decades. Levels of 22 different PCB congeners were analyzed in liver from killifish collected in 2008. Concentrations of dioxin-like PCBs in liver of NBH killifish were ~400 times higher, and the levels of non-dioxin-like PCBs ~3000 times higher than in killifish from a reference site, Scorton Creek (SC), MA. The NBH killifish are known to be resistant to the toxicity of dioxin-like compounds and to have a reduced aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) signaling response. Little is known about the responses of these fish to non-dioxin-like PCBs, which are at extraordinarily high levels in NBH fish. In mammals, some non-dioxin-like PCB congeners act through nuclear receptor 1I2, the pregnane-X-receptor (PXR). To explore this pathway in killifish, a PXR cDNA was sequenced and its molecular phylogenetic relationship to other vertebrate PXRs was determined. Killifish were also collected in 2009 from NBH and SC, and after four months in the laboratory they were injected with a single dose of either the dioxin-like PCB 126 (an AhR agonist) or the non-dioxin-like PCB 153 (a mammalian PXR agonist). Gills and liver were sampled three days after injection and transcript levels of genes encoding PXR, cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A), P-glycoprotein (Pgp), AhR2 and cytochrome P450 1A (CYP1A) were measured by quantitative PCR. As expected, there was little effect of PCB exposure on mRNA expression of AhR2 or CYP1A in liver and gills of NBH fish. In NBH fish, but not in SC fish, there was increased mRNA expression of hepatic PXR, CYP3A and Pgp upon exposure to either of the two PCB congeners. However, basal PXR and Pgp mRNA levels in liver of NBH fish were significantly lower than in SC fish. A different pattern was seen in gills, where there were no differences in basal mRNA expression of these genes between the two populations

  17. Analysis of the impact of controlled release formulations on oral drug absorption, gut wall metabolism and relative bioavailability of CYP3A substrates using a physiologically-based pharmacokinetic model.

    PubMed

    Olivares-Morales, Andrés; Kamiyama, Yoshiteru; Darwich, Adam S; Aarons, Leon; Rostami-Hodjegan, Amin

    2015-01-25

    Controlled release (CR) formulations are usually designed to achieve similar exposure (AUC) levels as the marketed immediate release (IR) formulation. However, the AUC is often lower following CR compared to IR formulations. There are a few exceptions when the CR formulations have shown higher AUC. This study investigated the impact of CR formulations on oral drug absorption and CYP3A4-mediated gut wall metabolism. A review of the current literature on relative bioavailability (Frel) between CR and IR formulations of CYP3A substrates was conducted. This was followed by a systematic analysis to assess the impact of the release characteristics and the drug-specific factors (including metabolism and permeability) on oral bioavailability employing a physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modelling and simulation approach. From the literature review, only three CYP3A4 substrates showed higher Frel when formulated as CR. Several scenarios were investigated using the PBPK approach; in most of them, the oral absorption of CR formulations was lower as compared to the IR formulations. However, for highly permeable compounds that were CYP3A4 substrates the reduction in absorption was compensated by an increase in the fraction that escapes from first pass metabolism in the gut wall (FG), where the magnitude was dependent on CYP3A4 affinity. The systematic simulations of various interplays between different parameters demonstrated that BCS class 1 highly-cleared CYP3A4 substrates can display up to 220% higher relative bioavailability when formulated as CR compared to IR, in agreement with the observed data collected from the literature. The results and methodology of this study can be employed during the formulation development process in order to optimize drug absorption, especially for CYP3A4 substrates. PMID:25444842

  18. Evaluation of Ketoconazole and Its Alternative Clinical CYP3A4/5 Inhibitors as Inhibitors of Drug Transporters: The In Vitro Effects of Ketoconazole, Ritonavir, Clarithromycin, and Itraconazole on 13 Clinically-Relevant Drug Transporters.

    PubMed

    Vermeer, Lydia M M; Isringhausen, Caleb D; Ogilvie, Brian W; Buckley, David B

    2016-03-01

    Ketoconazole is a potent CYP3A4/5 inhibitor and, until recently, recommended by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the European Medicines Agency as a strong CYP3A4/5 inhibitor in clinical drug-drug interaction (DDI) studies. Ketoconazole sporadically causes liver injury or adrenal insufficiency. Because of this, the FDA and European Medicines Agency recommended suspension of ketoconazole use in DDI studies in 2013. The FDA specifically recommended use of clarithromycin or itraconazole as alternative strong CYP3A4/5 inhibitors in clinical DDI studies, but many investigators have also used ritonavir as an alternative. Although the effects of these clinical CYP3A4/5 inhibitors on other CYPs are largely established, reports on the effects on the broad range of drug transporter activities are sparse. In this study, the inhibitory effects of ketoconazole, clarithromycin, ritonavir, and itraconazole (and its CYP3A4-inhibitory metabolites, hydroxy-, keto-, and N-desalkyl itraconazole) toward 13 drug transporters (OATP1B1, OATP1B3, OAT1, OAT3, OCT1, OCT2, MATE1, MATE2-K, P-gp, BCRP, MRP2, MRP3, and BSEP) were systematically assessed in transporter-expressing HEK-293 cell lines or membrane vesicles. In vitro findings were translated into clinical context with the basic static model approaches outlined by the FDA in its 2012 draft guidance on DDIs. The results indicate that, like ketoconazole, the alternative clinical CYP3A4/5 inhibitors ritonavir, clarithromycin, and itraconazole each have unique transporter inhibition profiles. None of the alternatives to ketoconazole provided a clean inhibition profile toward the 13 drug transporters evaluated. The results provide guidance for the selection of clinical CYP3A4/5 inhibitors when transporters are potentially involved in a victim drug's pharmacokinetics. PMID:26668209

  19. Identification of nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) inhibitors with no evidence of CYP3A4 time-dependent inhibition and improved aqueous solubility.

    PubMed

    Zak, Mark; Liederer, Bianca M; Sampath, Deepak; Yuen, Po-Wai; Bair, Kenneth W; Baumeister, Timm; Buckmelter, Alexandre J; Clodfelter, Karl H; Cheng, Eric; Crocker, Lisa; Fu, Bang; Han, Bingsong; Li, Guangkun; Ho, Yen-Ching; Lin, Jian; Liu, Xiongcai; Ly, Justin; O'Brien, Thomas; Reynolds, Dominic J; Skelton, Nicholas; Smith, Chase C; Tay, Suzanne; Wang, Weiru; Wang, Zhongguo; Xiao, Yang; Zhang, Lei; Zhao, Guiling; Zheng, Xiaozhang; Dragovich, Peter S

    2015-02-01

    Herein we report the optimization efforts to ameliorate the potent CYP3A4 time-dependent inhibition (TDI) and low aqueous solubility exhibited by a previously identified lead compound from our NAMPT inhibitor program (1, GNE-617). Metabolite identification studies pinpointed the imidazopyridine moiety present in 1 as the likely source of the TDI signal, and replacement with other bicyclic systems was found to reduce or eliminate the TDI finding. A strategy of reducing the number of aromatic rings and/or lowering cLogD7.4 was then employed to significantly improve aqueous solubility. These efforts culminated in the discovery of 42, a compound with no evidence of TDI, improved aqueous solubility, and robust efficacy in tumor xenograft studies. PMID:25556090

  20. In vitro Effects of Four Native Brazilian Medicinal Plants in CYP3A4 mRNA Gene Expression, Glutathione Levels, and P-Glycoprotein Activity

    PubMed Central

    Mazzari, Andre L. D. A.; Milton, Flora; Frangos, Samantha; Carvalho, Ana C. B.; Silveira, Dâmaris; de Assis Rocha Neves, Francisco; Prieto, Jose M.

    2016-01-01

    Erythrina mulungu Benth. (Fabaceae), Cordia verbenacea A. DC. (Boraginaceae), Solanum paniculatum L. (Solanaceae) and Lippia sidoides Cham. (Verbenaceae) are medicinal plant species native to Brazil shortlisted by the Brazilian National Health System for future clinical use. However, nothing is known about their effects in metabolic and transporter proteins, which could potentially lead to herb-drug interactions (HDI). In this work, we assess non-toxic concentrations (100 μg/mL) of the plant infusions for their in vitro ability to modulate CYP3A4 mRNA gene expression and intracellular glutathione levels in HepG2 cells, as well as P-glycoprotein (P-gp) activity in vincristine-resistant Caco-2 cells (Caco-2 VCR). Their mechanisms of action were further studied by measuring the activation of human pregnane X receptor (hPXR) in transiently co-transfected HeLa cells and the inhibition of γ-glutamyl transferase (GGT) in HepG2 cells. Our results show that P-gp activity was not affected in any case and that only Solanum paniculatum was able to significantly change CYP3A4 mRNA gene expression (twofold decrease, p < 0.05), this being correlated with an antagonist effect upon hPXR (EC50 = 0.38 mg/mL). Total intracellular glutathione levels were significantly depleted by exposure to Solanum paniculatum (-44%, p < 0.001), Lippia sidoides (-12%, p < 0.05) and Cordia verbenacea (-47%, p < 0.001). The latter plant extract was able to decrease GGT activity (-48%, p < 0.01). In conclusion, this preclinical study shows that the administration of some of these herbal medicines may be able to cause disturbances to metabolic mechanisms in vitro. Although Erythrina mulungu appears safe in our tests, active pharmacovigilance is recommended for the other three species, especially in the case of Solanum paniculatum. PMID:27594838

  1. Inhibitory effects of pomelo on the metabolism of tacrolimus and the activities of CYP3A4 and P-glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Egashira, Kanoko; Ohtani, Hisakazu; Itoh, Suwako; Koyabu, Noriko; Tsujimoto, Masayuki; Murakami, Hideyasu; Sawada, Yasufumi

    2004-08-01

    We recently reported a case of increase in the blood level of tacrolimus following intake of pomelo in a renal transplant recipient. To clarify the mechanism of this increase in the blood level of tacrolimus, we investigated the effect of pomelo juice extract on the activities of CYP3A4 and P-glycoprotein, in comparison with that of extract of grapefruit juice (GFJ). The 10% ethyl acetate extracts of the juice of three pomelos of different origins (Banpeiyu, pomelo I; Hirado Buntan, pomelo II; and Tosa Buntan, pomelo III) and GFJ significantly inhibited 6beta-hydroxylation of testosterone in human liver microsomes by 76.4, 67.2, 37.5, and 83.9%, respectively. The extract of pomelo I was as potent as that of GFJ. The metabolism of tacrolimus itself was also inhibited by the extract of pomelo I, as well as that of GFJ. Furthermore, the inhibition of both 6beta-hydroxylation of testosterone and metabolism of tacrolimus by pomelo I and GFJ was preincubation time-dependent. On the other hand, the extract of pomelo I had little effect on the transcellular transport of tacrolimus or [(3)H]digoxin across a monolayer of LLC-GA5-COL150 cells (a porcine kidney epithelial cell line, LLC-PK1, transfected with human MDR1 cDNA and overexpressing human P-glycoprotein). In conclusion, pomelo constituents inhibit the activity of CYP3A4 and may thereby produce an increase in the blood level of tacrolimus. PMID:15258108

  2. Proximal Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass Alters Drug Absorption Pattern But Not Systemic Exposure of CYP3A4 and P-glycoprotein Substrates

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Lingtak-Neander; Lin, Yvonne S.; Tay-Sontheimer, Jessica C.; Trawick, Dorothy; Oelschlager, Brant K.; Flum, David R.; Patton, Kristen K.; Shen, Danny D.; Horn, John R.

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives To evaluate the effect of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery (RYGB) on the pharmacokinetics of midazolam (a CYP3A4 substrate) and digoxin (a P-glycoprotein substrate). Design Prospective, nonblinded, longitudinal, single-dose pharmacokinetic study in three phases: presurgery baseline and postoperative assessments at 3 and 12 months. Patients Twelve obese patients meeting current standards for bariatric surgery. Measurements and Main Results At each study visit, patients received a single dose of oral digoxin and midazolam at 8 a.m. Blood samples were collected at regular intervals for 24 hours after dosing. Continuous 12-lead electrocardiogram (EKG), heart rate, blood pressure, and respiratory rate were monitored, and pharmacokinetic parameters from the three visits were compared. The peak plasma concentration (Cmax) of midazolam increased by 66% and 71% at 3- and 12-month post-RYGB (p=0.017 and p=0.001, respectively), whereas the median time to peak concentration (Tmax) was reduced by 50%. The mean Cmax for 1′-hydroxymidazolam increased by 87% and 80% at 3 and 12 months (p=0.001 and p<0.001, respectively). However, neither the area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) for midazolam nor the metabolite-to-parent AUC ratio changed significantly over time. For digoxin, the median Tmax decreased from 40 minutes at baseline to 30 and 20 minutes at 3 and 12 months, respectively. The mean AUC for digoxin, heart rate, and EKG patterns were similar across the three study phases. Conclusion Contemporary proximal RYGB increases the rate of drug absorption without significantly changing the overall exposure to midazolam and digoxin. The Cmax of a CYP3A4 substrate with a high extraction ratio was substantially increased after RYGB. PMID:25757445

  3. In vitro Effects of Four Native Brazilian Medicinal Plants in CYP3A4 mRNA Gene Expression, Glutathione Levels, and P-Glycoprotein Activity.

    PubMed

    Mazzari, Andre L D A; Milton, Flora; Frangos, Samantha; Carvalho, Ana C B; Silveira, Dâmaris; de Assis Rocha Neves, Francisco; Prieto, Jose M

    2016-01-01

    Erythrina mulungu Benth. (Fabaceae), Cordia verbenacea A. DC. (Boraginaceae), Solanum paniculatum L. (Solanaceae) and Lippia sidoides Cham. (Verbenaceae) are medicinal plant species native to Brazil shortlisted by the Brazilian National Health System for future clinical use. However, nothing is known about their effects in metabolic and transporter proteins, which could potentially lead to herb-drug interactions (HDI). In this work, we assess non-toxic concentrations (100 μg/mL) of the plant infusions for their in vitro ability to modulate CYP3A4 mRNA gene expression and intracellular glutathione levels in HepG2 cells, as well as P-glycoprotein (P-gp) activity in vincristine-resistant Caco-2 cells (Caco-2 VCR). Their mechanisms of action were further studied by measuring the activation of human pregnane X receptor (hPXR) in transiently co-transfected HeLa cells and the inhibition of γ-glutamyl transferase (GGT) in HepG2 cells. Our results show that P-gp activity was not affected in any case and that only Solanum paniculatum was able to significantly change CYP3A4 mRNA gene expression (twofold decrease, p < 0.05), this being correlated with an antagonist effect upon hPXR (EC50 = 0.38 mg/mL). Total intracellular glutathione levels were significantly depleted by exposure to Solanum paniculatum (-44%, p < 0.001), Lippia sidoides (-12%, p < 0.05) and Cordia verbenacea (-47%, p < 0.001). The latter plant extract was able to decrease GGT activity (-48%, p < 0.01). In conclusion, this preclinical study shows that the administration of some of these herbal medicines may be able to cause disturbances to metabolic mechanisms in vitro. Although Erythrina mulungu appears safe in our tests, active pharmacovigilance is recommended for the other three species, especially in the case of Solanum paniculatum. PMID:27594838

  4. Assessment of a Candidate Marker Constituent Predictive of a Dietary Substance–Drug Interaction: Case Study with Grapefruit Juice and CYP3A4 Drug Substrates

    PubMed Central

    Ainslie, Garrett R.; Wolf, Kristina K.; Li, Yingxin; Connolly, Elizabeth A.; Scarlett, Yolanda V.; Hull, J. Heyward

    2014-01-01

    Dietary substances, including herbal products and citrus juices, can perpetrate interactions with conventional medications. Regulatory guidances for dietary substance–drug interaction assessment are lacking. This deficiency is due in part to challenges unique to dietary substances, a lack of requisite human-derived data, and limited jurisdiction. An in vitro–in vivo extrapolation (IVIVE) approach to help address some of these hurdles was evaluated using the exemplar dietary substance grapefruit juice (GFJ), the candidate marker constituent 6′,7′-dihydroxybergamottin (DHB), and the purported victim drug loperamide. First, the GFJ-loperamide interaction was assessed in 16 healthy volunteers. Loperamide (16 mg) was administered with 240 ml of water or GFJ; plasma was collected from 0 to 72 hours. Relative to water, GFJ increased the geometric mean loperamide area under the plasma concentration–time curve (AUC) significantly (1.7-fold). Second, the mechanism-based inhibition kinetics for DHB were recovered using human intestinal microsomes and the index CYP3A4 reaction, loperamide N-desmethylation (KI [concentration needed to achieve one-half kinact], 5.0 ± 0.9 µM; kinact [maximum inactivation rate constant], 0.38 ± 0.02 minute−1). These parameters were incorporated into a mechanistic static model, which predicted a 1.6-fold increase in loperamide AUC. Third, the successful IVIVE prompted further application to 15 previously reported GFJ-drug interaction studies selected according to predefined criteria. Twelve of the interactions were predicted to within the 25% predefined criterion. Results suggest that DHB could be used to predict the CYP3A4-mediated effect of GFJ. This time- and cost-effective IVIVE approach could be applied to other dietary substance–drug interactions to help prioritize new and existing drugs for more advanced (dynamic) modeling and simulation and clinical assessment. PMID:25253884

  5. In Silico Prediction of Cytochrome P450-Drug Interaction: QSARs for CYP3A4 and CYP2C9

    PubMed Central

    Nembri, Serena; Grisoni, Francesca; Consonni, Viviana; Todeschini, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Cytochromes P450 (CYP) are the main actors in the oxidation of xenobiotics and play a crucial role in drug safety, persistence, bioactivation, and drug-drug/food-drug interaction. This work aims to develop Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship (QSAR) models to predict the drug interaction with two of the most important CYP isoforms, namely 2C9 and 3A4. The presented models are calibrated on 9122 drug-like compounds, using three different modelling approaches and two types of molecular description (classical molecular descriptors and binary fingerprints). For each isoform, three classification models are presented, based on a different approach and with different advantages: (1) a very simple and interpretable classification tree; (2) a local (k-Nearest Neighbor) model based classical descriptors and; (3) a model based on a recently proposed local classifier (N-Nearest Neighbor) on binary fingerprints. The salient features of the work are (1) the thorough model validation and the applicability domain assessment; (2) the descriptor interpretation, which highlighted the crucial aspects of P450-drug interaction; and (3) the consensus aggregation of models, which largely increased the prediction accuracy. PMID:27294921

  6. In Silico Prediction of Cytochrome P450-Drug Interaction: QSARs for CYP3A4 and CYP2C9.

    PubMed

    Nembri, Serena; Grisoni, Francesca; Consonni, Viviana; Todeschini, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Cytochromes P450 (CYP) are the main actors in the oxidation of xenobiotics and play a crucial role in drug safety, persistence, bioactivation, and drug-drug/food-drug interaction. This work aims to develop Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship (QSAR) models to predict the drug interaction with two of the most important CYP isoforms, namely 2C9 and 3A4. The presented models are calibrated on 9122 drug-like compounds, using three different modelling approaches and two types of molecular description (classical molecular descriptors and binary fingerprints). For each isoform, three classification models are presented, based on a different approach and with different advantages: (1) a very simple and interpretable classification tree; (2) a local (k-Nearest Neighbor) model based classical descriptors and; (3) a model based on a recently proposed local classifier (N-Nearest Neighbor) on binary fingerprints. The salient features of the work are (1) the thorough model validation and the applicability domain assessment; (2) the descriptor interpretation, which highlighted the crucial aspects of P450-drug interaction; and (3) the consensus aggregation of models, which largely increased the prediction accuracy. PMID:27294921

  7. Amine-free melanin-concentrating hormone receptor 1 antagonists: Novel 1-(1H-benzimidazol-6-yl)pyridin-2(1H)-one derivatives and design to avoid CYP3A4 time-dependent inhibition.

    PubMed

    Igawa, Hideyuki; Takahashi, Masashi; Shirasaki, Mikio; Kakegawa, Keiko; Kina, Asato; Ikoma, Minoru; Aida, Jumpei; Yasuma, Tsuneo; Okuda, Shoki; Kawata, Yayoi; Noguchi, Toshihiro; Yamamoto, Syunsuke; Fujioka, Yasushi; Kundu, Mrinalkanti; Khamrai, Uttam; Nakayama, Masaharu; Nagisa, Yasutaka; Kasai, Shizuo; Maekawa, Tsuyoshi

    2016-06-01

    Melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) is an attractive target for antiobesity agents, and numerous drug discovery programs are dedicated to finding small-molecule MCH receptor 1 (MCHR1) antagonists. We recently reported novel pyridine-2(1H)-ones as aliphatic amine-free MCHR1 antagonists that structurally featured an imidazo[1,2-a]pyridine-based bicyclic motif. To investigate imidazopyridine variants with lower basicity and less potential to inhibit cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4), we designed pyridine-2(1H)-ones bearing various less basic bicyclic motifs. Among these, a lead compound 6a bearing a 1H-benzimidazole motif showed comparable binding affinity to MCHR1 to the corresponding imidazopyridine derivative 1. Optimization of 6a afforded a series of potent thiophene derivatives (6q-u); however, most of these were found to cause time-dependent inhibition (TDI) of CYP3A4. As bioactivation of thiophenes to form sulfoxide or epoxide species was considered to be a major cause of CYP3A4 TDI, we introduced electron withdrawing groups on the thiophene and found that a CF3 group on the ring or a Cl adjacent to the sulfur atom helped prevent CYP3A4 TDI. Consequently, 4-[(5-chlorothiophen-2-yl)methoxy]-1-(2-cyclopropyl-1-methyl-1H-benzimidazol-6-yl)pyridin-2(1H)-one (6s) was identified as a potent MCHR1 antagonist without the risk of CYP3A4 TDI, which exhibited a promising safety profile including low CYP3A4 inhibition and exerted significant antiobesity effects in diet-induced obese F344 rats. PMID:27112449

  8. Effects of salvianolic acid B and tanshinone IIA on the pharmacokinetics of losartan in rats by regulating the activities and expression of CYP3A4 and CYP2C9.

    PubMed

    Wang, Rong; Zhang, Hai; Wang, Yujie; Yu, Xiaoyan; Yuan, Yongfang

    2016-03-01

    Losartan (LST) is a common chemical drug used to treat high blood pressure and reduce the risk of stroke in certain people with heart disease. Danshen, prepared from the dried root and rhizome of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge, has been widely used for prevention and treatment of various cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. There are more than 35 formulations containing Danshen indexed in the 2010 Chinese Pharmacopoeia, which are often combined with LST to treat cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases in the clinic. The effects of the two major components of Danshen, salvianolic acid B (SA-B) and tanshinone IIA (Tan IIA), on the pharmacokinetics of losartan and its metabolite, EXP3174, in rats were investigated by liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to 3 groups: LST, LST+SA-B and LST+Tan IIA, and the main pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated after oral administration of LST, LST+SA-B and LST+Tan IIA. It was found that there are significant differences in the pharmacokinetic parameters among the three groups: Cmax, t1/2, AUC, AUMC in the LST+SA-B group was smaller than those in group LST, while larger in group LST+Tan IIA. Further, the effects of SA-B and Tan IIA on the metabolism of losartan was also investigated using rat liver microsomes in vitro. The results indicated that SA-B can induce the metabolism of LST, while Tan IIA can inhibit the metabolism of LST in rat liver microsomes in vitro by regulating activities of CYP450 enzymes. In addition, the effect of SA-B and Tan IIA on CYP3A4 and CYP2C9 expression was studied in Chang liver cells by western-blotting and Real-time PCR. It was concluded that the two components of Danshen, SA-B and Tan IIA have different influences on the metabolism of LST: SA-B can obviously speed up the metabolism of LST by inducing CYP3A4/CYP2C9 activities and expression, however, Tan IIA can slow down the metabolism of LST by inhibiting CYP3A4/CYP2C

  9. The isolation of minor-occurring furanocoumarins in grapefruit and analysis of their inhibition of cyp 3a4 and p-glycoprotein transport of talinolol from caco-2 cells

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of grapefruit juice on the disposition of certain prescription drugs in humans have been mainly attributed to the inhibition of intestinal cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP 3A4) by linear furanocoumarins. A number of the main furanocoumarins in grapefruit juice have been identified and analyzed ...

  10. Lactococcus lactis is an Efficient Expression System for Mammalian Membrane Proteins Involved in Liver Detoxification, CYP3A4, and MGST1.

    PubMed

    Bakari, Sana; Lembrouk, Mehdi; Sourd, Laura; Ousalem, Fares; André, François; Orlowski, Stéphane; Delaforge, Marcel; Frelet-Barrand, Annie

    2016-04-01

    Despite the great importance of human membrane proteins involved in detoxification mechanisms, their wide use for biochemical approaches is still hampered by several technical difficulties considering eukaryotic protein expression in order to obtain the large amounts of protein required for functional and/or structural studies. Lactococcus lactis has emerged recently as an alternative heterologous expression system to Escherichia coli for proteins that are difficult to express. The aim of this work was to check its ability to express mammalian membrane proteins involved in liver detoxification, i.e., CYP3A4 and two isoforms of MGST1 (rat and human). Genes were cloned using two different strategies, i.e., classical or Gateway-compatible cloning, and we checked the possible influence of two affinity tags (6×-His-tag and Strep-tag II). Interestingly, all proteins could be successfully expressed in L. lactis at higher yields than those previously obtained for these proteins with classical expression systems (E. coli, Saccharomyces cerevisiae) or those of other eukaryotic membrane proteins expressed in L. lactis. In addition, rMGST1 was fairly active after expression in L. lactis. This study highlights L. lactis as an attractive system for efficient expression of mammalian detoxification membrane proteins at levels compatible with further functional and structural studies. PMID:26961909

  11. RS-predictor: a new tool for predicting sites of cytochrome P450-mediated metabolism applied to CYP 3A4.

    PubMed

    Zaretzki, Jed; Bergeron, Charles; Rydberg, Patrik; Huang, Tao-wei; Bennett, Kristin P; Breneman, Curt M

    2011-07-25

    This article describes RegioSelectivity-Predictor (RS-Predictor), a new in silico method for generating predictive models of P450-mediated metabolism for drug-like compounds. Within this method, potential sites of metabolism (SOMs) are represented as "metabolophores": A concept that describes the hierarchical combination of topological and quantum chemical descriptors needed to represent the reactivity of potential metabolic reaction sites. RS-Predictor modeling involves the use of metabolophore descriptors together with multiple-instance ranking (MIRank) to generate an optimized descriptor weight vector that encodes regioselectivity trends across all cases in a training set. The resulting pathway-independent (O-dealkylation vs N-oxidation vs Csp(3) hydroxylation, etc.), isozyme-specific regioselectivity model may be used to predict potential metabolic liabilities. In the present work, cross-validated RS-Predictor models were generated for a set of 394 substrates of CYP 3A4 as a proof-of-principle for the method. Rank aggregation was then employed to merge independently generated predictions for each substrate into a single consensus prediction. The resulting consensus RS-Predictor models were shown to reliably identify at least one observed site of metabolism in the top two rank-positions on 78% of the substrates. Comparisons between RS-Predictor and previously described regioselectivity prediction methods reveal new insights into how in silico metabolite prediction methods should be compared. PMID:21528931

  12. RS-Predictor: A new tool for predicting sites of cytochrome P450-mediated metabolism applied to CYP 3A4

    PubMed Central

    Zaretzki, Jed; Bergeron, Charles; Rydberg, Patrik; Huang, Tao-wei; Bennett, Kristin P.; Breneman, Curt M.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes RegioSelectivity-Predictor (RS-Predictor), a new in silico method for generating predictive models of P450-mediated metabolism for drug-like compounds. Within this method, potential sites of metabolism (SOMs) are represented as “metabolophores”: A concept that describes the hierarchical combination of topological and quantum chemical descriptors needed to represent the reactivity of potential metabolic reaction sites. RS-Predictor modeling involves the use of metabolophore descriptors together with multiple-instance ranking (MIRank) to generate an optimized descriptor weight vector that encodes regioselectivity trends across all cases in a training set. The resulting pathway-independent,i isozyme-specific regioselectivity model may be used to predict potential metabolic liabilities. In the present work, cross-validated RS-Predictor models were generated for a set of 394 substrates of CYP 3A4 as a proof-of-principle for the method. Rank aggregation was then employed to merge independently generated predictions for each substrate into a single consensus prediction. The resulting consensus RS-Predictor models were shown to reliably identify at least one observed site of metabolism in the top two rank-positions on 78% of the substrates. Comparisons between RS-Predictor and previously described regioselectivity prediction methods reveal new insights into how in silico metabolite prediction methods should be compared. PMID:21528931

  13. Increases in CYP3A Expression and Glucocorticoid-Inducibility in Liver of Rats Fed Soy Protein Isolate (SPI) Involves Post-Transcriptional Effects on mRNA Processing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We analyzed a time course of dexamethasone (DEX)-induction at PND25 and PND60 in male and female rats fed soy protein isolate (SPI) or casein (CAS) based AIN93G diets throughout development to examine molecular mechanisms underlying increased CYP3A expression and inducibility after SPI-feeding. At ...

  14. Hyperconjugation with lone pair of morpholine nitrogen stabilizes transition state for phenyl hydroxylation in CYP3A4 metabolism of ( S)- N-[1-(3-morpholin-4-yl phenyl) ethyl]-3-phenylacrylamide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaikh, Abdul Rajjak; Broclawik, Ewa; Ismael, Mohamed; Tsuboi, Hideyuki; Koyama, Michihisa; Kubo, Momoji; Del Carpio, Carlos A.; Miyamoto, Akira

    2006-02-01

    Using quantum chemical modelling we describe a novel effect in the mechanism of CYP3A4 metabolism for the arene substrate with o-substituent yielding a lone pair donation to conjugate π system; this will compensate for the loss of aromaticity on formation of the tetrahedral complex and lower the rate-determining energy barrier.

  15. Building Structure Feature-based Models for Predicting Isoform-specific Human Cytochrome P-450 (hCYP 3A4, 2D6 and 2C9) Inhibition Assay Results in ToxCast

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA’s ToxCast project is using high-throughput screening (HTS) to profile and prioritize chemicals for further testing. ToxCast Phase I evaluated 309 unique chemicals, the majority pesticide actives, in over 500 HTS assays. These included 3 human cytochrome P450 (hCYP3A4, hCYP2...

  16. Optimization of a novel series of N-phenylindoline-5-sulfonamide-based acyl CoA:monoacylglycerol acyltransferase-2 inhibitors: Mitigation of CYP3A4 time-dependent inhibition and phototoxic liabilities.

    PubMed

    Sato, Kenjiro; Takahagi, Hiroki; Kubo, Osamu; Hidaka, Kousuke; Yoshikawa, Takeshi; Kamaura, Masahiro; Nakakariya, Masanori; Amano, Nobuyuki; Adachi, Ryutaro; Maki, Toshiyuki; Take, Kazumi; Takekawa, Shiro; Kitazaki, Tomoyuki; Maekawa, Tsuyoshi

    2015-08-01

    Acyl CoA:monoacylglycerol acyltransferase-2 (MGAT2) has emerged as a potential peripheral target for the treatment of obesity and metabolic disorders. We previously identified a novel series of N-phenylindoline-5-sulfonamide derivatives exemplified by 2 as potent and orally bioavailable MGAT2 inhibitors. Despite its attractive potency, further assessment revealed that this compound exhibited time-dependent inhibition (TDI) of cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4). To remove the undesirable CYP3A4 TDI activity, structural modification was focused on the 2,4-difluoroaniline moiety on the basis of the assumption that this moiety would be involved in mechanism-based inhibition of CYP3A4 via oxidative metabolism. This led to the finding that the introduction of 4-chloro-2,6-difluoroaniline significantly improved CYP3A4 TDI risk. Further optimization resulted in the discovery of N-(4-chloro-2,6-difluorophenyl)-1-{5-[1-methyl-3-(trifluoromethyl)-1H-pyrazol-5-yl]pyrimidin-2-yl}-7-(2-oxopyrrolidin-1-yl)-2,3-dihydro-1H-indole-5-sulfonamide (27c) with potent MGAT2 inhibitory activity (IC50=7.8 nM) and excellent ADME-Tox profiles including metabolic stability, oral bioavailability, and CYP3A4 TDI. In a mouse oral fat tolerance test, compound 27c effectively and dose-dependently suppressed the elevation of plasma triacylglycerol levels after oral administration at doses of 1 and 3mg/kg. We also discuss mitigation of the phototoxic liability of biaryl derivatives on the basis of the HOMO-LUMO gap hypothesis during the course of optimization efforts. PMID:26100443

  17. Studies on the Role of Metabolic Activation in Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor–Dependent Hepatotoxicity: Induction of CYP3A4 Enhances the Cytotoxicity of Lapatinib in HepaRG Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hardy, Klarissa D.; Wahlin, Michelle D.; Papageorgiou, Ioannis; Unadkat, Jashvant D.; Nelson, Sidney D.

    2014-01-01

    Idiosyncratic hepatotoxicity has been associated with the oral tyrosine kinase inhibitor lapatinib, which is used in metastatic breast cancer therapy. Lapatinib is extensively metabolized by cytochrome P450 3A4/5 to yield an O-debenzylated metabolite, which can undergo further oxidation to a reactive quinone imine. A recent clinical study reported that concomitant use of lapatinib with dexamethasone increased the incidence of hepatotoxicity in metastatic breast cancer patients treated with lapatinib, and so we hypothesized that induction of CYP3A enhances the bioactivation of lapatinib to reactive intermediates that contribute to hepatotoxicity. Therefore, we examined the effect of CYP3A4 induction on the cytotoxicity and metabolism of lapatinib in the HepaRG human hepatic cell line. Differentiated HepaRG cells were pretreated with dexamethasone (100 μM) or the prototypical CYP3A4 inducer rifampicin (4 μM) for 72 hours, followed by incubation with lapatinib (0–100 μM) for 24 hours. Cell viability was monitored using WST-1 assays, and metabolites were quantified by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. Induction of CYP3A4 by dexamethasone or rifampicin enhanced lapatinib-induced cytotoxicity, compared with treatment with lapatinib alone. A direct comparison of the cytotoxicity of lapatinib versus O-debenzylated lapatinib demonstrated that the O-debenzylated metabolite was significantly more cytotoxic than lapatinib itself. Furthermore, pretreatment with 25 μM l-buthionine sulfoximine to deplete intracellular glutathione markedly enhanced lapatinib cytotoxicity. Cytotoxicity was correlated with increased formation of O-debenzylated lapatinib and cysteine adducts of the putative quinone imine intermediate. Collectively, these data suggest that CYP3A4 induction potentiates lapatinib-induced hepatotoxicity via increased reactive metabolite formation. PMID:24191259

  18. Clinical CYP3A inhibitor alternatives to ketoconazole, clarithromycin and itraconazole, are not transported into the liver by hepatic organic anion transporting polypeptides and organic cation transporter 1.

    PubMed

    Higgins, J William; Ke, Alice B; Zamek-Gliszczynski, Maciej J

    2014-11-01

    Ketoconazole is no longer available for clinical determination of worst-case victim drug-drug interaction (DDI) potential for cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A)-substrate drugs; clarithromycin and itraconazole are the proposed replacements. Ketoconazole DDIs are described by unbound systemic exposures due to absence of carrier-facilitated hepatic uptake, but this aspect of clarithromycin and itraconazole disposition has not been investigated. At present, transport of clarithromycin, itraconazole, and hydroxyitraconazole by hepatic organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATPs) and organic cation transporter 1 (OCT1) was examined in vitro and in vivo. As for ketoconazole, uptake of clarithromycin, itraconazole, and hydroxyitraconazole into OATP1B1, OATP1B3, OATP2B1, and OCT1 expressing human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) cells was not greater than in vector controls. Uptake into these HEK293 cells and human hepatocytes was not impaired by the prototypical OATP, OCT, and sodium/taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide inhibitors bromosulfophthalein, imipramine, and taurocholate, respectively. In contrast, uptake of the positive controls, atorvastatin for OATPs and metformin for OCT1, was significantly enhanced by relevant transporter expression, and uptake into both these HEK293 cells and human hepatocytes was significantly impaired by prototypical inhibitors. In Oatp1a/1b gene cluster knockout mice, which lack the major hepatic Oatps, and in Oct1/2 knockout mice, ketoconazole, clarithromycin, itraconazole, and hydroxyitraconazole oral exposure was not increased, and the liver-to-blood partition coefficient (Kp) was not decreased. By contrast relative to wild-type mice, in Oatp1a/1b- and Oct1/2-knockout mice, atorvastatin and metformin oral exposure was significantly increased, and liver Kp was significantly decreased. The present studies provide in vitro and in vivo evidence that, like ketoconazole, clarithromycin, itraconazole, and hydroxyitraconazole are not transported

  19. Interaction between ALOX5AP and CYP3A5 gene variants significantly increases the risk for cerebral infarctions in Chinese.

    PubMed

    Chi, Li-Fen; Yi, Xing-Yang; Shao, Min-Jie; Lin, Jing; Zhou, Qiang

    2014-05-01

    In this study, we investigated associations between susceptibility genes and cerebral infarctions in a Chinese population, and whether gene-gene interactions increase the risk of cerebral infarctions. Overall, 292 patients with cerebral infarctions and 259 healthy control individuals were included. Eight variants in five candidate genes were examined for the risk of stroke, including the SG13S32 (rs9551963), SG13S42 (rs4769060), SG13S89 (rs4769874), and SG13S114 (rs10507391) variants of the 5-lipoxygenase activating protein (ALOX5AP) gene, the G860A (rs751141) variant of the soluble epoxide hydrolase (EPHX2) gene, the A1075C (rs1057910) variant of the CYP2C9*2 gene, the C430T (rs1799853) variant of the CYP2C9*3 gene, and the A6986G (rs776746) variant of the CYP3A5 gene. Gene-gene interactions were explored using generalized multifactor dimensionality reduction methods. There were no statistically significant differences in the frequencies of the genotypes of the eight candidate genes. The generalized multifactor dimensionality reduction analysis showed a significant gene-gene interaction between SG13S114 and A6986G, with scores of 10 for cross-validation consistency and 9 for the sign test (P=0.0107). These gene-gene interactions predicted a significantly higher risk of cerebral infarction (adjusted for age, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus; odds ratio=1.80495%, confidence interval: 1.180-2.759, P=0.006). A two-loci gene interaction confers a significantly higher risk for cerebral infarction. The combinational analysis used in this study may be helpful in the elucidation of genetic risk factors for common and complex diseases. PMID:24368493

  20. An ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric assay for quantifying 3-ketocholanoic acid: Application to the human liver microsomal CYP3A-dependent lithocholic acid 3-oxidation assay.

    PubMed

    Bansal, Sumit; Chai, Swee Fen; Lau, Aik Jiang

    2016-06-15

    Lithocholic acid (LCA), a hepatotoxic and carcinogenic bile acid, is metabolized to 3-ketocholanoic acid (3-KCA) by cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A). In the present study, the objectives were to develop and validate an ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric (UPLC-MS/MS) method to quantify 3-KCA and apply it to the human liver microsomal CYP3A-dependent LCA 3-oxidation assay. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a Waters ACQUITY™ UPLC C18 column (50×2.1mm, 1.7μm) with a gradient system consisting of 0.1% v/v formic acid in water (solvent A) and 0.1% v/v formic acid in acetonitrile (solvent B). The retention time was 3.73min for 3-KCA and 2.73min for cortisol (internal standard). Positive electrospray ionization with multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode was used to quantify 3-KCA (m/z 375.4→135.2) and cortisol (m/z 363.5→121.0). The limit of detection of 3-KCA was 10μM, the lower limit of quantification was 33.3μM, and the calibration curve was linear from 0.05-10μM with r(2)>0.99. Intra-day and inter-day accuracy and precision were <13.7%. The quality control samples were stable when assessed after 4h at room temperature, 24h at 4°C, 14days at -20°C, and three freeze-thaw cycles. The liver microsomal matrix did not affect 3-KCA quantification. The amount of KCA formed in the human liver microsomal LCA 3-oxidation assay was linear with respect to the amount of microsomal protein (up to 40μg) and incubation time (5-30min). Enzyme kinetics experiment indicated that LCA 3-oxidation followed the Michaelis-Menten model with an apparent Km of 26±7μM and Vmax of 303±50pmol/min/mg protein. This novel UPLC-MS/MS method for quantifying 3-KCA offers a specific, sensitive, and fast approach to determine liver microsomal LCA 3-oxidation. PMID:27153105

  1. Genetic variation at CYP3A is associated with age at menarche and breast cancer risk: a case-control study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction We have previously shown that a tag single nucleotide polymorphism (rs10235235), which maps to the CYP3A locus (7q22.1), was associated with a reduction in premenopausal urinary estrone glucuronide levels and a modest reduction in risk of breast cancer in women age ≤50 years. Methods We further investigated the association of rs10235235 with breast cancer risk in a large case control study of 47,346 cases and 47,570 controls from 52 studies participating in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium. Genotyping of rs10235235 was conducted using a custom Illumina Infinium array. Stratified analyses were conducted to determine whether this association was modified by age at diagnosis, ethnicity, age at menarche or tumor characteristics. Results We confirmed the association of rs10235235 with breast cancer risk for women of European ancestry but found no evidence that this association differed with age at diagnosis. Heterozygote and homozygote odds ratios (ORs) were OR = 0.98 (95% CI 0.94, 1.01; P = 0.2) and OR = 0.80 (95% CI 0.69, 0.93; P = 0.004), respectively (Ptrend = 0.02). There was no evidence of effect modification by tumor characteristics. rs10235235 was, however, associated with age at menarche in controls (Ptrend = 0.005) but not cases (Ptrend = 0.97). Consequently the association between rs10235235 and breast cancer risk differed according to age at menarche (Phet = 0.02); the rare allele of rs10235235 was associated with a reduction in breast cancer risk for women who had their menarche age ≥15 years (ORhet = 0.84, 95% CI 0.75, 0.94; ORhom = 0.81, 95% CI 0.51, 1.30; Ptrend = 0.002) but not for those who had their menarche age ≤11 years (ORhet = 1.06, 95% CI 0.95, 1.19, ORhom = 1.07, 95% CI 0.67, 1.72; Ptrend = 0.29). Conclusions To our knowledge rs10235235 is the first single nucleotide polymorphism to be associated with both breast cancer risk and age at menarche consistent with the well-documented association between later age at

  2. Role of genetic polymorphisms of CYP1A1, CYP3A5, CYP2C9, CYP2D6, and PON1 in the modulation of DNA damage in workers occupationally exposed to organophosphate pesticides

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Satyender; Kumar, Vivek; Vashisht, Kapil; Singh, Priyanka; Banerjee, Basu Dev; Rautela, Rajender Singh; Grover, Shyam Sunder; Rawat, Devendra Singh; Pasha, Syed Tazeen; Jain, Sudhir Kumar; Rai, Arvind

    2011-11-15

    Organophosphate pesticides (OPs) are primarily metabolized by several xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes (XMEs). Very few studies have explored genetic polymorphisms of XMEs and their association with DNA damage in pesticide-exposed workers. The present study was designed to determine the role of genetic polymorphisms of CYP1A1, CYP3A5, CYP2C9, CYP2D6, and PON1 in the modulation of DNA damage in workers occupationally exposed to OPs. We examined 284 subjects including 150 workers occupationally exposed to OPs and 134 normal healthy controls. The DNA damage was evaluated using the alkaline comet assay and genotyping was done using PCR-RFLP. The results revealed that the PONase activity toward paraoxonase and AChE activity was found significantly lowered in workers as compared to control subjects (p < 0.001). Workers showed significantly higher DNA damage compared to control subjects (14.37 {+-} 2.15 vs. 6.24 {+-} 1.37 tail% DNA, p < 0.001). Further, the workers with CYP2D6*3 PM and PON1 (QQ and MM) genotypes were found to have significantly higher DNA damage when compared to other genotypes (p < 0.05). In addition, significant increase in DNA damage was also observed in workers with concomitant presence of certain CYP2D6 and PON1 (Q192R and L55M) genotypes which need further extensive studies. In conclusion, the results indicate that the PON1 and CYP2D6 genotypes can modulate DNA damage elicited by some OPs possibly through gene-environment interactions. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Role of CYP1A1, CYP3A5, CYP2C, CYP2D6 and PON1 genotypes on DNA damage. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Workers exposed to some OPs demonstrated increased DNA damage. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CYP2D6 *3 PM and PON1 (Q192R and L55M) genotypes are associated with DNA damage. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Concomitant presence of certain CYP2D6 and PON1 genotypes can increase DNA damage.

  3. Pharmacokinetics of Lidocaine Hydrochloride Metabolized by CYP3A4 in Chinese Han Volunteers Living at Low Altitude and in Native Han and Tibetan Chinese Volunteers Living at High Altitude.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Juanling; Zhu, Junbo; Yao, Xingchen; Duan, Yabin; Zhou, Xuejiao; Yang, Meng; Li, Xiangyang

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the pharmacokinetics of lidocaine hydrochloride metabolized by cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) in Chinese Han volunteers living at low altitude (LA) and in native Han and Tibetan Chinese volunteers living at high altitude, lidocaine hydrochloride 10 mg was given by intramuscular injection to 3 groups: Han volunteers living at LA, and native Han and Tibetan volunteers living at a high altitude. Blood samples were collected before the (baseline) study drug was given and at 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0, 6.0, 8.0 h after study drug administration. Lidocaine hydrochloride in plasma was determined by RP-HPLC. Pharmacokinetics parameters of lidocaine hydrochloride showed that there were no significant difference between the native Han and Tibetan volunteers, but the t1/2 was 29.8 and 29.8% higher in 2 groups, respectively, than in the LA group. To study related mechanism, the effects of exposure to chronic high-altitude hypoxia (CHH) on the activity and expression of CYP3A1 were examined in rats. Rats were divided into LA, chronic moderate altitude hypoxia, and CHH groups. CHH caused significant decreases in the activity and protein and mRNA expression of rat CYP3A1 in vivo. This study found significant changes in the disposition of lidocaine hydrochloride in native healthy Tibetan and Han Chinese subjects living at a high altitude in comparison to healthy Han Chinese subjects living at LA, it might be due to significant decreases in the activity and protein and mRNA expression of CYP3A4 under CHH condition. PMID:26730802

  4. Effect of buffer conditions on CYP2C8-mediated paclitaxel 6α-hydroxylation and CYP3A4-mediated triazolam α- and 4-hydroxylation by human liver microsomes.

    PubMed

    Kudo, Toshiyuki; Ozaki, Yuya; Kusano, Tomomi; Hotta, Eri; Oya, Yuka; Komatsu, Seina; Goda, Hitomi; Ito, Kiyomi

    2016-01-01

    1. Buffer conditions in in vitro metabolism studies using human liver microsomes (HLM) have been reported to affect the metabolic activities of several cytochrome P450 (CYP) isozymes in different ways, although there are no reports about the dependence of CYP2C8 activity on buffer conditions. 2. The present study investigated the effect of buffer components (phosphate or Tris-HCl) and their concentration (10-200 mM) on the CYP2C8 and CYP3A4 activities of HLM, using paclitaxel and triazolam, respectively, as marker substrates. 3. The Km (or S50) and Vmax values for both paclitaxel 6α-hydroxylation and triazolam α- and 4-hydroxylation, estimated by fitting analyses based on the Michaelis-Menten or Hill equation, greatly depended on the buffer components and their concentration. 4. The CLint values in phosphate buffer were 1.2-3.0-fold (paclitaxel) or 3.1-6.4-fold (triazolam) higher than in Tris-HCl buffer at 50-100 mM. These values also depended on the buffer concentration, with a maximum 2.3-fold difference observed between 50 and 100 mM which are both commonly used in drug metabolism studies. 5. These findings suggest the necessity for optimization of the buffer conditions in the quantitative evaluation of metabolic clearances, such as in vitro-in vivo extrapolation and also estimating the contribution of a particular enzyme in drug metabolism. PMID:26290405

  5. In Silico Predictions and In Vivo Results of Drug-Drug Interactions by Ketoconazole and Verapamil on AZD1305, a Combined Ion Channel Blocker and a Sensitive CYP3A4 Substrate.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Susanne; Löfberg, Boel; Aunes, Maria; Lunde, Helen; Frison, Lars; Edvardsson, Nils; Cullberg, Marie

    2016-09-01

    The objectives were to estimate and compare, in silico and in vivo, the effects of a strong and a moderate CYP3A4 inhibitor on AZD1305 pharmacokinetics. In silico, simulations were performed with the computer software Simcyp, and the predicted outcome was compared with the results observed in healthy male subjects. In silico, the geometric mean plasma exposure of AZD1305 + ketoconazole showed a 7.1-fold higher AUC and a 4.4-fold higher Cmax compared with AZD1305 alone. Coadministration with verapamil gave a 1.9-fold higher AUC and a 1.7-fold higher Cmax compared with AZD1305 alone. In vivo, the plasma exposure of AZD1305 + ketoconazole showed a 7.7-fold higher AUC and a 4.8 -fold higher Cmax compared with AZD1305 alone. Coadministration with verapamil gave a 2.2-fold higher AUC and a 2.0-fold higher Cmax compared with AZD1305 alone. The mean maximum QTcF increase from baseline was 407, 487, and 437 milliseconds for AZD1305, alone and in combination with verapamil or ketoconazole, respectively. Simcyp predicted the effects of ketoconazole and verapamil on the sensitive CYP3A4 substrate AZD1305 pharmacokinetics well. Both the in vivo study and the Simcyp predictions suggest a contraindication for strong CYP3A4 inhibitors and AZD1305 when given in combination. PMID:27627192

  6. Studies on the interactions between drugs and estrogen: analytical method for prediction system of gynecomastia induced by drugs on the inhibitory metabolism of estradiol using Escherichia coli coexpressing human CYP3A4 with human NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase.

    PubMed

    Satoh, T; Fujita, K I; Munakata, H; Itoh, S; Nakamura, K; Kamataki, T; Itoh, S; Yoshizawa, I

    2000-11-15

    To establish a prediction system for drug-induced gynecomastia in clinical fields, a model reaction system was developed to explain numerically this side effect. The principle is based on the assumption that 50% inhibition concentration (IC(50)) of drugs on the in vitro metabolism of estradiol (E2) to its major product 2-hydroxyestradiol (2-OH-E2) can be regarded as the index for achieving this purpose. By using human cytochrome P450s coexpressed with human NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase in Escherichia coli as the enzyme, the reaction was examined. Among the nine enzymes (CYP1A1, 1A2, 2A6, 2C8, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6, 2E1, and 3A4) tested, CYP3A4 having a V(max)/K(m) (ml/min/nmol P450) value of 0.32 for production of 2-OH-E2 was shown to be the most suitable enzyme as the reagent. The inhibitory effects of ketoconazole, cyclosporin A, and cimetidine toward the 2-hydroxylation of E2 catalyzed by CYP3A4 were obtained, and their IC(50) values were 7 nM, 64 nM, and 290 microM, respectively. The present results suggest that IC(50) values thus obtained can be substituted as the prediction index for gynecomastia induced by drugs, considering the patients' individual information. PMID:11067738

  7. Role of genetic polymorphisms of CYP1A1, CYP3A5, CYP2C9, CYP2D6, and PON1 in the modulation of DNA damage in workers occupationally exposed to organophosphate pesticides.

    PubMed

    Singh, Satyender; Kumar, Vivek; Vashisht, Kapil; Singh, Priyanka; Banerjee, Basu Dev; Rautela, Rajender Singh; Grover, Shyam Sunder; Rawat, Devendra Singh; Pasha, Syed Tazeen; Jain, Sudhir Kumar; Rai, Arvind

    2011-11-15

    Organophosphate pesticides (OPs) are primarily metabolized by several xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes (XMEs). Very few studies have explored genetic polymorphisms of XMEs and their association with DNA damage in pesticide-exposed workers. The present study was designed to determine the role of genetic polymorphisms of CYP1A1, CYP3A5, CYP2C9, CYP2D6, and PON1 in the modulation of DNA damage in workers occupationally exposed to OPs. We examined 284 subjects including 150 workers occupationally exposed to OPs and 134 normal healthy controls. The DNA damage was evaluated using the alkaline comet assay and genotyping was done using PCR-RFLP. The results revealed that the PONase activity toward paraoxonase and AChE activity was found significantly lowered in workers as compared to control subjects (p<0.001). Workers showed significantly higher DNA damage compared to control subjects (14.37±2.15 vs. 6.24±1.37 tail% DNA, p<0.001). Further, the workers with CYP2D6*3PM and PON1 (QQ and MM) genotypes were found to have significantly higher DNA damage when compared to other genotypes (p<0.05). In addition, significant increase in DNA damage was also observed in workers with concomitant presence of certain CYP2D6 and PON1 (Q192R and L55M) genotypes which need further extensive studies. In conclusion, the results indicate that the PON1 and CYP2D6 genotypes can modulate DNA damage elicited by some OPs possibly through gene-environment interactions. PMID:21907728

  8. Effects of poloxamer 407-induced hyperlipidemia on the pharmacokinetics of carbamazepine and its 10,11-epoxide metabolite in rats: Impact of decreased expression of both CYP3A1/2 and microsomal epoxide hydrolase.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young Sun; Kim, Young Woo; Kim, Sang Geon; Lee, Inchul; Lee, Myung Gull; Kang, Hee Eun

    2012-06-01

    The pharmacokinetics of carbamazepine (CBZ) and its active 10,11-epoxide metabolite (CBZ-E) were evaluated after intravenous and oral administration of 5 mg/kg CBZ to rats with hyperlipidemia induced by poloxamer 407 (HL rats) and controls. The total area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) of CBZ in HL rats after intravenous administration was significantly greater than that in controls due to their slower non-renal clearance (CL(NR)). This was due to slower hepatic CL(int) for metabolism of CBZ to CBZ-E in HL rats via CYP3A1/2. This result was consistent with a previous study indicating reduced hepatic CYP3A1/2 expression in HL rats. Interestingly, the AUC of CBZ-E was also increased in HL rats, while AUC(CBZ-E)/AUC(CBZ) ratios remained unchanged. These results suggested that further metabolism of CBZ-E to the inactive metabolite trans-10,11-dihydoxyl-10,11-dihydro-CBZ (CBZ-D) via microsomal epoxide hydrolase (mEH) was also slowed in HL rats. The significantly reduced hepatic mRNA level and expression of mEH protein in HL rats compared to controls confirmed the above hypothesis. Similar pharmacokinetic changes were observed in HL rats after oral administration of CBZ. These findings have potential therapeutic implications assuming that the HL rat model qualitatively reflects similar changes in patients with hyperlipidemia. Caution is required regarding pharmacotherapy in the hyperlipidemic state in cases where drugs that are metabolized principally by CYP3A1/2 or mEH and have a narrow therapeutic range are in use. PMID:22137858

  9. The Effect of Ritonavir on Human CYP2B6 Catalytic Activity: Heme Modification Contributes to the Mechanism-Based Inactivation of CYP2B6 and CYP3A4 by Ritonavir

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Hsia-lien; D’Agostino, Jaime; Kenaan, Cesar; Calinski, Diane

    2013-01-01

    The mechanism-based inactivation of human CYP2B6 by ritonavir (RTV) in a reconstituted system was investigated. The inactivation is time, concentration, and NADPH dependent and exhibits a KI of 0.9 μM, a kinact of 0.05 min−1, and a partition ratio of approximately 3. Liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis showed that the protonated molecular ion of RTV exhibits an m/z at 721 and its two major metabolites are an oxidation product with MH+ at m/z 737 and a deacylated product with MH+ at m/z 580. Inactivation of CYP2B6 by incubation with 10 μM RTV for 10 min resulted in an approximately 50% loss of catalytic activity and native heme, but no modification of the apoprotein was observed. RTV was found to be a potent mixed-type reversible inhibitor (Ki = 0.33 μM) and a type II ligand (spectral dissociation constant-Ks = 0.85 μM) of CYP2B6. Although previous studies have demonstrated that RTV is a potent mechanism-based inactivator of CYP3A4, the molecular mechanism responsible for the inactivation has not been determined. Here, we provide evidence that RTV inactivation of CYP3A4 is due to heme destruction with the formation of a heme-protein adduct. Similar to CYP2B6, there is no significant modification of the apoprotein. Furthermore, LC-MS/MS analysis revealed that both CYP3A4 and human liver microsomes form an RTV-glutathione conjugate having a MH+ at m/z 858 during metabolism of RTV, suggesting the formation of an isocyanate intermediate leading to formation of the conjugate. PMID:23886699

  10. Interaction between udenafil and tamsulosin in rats: non-competitive inhibition of tamsulosin metabolism by udenafil via hepatic CYP3A1/2

    PubMed Central

    Kang, HE; Bae, SK; Yoo, M; Lee, DC; Kim, YG; Lee, MG

    2009-01-01

    Background and purpose: Orthostatic hypotension has been observed when PDE 5 (cGMP-specific phosphodiesterase type 5) inhibitors are co-administered with α-adrenoceptor antagonists. Here we assessed the pharmacokinetic and haemodynamic interactions between udenafil and tamsulosin in rats, as both drugs are metabolized via rat hepatic cytochrome P450 3A1/2. Experimental approach: Interactions between the two drugs were evaluated in rats after simultaneous 1 or 15 min i.v. infusion or after p.o. administration of udenafil (30 mg·kg−1) and/or tamsulosin (1 mg·kg−1). In vitro metabolism of tamsulosin with udenafil was measured to obtain the inhibition constant (Ki) and [I]/Ki ratio of udenafil. Key results: The total area under the plasma concentration–time curve from time zero to time infinity (AUC)s (or AUC0–4h) of tamsulosin were significantly greater after 15 min of i.v. infusion or after oral administration with udenafil, compared with tamsulosin alone. The hepatic first-pass metabolism of tamsulosin was inhibited by udenafil, and the inhibition in vitro was in a non-competitive mode. The arterial systolic blood pressure was significantly lower at 5, 10 and 60 min after oral co-administration of the drugs. Conclusions and implications: The significantly greater AUC of tamsulosin after i.v. and p.o. administration of both drugs may be attributable to non-competitive inhibition of cytochrome P450 3A1/2-mediated hepatic tamsulosin metabolism by udenafil. The inhibition was also observed in human liver S9 fractions, suggesting that a reassessment of the oral dosage of tamsulosin is necessary when udenafil and tamsulosin are co-administered to patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia. PMID:19254278

  11. Effect of coadministration of ketoconazole, a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor, on pharmacokinetics and tolerability of motesanib diphosphate (AMG 706) in patients with advanced solid tumors.

    PubMed

    Lorusso, Patricia; Heath, Elisabeth I; McGreivy, Jesse; Sun, Yu-Nien; Melara, Rebeca; Yan, Lucy; Malburg, Lisa; Ingram, Megan; Wiezorek, Jeffrey; Chen, Li; Pilat, Mary Jo

    2008-10-01

    Motesanib diphosphate is a novel angiogenesis inhibitor selectively targeting vascular endothelial growth factor receptors 1, 2, and 3; platelet-derived growth factor receptor and stem cell factor receptor. The purpose of this phase 1b, drug-drug interaction study was to investigate the effect of ketoconazole, a strong inhibitor of the cytochrome P450 3A4 isoenzyme, on the pharmacokinetics and tolerability of motesanib diphosphate. Fourteen patients with advanced solid tumors refractory to standard treatment were enrolled and received motesanib diphosphate 50 mg once daily from day 1 through 15. Patients were randomized to receive a single oral dose of ketoconazole 400 mg either on day 8 (Sequence 1; n = 7) or day 15 (Sequence 2; n = 7), while pharmacokinetic samples were collected. After completion of this part (day 16), 13 patients received an escalated once-daily dose of motesanib diphosphate 125 mg. Evaluable pharmacokinetic data (n = 12) suggest that ketoconazole modestly increased motesanib exposure. The motesanib area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) from 0 to 24 h increased by 86% (90% CI, 1.50-2.29; P < 0.001) and the maximum plasma concentration (C (max)) by 35% (90% CI, 1.12-1.64; P = 0.02), compared with motesanib diphosphate administration alone. The tolerability profile (with or without ketoconazole coadministration) was consistent with that from other motesanib diphosphate monotherapy studies. Treatment-related adverse events were mild to moderate and commonly included fatigue (50% of patients), hypertension (43%), diarrhea (21%), dizziness (14%), paresthesia (14%), and vomiting (14%). Hypertension was the most common related grade 3 event (21%). No grade 4 or 5 treatment-related adverse events occurred. PMID:18574557

  12. Effect of CYP3A-inducing anti-epileptics on sorafenib exposure: results of a phase II study of sorafenib plus daily temozolomide in adults with recurrent glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Vredenburgh, James J.; Desjardins, Annick; Peters, Katherine; Gururangan, Sridharan; Sampson, John H.; Marcello, Jennifer; Herndon, James E.; McLendon, Roger E.; Janney, Dorothea; Friedman, Allan H.; Bigner, Darell D.; Friedman, Henry S.

    2011-01-01

    Sorafenib, an oral VEGFR-2, Raf, PDGFR, c-KIT and Flt-3 inhibitor, is active against renal cell and hepatocellular carcinomas, and has recently demonstrated promising activity for lung and breast cancers. In addition, various protracted temozolomide dosing schedules have been evaluated as a strategy to further enhance its anti-tumor activity. We reasoned that sorafenib and protracted, daily temozolomide may provide complementary therapeutic benefit, and therefore performed a phase 2 trial among recurrent glioblastoma patients. Adult glioblastoma patients at any recurrence after standard temozolomide chemoradiotherapy received sorafenib (400 mg twice daily) and continuous daily temozolomide (50 mg/m2/day). Assessments were performed every eight weeks. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival at 6 months (PFS-6) and secondary end points were radiographic response, overall survival (OS), safety and sorafenib pharmacokinetics. Of 32 enrolled patients, 12 (38%) were on CYP3-A inducing anti-epileptics (EIAEDs), 17 (53%) had 2 or more prior progressions, 15 had progressed while receiving 5-day temozolomide, and 12 (38%) had failed either prior bevacizumab or VEGFR inhibitor therapy. The most common grade ≥ 3 toxicities were palmer-planter erythrodysesthesia (19%) and elevated amylase/lipase (13%). Sorafenib pharmacokinetic exposures were comparable on day 1 regardless of EIAED status, but significantly lower on day 28 for patients on EIAEDs (P = 0.0431). With a median follow-up of 93 weeks, PFS-6 was 9.4%. Only one patient (3%) achieved a partial response. In conclusion, sorafenib can be safely administered with daily temozolomide, but this regimen has limited activity for recurrent GBM. Co-administration of EIAEDs can lower sorafenib exposures in this population. PMID:20443129

  13. The effects of H2S on the activities of CYP2B6, CYP2D6, CYP3A4, CYP2C19 and CYP2C9 in vivo in rat.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xianqin; Han, Anyue; Wen, Congcong; Chen, Mengchun; Chen, Xinxin; Yang, Xuezhi; Ma, Jianshe; Lin, Guanyang

    2013-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a colorless, flammable, extremely hazardous gas with a "rotten egg" smell. The human body produces small amounts of H2S and uses it as a signaling molecule. The cocktail method was used to evaluate the influence of H2S on the activities of CYP450 in rats, which were reflected by the changes of pharmacokinetic parameters of five specific probe drugs: bupropion, metroprolol, midazolam, omeprazole and tolbutamide, respectively. The rats were randomly divided into two groups, control group and H2S group. The H2S group rats were given 5 mg/kg NaHS by oral administration once a day for seven days. The mixture of five probes was given to rats through oral administration and the blood samples were obtained at a series of time-points through the caudal vein. The concentrations of probe drugs in rat plasma were measured by LC-MS. In comparing the H2S group with the control group, there was a statistically pharmacokinetics difference for midazolam and tolbutamide; the area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) was decreased for midazolam (p < 0.05) and increased for tolbutamide (p < 0.05); while there was no statistical pharmacokinetics difference for bupropion, metroprolol and omeprazole. H2S could not influence the activities of CYP2B6, CYP2D6 and CYP2C19 in rats, while H2S could induce the activity of CYP3A4 and inhibit the activity of CYP2C9 in rats. PMID:24336065

  14. The Effects of H2S on the Activities of CYP2B6, CYP2D6, CYP3A4, CYP2C19 and CYP2C9 in Vivo in Rat

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xianqin; Han, Anyue; Wen, Congcong; Chen, Mengchun; Chen, Xinxin; Yang, Xuezhi; Ma, Jianshe; Lin, Guanyang

    2013-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a colorless, flammable, extremely hazardous gas with a “rotten egg” smell. The human body produces small amounts of H2S and uses it as a signaling molecule. The cocktail method was used to evaluate the influence of H2S on the activities of CYP450 in rats, which were reflected by the changes of pharmacokinetic parameters of five specific probe drugs: bupropion, metroprolol, midazolam, omeprazole and tolbutamide, respectively. The rats were randomly divided into two groups, control group and H2S group. The H2S group rats were given 5 mg/kg NaHS by oral administration once a day for seven days. The mixture of five probes was given to rats through oral administration and the blood samples were obtained at a series of time-points through the caudal vein. The concentrations of probe drugs in rat plasma were measured by LC-MS. In comparing the H2S group with the control group, there was a statistically pharmacokinetics difference for midazolam and tolbutamide; the area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) was decreased for midazolam (p < 0.05) and increased for tolbutamide (p < 0.05); while there was no statistical pharmacokinetics difference for bupropion, metroprolol and omeprazole. H2S could not influence the activities of CYP2B6, CYP2D6 and CYP2C19 in rats, while H2S could induce the activity of CYP3A4 and inhibit the activity of CYP2C9 in rats. PMID:24336065

  15. Genetic polymorphisms of the drug-metabolizing enzyme cytochrome P450 3A5 in a Uyghur Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhengshuai; Li, Jingjie; Chen, Peng; Wang, Fengjiao; Zhang, Ning; Yang, Min; Jin, Tianbo; Chen, Chao

    2016-09-01

    1.  Detection of CYP3A5 variant alleles, and knowledge about their allelic frequency in Uyghur ethnic groups, is important to establish the clinical relevance of screening for these polymorphisms to optimize pharmacotherapy. 2. We used DNA sequencing to investigate the promoter, exons and surrounding introns, and 3'-untranslated region of the CYP3A5 gene in 96 unrelated healthy Uyghur individuals. We also used SIFT and PolyPhen-2 to predict the protein function of the novel non-synonymous mutation in CYP3A5 coding regions. 3. We found 24 different CYP3A5 polymorphisms in the Uyghur population, three of which were novel: the synonymous mutation 43C > T in exon 1, two mutations 32120C > G and 32245T > C in 3'-untranslated region, and we detected the allele frequencies of CYP3A5*1 and *3 as 64.58% and 35.42%, respectively. While no subjects with CYP3A5*6 were identified. Other identified genotypes included the heterozygous genotype 1A/3A (59.38%) and 1A/3E (11.46%), which lead to decreased enzyme activity. In addition, the frequency of haplotype "TTAGGT" was the most prevalent with 0.781. 4. Our data provide new information regarding CYP3A5 genetic polymorphisms in Uyghur individuals, which may help to improve individualization of drug therapy and offer a preliminary basis for more rational use of drugs. PMID:26739429

  16. Genetic variation in the 3′-UTR of CYP1A2, CYP2B6, CYP2D6, CYP3A4, NR1I2, and UGT2B7: potential effects on regulation by microRNA and pharmacogenomics relevance

    PubMed Central

    Swart, Marelize; Dandara, Collet

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Pharmacogenomics research has concentrated on variation in genes coding for drug metabolizing enzymes, transporters and nuclear receptors. However, variation affecting microRNA could also play a role in drug response. This project set out to investigate potential microRNA target sites in 11 genes and the extent of variation in the 3′-UTR of six selected genes; CYP1A2, CYP2B6, CYP2D6, CYP3A4, NR1I2, and UGT2B7. Methods: Fifteen microRNA target prediction algorithms were used to identify microRNAs predicted to regulate 11 genes. The 3′-UTR of the 6 genes which topped the list of potential microRNA targets was sequenced in 30 black South Africans. In addition, genetic variants within these genes were investigated for interference with mRNA-microRNA interactions. Potential effects of observed variants were determined using in silico prediction tools. Results: The 11 genes coding for DMEs, transporters and nuclear receptors were predicted to be targets of microRNAs with CYP2B6, NR1I2 (PXR), CYP3A4, and CYP1A2, interacting with the most microRNAs. The majority of identified genetic variants were predicted to interfere with microRNA regulation. For example, the variant, rs1054190C in NR1I2 was predicted to result in the presence of a binding site for the microRNA miR-1250-5p, while the variant rs1054191G was predicted to result in the absence of a recognition site for miR-371b-3p, miR-4258 and miR-4707-3p. Fifteen of the seventeen, novel variants occurred within microRNA target sequences. Conclusion: The 3′-UTR harbors variation that is likely to influence regulation of specific genes by microRNA. In silico prediction followed by functional validation could aid in decoding the contribution of variation in the 3′-UTR, to some unexplained heritability that affects drug response. Understanding the specific role of each microRNA may lead to identification of markers for targeted therapy and therefore improve personalized drug treatment. PMID:24926315

  17. Inactivation of Human Cytochrome P450 3A4 and 3A5 by Dronedarone and N-Desbutyl Dronedarone.

    PubMed

    Hong, Yanjun; Chia, Yvonne Mei Fen; Yeo, Ray Hng; Venkatesan, Gopalakrishnan; Koh, Siew Kwan; Chai, Christina Li Lin; Zhou, Lei; Kojodjojo, Pipin; Chan, Eric Chun Yong

    2016-01-01

    Dronedarone is an antiarrhythmic agent approved in 2009 for the treatment of atrial fibrillation. An in-house preliminary study demonstrated that dronedarone inhibits cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 and 3A5 in a time-dependent manner. This study aimed to investigate the inactivation of CYP450 by dronedarone. We demonstrated for the first time that both dronedarone and its main metabolite N-desbutyl dronedarone (NDBD) inactivate CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 in a time-, concentration-, and NADPH-dependent manner. For the inactivation of CYP3A4, the inactivator concentration at the half-maximum rate of inactivation and inactivation rate constant at an infinite inactivator concentration are 0.87 µM and 0.039 minute(-1), respectively, for dronedarone, and 6.24 µM and 0.099 minute(-1), respectively, for NDBD. For CYP3A5 inactivation, the inactivator concentration at the half-maximum rate of inactivation and inactivation rate constant at an infinite inactivator concentration are 2.19 µM and 0.0056 minute(-1) for dronedarone and 5.45 µM and 0.056 minute(-1) for NDBD. The partition ratios for the inactivation of CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 by dronedarone are 51.1 and 32.2, and the partition ratios for the inactivation of CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 by NDBD are 35.3 and 36.6. Testosterone protected both CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 from inactivation by dronedarone and NDBD. Although the presence of Soret peak confirmed the formation of a quasi-irreversible metabolite-intermediate complex between dronedarone/NDBD and CYP3A4/CYP3A5, partial recovery of enzyme activity by potassium ferricyanide illuminated an alternative irreversible mechanism-based inactivation (MBI). MBI of CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 was further supported by the discovery of glutathione adducts derived from the quinone oxime intermediates of dronedarone and NDBD. In conclusion, dronedarone and NDBD inactivate CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 via unique dual mechanisms of MBI and formation of the metabolite-intermediate complex. Our novel findings contribute new knowledge for

  18. In vitro inhibition of cytochrome P450 3A4 by Aronia melanocarpa constituents.

    PubMed

    Bräunlich, Marie; Christensen, Hege; Johannesen, Siri; Slimestad, Rune; Wangensteen, Helle; Malterud, Karl E; Barsett, Hilde

    2013-01-01

    Extracts, subfractions, isolated anthocyanins and procyanidins, and two phenolic acids from aronia [Aronia melanocarpa] were investigated for their CYP3A4 inhibitory effects, using midazolam as the probe substrate and recombinant insect cell microsomes expressing CYP3A4 as the enzyme source. Procyanidin B5 was a considerably stronger CYP3A4 inhibitor in vitro than the isomeric procyanidin B2 and comparable to bergamottin, a known CYP3A4 inhibitor from grapefruit juice. The inhibitory activity of proanthocyanidin-containing fractions was correlated to the degree of polymerization. Among the anthocyanins, cyanidin 3-arabinoside showed stronger CYP3A4 inhibition than cyanidin 3-galactoside and cyanidin 3-glucoside. Thus, the ability to inhibit CYP3A4 in vitro seems to be influenced by the sugar unit linked to the anthocyanidin. PMID:23250807

  19. Explication of Definitional Description and Empirical Use of Fraction of Orally Administered Drugs Absorbed From the Intestine (Fa) and Intestinal Availability (Fg): Effect of P-glycoprotein and CYP3A on Fa and Fg.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Yuta; Kitamura, Yoshiaki; Maeda, Kazuya; Sugiyama, Yuichi

    2016-02-01

    Conventionally, it is believed that the fraction of orally administered drugs absorbed from the intestine (Fa) and intestinal availability (Fg) are independently determined by the apical membrane permeation and intestinal metabolism, respectively. However, the validity of this belief has not been well discussed, and Fa and Fg are often used without careful definition. In this review, Fa and Fg are mathematically described based on their definitions under the linear kinetics of metabolism and transport. Even considering with different models, intestinal metabolic enzymes such as cytochrome P450 3A affected both Fa and Fg, whereas apical efflux transporters including P-glycoprotein had no influence on Fg at least under the linear condition. To determine whether Fa and Fg calculated using different clinical methods are identical, empirical Fa and Fg were mathematically described based on "feces method" and "grapefruit juice method" and compared with their definitions. Fa and Fg obtained by the feces method corresponded with their definitions whereas the grapefruit juice method provided smaller Fa and larger Fg particularly for dual substrates of P-glycoprotein and cytochrome P450 3A with low membrane permeability. Our analyses suggest that the definitions and calculation methods of Fa and Fg should be considered when we intend to separately determine these values. PMID:26869410

  20. Factors affecting the clinical development of cytochrome p450 3A substrates.

    PubMed

    Gibbs, Megan A; Hosea, Natilie A

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this review is to evaluate the risks associated with the discovery and development of cytochrome p450 (CYP) 3A substrates. CYP3A is the most abundant p450 enzyme in human liver and is highly expressed in the intestinal tract. The enzyme contributes substantially to metabolism of approximately 50% of currently marketed drugs that undergo oxidative metabolism. As a result, drug-drug interactions involving inhibitors of CYP3A-mediated metabolism can be of great clinical consequence. It is the position of the authors that, because of the factors responsible for the broad substrate specificity of CYP3A, discovery and development of compounds across a large and broad portfolio that are completely devoid of CYP3A metabolism is not feasible. Thus, it is important that scientifically valid approaches to the discovery and development of compounds metabolised by CYP3A be realised. The clinical relevance of CYP3A metabolism is dependent on a multitude of factors that include the degree of intestinal and hepatic CYP3A-mediated first-pass extraction, the therapeutic index of the compound and the adverse event associated with inhibition of CYP3A metabolism. Thus, a better understanding of the disposition of a CYP3A-metabolised compound relative to the projected or observed therapeutic index (or safety margin) can provide ample evidence to support the continued development of a CYP3A substrate. This document will highlight current practices as well as the benefits and risks associated with those practices. PMID:12908853

  1. Hill Parameters and Heterogeneity of alpha-Naphthoflavone Binding to Human Cytochrome P450 3A4 by Fluorescence Spectroscopic Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, Benjamin; Marsch, Glenn; Martin, Martha; Guengerich, F. Peter

    2009-03-01

    Human cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP 3A4) is an alpha-helical membrane-bound protein that metabolizes approximately 50% of all drugs. The interaction between CYP450 3A4 and alpha-naphthoflavone (ANF) was characterized using fluorescence methods. ANF quenched fluorescence from tryptophan residues in CYP 3A4, and CYP 3A4 quenched bound ANF. The ANF emission energy was unchanged upon binding to CYP 3A4, implying that enzyme-bound 3A4 is completely quenched. Fluorescence difference spectra were fit to the Hill equation by varying the parameters Kd and n. For quenching of tryptophan fluorescence by ANF, no significant sigmoidal behavior was observed with n=1, and the spectral dissociation constant revealed a strong ANF-CYP 3A4 interaction with Kd=27nM. Modest cooperativity and very tight binding was observed in the quenching of ANF by CYP 3A4, with n=1.4 and Kd= 4.9nM. Fluorescence polarization anisotropy decreased at low ANF/CYP 3A4 molar ratios; then increased at higher ratios. Compared to substrate-free CYP 3A4, adding substrate at low molar ratios increases the CYP 3A4 rotation, suggesting the molecular volume decreases.

  2. Experimental approaches to evaluate activities of cytochromes P450 3A

    PubMed Central

    Bořek-Dohalská, Lucie; Hodek, Petr; Hudeček, Jiří; Stiborová, Marie

    2008-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 (CYP) is a heme protein oxidizing various xenobiotics, as well as endogenous substrates. Understanding which CYP enzymes are involved in metabolic activation and/or detoxication of different compounds is important in the assessment of an individual's susceptibility to the toxic action of these substances. Therefore, investigation which of several in vitro experimental models are appropriate to mimic metabolism of xenobiotics in organisms is the major challenge for research of many laboratories. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of different in vitro systems containing individual enzymes of the mixed-function monooxygenase system to oxidize two model substrates of CYP3A enzymes, exogenous and endogenous compounds, α-naphtoflavone (α-NF) and testosterone, respectively. Several different enzymatic systems containing CYP3A enzymes were utilized in the study: (i) human hepatic microsomes rich in CYP3A4, (ii) hepatic microsomes of rabbits treated with a CYP3A6 inducer, rifampicine, (iii) microsomes of Baculovirus transfected insect cells containing recombinant human CYP3A4 and NADPH:CYP reductase with or without cytochrome b5 (Supersomes™), (iv) membranes isolated from of Escherichia coli, containing recombinant human CYP3A4 and cytochrome b5, and (v) purified human CYP3A4 or rabbit CYP3A6 reconstituted with NADPH:CYP reductase with or without cytochrome b5 in liposomes. The most efficient systems oxidizing both compounds were Supersomes™ containing human CYP3A4 and cytochrome b5. The results presented in this study demonstrate the suitability of the supersomal CYP3A4 systems for studies investigating oxidation of testosterone and α-NF in vitro. PMID:21218106

  3. CYP2C8- and CYP3A-mediated C-demethylation of (3-{[(4-tert-butylbenzyl)-(pyridine-3-sulfonyl)-amino]-methyl}-phenoxy)-acetic acid (CP-533,536), an EP2 receptor-selective prostaglandin E2 agonist: characterization of metabolites by high-resolution liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry-nuclear magnetic resonance.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Chandra; Wang, Weiwei; O'Connell, Thomas; Johnson, Kim A

    2008-10-01

    CP-533,536, (3-{[(4-tert-butyl-benzyl)-(pyridine-3-sulfonyl)-amino]-methyl}-phenoxy)-acetic acid (1), an EP2 receptor-selective prostaglandin E2 agonist, is being developed to aid in the healing of bone fractures. To support the development of this program, in vitro metabolism of 1 was investigated in human liver microsomes and major recombinant human cytochrome P450 (P450) isoforms. 1 was metabolized in vitro by at least three recombinant human P450s: CYP3A4, CYP3A5, and CYP2C8. The turnover of 1 was NADPH-dependent and was completely inhibited by ketoconazole and quercetin in the CYP3A4/5 and CYP2C8 incubations, respectively. The major metabolic pathways were caused by oxidation of the tert-butyl moiety to form the omega-hydroxy metabolite (M4), oxidation of the pyridine moiety, and/or N-dealkylation of the methylphenoxy acetic acid moiety. The alcohol metabolite M4 was further oxidized to the corresponding carboxylic acid M3. In addition to these pathways, three unusual metabolites (M22, M23, and M26) resulting from C-demethylation of the tert-butyl group were identified using high-resolution liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry/NMR. The C-demethylated metabolites were not detected on incubation of carboxylic acid metabolite M3 with either human liver microsomes or CYP3A/2C8 isoforms, suggesting that these metabolites were not derived from decarboxylation of M3. A possible mechanism for C-demethylation may involve the oxidation of M4 to form an aldehyde metabolite (M24), followed by P450-mediated deformylation, to give an unstable carbon-centered radical and formic acid. The carbon-centered radical intermediate then undergoes either oxygen rebound to form an alcohol metabolite M23 or hydrogen abstraction leading to an olefin metabolite M26. PMID:18653741

  4. Meclizine, a pregnane X receptor agonist, is a direct inhibitor and mechanism-based inactivator of human cytochrome P450 3A.

    PubMed

    Foo, Winnie Yin Bing; Tay, Hwee Ying; Chan, Eric Chun Yong; Lau, Aik Jiang

    2015-10-01

    Meclizine is an agonist of human pregnane X receptor (PXR). It increases CYP3A4 mRNA expression, but decreases CYP3A-catalyzed testosterone 6β-hydroxylation in primary cultures of human hepatocytes, as assessed at 24h after the last dose of meclizine. Therefore, the hypothesis to be tested is that meclizine inactivates human CYP3A enzymes. Our findings indicated that meclizine directly inhibited testosterone 6β-hydroxylation catalyzed by human liver microsomes, recombinant CYP3A4, and recombinant CYP3A5. The inhibition of human liver microsomal testosterone 6β-hydroxylation by meclizine occurred by a mixed mode and with an apparent Ki of 31±6μM. Preincubation of meclizine with human liver microsomes and NADPH resulted in a time- and concentration-dependent decrease in testosterone 6β-hydroxylation. The extent of inactivation required the presence of NADPH, was unaffected by nucleophilic trapping agents or reactive oxygen species scavengers, attenuated by a CYP3A substrate, and not reversed by dialysis. Meclizine selectively inactivated CYP3A4, but not CYP3A5. In contrast to meclizine, which has a di-substituted piperazine ring, norchlorcyclizine, which is a N-debenzylated meclizine metabolite with a mono-substituted piperazine ring, did not inactivate but directly inhibited hepatic microsomal CYP3A activity. In conclusion, meclizine inhibited human CYP3A enzymes by both direct inhibition and mechanism-based inactivation. In contrast, norchlorcyclizine is a direct inhibitor but not a mechanism-based inactivator. Furthermore, a PXR agonist may also be an inhibitor of a PXR-regulated enzyme, thereby giving rise to opposing effects on the functional activity of the enzyme and indicating the importance of measuring the catalytic activity of nuclear receptor-regulated enzymes. PMID:26239802

  5. Mechanism of interactions of α-naphthoflavone with cytochrome P450 3A4 explored with an engineered enzyme bearing a fluorescent probe†

    PubMed Central

    Tsalkova, Tamara N.; Davydova, Nadezhda Y.; Halpert, James R.; Davydov, Dmitri R.

    2008-01-01

    Design of a partially cysteine-depleted C98S/C239S/C377S/C468A cytochrome P450 3A4 mutant designated CYP3A4(C58,C64) allowed site-directed incorporation of thiol-reactive fluorescent probes into α-helix A‥ The site of modification was identified as Cys-64 with the help of CYP3A4(C58) and CYP3A4(C64), each bearing only one accessible cysteine. Changes in the fluorescence of CYP3A4(C58,C64) labeled with 6-bromoacetyl-2-dimethylaminonaphthalene (BADAN), 7-diethylamino-3-(4’-maleimidylphenyl)-4-methylcoumarin (CPM), or monobromobimane (mBBr) were used to study the interactions with bromocriptine (BCT), 1-pyrenebutanol (1-PB), testosterone (TST), and α-naphthoflavone (ANF). Of these substrates only ANF has a specific effect, causing a considerable decrease in fluorescence intensity of BADAN and CPM and increasing the fluorescence of mBBr. This ANF-binding event in the case of BADAN-modified enzyme is characterized by an S50 of 18.2 ± 0.7, compared with the value of 2.2 ± 0.3 for the ANF-induced spin transition, thus revealing an additional low affinity binding site. Studies of the effect of TST, 1-PB, and BCT on the interactions of ANF monitored by changes in fluorescence of CYP3A4(C58,C64)-BADAN or by the ANF-induced spin transition revealed no competition by these substrates. Investigation of the kinetics of fluorescence increase upon H2O2-dependent heme depletion suggests that labeled CYP3A4(C58,C64) is represented by two conformers, one of which has the fluorescence of the BADAN and CPM labels completely quenched, presumably by photoinduced electron transfer from the neighboring Trp-72 and/or Tyr-68 residues. The binding of ANF to the newly discovered binding site appears to affect the interactions of the label with the above residue(s), thus modulating the fraction of the fluorescent conformer. PMID:17198380

  6. Regulation of cytochrome P450 3A4 by small vault RNAb derived from the non-coding vault RNA1 of multidrug resistance-linked vault particle.

    PubMed

    Meng, Chunjie; Wei, Zhiyun; Zhang, Yiting; Yan, Liang; He, Hang; Zhang, Lirong; Xing, Qinghe

    2016-07-01

    Cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) is the most abundant cytochrome P450 enzyme in human liver and intestine, contributing to the metabolism of >60% of all pharmaceuticals. The expression levels of hepatic CYP3A4 show great inter‑individual variation. However, the detailed regulatory mechanism of CYP3A4 expression has remained largely elusive. It has been reported that the non‑coding RNA small vault (sv)RNAb targets the 3' untranslated region (3'UTR) of CYP3A4 in MCF7 cells. However, to date, the role of svRNAb has not been examined in human liver tissue and hepatic cell lines such as HepG2, which was the aim of the present study. Polymerase chain reaction analysis indicated that the expression of CYP3A4 was significantly different within a study cohort (n=19). In addition, a significant negative correlation was observed between svRNAb and CYP3A4 expression in human liver tissue samples. Furthermore, a luciferase assay on HepG2 cells verified that svRNAb directly targets CYP3A4 and regulates the expression of CYP3A4 by interacting with the validated binding sites of the CYP3A4 3'UTR. The results provided insight into the variation of the expression of CYP3A4 among individuals and provided a novel method for the adjustment of personalized drug treatment. Furthermore, the present study provided a mechanism of the regulatory role of svRNAb in multidrug‑resistant cells. PMID:27177257

  7. Pharmacogenomics of Cytochrome P450 3A4: Recent Progress Toward the “Missing Heritability” Problem

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Kathrin; Zanger, Ulrich M.

    2013-01-01

    CYP3A4 is the most important drug metabolizing enzyme in adult humans because of its prominent expression in liver and gut and because of its broad substrate specificity, which includes drugs from most therapeutic categories and many endogenous substances. Expression and function of CYP3A4 vary extensively both intra- and interindividually thus contributing to unpredictable drug response and toxicity. A multitude of environmental, genetic, and physiological factors are known to influence CYP3A4 expression and activity. Among the best predictable sources of variation are drug–drug interactions, which are either caused by pregnane X-receptor (PXR), constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) mediated gene induction, or by inhibition through coadministered drugs or other chemicals, including also plant and food ingredients. Among physiological and pathophysiological factors are hormonal status, age, and gender, the latter of which was shown to result in higher levels in females compared to males, as well as inflammatory processes that downregulate CYP3A4 transcription. Despite the influence of these non-genetic factors, the genetic influence on CYP3A4 activity was estimated in previous twin studies and using information on repeated drug administration to account for 66% up to 88% of the interindividual variation. Although many single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the CYP3A locus have been identified, genetic association studies have so far failed to explain a major part of the phenotypic variability. The term “missing heritability” has been used to denominate the gap between expected and known genetic contribution, e.g., for complex diseases, and is also used here in analogy. In this review we summarize CYP3A4 pharmacogenetics/genomics from the early inheritance estimations up to the most recent genetic and clinical studies, including new findings about SNPs in CYP3A4 (*22) and other genes (P450 oxidoreductase (POR), peroxisome proliferator

  8. The effect of interferon-{alpha} on the expression of cytochrome P450 3A4 in human hepatoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Flaman, Anathea S.; Gravel, Caroline; Hashem, Anwar M.; Tocchi, Monika; Li Xuguang

    2011-06-01

    Interferon {alpha} (IFN{alpha}) is used to treat malignancies and chronic viral infections. It has been found to decrease the rate of drug metabolism by acting on cytochrome P450 enzymes, but no studies have investigated the consequences of IFN{alpha} treatment on the CYP3A4 isoform, responsible for the metabolism of a majority of drugs. In this study, we have examined the effect of IFN{alpha} on CYP3A4 catalytic activity and expression in human hepatoma cells. We found that IFN{alpha} inhibits CYP3A4 activity and rapidly down-regulates the expression of CYP3A4, independent of de novo protein synthesis. Pharmacologic inhibitors and a dominant-negative mutant expression plasmid were used to dissect the molecular pathway required for CYP3A4 suppression, revealing roles for Jak1 and Stat1 and eliminating the involvement of the p38 mitogen-activated and extracellular regulated kinases. Treatment of hepatoma cells with IFN{alpha} did not affect the nuclear localization or relative abundance of Sp1 and Sp3 transcription factors, suggesting that the suppression of CYP3A4 by IFN{alpha} does not result from inhibitory Sp3 out-competing Sp1. To our knowledge, this is the first report that IFN{alpha} down-regulates CYP3A4 expression largely through the JAK-STAT pathway. Since IFN{alpha} suppresses CYP3A4 expression, caution is warranted when IFN{alpha} is administered in combination with CYP3A4 substrates to avoid the occurrence of adverse drug interactions.

  9. Pungent ginger components modulates human cytochrome P450 enzymes in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Li, Mian; Chen, Pei-zhan; Yue, Qing-xi; Li, Jing-quan; Chu, Rui-ai; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Hui

    2013-01-01

    Aim: Ginger rhizome is used worldwide as a spicy flavor agent. This study was designed to explore the potential effects of pungent ginger components, 6-, 8-, and 10-gingerol, on human cytochrome P450 (CYP450) enzymes that are responsible for the metabolism of many prescription drugs. Methods: The activities of human CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, and CYP3A4 were analyzed using Vivid P450 assay kits. The mRNA expression of CYP3A4 in human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line HepG2 was measured using quantitative real-time PCR assay. Results: All three gingerols potently inhibited CYP2C9 activity, exerted moderate inhibition on CYP2C19 and CYP3A4, and weak inhibion on CYP2D6. 8-Gingerol was the most potent in inhibition of P450 enzymes with IC50 values of 6.8, 12.5, 8.7, and 42.7 μmol/L for CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP3A4, and CYP2D6, respectively. By comparing the effects of gingerols on CYP3A4 with three different fluorescent substrate probes, it was demonstrated that the inhibition of gingerols on CYP3A4 had no substrate-dependence. In HepG2 cells, 8-gingerol and 10-gingerol inhibited, but 6-gingerol induced mRNA expression of CYP3A4. Conclusion: 6-, 8-, and 10-gingerol suppress human cytochrome P450 activity, while 8- and 10-gingerol inhibit CYP3A4 expression. The results may have an implication for the use of ginger or ginger products when combined with therapeutic drugs that are metabolized by cytochrome P450 enzymes. PMID:23770984

  10. In Silico Docking of Ligands to Drug Oxidation Enzymes Cytochrome P450 3A4 and Cytochrome P450 1A2.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, David; Guglielmon, Jonathan; Glenn, Marsch; Peter, Guengerich F.

    2009-03-01

    Cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) and Cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP1A2) oxidize most drugs in humans. Protein modeling toolkits from OpenEye Scientific Software were used to examine the interaction of drug substrates with CYP3A4 and CYP1A2. Conformers and partial atomic charges were generated for each drug molecule. User-defined volumes were defined around CYP3A4 and CYP1A2 active sites. Ligands were docked assuming protein and substrates as rigid bodies. To assess rigid docking accuracy, x-ray diffraction coordinates of CYP3A4-erythromycin and CYP3A4-metyrapone complexes were obtained. Rigid re-docking of erythromycin and metyrapone into CYP3A4 yielded poses similar to the crystal structures. Rigid docking revealed two other energetically-favorable CYP3A4-metyrapone poses. The best poses were obtained by using all the Open Eye scoring functions. Optimization of protein-ligand interactions within 5-10 Angstroms of the docked ligand was then performed using the Merck Molecular Force Field in which the protein was assumed to be flexible and the ligand to be rigid. Nearby protein residues pulled slightly closer to the substrate, reducing the volume of the active site.

  11. Current Approaches for Investigating and Predicting Cytochrome P450 3A4-Ligand Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Poulos, Thomas L.

    2015-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) is the major and most important drug-metabolizing enzyme in humans that oxidizes and clears over a half of all administered pharmaceuticals. This is possible because CYP3A4 is promiscuous with respect to substrate binding and has the ability to catalyze diverse oxidative chemistries in addition to traditional hydroxylation reactions. Furthermore, CYP3A4 binds and oxidizes a number of substrates in a cooperative manner and can be both induced and inactivated by drugs. In vivo, CYP3A4 inhibition could lead to undesired drug-drug interactions and drug toxicity, a major reason for late-stage clinical failures and withdrawal of marketed pharmaceuticals. Owing to its central role in drug metabolism, many aspects of CYP3A4 catalysis have been extensively studied by various techniques. Here, we give an overview of experimental and theoretical methods currently used for investigation and prediction of CYP3A4-ligand interactions, a defining factor in drug metabolism, with an emphasis on the problems addressed and conclusions derived from the studies. PMID:26002732

  12. Human variation and CYP enzyme contribution in benfuracarb metabolism in human in vitro hepatic models.

    PubMed

    Abass, Khaled; Reponen, Petri; Mattila, Sampo; Rautio, Arja; Pelkonen, Olavi

    2014-01-13

    Human responses to the toxicological effects of chemicals are often complicated by a substantial interindividual variability in toxicokinetics, of which metabolism is often the most important factor. Therefore, we investigated human variation and the contributions of human-CYP isoforms to in vitro metabolism of benfuracarb. The primary metabolic pathways were the initial sulfur oxidation to benfuracarb-sulfoxide and the nitrogen-sulfur bond cleavage to carbofuran (activation). The Km, Vmax, and CL(int) values of carbofuran production in ten individual hepatic samples varied 7.3-, 3.4-, and 5.4-fold, respectively. CYP2C9 and CYP2C19 catalyzed benfuracarb sulphur oxidation. Carbofuran formation, representing from 79% to 98% of the total metabolism, was catalyzed predominantly by CYP3A4. The calculated relative contribution of CYP3A4 to carbofuran formation was 93%, while it was 4.4% for CYP2C9. The major contribution of CYP3A4 in benfuracarb metabolism was further substantiated by showing a strong correlation with CYP3A4-selective markers midazolam-1'-hydroxylation and omeprazole-sulfoxidation (r=0.885 and 0.772, respectively). Carbofuran formation was highly inhibited by the CYP3A inhibitor ketoconazole. Moreover, CYP3A4 marker activities were relatively inhibited by benfuracarb. These results confirm that human CYP3A4 is the major enzyme involved in the in vitro activation of benfuracarb and that CYP3A4-catalyzed metabolism is the primary source of interindividual differences. PMID:24016712

  13. Homotropic cooperativity of monomeric cytochrome P450 3A4

    SciTech Connect

    Baas, Bradley J.; Denisov, Ilia G.; Sligar, Stephen G.

    2010-11-16

    Mechanistic studies of mammalian cytochrome P450s are often obscured by the phase heterogeneity of solubilized preparations of membrane enzymes. The various protein-protein aggregation states of microsomes, detergent solubilized cytochrome or a family of aqueous multimeric complexes can effect measured substrate binding events as well as subsequent steps in the reaction cycle. In addition, these P450 monooxygenases are normally found in a membrane environment and the bilayer composition and dynamics can also effect these catalytic steps. Here, we describe the structural and functional characterization of a homogeneous monomeric population of cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP 3A4) in a soluble nanoscale membrane bilayer, or Nanodisc [Nano Lett. 2 (2002) 853]. Cytochrome P450 3A4:Nanodisc assemblies were formed and purified to yield a 1:1 ratio of CYP 3A4 to Nanodisc. Solution small angle X-ray scattering was used to structurally characterize this monomeric CYP 3A4 in the membrane bilayer. The purified CYP 3A4:Nanodiscs showed a heretofore undescribed high level of homotropic cooperativity in the binding of testosterone. Soluble CYP 3A4:Nanodisc retains its known function and shows prototypic hydroxylation of testosterone when driven by hydrogen peroxide. This represents the first functional characterization of a true monomeric preparation of cytochrome P450 monooxygenase in a phospholipid bilayer and elucidates new properties of the monomeric form.

  14. Inhibitory effect of salvianolate on human cytochrome P450 3A4 in vitro involving a noncompetitive manner

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Chong-Zhen; Ren, Xian; Zhou, Hong-Hao; Mao, Xiao-Yuan; Liu, Zhao-Qian

    2015-01-01

    Salvianolic acid B (Sal B), which is purified from Danshen, is a popular herb extract. Sal B has anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, anti-hypoxic, anti-arteriosclerotic and anti-apoptotic properties. This substance can also ameliorate brain injury or neurodegenerative diseases. The listed drug Salvianolate, which contains a substantial amount of Sal B, has been used for the treatment of coronary heart disease. Our present work aimed to evaluate the inhibitory effect of salvianolate on seven cytochrome P450 isoforms (CYP450), namely, CYP1A2, CYP2A6, CYP2E1, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6 and CYP3A4, in human liver microsomes (HLMs) and recombinant enzymes through high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) assay. Salvianolate have a potent inhibitory effect on CYP3A4 activity with IC50 values of 1.438 (HLMs) and 3.582 (recombinant cDNA-expressed CYP3A4) mg/L, respectively. Salvianolate strongly dose, but not time-dependently decreased CYP3A4 activity in HLMs. The typical Lineweaver-Burk plots showed that Salvianolate inhibited CYP3A4 activity noncompetitively, with a Ki value of 2.27 mg/L in HLMs. Other CYP450 isoforms are not markedly affected by Salvianolate. These findings indicate that salvianolate may be involved in potential drug interactions when co-administrated with CYP3A4 substrates. PMID:26629047

  15. Dydrogesterone metabolism in human liver by aldo-keto reductases and cytochrome P450 enzymes.

    PubMed

    Olbrich, Matthias; Weigl, Kevin; Kahler, Elke; Mihara, Katsuhiro

    2016-10-01

    1. The metabolism of dydrogesterone was investigated in human liver cytosol (HLC) and human liver microsomes (HLM). Enzymes involved in dydrogesterone metabolism were identified and their relative contributions were estimated. 2. Dydrogesterone clearance was clearly higher in HLC compared to HLM. The major active metabolite 20α-dihydrodydrogesterone (20α-DHD) was only produced in HLC. 3. The formation of 20α-DHD by cytosolic aldo-keto reductase 1C (AKR1C) was confirmed with isoenzyme-specific AKR inhibitors. 4. Using recombinantly expressed human cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoenzymes, dydrogesterone was shown to be metabolically transformed by CYP3A4 and CYP2C19. 5. A clear contribution of CYP3A4 to microsomal metabolism of dydrogesterone was demonstrated with HLM and isoenzyme-specific CYP inhibitors, and confirmed by a significant correlation between dydrogesterone clearance and CYP3A4 activity. 6. Contribution of CYP2C19 was shown to be clearly less than CYP3A4 and restricted to a small group of human individuals with very high CYP2C19 activity. Therefore, it is expected that CYP2C19 genetic variations will not affect dydrogesterone pharmacokinetics in man. 7. In conclusion, dydrogesterone metabolism in the liver is dominated primarily by cytosolic enzymes (particularly AKR1C) and secondarily by CYP3A4, with the former exclusively responsible for 20α-DHD formation. PMID:26796435

  16. Study Liver Cytochrome P450 3A4 Inhibition and Hepatotoxicity Using DMSO-Differentiated HuH-7 Cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yitong

    2016-01-01

    Metabolically competent, inexpensive, and robust in vitro cell models are needed for studying liver drug-metabolizing enzymes and hepatotoxicity. Human hepatoma HuH-7 cells develop into a differentiated in vitro model resembling primary human hepatocytes after a 2-week dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) treatment. DMSO-treated HuH-7 cells express elevated cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) enzyme gene expression and activity compared to untreated HuH-7 cells. This cell model could be used to study CYP3A4 inhibition by reversible and time-dependent inhibitors, including drugs, food-related substances, and environmental chemicals. The DMSO-treated HuH-7 model is also a suitable tool for investigating hepatotoxicity. This chapter describes a detailed methodology for developing DMSO-treated HuH-7 cells, which are subsequently used for CYP3A4 inhibition and hepatotoxicity studies. PMID:27518624

  17. CYP450 Enzyme-Mediated Metabolism of TCAS and Its Inhibitory and Induced Effects on Metabolized Enzymes in Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Guolin; Wang, Cheng; Zhou, Lili; Li, Lei; Chen, Huiming; Yu, Wenlian; Li, Haishan

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the enzymes catalyzing the phaseⅠmetabolism of thiacalixarene (TCAS) based on in vitro system including cDNA-expressed P450 enzymes, human liver microsomes plus inhibitors and monoclonal antibodies. In addition, the inhibitory potential of TCAS on major CYP450 drug metabolizing enzymes (CYP1A2, CYP2C9, CYP2B6, CYP2D6 and CYP3A4) was assessed. The results showed that CYP1A2 and CYP2C9 mediated TCAS hydroxylation. IC50 values for TCAS in rat and human liver microsomes were greater than 50 µM, and it demonstrated a weak inhibition of rat and human CYP450 enzymes. Finally, sandwiched hepatocytes were used to evaluate the induction of CYP1A and CYP3A to define the function of TCAS in vivo. The results showed that incubation of TCAS at different concentrations for 72 h failed to induce CYP1A and CYP3A. However, incubation of the cells with 50 and 100 µM TCAS caused a profound decrease in the activities of CYP1A and CYP3A, which was probably due to cytotoxic effects, suggesting that exposure to TCAS might be a health concern. PMID:26404338

  18. Effects of triclosan on the detoxification system in the yellow catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco): expressions of CYP and GST genes and corresponding enzyme activity in phase I, II and antioxidant system.

    PubMed

    Ku, Peijia; Wu, Xiaoyan; Nie, Xiangping; Ou, Ruikang; Wang, Lan; Su, Tian; Li, Yigang

    2014-11-01

    Triclosan (TCS), a broad-spectrum antibacterial agent widely used in pharmaceuticals and personal case products (PPCPs), has been universally detected in aquatic ecosystem in recent years. Unfortunately, there is limited information about its potential impacts on responses of genes and enzymes related to fish detoxification. In the present work, we cloned CYP3A and alpha-GST of yellow catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco) and tested the transcriptional expression of CYP1A, CYP3A and GST as well as the alterations of their corresponding enzymes, including ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD), aminopyrine N-demethylase (APND), erythromycin N-demethylase (ERND), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and catalase (CAT), and also the oxidative product malondialdehyde (MDA) content in the liver of P. fulvidraco exposed to TCS. Amino acids of CYP3A and GST were deduced and phylogenetic tree was constructed respectively. High identity percent was exhibited between P. fulvidraco and other species, such as other fish, birds and mammals. Results indicated that TCS significantly elevated CYP1A and GST but decreased CYP3A expression, EROD activity and MDA content at lower concentrations of TCS at 24h. Moreover, CYP3A and GST were significantly inhibited at 72 h but induced at 168 h at lower concentrations. However, CYP3A was always induced at the highest concentration during the exposure period. Furthermore, CYP3A, GST, GST enzyme and MDA content exhibited a dose-effect relationship to some extent, but no significant responses were observed in ERND, APND and CAT except for individual treatments. Taken together, EROD was the most sensitive to TCS exposure as compared to other enzymes. Meanwhile, mRNA responses were more sensitive in yellow catfish. PMID:25064140

  19. In Vitro and in Vivo Inhibitory Effects of Glycyrrhetinic Acid in Mice and Human Cytochrome P450 3A4

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Qiao-Li; Wang, Gui-Hua; Chen, Shu-Hui; Hu, Lei; Zhang, Xue; Ying, Guo; Qin, Chong-Zhen; Zhou, Hong-Hao

    2015-01-01

    Glycyrrhetinic acid (GA) has been used clinically in the treatment of patients with chronic hepatitis. This study evaluated the effect of GA on the activity of five P450(CYP450) cytochrome enzymes: CYP2A6, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, and CYP3A4, in human liver microsomes (HLMs) and recombinant cDNA-expressed enzyme systems using a HPLC-MS/MS CYP-specific probe substrate assay. With midazolam as the probe substrate, GA greatly decreased CYP3A4 activity with IC50 values of 8.195 μM in HLMs and 7.498 μM in the recombinant cDNA-expressed CYP3A4 enzyme system, respectively. It significantly decreased CYP3A4 activity in a dose- but not time-dependent manner. Results from Lineweaver–Burk plots showed that GA could inhibit CYP3A4 activity competitively, with a Ki value of 1.57 μM in HLMs. Moreover, CYP2C9 and CYP2C19 could also be inhibited significantly by GA with IC50 of 42.89 and 40.26 μM in HLMs, respectively. Other CYP450 isoforms were not markedly affected by GA. The inhibition was also confirmed by an in vivo study of mice. In addition, it was observed that mRNA expressions of the Cyps2c and 3a family decreased significantly in the livers of mice treated with GA. In conclusion, this study indicates that GA may exert herb-drug interactions by competitively inhibiting CYP3A4. PMID:26712778

  20. ONTOGENIC EXPRESSION OF HUMAN CARBOXYLESTERASE-2 AND CYTOCHROME P450 3A4 IN LIVER AND DUODENUM: POSTNATAL SURGE AND ORGAN-DEPENDENT REGULATION1

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yi-Tzai; Trzoss, Lynnie; Yang, Dongfang; Yan, Bingfang

    2015-01-01

    Human carboxylesterase-2 (CES2) and cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) are two major drug metabolizing enzymes that play critical roles in hydrolytic and oxidative biotransformation, respectively. They share substrates but may have opposite effect on therapeutic potential such as the metabolism of the anticancer prodrug irinotecan. Both CES2 and CYP3A4 are expressed in the liver and the gastrointestinal tract. This study was conducted to determine whether CES2 and CYP3A4 are expressed under developmental regulation and whether the regulation occurs differentially between the liver and duodenum. A large number of tissues (112) were collected with majority of them from donors at 1-198 days of age. In addition, multi-sampling (liver, duodenum and jejunum) was performed in some donors. The expression was determined at mRNA and protein levels. In the liver, CES2 and CYP3A4 mRNA exhibited a postnatal surge (1 versus 2 months of age) by 2.7 and 29 fold, respectively. CYP3A4 but not CES2 mRNA in certain pediatric groups reached or even exceeded the adult level. The duodenal samples, on the other hand, showed a gene-specific expression pattern at mRNA level. CES2 mRNA increased with age but the opposite was true with CYP3A4 mRNA. The levels of CES2 and CYP3A4 protein, on the other hand, increased with age in both liver and duodenum. The multi-sampling study demonstrated significant correlation of CES2 expression between the duodenum and jejunum. However, neither duodenal nor jejunal expression correlated with hepatic expression of CES2. These findings establish that developmental regulation occurs in a gene and organ-dependent manner. PMID:25724353

  1. Plasma levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 and in vivo markers of cytochrome P450 3A activity in Swedes and Koreans: effects of a genetic polymorphism and oral contraceptives.

    PubMed

    Nylén, Hanna; Björkhem-Bergman, Linda; Ekström, Lena; Roh, Hyung-Keun; Bertilsson, Leif; Eliasson, Erik; Lindh, Jonatan D; Diczfalusy, Ulf

    2014-10-01

    In vitro studies have shown that vitamin D may induce several cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes in general and CYP3A4 in particular. The primary aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between plasma levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 and suggested in vivo markers of CYP3A activity in healthy volunteers from Sweden and Korea. Plasma concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 were analysed in samples from three previously performed studies, and the correlation between these levels and suggested in vivo markers of CYP3A activity was investigated by means of nonparametric correlation. In addition, we studied the modulating effects of three vitamin D receptor promoter polymorphisms on the association between 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 and CYP3A enzyme activity in Swedish subjects. The plasma levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 were not significantly associated with CYP3A phenotypes in any of the three studies, but after accounting for the vitamin D receptor polymorphism rs4516035, there was a significant positive association between 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 and CYP3A activity (p = 0.004). Swedes (n = 65) had significantly higher 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 levels than Koreans (n = 67), 75 nM compared with 31 nM (p < 0.001). Swedish women taking oral contraceptives (OC) (n = 19) had somewhat higher plasma levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 compared with Swedish women not taking oral contraceptives (n = 21), 89 and 72 nM, respectively (p = 0.02). In conclusion, our results suggest that the overall influence on the CYP3A activity by 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 is of marginal importance. PMID:24655660

  2. Metabolism of anabolic steroids by recombinant human cytochrome P450 enzymes. Gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric determination of metabolites.

    PubMed

    Rendic, S; Nolteernsting, E; Schänzer, W

    1999-11-26

    Metabolism of steroid hormones with anabolic properties was studied in vitro using human recombinant CYP3A4, CYP2C9 and 2B6 enzymes. The enzyme formats used for CYP3A4 and CYP2C9 were insect cell microsomes expressing human CYP enzymes and purified recombinant human CYP enzymes in a reconstituted system. CYP3A4 enzyme formats incubated with anabolic steroids, testosterone, 17alpha-methyltestosterone, metandienone, boldenone and 4-chloro-1,2-dehydro-17alpha-methyltestosterone, produced 6beta-hydroxyl metabolites identified as trimethylsilyl (TMS)-ethers by a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method. When the same formats of CYP2C9 were incubated with the anabolic steroids, no 6beta-hydroxyl metabolites were formed. Human lymphoblast cell microsomes expressing human CYP2B6 incubated with the steroids investigated produced traces of 6beta-hydroxyl metabolites with testosterone and 17alpha-methyltestosterone only. We suggest that the electronic effects of the 3-keto-4-ene structural moiety contribute to the selectivity within the active site of CYP3A4 enzyme resulting in selective 6beta-hydroxylation. PMID:10630892

  3. Three-dimensional quantitative structure–activity relationship and docking studies in a series of anthocyanin derivatives as cytochrome P450 3A4 inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Shityakov, Sergey; Puskás, István; Roewer, Norbert; Förster, Carola; Broscheit, Jens

    2014-01-01

    The cytochrome P450 (CYP)3A4 enzyme affects the metabolism of most drug-like substances, and its inhibition may influence drug safety. Modulation of CYP3A4 by flavonoids, such as anthocyanins, has been shown to inhibit the mutagenic activity of mammalian cells. Considering the previous investigations addressing CYP3A4 inhibition by these substances, we studied the three-dimensional quantitative structure–activity relationship (3D-QSAR) in a series of anthocyanin derivatives as CYP3A4 inhibitors. For the training dataset (n=12), comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA) and comparative molecular similarity index analysis (CoMSIA) yielded crossvalidated and non-crossvalidated models with a q2 of 0.795 (0.687) and r2 of 0.962 (0.948), respectively. The models were also validated by an external test set of four compounds with r2 of 0.821 (CoMFA) and r2 of 0.812 (CoMSIA). The binding affinity modes associated with experimentally derived IC50 (half maximal inhibitory concentration) values were confirmed by molecular docking into the CYP3A4 active site with r2 of 0.66. The results obtained from this study are useful for a better understanding of the effects of anthocyanin derivatives on inhibition of carcinogen activation and cellular DNA damage. PMID:24741320

  4. Differential Expression of Cytochrome P450 Enzymes in Normal and Tumor Tissues from Childhood Rhabdomyosarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Molina-Ortiz, Dora; Camacho-Carranza, Rafael; González-Zamora, José Francisco; Shalkow-Kalincovstein, Jaime; Cárdenas-Cardós, Rocío; Ností-Palacios, Rosario; Vences-Mejía, Araceli

    2014-01-01

    Intratumoral expression of genes encoding Cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYP) might play a critical role not only in cancer development but also in the metabolism of anticancer drugs. The purpose of this study was to compare the mRNA expression patterns of seven representative CYPs in paired tumor and normal tissue of child patients with rabdomyosarcoma (RMS). Using real time quantitative RT-PCR, the gene expression pattern of CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP1B1, CYP2E1, CYP2W1, CYP3A4, and CYP3A5 were analyzed in tumor and adjacent non-tumor tissues from 13 child RMS patients. Protein concentration of CYPs was determined using Western blot. The expression levels were tested for correlation with the clinical and pathological data of the patients. Our data showed that the expression levels of CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 were negligible. Elevated expression of CYP1B1 mRNA and protein was detected in most RMS tumors and adjacent normal tissues. Most cancerous samples exhibit higher levels of both CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 compared with normal tissue samples. Expression of CYP2E1 mRNA was found to be significantly higher in tumor tissue, however no relation was found with protein levels. CYP2W1 mRNA and/or protein are mainly expressed in tumors. In conclusion, we defined the CYP gene expression profile in tumor and paired normal tissue of child patients with RMS. The overexpression of CYP2W1, CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 in tumor tissues suggests that they may be involved in RMS chemoresistance; furthermore, they may be exploited for the localized activation of anticancer prodrugs. PMID:24699256

  5. Differential expression of cytochrome P450 enzymes in normal and tumor tissues from childhood rhabdomyosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Molina-Ortiz, Dora; Camacho-Carranza, Rafael; González-Zamora, José Francisco; Shalkow-Kalincovstein, Jaime; Cárdenas-Cardós, Rocío; Ností-Palacios, Rosario; Vences-Mejía, Araceli

    2014-01-01

    Intratumoral expression of genes encoding Cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYP) might play a critical role not only in cancer development but also in the metabolism of anticancer drugs. The purpose of this study was to compare the mRNA expression patterns of seven representative CYPs in paired tumor and normal tissue of child patients with rabdomyosarcoma (RMS). Using real time quantitative RT-PCR, the gene expression pattern of CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP1B1, CYP2E1, CYP2W1, CYP3A4, and CYP3A5 were analyzed in tumor and adjacent non-tumor tissues from 13 child RMS patients. Protein concentration of CYPs was determined using Western blot. The expression levels were tested for correlation with the clinical and pathological data of the patients. Our data showed that the expression levels of CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 were negligible. Elevated expression of CYP1B1 mRNA and protein was detected in most RMS tumors and adjacent normal tissues. Most cancerous samples exhibit higher levels of both CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 compared with normal tissue samples. Expression of CYP2E1 mRNA was found to be significantly higher in tumor tissue, however no relation was found with protein levels. CYP2W1 mRNA and/or protein are mainly expressed in tumors. In conclusion, we defined the CYP gene expression profile in tumor and paired normal tissue of child patients with RMS. The overexpression of CYP2W1, CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 in tumor tissues suggests that they may be involved in RMS chemoresistance; furthermore, they may be exploited for the localized activation of anticancer prodrugs. PMID:24699256

  6. Effect of Repeated 1-h Episodes of Immobilization Stress on Activity of Glucocorticoid Metabolism Enzymes in the Liver.

    PubMed

    Tseilikman, V E; Kozochkin, D A; Sinitskii, A I; Tseylikman, O B; Lapshin, M S; Kuzina, O V; Komel'kova, M V; Telesheva, I B

    2016-03-01

    Differences in corticosterone level associated with different activity of glucocorticoid-oxidizing enzymes in the liver were revealed in rats exposed to stress. Pro-inflammatory changes in the liver were associated with enhanced CYP3A-dependent monooxygenation. PMID:27021104

  7. Role of Enzyme Flexibility in Ligand Access and Egress to Active Site: Bias-Exchange Metadynamics Study of 1,3,7-Trimethyluric Acid in Cytochrome P450 3A4.

    PubMed

    Paloncýová, Markéta; Navrátilová, Veronika; Berka, Karel; Laio, Alessandro; Otyepka, Michal

    2016-04-12

    Although the majority of enzymes have buried active sites, very little is known about the energetics and mechanisms associated with substrate and product channeling in and out. Gaining direct information about these processes is a challenging task both for experimental and theoretical techniques. Here, we present a methodology that enables following of a ligand during its passage to the active site of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 and mapping of the free energy associated with this process. The technique is based on a combination of a bioinformatics tool for identifying access channels and bias-exchange metadynamics and provides converged free energies in good agreement with experimental data. In addition, it identifies the energetically preferred escape routes, limiting steps, and amino acids residues lining the channel. The approach was applied to mapping of a complex channel network in a complex environment, i.e., CYP3A4 attached to a lipid bilayer mimicking an endoplasmic reticulum membrane. The results provided direct information about the energetics and conformational changes associated with the ligand channeling. The methodology can easily be adapted to study channeling through other flexible biomacromolecular channels. PMID:26967371

  8. Stable expression of human cytochrome P450 3A4 in V79 cells and its application for metabolic profiling of ergot derivatives.

    PubMed

    Rauschenbach, R; Gieschen, H; Husemann, M; Salomon, B; Hildebrand, M

    1995-10-01

    Expression of human cytochrome (CYP) in heterologous cells is a means of specifically studying the role of these enzymes in drug metabolism. The complete cDNA encoding CYP3A4 (PCN1) was inserted into an expression vector containing the strong myeloproliferative sarcoma virus promoter in combination with the enhancer of the cytomegalovirus and stably expressed in V79 Chinese hamster cells. The presence of genomically integrated CYP3A4 cDNA cell clones was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction analysis. Transcription was detected by reverse transcribed polymerase chain reaction analysis. Functional expression could be demonstrated by conversion of testosterone to the specific 6beta-hydroxylated product. In recombinant V79 cells expressing CYP3A4 about 6% of the substrate was converted to 6beta-hydroxytestosterone. The metabolism of two dopaminergic ergot derivatives was investigated in live recombinant V79 cells. Both lisuride and terguride were monodeethylated. PMID:8666035

  9. Characterizing the Membrane-Bound State of Cytochrome P450 3A4: Structure, Depth of Insertion, and Orientation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) is the most abundant membrane-associated isoform of the P450 family in humans and is responsible for biotransformation of more than 50% of drugs metabolized in the body. Despite the large number of crystallographic structures available for CYP3A4, no structural information for its membrane-bound state at an atomic level is available. In order to characterize binding, depth of insertion, membrane orientation, and lipid interactions of CYP3A4, we have employed a combined experimental and simulation approach in this study. Taking advantage of a novel membrane representation, highly mobile membrane mimetic (HMMM), with enhanced lipid mobility and dynamics, we have been able to capture spontaneous binding and insertion of the globular domain of the enzyme into the membrane in multiple independent, unbiased simulations. Despite different initial orientations and positions of the protein in solution, all the simulations converged into the same membrane-bound configuration with regard to both the depth of membrane insertion and the orientation of the enzyme on the surface of the membrane. In tandem, linear dichroism measurements performed on CYP3A4 bound to Nanodisc membranes were used to characterize the orientation of the enzyme in its membrane-bound form experimentally. The heme tilt angles measured experimentally are in close agreement with those calculated for the membrane-bound structures resulted from the simulations, thereby verifying the validity of the developed model. Membrane binding of the globular domain in CYP3A4, which appears to be independent of the presence of the transmembrane helix of the full-length enzyme, significantly reshapes the protein at the membrane interface, causing conformational changes relevant to access tunnels leading to the active site of the enzyme. PMID:23697766

  10. Interactions of the hepatitis C virus protease inhibitor faldaprevir with cytochrome P450 enzymes: in vitro and in vivo correlation.

    PubMed

    Sabo, John P; Kort, Jens; Ballow, Charles; Kashuba, Angela D M; Haschke, Manuel; Battegay, Manuel; Girlich, Birgit; Ting, Naitee; Lang, Benjamin; Zhang, Wei; Cooper, Curtis; O'Brien, Drané; Seibert, Eleanore; Chan, Tom S; Tweedie, Donald; Li, Yongmei

    2015-04-01

    The potential inhibition of the major human cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes by faldaprevir was evaluated both in vitro and in clinical studies (healthy volunteers and hepatitis C virus [HCV] genotype 1-infected patients). In vitro studies indicated that faldaprevir inhibited CYP2B6, CYP2C9, and CYP3A, and was a weak-to-moderate inactivator of CYP3A4. Faldaprevir 240 mg twice daily in healthy volunteers demonstrated moderate inhibition of hepatic and intestinal CYP3A (oral midazolam: 2.96-fold increase in AUC(0-24 h)), weak inhibition of hepatic CYP3A (intravenous midazolam: 1.56-fold increase in AUC(0-24 h)), weak inhibition of CYP2C9 ([S]-warfarin: 1.29-fold increase in AUC(0-120 h)), and had no relevant effects on CYP1A2, CYP2B6, or CYP2D6. Faldaprevir 120 mg once daily in HCV-infected patients demonstrated weak inhibition of hepatic and intestinal CYP3A (oral midazolam: 1.52-fold increase in AUC(0-∞)), and had no relevant effects on CYP2C9 or CYP1A2. In vitro drug-drug interaction predictions based on inhibitor concentration ([I])/inhibition constant (Ki) ratios tended to overestimate clinical effects and a net-effect model provided a more accurate approach. These studies suggest that faldaprevir shows a dose-dependent inhibition of CYP3A and CYP2C9, and does not induce CYP isoforms. PMID:25449227

  11. Characterization of human liver enzymes involved in the biotransformation of boceprevir, a hepatitis C virus protease inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Ghosal, Anima; Yuan, Yuan; Tong, Wei; Su, Ai-Duen; Gu, Chunyan; Chowdhury, Swapan K; Kishnani, Narendra S; Alton, Kevin B

    2011-03-01

    Boceprevir (SCH 503034), a protease inhibitor, is under clinical development for the treatment of human hepatitis C virus infections. In human liver microsomes, formation of oxidative metabolites after incubations with [(14)C]boceprevir was catalyzed by CYP3A4 and CYP3A5. In addition, the highest turnover was observed in recombinant CYP3A4 and CYP3A5. After a single radiolabeled dose to human, boceprevir was subjected to two distinct pathways, namely cytochrome P450-mediated oxidation and ketone reduction. Therefore, attempts were made to identify the enzymes responsible for the formation of carbonyl-reduced metabolites. Human liver S9 and cytosol converted ∼ 28 and ∼ 68% of boceprevir to M28, respectively, in the presence of an NADPH-generating system. Screening of boceprevir with recombinant human aldo-keto reductases (AKRs) revealed that AKR1C2 and AKR1C3 exhibited catalytic activity with respect to the formation of M+2 metabolites (M28 and M31). The formation of M28 was inhibited by 100 μM flufenamic acid (80.3%), 200 μM mefenamic acid (83.7%), and 100 μM phenolphthalein (86.1%), known inhibitors of AKRs, suggesting its formation through carbonyl reduction pathway. Formation of M28 was also inhibited by 100 μM diazepam (75.1%), 1 mM ibuprofen (70%), and 200 μM diflunisal (89.4%). These data demonstrated that CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 are primarily responsible for the formation of oxidative metabolites and the formation of M28 and M31, the keto-reduced metabolites, are most likely mediated by AKR1C2 and AKR1C3. Because the biotransformation and clearance of boceprevir involves two different enzymatic pathways, boceprevir is less likely to be a victim of significant drug-drug interaction with concomitant medication affecting either of these pathways. PMID:21123164

  12. Human liver cytochrome P450 3A4 ubiquitination: molecular recognition by UBC7-gp78 autocrine motility factor receptor and UbcH5a-CHIP-Hsc70-Hsp40 E2-E3 ubiquitin ligase complexes.

    PubMed

    Wang, YongQiang; Kim, Sung-Mi; Trnka, Michael J; Liu, Yi; Burlingame, A L; Correia, Maria Almira

    2015-02-01

    CYP3A4 is an abundant and catalytically dominant human liver endoplasmic reticulum-anchored cytochrome P450 enzyme engaged in the biotransformation of endo- and xenobiotics, including >50% of clinically relevant drugs. Alterations of CYP3A4 protein turnover can influence clinically relevant drug metabolism and bioavailability and drug-drug interactions. This CYP3A4 turnover involves endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation via the ubiquitin (Ub)-dependent 26 S proteasomal system that relies on two highly complementary E2 Ub-conjugating-E3 Ub-ligase (UBC7-gp78 and UbcH5a-C terminus of Hsc70-interacting protein (CHIP)-Hsc70-Hsp40) complexes, as well as protein kinases (PK) A and C. We have documented that CYP3A4 Ser/Thr phosphorylation (Ser(P)/Thr(P)) by PKA and/or PKC accelerates/enhances its Lys ubiquitination by either of these E2-E3 systems. Intriguingly, CYP3A4 Ser(P)/Thr(P) and ubiquitinated Lys residues reside within the cytosol-accessible surface loop and/or conformationally assembled acidic Asp/Glu clusters, leading us to propose that such post-translational Ser/Thr protein phosphorylation primes CYP3A4 for ubiquitination. Herein, this possibility was examined through various complementary approaches, including site-directed mutagenesis, chemical cross-linking, peptide mapping, and LC-MS/MS analyses. Our findings reveal that such CYP3A4 Asp/Glu/Ser(P)/Thr(P) surface clusters are indeed important for its intermolecular electrostatic interactions with each of these E2-E3 subcomponents. By imparting additional negative charge to these Asp/Glu clusters, such Ser/Thr phosphorylation would generate P450 phosphodegrons for molecular recognition by the E2-E3 complexes, thereby controlling the timing of CYP3A4 ubiquitination and endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation. Although the importance of phosphodegrons in the CHIP targeting of its substrates is known, to our knowledge this is the first example of phosphodegron involvement in gp78-substrate

  13. Theoretical Characterization of Substrate Access/Exit Channels in the Human Cytochrome P450 3A4 Enzyme: Involvement of Phenylalanine Residues in the Gating Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    The human cytochrome P450 3A4 mono-oxygenates ∼50% of all drugs. Its substrates/products enter/leave the active site by access/exit channels. Here, we perform steered molecular dynamics simulations, pulling the products temazepam and testosterone-6βOH out of the P450 3A4 enzyme in order to identify the preferred substrate/product pathways and their gating mechanism. We locate six different egress pathways of products from the active site with different exit preferences for the two products and find that there is more than just one access/exit channel in CYP3A4. The so-called solvent channel manifests the largest opening for both tested products, thereby identifying this channel as a putative substrate channel. Most channels consist of one or two π-stacked phenylalanine residues that serve as gate keepers. The oxidized drug breaks the hydrophobic interactions of the gating residues and forms mainly hydrophobic contacts with the gate. We argue that product exit preferences in P450s are regulated by protein−substrate specificity. PMID:19728720

  14. Eletriptan metabolism by human hepatic CYP450 enzymes and transport by human P-glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Evans, David C; O'Connor, Desmond; Lake, Brian G; Evers, Raymond; Allen, Christopher; Hargreaves, Richard

    2003-07-01

    "Reaction phenotyping" studies were performed with eletriptan (ETT) to determine its propensity to interact with coadministered medications. Its ability to serve as a substrate for human P-glycoprotein (P-gp) was also investigated since a central mechanism of action has been proposed for this "triptan" class of drug. In studies with a characterized bank of human liver microsome preparations, a good correlation (r2 = 0.932) was obtained between formation of N-desmethyl eletriptan (DETT) and CYP3A4-catalyzed testosterone 6 beta-hydroxylation. DETT was selected to be monitored in our studies since it represents a significant ETT metabolite in humans, circulating at concentrations 10 to 20% of those observed for parent drug. ETT was metabolized to DETT by recombinant CYP2D6 (rCYP2D6) and rCYP3A4, and to a lesser extent by rCYP2C9 and rCYP2C19. The metabolism of ETT to DETT in human liver microsomes was markedly inhibited by troleandomycin, erythromycin, miconazole, and an inhibitory antibody to CYP3A4, but not by inhibitors of other major P450 enzymes. ETT had little inhibitory effect on any of the P450 enzymes investigated. ETT was determined to be a good substrate for human P-gp in vitro. In bidirectional transport studies across LLC-MDR1 and LLC-Mdr1a cell monolayers, ETT had a BA/AB transport ratio in the range 9 to 11. This finding had significance in vivo since brain exposure to ETT was reduced 40-fold in Mdr1a+/+ relative to Mdr1a-/- mice. ETT metabolism to DETT is therefore catalyzed primarily by CYP3A4, and plasma concentrations are expected to be increased when coadministered with inhibitors of CYP3A4 and P-gp activity. PMID:12814962

  15. Characterisation of the cytochrome P450 enzymes involved in the in vitro metabolism of granisetron.

    PubMed Central

    Bloomer, J C; Baldwin, S J; Smith, G J; Ayrton, A D; Clarke, S E; Chenery, R J

    1994-01-01

    1. The metabolism of granisetron was investigated in human liver microsomes to identify the specific forms of cytochrome P450 responsible. 2. 7-hydroxy and 9'-desmethyl granisetron were identified as the major products of metabolism following incubation of granisetron with human liver microsomes. At low, clinically relevant, concentrations of granisetron the 7-hydroxy metabolite predominated. Rates of granisetron 7-hydroxylation varied over 100-fold in the human livers investigated. 3. Enzyme kinetics demonstrated the involvement of at least two enzymes contributing to the 7-hydroxylation of granisetron, one of which was a high affinity component with a Km of 4 microM. A single, low affinity, enzyme was responsible for the 9'-desmethylation of granisetron. 4. Granisetron caused no inhibition of any of the cytochrome P450 activities investigated (CYP1A2, CYP2A6, CYP2B6, CYP2C9/8, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, CYP2E1 and CYP3A), at concentrations up to 250 microM. 5. Studies using chemical inhibitors selective for individual P450 enzymes indicated the involvement of cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A), both pathways of granisetron metabolism being very sensitive to ketoconazole inhibition. Correlation data were consistent with the role of CYP3A3/4 in granisetron 9'-desmethylation but indicated that a different enzyme was involved in the 7-hydroxylation. PMID:7888294

  16. Enzyme- and transporter-mediated beverage-drug interactions: An update on fruit juices and green tea.

    PubMed

    An, Guohua; Mukker, Jatinder Kaur; Derendorf, Hartmut; Frye, Reginald F

    2015-12-01

    Beverage-drug interactions have remained an active area of research and have been the subject of extensive investigations in the past 2 decades. The known mechanisms of clinically relevant beverage-drug interactions include modulation of the activity of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A and organic anion-transporting polypeptide (OATP). For CYP3A-mediated beverage-drug interaction, the in vivo CYP3A inhibitory effect is limited to grapefruit juice (GFJ), which increases the bioavailability of several orally administered drugs that undergo extensive first-pass metabolism via enteric CYP3A. In contrast, clinically significant OATP-mediated beverage-drug interactions have been observed with not only GFJ but also orange juice, apple juice, and, most recently, green tea. Fruit juices and green tea are all a mixture of a large number of constituents. The investigation of specific constituent(s) responsible for the enzyme and/or transporter inhibition remains an active area of research, and many new findings have been obtained on this subject in the past several years. This review highlights the multiple mechanisms through which beverages can alter drug disposition and provides an update on the new findings of beverage-drug interactions, with a focus on fruit juices and green tea. PMID:26095990

  17. Application of Micropatterned Cocultured Hepatocytes to Evaluate the Inductive Potential and Degradation Rate of Major Xenobiotic Metabolizing Enzymes.

    PubMed

    Dixit, Vaishali; Moore, Amanda; Tsao, Hong; Hariparsad, Niresh

    2016-02-01

    Long-term coculture models of hepatocytes are promising tools to study drug transport, clearance, and hepatoxicity. In this report we compare the basal expression of drug disposition genes and the inductive response of prototypical inducers (rifampin, phenobarbital, phenytoin) in hepatocyte two-dimensional monocultures and the long-term coculture model (HepatoPac). All the inducers used in the study increased the expression and activity of CYP3A4, CYP2B6 and CYP2C enzymes in the HepatoPac cultures. The coculture model showed a consistent and higher induction of CYP2C enzymes compared with the monocultures. The EC50 of rifampin for CYP3A4 and CYP2C9 was up to 10-fold lower in HepatoPac than the monocultures. The EC50 of rifampin calculated from the clinical drug interaction studies correlated well with the EC50 observed in the HepatoPac cultures. Owing to the long-term stability of the HepatoPac cultures, we were able to directly measure a half-life (t1/2) for both CYP3A4 and CYP2B6 using the depletion kinetics of mRNA and functional activity. The t1/2 for CYP3A4 mRNA was 26 hours and that for the functional protein was 49 hours. The t1/2 of CYP2B6 was 38 hours (mRNA) and 68 hours (activity), which is longer than CYP3A4 and shows the differential turnover of these two proteins. This is the first study to our knowledge to report the turnover rate of CYP2B6 in human hepatocytes. The data presented here demonstrate that the HepatoPac cultures have the potential to be used in long-term culture to mimic complex clinical scenarios. PMID:26658225

  18. Microarray Analysis of Differentially-Expressed Genes Encoding CYP450 and Phase II Drug Metabolizing Enzymes in Psoriasis and Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Sumantran, Venil N.; Mishra, Pratik; Bera, Rakesh; Sudhakar, Natarajan

    2016-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 drug metabolizing enzymes are implicated in personalized medicine for two main reasons. First, inter-individual variability in CYP3A4 expression is a confounding factor during cancer treatment. Second, inhibition or induction of CYP3A4 can trigger adverse drug–drug interactions. However, inflammation can downregulate CYP3A4 and other drug metabolizing enzymes and lead to altered metabolism of drugs and essential vitamins and lipids. Little is known about effects of inflammation on expression of CYP450 genes controlling drug metabolism in the skin. Therefore, we analyzed seven published microarray datasets, and identified differentially-expressed genes in two inflammatory skin diseases (melanoma and psoriasis). We observed opposite patterns of expression of genes regulating metabolism of specific vitamins and lipids in psoriasis and melanoma samples. Thus, genes controlling the turnover of vitamin D (CYP27B1, CYP24A1), vitamin A (ALDH1A3, AKR1B10), and cholesterol (CYP7B1), were up-regulated in psoriasis, whereas melanomas showed downregulation of genes regulating turnover of vitamin A (AKR1C3), and cholesterol (CYP39A1). Genes controlling abnormal keratinocyte differentiation and epidermal barrier function (CYP4F22, SULT2B1) were up-regulated in psoriasis. The up-regulated CYP24A1, CYP4F22, SULT2B1, and CYP7B1 genes are potential drug targets in psoriatic skin. Both disease samples showed diminished drug metabolizing capacity due to downregulation of the CYP1B1 and CYP3A5 genes. However, melanomas showed greater loss of drug metabolizing capacity due to downregulation of the CYP3A4 gene. PMID:26901218

  19. Camptothecin Attenuates Cytochrome P450 3A4 Induction by Blocking the Activation of Human Pregnane X ReceptorS⃞

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yakun; Tang, Yong; Robbins, Gregory T.

    2010-01-01

    Differential regulation of drug-metabolizing enzymes (DMEs) is a common cause of adverse drug effects in cancer therapy. Due to the extremely important role of cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) in drug metabolism and the dominant regulation of human pregnane X receptor (hPXR) on CYP3A4, finding inhibitors for hPXR could provide a unique tool to control drug efficacies in cancer therapy. Camptothecin (CPT) was demonstrated as a novel and potent inhibitor (IC50 = 0.58 μM) of an hPXR-mediated transcriptional regulation on CYP3A4 in this study. In contrast, one of its analogs, irinotecan (CPT-11), was found to be an hPXR agonist in the same tests. CPT disrupted the interaction of hPXR with steroid receptor coactivator-1 but had effects on neither the competition of ligand binding nor the formation of the hPXR and retinoid X receptor α heterodimer, nor the interaction between the regulatory complex and DNA-responsive elements. CPT treatment resulted in delayed metabolism of nifedipine in human hepatocytes treated with rifampicin, suggesting a potential prevention of drug-drug interactions between CYP3A4 inducers and CYP3A4-metabolized drugs. Because CPT is the leading compound of topoisomerase I inhibitors, which comprise a quickly developing class of anticancer agents, the findings indicate the potential of a new class of compounds to modify hPXR activity as agonists/inhibitors and are important in the development of CPT analogs. PMID:20504912

  20. Effects of genetic polymorphism of cytochrome P450 enzymes on the pharmacokinetics of benzodiazepines.

    PubMed

    Fukasawa, T; Suzuki, A; Otani, K

    2007-08-01

    Pharmacogenetic studies have shown that several cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes exhibit genetic polymorphisms. Several benzodiazepines (BZPs) are metabolized predominantly or partly by polymorphic CYP2C19 and CYP3A4/5. The pharmacokinetics of diazepam, etizolam, quazepam and desmethylclobazam have been shown to be affected by CYP2C19 polymorphism. The CYP3A5 polymorphism has been reported to affect the pharmacokinetics of alprazolam, but its effect on midazolam kinetics has been inconclusive. For etizolam and desmethylclobazam, some data suggest that CYP2C19 deficiency leads to side-effects or toxicity. For the remaining BZPs the clinical significance of the observed pharmacokinetic changes remains unclear. Further studies on the effects of genetic polymorphisms of CYP enzymes on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of BZPs are necessary to guide treatment individualization and optimization. PMID:17635335

  1. Differential Interactions of Cytochrome P450 3A5 and 3A4 with Chemotherapeutic Agent-Vincristine: A Comparative Molecular Dynamics Study.

    PubMed

    Saba, Nikhat; Bhuyan, Rajabrata; Nandy, Suman Kumar; Seal, Alpana

    2015-01-01

    The chemotherapeutic agent vincristine, used for treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia is metabolized preferentially by polymorphic cytochrome P450 3A5 (CYP3A5) with higher clearance rate than cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4). As a result, CYP3A5 expressers have a reduced amount of vincristine-induced peripheral neuropathy than non-expressers. We modeled the structure of CYP3A5 and its interaction with vincristine, compared with CYP3A4-vincristine complex using molecular docking and simulation studies. This relative study helped us to understand the molecular mechanisms behind the interaction at the atomic level through interaction energy, binding free energy, hydrogen bond and solvent accessible surface area analysis - giving an insight into the binding mode and the main residues involved in this particular interaction. Our results show that the interacting groups get closer in CYP3A5-vincristine complex due to different orientation of vincristine. This leads to higher binding affinity of vincristine towards CYP3A5 compared to CYP3A4 and explains the preferential metabolism of vincristine by CYP3A5. We believe that, the results of the current study will be helpful for future studies on structure-based drug design in this area. PMID:25634447

  2. Atorvastatin-induced acute elevation of hepatic enzymes and the absence of cross-toxicity of pravastatin

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Y.; Cheng, Z.; Ding, L.; Fang, F.; Cheng, K.-A.; Fang, Q.; Shi, G.-P.

    2011-01-01

    Atorvastatin has been associated with liver injury. We reported here two cases of aminotransferases elevation within 12 h of low-dose atorvastatin therapy. Liver functions were fully recovered to the baseline level 11 days after discontinuation of atorvastatin treatment. The possible relative risk factors included advanced age, chronic and systemic diseases, and co-administration of cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A) enzyme-dependent metabolic drugs or its inhibitors such as clopidogrel and diltiazem. No significant transaminase elevation was observed after switching to pravastatin. Thus, pravastatin might be safer than atorvastain in patients with chronic or systemic diseases, or with co-administration of CYP3A enzyme-dependent drugs. PMID:21084035

  3. Screening of Drug Metabolizing Enzymes for the Ginsenoside Compound K In Vitro: An Efficient Anti-Cancer Substance Originating from Panax Ginseng

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Xiu-Xian; Peng, Shi-Fang; Xiao, Mei-Fang; Huang, Wei-Hua; Wang, Yi-Cheng; Peng, Jing-Bo; Zhang, Wei; Ouyang, Dong-Sheng; Chen, Yao

    2016-01-01

    Ginsenoside compound K (CK), a rare ginsenoside originating from Panax Ginseng, has been found to possess unique pharmacological activities specifically as anti-cancers. However, the role of cytochrome P450s (CYPs) in the metabolism of CK is unclear. In this study, we screened the CYPs for the metabolism of CK in vitro using human liver microsomes (HLMs) or human recombinant CYPs. The results showed that CK inhibited the enzyme activities of CYP2C9 and CYP3A4 in the HLMs. The Km and Vmax values of CK were 84.20±21.92 μM and 0.28±0.04 nmol/mg protein/min, respectively, for the HLMs; 34.63±10.48 μM and 0.45±0.05 nmol/nmol P450/min, respectively, for CYP2C9; and 27.03±5.04 μM and 0.68±0.04 nmol/nmol P450/min, respectively, for CYP3A4. The IC50 values were 16.00 μM and 9.83 μM, and Ki values were 14.92 μM and 11.42μM for CYP2C9 and CYP3A4, respectively. Other human CYP isoforms, including CYP1A2, CYP2A6, CYP2D6, CYP2E1, and CYP2C19, showed minimal or no effect on CK metabolism. The results suggested that CK was a substrate and also inhibitors for both CYP2C9 and CYP3A4. Patients using CK in combination with therapeutic drugs that are substrates of CYP2C9 and CYP3A4 for different reasons should be careful, although the inhibiting potency of CK is much poorer than that of enzyme-specific inhibitors. PMID:26845774

  4. The impact of genetic polymorphisms of drug metabolizing enzymes on the pharmacodynamics of clopidogrel under steady state conditions.

    PubMed

    Nakkam, Nontaya; Tiamkao, Somsak; Kanjanawart, Sirimas; Tiamkao, Siriporn; Vannaprasaht, Suda; Tassaneeyakul, Wongwiwat; Tassaneeyakul, Wichittra

    2015-08-01

    Clopidogrel is an antiplatelet drug that requires biotransformation steps to its active metabolite via cytochromes P450 (CYP), particularly CYP2C19 and CYP3A5 as well as paraoxonase-1 (PON1). The impact of CYP3A5 and PON1 genetic polymorphisms on the response of this drug is unclear. This study aimed to elucidate the degree of genetic polymorphisms of key drug metabolizing enzymes on the antiplatelet effect of clopidogrel. Thirty-five healthy subjects were treated with 75 mg/day clopidogrel for 7 days and serial blood samples were collected for measurement of antiplatelet effect using whole blood impedance aggregometry and VerifyNow(®) P2Y12 methods. The areas under the antiplatelet effect-time curves, maximal and minimal antiplatelet effects of clopidogrel obtained from both methods were significantly different among subjects with different CYP2C19 genotypes. In contrast, these pharmacodymamic parameters measured by both methods of subjects with different PON1 or CYP3A5 genotypes were not significantly different. Among the heterozygous CYP2C19*2 subjects, all pharmacodynamic parameters measured by whole blood impedance aggregometry were significantly different between subjects with different CYP3A5*3 genotypes. Our data suggests that CYP2C19 genetic polymorphism play a major role in the clopidogrel response, however, the impact of CYP3A5 genetic polymorphism, may be pronounced in the subjects who carried the loss-functional allele of CYP2C19. PMID:26099919

  5. Kinetics of electron transfer in the complex of cytochrome P450 3A4 with the flavin domain of cytochrome P450BM-3 as evidence of functional heterogeneity of the heme protein

    PubMed Central

    Fernando, Harshica; Halpert, James R.; Davydov, Dmitri R.

    2008-01-01

    We used a rapid scanning stop-flow technique to study the kinetics of reduction of cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) by the flavin domain of cytochrome P450-BM3 (BMR), which was shown to form a stoichiometric complex (KD = 0.48 µM) with CYP3A4. In the absence of substrates only about 50% of CYP3A4 was able to accept electrons from BMR. Whereas the high-spin fraction was completely reducible, the reducibility of the low-spin fraction did not exceed 42%. Among four substrates tested (testosterone, 1-pyrenebutanol, bromocriptine, or α-naphthoflavone (ANF)) only ANF is capable of increasing the reducibility of the low-spin fraction to 75%. Our results demonstrate that the pool of CYP3A4 is heterogeneous, and not all P450 is competent for electron transfer in the complex with reductase. The increase in the reducibility of the enzyme in the presence of ANF may represent an important element of the mechanism of action of this activator. PMID:18086551

  6. Ophiopogon japonicus strains from different cultivation regions exhibit markedly different properties on cytotoxicity, pregnane X receptor activation and cytochrome P450 3A4 induction

    PubMed Central

    GE, LE-LE; KAN, LIAN-DI; ZHUGE, ZHENG-BING; MA, KE; CHEN, SHU-QING

    2015-01-01

    Maidong, known as Ophiopogon japonicus, is one of the two basic ingredients of Shenmai injection, which is a widely used herbal preparation in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) for the treatment of atherosclerotic coronary heart disease and viral myocarditis. Previously, the ethanol extract of Maidong activated the pregnane X receptor (PXR) signaling pathway and induced the cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) reporter gene and raised the concern of herb-drug interactions (HDIs) when Maidong was used in combination with prescribed drugs metabolized by CYP3A4. Therefore, the present study further investigated and compared the differences of the ethanol and aqueous extracts (ee- and ae-, respectively) of two Maidong strains, known as Zhe Maidong (ZM) and Chuan Maidong (CM). Cytotoxicity, PXR activation and CYP3A4 induction by the 3-(4,5)-dimethylthiahiazo-(-z-y1)-3,5-diphenytetrazoliumromide assay, reporter gene assay and reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis were examined. The observations showed that ee-ZM demonstrated a significantly higher cytotoxicity, a relatively weaker PXR activation capability and a markedly stronger CYP3A4-inducing capacity than ee-CM. Compared to ae-CM, ae-ZM exhibited only a slight or no difference on cytotoxicity and CYP3A4 induction, while a significant lower level of PXR activation was apparent. Collectively, Maidong from different producing areas possess different properties upon cytotoxicity and the drug-metabolizing enzyme inducing effect, and attention should be paid to the selection of Maidong strains from different planting regions into TCM preparations for reducing potential adverse reactions and HDIs. PMID:26137250

  7. Suppression of cytochrome P450 3A protein levels by proteasome inhibitors.

    SciTech Connect

    Zangar, Richard C. ); Kocarek, Thomas A.; Shen, Shang; Bollinger, Nikki ); Dahn, Michael S.; Lee, Donna W.

    2003-06-01

    We have previously reported that CYP3A cross-links with polyubiquitinated proteins in microsomes from nicardipine-treated rats in a process that is distinct from classical polyubiquitination. To further examine the role of the proteasome in CYP3A degradation, we investigated the effects of proteasome inhibitors lactacystin, MG132, proteasome inhibitor 1, and hemin in primary cultures of rat and human hepatocytes. With the exception of hemin, these agents increased the total pool of ubiquitinated proteins in microsomes isolated from rat hepatocytes, indicating that lactacystin, MG132, and proteasome inhibitor 1 effectively inhibited the proteasome in these cells. All four agents caused a reduction in the amount of the major approximately 55-kDa CYP3A band, opposite to what would be expected if the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway degraded CYP3A. Only hemin treatment caused an increase in high molecular mass (HMM) CYP3A bands. Because hemin treatment did not alter levels of ubiquitin in CYP3 A immunoprecipitates, the HMM CYP3A bands formed in response to hemin treatment clearly were not due to proteasome inhibition. Rather, because hemin treatment also caused an increase in HMM CYP3A in the detergent-insoluble fraction of the 10,000g pellet, the HMM CYP3A seems to represent a large protein complex that is unlikely to primarily represent ubiquitination.

  8. Potential impact of cytochrome P450 3A5 in human liver on drug interactions with triazoles.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Hiroshi; Nakamoto, Minako; Shimizu, Makiko; Murayama, Norie; Niwa, Toshiro

    2010-06-01

    Cytochrome P450 3A is the main enzyme subfamily involved in the metabolism of a variety of marketed medicines. It is generally believed that the substrate specificity of polymorphic P450 3A5 is similar to that of the predominant P450 3A4 isoform, although some differences in catalytic properties have been found. It has been hypothesized that individuals with CYP3A5 1 (P450 3A5 expresser) might clear the HIV protease inhibitor saquinavir, administered by mouth, more rapidly than subjects lacking functional CYP3A5 alleles. Enhanced midazolam hydroxylation and cyclosporin metabolism occur in an in vitro P450 3A5 system and in liver microsomes expressing P450 3A5 in the presence of thalidomide. However, inhibition constants (K(i)) of three triazole anti-fungal drugs (itraconazole, fluconazole, and voriconazole) for liver microsomal P450 3A5 are higher than for liver microsomal P450 3A4. To predict drug interactions in vivo, we estimated increases of areas under the curves (AUC) dependent on polymorphic P450 3A5 expression, using both 1 +[Inhibitor] / K(i) (recommended in US FDA guidance), and 1 +[Inhibitor](unbound) / K(i) (as recommended by Japanese MHLW Notice). Voriconazole would be expected to cause approximately a three-fold higher increase in AUC in subjects with CYP3A5 3/3 than in those with CYP3A5 1/3, especially when estimated using the FDA guidance. We conclude that drug interactions between marketed drugs may differ substantially between individuals with genetically distinct P450 3A5 catalytic functions. PMID:20565450

  9. Xyloketal B, a marine compound, acts on a network of molecular proteins and regulates the activity and expression of rat cytochrome P450 3a: a bioinformatic and animal study

    PubMed Central

    Su, Junhui; Chang, Cui; Xiang, Qi; Zhou, Zhi-Wei; Luo, Rong; Yang, Lun; He, Zhi-Xu; Yang, Hongtu; Li, Jianan; Bei, Yu; Xu, Jinmei; Zhang, Minjing; Zhang, Qihao; Su, Zhijian; Huang, Yadong; Pang, Jiyan; Zhou, Shu-Feng

    2014-01-01

    Natural compounds are becoming popular for the treatment of illnesses and health promotion, but the mechanisms of action and safety profiles are often unknown. Xyloketal B (XKB) is a novel marine compound isolated from the mangrove fungus Xylaria sp., with potent antioxidative, neuroprotective, and cardioprotective effects. However, its molecular targets and effects on drug-metabolizing enzymes are unknown. This study aimed to investigate the potential molecular targets of XKB using bioinformatic approaches and to examine the effect of XKB on the expression and activity of rat cytochrome P450 3a (Cyp3a) subfamily members using midazolam as a model probe. DDI-CPI, a server that can predict drug–drug interactions via the chemical–protein interactome, was employed to predict the targets of XKB, and the Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery (DAVID) was used to analyze the pathways of the predicted targets of XKB. Homology modeling was performed using the Discovery Studio program 3.1. The activity and expression of rat hepatic Cyp3a were examined after the rats were treated with XKB at 7 and 14 mg/kg for 8 consecutive days. Rat plasma concentrations of midazolam and its metabolite 1′-OH-midazolam were determined using a validated high-performance liquid chromatographic method. Bioinformatic analysis showed that there were over 324 functional proteins and 61 related signaling pathways that were potentially regulated by XKB. A molecular docking study showed that XKB bound to the active site of human cytochrome P450 3A4 and rat Cyp3a2 homology model via the formation of hydrogen bonds. The in vivo study showed that oral administration of XKB at 14 mg/kg to rats for 8 days significantly increased the area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) of midazolam, with a concomitant decrease in the plasma clearance and AUC ratio of 1′-OH-midazolam over midazolam. Further, oral administration of 14 mg/kg XKB for 8 days markedly reduced the

  10. [Effect of diet overloaded by fats on the enzyme systems of metabolism in rats].

    PubMed

    Herych, O Kh; Pentiuk, O O

    2008-01-01

    The feeding of rats with high-fat diet (a part of fats was 50% of energy value of ration against 20% in control) during 4 weeks increased the level of cytochrome P-450 in the liver and enhanced aniline- and p-nitrophenol hydroxylase activity of CYP2E1 as well as erythromycin N-demethylase activity of CYP3A; the activity of aldehyde dehydrogenase class 3, UDP-glucuronosyl transferase, glutathione-S-transferase and N-acetyl transferase. At the same time, the moderate decrease of indomethacin-O-demethylase of CYP2C both phenolsulfotransferase activity were fixed. The changes of enzymatic activity correlated with activating of processes of gluconeogenesis, glycogenolysis and, especially, ketogenesis. A high-fat diet enhanced reactions of biotransformation of amidopyrine, acetanilide, toluene, sulfadimezine, were catalyzed with CYP2E1, CYP3A and enzymes of conjugation, simultaneously it increased the hepatotoxicity of paracetamol. PMID:18710030

  11. Inhibitive effect of diphenytriazol on rat cytochrome P450 enzyme in vitro.

    PubMed

    Hu, Y Z; Yao, T W

    2009-07-01

    The inhibiting effect of diphenytriazol, a non-hormonal early pregnancy-terminating agent, towards cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes in rat liver microsomes was studied in vitro. The inhibiting effect of diphenytriazol on CYP was investigated by coincubating diphenytriazol with the specific CYP1A substrates, ethoxyresorufin and phenacetin, in microsome induced by beta-naphthoflavone, with the specific CYP2B substrates, pentoxyresorufin and aminopyrine, in the microsome induced by phenobarbital, and with the specific CYP3A substrates, diazepam, testosterone, nifedipine and quinine sulfate in microsome induced by dexamethasone. The results showed that diphenytriazol inhibited the metabolism of ethoxyresorufin and phenacetin significantly, and its inhibition potential on CYP1A was higher than the typical inhibitor fluvoxamine. Diphenytriazol also inhibited the metabolism of diazepam, testosterone, nifedipine and quinine sulfate to different degrees, but its inhibition potential was relatively weaker than that of the typical inhibitor, ketoconazole. No inhibiting effect of diphenytriazol was seen on the metabolism of pentoxyresorufin and aminopyrine. The ability of diphenytriazol to inhibit rat liver CYP1A and CYP3A suggests that in human patients complex interactions may result from co-adiministration of diphenytriazol with other agents which are also substrates for CYP1A or CYP3A enzymes. PMID:19694183

  12. Anthocyanins and their metabolites are weak inhibitors of cytochrome P450 3A4.

    PubMed

    Dreiseitel, Andrea; Schreier, Peter; Oehme, Anett; Locher, Sanja; Hajak, Goeran; Sand, Philipp G

    2008-12-01

    The cytochrome P450 enzyme cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) controls the metabolism of about 60% of all drugs, and its inhibition may dramatically affect drug safety. Modulation of cytochrome P450 activity has been observed by constituents of fruit extracts including several flavonoids. The present investigation addresses CYP3A4 inhibition by anthocyanins, their aglycons, proanthocyanidins, and phenolic metabolites using a chemiluminescent assay. Test compounds inhibited CYP3A4 activity in a concentration-dependent manner featuring IC(50) values from 12.2 up to 7,842 microM. In the order of decreasing effect size, anthocyanidins were followed by anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins, and phenolic acids. When compared to earlier data on furanocoumarins from grapefruit extract, the inhibitory activity of tested anthocyanins, and anthocyanidins was shown to be about 10,000-fold weaker, and was negligible for phenolic acids (>100 000-fold weaker). Future studies are invited to address effects of the above flavonoids on other CYP isoforms for more detailed toxicity profiles. PMID:18727015

  13. Cytochrome P450 3A Conjugation to Ubiquitin in a Process Distinct from Classical Ubiquitination Pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Zangar, Richard C. ); Kimzey, Amy L.; Okita, Janice R.; Wunschel, David S. ); Edwards, Robert J.; Kim, Hyesook; Okita, Richard T.

    2001-12-01

    We characterize a novel microsome system that forms high-molecular-mass (HMM) CYP3A, CYP2E1, and ubiquitin conjugates, but does not alter CYP4A or most other microsomal proteins. The formation of the HMM bands was observed in hepatic microsomes isolated from rats treated 1 week or more with high doses (50 mg/kg/day) of nicardipine, clotrimazole, or pregnenolone 16alpha-carbonitrile, but not microsomes from control, dexamethasone-, nifedipine-, or diltiazem-treated rats. Extensive washing of the microsomes to remove loosely attached proteins or cytosolic contaminants did not prevent the conjugation reaction. In contrast to prototypical ubiquitination pathways, this reaction did not require addition of ubiquitin, ATP, Mg(2+), or cytosol. Addition of cytosol did result in the degradation of the HMM CYP3A bands in a process that was not blocked by proteasome inhibitors. Immunoprecipitated CYP3A contained HMM ubiquitin. Even so, mass spectrometric analysis of tryptic peptides indicated that the HMM CYP3A was in molar excess to ubiquitin, suggesting that the formation of the HMM CYP3A may have resulted from conjugation to itself or a diffuse pool of ubiquitinated proteins already present in the microsomes. Addition of CYP3A substrates inhibited the formation of the HMM CYP3A and the cytosol-dependent degradation of HMM CYP3A. These results suggest that after extended periods of elevated CYP3A expression, microsomal factors are induced that catalyze the formation of HMM CYP3A conjugates that contain ubiquitin. This conjugation reaction, however, seems to be distinct from the classical ubiquitination pathway but may be related to the substrate-dependent stabilization of CYP3A observed in vivo.

  14. N-Heterocyclic Carbene Capture by Cytochrome P450 3A4.

    PubMed

    Jennings, Gareth K; Ritchie, Caroline M; Shock, Lisa S; Lyons, Charles E; Hackett, John C

    2016-07-01

    Cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) is the dominant P450 enzyme involved in human drug metabolism, and its inhibition may result in adverse interactions or, conversely, favorably reduce the systemic elimination rates of poorly bioavailable drugs. Herein we describe a spectroscopic investigation of the interaction of CYP3A4 with N-methylritonavir, an analog of ritonavir, widely used as a pharmacoenhancer. In contrast to ritonavir, the binding affinity of N-methylritonavir for CYP3A4 is pH-dependent. At pH <7.4, the spectra are definitively type I, whereas at pH ≥7.4 the spectra have split Soret bands, including a red-shifted component characteristic of a P450-carbene complex. Variable-pH UV-visible spectroscopy binding studies with molecular fragments narrows the source of this pH dependence to its N-methylthiazolium fragment. The C2 proton of this group is acidic, and variable-pH resonance Raman spectroscopy tentatively assigns it a pKa of 7.4. Hence, this fragment of N-methylritonavir is expected to be readily deprotonated under physiologic conditions to yield a thiazol-2-ylidene, which is an N-heterocyclic carbene that has high-affinity for and is presumed to be subsequently captured by the heme iron. This mechanism is supported by time-dependent density functional theory with an active site model that accurately reproduces distinguishing features of the experimental UV-visible spectra of N-methylritonavir bound to CYP3A4. Finally, density functional theory calculations support that this novel interaction is as strong as the tightest-binding azaheterocycles found in P450 inhibitors and could offer new avenues for inhibitor development. PMID:27126611

  15. Inhibition of cytochrome P450 3A by acetoxylated analogues of resveratrol in in vitro and in silico models.

    PubMed

    Basheer, Loai; Schultz, Keren; Kerem, Zohar

    2016-01-01

    Many dietary compounds, including resveratrol, are potent inhibitors of CYP3A4. Here we examined the potential to predict inhibition capacity of dietary polyphenolics using an in silico and in vitro approaches and synthetic model compounds. Mono, di, and tri-acetoxy resveratrol were synthesized, a cell line of human intestine origin and microsomes from rat liver served to determine their in vitro inhibition of CYP3A4, and compared to that of resveratrol. Docking simulation served to predict the affinity of the synthetic model compounds to the enzyme. Modelling of the enzyme's binding site revealed three types of interaction: hydrophobic, electrostatic and H-bonding. The simulation revealed that each of the examined acetylations of resveratrol led to the loss of important interactions of all types. Tri-acetoxy resveratrol was the weakest inhibitor in vitro despite being the more lipophilic and having the highest affinity for the binding site. The simulation demonstrated exclusion of all interactions between tri-acetoxy resveratrol and the heme due to distal binding, highlighting the complexity of the CYP3A4 binding site, which may allow simultaneous accommodation of two molecules. Finally, the use of computational modelling may serve as a quick predictive tool to identify potential harmful interactions between dietary compounds and prescribed drugs. PMID:27530542

  16. Inhibition of human cytochrome P450 enzymes by the natural hepatotoxin safrole.

    PubMed

    Ueng, Yune-Fang; Hsieh, Chih-Hang; Don, Ming-Jaw

    2005-05-01

    The hepatotoxin, safrole is a methylenedioxy phenyl compound, found in sassafras oil and certain other essential oils. Recombinant cytochrome P450 (CYP, P450) and human liver microsomes were studied to investigate the selective inhibitory effects of safrole on human P450 enzymes and the mechanisms of action. Using Escherichia coli-expressed human P450, our results demonstrated that safrole was a non-selective inhibitor of CYP1A2, CYP2A6, CYP2D6, CYP2E1, and CYP3A4 in the IC(50) order CYP2E1 < CYP1A2 < CYP2A6 < CYP3A4 < CYP2D6. Safrole strongly inhibited CYP1A2, CYP2A6, and CYP2E1 activities with IC(50) values less than 20 microM. Safrole caused competitive, non-competitive, and non-competitive inhibition of CYP1A2, CYP2A6 and CYP2E1 activities, respectively. The inhibitor constants were in the order CYP1A2 < CYP2E1 < CYP2A6. In human liver microsomes, 50 microM safrole strongly inhibited 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylation, coumarin hydroxylation, and chlorzoxazone hydroxylation activities. These results revealed that safrole was a potent inhibitor of human CYP1A2, CYP2A6, and CYP2E1. With relatively less potency, CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 were also inhibited. PMID:15778010

  17. The Psychostimulant Khat (Catha edulis) Inhibits CYP2D6 Enzyme Activity in Humans.

    PubMed

    Bedada, Worku; de Andrés, Fernando; Engidawork, Ephrem; Pohanka, Anton; Beck, Olof; Bertilsson, Leif; Llerena, Adrián; Aklillu, Eleni

    2015-12-01

    The use of khat (Catha edulis) while on medication may alter treatment outcome. In particular, the influence of khat on the metabolic activities of drug-metabolizing enzymes is not known. We performed a comparative 1-way crossover study to evaluate the effect of khat on cytochrome P450 (CYP)2D6 and CYP3A4 enzyme activity. After 1 week of khat abstinence, baseline CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 metabolic activities were determined in 40 Ethiopian male volunteers using 30 mg dextromethorphan (DM) as a probe drug and then repeated after 1 week of daily use of 400 g fresh khat leaves. Urinary concentrations of cathinone and cathine were determined to monitor the subjects' compliance to the study protocol. Genotyping for CYP2D6*3 and CYP2D6*4 was done. Plasma DM, dextrorphan and 3-methoxymorphinan concentrations were quantified. CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 enzyme activities were assessed by comparing plasma log DM/dextrorphan and log DM/methoxymorphinan metabolic ratio (MR) respectively in the presence and absence of khat. Cytochrome 2D6 MR was significantly increased from baseline by concurrent khat use (paired t test, P = 0.003; geometric mean ratio, 1.38; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.12-1.53). Moreover, the inhibition of CYP2D6 activity by khat was more pronounced in CYP2D6*1/*1 compared with CYP2D6*1/*4 genotypes (P = 0.01). A marginal inhibition of CYP3A4 activity in the presence of khat was observed (P = 0.24). The mean percentage increase of CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 MR from baseline by khat use was 46% (95% CI, 20-72) and 31% (95% CI, 8-54), respectively. This is the first report linking khat use with significant inhibition of CYP2D6 metabolic activity in humans. PMID:26444948

  18. Fungal lactone ring opening of 6', 7'-dihydroxybergamottin diminishes cytochrome P450 3A4 inhibitory activity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Furanocoumarins (FCs) are a class of aromatic compounds in grapefruit that inhibit human intestinal cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4). Since fungi metabolize polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, we hypothesized that certain fungi might also metabolize FCs into forms that may be inactive as CYP3A4 inhibitors...

  19. Drug Metabolism Enzyme Expression and Activity in Primary Cultures of Human Proximal Tubular Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lash, Lawrence H.; Putt, David A.; Cai, Hongliang

    2008-01-01

    We previously catalogued expression and activity of organic anion and cation, amino acid, and peptide transporters in primary cultures of human proximal tubular (hPT) cells to establish them as a cellular model to study drug transport in the human kidney [Toxicology 228, 200–218 (2006)]. Here, we extend our analysis to drug metabolism enzymes. Expression of 11 cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes was determined with specific antibodies. CYP1B1, CYP3A4, and CYP4A11 were the only CYP enzymes readily detected in total cell extracts. These same CYP enzymes, as well as CYP3A5 and possibly CYP2D6, were detected in microsomes from confluent hPT cells, although expression levels varied among kidney samples. In agreement with Western blot data, only activity of CYP3A4/5 was detected among the enzyme activities measured. Expression of all three glutathione S-transferases (