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Sample records for 3a figure 3b

  1. Broadcasting Satellite-3A and -3B (BS-3A and 3B)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horii, M.; Funakawa, K.

    1991-01-01

    The BS-3A and -3B will provide direct color TV broadcasting to the Japanese mainland and remote islands. The satellites will be launched from Tanegashima Space Center by a type H-1 launch vehicle. The coverage will consist of the 26-m antenna and the 34-m antenna as a backup support for the transfer and drift orbits. Maximum support will consist of one 8-hour track per station for a seven day period, plus 23 days of contingency support from all complexes. Information is given in tabular form for Deep Space Network support, frequency assignments, telemetry, command, and tracking support responsibility.

  2. 75 FR 28188 - Airworthiness Directives; General Electric Company CF34-1A, -3A, -3A1, -3A2, -3B, and -3B1...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-20

    ... 7, 2010 (75 FR 910), we published a final rule AD, FR Doc, E9-30471, in the Federal Register. That... (GE) CF34-1A, -3A, -3A1, -3A2, -3B, and -3B1 turbofan engines. The GE alert service bulletin...

  3. Updating P300: An Integrative Theory of P3a and P3b

    PubMed Central

    Polich, John

    2009-01-01

    The empirical and theoretical development of the P300 event-related brain potential (ERP) is reviewed by considering factors that contribute to its amplitude, latency, and general characteristics. The neuropsychological origins of the P3a and P3b subcomponents are detailed, and how target/standard discrimination difficulty modulates scalp topography is discussed. The neural loci of P3a and P3b generation are outlined, and a cognitive model is proffered: P3a originates from stimulus-driven frontal attention mechanisms during task processing, whereas P3b originates from temporal-parietal activity associated with attention and appears related to subsequent memory processing. Neurotransmitter actions associating P3a to frontal/dopaminergic and P3b to parietal/norepinephrine pathways are highlighted. Neuroinhibition is suggested as an overarching theoretical mechanism for P300, which is elicited when stimulus detection engages memory operations. PMID:17573239

  4. Dnmt3a and Dnmt3b have overlapping and distinct functions in hematopoietic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Challen, Grant A; Sun, Deqiang; Mayle, Allison; Jeong, Mira; Luo, Min; Rodriguez, Benjamin; Mallaney, Cates; Celik, Hamza; Yang, Liubin; Xia, Zheng; Cullen, Sean; Berg, Jonathan; Zheng, Yayun; Darlington, Gretchen J; Li, Wei; Goodell, Margaret A

    2014-09-01

    Epigenetic regulation of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) ensures lifelong production of blood and bone marrow. Recently, we reported that loss of de novo DNA methyltransferase Dnmt3a results in HSC expansion and impaired differentiation. Here, we report conditional inactivation of Dnmt3b in HSCs either alone or combined with Dnmt3a deletion. Combined loss of Dnmt3a and Dnmt3b was synergistic, resulting in enhanced HSC self-renewal and a more severe block in differentiation than in Dnmt3a-null cells, whereas loss of Dnmt3b resulted in a mild phenotype. Although the predominant Dnmt3b isoform in adult HSCs is catalytically inactive, its residual activity in Dnmt3a-null HSCs can drive some differentiation and generates paradoxical hypermethylation of CpG islands. Dnmt3a/Dnmt3b-null HSCs displayed activated β-catenin signaling, partly accounting for the differentiation block. These data demonstrate distinct roles for Dnmt3b in HSC differentiation and provide insights into complementary de novo methylation patterns governing regulation of HSC fate decisions. PMID:25130491

  5. 75 FR 910 - Airworthiness Directives; General Electric Company CF34-1A, -3A, -3A1, -3A2, -3B, and -3B1...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-07

    ...-07R1, Amendment 39-15179 (72 FR 49183, August 28, 2007) and AD 2007-05-16, Amendment 39-14977 (72 FR... FR 17799). That action proposed to require: Replacing certain fan disks installed on regional jets... instructions related to operators who fly a regional jet (RJ) with the CF34-3A1 engine as a business jet...

  6. FCGR3A and FCGR3B copy number variations are risk factors for sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jianming; Li, Yunfang; Guan, Weihua; Viken, Kevin; Perlman, David M; Bhargava, Maneesh

    2016-07-01

    Sarcoidosis is a multisystem granulomatous disorder that causes significant morbidity. Genetic factors contribute to sarcoidosis risks. In this study, we investigated whether copy number variations (CNVs) of FCGR3A (coding for FcγRIIIA) and FCGR3B (coding for FcγRIIIB) genes are associated with sarcoidosis susceptibility and whether the expressions of FcγRIIIA on NK cells and FcγRIIIB on neutrophils are altered in sarcoidosis patients. TaqMan real-time PCR assays were used to analyze the CNV of FCGR3A and FCGR3B genes. FCGR3A and FCGR3B CNV genotypes were compared between 671 biopsy-proven sarcoidosis patients and the same number of healthy controls matched with age, sex, race, and geographic area from the ACCESS (A Case Control Etiologic Study of Sarcoidosis) cohort. Flow cytometry analyses were used to determine expressions of FcγRIIIA on NK cells and FcγRIIIB on neutrophils in phenotype analyses. We found that FCGR3A CNVs were significantly associated with sarcoidosis in females (CN = 1 vs. CN = 2 logistic regression adjusted for sex and race, OR 4.0156, SE = 2.2784, P = 0.0143; CN = 3 vs. CN = 2 logistic regression adjusted for sex and race, OR 2.8044, SE = 1.1065, P = 0.0090), suggesting that FCGR3A gene abnormality influences sarcoidosis development in a gender-specific manner. Furthermore, FcγRIIIA expressions were significantly decreased on NK cells from sarcoidosis patients compared to those from healthy controls (P = 0.0007). Additionally, low FCGR3B CN was associated with sarcoidosis (CN <2 vs. CN = 2 logistic regression adjusted for sex and race, OR 1.5025, SE = 0.2682, P = 0.0226), indicating that the functions of FCGR3B gene may also contribute to the pathogenesis of sarcoidosis. We conclude that FCGR3A CNVs are a major risk factor for female sarcoidosis and FCGR3B CNVs may also affect the development of sarcoidosis. PMID:27059607

  7. APOBEC3A and APOBEC3B Preferentially Deaminate the Lagging Strand Template during DNA Replication

    PubMed Central

    Mertz, Tony; Malc, Ewa P.; Mieczkowski, Piotr A.; Roberts, Steven A.

    2016-01-01

    Summary APOBEC family cytidine deaminases have been recently implicated as powerful mutators of cancer genomes. How APOBECs, which are ssDNA specific enzymes, gain access to chromosomal DNA is unclear. To ascertain the chromosomal ssDNA substrates of the APOBECs, we expressed APOBEC3A and APOBEC3B, the two most probable APOBECs mediating cancer mutagenesis, in a yeast model system. We demonstrate, using mutation reporters and whole genome sequencing, that APOBEC3A- and APOBEC3B-induced mutagenesis primarily results from the deamination of the lagging strand template during DNA replication. Moreover, our results indicate that both genetic deficiencies in replication fork-stabilizing proteins and chemical induction of replication stress greatly augment the mutagenesis of APOBEC3A and 3B. Taken together, these results strongly indicate that ssDNA formed during DNA lagging strand synthesis is a major substrate for APOBECs and may be the principal substrate in human cancers experiencing replication stress. PMID:26832400

  8. Neural generators of the auditory evoked potential components P3a and P3b.

    PubMed

    Wronka, Eligiusz; Kaiser, Jan; Coenen, Anton M L

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to define the scalp topography of the two subcomponents of the P3 component of the auditory evoked potential elicited in a three-stimulus oddball paradigm and to identify their cortical generators using the standardized low resolution electromagnetic tomography (sLORETA). Subjects were presented with a random sequence of auditory stimuli and instructed to respond to an infrequently occurring target stimulus inserted into a sequence of frequent standard and rare non-target stimuli. Results show that the magnitude of the frontal P3a is determined by the relative physical difference among stimuli, as it was larger for the stimulus more deviant from the standard. Major neural generators of the P3a were localized within frontal cortex and anterior cingulate gyrus. In contrast to this, the P3b, showing maximal amplitude at parietal locations, was larger for stimuli demanding a response than for the rare non-target. Major sources of the P3b included the superior parietal lobule and the posterior part of the cingulate gyrus. Our findings are in line with the hypothesis that P3a is related to alerting activity during the initial allocation of attention, while P3b is related to activation of a posterior network when the neuronal model of perceived stimulation is compared with the attentional trace. PMID:22508084

  9. Are serotonin 3A and 3B receptor genes associated with suicidal behavior in schizophrenia subjects?

    PubMed

    Souza, Renan P; De Luca, Vincenzo; Manchia, Mirko; Kennedy, James L

    2011-02-11

    Suicide is a major contributor to the morbidity and mortality of schizophrenia, accounting for approximately 10% of deaths in these patients. Genetic factors have been reported to modulate the risk for suicide, although the precise mechanism and magnitude of the genetic contribution are unknown. Further, suicide attempters present abnormalities in the serotonergic system. We evaluated whether genetic variants in the serotonin receptors HTR3A (rs897692, rs1150226, rs1176724, rs2276302, rs3737457, rs897687 and rs1176713) and HTR3B (rs3758987, rs10502180, rs11606194, rs17116121, rs1176744, rs17116138, rs2276307, rs3782025 and rs1176761) were susceptibility components for suicidal behavior in 154 Caucasians schizophrenia subjects (20.1% of suicide attempters). In a second step, we compared haplotype and gene-gene interaction approaches because both genes are located in the chromosome 11q23 approximately 28Kbp apart. We did not observe allelic or genotypic associations. Six haplotypes were nominally significant associated with suicide. Gene-gene interaction using Helix Tree software showed two nominally significant interactions reproduced by haplotype association. Likewise, haplotypes composed by the markers included in the best multidimensional reduction three-locus model were nominally significant. Our results suggest that HTR3A and HTR3B polymorphisms may not play a major role in the susceptibility for suicidal behavior in schizophrenia subjects. Moreover, gene-gene interaction and haplotype association may have consistent results for genes located in the same chromosome. PMID:21184810

  10. Functional Analysis of KIF3A and KIF3B during Spermiogenesis of Chinese Mitten Crab Eriocheir sinensis

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yang; Wang, Qi; Wang, Da-Hui; Zhou, Hong; Hu, Yan-Jun; Yang, Wan-Xi

    2014-01-01

    Background Spermatogenesis represents the transformation process at the level of cellular development. KIF3A and KIF3B are believed to play some roles in the assembly and maintenance of flagella, intracellular transport of materials including organelles and proteins, and other unknown functions during this process. During spermatogenesis in Eriocheir sinensis, if the sperm shaping machinery is dependent on KIF3A and KIF3B remains unknown. Methodology/Principal Findings The cDNA of KIF3A and KIF3B were obtained by designing degenerate primers, 3′RACE, and 5′RACE. We detected the genetic presence of kif3a and kif3b in the heart, muscle, liver, gill, and testis of E. sinensis through RT-PCR. By western blot analysis, the protein presence of KIF3A and KIF3B in heart, muscle, gill, and testis reflected the content in protein level. Using in situ hybridization and immunofluorescence, we could track the dynamic location of KIF3A and KIF3B during different developmental phases of sperm. KIF3A and KIF3B were found surrounding the nucleus in early spermatids. In intermediate spermatids, these proteins expressed at high levels around the nucleus and extended to the final phase. During the nuclear shaping period, KIF3A and KIF3B reached their maximum in the late spermatids and were located around the nucleus and concentrated in the acrosome to some extent. Conclusions/Significance Our results revealed that KIF3A and KIF3B were involved in the nuclear and cellular morphogenesis at the levels of mRNA and protein. These proteins can potentially facilitate the intracellular transport of organelles, proteins, and other cargoes. The results represent the functions of KIF3A and KIF3B in the spermatogenesis of Crustacea and clarify phylogenetic relationships among the Decapoda. PMID:24870586

  11. Association of DNA Methyltransferases 3A and 3B Polymorphisms, and Plasma Folate Levels with the Risk of Urothelial Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Chi-Jung; Chang, Chao-Hsiang; Liu, Chiu-Shong; Huang, Chi-Ping; Chang, Yi-Huei; Chien, Ssu-Ning; Tsai, Ping-Huan; Hsieh, Hui-An

    2014-01-01

    Background Interindividual genetic variations of human DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs), which involve the methyl donor from the folate-related one-carbon metabolism pathway, are hypothesized as a risk factor for urothelial carcinoma (UC). Therefore, we evaluated the role of gene-environment interaction in UC carcinogenesis. Methods A hospital-based case-control study was conducted by recruiting 192 patients with UC and 381 controls. Their plasma folate levels were measured using a competitive immunoassay kit. In addition, DNMT3A −448A>G and DNMT3B −579G>T genotyping was evaluated using a polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism technique. Multivariate logistic regression and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were applied to estimate the UC risk. Results We observed that patients with UC exhibited a higher prevalence rate of folate insufficiency (folate levels ≤6 ng/mL) compared with the controls (35.94% and 18.37%, respectively). Furthermore, folate levels were higher in the prevalent UC patients than in the incident UC patients. However, folate insufficiency was similarly associated with a nearly two-fold increase in the risk of UC regardless of the UC patient group. In addition, the frequencies of the variant alleles for DNMT3A and DNMT3B were 0.80 and 0.92, respectively, and no association was observed with UC risk. However, participants with a variant homozygous genotype of DNMT3B −579G>T and folate insufficiency or with high cumulative cigarette smoking exhibited an increased risk of UC. Conclusion Overall, environmental factors may contribute more significantly to UC carcinogenesis compared with genetic susceptibility. Future studies should investigate other polymorphisms of DNMT3A and DNMT3B to determine genetic susceptibility. PMID:25126948

  12. DNA methyltransferase 1, 3a, and 3b expression in hepatitis C associated human hepatocellular carcinoma and their clinicopathological association.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Nadir Naveed; Ul Haq, Ahtesham; Siddiqui, Owais Ali; Khan, Rizma

    2016-08-01

    Identification of biomarker will obligate a substantial influence on various cancer management and treatment. We hypothesize that genetic/proteomic and epigenetic studies should be uncovering modifications which may be independently or jointly affect the expression of the genes that are involved in the progression of liver cancer (LC). For this purpose, we examined the effect of expressional changes of DNMTs on HCV infected LC of different genotypes. We found that both mRNA and protein expression levels of DNMT1, 3a, and 3b were upregulated in genotype 1b and 3a HCV infected patients as compared to control. However, DNMT3b mRNA levels did not change in genotypes 2a, 3, and 4, but were upregulated at the protein level by genotype 1b, 2a, and 3a. Furthermore, no significant changes were observed for DNMTs investigated in sample expressing the genotypes 5 and 6. Our findings suggest that HCV at least in part by altering DNMTs expression may play a significant role in HCC progression. PMID:26850594

  13. Trajectories and single-particle tracking data of intracellular vesicles loaded with either SNAP-Crb3A or SNAP-Crb3B.

    PubMed

    Siebrasse, Jan Peter; Djuric, Ivona; Schulze, Ulf; Schlüter, Marc A; Pavenstädt, Hermann; Weide, Thomas; Kubitscheck, Ulrich

    2016-06-01

    Using a combined approach of pulse chase labeling and single-particle tracking of Crb3A or 3B loaded vesicles we collected trajectories of different vesicle population in living podocyte cells and evaluated statistically their different mobility patterns. Differences in their intracellular mobility and in their directed transport correspond well to the role of Crb3A and 3B in renal plasma membrane sorting (Djuric et al., 2016) [1]. PMID:27222870

  14. Auditory P3a and P3b neural generators in schizophrenia: An adaptive sLORETA P300 localization approach.

    PubMed

    Bachiller, Alejandro; Romero, Sergio; Molina, Vicente; Alonso, Joan F; Mañanas, Miguel A; Poza, Jesús; Hornero, Roberto

    2015-12-01

    The present study investigates the neural substrates underlying cognitive processing in schizophrenia (Sz) patients. To this end, an auditory 3-stimulus oddball paradigm was used to identify P3a and P3b components, elicited by rare-distractor and rare-target tones, respectively. Event-related potentials (ERP) were recorded from 31 Sz patients and 38 healthy controls. The P3a and P3b brain-source generators were identified by time-averaging of low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (LORETA) current density images. In contrast with the commonly used fixed window of interest (WOI), we proposed to apply an adaptive WOI, which takes into account subjects' P300 latency variability. Our results showed different P3a and P3b source activation patterns in both groups. P3b sources included frontal, parietal and limbic lobes, whereas P3a response generators were localized over bilateral frontal and superior temporal regions. These areas have been related to the discrimination of auditory stimulus and to the inhibition (P3a) or the initiation (P3b) of motor response in a cognitive task. In addition, differences in source localization between Sz and control groups were observed. Sz patients showed lower P3b source activity in bilateral frontal structures and the cingulate. P3a generators were less widespread for Sz patients than for controls in right superior, medial and middle frontal gyrus. Our findings suggest that target and distractor processing involves distinct attentional subsystems, both being altered in Sz. Hence, the study of neuroelectric brain information can provide further insights to understand cognitive processes and underlying mechanisms in Sz. PMID:26481687

  15. Murine laminin alpha3A and alpha3B isoform chains are generated by usage of two promoters and alternative splicing.

    PubMed

    Ferrigno, O; Virolle, T; Galliano, M F; Chauvin, N; Ortonne, J P; Meneguzzi, G; Aberdam, D

    1997-08-15

    We already identified two distinct laminin alpha3A and alpha3B chain isoforms which differ in their amino-terminal ends and display different tissue-specific expression patterns. In this study we have investigated whether these two different isoforms are products of the same laminin alpha3 (lama3) gene and transcribed from one or two separate promoters. Genomic clones were isolated that encompass the sequences upstream to the 5' ends of both the alpha3A and the alpha3B cDNAs. Sequence analysis of the region upstream to the alpha3A open reading frame revealed the presence of a TATA box and potential binding sites for responsive elements. By primer extension analysis, the transcription start site of the alpha3B mRNA isoform was defined. The sequences upstream to the alpha3B mRNA transcription start site do not contain a TATA box near the transcription initiation sites, but AP-1, AP-2, and Sp1 consensus binding site sequences were identified. The genomic regions located immediately upstream of the alpha3A and alpha3B transcription start sites were shown to possess promoter activities in transfection experiments. In the promoter regions, response elements for the acute phase reactant signal and NF-interleukin 6 were found, and their possible relevance in the context of inflammation and wound healing is discussed. Our results demonstrate that the lama3 gene produces the two polypeptides by alternative splicing and contains two promoters, which regulate the production of the two isoforms alpha3A and alpha3B. PMID:9252362

  16. Association study of copy number variants in FCGR3A and FCGR3B gene with risk of ankylosing spondylitis in a Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li; Yang, Xiao; Cai, Guoqi; Xin, Lihong; Xia, Qing; Zhang, Xu; Li, Xiaona; Wang, Mengmeng; Wang, Kang; Xia, Guo; Xu, Shengqian; Xu, Jianhua; Zou, Yanfeng; Pan, Faming

    2016-03-01

    Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a common inherited autoimmune disease. Copy number variation (CNV) of DNA segments has been found to be an important part of genetic variation, and the FCGR3A and FCGR3B gene CNVs have been associated with various autoimmune disorders. The aim of the study was to determine whether CNVs of FCGR3A and FCGR3B were also associated with the susceptibility of AS. A total of 801 individuals including 402 AS patients and 399 healthy controls were enrolled in this study. The copy numbers of FCGR3 gene (two fragments, included FCGR3A and FCGR3B) were measured by AccuCopy™ methods. Chi-square test and logistic regression model were used to evaluate association between FCGR3 gene CNVs and AS susceptibility. P values, odds ratio, and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) were used to estimate the effects of risk. Significantly, difference in the frequencies of FCGR3A and FCGR3B gene CNVs was founded between the patients with AS and controls. For the FCGR3A gene, a low (≤3) copy number was significantly associated with AS [for ≤3 copies versus 4 copies, (OR 2.17, 95 % CI (1.41, 3.34), P < 0.001, adjusted OR 2.22, 95 % CI (1.44, 3.43), P < 0.001)]. A low FCGR3B copy number was also significantly associated with increasing risk of AS [for ≤3 copies versus 4 copies, (OR 1.87, 95 % CI (1.25, 2.79), P = 0.002, adjusted OR 1.94, 95 % CI (1.29, 2.91), P = 0.001)]; however, both the high FCGR3A and FCGR3B copy numbers (≥5) were not significantly associated with the risk of AS (≥5 copies versus 4 copies). The lower copy numbers (≤3) of FCGR3A and FCGR3B genes confer a risk factor for AS susceptibility. PMID:26494566

  17. Compilation, design tests: Energetic particles Satellite S-3 including design tests for S-3A, S-3B and S-3C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ledoux, F. N.

    1973-01-01

    A compilation of engineering design tests which were conducted in support of the Energetic Particle Satellite S-3, S-3A, and S-3b programs. The purpose for conducting the tests was to determine the adequacy and reliability of the Energetic Particles Series of satellites designs. The various tests consisted of: (1) moments of inertia, (2) functional reliability, (3) component and structural integrity, (4) initiators and explosives tests, and (5) acceptance tests.

  18. Structural basis for recognition of histone H3K36me3 nucleosome by human de novo DNA methyltransferases 3A and 3B.

    PubMed

    Rondelet, Grégoire; Dal Maso, Thomas; Willems, Luc; Wouters, Johan

    2016-06-01

    DNA methylation is an important epigenetic modification involved in chromatin organization and gene expression. The function of DNA methylation depends on cell context and is correlated with histone modification patterns. In particular, trimethylation of Lys36 on histone H3 tail (H3K36me3) is associated with DNA methylation and elongation phase of transcription. PWWP domains of the de novo DNA methyltransferases DNMT3A and DNMT3B read this epigenetic mark to guide DNA methylation. Here we report the first crystal structure of the DNMT3B PWWP domain-H3K36me3 complex. Based on this structure, we propose a model of the DNMT3A PWWP domain-H3K36me3 complex and build a model of DNMT3A (PWWP-ADD-CD) in a nucleosomal context. The trimethylated side chain of Lys36 (H3K36me3) is inserted into an aromatic cage similar to the "Royal" superfamily domains known to bind methylated histones. A key interaction between trimethylated Lys36 and a conserved water molecule stabilized by Ser270 explains the lack of affinity of mutated DNMT3B (S270P) for the H3K36me3 epigenetic mark in the ICF (Immunodeficiency, Centromeric instability and Facial abnormalities) syndrome. The model of the DNMT3A-DNMT3L heterotetramer in complex with a dinucleosome highlights the mechanism for recognition of nucleosome by DNMT3s and explains the periodicity of de novo DNA methylation. PMID:26993463

  19. Gene-gene and gene-sex epistatic interactions of DNMT1, DNMT3A and DNMT3B in autoimmune thyroid disease.

    PubMed

    Cai, Tian-Tian; Zhang, Jian; Wang, Xuan; Song, Rong-Hua; Qin, Qiu; Muhali, Fatuma-Said; Zhou, Jiao-Zhen; Xu, Jian; Zhang, Jin-An

    2016-07-30

    The aim of this study was to investigate the associations of DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) polymorphisms with susceptibility to autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITDs) and to test gene-gene/gene-sex epistasis interactions. Eight single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in DNMT1, DNMT3A and DNMT3B were selected and genotyped by multiplex polymerase chain reaction combined with ligase detection reaction method (PCR-LDR). A total of 685 Graves' disease (GD) patients, 353 Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) patients and 909 healthy controls were included in the final analysis. Epistasis was tested by additive model, multiplicative model and general multifactor dimensionality reduction (general MDR). Rs2424913 (DNMT3B) and rs2228611 (DNMT1) were associated with susceptibility to AITD and GD in the dominant and overdominant model, respectively (rs2424913: P=0.009 for AITD, P=0.0041 for GD; rs2228611: P=0.035 for AITD, P=0.043 for GD). Multiplicative and multiple high dimensional gene-gene or gene-sex interactions were also observed in this study. We have found evidence for a potential role of rs2424913 (DNMT3B) and rs2228611 (DNMT1) in AITD susceptibility and identified novel gene-gene/gene-sex interactions in AITD. Our study may highlight sex and genes of DNMTs family as contributors to the pathogenesis of AITD. PMID:27237591

  20. A Comparison of Assays for Accurate Copy Number Measurement of the Low-Affinity Fc Gamma Receptor Genes FCGR3A and FCGR3B

    PubMed Central

    Haridan, Umi Shakina; Mokhtar, Umairah; Machado, Lee R.; Abdul Aziz, Abu Thalhah; Shueb, Rafidah Hanim; Zaid, Masliza; Sim, Benedict; Mustafa, Mahiran; Nik Yusof, Nik Khairudin; Lee, Christopher K. C.; Abu Bakar, Suhaili; AbuBakar, Sazaly; Hollox, Edward J.; Boon Peng, Hoh

    2015-01-01

    The FCGR3 locus encoding the low affinity activating receptor FcγRIII, plays a vital role in immunity triggered by cellular effector and regulatory functions. Copy number of the genes FCGR3A and FCGR3B has previously been reported to affect susceptibility to several autoimmune diseases and chronic inflammatory conditions. However, such genetic association studies often yield inconsistent results; hence require assays that are robust with low error rate. We investigated the accuracy and efficiency in estimating FCGR3 CNV by comparing Sequenom MassARRAY and paralogue ratio test-restriction enzyme digest variant ratio (PRT-REDVR). In addition, since many genetic association studies of FCGR3B CNV were carried out using real-time quantitative PCR, we have also included the evaluation of that method’s performance in estimating the multi-allelic CNV of FCGR3B. The qPCR assay exhibited a considerably broader distribution of signal intensity, potentially introducing error in estimation of copy number and higher false positive rates. Both Sequenom and PRT-REDVR showed lesser systematic bias, but Sequenom skewed towards copy number normal (CN = 2). The discrepancy between Sequenom and PRT-REDVR might be attributed either to batch effects noise in individual measurements. Our study suggests that PRT-REDVR is more robust and accurate in genotyping the CNV of FCGR3, but highlights the needs of multiple independent assays for extensive validation when performing a genetic association study with multi-allelic CNVs. PMID:25594501

  1. A Positive Regulatory Loop between foxi3a and foxi3b Is Essential for Specification and Differentiation of Zebrafish Epidermal Ionocytes

    PubMed Central

    Hsiao, Chung-Der; You, May-Su; Guh, Ying-Jey; Ma, Ming; Jiang, Yun-Jin; Hwang, Pung-Pung

    2007-01-01

    Background Epidermal ionocytes play essential roles in the transepithelial transportation of ions, water, and acid-base balance in fish embryos before their branchial counterparts are fully functional. However, the mechanism controlling epidermal ionocyte specification and differentiation remains unknown. Methodology/Principal Findings In zebrafish, we demonstrated that Delta-Notch-mediated lateral inhibition plays a vital role in singling out epidermal ionocyte progenitors from epidermal stem cells. The entire epidermal ionocyte domain of genetic mutants and morphants, which failed to transmit the DeltaC-Notch1a/Notch3 signal from sending cells (epidermal ionocytes) to receiving cells (epidermal stem cells), differentiates into epidermal ionocytes. The low Notch activity in epidermal ionocyte progenitors is permissive for activating winged helix/forkhead box transcription factors of foxi3a and foxi3b. Through gain- and loss-of-function assays, we show that the foxi3a-foxi3b regulatory loop functions as a master regulator to mediate a dual role of specifying epidermal ionocyte progenitors as well as of subsequently promoting differentiation of Na+,K+-ATPase-rich cells and H+-ATPase-rich cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Conclusions/Significance This study provides a framework to show the molecular mechanism controlling epidermal ionocyte specification and differentiation in a low vertebrate for the first time. We propose that the positive regulatory loop between foxi3a and foxi3b not only drives early ionocyte differentiation but also prevents the complete blockage of ionocyte differentiation when the master regulator of foxi3 function is unilaterally compromised. PMID:17375188

  2. DNMT1, DNMT3A and DNMT3B gene variants in relation to ovarian cancer risk in the Polish population.

    PubMed

    Mostowska, Adrianna; Sajdak, Stefan; Pawlik, Piotr; Lianeri, Margarita; Jagodzinski, Paweł P

    2013-08-01

    Studies have demonstrated that changes in DNA methylation of cancer related genes can be an elementary process accounting for ovarian tumorigenesis. Therefore, we evaluated the possible association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) genes, including DNMT1, DNMT3B, and DNMT3A, with ovarian cancer development in the Polish population. Using PCR-RFLP and HRM analyses, we studied the prevalence of the DNMT1 rs8101626, rs2228611 and rs759920, DNMT3A rs2289195, 7590760, rs13401241, rs749131 and rs1550117, and DNMT3B rs1569686, rs2424913 and rs2424932 SNPs in patients with ovarian cancer (n=159) and controls (n=180). The lowest p values of the trend test were observed for the DNMT1 rs2228611 and rs759920 SNPs in patients with ovarian cancer (p trend=0.0118 and p trend=0.0173, respectively). Moreover, we observed, in the recessive inheritance model, that the DNMT1 rs2228611 and rs759920 SNPs are associated with an increased risk of ovarian cancer development [OR 1.836 (1.143-2.949), p=0.0114, p corr=0.0342, and OR 1.932 (1.185-3.152), p=0.0078, p cor=0.0234, respectively]. However, none of other nine studied SNPs displayed significant contribution to the development of ovarian cancer. Furthermore, haplotype and multifactor dimensionality reduction analysis of the studied DNMT1, DNMT3B, and DNMT3A polymorphisms did not reveal either SNP combinations or gene interactions to be associated with the risk of ovarian cancer development. Our results may suggest that DNMT1 variants may be risk factors of ovarian cancer. PMID:23666104

  3. A novel orange-red phosphor Ca3B2O6:Sm3+, A+(A = Li, Na, K) for white light emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Qingbo; Liu, Yufeng; Yang, Fu; Han, Bing; Feng, Hao; Yu, Quanmao

    2014-03-01

    A novel orange-red phosphor Ca3B2O6:Sm3+, A+(A = Li, Na, K) has been synthesized by solid-state reaction at 950°C. The phase purity and photoluminescence (PL) behavior of the phosphor are studied in detail using the powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique and PL measurements. Ca3B2O6:Sm3+ phosphor can be efficiently excited by near ultraviolet (n-UV) and blue light, and the emission spectrum consists of four emission peaks at 563, 599, 646 and 709 nm, generating bright orange-red light. When a cation A+ is introduced into Ca3B2O6:Sm3+ as charge compensator, the emission intensity of Ca3B2O6:Sm3+ is evidently enhanced, but the PL spectral profile is unchanged. The integral intensity of the emission spectrum of Ca2.96Sm0.02Na0.02B2O6 excited at 401 nm is about 1.2 times than that of Y2O2S:Eu3+ commercial red phosphor. The CIE chromaticity coordinates of Ca2.96Sm0.02Na0.02B2O6 phosphor were (0.608, 0.365), which are close to that of the commercial red phosphors Y2O3:Eu3+ (0.655, 0.345), Y2O2S:Eu3+ (0.622, 0.351) and Sr2Si5N8:Eu2+ (0.620, 0.370).

  4. Compendium of NASA data base for the Global Tropospheric Experiment's Arctic Boundary Layer Experiments ABLE-3A and ABLE-3B

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory, G.L.; Scott, A.D. Jr.

    1994-11-01

    The report provides a compendium of NASA aircraft data that are available from NASA's Global Tropospheric Experiment's (GTE) Arctic Boundary Layer Experiments (ABLE) conducted in July and August of 1988 (ABLE-3A) and 1990 (ABLE-3B). ABLE-3A flight experiments were based at Barrow and Bethel, Alaska, and included survey/transit flights to Thule, Greenland. ABLE-3B flight experiments were based at North Bay (Ontario) and Goose Bay, Canada, and included flights northward to Frobisher Bay, Canada. The primary purposes of the experiments were (1) the measurement of the flux of various trace gases from high-arctic ecosystems, (2) the elucidation of factors important to the production and destruction of ozone, and (3) the documentation of source and chemical signature of air common to and transported into the regions. The report provides a representation, in the form of selected data plots, of aircraft data that are available in archived format via NASA Langley's Distributed Active Archive Center. The archived data bases include data for other species measured on the aircraft as well as numerous supporting data, including meteorological observations/products, results from surface studies, satellite observations, and sondes releases.

  5. Compendium of NASA data base for the Global Tropospheric Experiment's Arctic Boundary Layer Experiments ABLE-3A and ABLE-3B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, Gerald L.; Scott, A. Donald, Jr.

    1994-01-01

    The report provides a compendium of NASA aircraft data that are available from NASA's Global Tropospheric Experiment's (GTE) Arctic Boundary Layer Experiments (ABLE) conducted in July and August of 1988 (ABLE-3A) and 1990 (ABLE-3B). ABLE-3A flight experiments were based at Barrow and Bethel, Alaska, and included survey/transit flights to Thule, Greenland. ABLE-3B flight experiments were based at North Bay (Ontario) and Goose Bay, Canada, and included flights northward to Frobisher Bay, Canada. The primary purposes of the experiments were (1) the measurement of the flux of various trace gases from high-arctic ecosystems, (2) the elucidation of factors important to the production and destruction of ozone, and (3) the documentation of source and chemical signature of air common to and transported into the regions. The report provides a representation, in the form of selected data plots, of aircraft data that are available in archived format via NASA Langley's Distributed Active Archive Center. The archived data bases include data for other species measured on the aircraft as well as numerous supporting data, including meteorological observations/products, results from surface studies, satellite observations, and sondes releases.

  6. Associations between FCGR2A rs1801274, FCGR3A rs396991, FCGR3B NA1/NA2 polymorphisms and periodontitis: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Song, Gwan Gyu; Lee, Young Ho

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether the Fcγ receptors (FCGRs) polymorphisms confer susceptibility to periodontitis in ethnically different populations. We did a literature search using PubMed and Embase, and conducted a meta-analysis on the associations between the FCGR2A H131R (rs1801274), FCGR3A F158V (rs396991), and FCGR3B NA1/NA2 polymorphisms and periodontitis using allele contrast, the recessive model, the dominant model, and the homozygote contrast. A total of 17 separate comparisons with 1,421 patients with periodontitis and 1,454 controls, involving six Caucasian, six East Asian, two African and one South Asian population were considered in the meta-analysis. Meta-analysis of the FCGR2A H131R polymorphism showed no association between periodontitis and the FCGR2A R allele (OR=0.987, 95% CI=0.881-1.107, p=0.827). Stratification by ethnicity revealed an association between the RR+RH genotype with periodontitis in Caucasian population (OR=0.624, 95% CI=0.479-0.813, p=4.7×10(-5)), but not in East Asian, and African populations. Meta-analysis of the FCGR3A F158V polymorphism revealed an association between the FCGR3A V allele and periodontitis is in Caucasians (OR=1.457, 95% CI=1.014-2.092, p=0.042), but not in East Asians and Africans. In addition, analysis using the dominant model and homozygote contrast showed the same pattern for the FCGR3A V allele. Meta-analysis of the FCGR3B NA1/NA2 polymorphism using the recessive model revealed a significant association between the NA2/NA2 genotype and periodontitis in aggressive periodontitis (OR=2.853, 95% CI=1.673-4.863, 1.1×10(-5)). This meta-analysis demonstrates that the FCGR2A, and FCGR3A polymorphisms may confer susceptibility to periodontitis in Caucasians, and that the FCGR3B polymorphism may be associated with susceptibility to aggressive periodontitis. PMID:23649770

  7. Deoxyribonucleic acid methyl transferases 3a and 3b associate with the nuclear orphan receptor COUP-TFI during gene activation.

    PubMed

    Gallais, Rozenn; Demay, Florence; Barath, Peter; Finot, Laurence; Jurkowska, Renata; Le Guével, Rémy; Gay, Frédérique; Jeltsch, Albert; Métivier, Raphaël; Salbert, Gilles

    2007-09-01

    Transcriptional activation of silent genes can require the erasure of epigenetic marks such as DNA methylation at CpGs (cytosine-guanine dinucleotide). Active demethylation events have been observed, and associated processes are repeatedly suspected to involve DNA glycosylases such as mCpG binding domain protein 4, thymine DNA glycosylase (TDG), Demeter, and repressor of silencing 1. A complete characterization of the molecular mechanisms occurring in metazoan is nonetheless awaited. Here, we report that activation of the endogenous vitronectin gene in P19 cells by the nuclear receptor chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter-transcription factor I (COUP-TFI) is observed in parallel with the recruitment of TDG and p68 RNA helicase, two components of a putative demethylation complex. Interestingly, when activated, the vitronectin gene was loaded with DNA methyltransferases 3a and 3b (Dnmt3a/b), and a strand-biased decrease in CpG methylation was detected. Dnmt3a was further found to associate with COUP-TFI and TDG in vivo, and cotransfection experiments demonstrated that Dnmt3a/b can enhance COUP-TFI-mediated activation of a methylated reporter gene. These results suggest that Dnmt3a/b could cooperate with the orphan receptor COUP-TFI to regulate transcription of the vitronectin gene. PMID:17579209

  8. Autophagosome Proteins LC3A, LC3B and LC3C Have Distinct Subcellular Distribution Kinetics and Expression in Cancer Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Koukourakis, Michael I.; Kalamida, Dimitra; Giatromanolaki, Alexandra; Zois, Christos E.; Sivridis, Efthimios; Pouliliou, Stamatia; Mitrakas, Achilleas; Gatter, Kevin C.; Harris, Adrian L.

    2015-01-01

    LC3s (MAP1-LC3A, B and C) are structural proteins of autophagosomal membranes, widely used as biomarkers of autophagy. Whether these three LC3 proteins have a similar biological role in autophagy remains obscure. We examine in parallel the subcellular expression patterns of the three LC3 proteins in a panel of human cancer cell lines, as well as in normal MRC5 fibroblasts and HUVEC, using confocal microscopy and western blot analysis of cell fractions. In the cytoplasm, there was a minimal co-localization between LC3A, B and C staining, suggesting that the relevant autophagosomes are formed by only one out of the three LC3 proteins. LC3A showed a perinuclear and nuclear localization, while LC3B was equally distributed throughout the cytoplasm and localized in the nucleolar regions. LC3C was located in the cytoplasm and strongly in the nuclei (excluding nucleoli), where it extensively co-localized with the LC3A and the Beclin-1 autophagy initiating protein. Beclin 1 is known to contain a nuclear trafficking signal. Blocking nuclear export function by Leptomycin B resulted in nuclear accumulation of all LC3 and Beclin-1 proteins, while Ivermectin that blocks nuclear import showed reduction of accumulation, but not in all cell lines. Since endogenous LC3 proteins are used as major markers of autophagy in clinical studies and cell lines, it is essential to check the specificity of the antibodies used, as the kinetics of these molecules are not identical and may have distinct biological roles. The distinct subcellular expression patterns of LC3s provide a basis for further studies. PMID:26378792

  9. Marker vaccine potential of foot-and-mouth disease virus with large deletion in the non-structural proteins 3A and 3B.

    PubMed

    Biswal, Jitendra K; Subramaniam, Saravanan; Ranjan, Rajeev; Sharma, Gaurav K; Misri, Jyoti; Pattnaik, Bramhadev

    2015-11-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious, economically important disease of transboundary importance. Regular vaccination with chemically inactivated FMD vaccine is the major means of controlling the disease in endemic countries like India. However, the traditional inactivated vaccines may sometimes contain traces of FMD viral (FMDV) non-structural protein (NSP), therefore, interfering with the NSP-based serological discrimination between infected and vaccinated animals. The availability of marker vaccine for differentiating FMD infected from vaccinated animals (DIVA) would be crucial for the control and subsequent eradication of FMD in India. In this study, we constructed a negative marker FMDV serotype O virus (vaccine strain O IND R2/1975), containing dual deletions of amino acid residues 93-143 and 10-37 in the non-structural proteins 3A and 3B, respectively through reverse genetics approach. The negative marker virus exhibited similar growth kinetics and plaque morphology in cell culture as compared to the wild type virus. In addition, we also developed and evaluated an indirect ELISA (I-ELISA) targeted to the deleted 3AB NSP region (truncated 3AB) which could be used as a companion differential diagnostic assay. The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of the truncated 3AB I-ELISA were found to be 95.5% and 96%, respectively. The results from this study suggest that the availability negative marker virus and companion diagnostic assay could open a promising new avenue for the application of DIVA compatible marker vaccine for the control of FMD in India. PMID:26260689

  10. Go Figure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenman, Geri

    2000-01-01

    Describes the first assignment for an intermediate oil painting class in which the students painted the human figure. Explains that the assignment involved three techniques: (1) abstract application of acrylic paint; (2) oil "Paintstiks" from Shiva; and (3) a final layer of actual oil paint. (CMK)

  11. Sequence and expression analysis of rainbow trout CXCR2, CXCR3a and CXCR3b aids interpretation of lineage-specific conversion, loss and expansion of these receptors during vertebrate evolution.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qiaoqing; Li, Ronggai; Monte, Milena M; Jiang, Yousheng; Nie, Pin; Holland, Jason W; Secombes, Chris J; Wang, Tiehui

    2014-08-01

    The chemokine receptors CXCR1-3 bind to 11 chemokines (CXCL1-11) that are clustered on the same chromosome in mammals but are largely missing in ray-finned fish. A second CXCR1/2, and a CXCR3a and CXCR3b gene have been cloned in rainbow trout. Analysis of CXCR1-R3 genes in lobe-finned fish, ray-finned fish and tetrapod genomes revealed that the teleostomian ancestor likely possessed loci containing both CXCR1 and CXCR2, and CXCR3a and CXCR3b. Based on this synteny analysis the first trout CXCR1/2 gene was renamed CXCR1, and the new gene CXCR2. The CXCR1/R2 locus was shown to have further expanded in ray-finned fish. In relation to CXCR3, mammals appear to have lost CXCR3b and birds both CXCR3a and CXCR3b during evolution. Trout CXCR1-R3 have distinct tissue expression patterns and are differentially modulated by PAMPs, proinflammatory cytokines and infections. They are highly expressed in macrophages and neutrophils, with CXCR1 and CXCR2 also expressed in B-cells. PMID:24613851

  12. Homologous Elements hs3a and hs3b in the 3′ Regulatory Region of the Murine Immunoglobulin Heavy Chain (Igh) Locus Are Both Dispensable for Class-switch Recombination*

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Yi; Pieretti, Joyce; Ju, Zhongliang; Wei, Shiniu; Christin, John R.; Bah, Fatmata; Birshtein, Barbara K.; Eckhardt, Laurel A.

    2011-01-01

    Immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) genes are formed, tested, and modified to yield diverse, specific, and high affinity antibody responses to antigen. The processes involved must be regulated, however, to avoid unintended damage to chromosomes. The 3′ regulatory region of the Igh locus plays a major role in regulating class-switch recombination (CSR), the process by which antibody effector functions are modified during an immune response. Loss of all known enhancer-like elements in this region dramatically impairs CSR, but individual element deletions have no effect on this process. In the present study, we explored the hypothesis that an underlying functional redundancy in the homologous elements hs3a and hs3b was masking the importance of either element to CSR. Several transgenic mouse lines were generated, each carrying a bacterial artificial chromosome transgene that mimicked Igh locus structure but in which hs3a was missing and hs3b was flanked by loxP sites. Matings to Cyclization Recombination Enzyme-expressing mice established “pairs” of lines that differed only in the presence or absence of hs3b. Remarkably, CSR remained robust in the absence of both hs3a and hs3b, suggesting that the remaining two elements of the 3′ regulatory region, hs1.2 and hs4, although individually dispensable for CSR, are, together, sufficient to support CSR. PMID:21673112

  13. X-ray-induced specific-locus mutations in the ad-3 region of two-component heterokaryons of Neurospora crassa. X. Heterozygous effects of multilocus deletion mutations of genotype ad-3A or ad-3B.

    PubMed

    de Serres, F J; Overton, L K; Sadler, B M

    1992-05-01

    Previous studies on X-ray-induced irreparable adenine-3 mutations (designated [ad-3]IR), induced in heterokaryon 12 of Neurospora crassa, demonstrated that they were not recessive and exhibited heterozygous effects in terms of markedly reduced linear growth rates (de Serres, 1965). Complementation tests with a series of tester strains carrying multilocus deletion mutations in the ad-3 and immediately adjacent genetic regions demonstrated that X-ray-induced irreparable mutations map, in the main part, as a series of overlapping multilocus deletion mutations that extend both proximally and distally into the immediately adjacent genetic regions, as well as into the 'X' region (a region of unknown, but essential function) between ad-3A and ad-3B (de Serres, 1968, 1989). Further studies (de Serres and Miller, 1988) have shown that the heterozygous effects of multilocus deletion mutations in the ad-3 region can be modified genetically and biochemically. In the present paper, the heterozygous effects of X-ray-induced multilocus deletion mutations of genotype ad-3A or ad-3B, induced in heterokaryon 12 (Webber and de Serres, 1965; de Serres, 1988, 1989), have been determined. These data show that 57.7% (15/26) of X-ray-induced multilocus deletion mutations covering the ad-3A locus have heterozygous effects, in terms of reduced linear growth rates, in forced dikaryons with a gene/point mutant at the ad-3B locus and 80.0% (20/25) in forced dikaryons with a multilocus deletion mutation covering the ad-3B locus. In addition, 35.1% (20/57) of X-ray-induced multilocus deletion mutations covering the ad-3B locus have heterozygous effects in forced dikaryons with a gene/point mutant at the ad-3A locus, and 100.0% (35/35) in forced dikaryons with a multilocus deletion mutation covering the ad-3A locus. These results demonstrate that the dominant or recessive characteristics of X-ray-induced specific-locus mutations resulting from multilocus deletion mutations are allele specific

  14. 75 FR 22693 - Airworthiness Directives; General Electric Company (GE) CF34-1A, CF34-3A, and CF34-3B Series...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-30

    ...-7756; fax: (781) 238-7199. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: On January 8, 2010 (75 FR 1017), we published a final rule AD, FR Doc. E9-31274, in the Federal Register. That AD applies to GE CF34-1A, CF34-3A, and...; AD 2010-01-04] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; General Electric Company (GE) CF34-1A,...

  15. Stability and specificity of heterodimer formation for the coiled-coil neck regions of the motor proteins Kif3A and Kif3B: the role of unstructured oppositely charged regions

    PubMed Central

    Chana, M.S.; Tripet, B.P.; Mant, C.T.; Hodges, R.

    2005-01-01

    We investigated the folding, stability, and specificity of dimerization of the neck regions of the kinesin-like proteins Kif3A (residues 356–416) and Kif3B (residues 351–411). We showed that the complementary charged regions found in the hinge regions (which directly follow the neck regions) of these proteins do not adopt any secondary structure in solution. We then explored the ability of the complementary charged regions to specify heterodimer formation for the neck region coiled-coils found in Kif3A and Kif3B. Redox experiments demonstrated that oppositely charged regions specified the formation of a heterodimeric coiled-coil. Denaturation studies with urea demonstrated that the negatively charged region of Kif3A dramatically destabilized its neck coiled-coil (urea1/2 value of 3.9 m compared with 6.7 m for the coiled-coil alone). By comparison, the placement of a positively charged region C-terminal to the neck coiled-coil of Kif3B had little effect on stability (urea1/2 value of 8.2 m compared with 8.8 m for the coiled-coil alone). The pairing of complementary charged regions leads to specific heterodimer formation where the stability of the heterodimeric neck coiled-coil with charged regions had similar stability (urea1/2 value of 7.8 m) to the most stable homodimer (Kif3B) with charged regions (urea1/2 value of 8.0 m) and dramatically more stable than the Kif3A homodimer with charged regions (urea1/2, value of 3.9 m). The heterodimeric coiled-coil with charged extensions has essentially the same stability as the heterodimeric coiled-coil on its own (urea1/2 values of 7.8 and 8.1 m, respectively) suggesting that specificity of heterodimerization is driven by non-specific attraction of the oppositely unstructured charged regions without affecting stability of the heterodimeric coiled-coil. PMID:15705165

  16. mRNA expression of KIF1A, KIF1B, KIF2, KIF3A, KIF3B, KIF4, KIF5, and cytoplasmic dynein during axonal regeneration.

    PubMed

    Takemura, R; Nakata, T; Okada, Y; Yamazaki, H; Zhang, Z; Hirokawa, N

    1996-01-01

    Mouse brain expresses multiple kinesin superfamily proteins (KIFs), which are involved in vesicle transport. The expression of KIFs is developmentally regulated, and both the mRNA and proteins of KIF2 and KIF4 are expressed abundantly in the juvenile brain. To elucidate the role of individual kinesin superfamily motor proteins during regenerative outgrowth of axons, we examined the mRNA expression of KIF1A, KIF1B, KIF2, KIF3A, KIF3B, KIF4, and KIF5 in adult mouse dorsal root ganglion cells after sciatic nerve crush. Seven to fourteen days after the nerve crush, the mRNA expression pattern of neurofilament and beta-tubulin isotypes suggested that the regenerative outgrowth of axons was active. At these stages, levels of mRNA for KIF1A, KIF1B, KIF2, KIF3A, KIF3B, KIF4, and KIF5 were 50.80% of control. The levels of mRNA for KIF4, which are detected in juvenile brain but not in the adult, were under the detection limit in both control and regenerating dorsal root ganglion cells. Because mRNA of neither KIF2 nor KIF4 increased significantly, the results suggest that the gene expression of KIFs during regeneration does not recapitulate the embryonic development and support the hypothesis that different series of events take place during the regenerative and embryonic outgrowths of axons. In contrast, mRNA for cytoplasmic dynein was slightly increased, up to 140%. This is consistent with the hypothesis that retrograde transport plays critical roles in regeneration such as the transport of neurotrophic factors. PMID:8613797

  17. Order-disorder in In{sup 3+} perovskites: The example of A(In{sub 2/3}B''{sub 1/3})O{sub 3} (A=Ba, Sr; B''=W, U)

    SciTech Connect

    Larregola, S.A. Alonso, J.A.; Pinacca, R.M.; Viola, M.C.; Pedregosa, J.C.

    2008-10-15

    We describe the preparation and structural characterization of four In-containing perovskites from neutron powder diffraction (NPD) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) data. Sr{sub 3}In{sub 2}B''O{sub 9} and Ba(In{sub 2/3}B''{sub 1/3})O{sub 3} (B''=W, U) were synthesized by standard ceramic procedures. The crystal structure of the W-containing perovskites and Ba(In{sub 2/3}U{sub 1/3})O{sub 3} have been revisited based on our high-resolution NPD and XRPD data, while for the new U-containing perovskite Sr{sub 3}In{sub 2}UO{sub 9} the structural refinement was carried out from high-resolution XRPD data. At room temperature, the crystal structure for the two Sr phases is monoclinic, space group P2{sub 1}/n, where the In atoms occupy two different sites Sr{sub 2}[In]{sub 2d}[In{sub 1/3}B''{sub 2/3}]{sub 2c}O{sub 6}, with a=5.7548(2) A, b=5.7706(2) A, c=8.1432(3) A, {beta}=90.01(1){sup o} for B''=W and a=5.861(1) A, b=5.908(1) A, c=8.315(2) A, {beta}=89.98(1){sup o} for B''=U. The two phases with A=Ba should be described in a simple cubic perovskite unit cell (S.G. Pm3-bar m) with In and B'' distributed at random at the octahedral sites, with a=4.16111(1) A and 4.24941(1) A for W and U compounds, respectively. - Graphical abstract: The structure of the new uranium-based double perovskite Sr{sub 3}In{sub 2}UO{sub 9} is described and the true symmetry of the other title compounds are revisited. The presence of long-range ordering in the Sr samples, by contrast with the Ba perovskites, is related with the smaller unit cell and B-B distances in the Sr oxides, promoting the electrostatic repulsions between highly charged W{sup 6+} and U{sup 6+} cations as driving force for the long-range B-site ordering.

  18. Figure Drawing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herberholz, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    The figure has "figured" prominently in the choice of subject matter for many artists throughout history. Whether they may choose to depict it in an abstract or expressive form, most artists are quite capable of realistic portrayals of the human form. And all people know that one of the very first drawings made by young children is a symbol for…

  19. Histone H3F3A and HIST1H3B K27M mutations define two subgroups of diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas with different prognosis and phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Castel, David; Philippe, Cathy; Calmon, Raphaël; Le Dret, Ludivine; Truffaux, Nathalène; Boddaert, Nathalie; Pagès, Mélanie; Taylor, Kathryn R; Saulnier, Patrick; Lacroix, Ludovic; Mackay, Alan; Jones, Chris; Sainte-Rose, Christian; Blauwblomme, Thomas; Andreiuolo, Felipe; Puget, Stephanie; Grill, Jacques; Varlet, Pascale; Debily, Marie-Anne

    2015-12-01

    Diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) is the most severe paediatric solid tumour, with no significant therapeutic progress made in the past 50 years. Recent studies suggest that diffuse midline glioma, H3-K27M mutant, may comprise more than one biological entity. The aim of the study was to determine the clinical and biological variables that most impact their prognosis. Ninety-one patients with classically defined DIPG underwent a systematic stereotactic biopsy and were included in this observational retrospective study. Histone H3 genes mutations were assessed by immunochemistry and direct sequencing, whilst global gene expression profiling and chromosomal imbalances were determined by microarrays. A full description of the MRI findings at diagnosis and at relapse was integrated with the molecular profiling data and clinical outcome. All DIPG but one were found to harbour either a somatic H3-K27M mutation and/or loss of H3K27 trimethylation. We also discovered a novel K27M mutation in HIST2H3C, and a lysine-to-isoleucine substitution (K27I) in H3F3A, also creating a loss of trimethylation. Patients with tumours harbouring a K27M mutation in H3.3 (H3F3A) did not respond clinically to radiotherapy as well, relapsed significantly earlier and exhibited more metastatic recurrences than those in H3.1 (HIST1H3B/C). H3.3-K27M-mutated DIPG have a proneural/oligodendroglial phenotype and a pro-metastatic gene expression signature with PDGFRA activation, while H3.1-K27M-mutated tumours exhibit a mesenchymal/astrocytic phenotype and a pro-angiogenic/hypoxic signature supported by expression profiling and radiological findings. H3K27 alterations appear as the founding event in DIPG and the mutations in the two main histone H3 variants drive two distinct oncogenic programmes with potential specific therapeutic targets. PMID:26399631

  20. MANYEFFV3B

    2007-05-30

    MANYEFFV3B is a program to calculate bound state properties of light nuclei, mainly A=3 and A=4 systems, using realistic nucleon-nucleon interactions and, optionally, three-nucleon interaction derived within the chiral effective field theory. Also, the program is used to generate three-body effective interaction from the realistic NN+NNN potentials to be used in shell model calculations for heavier nuclei, typically p=shell nuclei. These calculations are referred to as ab initio no-core shell model calculations. The code outputsmore » eigenvalues and optionally wave functions of the investigated nuclei. Alternatively, the code outputs the three-body effective interactions matrix elements in relative-coordinate basis that needs to be further transformed to single-particle basis by a separate code in order to be used as input to shell model codes with three-body capability (MFD, Redstick). Several passes of the code are required in calculations for A>3 nuclei if three-body effective interaction is to be generated or used and also if NNN interaction is to be included.« less

  1. A first detection of singlet to triplet conversion from the 1 1B u- to the 1 3A g state and triplet internal conversion from the 1 3A g to the 1 3B u state in carotenoids: dependence on the conjugation length

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rondonuwu, Ferdy S.; Watanabe, Yasutaka; Fujii, Ritsuko; Koyama, Yasushi

    2003-07-01

    Subpicosecond time-resolved absorption spectra were recorded in the visible region for a set of photosynthetic carotenoids having different numbers of conjugated double bonds ( n), which include neurosporene ( n=9), spheroidene ( n=10), lycopene ( n=11), anhydrorhodovibrin ( n=12) and spirilloxanthin ( n=13). Singular-value decomposition and global fitting of the spectral-data matrices lead us to a branched relaxation scheme including both (1) the singlet internal conversion in the sequence of 1 1B u+ → 1 1B u- → 2 1A g- → 1 1A g-(ground), and (2) the singlet-to-triplet conversion of 1 1B u- → 1 3A g followed by triplet internal conversion of 1 3A g → 1 3B u.

  2. Correlation between mutations in the core and NS5A genes of hepatitis C virus genotypes 1a, 1b, 3a, 3b, 6f and the response to pegylated interferon and ribavirin combination therapy.

    PubMed

    Kumthip, K; Pantip, C; Chusri, P; Thongsawat, S; O'Brien, A; Nelson, K E; Maneekarn, N

    2011-04-01

    Several studies have reported correlation between mutations in core and NS5A proteins of hepatitis C virus (HCV) and response to interferon (IFN) therapy. In particular, mutations in NS5A protein have been shown to correlate with responsiveness to IFN treatment of HCV-1b in Japanese patients. This study investigated whether amino acid (aa) mutations in the core and NS5A proteins of HCV-1a, 1b, 3a, 3b and 6f correlated with the response to pegylated interferon (Peg-IFN) plus ribavirin (RBV) therapy in Thai patients. The entire sequences of core and NS5A of HCV from 76 HCV-infected patients were analysed in comparison with corresponding reference sequences. The data revealed that the number of aa mutations in full-length NS5A, its C-terminus, IFN sensitivity-determining region, variable region 3 (V3) and V3 plus flanking region of HCV-1b NS5A protein were significantly higher in responders than in the treatment failure group (P = 0.010, 0.031, 0.046, 0.020 and 0.006, respectively). Similar results were found in a putative protein kinase R binding domain region in HCV-6f NS5A protein (P = 0.022). Moreover, specific aa substitutions in NS5A that appeared to be associated with responders or the treatment failure group were observed at positions 78 and 305 for HCV-1b (P = 0.028), 64 and 52 for HCV-1a (P = 0.033) and 6f (P = 0.045). Nevertheless, analysis of aa sequences of core protein revealed highly conserved sequences among HCV genotypes and no significant differences between the viruses from responders and the treatment failure group. Our findings indicate that mutations in aa residues of NS5A of HCV-1a, 1b and 6f correlated well with responsiveness to Peg-IFN and RBV combination therapy. PMID:20955493

  3. Boeing F3B-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1930-01-01

    Boeing F3B-1: While most Boeing F3B-1s served aboard the U. S. Navy aircraft carriers Lexington and Saratoga, this example flew in NACA hands at the Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory in the late 1920's. Also known as the Boeing Model 77, the aircraft was powered by a Pratt & Whitney Wasp radial engine.

  4. ARID3B Directly Regulates Ovarian Cancer Promoting Genes

    PubMed Central

    Bobbs, Alexander; Gellerman, Katrina; Hallas, William Morgan; Joseph, Stancy; Yang, Chao; Kurkewich, Jeffrey; Cowden Dahl, Karen D.

    2015-01-01

    The DNA-binding protein AT-Rich Interactive Domain 3B (ARID3B) is elevated in ovarian cancer and increases tumor growth in a xenograft model of ovarian cancer. However, relatively little is known about ARID3B's function. In this study we perform the first genome wide screen for ARID3B direct target genes and ARID3B regulated pathways. We identified and confirmed numerous ARID3B target genes by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) followed by microarray and quantitative RT-PCR. Using motif-finding algorithms, we characterized a binding site for ARID3B, which is similar to the previously known site for the ARID3B paralogue ARID3A. Functionality of this predicted site was demonstrated by ChIP analysis. We next demonstrated that ARID3B induces expression of its targets in ovarian cancer cell lines. We validated that ARID3B binds to an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) enhancer and increases mRNA expression. ARID3B also binds to the promoter of Wnt5A and its receptor FZD5. FZD5 is highly expressed in ovarian cancer cell lines, and is upregulated by exogenous ARID3B. Both ARID3B and FZD5 expression increase adhesion to extracellular matrix (ECM) components including collagen IV, fibronectin and vitronectin. ARID3B-increased adhesion to collagens II and IV require FZD5. This study directly demonstrates that ARID3B binds target genes in a sequence-specific manner, resulting in increased gene expression. Furthermore, our data indicate that ARID3B regulation of direct target genes in the Wnt pathway promotes adhesion of ovarian cancer cells. PMID:26121572

  5. Tissue C3b receptors.

    PubMed Central

    Schrieber, L; Penny, R

    1979-01-01

    Using fluorescein-labelled S. typhi coated with C3b (FBC) the presence of a receptor for C3b in normal human glomeruli has been confirmed. A quantitative system, counting the number of FBC bound per unit area of glomerulus, has been developed. Experimental variables have been studied to determine optimal conditions for FBC binding. Glomerular FBC binding has been shown to be dependent on FBC concentration, temperature and time of tissue incubation. A standardized procedure has been adopted. Using this technique we have examined a number of target tissues, including synovium, skin, lung, choroid plexus and uveal tract, which are frequently affected in systemic immune complex diseases. No evidence of this receptor has been found in these tissues. These results suggest a mechanism different from the C3b receptor operating to localise immune complexes in these non-renal sites. Images FIG. 2 PMID:527266

  6. Arid3b Is Critical for B Lymphocyte Development

    PubMed Central

    Kurkewich, Jeffrey L.; Klopfenstein, Nathan; Hallas, William M.; Wood, Christian; Sattler, Rachel A.; Das, Chhaya; Tucker, Haley; Dahl, Richard; Cowden Dahl, Karen D.

    2016-01-01

    Arid3a and Arid3b belong to a subfamily of ARID (AT-rich interaction domain) transcription factors. The Arid family is involved in regulating chromatin accessibility, proliferation, and differentiation. Arid3a and Arid3b are closely related and share a unique REKLES domain that mediates their homo- and hetero-multimerization. Arid3a was originally isolated as a B cell transcription factor binding to the AT rich matrix attachment regions (MARS) of the immunoglobulin heavy chain intronic enhancer. Deletion of Arid3a results in a highly penetrant embryonic lethality with severe defects in erythropoiesis and hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). The few surviving Arid3a-/- (<1%) animals have decreased HSCs and early progenitors in the bone marrow, but all mature lineages are normally represented in the bone marrow and periphery except for B cells. Arid3b-/- animals die around E7.5 precluding examination of hematopoietic development. So it is unclear whether the phenotype of Arid3a loss on hematopoiesis is dependent or independent of Arid3b. In this study we circumvented this limitation by also examining hematopoiesis in mice with a conditional allele of Arid3b. Bone marrow lacking Arid3b shows decreased common lymphoid progenitors (CLPs) and downstream B cell populations while the T cell and myeloid lineages are unchanged, reminiscent of the adult hematopoietic defect in Arid3a mice. Unlike Arid3a-/- mice, HSC populations are unperturbed in Arid3b-/- mice. This study demonstrates that HSC development is independent of Arid3b, whereas B cell development requires both Arid3a and Arid3b transcription factors. PMID:27537840

  7. Arid3b Is Critical for B Lymphocyte Development.

    PubMed

    Kurkewich, Jeffrey L; Klopfenstein, Nathan; Hallas, William M; Wood, Christian; Sattler, Rachel A; Das, Chhaya; Tucker, Haley; Dahl, Richard; Cowden Dahl, Karen D

    2016-01-01

    Arid3a and Arid3b belong to a subfamily of ARID (AT-rich interaction domain) transcription factors. The Arid family is involved in regulating chromatin accessibility, proliferation, and differentiation. Arid3a and Arid3b are closely related and share a unique REKLES domain that mediates their homo- and hetero-multimerization. Arid3a was originally isolated as a B cell transcription factor binding to the AT rich matrix attachment regions (MARS) of the immunoglobulin heavy chain intronic enhancer. Deletion of Arid3a results in a highly penetrant embryonic lethality with severe defects in erythropoiesis and hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). The few surviving Arid3a-/- (<1%) animals have decreased HSCs and early progenitors in the bone marrow, but all mature lineages are normally represented in the bone marrow and periphery except for B cells. Arid3b-/- animals die around E7.5 precluding examination of hematopoietic development. So it is unclear whether the phenotype of Arid3a loss on hematopoiesis is dependent or independent of Arid3b. In this study we circumvented this limitation by also examining hematopoiesis in mice with a conditional allele of Arid3b. Bone marrow lacking Arid3b shows decreased common lymphoid progenitors (CLPs) and downstream B cell populations while the T cell and myeloid lineages are unchanged, reminiscent of the adult hematopoietic defect in Arid3a mice. Unlike Arid3a-/- mice, HSC populations are unperturbed in Arid3b-/- mice. This study demonstrates that HSC development is independent of Arid3b, whereas B cell development requires both Arid3a and Arid3b transcription factors. PMID:27537840

  8. All about Lissajous Figures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenslade, Thomas B.

    1993-01-01

    Uses diagrams and text to illustrate the use of Lissajous figures (the figures that are traced out when two simple harmonic motions are combined at right angles to each other) in teaching basic physics concepts. Covers the mathematics of the Lissajous Figure; demonstrating Lissajous Figures; and a typical class. (ZWH)

  9. P3b, consciousness, and complex unconscious processing.

    PubMed

    Silverstein, Brian H; Snodgrass, Michael; Shevrin, Howard; Kushwaha, Ramesh

    2015-12-01

    How can perceptual consciousness be indexed in humans? Recent work with ERPs suggests that P3b, a relatively late component, may be a neural correlate of consciousness (NCC). This proposal dovetails with currently prevailing cognitive theory regarding the nature of conscious versus unconscious processes, which holds that the latter are simple and very brief, whereas consciousness is ostensibly required for more durable, complex cognitive processing. Using a P3b oddball paradigm, we instead show that P3b and even later, related slow wave activity occur under rigorously subliminal conditions. Additional principal component analysis (PCA) further differentiated the presence of both P3a and P3b components, demonstrating that the latter indeed occurred subliminally. Collectively, our results suggest that complex, sustained cognitive processing can occur unconsciously and that P3b is not an NCC after all. PMID:26474391

  10. 18 CFR 3b.4 - Government contractors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Government contractors. 3b.4 Section 3b.4 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION... PERSONAL INFORMATION General § 3b.4 Government contractors. Systems of records operated by a...

  11. 18 CFR 3b.4 - Government contractors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Government contractors. 3b.4 Section 3b.4 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION... PERSONAL INFORMATION General § 3b.4 Government contractors. Systems of records operated by a...

  12. 18 CFR 3b.4 - Government contractors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Government contractors. 3b.4 Section 3b.4 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION... PERSONAL INFORMATION General § 3b.4 Government contractors. Systems of records operated by a...

  13. 18 CFR 3b.4 - Government contractors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Government contractors. 3b.4 Section 3b.4 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION... PERSONAL INFORMATION General § 3b.4 Government contractors. Systems of records operated by a...

  14. Evidence of CH{sub 2}O (a-tilde{sup 3}A{sub 2}) and C{sub 2}H{sub 4} (a-tilde{sup 3}B{sub 1u}) produced from photodissociation of 1,3-trimethylene oxide at 193 nm

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.-H.; Ong, C.-S.; Lee, Yuan T.

    2006-02-21

    We investigated the dissociative ionization of formaldehyde (CH{sub 2}O) and ethene (C{sub 2}H{sub 4}) produced from photolysis of 1,3-trimethylene oxide at 193 nm using a molecular-beam apparatus and vacuum-ultraviolet radiation from an undulator for direct ionization. The CH{sub 2}O (C{sub 2}H{sub 4}) product suffers from severe dissociative ionization to HCO{sup +} (C{sub 2}H{sub 3}{sup +} and C{sub 2}H{sub 2}{sup +}) even though photoionization energy is as small as 9.8 eV. Branching ratios of fragmentation of CH{sub 2}O and C{sub 2}H{sub 4} following ionization are revealed as a function of kinetic energy of products using ionizing photons from 9.8 to 14.8 eV. Except several exceptions, branching ratios of daughter ions increase with increasing photon energy but decrease with increasing kinetic energy. The title reaction produces CH{sub 2}O and C{sub 2}H{sub 4} mostly on electronic ground states but a few likely on triplet states; C{sub 2}H{sub 4} (a-tilde{sup 3}B{sub 1u}) seems to have a yield greater than CH{sub 2}O (a-tilde{sup 3}A{sub 2}). The distinct features observed at small kinetic energies of daughter ions are attributed to dissociative ionization of photoproducts CH{sub 2}O (a-tilde{sup 3}A{sub 2}) and C{sub 2}H{sub 4} (a-tilde{sup 3}B{sub 1u}). The observation of triplet products indicates that intersystem crossing occurs prior to fragmentation of 1,3-trimethylene oxide.

  15. 17 CFR 240.3b-6 - Liability for certain statements by issuers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... requirements of Rules 14a-3(b) and (c) or 14c-3(a) and (b) (§ 240.14a-3(b) and (c) or § 240.14c-3(a) and (b... security holders meeting the requirements of Rules 14a-3(b) and (c) or 14c-3(a) and (b) under the Act (§ 240.14a-3(b) and (c) or § 240.14c-3(a) and (b) of this chapter) and that relates to: (i) The...

  16. 17 CFR 240.3b-6 - Liability for certain statements by issuers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... requirements of Rules 14a-3(b) and (c) or 14c-3(a) and (b) (§ 240.14a-3(b) and (c) or § 240.14c-3(a) and (b... security holders meeting the requirements of Rules 14a-3(b) and (c) or 14c-3(a) and (b) under the Act (§ 240.14a-3(b) and (c) or § 240.14c-3(a) and (b) of this chapter) and that relates to: (i) The...

  17. 17 CFR 240.3b-6 - Liability for certain statements by issuers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... requirements of Rules 14a-3(b) and (c) or 14c-3(a) and (b) (§ 240.14a-3(b) and (c) or § 240.14c-3(a) and (b... security holders meeting the requirements of Rules 14a-3(b) and (c) or 14c-3(a) and (b) under the Act (§ 240.14a-3(b) and (c) or § 240.14c-3(a) and (b) of this chapter) and that relates to: (i) The...

  18. 17 CFR 240.3b-6 - Liability for certain statements by issuers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... requirements of Rules 14a-3(b) and (c) or 14c-3(a) and (b) (§ 240.14a-3(b) and (c) or § 240.14c-3(a) and (b... security holders meeting the requirements of Rules 14a-3(b) and (c) or 14c-3(a) and (b) under the Act (§ 240.14a-3(b) and (c) or § 240.14c-3(a) and (b) of this chapter) and that relates to: (i) The...

  19. 18 CFR 3b.223 - Fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Fees. 3b.223 Section 3b.223 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES COLLECTION, MAINTENANCE, USE, AND DISSEMINATION OF RECORDS OF IDENTIFIABLE PERSONAL INFORMATION Rules for Disclosure of Records...

  20. 18 CFR 3b.223 - Fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Fees. 3b.223 Section 3b.223 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES COLLECTION, MAINTENANCE, USE, AND DISSEMINATION OF RECORDS OF IDENTIFIABLE PERSONAL INFORMATION Rules for Disclosure of Records...

  1. 18 CFR 3b.222 - Identification requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Identification requirements. 3b.222 Section 3b.222 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES COLLECTION, MAINTENANCE, USE, AND DISSEMINATION OF RECORDS OF IDENTIFIABLE PERSONAL INFORMATION Rules...

  2. 18 CFR 3b.222 - Identification requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Identification requirements. 3b.222 Section 3b.222 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES COLLECTION, MAINTENANCE, USE, AND DISSEMINATION OF RECORDS OF IDENTIFIABLE PERSONAL INFORMATION Rules...

  3. 18 CFR 3b.222 - Identification requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Identification requirements. 3b.222 Section 3b.222 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES COLLECTION, MAINTENANCE, USE, AND DISSEMINATION OF RECORDS OF IDENTIFIABLE PERSONAL INFORMATION Rules...

  4. 18 CFR 3b.222 - Identification requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Identification requirements. 3b.222 Section 3b.222 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES COLLECTION, MAINTENANCE, USE, AND DISSEMINATION OF RECORDS OF IDENTIFIABLE PERSONAL INFORMATION Rules...

  5. 18 CFR 3b.4 - Government contractors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Government contractors. 3b.4 Section 3b.4 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES COLLECTION, MAINTENANCE, USE, AND DISSEMINATION OF RECORDS OF...

  6. 18 CFR 3b.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definitions. 3b.2 Section 3b.2 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES COLLECTION, MAINTENANCE, USE, AND DISSEMINATION OF RECORDS OF IDENTIFIABLE...

  7. 18 CFR 3b.3 - Notice requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notice requirements. 3b.3 Section 3b.3 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES COLLECTION, MAINTENANCE, USE, AND DISSEMINATION OF RECORDS OF...

  8. 18 CFR 3b.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Purpose. 3b.1 Section 3b.1 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES COLLECTION, MAINTENANCE, USE, AND DISSEMINATION OF RECORDS OF IDENTIFIABLE...

  9. 18 CFR 3b.5 - Legal guardians.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Legal guardians. 3b.5... INFORMATION General § 3b.5 Legal guardians. For the purposes of this part, the parent of any minor, or the legal guardian of any individual who has been declared to be incompetent due to physical or...

  10. 18 CFR 3b.5 - Legal guardians.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Legal guardians. 3b.5... INFORMATION General § 3b.5 Legal guardians. For the purposes of this part, the parent of any minor, or the legal guardian of any individual who has been declared to be incompetent due to physical or...

  11. Molecular basis of the attenuated phenotype of human APOBEC3B DNA mutator enzyme

    PubMed Central

    Caval, Vincent; Bouzidi, Mohamed S.; Suspène, Rodolphe; Laude, Hélène; Dumargne, Marie-Charlotte; Bashamboo, Anu; Krey, Thomas; Vartanian, Jean-Pierre; Wain-Hobson, Simon

    2015-01-01

    The human APOBEC3A and APOBEC3B genes (A3A and A3B) encode DNA mutator enzymes that deaminate cytidine and 5-methylcytidine residues in single-stranded DNA (ssDNA). They are important sources of mutations in many cancer genomes which show a preponderance of CG->TA transitions. Although both enzymes can hypermutate chromosomal DNA in an experimental setting, only A3A can induce double strand DNA breaks, even though the catalytic domains of A3B and A3A differ by only 9% at the protein level. Accordingly we sought the molecular basis underlying A3B attenuation through the generation of A3A-A3B chimeras and mutants. It transpires that the N-terminal domain facilitates A3B activity while a handful of substitutions in the catalytic C-terminal domain impacting ssDNA binding serve to attenuate A3B compared to A3A. Interestingly, functional attenuation is also observed for the rhesus monkey rhA3B enzyme compared to rhA3A indicating that this genotoxic dichotomy has been selected for and maintained for some 38 million years. Expression of all human ssDNA cytidine deaminase genes is absent in mature sperm indicating they contribute to somatic mutation and cancer but not human diversity. PMID:26384561

  12. Stellar figure sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, W. N.

    1973-01-01

    A compilation of analytical and experimental data is presented concerning the stellar figure sensor. The sensor is an interferometric device which is located in the focal plane of an orbiting large space telescope (LST). The device was designed to perform interferometry on the optical wavefront of a single star after it has propagated through the LST. An analytical model of the device was developed and its accuracy was verified by an operating laboratory breadboard. A series of linear independent control equations were derived which define the operations required for utilizing a focal plane figure sensor in the control loop for the secondary mirror position and for active control of the primary mirror.

  13. Advanced figure sensor operations and maintenance manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, H. J.

    1972-01-01

    This manual contains procedures for installing, operating, and maintaining the optical figure sensor and its associated electronic controls. The optical figure sensor, a system of integrated components, comprises: (1) a phase measuring modified interferometer employing a single frequency 6328 A laser, and a Vidissector; (2) a two-axis automatic thermal compensation control mount; (3) a five degree of freedom manual adjustment stand; and (4) a control console. This instrument provides real time output data of optical figure errors for spherical mirrors, and is also capable of measuring aspherical mirrors if a null corrector is added.

  14. Figurative Language Awards Ceremony.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fink, Lisa

    Figurative language enlivens a text, providing visuals in the minds of readers. This lesson will have students listening to and reading selected texts as they seek out their favorite literary devices. During the five to seven 50-minute sessions, grade three through five students will: acquire a clear understanding of the concept of figurative…

  15. OECD in Figures, 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing (NJ1), 2008

    2008-01-01

    "OECD in Figures" is a primary statistical source for key data on OECD countries, ranging from economic growth and employment to inflation, trade and environment. Information is presented in tabular form for: (1) Demography and Health; (2) Economy; (3) Energy; (4) Labour; (5) Science and Technology; (6) Environment; (7) Education; (8) Public…

  16. Human kidney anion exchanger 1 interacts with kinesin family member 3B (KIF3B)

    SciTech Connect

    Duangtum, Natapol; Junking, Mutita; Sawasdee, Nunghathai; Cheunsuchon, Boonyarit; Limjindaporn, Thawornchai; Yenchitsomanus, Pa-thai

    2011-09-16

    Highlights: {yields} Impaired trafficking of kAE1 causes distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA). {yields} The interaction between kAE1 and kinesin family member 3B (KIF3B) is reported. {yields} The co-localization between kAE and KIF3B was detected in human kidney tissues. {yields} A marked reduction of kAE1 on the cell membrane was observed when KIF3B was knockdown. {yields} KFI3B plays an important role in trafficking of kAE1 to the plasma membrane. -- Abstract: Impaired trafficking of human kidney anion exchanger 1 (kAE1) to the basolateral membrane of {alpha}-intercalated cells of the kidney collecting duct leads to the defect of the Cl{sup -}/HCO{sub 3}{sup -} exchange and the failure of proton (H{sup +}) secretion at the apical membrane of these cells, causing distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA). In the sorting process, kAE1 interacts with AP-1 mu1A, a subunit of AP-1A adaptor complex. However, it is not known whether kAE1 interacts with motor proteins in its trafficking process to the plasma membrane or not. We report here that kAE1 interacts with kinesin family member 3B (KIF3B) in kidney cells and a dileucine motif at the carboxyl terminus of kAE1 contributes to this interaction. We have also demonstrated that kAE1 co-localizes with KIF3B in human kidney tissues and the suppression of endogenous KIF3B in HEK293T cells by small interfering RNA (siRNA) decreases membrane localization of kAE1 but increases its intracellular accumulation. All results suggest that KIF3B is involved in the trafficking of kAE1 to the plasma membrane of human kidney {alpha}-intercalated cells.

  17. Phosphodiesterase 3B (PDE3B) regulates NLRP3 inflammasome in adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Faiyaz; Chung, Youn Wook; Tang, Yan; Hockman, Steven C; Liu, Shiwei; Khan, Yusuf; Huo, Kevin; Billings, Eric; Amar, Marcelo J; Remaley, Alan T; Manganiello, Vincent C

    2016-01-01

    Activation of inflammation in white adipose tissue (WAT), includes infiltration/expansion of WAT macrophages, contributes pathogenesis of obesity, insulin resistance, and metabolic syndrome. The inflammasome comprises an intracellular sensor (NLR), caspase-1 and the adaptor ASC. Inflammasome activation leads to maturation of caspase-1 and processing of IL1β, contributing to many metabolic disorders and directing adipocytes to a more insulin-resistant phenotype. Ablation of PDE3B in WAT prevents inflammasome activation by reducing expression of NLRP3, caspase-1, ASC, AIM2, TNFα, IL1β and proinflammatory genes. Following IP injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), serum levels of IL1β and TNFα were reduced in PDE3B(-/-)mice compared to WT. Activation of signaling cascades, which mediate inflammasome responses, were modulated in PDE3B(-/-)mice WAT, including smad, NFAT, NFkB, and MAP kinases. Moreover, expression of chemokine CCL2, MCP-1 and its receptor CCR2, which play an important role in macrophage chemotaxis, were reduced in WAT of PDE3B(-/-)mice. In addition, atherosclerotic plaque formation was significantly reduced in the aorta of apoE(-/-)/PDE3B(-/-)and LDL-R(-/-)/PDE3B(-/-)mice compared to apoE(-/-)and LDL-R(-/-)mice, respectively. Obesity-induced changes in serum-cholesterol were blocked in PDE3B(-/-)mice. Collectively, these data establish a role for PDE3B in modulating inflammatory response, which may contribute to a reduced inflammatory state in adipose tissue. PMID:27321128

  18. Figuring Out Fat and Calories

    MedlinePlus

    ... I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Figuring Out Fat and Calories KidsHealth > For Teens > Figuring Out Fat ... the truth on fat and calories? What Are Fat and Calories? Fats, or lipids , are nutrients in ...

  19. Lunar Regolith Figures of Merit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rickman, Doug; Scjrader. Cjrostoam; Jpe (zer. Jams); Fourroux, Kathy

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the lunar regolith figures of merit. The contents include: 1) A quick review of Figures-of-Merit (FoM); 2) Software Implementation of FoM Algorithms; and 3) Demonstration of the Software.

  20. Making better scientific figures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawkins, Ed; McNeall, Doug

    2016-04-01

    In the words of the UK government chief scientific adviser "Science is not finished until it's communicated" (Walport 2013). The tools to produce good visual communication have never been so easily accessible to scientists as at the present. Correspondingly, it has never been easier to produce and disseminate poor graphics. In this presentation, we highlight some good practice and offer some practical advice in preparing scientific figures for presentation to peers or to the public. We identify common mistakes in visualisation, including some made by the authors, and offer some good reasons not to trust defaults in graphics software. In particular, we discuss the use of colour scales and share our experiences in running a social media campaign (http://tiny.cc/endrainbow) to replace the "rainbow" (also "jet", or "spectral") colour scale as the default in (climate) scientific visualisation.

  1. Human kidney anion exchanger 1 interacts with kinesin family member 3B (KIF3B).

    PubMed

    Duangtum, Natapol; Junking, Mutita; Sawasdee, Nunghathai; Cheunsuchon, Boonyarit; Limjindaporn, Thawornchai; Yenchitsomanus, Pa-thai

    2011-09-16

    Impaired trafficking of human kidney anion exchanger 1 (kAE1) to the basolateral membrane of α-intercalated cells of the kidney collecting duct leads to the defect of the Cl(-)/HCO(3)(-) exchange and the failure of proton (H(+)) secretion at the apical membrane of these cells, causing distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA). In the sorting process, kAE1 interacts with AP-1 mu1A, a subunit of AP-1A adaptor complex. However, it is not known whether kAE1 interacts with motor proteins in its trafficking process to the plasma membrane or not. We report here that kAE1 interacts with kinesin family member 3B (KIF3B) in kidney cells and a dileucine motif at the carboxyl terminus of kAE1 contributes to this interaction. We have also demonstrated that kAE1 co-localizes with KIF3B in human kidney tissues and the suppression of endogenous KIF3B in HEK293T cells by small interfering RNA (siRNA) decreases membrane localization of kAE1 but increases its intracellular accumulation. All results suggest that KIF3B is involved in the trafficking of kAE1 to the plasma membrane of human kidney α-intercalated cells. PMID:21871436

  2. 12 CFR 563d.3b-6 - Liability for certain statements by savings associations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 17 CFR 240.14a-3 (b) and (c) or 17 CFR 240.14c-3 (a) and (b) under the Act: Provided, That such... savings associations. This section replaces adherence to 17 CFR 240.3b-6 and applies as follows: (a) A... registration statement filed with the Office under the Act on Form 10 (17 CFR 249.210); in part I of...

  3. 12 CFR 563d.3b-6 - Liability for certain statements by savings associations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 17 CFR 240.14a-3 (b) and (c) or 17 CFR 240.14c-3 (a) and (b) under the Act: Provided, That such... savings associations. This section replaces adherence to 17 CFR 240.3b-6 and applies as follows: (a) A... registration statement filed with the Office under the Act on Form 10 (17 CFR 249.210); in part I of...

  4. 12 CFR 563d.3b-6 - Liability for certain statements by savings associations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 17 CFR 240.14a-3 (b) and (c) or 17 CFR 240.14c-3 (a) and (b) under the Act: Provided, That such... savings associations. This section replaces adherence to 17 CFR 240.3b-6 and applies as follows: (a) A... registration statement filed with the Office under the Act on Form 10 (17 CFR 249.210); in part I of...

  5. 12 CFR 563d.3b-6 - Liability for certain statements by savings associations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 17 CFR 240.14a-3 (b) and (c) or 17 CFR 240.14c-3 (a) and (b) under the Act: Provided, That such... savings associations. This section replaces adherence to 17 CFR 240.3b-6 and applies as follows: (a) A... registration statement filed with the Office under the Act on Form 10 (17 CFR 249.210); in part I of...

  6. A Revised Mechanism for the Activation of Complement C3 to C3b

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Elizabeth; Nan, Ruodan; Li, Keying; Gor, Jayesh; Perkins, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    The solution structure of complement C3b is crucial for the understanding of complement activation and regulation. C3b is generated by the removal of C3a from C3. Hydrolysis of the C3 thioester produces C3u, an analog of C3b. C3b cleavage results in C3c and C3d (thioester-containing domain; TED). To resolve functional questions in relation to C3b and C3u, analytical ultracentrifugation and x-ray and neutron scattering studies were used with C3, C3b, C3u, C3c, and C3d, using the wild-type allotype with Arg102. In 50 mm NaCl buffer, atomistic scattering modeling showed that both C3b and C3u adopted a compact structure, similar to the C3b crystal structure in which its TED and macroglobulin 1 (MG1) domains were connected through the Arg102–Glu1032 salt bridge. In physiological 137 mm NaCl, scattering modeling showed that C3b and C3u were both extended in structure, with the TED and MG1 domains now separated by up to 6 nm. The importance of the Arg102–Glu1032 salt bridge was determined using surface plasmon resonance to monitor the binding of wild-type C3d(E1032) and mutant C3d(A1032) to immobilized C3c. The mutant did not bind, whereas the wild-type form did. The high conformational variability of TED in C3b in physiological buffer showed that C3b is more reactive than previously thought. Because the Arg102-Glu1032 salt bridge is essential for the C3b-Factor H complex during the regulatory control of C3b, the known clinical associations of the major C3S (Arg102) and disease-linked C3F (Gly102) allotypes of C3b were experimentally explained for the first time. PMID:25488663

  7. Selective inhibition of human cytochrome P450 3A4 by N-[2(R)-hydroxy-1(S)-indanyl]-5-[2(S)-(1, 1-dimethylethylaminocarbonyl)-4-[(furo[2, 3-b]pyridin-5-yl)methyl]piperazin-1-yl]-4(S)-hydroxy-2(R)-phenylmethy lpentanamide and P-glycoprotein by valspodar in gene transfectant systems.

    PubMed

    Kawahara, I; Kato, Y; Suzuki, H; Achira, M; Ito, K; Crespi, C L; Sugiyama, Y

    2000-10-01

    Our previous report showed that L754.394 and valspodar (PSC833) are potent inhibitors of midazolam hydroxylation in human jejunum microsomes and vectorial transport of vinblastine in Caco-2 cells, respectively. In the present study, to directly examine the interactions of these compounds as well as other substrates with CYP3A4 and P-glycoprotein (P-gp), we performed in vitro inhibition studies using recombinant CYP3A4-expressed microsomes and an MDR1-transfected cell line, LLC-MDR1, respectively. In CYP3A4-expressed microsomes, both L754.394 and ketoconazole, at a concentration less than 0.5 microM, are the most potent inhibitors of the formation of 1'-hydroxymidazolam, a major metabolite of midazolam formed by CYP3A4. The greatest inhibitory effect on the transcellular transport of digoxin in LLC-MDR1 cells was observed in the presence of valspodar (<0.1 microM), followed by verapamil. From a comparison of the IC(50) values, it was shown that L754.394 and valspodar exhibited the highest selectivity for CYP3A4 and P-gp, respectively. To demonstrate such specificity, both midazolam hydroxylation and digoxin transport were observed in CYP3A4 transfected Caco-2 cells, which coexpress both P-gp and CYP3A4, in the presence or absence of L754.394 (0.5 microM) and valspodar (1.0 microM). L754.394 almost completely inhibited midazolam hydroxylation, but not digoxin transport, whereas almost complete inhibition of digoxin transport was observed in the presence of valspodar, but inhibition of the hydroxylation was minimal. Thus, the present study has demonstrated that L754.394 has a specific inhibitory effect on CYP3A4, whereas valspodar is specific for P-gp. PMID:10997946

  8. Figure Analysis: An Implementation Dialogue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiles, Amy M.

    2016-01-01

    Figure analysis is a novel active learning teaching technique that reinforces visual literacy. Small groups of students discuss diagrams in class in order to learn content. The instructor then gives a brief introduction and later summarizes the content of the figure. This teaching technique can be used in place of lecture as a mechanism to deliver…

  9. Three-Dimensional Lissajous Figures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Mura, John M.

    1989-01-01

    Described is a mechanically driven device for generating three-dimensional harmonic space figures with different frequencies and phase angles on the X, Y, and Z axes. Discussed are apparatus, viewing stereo pairs, equations of motion, and using space figures in classroom. (YP)

  10. Cancer Facts and Figures 2014

    MedlinePlus

    ... Facts & Figures 2014 This annual report provides the estimated numbers of new cancer cases and deaths in ... and treatment. In 2014, there will be an estimated 1,665,540 new cancer cases diagnosed and ...

  11. Truncated DNMT3B isoform DNMT3B7 suppresses growth, induces differentiation, and alters DNA methylation in human neuroblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Ostler, Kelly R.; Yang, Qiwei; Looney, Timothy J.; Zhang, Li; Vasanthakumar, Aparna; Tian, Yufeng; Kocherginsky, Masha; Raimondi, Stacey L.; DeMaio, Jessica G.; Salwen, Helen R.; Gu, Song; Chlenski, Alexandre; Naranjo, Arlene; Gill, Amy; Peddinti, Radhika; Lahn, Bruce T.; Cohn, Susan L.; Godley, Lucy A.

    2012-01-01

    Epigenetic changes in pediatric neuroblastoma may contribute to the aggressive pathophysiology of this disease, but little is known about the basis for such changes. In this study, we examined a role for the DNA methyltransferase DNMT3B, in particular, the truncated isoform DNMT3B7 which is generated frequently in cancer. To investigate if aberrant DNMT3B transcripts alter DNA methylation, gene expression, and phenotypic character in neuroblastoma, we measured DNMT3B expression in primary tumors. Higher levels of DNMT3B7 were detected in differentiated ganglioneuroblastomas compared to undifferentiated neuroblastomas, suggesting that expression of DNMT3B7 may induce a less aggressive clinical phenotype. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the effects of enforced DNMT3B7 expression in neuroblastoma cells, finding a significant inhibition of cell proliferation in vitro and angiogenesis and tumor growth in vivo. DNMT3B7-positive cells had higher levels of total genomic methylation and a dramatic decrease in expression of the FOS and JUN family members that comprise AP1 transcription factors. Consistent with an established antagonistic relationship between AP1 expression and retinoic acid receptor activity, increased differentiation was seen in the DNMT3B7-expressing neuroblastoma cells following treatment with all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) compared to controls. Our results indicate that DNMT3B7 modifies the epigenome in neuroblastoma cells to induce changes in gene expression, inhibit tumor growth, and increase sensitivity to ATRA. PMID:22815530

  12. Large exonic deletions in POLR3B gene cause POLR3-related leukodystrophy.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, Mariana; Thiffault, Isabelle; Guerrero, Kether; Martos-Moreno, Gabriel Á; Tran, Luan T; Benko, William; van der Knaap, Marjo S; van Spaendonk, Rosalina M L; Wolf, Nicole I; Bernard, Geneviève

    2015-01-01

    POLR3-related (or 4H) leukodystrophy is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in POLR3A or POLR3B and is characterized by neurological and non-neurological features. In a small proportion of patients, no mutation in either gene or only one mutation is found. Analysis of the POLR3B cDNA revealed a large deletion of exons 21-22 in one case and of exons 26-27 in another case. These are the first reports of long deletions causing POLR3-related leukodystrophy, suggesting that deletions and duplications in POLR3A or POLR3B should be investigated in patients with a compatible phenotype, especially if one pathogenic variant has been identified. PMID:26045207

  13. Phosphodiesterase 3B (PDE3B) regulates NLRP3 inflammasome in adipose tissue

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Faiyaz; Chung, Youn Wook; Tang, Yan; Hockman, Steven C.; Liu, Shiwei; Khan, Yusuf; Huo, Kevin; Billings, Eric; Amar, Marcelo J.; Remaley, Alan T.; Manganiello, Vincent C.

    2016-01-01

    Activation of inflammation in white adipose tissue (WAT), includes infiltration/expansion of WAT macrophages, contributes pathogenesis of obesity, insulin resistance, and metabolic syndrome. The inflammasome comprises an intracellular sensor (NLR), caspase-1 and the adaptor ASC. Inflammasome activation leads to maturation of caspase-1 and processing of IL1β, contributing to many metabolic disorders and directing adipocytes to a more insulin-resistant phenotype. Ablation of PDE3B in WAT prevents inflammasome activation by reducing expression of NLRP3, caspase-1, ASC, AIM2, TNFα, IL1β and proinflammatory genes. Following IP injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), serum levels of IL1β and TNFα were reduced in PDE3B−/−mice compared to WT. Activation of signaling cascades, which mediate inflammasome responses, were modulated in PDE3B−/−mice WAT, including smad, NFAT, NFkB, and MAP kinases. Moreover, expression of chemokine CCL2, MCP-1 and its receptor CCR2, which play an important role in macrophage chemotaxis, were reduced in WAT of PDE3B−/−mice. In addition, atherosclerotic plaque formation was significantly reduced in the aorta of apoE−/−/PDE3B−/−and LDL-R−/−/PDE3B−/−mice compared to apoE−/−and LDL-R−/−mice, respectively. Obesity-induced changes in serum-cholesterol were blocked in PDE3B−/−mice. Collectively, these data establish a role for PDE3B in modulating inflammatory response, which may contribute to a reduced inflammatory state in adipose tissue. PMID:27321128

  14. Figure analysis: An implementation dialogue.

    PubMed

    Wiles, Amy M

    2016-07-01

    Figure analysis is a novel active learning teaching technique that reinforces visual literacy. Small groups of students discuss diagrams in class in order to learn content. The instructor then gives a brief introduction and later summarizes the content of the figure. This teaching technique can be used in place of lecture as a mechanism to deliver information to students. Here, a "how to" guide is presented in the form of an in-class dialogue, displaying the difficulties in visual interpretation that some students may experience while figure analysis is being implemented in an upper-level, cell biology course. Additionally, the dialogue serves as a guide for instructors who may implement the active learning technique as they consider how to respond to students' concerns in class. © 2016 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 44(4):345-348, 2016. PMID:26892173

  15. The contributions of figure and ground textures to segmentation.

    PubMed

    Bravo, M J; Blake, R

    1992-09-01

    Several models of texture segmentation use spatial gradients in the activity of early filters to locate texture boundaries. The models assume that these filters are identical to those involved in the detection and discrimination of near threshold patterns. The models differ in how activity gradients from different types of filters are combined. We examined this question by measuring the respective contributions of a figure and a ground texture to segmentation. Vertical and horizontal line segments were used to construct two perfectly discriminable textures and these textures were used to construct four types of displays. Each display contained an obliquely oriented figure, but the displays differed in the way this figure was defined. Displays consisted of either (1) a horizontally textured figure on a blank background, (2) a blank figure on a vertically textured background, (3) a horizontally textured figure on a vertically textured background or (4) a figure with a mixed texture (50% vertical lines, 50% horizontal lines) on a blank background. In a two-alternative forced-choice experiment, observers were asked to judge the figure's orientation (right or left oblique), and the contrast of the textures was varied across trials. The resulting psychometric functions for segmentation were very similar for the four types of displays, suggesting ways in which a simple model of segmentation should be modified. PMID:1455752

  16. 27 CFR 21.36 - Formula No. 3-B.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formula No. 3-B. 21.36... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.36 Formula No. 3-B. (a) Formula. To every 100 gallons of alcohol add:...

  17. 18 CFR 3b.203 - Rules of conduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Rules of conduct. 3b.203 Section 3b.203 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES COLLECTION, MAINTENANCE, USE, AND DISSEMINATION OF RECORDS OF IDENTIFIABLE PERSONAL INFORMATION Standards...

  18. 18 CFR 3b.225 - Written consent for disclosure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... disclosure. 3b.225 Section 3b.225 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES COLLECTION, MAINTENANCE, USE, AND DISSEMINATION OF RECORDS OF..., on a matter within its jurisdiction; (10) To the Comptroller General, or any of his...

  19. 18 CFR 3b.201 - Content of records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Content of records. 3b.201 Section 3b.201 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES COLLECTION, MAINTENANCE, USE, AND DISSEMINATION OF RECORDS OF IDENTIFIABLE PERSONAL INFORMATION Standards...

  20. Choreography Styles in Figure Skating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moormann, Peter Paul

    2006-01-01

    Fifty-eight figure skating trainers from fifteen different countries acted as volunteers in this study on choreography styles. The styles were based on reports of artistic-creative strategies in composing music, drawing, writing poems or novels, and in making dances. The prevalence of the Mozartian (at the onset the choreographer already has a…

  1. A Figural Education with Lyotard

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Derek R.

    2015-01-01

    While there was a flurry of articles throughout the 1990s in philosophy of education on Lyotard, there are still several key concepts in his "oeuvre" that have import for but remain largely underdeveloped or absent in the field. One of the most interesting of these absent concepts is Lyotard's notion of the figural. In this paper, I…

  2. Figuring out a scientific understanding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutton, Clive

    1993-12-01

    This article attempts to place analogy and metaphor within the wider context of all figurative language, and to trace the relationship between that kind of expression and the supposedly literal and direct accounts of nature that scientists have built up.I explore the functions of figures of speech in the development of new scientific ideas, and trace how they fade or die as each area of scientific knowledge matures. What we then take to be the literal words of scientific description are in effect the remnants of old figures of speech that have grown so familiar that their earlier metaphorical quality is easily overlooked. The conventional separation of figurative and literal cannot be sustained, and a new understanding of their relationship is needed.The practical implications of this analysis are to do with how we can reactivate the dormant metaphors in ordinary scientific language, so that learners may hear again the human voice of scientists who developed the ways of talking we now take for granted. To reactivate the system of thought behind any established way of talking, we must be able to get the learners to understand that language works as a medium of interpretation and persuasion, and not simply a system of descriptive labeling. These two views of language are compared and contrasted.

  3. Storytelling Figures: A Pueblo Tradition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraus, Nancy

    1997-01-01

    In a collaborative unit on pueblo storytelling figures involving art, music, language arts, and physical education, a teacher describes how she helped second graders understand the Pueblo pottery tradition by reading aloud literature covering the past and present. Lists folklore, fiction, poetry, nonfiction, professional resources, videos, CDs,…

  4. The estimate on lunar figure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, B. X.

    2008-10-01

    In 1799 Laplace had discovered that the lunar three principal momentum are not in equilibrium with the Moon's current orbital and rotational state.Some authors suggested that the Moon may carry a fossil figure. Before more 3 billion years the liquid Moon was closer to the Earth and revolved faster.Then the Moon migrated outwards and revolved slow down. During the early part of this migration, the Moon was continually subjected to tidal and rotational stretching and formed into an ellipsoid. Then the Moon cooled and solidified quickly. Eventually, the solid Moon's lithosphere was stable, so that we may see the very early lunar figure. In this paper, by using the lunar libration parameters and the spherical-harmonic gravity coefficient, the length of three radii a, b, c of the ellipsoid and the Moon's figure as an equilibrium tidal have been calculated. Then three conclusions can be obtained; (1) In the beginning the Moon may be very close to the Earth, before about 3 billion years the moon may cooled and solidified, and the present Moon are in the fossil figure. (2) In the third section of this paper, we demonstrate that the tidal deformation of liquid Moon was 1.934 times then the equilibrium tide. So that if to calculating the true lunar figure by using the lunar spherical-harmonic gravity coefficients, the effects of Liquid Love number hf = 1.934must be considered. (3) According to the difference between a, b, and c, the lunar distance (1.7455×108m) and spin period 3.652day can be calculated. So that the lunar orbits period was 8.34day. Hence the Moon was locked closely into a resonance orbit in the ratio 2:1 when the Moon froze.

  5. BOREAS Level-3b Landsat TM Imagery: At-sensor Radiances in BSQ Format

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Nickeson, Jaime; Knapp, David; Newcomer, Jeffrey A.; Cihlar, Josef

    2000-01-01

    For BOREAS, the level-3b Landsat TM data, along with the other remotely sensed images, were collected in order to provide spatially extensive information over the primary study areas. This information includes radiant energy, detailed land cover, and biophysical parameter maps such as FPAR and LAI. Although very similar in content to the level-3a Landsat TM products, the level-3b images were created to provide users with a directly usable at-sensor radiance image. Geographically, the level-3b images cover the BOREAS NSA and SSA. Temporally, the images cover the period of 22-Jun-1984 to 09-Jul-1996. The images are available in binary, image format files.

  6. Expert system verification and validation study. Delivery 3A and 3B: Trip summaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    French, Scott

    1991-01-01

    Key results are documented from attending the 4th workshop on verification, validation, and testing. The most interesting part of the workshop was when representatives from the U.S., Japan, and Europe presented surveys of VV&T within their respective regions. Another interesting part focused on current efforts to define industry standards for artificial intelligence and how that might affect approaches to VV&T of expert systems. The next part of the workshop focused on VV&T methods of applying mathematical techniques to verification of rule bases and techniques for capturing information relating to the process of developing software. The final part focused on software tools. A summary is also presented of the EPRI conference on 'Methodologies, Tools, and Standards for Cost Effective Reliable Software Verification and Validation. The conference was divided into discussion sessions on the following issues: development process, automated tools, software reliability, methods, standards, and cost/benefit considerations.

  7. PROCEEDINGS: 1993 SO2 CONTROL SYMPOSIUM - VOLUME 1. SESSIONS 1, 2, 3A, AND 3B

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report documents more than 100 presentations at the 1993 SO2 Control Symposium in Boston, MA, August 24-27, 1993. The presentations covered a wide range of topics: industry's strategies for dealing with Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, including Phase I strategies, the emiss...

  8. PROCEEDINGS: 1990 SO2 CONTROL SYMPOSIUM - VOLUME 1: SESSIONS 1, 2, 3A, AND 3B

    EPA Science Inventory

    The proceedings document 110 papers presented at the Symposium held in New Orleans, LA, May 8-11, 1990. opics included SO2 control economics, furnace sorbent injection, byproduct utilization, spray dryer technology, wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) and combined SOx/NOx control ...

  9. Dynamic expression of transcription factor Brn3b during mouse cranial nerve development.

    PubMed

    Sajgo, Szilard; Ali, Seid; Popescu, Octavian; Badea, Tudor Constantin

    2016-04-01

    During development, transcription factor combinatorial codes define a large variety of morphologically and physiologically distinct neurons. Such a combinatorial code has been proposed for the differentiation of projection neurons of the somatic and visceral components of cranial nerves. It is possible that individual neuronal cell types are not specified by unique transcription factors but rather emerge through the intersection of their expression domains. Brn3a, Brn3b, and Brn3c, in combination with each other and/or transcription factors of other families, can define subgroups of retinal ganglion cells (RGC), spiral and vestibular ganglia, inner ear and vestibular hair cell neurons in the vestibuloacoustic system, and groups of somatosensory neurons in the dorsal root ganglia. The present study investigates the expression and potential role of the Brn3b transcription factor in cranial nerves and associated nuclei of the brainstem. We report the dynamic expression of Brn3b in the somatosensory component of cranial nerves II, V, VII, and VIII and visceromotor nuclei of nerves VII, IX, and X as well as other brainstem nuclei during different stages of development into adult stage. We find that genetically identified Brn3b(KO) RGC axons show correct but delayed pathfinding during the early stages of embryonic development. However, loss of Brn3b does not affect the anatomy of the other cranial nerves normally expressing this transcription factor. PMID:26356988

  10. Obliquely incident ion beam figuring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Lin; Dai, Yifan; Xie, Xuhui; Li, Shengyi

    2015-10-01

    A new ion beam figuring (IBF) technique, obliquely incident IBF (OI-IBF), is proposed. In OI-IBF, the ion beam bombards the optical surface obliquely with an invariable incident angle instead of perpendicularly as in the normal IBF. Due to the higher removal rate in oblique incidence, the process time in OI-IBF can be significantly shortened. The removal rates at different incident angles were first tested, and then a test mirror was processed by OI-IBF. Comparison shows that in the OI-IBF technique with a 30 deg incident angle, the process time was reduced by 56.8%, while keeping the same figure correcting ability. The experimental results indicate that the OI-IBF technique is feasible and effective to improve the surface correction process efficiency.

  11. DNA cytosine and methylcytosine deamination by APOBEC3B: enhancing methylcytosine deamination by engineering APOBEC3B

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Yang; Ito, Fumiaki; Zhang, Gewen; Fernandez, Braulio; Yang, Hanjing; Chen, Xiaojiang S.

    2015-01-01

    APOBEC (apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme catalytic polypeptide-like) is a family of enzymes that deaminates cytosine (C) to uracil (U) on nucleic acid. APOBEC3B (A3B) functions in innate immunity against intrinsic and invading retroelements and viruses. A3B can also induce genomic DNA mutations to cause cancer. A3B contains two cytosine deaminase domains (CD1, CD2), and there are conflicting reports about whether both domains are active. Here we demonstrate that only CD2 of A3B (A3BCD2) has C deamination activity. We also reveal that both A3B and A3BCD2 can deaminate methylcytosine (mC). Guided by structural and functional analysis, we successfully engineered A3BCD2 to gain over two orders of magnitude higher activity for mC deamination. Important determinants that contribute to the activity and selectivity for mC deamination have been identified, which reveals that multiple elements, rather than single ones, contribute to the mC deamination activity and selectivity in A3BCD2 and possibly other APOBECs. PMID:26195824

  12. Specific requirement of the chromatin modifier mSin3B in cell cycle exit and cellular differentiation.

    PubMed

    David, Gregory; Grandinetti, Kathryn B; Finnerty, Patricia M; Simpson, Natalie; Chu, Gerald C; Depinho, Ronald A

    2008-03-18

    The Sin3-histone deacetylase (HDAC) corepressor complex is conserved from yeast to humans. Mammals possess two highly related Sin3 proteins, mSin3A and mSin3B, which serve as scaffolds tethering HDAC enzymatic activity, and numerous sequence-specific transcription factors to enable local chromatin regulation at specific gene targets. Despite broad overlapping expression of mSin3A and mSin3B, mSin3A is cell-essential and vital for early embryonic development. Here, genetic disruption of mSin3B reveals a very different phenotype characterized by the survival of cultured cells and lethality at late stages of embryonic development with defective differentiation of multiple lineages-phenotypes that are strikingly reminiscent of those associated with loss of retinoblastoma family members or E2F transcriptional repressors. Additionally, we observe that, whereas mSin3B(-/-) cells cycle normally under standard growth conditions, they show an impaired ability to exit the cell cycle with limiting growth factors. Correspondingly, mSin3B interacts physically with the promoters of known E2F target genes, and its deficiency is associated with derepression of these gene targets in vivo. Together, these results reveal a critical role for mSin3B in the control of cell cycle exit and terminal differentiation in mammals and establish contrasting roles for the mSin3 proteins in the growth and development of specific lineages. PMID:18332431

  13. Enhanced spatial resolution on figures versus grounds.

    PubMed

    Hecht, Lauren N; Cosman, Joshua D; Vecera, Shaun P

    2016-07-01

    Much is known about the cues that determine figure-ground assignment, but less is known about the consequences of figure-ground assignment on later visual processing. Previous work has demonstrated that regions assigned figural status are subjectively more shape-like and salient than background regions. The increase in subjective salience of figural regions could be caused by a number of processes, one of which may be enhanced perceptual processing (e.g., an enhanced neural representation) of figures relative to grounds. We explored this hypothesis by having observers perform a perceptually demanding spatial resolution task in which targets appeared on either figure or ground regions. To rule out a purely attentional account of figural salience, observers discriminated targets on the basis of a region's color (red or green), which was equally likely to define the figure or the ground. The results of our experiments showed that targets appearing on figures were discriminated more accurately than those appearing in ground regions. In addition, targets appearing on figures were discriminated better than those presented in regions considered figurally neutral, but targets appearing within ground regions were discriminated more poorly than those appearing in figurally neutral regions. Taken together, our findings suggest that when two regions share a contour, regions assigned as figure are perceptually enhanced, whereas regions assigned as ground are perceptually suppressed. PMID:27048441

  14. Hooke's figurations: a figural drawing attributed to Robert Hooke.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Matthew C

    2010-09-20

    The experimental philosopher Robert Hooke (1635-1703) is known to have apprenticed to the leading painter Peter Lely on his first arrival in London in the late 1640s. Yet the relevance of Hooke's artistic training to his mature draughtsmanship and identity has remained unclear. Shedding light on that larger interpretive problem, this article argues for the attribution to Hooke of a figural drawing now in Tate Britain (T10678). This attributed drawing is especially interesting because it depicts human subjects and bears Hooke's name functioning as an artistic signature, both highly unusual features for his draughtsmanship. From evidence of how this drawing was collected and physically placed alongside images by leading artists in the early eighteenth century, I suggest how it can offer new insight into the reception of Hooke and his graphic work in the early Enlightenment. PMID:20973449

  15. Organocatalytic asymmetric selenofunctionalization of tryptamine for the synthesis of hexahydropyrrolo[2,3-b]indole derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Qiang; Wang, Ya-Yi; Du, Yu-Liu

    2013-01-01

    Summary A chiral phosphoric acid-catalyzed selenofunctionalization of tryptamine derivatives provides access to 3a-(phenylselenyl)-1,2,3,3a,8,8a-hexahydropyrrolo[2,3-b]indole derivatives in high yields and with synthetically useful levels of enantioselectivity (up to 89% ee). PMID:23946855

  16. Crystal structure of inactive form of Rab3B

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Wei; Shen, Yang; Jiao, Ronghong; Liu, Yanli; Deng, Lingfu; Qi, Chao

    2012-02-24

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This is the first structural information of human Rab3B. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer To provides a structural basis for the GDP/GTP switch in controlling the activity of Rab3. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The charge distribution of Rab3B indicates its unique roles in vesicular trafficking. -- Abstract: Rab proteins are the largest family of ras-related GTPases in eukaryotic cells. They act as directional molecular switches at membrane trafficking, including vesicle budding, cargo sorting, transport, tethering, and fusion. Here, we generated and crystallized the Rab3B:GDP complex. The structure of the complex was solved to 1.9 A resolution and the structural base comparison with other Rab3 members provides a structural basis for the GDP/GTP switch in controlling the activity of small GTPase. The comparison of charge distribution among the members of Rab3 also indicates their different roles in vesicular trafficking.

  17. Retinoic acid negatively regulates dact3b expression in the hindbrain of zebrafish embryos

    PubMed Central

    Mandal, Amrita; Waxman, Joshua

    2014-01-01

    Wnt signaling plays important roles in normal development as well as pathophysiological conditions. The Dapper antagonist of β-catenin (Dact) proteins are modulators of both canonical and non-canonical Wnt signaling via direct interactions with Dishevelled (Dvl) and Van Gogh like-2 (Vangl2). Here, we report the dynamic expression patterns of two zebrafish dact3 paralogs during early embryonic development. Our whole mount in situ hybridization (WISH) analysis indicates that specific dact3a expression starts by the tailbud stage in adaxial cells. Later, it is expressed in the anterior lateral plate mesoderm, somites, migrating cranial neural crest, and hindbrain neurons. By comparison, dact3b expression initiates on the dorsal side at the dome stage and soon after is expressed in the dorsal forerunner cells (DFCs) during gastrulation. At later stages, dact3b expression becomes restricted to the branchial neurons of the hindbrain and to the 2nd pharyngeal arch. To investigate how zebrafish dact3 gene expression is regulated, we manipulated retinoic acid (RA) signaling during development and found it negatively regulates dact3b in the hindbrain. Our study is the first to document the expression of the paralogous zebrafish dact3 genes during early development and demonstrate dact3b can be regulated by RA signaling. Therefore, our study opens up new avenues to study Dact3 function in the development of multiple tissues and suggests a previously unappreciated cross regulation of Wnt signaling by RA signaling in the developing vertebrate hindbrain. PMID:25266145

  18. 49 CFR Appendix - Figures to Part 38

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Figures to Part 38 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Other Vehicles and Systems Trams, and similar vehicles, and systems Pt. 38, Figures Figures to Part 38 ER28SE98.000...

  19. 49 CFR Appendix - Figures to Part 38

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Figures to Part 38 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Other Vehicles and Systems Trams, and similar vehicles, and systems Pt. 38, Figures Figures to Part 38 ER28SE98.000...

  20. Preadolescent male perceptions of action figure physiques.

    PubMed

    Baghurst, Timothy; Carlston, David; Wood, Julie; Wyatt, Frank B

    2007-12-01

    This study investigated the preference and reasoning of 176 preadolescent and adolescent males when presented with original and current action figures that had statistically different physiques. Current action figures were perceived as significantly more muscular and healthier. Participants also preferred to resemble current action figures citing muscularity and size for their preference. PMID:18023792

  1. 49 CFR Appendix - Figures to Part 38

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Figures to Part 38 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Other Vehicles and Systems Trams, and similar vehicles, and systems Pt. 38, Figures Figures to Part 38 ER28SE98.000...

  2. 49 CFR Appendix - Figures to Part 38

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Figures to Part 38 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Other Vehicles and Systems Trams, and similar vehicles, and systems Pt. 38, Figures Figures to Part 38 ER28SE98.000...

  3. PHOBOS Experiment: Figures and Data

    DOE Data Explorer

    The PHOBOS Collaboration

    PHOBOS consists of many silicon detectors surrounding the interaction region. With these detectors physicists can count the total number of produced particles and study the angular distributions of all the products. Physicists know from other branches of physics that a characteristic of phase transitions are fluctuations in physical observables. With the PHOBOS array they look for unusual events or fluctuations in the number of particles and angular distribution. The articles that have appeared in refereed science journals are listed here with separate links to the supporting data plots, figures, and tables of numeric data.  See also supporting data for articles in technical journals at http://www.phobos.bnl.gov/Publications/Technical/phobos_technical_publications.htm and from conference proceedings at http://www.phobos.bnl.gov/Publications/Proceedings/phobos_proceedings_publications.htm

  4. Identification of the heparin binding site on adeno-associated virus serotype 3B (AAV-3B)

    SciTech Connect

    Lerch, Thomas F.; Chapman, Michael S.

    2012-05-24

    Adeno-associated virus is a promising vector for gene therapy. In the current study, the binding site on AAV serotype 3B for the heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG) receptor has been characterized. X-ray diffraction identified a disaccharide binding site at the most positively charged region on the virus surface. The contributions of basic amino acids at this and other sites were characterized using site-directed mutagenesis. Both heparin and cell binding are correlated to positive charge at the disaccharide binding site, and transduction is significantly decreased in AAV-3B vectors mutated at this site to reduce heparin binding. While the receptor attachment sites of AAV-3B and AAV-2 are both in the general vicinity of the viral spikes, the exact amino acids that participate in electrostatic interactions are distinct. Diversity in the mechanisms of cell attachment by AAV serotypes will be an important consideration for the rational design of improved gene therapy vectors.

  5. Identification of the heparin binding site on adeno-associated virus serotype 3B (AAV-3B)

    SciTech Connect

    Lerch, Thomas F.; Chapman, Michael S.

    2012-02-05

    Adeno-associated virus is a promising vector for gene therapy. In the current study, the binding site on AAV serotype 3B for the heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG) receptor has been characterized. X-ray diffraction identified a disaccharide binding site at the most positively charged region on the virus surface. The contributions of basic amino acids at this and other sites were characterized using site-directed mutagenesis. Both heparin and cell binding are correlated to positive charge at the disaccharide binding site, and transduction is significantly decreased in AAV-3B vectors mutated at this site to reduce heparin binding. While the receptor attachment sites of AAV-3B and AAV-2 are both in the general vicinity of the viral spikes, the exact amino acids that participate in electrostatic interactions are distinct. Diversity in the mechanisms of cell attachment by AAV serotypes will be an important consideration for the rational design of improved gene therapy vectors.

  6. FLASH_SSF_Aqua-FM3_V3B

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-07-20

    ... FLASH_SSF_Aqua-FM3_V3B Project Title:  CERES Discipline:  Clouds Radiation Budget ...   Reverb Tutorial Subset/Visualization Tool:  CERES Order Tool CERES Search and Subset Tool (HDF4 & netCDF) ...

  7. FLASH_SSF_Terra-FM1_V3B

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-07-22

    ... FLASH_SSF_Terra-FM1_V3B Project Title:  CERES Discipline:  Clouds Radiation Budget ...   Reverb Tutorial Subset/Visualization Tool:  CERES Order Tool CERES Search and Subset Tool (HDF4 & netCDF) ...

  8. 18 CFR 3b.226 - Accounting of disclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... IDENTIFIABLE PERSONAL INFORMATION Rules for Disclosure of Records § 3b.226 Accounting of disclosures. (a) The... this section for at least five years from the date of disclosure for which the accounting is made, or... be maintained for disclosure of the accounting of disclosures....

  9. 18 CFR 3b.226 - Accounting of disclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Accounting of... IDENTIFIABLE PERSONAL INFORMATION Rules for Disclosure of Records § 3b.226 Accounting of disclosures. (a) The....225(b) (5) and (7). (b) Each system manager will retain the accounting made under paragraph (a)...

  10. 18 CFR 3b.226 - Accounting of disclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Accounting of... IDENTIFIABLE PERSONAL INFORMATION Rules for Disclosure of Records § 3b.226 Accounting of disclosures. (a) The....225(b) (5) and (7). (b) Each system manager will retain the accounting made under paragraph (a)...

  11. 18 CFR 3b.226 - Accounting of disclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Accounting of... IDENTIFIABLE PERSONAL INFORMATION Rules for Disclosure of Records § 3b.226 Accounting of disclosures. (a) The....225(b) (5) and (7). (b) Each system manager will retain the accounting made under paragraph (a)...

  12. 18 CFR 3b.226 - Accounting of disclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Accounting of... IDENTIFIABLE PERSONAL INFORMATION Rules for Disclosure of Records § 3b.226 Accounting of disclosures. (a) The....225(b) (5) and (7). (b) Each system manager will retain the accounting made under paragraph (a)...

  13. 50 CFR Figure 1 to Part 648 - Figure 1 to Part 648

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Figure 1 to Part 648 1 Figure 1 to Part 648 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FISHERIES OF THE NORTHEASTERN UNITED STATES Pt. 648, Figure 1 Figure 1...

  14. 50 CFR Figure 1 to Part 648 - Figure 1 to Part 648

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Figure 1 to Part 648 1 Figure 1 to Part 648 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FISHERIES OF THE NORTHEASTERN UNITED STATES Pt. 648, Figure 1 Figure 1...

  15. 50 CFR Figure 1 to Part 648 - Figure 1 to Part 648

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Figure 1 to Part 648 1 Figure 1 to Part 648 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FISHERIES OF THE NORTHEASTERN UNITED STATES Pt. 648, Figure 1 Figure 1...

  16. 50 CFR Figure 1 to Part 648 - Figure 1 to Part 648

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Figure 1 to Part 648 1 Figure 1 to Part 648 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FISHERIES OF THE NORTHEASTERN UNITED STATES Pt. 648, Figure 1 Figure 1...

  17. Biodegradation of trichloroethylene by Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b.

    PubMed Central

    Tsien, H C; Brusseau, G A; Hanson, R S; Waclett, L P

    1989-01-01

    The methanotroph Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b, a type II methanotroph, degraded trichloroethylene at rates exceeding 1.2 mmol/h per g (dry weight) following the appearance of soluble methane monooxygenase in continuous and batch cultures. Cells capable oxidizing trichloroethylene contained components of soluble methane monooxygenase as demonstrated by Western blot (immunoblot) analysis with antibodies prepared against the purified enzyme. Growth of cultures in a medium containing 0.25 microM or less copper sulfate caused derepression of the synthesis of soluble methane monooxygenase. In these cultures, the specific rates of methane and methanol oxidation did not change during growth, while trichloroethylene oxidation increased with the appearance of soluble methane monooxygenase. M. trichosporium OB3b cells that contained soluble methane monooxygenase also degraded vinyl chloride, 1,1-dichloroethylene, cis-1,2-dichloroethylene, and trans-1,2-dichloroethylene. Images PMID:2515801

  18. The new silver borate Ag3B5O9

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sohr, Gerhard; Falkowski, Viktoria; Huppertz, Hubert

    2015-05-01

    Single crystals of Ag3B5O9 were obtained via high-pressure synthesis at 3 GPa and 600 °C, using a Walker-type multianvil high-pressure device. Ag3B5O9 crystalizes with a=674.7(2), b=943.5(2), c=1103.5(2) pm, V=0.7025(2) nm3, and Z=4 in the noncentrosymmetric space group P212121 (no. 19). The orthorhombic structure was refined from 3740 independent reflections with R1=0.0496 and wR2=0.587 (all data). It is built up from infinite corner-sharing chains of BO4 tetrahedra along the a axis, which are interconnected by BO3 groups to form a network. In the structure, three crystallographically independent sites are occupied with Ag+ cations exhibiting argentophillic interactions. The synthetic conditions as well as the results of the single crystal structure analysis are presented.

  19. APOSTLE: 11 TRANSIT OBSERVATIONS OF TrES-3b

    SciTech Connect

    Kundurthy, P.; Becker, A. C.; Agol, E.; Barnes, R.; Williams, B.

    2013-02-10

    The Apache Point Survey of Transit Lightcurves of Exoplanets (APOSTLE) observed 11 transits of TrES-3b over two years in order to constrain system parameters and look for transit timing and depth variations. We describe an updated analysis protocol for APOSTLE data, including the reduction pipeline, transit model, and Markov Chain Monte Carlo analyzer. Our estimates of the system parameters for TrES-3b are consistent with previous estimates to within the 2{sigma} confidence level. We improved the errors (by 10%-30%) on system parameters such as the orbital inclination (i {sub orb}), impact parameter (b), and stellar density ({rho}{sub *}) compared to previous measurements. The near-grazing nature of the system, and incomplete sampling of some transits, limited our ability to place reliable uncertainties on individual transit depths and hence we do not report strong evidence for variability. Our analysis of the transit timing data shows no evidence for transit timing variations and our timing measurements are able to rule out super-Earth and gas giant companions in low-order mean motion resonance with TrES-3b.

  20. Carbides with Filled Re 3B-Type Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witte, Anne M.; Jeitschko, Wolfgang

    1994-10-01

    The new compounds AFe2SiC (A = Y, Sm, Gd, Tb, Ho, Er, Tm, Lu, Th, U) were prepared by arc-melting cold-pressed pellets of the elemental components. They are isotypic with the orthorhombic DyFe2SiC-type structure, which was refined from single-crystal X-ray data of ThFe2SiC: Cmcm, a = 386.32(6) pm, b = 1080.6(1) pm, c = 695.0(1) pm, Z = 4, R = 0.020 for 559 structure factors and 17 variable parameters. The polyanionic iron-silicon-carbon network is three-dimensionally infinite. The carbon atoms are situated in octahedral voids formed by four thorium and two iron atoms. The hydrolysis of ErFe2SiC with diluted hydrochloric acid yields mainly methane besides C2 and C3 hydro-carbons. A large number of compounds can be classified to crystallize with a filled-up version of the Re3B-type structure. They are isotypic with V3AsC, where the positions of the vanadium and arsenic atoms correspond to the atomic positions of Re3B and the carbon atoms fill octahedral voids formed by the vanadium atoms. The DyFe2SiC-type structure also can be described as a filled-up Re3B structure; however, the carbon atoms of DyFe2SiC occupy different octahedral voids.

  1. Heterocyst-specific flavodiiron protein Flv3B enables oxic diazotrophic growth of the filamentous cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. PCC 7120

    PubMed Central

    Ermakova, Maria; Battchikova, Natalia; Richaud, Pierre; Leino, Hannu; Kosourov, Sergey; Isojärvi, Janne; Peltier, Gilles; Flores, Enrique; Cournac, Laurent; Allahverdiyeva, Yagut; Aro, Eva-Mari

    2014-01-01

    Flavodiiron proteins are known to have crucial and specific roles in photoprotection of photosystems I and II in cyanobacteria. The filamentous, heterocyst-forming cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 contains, besides the four flavodiiron proteins Flv1A, Flv2, Flv3A, and Flv4 present in vegetative cells, two heterocyst-specific flavodiiron proteins, Flv1B and Flv3B. Here, we demonstrate that Flv3B is responsible for light-induced O2 uptake in heterocysts, and that the absence of the Flv3B protein severely compromises the growth of filaments in oxic, but not in microoxic, conditions. It is further demonstrated that Flv3B-mediated photosynthetic O2 uptake has a distinct role in heterocysts which cannot be substituted by respiratory O2 uptake in the protection of nitrogenase from oxidative damage and, thus, in an efficient provision of nitrogen to filaments. In line with this conclusion, the Δflv3B strain has reduced amounts of nitrogenase NifHDK subunits and shows multiple symptoms of nitrogen deficiency in the filaments. The apparent imbalance of cytosolic redox state in Δflv3B heterocysts also has a pronounced influence on the amounts of different transcripts and proteins. Therefore, an O2-related mechanism for control of gene expression is suggested to take place in heterocysts. PMID:25002499

  2. Heterocyst-specific flavodiiron protein Flv3B enables oxic diazotrophic growth of the filamentous cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. PCC 7120.

    PubMed

    Ermakova, Maria; Battchikova, Natalia; Richaud, Pierre; Leino, Hannu; Kosourov, Sergey; Isojärvi, Janne; Peltier, Gilles; Flores, Enrique; Cournac, Laurent; Allahverdiyeva, Yagut; Aro, Eva-Mari

    2014-07-29

    Flavodiiron proteins are known to have crucial and specific roles in photoprotection of photosystems I and II in cyanobacteria. The filamentous, heterocyst-forming cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 contains, besides the four flavodiiron proteins Flv1A, Flv2, Flv3A, and Flv4 present in vegetative cells, two heterocyst-specific flavodiiron proteins, Flv1B and Flv3B. Here, we demonstrate that Flv3B is responsible for light-induced O2 uptake in heterocysts, and that the absence of the Flv3B protein severely compromises the growth of filaments in oxic, but not in microoxic, conditions. It is further demonstrated that Flv3B-mediated photosynthetic O2 uptake has a distinct role in heterocysts which cannot be substituted by respiratory O2 uptake in the protection of nitrogenase from oxidative damage and, thus, in an efficient provision of nitrogen to filaments. In line with this conclusion, the Δflv3B strain has reduced amounts of nitrogenase NifHDK subunits and shows multiple symptoms of nitrogen deficiency in the filaments. The apparent imbalance of cytosolic redox state in Δflv3B heterocysts also has a pronounced influence on the amounts of different transcripts and proteins. Therefore, an O2-related mechanism for control of gene expression is suggested to take place in heterocysts. PMID:25002499

  3. Recommended reference figures for geophysics and geodesy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khan, M. A.; Okeefe, J. A.

    1973-01-01

    Specific reference figures are recommended for consistent use in geophysics and geodesy. The selection of appropriate reference figure for geophysical studies suggests a relationship between the Antarctic negative gravity anomaly and the great shrinkage of the Antarctic ice cap about 4-5 million years ago. The depression of the south polar regions relative to the north polar regions makes the Southern Hemisphere flatter than the Northern Hemisphere, thus producing the third harmonic (pear-shaped) contribution to the earth's figure.

  4. Cortical Connections to Single Digit Representations in Area 3b of Somatosensory Cortex in Squirrel Monkeys and Prosimian Galagos

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Chia-Chi; Gharbawie, Omar A.; Qi, Huixin; Kaas, Jon H.

    2014-01-01

    The ventral posterior nucleus of thalamus sends highly segregated inputs into each digit representation in area 3b of primary somatosensory cortex. However, the spatial organization of the connections that link digit representations of areas 3b with other somatosensory areas is less understood. Here we examined the cortical inputs to individual digit representations of area 3b in four squirrel monkeys and one prosimian galago. Retrograde tracers were injected into neurophysiologically defined representations of individual digits of area 3b. Cortical tissues were cut parallel to the surface in some cases and showed that feedback projections to individual digits overlapped extensively in the hand representations of areas 3b, 1, and parietal ventral (PV) and second somatosensory (S2) areas. Other regions with overlapping populations of labeled cells included area 3a and primary motor cortex (M1). The results were confirmed in other cases in which the cortical tissues were cut in the coronal plane. The same cases also showed that cells were primarily labeled in the infragranular and supragranular layers. Thus, feedback projections to individual digit representations in area 3b mainly originate from multiple digits and other portions of hand representations of areas 3b, 1, PV, and S2. This organization is in stark contrast to the segregated thalamocortical inputs, which originate in single digit representations and terminate in the matching digit representation in the cortex. The organization of feedback connections could provide a substrate for the integration of information across the representations of adjacent digits in area 3b. PMID:23749740

  5. Cleavage of Complement C3b to iC3b on the Surface of Staphylococcus aureus Is Mediated by Serum Complement Factor I

    PubMed Central

    Cunnion, K. M.; Hair, P. S.; Buescher, E. S.

    2004-01-01

    Complement-mediated opsonization of Staphylococcus aureus bearing the dominant capsule serotypes, serotypes 5 and 8, remains incompletely understood. We have previously shown that complement plays a vital role in the efficient phagocytosis of a serotype 5 S. aureus strain and that the opsonic fragments of the central complement protein C3, C3b and iC3b, were present on the bacterial surface after incubation in human serum. In the present studies, C3b and iC3b were found on several serotype 5 and 8 S. aureus strains after incubation in human serum. Using purified classical activation pathway complement proteins and the Western blot assay, we showed that when C3b was generated on the S. aureus surface no iC3b fragments were found, suggesting that other serum proteins may be required for cleaving C3b to iC3b. When C3b-coated S. aureus was incubated with serum factor I, a complement regulatory protein, iC3b was generated. Purified factor H, a serum protein cofactor for factor I, did not enhance factor I-mediated cleavage of C3b. These findings suggest that C3b cleavage to iC3b on S. aureus is mediated by serum factor I and does not require factor H. PMID:15102797

  6. "Blessed": Musical Talent, Smartness, & Figured Identities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Adria R.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore smartness and talent as social constructs. Drawing on Holland et al.'s (1998) figured identities, this article explores the figuring of abilities by elucidating the voices of African American high school chorus students. Critical Race Theory (CRT) helps to unpack normalized language and practices that…

  7. Evolution of the Significant Figure Rules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Ashley R.

    2013-01-01

    Today, almost all introductory physics textbooks include standardized "rules" on how to find the number of significant figures in a calculated value. And yet, 30 years ago these rules were almost nonexistent. Why have we increased the role of significant figures in introductory classes, and should we continue this trend? A look back at…

  8. Plasma surface figuring of large optical components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jourdain, R.; Castelli, M.; Morantz, P.; Shore, P.

    2012-04-01

    Fast figuring of large optical components is well known as a highly challenging manufacturing issue. Different manufacturing technologies including: magnetorheological finishing, loose abrasive polishing, ion beam figuring are presently employed. Yet, these technologies are slow and lead to expensive optics. This explains why plasma-based processes operating at atmospheric pressure have been researched as a cost effective means for figure correction of metre scale optical surfaces. In this paper, fast figure correction of a large optical surface is reported using the Reactive Atom Plasma (RAP) process. Achievements are shown following the scaling-up of the RAP figuring process to a 400 mm diameter area of a substrate made of Corning ULE®. The pre-processing spherical surface is characterized by a 3 metres radius of curvature, 2.3 μm PVr (373nm RMS), and 1.2 nm Sq nanometre roughness. The nanometre scale correction figuring system used for this research work is named the HELIOS 1200, and it is equipped with a unique plasma torch which is driven by a dedicated tool path algorithm. Topography map measurements were carried out using a vertical work station instrumented by a Zygo DynaFiz interferometer. Figuring results, together with the processing times, convergence levels and number of iterations, are reported. The results illustrate the significant potential and advantage of plasma processing for figuring correction of large silicon based optical components.

  9. Figure-Associated Text Summarization and Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Polepalli Ramesh, Balaji; Sethi, Ricky J.; Yu, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Biomedical literature incorporates millions of figures, which are a rich and important knowledge resource for biomedical researchers. Scientists need access to the figures and the knowledge they represent in order to validate research findings and to generate new hypotheses. By themselves, these figures are nearly always incomprehensible to both humans and machines and their associated texts are therefore essential for full comprehension. The associated text of a figure, however, is scattered throughout its full-text article and contains redundant information content. In this paper, we report the continued development and evaluation of several figure summarization systems, the FigSum+ systems, that automatically identify associated texts, remove redundant information, and generate a text summary for every figure in an article. Using a set of 94 annotated figures selected from 19 different journals, we conducted an intrinsic evaluation of FigSum+. We evaluate the performance by precision, recall, F1, and ROUGE scores. The best FigSum+ system is based on an unsupervised method, achieving F1 score of 0.66 and ROUGE-1 score of 0.97. The annotated data is available at figshare.com (http://figshare.com/articles/Figure_Associated_Text_Summarization_and_Evaluation/858903). PMID:25643357

  10. Feature Assignment in Perception of Auditory Figure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregg, Melissa K.; Samuel, Arthur G.

    2012-01-01

    Because the environment often includes multiple sounds that overlap in time, listeners must segregate a sound of interest (the auditory figure) from other co-occurring sounds (the unattended auditory ground). We conducted a series of experiments to clarify the principles governing the extraction of auditory figures. We distinguish between auditory…

  11. Figuring "Success" in a Bilingual High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michael, Ali; Andrade, Norma; Bartlett, Lesley

    2007-01-01

    Using the concept of figured worlds, this article demonstrates how the faculty, staff, and students of Gregorio Luperon High School in New York City figured "success" by prioritizing the students' linguistic and cultural resources. "Success" was constructed specifically through granting Spanish high status, developing positive teacher-student…

  12. Automatic figure classification in bioscience literature.

    PubMed

    Kim, Daehyun; Ramesh, Balaji Polepalli; Yu, Hong

    2011-10-01

    Millions of figures appear in biomedical articles, and it is important to develop an intelligent figure search engine to return relevant figures based on user entries. In this study we report a figure classifier that automatically classifies biomedical figures into five predefined figure types: Gel-image, Image-of-thing, Graph, Model, and Mix. The classifier explored rich image features and integrated them with text features. We performed feature selection and explored different classification models, including a rule-based figure classifier, a supervised machine-learning classifier, and a multi-model classifier, the latter of which integrated the first two classifiers. Our results show that feature selection improved figure classification and the novel image features we explored were the best among image features that we have examined. Our results also show that integrating text and image features achieved better performance than using either of them individually. The best system is a multi-model classifier which combines the rule-based hierarchical classifier and a support vector machine (SVM) based classifier, achieving a 76.7% F1-score for five-type classification. We demonstrated our system at http://figureclassification.askhermes.org/. PMID:21645638

  13. The Development of Ambiguous Figure Perception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wimmer, Marina C.; Doherty, Martin J.

    2011-01-01

    Ambiguous figures have fascinated researchers for almost 200 years. The physical properties of these figures remain constant, yet two distinct interpretations are possible; these reverse (switch) from one percept to the other. The consensus is that reversal requires complex interaction of perceptual bottom-up and cognitive top-down elements. The…

  14. Human Figure Drawings: Abusing the Abused.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bardos, Achilles N.

    1993-01-01

    Responds to previous article (Motta, Little, and Tobin, this issue) which reviewed data-based studies on figure drawings and found little support for their validity or use in assessing personality, behavior, emotion, or intellectual functioning. Notes recent approaches to interpretation of human figure drawings and cites flaws in argument against…

  15. Figure-associated text summarization and evaluation.

    PubMed

    Polepalli Ramesh, Balaji; Sethi, Ricky J; Yu, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Biomedical literature incorporates millions of figures, which are a rich and important knowledge resource for biomedical researchers. Scientists need access to the figures and the knowledge they represent in order to validate research findings and to generate new hypotheses. By themselves, these figures are nearly always incomprehensible to both humans and machines and their associated texts are therefore essential for full comprehension. The associated text of a figure, however, is scattered throughout its full-text article and contains redundant information content. In this paper, we report the continued development and evaluation of several figure summarization systems, the FigSum+ systems, that automatically identify associated texts, remove redundant information, and generate a text summary for every figure in an article. Using a set of 94 annotated figures selected from 19 different journals, we conducted an intrinsic evaluation of FigSum+. We evaluate the performance by precision, recall, F1, and ROUGE scores. The best FigSum+ system is based on an unsupervised method, achieving F1 score of 0.66 and ROUGE-1 score of 0.97. The annotated data is available at figshare.com (http://figshare.com/articles/Figure_Associated_Text_Summarization_and_Evaluation/858903). PMID:25643357

  16. Detector array evaluation and figures of merit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dereniak, Eustace L.

    1990-01-01

    The commonly used methods to evaluate the performance of a two-dimensional focal-plane array using charge transfer devices are reviewed. Two figures of merit that attempt to combine quantum efficiency, read noise and dark-current generation into a single parameter are discussed. The figures of merit are suggested as possible alternatives to the D asterisk.

  17. Aspects of Reference in Figurative Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pankhurst, Anne

    1995-01-01

    This study considers some problems of reference found in figurative language, particularly in metaphor and metonymy. Analysis is based on the notion that the effects communicated by figurative language depend to a large extent on reference to more than one concept, experience, or entity, and that the presence of multiple potential referents…

  18. Equilibrium figures in geodesy and geophysics.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moritz, H.

    There is an enormous literature on geodetic equilibrium figures, but the various works have not always been interrelated, also for linguistic reasons (English, French, German, Italian, Russian). The author attempts to systematize the various approaches and to use the standard second-order theory for a study of the deviation of the actual earth and of the equipotential reference ellipsoid from an equilibrium figure.

  19. 46 CFR 69.123 - Figures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Figures. 69.123 Section 69.123 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DOCUMENTATION AND MEASUREMENT OF VESSELS MEASUREMENT OF VESSELS Standard Measurement System § 69.123 Figures. EC01FE91.042 EC01FE91.043 EC01FE91.044...

  20. SERPINB3/B4 contributes to early inflammation and barrier dysfunction in an experimental murine model of atopic dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Sivaprasad, Umasundari; Kinker, Kayla G.; Ericksen, Mark B.; Lindsey, Mark; Gibson, Aaron M.; Bass, Stacey A.; Hershey, Nicolas S.; Deng, Jingyuan; Medvedovic, Mario; Khurana Hershey, Gurjit K.

    2014-01-01

    Serine proteases are critical for epidermal barrier homeostasis and their aberrant expression and/or activity is associated with chronic skin diseases. Elevated levels of the serine protease inhibitors SERPINB3 and SERPINB4 are seen in patients with atopic dermatitis and psoriasis. However their mechanistic role in the skin is unknown. To evaluate the contribution of Serpinb3a (mouse homolog of SERPINB3 and SERPINB4) in atopic dermatitis, we examined the effect of topical Aspergillus fumigatus extract exposure in wild-type and Serpinb3a null mice on transepidermal water loss (TEWL), sensitization and inflammation. Allergen exposure induced Serpinb3a expression in the skin, along with increased TEWL, epidermal thickness, and skin inflammation, all of which were attenuated in the absence of Serpinb3a. Attenuated TEWL correlated with decreased expression of the pro-inflammatory marker S100A8. Silencing of SERPINB3/B4 in human keratinocytes decreased S100A8 expression supporting a role for SERPINB3/B4 in initiation of the acute inflammatory response. RNA-Seq analysis following allergen exposure identified a network of pro-inflammatory genes induced in the wild type mice that was absent in the Serpinb3a null mice. In conclusion, Serpinb3a deficiency attenuates barrier dysfunction and the early inflammatory response following cutaneous allergen exposure, supporting a role for Serpinb3a (mice) and SERPINB3/B4 (humans) early in atopic dermatitis. PMID:25111616

  1. Investigating the age-related “anterior shift” in the scalp distribution of the P3b component using principal component analysis

    PubMed Central

    Alperin, Brittany R.; Mott, Katherine K.; Rentz, Dorene M.; Holcomb, Phillip J.; Daffner, Kirk R.

    2015-01-01

    An age-related "anterior shift" in the distribution of the P3b is often reported. Temporospatial principal component analysis (PCA) was used to investigate the basis of this observation. ERPs were measured in young and old adults during a visual oddball task. PCA revealed two spatially distinct factors in both age groups, identified as the posterior P3b and anterior P3a. Young subjects generated a smaller P3a than P3b, while old subjects generated a P3a that did not differ in amplitude from their P3b. Rather than having a more anteriorly distributed P3b, old subjects produced a large, temporally overlapping P3a. The pattern of the age-related "anterior shift" in the P3 was similar for target and standard stimuli. The increase in the P3a in elderly adults may not represent a failure to habituate the novelty response, but may reflect greater reliance on executive control operations (P3a) to carry out the categorization/updating process (P3b). PMID:24660980

  2. 16 CFR Figure 3 to Part 1509 - Figure 3 to Part 1509

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Figure 3 to Part 1509 3 Figure 3 to Part 1509 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR NON-FULL-SIZE BABY CRIBS Pt. 1509, Fig. 3 Figure 3 to Part 1509 EC03OC91.066...

  3. 16 CFR Figure 3 to Part 1508 - Figure 3 to Part 1508

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Figure 3 to Part 1508 3 Figure 3 to Part 1508 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS FIREWORKS DEVICES Multiple-tube fireworks devices. Pt. 1508, Fig. 3 Figure 3 to Part 1508...

  4. 16 CFR Figure 1 to Part 1509 - Figure 1 to Part 1509

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Figure 1 to Part 1509 1 Figure 1 to Part 1509 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR NON-FULL-SIZE BABY CRIBS Pt. 1509, Fig. 1 Figure 1 to Part 1509 EC03OC91.064...

  5. 16 CFR Figure 3 to Part 1508 - Figure 3 to Part 1508

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Figure 3 to Part 1508 3 Figure 3 to Part 1508 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR FULL-SIZE BABY CRIBS Pt. 1508, Fig. 3 Figure 3 to Part 1508 EC03OC91.063...

  6. 16 CFR Figure 1 to Part 1509 - Figure 1 to Part 1509

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Figure 1 to Part 1509 1 Figure 1 to Part 1509 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR NON-FULL-SIZE BABY CRIBS Pt. 1509, Fig. 1 Figure 1 to Part 1509 EC03OC91.064...

  7. 16 CFR Figure 3 to Part 1509 - Figure 3 to Part 1509

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Figure 3 to Part 1509 3 Figure 3 to Part 1509 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR NON-FULL-SIZE BABY CRIBS Pt. 1509, Fig. 3 Figure 3 to Part 1509 EC03OC91.066...

  8. 16 CFR Figure 3 to Part 1508 - Figure 3 to Part 1508

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Figure 3 to Part 1508 3 Figure 3 to Part 1508 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR FULL-SIZE BABY CRIBS Pt. 1508, Fig. 3 Figure 3 to Part 1508 EC03OC91.063...

  9. 16 CFR Figure 3 to Part 1508 - Figure 3 to Part 1508

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Figure 3 to Part 1508 3 Figure 3 to Part 1508 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS FIREWORKS DEVICES Multiple-tube fireworks devices. Pt. 1508, Fig. 3 Figure 3 to Part 1508...

  10. 16 CFR Figure 3 to Part 1508 - Figure 3 to Part 1508

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Figure 3 to Part 1508 3 Figure 3 to Part 1508 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS FIREWORKS DEVICES Multiple-tube fireworks devices. Pt. 1508, Fig. 3 Figure 3 to Part 1508...

  11. Analysis of methane biodegradation by Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Andréa dos Santos; Salgado, Belkis Valdman e Andréa Medeiros

    2009-01-01

    The microbial oxidation of methane in the atmosphere is performed by methanotrophic bacteria that use methane as a unique source of carbon and energy. The objective of this work consisted of the investigation of the best conditions of methane biodegradation by methanotrophic bacteria Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b that oxidize it to carbon dioxide, and the use of these microorganisms in monitoring methods for methane. The results showed that M. trichosporium OB3b was capable to degrade methane in a more effective way with an initial microorganism concentration of 0.0700 g.L-1, temperature of 30ºC, pH 6.5 and using 1.79 mmol of methane. In these same conditions, there was no bacterial growth when 2.69 mmol of methane was used. The specific rate of microorganism growth, the conversion factor, the efficiency and the volumetric productivity, for the optimized conditions of biodegradation were, respectively, 0.0324 h-1, 0.6830 gcells/gCH4, 73.73% and 2.7732.10-3 gcells/L.h. The final product of methane microbiological degradation, carbon dioxide, was quantified through the use of a commercial electrode, and, through this, the grade of methane conversion in carbon dioxide was calculated. PMID:24031362

  12. 50 CFR Table 3b to Part 680 - Crab Disposition or Product Codes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Crab Disposition or Product Codes 3b Table 3b to Part 680 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 680, Table 3b Table 3b to Part 680—Crab Disposition or Product Codes...

  13. 50 CFR Table 3b to Part 680 - Crab Disposition or Product Codes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Crab Disposition or Product Codes 3b Table 3b to Part 680 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 680, Table 3b Table 3b to Part 680—Crab Disposition or Product Codes...

  14. 50 CFR Table 3b to Part 680 - Crab Disposition or Product Codes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Crab Disposition or Product Codes 3b Table 3b to Part 680 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 680, Table 3b Table 3b to Part 680—Crab Disposition or Product Codes...

  15. 50 CFR Table 3b to Part 680 - Crab Disposition or Product Codes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Crab Disposition or Product Codes 3b Table 3b to Part 680 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 680, Table 3b Table 3b to Part 680—Crab Disposition or Product Codes...

  16. 50 CFR Table 3b to Part 680 - Crab Disposition or Product Codes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Crab Disposition or Product Codes 3b Table 3b to Part 680 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 680, Table 3b Table 3b to Part 680—Crab Disposition or Product Codes...

  17. Corticocortical projections to representations of the teeth, tongue, and face in somatosensory area 3b of macaque monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Cerkevich, Christina M.; Qi, Hui-Xin; Kaas, Jon H.

    2013-01-01

    We placed injections of anatomical tracers into representations of the tongue, teeth, and face in the primary somatosensory cortex (area 3b) of macaque monkeys. Our injections revealed strong projections to representations of the tongue and teeth from other parts of the oral cavity responsive region in 3b. The 3b face also provided input to the representations of the intra-oral structures. The primary representation of the face showed a pattern of intrinsic connections similar to that of the mouth. The area 3b hand representation provided little to no input to either the mouth or face representations. The mouth and face representations of area 3b received projections from the presumptive oral cavity and face regions of other somatosensory areas in the anterior parietal cortex and the lateral sulcus including areas 3a, 1, 2, the second somatosensory area (S2), the parietal ventral area (PV), and cortex that may include the parietal rostral (PR) and ventral somatosensory (VS) areas. Additional inputs came from primary motor (M1) and ventral premotor (PMv) areas. This areal pattern of projections is similar to the well-studied pattern revealed by tracer injections in regions of 3b representing the hand. The tongue representation appeared to be unique in area 3b in that it also received inputs from areas in the anterior upper bank of the lateral sulcus and anterior insula that may include the primary gustatory area (area G) and other cortical taste processing areas, as well as a region of lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC) lining the principal sulcus. PMID:23853118

  18. Nonequilibrium dynamics in amorphous Si3B3N7.

    PubMed

    Hannemann, A; Schön, J C; Jansen, M; Sibani, P

    2005-06-16

    We present extensive numerical investigations of the structural relaxation dynamics of a realistic model of the amorphous high-temperature ceramic a-Si3B3N7, probing the mean-square displacement of the atoms, the bond survival probability, the average energy, the specific heat, and the two-point energy average. Combining the information from these different sources, we identify a transition temperature Tc approximately 2000 K below which the system is no longer ergodic and physical quantities observed over a time t(obs) show a systematic parametric dependence on the waiting time t(w), or age, elapsed after the quench. The aging dynamics "stiffens" as the system becomes older, which is similar to the behavior of highly idealized models such as Ising spin glasses and Lennard-Jones glasses. PMID:16852445

  19. Structural and functional partitioning of bread wheat chromosome 3B.

    PubMed

    Choulet, Frédéric; Alberti, Adriana; Theil, Sébastien; Glover, Natasha; Barbe, Valérie; Daron, Josquin; Pingault, Lise; Sourdille, Pierre; Couloux, Arnaud; Paux, Etienne; Leroy, Philippe; Mangenot, Sophie; Guilhot, Nicolas; Le Gouis, Jacques; Balfourier, Francois; Alaux, Michael; Jamilloux, Véronique; Poulain, Julie; Durand, Céline; Bellec, Arnaud; Gaspin, Christine; Safar, Jan; Dolezel, Jaroslav; Rogers, Jane; Vandepoele, Klaas; Aury, Jean-Marc; Mayer, Klaus; Berges, Hélène; Quesneville, Hadi; Wincker, Patrick; Feuillet, Catherine

    2014-07-18

    We produced a reference sequence of the 1-gigabase chromosome 3B of hexaploid bread wheat. By sequencing 8452 bacterial artificial chromosomes in pools, we assembled a sequence of 774 megabases carrying 5326 protein-coding genes, 1938 pseudogenes, and 85% of transposable elements. The distribution of structural and functional features along the chromosome revealed partitioning correlated with meiotic recombination. Comparative analyses indicated high wheat-specific inter- and intrachromosomal gene duplication activities that are potential sources of variability for adaption. In addition to providing a better understanding of the organization, function, and evolution of a large and polyploid genome, the availability of a high-quality sequence anchored to genetic maps will accelerate the identification of genes underlying important agronomic traits. PMID:25035497

  20. An Overview of the NASA P-3B Airborne Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guillory, Anthony R.; Postell, George W.

    2009-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Wallops Flight Facility (WFF) P-3B Orion is a medium-lift, four engine turbo-prop aircraft that has been reconfigured from a military aircraft to an Earth Science research platform. The aircraft has a long history of supporting science missions, flying on average over 200 hours per year. Examples of research missions that have been flown aboard the aircraft are remote sensing flights to study geophysical parameters including ice-sheet topography and periodic change, soil moisture content, atmospheric aerosol constituents, and beach erosion. Missions are conducted for the purposes of calibration/validation of various NASA and international satellites that monitor climate change as well as process studies and the test of new prototype remote sensing instruments. In recent y ears the focus has been on ice surveys of the Arctic and Antarctic, soil moisture research, and measurements of atmospheric chemistry and radiation sciences. The aircraft has been conducting ice surveys of Greenland since 1993 for the purposes of topographic mapping of both the surface and basal topography. Another application of the aircraft has been for soil moisture research. Research has also been conducted using microwave radiometers and radars over various agricultural and forest lands. Recently, a mission was flown in the spring over the High-Arctic to collect air samples of haze and boreal forest fires in an effort to determine anthropogenic amounts and sources of pollution. This pa per will provide an overview of the P-3B platform and highlight recent science missions.

  1. Comprehension of Figurative Language in Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nippold, Marilyn A.

    1985-01-01

    A review of developmental studies concerning metaphor, idiom, and proverb comprehension suggest a variety of assessment tasks for language impaired children. Also suggested are such intervention considerations as the comprehension of literal meaning of figurative expressions before nonliteral meanings. (CL)

  2. Significant Figure Rules for General Arithmetic Functions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, D. M.

    1989-01-01

    Provides some significant figure rules used in chemistry including the general theoretical basis; logarithms and antilogarithms; exponentiation (with exactly known exponents); sines and cosines; and the extreme value rule. (YP)

  3. Ion beam figuring system in NUDT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Lin; Xie, Xuhui; Dai, Yifan; Jiao, Changjun; Li, Shengyi

    2007-12-01

    Ion beam figuring (IBF) is an optical fabrication technique that provides highly deterministic process to correct surface figure error of previously polished surfaces by using a directed, inert and neutralized ion beam to physically sputter material from the optic surface. Recently, an ion beam figuring system KDIFS-500 has been designed and built in National University of Defense Technology (NUDT) of the P.R. China. KDIFS-500 is capable of processing workpiece up to Φ500mm. Line scanning process was discussed in detail for estimating the parameters of the beam removal function (BRF) in process. Experiments were conducted to demonstrate that the BRF increases gradually in process and by employing a stability control, the BRF can be kept stable in process. Finally, a Φ95 mm plano optical sample of CVD coated SiC substrate has been figured in two process iterations for demonstrating the correction capability of the KDIFS-500. Their figure convergence ratios reached 5.8 and 2.1 respectively. The actual figure residual errors were basically consistent with the predicted error. These consistencies indicated that the IBF processes on KDIFS-500 are predictable deterministic processes.

  4. Ion beam figuring of small optical components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drueding, Thomas W.; Fawcett, Steven C.; Wilson, Scott R.; Bifano, Thomas G.

    1995-12-01

    Ion beam figuring provides a highly deterministic method for the final precision figuring of optical components with advantages over conventional methods. The process involves bombarding a component with a stable beam of accelerated particles that selectively removes material from the surface. Figure corrections are achieved by rastering the fixed-current beam across the workplace at appropriate, time-varying velocities. Unlike conventional methods, ion figuring is a noncontact technique and thus avoids such problems as edge rolloff effects, tool wear, and force loading of the workpiece. This work is directed toward the development of the precision ion machining system at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center. This system is designed for processing small (approximately equals 10-cm diam) optical components. Initial experiments were successful in figuring 8-cm-diam fused silica and chemical-vapor-deposited SiC samples. The experiments, procedures, and results of figuring the sample workpieces to shallow spherical, parabolic (concave and convex), and non-axially-symmetric shapes are discussed. Several difficulties and limitations encountered with the current system are discussed. The use of a 1-cm aperture for making finer corrections on optical components is also reported.

  5. The Activation of Phytophthora Effector Avr3b by Plant Cyclophilin is Required for the Nudix Hydrolase Activity of Avr3b

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Guanghui; Zhao, Yao; Jing, Maofeng; Huang, Jie; Yang, Jin; Xia, Yeqiang; Kong, Liang; Ye, Wenwu; Xiong, Qin; Qiao, Yongli; Dong, Suomeng; Ma, Wenbo; Wang, Yuanchao

    2015-01-01

    Plant pathogens secrete an arsenal of effector proteins to impair host immunity. Some effectors possess enzymatic activities that can modify their host targets. Previously, we demonstrated that a Phytophthora sojae RXLR effector Avr3b acts as a Nudix hydrolase when expressed in planta; and this enzymatic activity is required for full virulence of P. sojae strain P6497 in soybean (Glycine max). Interestingly, recombinant Avr3b produced by E. coli does not have the hydrolase activity unless it was incubated with plant protein extracts. Here, we report the activation of Avr3b by a prolyl-peptidyl isomerase (PPIase), cyclophilin, in plant cells. Avr3b directly interacts with soybean cyclophilin GmCYP1, which activates the hydrolase activity of Avr3b in a PPIase activity-dependent manner. Avr3b contains a putative Glycine-Proline (GP) motif; which is known to confer cyclophilin-binding in other protein substrates. Substitution of the Proline (P132) in the putative GP motif impaired the interaction of Avr3b with GmCYP1; as a result, the mutant Avr3bP132A can no longer be activated by GmCYP1, and is also unable to promote Phytophthora infection. Avr3b elicits hypersensitive response (HR) in soybean cultivars producing the resistance protein Rps3b, but Avr3bP132A lost its ability to trigger HR. Furthermore, silencing of GmCYP1 rendered reduced cell death triggered by Avr3b, suggesting that GmCYP1-mediated Avr3b maturation is also required for Rps3b recognition. Finally, cyclophilins of Nicotiana benthamiana can also interact with Avr3b and activate its enzymatic activity. Overall, our results demonstrate that cyclophilin is a “helper” that activates the enzymatic activity of Avr3b after it is delivered into plant cells; as such, cyclophilin is required for the avirulence and virulence functions of Avr3b. PMID:26317500

  6. Two Zebrafish hsd3b Genes Are Distinct in Function, Expression, and Evolution.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jen-Chieh; Hu, Shing; Ho, Pei-Hung; Hsu, Hwei-Jan; Postlethwait, John H; Chung, Bon-chu

    2015-08-01

    HSD3B catalyzes the synthesis of δ4 steroids such as progesterone in the adrenals and gonads. Individuals lacking HSD3B2 activity experience congenital adrenal hyperplasia with imbalanced steroid synthesis. To develop a zebrafish model of HSD3B deficiency, we characterized 2 zebrafish hsd3b genes. Our phylogenetic and conserved synteny analyses showed that the tandemly duplicated human HSD3B1 and HSD3B2 genes are coorthologs of zebrafish hsd3b1 on chromosome 9 (Dre9), whereas the gene called hsd3b2 resides on Dre20 in an ancestral chromosome segment, from which its ortholog was lost in the tetrapod lineage. Zebrafish hsd3b1(Dre 9) was expressed in adult gonads and headkidney, which contains interrenal glands, the zebrafish counterpart of the tetrapod adrenal. Knockdown of hsd3b1(Dre 9) caused the interrenal and anterior pituitary to expand and pigmentation to increase, resembling human HSD3B2 deficiency. The zebrafish hsd3b2(Dre 20) gene was expressed in zebrafish early embryos as maternal transcripts that disappeared 1 day after fertilization. Morpholino inactivation of hsd3b2(Dre 20) led to embryo elongation, which was rescued by the injection of hsd3b2 mRNA. Thus, zebrafish hsd3b2(Dre 20) evolved independently of hsd3b1(Dre 9) with a morphogenetic function during early embryogenesis. Zebrafish hsd3b1(Dre 9), on the contrary, functions like mammalian HSD3B2, whose deficiency leads to congenital adrenal hyperplasia. PMID:25974401

  7. Wet-Etch Figuring Optical Figuring by Controlled Application of Liquid Etchant

    SciTech Connect

    Britten, J

    2001-02-13

    WET-ETCH FIGURING (WEF) is an automated method of precisely figuring optical materials by the controlled application of aqueous etchant solution. This technology uses surface-tension-gradient-driven flow to confine and stabilize a wetted zone of an etchant solution or other aqueous processing fluid on the surface of an object. This wetted zone can be translated on the surface in a computer-controlled fashion for precise spatial control of the surface reactions occurring (e.g. chemical etching). WEF is particularly suitable for figuring very thin optical materials because it applies no thermal or mechanical stress to the material. Also, because the process is stress-free the workpiece can be monitored during figuring using interferometric metrology, and the measurements obtained can be used to control the figuring process in real-time--something that cannot be done with traditional figuring methods.

  8. Zinc-fingers and homeoboxes 1 (ZHX1) binds DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) 3B to enhance DNMT3B-mediated transcriptional repression

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Sung-Hak; Park, Jinah; Choi, Moon-Chang; Kim, Hwang-Phill; Park, Jung-Hyun; Jung, Yeonjoo; Lee, Ju-Hee; Oh, Do-Youn; Im, Seock-Ah; Bang, Yung-Jue; Kim, Tae-You; E-mail: kimty@snu.ac.kr

    2007-04-06

    DNA methyltransferases (DNMT) 3B is a de novo DNMT that represses transcription independent of DNMT activity. In order to gain a better insight into DNMT3B-mediated transcriptional repression, we performed a yeast two-hybrid analysis using DNMT3B as a bait. Of the various binding candidates, ZHX1, a member of zinc-finger and homeobox protein, was found to interact with DNMT3B in vivo and in vitro. N-terminal PWWP domain of DNMT3B was required for its interaction with homeobox motifs of ZHX1. ZHX1 contains nuclear localization signal at C-terminal homeobox motif, and both ZHX1 and DNMT3B were co-localized in nucleus. Furthermore, we found that ZHX1 enhanced the transcriptional repression mediated by DNMT3B when DNMT3B is directly targeted to DNA. These results showed for First the direct linkage between DNMT and zinc-fingers homeoboxes protein, leading to enhanced gene silencing by DNMT3B.

  9. The RICE MINUTE-LIKE1 (RML1) gene, encoding a ribosomal large subunit protein L3B, regulates leaf morphology and plant architecture in rice

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Ming; Wang, Yihua; Liu, Xi; Sun, Juan; Wang, Yunlong; Xu, Yang; Lv, Jia; Long, Wuhua; Zhu, Xiaopin; Guo, Xiuping; Jiang, Ling; Wang, Chunming; Wan, Jianmin

    2016-01-01

    Mutations of ribosomal proteins (RPs) are known to cause developmental abnormalities in yeast, mammals, and dicotyledonous plants; however, their effects have not been studied in rice. Here, we identifiy a ribosomal biogenesis mutant, rice minute-like1 (rml1) that displays a minute phenotype as evidenced by retarded growth and defects in the vascular system. We determine that RML1 encodes a ribosome large subunit protein 3B (RPL3B) in rice by means of map-based cloning and genetic complementation. RPL3B is abundantly expressed in all the tissues, whereas RPL3A, another RPL3 gene family member, is expressed at low levels. Notably, the expression level of RPL3A in the rml1 mutant is similar to that in the wild-type, suggesting that RPL3A provides no functional compensation for RPL3B in rml1 plants. Ribosomal profiles show that mutation of RPL3B leads to a significant reduction in free 60S ribosomal subunits and polysomes, indicating a ribosomal insufficiency in the rml1 mutant. Our results demonstrate that the ribosomal protein gene RPL3B is required for maintaining normal leaf morphology and plant architecture in rice through its regulation of ribosome biogenesis. PMID:27241493

  10. The RICE MINUTE-LIKE1 (RML1) gene, encoding a ribosomal large subunit protein L3B, regulates leaf morphology and plant architecture in rice.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Ming; Wang, Yihua; Liu, Xi; Sun, Juan; Wang, Yunlong; Xu, Yang; Lv, Jia; Long, Wuhua; Zhu, Xiaopin; Guo, Xiuping; Jiang, Ling; Wang, Chunming; Wan, Jianmin

    2016-05-01

    Mutations of ribosomal proteins (RPs) are known to cause developmental abnormalities in yeast, mammals, and dicotyledonous plants; however, their effects have not been studied in rice. Here, we identifiy a ribosomal biogenesis mutant, rice minute-like1 (rml1) that displays a minute phenotype as evidenced by retarded growth and defects in the vascular system. We determine that RML1 encodes a ribosome large subunit protein 3B (RPL3B) in rice by means of map-based cloning and genetic complementation. RPL3B is abundantly expressed in all the tissues, whereas RPL3A, another RPL3 gene family member, is expressed at low levels. Notably, the expression level of RPL3A in the rml1 mutant is similar to that in the wild-type, suggesting that RPL3A provides no functional compensation for RPL3B in rml1 plants. Ribosomal profiles show that mutation of RPL3B leads to a significant reduction in free 60S ribosomal subunits and polysomes, indicating a ribosomal insufficiency in the rml1 mutant. Our results demonstrate that the ribosomal protein gene RPL3B is required for maintaining normal leaf morphology and plant architecture in rice through its regulation of ribosome biogenesis. PMID:27241493

  11. 21 CFR 866.5260 - Complement C3b inactivator immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... immunochemical techniques the complement C3b inactivator (a plasma protein) in serum. Complement is a group of serum proteins that destroy infectious agents. Measurement of complement C3b inactivator aids in...

  12. 21 CFR 866.5260 - Complement C3b inactivator immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... immunochemical techniques the complement C3b inactivator (a plasma protein) in serum. Complement is a group of serum proteins that destroy infectious agents. Measurement of complement C3b inactivator aids in...

  13. 21 CFR 866.5260 - Complement C3b inactivator immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... immunochemical techniques the complement C3b inactivator (a plasma protein) in serum. Complement is a group of serum proteins that destroy infectious agents. Measurement of complement C3b inactivator aids in...

  14. 21 CFR 866.5260 - Complement C3b inactivator immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... immunochemical techniques the complement C3b inactivator (a plasma protein) in serum. Complement is a group of serum proteins that destroy infectious agents. Measurement of complement C3b inactivator aids in...

  15. 21 CFR 866.5260 - Complement C3b inactivator immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... immunochemical techniques the complement C3b inactivator (a plasma protein) in serum. Complement is a group of serum proteins that destroy infectious agents. Measurement of complement C3b inactivator aids in...

  16. Software systems for modeling articulated figures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, Cary B.

    1989-01-01

    Research in computer animation and simulation of human task performance requires sophisticated geometric modeling and user interface tools. The software for a research environment should present the programmer with a powerful but flexible substrate of facilities for displaying and manipulating geometric objects, yet insure that future tools have a consistent and friendly user interface. Jack is a system which provides a flexible and extensible programmer and user interface for displaying and manipulating complex geometric figures, particularly human figures in a 3D working environment. It is a basic software framework for high-performance Silicon Graphics IRIS workstations for modeling and manipulating geometric objects in a general but powerful way. It provides a consistent and user-friendly interface across various applications in computer animation and simulation of human task performance. Currently, Jack provides input and control for applications including lighting specification and image rendering, anthropometric modeling, figure positioning, inverse kinematics, dynamic simulation, and keyframe animation.

  17. Figure control concepts for segmented reflector telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boussalis, D.; Chu, C. C.; Ih, C.-H. C.; Wang, S. J.; Ryaciotaki-Boussalis, H. A.

    1989-01-01

    Control analysis activities related to the development of figure control technologies for large space telescopes with precision segmented actively controlled primary reflectors are reviewed. The Precision Segmented Reflector (PSR) configuration is described along with the development and use of the PSR models. Geometric and dynamic models, characterization of figure estimation errors and optimal sensor placement, and the development of quasi-static and dynamic control concepts are outlined. The structure of a quasi-static controller is presented, that utilizes edge sensor measurements to estimate displacement errors at the actuator level and generates figure correction commands. The second approach considers decentralization of the reflector system at the panel level, while the third considers decentralization at the actuator level.

  18. [Figures of anima in the Odyssey].

    PubMed

    Meneghello, Mauro

    2012-01-01

    Feminine characters in the Odyssey show different aspects of the archetype: Mother and Anima (C.G. Jung). From an Analytical Psychology perspective the encounters of Odysseus with goddesses: Circe, Calypso, Ino are looked at as different and successive stages of the hero's way into the inconscious, who shows himself in feminine figures, being masculine the consciousness of the hero. Nausicaa is a new, nearly-human figure of Anima who appears after the symbolic death of Odysseus and leads him to the royal couple Alcinous-Arete: in front of them all he finds his new, reborn, personality by creating and narrating his own myth. PMID:25807734

  19. 12 CFR 563d.3b-6 - Liability for certain statements by savings associations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Liability for certain statements by savings associations. 563d.3b-6 Section 563d.3b-6 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SECURITIES OF SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS Regulations § 563d.3b-6 Liability for certain statements by savings associations. This...

  20. 49 CFR 178.38 - Specification 3B seamless steel cylinders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Specification 3B seamless steel cylinders. 178.38... PACKAGINGS Specifications for Cylinders § 178.38 Specification 3B seamless steel cylinders. (a) Type, size, and service pressure. A DOT 3B cylinder is seamless steel cylinder with a water capacity (nominal)...

  1. 49 CFR 178.38 - Specification 3B seamless steel cylinders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Specification 3B seamless steel cylinders. 178.38... PACKAGINGS Specifications for Cylinders § 178.38 Specification 3B seamless steel cylinders. (a) Type, size, and service pressure. A DOT 3B cylinder is seamless steel cylinder with a water capacity (nominal)...

  2. 49 CFR 178.38 - Specification 3B seamless steel cylinders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Specification 3B seamless steel cylinders. 178.38... PACKAGINGS Specifications for Cylinders § 178.38 Specification 3B seamless steel cylinders. (a) Type, size, and service pressure. A DOT 3B cylinder is seamless steel cylinder with a water capacity (nominal)...

  3. 18 CFR 3b.204 - Safeguarding information in manual and computer-based record systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... information in manual and computer-based record systems. 3b.204 Section 3b.204 Conservation of Power and Water... Collection of Records § 3b.204 Safeguarding information in manual and computer-based record systems. (a) The administrative and physical controls to protect the information in the manual and computer-based record...

  4. 18 CFR 3b.204 - Safeguarding information in manual and computer-based record systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... information in manual and computer-based record systems. 3b.204 Section 3b.204 Conservation of Power and Water... Collection of Records § 3b.204 Safeguarding information in manual and computer-based record systems. (a) The administrative and physical controls to protect the information in the manual and computer-based record...

  5. 18 CFR 3b.204 - Safeguarding information in manual and computer-based record systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... information in manual and computer-based record systems. 3b.204 Section 3b.204 Conservation of Power and Water... Collection of Records § 3b.204 Safeguarding information in manual and computer-based record systems. (a) The administrative and physical controls to protect the information in the manual and computer-based record...

  6. 18 CFR 3b.204 - Safeguarding information in manual and computer-based record systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... information in manual and computer-based record systems. 3b.204 Section 3b.204 Conservation of Power and Water... Collection of Records § 3b.204 Safeguarding information in manual and computer-based record systems. (a) The administrative and physical controls to protect the information in the manual and computer-based record...

  7. 18 CFR 3b.204 - Safeguarding information in manual and computer-based record systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... information in manual and computer-based record systems. 3b.204 Section 3b.204 Conservation of Power and Water... Collection of Records § 3b.204 Safeguarding information in manual and computer-based record systems. (a) The administrative and physical controls to protect the information in the manual and computer-based record...

  8. 50 CFR Figure 1 to Part 640 - Figure 1 to Part 640

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Figure 1 to Part 640 1 Figure 1 to Part 640 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE SPINY LOBSTER FISHERY OF THE GULF OF MEXICO AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Pt....

  9. 50 CFR Figure 1 to Part 640 - Figure 1 to Part 640

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Figure 1 to Part 640 1 Figure 1 to Part 640 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE SPINY LOBSTER FISHERY OF THE GULF OF MEXICO AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Pt....

  10. 50 CFR Figure 1 to Part 640 - Figure 1 to Part 640

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Figure 1 to Part 640 1 Figure 1 to Part 640 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE SPINY LOBSTER FISHERY OF THE GULF OF MEXICO AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Pt....

  11. Extreme C-terminal sites are posttranslocationally glycosylated by the STT3B isoform of the OST

    PubMed Central

    Shrimal, Shiteshu; Trueman, Steven F.

    2013-01-01

    Metazoan organisms assemble two isoforms of the oligosaccharyltransferase (OST) that have different catalytic subunits (STT3A or STT3B) and partially nonoverlapping roles in asparagine-linked glycosylation. The STT3A isoform of the OST is primarily responsible for co-translational glycosylation of the nascent polypeptide as it enters the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum. The C-terminal 65–75 residues of a glycoprotein will not contact the translocation channel–associated STT3A isoform of the OST complex before chain termination. Biosynthetic pulse labeling of five human glycoproteins showed that extreme C-terminal glycosylation sites were modified by an STT3B-dependent posttranslocational mechanism. The boundary for STT3B-dependent glycosylation of C-terminal sites was determined to fall between 50 and 55 residues from the C terminus of a protein. C-terminal NXT sites were glycosylated more rapidly and efficiently than C-terminal NXS sites. Bioinformatics analysis of glycopeptide databases from metazoan organisms revealed a lower density of C-terminal acceptor sites in glycoproteins because of reduced positive selection of NXT sites and negative selection of NXS sites. PMID:23530066

  12. DNMT3B isoforms without catalytic activity stimulate gene body methylation as accessory proteins in somatic cells

    PubMed Central

    Duymich, Christopher E.; Charlet, Jessica; Yang, Xiaojing; Jones, Peter A.; Liang, Gangning

    2016-01-01

    Promoter DNA methylation is a key epigenetic mechanism for stable gene silencing, but is correlated with expression when located in gene bodies. Maintenance and de novo DNA methylation by catalytically active DNA methyltransferases (DNMT1 and DNMT3A/B) require accessory proteins such as UHRF1 and DNMT3L. DNMT3B isoforms are widely expressed, although some do not have active catalytic domains and their expression can be altered during cell development and tumourigenesis, questioning their biological roles. Here, we show that DNMT3B isoforms stimulate gene body methylation and re-methylation after methylation-inhibitor treatment. This occurs independently of the isoforms' catalytic activity, demonstrating a similar functional role to the accessory protein DNMT3L, which is only expressed in undifferentiated cells and recruits DNMT3A to initiate DNA methylation. This unexpected role for DNMT3B suggests that it might substitute for the absent accessory protein DNMT3L to recruit DNMT3A in somatic cells. PMID:27121154

  13. Isolation and characterization of avian paramyxovirus type 3b from farmed Namibian ostriches (Struthio camelus f. dom.).

    PubMed

    Kaleta, Erhard F; Werner, Ortrud; Hemberger, Yvonne

    2010-01-01

    Meat and skin from farmed ostriches are valuable products for European consumers. The EU regulations require that ostrich products deamed for export need to come from ostriches that are free of antibodies against Newcastle disease virus (avian paramxovirus type 1, aPMV-1). After the detection of antibodies against aPMV-1 in one of five ostrich farms in Namibia, attempts were made to isolate the causative virus. No aPMV-1 but an avian paramyxovirus type 3 (aPMV-3) was isolated from five pharyngeal/cloacal swabs of clinically healthy farmed Namibian ostriches. Subtype determination proved that all isolates are members of the subtype aPMV-3 of psittacine bird origin and were designated as aPMV-3b. In the haemagglutination inhibition test, the aPMV-3b isolates cross-reacted with aPMV-1. This allows the conclusion that the antibodies originally detected in sera of the ostriches are due to the cross-reaction with aPMV-3b, rather than to an infection with aPMV-1.To our knowledge, this is the first description of the occurrence of aPMV-3b in farmed ostriches. PMID:20329642

  14. Identification and characterization of Noc2 as a potential Rab3B effector protein in epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Manabe, Shinji; Nishimura, Noriyuki; Yamamoto, Yasuyo; Kitamura, Hiroko; Morimoto, Shinya; Imai, Mayu; Nagahiro, Shinji; Seino, Susumu; Sasaki, Takuya

    2004-03-26

    The Rab3 family small G proteins (Rab3A-D) are involved in the regulated secretory pathway of brain and secretory tissues. Among Rab3-interacting proteins, Rabphilin-3, Rim, and Noc2, all of which contain a conserved Rab3-binding domain (RBD3), are generally recognized Rab3 effector proteins in neurons and secretory cells. Although Rab3B was also detected in epithelial cells, its function remained unknown. We isolated cDNA sequences from human epithelial Caco2-cell mRNA by degenerate RT-PCR based on the conserved amino acid sequence of RBD3. Multiple cDNA clones were identified as encoding Noc2. Northern blot analysis revealed that Noc2 mRNA was expressed not only in secretory tissues but also in epithelial tissues and cell lines. A pull-down assay demonstrated that Noc2 bound to Rab3B in a GTP-dependent manner. When Noc2 was co-expressed with the GTP-bound form of Rab3B, it was recruited from the cytosol to perinuclear membranes. Furthermore, overexpression of Noc2 inhibited the cell-surface transport of basolateral vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein. These results suggest that Noc2 functions as a potential Rab3B effector protein in epithelial cells. PMID:15003533

  15. The 5-HT3B subunit affects high-potency inhibition of 5-HT3 receptors by morphine

    PubMed Central

    Baptista-Hon, Daniel T; Deeb, Tarek Z; Othman, Nidaa A; Sharp, Douglas; Hales, Tim G

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Morphine is an antagonist at 5-HT3A receptors. 5-HT3 and opioid receptors are expressed in many of the same neuronal pathways where they modulate gut motility, pain and reinforcement. There is increasing interest in the 5-HT3B subunit, which confers altered pharmacology to 5-HT3 receptors. We investigated the mechanisms of inhibition by morphine of 5-HT3 receptors and the influence of the 5-HT3B subunit. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH 5-HT-evoked currents were recorded from voltage-clamped HEK293 cells expressing human 5-HT3A subunits alone or in combination with 5-HT3B subunits. The affinity of morphine for the orthosteric site of 5-HT3A or 5-HT3AB receptors was assessed using radioligand binding with the antagonist [3H]GR65630. KEY RESULTS When pre-applied, morphine potently inhibited 5-HT-evoked currents mediated by 5-HT3A receptors. The 5-HT3B subunit reduced the potency of morphine fourfold and increased the rates of inhibition and recovery. Inhibition by pre-applied morphine was insurmountable by 5-HT, was voltage-independent and occurred through a site outside the second membrane-spanning domain. When applied simultaneously with 5-HT, morphine caused a lower potency, surmountable inhibition of 5-HT3A and 5-HT3AB receptors. Morphine also fully displaced [3H]GR65630 from 5-HT3A and 5-HT3AB receptors with similar potency. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS These findings suggest that morphine has two sites of action, a low-affinity, competitive site and a high-affinity, non-competitive site that is not available when the channel is activated. The affinity of morphine for the latter is reduced by the 5-HT3B subunit. Our results reveal that morphine causes a high-affinity, insurmountable and subunit-dependent inhibition of human 5-HT3 receptors. PMID:21740409

  16. Adolescent Girls' Parasocial Interactions with Media Figures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theran, Sally A.; Newberg, Emily M.; Gleason, Tracy R.

    2010-01-01

    We examined aspects of adolescent girls' parasocial interactions in the context of typical development. Parasocial interactions are defined as symbolic, one-sided quasi-interactions between a viewer and a media figure. In total, 107 adolescent girls were examined; 94% reported engaging in parasocial interactions to some degree. Preoccupied…

  17. 36 CFR Appendix - Figures to Part 1194

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Figures to Part 1194 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD ELECTRONIC AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY ACCESSIBILITY STANDARDS Information, Documentation, and Support Information, documentation, and support. Pt. 1194,...

  18. 36 CFR Appendix - Figures to Part 1194

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Figures to Part 1194 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD ELECTRONIC AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY ACCESSIBILITY STANDARDS Information, Documentation, and Support Information, documentation, and support. Pt. 1194,...

  19. 36 CFR Appendix - Figures to Part 1192

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Figures to Part 1192 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY GUIDELINES FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Other Vehicles and Systems Trams, similar vehicles and systems. Pt....

  20. 36 CFR Appendix - Figures to Part 1192

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Figures to Part 1192 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY GUIDELINES FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Other Vehicles and Systems Trams, similar vehicles and systems. Pt....

  1. 36 CFR Appendix - Figures to Part 1192

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Figures to Part 1192 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY GUIDELINES FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Other Vehicles and Systems Trams, similar vehicles and systems. Pt....

  2. 36 CFR Appendix - Figures to Part 1194

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Figures to Part 1194 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD ELECTRONIC AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY ACCESSIBILITY STANDARDS Information, Documentation, and Support Information, documentation, and support. Pt. 1194,...

  3. Fading-Figure Tracing in Williams Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagai, Chiyoko; Inui, Toshio; Iwata, Makoto

    2011-01-01

    Williams syndrome (WS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by severe impairment of visuospatial abilities. Figure-drawing abilities, which are thought to reflect visuospatial abilities, have yet to be fully investigated in WS. The purpose of the present study was to clarify whether drawing abilities differ between WS individuals and…

  4. Participation in the Figured World of Graffiti

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valle, Imuris; Weiss, Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    This article is based on ethnographic work with two "crews" of young graffiti artists in southern Mexico City. The crews share certain characteristics with gangs or urban tribes, but more with "communities of practice": they live in the "figured world" of graffiti, a community of practice at the local and global level. Through participation,…

  5. 36 CFR Appendix - Figures to Part 1194

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Figures to Part 1194 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD ELECTRONIC AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY ACCESSIBILITY STANDARDS Information, Documentation, and Support Information, documentation, and support. Pt. 1194,...

  6. 36 CFR Appendix - Figures to Part 1194

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Figures to Part 1194 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD ELECTRONIC AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY ACCESSIBILITY STANDARDS Information, Documentation, and Support Information, documentation, and support. Pt. 1194,...

  7. 36 CFR Appendix - Figures to Part 1192

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Figures to Part 1192 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY GUIDELINES FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Other Vehicles and Systems Trams, similar vehicles and systems. Pt....

  8. 36 CFR Appendix - Figures to Part 1192

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Figures to Part 1192 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY GUIDELINES FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Other Vehicles and Systems Trams, similar vehicles and systems. Pt....

  9. Cylindrical optic figuring dwell time optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waluschka, Eugene

    2000-11-01

    The Constellation-X, grazing incidence, x-ray telescope may be fabricated from replicated segments. A series of mandrels will serve as the 'masters' in the replication processes. Diamond turning (milling) followed by abrasive figuring followed by a super polishing are the steps currently envisioned in making just one (of many) mandrel. The abrasive figuring of a mandrel is accomplished by moving a grinding tool along a helical path on this almost cylindrical surface. The measurement of the surface is, however, performed along 'axial' scan lines which intercept this helical path. This approach to figuring and measuring permits a relatively simple scheme to be implemented for the determination of the optimal dwell times of the figuring tool. These optimal dwell times are determined by a deconvolution which approaches the problem in a linear programming context and uses the Simplex Method. The approach maximizes the amount of material removed at any point subject to inequality constraints. The effects of using these 'optimum' dwell times is to significantly improve the tools effectiveness at removing the higher spatial frequencies while staying (strictly) within the bounds and constraints imposed by the hardware. In addition, the ringing at the edges of the optic, frequently present in deconvolution problems, is completely eliminated.

  10. Go Figure. HEADJAM. Teaching Guide [and Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MATHCOUNTS Foundation, Alexandria, VA.

    The HeadJam series is comprised of six programs exploring mathematics, science, and critical thinking skills. It is an award-winning, educational videotape series for middle school students that explores multi-disciplinary skills in a highly entertaining way. The teacher's guide and 22-minute video, "Go Figure," demonstrate how math is used in the…

  11. The Offerings of Fringe Figures and Migrants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engels-Schwarzpaul, A.-Chr.

    2015-01-01

    "The Western tradition", as passe-partout, includes fringe figures, émigrés and migrants. Rather than looking to resources at the core of the Western tradition to overcome its own blindnesses, I am more interested in its gaps and peripheries, where other thoughts and renegade knowledges take hold. It is in the contact zones with…

  12. Mirror Figuring Techniques of Sir William Herschel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albin, E. F.

    2004-05-01

    Between the years 1773 to 1818, Sir William Herschel constructed dozens of speculum telescope mirrors, with diameters ranging from 6 - 48 inches. Very little, if any, detailed information has ever been published on the specifics of his mirror figuring efforts. The reason for this certainly relates to his desire to closely guard mirror production trade secrets. Upon Herschel's death, all telescope-making documents were passed on to his only son, Sir John Herschel. These materials are now in the possession of the British RAS and primarily consist of: a) a four volume series entitled "Experiments on the Construction of Specula," b) a 129 page treaty called "On the Construction of Specula," and c) a 179 page manuscript entitled "Results of Experiments on the Construction of Mirrors." It is suggested that publication was further delayed and then eventually abandoned due to silver-coated glass mirrors coming into favor. A recent investigation by the author, of the unpublished manuscripts on the construction of specula, suggests that Herschel's mirror figuring techniques did not involve any guess work; in fact, his methods were highly refined -- never leaving to chance the evolution of a spherical surface into the required paraboloid. At the heart of Herschel's figuring techniques were a series of aperture diaphragms (similar to the Couder masks used by modern telescope makers) that were placed over the mirror, which allowed for the precise determination of its curvature at various predefined zones. With this information, Herschel was able to vary his figuring strokes with his polishing tool accordingly. In addition, all mirrors were subsequently "star tested," sometimes with aperture diaphragms in place, allowing for field examination of the mirror's "distinctness" or performance. Double stars and the planet Saturn were favorite targets used to analyze and then correct a mirror's figure.

  13. Cancer-associated SF3B1 mutations affect alternative splicing by promoting alternative branchpoint usage

    PubMed Central

    Alsafadi, Samar; Houy, Alexandre; Battistella, Aude; Popova, Tatiana; Wassef, Michel; Henry, Emilie; Tirode, Franck; Constantinou, Angelos; Piperno-Neumann, Sophie; Roman-Roman, Sergio; Dutertre, Martin; Stern, Marc-Henri

    2016-01-01

    Hotspot mutations in the spliceosome gene SF3B1 are reported in ∼20% of uveal melanomas. SF3B1 is involved in 3′-splice site (3′ss) recognition during RNA splicing; however, the molecular mechanisms of its mutation have remained unclear. Here we show, using RNA-Seq analyses of uveal melanoma, that the SF3B1R625/K666 mutation results in deregulated splicing at a subset of junctions, mostly by the use of alternative 3′ss. Modelling the differential junctions in SF3B1WT and SF3B1R625/K666 cell lines demonstrates that the deregulated splice pattern strictly depends on SF3B1 status and on the 3'ss-sequence context. SF3B1WT knockdown or overexpression do not reproduce the SF3B1R625/K666 splice pattern, qualifying SF3B1R625/K666 as change-of-function mutants. Mutagenesis of predicted branchpoints reveals that the SF3B1R625/K666-promoted splice pattern is a direct result of alternative branchpoint usage. Altogether, this study provides a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying splicing alterations induced by mutant SF3B1 in cancer, and reveals a role for alternative branchpoints in disease. PMID:26842708

  14. Phase change paint tests on Rockwell orbiter/tank and orbiter alone configurations (OH3A/OH3B)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quan, M.; Craig, C.

    1974-01-01

    Wind tunnel tests were conducted on scale models of the space shuttle orbiter and external tank. The tests were designed to determine the basic heating rate and interference effects on the orbiter-tank configuration and to analyze the effectiveness of the thermal protective system on the reentry vehicle. The phase change paint techniques were used to determine areodynamic heating rates. Oil flow and schlieren photographs were used for flow visualization.

  15. Variable-spot ion beam figuring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Lixiang; Qiu, Keqiang; Fu, Shaojun

    2016-03-01

    This paper introduces a new scheme of ion beam figuring (IBF), or rather variable-spot IBF, which is conducted at a constant scanning velocity with variable-spot ion beam collimated by a variable diaphragm. It aims at improving the reachability and adaptation of the figuring process within the limits of machine dynamics by varying the ion beam spot size instead of the scanning velocity. In contrast to the dwell time algorithm in the conventional IBF, the variable-spot IBF adopts a new algorithm, which consists of the scan path programming and the trajectory optimization using pattern search. In this algorithm, instead of the dwell time, a new concept, integral etching time, is proposed to interpret the process of variable-spot IBF. We conducted simulations to verify its feasibility and practicality. The simulation results indicate the variable-spot IBF is a promising alternative to the conventional approach.

  16. Figure correction of multilayer coated optics

    DOEpatents

    Chapman; Henry N. , Taylor; John S.

    2010-02-16

    A process is provided for producing near-perfect optical surfaces, for EUV and soft-x-ray optics. The method involves polishing or otherwise figuring the multilayer coating that has been deposited on an optical substrate, in order to correct for errors in the figure of the substrate and coating. A method such as ion-beam milling is used to remove material from the multilayer coating by an amount that varies in a specified way across the substrate. The phase of the EUV light that is reflected from the multilayer will be affected by the amount of multilayer material removed, but this effect will be reduced by a factor of 1-n as compared with height variations of the substrate, where n is the average refractive index of the multilayer.

  17. Recommended Figures of Merit for Green Monopropellants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, William M.; Deans, Matthew C.

    2013-01-01

    Hydrazine propellant has historically been used as a rocket thruster monopropellant since the mid-1960s. Mission managers are well aware of its characteristics and performance. However, it is a known toxic chemical and a wide effort is underway to reduce and/or eliminate its use worldwide. Several new propellant combinations have been developed in the last few years which tout or promise to provide same or better performance as hydrazine while being "non-toxic" or "green". Yet, there is no consistent definition for what constitutes "non-toxic" or "green", and thus no good figure of merit for which to compare. This paper seeks to review the three major categories of figures of merit, and discusses how they might be used to assess the viability of a propellant.

  18. Lymphoblastoid cell supernatants increase expression of C3b receptors on human polymorphonuclear leucocytes: direct binding studies with 125I-C3b.

    PubMed Central

    Berger, M; Cross, A S

    1984-01-01

    Human PMN incubated in culture supernatants of the Raji long-term human lymphoblastoid cell line showed increased rosette formation with sheep erythrocytes coated with C3b (EIgM C4b3b) but no change in rosette formation with IgG-coated erythrocytes. This suggested a specific increase in cell surface C3b receptors, which was further investigated using 125I-C3b for direct binding studies. The results confirmed that specific binding of 125I-C3b to PMN incubated in culture supernatants increased up to three- to four-fold over binding to PMN incubated in control media alone. Scatchard analysis revealed that the apparent Ka for supernatant-treated cells, 3.36 +/- 0.89 X 10(7) L/M did not differ from the Ka for cells incubated in control media, 3.76 +/- 0.75 X 10(7) L/M, suggesting an increase in a single class of C3b receptors. Kinetic studies revealed that the active factor was present within 24 hr of culture of the Raji cells, and that neutrophils incubated in culture supernatants increased their C3b receptors continuously for up to 4 hr, the longest interval tested. The effect of the culture supernatant was lost with dilution beyond eight- to 10-fold. The results suggest that culture supernatants of this long-term lymphoblastoid cell line contain soluble factors that induce increased expression of C3b receptors on PMN and may thus serve as a model for study of important physiologic effects of lymphocyte products on PMN in vivo. PMID:6230308

  19. Regulation of the Expression of Heparan Sulfate 3-O-Sulfotransferase 3B (HS3ST3B) by Inflammatory Stimuli in Human Monocytes.

    PubMed

    Sikora, Anne-Sophie; Delos, Maxime; Martinez, Pierre; Carpentier, Mathieu; Allain, Fabrice; Denys, Agnès

    2016-07-01

    Heparan sulfate (HS) is recognized as an important player in a wide range of dynamic steps of inflammatory reactions. Thereby, structural HS remodeling is likely to play an important role in the regulation of inflammatory and immune responses; however, little is known about underlying mechanism. In this study, we analyzed the regulation of expression of HS 3-O-sulfotransferases (HS3STs) in response to inflammatory stimuli. We found that among the seven HS3ST isoenzymes, only the expression of HS3ST3B was markedly up-regulated in human primary monocytes and the related cell line THP1 after exposure to TLR agonists. TNF-α was also efficient, to a lesser extent, to increase HS3ST3B expression, while IL-6, IL-4, and IFN-γ were poor inducers. We then analyzed the molecular mechanisms that regulate the high expression of HS3ST3B in response to LPS. Based on the expression of HS3ST3B transcripts and on the response of a reporter gene containing the HS3ST3B1 promoter, we provide evidence that LPS induces a rapid and strong transcription of HS3ST3B1 gene, which was mainly dependent on the activation of NF-κB and JNK signaling pathways. Additionally, active p38 MAPK and de novo synthesized proteins are involved in post-transcriptional mechanisms to maintain a high level of HS3ST3B mRNA to a steady state. Altogether, our findings indicate that HS3ST3B1 gene behaves as a primary response gene, suggesting that it may play an important role in making 3-O-sulfated HS with specific functions in the regulation of inflammatory and immune responses. J. Cell. Biochem. 117: 1529-1542, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26575945

  20. Thieno[3,2-b]- and thieno[2,3-b]pyrrole bioisosteric analogues of the hallucinogen and serotonin agonist N,N-dimethyltryptamine.

    PubMed

    Blair, J B; Marona-Lewicka, D; Kanthasamy, A; Lucaites, V L; Nelson, D L; Nichols, D E

    1999-03-25

    The synthesis and biological activity of 6-[2-(N, N-dimethylamino)ethyl]-4H-thieno[3,2-b]pyrrole (3a) and 4-[2-(N, N-dimethylamino)ethyl]-6H-thieno[2,3-b]pyrrole (3b), thienopyrroles as potential bioisosteres of N,N-dimethyltryptamine (1a), are reported. Hallucinogen-like activity was evaluated in the two-lever drug discrimination paradigm using LSD- and DOI-trained rats. Neither 3a nor 3b substituted for LSD or DOI up to doses of 50 micromol/kg. By comparison, 1a fully substituted in LSD-trained rats. However, 3a and 3b fully substituted for the 5-HT1A agonist LY293284 ((-)-(4R)-6-acetyl-4-(di-n-propylamino)-1,3,4, 5-tetrahydrobenz[c,d]indole). Both 3a and 3b induced a brief "serotonin syndrome" and salivation, an indication of 5-HT1A receptor activation. At the cloned human 5-HT2A receptor 3b had about twice the affinity of 3a. At the cloned human 5-HT2B and 5-HT2C receptors, however, 3a had about twice the affinity of 3b. Therefore, thiophene lacks equivalence as a replacement for the phenyl ring in the indole nucleus of tryptamines that bind to 5-HT2 receptor subtypes and possess LSD-like behavioral effects. Whereas both of the thienopyrroles had lower affinity than the corresponding 1a at 5-HT2 receptors, 3a and 3b had significantly greater affinity than 1a at the 5-HT1A receptor. Thus, thienopyrrole does appear to serve as a potent bioisostere for the indole nucleus in compounds that bind to the serotonin 5-HT1A receptor. These differences in biological activity suggest that serotonin receptor isoforms are very sensitive to subtle changes in the electronic character of the aromatic systems of indole compounds. PMID:10090793

  1. Figures of Equilibrium among Binary Asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hestroffer, D.; Tanga, P.

    2005-12-01

    The original idea of Farinella et al. [1] that rubble pile asteroids can have figures of equilibrium, is rehabilitated. Albeit asteroids generally have a broad distribution of shapes and do not follow sequences of (hydrostatic) equilibrium, we show that some asteroids are indeed Jacobi or Darwin ellipsoids. Such statement is obtained from an analysis of their ellipsoidal shape (a:b:c) together with recent measures of their mass and bulk density [2,3]. This means that both their shape and adimensional rotation frequency sbond Ω =Ω /(π ρ G) follow sequences of equilibrium [4,5]. Jacobi and Darwin figures are obtained for uniformly rotating mass of (inviscid as well as compressible) fluids and relatively large angular momentum. Interestingly these objects appear to preferably be binaries. We moreover show that the porosity of such objects is relatively large (approx. 40%) indicating that they are loose rubble piles, yet with dense packing. Last we show that, given the observed bulk-densities, these bodies must be homogeneous bodies of uniform density distribution. Thus, though solid-solid friction must occur in such aggregates, the surface of these bodies is a surface of level similar to that of inviscid fluids. Comparison to other asteroids of similar mass either possessing a moonlet or with no known satellites should shed light on their formation history and/or constrains on collisional evolution. Binaries with low eccentricities and inclination (hence prograde orbit) should preferably be the outcome of catastrophic disruption as is supposed for members of dynamical family [6,7]. Future work and analysis of the typical reaccumulation time scales, typical angular momentum, possible post-reaccumulation cosmic shaking, etc. shall help to know how the fate of collisions or catastrophic breakup of a parent body can differ yielding to binaries with equilibrium figures. In any case the existence of a figure of equilibrium appears to be highly correlated to the presence

  2. Monitoring the Localization of MAP1LC3B by Indirect Immunofluorescence.

    PubMed

    Ktistakis, Nicholas T

    2015-08-01

    The autophagy protein MAP1LC3B (microtubule-associated proteins 1A/1B light chain 3B, hereafter referred to as LC3B), which is one of several mammalian homologs of yeast Atg8, is one of the most popular markers for autophagosome formation because its distribution changes from cytosolic/diffuse to punctate upon the induction of autophagy. In many settings, plasmids encoding fluorescently tagged LC3B are introduced into cells, and the subsequent autophagy response is monitored. However, for a variety of reasons, it would be desirable also to have a protocol to monitor the localization of endogenous LC3B under various conditions. This protocol provides such a methodology for the staining of endogenous LC3B by indirect immunofluorescence, such that autophagy responses can be monitored in mammalian cells. PMID:26240409

  3. Recurrent mutations at codon 625 of the splicing factor SF3B1 in uveal melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Harbour, J. William; Roberson, Elisha D. O.; Anbunathan, Hima; Onken, Michael D.; Worley, Lori A.; Bowcock, Anne M.

    2013-01-01

    Uveal melanoma is the most common primary cancer of the eye and often results in fatal metastasis. Here, we describe mutations occurring exclusively at arginine-625 in splicing factor 3B subunit 1 (SF3B1) in low-grade uveal melanomas with good prognosis. Thus, uveal melanoma is among a small group of cancers associated with SF3B1 mutation, and these mutations denote a distinct molecular subset of uveal melanomas. PMID:23313955

  4. Recurrent mutations at codon 625 of the splicing factor SF3B1 in uveal melanoma.

    PubMed

    Harbour, J William; Roberson, Elisha D O; Anbunathan, Hima; Onken, Michael D; Worley, Lori A; Bowcock, Anne M

    2013-02-01

    Uveal melanoma is the most common primary cancer of the eye and often results in fatal metastasis. Here, we describe mutations occurring exclusively at codon 625 of the SF3B1 gene, encoding splicing factor 3B subunit 1, in low-grade uveal melanomas with good prognosis. Thus, uveal melanoma is among a small group of cancers associated with SF3B1 mutations, and these mutations denote a distinct molecular subset of uveal melanomas. PMID:23313955

  5. Modeling SF3B1 Mutations in Cancer: Advances, Challenges, and Opportunities.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Daichi; Abdel-Wahab, Omar

    2016-09-12

    In this issue of Cancer Cell, Obeng et al. identify the consequences of expressing the most common mutation in the spliceosomal gene SF3B1 on hematopoiesis. The knockin mouse model described represents a valuable tool to dissect the effects of SF3B1 mutations on transformation, splicing, and less well-characterized functions of SF3B1. PMID:27622329

  6. Dnmt3b is a haploinsufficient tumor suppressor gene in Myc-induced lymphomagenesis

    PubMed Central

    Vasanthakumar, Aparna; Lepore, Janet B.; Zegarek, Matthew H.; Kocherginsky, Masha; Singh, Mahi; Davis, Elizabeth M.; Link, Petra A.; Anastasi, John; Le Beau, Michelle M.; Karpf, Adam R.

    2013-01-01

    The drivers of abnormal DNA methylation in human cancers include widespread aberrant splicing of the DNMT3B gene, producing abnormal transcripts that encode truncated proteins that may act as dominant negative isoforms. To test whether reduced Dnmt3b dosage can alter tumorigenesis, we bred Dnmt3b+/− mice to Eµ-Myc mice, a mouse model susceptible to B-cell lymphomas. Eµ-Myc/Dnmt3b+/− mice showed a dramatic acceleration of lymphomagenesis, greater even than that observed in Eµ-Myc mice that express a truncated DNMT3B isoform found in human tumors, DNMT3B7. This finding indicates that Dnmt3b can act as a haploinsufficient tumor suppressor gene. Although reduction in both Dnmt3b dosage and expression of DNMT3B7 within the Eµ-Myc system had similar effects on tumorigenesis and DNA hypermethylation, different molecular mechanisms appear to underlie these changes. This study offers insight into how de novo DNA methyltransferases function as tumor suppressors and the sensitivity of Myc-induced lymphomas to DNA methylation. PMID:23315164

  7. Revisiting Elliptical Satellite Orbits to Enhance the O3b Constellation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, L.; Lou, Yuxuan; Olusola, Opeoluwa

    Highly elliptical orbits can be used to provide targeted satellite coverage of locations at high latitudes. We review the history of use of these orbits for communication. How elliptical orbits can be used for broadband communication is outlined. We propose an addition of known elliptical orbits to the new equatorial O3b satellite constellation, extending O3b to cover high latitudes and the Earth's poles. We simulate the O3b constellation and compare this to recent measurement of the first real Internet traffic across the newly deployed O3b network.

  8. Figures of merit for laser beam quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milster, T. D.; Walker, E. P.

    1993-01-01

    It was shown how full-width at half maximum (FWHM), full-width at 1/e(sup 2) (FW1/e(sup 2)), Strehl ratio, and encircled energy figures of merit vary with different types of aberration and measurement methods. The array sampling method and the slit-scan method are examined in detail. Our irradiance in the exit pupil of the optical system is a simple gaussian. It was found that in general the slit-scan method and the array method do not yield the same result. The width measurements for the central lobe of the diffraction pattern are very insensitive to aberration.

  9. Noise figure of amplified dispersive Fourier transformation

    SciTech Connect

    Goda, Keisuke; Jalali, Bahram

    2010-09-15

    Amplified dispersive Fourier transformation (ADFT) is a powerful tool for fast real-time spectroscopy as it overcomes the limitations of traditional optical spectrometers. ADFT maps the spectrum of an optical pulse into a temporal waveform using group-velocity dispersion and simultaneously amplifies it in the optical domain. It greatly simplifies spectroscopy by replacing the diffraction grating and detector array in the conventional spectrometer with a dispersive fiber and single-pixel photodetector, enabling ultrafast real-time spectroscopic measurements. Following our earlier work on the theory of ADFT, here we study the effect of noise on ADFT. We derive the noise figure of ADFT and discuss its dependence on various parameters.

  10. Infrared thermal imaging figures of merit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaplan, Herbert

    1989-01-01

    Commercially available types of infrared thermal imaging instruments, both viewers (qualitative) and imagers (quantitative) are discussed. The various scanning methods by which thermal images (thermograms) are generated will be reviewed. The performance parameters (figures of merit) that define the quality of performance of infrared radiation thermometers will be introduced. A discussion of how these parameters are extended and adapted to define the performance of thermal imaging instruments will be provided. Finally, the significance of each of the key performance parameters of thermal imaging instruments will be reviewed and procedures currently used for testing to verify performance will be outlined.

  11. SF3B1 haploinsufficiency leads to formation of ring sideroblasts in myelodysplastic syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Visconte, Valeria; Rogers, Heesun J.; Singh, Jarnail; Barnard, John; Bupathi, Manoj; Traina, Fabiola; McMahon, James; Makishima, Hideki; Szpurka, Hadrian; Jankowska, Anna; Jerez, Andres; Sekeres, Mikkael A.; Saunthararajah, Yogen; Advani, Anjali S.; Copelan, Edward; Koseki, Haruhiko; Isono, Kyoichi; Padgett, Richard A.; Osman, Sami; Koide, Kazunori; O'Keefe, Christine; Maciejewski, Jaroslaw P.

    2012-01-01

    Whole exome/genome sequencing has been fundamental in the identification of somatic mutations in the spliceosome machinery in myelodysplastic syndromes (MDSs) and other hematologic disorders. SF3B1, splicing factor 3b subunit 1 is mutated in 60%-80% of refractory anemia with ring sideroblasts (RARS) and RARS associated with thrombocytosis (RARS-T), 2 distinct subtypes of MDS and MDS/myeloproliferative neoplasms (MDSs/MPNs). An idiosyncratic feature of RARS/RARS-T is the presence of abnormal sideroblasts characterized by iron overload in the mitochondria, called RS. Based on the high frequency of mutations of SF3B1 in RARS/RARS-T, we investigated the consequences of SF3B1 alterations. Ultrastructurally, SF3B1 mutants showed altered iron distribution characterized by coarse iron deposits compared with wild-type RARS patients by transmission electron microscopy. SF3B1 knockdown experiments in K562 cells resulted in down-regulation of U2-type intron-splicing by RT-PCR. RNA-sequencing analysis of SF3B1 mutants showed differentially used genes relevant in MDS pathogenesis, such as ASXL1, CBL, EZH, and RUNX families. A SF3B pharmacologic inhibitor, meayamycin, induced the formation of RS in healthy BM cells. Further, BM aspirates of Sf3b1 heterozygous knockout mice showed RS by Prussian blue. In conclusion, we report the first experimental evidence of the association between SF3B1 and RS phenotype. Our data suggest that SF3B1 haploinsufficiency leads to RS formation. PMID:22826563

  12. Mutation Processes in 293-Based Clones Overexpressing the DNA Cytosine Deaminase APOBEC3B

    PubMed Central

    Quist, Jelmar S.; Temiz, Nuri A.; Tutt, Andrew N. J.; Grigoriadis, Anita; Harris, Reuben S.

    2016-01-01

    Molecular, cellular, and clinical studies have combined to demonstrate a contribution from the DNA cytosine deaminase APOBEC3B (A3B) to the overall mutation load in breast, head/neck, lung, bladder, cervical, ovarian, and other cancer types. However, the complete landscape of mutations attributable to this enzyme has yet to be determined in a controlled human cell system. We report a conditional and isogenic system for A3B induction, genomic DNA deamination, and mutagenesis. Human 293-derived cells were engineered to express doxycycline-inducible A3B-eGFP or eGFP constructs. Cells were subjected to 10 rounds of A3B-eGFP exposure that each caused 80–90% cell death. Control pools were subjected to parallel rounds of non-toxic eGFP exposure, and dilutions were done each round to mimic A3B-eGFP induced population fluctuations. Targeted sequencing of portions of TP53 and MYC demonstrated greater mutation accumulation in the A3B-eGFP exposed pools. Clones were generated and microarray analyses were used to identify those with the greatest number of SNP alterations for whole genome sequencing. A3B-eGFP exposed clones showed global increases in C-to-T transition mutations, enrichments for cytosine mutations within A3B-preferred trinucleotide motifs, and more copy number aberrations. Surprisingly, both control and A3B-eGFP clones also elicited strong mutator phenotypes characteristic of defective mismatch repair. Despite this additional mutational process, the 293-based system characterized here still yielded a genome-wide view of A3B-catalyzed mutagenesis in human cells and a system for additional studies on the compounded effects of simultaneous mutation mechanisms in cancer cells. PMID:27163364

  13. Predominance of G3B and G14 equine group A rotaviruses of a single VP4 serotype in Japan.

    PubMed

    Tsunemitsu, H; Imagawa, H; Togo, M; Shouji, T; Kawashima, K; Horino, R; Imai, K; Nishimori, T; Takagi, M; Higuchi, T

    2001-10-01

    A total of 65 equine group A rotaviruses (GAR) isolated from diarrheal foals at 48 farms in Hokkaido, Japan, between 1996 (29 isolates) and 1997 (36 isolates) were characterized for their VP7 and VP4 serotypes by PCR, nucleotide sequencing, and virus neutralization (VN) tests. By PCR VP7 typing, all isolates were classified as G3 or G 14, and the predominant serotype in each year was G3 (86%) in 1996 and G14 (53%) in 1997. VN tests with these 20 isolates randomly selected confirmed the specificity of PCR on the bases of complete agreement of the results in these methods (9 G3 and 11 G14), and revealed that all 9 G3 isolates were subtype G3B. There were five differing amino acid residues in three VP7 antigenic regions between subtypes G3A and G3B. Antiserum to a baculovirus recombinant that expressed P[12] VP4 neutralized all isolates and P[12] reference strains. These results suggest that genotype P[12] GAR belong to a single VP4 serotype, and that one VP4 and two VP7 serotypes (G3B and G14) of GAR were predominant in the equine population in Japan. PMID:11722016

  14. Quantitative Technique for Comparing Simulant Materials through Figures of Merit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rickman, Doug; Hoelzer, Hans; Fourroux, Kathy; Owens, Charles; McLemore, Carole; Fikes, John

    2007-01-01

    The 1989 workshop report entitled Workshop on Production and Uses of Simulated Lunar Materials and the Lunar Regolith Simulant Materials: Recommendations for Standardization, Production, and Usage, NASA Technical Publication both identified and reinforced a need for a set of standards and requirements for the production and usage of the Lunar simulant materials. As NASA prepares to return to the Moon, and set out to Mars, a set of early requirements have been developed for simulant materials and the initial methods to produce and measure those simulants have been defined. Addressed in the requirements document are: 1) a method for evaluating the quality of any simulant of a regolith, 2) the minimum characteristics for simulants of Lunar regolith, and 3) a method to produce simulants needed for NASA's Exploration mission. As an extension of the requirements document a method to evaluate new and current simulants has been rigorously defined through the mathematics of Figures of Merit (FoM). Requirements and techniques have been developed that allow the simulant provider to compare their product to a standard reference material through Figures of Merit. Standard reference material may be physical material such as the Apollo core samples or material properties predicted for any landing site. The simulant provider is not restricted to providing a single "high fidelity" simulant, which may be costly to produce. The provider can now develop "lower fidelity" simulants for engineering applications such as drilling and mobility applications.

  15. [The endemic goitre in figurative arts].

    PubMed

    Giampalmo, A

    1996-01-01

    For the past fifteen years the author has been collecting photografic documentation of works of figurative arts (graffiti, mosiac, engravings, paintings and sculptures) made at different times and places, in which he found mostly unintentional display of diseases or deformities that would be clearly identified in nosography in the light of today's knowledge. In this study the author intends to illustrate briefly different cases on endemic goitre - whose representation is particularly frequent in figurative arts - in chronological order, beginning with the most ancient ones and focussing on Italian portraying of the Nativity and the Passion of Christ, where the most striking infirmities and disabilities were mirrored and commonly accepted. This study whose interest lies between a scientific and a humanistic one has also importance in the field of art, and especially in relevant philological research which is of particular importance to us pathologists. At last it contribute to establish the epidemiology of some diseases and the knowledge of historical and geographical pathology. PMID:11623474

  16. Interferometer for optical waviness and figure testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freischlad, Klaus R.

    1997-09-01

    A novel instrument is described for the optical, non-contact measurement of the waviness and figure component of the surface texture of flat surface. Here the spatial frequency range for waviness is typically chosen from 1.25/mm to 0.05/mm, whereas the global figure error contains the lower spatial frequencies. The special requirements on the dynamic range, the spatial resolution, and the signal-to-noise ratio of the measurement are discussed. The presented instrument consists of a white-light, extended-source, phase-shifting Mach-Zehnder interferometer. The special design employing low temporal and spatial coherence avoids coherent speckle noise on the measured surface maps while providing good spatial resolution. Thus in the waviness frequency band the modulation transfer function exceeds 0.75, an the RMS- precision is 0.1nm over the measurement area of 100mm in diameter. Measurement examples of typical applications, e.g. substrates for hard disks and flat panel displays, are shown.

  17. Surface figure control for coated optics

    DOEpatents

    Ray-Chaudhuri, Avijit K.; Spence, Paul A.; Kanouff, Michael P.

    2001-01-01

    A pedestal optical substrate that simultaneously provides high substrate dynamic stiffness, provides low surface figure sensitivity to mechanical mounting hardware inputs, and constrains surface figure changes caused by optical coatings to be primarily spherical in nature. The pedestal optical substrate includes a disk-like optic or substrate section having a top surface that is coated, a disk-like base section that provides location at which the substrate can be mounted, and a connecting cylindrical section between the base and optics or substrate sections. The optic section has an optical section thickness.sup.2 /optical section diameter ratio of between about 5 to 10 mm, and a thickness variation between front and back surfaces of less than about 10%. The connecting cylindrical section may be attached via three spaced legs or members. However, the pedestal optical substrate can be manufactured from a solid piece of material to form a monolith, thus avoiding joints between the sections, or the disk-like base can be formed separately and connected to the connecting section. By way of example, the pedestal optical substrate may be utilized in the fabrication of optics for an extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography imaging system, or in any optical system requiring coated optics and substrates with reduced sensitivity to mechanical mounts.

  18. 17 CFR 240.3b-15 - Definition of ancillary portfolio management securities activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... of incidental trading activities for portfolio management purposes; and (3) Are limited to risk... governing body of the dealer and included in the internal risk management control system for the dealer... portfolio management securities activities. 240.3b-15 Section 240.3b-15 Commodity and Securities...

  19. 17 CFR 240.3b-15 - Definition of ancillary portfolio management securities activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... of incidental trading activities for portfolio management purposes; and (3) Are limited to risk... governing body of the dealer and included in the internal risk management control system for the dealer... portfolio management securities activities. 240.3b-15 Section 240.3b-15 Commodity and Securities...

  20. 17 CFR 240.3b-15 - Definition of ancillary portfolio management securities activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... of incidental trading activities for portfolio management purposes; and (3) Are limited to risk... governing body of the dealer and included in the internal risk management control system for the dealer... portfolio management securities activities. 240.3b-15 Section 240.3b-15 Commodity and Securities...

  1. 17 CFR 240.3b-13 - Definition of eligible OTC derivative instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Federal Reserve System, 12 CFR Part 221), such contract either: (1) Provides for the purchase or sale of... Reserve System, 12 CFR part 220, set forth in § 240.36a1-1. ... derivative instrument. 240.3b-13 Section 240.3b-13 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND...

  2. 17 CFR 240.3b-13 - Definition of eligible OTC derivative instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Federal Reserve System, 12 CFR Part 221), such contract either: (1) Provides for the purchase or sale of... Reserve System, 12 CFR part 220, set forth in § 240.36a1-1. ... derivative instrument. 240.3b-13 Section 240.3b-13 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND...

  3. 17 CFR 240.3b-13 - Definition of eligible OTC derivative instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Federal Reserve System, 12 CFR Part 221), such contract either: (1) Provides for the purchase or sale of... Reserve System, 12 CFR part 220, set forth in § 240.36a1-1. ... derivative instrument. 240.3b-13 Section 240.3b-13 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND...

  4. 17 CFR 240.3b-13 - Definition of eligible OTC derivative instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Federal Reserve System, 12 CFR Part 221), such contract either: (1) Provides for the purchase or sale of... Reserve System, 12 CFR part 220, set forth in § 240.36a1-1. ... derivative instrument. 240.3b-13 Section 240.3b-13 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND...

  5. 17 CFR 240.3b-13 - Definition of eligible OTC derivative instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Definition of eligible OTC derivative instrument. 240.3b-13 Section 240.3b-13 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS, SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934 Rules and Regulations Under the Securities Exchange...

  6. 17 CFR 240.3b-15 - Definition of ancillary portfolio management securities activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... of incidental trading activities for portfolio management purposes; and (3) Are limited to risk... governing body of the dealer and included in the internal risk management control system for the dealer... portfolio management securities activities. 240.3b-15 Section 240.3b-15 Commodity and Securities...

  7. 17 CFR 240.3b-15 - Definition of ancillary portfolio management securities activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... of incidental trading activities for portfolio management purposes; and (3) Are limited to risk... governing body of the dealer and included in the internal risk management control system for the dealer... portfolio management securities activities. 240.3b-15 Section 240.3b-15 Commodity and Securities...

  8. APOBEC3B-Mediated Cytidine Deamination Is Required for Estrogen Receptor Action in Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Periyasamy, Manikandan; Patel, Hetal; Lai, Chun-Fui; Nguyen, Van T M; Nevedomskaya, Ekaterina; Harrod, Alison; Russell, Roslin; Remenyi, Judit; Ochocka, Anna Maria; Thomas, Ross S; Fuller-Pace, Frances; Győrffy, Balázs; Caldas, Carlos; Navaratnam, Naveenan; Carroll, Jason S; Zwart, Wilbert; Coombes, R Charles; Magnani, Luca; Buluwela, Laki; Ali, Simak

    2015-10-01

    Estrogen receptor α (ERα) is the key transcriptional driver in a large proportion of breast cancers. We report that APOBEC3B (A3B) is required for regulation of gene expression by ER and acts by causing C-to-U deamination at ER binding regions. We show that these C-to-U changes lead to the generation of DNA strand breaks through activation of base excision repair (BER) and to repair by non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) pathways. We provide evidence that transient cytidine deamination by A3B aids chromatin modification and remodelling at the regulatory regions of ER target genes that promotes their expression. A3B expression is associated with poor patient survival in ER+ breast cancer, reinforcing the physiological significance of A3B for ER action. PMID:26411678

  9. Pressure induced variation of second harmonic efficiency of K3B6O10Cl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hui; Kong, Lingyao; Zhao, Xiaoyan; Lv, Zhenlong; Li, Tongwei; Ju, Wei Wei; You, Jinghan; Bai, Ying

    2013-09-01

    K3B6O10Cl is a perovskite-like nonlinear optical (NLO) crystal, which exhibits large second harmonic generation (SHG) response. Based on density-functional theory, we investigate the influence of pressure on SHG tensor of K3B6O10Cl. At zero pressure, the non-centrosymmetric distortion of K3B6O10Cl from BO4 tetrahedron results in the similar SHG tensor to β-BaB2O4 (BBO). At 50 GPa, the ClK6 octahedron distortion of K3B6O10Cl becomes the main source of SHG and give similar SHG tensor to LiNbO3. Therefore, pressure induces K3B6O10Cl from a BBO-like NLO material to a LiNbO3-like NLO material.

  10. RAMONA-3B/MINET composite representation of BWR thermal-hydraulic systems

    SciTech Connect

    Van Tuyle, G.J.; Slovik, G.; Cazzoli, E.G.; Nepsee, T.C.; Guppy, J.G.

    1985-01-01

    The modification and interfacing of two computer codes, RAMONA-3B and MINET, for the thermal hydraulic transient analysis of a Boiling Water Reactor nuclear steam supply system, is described. The RAMONA-3B code provides for multi-channel thermal hydraulics and three-dimensional (or one-dimensional) neutron kinetics analysis of a boiling water reactor core. The RAMONA-3B system representation terminates at the end of the steam line and at the junction of the feedwater line at the vessel inlet. By interfacing RAMONA-3B with MINET, a generic balance-of-plant systems analysis code, a complete BWR systems code with detailed core modeling was obtained. The result is a code of particular importance to the analysis of transients such as ATWS. A comparison between the 3-D and 1-D neutronics representation is provided, along with a test case utilizing the composite RAMONA-3B/MINET code.

  11. Spliceosomal component Sf3b1 is essential for hematopoietic differentiation in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    De La Garza, Adriana; Cameron, Rosannah C; Nik, Sara; Payne, Sara G; Bowman, Teresa V

    2016-09-01

    SF3B1 (Splicing factor 3b, subunit 1) is one of the most commonly mutated factors in myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). Although the genetic correlation between SF3B1 mutations and MDS etiology are quite strong, no in vivo model currently exists to explore how SF3B1 loss alters blood cell development. Using zebrafish mutants, we show here that proper function of Sf3b1 is required for all hematopoietic lineages. As in MDS patients, zebrafish sf3b1 mutants develop a macrocytic-anemia-like phenotype due to a block in maturation at a late progenitor stage. The mutant embryos also develop neutropenia, because their primitive myeloid cells fail to mature and turn on differentiation markers such as l-plastin and myeloperoxidase. In contrast, production of definitive hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) from hemogenic endothelial cells within the dorsal aorta is greatly diminished, whereas arterial endothelial cells are correctly fated. Notch signaling, imperative for the endothelial-to-hematopoietic transition, is also normal, indicating that HSPC induction is blocked in sf3b1 mutants downstream or independent of Notch signaling. The data demonstrate that Sf3b1 function is necessary during key differentiation fate decisions in multiple blood cell types. Zebrafish sf3b1 mutants offer a novel animal model with which to explore the role of splicing in hematopoietic development and provide an excellent in vivo system with which to delve into the question of why and how Sf3b1 dysfunction is detrimental to hematopoietic differentiation, which could improve MDS diagnosis and treatment. PMID:27260753

  12. Degradation of the cancer genomic DNA deaminase APOBEC3B by SIV Vif

    PubMed Central

    Land, Allison M.; Wang, Jiayi; Law, Emily K.; Aberle, Ryan; Kirmaier, Andrea; Krupp, Annabel; Johnson, Welkin E.; Harris, Reuben S.

    2015-01-01

    APOBEC3B is a newly identified source of mutation in many cancers, including breast, head/neck, lung, bladder, cervical, and ovarian. APOBEC3B is a member of the APOBEC3 family of enzymes that deaminate DNA cytosine to produce the pro-mutagenic lesion, uracil. Several APOBEC3 family members function to restrict virus replication. For instance, APOBEC3D, APOBEC3F, APOBEC3G, and APOBEC3H combine to restrict HIV-1 in human lymphocytes. HIV-1 counteracts these APOBEC3s with the viral protein Vif, which targets the relevant APOBEC3s for proteasomal degradation. While APOBEC3B does not restrict HIV-1 and is not targeted by HIV-1 Vif in CD4-positive T cells, we asked whether related lentiviral Vif proteins could degrade APOBEC3B. Interestingly, several SIV Vif proteins are capable of promoting APOBEC3B degradation, with SIVmac239 Vif proving the most potent. This likely occurs through the canonical polyubiquitination mechanism as APOBEC3B protein levels are restored by MG132 treatment and by altering a conserved E3 ligase-binding motif. We further show that SIVmac239 Vif can prevent APOBEC3B mediated geno/cytotoxicity and degrade endogenous APOBEC3B in several cancer cell lines. Our data indicate that the APOBEC3B degradation potential of SIV Vif is an effective tool for neutralizing the cancer genomic DNA deaminase APOBEC3B. Further optimization of this natural APOBEC3 antagonist may benefit cancer therapy. PMID:26544511

  13. SARS Coronavirus 3b Accessory Protein Modulates Transcriptional Activity of RUNX1b

    PubMed Central

    Varshney, Bhavna; Agnihotram, Sudhakar; Tan, Yee-Joo; Baric, Ralph; Lal, Sunil K.

    2012-01-01

    Background The causative agent of severe acute respiratory syndrome, SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV) genome encodes several unique group specific accessory proteins with unknown functions. Among them, accessory protein 3b (also known as ORF4) was lately identified as one of the viral interferon antagonist. Recently our lab uncovered a new role for 3b in upregulation of AP-1 transcriptional activity and its downstream genes. Thus, we believe that 3b might play an important role in SARS-CoV pathogenesis and therefore is of considerable interest. The current study aims at identifying novel host cellular interactors of the 3b protein. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, using yeast two-hybrid and co-immunoprecipitation techniques, we have identified a host transcription factor RUNX1b (Runt related transcription factor, isoform b) as a novel interacting partner for SARS-CoV 3b protein. Chromatin immunoprecipitaion (ChIP) and reporter gene assays in 3b expressing jurkat cells showed recruitment of 3b on the RUNX1 binding element that led to an increase in RUNX1b transactivation potential on the IL2 promoter. Kinase assay and pharmacological inhibitor treatment implied that 3b also affect RUNX1b transcriptional activity by regulating its ERK dependent phosphorylation levels. Additionally, mRNA levels of MIP-1α, a RUNX1b target gene upregulated in SARS-CoV infected monocyte-derived dendritic cells, were found to be elevated in 3b expressing U937 monocyte cells. Conclusions/Significance These results unveil a novel interaction of SARS-CoV 3b with the host factor, RUNX1b, and speculate its physiological relevance in upregulating cytokines and chemokine levels in state of SARS virus infection. PMID:22253733

  14. Poetry and the Teaching of Figurative Language Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bush, Harold K., Jr.

    Many teachers note the importance of student ability to analyze and understand intricate uses of figurative language in reading. Research in recent years has focused on the prevalence of figures of speech in textbooks and other reading, suggesting that the fostering of figurative language skills should become a more common feature of language…

  15. Enactivism, Figural Apprehension and Knowledge Objectification: An Exploration of Figural Pattern Generalisation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samson, Duncan; Schafer, Marc

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the inter-relationship between the embodied processes of pattern generalisation and the visualisation of pictorial cues. A research framework is established for analysing pupils' multiple visualisations of figural cues in the context of pattern generalisation. The research framework centres on a novel combination of three…

  16. Figure Control of Lightweight Optical Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Main, John A.; Song, Haiping

    2005-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to demonstrate the use of fuzzy logic controllers in modifying the figure of a piezoceramic bimorph mirror. Non-contact electron actuation technology is used to actively control a bimorph mirror comprised two PZT-5H wafers by varying the electron flux and electron voltages. Due to electron blooming generated by the electron flux, it is difficult to develop an accurate control model for the bimorph mirror through theoretical analysis alone. The non-contact shape control system with electron flux blooming can be approximately described with a heuristic model based on experimental data. Two fuzzy logic feedback controllers are developed to control the shape of the bimorph mirror according to heuristic fuzzy inference rules generated from previous experimental results. Validation of the proposed fuzzy logic controllers is also discussed.

  17. Precision Segmented Reflector figure control system architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mettler, E.; Eldred, D.; Briggs, C.; Kiceniuk, T.; Agronin, M.

    1989-01-01

    A control system architecture for an actively controlled segmented reflector is described along with a design realization for achieving precision alignment of reflector panels. Performance requirements are derived in part from the Large Deployable Reflector, which is a representative mission, and error allocations are made which consider mirror panel surface errors, position measurement and figure estimation, and position control of both quasi-static and dynamic disturbances. The design uses multiple wavelength interferometric edge sensors and voice coil actuators in conjunction with a hybrid control strategy to correct panel position errors. A unit cell shown to be central to the concept is analyzed. The cell integrates the sensing, actuation, and mechanical functions of a control module together with a reflector panel to form a unitized assembly.

  18. Interdependent figure-of-merit software development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramohalli, K.; Kirsch, T.

    1989-01-01

    This program was undertaken in order to understand the complex nature of interdependent performance in space missions. At the first step in a planned sequence of progress, a spread sheet program was developed to evaluate different fuel/oxidizer combinations for a specific Martian mission. This program is to be linked with output attained using sophisticated software produced by Gordon and McBride. The programming to date makes use of 11 independent parameters. Optimization is essential when faced with the incredible magnitude of costs, risks, and benefits involved with space exploration. A system of weights needs to be devised on which to measure the options. It was the goal to devise a Figure of Merit (FoM) on which different choices can be presented and made. The plan was to model typical missions to Mars, identify the parameters, and vary them until the best one is found. Initially, most of the focus was placed on propellant selection.

  19. Structure analysis for plane geometry figures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Tianxiao; Lu, Xiaoqing; Liu, Lu; Li, Keqiang; Tang, Zhi

    2013-12-01

    As there are increasing numbers of digital documents for education purpose, we realize that there is not a retrieval application for mathematic plane geometry images. In this paper, we propose a method for retrieving plane geometry figures (PGFs), which often appear in geometry books and digital documents. First, detecting algorithms are applied to detect common basic geometry shapes from a PGF image. Based on all basic shapes, we analyze the structural relationships between two basic shapes and combine some of them to a compound shape to build the PGF descriptor. Afterwards, we apply matching function to retrieve candidate PGF images with ranking. The great contribution of the paper is that we propose a structure analysis method to better describe the spatial relationships in such image composed of many overlapped shapes. Experimental results demonstrate that our analysis method and shape descriptor can obtain good retrieval results with relatively high effectiveness and efficiency.

  20. The PKC-NFκB Signaling Pathway Induces APOBEC3B Expression in Multiple Human Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Leonard, Brandon; McCann, Jennifer L.; Starrett, Gabriel J.; Kosyakovsky, Leah; Luengas, Elizabeth M.; Molan, Amy M.; Burns, Michael B.; McDougle, Rebecca M.; Parker, Peter J.; Brown, William L.; Harris, Reuben S.

    2015-01-01

    Overexpression of the antiviral DNA cytosine deaminase APOBEC3B has been linked to somatic mutagenesis in many cancers. HPV infection accounts for APOBEC3B upregulation in cervical and head/neck cancers, but the mechanisms underlying non-viral malignancies are unclear. In this study, we investigated the signal transduction pathways responsible for APOBEC3B upregulation. Activation of protein kinase C (PKC) by the diacylglycerol (DAG) mimic phorbol-myristic acid (PMA) resulted in specific and dose-responsive increases in APOBEC3B expression and activity, which could then be strongly suppressed by PKC or NFκB inhibition. PKC activation caused the recruitment of RELB, but not RELA, to the APOBEC3B promoter implicating non-canonical NFκB signaling. Notably, PKC was required for APOBEC3B upregulation in cancer cell lines derived from multiple tumor types. By revealing how APOBEC3B is upregulated in many cancers, our findings suggest that PKC and NFκB inhibitors may be repositioned to suppress cancer mutagenesis, dampen tumor evolution, and decrease the probability of adverse outcomes such as drug resistance and metastases. PMID:26420215

  1. DNMT3b modulates melanoma growth by controlling levels of mTORC2 component RICTOR

    PubMed Central

    Micevic, Goran; Muthusamy, Viswanathan; Damsky, William; Theodosakis, Nicholas; Liu, Xiaoni; Meeth, Katrina; Wingrove, Emily; Santhanakrishnan, Manjula; Bosenberg, Marcus

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY DNA methyltransferase DNMT3B is frequently overexpressed in tumor cells and plays important roles during the formation and progression of several cancer types. However, the specific signaling pathways controlled by DNMT3B in cancers, including melanoma, are poorly understood. Here, we report that DNMT3B plays a pro-tumorigenic role in human melanoma and that DNMT3B loss dramatically suppresses melanoma formation in the Braf/Pten mouse melanoma model. Loss of DNMT3B results in hypomethylation of the miR-196b promoter and increased miR-196b expression, which directly targets the mTORC2 component Rictor. Loss of RICTOR in turn prevents mTORC2 activation, which is critical for melanoma formation and growth. These findings establish Dnmt3b as a regulator of melanoma formation through its effect on mTORC2 signaling. Based on these results, DNMT3B is a potential therapeutic target in melanoma. PMID:26923591

  2. Modulation of human B cell immunoglobulin secretion by the C3b component of complement.

    PubMed

    Tsokos, G C; Berger, M; Balow, J E

    1984-02-01

    The human C3b component of complement was found to inhibit the differentiation of human B lymphocytes into immunoglobulin-secreting cells in vitro. Pokeweed mitogen (PWM)-induced plaque-forming cell (PFC) responses were inhibited by C3-coated zymosan particles and by purified human C3b. C3b inhibited the PWM-driven responses in a dose-dependent fashion, and it was necessary for C3b to be present in the early phases of the cultures. C3b acted directly on B cells rather than on helper T cells because it inhibited the PFC responses of MNC depleted of T cells and subsequently stimulated with a T cell-independent Epstein Barr virus mitogen. Furthermore, C3b failed to stimulate the generation of suppressor lymphocytes and/or monocytes that might have been responsible for the inhibition of B cell responses. Our results indicate that C3b or its fragments exert negative modulatory effects on human B lymphocyte responses. PMID:6228593

  3. Assay Development for the Discovery of Semaphorin 3B Inducing Agents from Natural Product Sources

    PubMed Central

    Yong, Yeonjoong; Pan, Li; Ren, Yulin; Fatima, Nighat; Ahmed, Safia; Chang, Leng Chee; Zhang, Xiaoli; Kinghorn, A. Douglas; Swanson, Steven M.; Carcache de Blanco, Esperanza J.

    2014-01-01

    Semaphorins are a class of membrane-bound and secreted proteins. They have been found to regulate basic cell functions such as axonal growth cone guidance and recent studies have focused on their effect on tumor progression. Semaphorin 3B (Sema 3B) particularly is a secreted protein that has been known to modulate proliferation and apoptosis, processes that are critical for tumor progression and development. In spite of its importance, there is yet no high-throughput screening assay available to detect or quantify the expression of Sema 3B for natural product anticancer drug discovery purposes. Therefore, the development of a new high-throughput bioassay for the discovery of Sema 3B inducing agents from natural product sources is described herein. A wide variety of pure compounds and extracts from plants and microorganisms has been found suitable for screening using this Sema 3B assay to detect and quantify the effect of Sema 3B inducing agents and thereby identify new selective bioactive Sema 3B lead compounds for anticancer drug discovery and development. Also, this new bioassay procedure is based on a high-throughput platform using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay that involves the optimization of sensitivity and selectivity levels as well as accuracy, reproducibility, robustness, and cost effectiveness. PMID:25016954

  4. Cancer cells express aberrant DNMT3B transcripts encoding truncated proteins

    PubMed Central

    Ostler, KR; Davis, EM; Payne, SL; Gosalia, BB; Expósito-Céspedes, J; Le Beau, MM; Godley, LA

    2008-01-01

    Cancer cells display an altered distribution of DNA methylation relative to normal cells. Certain tumor suppressor gene promoters are hypermethylated and transcriptionally inactivated, whereas repetitive DNA is hypomethylated and transcriptionally active. Little is understood about how the abnormal DNA methylation patterns of cancer cells are established and maintained. Here, we identify over 20 DNMT3B transcripts from many cancer cell lines and primary acute leukemia cells that contain aberrant splicing at the 5′ end of the gene, encoding truncated proteins lacking the C-terminal catalytic domain. Many of these aberrant transcripts retain intron sequences. Although the aberrant transcripts represent a minority of the DNMT3B transcripts present, Western blot analysis demonstrates truncated DNMT3B isoforms in the nuclear protein extracts of cancer cells. To test if expression of a truncated DNMT3B protein could alter the DNA methylation patterns within cells, we expressed DNMT3B7, the most frequently expressed aberrant transcript, in 293 cells. DNMT3B7-expressing 293 cells have altered gene expression as identified by microarray analysis. Some of these changes in gene expression correlate with altered DNA methylation of corresponding CpG islands. These results suggest that truncated DNMT3B proteins could play a role in the abnormal distribution of DNA methylation found in cancer cells. PMID:17353906

  5. SF3B1 mutation identifies a distinct subset of myelodysplastic syndrome with ring sideroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Karimi, Mohsen; Papaemmanuil, Elli; Ambaglio, Ilaria; Jädersten, Martin; Jansson, Monika; Elena, Chiara; Gallì, Anna; Walldin, Gunilla; Della Porta, Matteo G.; Raaschou-Jensen, Klas; Travaglino, Erica; Kallenbach, Klaus; Pietra, Daniela; Ljungström, Viktor; Conte, Simona; Boveri, Emanuela; Invernizzi, Rosangela; Rosenquist, Richard; Campbell, Peter J.; Cazzola, Mario; Hellström Lindberg, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Refractory anemia with ring sideroblasts (RARS) is a myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) characterized by isolated erythroid dysplasia and 15% or more bone marrow ring sideroblasts. Ring sideroblasts are found also in other MDS subtypes, such as refractory cytopenia with multilineage dysplasia and ring sideroblasts (RCMD-RS). A high prevalence of somatic mutations of SF3B1 was reported in these conditions. To identify mutation patterns that affect disease phenotype and clinical outcome, we performed a comprehensive mutation analysis in 293 patients with myeloid neoplasm and 1% or more ring sideroblasts. SF3B1 mutations were detected in 129 of 159 cases (81%) of RARS or RCMD-RS. Among other patients with ring sideroblasts, lower prevalence of SF3B1 mutations and higher prevalence of mutations in other splicing factor genes were observed (P < .001). In multivariable analyses, patients with SF3B1 mutations showed significantly better overall survival (hazard ratio [HR], .37; P = .003) and lower cumulative incidence of disease progression (HR = 0.31; P = .018) compared with SF3B1-unmutated cases. The independent prognostic value of SF3B1 mutation was retained in MDS without excess blasts, as well as in sideroblastic categories (RARS and RCMD-RS). Among SF3B1-mutated patients, coexisting mutations in DNA methylation genes were associated with multilineage dysplasia (P = .015) but had no effect on clinical outcome. TP53 mutations were frequently detected in patients without SF3B1 mutation, and were associated with poor outcome. Thus, SF3B1 mutation identifies a distinct MDS subtype that is unlikely to develop detrimental subclonal mutations and is characterized by indolent clinical course and favorable outcome. PMID:25957392

  6. Chronic myelocytic leukaemia: HLA association and decreased erythrocyte C3b receptor expression.

    PubMed Central

    Ruuska, P; Silvennoinen-Kassinen, S; Timonen, T; Tiilikainen, A

    1985-01-01

    A series of 27 adult patients with chronic myelocytic leukaemia (CML) were examined for erythrocyte C3b receptor (EC3bR) expression. Twenty-five patients were successfully HLA typed and there was a positive association of CML with HLA-B40 (P less than 0.01). Only 10 (37%) of the patients were EC3bR positive (P less than 0.00001) compared to 223 healthy controls of whom 198 (89%) were EC3bR positive. The positivity of EC3bR and HLA-B40 occurred simultaneously in six patients (P less than 0.05). HLA-B40 positivity and EC3bR expression were correlated with the following variables: age at the time of CML diagnoses, duration of CML (until death or the end of follow-up period 1 July 1983), the stage of CML and simultaneous medication. EC3bR positive patients were significantly more often in remission (P less than 0.05) and also had shorter duration of the disease (P less than 0.005) then did EC3bR negative ones. No significant correlation existed between EC3bR status and the other parameters. The presence of HLA-B40 did not associate with any of the listed variables. These findings may indicate the loss of the receptor in the course of CML with increasing immaturity of cells released from bone marrow. PMID:3156701

  7. Neuroprotective Effects of Transcription Factor Brn3b in an Ocular Hypertension Rat Model of Glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Stankowska, Dorota L.; Minton, Alena Z.; Rutledge, Margaret A.; Mueller, Brett H.; Phatak, Nitasha R.; He, Shaoqing; Ma, Hai-Ying; Forster, Michael J.; Yorio, Thomas; Krishnamoorthy, Raghu R.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. Glaucoma is an optic neuropathy commonly associated with elevated intraocular pressure (IOP), leading to optic nerve head (ONH) cupping, axon loss, and apoptosis of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), which could ultimately result in blindness. Brn3b is a class-4 POU domain transcription factor that plays a key role in RGC development, axon outgrowth, and pathfinding. Previous studies suggest that a decrease in Brn3b levels occurs in animal models of glaucoma. The goal of this study was to determine if adeno-associated virus (AAV)-directed overexpression of the Brn3b protein could have neuroprotective effects following elevated IOP-mediated neurodegeneration. Methods. Intraocular pressure was elevated in one eye of Brown Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus), following which the IOP-elevated eyes were intravitreally injected with AAV constructs encoding either the GFP (rAAV-CMV-GFP and rAAV-hsyn-GFP) or Brn3b (rAAV-CMV-Brn3b and rAAV-hsyn-Brn3b). Retina sections through the ONH were stained for synaptic plasticity markers and neuroprotection was assessed by RGC counts and visual acuity tests. Results. Adeno-associated virus–mediated expression of the Brn3b protein in IOP-elevated rat eyes promoted an upregulation of growth associated protein-43 (GAP-43), actin binding LIM protein (abLIM) and acetylated α-tubulin (ac-Tuba) both posterior to the ONH and in RGCs. The RGC survival as well as axon integrity score were significantly improved in IOP-elevated rAAV-hsyn-Brn3b–injected rats compared with those of the IOP-elevated rAAV-hsyn-GFP– injected rats. Additionally, intravitreal rAAV-hsyn-Brn3b administration significantly restored the visual optomotor response in IOP-elevated rat eyes. Conclusions. Adeno-associated virus–mediated Brn3b protein expression may be a suitable approach for promoting neuroprotection in animal models of glaucoma. PMID:25587060

  8. Synthesis, transformations and biological properties of furo[2,3-b]pyridines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sirakanyan, S. N.; Hovakimyan, A. A.; Noravyan, A. S.

    2015-04-01

    Data on furo[2,3-b]pyridines published in the last 15 years are integrated and analyzed for the first time. Information on the methods of synthesis, chemical transformations and biological action of these systems is described systematically. Particular attention is paid to the preparation and study of properties of polycondensed derivatives as the most promising and rapidly developing line of research of furo[2,3-b]pyridine chemistry. The biological properties of this class of compounds are discussed, and examples of furo[2,3-b]pyridines that exhibit high biological activities are given. The bibliography includes 88 references.

  9. A Computer Graphics Human Figure Application Of Biostereometrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fetter, William A.

    1980-07-01

    A study of improved computer graphic representation of the human figure is being conducted under a National Science Foundation grant. Special emphasis is given biostereometrics as a primary data base from which applications requiring a variety of levels of detail may be prepared. For example, a human figure represented by a single point can be very useful in overview plots of a population. A crude ten point figure can be adequate for queuing theory studies and simulated movement of groups. A one hundred point figure can usefully be animated to achieve different overall body activities including male and female figures. A one thousand point figure si-milarly animated, begins to be useful in anthropometrics and kinesiology gross body movements. Extrapolations of this order-of-magnitude approach ultimately should achieve very complex data bases and a program which automatically selects the correct level of detail for the task at hand. See Summary Figure 1.

  10. A figure control sensor for the Large Deployable Reflector (LDR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartman, R.; Dubovitsky, S.

    1988-01-01

    A sensing and control system is required to maintain high optical figure quality in a segmented reflector. Upon detecting a deviation of the segmented surface from its ideal form, the system drives segment mounted actuators to realign the individual segments and thereby return the surface to its intended figure. When the reflector is in use, a set of figure sensors will determine positions of a number of points on the back surface of each of the reflector's segments, each sensor being assigned to a single point. By measuring the positional deviations of these points from previously established nominal values, the figure sensors provide the control system with the information required to maintain the reflector's optical figure. The optical lever, multiple wavelength interferometer, and electronic capacitive sensor, the most promising technologies for the development of the figure sensor, are illustrated. It is concluded that to select a particular implementation of the figure sensors, performance requirement will be refined and relevant technologies investigated further.

  11. A case of figurate urticaria by etanercept.

    PubMed

    Sessa, Maurizio; Sullo, Maria Giuseppa; Mascolo, Annamaria; Cimmaruta, Daniela; Romano, Francesca; Puca, Rosa Valentina; Capuano, Annalisa; Rossi, Francesco; Schiavo, Ada Lo

    2016-01-01

    Etanercept is a competitive inhibitor of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) a polypeptide hormone, involved in the development of the immune system, in host defense and immune surveillance. Even if the etanercept mechanism of action is not completely understood, it is supposed that it negatively modulates biological responses mediated by molecules (cytokines, adhesion molecules, or proteinases) induced or regulated by TNF. For this reason, it is widely used in the treatment of immunologicals diseases, such as rheumatoid and psoriatic arthritis, polyarticular juvenile idiopathic active, ankylosing spondylitis, and plaque psoriasis. Etanercept has a good tolerability profile. Adverse events related to skin are rare, arising usually in about 5% of patients treated with anti-TNF α. In this scenario, we describe a case of figurate urticaria arose after the re-administration of etanercept in a patient affected by psoriasis and hepatitis B. A 65-year-old man, affected by psoriasis, was hospitalized in September 2014 to the Regional Center for the treatment of psoriasis and Biological Drugs of Second University of Naples for progressive extension of psoriatic skin lesions. The laboratory analysis detected positivity for hepatitis B virus (HBV) antigens. For this reason, it was administered to him lamivudine 100 mg/die about 30 days before to start etanercept treatment. The etanercept therapy has resulted in a progressive improving of skin manifestations, and the patient decided individually to stop the therapy. Afterwards, for worsening of the psoriatic lesions, he was again hospitalized and treated with the same therapeutic schedule (lamivudine followed by etanercept). Ten days after the start of therapy, the patient showed the onset of urticarial rash. Due to this, the treatment with lamivudine and etanercept was suspended and the patient's clinical conditions improved. It is probably that immunological disorders due to etanercept therapy and HBV infection could

  12. A case of figurate urticaria by etanercept

    PubMed Central

    Sessa, Maurizio; Sullo, Maria Giuseppa; Mascolo, Annamaria; Cimmaruta, Daniela; Romano, Francesca; Puca, Rosa Valentina; Capuano, Annalisa; Rossi, Francesco; Schiavo, Ada Lo

    2016-01-01

    Etanercept is a competitive inhibitor of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) a polypeptide hormone, involved in the development of the immune system, in host defense and immune surveillance. Even if the etanercept mechanism of action is not completely understood, it is supposed that it negatively modulates biological responses mediated by molecules (cytokines, adhesion molecules, or proteinases) induced or regulated by TNF. For this reason, it is widely used in the treatment of immunologicals diseases, such as rheumatoid and psoriatic arthritis, polyarticular juvenile idiopathic active, ankylosing spondylitis, and plaque psoriasis. Etanercept has a good tolerability profile. Adverse events related to skin are rare, arising usually in about 5% of patients treated with anti-TNF α. In this scenario, we describe a case of figurate urticaria arose after the re-administration of etanercept in a patient affected by psoriasis and hepatitis B. A 65-year-old man, affected by psoriasis, was hospitalized in September 2014 to the Regional Center for the treatment of psoriasis and Biological Drugs of Second University of Naples for progressive extension of psoriatic skin lesions. The laboratory analysis detected positivity for hepatitis B virus (HBV) antigens. For this reason, it was administered to him lamivudine 100 mg/die about 30 days before to start etanercept treatment. The etanercept therapy has resulted in a progressive improving of skin manifestations, and the patient decided individually to stop the therapy. Afterwards, for worsening of the psoriatic lesions, he was again hospitalized and treated with the same therapeutic schedule (lamivudine followed by etanercept). Ten days after the start of therapy, the patient showed the onset of urticarial rash. Due to this, the treatment with lamivudine and etanercept was suspended and the patient's clinical conditions improved. It is probably that immunological disorders due to etanercept therapy and HBV infection could

  13. ∆ DNMT3B4-del Contributes to Aberrant DNA Methylation Patterns in Lung Tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Mark Z.; Lin, Ruxian; Carrillo, José; Bhutani, Manisha; Pathak, Ashutosh; Ren, Hening; Li, Yaokun; Song, Jiuzhou; Mao, Li

    2015-01-01

    Aberrant DNA methylation is a hallmark of cancer but mechanisms contributing to the abnormality remain elusive. We have previously shown that ∆DNMT3B is the predominantly expressed form of DNMT3B. In this study, we found that most of the lung cancer cell lines tested predominantly expressed DNMT3B isoforms without exons 21, 22 or both 21 and 22 (a region corresponding to the enzymatic domain of DNMT3B) termed DNMT3B/∆DNMT3B-del. In normal bronchial epithelial cells, DNMT3B/ΔDNMT3B and DNMT3B/∆DNMT3B-del displayed equal levels of expression. In contrast, in patients with non-small cell lung cancer NSCLC), 111 (93%) of the 119 tumors predominantly expressed DNMT3B/ΔDNMT3B-del, including 47 (39%) tumors with no detectable DNMT3B/∆DNMT3B. Using a transgenic mouse model, we further demonstrated the biological impact of ∆DNMT3B4-del, the ∆DNMT3B-del isoform most abundantly expressed in NSCLC, in global DNA methylation patterns and lung tumorigenesis. Expression of ∆DNMT3B4-del in the mouse lungs resulted in an increased global DNA hypomethylation, focal DNA hypermethylation, epithelial hyperplastia and tumor formation when challenged with a tobacco carcinogen. Our results demonstrate ∆DNMT3B4-del as a critical factor in developing aberrant DNA methylation patterns during lung tumorigenesis and suggest that ∆DNMT3B4-del may be a target for lung cancer prevention. PMID:26629529

  14. Genome Sequence of the Obligate Methanotroph Methylosinus trichosporium Strain OB3b

    SciTech Connect

    Stein, Lisa Y.; Yoon, Sukhwan; Semrau, Jeremy D.; DiSpiritto, Alan A.; Crombie, Andrew; Murrell, J.; Vuilleumier, Stephane; Kalyuzhnaya, Marina G.; Den Camp, Huub J. M. Op; Bringel, Francoise O.; Bruce, David; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Copeland, A; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Han, Cliff; Hauser, Loren John; Jetten, MSM; Lajus, Aurelie; Lapidus, Alla L.; Lucas, Susan; Medigue, Claudine; Woyke, Tanja; Zeytun, Ahmet; Klotz, Martin G

    2010-01-01

    Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b (for "oddball" strain 3b) is an obligate aerobic methane-oxidizing alphaproteobacterium that was originally isolated in 1970 by Roger Whittenbury and colleagues. This strain has since been used extensively to elucidate the structure and function of several key enzymes of methane oxidation, including both particulate and soluble methane monooxygenase (sMMO) and the extracellular copper chelator methanobactin. In particular, the catalytic properties of soluble methane monooxygenase from M. trichosporium OB3b have been well characterized in context with biodegradation of recalcitrant hydrocarbons, such as trichloroethylene. The sequence of the M. trichosporium OB3b genome is the first reported from a member of the Methylocystaceae family in the order Rhizobiales.

  15. Nager syndrome: confirmation of SF3B4 haploinsufficiency as the major cause.

    PubMed

    Petit, F; Escande, F; Jourdain, A S; Porchet, N; Amiel, J; Doray, B; Delrue, M A; Flori, E; Kim, C A; Marlin, S; Robertson, S P; Manouvrier-Hanu, S; Holder-Espinasse, M

    2014-09-01

    Nager syndrome belongs to the group of acrofacial dysostosis, which are characterized by the association of craniofacial and limb malformations. Recently, exome sequencing studies identified the SF3B4 gene as the cause of this condition in most patients. SF3B4 encodes a highly conserved protein implicated in mRNA splicing and bone morphogenic protein (BMP) signaling. We performed SF3B4 sequencing in 14 families (18 patients) whose features were suggestive of Nager syndrome and found nine mutations predicted to result in loss-of-function. SF3B4 is the major gene responsible for autosomal dominant Nager syndrome. All mutations reported predict null alleles, therefore precluding genotype-phenotype correlations. Most mutation-negative patients were phenotypically indistinguishable from patients with mutations, suggesting genetic heterogeneity. PMID:24003905

  16. Increased APOBEC3B Predicts Worse Outcomes in Lung Cancer: A Comprehensive Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Shumei; He, Fan; Gao, Bei; Wu, Huini; Li, Mei; Huang, Liyun; Liang, Jianzhong; Wu, Qiuliang; Li, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer ranks as the most common and lethal malignancy in America and worldwide. APOBEC3B is a newly identified DNA cytosine deaminase, which is supposed to function as a major source of DNA mutation in many different tumors. In this study, we combine the data of online databases and two hundred and twenty-one primary non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) specimens from Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center to investigate, for the first time, the clinical role of APOBEC3B in lung cancer. We found that the APOBEC3 expression was commonly elevated in NSCLC tissues and overexpression of APOBEC3B was correlated with unfavorable prognosis of the patients with NSCLC. Furthermore, APOBEC3B expression was associated with nodal status, TNM staging and adjuvant chemotherapy of the patients with NSCLC. Further research is warranted. PMID:27076842

  17. Functional enhancement and protection of dopaminergic terminals by RAB3B overexpression.

    PubMed

    Chung, Chee Yeun; Koprich, James B; Hallett, Penelope J; Isacson, Ole

    2009-12-29

    In Parkinson's disease (PD), dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra (SN, A9) are particularly vulnerable, compared to adjacent DA neurons within the ventral tegmental area (VTA, A10). Here, we show that in rat and human, one RAB3 isoform, RAB3B, has higher expression levels in A10 compared to A9 neurons. RAB3 is a monomeric GTPase protein that is highly enriched in synaptic vesicles and is involved in synaptic vesicle trafficking and synaptic transmission, disturbances of which have been implicated in several neurodegenerative diseases, including PD. These findings prompted us to further investigate the biology and neuroprotective capacity of RAB3B both in vitro and in vivo. RAB3B overexpression in human dopaminergic BE (2)-M17 cells increased neurotransmitter content, [(3)H] dopamine uptake, and levels of presynaptic proteins. AAV-mediated RAB3B overexpression in A9 DA neurons of the rat SN increased striatal dopamine content, number and size of synaptic vesicles, and levels of the presynaptic proteins, confirming in vitro findings. Measurement of extracellular DOPAC, a dopamine metabolite, following l-DOPA injection supported a role for RAB3B in enhancing the dopamine storage capacity of synaptic terminals. RAB3B overexpression in BE (2)-M17 cells was protective against toxins that simulate aspects of PD in vitro, including an oxidative stressor 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) and a proteasome inhibitor MG-132. Furthermore, RAB3B overexpression in rat SN both protected A9 DA neurons and resulted in behavioral improvement in a 6-OHDA retrograde lesion model of PD. These results suggest that RAB3B improves dopamine handling and storage capacity at presynaptic terminals, and confers protection to vulnerable DA neurons. PMID:20007772

  18. An economics figure of merit in ALPS

    SciTech Connect

    Shatilla, Y.A.

    2000-07-01

    One of the most pressing issues facing the deregulated nuclear electric power industry is its economic competitiveness when compared to other sources of electrical power. Traditionally, finding the optimum loading pattern (LP) that meets all the safety and operational objective functions and at the same time produces the most attractive economical solutions is an iterative process. This is because (a) LP search tools usually lack the capability to generate equilibrium solutions and (b) economics objective functions are hard to include in the search process. In this paper, the Westinghouse Advanced Loading Pattern Search code (ALPS) has been demonstrated to successfully find LPs that meet user-defined operational and safety as well as economics objectives. This has been made possible by the development of TULIP language that allows the integration of external procedures into the search process of the main program, ALPS. In the example given, an economic figure of merit (EFM) has been defined and included via TULIP script into the fuel management optimization problem of a three-loop Westinghouse core operating an 18-month cycle. The LPs found by ALPS exhibit a clear trend of meeting and, in some cases, exceeding the EFM objective function defined for the ALPS search process a priori.

  19. Figure skater level moderates balance training.

    PubMed

    Saunders, N W; Hanson, N J; Koutakis, P; Chaudhari, A M; Devor, S T

    2013-04-01

    It was suggested that baseline levels of postural control in figure skaters might influence the effectiveness of neuromuscular training. The aims of the present study were to investigate the baseline association of skater skill level with standard center of pressure metrics and time to stabilization, and to determine if skill level influenced the effectiveness of a 6-week neuromuscular training program. There was no main effect of skill level for any baseline center of pressure metric for either test. There was no main effect of skill level on the percent change in any metric for the single leg stance following training. However, skill level did influence landing test outcome measures. The difference in percent change of root mean squared was evident for the mediolateral (low: 24.5±16.50% vs. high: 2.42±14.99%) and anterior-posterior (low: 6.66±9.21% vs. high: - 4.03±5.91%) axes. Percent change in anterior-posterior time to stabilization also differed by skill level (low: - 0.73%±4.74 vs. high: - 5.61%±2.76). Note that this study was underpowered with 26 subjects and 14 subjects contributing to baseline and post-training assessments, respectively. Though no baseline differences in postural control were observed, compared with low skill levels, high skill levels benefitted more from training. PMID:23184479

  20. Resolving the formation of modern Chladni figures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuan, P. H.; Tung, J. C.; Liang, H. C.; Chiang, P. Y.; Huang, K. F.; Chen, Y. F.

    2015-09-01

    The resonant spectrum of a thin plate driven with a mechanical oscillator is precisely measured to distinguish modern Chladni figures (CFs) observed at the resonant frequencies from classical CFs observed at the non-resonant frequencies. Experimental results reveal that modern CFs generally display an important characteristic of avoided crossings of nodal lines, whereas the nodal lines of classical CFs form a regular grid. The formation of modern CFs and the resonant frequency spectrum are resolved with a theoretical model that characterizes the interaction between the plate and the driving source into the inhomogeneous Kirchhoff-Love equation. The derived formula for determining resonant frequencies is shown to be exactly identical to the meromorphic function given in singular billiards that deals with the coupling strength on the transition between integrable and chaotic features. The good agreement between experimental results and theoretical predictions verifies the significant role of the strong-coupling effect in the formation of modern CFs. More importantly, it is confirmed that the apparatus for generating modern CFs can be developed to serve as an expedient system for exploring the nodal domains of chaotic wave functions as well as the physics of the strong coupling with a point scatterer.

  1. Figuring the Acceleration of the Simple Pendulum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lieberherr, Martin

    2011-12-01

    The centripetal acceleration has been known since Huygens' (1659) and Newton's (1684) time.1,2 The physics to calculate the acceleration of a simple pendulum has been around for more than 300 years, and a fairly complete treatise has been given by C. Schwarz in this journal.3 But sentences like "the acceleration is always directed towards the equilibrium position" beside the picture of a swing on a circular arc can still be found in textbooks, as e.g. in Ref. 4. Vectors have been invented by Grassmann (1844)5 and are conveniently used to describe the acceleration in curved orbits, but acceleration is more often treated as a scalar with or without sign, as the words acceleration/deceleration suggest. The component tangential to the orbit is enough to deduce the period of the simple pendulum, but it is not enough to discuss the forces on the pendulum, as has been pointed out by Santos-Benito and A. Gras-Marti.6 A suitable way to address this problem is a nice figure with a catch for classroom discussions or homework. When I plotted the acceleration vectors of the simple pendulum in their proper positions, pictures as in Fig. 1 appeared on the screen. The endpoints of the acceleration vectors, if properly scaled, seemed to lie on a curve with a familiar shape: a cardioid. Is this true or just an illusion?

  2. Advances in precision mirror figure metrology (abstract)

    SciTech Connect

    Takacs, P.Z.; Furenlid, K. ); Church, E.L. )

    1992-01-01

    New developments in optical measurement techniques have made it possible to test the surface quality on grazing incidence optics with extreme precision and accuracy. An instrument developed at Brookhaven, the Long Trace Profiler (LTP), measures the figure of large (up to 1 m long) cylindrical aspheres with nanometer accuracy. The LTP optical system is based around a common-path interferometer design belonging to the class of slope measuring interferometers and, as such, it is very robust, stable, and vibration insensitive. A unique error correction technique removes the effect of tilt errors in the optical head as it traverses the air bearing, thus allowing one to accurately measure the absolute surface profile and radius of curvature. This is of critical importance to the manufacture of long-radius spherical optics used in high-resolution soft x-ray monochromators and in the testing of mirror bending systems. This talk will review the principle of operation of the LTP, probe the factors limiting the performance of the system, and will examine the current state of the art in synchrotron radiation mirror manufacturing quality (as viewed by our metrology techniques). This research was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy Contract No. DE-AC02-76CH00016.

  3. 2008 Alzheimer's disease facts and figures.

    PubMed

    2008-03-01

    Alzheimer's disease is the seventh leading cause of all deaths in the United States and the fifth leading cause of death in Americans older than the age of 65 years. More than 5 million Americans are estimated to have Alzheimer's disease. Every 71 seconds someone in America develops Alzheimer's disease; by 2050 it is expected to occur every 33 seconds. During the coming decades, baby boomers are projected to add 10 million people to these numbers. By 2050, the incidence of Alzheimer's disease is expected to approach nearly a million people per year, with a total estimated prevalence of 11 to 16 million persons. Significant cost implications related to Alzheimer's disease and other dementias include an estimated $148 billion annually in direct (Medicare/Medicaid) and indirect (eg, caregiver lost wages and out-of-pocket expenses, decreased business productivity) costs. Not included in these figures are the estimated 10 million caregivers who annually provide $89 billion in unpaid services to individuals with Alzheimer's disease. This report provides information to increase understanding of the public health impact of Alzheimer's disease, including incidence and prevalence, mortality, lifetime risks, costs, and impact on family caregivers. PMID:18631956

  4. Regulators of complement activity mediate inhibitory mechanisms through a common C3b-binding mode.

    PubMed

    Forneris, Federico; Wu, Jin; Xue, Xiaoguang; Ricklin, Daniel; Lin, Zhuoer; Sfyroera, Georgia; Tzekou, Apostolia; Volokhina, Elena; Granneman, Joke Cm; Hauhart, Richard; Bertram, Paula; Liszewski, M Kathryn; Atkinson, John P; Lambris, John D; Gros, Piet

    2016-05-17

    Regulators of complement activation (RCA) inhibit complement-induced immune responses on healthy host tissues. We present crystal structures of human RCA (MCP, DAF, and CR1) and a smallpox virus homolog (SPICE) bound to complement component C3b. Our structural data reveal that up to four consecutive homologous CCP domains (i-iv), responsible for inhibition, bind in the same orientation and extended arrangement at a shared binding platform on C3b. Large sequence variations in CCP domains explain the diverse C3b-binding patterns, with limited or no contribution of some individual domains, while all regulators show extensive contacts with C3b for the domains at the third site. A variation of ~100° rotation around the longitudinal axis is observed for domains binding at the fourth site on C3b, without affecting the overall binding mode. The data suggest a common evolutionary origin for both inhibitory mechanisms, called decay acceleration and cofactor activity, with variable C3b binding through domains at sites ii, iii, and iv, and provide a framework for understanding RCA disease-related mutations and immune evasion. PMID:27013439

  5. Synthesis & photoluminescence study of UV emitting borate phosphor Ca3B2O6:Pb2+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gawande, A. B.; Sonekar, R. P.; Omanwar, S. K.

    2013-06-01

    The powder sample of Ca3B2O6:Pb2+ has been prepared by a novel method which is slight variation of solution Combustion Synthesis. The synthesis is based on the exothermic reaction between the fuel (Urea) and Oxidizer (Ammonium nitrate). The structure of Ca3B2O6:Pb2+ has been confirmed by comparing the powder XRD pattern of the samples with the standard ICDD data files. The photoluminescent properties of Ca3B2O6:Pb2+ materials were investigated using F-7000 FL spectrophotometer at room temperature. The emission and excitation bands of Ca3B2O6:Pb2+ were observed at 335 and 270 nm, respectively. The Stoke shifts of phosphors Ca3B2O6:Pb2+ were calculated to be 7186 cm-1. The dependence of the emission intensity on the Pb2+ concentration was studied in detail. It has observed that, the phosphor Ca3B2O6:Pb2+ exhibits optimum emission intensity for 0.5 % concentration of Pb2+.

  6. Behavioural correlates of the P3b event-related potential in school-age children

    PubMed Central

    Boucher, O.; Bastien, C. H.; Muckle, G.; Saint-Amour, D.; Jacobson, S. W.; Jacobson, J. L.

    2010-01-01

    The latency and amplitude of the P3b component of event-related potentials (ERPs) have been related to behavioural performance on several attention and memory tasks in adult populations. However, the extent to which these results apply to children is unknown. This study examined the neurobehavioral correlates of the P3b component in a longitudinal sample of school-age children from Arctic Québec. Children (N = 110; mean age = 11.3 years) were assessed on an ERP auditory oddball paradigm and a neurobehavioral evaluation targeting several aspects of cognition, including the Stewart Extended Continuous Performance Test (E-CPT), California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT), Stroop Color-Word Interference Test, and five subtests from the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children–Fourth edition (WISC-IV). P3b latency was positively related to reaction time measures and negatively associated with performance on the WISC-IV Digit Span Forward subtest. Amplitude of the P3b was associated with shorter completion time on the Stroop test and better delayed recognition memory performance among children who did not use semantic strategies on the CVLT. Profile analyses revealed no difference in scalp distribution of the P3b according to performance on these tests. The results are consistent with previous studies with older participants and suggest that, despite age-related differences in waveform and scalp distribution, the P3b component relates to similar neurocognitive processes in children and adults. PMID:20338199

  7. Ternary borides Nb7Fe3B8 and Ta7Fe3B8 with Kagome-type iron framework.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Qiang; Gumeniuk, Roman; Borrmann, Horst; Schnelle, Walter; Tsirlin, Alexander A; Rosner, Helge; Burkhardt, Ulrich; Reissner, Michael; Grin, Yuri; Leithe-Jasper, Andreas

    2016-06-21

    Two new ternary borides TM7Fe3B8 (TM = Nb, Ta) were synthesized by high-temperature thermal treatment of samples obtained by arc-melting. This new type of structure with space group P6/mmm, comprises TM slabs containing isolated planar hexagonal [B6] rings and iron centered TM columns in a Kagome type of arrangement. Chemical bonding analysis in Nb7Fe3B8 by means of the electron localizability approach reveals two-center interactions forming the Kagome net of Fe and embedded B, while weaker multicenter bonding present between this net and Nb atoms. Magnetic susceptibility measurements reveal antiferromagnetic order below TN = 240 K for Nb7Fe3B8 and TN = 265 K for Ta7Fe3B8. Small remnant magnetization below 0.01μB per f.u. is observed in the antiferromagnetic state. The bulk nature of the magnetic transistions was confirmed by the hyperfine splitting of the Mössbauer spectra, the sizable anomalies in the specific heat capacity, and the kinks in the resistivity curves. The high-field paramagnetic susceptibilities fitted by the Curie-Weiss law show effective paramagnetic moments μeff≈ 3.1μB/Fe in both compounds. The temperature dependence of the electrical resistivity also reveals metallic character of both compounds. Density functional calculations corroborate the metallic behaviour of both compounds and demonstrate the formation of a sizable local magnetic moment on the Fe-sites. They indicate the presence of both antiferro- and ferrromagnetic interactions. PMID:27216270

  8. Thermoelectric properties of metallic antiperovskites AXD3 (A=Ge, Sn, Pb, Al, Zn, Ga; X=N, C; D=Ca, Fe, Co)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilal, Muhammad; Ahmad, Iftikhar; Asadabadi, Saeid Jalali; Ahmad, Rashid; Maqbool, Muhammad

    2015-05-01

    In this paper we communicate the thermoelectric properties of carbon and nitrogen based metallic antiperovskites ANCa3 (A=Ge, Sn, Pb), BCFe3 (B=Al, Zn, Ga) and SnCD3 (D=Co and Fe) using the ab-initio calculations to explore efficient metallic thermoelectric materials. The consistency of the calculated results of SnCCo3 and SnCFe3 with the experimental results confirms the reliability of our theoretical calculations for the other investigated metallic antiperovskites. The results indicate that the thermopower of these materials can be enhanced by changing the chemical potential. The dimensionless figure of merit for the three nitrides approaches 0.96 at room temperature, which proves the usefulness of these materials in thermoelectric generators. Furthermore, the thermal conductivity is minimum at room temperature for chemical potential values between -0.25 μ(eV) and 0.25 μ(eV), and provides the maximum values of dimensionless figure of merit in this range. The striking feature of these studies is identifying a metallic compound, SnNCa3, with the highest value of Seebeck coefficient at room temperature out of all metals. The results anticipate that these materials could be efficient in thermoelectric generators; however, this needs experimental verification.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  9. Lighting, backlighting and watercolor illusions and the laws of figurality.

    PubMed

    Pinna, Baingio; Reeves, Adam

    2006-01-01

    We report some novel 'lighting' and 'backlighting' effects in plane figures similar to those which induce the 'watercolor illusion', that is, figures made with outlines composed of juxtaposed parallel lines varying in brightness and chromatic color. These new effects show 'illumination' as an emergent percept, and show how arrangements of 'dark and light' along the boundaries of various plane figures model the volume and strengthen the illusion of depth. To account for these various effects we propose several phenomenological 'laws of figurality' to add to the Gestalt laws of organization and figure-ground segregation. We offer a set of meta-laws which are speculative but which serve to integrate and organize the phenomenological laws. These laws indicate how luminance gradient profiles across boundary contours define both the 3D appearance of figures and the properties of the light reflected from their volumetric shapes. PMID:16862844

  10. 2009 Alzheimer's disease facts and figures.

    PubMed

    2009-05-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the sixth leading cause of all deaths in the United States, and the fifth leading cause of death in Americans aged 65 and older. Whereas other major causes of death have been on the decrease, deaths attributable to AD have been rising dramatically. Between 2000 and 2006, heart-disease deaths decreased nearly 12%, stroke deaths decreased 18%, and prostate cancer-related deaths decreased 14%, whereas deaths attributable to AD increased 47%. An estimated 5.3 million Americans have AD; the approximately 200,000 persons under age 65 years with AD comprise the younger-onset AD population. Every 70 seconds, someone in America develops AD; by 2050, this time is expected to decrease to every 33 seconds. Over the coming decades, the "baby-boom" population is projected to add 10 million people to these numbers. In 2050, the incidence of AD is expected to approach nearly a million people per year, with a total estimated prevalence of 11 to 16 million people. Significant cost implications related to AD and other dementias include an estimated $148 billion annually in direct (Medicare/Medicaid) and indirect (e.g., decreased business productivity) costs. Not included in these figures is the $94 billion in unpaid services to individuals with AD provided annually by an estimated 10 million caregivers. Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is an important component in the continuum from healthy cognition to dementia. Understanding which individuals with MCI are at highest risk for eventually developing AD is key to our ultimate goal of preventing AD. This report provides information meant to increase an understanding of the public-health impact of AD, including incidence and prevalence, mortality, lifetime risks, costs, and impact on family caregivers. This report also sets the stage for a better understanding of the relationship between MCI and AD. PMID:19426951

  11. Germline recombination in a novel Cre transgenic line, Prl3b1-Cre mouse.

    PubMed

    Al-Soudy, Al-Sayed; Nakanishi, Tsuyoshi; Mizuno, Seiya; Hasegawa, Yoshikazu; Shawki, Hossam H; Katoh, Megumi C; Basha, Walaa A; Ibrahim, Abdelaziz E; El-Shemy, Hany A; Iseki, Hiroyoshi; Yoshiki, Atsushi; Hiromori, Youhei; Nagase, Hisamitsu; Takahashi, Satoru; Oishi, Hisashi; Sugiyama, Fumihiro

    2016-07-01

    Spermatogenesis is a complex and highly regulated process by which spermatogonial stem cells differentiate into spermatozoa. To better understand the molecular mechanisms of the process, the Cre/loxP system has been widely utilized for conditional gene knockout in mice. In this study, we generated a transgenic mouse line that expresses Cre recombinase under the control of the 2.5 kbp of the Prolactin family 3, subfamily b, member 1 (Prl3b1) gene promoter (Prl3b1-cre). Prl3b1 was initially reported to code for placental lactogen 2 (PL-2) protein in placenta along with increased expression toward the end of pregnancy. PL-2 was found to be expressed in germ cells in the testis, especially in spermatocytes. To analyze the specificity and efficiency of Cre recombinase activity in Prl3b1-cre mice, the mice were mated with reporter R26GRR mice, which express GFP ubiquitously before and tdsRed exclusively after Cre recombination. The systemic examination of Prl3b1-cre;R26GRR mice revealed that tdsRed-positive cells were detected only in the testis and epididymis. Fluorescence imaging of Prl3b1-cre;R26GRR testes suggested that Cre-mediated recombination took place in the germ cells with approximately 74% efficiency determined by in vitro fertilization. In conclusion, our results suggest that the Prl3b1-cre mice line provides a unique resource to understand testicular germ-cell development. genesis 54:389-397, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27124574

  12. Superconductivity and spin fluctuations in the actinoid-platinum metal borides {Th ,U } Pt3B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, E.; Royanian, E.; Michor, H.; Sologub, O.; Scheidt, E.-W.; Gonçalves, A. P.; Bursik, J.; Wolf, W.; Reith, D.; Blaas-Schenner, C.; Moser, R.; Podloucky, R.; Rogl, P.

    2015-07-01

    Investigating the phase relations of the system {Th ,U } -Pt-B at 900 °C the formation of two compounds has been observed: cubic ThPt3B with P m 3 ¯m structure as a representative of the perovskites, and tetragonal UPt3B with P 4 m m structure being isotypic to the noncentrosymmetric structure of CePt3B . The crystal structures of the two compounds are defined by combined x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. Characterization of physical properties for ThPt3B reveals a superconducting transition at 0.75 K and an upper critical field at T =0 exceeding 0.4 T. For nonsuperconducting UPt3B a metallic resistivity behavior was found in the entire temperature range; at very low temperatures spin fluctuations become evident and the resistivity ρ (T ) follows non-Fermi liquid characteristics, ρ =ρ0+A T n with n =1.6 . Density functional theory (DFT) calculations were performed for both compounds for both types of structures. They predict that the experimentally claimed cubic structure of ThPt3B is thermodynamically not stable in comparison to a tetragonal phase, with a very large enthalpy difference of 25 kJ/mol, which cannot be explained by the formation energy of B vacancies. However, the presence of random boron vacancies possibly stabilizes the cubic structure via a local strain compensation mechanism during the growth of the crystal. For UPt3B the DFT results agree well with the experimental findings.

  13. APOBEC3B expression in drug resistant MCF-7 breast cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Onguru, Onder; Yalcin, Serap; Rosemblit, Cinthia; Zhang, Paul J; Kilic, Selim; Gunduz, Ufuk

    2016-04-01

    APOBEC3B belongs to a protein family of cytidine deaminases that can insert mutations in DNA and RNA as a result of their ability to deaminate cytidine to uridine. It has been shown that APOBEC3B-catalysed deamination provides a chronic source of DNA damage in breast cancers. We investigated APOBEC3B expression in four drug resistant breast cancer cell lines (Doxorubicin, Etoposide, Paclitaxel and Docetaxel resistant MCF-7 cell lines) using a novel RNA in situ hybridization technology (RNAscope) and compared expression levels with drug sensitive MCF-7 cell line. After RNAscope staining, slides were scanned and saved as digital images using Aperio scanner and software. Quantitative scoring utilizing the number of punctate dots present within each cell boundary was performed for the parameters including positive cell percentage and signal intensity per positive cell. In Doxorubicin and Etoposide resistant MCF-7 cell lines, APOBEC3B expression was approximately five-fold increased (23% and 24% respectively) with higher signal intensity (1.92 and 1.44 signal/cell, respectively) compared to drug sensitive MCF-7 cell line (5%, 1.00 signal/cell) with statistical significance. The increase of APOBEC3B expression in Docataxel resitant and Paclitaxel resistant MCF-7 cell lines was not very high. In conclusion, APOBEC3B expression was increased in some population of tumor cells of drug resistant cell lines. At least for some drugs, APOBEC3B expression may be related to drug resistance, subjecting to some tumor cells to frequent mutation. PMID:27044816

  14. Beyond captions: linking figures with abstract sentences in biomedical articles.

    PubMed

    Bockhorst, Joseph P; Conroy, John M; Agarwal, Shashank; O'Leary, Dianne P; Yu, Hong

    2012-01-01

    Although figures in scientific articles have high information content and concisely communicate many key research findings, they are currently under utilized by literature search and retrieval systems. Many systems ignore figures, and those that do not typically only consider caption text. This study describes and evaluates a fully automated approach for associating figures in the body of a biomedical article with sentences in its abstract. We use supervised methods to learn probabilistic language models, hidden Markov models, and conditional random fields for predicting associations between abstract sentences and figures. Three kinds of evidence are used: text in abstract sentences and figures, relative positions of sentences and figures, and the patterns of sentence/figure associations across an article. Each information source is shown to have predictive value, and models that use all kinds of evidence are more accurate than models that do not. Our most accurate method has an F1-score of 69% on a cross-validation experiment, is competitive with the accuracy of human experts, has significantly better predictive accuracy than state-of-the-art methods and enables users to access figures associated with an abstract sentence with an average of 1.82 fewer mouse clicks. A user evaluation shows that human users find our system beneficial. The system is available at http://FigureItOut.askHERMES.org. PMID:22815711

  15. Polymorphism of FCGR2A, FCGR2C, and FCGR3B Genes in the Pathogenesis of Sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Typiak, M; Rębała, K; Dudziak, M; Słomiński, J M; Dubaniewicz, A

    2016-01-01

    We have previously presented evidence that the polymorphism of the FCGR3A gene, encoding the receptor for Fc fragment of immunoglobulin G IIIa (FcγRIIIa) plays a role in the enhancement of circulating immune complexes (CIs) with the occurrence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis heat shock proteins in patients with sarcoidosis (SA). The immunocomplexemia might be caused by decreased affinity of CIs to Fcγ receptors, with the subsequently decreased receptor clearance by immune cells. In the present study we examined whether the polymorphisms of other related genes (FCGR2A, FCGR2C, FCGR3B) encoding other activatory Fcγ receptors, could have a similar effect. To this end, we genotyped 124 patients with sarcoidosis and 148 healthy volunteers using polymerase chain reaction with sequence-specific primers. We revealed a significant decrease in the percentage of the FCGR2A and FCGR2C variants that ensure effective CIs clearance, with a concomitant increase of less functional variants of these genes in Stages I/II, compared with Stages III/IV of SA. There was no aberration in FCGR3B allele/genotype frequencies. We conclude that the FCGR2A and FCGR2C polymorphisms may also contribute to immunocomplexemia present in SA. The assessment of FCGR genes could become a tool in presaging a clinical course of sarcoidosis and in its personalized therapy. PMID:26801149

  16. Figures and First Years: Examining first-year Calculus I student ability to incorporate figures into technical reports

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonacci, Nathan; Rogers, Michael; Pfaff, Thomas

    This three-year study focused on first-year Calculus I students and their abilities to incorporate figures into technical reports. Students were handed guidelines as part of their Multidisciplinary Sustainability Education Module meant to aid them in crafting effective figures. Figure-specific questionnaires were added in the class to gain insight into the quantitative literacy skills students possessed both before starting their course and after its completion. Reviews of the figures in 78 technical reports written by 106 students showed repeated failure to refer to figures in discussion sections and use them in evidence-based arguments. Analysis of quantitative literacy skills revealed that the students could both read and interpret figures, suggesting that issues with literacy were not the main contributor to the sub-par graphs.

  17. Cytotoxicity and cell cycle effects of novel indolo[2,3-b]quinoline derivatives.

    PubMed

    Humeniuk, Rita; Kaczmarek, Lukasz; Peczyńska-Czoch, Wanda; Marcinkowska, Ewa

    2003-01-01

    Cellular effects of novel indolo[2,3-b]quinoline derivatives were studied. These compounds are synthetic analogs of plant alkaloid neocryptolepine (5-methyl-5H-indolo[2,3-b]quinoline) present in extracts from Cryptolepis sanguinolenta. They are traditionally used in natural medicine in Central and West Africa. Previous molecular and computational studies indicated that these compounds were DNA intercalators and inhibitors of topoisomerase II. We have extended our studies on their mode of action to the cellular level. Past experiments have shown that these compounds were active in vitro against cell lines derived from solid tumors, so for the present studies we selected leukemic cell lines. Jurkat acute T cell, CCRF-CEM T lymphoblastoid, THP-1 acute monocytic, HL-60 acute promyelocytic leukemias, and HL-60/MX2 subline with reduced expression of topoisomerase II were used. We evaluated the cytotoxicity and cell cycle effects of the indolo[2,3-b]quinoline compounds. We also tested if these compounds were able to induce apoptosis in the cells. Our studies revealed that novel indolo[2,3-b]quinoline derivatives were more cytotoxic to all cell lines than etoposide (used as a reference topoisomerase II inhibitor), and that their cytotoxicity depended on the substituents introduced to the indolo[2,3-b]quinoline core. Surprisingly, our studies have shown that HL-60/MX2 cell line and also THP-1 cell line, resistant to etoposide, were susceptible to methyl- and methoxy-substituted indolo[2,3-b]quinoline derivatives. In parallel to the evaluation of cytotoxicity we studied cell cycle effects of these compounds. Treatment of HL-60 cells with etoposide in subcytotoxic concentrations resulted in a massive accumulation of the cells in the G2/M phase of the cell cycle. When we used subcytotoxic concentrations of our novel indolo[2,3-b]quinoline derivatives the cell cycle progression of HL-60 cells was not affected. Moreover, the cell cycle of HL-60/MX2 cells was not influenced by

  18. Genetic and epigenetic variation in the DNMT3B and MTHFR genes and colorectal adenoma risk.

    PubMed

    Ho, Vikki; Ashbury, Janet E; Taylor, Sherryl; Vanner, Stephen; King, Will D

    2016-05-01

    Polymorphisms in DNMT3B and MTHFR have been implicated in cancer etiology; however, it is increasingly clear that gene-specific DNA methylation also affects gene expression. A cross-sectional study (N = 272) investigated the main and joint effects of polymorphisms and DNA methylation in DNMT3B and MTHFR on colorectal adenoma risk. Polymorphisms examined included DNMT3B c.-6-1045G > T, and MTHFR c.665C > T and c.1286A > C. DNA methylation of 66 and 28 CpG sites in DNMT3B and MTHFR, respectively, was quantified in blood leukocytes using Sequenom EpiTYPER®. DNA methylation was conceptualized using two approaches: (1) average methylation and (2) unsupervised principal component analysis to identify variables that represented methylation around the transcription start site and the gene coding area of both genes. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) associated with the main and joint effects of polymorphisms and DNA methylation. DNA methyltransferase 3B (DNMT3B) TT versus GG/GT genotypes was associated with increased colorectal adenoma risk (OR = 2.12; 95% CI: 1.03-4.34). In addition, increasing DNA methylation in the gene-coding area of DNMT3B was associated with higher risk of colorectal adenomas (OR = 1.34; 95% CI: 1.01-1.79 per SD). In joint effect analyses, synergistic effects were observed among those with both the DNMT3B TT genotype and higher DNMT3B methylation levels compared to those with GT/GG genotypes and lower methylation levels (OR = 4.19; 95% CI: 1.45-12.13 for average methylation; OR = 4.26; 95%CI: 1.31-13.87 for methylation in the transcription start site). This research provides novel evidence that genetic and epigenetic variations contribute to colorectal adenoma risk, precursor to the majority of colorectal cancer (CRC). Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 57:261-268, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27062459

  19. BOOK REVIEW: Relativistic Figures of Equilibrium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mars, M.

    2009-08-01

    Compact fluid bodies in equilibrium under its own gravitational field are abundant in the Universe and a proper treatment of them can only be carried out using the full theory of General Relativity. The problem is of enormous complexity as it involves two very different regimes, namely the interior and the exterior of the fluid, coupled through the surface of the body. This problem is very challenging both from a purely theoretical point of view, as well as regarding the obtaining of realistic models and the description of their physical properties. It is therefore an excellent piece of news that the book 'Relativistic Figures of Equilibrium' by R Meinel, M Ansorg, A Kleinwächter, G Neugebauer and D Petroff has been recently published. This book approaches the topic in depth and its contents will be of interest to a wide range of scientists working on gravitation, including theoreticians in general relativity, mathematical physicists, astrophysicists and numerical relativists. This is an advanced book that intends to present some of the present-day results on this topic. The most basic results are presented rather succinctly, and without going into the details, of their derivations. Although primarily not intended to serve as a textbook, the presentation is nevertheless self-contained and can therefore be of interest both for experts on the field as well as for anybody wishing to learn more about rotating self-gravitating compact bodies in equilibrium. It should be remarked, however, that this book makes a rather strong selection of topics and concentrates fundamentally on presenting the main results obtained by the authors during their research in this field. The book starts with a chapter where the fundamental aspects of rotating fluids in equilibrium, including its thermodynamic properties, are summarized. Of particular interest are the so-called mass-shedding limit, which is the limit where the body is rotating so fast that it is on the verge of starting

  20. The Lipid-Modifying Enzyme SMPDL3B Negatively Regulates Innate Immunity.

    PubMed

    Heinz, Leonhard X; Baumann, Christoph L; Köberlin, Marielle S; Snijder, Berend; Gawish, Riem; Shui, Guanghou; Sharif, Omar; Aspalter, Irene M; Müller, André C; Kandasamy, Richard K; Breitwieser, Florian P; Pichlmair, Andreas; Bruckner, Manuela; Rebsamen, Manuele; Blüml, Stephan; Karonitsch, Thomas; Fauster, Astrid; Colinge, Jacques; Bennett, Keiryn L; Knapp, Sylvia; Wenk, Markus R; Superti-Furga, Giulio

    2015-06-30

    Lipid metabolism and receptor-mediated signaling are highly intertwined processes that cooperate to fulfill cellular functions and safeguard cellular homeostasis. Activation of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) leads to a complex cellular response, orchestrating a diverse range of inflammatory events that need to be tightly controlled. Here, we identified the GPI-anchored Sphingomyelin Phosphodiesterase, Acid-Like 3B (SMPDL3B) in a mass spectrometry screening campaign for membrane proteins co-purifying with TLRs. Deficiency of Smpdl3b in macrophages enhanced responsiveness to TLR stimulation and profoundly changed the cellular lipid composition and membrane fluidity. Increased cellular responses could be reverted by re-introducing affected ceramides, functionally linking membrane lipid composition and innate immune signaling. Finally, Smpdl3b-deficient mice displayed an intensified inflammatory response in TLR-dependent peritonitis models, establishing its negative regulatory role in vivo. Taken together, our results identify the membrane-modulating enzyme SMPDL3B as a negative regulator of TLR signaling that functions at the interface of membrane biology and innate immunity. PMID:26095358

  1. The Lipid-Modifying Enzyme SMPDL3B Negatively Regulates Innate Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Heinz, Leonhard X.; Baumann, Christoph L.; Köberlin, Marielle S.; Snijder, Berend; Gawish, Riem; Shui, Guanghou; Sharif, Omar; Aspalter, Irene M.; Müller, André C.; Kandasamy, Richard K.; Breitwieser, Florian P.; Pichlmair, Andreas; Bruckner, Manuela; Rebsamen, Manuele; Blüml, Stephan; Karonitsch, Thomas; Fauster, Astrid; Colinge, Jacques; Bennett, Keiryn L.; Knapp, Sylvia; Wenk, Markus R.; Superti-Furga, Giulio

    2015-01-01

    Summary Lipid metabolism and receptor-mediated signaling are highly intertwined processes that cooperate to fulfill cellular functions and safeguard cellular homeostasis. Activation of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) leads to a complex cellular response, orchestrating a diverse range of inflammatory events that need to be tightly controlled. Here, we identified the GPI-anchored Sphingomyelin Phosphodiesterase, Acid-Like 3B (SMPDL3B) in a mass spectrometry screening campaign for membrane proteins co-purifying with TLRs. Deficiency of Smpdl3b in macrophages enhanced responsiveness to TLR stimulation and profoundly changed the cellular lipid composition and membrane fluidity. Increased cellular responses could be reverted by re-introducing affected ceramides, functionally linking membrane lipid composition and innate immune signaling. Finally, Smpdl3b-deficient mice displayed an intensified inflammatory response in TLR-dependent peritonitis models, establishing its negative regulatory role in vivo. Taken together, our results identify the membrane-modulating enzyme SMPDL3B as a negative regulator of TLR signaling that functions at the interface of membrane biology and innate immunity. PMID:26095358

  2. Cerebrospinal fluid-derived Semaphorin3B orients neuroepithelial cell divisions in the apicobasal axis.

    PubMed

    Arbeille, Elise; Reynaud, Florie; Sanyas, Isabelle; Bozon, Muriel; Kindbeiter, Karine; Causeret, Frédéric; Pierani, Alessandra; Falk, Julien; Moret, Frédéric; Castellani, Valérie

    2015-01-01

    The spatial orientation of cell divisions is fundamental for tissue architecture and homeostasis. Here we analysed neuroepithelial progenitors in the developing mouse spinal cord to determine whether extracellular signals orient the mitotic spindle. We report that Semaphorin3B (Sema3B) released from the floor plate and the nascent choroid plexus in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) controls progenitor division orientation. Delivery of exogenous Sema3B to neural progenitors after neural tube opening in living embryos promotes planar orientation of their division. Preventing progenitor access to cues present in the CSF by genetically engineered canal obstruction affects the proportion of planar and oblique divisions. Sema3B knockout phenocopies the loss of progenitor access to the CSF. Sema3B binds to the apical surface of mitotic progenitors and exerts its effect via Neuropilin receptors, GSK3 activation and subsequent inhibition of the microtubule stabilizer CRMP2. Thus, extrinsic control mediated by the Semaphorin signalling orients progenitor divisions in neurogenic zones. PMID:25721514

  3. QTug.sau-3B Is a Major Quantitative Trait Locus for Wheat Hexaploidization

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Ming; Luo, Jiangtao; Zeng, Deying; Zhang, Li; Ning, Shunzong; Yuan, Zhongwei; Yan, Zehong; Zhang, Huaigang; Zheng, Youliang; Feuillet, Catherine; Choulet, Frédéric; Yen, Yang; Zhang, Lianquan; Liu, Dengcai

    2014-01-01

    Meiotic nonreduction resulting in unreduced gametes is thought to be the predominant mechanism underlying allopolyploid formation in plants. Until now, however, its genetic base was largely unknown. The allohexaploid crop common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), which originated from hybrids of T. turgidum L. with Aegilops tauschii Cosson, provides a model to address this issue. Our observations of meiosis in pollen mother cells from T. turgidum×Ae. tauschii hybrids indicated that first division restitution, which exhibited prolonged cell division during meiosis I, was responsible for unreduced gamete formation. A major quantitative trait locus (QTL) for this trait, named QTug.sau-3B, was detected on chromosome 3B in two T. turgidum×Ae. tauschii haploid populations. This QTL is situated between markers Xgwm285 and Xcfp1012 and covered a genetic distance of 1 cM in one population. QTug.sau-3B is a haploid-dependent QTL because it was not detected in doubled haploid populations. Comparative genome analysis indicated that this QTL was close to Ttam-3B, a collinear homolog of tam in wheat. Although the relationship between QTug.sau-3B and Ttam requires further study, high frequencies of unreduced gametes may be related to reduced expression of Ttam in wheat. PMID:25128436

  4. XIST repression in the absence of DNMT1 and DNMT3B.

    PubMed

    Vasques, Luciana R; Stabellini, Raquel; Xue, Fei; Tian, X Cindy; Soukoyan, Marina; Pereira, Lygia V

    2005-01-01

    X chromosome inactivation (XCI) in human and mice involves XIST/Xist gene expression from the inactive X (Xi) and repression from the active X (Xa). Repression of the XIST/Xist gene on the Xa has been associated with methylation of its 5' region. In mice, Dnmt1 has been shown to be involved in the methylation and transcriptional repression of Xist on Xa. We examined maintenance of XIST gene repression on Xa in HCT116 cell lines knockout for either DNMT1 or DNMT3B and for DNMT1 and DNMT3B simultaneously. Methylation of the XIST promoter and XIST transcriptional repression is sustained in DNMT1-, DNMT3B- and DNMT1/DNMT3B knockout cells. Despite global DNA demethylation, the double knockout cells present only partial demethylation of the XIST promoter, which is not sufficient for gene reactivation. In contrast, global DNA demethylation with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine leads to XIST expression. Therefore, in these human cells maintenance of XIST methylation is controlled differently than global genomic methylation and in the absence of both DNMT1 and DNMT3B. PMID:16769694

  5. Extinction coefficient of H2CC(3B2) at 137 nm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fahr, A.; Laufer, A. H.

    1985-01-01

    In spite of the conduction of numerous studies regarding the vinylidene free radical, its role and importance as a reactive intermediate is not well characterized. Laufer (1980, 1983) has reported the absorption spectrum of metastable H2CC(3B2), the lowest excited state, in the vacuum ultraviolet and has measured several aspects of its quenching properties. The present study provides a measurement of the extinction coefficient of H2CC(3B2). Knowledge of the vinylidene concentration is required to convert readily available absorption data into an extinction coefficient or cross section. In the current work, the H2CC(3B2) concentration was determined in an investigation of the photodissociation of vinyl chloride.

  6. Dual functional activity of semaphorin 3B is required for positioning the anterior commissure.

    PubMed

    Falk, Julien; Julien, Falk; Bechara, Ahmad; Fiore, Roberto; Nawabi, Homaira; Zhou, Heather; Hoyo-Becerra, Carolina; Bozon, Muriel; Rougon, Geneviève; Grumet, Martin; Püschel, Andreas W; Sanes, Joshua R; Castellani, Valérie

    2005-10-01

    Chemorepulsion by semaphorins plays a critical role during the development of neuronal projections. Although semaphorin-induced chemoattraction has been reported in vitro, the contribution of this activity to axon pathfinding is still unclear. Using genetic and culture models, we provide evidence that both attraction and repulsion by Sema3B, a secreted semaphorin, are critical for the positioning of a major brain commissural projection, the anterior commissure (AC). NrCAM, an immunoglobulin superfamily adhesion molecule of the L1 subfamily, associates with neuropilin-2 and is a component of a receptor complex for Sema3B and Sema3F. Finally, we show that activation of the FAK/Src signaling cascade distinguishes Sema3B-mediated attractive from repulsive axonal responses of neurons forming the AC, revealing a mechanism underlying the dual activity of this guidance cue. PMID:16202709

  7. 50 CFR Figure 10 to Part 223 - Flounder TED

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Flounder TED 10 Figure 10 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Pt. 223, Fig. 10 Figure 10 to Part 223—Flounder TED...

  8. 50 CFR Figure 10 to Part 223 - Flounder TED

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Flounder TED 10 Figure 10 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Pt. 223, Fig. 10 Figure 10 to Part 223—Flounder TED...

  9. 50 CFR Figure 10 to Part 223 - Flounder TED

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Flounder TED 10 Figure 10 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Pt. 223, Fig. 10 Figure 10 to Part 223—Flounder TED...

  10. 50 CFR Figure 10 to Part 223 - Flounder TED

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Flounder TED 10 Figure 10 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Pt. 223, Fig. 10 Figure 10 to Part 223—Flounder TED...

  11. 50 CFR Figure 10 to Part 223 - Flounder TED

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Flounder TED 10 Figure 10 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Pt. 223, Fig. 10 Figure 10 to Part 223—Flounder TED...

  12. 16 CFR Figure 1 to Part 1203 - Anatomical Planes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Anatomical Planes 1 Figure 1 to Part 1203 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS Pt. 1203, Fig. 1 Figure 1 to Part 1203—Anatomical Planes ER10MR98.001...

  13. 16 CFR Figure 1 to Part 1203 - Anatomical Planes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Anatomical Planes 1 Figure 1 to Part 1203 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS Pt. 1203, Fig. 1 Figure 1 to Part 1203—Anatomical Planes ER10MR98.001...

  14. 16 CFR Figure 1 to Part 1203 - Anatomical Planes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Anatomical Planes 1 Figure 1 to Part 1203 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS Pt. 1203, Fig. 1 Figure 1 to Part 1203—Anatomical Planes ER10MR98.001...

  15. 40 CFR Appendix B to Subpart D of... - Figures

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Figures B Appendix B to Subpart D of Part 89 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED... Provisions Pt. 89, Subpt. D, App. B Appendix B to Subpart D of Part 89—Figures EC01MR92.000 EC01MR92.001...

  16. 40 CFR Appendix B to Subpart D of... - Figures

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Figures B Appendix B to Subpart D of Part 89 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED... Provisions Pt. 89, Subpt. D, App. B Appendix B to Subpart D of Part 89—Figures EC01MR92.000 EC01MR92.001...

  17. 40 CFR Appendix B to Subpart D of... - Figures

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Figures B Appendix B to Subpart D of Part 90 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED... Provisions Pt. 90, Subpt. D, App. B Appendix B to Subpart D of Part 90—Figures EC01MR92.085 EC01MR92.086...

  18. 40 CFR Appendix B to Subpart E of... - Figures

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Figures B Appendix B to Subpart E of Part 90 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED... Procedures Pt. 90, Subpt. E, App. B Appendix B to Subpart E of Part 90—Figures EC01MR92.087...

  19. 40 CFR Appendix B to Subpart D of... - Figures

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Figures B Appendix B to Subpart D of Part 90 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED... Provisions Pt. 90, Subpt. D, App. B Appendix B to Subpart D of Part 90—Figures EC01MR92.085 EC01MR92.086...

  20. 40 CFR Appendix B to Subpart E of... - Figures

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Figures B Appendix B to Subpart E of Part 90 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED... Procedures Pt. 90, Subpt. E, App. B Appendix B to Subpart E of Part 90—Figures EC01MR92.087...

  1. 40 CFR Appendix B to Subpart D of... - Figures

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Figures B Appendix B to Subpart D of Part 91 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED.... D, App. B Appendix B to Subpart D of Part 91—Figures ER04OC96.013 ER04OC96.014...

  2. Interpreting Children's Human Figure Drawings: Basic Guidelines for School Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foley, Yuehong Chen; Mullis, Fran

    2008-01-01

    The literature was reviewed and summarized to provide common interpretations of human figure drawings. Basic guidelines for interpreting human figure drawings (i.e., face and head, body, arms and hands, and legs and feet) are presented. Expectations for students at different developmental levels (ages 1 1/2 through adolescence) are identified, and…

  3. 16 CFR Figure 5 to Subpart A of... - Impactor

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Impactor 5 Figure 5 to Subpart A of Part 1201 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR ARCHITECTURAL GLAZING MATERIALS The Standard Pt. 1201, Subpt. A, Fig. 5 Figure 5...

  4. 50 CFR Figure 3 to Part 223 - Matagorda TED

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Matagorda TED 3 Figure 3 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Pt. 223, Fig. 3 Figure 3...

  5. 46 CFR Figure 1 to Part 150 - Compatibility Chart

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Compatibility Chart 1 Figure 1 to Part 150 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES COMPATIBILITY OF CARGOES Pt. 150, Fig. 1 Figure 1 to Part 150—Compatibility Chart EC02FE91.079...

  6. 16 CFR Figure 7 to Subpart A of... - Specimen Tray

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Specimen Tray 7 Figure 7 to Subpart A of Part 1209 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS INTERIM SAFETY STANDARD FOR CELLULOSE INSULATION The Standard Pt. 1209, Subpt. A, Fig. 7 Figure...

  7. 50 CFR Figure 4 to Part 223 - Georgia TED

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Georgia TED 4 Figure 4 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Pt. 223, Fig. 4 Figure 4...

  8. 46 CFR Figure 1 to Part 150 - Compatibility Chart

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Compatibility Chart 1 Figure 1 to Part 150 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES COMPATIBILITY OF CARGOES Pt. 150, Fig. 1 Figure 1 to Part 150—Compatibility Chart EC02FE91.079...

  9. 16 CFR Figure 2 to Subpart A of... - Test Frame

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Test Frame 2 Figure 2 to Subpart A of Part 1201 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR ARCHITECTURAL GLAZING MATERIALS The Standard Pt. 1201, Subpt. A, Fig. 2 Figure 2...

  10. 50 CFR Figure 3 to Part 223 - Matagorda TED

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Matagorda TED 3 Figure 3 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Pt. 223, Fig. 3 Figure 3...

  11. 16 CFR Figure 7 to Subpart A of... - Specimen Tray

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Specimen Tray 7 Figure 7 to Subpart A of Part 1209 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS INTERIM SAFETY STANDARD FOR CELLULOSE INSULATION The Standard Pt. 1209, Subpt. A, Fig. 7 Figure...

  12. 16 CFR Figure 1 to Part 1511 - Pacifier Test Fixture

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Pacifier Test Fixture 1 Figure 1 to Part 1511 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR PACIFIERS Pt. 1511, Fig. 1 Figure 1 to Part 1511—Pacifier Test Fixture...

  13. 16 CFR Figure 6 to Part 1610 - Igniter

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Igniter 6 Figure 6 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Pt. 1610, Fig. 6 Figure 6 to Part 1610—Igniter ER20OC08.001...

  14. 16 CFR Figure 9 to Part 1203 - Impact Test Apparatus

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Impact Test Apparatus 9 Figure 9 to Part 1203 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS Pt. 1203, Fig. 9 Figure 9 to Part 1203—Impact Test Apparatus...

  15. 16 CFR Figure 5 to Subpart A of... - Impactor

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Impactor 5 Figure 5 to Subpart A of Part 1201 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR ARCHITECTURAL GLAZING MATERIALS The Standard Pt. 1201, Subpt. A, Fig. 5 Figure 5...

  16. 16 CFR Figure 2 to Part 1610 - Flammability Apparatus Views

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Flammability Apparatus Views 2 Figure 2 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Pt. 1610, Fig. 2 Figure 2 to Part...

  17. 16 CFR Figure 6 to Part 1610 - Igniter

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Igniter 6 Figure 6 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Pt.1610, Fig. 6 Figure 6 to Part 1610—Igniter ER20OC08.001...

  18. 16 CFR Figure 7 to Part 1610 - Brushing Device

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Brushing Device 7 Figure 7 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Pt. 1610, Fig. 7 Figure 7 to Part 1610—Brushing Device ER25MR08.006...

  19. 16 CFR Figure 1 to Part 1511 - Pacifier Test Fixture

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pacifier Test Fixture 1 Figure 1 to Part 1511 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR PACIFIERS Pt. 1511, Fig. 1 Figure 1 to Part 1511—Pacifier Test Fixture...

  20. 16 CFR Figure 6 to Part 1610 - Igniter

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Igniter 6 Figure 6 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Pt.1610, Fig. 6 Figure 6 to Part 1610—Igniter ER20OC08.001...

  1. 16 CFR Figure 5 to Subpart A of... - Impactor

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Impactor 5 Figure 5 to Subpart A of Part 1201 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR ARCHITECTURAL GLAZING MATERIALS The Standard Pt. 1201, Subpt. A, Fig. 5 Figure 5...

  2. 16 CFR Figure 1 to Part 1511 - Pacifier Test Fixture

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Pacifier Test Fixture 1 Figure 1 to Part 1511 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR PACIFIERS Pt. 1511, Fig. 1 Figure 1 to Part 1511—Pacifier Test Fixture...

  3. 16 CFR Figure 2 to Subpart A of... - Test Frame

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Test Frame 2 Figure 2 to Subpart A of Part 1201 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR ARCHITECTURAL GLAZING MATERIALS The Standard Pt. 1201, Subpt. A, Fig. 2 Figure 2...

  4. 16 CFR Figure 2 to Part 1610 - Flammability Apparatus Views

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Flammability Apparatus Views 2 Figure 2 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Pt.1610, Fig. 2 Figure 2 to Part...

  5. 16 CFR Figure 9 to Part 1203 - Impact Test Apparatus

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Impact Test Apparatus 9 Figure 9 to Part 1203 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS Pt. 1203, Fig. 9 Figure 9 to Part 1203—Impact Test Apparatus...

  6. 16 CFR Figure 2 to Subpart A of... - Test Frame

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Test Frame 2 Figure 2 to Subpart A of Part 1201 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR ARCHITECTURAL GLAZING MATERIALS The Standard Pt. 1201, Subpt. A, Fig. 2 Figure 2...

  7. 46 CFR Figure 1 to Part 150 - Compatibility Chart

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Compatibility Chart 1 Figure 1 to Part 150 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES COMPATIBILITY OF CARGOES Pt. 150, Fig. 1 Figure 1 to Part 150—Compatibility Chart EC02FE91.079...

  8. 16 CFR Figure 7 to Part 1610 - Brushing Device

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Brushing Device 7 Figure 7 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Pt. 1610, Fig. 7 Figure 7 to Part 1610—Brushing Device ER25MR08.006...

  9. 16 CFR Figure 2 to Part 1610 - Flammability Apparatus Views

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Flammability Apparatus Views 2 Figure 2 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Pt.1610, Fig. 2 Figure 2 to Part...

  10. 16 CFR Figure 2 to Part 1508 - Headform Probe

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Headform Probe 2 Figure 2 to Part 1508 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS FIREWORKS DEVICES Multiple-tube fireworks devices. Pt. 1508, Fig. 2 Figure 2 to Part 1508—Headform...

  11. 50 CFR Figure 4 to Part 223 - Georgia TED

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Georgia TED 4 Figure 4 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Pt. 223, Fig. 4 Figure 4...

  12. 50 CFR Figure 4 to Part 223 - Georgia TED

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Georgia TED 4 Figure 4 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Pt. 223, Fig. 4 Figure 4...

  13. 16 CFR Figure 9 to Part 1203 - Impact Test Apparatus

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Impact Test Apparatus 9 Figure 9 to Part 1203 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS Pt. 1203, Fig. 9 Figure 9 to Part 1203—Impact Test Apparatus...

  14. 16 CFR Figure 2 to Part 1610 - Flammability Apparatus Views

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flammability Apparatus Views 2 Figure 2 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Pt. 1610, Fig. 2 Figure 2 to Part...

  15. 16 CFR Figure 5 to Subpart A of... - Impactor

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Impactor 5 Figure 5 to Subpart A of Part 1201 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR ARCHITECTURAL GLAZING MATERIALS The Standard Pt. 1201, Subpt. A, Fig. 5 Figure 5...

  16. 16 CFR Figure 8 to Part 1610 - Brush

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Brush 8 Figure 8 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Pt.1610, Fig. 8 Figure 8 to Part 1610—Brush ER25MR08.007...

  17. 16 CFR Figure 9 to Part 1203 - Impact Test Apparatus

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Impact Test Apparatus 9 Figure 9 to Part 1203 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS Pt. 1203, Fig. 9 Figure 9 to Part 1203—Impact Test Apparatus...

  18. 16 CFR Figure 2 to Part 1509 - Headform Probe

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Headform Probe 2 Figure 2 to Part 1509 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR NON-FULL-SIZE BABY CRIBS Pt. 1509, Fig. 2 Figure 2 to Part 1509—Headform Probe EC03OC91.065...

  19. 46 CFR Figure 1 to Part 150 - Compatibility Chart

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compatibility Chart 1 Figure 1 to Part 150 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES COMPATIBILITY OF CARGOES Pt. 150, Fig. 1 Figure 1 to Part 150—Compatibility Chart EC02FE91.079...

  20. 16 CFR Figure 7 to Part 1610 - Brushing Device

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Brushing Device 7 Figure 7 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Pt.1610, Fig. 7 Figure 7 to Part 1610—Brushing Device ER25MR08.006...

  1. 16 CFR Figure 2 to Part 1508 - Headform Probe

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Headform Probe 2 Figure 2 to Part 1508 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS FIREWORKS DEVICES Multiple-tube fireworks devices. Pt. 1508, Fig. 2 Figure 2 to Part 1508—Headform...

  2. 50 CFR Figure 4 to Part 223 - Georgia TED

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Georgia TED 4 Figure 4 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Pt. 223, Fig. 4 Figure 4...

  3. 16 CFR Figure 9 to Part 1203 - Impact Test Apparatus

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Impact Test Apparatus 9 Figure 9 to Part 1203 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS Pt. 1203, Fig. 9 Figure 9 to Part 1203—Impact Test Apparatus...

  4. 16 CFR Figure 8 to Part 1610 - Brush

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Brush 8 Figure 8 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Pt.1610, Fig. 8 Figure 8 to Part 1610—Brush ER25MR08.007...

  5. 16 CFR Figure 2 to Part 1508 - Headform Probe

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Headform Probe 2 Figure 2 to Part 1508 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS FIREWORKS DEVICES Multiple-tube fireworks devices. Pt. 1508, Fig. 2 Figure 2 to Part 1508—Headform...

  6. 16 CFR Figure 7 to Subpart A of... - Specimen Tray

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Specimen Tray 7 Figure 7 to Subpart A of Part 1209 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS INTERIM SAFETY STANDARD FOR CELLULOSE INSULATION The Standard Pt. 1209, Subpt. A, Fig. 7 Figure...

  7. 16 CFR Figure 1 to Part 1511 - Pacifier Test Fixture

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pacifier Test Fixture 1 Figure 1 to Part 1511 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR PACIFIERS Pt. 1511, Fig. 1 Figure 1 to Part 1511—Pacifier Test Fixture...

  8. 16 CFR Figure 2 to Part 1511 - Small Parts Gage

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Small Parts Gage 2 Figure 2 to Part 1511 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR PACIFIERS Pt.1511, Fig. 2 Figure 2 to Part 1511—Small Parts Gage EC03OC91.069...

  9. 50 CFR Figure 3 to Part 223 - Matagorda TED

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Matagorda TED 3 Figure 3 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Pt. 223, Fig. 3 Figure 3...

  10. 16 CFR Figure 2 to Part 1511 - Small Parts Gage

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Small Parts Gage 2 Figure 2 to Part 1511 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR PACIFIERS Pt.1511, Fig. 2 Figure 2 to Part 1511—Small Parts Gage EC03OC91.069...

  11. 46 CFR Figure 1 to Part 150 - Compatibility Chart

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Compatibility Chart 1 Figure 1 to Part 150 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES COMPATIBILITY OF CARGOES Pt. 150, Fig. 1 Figure 1 to Part 150—Compatibility Chart EC02FE91.079...

  12. 16 CFR Figure 6 to Part 1610 - Igniter

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Igniter 6 Figure 6 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Pt. 1610, Fig. 6 Figure 6 to Part 1610—Igniter ER20OC08.001...

  13. 16 CFR Figure 2 to Part 1508 - Headform Probe

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Headform Probe 2 Figure 2 to Part 1508 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR FULL-SIZE BABY CRIBS Pt. 1508, Fig. 2 Figure 2 to Part 1508—Headform Probe EC03OC91.062...

  14. 50 CFR Figure 3 to Part 223 - Matagorda TED

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Matagorda TED 3 Figure 3 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Pt. 223, Fig. 3 Figure 3...

  15. 16 CFR Figure 7 to Subpart A of... - Specimen Tray

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Specimen Tray 7 Figure 7 to Subpart A of Part 1209 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS INTERIM SAFETY STANDARD FOR CELLULOSE INSULATION The Standard Pt. 1209, Subpt. A, Fig. 7 Figure...

  16. 16 CFR Figure 8 to Part 1610 - Brush

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Brush 8 Figure 8 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Pt. 1610, Fig. 8 Figure 8 to Part 1610—Brush ER25MR08.007...

  17. 16 CFR Figure 7 to Part 1610 - Brushing Device

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Brushing Device 7 Figure 7 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Pt.1610, Fig. 7 Figure 7 to Part 1610—Brushing Device ER25MR08.006...

  18. 50 CFR Figure 3 to Part 223 - Matagorda TED

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Matagorda TED 3 Figure 3 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Pt. 223, Fig. 3 Figure 3...

  19. 16 CFR Figure 2 to Part 1509 - Headform Probe

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Headform Probe 2 Figure 2 to Part 1509 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR NON-FULL-SIZE BABY CRIBS Pt. 1509, Fig. 2 Figure 2 to Part 1509—Headform Probe EC03OC91.065...

  20. 16 CFR Figure 1 to Part 1511 - Pacifier Test Fixture

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Pacifier Test Fixture 1 Figure 1 to Part 1511 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR PACIFIERS Pt. 1511, Fig. 1 Figure 1 to Part 1511—Pacifier Test Fixture...

  1. 50 CFR Figure 4 to Part 223 - Georgia TED

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Georgia TED 4 Figure 4 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Pt. 223, Fig. 4 Figure 4...

  2. 16 CFR Figure 7 to Subpart A of... - Specimen Tray

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Specimen Tray 7 Figure 7 to Subpart A of Part 1209 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS INTERIM SAFETY STANDARD FOR CELLULOSE INSULATION The Standard Pt. 1209, Subpt. A, Fig. 7 Figure...

  3. 16 CFR Figure 5 to Subpart A of... - Impactor

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Impactor 5 Figure 5 to Subpart A of Part 1201 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR ARCHITECTURAL GLAZING MATERIALS The Standard Pt. 1201, Subpt. A, Fig. 5 Figure 5...

  4. 16 CFR Figure 9 to Part 1610 - Brushing Device Template

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Brushing Device Template 9 Figure 9 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Pt. 1610, Fig. 9 Figure 9 to Part 1610—Brushing...

  5. 16 CFR Figure 9 to Part 1610 - Brushing Device Template

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Brushing Device Template 9 Figure 9 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Pt.1610, Fig. 9 Figure 9 to Part 1610—Brushing...

  6. 16 CFR Figure 9 to Part 1610 - Brushing Device Template

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Brushing Device Template 9 Figure 9 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Pt. 1610, Fig. 9 Figure 9 to Part 1610—Brushing...

  7. 16 CFR Figure 2 to Part 1508 - Headform Probe

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Headform Probe 2 Figure 2 to Part 1508 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR FULL-SIZE BABY CRIBS Pt. 1508, Fig. 2 Figure 2 to Part 1508—Headform Probe EC03OC91.062...

  8. 16 CFR Figure 9 to Part 1610 - Brushing Device Template

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Brushing Device Template 9 Figure 9 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Pt.1610, Fig. 9 Figure 9 to Part 1610—Brushing...

  9. 16 CFR Figure 2 to Part 1511 - Small Parts Gage

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Small Parts Gage 2 Figure 2 to Part 1511 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR PACIFIERS Pt.1511, Fig. 2 Figure 2 to Part 1511—Small Parts Gage EC03OC91.069...

  10. 16 CFR Figure 2 to Part 1511 - Small Parts Gage

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Small Parts Gage 2 Figure 2 to Part 1511 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR PACIFIERS Pt.1511, Fig. 2 Figure 2 to Part 1511—Small Parts Gage EC03OC91.069...

  11. 16 CFR Figure 8 to Part 1610 - Brush

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Brush 8 Figure 8 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Pt. 1610, Fig. 8 Figure 8 to Part 1610—Brush ER25MR08.007...

  12. 16 CFR Figure 2 to Part 1511 - Small Parts Gage

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Small Parts Gage 2 Figure 2 to Part 1511 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR PACIFIERS Pt.1511, Fig. 2 Figure 2 to Part 1511—Small Parts Gage EC03OC91.069...

  13. 16 CFR Figure 2 to Subpart A of... - Test Frame

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Test Frame 2 Figure 2 to Subpart A of Part 1201 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR ARCHITECTURAL GLAZING MATERIALS The Standard Pt. 1201, Subpt. A, Fig. 2 Figure 2...

  14. Distinguishing between Realistic and Fantastical Figures in Iran

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davoodi, Telli; Corriveau, Kathleen H.; Harris, Paul L.

    2016-01-01

    Children in the United States come to distinguish historical from fictional story figures between the ages of 3 and 5 years, guided by the plausibility of the story events surrounding the figure (Corriveau, Kim, Schwalen, & Harris, 2009; Woolley & Cox, 2007). However, U.S. children vary in their reactions to stories that include…

  15. 50 CFR Figures 1-2 to Part 223 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false 1 Figures 1-2 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Figures 1-2 to Part 223...

  16. 50 CFR Figures 1-2 to Part 223 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false 1 Figures 1-2 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Figures 1-2 to Part 223...

  17. 50 CFR Figures 1-2 to Part 223 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false 1 Figures 1-2 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Figures 1-2 to Part 223...

  18. 50 CFR Figure 22 to Part 679 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false 22 Figure 22 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OF THE EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Figure 22 to Part 679...

  19. 50 CFR Figure 11 to Part 223 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false 11 Figure 11 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Figure 11 to Part 223...

  20. 50 CFR Figure 22 to Part 679 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false 22 Figure 22 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OF THE EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Figure 22 to Part 679...

  1. 50 CFR Figure 11 to Part 223 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false 11 Figure 11 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Figure 11 to Part 223...

  2. 50 CFR Figures 1-2 to Part 223 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false 1 Figures 1-2 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Figures 1-2 to Part 223...

  3. 16 CFR Figure 6 to Part 1203 - Field of Vision

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Field of Vision 6 Figure 6 to Part 1203 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS Pt. 1203, Fig. 6 Figure 6 to Part 1203—Field of Vision ER10MR98.006...

  4. 16 CFR Figure 6 to Part 1203 - Field of Vision

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Field of Vision 6 Figure 6 to Part 1203 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS Pt. 1203, Fig. 6 Figure 6 to Part 1203—Field of Vision ER10MR98.006...

  5. 16 CFR Figure 6 to Part 1203 - Field of Vision

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Field of Vision 6 Figure 6 to Part 1203 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS Pt. 1203, Fig. 6 Figure 6 to Part 1203—Field of Vision ER10MR98.006...

  6. 16 CFR Figure 6 to Part 1203 - Field of Vision

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Field of Vision 6 Figure 6 to Part 1203 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS Pt. 1203, Fig. 6 Figure 6 to Part 1203—Field of Vision ER10MR98.006...

  7. Transformation of the Incomplete Figure in Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noda, Mitsuru

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to examine the developmental changes in young children's perception. A matching completion task consisting of three geometric figures and one bird-like figure were completed by children 3-5 years of age ("N" = 99). The rotation effect, in which the correct response decreased with orientation (45°, 90° 135°, and…

  8. Enactivism and Figural Apprehension in the Context of Pattern Generalisation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samson, Duncan

    2010-01-01

    This paper seeks to establish a research framework for an investigation into the extent to which pupils are able to visualise figural cues in multiple ways within the context of pattern generalisation. Enactivism, along with the constructs of knowledge objectification and figural apprehension, are identified as forming an ideal theoretical…

  9. 16 CFR Figure 1 to Part 1203 - Anatomical Planes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Anatomical Planes 1 Figure 1 to Part 1203 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS Pt. 1203, Fig. 1 Figure 1 to Part 1203—Anatomical Planes ER10MR98.001...

  10. 16 CFR Figure 1 to Part 1203 - Anatomical Planes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Anatomical Planes 1 Figure 1 to Part 1203 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS Pt. 1203, Fig. 1 Figure 1 to Part 1203—Anatomical Planes ER10MR98.001...

  11. Dynamic Reaction Figures: An Integrative Vehicle for Understanding Chemical Reactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schultz, Emeric

    2008-01-01

    A highly flexible learning tool, referred to as a dynamic reaction figure, is described. Application of these figures can (i) yield the correct chemical equation by simply following a set of menu driven directions; (ii) present the underlying "mechanism" in chemical reactions; and (iii) help to solve quantitative problems in a number of different…

  12. Estimating the Volumes of Solid Figures with Curved Surfaces.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Donald

    1991-01-01

    Several examples of solid figures that calculus students can use to exercise their skills at estimating volume are presented. Although these figures are bounded by surfaces that are portions of regular cylinders, it is interesting to note that their volumes can be expressed as rational numbers. (JJK)

  13. High Focus Drawing: A Revolutionary Approach to Drawing the Figure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMullan, James

    This book encourages art students to draw the entire human figure at once, rather than isolated portions of the body. The approach focuses on the energy that suffuses every part of the body and produces liverly, seamless figure drawings without construction lines. Examples from Master works and student works are used to demonstrate the approach…

  14. 16 CFR Figures 3 and 4 to Subpart... - Test Specimens

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Test Specimens 3 Figures 3 and 4 to Subpart A of Part 1201 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT... Figures 3 and 4 to Subpart A of Part 1201—Test Specimens EC03OC91.006...

  15. 16 CFR Figure 6 to Part 1610 - Igniter

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Igniter 6 Figure 6 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Pt.1610, Fig. 6 Figure 6 to Part 1610—Igniter ER20OC08.001...

  16. 16 CFR Figure 7 to Part 1610 - Brushing Device

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brushing Device 7 Figure 7 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Pt.1610, Fig. 7 Figure 7 to Part 1610—Brushing Device ER25MR08.006...

  17. 16 CFR Figure 9 to Part 1610 - Brushing Device Template

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brushing Device Template 9 Figure 9 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Pt.1610, Fig. 9 Figure 9 to Part 1610—Brushing...

  18. 16 CFR Figure 2 to Part 1610 - Flammability Apparatus Views

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flammability Apparatus Views 2 Figure 2 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Pt.1610, Fig. 2 Figure 2 to Part...

  19. 16 CFR Figure 8 to Part 1610 - Brush

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brush 8 Figure 8 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Pt.1610, Fig. 8 Figure 8 to Part 1610—Brush ER25MR08.007...

  20. 16 CFR Figure 6 to Part 1203 - Field of Vision

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Field of Vision 6 Figure 6 to Part 1203 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS Pt. 1203, Fig. 6 Figure 6 to Part 1203—Field of Vision ER10MR98.006...

  1. Sphingomyelinase-Like Phosphodiesterase 3b Expression Levels Determine Podocyte Injury Phenotypes in Glomerular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Tae-Hyun; Pedigo, Christopher E.; Guzman, Johanna; Correa-Medina, Mayrin; Wei, Changli; Villarreal, Rodrigo; Mitrofanova, Alla; Leclercq, Farah; Faul, Christian; Li, Jing; Kretzler, Matthias; Nelson, Robert G.; Lehto, Markku; Forsblom, Carol; Groop, Per-Henrik; Reiser, Jochen; Burke, George William

    2015-01-01

    Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) is the most common cause of ESRD in the United States. Podocyte injury is an important feature of DKD that is likely to be caused by circulating factors other than glucose. Soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) is a circulating factor found to be elevated in the serum of patients with FSGS and causes podocyte αVβ3 integrin-dependent migration in vitro. Furthermore, αVβ3 integrin activation occurs in association with decreased podocyte-specific expression of acid sphingomyelinase-like phosphodiesterase 3b (SMPDL3b) in kidney biopsy specimens from patients with FSGS. However, whether suPAR-dependent αVβ3 integrin activation occurs in diseases other than FSGS and whether there is a direct link between circulating suPAR levels and SMPDL3b expression in podocytes remain to be established. Our data indicate that serum suPAR levels are also elevated in patients with DKD. However, unlike in FSGS, SMPDL3b expression was increased in glomeruli from patients with DKD and DKD sera-treated human podocytes, where it prevented αVβ3 integrin activation by its interaction with suPAR and led to increased RhoA activity, rendering podocytes more susceptible to apoptosis. In vivo, inhibition of acid sphingomyelinase reduced proteinuria in experimental DKD but not FSGS, indicating that SMPDL3b expression levels determined the podocyte injury phenotype. These observations suggest that SMPDL3b may be an important modulator of podocyte function by shifting suPAR-mediated podocyte injury from a migratory phenotype to an apoptotic phenotype and that it represents a novel therapeutic glomerular disease target. PMID:24925721

  2. Sphingomyelinase-like phosphodiesterase 3b expression levels determine podocyte injury phenotypes in glomerular disease.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Tae-Hyun; Pedigo, Christopher E; Guzman, Johanna; Correa-Medina, Mayrin; Wei, Changli; Villarreal, Rodrigo; Mitrofanova, Alla; Leclercq, Farah; Faul, Christian; Li, Jing; Kretzler, Matthias; Nelson, Robert G; Lehto, Markku; Forsblom, Carol; Groop, Per-Henrik; Reiser, Jochen; Burke, George William; Fornoni, Alessia; Merscher, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) is the most common cause of ESRD in the United States. Podocyte injury is an important feature of DKD that is likely to be caused by circulating factors other than glucose. Soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) is a circulating factor found to be elevated in the serum of patients with FSGS and causes podocyte αVβ3 integrin-dependent migration in vitro. Furthermore, αVβ3 integrin activation occurs in association with decreased podocyte-specific expression of acid sphingomyelinase-like phosphodiesterase 3b (SMPDL3b) in kidney biopsy specimens from patients with FSGS. However, whether suPAR-dependent αVβ3 integrin activation occurs in diseases other than FSGS and whether there is a direct link between circulating suPAR levels and SMPDL3b expression in podocytes remain to be established. Our data indicate that serum suPAR levels are also elevated in patients with DKD. However, unlike in FSGS, SMPDL3b expression was increased in glomeruli from patients with DKD and DKD sera-treated human podocytes, where it prevented αVβ3 integrin activation by its interaction with suPAR and led to increased RhoA activity, rendering podocytes more susceptible to apoptosis. In vivo, inhibition of acid sphingomyelinase reduced proteinuria in experimental DKD but not FSGS, indicating that SMPDL3b expression levels determined the podocyte injury phenotype. These observations suggest that SMPDL3b may be an important modulator of podocyte function by shifting suPAR-mediated podocyte injury from a migratory phenotype to an apoptotic phenotype and that it represents a novel therapeutic glomerular disease target. PMID:24925721

  3. LRRN4 and UPK3B Are Markers of Primary Mesothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kanamori-Katayama, Mutsumi; Kaiho, Ai; Ishizu, Yuri; Okamura-Oho, Yuko; Hino, Okio; Abe, Masaaki; Kishimoto, Takumi; Sekihara, Hisahiko; Nakamura, Yukio; Suzuki, Harukazu; Forrest, Alistair R. R.; Hayashizaki, Yoshihide

    2011-01-01

    Background Mesothelioma is a highly malignant tumor that is primarily caused by occupational or environmental exposure to asbestos fibers. Despite worldwide restrictions on asbestos usage, further cases are expected as diagnosis is typically 20–40 years after exposure. Once diagnosed there is a very poor prognosis with a median survival rate of 9 months. Considering this the development of early pre clinical diagnostic markers may help improve clinical outcomes. Methodology Microarray expression arrays on mesothelium and other tissues dissected from mice were used to identify candidate mesothelial lineage markers. Candidates were further tested by qRTPCR and in-situ hybridization across a mouse tissue panel. Two candidate biomarkers with the potential for secretion, uroplakin 3B (UPK3B), and leucine rich repeat neuronal 4 (LRRN4) and one commercialized mesothelioma marker, mesothelin (MSLN) were then chosen for validation across a panel of normal human primary cells, 16 established mesothelioma cell lines, 10 lung cancer lines, and a further set of 8 unrelated cancer cell lines. Conclusions Within the primary cell panel, LRRN4 was only detected in primary mesothelial cells, but MSLN and UPK3B were also detected in other cell types. MSLN was detected in bronchial epithelial cells and alveolar epithelial cells and UPK3B was detected in retinal pigment epithelial cells and urothelial cells. Testing the cell line panel, MSLN was detected in 15 of the 16 mesothelioma cells lines, whereas LRRN4 was only detected in 8 and UPK3B in 6. Interestingly MSLN levels appear to be upregulated in the mesothelioma lines compared to the primary mesothelial cells, while LRRN4 and UPK3B, are either lost or down-regulated. Despite the higher fraction of mesothelioma lines positive for MSLN, it was also detected at high levels in 2 lung cancer lines and 3 other unrelated cancer lines derived from papillotubular adenocarcinoma, signet ring carcinoma and transitional cell carcinoma. PMID

  4. Analyzing the Effects of Nitrogen Deficiency on the PHB Production of Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kyauk, E.

    2011-12-01

    Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) is a biodegradable thermoplastic that is produced by various microorganisms. Because of its potential to replace conventional plastics, it has been closely researched in the past few years. Methanotrophic bacteria, bacteria that consume methane, produce this bioplastic when it lacks certain nutrients. The utilization of methane to produce PHB shows much promise as methane is a cheap, plentiful gas. In this study, we observed the methanotroph, Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b , and its yield of PHB in the absence of nitrogen. The optical density of Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b was measured in order to observe cell growth and PHB production patterns over a 48 hour period.

  5. Common injuries and medical problems in singles figure skaters.

    PubMed

    Porter, Emily B

    2013-01-01

    Figure skating continues to increase in popularity as both a recreational and competitive sport. Skaters continue to "push the envelope" in perfecting more technically difficult skills. With their strenuous training programs, skaters are at risk from chronic overuse injuries, which tend to plague singles skaters more often than acute injuries. The majority of injuries occur in the lower extremities or low back. Figure skaters also are at risk for particular medical problems, such as exercise-induced bronchospasm and disordered eating. Sports Medicine physicians are sure to encounter figure skaters and their "Sports-specific problems" in their practice and should be knowledgeable about the common maladies that can plague figure skaters. This article reviews the most common injuries and medical problems in singles figure skaters. PMID:24030306

  6. CGH Figure Testing of Aspherical Mirrors in Cold Vacuums

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chambers, Victor John; Ohl, Raymond G.; Mink, Ronald G.; Arnold, Steven

    2009-01-01

    An established method of room-temperature interferometric null testing of mirrors having simple shapes (e.g., flat, spherical, or spheroidal) has been augmented to enable measurement of errors in the surface figures of off-axis, non-axisymmetric, aspherical mirrors when the mirrors are located inside cryogenic vacuum chambers. The established method involves the use of a computer-generated hologram (CGH), functionally equivalent to a traditional null lens, to modify the laser beam of an imaging interferometer to obtain a reference wavefront that matches the ideal surface figure of a mirror under test. The CGH is inserted at the appropriate position and orientation in the optical path of the imaging interferometer, which, in turn, is appropriately positioned and oriented with respect to the mirror under test. Deviations of the surface figure of the mirror from the ideal surface figure manifest themselves as interference fringes. Interferograms are recorded and analyzed to deduce figure errors.

  7. The Prediction of Success in Engineering Graphics Using the Group Embedded Figures Test and the Hidden Figures Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Russell C.; Davis, Paul D.

    1985-01-01

    A study was conducted to continue the assessment of the Group Embedded Figures Test (GEFT), to assess the value of the Hidden Figures Test (HFT), and to assess the usefulness of the two instruments used in combination as tools for predicting student success and early identification of students who may need special assistance in engineering…

  8. Mechanism and Regulation of Acetylated Histone Binding by the Tandem PHD Finger of DPF3b

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Lei; Zhang, Qiang; Li, SiDe; Plotnikov, Alexander N.; Walsh, Martin J.; Zhou, Ming-Ming

    2010-01-01

    Histone lysine acetylation and methylation are important during gene transcription in a chromatin context1,2. Our knowledge about the types of protein modules that can interact with acetyl-lysine has so far been limited to bromodomains1. Recently, a tandem PHD (plant homeodomain) finger3 (PHD12) of human DPF3b, which functions in association with the BAF chromatin remodelling complex to initiate transcription in the heart and muscle development, was reported to bind histones H3 and H4 in an acetylation sensitive manner4, making it a first alternative to bromodomains for acetyl-lysine binding5. Here, we report the structural mechanism of acetylated histone binding by the double PHD fingers of DPF3b. Our three-dimensional solution structures and biochemical analysis of DPF3b illuminate the molecular basis of the integrated tandem PHD finger, which acts as one functional unit in the sequence-specific recognition of lysine 14-acetylated histone H3 (H3K14ac). Whereas the interaction with H3 is promoted by acetylation at lysine 14, it is inhibited by methylation at lysine 4, and these opposing influences are important during transcriptional activation of DPF3b target genes Pitx2 and Jmjd1c. Binding of this tandem protein module to chromatin can thus be regulated by different histone modifications during the initiation of gene transcription. PMID:20613843

  9. Structural model of the p14/SF3b155·branch duplex complex

    PubMed Central

    Schellenberg, Matthew J.; Dul, Erin L.; MacMillan, Andrew M.

    2011-01-01

    Human p14 (SF3b14), a component of the spliceosomal U2 snRNP, interacts directly with the pre-mRNA branch adenosine within the context of the bulged duplex formed between the pre-mRNA branch region and U2 snRNA. This association occurs early in spliceosome assembly and persists within the fully assembled spliceosome. Analysis of the crystal structure of a complex containing p14 and a peptide derived from p14-associated SF3b155 combined with the results of cross-linking studies has suggested that the branch nucleotide interacts with a pocket on a non-canonical RNA binding surface formed by the complex. Here we report a structural model of the p14•bulged duplex interaction based on a combination of X-ray crystallography of an adenine p14/SF3b155 peptide complex, biochemical comparison of a panel of disulfide cross-linked protein–RNA complexes, and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). These studies reveal specific recognition of the branch adenosine within the p14 pocket and establish the orientation of the bulged duplex RNA bound on the protein surface. The intimate association of one surface of the bulged duplex with the p14/SF3b155 peptide complex described by this model buries the branch nucleotide at the interface and suggests that p14•duplex interaction must be disrupted before the first step of splicing. PMID:21062891

  10. A summary of staphylococcal C-terminal SH3b_5 cell wall binding domains.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Staphylococcal peptidoglycan hydrolases are a potential new source of antimicrobials. A large subset of these proteins contain a C-terminal SH3b_5 cell wall binding domain that has been shown for some to be essential for accurate cell wall recognition and subsequent staphylolytic activity, propert...

  11. Online / Offline reconstruction of trigger-less readout in the R3B experiment at FAIR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kresan, Dmytro; Al-Turany, Mohammad; Uhlig, Florian

    2015-12-01

    The R3B (Reactions with Rare Radioactive Beams) experiment is one of the planned experiments at the future FAIR facility at GSI Darmstadt. R3B will cover experimental reaction studies with exotic nuclei far off stability, thus enabling a broad physics program with rare-isotope beams with emphasis on nuclear structure and dynamics. Several different detection subsystems as well as sophisticated DAQ system and data-analysis software are being developed for this purpose. The data analysis software for R3B is based on FairRoot framework and called R3BRoot. R3BRoot is being used for simulation and detector design studies for the last few years. Recently, it was successfully used directly with the data acquisition and for the analysis of the R3B test beam-time in April 2014. For the future beam times the framework has to deal with the free streaming readout of the detectors. The implementation within R3BRoot to fulfil this trigger-less run mode will be discussed in this paper, as well as the set of tools developed for the online reconstruction and quality assurance of the data during the run.

  12. Uptake and effect of rare earth elements on gene expression in Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b.

    PubMed

    Gu, Wenyu; Farhan Ul Haque, Muhammad; DiSpirito, Alan A; Semrau, Jeremy D

    2016-07-01

    It is well known that Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b has two forms of methane monooxygenase (MMO) responsible for the initial conversion of methane to methanol, a cytoplasmic (soluble) methane monooxygenase and a membrane-associated (particulate) methane monooxygenase, and that copper strongly regulates expression of these alternative forms of MMO. More recently, it has been discovered that M. trichosporium OB3b has multiple types of the methanol dehydrogenase (MeDH), i.e. the Mxa-type MeDH (Mxa-MeDH) and Xox-type MeDH (Xox-MeDH), and the expression of these two forms is regulated by the availability of the rare earth element (REE), cerium. Here, we extend these studies and show that lanthanum, praseodymium, neodymium and samarium also regulate expression of alternative forms of MeDH. The effect of these REEs on MeDH expression, however, was only observed in the absence of copper. Further, a mutant of M. trichosporium OB3b, where the Mxa-MeDH was knocked out, was able to grow in the presence of lanthanum, praseodymium and neodymium, but was not able to grow in the presence of samarium. Collectively, these data suggest that multiple levels of gene regulation by metals exist in M. trichosporium OB3b, but that copper overrides the effect of other metals by an as yet unknown mechanism. PMID:27190151

  13. 17 CFR 240.3b-6 - Liability for certain statements by issuers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Liability for certain... Under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 Definitions § 240.3b-6 Liability for certain statements by... proved oil and gas reserves as set forth in paragraphs 30-34 of Statement of Financial...

  14. 16 CFR 1500.14 - Products requiring special labeling under section 3(b) of the act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Products requiring special labeling under section 3(b) of the act. 1500.14 Section 1500.14 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES AND ARTICLES; ADMINISTRATION AND ENFORCEMENT REGULATIONS § 1500.14...

  15. [Modulation of Fcgamma and C3b receptor expression by marine bioglycans in mouse splenocytes].

    PubMed

    Zaporozhets, T S

    2003-01-01

    Investigation of polysacharide immunomodulators of marine origin was performed--mitilane, alpha-1,4;1,6-D-glucane, isolated from midia Crenomytilus grayanus, and translam--beta-1,3;1,6-D-glucane isolated from marine algae Laminaria cichorioides were compared. Mechanisms of phagocytes cells activation were investigated. Dose-dependent ability of investigated bioglycanes to facilitate Fc gamma R [symbol: see text] C3bR expression at mice splenocytes was demonstrated in vivo and in vitro. The effect depended on immunomodulator type, incubation conditions, dose, period of incubation in vitro and by splenocytes population used for Fc gamma R and C3bR identification. It was shown that C3bR expression was more enhanced by immunomodulators than Fc gamma R expression. For Fc gamma R induction on lymphocytes membranes the presence of phagocytes cell (macrophages and neutrophils) is obligatory. Mitilane, containing alpha-1,4;1,6-D-glucane and some amount of protein is more effective in stimulation of membrane receptors expression than translam--beta-1,3;1,6-D-glucane. The results of investigation demonstrates the possibility to use marine bioglicanes as activators of Fc gamma R and C3bR activity, that is the base for control of pathological processes, related to immune system. PMID:12914116

  16. Ion Figuring of Replicated X-Ray Optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cantey, Thomas M.; Gregory, Don A.

    1997-01-01

    This investigation included experiments to demonstrate ion beam figuring effects on electroless nickel with the expressed desire to figure X-ray optic mandrels. It was important to establish that ion beam figuring did not induce any adverse effects to the nickel surface. The ion beam has consistently been shown to be an excellent indicator of the quality of the subsurface. Polishing is not the only cause for failure in the ion beam final figuring process, the material composition is equally important. Only by careful consideration of both these factors can the ion beam final figuring process achieve its greatest potential. The secondary goal was to construct a model for representing the ion beam material removal rate. Representing the ion beam removal rate is only an approximation and has a number of limiting factors. The resolution of the metrology apparatus limits the modeling of the beam function as well. As the surface error corrections demand more precision in the final figuring, the model representing beam function must be equally precise. The precision to which the beam function can be represented is not only determined by the model but also by the measurements producing that model. The method developed for determining the beam function has broad application to any material destined to be ion beam figured.

  17. Fast figuring of large optics by reactive atom plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castelli, Marco; Jourdain, Renaud; Morantz, Paul; Shore, Paul

    2012-09-01

    The next generation of ground-based astronomical observatories will require fabrication and maintenance of extremely large segmented mirrors tens of meters in diameter. At present, the large production of segments required by projects like E-ELT and TMT poses time frames and costs feasibility questions. This is principally due to a bottleneck stage in the optical fabrication chain: the final figuring step. State-of-the-art figure correction techniques, so far, have failed to meet the needs of the astronomical community for mass production of large, ultra-precise optical surfaces. In this context, Reactive Atom Plasma (RAP) is proposed as a candidate figuring process that combines nanometer level accuracy with high material removal rates. RAP is a form of plasma enhanced chemical etching at atmospheric pressure based on Inductively Coupled Plasma technology. The rapid figuring capability of the RAP process has already been proven on medium sized optical surfaces made of silicon based materials. In this paper, the figure correction of a 3 meters radius of curvature, 400 mm diameter spherical ULE mirror is presented. This work demonstrates the large scale figuring capability of the Reactive Atom Plasma process. The figuring is carried out by applying an in-house developed procedure that promotes rapid convergence. A 2.3 μm p-v initial figure error is removed within three iterations, for a total processing time of 2.5 hours. The same surface is then re-polished and the residual error corrected again down to λ/20 nm rms. These results highlight the possibility of figuring a metre-class mirror in about ten hours.

  18. Material removal and surface figure during pad polishing of fused silica

    SciTech Connect

    Suratwala, T I; Feit, M D; Steele, W A

    2009-05-04

    The material removal and surface figure after ceria pad polishing of fused silica glass have been measured and analyzed as a function of kinematics, loading conditions, and polishing time. Also, the friction at the workpiece/lap interface, the slope of the workpiece relative to the lap plane, and lap viscoelastic properties have been measured and correlated to material removal. The results show that the relative velocity between the workpiece & lap (determined by the kinematics) and the pressure distribution determine the spatial and temporal material removal and hence the final surface figure of the workpiece. In the case where the applied loading and relative velocity distribution over the workpiece are spatially uniform, a significant non-uniform spatial material removal from the workpiece surface is observed. This is due to a non-uniform pressure distribution resulting from: (1) a moment caused by a pivot point and interface friction forces; (2) viscoelastic relaxation of the polyurethane lap; and (3) a physical workpiece/lap interface mismatch. Both the kinematics and these contributions to the pressure distribution are quantitatively described, and then combined to form a spatial and temporal Preston model & code for material removal (called Surface Figure or SurF{copyright}). The surface figure simulations are consistent with the experiment for a wide variety of polishing conditions. This study is an important step towards deterministic full-aperture polishing, which would allow optical glass fabrication to be performed in a more repeatable, less iterative, and hence more economical manner.

  19. Physicochemical characterization of C3b receptors isolated from human erythrocytes by immunoprecipitation.

    PubMed Central

    Gerdes, J; Stein, H

    1980-01-01

    A high yield of active C3b receptors was obtained by solubilizing human erythrocyte membranes with 2 M KBr, whereas other solubilization agents yielded no, or significantly less activity. Gel filtration of the KBr lysates revealed that the apparent molecular wieght of biologically active C3b receptor molecules was greater than 1 x 10(6). Immunoprecipitates prepared with radio-iodinated KBr lysates and anti-C3 receptor sera (AC3RS) were subjected to sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) or sodium dodecyl gel filtration. Unreduced SDS-PAGE and gel filtration profiles showed three predominant peaks with apparent mol. wts of 1--1.3 x 10(6), 80,000 and 60,000. Whereas the high mol. wt component decreased only slightly after reduction, the 80,000 and 60,000 mol. wt components disappeared and two new peaks with apparent mol. wts of 38,000 and 18,000 appeared in SDS-PAGE profiles. Although the high mol. wt component present in reduced SDS-PAGE profiles was detectable in some of the control experiments, none of the other peaks could be precipitated with control sera, and these components could be demonstrated only when KBr lysates of C3b receptor-positive erythrocytes and AC3RS that were able to inhibit ligand binding of the C3b receptors were used for precipitation. These findings suggest that (a) the C3b receptor of human erythrocytes in its biologically active state is a macromolecule with an apparent mol. wt higher than 1 x 10(6) and (b) the protein moiety consists predominantly of non-covalently linked protein molecules with apparent mol wts of 80,000 and 60,000. These protein molecules are composed of disulphide-bridged polypeptide chains with apparent mol. wts of 38,000 and 18,000. PMID:7461716

  20. Complement Evasion by Borrelia burgdorferi: Serum-Resistant Strains Promote C3b Inactivation

    PubMed Central

    Alitalo, Antti; Meri, Taru; Rämö, Lasse; Jokiranta, T. Sakari; Heikkilä, Tero; Seppälä, Ilkka J. T.; Oksi, Jarmo; Viljanen, Matti; Meri, Seppo

    2001-01-01

    The most characteristic features of the Lyme disease pathogens, the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) group, are their ability to invade tissues and to circumvent the immune defenses of the host for extended periods of time, despite elevated levels of borrelia-specific antibodies in serum and other body fluids. Our aim in the present study was to determine whether B. burgdorferi is able to interfere with complement (C) at the level of C3 by accelerating C3b inactivation and thus to inhibit the amplification of the C cascade. Strains belonging to different genospecies (Borrelia garinii, B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, and Borrelia afzelii) were compared for their sensitivities to normal human serum and abilities to promote factor I-mediated C3b degradation. B. burgdorferi sensu stricto and B. afzelii strains were found to be serum resistant. When the spirochetes were incubated with radiolabeled C3b, factor I-mediated degradation of C3b was observed in the presence of C-resistant B. afzelii (n = 3) and B. burgdorferi sensu stricto (n = 1) strains but not in the presence of C-sensitive B. garinii (n = 7) strains or control bacteria (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Enterococcus faecalis). Immunoblotting and radioligand binding analyses showed that the C-resistant strains had the capacity to acquire the C inhibitors factor H and factor H-like protein 1 (FHL-1) from growth medium and human serum. A novel surface protein with an apparent molecular mass of 35 kDa was found to preferentially bind to the N terminus region of factor H. Thus, the serum-resistant B. burgdorferi s.l. strains can circumvent C attack by binding the C inhibitors factor H and FHL-1 to their surfaces and promoting factor I-mediated C3b degradation. PMID:11349031

  1. The Metal Centers of Particulate Methane Monooxygenase from Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b

    SciTech Connect

    Hakemian,A.; Kondapalli, K.; Telser, J.; Hoffman, B.; Stemmler, T.; Rosenzweig, A.

    2008-01-01

    Particulate methane monooxygenase (pMMO) is a membrane-bound metalloenzyme that oxidizes methane to methanol in methanotrophic bacteria. The nature of the pMMO active site and the overall metal content are controversial, with spectroscopic and crystallographic data suggesting the presence of a mononuclear copper center, a dinuclear copper center, a trinuclear center, and a diiron center or combinations thereof. Most studies have focused on pMMO from Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath). pMMO from a second organism, Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b, has been purified and characterized by spectroscopic and crystallographic methods. Purified M. trichosporium OB3b pMMO contains 2 copper ions per 100 kDa protomer. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopic parameters indicate that type 2 Cu(II) is present as two distinct species. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) data are best fit with oxygen/nitrogen ligands and reveal a Cu-Cu interaction at 2.52 Angstroms. Correspondingly, X-ray crystallography of M. trichosporium OB3b pMMO shows a dinuclear copper center, similar to that observed previously in the crystal structure of M. capsulatus (Bath) pMMO. There are, however, significant differences between the pMMO structures from the two organisms. A mononuclear copper center present in M. capsulatus (Bath) pMMO is absent in M. trichosporium OB3b pMMO, whereas a metal center occupied by zinc in the M. capsulatus (Bath) pMMO structure is occupied by copper in M. trichosporium OB3b pMMO. These findings extend previous work on pMMO from M. capsulatus (Bath) and provide new insight into the functional importance of the different metal centers.

  2. The metal centers of particulate methane monooxygenase from Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b.

    PubMed

    Hakemian, Amanda S; Kondapalli, Kalyan C; Telser, Joshua; Hoffman, Brian M; Stemmler, Timothy L; Rosenzweig, Amy C

    2008-07-01

    Particulate methane monooxygenase (pMMO) is a membrane-bound metalloenzyme that oxidizes methane to methanol in methanotrophic bacteria. The nature of the pMMO active site and the overall metal content are controversial, with spectroscopic and crystallographic data suggesting the presence of a mononuclear copper center, a dinuclear copper center, a trinuclear center, and a diiron center or combinations thereof. Most studies have focused on pMMO from Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath). pMMO from a second organism, Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b, has been purified and characterized by spectroscopic and crystallographic methods. Purified M. trichosporium OB3b pMMO contains approximately 2 copper ions per 100 kDa protomer. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopic parameters indicate that type 2 Cu(II) is present as two distinct species. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) data are best fit with oxygen/nitrogen ligands and reveal a Cu-Cu interaction at 2.52 A. Correspondingly, X-ray crystallography of M. trichosporium OB3b pMMO shows a dinuclear copper center, similar to that observed previously in the crystal structure of M. capsulatus (Bath) pMMO. There are, however, significant differences between the pMMO structures from the two organisms. A mononuclear copper center present in M. capsulatus (Bath) pMMO is absent in M. trichosporium OB3b pMMO, whereas a metal center occupied by zinc in the M. capsulatus (Bath) pMMO structure is occupied by copper in M. trichosporium OB3b pMMO. These findings extend previous work on pMMO from M. capsulatus (Bath) and provide new insight into the functional importance of the different metal centers. PMID:18540635

  3. Tracking the elusive effect of the Mueller-Lyer figure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, Anthony Wayne

    The perceptual scaling of extent for an arrows-only Muller-Lyer figure is examined from the theoretical framework of Intentional Dynamics. This framework defines effects that goal constraints have on a perceiving-acting cycle within an event perception explanation of this century-old problem. The classic strain effect and a novel rotational effect are proposed as arising from an ecology of a pair of dual constraints: the light and figure plus the perceptual system and muscle-control system. This ecology is assumed to function successfully under the soft constraint of an intention. This approach unifies and extends past research through modeling with finite element methods the light field for which the figure serves as boundary conditions. Participant data significantly matched the strain and rotational effects as predicted by the light field model. The experimental apparatus permitted participants to see a black figure on a computer screen's white background and to track and report perceptions with mouse movements. Experiments included static (presented in ordered and random sequences) and dynamically moving figure layouts. In the first sub-set of Experiment Set I, participants controlled the length of a report bar to "fit the gap" between the figure's vertices. For the second sub-set, independent and dependent variables were swapped; participants controlled the figure's angle magnitude so that the gap between vertices matched the length of a presented report bar. The intention remained to "fit the gap." In Experiment Set II, participants adjusted a Muller-Lyer figure about its midpoint to report whether a rotational effect occurred. The figure contained asymmetrical phase relations among its fins. The experimental intention was to "keep the figure horizontal." Experiments elicited expected Muller-Lyer effects (strain or rotation) with no significant difference among presentation methods such that the light field's event trace generatively specified the effect

  4. Figuring technology of nonaxisymmetric errors with a spiral path.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Changjun; Li, Shengyi; Xie, Xuhui

    2009-08-01

    Figuring technology of nonaxisymmetric errors using a spiral path is presented. Based on an approximation of a removal function, a finite-field nonlinear model is deduced from the computer-controlled optics shaping principle. We then present a modified Richardson-Lucy iterative algorithm to deconvolute the dwell time. With a velocity realization method for dwell time on a spiral path, the figuring technology comes into being. Simulations are made to validate these algorithms. Theoretical and simulation studies demonstrate that the figuring technology is a novel method for inexpensive fabrication of precision mirrors. PMID:19649028

  5. Breath Figure Method for Construction of Honeycomb Films

    PubMed Central

    Dou, Yingying; Jin, Mingliang; Zhou, Guofu; Shui, Lingling

    2015-01-01

    Honeycomb films with various building units, showing potential applications in biological, medical, physicochemical, photoelectric, and many other areas, could be prepared by the breath figure method. The ordered hexagonal structures formed by the breath figure process are related to the building units, solvents, substrates, temperature, humidity, air flow, and other factors. Therefore, by adjusting these factors, the honeycomb structures could be tuned properly. In this review, we summarized the development of the breath figure method of fabricating honeycomb films and the factors of adjusting honeycomb structures. The organic-inorganic hybrid was taken as the example building unit to discuss the preparation, mechanism, properties, and applications of the honeycomb films. PMID:26343734

  6. Thermoelectric figure of merit of strongly correlated superlattice semiconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Mao, W.; Bedell, K.S.

    1999-06-01

    The Anderson lattice Hamiltonian was solved using the slave-boson mean-field approximation to get the energy bands of a strongly correlated semiconductor. The transport properties were calculated in the relaxation-time approximation, and the thermoelectric figure of merit was obtained for the strongly correlated semiconductor and a variety of superlattice structures. We found that at room temperature the dimensionless quantity ZT, thermoelectric figure of merit multiplied by temperature, can reach nearly 1.4 for a quantum wire lattice structure. We believe that it may be possible to find high values of the figure of merit for strongly correlated superlattice semiconductors. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital The American Physical Society}

  7. CXCR3A contributes to the invasion and metastasis of gastric cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chenggang; Zheng, Wanlei; Du, Wenfeng

    2016-09-01

    CXCR3, belonging to CXC chemokine receptors, has been identified to be overexpressed in various kinds of tumors. There are three mRNA variants of CXCR3 (CXCR3A, CXCR3B and CXCR3alt) in human cells. The functions of major CXCR3 isoforms (CXCR3A, CXCR3B) have been reported in some tumors including prostate and breast cancer. However, the effects of CXCR3A and CXCR3B on gastric cancer cell progression remain unknown. The present investigation found that CXCR3A mRNA level was upregulated but CXCR3B mRNA level was downregulated in gastric cancer cells and tissues. In vitro growth analysis showed that CXCR3A acted as a positive mediator in regulating cell growth, whereas CXCR3B exerted the opposite effect. In vitro invasion and migration assays showed that CXCL10 promoted gastric cancer cell invasion and migration via CXCR3A, but not CXCR3B. Moreover, knockdown of CXCR3A inhibited cell growth and metastasis in vivo. Additionally, CXCR3A knockdown attenuated matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)‑13 and IL‑6 expression, and reduced ERK1/2 activation. Together, these data suggest that CXCR3A contributes to the growth, invasion and metastasis of gastric cancer cells in vitro and in vivo, and thus may be a key mediator of gastric cancer progression. PMID:27461521

  8. 13. WEST ELEVATION, POWERHOUSE, WITH FIGURES AND AUTOMOBILES Historic photograph ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. WEST ELEVATION, POWERHOUSE, WITH FIGURES AND AUTOMOBILES Historic photograph no. 1646, no date, held at Media Arts and Services Department, Pacific Gas & Electric Co., San Francisco, CA. - Centerville Hydroelectric System, Powerhouse, Butte Creek, Centerville, Butte County, CA

  9. Surface Figure Measurement of Silicon Carbide Mirrors at Cryogenic Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blake, Peter; Mink, Ronald G.; Chambers, John; Robinson, F. David; Content, David; Davila, Pamela

    2005-01-01

    The surface figure of a developmental silicon carbide mirror, cooled to 87 K and then 20 K within a cryostat, was measured with unusually high precision at the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The concave spherical mirror, with a radius of 600 mm and a clear aperture of 150 mm, was fabricated of sintered silicon carbide. The mirror was mounted to an interface plate representative of an optical bench, made of the material Cesic@, a composite of silicon, carbon, and silicon carbide. The change in optical surface figure as the mirror and interface plate cooled from room temperature to 20 K was 3.7 nm rms, with a standard uncertainty of 0.23 nm in the rms statistic. Both the cryo-change figure and the uncertainty are among the lowest such figures yet published. This report describes the facilities, experimental methods, and uncertainty analysis of the measurements.

  10. A new figure of merit for wideband vibration energy harvesters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, W. Q.; Badel, A.; Formosa, F.; Wu, Y. P.

    2015-12-01

    The performance evaluation method is a very important part in the field of vibration energy harvesting. It provides the ability to compare and rate different vibration energy harvesters (VEHs). Considering the lack of a well-recognized tool, this article proposed a new systematic figure of merit for the appraisement of wideband VEHs. Extensive investigations are first performed for some classic figures for linear VEHs. With the common fundamental information obtained, the proposed figure integrates four essential factors: the revised energy harvester effectiveness, the mechanical quality factor, the normalized bandwidth and the effective mass density. Special considerations are devoted to the properties of wideband VEHs about the operation range and the average power in this domain which are related to the performance target of stable power output. Afterward, this new figure is applied to some literature VEHs and demonstrated to present good evaluations of wideband VEHs. Moreover, it exhibits the ability to point out the improvement information of the concerned VEHs further developments.

  11. 51. photocopy of Indian figure which later was mounted on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    51. photocopy of Indian figure which later was mounted on Tower. Photograph taken at Tacony Iron and Metal Co. works, c. 1892. PCA - The New Public Buildings, Penn Square, Broad & Market Streets, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  12. Self-Esteem and Children's Human Figure Drawings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalby, J. Thomas; Vale, Helen L.

    1977-01-01

    One hundred and fifteen students in Grade 5 made human figure drawings which were compared with their scores on the Coopersmith Self-esteem Inventory and on teachers' ratings of the students' self-esteem. (Author)

  13. The concave cusp as a determiner of figure-ground.

    PubMed

    Stevens, K A; Brookes, A

    1988-01-01

    The tendency to interpret as figure, relative to background, those regions that are lighter, smaller, and, especially, more convex is well known. Wherever convex opaque objects abut or partially occlude one another in an image, the points of contact between the silhouettes form concave cusps, each indicating the local assignment of figure versus ground across the contour segments. It is proposed that this local geometric feature is a preattentive determiner of figure-ground perception and that it contributes to the previously observed tendency for convexity preference. Evidence is presented that figure-ground assignment can be determined solely on the basis of the concave cusp feature, and that the salience of the cusp derives from local geometry and not from adjacent contour convexity. PMID:3205668

  14. High-precision Photogrammetric Surface Figure Measurements under Cryogenic Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lou, Z.; Qian, Y.; Fan, S. H.; Liu, C. R.; Wang, H. R.; Zuo, Y. X.; Cheng, J. Q.; Yang, J.

    2016-01-01

    Limited by the working temperature of the measurement equipments, most of the high-precision surface figure measurement techniques cannot be applied under a cryogenic environment. This paper reports the first attempt to measure the surface figure of a high-precision terahertz reflector panel under low temperatures based on photogrammetry. The measurement employs a high resolution industrial camera sitting on an automatic experimental platform which enables photos been taken in an automatic fashion inside a climate chamber. A repeatable accuracy of 2.1 μm rms is achieved under the cryogenic environment. Furthermore, surface figure measured by a three-coordinate measuring machine under room temperature is used to calibrate the thickness variation of the paper targets. By this technique, the surface figure of an aluminum prototype panel of the 5 meter Dome A Terahertz Telescope (DATE5) is measured from room temperature down to -55°C.

  15. Figuring out the Statistics of the ICC World Cup 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shiwalkar, Jyoti P.; Deshpande, M. N.

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with the analysis of cricket match results from the ICC World Cup 2011. We believe that such data provide good material for interesting classroom exercises. (Contains 7 tables and 1 figure.)

  16. The new silver borate Ag{sub 3}B{sub 5}O{sub 9}

    SciTech Connect

    Sohr, Gerhard; Falkowski, Viktoria; Huppertz, Hubert

    2015-05-15

    Single crystals of Ag{sub 3}B{sub 5}O{sub 9} were obtained via high-pressure synthesis at 3 GPa and 600 °C, using a Walker-type multianvil high-pressure device. Ag{sub 3}B{sub 5}O{sub 9} crystalizes with a=674.7(2), b=943.5(2), c=1103.5(2) pm, V=0.7025(2) nm{sup 3}, and Z=4 in the noncentrosymmetric space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1} (no. 19). The orthorhombic structure was refined from 3740 independent reflections with R1=0.0496 and wR2=0.587 (all data). It is built up from infinite corner-sharing chains of BO{sub 4} tetrahedra along the a axis, which are interconnected by BO{sub 3} groups to form a network. In the structure, three crystallographically independent sites are occupied with Ag{sup +} cations exhibiting argentophillic interactions. The synthetic conditions as well as the results of the single crystal structure analysis are presented. - Graphical abstract: Noncentrosymmetric silver borate: During investigations in the system Ag–B–O, a new noncentrosymmetric silver borate Ag{sub 3}B{sub 5}O{sub 9} was discovered. The new structure type is built up from corner-sharing BO{sub 3} and BO{sub 4} groups, forming a network. Argentophillic interactions are clearly indicated by the Ag{sup +}⋯Ag{sup +} distances present in the structure. - Highlights: • A noncentrosymmetric borate Ag{sub 3}B{sub 5}O{sub 9} is accessible via high-pressure synthesis. • Ag{sub 3}B{sub 5}O{sub 9} is the second high-pressure silver borate. • Ag{sup +}⋯Ag{sup +} distances in Ag3B5O9 clearly indicate the presence of argentophillic interactions.

  17. THERMAL EMISSION AND TIDAL HEATING OF THE HEAVY AND ECCENTRIC PLANET XO-3b

    SciTech Connect

    Machalek, Pavel; Greene, Tom; McCullough, Peter R.; Burrows, Adam; Burke, Christopher J.; Hora, Joseph L.; Johns-Krull, Christopher M.; Deming, Drake L.

    2010-03-01

    We determined the flux ratios of the heavy and eccentric planet XO-3b to its parent star in the four Infrared Array Camera bands of the Spitzer Space Telescope: 0.101% +- 0.004% at 3.6 {mu}m; 0.143% +- 0.006% at 4.5 {mu}m; 0.134% +- 0.049% at 5.8 {mu}m; and 0.150% +- 0.036% at 8.0 {mu}m. The flux ratios are within [-2.2, 0.3, -0.8, and -1.7]sigma of the model of XO-3b with a thermally inverted stratosphere in the 3.6 {mu}m, 4.5 {mu}m, 5.8 {mu}m, and 8.0 {mu}m channels, respectively. XO-3b has a high illumination from its parent star (F{sub p} {approx} (1.9-4.2) x 10{sup 9} erg cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}) and is thus expected to have a thermal inversion, which we indeed observe. When combined with existing data for other planets, the correlation between the presence of an atmospheric temperature inversion and the substellar flux is insufficient to explain why some high insolation planets like TrES-3 do not have stratospheric inversions and some low insolation planets like XO-1b do have inversions. Secondary factors such as sulfur chemistry, atmospheric metallicity, amounts of macroscopic mixing in the stratosphere, or even dynamical weather effects likely play a role. Using the secondary eclipse timing centroids, we determined the orbital eccentricity of XO-3b as e = 0.277 +- 0.009. The model radius-age trajectories for XO-3b imply that at least some amount of tidal heating is required to inflate the radius of XO-3b, and the tidal heating parameter of the planet is constrained to Q{sub p} {approx}< 10{sup 6}.

  18. 40 CFR Appendix B to Subpart E of... - Figures

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Figures B Appendix B to Subpart E of Part 91 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED..., App. B Appendix B to Subpart E of Part 91—Figures ER04OC96.044 ER04OC96.045 ER04OC96.046...

  19. 40 CFR Appendix B to Subpart E of... - Figures

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Figures B Appendix B to Subpart E of Part 91 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED..., App. B Appendix B to Subpart E of Part 91—Figures ER04OC96.044 ER04OC96.045 ER04OC96.046...

  20. 49 CFR Appendix A to Subpart V of... - Figures

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Figures A Appendix A to Subpart V of Part 572... Dummy, Small Adult Female Instrumentation and test conditions. Pt. 572, Subpt. V, App. A Appendix A to Subpart V of Part572—Figures ER14DE06.009 ER14DE06.010 ER14DE06.011 ER14DE06.012 ER14DE06.013...

  1. 49 CFR Appendix A to Subpart V of... - Figures

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Figures A Appendix A to Subpart V of Part 572... Dummy, Small Adult Female Instrumentation and test conditions. Pt. 572, Subpt. V, App. A Appendix A to Subpart V of Part 572—Figures ER14DE06.009 ER14DE06.010 ER14DE06.011 ER14DE06.012 ER14DE06.013...

  2. 49 CFR Appendix A to Subpart V of... - Figures

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Figures A Appendix A to Subpart V of Part 572... Dummy, Small Adult Female Instrumentation and test conditions. Pt. 572, Subpt. V, App. A Appendix A to Subpart V of Part 572—Figures ER14DE06.009 ER14DE06.010 ER14DE06.011 ER14DE06.012 ER14DE06.013...

  3. 49 CFR Appendix A to Subpart U of... - Figures

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Figures A Appendix A to Subpart U of Part 572... Dummy, 50th Percentile Adult Male Instrumentation and test conditions. Pt. 572, Subpt. U, App. A Appendix A to Subpart U of Part 572—Figures ER14DE06.000 ER16JN08.006 ER14DE06.002 ER14DE06.003...

  4. Support Of The Lunar Fossil Figure By The Elastic Lithosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuyama, Isamu

    2010-10-01

    The figure of the Moon is triaxial, with three different principal moments of inertia, as expected. However, the moment differences are significantly larger than those predicted assuming hydrostatic equilibrium. This has been explained as due to a fossil bulge that retains a figure for prior rotational and tidal deformation, at a time when the Moon was closer to Earth (Jeffeys, 1915; Lambeck & Pullan, 1980; Garrick-Bethell et al.,2006). Garrick-Bethell et al. (2006) illustrated that a fossil figure can entirely account for the moment differences if it is established at a time when the orbital eccentricity was high. They approximate the Moon as a strengthless homogeneous body; however, a strengthless Moon cannot support a fossil figure over billions of years. We extend the analysis of Garrick-Bethell et al. (2006) by taking into the presence of an elastic lithosphere capable of supporting a fossil figure. The fossil figure is established when the elastic lithosphere forms. For a 50 km thick elastic lithosphere, the moment differences can be explained by a lunar orbit with an initial semimajor axis a=17.1 Earth radii and eccentricity e=0.49 if the Moon remains locked in synchronous rotation. If the fossil figure is established during a 3:2 spin-orbit resonance, a=18.1 Earth radii and e=0.16, or a=20.0 Earth radii and e=0.60. The initial semimajor axis decreases with decreasing elastic lithospheric thickness, as expected. The initial orbital eccentricity is not sensitive to the elastic lithospheric thickness. As Lambeck & Pullan (1980) noted, it is unlikely that the moment differences are due to a fossil figure alone. Therefore, we also consider the effect of including other contributions to the moment differences. This work is supported by the Miller Institute for Basic Research.

  5. Support of the lunar fossil figure by the elastic lithosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuyama, I.

    2010-12-01

    The figure of the Moon is triaxial, with three different principal moments of inertia, as expected. However, the moment differences are significantly larger than those predicted assuming hydrostatic equilibrium. This has been explained as due to a fossil bulge that retains a figure for prior rotational and tidal deformation, at a time when the Moon was closer to Earth (Jeffeys, 1915; Lambeck & Pullan, 1980; Garrick-Bethell et al.,2006). Garrick-Bethell et al. (2006) illustrated that a fossil figure can entirely account for the moment differences if it is established at a time when the orbital eccentricity was high. They approximate the Moon as a strengthless homogeneous body; however, a strengthless Moon cannot support a fossil figure over billions of years. We extend the analysis of Garrick-Bethell et al. (2006) by taking into the presence of an elastic lithosphere capable of supporting a fossil figure. The fossil figure is established when the elastic lithosphere forms. For a 50 km thick elastic lithosphere, the moment differences can be explained by a lunar orbit with an initial semimajor axis a=17.1 Earth radii and eccentricity e=0.49 if the Moon remains locked in synchronous rotation. If the fossil figure is established during a 3:2 spin-orbit resonance, a=18.1 Earth radii and e=0.16, or a=20.0 Earth radii and e=0.60. The initial semimajor axis decreases with decreasing elastic lithospheric thickness, as expected. The initial orbital eccentricity is not sensitive to the elastic lithospheric thickness. As Lambeck & Pullan (1980) noted, it is unlikely that the moment differences are due to a fossil figure alone. Therefore, we also consider the effect of including other contributions to the moment differences. This work is supported by the Miller Institute for Basic Research.

  6. Precise method for investigation of Lissajous generalized figures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bednarek, Stanisław

    2014-07-01

    This article describes the Lissajous generalized figure and the original instrument for its investigation. Two specially prepared electrodynamic loudspeakers—a horizontal and a vertical—cause oscillations in two mirrors. It is possible to precisely control the motion of the mirrors, achieve a high frequency of oscillation and investigate anharmonic vibrations because loudspeakers are powered by electronic generators. Eccentric mounting, and rotation of a vertical loudspeaker, also allow composition of the oscillations in inclined directions, which generates Lissajous’ generalized figures.

  7. HTR3B is associated with alcoholism with antisocial behavior and alpha EEG power—an intermediate phenotype for alcoholism and co-morbid behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Ducci, Francesca; Enoch, Mary-Anne; Yuan, Qiaoping; Shen, Pei-Hong; White, Kenneth V.; Hodgkinson, Colin; Albaugh, Bernard; Virkkunen, Matti; Goldman, David

    2009-01-01

    Alcohol use disorders (AUD) with co-morbid antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) have been associated with serotonin (5-HT) dysfunction. 5-HT3 receptors are potentiated by ethanol and appear to modulate reward. 5-HT3 receptor antagonists may be useful in the treatment of early-onset alcoholics with co-morbid ASPD. Low-voltage alpha electroencephalogram (EEG) power, a highly heritable trait, has been associated with both AUD and ASPD. A recent whole genome linkage scan in one of our samples, Plains American Indians (PI), has shown a suggestive linkage peak for alpha power at the 5-HT3R locus. We tested whether genetic variation within the HTR3A and HTR3B genes influences vulnerability to AUD with comorbid ASPD (AUD + ASPD) and moderates alpha power. Our study included three samples: 284 criminal alcoholic Finnish Caucasians and 234 controls; two independent community-ascertained samples with resting EEG recordings: a predominantly Caucasian sample of 191 individuals (Bethesda) and 306 PI. In the Finns, an intronic HTR3B SNP rs3782025 was associated with AUD + ASPD (P = .004). In the Bethesda sample, the same allele predicted lower alpha power (P = 7.37e-5). Associations between alpha power and two other HTR3B SNPs were also observed among PI (P = .03). One haplotype in the haplotype block at the 3′ region of the gene that included rs3782025 was associated with AUD + ASPD in the Finns (P = .02) and with reduced alpha power in the Bethesda population (P = .00009). Another haplotype in this block was associated with alpha power among PI (P = .03). No associations were found for HTR3A. Genetic variation within HTR3B may influence vulnerability to develop AUD with comorbid ASPD. 5-HT3R might contribute to the imbalance between excitation and inhibition that characterize the brain of alcoholics. PMID:19185213

  8. HTR3B is associated with alcoholism with antisocial behavior and alpha EEG power--an intermediate phenotype for alcoholism and co-morbid behaviors.

    PubMed

    Ducci, Francesca; Enoch, Mary-Anne; Yuan, Qiaoping; Shen, Pei-Hong; White, Kenneth V; Hodgkinson, Colin; Albaugh, Bernard; Virkkunen, Matti; Goldman, David

    2009-02-01

    Alcohol use disorders (AUD) with co-morbid antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) have been associated with serotonin (5-HT) dysfunction. 5-HT3 receptors are potentiated by ethanol and appear to modulate reward. 5-HT3 receptor antagonists may be useful in the treatment of early-onset alcoholics with co-morbid ASPD. Low-voltage alpha electroencephalogram (EEG) power, a highly heritable trait, has been associated with both AUD and ASPD. A recent whole genome linkage scan in one of our samples, Plains American Indians (PI), has shown a suggestive linkage peak for alpha power at the 5-HT3R locus. We tested whether genetic variation within the HTR3A and HTR3B genes influences vulnerability to AUD with comorbid ASPD (AUD+ASPD) and moderates alpha power. Our study included three samples: 284 criminal alcoholic Finnish Caucasians and 234 controls; two independent community-ascertained samples with resting EEG recordings: a predominantly Caucasian sample of 191 individuals (Bethesda) and 306 PI. In the Finns, an intronic HTR3B SNP rs3782025 was associated with AUD+ASPD (P=.004). In the Bethesda sample, the same allele predicted lower alpha power (P=7.37e(-5)). Associations between alpha power and two other HTR3B SNPs were also observed among PI (P=.03). One haplotype in the haplotype block at the 3' region of the gene that included rs3782025 was associated with AUD+ASPD in the Finns (P=.02) and with reduced alpha power in the Bethesda population (P=.00009). Another haplotype in this block was associated with alpha power among PI (P=.03). No associations were found for HTR3A. Genetic variation within HTR3B may influence vulnerability to develop AUD with comorbid ASPD. 5-HT3R might contribute to the imbalance between excitation and inhibition that characterize the brain of alcoholics. PMID:19185213

  9. Local figure-ground cues are valid for natural images.

    PubMed

    Fowlkes, Charless C; Martin, David R; Malik, Jitendra

    2007-01-01

    Figure-ground organization refers to the visual perception that a contour separating two regions belongs to one of the regions. Recent studies have found neural correlates of figure-ground assignment in V2 as early as 10-25 ms after response onset, providing strong support for the role of local bottom-up processing. How much information about figure-ground assignment is available from locally computed cues? Using a large collection of natural images, in which neighboring regions were assigned a figure-ground relation by human observers, we quantified the extent to which figural regions locally tend to be smaller, more convex, and lie below ground regions. Our results suggest that these Gestalt cues are ecologically valid, and we quantify their relative power. We have also developed a simple bottom-up computational model of figure-ground assignment that takes image contours as input. Using parameters fit to natural image statistics, the model is capable of matching human-level performance when scene context limited. PMID:17685809

  10. Noise figure characterization of preamplifiers at NMR frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nordmeyer-Massner, J. A.; De Zanche, N.; Pruessmann, K. P.

    2011-05-01

    A method for characterizing the noise figure of preamplifiers at NMR frequencies is presented. The noise figure of preamplifiers as used for NMR and MRI detection varies with source impedance and with the operating frequency. Therefore, to characterize a preamplifier's noise behavior, it is necessary to perform noise measurements at the targeted frequency while varying the source impedance with high accuracy. At high radiofrequencies, such impedance variation is typically achieved with transmission-line tuners, which however are not available for the relatively low range of typical NMR frequencies. To solve this issue, this work describes an alternative approach that relies on lumped-element circuits for impedance manipulation. It is shown that, using a fixed-impedance noise source and suitable ENR correction, this approach permits noise figure characterization for NMR and MRI purposes. The method is demonstrated for two preamplifiers, a generic BF998 MOSFET module and an MRI-dedicated, integrated preamplifier, which were both studied at 128 MHz, i.e., at the Larmor frequency of protons at 3 Tesla. Variations in noise figure of 0.01 dB or less over repeated measurements reflect high precision even for small noise figures in the order of 0.4 dB. For validation, large sets of measured noise figure values are shown to be consistent with the general noise-parameter model of linear two-ports. Finally, the measured noise characteristics of the superior preamplifier are illustrated by SNR measurements in MRI data.

  11. Crystal structure of DPF3b in complex with an acetylated histone peptide.

    PubMed

    Li, Weiguo; Zhao, Anthony; Tempel, Wolfram; Loppnau, Peter; Liu, Yanli

    2016-09-01

    Histone acetylation plays an important role in chromatin dynamics and is associated with active gene transcription. This modification is written by acetyltransferases, erased by histone deacetylases and read out by bromodomain containing proteins, and others such as tandem PHD fingers of DPF3b. Here we report the high resolution crystal structure of the tandem PHD fingers of DPF3b in complex with an H3K14ac peptide. In the complex structure, the histone peptide adopts an α-helical conformation, unlike previously observed by NMR, but similar to a previously reported MOZ-H3K14ac complex structure. Our crystal structure adds to existing evidence that points to the α-helix as a natural conformation of histone tails as they interact with histone-associated proteins. PMID:27402533

  12. Dieckol, isolated from Ecklonia stolonifera, induces apoptosis in human hepatocellular carcinoma Hep3B cells.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Jin-Soo; Kasin Yadunandam, Anandam; Kim, Soon-Jin; Woo, Hee-Chul; Kim, Hyeung-Rak; Kim, Gun-Do

    2013-07-01

    Phlorotannins have been reported to demonstrate several biological properties, including antioxidant activity, and activities useful in the treatment of diabetic complications and in chemoprevention of several vascular diseases. In this study, we focused on the apoptosis induced by dieckol, a marine algal phlorotannin isolated from Ecklonia stolonifera, on human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) Hep3B cells. Dieckol reduced the numbers of viable cells and increased the numbers of apoptotic cells in a dose-dependent manner. Immunoblotting analysis revealed that dieckol increased the expression levels of cleaved caspases-3, 7, 8, and 9, and cleaved poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase. Dieckol increased the permeability of mitochondrial membranes and the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria into the cytosol with apoptosis-inducing factor. In addition, dieckol induced increased expression of truncated Bid and Bim. The results indicate that dieckol induces apoptosis via the activation of both death receptor and mitochondrial-dependent pathways in HCC Hep3B cells. PMID:23054486

  13. A new and convenient synthetic way to 2-substituted thieno[2,3-b]indoles

    PubMed Central

    Karmatsky, Arseny A; Rusinov, Gennady L; Charushin, Valery N

    2015-01-01

    Summary A short and robust approach for the synthesis of 2-(hetero)aryl substituted thieno[2,3-b]indoles from easily available 1-alkylisatins and acetylated (hetero)arenes has been advanced. The two-step procedure includes the “aldol-crotonic” type of condensation of the starting materials, followed by treatment of the intermediate 3-(2-oxo-2-(hetero)arylethylidene)indolin-2-ones with Lawesson’s reagent. The latter process involves two sequential reactions, namely reduction of the C=C ethylidene double bond of the intermediate indolin-2-ones followed by the Paal–Knorr cyclization, thus affording tricyclic thieno[2,3-b]indoles. PMID:26199654

  14. Batch conversion of methane to methanol using Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b as biocatalyst.

    PubMed

    Hwang, In Yeub; Hur, Dong Hoon; Lee, Jae Hoon; Park, Chang-Ho; Chang, In Seop; Lee, Jin Won; Lee, Eun Yeol

    2015-03-01

    Recently, methane has attracted much attention as an alternative carbon feedstock since it is the major component of abundant shale and natural gas. In this work, we produced methanol from methane using whole cells of Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b as the biocatalyst. M. trichosporium OB3b was cultured on NMS medium with a supply of 7:3 air/methane ratio at 30°C. The optimal concentrations of various methanol dehydrogenase inhibitors such as potassium phosphate and EDTA were determined to be 100 and 0.5 mM, respectively, for an efficient production of methanol. Sodium formate (40 mM) as a reducing power source was added to enhance the conversion efficiency. A productivity of 49.0 mg/l·h, titer of 0.393 g methanol/l, and conversion of 73.8% (mol methanol/mol methane) were obtained under the optimized batch condition. PMID:25563419

  15. Rodriguez syndrome with SF3B4 mutation: a severe form of Nager syndrome?

    PubMed

    McPherson, Elizabeth; Zaleski, Christina; Ye, Zhan; Lin, Simon

    2014-07-01

    We report on the findings of a novel heterozygous de novo SF3B4 mutation in a long-surviving patient with clinical features of Rodriguez syndrome including severe acrofacial dysostosis, phocomelia with pre- and post-axial limb defects, fibular agenesis, rib, and shoulder girdle anomalies. Since SF3B4 mutations have been recently associated with Nager syndrome, this suggests that at least some cases of Rodriguez syndrome are either allelic to or represent unusually severe manifestations of Nager syndrome. Although clinical overlap is obvious, this is somewhat surprising given the presumed autosomal recessive inheritance of Rodriguez syndrome. Investigation of other Rodriguez syndrome patients is needed to clarify the genetic mechanism and possible heterogeneity in patients with clinical features of Rodriguez syndrome. PMID:24715698

  16. RL10A-3-3B high mixture ratio qualification program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vogel, T.; Varella, D.; Smith, C.

    1987-01-01

    The results of the high mixture ratio qualification testing of the RL10 engine for the Shuttle/Centaur program are presented. The objective of the engine qualification test was to demonstrate the suitability of the RL10A-3-3B engine for space vehicle flight by subjecting it to the testing specified in RL10A-3-3B Model Specification Number 2295 dated February 1986. The applicable section of the specification is presented. Due to payload volume advantages which can be achieved by increasing the operating mixture ratio of the RL10, a decision was made to qualify the engine to run at a higher mixture ratio. A program was created to qualify the RL10 engine for operation at 15,000 pounds thrust and a nominal 6.0 to 1 mixture ratio. This model of the engine was designated the RL10A-3-3B. The qualification program included three test series as follows: (1) hardware durability and limits test in which the engine completed 23 firings and 4605.7 seconds with 1588.7 seconds at less than 6.6 mixture ratio; (2) preliminary qualification test in which the engine completed 26 firings and 5750 seconds; and (3) qualification test in which the engine completed 26 hot firings and 5693.4 seconds with 905.9 seconds at 6.7 mixture ratio. Several changes in engine hardware were required for operation of the RL10A-3-3B engine in the Space Shuttle which include a duel pressure switch ignition, an oxidizer flow control, and helium plumbing changes.

  17. The standards process: Technical committee X3B5 digital magnetic tape

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheatham, Sam

    1993-01-01

    The definition of X3B5, where it fits in the national and international standards development process, and how it interfaces and influences the world community of standards developers are provided. Details concerning the focus of the committee, how it operates, and what the group sees as the future trends in the area of interchange standards utilizing the multifaceted, ubiquitous magnetic tape are presented.

  18. Hepatitis E Virus Genotype 3 Diversity: Phylogenetic Analysis and Presence of Subtype 3b in Wild Boar in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Vina-Rodriguez, Ariel; Schlosser, Josephine; Becher, Dietmar; Kaden, Volker; Groschup, Martin H.; Eiden, Martin

    2015-01-01

    An increasing number of indigenous cases of hepatitis E caused by genotype 3 viruses (HEV-3) have been diagnosed all around the word, particularly in industrialized countries. Hepatitis E is a zoonotic disease and accumulating evidence indicates that domestic pigs and wild boars are the main reservoirs of HEV-3. A detailed analysis of HEV-3 subtypes could help to determine the interplay of human activity, the role of animals as reservoirs and cross species transmission. Although complete genome sequences are most appropriate for HEV subtype determination, in most cases only partial genomic sequences are available. We therefore carried out a subtype classification analysis, which uses regions from all three open reading frames of the genome. Using this approach, more than 1000 published HEV-3 isolates were subtyped. Newly recovered HEV partial sequences from hunted German wild boars were also included in this study. These sequences were assigned to genotype 3 and clustered within subtype 3a, 3i and, unexpectedly, one of them within the subtype 3b, a first non-human report of this subtype in Europe. PMID:26008708

  19. Photoluminescence and thermoluminescence characteristics of Sr3 B2 O6 :Eu(2+) yellow phosphor.

    PubMed

    Ho Van, Tuyen; Nguyen Manh, Son; Vu Xuan, Quang; Bounyavong, Sengthong

    2016-08-01

    Sr3 B2 O6 :Eu(2+) yellow phosphor was prepared by the combustion method. The crystalline structure, photoluminescence and thermoluminescence properties of Sr3 B2 O6 :Eu(2+) were investigated extensively. The X-ray diffraction result indicates that the Sr3 B2 O6 :Eu(2+) phosphor exhibited a rhombohedral crystal structure. The emission spectra under a 435 nm excited wavelength showed an intense broad band peaking at 574 nm, which corresponds to the 4f(6) 5d(1) → 4f(7) transition of Eu(2+) ion. There were two different sites of Sr replaced by Eu in host lattice. The concentration quenching process between Eu(2+) ions is determined and the corresponding concentration quenching mechanism was verified as dipole-quadrupole interaction. The glow curve under 3 Gy β- ray irradiation had the glow peak at 160°C and the average activation energy was defined as about 0.98 eV. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26669720

  20. gdnf activates midline repulsion by Semaphorin3B via NCAM during commissural axon guidance.

    PubMed

    Charoy, Camille; Nawabi, Homaira; Reynaud, Florie; Derrington, Edmund; Bozon, Muriel; Wright, Kevin; Falk, Julien; Helmbacher, Françoise; Kindbeiter, Karine; Castellani, Valérie

    2012-09-20

    The Neurotrophic factor gdnf plays diverse developmental roles, supporting survival and also acting as a chemoattractant for axon and cell migration. We report that in the developing spinal cord, a focal source of gdnf is present in the floor plate (FP) where commissural axons cross the midline. Gdnf has no direct guidance properties but switches on the responsiveness of crossing commissural growth cones to the midline repellent Semaphorin3B by suppressing calpain-mediated processing of the Sema3B signaling coreceptor Plexin-A1. Analysis of single and double mutant mouse models indicates that although gdnf is the principal trigger of Sema3B midline repulsion, it acts with another FP cue, NrCAM. Finally, genetic and in vitro experiments provide evidence that this gdnf effect is RET independent and mediated by NCAM/GFRα1 signaling. This study identifies a regulator of midline crossing and reveals interplays between Semaphorin and gdnf signaling during axon guidance. PMID:22998873