Science.gov

Sample records for 3al cylinders manufactured

  1. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 180 - Eddy Current Examination With Visual Inspection for DOT 3AL Cylinders Manufactured of Aluminum...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... for DOT 3AL Cylinders Manufactured of Aluminum Alloy 6351-T6 C Appendix C to Part 180 Transportation... Cylinders Manufactured of Aluminum Alloy 6351-T6 1. Examination Procedure. Each facility performing eddy... ring and probe for each DOT-3AL cylinder manufactured of aluminum alloy 6351-T6 to be inspected must...

  2. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 180 - Eddy Current Examination With Visual Inspection for DOT 3AL Cylinders Manufactured of Aluminum...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... for DOT 3AL Cylinders Manufactured of Aluminum Alloy 6351-T6 C Appendix C to Part 180 Transportation... Cylinders Manufactured of Aluminum Alloy 6351-T6 1. Examination Procedure. Each facility performing eddy... ring and probe for each DOT-3AL cylinder manufactured of aluminum alloy 6351-T6 to be inspected must...

  3. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 180 - Eddy Current Examination With Visual Inspection for DOT 3AL Cylinders Manufactured of Aluminum...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... for DOT 3AL Cylinders Manufactured of Aluminum Alloy 6351-T6 C Appendix C to Part 180 Transportation... Cylinders Manufactured of Aluminum Alloy 6351-T6 1. Examination Procedure. Each facility performing eddy... ring and probe for each DOT-3AL cylinder manufactured of aluminum alloy 6351-T6 to be inspected must...

  4. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 180 - Eddy Current Examination With Visual Inspection for DOT 3AL Cylinders Manufactured of Aluminum...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... for DOT 3AL Cylinders Manufactured of Aluminum Alloy 6351-T6 C Appendix C to Part 180 Transportation... Cylinders Manufactured of Aluminum Alloy 6351-T6 1. Examination Procedure. Each facility performing eddy... ring and probe for each DOT-3AL cylinder manufactured of aluminum alloy 6351-T6 to be inspected must...

  5. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 180 - Eddy Current Examination With Visual Inspection for DOT 3AL Cylinders Manufactured of Aluminum...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Eddy Current Examination With Visual Inspection... PACKAGINGS Pt. 180, App. C Appendix C to Part 180—Eddy Current Examination With Visual Inspection for DOT 3AL... current examination with visual inspection must develop, update, and maintain a written...

  6. 49 CFR 178.46 - Specification 3AL seamless aluminum cylinders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... change in cylinder wall thickness, service pressure, or diameter; a 30 percent or greater change in water...) Size and service pressure. A DOT 3AL cylinder is a seamless aluminum cylinder with a maximum water... specimen 6061-T6 38,000 35,000 214 1 “D” represents specimen diameters. When the cylinder wall is...

  7. Manufacturing stresses and strains in filament wound cylinders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calius, E. P.; Kidron, M.; Lee, S. Y.; Springer, G. S.

    1988-01-01

    Tests were performed to verify a previously developed model for simulating the manufacturing process of filament wound cylinders. The axial and hoop strains were measured during cure inside a filament wound Fiberite T300/976 graphite-epoxy cylinder. The measured strains were compared to those computed by the model. Good agreements were found between the data and the model, indicating that the model is a useful representation of the process. For the conditions of the test, the manufacturing stresses inside the cylinder were also calculated using the model.

  8. Manufacturing of Nanocomposite Carbon Fibers and Composite Cylinders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tan, Seng; Zhou, Jian-guo

    2013-01-01

    Pitch-based nanocomposite carbon fibers were prepared with various percentages of carbon nanofibers (CNFs), and the fibers were used for manufacturing composite structures. Experimental results show that these nanocomposite carbon fibers exhibit improved structural and electrical conductivity properties as compared to unreinforced carbon fibers. Composite panels fabricated from these nanocomposite carbon fibers and an epoxy system also show the same properties transformed from the fibers. Single-fiber testing per ASTM C1557 standard indicates that the nanocomposite carbon fiber has a tensile modulus of 110% higher, and a tensile strength 17.7% times higher, than the conventional carbon fiber manufactured from pitch. Also, the electrical resistance of the carbon fiber carbonized at 900 C was reduced from 4.8 to 2.2 ohm/cm. The manufacturing of the nanocomposite carbon fiber was based on an extrusion, non-solvent process. The precursor fibers were then carbonized and graphitized. The resultant fibers are continuous.

  9. Process for manufacturing hollow fused-silica insulator cylinder

    SciTech Connect

    Sampayan, Stephen E.; Krogh, Michael L.; Davis, Steven C.; Decker, Derek E.; Rosenblum, Ben Z.; Sanders, David M.; Elizondo-Decanini, Juan M.

    2001-01-01

    A method for building hollow insulator cylinders that can have each end closed off with a high voltage electrode to contain a vacuum. A series of fused-silica round flat plates are fabricated with a large central hole and equal inside and outside diameters. The thickness of each is related to the electron orbit diameter of electrons that escape the material surface, loop, and return back. Electrons in such electron orbits can support avalanche mechanisms that result in surface flashover. For example, the thickness of each of the fused-silica round flat plates is about 0.5 millimeter. In general, the thinner the better. Metal, such as gold, is deposited onto each top and bottom surface of the fused-silica round flat plates using chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Eutectic metals can also be used with one alloy constituent on the top and the other on the bottom. The CVD, or a separate diffusion step, can be used to defuse the deposited metal deep into each fused-silica round flat plate. The conductive layer may also be applied by ion implantation or gas diffusion into the surface. The resulting structure may then be fused together into an insulator stack. The coated plates are aligned and then stacked, head-to-toe. Such stack is heated and pressed together enough to cause the metal interfaces to fuse, e.g., by welding, brazing or eutectic bonding. Such fusing is preferably complete enough to maintain a vacuum within the inner core of the assembled structure. A hollow cylinder structure results that can be used as a core liner in a dielectric wall accelerator and as a vacuum envelope for a vacuum tube device where the voltage gradients exceed 150 kV/cm.

  10. RHQT Nb3Al 15-Tesla magnet design study

    SciTech Connect

    Yamada, R.; Ambrosio, G.; Barzi, E.; Kashikin, V.; Kikuchi, A.; Novitski, I.; Takeuchi, T.; Wake, M.; Zlobin, A.; /Fermilab /NIMC, Tsukuba /KEK, Tsukuba

    2005-09-01

    Feasibility study of 15-Tesla dipole magnets wound with a new copper stabilized RHQT Nb{sub 3}Al Rutherford cable is presented. A new practical long copper stabilized RHQT Nb{sub 3}Al strand is presented, which is being developed and manufactured at the National Institute of Material Science (NIMS) in Japan. It has achieved a non-copper J{sub c} of 1000A/mm{sup 2} at 15 Tesla at 4.2K, with a copper over non-copper ratio of 1.04, and a filament size less than 50 microns. For this design study a short Rutherford cable with 28 Nb{sub 3}Al strands of 1 mm diameter will be fabricated late this year. The cosine theta magnet cross section is designed using ROXIE, and the stress and strain in the coil is estimated and studied with the characteristics of the Nb{sub 3}Al strand. The advantages and disadvantages of the Nb{sub 3}Al cable are compared with the prevailing Nb{sub 3}Sn cable from the point of view of stress-strain, J{sub c}, and possible degradation of stabilizer due to cabling. The Nb{sub 3}Al coil of the magnet, which will be made by wind and react method, has to be heat treated at 800 degree C for 10 hours. As preparation for the 15 Tesla magnet, a series of tests on strand and Rutherford cables are considered.

  11. Ni{sub 3}Al aluminide alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, C.T.

    1993-10-01

    This paper provides a brief review of the recent progress in research and development of Ni{sub 3}Al and its alloys. Emphasis has been placed on understanding low ductility and brittle fracture of Ni{sub 3}Al alloys at ambient and elevated temperatures. Recent studies have resulted in identifying both intrinsic and extrinsic factors governing the fracture behavior of Ni{sub 3}Al alloys. Parallel efforts on alloy design using physical metallurgy principles have led to properties for structural use. Industrial interest in these alloys is high, and examples of industrial involvement in processing and utilization of these alloys are briefly mentioned.

  12. Ni{sub 3}Al technology transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Sikka, V.K.; Santella, M.L.; Alexander, D.J.

    1995-05-01

    Ductile Ni{sub 3}Al and Ni{sub 3}Al-based alloys have been identified for a range of applications. These applications require the use of material in a variety of product forms such as sheet, plate, bar, tubing, piping, and castings. Although significant progress has been made in the melting, casting, and near-net-shape forming of nickel aluminides, some issues still remain. These include the need for (1)high-strength castable composition for turbochargers, furnace furniture, and hot-die applications; (2) castability (fluidity, hot-shortness, porosity, etc.); (3) weld reparability of castings; and (4) hot fabricability of cast ingots. All of the issues listed above can be {open_quotes}show stoppers{close_quotes} for the commercial application of nickel aluminides. This report describes work completed to address some of these issues during the fourth quarter of FY 1994.

  13. Ni{sub 3}Al technology transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Sikka, V.K.; Viswanathan, S.; Santella, M.L.

    1997-04-01

    Ductile Ni{sub 3}Al and Ni{sub 3}Al-based alloys have been identified for a range of applications. These applications require the use of material in a variety of product forms such as sheet, plate, bar, wire, tubing, piping, and castings. Although significant progress has been made in the melting, casting, and near-net-shape forming of nickel aluminides, some issues still remain. These include the need for: (1) high-strength castable composition for many applications that have been identified; (2) castability (mold type, fluidity, hot-shortness, porosity, etc.); (3) weld reparability of castings; and (4) workability of cast or powder metallurgy product to sheet, bar, and wire. The four issues listed above can be {open_quotes}show stoppers{close_quotes} for the commercial application of nickel aluminides. This report describes the work completed to address some of these issues during FY 1996.

  14. Cylinder valve packing nut studies

    SciTech Connect

    Blue, S.C.

    1991-12-31

    The design, manufacture, and use of cylinder valve packing nuts have been studied to improve their resistance to failure from stress corrosion cracking. Stress frozen photoelastic models have been analyzed to measure the stress concentrations at observed points of failure. The load effects induced by assembly torque and thermal expansion of stem packing were observed by strain gaging nuts. The effects of finishing operations and heat treatment were studied by the strain gage hole boring and X-ray methods. Modifications of manufacturing and operation practices are reducing the frequency of stress corrosion failures.

  15. 49 CFR 180.205 - General requirements for requalification of specification cylinders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... for steel and nickel cylinders (IBR, see § 171.7 of this subchapter); C-6.1 for seamless aluminum... requirements prescribed in this paragraph (f), each specification cylinder manufactured of aluminum alloy...

  16. 49 CFR 180.205 - General requirements for requalification of specification cylinders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... for steel and nickel cylinders (IBR, see § 171.7 of this subchapter); C-6.1 for seamless aluminum... requirements prescribed in this paragraph (f), each specification cylinder manufactured of aluminum alloy...

  17. 49 CFR 180.205 - General requirements for requalification of specification cylinders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... for steel and nickel cylinders (IBR, see § 171.7 of this subchapter); C-6.1 for seamless aluminum... requirements prescribed in this paragraph (f), each specification cylinder manufactured of aluminum alloy...

  18. 49 CFR 180.205 - General requirements for requalification of specification cylinders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... for steel and nickel cylinders (IBR, see § 171.7 of this subchapter); C-6.1 for seamless aluminum... requirements prescribed in this paragraph (f), each specification cylinder manufactured of aluminum alloy...

  19. Quick release engine cylinder

    DOEpatents

    Sunnarborg, Duane A.

    2000-01-01

    A quick release engine cylinder allows optical access to an essentially unaltered combustion chamber, is suitable for use with actual combustion processes, and is amenable to rapid and repeated disassembly and cleaning. A cylinder member, adapted to constrain a piston to a defined path through the cylinder member, sealingly engages a cylinder head to provide a production-like combustion chamber. A support member mounts with the cylinder member. The support-to-cylinder mounting allows two relationships therebetween. In the first mounting relationship, the support engages the cylinder member and restrains the cylinder against the head. In the second mounting relationship, the cylinder member can pass through the support member, moving away from the head and providing access to the piston-top and head.

  20. 49 CFR 178.46 - Specification 3AL seamless aluminum cylinders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... least the minimum acceptable mechanical property limits for aluminum alloys as specified in paragraph (b... suitable method that will identify the alloy, the aluminum producer's cast number, the solution heat treat... treatable aluminum alloys in table 1 and 2 are permitted as follows: Table 1—Heat or Cast Analysis...

  1. 49 CFR 178.46 - Specification 3AL seamless aluminum cylinders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... least the minimum acceptable mechanical property limits for aluminum alloys as specified in paragraph (b... suitable method that will identify the alloy, the aluminum producer's cast number, the solution heat treat... treatable aluminum alloys in table 1 and 2 are permitted as follows: Table 1—Heat or Cast Analysis...

  2. 49 CFR 178.46 - Specification 3AL seamless aluminum cylinders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... least the minimum acceptable mechanical property limits for aluminum alloys as specified in paragraph (b... suitable method that will identify the alloy, the aluminum producer's cast number, the solution heat treat... treatable aluminum alloys in table 1 and 2 are permitted as follows: Table 1—Heat or Cast Analysis...

  3. 49 CFR 178.46 - Specification 3AL seamless aluminum cylinders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... least the minimum acceptable mechanical property limits for aluminum alloys as specified in paragraph (b... suitable method that will identify the alloy, the aluminum producer's cast number, the solution heat treat... treatable aluminum alloys in table 1 and 2 are permitted as follows: Table 1—Heat or Cast Analysis...

  4. A model of filament-wound thin cylinders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calius, Emilio P.; Springer, George S.

    1990-01-01

    A model was developed for simulating he manufacturing process of filament-wound cylinders made of a thermoset matrix composite. The model relates the process variables (winding speed, fiber tension, applied temperature) to the parameters characterizing the composite cylinder and the mandrel. The model is applicable to cylinders for which the diameter is large compared to the wall thickness. The model was implemented by a user-friendly computer code suitable for generating numerical results.

  5. 49 CFR 173.302 - Filling of cylinders with nonliquefied (permanent) compressed gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... accordance with the requirements of ISO 11621 (IBR, see § 171.7 or this subchapter). Each DOT cylinder must..., 3E, 3HT, and 39 cylinders, and UN pressure receptacles ISO 9809-1, ISO 9809-2, ISO 9809-3 and ISO... DOT 3A, 3AA, 3AL, 3E, and 39 cylinders, and UN pressure receptacles ISO 9809-1, ISO 9809-2, ISO...

  6. Compressive testing of filament-wound cylinders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, David W.; Hipp, Patrick A.

    1991-01-01

    An experimental investigation has been conducted on the compressive buckling and failure of filament-wound circular cylinders. This investigation identifies one of the relationships between structural performance and scale, as well as some of the causes of reduced structural performance in large-scale structures. It is hypothesized that this effect is related to two conditions: first, the number of fiber tow undulations; and second, the percentage of weak interfaces within the structure. The effect of winding pattern and the resulting location of the fiber undulations were studied by varying the winding parameters. Three types of cylinders were manufactured from Amoco T650-35/1908 graphite/epoxy preimpregnated tow with different winding sequences (0/+/-60)s, (+/-30/90)s, and (90/+/-30)s. The (90/+/-30)s cylinders were manufactured with two different winding patterns (distributed and classical) and radius-to-thickness ratios (15 and 55). All cylinders were loaded in compression to failure. Comparisons of the compressive strength and failure modes demonstrate the relationship between the winding parameters, scale, and structural performance of filament-wound composite cylinders.

  7. Cylinder monitoring program

    SciTech Connect

    Alderson, J.H.

    1991-12-31

    Cylinders containing depleted uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) in storage at the Department of Energy (DOE) gaseous diffusion plants, managed by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., are being evaluated to determine their expected storage life. Cylinders evaluated recently have been in storage service for 30 to 40 years. In the present environment, the remaining life for these storage cylinders is estimated to be 30 years or greater. The group of cylinders involved in recent tests will continue to be monitored on a periodic basis, and other storage cylinders will be observed as on a statistical sample population. The program has been extended to all types of large capacity UF{sub 6} cylinders.

  8. Collapsing bacterial cylinders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betterton, M. D.; Brenner, Michael P.

    2001-12-01

    Under special conditions bacteria excrete an attractant and aggregate. The high density regions initially collapse into cylindrical structures, which subsequently destabilize and break up into spherical aggregates. This paper presents a theoretical description of the process, from the structure of the collapsing cylinder to the spacing of the final aggregates. We show that cylindrical collapse involves a delicate balance in which bacterial attraction and diffusion nearly cancel, leading to corrections to the collapse laws expected from dimensional analysis. The instability of a collapsing cylinder is composed of two distinct stages: Initially, slow modulations to the cylinder develop, which correspond to a variation of the collapse time along the cylinder axis. Ultimately, one point on the cylinder pinches off. At this final stage of the instability, a front propagates from the pinch into the remainder of the cylinder. The spacing of the resulting spherical aggregates is determined by the front propagation.

  9. Delamination of Composite Cylinders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, Peter; Carlsson, Leif A.

    The delamination resistance of filament wound glass/epoxy cylinders has been characterized for a range of winding angles and fracture mode ratios using beam fracture specimens. The results reveal that the delamination fracture resistance increases with increasing winding angle and mode II (shear) fraction (GΠ/G). It was also found that interlaced fiber bundles in the filament wound cylinder wall acted as effective crack arresters in mode I loading. To examine the sensitivity of delamina-tion damage on the strength of the cylinders, external pressure tests were performed on filament-wound glass/epoxy composite cylinders with artificial defects and impact damage. The results revealed that the cylinder strength was insensitive to the presence of single delaminations but impact damage caused reductions in failure pressure. The insensitivity of the failure pressure to a single delamination is attributed to the absence of buckling of the delaminated sublaminates before the cylinder wall collapsed. The impacted cylinders contained multiple delaminations, which caused local reduction in the compressive load capability and reduction in failure pressure. The response of glass/epoxy cylinders was compared to impacted carbon reinforced cylinders. Carbon/epoxy is more sensitive to damage but retains higher implosion resistance while carbon/PEEK shows the opposite trend.

  10. CNG Cylinder Safety - Education, Outreach, and Next Steps (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, M.; Schroeder, A.

    2014-01-01

    Mr. Schroeder discussed the work that NREL is performing for the U.S. Department of Transportation on compressed natural gas cylinder end-of-life requirements. CNG vehicles are different from most other vehicles in that the CNG fuel storage cylinders have a pre-determined lifetime that may be shorter than the expected life of the vehicle. The end-of-life date for a cylinder is based on construction and test protocols, and is specific to the construction and material of each cylinder. The end-of-life date is important because it provides a safe margin of error against catastrophic cylinder failure or rupture. The end-of-life dates range from 15 to 25 years from the date of manufacture. NREL worked to develop outreach materials to increase awareness of cylinder end-of-life dates, has provided technical support for individual efforts related to cylinder safety and removal, and also worked with CVEF to document best practices for cylinder removal or inspection after an accident. Mr. Smith discussed the engagement of the DOE Clean Fleets Partners, which were surveyed to identify best practices on managing cylinder inventories and approached to provide initial data on cylinder age in a fleet environment. Both DOE and NREL will continue to engage these fleets and other stakeholders to determine how to best address this issue moving forward.

  11. The role of boron in ductilizing Ni3Al

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vedula, K.; Shabel, B. S.; Khadkikar, P. S.

    1987-01-01

    Ductilization of Ni3Al at room temperature by microalloying with boron has been primarily attributed to the increased grain boundary cohesion in the presence of boron. However, another aspect of the role played by boron in ductilizing Ni3Al is revealed when the Hall-Petch relationships for Ni3Al and B-doped Ni3Al are compared. A shallower slope for the B-doped Ni3Al compared to that for Ni3Al indicates a reduced resistance to slip propagation across grain boundaries, and therefore reduced stress concentration at boundaries, in the presence of boron. This comparison of Hall-Petch relationships was carried out by generating data for powder processed B-doped Ni3Al at various grain sizes and by compiling data for Ni3Al from the literature. In addition, the room temperature fracture of B-doped Ni3Al has been shown to initiate along certain grain boundaries. The fracture eventually occurs by transgranular ductile tearing.

  12. A Sequence of Cylinders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Erica

    2006-01-01

    Hoping to develop in her students an understanding of mathematics as a way of thinking more than a way of doing, the author of this article describes how her students worked on a spatial reasoning problem stemming from an iteratively constructed sequence of cylinders. She presents an activity of making cylinders out of paper models, and for every…

  13. Notch effects on room temperature tensile and bend properties of Ni3Al and Ni3Al+B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khadkikar, P. S.; Rigney, J. D.; Lewandowski, J. J.; Vedula, K.

    1989-01-01

    The notched mechanical properties of Ni3Al and Ni3Al+B prepared by powder metallurgy techniques have been determined in both tension and bending at room temperature. Tensile tests performed using double-notched specimens containing relatively blunt notches produced intergranular fracture in both Ni3Al and Ni3Al+B, with evidence of fracture initiating in an intergranular manner ahead of the blunt notch in both cases. Estimates of notched fracture toughness from bend tests and of local grain boundary fracture stress from the notched tensile tests suggest an increase in these values with boron addition.

  14. Feasibility study of Nb3Al Rutherford cable for high field accelerator magnet application

    SciTech Connect

    Yamada, R.; Kikuchi, A.; Ambrosio, G.; Andreev, N.; Barzi, E.; Cooper, C.; Feher, S.; Kashikhin, V.V.; Lamm, M.; Novitski, I.; Takeuchi, T.; Tartaglia, M.; Turrioni, D.; Verweij, A.P.; Wake, M.; Willering, G; Zlobin, A.V.; /Fermilab

    2006-08-01

    Feasibility study of Cu stabilized Nb{sub 3}Al strand and Rutherford cable for the application to high field accelerator magnets are being done at Fermilab in collaboration with NIMS. The Nb{sub 3}Al strand, which was developed and manufactured at NIMS in Japan, has a non-copper Jc of about 844 A/mm{sup 2} at 15 Tesla at 4.2 K, a copper content of 50%, and filament size of about 50 microns. Rutherford cables with 27 Nb{sub 3}Al strands of 1.03 mm diameter were fabricated and tested. Quench tests on a short cable were done to study its stability with only its self field, utilizing a high current transformer. A pair of 2 meter long Nb{sub 3}Al cables was tested extensively at CERN at 4.3 and 1.9 K up to 11 Tesla including its self field with a high transport current of 20.2 kA. In the low field test we observed instability near splices and in the central region. This is related to the flux-jump like behavior, because of excessive amount of Nb in the Nb{sub 3}Al strand. There is possibility that the Nb in Nb{sub 3}Al can cause instability below 2 Tesla field regions. We need further investigation on this problem. Above 8 Tesla, we observed quenches near the critical surface at fast ramp rate from 1000 to 3000 A/sec, with quench velocity over 100 m/sec. A small racetrack magnet was made using a 14 m of Rutherford cable and successfully tested up to 21.8 kA, corresponding to 8.7 T.

  15. Tandem Cylinder Noise Predictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lockhard, David P.; Khorrami, Mehdi R.; CHoudhari, Meelan M.; Hutcheson, Florence V.; Brooks, Thomas F.; Stead, Daniel J.

    2007-01-01

    In an effort to better understand landing-gear noise sources, we have been examining a simplified configuration that still maintains some of the salient features of landing-gear flow fields. In particular, tandem cylinders have been studied because they model a variety of component level interactions. The present effort is directed at the case of two identical cylinders spatially separated in the streamwise direction by 3.7 diameters. Experimental measurements from the Basic Aerodynamic Research Tunnel (BART) and Quiet Flow Facility (QFF) at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) have provided steady surface pressures, detailed off-surface measurements of the flow field using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV), hot-wire measurements in the wake of the rear cylinder, unsteady surface pressure data, and the radiated noise. The experiments were conducted at a Reynolds number of 166 105 based on the cylinder diameter. A trip was used on the upstream cylinder to insure a fully turbulent shedding process and simulate the effects of a high Reynolds number flow. The parallel computational effort uses the three-dimensional Navier-Stokes solver CFL3D with a hybrid, zonal turbulence model that turns off the turbulence production term everywhere except in a narrow ring surrounding solid surfaces. The current calculations further explore the influence of the grid resolution and spanwise extent on the flow and associated radiated noise. Extensive comparisons with the experimental data are used to assess the ability of the computations to simulate the details of the flow. The results show that the pressure fluctuations on the upstream cylinder, caused by vortex shedding, are smaller than those generated on the downstream cylinder by wake interaction. Consequently, the downstream cylinder dominates the noise radiation, producing an overall directivity pattern that is similar to that of an isolated cylinder. Only calculations based on the full length of the model span were able to

  16. An update on corrosion monitoring in cylinder storage yards

    SciTech Connect

    Henson, H.M.; Newman, V.S.; Frazier, J.L.

    1991-12-31

    Depleted uranium, from US uranium isotope enrichment activities, is stored in the form of solid uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) in A285 and A516 steel cylinders designed and manufactured to ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code criteria. In general, storage facilities are open areas adjacent to the enrichment plants where the cylinders are exposed to weather. This paper describes the Oak Ridge program to determine the general corrosion behavior of UF{sub 6} cylinders, to determine cylinder yard conditions which are likely to affect long term storage of this material, and to assess cylinder storage yards against these criteria. This program is targeted at conditions specific to the Oak Ridge cylinder yards. Based on (a) determination of the current cylinder yard conditions, (b) determination of rusting behavior in regions of the cylinders showing accelerated attack, (c) monitoring of corrosion rates through periodic measurement of test coupons placed within the cylinder yards, and (d) establishment of a computer base to incorporate and retain these data, the technical division is working with the enrichment sites to implement an upgraded system for storage of this material until such time as it is used or converted.

  17. Dopant Cylinder Lifetime Monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bishop, Steve; Wodjenski, Michael; Kaim, Robert; Lurcott, Steve; McManus, Jim; Smith, Gordon

    2006-11-01

    The cost of consumable materials is a significant component in the cost of implanter operation. With the higher cost of sub-atmospheric gas alternatives it is increasingly important to accurately monitor its usage. The ATMI® SDS® GasGauge™ monitoring system accurately monitors gas level in four cylinders simultaneously, throughout their lifetime, in order to optimize usage of gas and related implanter productivity. This paper displays how the GasGauge monitoring system accurately monitors the cylinder contents in SDS®, VAC® and high pressure gas cylinders. Internal and customer test data is also presented to verify these claims.

  18. Gas Cylinder Safety, Course 9518

    SciTech Connect

    Glass, George

    2016-10-27

    This course, Gas Cylinder Safety (#9518), presents an overview of the hazards and controls associated with handling, storing, using, and transporting gas cylinders. Standard components and markings of gas cylinders are also presented, as well as the process for the procurement, delivery, and return of gas cylinders at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL).

  19. Relativistic Bessel cylinders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krisch, J. P.; Glass, E. N.

    2014-10-01

    A set of cylindrical solutions to Einstein's field equations for power law densities is described. The solutions have a Bessel function contribution to the metric. For matter cylinders regular on axis, the first two solutions are the constant density Gott-Hiscock string and a cylinder with a metric Airy function. All members of this family have the Vilenkin limit to their mass per length. Some examples of Bessel shells and Bessel motion are given.

  20. Relativistic Bessel Cylinders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krisch, J. P.; Glass, E. N.

    2014-11-01

    A set of cylindrical solutions to Einstein's field equations for power law densities is described. The solutions have a Bessel function contribution to the metric. For matter cylinders regular on axis, the first two solutions are the constant density Gott-Hiscock string and a cylinder with a metric Airy function. All members of this family have the Vilenkin limit to their mass per length. Some examples of Bessel shells and Bessel motion are given.

  1. Quench tests of Nb3Al small racetrack magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Yamada, R.; Kikuchi, A.; Tartaglia, Michael Albert; Ambrosio, G.; Andreev, N.; Barzi, E.; Carcagno, R.; Feher, S.; Kashikhin, V.V.; Kotelnikov, S.; Lamm, Michael J.; /Fermilab /NIMC, Tsukuba /KEK, Tsukuba

    2007-08-01

    Two Cu stabilized Nb3Al strands, F1 (Nb matrixed) and F3 (Ta matrixed), have been made at NIMS and their Rutherford cables were made at Fermilab in collaboration with NIMS. A Small Race-track magnet using F1 Rutherford cable, the first Nb3Al dipole magnet in the world, was constructed and tested to full current at Fermilab. This magnet was tested extensively to full short sample data and its quench characteristics were studied and reported. The 3-D magnetic field calculation was done with ANSYS to find the peak field. The quench characteristics of the magnet are explained with the characteristics of the Nb3Al strand and Rutherford cable. The other Small Race-track magnet using Ta matrixed F3 strand was constructed and will be tested in the near future. The advantages and disadvantages of these Nb3Al cables are discussed.

  2. Longitudinal Weld Land Buckling in Compression-Loaded Orthogrid Cylinders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornburgh, Robert P.; Hilburger, Mark W.

    2010-01-01

    Large stiffened cylinders used in launch vehicles (LV), such as the Space Shuttle External Tank, are manufactured by welding multiple curved panel sections into complete cylinders. The effects of the axial weld lands between the panel sections on the buckling load were studied, along with the interaction between the acreage stiffener arrangement and the weld land geometry. This document contains the results of the studies.

  3. The Effect of Increased Cooling Surface on Performance of Aircraft-Engine Cylinders as Shown by Tests of the NACA Cylinder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schey, Oscar W; Rollin, Verne G; Ellerbrock, Herman H , Jr

    1944-01-01

    A method of constructing fins of nearly optimum proportions has been developed by the NACA to the point where a cylinder has been manufactured and tested. Data were obtained on cylinder temperature for a wide range of inlet-manifold pressures, engine speeds, and cooling-pressure differences.

  4. NGSI: FUNCTION REQUIREMENTS FOR A CYLINDER TRACKING SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Branney, S.

    2012-06-06

    While nuclear suppliers currently track uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) cylinders in various ways, for their own purposes, industry practices vary significantly. The NNSA Office of Nonproliferation and International Security's Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) has begun a 5-year program to investigate the concept of a global monitoring scheme that uniquely identifies and tracks UF{sub 6} cylinders. As part of this effort, NGSI's multi-laboratory team has documented the 'life of a UF{sub 6} cylinder' and reviewed IAEA practices related to UF{sub 6} cylinders. Based on this foundation, this paper examines the functional requirements of a system that would uniquely identify and track UF{sub 6} cylinders. There are many considerations for establishing a potential tracking system. Some of these factors include the environmental conditions a cylinder may be expected to be exposed to, where cylinders may be particularly vulnerable to diversion, how such a system may be integrated into the existing flow of commerce, how proprietary data generated in the process may be protected, what a system may require in terms of the existing standard for UF{sub 6} cylinder manufacture or modifications to it and what the limiting technology factors may be. It is desirable that a tracking system should provide benefit to industry while imposing as few additional constraints as possible and still meeting IAEA safeguards objectives. This paper includes recommendations for this system and the analysis that generated them.

  5. Critical point drying: contamination in transitional fluid supply cylinders.

    PubMed

    Hoagland, K D; Rosowski, J R; Cohen, A L

    1980-01-01

    We call attention to the occurrence of an oily residue in the CPD bomb after critical point drying, as well as the presence of rust, dirt, and an oily residue in CO2 and Freon supply cylinders. Bottled gas is often tested for purity once after manufacturing and then is pumped and stored, perhaps several times, before the consumer's cylinders are filled. The cylinders may be in use for over 40 years, and may never be chemically cleaned, although they are hydrostatically pressure tested every five years, with the date of each test stamped on the cylinder. To the bottled gas industry we recommend regular inspection of tanks for bottom contamination, and vacuum and chemical cleaning when contamination is found. To users of bottled gas for critical point drying, we recommend becoming aware of the procedures of cylinder inspection, cleaning, and circulation among users. We suggest reporting to the gas supplier any contamination produced by inadvertently backfilling the supply cylinder. Although a common awareness of the problem of supply cylinder residues should lead to failures, the best assurance of clean, oil-free, dry liquid CO2 and other transitional fluids may be in the development of in-line filters which would remove particles, oil and moisture between the supply cylinder and the CPD bomb. We also suggest the use of gas grades higher than commercial, such as welding anhydrous (CO2) or specialty gases.

  6. An overview of the welding of Ni{sub 3}Al and Fe{sub 3}Al alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Santella, M.L.

    1996-12-31

    Weldability (degree to which defect formation is resisted when an alloy is welded) is an issue in fabrication of Ni{sub 3}Al and Fe{sub 3}Al. Work to define and improve welding of Ni{sub 3}Al and Fe{sub 3}Al alloys is reviewed and progress illustrated by examples of current activities. The cast Ni{sub 3}Al alloys currently under development, IC221M and IC396M, have low resistance to solidification cracking and hence difficult to weld. Modifications to the composition of both base alloys and weld deposits,however, increase their resistance to cracking. Crack-free, full-penetration welds were made in centrifugally cast tubes of IC221M. Tensile and stress- rupture properties of the weldments compare favorably with base metal properties. Weldability issues have limited the use of Fe{sub 3}Al alloys to weld overlay applications. Filler metal compositions suitable for weld overlay cladding were developed, and the preheat and postweld heat treatment needed to avoid cracking, were determined experimentally.

  7. Thermally unstable hydrides of titanium aluminide Ti3Al

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazantseva, N. V.; Popov, A. G.; Mushnikov, N. V.; Skripov, A. V.; Soloninin, A. V.; Aleksashin, B. A.; Novozhenov, V. I.; Sazonova, V. A.; Kharisova, A. G.

    2011-04-01

    The hydrogen capacity of (Ti, Nb)3Al titanium aluminides subjected to mechanical activation in a hydrogen atmosphere has been studied. It has been shown that the application of this procedure allows one to prepare thermally unstable titanium aluminide (Ti3Al) hydrides with a high hydrogen content (to 2.6 wt %) at room temperature and normal pressure; in this case, no special requirements for the hydrogen purity are placed. The thermally unstable nanostructured Ti3Al hydrides were found to exhibit a higher hydrogen mobility as compared to that of the microcrystalline hydrides. Low niobium additions (to 2.1 at %) have been found to decrease the hydrogen capacity. Experiments on the preparation of bulk samples from the hydride powders obtained were performed.

  8. Cylinder To Cylinder Balancing Using Intake Valve Actuation

    SciTech Connect

    Duffy, Kevin P.; Kieser, Andrew J.; Kilkenny, Jonathan P.

    2005-01-18

    A method and apparatus for balancing a combustion phasing between a plurality of cylinders located in an engine. The method and apparatus includes a determining a combustion timing in each cylinder, establishing a baseline parameter for a desired combustion timing, and varying actuation of at least one of a plurality of intake valves, each intake valve being in fluid communication with a corresponding cylinder, such that the combustion timing in each cylinder is substantially equal to the desired combustion timing.

  9. AB INITIO STUDY OF PHONON DISPERSION AND ELASTIC PROPERTIES OF L12 INTERMETALLICS Ti3Al AND Y3Al

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arikan, N.; Ersen, M.; Ocak, H. Y.; Iyigör, A.; Candan, A.; UǦUR, Ş.; UǦUR, G.; Khenata, R.; Varshney, D.

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, the structural, elastic and phonon properties of Ti3Al and Y3Al in L12(Cu3Al) phase are studied by performing first-principles calculations within the generalized gradient approximation. The calculated lattice constants, static bulk moduli, first-order pressure derivative of bulk moduli and elastic constants for both compounds are reported. The phonon dispersion curves along several high-symmetry lines at the Brillouin zone, together with the corresponding phonon density of states, are determined using the first-principles linear-response approach of the density functional perturbation theory. Temperature variations of specific heat in the range of 0-500 K are obtained using the quasi-harmonic model.

  10. Use of Ni{sub 3}Al-based alloys for walking-beam furnaces

    SciTech Connect

    Sikka, V.K.; Dailey, R.E.

    1996-02-01

    This report summarizes the joint work performed by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Rapid Technologies, Inc. (the CRADA partner) to determine the potential of Ni{sub 3}Al-based alloys for use in gas-fired walking-beam furnace components. The report identifies tasks to be performed as part of the CRADA and the organization responsible for each task. The work required under each task was completed and is described. The CRADA accomplished the primary goal of utilizing cast Ni{sub 3}Al-based alloy as rails and other components for walking-beam furnaces manufactured by Rapid Technologies. Rapid Technologies, a small business, is implementing on a commercial basis a highly energy efficient rapid-heating technology for use in the metal manufacturing industry. The rapid heating process allows energy savings of up to 95%. Although goals of all of the tasks of this CRADA were met, there is still a need for a material to work in the rapid heating furnaces at temperatures in the range of 1,350 to 1,400 C. Future effort should be focused in fulfilling this need.

  11. Turbine endwall single cylinder program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Langston, L. S.; Eckerle, W. A.

    1983-01-01

    Measurements of the flow field in front of a large-scale single cylinder, mounted in a wind tunnel are discussed. Static pressures on the endwall and cylinder surfaces, extensive five-hole probe pressures in front of and around the cylinder, and velocity fluctuations using a hot-wire probe where the flow is steady enough to yield meaningful results are included.

  12. Mounting with compliant cylinders for deformable mirrors.

    PubMed

    Reinlein, Claudia; Goy, Matthias; Lange, Nicolas; Appelfelder, Michael

    2015-04-01

    A method is presented to mount large aperture unimorph deformable mirrors by compliant cylinders (CC). The CCs are manufactured from a soft silicone, and shear testing is performed in order to evaluate the Young's modulus. A scale mirror model is assembled to evaluate mount-induced change of piezoelectric deformation, and its applicability for tightly focusing mirrors. Experiments do not show any decrease of piezoelectric stroke. Further it is shown that the changes of surface fidelity by the attachment of the deformable mirror to its mount are neglectable.

  13. Improved turbine cylinder bolting system

    SciTech Connect

    Gosling, M.C.

    1997-10-01

    This paper describes the design and development of a new cylinder bolting system to replace the main joint hardware for both combustion (and steam) turbine applications. The new bolts are designed to be hydraulically tensioned to the specified preload and utilize ultrasonic verification of elongation. The new bolting system uses a reduced number of components in each assembly and the individual components themselves are of a simplified design. The new hardware can be applied to new equipment without modification and retrofitted to customer-owned equipment as a direct replacement for existing joint hardware. The prototype, production, and field testing of this hardware, the installation tooling; and ultrasonic elongation measuring equipment are described. This testing has shown significant savings in assembly and disassembly cycle times even after prolonged exposure to turbine operating temperatures in a corrosive environment. The new design of bolting is now standard equipment for the CE251B11/B12 combustion turbine manufactured by Westinghouse P.G.B.U.

  14. On the heat capacity of Ce{sub 3}Al

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Durgesh Samatham, S. Shanmukharao Venkateshwarlu, D. Gangrade, Mohan Ganesan, V.

    2014-04-24

    Electrical resistivity and heat capacity measurements on Cerium based dense Kondo compound Ce{sub 3}Al have been reported. Clear signatures of first order structural transition at 108K, followed by a Kondo minimum and coherence are clearly seen in resistivity. The structural transition is robust and is not affected by magnetic fields. Heat capacity measurements reveal an anomalous enhancement in the heavy fermion character upon magnetic fields. Vollhardt invariance in specific heat C(T.H) curves have been observed at T=3.7K and at H ≈ 6T.

  15. Development of ODS-Fe{sub 3}Al alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, I.G.; Pint, B.A.; Tortorelli, P.F.; McKamey, C.G.

    1997-12-01

    The overall goal of this program is to develop an oxide dispersion-strengthened (ODS) version of Fe{sub 3}Al that has sufficient creep strength and resistance to oxidation at temperatures in the range 1000 to 1200 C to be suitable for application as heat exchanger tubing in advanced power generation cycles. The main areas being addressed are: (a) alloy processing to achieve the desired alloy grain size and shape, and (b) optimization of the oxidation behavior to provide increased service life compared to semi-commercial ODS-FeCrAl alloys intended for the same applications. The recent studies have focused on mechanically-alloyed powder from a commercial alloy vendor. These starting alloy powders were very clean in terms of oxygen content compared to ORNL-produced powders, but contained similar levels of carbon picked up during the milling process. The specific environment used in milling the powder appears to exert a considerable influence on the post-consolidation recrystallization behavior of the alloy. A milling environment which produced powder particles having a high surface carbon content resulted in a consolidated alloy which readily recrystallized, whereas powder with a low surface carbon level after milling resulted in no recrystallization even at 1380 C. A feature of these alloys was the appearance of voids or porosity after the recrystallization anneal, as had been found with ORNL-produced alloys. Adjustment of the recrystallization parameters did not reveal any range of conditions where recrystallization could be accomplished without the formation of voids. Initial creep tests of specimens of the recrystallized alloys indicated a significant increase in creep strength compared to cast or wrought Fe{sub 3}Al, but the specimens failed prematurely by a mechanism that involved brittle fracture of one of the two grains in the test cross section, followed by ductile fracture of the remaining grain. The reasons for this behavior are not yet understood. The

  16. Advanced image analysis of the surface pattern emerging in Ni3Al intermetallic alloys on anodization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salerno, Marco; Stępniowski, Wojciech; Cieślak, Grzegorz; Norek, Małgorzata; Michalska-Domańska, Marta; Karczewski, Krzysztof; Chilimoniuk, Paulina; Polkowski, Wojciech; Jóźwik, Paweł; Bojar, Zbigniew

    2016-07-01

    Anodization of Ni3Al alloy is of interest in the field of industrial manufacturing, thanks to the formation of protective oxide layer on the materials working in corrosive environments and high temperatures. However, homogeneous surface treatment is paramount for technological applications of this material. The anodization conditions have to be set outside the ranges of corrosion and “burning”, which is the electric field enhanced anodic dissolution of the metal. In order to check against occurrence of these events, proper quantitative means for assessing the surface quality have to be developed and established. We approached this task by advanced analysis of scanning electron microscope images of anodized Ni3Al plates. The anodization was carried out in 0.3 M citric acid at two temperatures of 0 and 30°C and at voltages in the range of 2 12 V. Different figures can be used to characterize the quality of the surface, in terms of uniformity. Here, the concept of regularity ratio spread is used for the first time on surfaces of technological interest. Additionally, the Minkowski parameters have been calculated and their meaning is discussed.

  17. 15. CYLINDER DETAILS; DETAILS OF STEEL FOR CYLINDERS NO. 50 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. CYLINDER DETAILS; DETAILS OF STEEL FOR CYLINDERS NO. 50 (PIER 5) AND NO. 66 (PIER 6), DWG. 83, CH BY AF, ECL, APPROVED BY O.F. LACKEY, MAY 18, 1908 - Baltimore Inner Harbor, Pier 5, South of Pratt Street between Market Place & Concord Street, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  18. Weldability of Fe[sub 3]Al-type Aluminide

    SciTech Connect

    David, S.A.; Zacharia, T. )

    1993-05-01

    An investigation was carried out to determine the weldability of a series of Fe[sub 3]Al-type alloys. Autogenous welds were made on thin sheets of iron aluminide alloys using gas tungsten arc (GTA) and electron beam (EB) welding processes at different travel speeds and power levels. The results indicate that although these alloys can be successfully welded using the EB welding process, some compositions may hot crack during GTA welding. Boron and zirconium additions have been found to promote hot cracking in these alloys. Among the alloys investigated, Fe[sub 3]Al modified with chromium, niobium and carbon (FA-129) showed the most promise for good weldability. Hot-cracking severity of this alloy was further investigated using the Sigmajig test. The minimum threshold stress of 25 ksi measured is within the material range of other aluminides and some commercial stainless steels. Also, some of these alloys exhibited a tendency for cold cracking. This is related to severe hydrogen embrittlement associated with this class of alloys.

  19. Carbon-carbon cylinder block

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ransone, Philip O. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A lightweight cylinder block composed of carbon-carbon is disclosed. The use of carbon-carbon over conventional materials, such as cast iron or aluminum, reduces the weight of the cylinder block and improves thermal efficiency of the internal combustion reciprocating engine. Due to the negligible coefficient of thermal expansion and unique strength at elevated temperatures of carbon-carbon, the piston-to-cylinder wall clearance can be small, especially when the carbon-carbon cylinder block is used in conjunction with a carbon-carbon piston. Use of the carbon-carbon cylinder block has the effect of reducing the weight of other reciprocating engine components allowing the piston to run at higher speeds and improving specific engine performance.

  20. Impurity Enhancement of Al_2O_3/Al Adhesion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiao-Gang; Smith, John R.; Zhang, Wenqing; Evans, Anthony

    2003-03-01

    Our first-principles computations indicate that the clean Al_2O_3/Al interface is relatively weak - weaker than bulk Al. Fracture experiments reveal that the interface is relatively strong with observed failure in bulk Al, however. This paradox is resolved via doping effects of the common impurity C. We have found that only 1/3 of a monolayer of carbon segregated to the interface can increase the work of separation by a factor of 3. The resulting strong interface is consistent with fracture experiments. It arises due to void formation in the interface, which provides low-strain sites for the carbon to segregate to. The degree of void formation is consistent with the relatively high heat of oxide formation of Al.

  1. Compton Profile Study of Intermetallic Ti{sub 3}Al

    SciTech Connect

    Vyas, V.; Sharma, G.; Mishra, M. C.; Sharma, B. K.; Joshi, K. B.

    2011-10-20

    The Compton scattering measurement on intermetallic alloy Ti{sub 3}Al is reported in this work. The measurement is made using 59.54 keV gamma-rays from Am{sup 241} source. Theoretical calculation of Compton profile is also performed employing CRYSTAL code within the framework of density functional theory to compare with the measurement. The theoretical profile of the alloy is also synthesized following the superposition model taking the published Compton profiles of elemental solids from the APW method. The experimental study of charge transfer in the alloys has also been done by performing the experimental Compton profile measurements on Ti and Al following the superposition model and charge transfer from Al to Ti is clearly seen on the alloy formation.

  2. Na3Al(AsO4)2

    PubMed Central

    Fakhar Bourguiba, Noura; Zid, Mohamed Faouzi; Driss, Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    The structure of the title compound tris­odium aluminium bis­(arsenate), Na3Al(AsO4)2, is built up from AlO4 and AsO4 corner-sharing tetra­hedra, forming an undulating two-dimensional framework parallel to (100). The layers are constituted of large Al6As6O36 rings made up from six AlO4 and AsO4 tetra­hedra in which two sodium cations are situated, the third sodium cation being located in the inter­layer space. The structural relationships between the title compound and Na3Fe(PO4)2, NaAlCo(PO4)2 and Al5Co3(PO4)8 are discussed. PMID:23424394

  3. Individual cylinder knock control by detecting cylinder pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Sawamoto, K.; Kawamura, Y.; Kita, T.; Matsushita, K.

    1987-01-01

    To improve available power, tolerance to variation in fuel octane number and high engine speed knock control, an individual cylinder knock control has been developed. Knock are detected by spark plug washer transducers, which indicate individual cylinder pressures.) Last year the authors read a paper entitled ''Cylinder Pressure Vibration Analysis Indicates Accurate Knock Detection''. They read continuously on the following items. Spark plug washer transducers - These are piezoelectric ceramic rings which fit beneath individual spark plugs. These can detect knock at high engine speed, and are very durable. Knock detection and control algorithm - Knock is indicated by the transducer's cylinder pressure vibration signal. When knock occurs in the cylinder, the ignition timing of the cylinder is controlled. During the transient condition, control response is fast by learning control. Fail safe - At transducer trouble, the ignition timing of the cylinder is controlled by other transducer signals. Electric control unit - It is included in NISSANs Electronic Concentrated Engine Control System (ECCS). Effects of this control - It improved WOT torque by 7-15%, torelance to variation in fuel octane number, and high engine speed control performance.

  4. Filament winding cylinders. II - Validation of the process model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calius, Emilio P.; Lee, Soo-Yong; Springer, George S.

    1990-01-01

    Analytical and experimental studies were performed to validate the model developed by Lee and Springer for simulating the manufacturing process of filament wound composite cylinders. First, results calculated by the Lee-Springer model were compared to results of the Calius-Springer thin cylinder model. Second, temperatures and strains calculated by the Lee-Springer model were compared to data. The data used in these comparisons were generated during the course of this investigation with cylinders made of Hercules IM-6G/HBRF-55 and Fiberite T-300/976 graphite-epoxy tows. Good agreement was found between the calculated and measured stresses and strains, indicating that the model is a useful representation of the winding and curing processes.

  5. 76 FR 33213 - High Pressure Steel Cylinders from the People's Republic of China: Initiation of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-08

    ... liquefied gas (``high pressure steel cylinders''). High pressure steel cylinders are fabricated of chrome... manufacturing differences between the U.S. and the PRC, Petitioner made adjustments to electricity and natural gas. See Initiation Checklist; see also Volume II of the Petition, at 13-14 and Exhibit...

  6. The electrochemical behaviors of Mg-8Li-3Al-0.5Zn and Mg-8Li-3Al-1.0Zn in sodium chloride solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Yanzhuo; Liu, Min; Xu, Yan; Cao, Dianxue; Feng, Jing

    2013-03-01

    The electrochemical oxidation behaviors of Mg-8Li-3Al-0.5Zn and Mg-8Li-3Al-1.0Zn electrodes in 0.7 mol L-1 NaCl solution are investigated by methods of potentiodynamic polarization, potentiostatic oxidation, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The phase composition of Mg-8Li-3Al-0.5Zn and Mg-8Li-3Al-1.0Zn alloys is analyzed conducted by X-ray diffraction. The performances of Mg-8Li-3Al-0.5Zn and Mg-8Li-3Al-1.0Zn as the anode of Mg-H2O2 semi fuel cells are determined. The effect of Zn content on the corrosion resistant of these Mg-Li-based alloys is studied. It is found that the Mg-8Li-3Al-0.5Zn electrode has higher discharge activity and less corrosion resistance than that of Mg-8Li-3Al-1.0Zn electrode in 0.7 mol L-1 NaCl solution. The Mg-H2O2 semi fuel cell with Mg-8Li-3Al-0.5Zn anode presents a maximum power density of 100 mW cm-2 at room temperature, which is higher than that of Mg-8Li-3Al-1.0Zn anode (80 mW cm-2). The performance of semi fuel cell with the Mg-8Li-3Al-0.5Zn electrode is better than that with Mg-8Li-3Al-1.0Zn electrode, especially at higher current density (>30 mA cm-2).

  7. The fracture and fragmentation behaviour of additively manufactured stainless steel 316L

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amott, R.; Harris, E. J.; Winter, R. E.; Stirk, S. M.; Chapman, D. J.; Eakins, D. E.

    2017-01-01

    Expanding cylinder experiments using a gas gun technique allow investigations into the ductility of metals and the fracture and fragmentation mechanisms that occur during rapid tensile failure. These experiments allow the radial strain-rate of the expansion to be varied in the range 102 to 104 s-1. Presented here is a comparative study of the fracture and fragmentation behaviour of rapidly expanded stainless steel 316L cylinders manufactured from either a wrought bar or additive manufacturing techniques. The results show that in the strain-rate regime studied, an additively manufactured cylinder failed at a higher strain and produced larger fragment widths when compared to cylinders manufactured from a wrought bar. In addition, an investigation into the role of macroscopic elongated voids that were introduced into the cylinder wall, at an angle of 45° to the cylinder radius, was undertaken. A comparison between experimental and simulated results (using the Eulerian hydrocode CTH) was also completed.

  8. Magnetic properties of single-crystalline UCu3Al2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakotte, H.; Brueck, E.; Brabers, J. H. V. J.; Prokes, K.; Deboer, F. R.; Sechovsky, V.; Buschow, K. H. J.; Andreev, A. V.; Robinson, R. A.; Puranto, A.

    UCu3Al2 crystallizes in an ordered variant of the hexagonal CaCu5 structure. By neutron powder-diffraction, the U atoms were found to occupy the 1a sites, while the 2c sites are occupied by Cu atoms only and a random occupation of the 3g sites by the remaining Cu and Al is found. The magnetic susceptibility, measured on a single crystal grown by the Czochralski tri-arc technique, is found to be maximal within the hexagonal basal plane with a maximum at about 10 K. For fields applied within the basal plane, the magnetization at 4.2 K exhibits a slight S-shape starting slightly below 15 T. No such anomalies are found for fields applied along the c-axis where the magnetic response is found to be much lower. No additional magnetic peaks, which could be related with long-range antiferromagnetic ordering, were detected in the neutron powder-patterns at low temperatures.

  9. Axial cylinder internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzalez, C.

    1992-03-10

    This patent describes improvement in a barrel type internal combustion engine including an engine block having axial-positioned cylinders with reciprocating pistons arranged in a circular pattern: a drive shaft concentrically positioned within the cylinder block having an offset portion extending outside the cylinder block; a wobble spider rotatably journaled to the offset portion; connecting rods for each cylinder connecting each piston to the wobble spider. The improvement comprising: a first sleeve bearing means supporting the drive shaft in the engine block in a cantilevered manner for radial loads; a second sleeve bearing means rotatably supporting the wobble spider on the offset portion of the drive shaft for radial loads; a first roller bearing means positioned between the offset portion of the drive shaft and the wobble spider carrying thrust loadings only; a second roller bearing means carrying thrust loads only reacting to the first roller bearing located on the opposite end of the driveshaft between the shaft and the engine block.

  10. Conformal microstrip arrays on cylinders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashkenazy, J.; Shtrikman, S.; Treves, D.

    1988-04-01

    Design and measured results for two X-band conformal microstrip arrays are presented. The two 4 x 4 arrays are built on the surface of a cylinder of small radius. They differ by the orientation of small radius. They differ by the orientation of the elements relative to the cylinder axis. The measured directivities and radiation patterns are in reasonable agreement with theoretical predictions.

  11. Turbine endwall single cylinder program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Langston, L. S.

    1982-01-01

    Detailed measurement of the flow field in front of a large-scale single cylinder, mounted in a wind tunnel is discussed. A better understanding of the three dimensional separation occuring in front of the cylinder on the endwall, and of the vortex system that is formed is sought. A data base with which to check analytical and numerical computer models of three dimensional flows is also anticipated.

  12. Turbulent Flow Past Spinning Cylinders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehmedagic, Igbal; Carlucci, Donald; Carlucci, Pasquale; Thangam, Siva

    2009-11-01

    Flow past cylinders aligned along their axis where a base freely spins while attached to a non-spinning forebody is considered from a computational and experimental point of view. The time-averaged equations of motion and energy are solved using the modeled form of transport equations for the turbulence kinetic energy and the scalar form of turbulence dissipation with an efficient finite-volume algorithm. An anisotropic two-equation Reynolds-stress model that incorporates the effect of rotation-modified energy spectrum and swirl is used to perform computations for the flow past axially rotating cylinders. Both rigid cylinders as well as that of cylinders with free-spinning base are considered from a computational point of view. A subsonic wind tunnel with a forward-sting mounted spinning cylinder is used for experiments. Experiments are performed for a range of spin rates and free stream flow conditions. The experimental results of Carlucci & Thangam (2001) are used to benchmark flow over spinning cylinders. The data is extended to munitions spinning in the wake of other munitions. Applications involving the design of projectiles are discussed.

  13. Advanced Manufacturing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-01-01

    manufacturing will enable the mass customization of products and create new market opportunities in the commercial sector. Flexible manufacturing ...the mass customization of products and create new market opportunities in the commercial sector. One of the most promising flexible manufacturing ... manufacturing , increase efficiency and productivity. Research in leading edge technologies continues to promise exciting new manufacturing methods

  14. Concentration verification of ethanol/nitrogen compressed gas cylinders prior to use for periodic determinations of accuracy in California.

    PubMed

    Matthias, D J; Harvey, D C; DeFraga, D E

    2001-04-01

    A method that uses compressed gas ethanol breath standard (EBS) cylinders to perform periodic determinations of accuracy on evidential breath alcohol instruments in California was developed. To use EBS cylinders, the California State Department of Health Services required verification of the ethanol content of the EBS cylinders using an infrared method. The infrared method developed employs a modified Alcotest 7110 MK III-C manufactured by National Draeger, Inc. that functions at the 9.5-mm wavelength of the infrared spectrum. Criteria and methodology for verifying EBS cylinder ethanol concentrations are described.

  15. GLOBAL MONITORING OF URANIUM HEXIFLORIDE CYLINDERS NEXT STEPS IN DEVELOPMENT OF AN ACTION PLAN

    SciTech Connect

    Hanks, D.

    2010-06-09

    Over 40 industrial facilities world-wide use standardized uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) cylinders for transport, storage and in-process receiving in support of uranium conversion, enrichment and fuel fabrication processes. UF{sub 6} is processed and stored in the cylinders, with over 50,000 tU of UF{sub 6} transported each year in these International Organization for Standardization (ISO) qualified containers. Although each cylinder is manufactured to an ISO standard that calls for a nameplate with the manufacturer's identification number (ID) and the owner's serial number engraved on it, these can be quite small and difficult to read. Recognizing that each facility seems to use a different ID, a cylinder can have several different numbers recorded on it by means of metal plates, sticky labels, paint or even marker pen as it travels among facilities around the world. The idea of monitoring movements of UF{sub 6} cylinders throughout the global uranium fuel cycle has become a significant issue among industrial and safeguarding stakeholders. Global monitoring would provide the locations, movements, and uses of cylinders in commercial nuclear transport around the world, improving the efficiency of industrial operations while increasing the assurance that growing nuclear commerce does not result in the loss or misuse of cylinders. It should be noted that a unique ID (UID) attached to a cylinder in a verifiable manner is necessary for safeguarding needs and ensuring positive ID, but not sufficient for an effective global monitoring system. Modern technologies for tracking and inventory control can pair the UID with sensors and secure data storage for content information and complete continuity of knowledge over the cylinder. This paper will describe how the next steps in development of an action plan for employing a global UF{sub 6} cylinder monitoring network could be cultivated using four primary UID functions - identification, tracking, controlling, and accounting.

  16. The distribution alloying elements in alnico 8 and 9 magnets: Site preference of ternary Ti, Fe, Co, and Ni additions in DO3 Fe3Al, Co3Al, and Ni3Al based intermetallic phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samolyuk, G. D.; Újfalussy, B.; Stocks, G. M.

    2014-11-01

    Recently, interest in alnico magnetic alloys has been rekindled due to their potential to substitute for rare-earth based permanent magnets provided modest improvements in their coercivity can be achieved without loss of saturation magnetization. Recent experimental studies have indicated that atomic and magnetic structure of the two phases (one AlNi-based, the other FeCo-based) that comprise these spinodally decomposed alloy is not as simple as previously thought. A key issue that arises is the distribution of Fe, Co, and Ti within the AlNi-based matrix phase. In this paper, we report the results of first-principles calculations of the site preference of ternary alloying additions in DO3 Fe3Al, Co3Al, and Ni3Al alloys, as models for the aluminide phase. For compound compositions that are Al rich, which correspond to experimental situation, Ti and Fe are found to occupy the α sites, while Co and Ni prefer the γ sites of the DO3 lattice. An important finding is that the magnetic moments of transition metals in Fe3Al and Co3Al are ordered ferromagnetically, whereas the Ni3Al were found to be nonmagnetic unless the Fe or Co is added as a ternary element.

  17. The distribution alloying elements in alnico 8 and 9 magnets: Site preference of ternary Ti, Fe, Co, and Ni additions in DO3 Fe3Al, Co3Al, and Ni3Al based intermetallic phases

    DOE PAGES

    Samolyuk, G. D.; Újfalussy, B.; Stocks, G. M.

    2014-11-07

    Recently, interest in alnico magnetic alloys has been rekindled due to their potential to substitute for rare-earth based permanent magnets provided modest improvements in their coercivity can be achieved without loss of saturation magnetization. Recent experimental studies have indicated that atomic and magnetic structure of the two phases (one AlNi-based, the other FeCo-based) that comprise these spinodally decomposed alloy is not as simple as previously thought. A key issue that arises is the distribution of Fe, Co and Ti within the AlNi-based matrix phase. In our paper we report the results of first-principles calculations of the site preference of ternarymore » alloying additions in DO3 Fe3Al, Co3Al and Ni3Al alloys, as models for the aluminide phase. For compound compositions that are Al rich, which corresponds to experimental situation, Ti and Fe are found to occupy the sites, while Co and Ni prefer the sites of the DO3 lattice. Finally, an important finding is that the magnetic moments of transition metals in Fe3Al and Co3Al are ordered ferromagnetically, whereas the Ni3Al were found to be nonmagnetic unless the Fe or Co are added as a ternary element.« less

  18. Manufacturing Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reese, Susan

    2007-01-01

    According to the National Association of Manufacturers (NAM), "manufacturing is the engine that drives American prosperity". When NAM and its research and education arm, The Manufacturing Institute, released the handbook, "The Facts About Modern Manufacturing," in October 2006, NAM President John Engler noted, that…

  19. Blower Cooling of Finned Cylinders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schey, Oscar W; Ellerbrock, Herman H , Jr

    1937-01-01

    Several electrically heated finned steel cylinders enclosed in jackets were cooled by air from a blower. The effect of the air conditions and fin dimensions on the average surface heat-transfer coefficient q and the power required to force the air around the cylinders were determined. Tests were conducted at air velocities between the fins from 10 to 130 miles per hour and at specific weights of the air varying from 0.046 to 0.074 pound per cubic foot. The fin dimensions of the cylinders covered a range in pitches from 0.057 to 0.25 inch average fin thicknesses from 0.035 to 0.04 inch, and fin widths from 0.67 to 1.22 inches.

  20. Filament winding cylinders. I - Process model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Soo-Yong; Springer, George S.

    1990-01-01

    A model was developed which describes the filament winding process of composite cylinders. The model relates the significant process variables such as winding speed, fiber tension, and applied temperature to the thermal, chemical and mechanical behavior of the composite cylinder and the mandrel. Based on the model, a user friendly code was written which can be used to calculate (1) the temperature in the cylinder and the mandrel, (2) the degree of cure and viscosity in the cylinder, (3) the fiber tensions and fiber positions, (4) the stresses and strains in the cylinder and in the mandrel, and (5) the void diameters in the cylinder.

  1. Design fabrication and nondestructive testing of six experimental AGCarb/Intermold 3 cylinder assemblies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thacher, E. F.

    1972-01-01

    Six subscale Intermold cylinder assemblies with a total of twelve different concepts for transition to AGCarb were fabricated. Three of the cylinder assemblies were made by helically winding the hoop fibers and three were of orthogonal configuration. The fabrication process is summarized and details of each manufacturing method are given. The objectives of the test program were to: (1) demonstrate the fabricability of the Intermold 3 subscale flanges, (2) produce an integral transition from Intermold 3 to AGCarb material, (3) define a workable manufacturing process, and (4) identify a best suited inspection method. The objectives were met and the results are described.

  2. Solitary surface waves on a plasma cylinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gradov, O. M.; Stenflo, L.

    1983-03-01

    By considering electrostatic surface waves propagating along a plasma cylinder, it is demonstrated that solitary variations in the cylinder radius may appear. The properties of these slow perturbations are determined by the surface wave intensities.

  3. Rotating Cylinder Treatment System Demonstration

    EPA Science Inventory

    In August 2008, a rotating cylinder treatment system (RCTSTM) demonstration was conducted near Gladstone, CO. The RCTSTM is a novel technology developed to replace the aeration/oxidation and mixing components of a conventional lime precipitation treatment s...

  4. Video Analysis of Rolling Cylinders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phommarach, S.; Wattanakasiwich, P.; Johnston, I.

    2012-01-01

    In this work, we studied the rolling motion of solid and hollow cylinders down an inclined plane at different angles. The motions were captured on video at 300 frames s[superscript -1], and the videos were analyzed frame by frame using video analysis software. Data from the real motion were compared with the theory of rolling down an inclined…

  5. Turbulent Flow Between Rotating Cylinders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shih-I, Pai

    1943-01-01

    The turbulent air flow between rotating cylinders was investigated. The distributions of mean speed and of turbulence were measured in the gap between a rotating inner and a stationary outer cylinder. The measurements led to the conclusion that the turbulent flow in the gap cannot be considered two dimensional, but that a particular type of secondary motion takes place. It is shown that the experimentally found velocity distribution can be fully understood under the assumption that this secondary motion consists of three-dimensional ring-shape vortices. The vortices occur only in pairs, and their number and size depend on the speed of the rotating cylinder; the number was found to decrease with increasing speed. The secondary motion has an essential part in the transmission of the moment of momentum. In regions where the secondary motion is negligible, the momentum transfer follows the laws known for homologous turbulence. Ring-shape vortices are known to occur in the laminar flow between rotating cylinders, but it was hitherto unknown that they exist even at speeds that are several hundred times the critical limit.

  6. Comparison of aerodynamic noise from three nose-cylinder combinations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guenther, R. A.; Reding, M. P.

    1970-01-01

    Results of experiments with three different cylinder and blunted nose combinations are discussed. Combinations include smooth cylinder with single 15 deg cone, smooth cylinder with double cone of 25 and 10 deg, and longitudinally corrugated cylinder with similar double cone.

  7. Integrated two-cylinder liquid piston Stirling engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Ning; Rickard, Robert; Pluckter, Kevin; Sulchek, Todd

    2014-10-01

    Heat engines utilizing the Stirling cycle may run on low temperature differentials with the capacity to function at high efficiency due to their near-reversible operation. However, current approaches to building Stirling engines are laborious and costly. Typically the components are assembled by hand and additional components require a corresponding increase in manufacturing complexity, akin to electronics before the integrated circuit. We present a simple and integrated approach to fabricating Stirling engines with precisely designed cylinders. We utilize computer aided design and one-step, planar machining to form all components of the engine. The engine utilizes liquid pistons and displacers to harness useful work from heat absorption and rejection. As a proof of principle of the integrated design, a two-cylinder engine is produced and characterized and liquid pumping is demonstrated.

  8. Integrated two-cylinder liquid piston Stirling engine

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Ning; Rickard, Robert; Pluckter, Kevin; Sulchek, Todd

    2014-10-06

    Heat engines utilizing the Stirling cycle may run on low temperature differentials with the capacity to function at high efficiency due to their near-reversible operation. However, current approaches to building Stirling engines are laborious and costly. Typically the components are assembled by hand and additional components require a corresponding increase in manufacturing complexity, akin to electronics before the integrated circuit. We present a simple and integrated approach to fabricating Stirling engines with precisely designed cylinders. We utilize computer aided design and one-step, planar machining to form all components of the engine. The engine utilizes liquid pistons and displacers to harness useful work from heat absorption and rejection. As a proof of principle of the integrated design, a two-cylinder engine is produced and characterized and liquid pumping is demonstrated.

  9. Size Effect in Ferroelectric Long Cylinders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yuguo; Zhang, Peilin; Wang, Chunlei; Zhong, Weilie; N, Napp; D, R. Tilly

    1995-02-01

    The Curie temperature and polarization in a ferroelectric cylinder with infinite length have been examined using Landau free energy expansion. The Curie temperature and polarization decrease with decreasing cylinder diameter for the positive extrapolation length, and reach zero at the critical size. For negative extrapolation length, both Curie temperature and polarization increase with decreasing cylinder diameter.

  10. Development of Advanced In-Cylinder Components and Tribological Systems for Low Heat Rejection Diesel Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yonushonis, T. M.; Wiczynski, P. D.; Myers, M. R.; Anderson, D. D.; McDonald, A. C.; Weber, H. G.; Richardson, D. E.; Stafford, R. J.; Naylor, M. G.

    1999-01-01

    In-cylinder components and tribological system concepts were designed, fabricated and tested at conditions anticipated for a 55% thermal efficiency heavy duty diesel engine for the year 2000 and beyond. A Cummins L10 single cylinder research engine was used to evaluate a spherical joint piston and connecting rod with 19.3 MPa (2800 psi) peak cylinder pressure capability, a thermal fatigue resistant insulated cylinder head, radial combustion seal cylinder liners, a highly compliant steel top compression ring, a variable geometry turbocharger, and a microwave heated particulate trap. Components successfully demonstrated in the final test included spherical joint connecting rod with a fiber reinforced piston, high conformability steel top rings with wear resistant coatings, ceramic exhaust ports with strategic oil cooling and radial combustion seal cylinder liner with cooling jacket transfer fins. A Cummins 6B diesel was used to develop the analytical methods, materials, manufacturing technology and engine components for lighter weight diesel engines without sacrificing performance or durability. A 6B diesel engine was built and tested to calibrate analytical models for the aluminum cylinder head and aluminum block.

  11. Use of the Piv Method for Investigation of Motion Near a Cylinder in Transverse Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobrosel'skii, K. G.

    2016-05-01

    Turbulent flow past a cylinder in a wind tunnel has been investigated experimentally. Averaged velocity fields near the cylinder have been obtained with the optical PIV method and comparative characteristics have been given for noncavitation and cavitation regimes. From the vector patterns of the averaged velocity fields, the author has determined the angles of separation of the boundary layer from the cylinder surface in the considered regimes of flow. It has been shown that cavitation causes the vortex zone behind the cylinder to increase, the separation angles to displace upstream, and the hydraulic resistance to grow. A comparative calculation of the separation angles and the coefficients of hydraulic resistance of cylinders manufactured from different materials has been given. It has been shown that the vortex zone of a Teflon cylinder in flow having a hydrophobic surface differs from the vortex zone of a steel cylinder, particularly for the cavitation regime in which the angles of separation, especially from the upper part, decrease appreciably and the resistance grows.

  12. Massless rotating fermions inside a cylinder

    SciTech Connect

    Ambruş, Victor E.; Winstanley, Elizabeth

    2015-12-07

    We study rotating thermal states of a massless quantum fermion field inside a cylinder in Minkowski space-time. Two possible boundary conditions for the fermion field on the cylinder are considered: the spectral and MIT bag boundary conditions. If the radius of the cylinder is sufficiently small, rotating thermal expectation values are finite everywhere inside the cylinder. We also study the Casimir divergences on the boundary. The rotating thermal expectation values and the Casimir divergences have different properties depending on the boundary conditions applied at the cylinder. This is due to the local nature of the MIT bag boundary condition, while the spectral boundary condition is nonlocal.

  13. Substitutional and Interstitial Diffusion in alpha2-Ti3Al(O)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Copland, Evan; Young, David J.; Gleeson, Brian; Jacobson, Nathan

    2007-01-01

    The reaction between Al2O3 and alpha2-Ti3Al was studied with a series of Al2O3/alpha2-Ti3Al multiphase diffusion couples annealed at 900, 1000 and 1100 C. The diffusion-paths were found to strongly depend on alpha2- Ti3Al(O) composition. For alloys with low oxygen concentrations the reaction involved the reduction of Al2O3, the formation of a gamma-TiAl reaction-layer and diffusion of Al and O into the alpha2-Ti3Al substrate. Measured concentration profiles across the interaction-zone showed "up-hill" diffusion of O in alpha2-Ti3Al(O) indicating a significant thermodynamic interaction between O and Al, Ti or both. Diffusion coefficients for the interstitial O in alpha2-Ti3Al(O) were determined independently from the interdiffusion of Ti and Al on the substitutional lattice. Diffusion coefficients are reported for alpha2-Ti3Al(O) as well as gamma-TiAl. Interpretation of the results were aided with the subsequent measurement of the activities of Al, Ti and O in alpha 2-Ti3Al(O) by Knudsen effusion-cell mass spectrometry.

  14. Certain aspects of the melting, casting and welding of Ni{sub 3}Al alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Santella, M.L.; Sikka, V.K.

    1994-06-01

    Two alloys under development for castings are IC221M, (nominal composition Ni-8Al-7.7Cr-1.4Mo-1.7Zr wt %), and IC396M (nominal composition Ni-8Al-7.7Cr-3Mo-0.85Zr wt %). These alloys can be melted and cast using the techniques normally used for Ni-based materials. Oxidation of the liquid alloys can be controlled by vacuum processing or inert gas cover during processing. The liquid alloys can react with silica and zircon sands during casting, but this can be controlled through the use of appropriate mold washes like carbon-based materials. Welding studies showed that these alloys are susceptible to solidification cracking in weld fusion zones; the cracks are generally associated with occurrence of Ni-Ni{sub 5}Zr eutectic in interdendritic regions of the weld. Amount of eutectic in the weld microstructures increases with Zr concentration in weld filler metal. Weld filler metal Zr concentrations of 3 wt % and higher prevented solidification cracking of weld deposits on the base casting alloys; This is consistent with accepted phenomonological theory of this process. A weld filler metal with a composition of Ni-8Al-7.7Cr-1.5Mo-3.0Zr wt % was prepared and used to gas tungsten arc weld together 15-mm-thick plates of the IC221M alloy. This weldment was free of cracks. Weldment tensile specimens were machined from the plate and tested at 21, 800, and 900 C. Weldment yield strength at elevated temperatures was higher than room temperature and nearly comparable with that of the base IC221M alloy. Evaluation of the cast Ni{sub 3}Al alloys for furnace furniture, turbocharger rotors, and manufacturing tooling is also briefly discussed.

  15. Manufacturing technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The Manufacturing Technologies Center is at the core of Sandia National Laboratories' advanced manufacturing effort which spans the entire product realization process. The center's capabilities in product and process development are summarized in the following disciplines: (1) mechanical - rapid prototyping, manufacturing engineering, machining and computer-aided manufacturing, measurement and calibration, and mechanical and electronic manufacturing liaison; (2) electronics - advanced packaging for microelectronics, printed circuits, and electronic fabrication; and (3) materials - ceramics, glass, thin films, vacuum technology, brazing, polymers, adhesives, composite materials, and process analysis.

  16. Conjugate natural convection between horizontal eccentric cylinders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasiri, Davood; Dehghan, Ali Akbar; Hadian, Mohammad Reza

    2017-03-01

    This study involved the numerical investigation of conjugate natural convection between two horizontal eccentric cylinders. Both cylinders were considered to be isothermal with only the inner cylinder having a finite wall thickness. The momentum and energy equations were discretized using finite volume method and solved by employing SIMPLER algorithm. Numerical results were presented for various solid-fluid conductivity ratios ( KR) and various values of eccentricities in different thickness of inner cylinder wall and also for different angular positions of inner cylinder. From the results, it was observed that in an eccentric case, and for KR < 10, an increase in thickness of inner cylinder wall resulted in a decrease in the average equivalent conductivity coefficient (overline{{K_{eq} }}); however, a KR > 10 value caused an increase in overline{{K_{eq} }}. It was also concluded that in any angular position of inner cylinder, the value of overline{{K_{eq} }} increased with increase in the eccentricity.

  17. Electrical and Magnetic Properties of R3Al11 (R = La, Ce, Pr, and Nd)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garde, Chandrashekhar S.; Takeuchi, Tetsuya; Nakano, Yasunori; Takeda, Yuji; Ota, Yuki; Miyauchi, Yuichiro; Sugiyama, Kiyohiro; Hagiwara, Masayuki; Kindo, Koichi; Honda, Fuminori; Settai, Rikio; Ōnuki, Yoshichika

    2008-12-01

    High-quality single crystals of R3Al11 (R = La, Ce, Pr, and Nd) with the La3Al11-type orthorhombic crystal structure (space group Immm) have been grown by the Al-flux method. For Ce3Al11, signatures for ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic orderings at TC = 6.3 K and TN = 3.2 K, respectively, have been observed in the magnetic susceptibility, magnetization, specific heat, and electrical resistivity. An antiferromagnet Pr3Al11, on the other hand, exhibits two magnetic transitions at TN1 = 12.6 K and TN2 = 3.1 K. An antiferromagnet Nd3Al11 also exhibits multiple magnetic transitions at TN1 = 13.2 K, TN2 = 9.4 K, TN3 = 2.9 K, and TN4 = 1.77 K in zero magnetic field. The transition at TN4 has a first-order character. The crystalline electric field (CEF) analysis of magnetic susceptibility, magnetization and specific heat data shows that the CEF splitting is larger for Ce3Al11 than for Pr3Al11 and Nd3Al11. The CEF ground state of Pr3Al11 is a singlet. Magnetic order occurs in this compound owing to the exchange mixing of the CEF ground state and low-lying excited states. The ferromagnetic like component of the magnetization for H \\parallel [010] is characteristic of R3Al11 (R = Ce, Pr, and Nd), which is most likely due to the Dzialoshinsky-Moriya interaction for two nonequivalent R atoms.

  18. Generalized Bistability in Origami Cylinders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reid, Austin; Adda-Bedia, Mokhtar; Lechenault, Frederic

    Origami folded cylinders (origami bellows) have found increasingly sophisticated applications in space flight, medicine, and even experimental nuclear physics. In spite of this interest, a general understanding of the dynamics of an origami folded cylinder has been elusive. By solving the fully constrained behavior of a periodic fundamental origami cell defined by unit vectors, we have found an analytic solution for all possible rigid-face states accessible from a cylindrical Miura-ori pattern. Although an idealized bellows has two rigid-face configurations over a well-defined region, a physical device, limited by nonzero material thickness and forced to balance hinge with plate-bending energy, often cannot stably maintain a stowed configuration. We have identified and measured the parameters which control this emergent bistability, and have demonstrated the ability to fabricate bellows with tunable deployability.

  19. Comparison of hand laid-up tape and filament wound composite cylinders and panels with and without impact damage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jegley, Dawn C.; Lopez, Osvaldo F.

    1991-01-01

    Experimentally determined axial compressive failure loads, strains and failure modes of composite flat panels and cylinders are presented. A comparison of two types of filament wound flat graphite-epoxy panels indicates that the winding pattern can influence structural response. A comparison of hand laid-up tape and filament wound composite cylinders indicates that fabrication method may not significantly influence the failure mode or average failure strain of thick-walled (radius-to-thickness ratio less than 15) graphite-epoxy cylinders. The interaction of manufacturing-induced features (fiber cross-overs) and low-speed impact damage for graphite-epoxy specimens is also presented. Filament would flat panels with many fiber cross-overs exhibited lower failure strains than filament wound panels without fiber cross-overs for all impact speeds examined. Graphite-thermoplastic cylinders exhibited a significantly different failure mode from the graphite-epoxy cylinders.

  20. Design study of 15-Tesla RHQT Nb3Al block type dipole magnet

    SciTech Connect

    Yamada, R.; Ambrosio, G.; Barzi, E.; Kashikin, V.; Kikuchi, A.; Novitski, I.; Takeuchi, T.; Wake, M.; Zlobin, A.; /Fermilab /NIMC, Tsukuba /KEK, Tsukuba

    2005-09-01

    The design study of the block type 15-Tesla RHQT Nb{sub 3}Al dipole magnet, and its merits over Nb{sub 3}Sn magnets are presented. The copper stabilized RHQT Nb{sub 3}Al strand is now becoming commercially available for the application to the accelerator magnets. A 1 mm diameter RHQT Nb{sub 3}Al strand with filament size about 50 {mu}, non-copper Jc about 1000 A/mm{sup 2} at 15 Tesla at 4.2K, copper ratio of 50%, can now be produced over several hundred meters. The stress and strain characteristics of the Nb{sub 3}Al strand are superior to the Nb{sub 3}Sn strand. Another advantage is that it can tolerate a longitudinal strain up to 0.55%. The RHQT Nb{sub 3}Al Rutherford cable will have less chance of contamination of the stabilizer, compared to Nb{sub 3}Sn cable. These characteristics of the RHQT Nb{sub 3}Al will be beneficial for designing and producing 15-Tesla dipole magnets. An example 15-Tesla magnet cross section, utilizing the RHQT Nb{sub 3}Sn strand is presented. A systematic investigation on RHQT Nb{sub 3}Al strands, its Rutherford cables, and building a small racetrack magnet for cable testing are proposed.

  1. Fire testing of bare uranium hexafluoride cylinders

    SciTech Connect

    Pryor, W.A.

    1991-12-31

    In 1965, the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP), now the K-25 Site, conducted a series of tests in which bare cylinders of uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) were exposed to engulfing oil fires for the US Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), now the US Department of Energy (DOE). The tests are described and the results, conclusions, and observations are presented. Two each of the following types of cylinders were tested: 3.5-in.-diam {times} 7.5-in.-long cylinders of Monel (Harshaw), 5.0-in.-diam {times} x 30-in.-long cylinders of Monel, and 8-in.-diam {times} 48-in.-long cylinders of nickel. The cylinders were filled approximately to the standard UF{sub 6} fill limits of 5, 55, and 250 lb, respectively, with a U-235 content of 0.22%. The 5-in.- and 8-in.-diam cylinders were tested individually with and without their metal valve covers. For the 3.5-in.-diam Harshaw cylinders and the 5.0-in.-diam cylinder without a valve cover, the valves failed and UF{sub 6} was released. The remaining 6 cylinders ruptured explosively in time intervals ranging from about 8.5 to 11 min.

  2. Fire testing of bare uranium hexafluoride cylinders

    SciTech Connect

    Pryor, W.A.

    1991-12-31

    In 1965, the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP), now the K-25 Site, conducted a series of tests in which bare cylinders of uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) were exposed to engulfing oil fires for the US Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), now the US Department of Energy (DOE). The tests are described and the results, conclusions, and observations are presented. Two each of the following types of cylinders were tested: 3.5-in.-diam {times} 7.5-in.-long cylinders of Monel (Harshaw), 5.0-in.-diam {times} 30-in.-long cylinders of Monel, and 8-in.-diam {times} 48-in.-long cylinders of nickel. The cylinders were filled approximately to the standard UF{sub 6} fill limits of 5, 55, and 250 lb, respectively, with a U-235 content of 0.22%. The 5-in.- and 8-in.-diam cylinders were tested individually with and without their metal valve covers. For the 3.5-in.-diam Harshaw cylinders and the 5.0-in.-diam cylinder without a valve cover the valves failed and UF{sub 6} was released. The remaining cylinders ruptured explosively in time intervals ranging from about 8.5 to 11 min.

  3. Preparation of Nb3Al by high-energy ball milling and superconductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yongliang; Liu, Zhao; Li, Pingyuan; Zhang, Xiaolan; Yang, Suhua; Yang, Dawei; Du, Lupeng; Cui, Yajing; Pan, Xifeng; Yan, Guo; Zhao, Yong

    2014-05-01

    The A15 phase superconductor Nb3Al has been considered as an alternative to Nb3Sn for high field and large scale applications. However, to prepare a stoichiometric Nb3Al with fine grain structures is very difficult. High-energy ball milling is a solid state powder processing technique and is a very useful for preparing Nb-Al alloys (Nb3Al). The effects of ball milling time and annealing temperature on the formation of Nb3Al superconducting phase have been studied. Pure Nb and Al powders with stoichiometric ratio of Nb3Al were mixed and milled, and the charging and milling were performed in an inert atmosphere. Phase formation and structural evolution during high-energy ball milling have been examined by X-ray diffraction. Al disappeared and Nb peaks broadened after about one hour of milling. With increasing milling time, the peaks of Nb became considerably broader and intensities decreased, the Nb-Al solid solution phase was extensive when milled about 3 hours. In order to obtain Nb3Al superconducting phase, a subsequent anneal was required. We have annealed the as-milled powders at 800-900°C for different times to prepared Nb3Al superconducting alloy. The results indicated that Nb3Al with small amount of impurity phase can be obtained on annealing the Nb-Al solid solution phase and the superconducting transition temperature was about 15K, but it is difficult to obtain a homogeneous Nb3Al phase by annealing the amorphous powder.

  4. Cloning of a human ortholog (RPH3AL) of (RNO)Rph3al from a candidate 17p13.3 medulloblastoma tumor suppressor locus.

    PubMed

    Smith, J S; Tachibana, I; Allen, C; Chiappa, S A; Lee, H K; McIver, B; Jenkins, R B; Raffel, C

    1999-07-01

    Allelic loss of 17p13.3 is observed in approximately 40% of medulloblastomas, suggesting the presence of a tumor suppressor gene in this region. Deletion mapping has defined a region of common loss flanking the telomeric marker D17S34, and a recent report delineated a 9-kb homozygous deletion within the D17S34 locus in one such tumor. Using cDNA selection, we have identified a transcript spanning this deletion, designated (HSA)RPH3AL (rabphillin-3A-like), based on its 77% overall amino acid identity with a recently cloned rat gene, (RNO)Rph3al (originally termed Noc2), a gene putatively involved in regulated endocrine exocytosis through its interactions with the cytoskeleton. We determined the exon-intron boundaries of RPH3AL and screened the coding region for mutations by direct sequencing in DNA extracted from 33 tumor samples with allelic loss of 17p13, including 10 medulloblastoma, 14 follicular thyroid cancer (FTC), and 9 ovarian cancer specimens. No mutations were identified. Thus, despite its location in a homozygously deleted 17p13.3 locus, it is unlikely that RPH3AL is a gene involved in the oncogenesis of medulloblastoma, FTC, or ovarian cancer.

  5. Cable manufacture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gamble, P.

    1972-01-01

    A survey is presented of flat electrical cable manufacturing, with particular reference to patented processes. The economics of manufacture based on an analysis of material and operating costs is considered for the various methods. Attention is given to the competitive advantages of the several processes and their resulting products. The historical area of flat cable manufacture is presented to give a frame of reference for the survey.

  6. Liquid-film coating on topographically patterned rotating cylinders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Weihua; Carvalho, Marcio S.; Kumar, Satish

    2017-02-01

    The coating of discrete objects having surface topography is an important step in the manufacturing of a broad variety of products. To develop a fundamental understanding of this problem, we study liquid-film flow on rotating cylinders patterned with sinusoidal topographical features. The Stokes equations, augmented with a term accounting for centrifugal forces, are solved in a rotating reference frame using the Galerkin finite-element method (GFEM). A nonlinear evolution equation for the film thickness based on lubrication theory is also solved numerically and its predictions are compared to those from the GFEM calculations. When gravitational effects are negligible and the rotation rate is sufficiently low, liquid accumulates over the pattern troughs before merging to form multiple larger drops (located over troughs) whose number at steady state depends on the topography wavelength and rotation rate. When the rotation rate is sufficiently high, similar merging events occur, but liquid accumulates over the pattern crests at steady state. When gravitational forces become significant, it is possible to obtain a coating that closely conforms to the surface topography. The GFEM calculations are in agreement with predictions from the lubrication model provided the free-surface curvatures are sufficiently small. For sufficiently large pattern amplitude and film thickness, the GFEM calculations show that recirculation regions inside the troughs can appear and vanish as the cylinder rotates due to the variation of gravitational forces around the cylinder surface. This phenomenon, along with flow reversal over the crests, may strongly influence mixing, mass transport, and heat transport.

  7. ADSORPTION AND DISSOCIATION OF O2 ON Ti3Al (0001) STUDIED BY FIRST-PRINCIPLES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Li-Jing; Guo, Jian-Xin; Dai, Xiu-Hong; Wang, Ying-Long; Liu, Bao-Ting

    2015-05-01

    The adsorption and dissociation of oxygen molecule on Ti3Al (0001) surface have been investigated by density functional theory (DFT) with the generalized gradient approximation (GGA). All possible adsorption sites including nine vertical and fifteen parallel sites of O2 are considered on Ti3Al (0001) surface. It is found that all oxygen molecules dissociate except for three vertical adsorption sites after structure optimization. This indicates that oxygen molecules prefer to dissociate on the junction site between Ti and Al atoms. Oxygen atoms coming from dissociation of oxygen molecule tend to occupy the most stable adsorption sites of the Ti3Al (0001) surface. The distance of O-O is related to the surface dissociation distance of Ti3Al (0001) surface. The valence electron localization function (ELF) and projected density of states (DOS) show that the bonds of O-O are breakaway at parallel adsorption end structures.

  8. Luminescence properties of Lu3Al5O12:Tb3+ nano-garnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Praveena, R.; Shim, Jae Jeong; Cai, Peiqing; Seo, Hyo Jin; Chung, Wan-Young; Kwon, Tae Ha; Jayasankar, C. K.; Haritha, P.; Venkatramu, V.

    2014-06-01

    Trivalent terbium-doped lutetium-aluminate nano-garnet (Lu3Al5O12:Tb3+) powder was prepared by using the Pechini sol-gel process. The structure and crystallinity of the Lu3Al5O12:Tb3+ nano-garnet were characterized by using X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The green emission of Tb3+ ions is observed at 545 nm corresponding to the 5D4 → 7F5 transition under the 271-nm excitation. The temperature dependent luminescence properties of the Lu3Al5O12:Tb3+ nano-garnet are investigated. The results show that the present garnet exhibits better thermal stability than the other green emitting phosphors, hence, the Lu3Al5O12:Tb3+ phosphor is a promising candidate for light-emitting devices.

  9. Two interacting cylinders in cross flow.

    PubMed

    Alam, Md Mahbub; Meyer, J P

    2011-11-01

    Cylindrical structures in a group are frequently seen on land and in the ocean. Mutual flow interaction between the structures makes the wake very excited or tranquil depending on the spacing between the structures. The excited wake-enhancing forces in some cases cause a catastrophic failure of the structures. This paper presents results of an experimental investigation of Strouhal number (St), time-mean, and fluctuating forces on, and flow structures around, two identical circular cylinders at stagger angle α = 0°-180° and gap-spacing ratio T/D=0.1-5, where T is the gap width between the cylinders, and D is the diameter of a cylinder. While forces were measured using a load cell, St was from spectral analysis of fluctuating pressures measured on the side surfaces of the cylinders. A flow visualization test was conducted to observe flow structures around the cylinders. Based on forces, St, and flow structures, 19 distinct flow categories in the ranges of α and T/D investigated are observed, including one quadristable flow, three kinds of tristable flows, and four kinds of bistable flows. The quadristable, tristable, and bistable flows ensue from instabilities of the gap flow, shear layers, vortices, separation bubbles, and wakes, engendering a strong jump or drop in forces and St of the cylinders. The two cylinders interact with each other in six different mechanisms, namely interaction between boundary layer and cylinder, shear layer or wake and cylinder, shear layer and shear layer, vortex and cylinder, vortex and shear layer, and vortex and vortex. While the interaction between vortex and cylinder results in a very high fluctuating drag, that between vortex and shear layer results in a high fluctuating lift. On the other hand, the interaction between shear layer or wake and cylinder weakens mean and fluctuating forces and flow unsteadiness. A mutual discussion of forces, St, and flow structures is presented in this paper.

  10. Low-cost, low-weight CNG cylinder development. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Richards, Mark E.; Melford, K.; Wong, J.; Gambone, L.

    1999-09-01

    This program was established to develop and commercialize new high-strength steel-lined, composite hoop-wrapped compressed natural gas (CNG) cylinders for vehicular applications. As much as 70% of the cost of natural gas vehicles can be related to on-board natural gas storage costs. The cost and weight targets for this program represent significant savings in each characteristic when compared to comparable containers available at the initiation of the program. The program objectives were to optimize specific weight and cost goals, yielding CNG cylinders with dimensions that should, allowing for minor modifications, satisfy several vehicle market segments. The optimization process encompassed material, design, and process improvement. In optimizing the CNG cylinder design, due consideration was given to safety aspects relative to national, international, and vehicle manufacturer cylinder standards and requirements. The report details the design and development effort, encompassing plant modifications, material selection, design issues, tooling development, prototype development, and prototype testing. Extenuating circumstances prevented the immediate commercialization of the cylinder designs, though significant progress was made towards improving the cost and performance of CNG cylinders. A new low-cost fiber was successfully employed while the weight target was met and the cost target was missed by less than seven percent.

  11. Transonic Flow Past Cone Cylinders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solomon, George E

    1955-01-01

    Experimental results are presented for transonic flow post cone-cylinder, axially symmetric bodies. The drag coefficient and surface Mach number are studied as the free-stream Mach number is varied and, wherever possible, the experimental results are compared with theoretical predictions. Interferometric results for several typical flow configurations are shown and an example of shock-free supersonic-to-subsonic compression is experimentally demonstrated. The theoretical problem of transonic flow past finite cones is discussed briefly and an approximate solution of the axially symmetric transonic equations, valid for a semi-infinite cone, is presented.

  12. STRESS ANNEALING INDUCED DIFFUSE SCATTERING FROM Ni3(Al,Si) PRECIPITATES

    SciTech Connect

    Barabash, Rozaliya; Ice, Gene E; Karapetrova, Evgenia; Zschack, P.

    2012-01-01

    Diffuse scattering caused by L12 type Ni3 (Al,Si) precipitates after stress annealing of Ni-Al-Si alloys is studied. Experimental reciprocal space maps are compared to the theoretical ones. Oscillations of diffuse scattering due to Ni3 (Al,Sc) precipitates are observed. Peculiarities of diffuse scattering in asymptotic region as compared to Huang scattering region are discussed. Coupling between the stress annealing direction and the precipitate shape is demonstrated.

  13. Degradability Enhancement of Poly(Lactic Acid) by Stearate-Zn3Al LDH Nanolayers

    PubMed Central

    Eili, Mahboobeh; Shameli, Kamyar; Ibrahim, Nor Azowa; Yunus, Wan Md Zin Wan

    2012-01-01

    Recent environmental problems and societal concerns associated with the disposal of petroleum based plastics throughout the world have triggered renewed efforts to develop new biodegradable products compatible with our environment. This article describes the preparation, characterization and biodegradation study of poly(lactic acid)/layered double hydroxide (PLA/LDH) nanocomposites from PLA and stearate-Zn3Al LDH. A solution casting method was used to prepare PLA/stearate-Zn3Al LDH nanocomposites. The anionic clay Zn3Al LDH was firstly prepared by co-precipitation method from a nitrate salt solution at pH 7.0 and then modified by stearate anions through an ion exchange reaction. This modification increased the basal spacing of the synthetic clay from 8.83 Å to 40.10 Å. The morphology and properties of the prepared PLA/stearate-Zn3Al LDH nanocomposites were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM), scanning electron microscope (SEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), tensile tests as well as biodegradation studies. From the XRD analysis and TEM observation, the stearate-Zn3Al LDH lost its ordered stacking-structure and was greatly exfoliated in the PLA matrix. Tensile test results of PLA/stearate-Zn3Al LDH nanocomposites showed that the presence of around 1.0–3.0 wt % of the stearate-Zn3Al LDH in the PLA drastically improved its elongation at break. The biodegradation studies demonstrated a significant biodegradation rate improvement of PLA in the presence of stearate-Zn3Al LDH nanolayers. This effect can be caused by the catalytic role of the stearate groups in the biodegradation mechanism leading to much faster disintegration of nanocomposites than pure PLA. PMID:22942682

  14. Degradability enhancement of poly(lactic acid) by stearate-Zn(3)Al LDH nanolayers.

    PubMed

    Eili, Mahboobeh; Shameli, Kamyar; Ibrahim, Nor Azowa; Yunus, Wan Md Zin Wan

    2012-01-01

    Recent environmental problems and societal concerns associated with the disposal of petroleum based plastics throughout the world have triggered renewed efforts to develop new biodegradable products compatible with our environment. This article describes the preparation, characterization and biodegradation study of poly(lactic acid)/layered double hydroxide (PLA/LDH) nanocomposites from PLA and stearate-Zn(3)Al LDH. A solution casting method was used to prepare PLA/stearate-Zn(3)Al LDH nanocomposites. The anionic clay Zn(3)Al LDH was firstly prepared by co-precipitation method from a nitrate salt solution at pH 7.0 and then modified by stearate anions through an ion exchange reaction. This modification increased the basal spacing of the synthetic clay from 8.83 Å to 40.10 Å. The morphology and properties of the prepared PLA/stearate-Zn(3)Al LDH nanocomposites were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM), scanning electron microscope (SEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), tensile tests as well as biodegradation studies. From the XRD analysis and TEM observation, the stearate-Zn(3)Al LDH lost its ordered stacking-structure and was greatly exfoliated in the PLA matrix. Tensile test results of PLA/stearate-Zn(3)Al LDH nanocomposites showed that the presence of around 1.0-3.0 wt % of the stearate-Zn(3)Al LDH in the PLA drastically improved its elongation at break. The biodegradation studies demonstrated a significant biodegradation rate improvement of PLA in the presence of stearate-Zn(3)Al LDH nanolayers. This effect can be caused by the catalytic role of the stearate groups in the biodegradation mechanism leading to much faster disintegration of nanocomposites than pure PLA.

  15. Chemical ordering in Cr3Al and relation to semiconducting behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boekelheide, Z.; Stewart, D. A.; Hellman, F.

    2012-08-01

    Cr3Al shows semiconductor-like behavior which has been attributed to a combination of antiferromagnetism and chemical ordering of the Cr and Al atoms on the bcc sublattice. This article presents a detailed theoretical and experimental study of the chemical ordering in Cr3Al. Using density functional theory within the Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker (KKR) formalism, we consider five possible structures with the Cr3Al stoichiometry: a bcc solid solution, two-phase C11b Cr2Al+Cr, off-stoichiometric C11b Cr3Al, D03 Cr3Al, and X-phase Cr3Al. The calculations show that the chemically ordered, rhombohedrally distorted X-phase structure has the lowest energy of those considered and should, therefore, be the ground state found in nature, while the D03 structure has the highest energy and should not occur. While KKR calculations of the X phase indicate a pseudogap in the density of states, additional calculations using a full potential linear muffin-tin orbital approach and a plane-wave technique show a narrow band gap. Experimentally, thin films of Cr1-xAlx were grown and the concentration, growth temperature, and substrate were varied systematically. The peak resistivity (2400 μΩ-cm) is found for films with x=0.25, grown epitaxially on a 300 ∘C MgO substrate. At this x, a transition between nonmetallic and metallic behavior occurs at a growth temperature of about 400 ∘C, which is accompanied by a change in chemical ordering from X phase to C11b Cr3Al. These results clarify the range of possible structures for Cr3Al and the relationship between chemical ordering and electronic transport behavior.

  16. Effect of grain size on yield strength of Ni/sub 3/Al and other alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Takeyama, M.; Liu, C.T.

    1988-07-01

    This paper analyzes the effect of grain size on yield stress of ordered Ni/sub 3/Al and Zr/sub 3/Al, and mild steels that show Lueders band propagation after yielding, using the Hall--Petch relation, sigma/sub y/ = sigma/sub 0/+k/sub y/ d/sup -1//sup ///sup 2/, and the new relation proposed by Schulson et al., sigma/sub y/ = sigma/sub 0/+kd/sup -(//sup p//sup +1)/2/ (Schulson et al., Acta Metall. 33, 1587 (1985)). The major emphasis is placed on the analysis of Ni/sub 3/Al data obtained from published and new results, with a careful consideration of the alloy stoichiometry effect. All data, except for binary stoichiometric Ni/sub 3/Al prepared by powder extrusion, fit the Hall--Petch relation, whereas the data from boron-doped Ni/sub 3/Al and mild steels do not follow the Schulson relation. However, no conclusion can be made simply from the curve fitting using either relation. The results are also discussed in terms of Lueders strain and alloy preparation methods. On the basis of the Hall--Petch analysis, the small slope k/sub y/ is obtained only for hypostoichiometric Ni/sub 3/Al with boron, which would be related to a stronger segregation of boron in nickel-rich Ni/sub 3/Al. In addition, the potency for the solid solution strengthening effect of boron is found to be much higher for stoichiometric Ni/sub 3/Al than for hypostoichiometric alloys.

  17. Manufacturing technologies

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    The Manufacturing Technologies Center is an integral part of Sandia National Laboratories, a multiprogram engineering and science laboratory, operated for the Department of Energy (DOE) with major facilities at Albuquerque, New Mexico, and Livermore, California. Our Center is at the core of Sandia`s Advanced Manufacturing effort which spans the entire product realization process.

  18. Manufacturing Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, James L.

    This curriculum guide is designed to assist junior high school industrial arts teachers in planning new courses and revising existing courses in manufacturing technology. Addressed in the individual units of the guide are the following topics: introduction to manufacturing, materials processing, personnel management, production management,…

  19. Fire exposure of empty 30B cylinders

    SciTech Connect

    Ziehlke, K.T.

    1991-12-31

    Cylinders for UF{sub 6} handling, transport, and storage are designed and built as unfired pressure vessels under ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code criteria and standards. They are normally filled and emptied while UF{sub 6} is in its liquid phase. Transport cylinders such as the Model 30B are designed for service at 200 psi and 250{degrees}F, to sustain the process conditions which prevail during filling or emptying operations. While in transport, however, at ambient temperature the UF{sub 6} is solid, and the cylinder interior is well below atmospheric pressure. When the cylinders contain isotopically enriched product (above 1.0 percent U-235), they are transported in protective overpacks which function to guard the cylinders and their contents against thermal or mechanical damage in the event of possible transport accidents. Two bare Model 30B cylinders were accidentally exposed to a storage warehouse fire in which a considerable amount of damage was sustained by stored materials and the building structure, as well as by the cylinder valves and valve protectors. The cylinders were about six years old, and had been cleaned, inspected, hydrotested, and re-certified for service, but were still empty at the time of the fire. The privately-owned cylinders were transferred to DOE for testing and evaluation of the fire damage.

  20. Overseas shipments of 48Y cylinders

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, R.T.; Furlan, A.S.

    1991-12-31

    This paper describes experiences with two incidents of overseas shipments of uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) cylinders. The first incident involved nine empty UF{sub 6} cylinders in enclosed sea containers. Three UF{sub 6} cylinders broke free from their tie-downs and damaged and contaminated several sea containers. This paper describes briefly how decontamination was carried out. The second incident involved a shipment of 14 full UF{sub 6} cylinders. Although the incident did not cause an accident, the potential hazard was significant. The investigation of the cause of the near accident is recounted. Recommendations to alleviate future similar incidents for both cases are presented.

  1. Vortex motion behind a circular cylinder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foeppl, L.

    1983-01-01

    Vortex motion behind a circular cylinder moving through water is discussed. It is shown that a pair of vortices form behind a moving cylinder and that their centers will move along a predictable curve. This curve represents an equilibrium condition which, however, is subject to perturbation. The stability of the vortex pair is investigated. Movement of the vortex pair away from the cylinder is calculated as an explanation of the resistance of the cylinder. Finally, the principles elaborated are applied to the flow around a flat plate.

  2. Cylinder head cover structure for a V-type engine

    SciTech Connect

    Okada, M.; Nishida, M.; Hokazono, K.

    1988-11-15

    This patent describes a cylinder head cover structure for a cylinder engine having first and second cylinder heads for forming first and second cylinder banks, each cylinder head being provided, in an inner side wall thereof, with intake ports each communicating with a cylinder formed in the cylinder bank, at least one camshaft provided in each cylinder bank above intake and exhaust valves to drive the valves in synchronization with rotation of the engine and supported for rotation by a plurality of bearings, discrete intake passages each of which is connected to one of the intake ports of one of the cylinder banks and extends above the other cylinder bank, and cylinder head covers mounted on the respective cylinder heads, characterized in that recessed portions are formed in each of the cylinder head covers at corresponding portions of the camshaft and respective the discrete intake passages extend through corresponding ones of the recessed portions.

  3. Infrared Brazing Fe3Al Using Ag-Based Filler Metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiue, Ren-Kae; Li, Yao; Wu, Shyi-Kaan; Wu, Ling-Mei

    2010-11-01

    The microstructural evolution and bonding shear strength of infrared brazed Fe3Al using Ag and BAg-8 (72Ag-28Cu in wt pct) braze alloys have been studied. The Ag-rich phase alloyed with Al dominates the entire Ag brazed joints, and the shear strength is independent of the brazing time. The BAg-8 brazed joint contains Ag-Cu eutectic for all brazing conditions, and its shear strength increases slightly with increasing brazing time. The highest shear strength of 181 MPa is acquired from the joint infrared brazed at 1073 K (800 °C) for 600 seconds. A thin layer of Fe3Al is identified at the interface between the brazed zone and the substrate for both braze alloys. An Al depletion zone in the Fe3Al substrate next to the interfacial Fe3Al is identified as the α-Fe phase. The dissolution of Al from the Fe3Al substrate into the molten braze causes the formation of α-Fe in the Fe3Al substrate.

  4. Test results of a Nb3Al/Nb3Sn subscale magnet for accelerator application

    DOE PAGES

    Iio, Masami; Xu, Qingjin; Nakamoto, Tatsushi; ...

    2015-01-28

    The High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK) has been developing a Nb3Al and Nb3Sn subscale magnet to establish the technology for a high-field accelerator magnet. The development goals are a feasibility demonstration for a Nb3Al cable and the technology acquisition of magnet fabrication with Nb3Al superconductors. KEK developed two double-pancake racetrack coils with Rutherford-type cables composed of 28 Nb3Al wires processed by rapid heating, quenching, and transformation in collaboration with the National Institute for Materials Science and the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. The magnet was fabricated to efficiently generate a high magnetic field in a minimum-gap common-coil configuration with twomore » Nb3Al coils sandwiched between two Nb3Sn coils produced by the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. A shell-based structure and a “bladder and key” technique have been used for adjusting coil prestress during both the magnet assembly and the cool down. In the first excitation test of the magnet at 4.5 K performed in June 2014, the highest quench current of the Nb3Sn coil, i.e., 9667 A, was reached at 40 A/s corresponding to 9.0 T in the Nb3Sn coil and 8.2 T in the Nb3Al coil. The quench characteristics of the magnet were studied.« less

  5. Internal combustion engine cylinder-to-cylinder balancing with balanced air-fuel ratios

    DOEpatents

    Harris, Ralph E.; Bourn, Gary D.; Smalley, Anthony J.

    2006-01-03

    A method of balancing combustion among cylinders of an internal combustion engine. For each cylinder, a normalized peak firing pressure is calculated as the ratio of its peak firing pressure to its combustion pressure. Each cylinder's normalized peak firing pressure is compared to a target value for normalized peak firing pressure. The fuel flow is adjusted to any cylinder whose normalized peak firing pressure is not substantially equal to the target value.

  6. Manufacturing technology

    SciTech Connect

    Blaedel, K.L.

    1997-02-01

    The specific goals of the Manufacturing Technology thrust area are to develop an understanding of fundamental fabrication processes, to construct general purpose process models that will have wide applicability, to document our findings and models in journals, to transfer technology to LLNL programs, industry, and colleagues, and to develop continuing relationships with industrial and academic communities to advance our collective understanding of fabrication processes. Advances in four projects are described here, namely Design of a Precision Saw for Manufacturing, Deposition of Boron Nitride Films via PVD, Manufacturing and Coating by Kinetic Energy Metallization, and Magnet Design and Application.

  7. Thermoelectric properties and electronic structure of the zintl-phase Sr(3)AlSb(3).

    PubMed

    Zevalkink, Alex; Pomrehn, Gregory; Takagiwa, Yoshiki; Swallow, Jessica; Snyder, G Jeffrey

    2013-12-01

    The Zintl-phase Sr3 AlSb3 , which contains relatively earth-abundant and nontoxic elements, has many of the features that are necessary for good thermoelectric performance. The structure of Sr3 AlSb3 is characterized by isolated anionic units formed from pairs of edge-sharing tetrahedra. Its structure is distinct from previously studied chain-forming structures, Ca3 AlSb3 and Sr3 GaSb3 , both of which are known to be good thermoelectric materials. DFT predicts a relatively large band gap in Sr3 AlSb3 (Eg ≈1 eV) and a heavier band mass than that found in other chain-forming A3 MSb3 phases (A=Sr, Ca; M=Al, Ga). High-temperature transport measurements reveal both high resistivity and high Seebeck coefficients in Sr3 AlSb3 , which is consistent with the large calculated band gap. The thermal conductivity of Sr3 AlSb3 is found to be extremely low (≈ 0.55 W mK(-1) at 1000 K) due to the large, complex unit cell (56 atoms per primitive cell). Although the figure of merit (zT) has not been optimized in the current study, a single parabolic band model suggests that, when successfully doped, zT≈ 0.3 may be obtained at 600 K; this makes Sr3 AlSb3 promising for waste-heat recovery applications. Doping with Zn(2+) on the Al(3+) site has been attempted, but does not lead to the expected increase in carrier concentration.

  8. Vibrations and stresses in layered anisotropic cylinders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulholland, G. P.; Gupta, B. P.

    1976-01-01

    An equation describing the radial displacement in a k layered anisotropic cylinder was obtained. The cylinders are initially unstressed but are subjected to either a time dependent normal stress or a displacement at the external boundaries of the laminate. The solution is obtained by utilizing the Vodicka orthogonalization technique. Numerical examples are given to illustrate the procedure.

  9. Topping pressure for gas-storage cylinders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haben, R. L.

    1979-01-01

    With charts derived from gas-storage system model, required topping pressure can be determined from initial cylinder pressure and temperature of gas entering cylinder. Charts are available for hydrogen and oxygen and can be developed for other important industrial gases as well.

  10. Positive displacement cylinder measures corrosive liquid volume

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mariman, R. A.; Vendl, C. J.

    1966-01-01

    Positive displacement cylinder accurately measures volumetric flow rates of corrosive liquids. The cylinder is compatible with corrosive liquids and handles flow rates from zero to 75 gpm at pressures to 900 psig with an accuracy of 0.25 per cent.

  11. Efficient visual grasping alignment for cylinders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicewarner, Keith E.; Kelley, Robert B.

    1991-01-01

    Monocular information from a gripper-mounted camera is used to servo the robot gripper to grasp a cylinder. The fundamental concept for rapid pose estimation is to reduce the amount of information that needs to be processed during each vision update interval. The grasping procedure is divided into four phases: learn, recognition, alignment, and approach. In the learn phase, a cylinder is placed in the gripper and the pose estimate is stored and later used as the servo target. This is performed once as a calibration step. The recognition phase verifies the presence of a cylinder in the camera field of view. An initial pose estimate is computed and uncluttered scan regions are selected. The radius of the cylinder is estimated by moving the robot a fixed distance toward the cylinder and observing the change in the image. The alignment phase processes only the scan regions obtained previously. Rapid pose estimates are used to align the robot with the cylinder at a fixed distance from it. The relative motion of the cylinder is used to generate an extrapolated pose-based trajectory for the robot controller. The approach phase guides the robot gripper to a grasping position. The cylinder can be grasped with a minimal reaction force and torque when only rough global pose information is initially available.

  12. Extinction properties of infinitely long graphite cylinders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jazbi, B.; Hoyle, F.; Wickramasinghe, N. C.

    1991-12-01

    The extinction efficiencies of randomly oriented infinite graphite cylinders, including hollow cylinders are calculated, using the rigorous Kerker-Matijevic formulas. The peak in the mid-UV extinction varies in wavelength with particle radius and cavity size in a way that makes such particles of limited interest as models of interstellar grains.

  13. Stabilization of flow past a rounded cylinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samtaney, Ravi; Zhang, Wei

    2016-11-01

    We perform global linear stability analysis on low-Re flow past a rounded cylinder. The cylinder corners are rounded with a radius R, normalized as R+ = R / D where D is the cylinder diameter, and its effect on the flow stability characteristics is investigated. We compute the critical Reynolds number (Recr) for the onset of first instability, and quantify the perturbation growth rate for the super-critical flows. It is found that the flow can be stabilized by partially rounding the cylinder. Compared with the square and circular cylinders, the partially rounded cylinder has a higher Recr , attaining a maximum at around R+ = 0 . 30 , and the perturbation growth rate of the super-critical flows is reduced for Re <= 100 . We perform sensitivity analysis to explore the source of the stabilization. The growth rate sensitivity to base flow modification has two different spatial structures: the growth rate is sensitive to the wake backflow in a large region for square-like cylinders (R+ -> 0 . 00), while only the near-wake backflow is crucial for circular-like cylinders (R+ -> 0 . 50). The stability analysis results are also verified with those of the direct simulations and very good agreement is achieved. Supported by the KAUST Office of Competitive Research Funds under Award No. URF/1/1394-01. The supercomputer Shaheen at KAUST was utilized for the simulations.

  14. Smart Manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Davis, Jim; Edgar, Thomas; Graybill, Robert; Korambath, Prakashan; Schott, Brian; Swink, Denise; Wang, Jianwu; Wetzel, Jim

    2015-01-01

    Historic manufacturing enterprises based on vertically optimized companies, practices, market share, and competitiveness are giving way to enterprises that are responsive across an entire value chain to demand dynamic markets and customized product value adds; increased expectations for environmental sustainability, reduced energy usage, and zero incidents; and faster technology and product adoption. Agile innovation and manufacturing combined with radically increased productivity become engines for competitiveness and reinvestment, not simply for decreased cost. A focus on agility, productivity, energy, and environmental sustainability produces opportunities that are far beyond reducing market volatility. Agility directly impacts innovation, time-to-market, and faster, broader exploration of the trade space. These changes, the forces driving them, and new network-based information technologies offering unprecedented insights and analysis are motivating the advent of smart manufacturing and new information technology infrastructure for manufacturing.

  15. 9. General view of engine between cylinders with high pressure ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. General view of engine between cylinders with high pressure cylinder on left and low pressure cylinder on right. - Carnegie Steel-Ohio Works, Steam Engines, 912 Salt Springs Road, Youngstown, Mahoning County, OH

  16. Cost-Benefit Analysis for the Advanced Near Net Shape Technology (ANNST) Method for Fabricating Stiffened Cylinders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoner, Mary Cecilia; Hehir, Austin R.; Ivanco, Marie L.; Domack, Marcia S.

    2016-01-01

    This cost-benefit analysis assesses the benefits of the Advanced Near Net Shape Technology (ANNST) manufacturing process for fabricating integrally stiffened cylinders. These preliminary, rough order-of-magnitude results report a 46 to 58 percent reduction in production costs and a 7-percent reduction in weight over the conventional metallic manufacturing technique used in this study for comparison. Production cost savings of 35 to 58 percent were reported over the composite manufacturing technique used in this study for comparison; however, the ANNST concept was heavier. In this study, the predicted return on investment of equipment required for the ANNST method was ten cryogenic tank barrels when compared with conventional metallic manufacturing. The ANNST method was compared with the conventional multi-piece metallic construction and composite processes for fabricating integrally stiffened cylinders. A case study compared these three alternatives for manufacturing a cylinder of specified geometry, with particular focus placed on production costs and process complexity, with cost analyses performed by the analogy and parametric methods. Furthermore, a scalability study was conducted for three tank diameters to assess the highest potential payoff of the ANNST process for manufacture of large-diameter cryogenic tanks. The analytical hierarchy process (AHP) was subsequently used with a group of selected subject matter experts to assess the value of the various benefits achieved by the ANNST method for potential stakeholders. The AHP study results revealed that decreased final cylinder mass and quality assurance were the most valued benefits of cylinder manufacturing methods, therefore emphasizing the relevance of the benefits achieved with the ANNST process for future projects.

  17. Spin-up in a rectangular cylinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, Dawn L.

    1993-12-01

    We examined the spin-up from rest of water in a rectangular cylinder. The presence of corners in the cylinder causes the formation of eddies. We found that the number of eddies, as well as eddy size, position, and rotation rate were dependent on the aspect ratio of the cylinder, the depth of the fluid, and the final angular velocity of the cylinder. Two time scales were found to be important in this experiment: the traditional Ekman number based on depth, which defines the time scale required for spin-up and an additional Ekman number based on the cylinder length which provides some information about the evolution of the fluid pathlines in route to spin-up. This second Eckman number appears to provide an explanation for both the agreement and disagreement of the experimental results herein and previously published results.

  18. Fabrication of Nb3Al superconducting bulks by mechanical alloying method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Ming; Pan, Xi Feng; Zhang, Ping Xiang; Cui, Li Jun; Li, Cheng Shan; Yan, Guo; Chen, Yong Liang; Zhao, Yong

    2014-06-01

    Since it can directly prepare the Nb-Al supersaturated solid solution, mechanical alloying is thought as a promising method to make high-performance Nb3Al superconductors at a low temperature annealing condition, without the complicated rapid heating, quenching and transformation (RHQT) process. In this paper, we investigate the effects of milling time, the content of Al and annealing temperature on phase formation and superconducting properties of mechanical alloying Nb3Al bulks in detail. The study results show that Nb-Al supersaturated solid solution could be obtained by high energy ball milling, as long as the Nb-Al blended powder is ball milled for 1 h, even the amorphous phase appears with the ball milling time prolonging to 10 h, the Nb-Al intermetalics do not come out either. Amorphous phase is hardly beneficial to synthesizing the Nb3Al phase, instead, it will make the products impurity. By optimizing the milling time, elements composition and annealing temperature , pure Nb3Al phase is obtained and the highest onset superconducting transition temperature (Tc-onset) reaches 15.8 K and the critical current density (Jc) 106 A/cm2 at 8 K without outer field. This paper also discusses the main reasons that affect the superconducting properties of mechanical alloying Nb3Al superconductor.

  19. Machinability of Intermetallic Compound Fe3Al from the Viewpoint of Tool Wear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasaki, Tomohiro; Yakou, Takao

    The intermetallic compound Fe3Al was processed by a reactive sintering process, and its machinability from the viewpoint of tool wear was investigated using dry turning. In cutting Fe3Al with a cemented carbide tool, the tool life was approximately one tenth that of cutting carbon tool steel SK3 because of intense flank wear. The tool life for cutting Fe3Al using the cemented carbide P20(WC-TiC-TaC-Co) tool was longer than for cemented carbide K10(WC-Co). In addition, a cermet tool reached its tool life limit by chipping for the whole cutting speed range measured. The roughness of the machined surface of Fe3Al cut using a cemented carbide tool was much smaller than for SK3. However, for cutting using the cermet tool, the roughness showed a sharp rise due to chipping. It was found that the wear rate of the WC particles in the tool material is larger than TiC particles. The results of the study suggest that the cemented carbide P20 is suitable for cutting Fe3Al.

  20. Quench tests and FEM analysis of Nb3Al Rutherford cables and small racetrack magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Yamada, R.; Kikuchi, A.; Chlachidze, G.; Ambrosio, G.; Andreev, N.; Barzi, E.; Carcagno, R.; Kashikin, V.V.; Kotelnikov, S.; Lamm, M.; Novitski, I.; /Fermilab /Tsukuba Magnet Lab. /KEK, Tsukuba

    2008-12-01

    In collaboration between NIMS and Fermilab, we have made copper stabilized Nb{sub 3}Al Rutherford cables, using Nb-matrixed and Ta-matrixed strands. First these cables were investigated at high current in low self field using a flux pump. Using these Rutherford cables, we built and tested small racetrack magnets. The magnet made with the Nb-matrixed strand showed the flux jump instability in low field. The small racetrack magnet wound with the Ta-matrixed Nb{sub 3}Al Rutherford cable was very stable at 4.5 K operation without any instability, as well as at 2.2 K operation. With the successful operation of the small racetrack magnet up to its short sample data, the feasibility of the Nb{sub 3}Al strand and its Rutherford cable for their application to high field magnets is established. The characteristics of Nb{sub 3}Al Rutherford cable is compared with that of the Nb{sub 3}Sn Rutherford cable and the advantages of Nb{sub 3}Al Rutherford cable are discussed.

  1. Quasielastic neutron scattering study of hydrogen motion in A15-type Nb3 AlHx

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skripov, A. V.; Voyevodina, L. S.; Hempelmann, R.

    2006-01-01

    In order to study the mechanism and parameters of hydrogen diffusion in A15-type intermetallic Nb3Al , we have performed high-resolution quasielastic neutron scattering measurements in Nb3AlHx ( x=0.13 and 1.77) over the temperature range 10-407K . The experimental results are consistent with a coexistence of two hydrogen jump processes: the fast H motion along the chains formed by interstitial d (Nb4) sites and the slower H jumps from one chain to another. It is found that the modified Chudley-Elliott model taking into account the structure of the d -site sublattice gives a qualitative description of the experimental data for Nb3AlH0.13 . The faster jump process in Nb3AlH0.13 corresponding to the long-range H diffusion along the d -site chains is characterized by the activation energy of 194meV . In Nb3AlH1.77 the d -site chains are more than half filled, and the faster jump process is well described in terms of a model of local H jumps within pairs of nearest-neighbor d sites on the chains.

  2. Tests on Stiffened Circular Cylinders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, Marshall

    1941-01-01

    Compressive tests were made of two series of stiffened circular cylindrical shells under axial load. All the shells were 16 inches in diameter by 24 inches in length and were made of aluminum-alloy sheet curved to the proper radius and welded with one longitudinal weld. The ratios of diameter to thickness of shell wall in the two series of specimens were 258 and 572. Strains were measured with Huggenberger tensometers at a number of gage lines on the stiffeners and shell. The results of these tests indicate that a spacing of circumferential stiffeners equal to 0.67 times the radius is too great to strengthen the shell wall appreciably. The results are not inclusive enough to show the optimum in stiffeners. Plain cylinders without stiffeners developed ultimate strengths approximately half as great as the buckling strengths computed by the equation resulting from the classical theory and slightly greater than those computed by Donnell's large deflection theory.

  3. Phase formation and superconducting properties of mechanically alloyed Nb3(Al1-x Ge x ) system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Pingyuan; Chen, Yongliang; Xu, Liyuan; Zhang, Yun; Pan, Xifeng; Yan, Guo; Zhang, Yong; Cheng, C. H.; Feng, Yong; Zhao, Yong

    2016-07-01

    Mechanically alloyed Nb3(Al1-x Ge x ) compounds with nominal composition x = 0%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25% and 30% were synthesized using high-energy ball milling. The effects of Ge content and sintering temperature on the formation of the Nb3Al superconducting phase at a relatively low temperature without the extremely high-temperature rapid heating, quenching and transformation process were studied. The results revealed that Ge doping in Nb3Al improved the formation of the A15 phase at low temperatures, enhanced the superconducting transition temperature (T c), and refined the grain structure, thus improving the overall superconducting properties. The pinning behavior was also studied for the optimized sample.

  4. Fabrication of Nb3Al superconductor by the optimized mechanical alloying method with low temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y.; Lin, W. J.; Xu, L. Y.; Yang, D. W.; Chen, Y. L.; Li, P. Y.; Pan, X. F.; Yan, G.; Zhao, Y.

    2016-11-01

    Mechanical alloying was used to synthesize Nb3Al superconductor successfully, and the process was optimization under various preparation conditions. In the current study, Nb3Al superconductor with Tc of 15.6 K was directly prepared from high quality Nb (Al) solid solution by mechanical alloying method and heat treatment at a low temperature of 800 to 900 °C. The results showed that Nb3Al superconducting wire with high performance could be prepared after heat treatment below the melting point of Cu (1080°C) and using Nb (Al) solid solution and conventional powder in tube (PIT) method, thus effectively avoiding ultra-high temperature heat treatment and special rapid heating and quenching(RHQ) device.

  5. A new ordered tetragonal phase in the Ti3Al+Nb system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsiung, L. M.; Wadley, H. N. G.

    1992-01-01

    Results are reported from an experimental study of phase stability in a plasma-sprayed Ti3Al+Nb alloy using TEM and electron diffraction techniques. The alloys was produced from Ti3Al+Nb powder via an inductively coupled plasma deposition process. Evidence was found for the ordering of the B2 phase to a structure similar to the DO3-type phase, but with a tetragonal distortion. An ordered tetragonal phase (T) is proposed to account for these observations, and the existence of the B2 - T ordering transformation in the Ti3Al+Nb system is suggested. The T phase can be regarded as a DO3-like phase with a tetragonal distortion. The tegragonality c0/a0 is approximately equal to 1.02, and a0 equals 0.65 +/-0.01 nm.

  6. Energy Levels and Intensity Parameters of Ho3(+) Ions in Y3Al5O12 and Lu3Al5O12

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walsh, Brian M.; Grew, Gary W.; Barnes, Norman P.

    2006-01-01

    The energy levels of the trivalent lanthanide Ho(sup 3+) in Y3Al5O12 (YAG) and Lu3Al5O12 (LuAG) have been measured. The Stark split levels for the first nine Ho manifolds in these materials have been measured, and the results have been fit to a free ion plus crystal field Hamiltonian to generate a theoretical set of energy levels. Crystal field parameters were varied to determine the best fit between experimental and theoretical energy levels. The energy levels of Ho:LuAG are seen to be very similar to those in Ho:YAG. However, subtle changes resulting from replacing Y(sup 3+) with Lu(sup 3+) in the garnet crystal Y3Al5O12 result in different transition wavelengths in LuAG. This has implications for Ho (sup 5)I7yields (sup 5)I8 lasers operating at approximately 2.1 micrometers. Although the energy levels have been measured previously in Ho:YAG, they have not been measured in Ho:LuAG. A comparison of the energy levels in Ho:YAG measured here show some discrepancies with previous measurements. The consistency of the energy level placement between Ho:LuAG and Ho:YAG indicate that the earlier studies may have some errors in the assignments. Finally, a Judd-Ofelt analysis is performed on Ho:YAG and Ho:LuAG to determine the intensity parameters, and thus, the transition probabilities and branching ratios of the first eight excited manifolds.

  7. Melting and thermodynamic properties of pyrope (Mg3Al2Si3O12)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tequi, C.; Robie, R.A.; Hemingway, B.S.; Neuville, D.R.; Richet, P.

    1991-01-01

    The heat capacity of Mg3Al2Si3O12 glass has been measured from 10 to 1000 K by adiabatic and differential scanning calorimetry. The heat capacity of crystalline pyrope has been determined from drop-calorimetry measurements between 820 and 1300 K. From these and previously published results a consistent set of thermodynamic data is presented for pyrope and Mg3Al2Si3O12 glass and liquid for the interval 0-2000 K. The enthalpy of fusion at 1570 ?? 30 K, the metastable congruent 1-bar melting point, is 241 ?? 12 kJ/mol. ?? 1991.

  8. Critical currents in A-15 structure Nb3Al converted from cold-worked bcc structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woollam, J. A.; Alterovitz, S. A.; Haugland, E.; Webb, G. W.

    1980-01-01

    The paper considers critical currents in A-15 structure Nb3Al converted from a cold-worked bcc structure. Nb3Al prepared in the ductile phase by quenching and mechanical working followed by conversion to the A-15 structure could carry currents above 10 to the 9th power A/sq m in fields near 20 T. These critical currents are comparable to those of Nb3Ge and V3Ga which are closest competing materials for use in high fields; further enhancement of the critical current is possible if thermal treatments are optimized.

  9. Cyclic oxidation of aluminide coatings on Ti3Al+Nb

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smialek, James L.; Gedwill, Michael A.; Brindley, Pamela K.

    1990-01-01

    A number of pack aluminide coatings were produced on fiber-reinforced Ti3Al+Nb composites and were compared for their protection effect in cyclic oxidation at 982 C. It was found that pack aluminizing of Ti3Al+Nb can successfully produce an oxidation resistant TiAl3 coating which forms alpha-Al2O3 scales. These coatings offer a substantial improvement over the uncoated matrix material in 982 C cyclic oxidation. Coating cracks were found to contribute to degradation of thick coatings.

  10. Spanwise plumes in wakes behind heated cylinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, S. Ajith; Lal, S. Anil; Sameen, A.

    2013-11-01

    3D wake transition in flow past cylinder is interesting theoretically and industrially. A three dimensional Finite volume computation has been performed on an incompressible flow past heated cylinder to understand the wake behavior behind the cylinder, under the Boussinesq assumption. We study the heat transfer characteristics and the coherent structures behind the cylinder at different Prandtl numbers. In forced convection, the 3D transition occurs above Reynolds number, Re = 180-190 (Re is based on the cylinder diameter). However, the present 3D computational analyses show that in mixed convection, the so called ``mode-E'' instability (3D transition of wake behind the cylinder caused by the heating of the cylinder) happens at a much lower Reynolds number. The co-existence of mushroom like coherent structures called the plumes along with the shed vortices is observed for a range of heating conditions. These plumes originates from the core of the upper vortex rows at a definite span wise wavelengths. The dependence of Prandtl number on the span wise wavenumber of these plumes is also analyzed.

  11. Gas cylinder release rate testing and analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Despres, Joseph; Sweeney, Joseph; Yedave, Sharad; Chambers, Barry

    2012-11-01

    There are varying cylinder technologies employed for the storage of gases, each resulting in a potentially different hazard level to the surroundings in the event of a gas release. Subatmospheric Gas delivery Systems Type I (SAGS I) store and deliver gases subatmospherically, while Subatmospheric Gas delivery Systems Type II (SAGS II) deliver gases subatmospherically, but store them at high pressure. Standard high pressure gas cylinders store and deliver their contents at high pressure. Due to the differences in these cylinder technologies, release rates in the event of a leak or internal component failure, can vary significantly. This paper details the experimental and theoretical results of different Arsine (AsH3) gas cylinder release scenarios. For the SAGS II experimental analysis, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to determine the spatial concentration profiles when a surrogate gas, CF4, was released via a simulated leak within an ion implanter. Various SAGS I and SAGS II cylinder types and failure modes were tested. Additionally, theoretical analysis was performed to support an understanding of the different potential AsH3 leak rates. The results of this work show that the effects of a leak from the various cylinder types can be quite different, with the concentrations resulting from cylinders containing high pressure gas often being in excess of IDLH levels.

  12. Electrostatic field between non-concentric cylinders

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, M

    2000-01-10

    This report describes a closed-form solution to the electrostatic potential, and the electric field, between non-concentric cylinders, with the inner cylinder charged and the outer cylinder grounded. This problem is an abstraction of the situation of an electron beam within a drift tube. Capacitive and surface current probes on the inner wall of the outer cylinder are used to detect the asymmetry of the field when the beam is off center. The solution of this problem allows for a quantitative relationship between probe-array signals and beam deflection. probe-arrays of this type are called ''beam bugs'' at LLNL. The solution described here is suggested by the analysis presented in [3]. The essential point is that the 2D potential for a line source decreases along a radius as the logarithm of the distance. The non-concentric cylinder problem has a unique profile of this type for each ray from ({rho}, {sigma}) linking the inner cylinder at equipotential V{sub 2}, and the outer cylinder at equipotential 0.

  13. The measurement of maximum cylinder pressures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hicks, Chester W

    1929-01-01

    The work presented in this report was undertaken at the Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics to determine a suitable method for measuring the maximum pressures occurring in aircraft engine cylinders. The study and development of instruments for the measurement of maximum cylinder pressures has been conducted in connection with carburetor and oil engine investigations on a single cylinder aircraft-type engine. Five maximum cylinder-pressure devices have been designed, and tested, in addition to the testing of three commercial indicators. Values of maximum cylinder pressures are given as obtained with various indicators for the same pressures and for various kinds and values of maximum cylinder pressures, produced chiefly by variation of the injection advance angle in high-speed oil engine. The investigations indicate that the greatest accuracy in determining maximum cylinder pressures can be obtained with an electric, balanced-pressure, diaphragm or disk-type indicator so constructed as to have a diaphragm or disk of relatively large area and minimum seat width and mass.

  14. Surface topography characterization of automotive cylinder liner surfaces using fractal methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence K, Deepak; Ramamoorthy, B.

    2013-09-01

    This paper explores the use of fractal approaches for the possible characterization of automotive cylinder bore surface topography by employing methods such as differential box counting method, power spectral method and structure function method. Three stage plateau honing experiments were conducted to manufacture sixteen cylinder liner surfaces with different surface topographies, for the study. The three fractal methods are applied on the image data obtained using a computer vision system and 3-D profile data obtained using vertical scanning white light interferometer from the cylinder liner surfaces. The computed fractal parameters (fractal dimension and topothesy) are compared and correlated with the measured 3-D Abbott-Firestone curve parameters (Sk, Spk, Svk, Sr1 and Sr2) that are currently used for the surface topography characterization cylinder liner surfaces. The analyses of the results indicated that the fractal dimension (D) computed using the vision data as well as 3-D profile data by employing three different fractal methods consistantly showed a negative correlation with the functional surface topographical parameters that represents roughness at peak (Spk),core (Sk) and valley (Svk) regions and positive correlation with the upper bearing area (Sr1) and lower bearing area (Sr2) of the automotive of cylinder bore surface.

  15. Recent advances in alloy design of Ni{sub 3}Al alloys for structural use

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, C.T.; George, E.P.

    1996-12-31

    This is a comprehensive review of recent advances in R&D of Ni{sub 3}Al-based alloys for structural use at elevated temperatures in hostile environments. Recent studies indicate that polycrystalline Ni{sub 3}Al is intrinsically quite ductile at ambient temperatures, and its poor tensile ductility and brittle grain-boundary fracture are caused mainly by moisture-induced hydrogen embrittlement when the aluminide is tested in moisture- or hydrogen-containing environments. Tensile ductility is improved by alloying with substitutional and interstitial elements. Among these additives, B is most effective in suppressing environmental embrittlement and enhancing grain-boundary cohesion, resulting in a dramatic increase of tensile ductility at room temperature. Both B-doped and B-free Ni{sub 3}Al alloys exhibit brittle intergranular fracture and low ductility at intermediate temperatures (300-850 C) because of oxygen-induced embrittlement in oxidizing environments. Cr is found to be most effective in alleviating elevated-temperature embrittlement. Parallel efforts on alloy development using physical metallurgy principles have led to development of several Ni{sub 3}Al alloys for industrial use. The unique properties of these alloys are briefly discussed. 56 refs, 15 figs, 3 tabs.

  16. Pressure dependence of the resistivity of Ce/sub 3/Al

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence, J.M.; Chen, Y.Y.; Thompson, J.D.; Borges, H.A.

    1987-01-01

    Ce/sub 3/Al was prepared from very high purity cerium. The resistivity at various pressures show a structural transition near 100/sup 0/K at zero pressure. This antiferromagnetic heavy fermion behavior evolves smoothly towards nonmagnetic large T/sub K/ (slightly overweight fermion) behavior as the pressure is raised. 3 figs. (DLC)

  17. Hydrogen in the Ti3Al intermetallic compound: Study by the NMR method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soloninin, A. V.; Skripov, A. V.; Buzlukov, A. L.; Aleksashin, B. A.; Medvedev, E. Yu.

    2017-02-01

    The times of nuclear spin-lattice relaxation have been measured and the spectra of NMR for 1H and 27Al in Ti3AlH x hydrogenated intermetallic compounds with hydrogen concentrations of x = 0, 0.31, 0.51, 1.0, 2.0, and 4.32 in a wide range of temperatures (10-500 K) and resonance frequencies (8.2-90 MHz) have been recorded. The analysis of low-temperature relaxation data has shown that the addition of hydrogen with a concentration of x ≥ 2 leads to a significant change in the density of electron states at the Fermi level. It has been found that the hydrogen mobility in Ti3AlH x strongly depends on its concentration. For solid solutions of hydrogen in Ti3Al with x < 1, the mobility of hydrogen atoms on the scale of frequencies of NMR in the investigated temperature range has not been detected. In Ti3AlH x compounds with x ≥ 2, the fast diffusion of hydrogen is observed, which can be related to changes in the structure of these compounds.

  18. Method For Making Electronic Circuits Having Nial And Ni3al Substrates

    DOEpatents

    Deevi, Seetharama C.; Sikka, Vinod K.

    2001-01-30

    A method for making electronic circuit component having improved mechanical properties and thermal conductivity comprises steps of providing NiAl and/or Ni.sub.3 Al, and forming an alumina layer thereupon prior to applying the conductive elements. Additional layers of copper-aluminum alloy or copper further improve mechanical strength and thermal conductivity.

  19. Electronic circuits having NiAl and Ni.sub.3 Al substrates

    DOEpatents

    Deevi, Seetharama C.; Sikka, Vinod K.

    1999-01-01

    An electronic circuit component having improved mechanical properties and thermal conductivity comprises NiAl and/or Ni.sub.3 Al, upon which an alumina layer is formed prior to applying the conductive elements. Additional layers of copper-aluminum alloy or copper further improve mechanical strength and thermal conductivity.

  20. Ni3Al-based alloys for die and tool application

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Chain T.; Bloom, Everett E.

    2001-01-01

    A novel Ni.sub.3 Al-based alloy exhibits strengths and hardness in excess of the standard base alloy IC-221M at temperatures of up to about 1000.degree. C. The alloy is useful in tool and die applications requiring such temperatures, and for structural elements in engineering systems exposed to such temperatures.

  1. Design of a High Field Nb3Al Common Coil Magnet

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Qingjin; Sasaki, Kenichi; Nakamoto, Tatsushi; Terashima, Akio; Tsuchiya, Kiyosumi; Yamamoto, Akira; Kikuchi, Akihiro; Takeuchi, Takao; Sabbi, GianLuca; Caspi, Shlomo; Ferracin, Paolo; Felice, Helene; Hafalia, Ray; Zlobin, Alexander; Barzi, Emauela; Yamada, Ryuji

    2009-10-19

    A high field Nb{sub 3}Al common coil magnet is under development as an R&D of 'Advanced Superconducting Magnets for the LHC Luminosity Upgrade', in the framework of the CERN-KEK cooperation program. The goal of this research is to demonstrate the feasibility of high field magnet wound with Nb{sub 3}Al cable. The common coil approach and the shell-based structure were adopted in the design of this magnet. Besides three Nb{sub 3}Al coils, two Nb{sub 3}Sn coils were included to increase the peak field of the whole magnet. The two types of coils were designed with different straight lengths to reduce the peak field of the Nb{sub 3}Sn coils. The peak fields of the Nb{sub 3}Al and Nb{sub 3}Sn coils are 13.1 T and 11.8 T respectively. An aluminum shell together with four aluminum rods applies stress to the coils to overcome the Lorenz force during excitation. Two different support structures for the superconducting coils were introduced in this paper. The development status is also presented.

  2. Synthesis, physical properties and band structure of non-magnetic Y3AlC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghule, S. S.; Garde, C. S.; Ramakrishnan, S.; Singh, S.; Rajarajan, A. K.; Laad, Meena

    2016-10-01

    Y3AlC has been synthesized by arc melting and subsequent annealing. Rietveld analysis of the powder x-ray diffraction (XRD) data confirms cubic Pm-3m structure. Electrical resistivity (ρ) of Y3AlC exhibits metallic behaviour. No sign of superconductivity is observed down to the lowest measurement temperatures of 4.2 K in ρ, and 2 K in magnetic susceptibility (χ) and specific heat (Cp) measurements. The value of the electronic specific heat coefficient γ is 1.36 mJ/K2 mol from which the density of states (DOS) at the Fermi energy (EF) is obtained as 0.57 states/eV.unit cell. The value of Debye temperature θD is estimated to be 315 K. Electronic band structure calculations of Y3AlC reveal a pseudo-gap in the DOS at EF leading to a small value of 0.5 states/eV unit cell which matches quite well with that obtained from γ. Non-zero value of the DOS indicates metallic behaviour as confirmed by our ρ data. Covalent and ionic bonding seem to co-exist with metallic bonding in Y3AlC as indicated by van Arkel- Ketelaar triangle for Zintl-like systems.

  3. Atomic Relaxation and Vacancy-Interstitial Recombination in Zr and Zr3Al

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-12-01

    tetragonal (BCT) lattice, which is entirely equivalent to an FCC structure . The crystallite faces are (1 0 0 )FCC = (010)BCT, (011) FC C = ( 0 0 1 )BCT...body centered tetragonal crystal equivalent to the FCC structure which corresponds to Zr3Al. This is evident in Figure B4, which contains the

  4. Atomistic structure of the coherent Ni/Ni[sub 3]Al interface

    SciTech Connect

    Farkas, D. . Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering); Campos, M.F. de; Souze, R.M. de; Goldenstein, H. . Dept. de Metalurgia)

    1994-02-01

    Most Ni-based superalloys are strengthened by the presence of coherent precipitates of an ordered fcc bases phase, known as [gamma][prime]. This phase is basically Ni[sub 3]Al. The precipitates are coherent up to a certain size and they present a cubic shape with faces oriented in the (100) planes of both matrix and precipitate. The detailed atomistic structure of this interface has not been studied. Interest in the use of ordered intermetallic compounds as possible structural materials has resulted in a large amount of work in Ni[sub 3]Al and in particular, the development of interatomic potentials for the Ni-Al system using the embedded atom technique. These potentials have been employed in the simulation of a variety of defects in Ni[sub 3]Al, including dislocation cores, grain boundaries and free surfaces. However, there is no simulation of the Ni/Ni[sub 3]Al interface structure using the embedded atom method. The objective of the present work is to carry out such a simulation. Besides the practical importance of the interface in superalloys, it is the simplest type of interface that can be modeled and it is a good starting point for interface work using the embedded atom technique.

  5. Quantum walk on a cylinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bru, Luis A.; de Valcárcel, Germán J.; Di Molfetta, Giuseppe; Pérez, Armando; Roldán, Eugenio; Silva, Fernando

    2016-09-01

    We consider the two-dimensional alternate quantum walk on a cylinder. We concentrate on the study of the motion along the open dimension, in the spirit of looking at the closed coordinate as a small or "hidden" extra dimension. If one starts from localized initial conditions on the lattice, the dynamics of the quantum walk that is obtained after tracing out the small dimension shows the contribution of several components which can be understood from the study of the dispersion relations for this problem. In fact, these components originate from the contribution of the possible values of the quasimomentum in the closed dimension. In the continuous space-time limit, the different components manifest as a set of Dirac equations, with each quasimomentum providing the value of the corresponding mass. We briefly discuss the possible link of these ideas to the simulation of high-energy physical theories that include extra dimensions. Finally, entanglement between the coin and spatial degrees of freedom is studied, showing that the entanglement entropy clearly overcomes the value reached with only one spatial dimension.

  6. Optimization of High Temperature Hoop Creep Response in ODS-Fe3Al Tubes

    SciTech Connect

    Kad, B.K.; Heatherington, J.H.; McKamey, C.; Wright, I.; Sikka, V.; Judkins, R.

    2003-04-22

    Oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) Fe3Al alloys are currently being developed for heat-exchanger tubes for eventual use at operating temperatures of up to 1100 C in the power generation industry. The development challenges include (a) efforts to produce thin walled ODS-Fe3Al tubes, employing powder extrusion methodologies, with (b) adequate increased strength for service at operating temperatures to (c) mitigate creep failures by enhancing the as-processed grain size. A detailed and comprehensive research and development methodology is prescribed to produce ODS-Fe3Al thin walled tubes. Current single step extrusion consolidation methodologies typically yield 8ft. lengths of 1-3/8 inch diameter, 1/8 inch wall thickness ODS-Fe3Al tubes. The process parameters for such consolidation methodologies have been prescribed and evaluated as being routinely reproducible. Recrystallization treatments at 1200 C produce elongated grains (with their long axis parallel to the extrusion axis), typically 200-2000 {micro}m in diameter, and several millimeters long. The dispersion distribution is unaltered on a micro scale by recrystallization, but the high aspect ratio grain shape typically obtained limits grain spacing and consequently the hoop creep response. Improving hoop creep in ODS-alloys requires an understanding and manipulating the factors that control grain alignment and recrystallization behavior. Current efforts are focused on examining the processing dependent longitudinal vs. transverse creep anisotropy, and exploring post-extrusion methods to improve hoop creep response in ODS-Fe3Al alloy tubes. In this report we examine the mechanisms of hoop creep failure and describe our efforts to improve creep performance via variations in thermal-mechanical treatments.

  7. Investigations of Flow past Spinning Cylinders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehmedagic, Igbal; Carlucci, Pasquale; Buckley, Liam; Carlucci, Donald; Aljallis, Elias; Thangam, Siva

    2013-11-01

    A subsonic wind tunnel is used to perform experiments on flow past spinning cylinders. The blunt cylinders are sting-mounted and oriented such that their axis of rotation is aligned with the mean flow. The experiments cover a Reynolds number range of up to 300000 and rotation numbers of up to 1.2 (based on cylinder diameter). The results for spinning cylinders with both rear-mounted and fore-mounted stings are presented. Computations are performed using a two-equation anisotropic turbulence model that is based on proper representation of the energy spectrum to capture rotation and curvature. The model performance is validated with benchmark experimental flows and implemented for analyzing the flow configuration used in the experimental study. Funded in part by U. S. Army, ARDEC.

  8. Experimental Investigations of Flow past Spinning Cylinders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlucci, Pasquale; Buckley, Liam; Mehmedagic, Igbal; Carlucci, Donald; Thangam, Siva

    2015-11-01

    Experimental investigations of flow past spinning cylinders is presented in the context of their application and relevance to flow past projectiles. A subsonic wind tunnel is used to perform experiments on flow past spinning cylinders that are sting-mounted and oriented such that their axis of rotation is aligned with the mean flow. The experiments cover a Reynolds number range of up to 300000 and rotation numbers of up to 2 (based on cylinder diameter). The experimental validation of the tunnel characteristics and the benchmarking of the flow field in the tunnel are described. The experimental results for spinning cylinders with both rear-mounted and fore-mounted stings are presented along with available computational and experimental findings. This work was funded in part by U. S. Army ARDEC.

  9. A Study of Gas Economizing Pneumatic Cylinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, T. C.; Wu, H. W.; Kuo, M. J.

    2006-10-01

    The pneumatic cylinder is the most typical actuator in the pneumatic equipment, and its mechanism is so simple that it is often used to operate point to point driving without the feedback loop in various automatic machines. But, the energy efficiency of pneumatic system is very poor compared with electrical systems and hydraulic systems. So, it is very important to discuss the energy saving for the pneumatic cylinder systems. In this thesis, we proposed three methods to apply the reduction in the air consumed for pneumatic cylinder systems. An air charge accumulator is used to absorb the exhausted compress air and a boost valve boosted the air to the higher pressure for used again. From the experiments, the direct used cylinder exhaust air may save about 40% of compress air.

  10. Theory of interacting dislocations on cylinders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amir, Ariel; Paulose, Jayson; Nelson, David R.

    2013-04-01

    We study the mechanics and statistical physics of dislocations interacting on cylinders, motivated by the elongation of rod-shaped bacterial cell walls and cylindrical assemblies of colloidal particles subject to external stresses. The interaction energy and forces between dislocations are solved analytically, and analyzed asymptotically. The results of continuum elastic theory agree well with numerical simulations on finite lattices even for relatively small systems. Isolated dislocations on a cylinder act like grain boundaries. With colloidal crystals in mind, we show that saddle points are created by a Peach-Koehler force on the dislocations in the circumferential direction, causing dislocation pairs to unbind. The thermal nucleation rate of dislocation unbinding is calculated, for an arbitrary mobility tensor and external stress, including the case of a twist-induced Peach-Koehler force along the cylinder axis. Surprisingly rich phenomena arise for dislocations on cylinders, despite their vanishing Gaussian curvature.

  11. Heat transfer in geometrically similar cylinders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riekert, P; Held, A

    1941-01-01

    The power and heat-stress conditions of geometrically similar engines are discussed. The advantages accruing from smaller cylinder dimensions are higher specific horsepower, lower weight per horsepower, lower piston temperature, and less frontal area, with reduced detonation tendency.

  12. Multi-cylinder hot gas engine

    DOEpatents

    Corey, John A.

    1985-01-01

    A multi-cylinder hot gas engine having an equal angle, V-shaped engine block in which two banks of parallel, equal length, equally sized cylinders are formed together with annular regenerator/cooler units surrounding each cylinder, and wherein the pistons are connected to a single crankshaft. The hot gas engine further includes an annular heater head disposed around a central circular combustor volume having a new balanced-flow hot-working-fluid manifold assembly that provides optimum balanced flow of the working fluid through the heater head working fluid passageways which are connected between each of the cylinders and their respective associated annular regenerator units. This balanced flow provides even heater head temperatures and, therefore, maximum average working fluid temperature for best operating efficiency with the use of a single crankshaft V-shaped engine block.

  13. Steady streaming around a cylinder pair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coenen, W.

    2016-11-01

    The steady streaming motion that appears around a pair of circular cylinders placed in a small-amplitude oscillatory flow is considered. Attention is focused on the case where the Stokes layer thickness at the surface of the cylinders is much smaller than the cylinder radius, and the streaming Reynolds number is of order unity or larger. In that case, the steady streaming velocity that persists at the edge of the Stokes layer can be imposed as a boundary condition to numerically solve the outer streaming motion that it drives in the bulk of the fluid. It is investigated how the gap width between the cylinders and the streaming Reynolds number affect the flow topology. The results are compared against experimental observations.

  14. Skyrmion on a three-cylinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bratek, Łukasz

    2008-07-01

    The class of static, spherically symmetric, and finite energy hedgehog solutions in the SU(2) Skyrme model is examined on a metric three-cylinder. The exact analytic shape function of the 1-Skyrmion is found. It can be expressed via elliptic integrals. Its energy is calculated, and its stability with respect to radial and spherically symmetric deformations is analyzed. No other topologically nontrivial solutions belonging to this class are possible on the three-cylinder.

  15. Dynamic Fracture Simulations of Explosively Loaded Cylinders

    SciTech Connect

    Arthur, Carly W.; Goto, D. M.

    2015-11-30

    This report documents the modeling results of high explosive experiments investigating dynamic fracture of steel (AerMet® 100 alloy) cylinders. The experiments were conducted at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) during 2007 to 2008 [10]. A principal objective of this study was to gain an understanding of dynamic material failure through the analysis of hydrodynamic computer code simulations. Two-dimensional and three-dimensional computational cylinder models were analyzed using the ALE3D multi-physics computer code.

  16. 39. THREECYLINDER HYDRAULIC OIL PUMP (MANUFACTURED BY WORTHINGTON: PUMP AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    39. THREE-CYLINDER HYDRAULIC OIL PUMP (MANUFACTURED BY WORTHINGTON: PUMP AND MACHINERY COMPANY, HOLYOKE MASSACHUSETTS) IN MACHINERY CHAMBER FOR SLUICE GATE WORKS ON GALLERY 1. NOTE OIL TANK ABOVE PUMP MOTOR. VIEW TO NORTHWEST. - Owyhee Dam, Across Owyhee River, Nyssa, Malheur County, OR

  17. Statistical analyses of a screen cylinder wake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohd Azmi, Azlin; Zhou, Tongming; Zhou, Yu; Cheng, Liang

    2017-02-01

    The evolution of a screen cylinder wake was studied by analysing its statistical properties over a streamwise range of x/d={10-60}. The screen cylinder was made of a stainless steel screen mesh of 67% porosity. The experiments were conducted in a wind tunnel at a Reynolds number of 7000 using an X-probe. The results were compared with those obtained in the wake generated by a solid cylinder. It was observed that the evolution of the statistics in the wake of the screen cylinder was different from that of a solid cylinder, reflecting the differences in the formation of the organized large-scale vortices in both wakes. The streamwise evolution of the Reynolds stresses, energy spectra and cross-correlation coefficients indicated that there exists a critical location that differentiates the screen cylinder wake into two regions over the measured streamwise range. The formation of the fully formed large-scale vortices was delayed until this critical location. Comparison with existing results for screen strips showed that although the near-wake characteristics and the vortex formation mechanism were similar between the two wake generators, variation in the Strouhal frequencies was observed and the self-preservation states were non-universal, reconfirming the dependence of a wake on its initial condition.

  18. Evolution of Vortex Rings Exiting Inclined Cylinders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longmire, E. K.; Webster, D. R.; Reetz, M.; Gefroh, D.

    1996-11-01

    Vortex rings initiated in cylinders with exit incline lengths of 0, D/4, and D/2 were investigated for Reynolds numbers up to 30,000. The fluid exiting each cylinder was visualized with an ionized bromothymol blue solution, and velocity fields were obtained with PIV. In each inclined case, vortex rings form at angles smaller than the cylinder incline angle. Entrainment of ambient fluid on the short side of the cylinder is much stronger than that on the long side. This results in a larger circulation about the short side of the ring and a greater propagation velocity on that side. The incline angle of the ring thus decreases as it moves downstream. Behind the ring core, an impulsive wave of entrained ambient fluid flows parallel to the cylinder exit plane. Some of this fluid is wrapped into the core, while the rest is ejected outward past the long cylinder edge. The vortex ring dynamics differ significantly from those observed in jets from inclined nozzles where neighboring rings are connected by straining zones, and ring incline angles increase with downstream distance.

  19. Maximal liquid bridges between horizontal cylinders.

    PubMed

    Cooray, Himantha; Huppert, Herbert E; Neufeld, Jerome A

    2016-08-01

    We investigate two-dimensional liquid bridges trapped between pairs of identical horizontal cylinders. The cylinders support forces owing to surface tension and hydrostatic pressure that balance the weight of the liquid. The shape of the liquid bridge is determined by analytically solving the nonlinear Laplace-Young equation. Parameters that maximize the trapping capacity (defined as the cross-sectional area of the liquid bridge) are then determined. The results show that these parameters can be approximated with simple relationships when the radius of the cylinders is small compared with the capillary length. For such small cylinders, liquid bridges with the largest cross-sectional area occur when the centre-to-centre distance between the cylinders is approximately twice the capillary length. The maximum trapping capacity for a pair of cylinders at a given separation is linearly related to the separation when it is small compared with the capillary length. The meniscus slope angle of the largest liquid bridge produced in this regime is also a linear function of the separation. We additionally derive approximate solutions for the profile of a liquid bridge, using the linearized Laplace-Young equation. These solutions analytically verify the above-mentioned relationships obtained for the maximization of the trapping capacity.

  20. Maximal liquid bridges between horizontal cylinders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooray, Himantha; Huppert, Herbert E.; Neufeld, Jerome A.

    2016-08-01

    We investigate two-dimensional liquid bridges trapped between pairs of identical horizontal cylinders. The cylinders support forces owing to surface tension and hydrostatic pressure that balance the weight of the liquid. The shape of the liquid bridge is determined by analytically solving the nonlinear Laplace-Young equation. Parameters that maximize the trapping capacity (defined as the cross-sectional area of the liquid bridge) are then determined. The results show that these parameters can be approximated with simple relationships when the radius of the cylinders is small compared with the capillary length. For such small cylinders, liquid bridges with the largest cross-sectional area occur when the centre-to-centre distance between the cylinders is approximately twice the capillary length. The maximum trapping capacity for a pair of cylinders at a given separation is linearly related to the separation when it is small compared with the capillary length. The meniscus slope angle of the largest liquid bridge produced in this regime is also a linear function of the separation. We additionally derive approximate solutions for the profile of a liquid bridge, using the linearized Laplace-Young equation. These solutions analytically verify the above-mentioned relationships obtained for the maximization of the trapping capacity.

  1. Apparel Manufacture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center teamed with the University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH) in 1989 on a program involving development of advanced simulation software. Concurrently, the State of Alabama chartered UAH to conduct a technology advancement program in support of the state's apparel manufacturers. In 1992, under contract to Marshall, UAH developed an apparel-specific software package that allows manufacturers to design and analyze modules without making an actual investment -- it functions on ordinary PC equipment. By 1995, Marshall had responded to requests for the package from more than 400 companies in 36 states; some of which reported savings up to $2 million. The National Garment Company of Missouri, for example, uses the system to design and balance a modular line before committing to expensive hardware; for setting up sewing lines; and for determining the composition of a new team.

  2. Manufacturing technology

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard, J.A.; Floyd, H.L.; Goetsch, B.; Doran, L.

    1993-08-01

    This bulletin depicts current research on manufacturing technology at Sandia laboratories. An automated, adaptive process removes grit overspray from jet engine turbine blades. Advanced electronic ceramics are chemically prepared from solution for use in high- voltage varistors. Selective laser sintering automates wax casting pattern fabrication. Numerical modeling improves performance of photoresist stripper (simulation on Cray supercomputer reveals path to uniform plasma). And mathematical models help make dream of low- cost ceramic composites come true.

  3. Green Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Patten, John

    2013-12-31

    Green Manufacturing Initiative (GMI): The initiative provides a conduit between the university and industry to facilitate cooperative research programs of mutual interest to support green (sustainable) goals and efforts. In addition to the operational savings that greener practices can bring, emerging market demands and governmental regulations are making the move to sustainable manufacturing a necessity for success. The funding supports collaborative activities among universities such as the University of Michigan, Michigan State University and Purdue University and among 40 companies to enhance economic and workforce development and provide the potential of technology transfer. WMU participants in the GMI activities included 20 faculty, over 25 students and many staff from across the College of Engineering and Applied Sciences; the College of Arts and Sciences' departments of Chemistry, Physics, Biology and Geology; the College of Business; the Environmental Research Institute; and the Environmental Studies Program. Many outside organizations also contribute to the GMI's success, including Southwest Michigan First; The Right Place of Grand Rapids, MI; Michigan Department of Environmental Quality; the Michigan Department of Energy, Labor and Economic Growth; and the Michigan Manufacturers Technical Center.

  4. On pseudoelasticity in single crystals of the intermetallic compound Fe{sub 3}Al

    SciTech Connect

    Brinck, A.; Engelke, C.; Neuhaeuser, H.

    1997-09-01

    Only few notes can be found in literature which report on pseudoelastic effects in Fe{sub 3}Al intermetallic compounds. Reversible deformation on {l_brace}110{r_brace} and {l_brace}112{r_brace} planes was observed in shear and compression experiments by Guedou and Rieu and explained by microtwinning, while Kubin et al. showed by in-situ TEM observations that the motion of the front partial of a superdislocation appeared to cause the slip reversal on {l_brace}110{r_brace} planes. The authors have recently observed such a similar effect during in-situ slip line formation studies of Fe{sub 3}Al crystals with a special crystal orientation deformed in compression at and above room temperature. In the following these observations are described and the possible reasons are discussed in connection with the data from literature.

  5. Properties of Nb3Al Wires Processed by Double Rapid Heating and Quenching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuchiya, K.; Kikuchi, A.; Takeuchi, T.; Banno, N.; Iijima, Y.; Nimori, S.; Takigawa, H.; Yoshida, M.; Tomita, K.; Kato, S.; Takao, T.; Nakamoto, T.; Nakagawa, K.

    We have been developing Nb3Al wires processed by rapid heating and quenching for a number of years as promising candidates for use in future high-field accelerator magnets. These wires have better strain and stress tolerances than Nb3Sn wires do, but to meet the demands of future accelerator magnet designs, it is necessary to further improve their performance. In particular,it is necessary to increase their non-copper critical current density in 12-20T fields. To pursue this goal, we introduced double rapid heating and quenching (DRHQ) treatment into the fabrication process for Nb3Al wires, and studied the mechanical and superconducting properties of the resulting DRHQ-processed wires.

  6. Magnetic field effects in UNi1/3Ru2/3Al

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alsmadi, A. M.; El-Khatib, S.; de Châtel, P. F.; Nakotte, H.; Lacerda, A. H.; Jung, M. H.; Andreev, A. V.; Honda, F.; Sechovsky, V.

    2005-05-01

    We report on the electronic properties of a UNi1/3Ru2/3Al single crystal as a function of temperature and magnetic field. Our specific-heat, magnetization, and resistivity data provide strong evidence that the uranium 5f moments order ferromagnetically below TC=74K. Magnetic measurements reveal that the c axis is the easy magnetization direction with a saturation moment of about 0.78μB/U-atom. Our neutron diffraction studies on UNi1/3Ru2/3Al provide strong evidence that Ni occupies the 1b (and Ru the 2c) positions of the ZrNiAl structure. We argue that such preferential occupation of Ni and Ru atoms is responsible for the observed ferromagnetic ground state.

  7. He+ irradiation induced cracking and exfoliating on the surface of Ti3AlC2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, H. H.; Ao, L.; Li, F. Z.; Peng, S. M.; Zhang, H. B.; Sun, K.; Zu, X. T.

    2017-03-01

    We report a systematic study of the effects of a 400 keV helium ion beam irradiation on the surface morphology and crystal structure of Ti3AlC2 by combined scanning electron microscopy, grazing incidence X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. Helium irradiation experiments were performed at both room temperature and 500 °C, respectively, with fluence up to 2.0 × 1017 He+/cm2. After irradiation, intragranular orientated cracks grew along the (10 1 bar 0)Ti3AlC2 plane and the surface has started to exfoliate. The formation of the cracks is mainly attributed to the reduction of the lattice parameter along the a direction induced by ion irradiation, and the crack growth is affected by the grain size and the content of impurity phase TiAl3. The surface exfoliation is due to the blistering of He bubbles at the projected depth.

  8. Processing, properties, and applications of Ni{sub 3}Al-based alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Sikka, V.K.; Santella, M.L.; Liu, C.T.

    1997-06-01

    The Ni{sub 3}Al-based alloys represent a quantum jump in advanced alloys for structural applications at elevated temperatures. These alloys offer benefits of oxidation, carburization, and chlorination resistance, and significantly higher strength than many commercially used alloys. The commercial applications of the Ni{sub 3}Al-based alloys have begun to occur because of their comprehensive development This paper is to provide a review of. (1) alloy development, (2) melting, casting, and processing of alloys, (3) property data, (4) welding process and weldment properties, and (5) case histories of current applications. It is concluded that the cast alloy IC-221M is on its way to commercialization. 22 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Extended solubility and stability in vapor quenched Ni3Al-X intermetallics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Rong

    1989-01-01

    A series of fine-grain and amorphous Ni3Al-X alloys, where X is a solute of 1 to 45 at. pct hf, C, or Hf+C in continuously graded compositions, was formed simultaneously into a 0.2 mm-thick disk by high-rate sputter codeposition. The as-deposited Ni3Al-X alloys exhibited a disordered L1(2) structure and extended solid solubility limits beyond which amorphous phases were formed. Heat-treatment of the alloys at 900 C resulted in fine grain size of 0.5 micron to 1.5 microns. Ultra fine dispersoids less than 500 A in size were observed, and they seemed resistant to coarsening.

  10. First-principles study of Co3(Al,W) alloys using special quasirandom structures

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Chao

    2008-01-01

    We have developed 32-atom special quasi-random structures (SQSs) to model the substitutionally random pseudo-binary A3(B0.5C0.5) alloys in L12, D019, and D03 crystal structures, respectively. First-principles SQS calculations are performed to examine the phase stability of the recently identified L12-Co3Al0.5W0.5 compound in the Co-Al-W ternary system. By computing total energy as a function of applied strain, the single-crystal elastic constants of L12-Co3Al0.5W0.5 are also predicted and our results show excellent agreement with recent experimental measurements.

  11. Strengthening and Plastic Flow of Ni3Al Alloy Microcrystals (Preprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-01

    Finally, the Ni3Al alloys exhibit a greater strengthening as a function of microcrystal diameter when com - pared to other materials for at least...2007) p. 4777. [56] M. Denura, D. Golberg and T. Hirano, Intermetallics 15 (2007) p. 1322 .   27 Approved for public release; distribution...dashed line shows the nominal shear strain-hardening rate (SHR) for the largest microcrystals as a fraction of the anisotropic shear modulus Ks. (b) Com

  12. Effect of prestress on tensile yield strength of a Ni/sub 3/Al alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Yoo, M.H.; Liu, C.T.

    1988-09-01

    An experimental technique of prestressing and quenching was employed in order to elucidate the nature of pinning points responsible for the anomalous yield strength of Ni/sub 3/Al. The apparent number density of pinning points at room temperature was found to be unaffected by the prestressing and quenching from elevated temperatures. This result is consistent with the cross-slip-pinning (CSP) model in that cross-slipped segments act as pinning points on the leading superpartial dislocations.

  13. Nickel segregation to grain boundaries in Ni sub 3 Al alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Subramanian, R.; Robertson, I.M.; Birnbaum, H.K. )

    1991-12-01

    This paper reports that a considerable research effort has been undertaken to understand the improved ductility of hypo-stoichiometric Ni{sub 3} Al containing B relative to stoichiometric and hyper-stoichiometric alloys. A variety of techniques have shown that in ductile alloys, the level of B at the grain boundary is significantly higher than in the matrix and that the B exhibits equilibrium segregation over distances of the order of 1 nm from the boundaries. The concentration of nickel at the boundaries is less certain. Some measurements have shown somewhat enhanced Ni concentrations within 1 nm of the grain boundaries and correlations between B and Ni segregation, while in others a small amount of Ni segregation was observed but with no correlation to B segregation, and on others no Ni segregation was observed. Baker et al. report the formation of a second phase extending for distances of about 20 nm from the boundaries and having very high Ni concentrations in hypo-stoichiometric Ni{sub 3}Al containing B. These different results may reflect the different material preparation and annealing procedures that have been used. Horton and Liu have shown that the presence of the Ni-rich second phase was not necessary for the ductility of Ni{sub 3}Al. It has been suggested that a disordered fcc layer may exist at B enriched grain boundaries, and that this disorder may enhance Ni{sub 3}Al ductility by making it easier for dislocation to be transmitted through the grain boundaries.

  14. Bulk Properties of Ni3Al(gamma') With Cu and Au Additions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozzolo, Guillermo; Ferrante, John

    1995-01-01

    The BFS method for alloys is applied to the study of 200 alloys obtained from adding Cu and Au impurities to a Ni3Al matrix. We analyze the trends in the bulk properties of these alloys (heat of formation, lattice parameter, and bulk modulus) and detect specific alloy compositions for which these quantities have particular values. A detailed analysis of the atomic interactions that lead to the preferred ordering patterns is presented.

  15. Persistent luminescence in powdered and ceramic polycrystalline Gd3Al2Ga3O12:Ce

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dosovitskiy, G.; Fedorov, A.; Mechinsky, V.; Borisevich, A.; Dosovitskiy, A.; Tret’jak, E.; Korjik, M.

    2017-02-01

    This paper studies powders of Gd3Ga3Al2O12:Ce, a promising scintillator composition, as a possible object for express pre-characterization of scintillation kinetics and level of persistent luminescence. Garnet phase powders with uniform microstructure, consisting of 1-2 μm grains, were obtained by co-precipitation approach. It was shown, that both scintillation decay time and presence of persistent luminescence are influenced by both powder thermal treatment temperature and strong Ga deficit.

  16. Dynamic Friction Performance of a Pneumatic Cylinder with Al2O3 Film on Cylinder Surface.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ho; Lan, Chou-Wei; Wang, Hao-Xian

    2015-11-01

    A friction force system is proposed for accurately measuring friction force and motion properties produced by reciprocating motion of piston in a pneumatic cylinder. In this study, the proposed system is used to measure the effects of lubricating greases of different viscosities on the friction properties of pneumatic cylinder, and improvement of stick-slip motion for the cylinder bore by anodizing processes. A servo motor-driven ball screw is used to drive the pneumatic cylinder to be tested and to measure the change in friction force of the pneumatic cylinder. Experimental results show, that under similar test conditions, the lubricating grease with viscosity VG100 is best suited for measuring reciprocating motion of the piston of pneumatic cylinder. The wear experiment showed that, in the Al2O3 film obtained at a preset voltage 40 V in the anodic process, the friction coefficient and hardness decreased by 55% and increased by 274% respectively, thus achieving a good tribology and wear resistance. Additionally, the amplitude variation in the friction force of the pneumatic cylinder wall that received the anodizing treatment was substantially reduced. Additionally, the stick-slip motion of the pneumatic cylinder during low-speed motion was substantially improved.

  17. Electrical characteristics of SrTiO3/Al2O3 laminated film capacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Yong; Yao, Manwen; Chen, Jianwen; Xu, Kaien; Yao, Xi

    2016-07-01

    The electrical characteristics of SrTiO3/Al2O3 (160 nm up/90 nm down) laminated film capacitors using the sol-gel process have been investigated. SrTiO3 is a promising and extensively studied high-K dielectric material, but its leakage current property is poor. SrTiO3/Al2O3 laminated films can effectively suppress the demerits of pure SrTiO3 films under low electric field, but the leakage current value reaches to 0.1 A/cm2 at higher electric field (>160 MV/m). In this study, a new approach was applied to reduce the leakage current and improve the dielectric strength of SrTiO3/Al2O3 laminated films. Compared to laminated films with Au top electrodes, dielectric strength of laminated films with Al top electrodes improves from 205 MV/m to 322 MV/m, simultaneously the leakage current maintains the same order of magnitude (10-4 A/cm2) until the breakdown occurs. The above electrical characteristics are attributed to the anodic oxidation reaction in origin, which can repair the defects of laminated films at higher electric field. The anodic oxidation reactions have been confirmed by the corresponding XPS measurement and the cross sectional HRTEM analysis. This work provides a new approach to fabricate dielectrics with high dielectric strength and low leakage current.

  18. Development of ductile Fe{sub 3}Al-based aluminides

    SciTech Connect

    McKamey, C.G.; Sikka, V.K.; Goodwin, G.M.

    1993-07-01

    Iron aluminides based on Fe{sub 3}Al are of interest because of their excellent oxidation and corrosion resistance, especially in sulfur-bearing atmospheres. Work at ORNL has centered on developing Fe{sub 3}Al-based alloys with improved ambient temperature ductilities and increased strengths at temperatures of 600--700C. Ambient temperature brittleness in this system is not ``inherent,`` but is caused by atomic hydrogen which is produced by an environmental reaction between aluminum in the alloy and water vapor in the atmosphere. Great strides have been made in understanding this embrittlement Phenomenon, and the production of alloys with room temperature ductilities of over 10% and tensile yield strengths at 600C of as high as 500 MPa is now possible through modifications in alloy composition and control of thermomechanical processing techniques. Creep rupture lifes of over 200 h at 593C (1100{degrees}F) and 207 MPa (30 ksi) can also be produced through control of alloy composition and microstructure. This paper summarizes our present efforts to improve the tensile and creep rupture properties and gives the status of efforts to commercialize Fe{sub 3}Al-based alloy compositions.

  19. Eutectic superalloys strengthened by delta Ni3Cb lamellae, and gamma prime, Ni3Al precipitates.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lemkey, F. D.; Thompson, E. R.

    1972-01-01

    Bivariant eutectic alloys, located on a liquidus surface within the Ni-Cb-Cr-Al quaternary, were identified which permitted the production of aligned delta Ni3Cb lamellae within a nichrome matrix containing the fcc precipitate gamma prime Ni3Al. The volume fraction of delta and gamma prime could be varied significantly by compositional changes. After directional solidification certain alloys possessed improved ductility and corrosion resistance with respect to the Ni3Al-Ni3Cb eutectic, while their values of tensile and creep strength approached or exceeded those for the Ni3Al-Ni3Cb pseudobinary system. The mechanical properties of the directionally solidified alloy, Ni-19.7 wt % Cb-6.0 wt % Cr-2.5 wt % Al, were evaluated. Its longitudinal strength in tension and creep was found to be superior to all advanced nickel base superalloys. It is thus demonstrated that useful properties for gas turbine airfoil applications can be achieved by reinforcing a strong and tough gamma nichrome matrix containing precipitated gamma prime by a strong lamellar intermetallic compound having greater strength at elevated temperature.

  20. Nondestructive relative permittivity and loss tangent measurements using a split-cylinder resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janezic, Michael Daniel

    To keep pace with the expanding wireless and electronics industries, manufacturers are developing innovative materials for improving system performance, and there is a critical need to accurately characterize the electrical properties of these new materials at microwave frequencies. To address this need, this thesis develops a nondestructive method for measuring the relative permittivity and loss tangent of dielectric substrates using a split-cylinder resonator. Three theoretical models for the split-cylinder resonator are derived using mode-matching, least-squares boundary residual, and Hankel-transform methods, from which one can calculate the relative permittivity and loss tangent of a dielectric substrate from measurements of the split-cylinder resonator's TE0np resonant frequency and quality factor. Each of these models has several advantages over previously published models. First, the accuracy of the relative permittivity measurement is increased because each model accurately models the fringing fields that extend beyond the cylindrical-cavity sections. Second, to increase the accuracy of the loss tangent measurement, each model accurately separates the conductive metal losses of the split-cylinder resonator from the dielectric losses of the substrate. Finally, in contrast to previous models for the split-cylinder resonator that use only the TE011 resonant mode, each of the new models include the higher-order TE0np resonant modes, thereby broadening the frequency range over which one can make relative permittivity and loss tangent measurements. In a comparison of the three models, the mode-matching method was found to be superior on the basis of measurement accuracy and computational speed. Relative permittivity and loss tangent measurements for several dielectric materials are performed using a split-cylinder resonator and are in good agreement with measurements made using a circular-cylindrical cavity, split-post resonator, and dielectric post resonator

  1. Manufacturing technology

    SciTech Connect

    Blaedel, K L

    1998-01-01

    The mission of the Manufacturing Technology thrust area at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has been to have an adequate base of manufacturing technology, not necessarily resident at LLNL, to conduct their future business. The specific goals were (1) to develop an understanding of fundamental fabrication processes; (2) to construct general purpose process models that have wide applicability; (3) to document their findings and models in journals; (4) to transfer technology to LLNL programs, industry, and colleagues; and (5) to develop continuing relationships with the industrial and academic communities to advance their collective understanding of fabrication processes. In support of this mission, two projects were reported here, each of which explores a way to bring higher precision to the manufacturing challenges that we face over the next few years. The first, ''A Spatial-Frequency-Domain Approach to Designing a Precision Machine Tools,'' is an overall view of how they design machine tools and instruments to make or measure workpieces that are specified in terms of the spatial frequency content of the residual errors of the workpiece surface. This represents an improvement of an ''error budget,'' a design tool that saw significant development in the early 1980's, and has been in active use since then. The second project, ''Micro-Drilling of ICF Capsules,'' is an attempt to define the current state in commercial industry for drilling small holes, particularly laser-drilling. The report concludes that 1-{micro}m diameter holes cannot currently be drilled to high aspect ratios, and then defines the engineering challenges that will have to be overcome to machine holes small enough for NIF capsules.

  2. Fabric Manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    When rapid oscillation of blanket wearing looms at Chatham Manufacturing Company caused significant metal fatigue, the company turned to NC/STRC for a NASA data bank computer search. The search pinpointed tensile stress, and suggested a built-in residual compressive stress as a solution. "Shot peening," bombarding a part with a high velocity stream of very small shot to pound and compress the part's surface, was found to be the only practical method for creating compressive stress. The method has been successful and the company estimates its annual savings as a quarter million dollars.

  3. Manufacturing technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonard, J. A.; Floyd, H. L.; Goetsch, B.; Doran, L.

    1993-08-01

    This bulletin depicts current research on manufacturing technology at Sandia laboratories. An automated, adaptive process removes grit overspray from jet engine turbine blades. Advanced electronic ceramics are chemically prepared from solution for use in high-voltage varistors. A selective laser sintering process automates wax casting pattern fabrication. Numerical modeling improves the performance of a photoresist stripper (a simulation on a Cray supercomputer reveals the path of a uniform plasma). Improved mathematical models will help make the dream of low-cost ceramic composites come true.

  4. UF{sub 6} cylinder fire test

    SciTech Connect

    Park, S.H.

    1991-12-31

    With the increasing number of nuclear reactors for power generation, there is a comparable increase in the amount of UF{sub 6} being transported. Likewise, the probability of having an accident involving UF{sub 6}-filled cylinders also increases. Accident scenarios which have been difficult to assess are those involving a filled UF{sub 6} cylinder subjected to fire. A study is underway at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site, as part of the US DOE Enrichment Program, to provide empirical data and a computer model that can be used to evaluate various cylinder-in-fire scenarios. It is expected that the results will provide information leading to better handling of possible fire accidents as well as show whether changes should be made to provide different physical protection during shipment. The computer model being developed will be capable of predicting the rupture of various cylinder sizes and designs as well as the amount of UF{sub 6}, its distribution in the cylinder, and the conditions of the fire.

  5. Guided Circumferential Waves in Layered Poroelastic Cylinders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, S. A.; Apsar, G.

    2016-12-01

    The present paper investigates the propagation of time harmonic circumferential waves in a two-dimensional hollow poroelastic cylinder with an inner shaft (shaft-bearing assembly). The hollow poroelastic cylinder and inner shaft are assumed to be infinite in axial direction. The outer surface of the cylinder is stress free and at the interface, between the inner shaft and the outer cylinder, it is assumed to be free sliding and the interfacial shear stresses are zero, also the normal stress and radial displacements are continuous. The frequency equation of guided circumferential waves for a permeable and an impermeable surface is obtained. When the angular wave number vanish the frequency equation of guided circumferential waves for a permeable and an impermeable surface degenerates and the dilatational and shear waves are uncoupled. Shear waves are independent of the nature of surface. The frequency equation of a permeable and an impermeable surface for bore-piston assembly is obtained as a particular case of the model under consideration when the outer radius of the hollow poroelastic cylinder tends to infinity. Results of previous studies are obtained as a particular case of the present study. Nondimensional frequency as a function of wave number is presented graphically for two types of models and discussed. Numerical results show that, in general, the first modes are linear for permeable and impermeable surfaces and the frequency of a permeable surface is more than that of an impermeable surface.

  6. Vision-guided gripping of a cylinder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicewarner, Keith E.; Kelley, Robert B.

    1991-01-01

    The motivation for vision-guided servoing is taken from tasks in automated or telerobotic space assembly and construction. Vision-guided servoing requires the ability to perform rapid pose estimates and provide predictive feature tracking. Monocular information from a gripper-mounted camera is used to servo the gripper to grasp a cylinder. The procedure is divided into recognition and servo phases. The recognition stage verifies the presence of a cylinder in the camera field of view. Then an initial pose estimate is computed and uncluttered scan regions are selected. The servo phase processes only the selected scan regions of the image. Given the knowledge, from the recognition phase, that there is a cylinder in the image and knowing the radius of the cylinder, 4 of the 6 pose parameters can be estimated with minimal computation. The relative motion of the cylinder is obtained by using the current pose and prior pose estimates. The motion information is then used to generate a predictive feature-based trajectory for the path of the gripper.

  7. The Cylinder and Semicylinder in Subsonic Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bingham, Harry J.; Weimer, David K..; Griffith, Wayland

    1952-01-01

    In studying the diffraction of shock waves around various two-dimensional obstacles we have observed that flow separation and the formation of vortices contributes in an important way to transient loading of the obstacle. The cases of a cylinder and semicylinder are especially interesting because the breakaway point is not clearly defined as it is for objects having sharp corners. Accordingly a number of experiments have been made in the shock tube to observe the influence of Reynolds number and Mach number on the transient flow patterns about a cylinder and about a semicylinder mounted on a smooth plane. Some differences might be anticipated since the plane would impose a symmetry on the flow and produce a viscous boundary layer for which there is no counterpart with the cylinder. In the course of these experiments it was noted that a condition of steady subsonic flow about both the cylinder and semicylinder was approached. Thus a comparison with von Karrnan's theoretical calculation of the drag on a cylinder, from certain characteristics of its wake or "vortex street", was undertaken.

  8. Horseshoe vortex formation around a cylinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckerle, W. A.

    A turbulent boundary layer approaching a local obstruction, such as when annulus wall boundary layers encounter airfoils and support struts, creates a critical problem in gas turbine engines. The slower portion of the approaching boundary layer cannot negotiate the adverse pressure gradient generated by the obstruction and consequently separates from the endwall. The resulting flow field includes a horseshoe vortex that is swept downstream around the body. The separation affects both the local heat transfer coefficients and aerodynamic losses in the endwall region. This investigation evaluated the detailed flow processes that lead to the symmetric horseshoe vortex formation around a large-diameter cylinder. Test conditions included a freestream velocity of 30.5 m/sec, a Reynolds number based on cylinder diameter of 5.5 x 10 to the 5th power, and a boundary-layer thickness equal to 13 percent of the cylinder diameter. The final report presents endwall and cylinder surface flow visualizations, endwall and cylinder static pressure distributions, and five-hole probe measurements in the separation region.

  9. Electronic structures, elastic properties, and minimum thermal conductivities of cermet M{sub 3}AlN

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Jin; Chen, ZhiQian; Li, ChunMei; Li, Feng; Nie, ChaoYin

    2014-08-15

    The electronic structures and elastic anisotropies of cubic Ti{sub 3}AlN, Zr{sub 3}AlN, and Hf{sub 3}AlN are investigated by pseudopotential plane-wave method based on density functional theory. At the Fermi level, the electronic structures of these compounds are successive with no energy gap between conduct and valence bands, and exhibit metallicity in ground states. In valence band of each partial density of states, the different orbital electrons indicate interaction of corresponding atoms. In addition, the anisotropy of Hf{sub 3}AlN is found to be significantly different from that of Ti{sub 3}AlN and Zr{sub 3}AlN, which involve the differences in the bonding strength. It is notable that Hf{sub 3}AlN is a desired thermal barrier material with the lowest thermal conductivity at high temperature among the three compounds. - Graphical abstract: 1.Young's moduli of anti-perovskite Ti{sub 3}AlN, Zr{sub 3}AlN, and Hf{sub 3}AlN in full space. 2.Electron density differences on crystal planes (1 0 0), (2 0 0), and (1 1 0) of anti-perovskite Zr{sub 3}AlN. - Highlights: • We calculated three anti-perovskite cermets with first-principles theory. • We illustrated 3D Young modulus and found the anomalous anisotropy. • We explained the anomaly and calculated the minimum thermal conductivities.

  10. Flow interaction between a streamwise oscillating cylinder and a downstream stationary cylinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, S. J.; Gan, L.; Zhou, Y.

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, we present some experimental results about the physical effects of a cylinder's streamwise oscillation motion on a downstream one in a tandem arrangement. The upstream cylinder undergoes a controlled simple harmonic oscillation at amplitudes A/ d = 0.2-0.8, where d is the cylinder diameter, and the frequency ratio of f_e/f_s = 0-3.0, where f_e is the cylinder oscillation frequency and f_s is the natural frequency of vortex shedding from a single stationary cylinder. Under these conditions, the vortex shedding is locked to the controlled oscillation motion. Flow visualisation using the planar laser-induced fluorescence and qualitative measurements using hot-wire anemometry reveal three distinct flow regimes behind the downstream cylinder. For f_e/f_s > (f_e/f_s)_c, where (f_e/f_s)_c is a critical frequency ratio which depends on A/ d and Reynolds number Re, a so-called SA-mode occurs. The upstream oscillating cylinder generates binary vortices symmetrically arranged about the centreline, each containing a pair of counter-rotating vortices, and the downstream cylinder sheds vortices alternately at 0.5f_e. For 0.7-1.0 < f_e/f_s < (f_e/f_s)_c a complex vortex street that consists of two outer rows of vortices generated by the oscillating cylinder and two inner rows of vortices shed from the downstream stationary cylinder, which is referred to as AA-mode. For 0.3-0.6 < f_e/f_s< 0.8-1.0, one single staggered vortex street (A-mode) is observed. It is also found that, when f_e/f_s is near unity, the streamwise interaction of the two cylinders gives rise to the most energetic wake in the cross-stream direction, in terms of its maximum width, and the wake is AA-mode-like. The effects of other parameters such as the spacing between the two cylinders, Re and A/ d on the flow pattern are also discussed in details. The observations are further compared to the stationary tandem cylinder cases.

  11. A pneumatic cylinder driving polyhedron mobile mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Wan; Kim, Sung-Chan; Yao, Yan-An

    2012-03-01

    A novel pneumatic cylinder driving polyhedron mobile mechanism is proposed in this paper. The mechanism is comprised of 5 tetrahedrons which includes a pneumatic cylinder in each edge. It locomotes by rolling and the rolling principle refers to the center of mass (CM) of the mechanism moved out of the supporting area and let it tip over through the controlling of the motion sequence of these cylinders. Firstly, the mathematical model is built to analysis the relation between the configuration and the CM of the mechanism. Then, a binary control strategy is developed to simplify and improve the control of this mobile mechanism. After that, dynamic simulation is performed to testify the analytical validity and feasibility of the rolling gaits. At last, a prototype is fabricated to achieve the rolling successfully to demonstrate the proposed concept.

  12. Optimum cylinder cooling for advanced diesel engines

    SciTech Connect

    Trenc, F.; Rodman, S.; Skerget, L.; Delic, M.

    1998-07-01

    Continuous demand for higher specific engine output simultaneously introduces problems of higher mechanical and thermal stresses of the engine components. Uneven temperature distribution in the cylinder wall of a diesel engine, especially when air-cooled, is well known. Peak local temperatures, large circumferential and longitudinal temperature gradients provoke deformations that, in turn, affect the reliability of the engine. As the result of intensive numerical and experimental investigations, a horizontal, curved channel fed with engine lubrication oil was introduced in the upper part of the air-cooled cylinder. Optimization of the channel design, its position, and determination of suitable asymmetrical split oil flow have led to more favorable cylinder temperature distribution, similar to that obtained by advanced water-cooled engines. Analyses of the local laminar oil-flow phenomena and local heat transfer distribution is curved channels are discussed in the paper and can be successfully applied to advanced liquid-cooled engines.

  13. Optimum cylinder cooling for advanced diesel engines

    SciTech Connect

    Trenc, F.; Rodman, S.; Skerget, L.; Delic, M.

    1996-12-31

    Continuous demand for higher specific engine output simultaneously introduces problems of higher mechanical and thermal stresses of the engine components. Uneven temperature distribution in the cylinder wall of a Diesel engine, especially when air-cooled, is well known. Peak local temperatures, large circumferential and longitudinal temperature gradients provoke deformations that in turn affect the reliability of the engine. As the result of intensive numerical and experimental investigations a horizontal, curved channel fed with engine lubrication oil was introduced in the upper part of the air-cooled cylinder. Optimization of the channel design, its position, and determination of suitable asymmetrical split oil-flow have led to more favorable cylinder temperature distribution, similar to that obtained by advanced water-cooled engines. Analyses of the local laminar oil-flow phenomena and local heat transfer distribution in curved channels can be successfully and effectively applied to advanced liquid-cooled engines.

  14. Sky reconstruction for the Tianlai cylinder array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jiao; Zuo, Shi-Fan; Ansari, Reza; Chen, Xuelei; Li, Yi-Chao; Wu, Feng-Quan; Campagne, Jean-Eric; Magneville, Christophe

    2016-10-01

    We apply our sky map reconstruction method for transit type interferometers to the Tianlai cylinder array. The method is based on spherical harmonic decomposition, and can be applied to a cylindrical array as well as dish arrays and we can compute the instrument response, synthesized beam, transfer function and noise power spectrum. We consider cylinder arrays with feed spacing larger than half a wavelength and, as expected, we find that the arrays with regular spacing have grating lobes which produce spurious images in the reconstructed maps. We show that this problem can be overcome using arrays with a different feed spacing on each cylinder. We present the reconstructed maps, and study the performance in terms of noise power spectrum, transfer function and beams for both regular and irregular feed spacing configurations.

  15. Vortex noise from nonrotating cylinders and airfoils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlinker, R. H.; Amiet, R. K.; Fink, M. R.

    1976-01-01

    An experimental study of vortex-shedding noise was conducted in an acoustic research tunnel over a Reynolds-number range applicable to full-scale helicopter tail-rotor blades. Two-dimensional tapered-chord nonrotating models were tested to simulate the effect of spanwise frequency variation on the vortex-shedding mechanism. Both a tapered circular cylinder and tapered airfoils were investigated. The results were compared with data for constant-diameter cylinder and constant-chord airfoil models also tested during this study. Far-field noise, surface pressure fluctuations, and spanwise correlation lengths were measured for each configuration. Vortex-shedding noise for tapered cylinders and airfoils was found to contain many narrowband-random peaks which occurred within a range of frequencies corresponding to a predictable Strouhal number referenced to the maximum and minimum chord. The noise was observed to depend on surface roughness and Reynolds number.

  16. Flow in a partially filled rotating cylinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shadday, M. A., Jr.

    Axial flow in a rapidly rotating cylinder, partially filled with a viscous, incompressible fluid is measured with a laser-Doppler velocimeter. The cylinder has a vertical axis of rotation, and the axial circulation is induced by rotating a coaxially mounted disk at the top endcap slightly faster than the cylinder. The experimental results are compared with the predictions of a finite-difference model of the flow, and the correlation is qualitatively good. The axial circulation in the fluid layer is confined primarily to E(1/3) shear layers along the lateral boundaries, where E is the Ekman number. The radial transport in the Ekman layers is essentially unaffected by the presence of the free surface. It will be shown that this leads to axial transport in an E(1/3) boundary layer along the free surface.

  17. Flow in a partially filled rotating cylinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shadday, M. A., Jr.

    1982-05-01

    Axial flow in a rapidly rotating cylinder, partially filled with a viscous, incompressible fluid is measured with a laser Doppler velocimeter. The cylinder has a vertical axis of rotation, and the axial circulation is induced by rotating a coaxially mounted disk at the top endcap slightly faster than the cylinder. The experimental results are compared with the prediction of a finite difference model of the flow, and the correlation is qualitatively good. The axial circulation in the fluid layer is confined primarily to E/sup 1/3/ shear layers along the lateral boundaries, where E is the Ekman number. The radial transport in the Ekman layers is essentially unaffected by the presence of the free surface. It will be shown that this leads to axial transport in an E/sup 1/3/ boundary layer along the free surface.

  18. UF{sub 6} cylinder inspections at PGDP

    SciTech Connect

    Lamb, G.W.; Whinnery, W.N.

    1991-12-31

    Routine inspections of all UF{sub 6} cylinders at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant have been mandated by the Department of Energy. A specific UF{sub 6} cylinder inspection procedure for what items to inspect and training for the operators prior to inspection duty are described. The layout of the cylinder yards and the forms used in the inspections are shown. The large number of cylinders (>30,000) to inspect and the schedule for completion on the mandated time table are discussed. Results of the inspections and the actions to correct the deficiencies are explained. Future inspections and movement of cylinders for relocation of certain cylinder yards are defined.

  19. Pulsatile flow past an oscillating cylinder

    PubMed Central

    Qamar, Adnan; Seda, Robinson; Bull, Joseph L.

    2011-01-01

    A fundamental study to characterize the flow around an oscillating cylinder in a pulsatile flow environment is investigated. This work is motivated by a new proposed design of the total artificial lung (TAL), which is envisioned to provide better gas exchange. The Navier–Stokes computations in a moving frame of reference were performed to compute the dynamic flow field surrounding the cylinder. Cylinder oscillations and pulsatile free-stream velocity were represented by two sinusoidal waves with amplitudes A and B and frequencies ωc and ω, respectively. The Keulegan–Carpenter number (Kc=Uo∕Dωc) was used to describe the frequency of the oscillating cylinder while the pulsatile free-stream velocity was fixed by imposing ω∕Kc=1 for all cases investigated. The parameters of interest and their values were amplitude (0.5Dcylinder values (A=0.5, Kc=0.3, and Re=10 and 20). A lock-in phenomenon (cylinder oscillating frequency matched the vortex shedding frequency) was found when Kc=1 for all cases. This lock-in condition was attributed to be the cause of the rise in drag observed in that operating regime. For optimal performance of the modified TAL design it is recommended to operate the device at higher fiber oscillation amplitudes and lower Kc (avoiding the lock-in regime). PMID:21580804

  20. Pulsatile flow past an oscillating cylinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qamar, Adnan; Seda, Robinson; Bull, Joseph L.

    2011-04-01

    A fundamental study to characterize the flow around an oscillating cylinder in a pulsatile flow environment is investigated. This work is motivated by a new proposed design of the total artificial lung (TAL), which is envisioned to provide better gas exchange. The Navier-Stokes computations in a moving frame of reference were performed to compute the dynamic flow field surrounding the cylinder. Cylinder oscillations and pulsatile free-stream velocity were represented by two sinusoidal waves with amplitudes A and B and frequencies ωc and ω, respectively. The Keulegan-Carpenter number (Kc=Uo/Dωc) was used to describe the frequency of the oscillating cylinder while the pulsatile free-stream velocity was fixed by imposing ω /Kc=1 for all cases investigated. The parameters of interest and their values were amplitude (0.5Dcylinder values (A=0.5, Kc=0.3, and Re=10 and 20). A lock-in phenomenon (cylinder oscillating frequency matched the vortex shedding frequency) was found when Kc=1 for all cases. This lock-in condition was attributed to be the cause of the rise in drag observed in that operating regime. For optimal performance of the modified TAL design it is recommended to operate the device at higher fiber oscillation amplitudes and lower Kc (avoiding the lock-in regime).

  1. Flow over an inline oscillating circular cylinder in the wake of a stationary circular cylinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yang; Zhu, Keqiang

    2017-02-01

    Flow interference between an upstream stationary cylinder and an inline oscillating cylinder is studied with the lattice Boltzmann method. With a fixed Reynolds number Re = 100 and pitch ratio L/D = 4, the effects of oscillation amplitude A/D = [0.25, 1] and frequency f e/f s = [0.5, 2] are investigated. The wake response state is categorized into lock-in and non-lock-in. The lock-in zone in the bifurcation diagram of amplitude versus frequency is discontinuous. Response states of upstream and downstream wakes are similar under the conditions of small amplitude or low frequency. However, with large oscillating parameters, the two wakes are prone to be in different states as the flow field becomes irregular. Two distinct flow regimes have been identified, i.e., single-cylinder and two-cylinder shedding regimes. The presence of single-cylinder shedding regime is attributed to the low shedding frequency of the downstream cylinder at large amplitude. Hydrodynamic forces of the oscillating tandem system are discussed. The results reveal that forces on the two cylinders behave differently and that the absence of vortices in the gap flow significantly reduces the forces exerting on the tandem system.

  2. A Hybrid Approach To Tandem Cylinder Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lockard, David P.

    2004-01-01

    Aeolian tone generation from tandem cylinders is predicted using a hybrid approach. A standard computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code is used to compute the unsteady flow around the cylinders, and the acoustics are calculated using the acoustic analogy. The CFD code is nominally second order in space and time and includes several turbulence models, but the SST k - omega model is used for most of the calculations. Significant variation is observed between laminar and turbulent cases, and with changes in the turbulence model. A two-dimensional implementation of the Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings (FW-H) equation is used to predict the far-field noise.

  3. Cylinder head structure for internal combustion engines

    SciTech Connect

    Taguchi, T.; Takata, Y.; Tanaka, Y.

    1986-02-04

    This patent describes an engine cylinder head structure including a top wall formed with camshaft bearings, a bottom wall adapted to be attached to a cylinder block, and side walls connecting the top and bottom walls together. It also includes a cooling watter passage defined by the top, bottom and side walls, a transversely extending reinforcement rib formed in the top wall to project into the cooling water passage beneath each of the camshaft bearings and to extend between and interconnect the side walls.

  4. Cylinder wakes in flowing soap films

    SciTech Connect

    Vorobieff, P.; Ecke, R.E. ); Vorobieff, P. )

    1999-09-01

    We present an experimental characterization of cylinder wakes in flowing soap films. From instantaneous velocity and thickness fields, we find the vortex-shedding frequency, mean-flow velocity, and mean-film thickness. Using the empirical relationship between the Reynolds and Strouhal numbers obtained for cylinder wakes in three dimensions, we estimate the effective soap-film viscosity and its dependence on film thickness. We also compare the decay of vorticity with that in a simple Rankine vortex model with a dissipative term to account for air drag. [copyright] [ital 1999] [ital The American Physical Society

  5. Controllable parabolic-cylinder optical rogue wave.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Wei-Ping; Chen, Lang; Belić, Milivoj; Petrović, Nikola

    2014-10-01

    We demonstrate controllable parabolic-cylinder optical rogue waves in certain inhomogeneous media. An analytical rogue wave solution of the generalized nonlinear Schrödinger equation with spatially modulated coefficients and an external potential in the form of modulated quadratic potential is obtained by the similarity transformation. Numerical simulations are performed for comparison with the analytical solutions and to confirm the stability of the rogue wave solution obtained. These optical rogue waves are built by the products of parabolic-cylinder functions and the basic rogue wave solution of the standard nonlinear Schrödinger equation. Such rogue waves may appear in different forms, as the hump and paw profiles.

  6. Stress tests on cylinders and aluminum panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sobel, L. H.; Agarwal, B. L.

    1974-01-01

    An optimization study of composite stiffened cylinders is discussed. The mathematical model for the buckling has been coupled successfully with the optimization program AESOP. The buckling analysis is based on the use of the smeared theory for the buckling of stiffened orthotropic cylindrical shells. The loading, radius, and length of the cylinder are assumed to be known parameters. An optimum solution gives the value of cross-sectional dimensions and laminate orientations. The different types of buckling modes are identified. Mathematical models are developed to show the relationships of the parameters.

  7. Turbine Manufacture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The machinery pictured is a set of Turbodyne steam turbines which power a sugar mill at Bell Glade, Florida. A NASA-developed computer program called NASTRAN aided development of these and other turbines manufactured by Turbodyne Corporation's Steam Turbine Division, Wellsville, New York. An acronym for NASA Structural Analysis Program, NASTRAN is a predictive tool which advises development teams how a structural design will perform under service use conditions. Turbodyne uses NASTRAN to analyze the dynamic behavior of steam turbine components, achieving substantial savings in development costs. One of the most widely used spinoffs, NASTRAN is made available to private industry through NASA's Computer Software Management Information Center (COSMIC) at the University of Georgia.

  8. Luminescence of Y3Al5O12:Eu3+ nanophosphors in blood and organic media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolesnikov, I. E.; Povolotskiy, A. V.; Tolstikova, D. V.; Manshina, A. A.; Mikhailov, M. D.

    2015-02-01

    Lanthanide-doped nanoparticles characterized by their large Stokes’ shifts, narrow emission bands, long lifetimes and high photostability are promising candidates for luminescent labels in biological research. That is why investigation of lanthanide-doped nanoparticles’ fluorescence in complex biological media (like blood and Intralipid) is of great importance from the standpoint of applicability in medicine and biology. Nanopowder of yttrium aluminum garnet doped with Eu3+ was synthesized by the Pechini method. X-ray diffraction data demonstrated formation of cubic crystalline phase without any impurities. The synthesized sample was found to be well-defined 20-50 nm nanoparticles agglomerated to clusters no bigger than 200 nm in diameter. The emission spectrum of nanocrystalline powder consists of characteristic narrow lines attributed to 5D0-7FJ transitions. It was found that the long lifetime of 5D0 level (4.13 ms) allows using time-resolved techniques to eliminate fluorescence of the biological background. The possibility of the luminescence signal detection of Y3Al5O12:Eu3+ nanopowder (0.14 mg per 1 ml) against the background of blood auto-luminescence was demonstrated. Y3Al5O12:Eu3+ phosphors luminescence in blood media showed timing stability whereas fluorescein luminescence dropped down by a factor of 3 after 20 min. It was found that the luminescence signal of Y3Al5O12:Eu3+ phosphors could be detected through 5 mm of biological tissue. The possibility of independent registration of nanopowders doped with different REI-ions (Eu3+ and Nd3+) was investigated.

  9. Incommensurate Magnetic Structure in the Cubic Noncentrosymmetric Ternary Compound Pr5Ru3Al2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makino, Koya; Okuyama, Daisuke; Avdeev, Maxim; Sato, Taku J.

    2016-07-01

    Magnetic susceptibility and neutron powder diffraction experiments have been performed on the noncentrosymmetric ternary compound Pr5Ru3Al2. The previously reported ferromagnetic transition at 24 K was not detected in our improved-quality samples. Instead, magnetic ordering was observed in the DC magnetic susceptibility at T{c} ≃ 3.8 K. The neutron powder diffraction experiment further indicates that an incommensurate magnetic structure is established below Tc with the magnetic modulation vector {{q}} ≃ (0.066,0.066,0.066) (r.l.u.). A candidate for the magnetic structure is proposed using representation analysis.

  10. The study of the thermal stability of Ni3Al nanoneedles using computer simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poletaev, G. M.; Starostenkov, M. D.; Novoselova, D. V.; Tsellermaer, V. Y.

    2016-02-01

    The study of the thermal stability of Ni3Al nanoneedles in the dependence on the sharpness and crystallography orientation of the needle axis was held using molecular dynamics method. It is shown that the most stability nanoneedles in the conditions of thermal influence are the nanoneedles with the axis along [111] direction. Violation of the nanoneedles stability associated with their blunting, which is caused by surface diffusion. Stable radius of curvature of the needles depends on the angle of the tip and orientation of the needle axis. It is 0.6-1 nm at low temperatures.

  11. Microstructure and Creep Properties of TiAl-Ti3Al In-Situ Composites

    SciTech Connect

    Hodge, A M; Hsiung, L L

    2004-02-18

    Objectives: {lg_bullet} Exploit thermomechanical-processing techniques to fabricate TiAl/Ti3Al in-situ laminate composites with the size of lamella width down to submicron or nanometer length-scales. {lg_bullet} Characterize microstructure and elevated-temperature creep resistance of the in-situ composites. {lg_bullet} Investigate the fundamental interrelationships among microstructures, alloying additions, and mechanical properties of the in-situ composites so as to achieve the desired properties of the in-situ composites for high-temperature structural applications.

  12. Design and operation of an aluminium alloy tank using doped Na3AlH6 in kg scale for hydrogen storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urbanczyk, R.; Peinecke, K.; Meggouh, M.; Minne, P.; Peil, S.; Bathen, D.; Felderhoff, M.

    2016-08-01

    In this publication the authors present an aluminium alloy tank for hydrogen storage using 1921 g of Na3AlH6 doped with 4 mol% of TiCl3 and 8 mol% of activated carbon. The tank and the heat exchangers are manufactured by extrusion moulding of Al-Mg-Si based alloys. EN AW 6082 T6 alloy is used for the tank and a specifically developed alloy with a composition similar to EN AW 6060 T6 is used for the heat exchangers. The three heat exchangers have a corrugated profile to enhance the surface area for heat transfer. The doped complex hydride Na3AlH6 is densified to a powder density of 0.62 g cm-3. The hydrogenation experiments are carried out at 2.5 MPa. During one of the dehydrogenation experiments approximately 38 g of hydrogen is released, accounting for gravimetric hydrogen density of 2.0 mass-%. With this tank 15 hydrogenation and 16 dehydrogenation tests are carried out.

  13. Breached cylinder incident at the Portsmouth gaseous diffusion plant

    SciTech Connect

    Boelens, R.A.

    1991-12-31

    On June 16, 1990, during an inspection of valves on partially depleted product storage cylinders, a 14-ton partially depleted product cylinder was discovered breached. The cylinder had been placed in long-term storage in 1977 on the top row of Portsmouth`s (two rows high) storage area. The breach was observed when an inspector noticed a pile of green material along side of the cylinder. The breach was estimated to be approximately 8- inches wide and 16-inches long, and ran under the first stiffening ring of the cylinder. During the continuing inspection of the storage area, a second 14-ton product cylinder was discovered breached. This cylinder was stacked on the bottom row in the storage area in 1986. This breach was also located adjacent to a stiffening ring. This paper will discuss the contributing factors of the breaching of the cylinders, the immediate response, subsequent actions in support of the investigation, and corrective actions.

  14. Flow mediated interactions between two cylinders at finite Re numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gazzola, Mattia; Mimeau, Chloe; Tchieu, Andrew A.; Koumoutsakos, Petros

    2012-04-01

    We present simulations of two interacting moving cylinders immersed in a two-dimensional incompressible, viscous flow. Simulations are performed by coupling a wavelet-adapted, remeshed vortex method with the Brinkman penalization and projection approach. This method is validated on benchmark problems and applied to simulations of a master-slave pair of cylinders. The master cylinder's motion is imposed and the slave cylinder is let free to respond to the flow. We study the relative role of viscous and inertia effects in the cylinders interactions and identify related sharp transitions in the response of the slave. The observed differences in the behavior of cylinders with respect to corresponding potential flow simulations are discussed. In addition, it is observed that in certain situations the finite size of the slave cylinders enhances the transport so that the cylinders are advected more effectively than passive tracers placed, respectively, at the same starting position.

  15. 21 CFR 886.1840 - Simulatan (including crossed cylinder).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... given object is clearly in focus, as the examiner uses different lenses). (b) Classification. Class I... cylinder). (a) Identification. A simulatan (including crossed cylinder) is a device that is a set of...

  16. 21 CFR 886.1840 - Simulatan (including crossed cylinder).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... given object is clearly in focus, as the examiner uses different lenses). (b) Classification. Class I... cylinder). (a) Identification. A simulatan (including crossed cylinder) is a device that is a set of...

  17. Ceramic components manufacturing by selective laser sintering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertrand, Ph.; Bayle, F.; Combe, C.; Goeuriot, P.; Smurov, I.

    2007-12-01

    In the present paper, technology of selective laser sintering/melting is applied to manufacture net shaped objects from pure yttria-zirconia powders. Experiments are carried out on Phenix Systems PM100 machine with 50 W fibre laser. Powder is spread by a roller over the surface of 100 mm diameter alumina cylinder. Design of experiments is applied to identify influent process parameters (powder characteristics, powder layering and laser manufacturing strategy) to obtain high-quality ceramic components (density and micro-structure). The influence of the yttria-zirconia particle size and morphology onto powder layering process is analysed. The influence of the powder layer thickness on laser sintering/melting is studied for different laser beam velocity V ( V = 1250-2000 mm/s), defocalisation (-6 to 12 mm), distance between two neighbour melted lines (so-called "vectors") (20-40 μm), vector length and temperature in the furnace. The powder bed density before laser sintering/melting also has significant influence on the manufactured samples density. Different manufacturing strategies are applied and compared: (a) different laser beam scanning paths to fill the sliced surfaces of the manufactured object, (b) variation of vector length (c) different strategies of powder layering, (d) temperature in the furnace and (e) post heat treatment in conventional furnace. Performance and limitations of different strategies are analysed applying the following criteria: geometrical accuracy of the manufactured samples, porosity. The process stability is proved by fabrication of 1 cm 3 volume cube.

  18. Stability analysis of cylinders with circular cutouts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Almroth, B. O.; Brogan, F. A.; Marlowe, M. B.

    1973-01-01

    The stability of axially compressed cylinders with circular cutouts is analyzed numerically. An extension of the finite-difference method is used which removes the requirement that displacement components be defined in the directions of the grid lines. The results of this nonlinear analysis are found to be in good agreement with earlier experimental results.

  19. Frequency spectra of laminated piezoelectric cylinders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siao, J. C.-T.; Dong, S. B.; Song, J.

    1994-07-01

    A finite-element method is presented for determining the vibrational characteristics of a circular cylinder composed of bonded piezoelectric layers. Finite-element modeling occurs in the radial direction only using quadratic polynomials and the variationally derived partial differential equations are functions of the hoop and axial coordinates (theta, z) and time t. Using solution form Q exp (i(xi(z) + n(theta) + (omega)t)), with Q as the nodal amplitudes, leads to an algebraic eigensystem where any one of the three parameters (n, xi, omega), the circumferential or axial wave number or natural frequency, can act as the eigenvalue. Integer values always are assigned to n, leaving two possible eigenvalue problems. With omega as the eigenvalue and real values assigned to xi, the solutions represent propagating waves or harmonic standing vibrations in an infinite cylinder. When xi is the eigenvalue and real values assigned to omega, this eigensystem admits both real and complex eigendata. Real xi's represent propagating waves or harmonic standing vibrations as noted before. Complex conjugate pairs of xi 's describe end vibrations, which arise when an incident wave impinges upon a free end of a cylindrical bar. They are standing waves whose amplitudes decay sinusoidally or exponentially from the free end into the interior. Two examples are given to illustrate the method of analysis, viz., a solid piezoelectric cylinder of PZT-4 ceramic material and a two-layer cylinder of PZT-4 covering an isotropic material.

  20. Beam impedance of a split cylinder

    SciTech Connect

    Lambertson, G.

    1990-04-01

    A common geometry for position electrodes at moderately low frequencies is the capacitive pickup consisting of a diagonally- divided cylinder that encloses the beam trajectory. For the simplified system here, a relatively direct approach will given the longitudinal and transverse beam impedances (Z{parallel}and Z{perpendicular}) at low frequencies. This paper discusses the determination of this impedance.

  1. Laminar flow past a rotating circular cylinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Sangmo; Choi, Haecheon; Lee, Sangsan

    1999-11-01

    The present study numerically investigates two-dimensional laminar flow past a circular cylinder rotating with a constant angular velocity, for the purpose of controlling vortex shedding and understanding the underlying flow mechanism. Numerical simulations are performed for flows with Re=60, 100, and 160 in the range of 0⩽α⩽2.5, where α is the circumferential speed at the cylinder surface normalized by the free-stream velocity. Results show that the rotation of a cylinder can suppress vortex shedding effectively. Vortex shedding exists at low rotational speeds and completely disappears at α>αL, where αL is the critical rotational speed which shows a logarithmic dependence on Re. The Strouhal number remains nearly constant regardless of α while vortex shedding exists. With increasing α, the mean lift increases linearly and the mean drag decreases, which differ significantly from those predicted by the potential flow theory. On the other hand, the amplitude of lift fluctuation stays nearly constant with increasing α (<αL), while that of drag fluctuation increases. Further studies from the instantaneous flow fields demonstrate again that the rotation of a cylinder makes a substantial effect on the flow pattern.

  2. Pulsatile flow past a single oscillating cylinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seda, Robinson; Qamar, Adnan; Bull, Joseph

    2010-11-01

    The potential for oscillating fibers to modify flow within a new artificial lung design is first examined in the present fundamental fluid mechanics study of flow past a single oscillating cylinder. This new design is intended to provide better gas exchange through vorticity enhancement by oscillating microfibers (cylinders) in a pulsatile flow environment. The Keulegan-Carpenter number (Kc=Uo/Dφc) was used to describe the frequency of the oscillating cylinder (φc) while the pulsatile free stream velocity was fixed by imposing φ/Kc=1 for all cases investigated. The parameters investigated in this study were amplitude of oscillation (0.5Dcylinder oscillating frequency matching the vortex shedding frequency) was found when KC=1 for all cases. A jump in the drag coefficient was observed and attributed to this operating regime. These results suggest that this new design of the TAL could potentially enhance gas exchange through oscillation of the microfibers with a decrease in the drag coefficient if operating far from the lock-in regime. This work was supported by NIH grants R01HL69420 and R01HL089043.

  3. Stationary Flux in Mesoscopic Noisy Cylinders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dajka, J.; Łuczka, J.; Szopa, M.

    2003-07-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate the existence of the stationary states of current in the mesoscopic cylinder. The dynamics of the flux is governed by a stochastic differential equation. We discuss both the influence of equilibrium (thermal) and non-equilibrium noise sources.

  4. Rotating Cylinder Treatment System Demonstration (Presentation)

    EPA Science Inventory

    In August 2008, a rotating cylinder treatment system (RCTSTM) demonstration was conducted near Gladstone, CO. The RCTSTM is a novel technology developed to replace the aeration/oxidation and mixing components of a conventional lime precipitation treatment s...

  5. Rippled Surface Structure and Electronic and Magnetic Properties of Ni_3Al(001)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jae Il; Hong, S. C.; Mannstadt, W.; Freeman, A. J.

    1998-03-01

    LEED experiments on the composite Ni-Al surface of Ni_3Al(001) revealed a very small amount of ripplingfootnote D. Sondericker, F. Jona and P. M. Marcus, Phys. Rev. B33, 900 (1986). Challenged by this observation, structural, electronic and magnetic properties of Ni_3Al(001) were investigated by the local density full-potential linearized augmented plane wave (FLAPW) methodfootnote E. Wimmer, H. Krakauer, M. Weinert and A. J. Freeman, Phys. Rev. B24, 864 (1981).. A stable rippled surface atomic geometry was determined by atomic force calculations, with both surface Ni and Al atoms contracting down to the bulk region-consistent with experiment. The amount of rippling found by calculation (0.054 Åis almost within the experimental error bar (0.02 ± 0.03 ÅCharge densities, calculated work functions, and density of states for the rippled surfaces are reported. The spin polarized calculation shows that the magnetic moments for the Ni atoms decrease from 0.2 μB for the center layer to ~ 0.03 μB for the surface layer, which is essentially "magnetically dead". * Work in Korea supported by KOSEF through SNU-CTP and work at Northwestern U. supported by ONR

  6. Normal and Superconducting Properties of the Noncentrosymmetric Mo3Al2C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koyama, Takehide; Maeda, Yoshitaka; Yamazaki, Tomoaki; Ueda, Ko-ichi; Mito, Takeshi; Kohara, Takao; Waki, Takeshi; Tabata, Yoshikazu; Tsunemi, Hiroshi; Ito, Mikio; Nakamura, Hiroyuki

    2013-07-01

    We have investigated the noncentrosymmetric superconductor Mo3Al2C prepared by spark plasma sintering, in which the amount of impurity phase was considerably reduced. Another phase transition in the normal state was clearly observed in the spark plasma sintered sample as an abrupt change in the 27Al nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra and an anomaly in the electrical resistivity. In the transition, a partial gap opening on the Fermi surface is inferred from the decrease in the nuclear spin--lattice relaxation rate 1/T1 and the magnetic susceptibility χ below 200 K. The simultaneous presence of two components in the NMR spectra and thermal hysteresis in χ at ˜200 K indicates the first-order character of the transition. These results imply the formation of the charge-density wave state in Mo3Al2C. In the superconducting state, 1/T1 shows a peak just below Tc and decreases exponentially with temperature, in good agreement with that is expected for the s-wave superconductor.

  7. Development and commercialization status of Fe{sub 3}Al-based intermetallic alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Sikka, V.K.; Viswanathan, S.; McKamey, C.G.

    1993-06-01

    The Fe{sub 3}Al-based intermetallic alloys offer unique benefits of excellent oxidation and sulfidation resistance, limited by poor room-temperature (RT) ductility and low high-temperature strength. Recent understanding of environmental effects on RT ductility of these alloys has led to progress toward taking commercial advantage of Fe{sub 3}Al-based materials. Cause of low ductility appears to be related to hydrogen formed from reaction with moisture. The environmental effect has been reduced in these intermetallic alloys by two methods. The first deals with producing a more hydrogen-resistant microstructure through thermomechanical processing, and the second dealed with compositional modification. The alloys showing reduced environmental effect have been melted and processed by many different methods. Laboratory and commercial heats have been characterized. Tests have been conducted in both air and controlled environments to quantify environmental effects on these properties. These materials were also tested for aqueous corrosion and resistance to stress corrosion cracking. Oxidation and sulfidation data were generated and effects of minor alloying elements on were also investigated. Several applications have been identified for the newly developed iron aluminides. Commercialization status of these alloys is described.

  8. Dislocation-grain boundary interactions in Ni sub 3 Al; Effects of structure and chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, T.C.; Subramanian, R.; Robertson, I.M.; Birnbaum, H.K. . Materials Research Lab.)

    1991-06-01

    This paper reports that one of the critical issues in developing an understanding of the response of Ni{sub 3}Al to stress is the interaction between dislocations and grain boundaries. Even in simple metals this issue is complex, depending as it does on the nature and orientation of the grain boundary and the character of the interacting dislocations. In the case of intermetallic alloys, the issue is even more complex, as the additional factors of grain boundary chemistry, local order, etc. play an important role. This si clearly illustrated in the specific case of Ni{sub 3}Al which exhibits brittle intergranular fracture at low temperatures, except for hypo-stoichiometric alloys containing small amounts of Boron. The B-doped alloy exhibits extensive plastic deformation before undergoing ductile rupture. The effect of B is clearly on the response of grain boundaries to the stresses caused by slip dislocations as both ductile and brittle alloys show extensive slip within the grains prior to fracture. Two mechanism have been proposed to account for this effect of B on the fracture process. In one, it is postulated that B segregation to the grain boundaries increases the cohesive energy of the grain boundaries to the extent that stress concentrations at the boundaries are relieved by initiation of slip rather than fracture. This is consistent with the thermodynamic treatment of fracture as it has been observed that B does segregate more strongly to grain boundaries than to external surfaces.

  9. High pressure spectroscopy study of SCF Tb3Al5O12:Mn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiśniewski, K.; Zorenko, Y. U.; Gorbenko, V.; Zorenko, T.; Kukliński, B.; Grinberg, M.

    2010-11-01

    Single crystal film of Tb3Al5O12:Mn, with concentration of Mn approximately equal to 0.07 at%, has been grown by liquid phase epitaxy on Y3Al5O12 substrate. We have measured the absorption, luminescence, luminescence excitation spectra and luminescence kinetics of the film. To analyze the energetic structure and to estimate the crystal field strength we have measured the photoluminescence spectra under high hydrostatic pressure applied in diamond anvil cell up to 110 kbar. The Mn emission was consisted with the band peaked at 16800 cm-1 that shifts toward the lower energy with increasing pressure with the rate -9 cm-1/kbar. To characterize the Mn charge state we performed calculations of Tanabe -Sugano diagrams for 3d5, 3d4 and 3d3 system. The negative pressure shift of the 16800 cm-1 band yields attribution of this band to the 4T1 →6A1 transition in dodecahedrally coordinated Mn2+ ion. We have estimated quantity of Dq/B equal to 1.8 ±0.2. The configurational coordinate diagram of the Mn2+(3d5) has been calculated to analyze the nonradiative deexcitation processes 4T1 → 2T2 →6A1.

  10. 77 FR 37384 - High Pressure Steel Cylinders From the People's Republic of China: Countervailing Duty Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-21

    ... International Trade Administration High Pressure Steel Cylinders From the People's Republic of China... duty order on high pressure steel cylinders (``steel cylinders'') from the People's Republic of China.... See High Pressure Steel Cylinders From the People's Republic of China: Final...

  11. Failure of Non-Circular Composite Cylinders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hyer, M. W.

    2004-01-01

    In this study, a progressive failure analysis is used to investigate leakage in internally pressurized non-circular composite cylinders. This type of approach accounts for the localized loss of stiffness when material failure occurs at some location in a structure by degrading the local material elastic properties by a certain factor. The manner in which this degradation of material properties takes place depends on the failure modes, which are determined by the application of a failure criterion. The finite-element code STAGS, which has the capability to perform progressive failure analysis using different degradation schemes and failure criteria, is utilized to analyze laboratory scale, graphite-epoxy, elliptical cylinders with quasi-isotropic, circumferentially-stiff, and axially-stiff material orthotropies. The results are divided into two parts. The first part shows that leakage, which is assumed to develop if there is material failure in every layer at some axial and circumferential location within the cylinder, does not occur without failure of fibers. Moreover before fibers begin to fail, only matrix tensile failures, or matrix cracking, takes place, and at least one layer in all three cylinders studied remain uncracked, preventing the formation of a leakage path. That determination is corroborated by the use of different degradation schemes and various failure criteria. Among the degradation schemes investigated are the degradation of different engineering properties, the use of various degradation factors, the recursive or non-recursive degradation of the engineering properties, and the degradation of material properties using different computational approaches. The failure criteria used in the analysis include the noninteractive maximum stress criterion and the interactive Hashin and Tsai-Wu criteria. The second part of the results shows that leakage occurs due to a combination of matrix tensile and compressive, fiber tensile and compressive, and inplane

  12. Nonlinear bending and collapse analysis of a poked cylinder and other point-loaded cylinders

    SciTech Connect

    Sobel, L.H.

    1983-06-01

    This paper analyzes the geometrically nonlinear bending and collapse behavior of an elastic, simply supported cylindrical shell subjected to an inward-directed point load applied at midlength. The large displacement analysis results for this thin (R/t = 638) poked cylinder were obtained from the STAGSC-1 finite element computer program. STAGSC-1 results are also presented for two other point-loaded shell problems: a pinched cylinder (R/t = 100), and a venetian blind (R/t = 250).

  13. An investigation of the autofrettage of a reciprocating pump fluid cylinder

    SciTech Connect

    Sutton, J.L.

    1984-02-01

    An analytical method is presented for computing the autofrettage pressure to be used to sufficiently prestress a reciprocating pump fluid end. The fluid end configuration consists of a pair of ''tee''-intersecting cylindrical bores in a rectangular block. The analysis is based on a finite element method utilizing an initial stress method and is capable of computing elasto-plastic material stresses in machine components manufactured from strain-hardening materials while they are being subjected to a uniform pressure load. Residual stresses and strains are also computed following the unloading of a component. The method is compared to other theoretical solution techniques and experimental stress analyses completed on a simple ''thick-walled'' cylinder and a fluid end. The finite element analysis was confirmed to be a reasonable method for computing cylinder autofrettage pressures as well as being capable of computing the elastoplastic deformations of geometrically complex machine components.

  14. Investigation of breached depleted UF{sub 6} cylinders

    SciTech Connect

    DeVan, J.H.

    1991-12-31

    In June 1990, during a three-site inspection of cylinders being used for long-term storage of solid depleted UF{sub 6}, two 14-ton cylinders at Portsmouth, Ohio, were discovered with holes in the barrel section of the cylinders. An investigation team was immediately formed to determine the cause of the failures and their impact on future storage procedures and to recommend corrective actions. Subsequent investigation showed that the failures most probably resulted from mechanical damage that occurred at the time that the cylinders had been placed in the storage yard. In both cylinders evidence pointed to the impact of a lifting lug of an adjacent cylinder near the front stiffening ring, where deflection of the cylinder could occur only by tearing the cylinder. The impacts appear to have punctured the cylinders and thereby set up corrosion processes that greatly extended the openings in the wall and obliterated the original crack. Fortunately, the reaction products formed by this process were relatively protective and prevented any large-scale loss of uranium. The main factors that precipitated the failures were inadequate spacing between cylinders and deviations in the orientations of lifting lugs from their intended horizontal position. After reviewing the causes and effects of the failures, the team`s principal recommendation for remedial action concerned improved cylinder handling and inspection procedures. Design modifications and supplementary mechanical tests were also recommended to improve the cylinder containment integrity during the stacking operation.

  15. 46 CFR 197.338 - Compressed gas cylinders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Compressed gas cylinders. 197.338 Section 197.338... STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.338 Compressed gas cylinders. Each compressed gas cylinder must— (a) Be stored in a ventilated area; (b) Be protected from excessive heat;...

  16. 30 CFR 57.16005 - Securing gas cylinders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Securing gas cylinders. 57.16005 Section 57.16005 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Storage and Handling § 57.16005 Securing gas cylinders. Compressed and liquid gas cylinders shall...

  17. 46 CFR 197.338 - Compressed gas cylinders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Compressed gas cylinders. 197.338 Section 197.338... STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.338 Compressed gas cylinders. Each compressed gas cylinder must— (a) Be stored in a ventilated area; (b) Be protected from excessive heat;...

  18. 30 CFR 57.16005 - Securing gas cylinders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Securing gas cylinders. 57.16005 Section 57.16005 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Storage and Handling § 57.16005 Securing gas cylinders. Compressed and liquid gas cylinders shall...

  19. 30 CFR 56.16005 - Securing gas cylinders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Securing gas cylinders. 56.16005 Section 56.16005 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... and Handling § 56.16005 Securing gas cylinders. Compressed and liquid gas cylinders shall be...

  20. 30 CFR 56.16005 - Securing gas cylinders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Securing gas cylinders. 56.16005 Section 56.16005 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... and Handling § 56.16005 Securing gas cylinders. Compressed and liquid gas cylinders shall be...

  1. 46 CFR 197.338 - Compressed gas cylinders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Compressed gas cylinders. 197.338 Section 197.338... STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.338 Compressed gas cylinders. Each compressed gas cylinder must— (a) Be stored in a ventilated area; (b) Be protected from excessive heat;...

  2. 49 CFR 176.92 - Cylinders laden in vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Requirements for Transport Vehicles Loaded With Hazardous Materials and Transported on Board Ferry Vessels § 176.92 Cylinders laden in vehicles. Any cylinder of Class 2 (compressed gas) material which is... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cylinders laden in vehicles. 176.92 Section...

  3. 49 CFR 176.92 - Cylinders laden in vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Requirements for Transport Vehicles Loaded With Hazardous Materials and Transported on Board Ferry Vessels § 176.92 Cylinders laden in vehicles. Any cylinder of Class 2 (compressed gas) material which is... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cylinders laden in vehicles. 176.92 Section...

  4. 49 CFR 176.92 - Cylinders laden in vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Requirements for Transport Vehicles Loaded With Hazardous Materials and Transported on Board Ferry Vessels § 176.92 Cylinders laden in vehicles. Any cylinder of Class 2 (compressed gas) material which is... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cylinders laden in vehicles. 176.92 Section...

  5. 49 CFR 176.92 - Cylinders laden in vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Requirements for Transport Vehicles Loaded With Hazardous Materials and Transported on Board Ferry Vessels § 176.92 Cylinders laden in vehicles. Any cylinder of Class 2 (compressed gas) material which is... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cylinders laden in vehicles. 176.92 Section...

  6. 49 CFR 176.92 - Cylinders laden in vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Requirements for Transport Vehicles Loaded With Hazardous Materials and Transported on Board Ferry Vessels § 176.92 Cylinders laden in vehicles. Any cylinder of Class 2 (compressed gas) material which is... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cylinders laden in vehicles. 176.92 Section...

  7. Pistons and Cylinders Made of Carbon-Carbon Composite Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rivers, H. Kevin (Inventor); Ransone, Philip O. (Inventor); Northam, G. Burton (Inventor); Schwind, Francis A. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    An improved reciprocating internal combustion engine has a plurality of engine pistons, which are fabricated from carbon-carbon composite materials, in operative association with an engine cylinder block, or an engine cylinder tube, or an engine cylinder jug, all of which are also fabricated from carbon-carbon composite materials.

  8. 49 CFR 174.201 - Class 2 (gases) material cylinders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Class 2 (gases) material cylinders. 174.201... RAIL Detailed Requirements for Class 2 (Gases) Materials § 174.201 Class 2 (gases) material cylinders. (a) Except as provided in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section, cylinders containing Class 2...

  9. 49 CFR 174.201 - Class 2 (gases) material cylinders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Class 2 (gases) material cylinders. 174.201... RAIL Detailed Requirements for Class 2 (Gases) Materials § 174.201 Class 2 (gases) material cylinders. (a) Except as provided in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section, cylinders containing Class 2...

  10. 49 CFR 174.201 - Class 2 (gases) material cylinders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Class 2 (gases) material cylinders. 174.201... RAIL Detailed Requirements for Class 2 (Gases) Materials § 174.201 Class 2 (gases) material cylinders. (a) Except as provided in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section, cylinders containing Class 2...

  11. 49 CFR 174.201 - Class 2 (gases) material cylinders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Class 2 (gases) material cylinders. 174.201... RAIL Detailed Requirements for Class 2 (Gases) Materials § 174.201 Class 2 (gases) material cylinders. (a) Except as provided in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section, cylinders containing Class 2...

  12. 49 CFR 174.201 - Class 2 (gases) material cylinders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Class 2 (gases) material cylinders. 174.201... RAIL Detailed Requirements for Class 2 (Gases) Materials § 174.201 Class 2 (gases) material cylinders. (a) Except as provided in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section, cylinders containing Class 2...

  13. 58. (Credit JTL) View looking northeast across steam cylinders of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    58. (Credit JTL) View looking northeast across steam cylinders of Allis-Chalmers pumping engine. High-pressure cylinder is in foreground, low-pressure cylinder in background with part of Corliss valve gear visible. - McNeil Street Pumping Station, McNeil Street & Cross Bayou, Shreveport, Caddo Parish, LA

  14. 76 FR 38697 - High Pressure Steel Cylinders From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-01

    ... COMMISSION High Pressure Steel Cylinders From China Determinations On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed... injured by reason of imports from China of high pressure steel cylinders, provided for in subheading 7311... pressure steel cylinders from China. Accordingly, effective May 11, 2011, the Commission...

  15. 30 CFR 56.16006 - Protection of gas cylinder valves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Storage and Handling § 56.16006 Protection of gas cylinder valves. Valves on compressed gas cylinders... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Protection of gas cylinder valves. 56.16006 Section 56.16006 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL...

  16. 30 CFR 57.16006 - Protection of gas cylinder valves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Storage and Handling § 57.16006 Protection of gas cylinder valves. Valves on compressed gas cylinders... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Protection of gas cylinder valves. 57.16006 Section 57.16006 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL...

  17. Global aerodynamic instability of twin cylinders in cross flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alam, Md. Mahbub; Meyer, J. P.

    2013-08-01

    This paper comprises an in-depth physical discussion of the flow-induced vibration of two circular cylinders in view of the time-mean lift force on stationary cylinders and interaction mechanisms. The gap-spacing ratio T/D is varied from 0.1 to 5 and the attack angle α from 0° to 180° where T is the gap width between the cylinders and D is the diameter of a cylinder. Mechanisms of interaction between two cylinders are discussed based on time-mean lift, fluctuating lift, flow structures and flow-induced responses. The whole regime is classified into seven interaction regimes, i.e., no interaction regime; boundary layer and cylinder interaction regime; shear-layer/wake and cylinder interaction regime; shear-layer and shear-layer interaction regime; vortex and cylinder interaction regime; vortex and shear-layer interaction regime; and vortex and vortex interaction regime. Though a single non-interfering circular cylinder does not correspond to a galloping following quasi-steady galloping theory, two circular cylinders experience violent galloping vibration due to shear-layer/wake and cylinder interaction as well as boundary layer and cylinder interaction. A larger magnitude of fluctuating lift communicates to a larger amplitude vortex excitation.

  18. 30 CFR 56.4601 - Oxygen cylinder storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Oxygen cylinder storage. 56.4601 Section 56.4601 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Control Welding/cutting/compressed Gases § 56.4601 Oxygen cylinder storage. Oxygen cylinders shall not...

  19. 30 CFR 57.4601 - Oxygen cylinder storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Oxygen cylinder storage. 57.4601 Section 57.4601 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... and Control Welding/cutting/compressed Gases § 57.4601 Oxygen cylinder storage. Oxygen cylinders...

  20. 30 CFR 56.4601 - Oxygen cylinder storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Oxygen cylinder storage. 56.4601 Section 56.4601 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Control Welding/cutting/compressed Gases § 56.4601 Oxygen cylinder storage. Oxygen cylinders shall not...

  1. 30 CFR 56.4601 - Oxygen cylinder storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Oxygen cylinder storage. 56.4601 Section 56.4601 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Control Welding/cutting/compressed Gases § 56.4601 Oxygen cylinder storage. Oxygen cylinders shall not...

  2. 30 CFR 57.4601 - Oxygen cylinder storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Oxygen cylinder storage. 57.4601 Section 57.4601 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... and Control Welding/cutting/compressed Gases § 57.4601 Oxygen cylinder storage. Oxygen cylinders...

  3. 30 CFR 57.4601 - Oxygen cylinder storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Oxygen cylinder storage. 57.4601 Section 57.4601 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... and Control Welding/cutting/compressed Gases § 57.4601 Oxygen cylinder storage. Oxygen cylinders...

  4. 30 CFR 57.4601 - Oxygen cylinder storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Oxygen cylinder storage. 57.4601 Section 57.4601 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... and Control Welding/cutting/compressed Gases § 57.4601 Oxygen cylinder storage. Oxygen cylinders...

  5. 30 CFR 57.4601 - Oxygen cylinder storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Oxygen cylinder storage. 57.4601 Section 57.4601 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... and Control Welding/cutting/compressed Gases § 57.4601 Oxygen cylinder storage. Oxygen cylinders...

  6. 30 CFR 56.4601 - Oxygen cylinder storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Oxygen cylinder storage. 56.4601 Section 56.4601 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Control Welding/cutting/compressed Gases § 56.4601 Oxygen cylinder storage. Oxygen cylinders shall not...

  7. 30 CFR 56.4601 - Oxygen cylinder storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Oxygen cylinder storage. 56.4601 Section 56.4601 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Control Welding/cutting/compressed Gases § 56.4601 Oxygen cylinder storage. Oxygen cylinders shall not...

  8. Anodic Corrosion Behavior of NiFe2O4-Based Cermet in Na3AlF6-K3AlF6-AlF3 for Aluminum Electrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Zhongliang; Lai, Yanqing; Yang, Shu; Li, Jie; Hwang, Jiann-Yang; Liu, Yexiang

    2015-03-01

    A (Cu,Ni)/(10NiO-NiFe2O4) cermet was tested as an inert anode for aluminum electrolysis in Na3AlF6-K3AlF6-AlF3 melt at 1173 K (900 °C), and its corrosion behavior was studied. The results show that the low-temperature Na3AlF6-K3AlF6-AlF3 bath is beneficial, improving the service conditions. With the combined effects of the electrolyte composition and the nascent oxygen during electrolysis, the metal phase (Cu,Ni) at the surface of anode will not be leached preferentially, but be transferred into the aluminates including FeAl2O4, NiAl2O4 and CuAl2O4. This is helpful for the anode to improve its corrosion resistance.

  9. Advanced Manufacturing Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fikes, John

    2016-01-01

    Advanced Manufacturing Technologies (AMT) is developing and maturing innovative and advanced manufacturing technologies that will enable more capable and lower-cost spacecraft, launch vehicles and infrastructure to enable exploration missions. The technologies will utilize cutting edge materials and emerging capabilities including metallic processes, additive manufacturing, composites, and digital manufacturing. The AMT project supports the National Manufacturing Initiative involving collaboration with other government agencies.

  10. Performance of Air-cooled Engine Cylinders Using Blower Cooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schey, Oscar W; Ellerbrock, Herman H , Jr

    1936-01-01

    An investigation was made to obtain information on the minimum quantity of air and power required to cool conventional air cooled cylinders at various operating conditions when using a blower. The results of these tests show that the minimum power required for satisfactory cooling with an overall blower efficiency of 100 percent varied from 2 to 6 percent of the engine power depending on the operating conditions. The shape of the jacket had a large effect on the cylinder temperatures. Increasing the air speed over the front of the cylinder by keeping the greater part of the circumference of the cylinder covered by the jacket reduced the temperatures over the entire cylinder.

  11. High temperature deformation and fracture mechanisms in a dendritic Ni[sub 3]Al alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, H.K.; Earthman, J.C. . Dept. of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering)

    1994-03-01

    The mechanisms that control high temperature deformation and rupture were studied in a Ni[sub 3]Al alloy that was thermo-mechanically treated to produce a non-porous dendritic grain structure. Comparisons of data corresponding to the dendritic grain morphology with that for the equiaxed grain structures indicate that the dendritic morphology results in significantly lower creep rates as well as substantially greater times to rupture. Comparison of the data with numerical calculations suggests that this difference in creep strength is due to an inherent resistance to grain boundary sliding by the dendritic grain structure. A constrained cavity growth model was adapted based on microstructural observations to account for cavitation within the dendritic microstructure. The success of the model indicates that rupture time is primarily determined by constrained cavity growth on isolated dendrite boundary segments.

  12. Moebius inversion and mechanical properties of Ni{sub 3}Al

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, N.X.; Li, M.; Liu, S.J.; Chen, Z.D.

    1995-08-01

    Recently, Chen et al. have applied the Moebius inversion formula to a variety of inversion problems with very concise expressions in analysis and with very fast convergence in calculation. The so-called inverse cohesion problem is to determine the pair potentials between atoms from the cohesive energy curve of the crystal. Carlsson, Gelatt and Ehrenreich were the first to solve this problem by using an operational method. In the present work, the authors deduce a new and concise Moebius inversion formula for some real three-dimensional structures, such as the simple cubic, face-centered and L1{sub 2} structures. Then the calculation of the elastic constants for the intermetallic compound Ni{sub 3}Al is performed based on the new Moebius inversion formula. The calculated result is in good agreement with the experiments.

  13. Josephson effect in Al/Bi2Se3/Al coplanar hybrid devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galletti, L.; Charpentier, S.; Lucignano, P.; Massarotti, D.; Arpaia, R.; Tafuri, F.; Bauch, T.; Suzuki, Y.; Tagliacozzo, A.; Kadowaki, K.; Lombardi, F.

    2014-08-01

    The edge states of Topological Insulators (TI) are protected against backscattering, thanks to the topological properties arising from their band structure. Coupling a TI to a superconductor (S) can induce unconventional effects, including the creation of Majorana bound states (MBS). The fabrication of coplanar hybrid devices is a fundamental step to pave the way to the understanding of proximity effects in topologically non-trivial systems, and to a large variety of experiments aimed at the possible detection of MBS. We discuss the feasibility and some relevant properties of Al-Bi2Se3-Al coplanar proximity devices. Special attention is devoted to the design of the junction, aimed at enhancing the coupling between the electrodes and the TI.

  14. Fundamental Influence of C on Adhesion of the Al2O3/Al Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiao-Gang; Smith, John R.; Evans, Anthony

    2002-12-01

    Our first-principles computations indicate that the clean Al2O3/Al interface is relatively weak—weaker than bulk Al. Fracture experiments reveal that the interface is relatively strong with observed failure in bulk Al, however. This paradox is resolved via doping effects of the common impurity C. We have found that only 1/3 of a monolayer of carbon segregated to the interface can increase the work of separation by a factor of 3. The resulting strong interface is consistent with fracture experiments. It arises due to void formation in the interface, which provides low-strain sites for the carbon to segregate to. The degree of void formation is consistent with the relatively high heat of oxide formation of Al.

  15. Solute partitioning in TiAl/Ti{sub 3}Al alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Munroe, P.R.; Baker, I.

    1999-11-19

    Over the last few years there have been intense research and development efforts on two-phase alloys based on ({gamma}) TiAl + ({alpha}{sub 2}) Ti{sub 3}Al; the goal being to develop alloys for aerospace and, possibly, automotive applications. Two-phase alloys have been studied which contain numerous elemental additions, the more common ones of which are W, Mo, Nb, Cr, W, V, Si, Mn, Ta, C and B. These have been studied both for their phase stability and to determine their monotonic and cycling loading response both at low and high temperature. Although the mechanical properties and physical behavior of these alloys have been studied in detail, there is surprisingly little published information on the distribution of these alloying additions between the two phases. Here the authors report a short study on two recently developed alloys concerning how some of these elemental additions partition between the two phases.

  16. Preparation with laser ablation and photoluminescence of Y3Al5O12:Ce nanophosphors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Young-Sik; Huh, Young-Duk; Park, Chan Ryang; Do, Young Rag

    2014-03-01

    We prepared Y3Al5O12:Ce (YAG:Ce) nanophosphors with a mean size of 15 nm by using laser ablation of micron-sized commercial YAG:Ce target phosphor in 1,4-butanediol. The photoluminescence properties of the YAG:Ce nanophosphors were compared with those of micron-sized YAG:Ce phosphor. The elimination of back-scattering effect was confirmed by the optical properties of the YAG:Ce nanophosphors. The thermal stability of the YAG:Ce nanophosphors was also examined for the use of high power white LED. We convinced that the laser ablation method in 1,4-butanediol is an adequate method for the preparation of YAG:Ce nanophosphors for high power white LED with enhancement of the transmittance of the blue light from the InGaN chip.

  17. Microstructure and Functional Mechanism of Friction Layer in Ni3Al Matrix Composites with Graphene Nanoplatelets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Bing; Zhu, Qingshuai; Shi, Xiaoliang; Zhai, Wenzheng; Yang, Kang; Huang, Yuchun

    2016-10-01

    Microstructure and functional mechanism of friction layer need to be further researched. In the present work, the friction coefficients and wear rates are analyzed through response surface methodology to obtain an empirical model for the best response. Fitting results show that the tribological performance of Ni3Al matrix composites (NMCs) with graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs) is better than that of NMCs without GNPs, especially at high sliding velocities and high loads. Further research suggests that the formation of integrated friction layer, which consists of a soft microfilm on a hard coating, is the major reason to cause the differences. Of which, the wear debris layer (WDL) with a low shear strength can reduce the shear force. The ultrafine layer (UL), which is much harder and finer, can effectively avoid fracture and improve the load support capacity. Moreover, the GNPs in WDL and UL can be easily sheared and help to withstand the loads, trending to be parallel to the direction of shear force.

  18. Dynamic restoration mechanism of a Fe{sub 3}Al based alloy during elevated temperature deformation

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, M.; Shan, A.; Lin, D.

    1995-08-01

    By TEM and metallographic examination, the authors found that dynamic recovery and following continuous recrystallization, which connects with the elevated temperature ductility, takes place in a Fe{sub 3}Al based alloy during elevated temperature deformation. Dynamic restoration consists of the following process: (1) by climbing or cross-slipping, glide dislocations change into dislocation arrays, (2) the dislocation array attracts lattice dislocations, (3) with increasing dislocation density, a non-equilibrium sub boundary forms, which is easy to migrate, slide or rotate under external force, and (4) when the misorientation angle of the sub boundary increases to a critical value, the sub boundary changes into a grain boundary with continuous misfit. By relaxation, the boundary then changes into a grain boundary consisting of periodical structure units.

  19. Structure investigation of fluorinated aluminophosphate ULM-3 Al templated by 3-methylaminopropylamine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zabukovec Logar, Natasa; Mali, Gregor; Rajic, Nevenka; Jevtic, Sanja; Rangus, Mojca; Golobic, Amalija; Kaucic, Venceslav

    2010-05-01

    A single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis of an open-framework aluminophosphate ULM-3 Al prepared by 3-methylaminopropylamine (MAPA) as structure-directing agent revealed an orthorhombic Pcab symmetry ( a=9.9949(4) Å, b=15.8229(7) Å, c=18.1963(5) Å, R=0.0648, Z=8, unit cell formula [Al 24P 24O 96F 16·C 32H 112N 16]), which differs from the Pbc2 1 symmetry of the structural analogue prepared in the presence of 1,4-diaminobutane. The 27Al, 31P, 19F, 13C and 1H NMR investigations, which were performed to study in detail MAPA arrangement inside the framework as well as the interactions of MAPA with the aluminophosphate host, confirmed the crystal symmetry and the proposed hydrogen bonding scheme between the template and the framework.

  20. Local structure study of Fe dopants in Ni-deficit Ni3Al alloys

    DOE PAGES

    V. N. Ivanovski; Umicevic, A.; Belosevic-Cavor, J.; ...

    2015-08-24

    We found that the local electronic and magnetic structure, hyperfine interactions, and phase composition of polycrystalline Ni–deficient Ni 3-x FexAl (x = 0.18 and 0.36) were investigated by means of 57 Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy. The samples were characterized by X–ray diffraction and magnetization measurements. The ab initio calculations performed with the projector augmented wave method and the calculations of the energies of iron point defects were done to elucidate the electronic structure and site preference of Fe doped Ni 3 Al. Moreover, the value of calculated electric field gradient tensor Vzz=1.6 1021Vm-2 matches well with the results of Mössbauer spectroscopymore » and indicates that the Fe atoms occupy Ni sites.« less

  1. Luminescent properties of Mn-doped Y3Al5O12 single crystalline films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zorenko, Yu.; Gorbenko, V.; Zorenko, T.; Kuklinski, B.; Grinberg, M.; Wiśniewski, K.; Bilski, P.

    2014-08-01

    The absorption, cathodoluminescence and photoluminescence (PL) spectra as well as PL decay kinetics of Mn doped Y3Al5O12 (YAG:Mn) single crystalline films (SCF) with manganese concentration in the 0.002-0.2 at.% range, grown by the LPE method from PbO to B2O3 based flux onto YAG substrates, were analyzed in this work. The special goal was spectroscopic determination of valence states of manganese ions which are realized in these SCF depending on Mn content. In SCF with Mn content (0.002-0.02 at.%), the incorporation of Mn4+ and Mn2+ ions was found. The absorption and emission spectra of YAG:Mn SCF at higher (0.02-0.2 at.%) content confirmed that the main valence state of manganese ions is Mn3+ state.

  2. Radiation levels on empty cylinders containing heel material

    SciTech Connect

    Shockley, C.W.

    1991-12-31

    Empty UF{sub 6} cylinders containing heel material were found to emit radiation levels in excess of 200 mr/hr, the maximum amount stated in ORO-651. The radiation levels were as high as 335 mr/hr for thick wall (48X and 48Y) cylinders and 1050 mr/hr for thin wall (48G and 48H) cylinders. The high readings were found only on the bottom of the cylinders. These radiation levels exceeded the maximum levels established in DOT 49 CFR, Part 173.441 for shipment of cylinders. Holding periods of four weeks for thick-wall cylinders and ten weeks for thin-wall cylinders were established to allow the radiation levels to decay prior to shipment.

  3. Evolution of Dislocation Structure in a Ni3Al Single Crystal Under the Conditions of High-Temperature Superplasticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazantseva, N. V.; Stepanova, N. N.; Vinogradova, N. I.

    2017-01-01

    The evolution of defective structure in a single crystal of a Ni3Al-base intermetallic with iron and chromium additives under the conditions of superplasticity (δ = 140%) is studied by transmission electron microscopy. The tensile deformation is performed a 1150°C. Planar flaws and recrystallized grains are detected in the fractured zone of the metal. The mechanisms of high-temperature superplasticity of alloys based on Ni3Al intermetallic are discussed.

  4. Desktop Manufacturing Technologies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Mark

    1991-01-01

    Desktop manufacturing is the use of data from a computer-assisted design system to construct actual models of an object. Emerging processes are stereolithography, laser sintering, ballistic particle manufacturing, laminated object manufacturing, and photochemical machining. (SK)

  5. Cylinder Flow Control Using Plasma Actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozlov, Alexey; Thomas, Flint

    2007-11-01

    In this study the results of flow control experiments utilizing single dielectric barrier discharge plasma actuators to control flow separation and unsteady vortex shedding from a circular cylinder in cross-flow are reported. Two optimized quartz dielectric plasma actuators mounted on the cylinder surface utilizing an improved saw-tooth waveform high-voltage generator allowed flow control at Reynolds number approaching supercritical. Using either steady or unsteady actuation, it is demonstrated that the plasma-induced surface blowing gives rise to a local Coanda effect that promotes the maintenance of flow attachment. PIV based flow fields and wake velocity profiles obtained with hot-wire anemometry show large reductions in vortex shedding, wake width and turbulence intensity.

  6. Micromagnetic behavior of electrodeposited cylinder arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, C. A.; Hwang, M.; Shima, M.; Cheng, J. Y.; Farhoud, M.; Savas, T. A.; Smith, Henry I.; Schwarzacher, W.; Ross, F. M.; Redjdal, M.; Humphrey, F. B.

    2002-04-01

    Arrays of cylindrical magnetic particles have been made using interference lithography combined with electrodeposition. The cylinders are made from Ni, Co, CoP, or CoNi, with diameters of 57-180 nm, aspect ratios of 0.4-3, and array periods of 100-200 nm. The remanent states of the cylinders correspond to single-domain ``flower'' states or to magnetization vortices depending on the particle size and aspect ratio. Experimental data are in good agreement with a magnetic-state map calculated using a three-dimensional micromagnetic model, which shows the remanent state as a function of particle size and aspect ratio. The interactions between the particles, and their switching-field distribution, have been quantified.

  7. Bilateral symmetry breaking in nonlinear circular cylinders.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Lijun; Lu, Ya Yan

    2014-12-01

    Symmetry breaking is a common phenomenon in nonlinear systems, it refers to the existence of solutions that do not preserve the original symmetries of the underlying system. In nonlinear optics, symmetry breaking has been previously investigated in a number of systems, usually based on simplified model equations or temporal coupled mode theories. In this paper, we analyze the scattering of an incident plane wave by one or two circular cylinders with a Kerr nonlinearity, and show the existence of solutions that break a lateral reflection symmetry. Although symmetry breaking is a known phenomenon in nonlinear optics, it is the first time that this phenomenon was rigorously studied in simple systems with one or two circular cylinders.

  8. Upgraded Analytical Model of the Cylinder Test

    SciTech Connect

    Souers, P. Clark; Lauderbach, Lisa; Garza, Raul; Ferranti, Louis; Vitello, Peter

    2013-03-15

    A Gurney-type equation was previously corrected for wall thinning and angle of tilt, and now we have added shock wave attenuation in the copper wall and air gap energy loss. Extensive calculations were undertaken to calibrate the two new energy loss mechanisms across all explosives. The corrected Gurney equation is recommended for cylinder use over the original 1943 form. The effect of these corrections is to add more energy to the adiabat values from a relative volume of 2 to 7, with low energy explosives having the largest correction. The data was pushed up to a relative volume of about 15 and the JWL parameter ω was obtained directly. Finally, the total detonation energy density was locked to the v = 7 adiabat energy density, so that the Cylinder test gives all necessary values needed to make a JWL.

  9. Locomotion gaits of a rotating cylinder pair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Rees, Wim M.; Novati, Guido; Koumoutsakos, Petros; Mahadevan, L.

    2015-11-01

    Using 2D numerical simulations of the Navier-Stokes equations, we demonstrate that a simple pair of rotating cylinders can display a range of locomotion patterns of biological and engineering interest. Steadily counter-rotating the cylinders causes the pair to move akin to a vortex dipole for low rotation rates, but as the rotational velocity is increased the direction of motion reverses. Unsteady rotations lead to different locomotion gaits that resemble jellyfish (for in-phase rotations) and undulating swimmers (for out-of-phase rotations). The small number of parameters for this simple system allows us to systematically map the phase space of these gaits, and allows us to understand the underlying physical mechanisms using a minimal model with implications for biological locomotion and engineered analogs.

  10. Anomalous magnetoresistance in magnetized topological insulator cylinders

    SciTech Connect

    Siu, Zhuo Bin; Jalil, Mansoor B. A.

    2015-05-07

    The close coupling between the spin and momentum degrees of freedom in topological insulators (TIs) presents the opportunity for the control of one to manipulate the other. The momentum can, for example, be confined on a curved surface and the spin influenced by applying a magnetic field. In this work, we study the surface states of a cylindrical TI magnetized in the x direction perpendicular to the cylindrical axis lying along the z direction. We show that a large magnetization leads to an upwards bending of the energy bands at small |k{sub z}|. The bending leads to an anomalous magnetoresistance where the transmission between two cylinders magnetized in opposite directions is higher than when the cylinders are magnetized at intermediate angles with respect to each other.

  11. Studies on the Sliding Wear Performance of Plasma Spray Ni-20Cr and Ni3Al Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, Maninder; Singh, Harpreet; Singh, Balraj; Singh, Bhupinder

    2010-01-01

    Two metallic powders namely Ni-20Cr and Ni3Al were coated on AISI 309 SS steel by shrouded plasma spray process. The wear behavior of the bare, Ni-20Cr and Ni3Al-coated AISI 309 SS steel was investigated according to ASTM Standard G99-03 on a Pin-on-Disc Wear Test Rig. The wear tests were carried out at normal loads of 30 and 50 N with a sliding velocity of 1 m/s. Cumulative wear rate and coefficient of friction (μ) were calculated for all the cases. The worn-out surfaces were then examined by scanning electron microscopy analysis. Both the as-sprayed coatings exhibited typical splat morphology. The XRD analysis indicated the formation of Ni phase for the Ni-20Cr coating and Ni3Al phase for the Ni3Al coating. It has been concluded that the plasma-sprayed Ni-20Cr and Ni3Al coatings can be useful to reduce the wear rate of AISI 309 SS steel. The coatings were found to be adherent to the substrate steel during the wear tests. The plasma-sprayed Ni3Al coating has been recommended as a better choice to reduce the wear of AISI 309 SS steel, in comparison with the Ni-20Cr coating.

  12. DDES and IDDES of tandem cylinders.

    SciTech Connect

    Balakrishnan, R.; Garbaruk, A.; Shur, M.; Strelets, M.; Spalart, P.; New Technologies and Services - Russia; St.-Peterburg State Polytechnic Univ.; Boeing Commercial Airplanes

    2010-09-09

    The paper presents an overview of the authors contribution to the BANC-I Workshop on the flow past tandem cylinders (Category 2). It includes an outline of the simulation approaches, numerics, and grid used, the major results of the simulations, their comparison with available experimental data, and some preliminary conclusions. The effect of varying the spanwise period in the simulations is strong for some quantities, and not others.

  13. Compressive strength of axially loaded composite cylinders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kollar, Laszlo P.; Springer, George C.; Spingarn, Jay; McColskey, J. D.

    1993-10-01

    Tests were performed to measure the failure loads of axially compressed glass-fiber-reinforced and graphite-fiber-reinforced composite cylinders. The data were compared with the results of a previous model, which was based on a three-dimensional stress analysis and the Tsai-Wu quadratic first-ply failure criterion. This model predicted the failure loads for glass-fiber-reinforced composites with good accuracy, but less accurately for failure loads of graphite-epoxy composites.

  14. LiNbO3 Cylinder Fiber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kornreich, Philip

    2004-01-01

    We have successfully fabricate optical fiber with a thin layer of LiNbO3 at the boundary of the glass core and clear glass cladding. The construction of this fiber is based on our successful Semiconductor Cylinder Fibers (SCF). A schematic representation of a LiN bo, Cylinder Fiber. These fibers can be used as light modulators, sonar detectors and in other applications. The core diameter of the fiber is sufficiently small compared to the light wavelength and the indices of refraction of the core and cladding glasses are sufficiently close in value so that there is sufficient light at the core cladding boundary to interact with the LiNbO3 layer. This fiber functions best when just a single light mode propagates through the fiber. The idea for a LiNbO3 Cylinder Fiber came from Dr. Tracee Jamison of NASA. The optical properties of LiNbO3 can be changed with strain or the application of an electric field. Thus these fibers can be used as acoustic sensors as for example in a sonar. They can also be used as electric field operated light modulators. However, for this application the fibers would be made with a cross section in the form of a "D". The core with its surrounding LiNbO, layer would be close to the flat portion of the "D" shaped fiber. Two metal contacts would be deposited on the flat portion of the fiber on either side of the core. A voltage applied across these contacts will result in an electric field in the core region that can be used for modulating the optical properties of the LiNbO3 layer. To our knowledge this is the first ever LiNbO3 Cylinder Fiber made.

  15. LiNbO3 Cylinder Fiber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    We have successfully fabricate optical fiber with a thin layer of LiNbO3 at the boundary of the glass core and dear glass cladding. The construction of this fiber is based on our successful Semiconductor Cylinder Fibers (SCF). A schematic representation of a LiNbO3 Cylinder Fiber is shown. These fibers can be used as light modulators, sonar detectors and in other applications. The core diameter of the fiber is sufficiently small compared to the light wavelength and the indices of refraction of the core and cladding glasses are sufficiently close in value so that there is sufficient light at the core cladding boundary to interact with the LiNbO3 layer. This fiber functions best when just a single light mode propagates through the fiber. The idea for a LiNbO3 Cylinder Fiber came from Dr. Tracee Jamison of NASA. The optical properties of LiNbO3 can be changed with strain or the application of an electric field. Thus these fibers can be used as acoustic sensors as for example in a sonar. They can also be used as electric field operated light modulators. However, for this application the fibers would be made with a cross section in the form of a 'D'. The core with its surrounding LiNbO, layer would be close to the flat portion of the 'D' shaped fiber. Two metal contacts would be deposited on the flat portion of the fiber on either side of the core. A voltage applied across these contacts will result in an electric field in the core region that can be used for modulating the optical properties of the LiNbO, layer. To our knowledge this is the first ever LiNbO, Cylinder Fiber made.

  16. Parabolic cylinder functions of large order

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, D. S.

    2006-06-01

    The asymptotic behaviour of parabolic cylinder functions of large real order is considered. Various expansions in terms of elementary functions are derived. They hold uniformly for the variable in appropriate parts of the complex plane. Some of the expansions are doubly asymptotic with respect to the order and the complex variable which is an advantage for computational purposes. Error bounds are determined for the truncated versions of the asymptotic series.

  17. Analysis of mechanical joint in composite cylinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, C. S.; Kim, Y. W.; Park, J. S.

    Joining techniques of composite materials are of great interest in cylindrical structures as the application of composites is widely used for weight-sensitive structures. Little information for the mechanical fastening joint of the laminated shell structure is available in the literature. In this study, a finite element program, which was based on the first order shear deformation theory, was developed for the analysis of the mechanical joint in the laminated composite structure. The failure of the mechanical fastening joint for the laminated graphite/epoxy cylinder subject to internal pressure was analyzed by using the developed program. Modeling of the bolt head in the composite cylinder was studied, and the effect of steel reinforcement outside the composite cylinder on the failure was investigated. The stress component near the bolt head was influenced by the size of the bolt head. The failure load and the failure mode were dependent on the bolt diameter, the number of bolts, and fiber orientation. The failure load was constant when the edge distance exceeds three times the bolt diameter.

  18. Induction hardening treatment and simulation for a grey cast iron used in engine cylinder liners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castellanos-Leal, E. L.; Miranda, D. A.; Coy, A. E.; Barrero, J. G.; González, J. A.; Vesga Rueda, O. P.

    2017-01-01

    In this research, a technical study of induction hardening in a grey cast iron used in engine cylinder liners manufactured by LAVCO Ltda., a Colombian foundry company, was carried out. Metallurgical parameters such as austenitization temperature, cooling rate, and quenching severity were determined. These factors are exclusively dependent on chemical composition and initial microstructure of grey cast iron. Simulations of induction heating through finite elements method were performed and, the most appropriate experimental conditions to achieve the critical transformation temperature was evaluated to reach a proper surface hardening on the piece. Preliminary results revealed an excellent approximation between simulation and heating test performed with a full bridge inverter voltage adapted with local technology.

  19. The distribution alloying elements in alnico 8 and 9 magnets: Site preference of ternary Ti, Fe, Co, and Ni additions in DO{sub 3} Fe{sub 3}Al, Co{sub 3}Al, and Ni{sub 3}Al based intermetallic phases

    SciTech Connect

    Samolyuk, G. D.; Stocks, G. M.; Újfalussy, B.

    2014-11-07

    Recently, interest in alnico magnetic alloys has been rekindled due to their potential to substitute for rare-earth based permanent magnets provided modest improvements in their coercivity can be achieved without loss of saturation magnetization. Recent experimental studies have indicated that atomic and magnetic structure of the two phases (one AlNi-based, the other FeCo-based) that comprise these spinodally decomposed alloy is not as simple as previously thought. A key issue that arises is the distribution of Fe, Co, and Ti within the AlNi-based matrix phase. In this paper, we report the results of first-principles calculations of the site preference of ternary alloying additions in DO{sub 3} Fe{sub 3}Al, Co{sub 3}Al, and Ni{sub 3}Al alloys, as models for the aluminide phase. For compound compositions that are Al rich, which correspond to experimental situation, Ti and Fe are found to occupy the α sites, while Co and Ni prefer the γ sites of the DO{sub 3} lattice. An important finding is that the magnetic moments of transition metals in Fe{sub 3}Al and Co{sub 3}Al are ordered ferromagnetically, whereas the Ni{sub 3}Al were found to be nonmagnetic unless the Fe or Co is added as a ternary element.

  20. Solvable critical dense polymers on the cylinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearce, Paul A.; Rasmussen, Jørgen; Villani, Simon P.

    2010-02-01

    A lattice model of critical dense polymers is solved exactly on a cylinder with finite circumference. The model is the first member {\\cal LM}(1,2) of the Yang-Baxter integrable series of logarithmic minimal models. The cylinder topology allows for non-contractible loops with fugacity α that wind around the cylinder or for an arbitrary number \\ell of defects that propagate along the full length of the cylinder. Using an enlarged periodic Temperley-Lieb algebra, we set up commuting transfer matrices acting on states whose links are considered distinct with respect to connectivity around the front or back of the cylinder. These transfer matrices satisfy a functional equation in the form of an inversion identity. For even N, this involves a non-diagonalizable braid operator J and an involution R = - (J3 - 12J)/16 = (-1)F with eigenvalues R=(-1)^{\\ell /2} . This is reminiscent of supersymmetry with a pair of defects interpreted as a fermion. The number of defects \\ell thus separates the theory into Ramond (\\ell /2 even), Neveu-Schwarz (\\ell /2 odd) and \\mathbb {Z}_4 (\\ell odd) sectors. For the case of loop fugacity α = 2, the inversion identity is solved exactly sector by sector for the eigenvalues in finite geometry. The eigenvalues are classified according to the physical combinatorics of the patterns of zeros in the complex spectral-parameter plane. This yields selection rules for the physically relevant solutions to the inversion identity. The finite-size corrections are obtained from Euler-Maclaurin formula. In the scaling limit, we obtain the conformal partition functions as sesquilinear forms and confirm the central charge c = - 2 and conformal weights \\Delta,\\bar {\\Delta }=\\Delta_t=(t^2-1)/8 . Here t=\\ell /2 and t=2r-s\\in \\mathbb {N} in the \\ell even sectors with Kac labels r = 1, 2, 3,...;s = 1, 2 while t\\in \\mathbb {Z}-\\frac 12 in the \\ell odd sectors. Strikingly, the \\ell /2 odd sectors exhibit a {\\cal W} -extended symmetry but the

  1. Measurements of the Flowfield Interaction Between Tandem Cylinders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neuhart, Dan H.; Jenkins, Luther N.; Choudhari, Meelan M.; Khorrami, Mehdi R.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the most recent measurements from an ongoing investigation of the unsteady wake interference between a pair of circular cylinders in tandem. The purpose of this investigation is to help build an in-depth experimental database for this canonical flow configuration that embodies the effects of component interaction in landing gear noise. This new set of measurements augments the previous database at the primary Reynolds number (based on tunnel speed and cylinder diameter) of 1.66 105 in four important respects. First, better circumferential resolution of surface pressure fluctuations is obtained via cylinder "clocking". Second, higher resolution particle image velocimetry measurements of the shear layer separating from the cylinders are achieved. Third, the effects of simultaneous boundary layer trips along both the front and rear cylinders, versus front cylinder alone in the previous measurements, are studied. Lastly, on-surface and off-surface characteristics of unsteady flow near the "critical" cylinder spacing, wherein the flow switches intermittently between two states that are characteristic of lower and higher spacings, are examined. This critical spacing occurs in the middle of a relatively sudden change in the drag of either cylinder and is characterized by a loud intermittent noise and a flow behavior that randomly transitions between shear layer attachment to the rear cylinder and constant shedding and rollup in front of it. Analysis of this bistable flow state reveals much larger spanwise correlation lengths of surface pressure fluctuations than those at larger and smaller values of the cylinder spacing.

  2. A review of the Model 5A uranium hexafluoride cylinder

    SciTech Connect

    Dorning, R.E. II

    1989-05-23

    Both the Model 5A (Monel 400) and 5A (Monel 400) Modified five-inch cylinders have been used at the Portsmouth GDP to withdraw, store, and ship highly enriched uranium hexafluoride. As a result of a generic cracking problem with Monel 400 valve-boss material, a cylinder modification was implemented in the mid 1970s. This modification resulted in the violation of the ASME ''Code'' stamp status of the Model 5A Modified cylinder. Hydrostatic testing-to- rupture data indicated that the Model 5A Modified cylinders had ruptured strengths equivalent to that of the original Model 5A cylinders. An independent consultant reviewed the available information and confirmed that the Model 5A Modified cylinders ''will with proper maintenance continue to perform satisfactorily for many additional years of service.'' Based on the test data and consultant's review, DOE approved continued use of the 5A Modified cylinder and also requested procurement of replacement 5B cylinders be expedited. Currently, the 5A modified cylinders are in the production, storage, shipment cycle, and a sufficient number of 5B cylinders has been ordered to accommodate the projected product shipping requirements for the Navy flow. 3 tabs.

  3. Three-dimensionally Ordered Macroporous Structure Enabled Nanothermite Membrane of Mn2O3/Al

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Guoqiang; Zhang, Wenchao; Shen, Ruiqi; Ye, Jiahai; Qin, Zhichun; Chao, Yimin

    2016-03-01

    Mn2O3 has been selected to realize nanothermite membrane for the first time in the literature. Mn2O3/Al nanothermite has been synthesized by magnetron sputtering a layer of Al film onto three-dimensionally ordered macroporous (3DOM) Mn2O3 skeleton. The energy release is significantly enhanced owing to the unusual 3DOM structure, which ensures Al and Mn2O3 to integrate compactly in nanoscale and greatly increase effective contact area. The morphology and DSC curve of the nanothermite membrane have been investigated at various aluminizing times. At the optimized aluminizing time of 30 min, energy release reaches a maximum of 2.09 kJ•g‑1, where the Al layer thickness plays a decisive role in the total energy release. This method possesses advantages of high compatibility with MEMS and can be applied to other nanothermite systems easily, which will make great contribution to little-known nanothermite research.

  4. Structure investigation of fluorinated aluminophosphate ULM-3 Al templated by 3-methylaminopropylamine

    SciTech Connect

    Zabukovec Logar, Natasa; Mali, Gregor; Rajic, Nevenka; Jevtic, Sanja; Rangus, Mojca; Golobic, Amalija; Kaucic, Venceslav

    2010-05-15

    A single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis of an open-framework aluminophosphate ULM-3 Al prepared by 3-methylaminopropylamine (MAPA) as structure-directing agent revealed an orthorhombic Pcab symmetry (a=9.9949(4) A, b=15.8229(7) A, c=18.1963(5) A, R=0.0648, Z=8, unit cell formula [Al{sub 24}P{sub 24}O{sub 96}F{sub 16}.C{sub 32}H{sub 112}N{sub 16}]), which differs from the Pbc2{sub 1} symmetry of the structural analogue prepared in the presence of 1,4-diaminobutane. The {sup 27}Al, {sup 31}P, {sup 19}F, {sup 13}C and {sup 1}H NMR investigations, which were performed to study in detail MAPA arrangement inside the framework as well as the interactions of MAPA with the aluminophosphate host, confirmed the crystal symmetry and the proposed hydrogen bonding scheme between the template and the framework. - Graphical abstract: The aluminophosphate analogue of open-framework gallophosphate ULM-3 was synthesized in the presence of 3-methylaminopropylamine. The Pcab crystal symmetry and hydrogen bonding scheme was determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction and NMR spectroscopy.

  5. Fabrication, microstructure and magneto-optical properties of Tb3Al5O12 transparent ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Jiawei; Snetkov, I. L.; Palashov, O. V.; Pan, Yubai; Kou, Huamin; Li, Jiang

    2016-12-01

    Terbium aluminum garnet (Tb3Al5O12, TAG) transparent ceramics were fabricated by the solid-state reactive sintering of a mixture of commercial Tb4O7 and α-Al2O3 powders with tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) and MgO as sintering aids. Samples sintered at 1700 °C and 1725 °C for 20 h were utilized to examine the phase compositions, optical quality, microstructure and magneto-optical property. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results show that the sample sintered at 1700 °C has a pure garnet crystal structure, while the characteristic diffraction peaks of TAG disappear when sintered at 1725 °C. The sample sintered at 1725 °C shows high transparency and the optical transmittance is beyond 80% in the region of 600-1500 nm. It is found that the sample sintered at 1700 °C exhibits homogeneous grains with the average size of about 5.97 μm, however, no TAG grains are observed in the sample sintered at 1725 °C. The Verdet constants of the samples sintered at 1700 °C and 1725 °C are -179.4, -179.3 rad T-1 m-1 at 633 nm, respectively. The thermal depolarization of the sample sintered at 1725 °C increases up to 2 × 10-4 at maximum laser power of 91 W, which corresponds to the isolation ratio of 37 dB.

  6. Three-dimensionally Ordered Macroporous Structure Enabled Nanothermite Membrane of Mn2O3/Al

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Guoqiang; Zhang, Wenchao; Shen, Ruiqi; Ye, Jiahai; Qin, Zhichun; Chao, Yimin

    2016-01-01

    Mn2O3 has been selected to realize nanothermite membrane for the first time in the literature. Mn2O3/Al nanothermite has been synthesized by magnetron sputtering a layer of Al film onto three-dimensionally ordered macroporous (3DOM) Mn2O3 skeleton. The energy release is significantly enhanced owing to the unusual 3DOM structure, which ensures Al and Mn2O3 to integrate compactly in nanoscale and greatly increase effective contact area. The morphology and DSC curve of the nanothermite membrane have been investigated at various aluminizing times. At the optimized aluminizing time of 30 min, energy release reaches a maximum of 2.09 kJ∙g−1, where the Al layer thickness plays a decisive role in the total energy release. This method possesses advantages of high compatibility with MEMS and can be applied to other nanothermite systems easily, which will make great contribution to little-known nanothermite research. PMID:26935405

  7. RETRACTED ARTICLE: Microstructure and strengthening mechanism of Ni3Al intermetallic compound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Chang-Sup; Han, Chang-Suk

    2013-09-01

    Structural studies have been performed on precipitation hardening found in Ni3Al-base ordered alloys using transmission electron microscopy. The γ' phase hardens appreciably by the fine precipitation of disordered γ. The strength of γ' increases over the temperature range of experiment by the precipitation of fine γ particles. The peak temperature where a maximum strength was obtained shifted to higher temperature. Superlattice dislocations dissociate into fourfold Shockley partial dislocations in a uniform supersaturated solid solution of the γ' phase. Dislocations are attracted into the disordered γ phase and dissociate further in the particles. At any stage of aging, dislocations cut through the particles and the Orowan bypassing process does not occur even in the overaged stage of this alloy system. When the applied stress is removed, the dislocations make cross slip into (010) plane, while those in γ precipitates remain on the (111) primary slip plane. The increase of high temperature strength in γ' containing γ precipitates is due to the restraint of cross slip of dislocations from (111) to (010) by the dispersion of disordered γ particles. The orientation dependence of strength is decreased by the fine precipitation of a disordered γ phase.

  8. [Synthesis and characterization of chromium doped Y3Al5O12 compound pigment].

    PubMed

    Yue, Shi-Juan; Su, Xiao; Jiang, Han-Jie; Liu, Shao-Xuan; Hong, You-Li; Zhang, Kai; Huang, Wan-Xias; Xiong, Zu-Jiang; Zhao, Ying; Liu, Cui-Ge; Wei, Yong-Ju; Meng, Tao; Xu, Yi-Zhuang; Wu, Jin-Guang

    2012-09-01

    The authors synthesized a new kind of green pigment via co-precipitation method by doping Y3Al5O12 with Cr+. The size of the pigment particles is around 200 nm as observed under scanning electron microscope. XRD results demonstrate that the pigment crystalline form of the pigment is yttrium alluminium garnet. UV-Vis spectra were used to investigate the coordination states and transition behavior of the doping ions. In addition, the colour feature was measured by CIE L* a* b* chroma value. The pigment was blended with polypropylene and then polypropylene fiber was produced using the polypropelene-pigment composite via molten spinning process. The distribution of the pigment particles in the polypropylene fibers was characterized by Xray computed tomography (CT) technique on the Beijing synchrotron radiation facility. The result states that the composite oxide pigment particles are homogeneously dispersed in the polypropylene fibers. The pigments are stable, non-toxic to the environment, and may be applied in non-aqueous dyeing to reduce waste water emitted by textile dyeing and printing industry.

  9. High Temperature Mechanical Characterization and Analysis of Al2O3 /Al2O3 Composition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gyekenyesi, John Z.; Jaskowiak, Martha H.

    1999-01-01

    Sixteen ply unidirectional zirconia coated single crystal Al2O3 fiber reinforced polycrystalline Al2O3 was tested in uniaxial tension at temperatures to 1400 C in air. Fiber volume fractions ranged from 26 to 31%. The matrix has primarily open porosity of approximately 40%. Theories for predicting the Young's modulus, first matrix cracking stress, and ultimate strength were applied and evaluated for suitability in predicting the mechanical behavior of Al2O3/Al2O3 composites. The composite exhibited pseudo tough behavior (increased area under the stress/strain curve relative to monolithic alumina) from 22 to 1400 C. The rule-of-mixtures provides a good estimate of the Young's modulus of the composite using the constituent properties from room temperature to approximately 1200 C for short term static tensile tests in air. The ACK theory provides the best approximation of the first matrix cracking stress while accounting for residual stresses at room temperature. Difficulties in determining the fiber/matrix interfacial shear stress at high temperatures prevented the accurate prediction of the first matrix cracking stress above room temperature. The theory of Cao and Thouless, based on Weibull statistics, gave the best prediction for the composite ultimate tensile strength.

  10. Internal photoemission in Ag-Al2O3-Al junctions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guedes, J. M. P.; Slayman, C. W.; Gustafson, T. K.; Jain, R. K.

    1979-01-01

    The magnitude of the photon-induced current in Ag-Al2O3-Al metal-oxide-metal junctions has been studied as a function of photon energy and angle of incident radiation. Photocurrents were theoretically analyzed on the basis of a modified vacuum photoemission model (Jain, 1975; Slayman et al., to be published). Optical constants previously reported in the literature (Irani et al., 1971; Ehnrereich et al., 1963) were used to calculate the true spatial generation rate in Ag and Al as a function of the angle, polarization of incident radiation, and film thickness. Results were found to be in very good agreement with experimentally determined values for a tunable dye laser with a KDP doubling crystal pumped by a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser with a LiIO3 doubling crystal. The system provided risetimes of 50 ns or less and peak powers of 10 W. Under short circuit conditions, the photoresponse to incident power was linear up to available power densities of 10 kW/sq cm. Quantum efficiencies of about 0.1% at zero-bias, near 3.8 eV under P polarization, were typically observed.

  11. Postperovskite phase equilibria in the MgSiO3-Al2O3 system.

    PubMed

    Tsuchiya, Jun; Tsuchiya, Taku

    2008-12-09

    We investigate high-P,T phase equilibria of the MgSiO(3)-Al(2)O(3) system by means of the density functional ab initio computation methods with multiconfiguration sampling. Being different from earlier studies based on the static substitution properties with no consideration of Rh(2)O(3)(II) phase, present calculations demonstrate that (i) dissolving Al(2)O(3) tends to decrease the postperovskite transition pressure of MgSiO(3) but the effect is not significant ( approximately -0.2 GPa/mol% Al(2)O(3)); (ii) Al(2)O(3) produces the narrow perovskite+postperovskite coexisting P,T area (approximately 1 GPa) for the pyrolitic concentration (x(Al2O3) approximately 6 mol%), which is sufficiently responsible to the deep-mantle D'' seismic discontinuity; (iii) the transition would be smeared (approximately 4 GPa) for the basaltic Al-rich composition (x(Al2O3) approximately 20 mol%), which is still seismically visible unless iron has significant effects; and last (iv) the perovskite structure spontaneously changes to the Rh(2)O(3)(II) with increasing the Al concentration involving small displacements of the Mg-site cations.

  12. Low cycle fatigue behavior of polycrystalline Ni3Al alloys at ambient and elevated temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, Graham; Antolovich, Stephen D.

    1994-11-01

    The low cycle fatigue (LCF) resistance of polycrystalline Ni3Al has been evaluated at ambient, intermediate (300 °C), and elevated (600 °C) temperatures using strain rates of 10-2/s and 10-4/s. Testing was conducted on a binary and a Cr-containing alloy of similar stoichiometry and B content (hypostoichiometric, 200 wppm B). Test results were combined with electron microscope investigations in order to evaluate microstructural changes during LCF. At ambient and intermediate temperatures, the cyclic constitutive response of both alloys was similar, and the LCF behavior was virtually rate independent. Under these conditions, the alloys rapidly hardened and then gradually softened for the remainder of the life. Initial hardening resulted from the accumulation of dislocation debris within the deformed microstructure, whereas softening was related to localized disordering. For these experimental conditions, crack initiation resulted within persistent slip bands (PSBs). At the elevated temperature, diffusion-assisted deformation resulted in a rate-dependent constitutive response and crack-initiation characteristics. At the high strain rate (10-2/s), continuous cyclic hardening resulted from the accumulation of dislocation debris. At the low strain rate (10-4/s), the diffusion of dislocation debris to grain boundaries resulted in cyclic softening. The elevated temperature LCF resistance was determined by the effect of the constitutive response on the driving force for environmental embrittlement. Chromium additions were observed to enhance LCF performance only under conditions where crack initiation was environmentally driven.

  13. Interfacial reactions in borsic/Ti-3Al-2-1/2V composite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, V. B.; Houska, C. R.; Unnam, J.; Brewer, W. D.; Tenney, D. R.

    1979-01-01

    The paper provides a detailed X-ray characterization of a borsic/Ti-3Al-2-1/2V composite, and to correlate the relative intensities of the reaction products with the mechanical properties. Based on X-ray integrated intensity data two stages of interface reactions were identified: during the first stage there is a simultaneous interdiffusion of Si, C, and Ti atoms at the filament/matrix interface resulting in the formation of Ti5Si3, TiSi and small amounts of TiSi2 and TiC. The second stage is associated with considerable TiSi2 and boride formation. It appears that the alpha-phase of Ti is more reactive in forming silicides and borides than the beta-phase. The silicide intensities and the reaction zone thicknesses are shown to be directly related to the reduction of the ultimate tensile strength by thermal degradation, and the results indicate that silicide reaction products are as detrimental to strength as the borides.

  14. On the small angle twist sub-grain boundaries in Ti3AlC2

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hui; Zhang, Chao; Hu, Tao; Zhan, Xun; Wang, Xiaohui; Zhou, Yanchun

    2016-01-01

    Tilt-dominated grain boundaries have been investigated in depth in the deformation of MAX phases. In stark contrast, another important type of grain boundaries, twist grain boundaries, have long been overlooked. Here, we report on the observation of small angle twist sub-grain boundaries in a typical MAX phase Ti3AlC2 compressed at 1200 °C, which comprise hexagonal screw dislocation networks formed by basal dislocation reactions. By first-principles investigations on atomic-scale deformation and general stacking fault energy landscapes, it is unequivocally demonstrated that the twist sub-grain boundaries are most likely located between Al and Ti4f (Ti located at the 4f Wyckoff sites of P63/mmc) layers, with breaking of the weakly bonded Al–Ti4f. The twist angle increases with the increase of deformation and is estimated to be around 0.5° for a deformation of 26%. This work may shed light on sub-grain boundaries of MAX phases, and provide fundamental information for future atomic-scale simulations. PMID:27034075

  15. Ion Nitriding of Ti-10V-2Fe-3Al Alloy for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Jin

    In this study, a low-temperature ion nitriding treatment has been developed with the aim of improving the sliding behaviour of Ti-10V-2Fe-3Al, without adverse effects on its strength and ductility. The optimized nitriding treatment was carried out at a temperature of 600°C for 8 hours in a pressure dilute nitriding atmosphere of 67 Pa and 2.9 vol.% N2. The microstructural analysis indicated that the ion nitriding treatment led to the formation of a 0.5 mum thick compound layer. The microhardness measurements revealed the formation of an approximately 35 mum thick nitrogen diffusion zone beneath the compound layer. The tensile test results showed improvements in the tensile and yield strengths of the alloy with a minor decrease in the elongation. The load bearing capacity and friction properties of the nitrided surfaces under sliding were investigated by microscratch tests. It was found that the coefficient of friction values were reduced and the surfaces exhibited an excellent load bearing capacity.

  16. Adaptive Helmholtz resonators and passive vibration absorbers for cylinder interior noise control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estève, Simon J.; Johnson, Marty E.

    2005-12-01

    This paper presents an adaptive-passive solution to control the broadband sound transmission into rocket payload fairings. The treatment is composed of passive distributed vibration absorbers (DVAs) and adaptive Helmholtz resonators (HR). Both the frequency domain and time-domain model of a simply supported cylinder excited by an external plane wave are developed. To tune vibration absorbers to tonal excitation, a tuning strategy, based on the phase information between the velocity of the absorber mass and the velocity of the host structure is used here in a new fashion to tune resonators to peaks in the broadband acoustic spectrum of a cavity. This tuning law, called the dot-product method, only uses two microphone signals local to each HR, which allows the adaptive Helmholtz resonator (AHR) to be manufactured as an autonomous device with power supply, sensor, actuator and controller integrated. Numerical simulations corresponding to a 2.8 m long 2.5 m diameter composite cylinder prototype demonstrate that, as long as the structure modes, which strongly couple to the acoustic cavity, are damped with a DVA treatment, the dot-product method tune multiple HRs to a near-optimal solution over a broad frequency range (40-160 Hz). An adaptive HR prototype with variable opening is built and characterized. Experiments conducted on the cylinder prototype with eight AHRs demonstrate the ability of resonators adapted with the dot-product method to converge to near-optimal noise attenuation in a frequency band including multiple resonances.

  17. Effect of annealing on structural and electrical properties of ZnO and In2S3:Al thin layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jebbari, N.; Ajili, M.; Guasch, C.; Kamoun, N.; Bennaceur, R.

    2010-11-01

    Thin films of ZnO and In2S3:Al are deposited on Pyrex substrates by spray technique. Structural and electrical properties of ZnO and β-In2S3:Al compounds were studied using X Ray Diffraction (XRD), (MEB) and the Vander Pauw method before and after annealing. The X-rays revealed that, ZnO and In2S3:Al were well crystallized respectively in the hexagonal and cubic structure. The main orientations of ZnO were (101), (100) and (110). The (101) direction is the preferentially one. The annealing favors the preferential peak crystallization with a reduction of the grains size and the thickness layer. The β-In2S3 contain Aluminum inclusion by introducing the ratio x= [Al3+]/[In3+] in sprayed solution. X-ray diffraction spectra of In2-xAlxS3 thin layer, realized for the value of z equal to 20%, show well-defined peaks of (311), (400), (511), and (440) principal orientations corresponding to cubic structure of β-In2S3. For In2S3:Al, we note that the annealing increase the intensity of all peaks with an increase of the grains size and the thickness layer. Besides, thanks to the determination of the resistance from which we calculated resistivity, we note that the annealing increase conductivity of β-In2S3:Al and decrease it for ZnO.

  18. Acoustics and Surface Pressure Measurements from Tandem Cylinder Configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutcheson, Florence V.; Brooks, Thomas F.; Lockard, David P.; Choudhari, Meelan M.; Stead, Daniel J.

    2014-01-01

    Acoustic and unsteady surface pressure measurements from two cylinders in tandem configurations were acquired to study the effect of spacing, surface trip and freestream velocity on the radiated noise. The Reynolds number ranged from 1.15x10(exp 5) to 2.17x10(exp 5), and the cylinder spacing varied between 1.435 and 3.7 cylinder diameters. The acoustic and surface pressure spectral characteristics associated with the different flow regimes produced by the cylinders' wake interference were identified. The dependence of the Strouhal number, peak Sound Pressure Level and spanwise coherence on cylinder spacing and flow velocity was examined. Directivity measurements were performed to determine how well the dipole assumption for the radiation of vortex shedding noise holds for the largest and smallest cylinder spacing tested.

  19. Adaptronic tools for superfinishing of cylinder bores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roscher, Hans-Jürgen; Hochmuth, Carsten; Hoffmann, Michael; Praedicow, Michael

    2012-04-01

    Today in the production of internal combustion engines it is possible to make pistons as well as cylinders, for all practical purposes, perfectly round. The negative consequences of the subsequent assembly processes and operation of the engine is that the cylinders and pistons are deformed, resulting in a loss of power and an increase in fuel consumption. This problem can be solved by using an adaptronic tool, which can machine the cylinder to a predetermined nonround geometry, which will deform to the required geometry during assembly and operation of the engine. The article describes the actuatory effect of the tool in conjunction with its measuring and controlling algorithms. The adaptronic tool consists out the basic tool body and three axially-staggered floating cutter groups, these cutter groups consist out of guides, actuators and honing stones. The selective expansion of the tool is realised by 3 piezoelectric multilayer-actuators deployed in a series - parallel arrangement. It is also possible to superimpose actuator expansion on the conventional expansion. A process matrix is created during the processing of the required and actual contour data in a technology module. This is then transferred over an interface to the machine controller where it is finally processed and the setting values for the piezoelectric actuators are derived, after which an amplifier generates the appropriate actuator voltages. A slip ring system on the driveshaft is used to transfer the electricity to the actuators in the machining head. The functioning of the adaptronic form-honing tool and process were demonstrated with numerous experiments. The tool provides the required degrees of freedom to generate a contour that correspond to the inverse compound contour of assembled and operational engines.

  20. Cost-Benefit Analysis for the Advanced Near Net Shape Technology (ANNST) Method for Fabricating Stiffened Cylinders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivanco, Marie L.; Domack, Marcia S.; Stoner, Mary Cecilia; Hehir, Austin R.

    2016-01-01

    Low Technology Readiness Levels (TRLs) and high levels of uncertainty make it challenging to develop cost estimates of new technologies in the R&D phase. It is however essential for NASA to understand the costs and benefits associated with novel concepts, in order to prioritize research investments and evaluate the potential for technology transfer and commercialization. This paper proposes a framework to perform a cost-benefit analysis of a technology in the R&D phase. This framework was developed and used to assess the Advanced Near Net Shape Technology (ANNST) manufacturing process for fabricating integrally stiffened cylinders. The ANNST method was compared with the conventional multi-piece metallic construction and composite processes for fabricating integrally stiffened cylinders. Following the definition of a case study for a cryogenic tank cylinder of specified geometry, data was gathered through interviews with Subject Matter Experts (SMEs), with particular focus placed on production costs and process complexity. This data served as the basis to produce process flowcharts and timelines, mass estimates, and rough order-of-magnitude cost and schedule estimates. The scalability of the results was subsequently investigated to understand the variability of the results based on tank size. Lastly, once costs and benefits were identified, the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) was used to assess the relative value of these achieved benefits for potential stakeholders. These preliminary, rough order-of-magnitude results predict a 46 to 58 percent reduction in production costs and a 7-percent reduction in weight over the conventional metallic manufacturing technique used in this study for comparison. Compared to the composite manufacturing technique, these results predict cost savings of 35 to 58 percent; however, the ANNST concept was heavier. In this study, the predicted return on investment of equipment required for the ANNST method was ten cryogenic tank barrels

  1. Spin-Up in a Rectangular Cylinder

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-12-01

    Graduate Programs in Mathematics S- QdR&r 1DTI 0TA.B 03Uxuaw:c.1ZC O d Q] Justtfieatl o DTriC QU /•ALnT I•fPECTED S ____ ,._-_ - I Distribution/ L iAvallab...I 5.7 Path of the Center of the Cyclonic Eddy ............................... 49 5.8 Distance from the Cylinder’s Comer to the Center of the Cyclonic ... cyclonic and anti- cyclonic cells whose centers are not on a 3 common horizontal axis. This result is true when the change in rotation rate, AQ, is

  2. [Fire by spontaneous combustion of oxygen cylinders].

    PubMed

    Coumans, Tanja; Maissan, Iscander M; Wolff, André P; Stolker, Robert Jan; Damen, Johan; Scheffer, Gert Jan

    2010-01-01

    The use of medicinal oxygen can be dangerous. The spontaneous combustion of an oxygen cylinder was the cause of a fire in an operating theatre and an emergency medical service. The fire developed after turning on the gas main while the flow supply valve was already open. Not opening the pressure reduction valve while the oxygen flow supply valve is open can prevent this type of fire. Information from the contractor shows that the probability of such an incident is 1 in a million.

  3. Regional stress in a noncircular cylinder.

    PubMed

    Janz, R F; Ozpetek, S; Ginzton, L E; Laks, M M

    1989-01-01

    Several mathematical formulas are presented for estimating regional average circumferential stress and shear stress in a thick-wall, noncircular cylinder with a plane of symmetry. The formulas require images of exterior and interior chamber silhouettes plus surface pressures. The formulas are primarily intended for application to the left ventricle in the short axis plane near the base (where the meridional radius of curvature is normally much larger than the circumferential radius of curvature) and to blood vessels. The formulas predict stresses in a variety of chambers to within 3% of finite element values determined from a large-scale structural analysis computer program called ANSYS.

  4. Coalescence of two viscous cylinders by capillarity

    SciTech Connect

    Hopper, R.W. )

    1993-12-01

    The creeping plane flow of two viscous cylinders coalescing under the influence of surface tension is described theoretically in a series of three articles. Part I is a theoretical overview. The physical assumptions affecting applicability of the theory are discussed. The shape as a function of time and of the initial diameter ratio D [>=] 1 is given in parametric form. For D = 1 and D = [infinity], the shape sequences are known exactly; for finite D > 1, a first-order differential equation is solved numerically. The time requires a quadrature. This is accurate, and easier than solving the fluid-dynamical field equations. The theory encompasses time-dependent liquid properties.

  5. Steady viscous flow past a circular cylinder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fornberg, B.

    1984-01-01

    Viscous flow past a circular cylinder becomes unstable around Reynolds number Re = 40. With a numerical technique based on Newton's method and made possible by the use of a supercomputer, steady (but unstable) solutions have been calculated up to Re = 400. It is found that the wake continues to grow in length approximately linearly with Re. However, in conflict with available asymptotic predictions, the width starts to increase very rapidly around Re = 300. All numerical calculations have been performed on the CDC CYBER 205 at the CDC Service Center in Arden Hills, Minnesota.

  6. Influence of strontium addition on the mechanical properties of gravity cast Mg-3Al-3Sn alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Germen, Gülşah Şevik, Hüseyin; Kurnaz, S. Can

    2013-12-16

    In this study, the effect of strontium (0.01, 0.1, 0.5, 1 wt%) addition on the microstructure and mechanical properties of the gravity cast Mg-3Al-3Sn alloy were investigated. X-ray diffractometry revealed that the main phases are α−Mg, β−Mg{sub 17}Al{sub 12} and Mg{sub 2}Sn in the Mg-3Al-3Sn alloy. With addition The tensile testing results showed that the yield and ultimate tensile strength and elongation of Mg-3Al-3Sn alloy increased by adding Sr up to 0.1 wt.% and then is gradually decreased with the addition of more alloying element.

  7. An asymmetric pair of vortices adjacent to a spinning cylinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iosilevskii, G.; Seginer, A.

    The two-dimensional flow field over a spinning circular cylinder is analyzed using an extension of the Foeppl method. Equilibrium equations for two asymmetric point vortices in the wake of the cylinder are solved for a case when both vortices are equidistant from the cylinder. The two Foeppl solutions for the cylinder are presented. It is observed that the spin does not affect the angle between the two vortices; however, it displaces the vortex pair in the spin direction and the sinus of the displacement angle is proportional to the spin rate.

  8. Enrichment Assay Methods Development for the Integrated Cylinder Verification System

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Leon E.; Misner, Alex C.; Hatchell, Brian K.; Curtis, Michael M.

    2009-10-22

    International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) inspectors currently perform periodic inspections at uranium enrichment plants to verify UF6 cylinder enrichment declarations. Measurements are typically performed with handheld high-resolution sensors on a sampling of cylinders taken to be representative of the facility's entire product-cylinder inventory. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is developing a concept to automate the verification of enrichment plant cylinders to enable 100 percent product-cylinder verification and potentially, mass-balance calculations on the facility as a whole (by also measuring feed and tails cylinders). The Integrated Cylinder Verification System (ICVS) could be located at key measurement points to positively identify each cylinder, measure its mass and enrichment, store the collected data in a secure database, and maintain continuity of knowledge on measured cylinders until IAEA inspector arrival. The three main objectives of this FY09 project are summarized here and described in more detail in the report: (1) Develop a preliminary design for a prototype NDA system, (2) Refine PNNL's MCNP models of the NDA system, and (3) Procure and test key pulse-processing components. Progress against these tasks to date, and next steps, are discussed.

  9. Experimental free convection heat transfer from inclined square cylinders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Mohamed

    2016-10-01

    Natural convection from axisymmetric objects such as vertical or horizontal cylinders and spheres are two dimensional. However, for inclined circular or noncircular cylinders the flow and heat transfer is three dimensional and hence more complex and needs more attention. This study investigates the steady state mechanism of natural convection from inclined square cylinders in air. Five different cylinders of 1 m length, 8 × 8, 7 × 7, 6 × 6, 4 × 4 and 2.5 × 2.5 cm2 cross sections are used. The cylinders are heated using inserted heating element of 6 mm in diameter. Self-adhesive thermocouples are used at the upper, bottom and at one side of the cylinders for temperature measurement. Three inclination angles to the horizontal 30, 45 and 60o are used for each cylinder with uniform heat flux boundary conditions. For each cylinder, about ten heat fluxes are used to generate the heat transfer data. Local and average heat transfer coefficient is determined for each cylinder at each inclination angle for each uniform heat flux. Laminar and transition to turbulent regimes are obtained and characterized. Local critical axial distance where heat transfer coefficient changes the mode is obtained for each heat flux. Local and averaged Nusselt numbers are correlated with the modified Rayleigh numbers for all angles.

  10. Evolution of an eroding cylinder in single and lattice arrangements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hewett, James N.; Sellier, Mathieu

    2017-04-01

    The coupled evolution of an eroding cylinder immersed in a fluid within the subcritical Reynolds range is explored with scale resolving simulations. Erosion of the cylinder is driven by fluid shear stress. K\\'arm\\'an vortex shedding features in the wake and these oscillations occur on a significantly smaller time scale compared to the slowly eroding cylinder boundary. Temporal and spatial averaging across the cylinder span allows mean wall statistics such as wall shear to be evaluated; with geometry evolving in 2-D and the flow field simulated in 3-D. The cylinder develops into a rounded triangular body with uniform wall shear stress which is in agreement with existing theory and experiments. We introduce a node shuffle algorithm to reposition nodes around the cylinder boundary with a uniform distribution such that the mesh quality is preserved under high boundary deformation. A cylinder is then modelled within an infinite array of other cylinders by simulating a repeating unit cell and their profile evolution is studied. A similar terminal form is discovered for large cylinder spacings with consistent flow conditions and an intermediate profile was found with a closely packed lattice before reaching the common terminal form.

  11. Coupled Thermo-Mechanical Analyses of Dynamically Loaded Rubber Cylinders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Arthur R.; Chen, Tzi-Kang

    2000-01-01

    A procedure that models coupled thermo-mechanical deformations of viscoelastic rubber cylinders by employing the ABAQUS finite element code is described. Computational simulations of hysteretic heating are presented for several tall and short rubber cylinders both with and without a steel disk at their centers. The cylinders are compressed axially and are then cyclically loaded about the compressed state. The non-uniform hysteretic heating of the rubber cylinders containing a steel disk is presented. The analyses performed suggest that the coupling procedure should be considered for further development as a design tool for rubber degradation studies.

  12. Stability of Flow around a Cylinder in Plane Poiseuille Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dou, Hua-Shu; Ben, An-Qing; Fluid Mechanics Research Team

    2013-11-01

    Simulation of Navier-Stokes equations is carried out to study the stability of flow around a cylinder in plane Poiseuille flow. The energy gradient method is employed to analyze the mechanism of instability of cylinder wake. The ratio of the channel width to the cylinder diameter is 30, and the Reynolds number based on the cylinder diameter and incoming centerline velocity is 26 and 100, respectively. The incoming flow is given as being laminar. It is found that the instability of the cylinder wake, starting near the front stagnation point upstream. The recirculation zone behind the cylinder has no effect on the stability of the wake. In the wake behind the recirculation zone, the flow stability is controlled by the energy gradient in the shear layer along the two sides of the wake. At high Re, the energy gradient of averaged flow in the channel interacts with the wake vortex, strengthening the wake vortex structure. Due to the large ratio of the channel width to the cylinder diameter, the disturbance caused by the cylinder mainly occurs in the vicinity of the centerline and has little effect on the flow near the wall. The velocity profile on the two sides of the cylinder wake in the downstream channel remains laminar (parabolic profile). Professor in Fluid Mechanics; AIAA Associate Fellow.

  13. Neutron Diffraction Study Oxygen Dissolution Alpha(sub 2)-Ti3Al

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Camille Y.; Luecke, William E.; Copland, Evan

    2005-01-01

    Rietveld refinements of neutron powder diffraction data on alpha(sub 2)-Ti3Al have been performed to determine the crystal structure as a function of interstitial oxygen (O) concentration for three alloys with a Ti/Al ratio of approximately equal to 2.34 and O concentrations of 0.25%, 3.99% and 7.71%. The structures of the allows are hexagonal in space group P6(sub 3)/mmc where Ti and Al atoms populate unique sites with excess Al at the Ti site and O atoms occupy octahedral interstitial sites surrounded by six Ti sites. The length of the c-axis was found to increase linearly as the O occupancy of the interstitial sites increased; this lattice lengthening effect was much less pronounced along the alpha axis. Correspondingly, the increases in the lengths of Ti-Al and Ti-Ti bonds with a major component of their direction parallel to the c-axis were roughly an order of magnitude greater than the increases in the lengths of Ti-al and Ti-Ti bonds more closely aligned with the alpha-axis. Densities calculated form the lattice parameters and occupancy factors fall in the range (4.118 plus or minus 0.004) grams per cubic centimeter to (4.194 plus or minus 0.004) grams per cubic centimeter, and exhibit a nearly linear increase with oxygen concentration. Measured densities of (4.113 plus or minus 0.001) grams per cubic centimeter, (4.146 plus or minus 0.009) grams per cubic centimeter, and (4.191 plus or minus 0.002) grams per cubic centimeter for these alloys agree with the results of the refinements.

  14. Shear ligament phenomena in Fe3Al intermetallics and micromechanics of shear ligament toughening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiu, H.; Mao, X.

    1996-12-01

    The environment-assisted cracking behavior of a Fe3Al intermetallic in an air moisture environment was studied. At room temperature, tensile ductility was found to be increased with strain rate, from 10.1 pct at 1×10-6 s-1 to 14.3 pct at 2 × 10-3 s-1. When tensile tests were done in heat-treated mineral oil on specimens that have been heated in the oil for 4 hours at 200°C, ductility was found to be recovered. These results suggest the existence of hydrogen embrittlement. Shear ligaments, which are ligament-like structures connected between microcracks, were observed on the tensile specimens. They undergo ductile fracture by shearing and enhance fracture toughness. This toughness enhancement (represented by J l ) was estimated by a micromechanical model. The values of the unknown parameters, which are the average ligament lengthbar l, the area fraction V l , and the work-to-fracture τ 1 γ 1, were obtained from scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observation. The total fracture toughness K c and J l were reduced toward a slower strain rate. The experimental fracture toughness, K Q , was found to be increased with strain rate, from 35 MPasqrt m at 2.54×10-5 mm·s-1 to 47 MPasqrt m at 2.54×10-2 mm·s-1. The fact that strain rate has a similar effect on K Q and K c verifies the importance of shear ligament in determining fracture toughness of the alloy. With the presence of hydrogen, length and work-to-fracture of the shear ligament were reduced. The toughening effect caused by shear ligament was reduced, and the alloy would behave in a brittle manner.

  15. Effect of plasma spraying regimes on structure and properties of Ni3Al coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kornienko, E. E.; Mul', D. O.; Rubtsova, O. A.; Vaschenko, S. P.; Kuzmin, V. I.; Gulyaev, I. P.; Sergachev, D. V.

    2016-11-01

    The structure and tribological properties of coatings made of PN85YU15 powder were studied. The coatings were deposited on the mild steel blanks by the technology of air-plasma spraying using a unit of annular input and gas-dynamic powder focusing. Efficiency of heating and acceleration of powder particles was studied preliminarily. Measurement results on temperature and velocity distributions of particles at a certain spraying distance by the method of spectral pyrometry and time-of-flight method are presented. The effect of plasmatorch arc current and amount of propane-butane in the plasma flow on the structure and properties of coatings is analyzed in this paper. It is determined that the phase composition of coatings and initial powder is the same: the main phase is Ni3Al compound; moreover, the structure contains Ni5Al3 phase. It is shown that an increase in the amount of propane-butane increases coatings porosity. The densest coatings (5.77%) were obtained at the plasmatorch arc current of 200 A with the reduced amount of propane-butane. The coatings obtained at the minimal arc current of 100 A with an increased amount of propane-butane are characterized by maximal porosity (20.38%). The results of tribological testing of the coatings under the conditions of sliding friction with a lubricant by the disc-plane scheme are presented. From the standpoint of obtaining the densest coatings with high performance, the optimal regimes of plasma spraying of PN85YU15 powder are the current from 140 A to 200 and using the air and propane-butane mixture only as the shielding gas (anode curtain).

  16. Structural changes and self-activated photoluminescence in reductively annealed Sr{sub 3}AlO{sub 4}F

    SciTech Connect

    Green, Robert; Avdeev, Maxim; Vogt, Thomas

    2015-08-15

    White light emission of self-activated photoluminescence (PL) in Sr{sub 3}AlO{sub 4}F under 254 nm light is only observed after annealing in a reducing atmosphere of 5%H{sub 2}/95%Ar. High-resolution neutron powder diffraction reveals that the FSr{sub 6} octahedrons and AlO{sub 4} tetrahedrons in this anti-perovskite structure are closer packed in reduced than in air-annealed samples which show no PL. Careful analysis of temperature-dependent neutron powder diffraction data establishes smaller isotropic displacement parameters for Sr(1) and O in Sr{sub 3}AlO{sub 4}F annealed in a reducing atmosphere indicating that the denser packing of the polyhedral sub-units leads to a slightly deeper potential for the Sr(1) and O atoms. Both the air- and reductively-annealed samples have identical thermal expansion within the temperature range between 3 and 350 K. The Debye temperatures were calculated using the atomic displacement parameters and show no significant differences between the air and reductively annealed samples making the Debye temperature a bad proxy for self-activated PL. - Graphical abstract: Annealing Sr{sub 3}AlO{sub 4}F under reducing conditions results in an intense self-activated photoluminescence which is correlated with a denser packing of FSr{sub 6} and AlO{sub 4} polyhedra. - Highlights: • Sr{sub 3}AlO{sub 4}F made in air does not show self-activated photoluminescence. • Only when annealing Sr{sub 3}AlO{sub 4}F in a reducing gas is photoluminescence observed. • FSr{sub 6} and AlO{sub 4} polyhedra in reduced Sr{sub 3}AlO{sub 4}F structure are packed more efficient. • Smaller displacement parameters are found for under-bonded Sr(1) and O sites.

  17. Antiferromagnetic interaction between A'-site Mn spins in A-site-ordered perovskite YMn3Al4O12.

    PubMed

    Tohyama, Takenori; Saito, Takashi; Mizumaki, Masaichiro; Agui, Akane; Shimakawa, Yuichi

    2010-03-01

    The A-site-ordered perovskite YMn(3)Al(4)O(12) was prepared by high-pressure synthesis. Structural analysis with synchrotron powder X-ray diffraction data and the Mn L-edges X-ray absorption spectrum revealed that the compound has a chemical composition Y(3+)Mn(3+)(3)Al(3+)(4)O(2-)(12) with magnetic Mn(3+) at the A' site and non-magnetic Al(3+) at the B site. An antiferromagnetic interaction between the A'-site Mn(3+) spins is induced by the nearest neighboring Mn-Mn direct exchange interaction and causes an antiferromagnetic transition at 34.3 K.

  18. Oxide Dispersion Strengthened Fe(sub 3)Al-Based Alloy Tubes: Application Specific Development for the Power Generation Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Kad, B.K.

    1999-07-01

    A detailed and comprehensive research and development methodology is being prescribed to produce Oxide Dispersion Strengthened (ODS)-Fe3Al thin walled tubes, using powder extrusion methodologies, for eventual use at operating temperatures of up to 1100C in the power generation industry. A particular 'in service application' anomaly of Fe3Al-based alloys is that the environmental resistance is maintained up to 1200C, well beyond where such alloys retain sufficient mechanical strength. Grain boundary creep processes at such high temperatures are anticipated to be the dominant failure mechanism.

  19. Size-dependent transition of deformation mechanism, and nonlinear elasticity in Ni{sub 3}Al nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yun-Jiang; Ogata, Shigenobu; Gao, Guo-Jie J.

    2013-01-28

    A size-dependent transition of deformation mechanism is revealed in Ni{sub 3}Al nanowire under atomistic uniaxial tension. Deformation twinning is replaced by phase transformation when the diameter of Ni{sub 3}Al nanowire reduces to a critical value near 4 nm. Enhanced size-dependent nonlinear elasticity is observed in the nanowires, in comparison to their bulk counterpart which is benchmarked by combined density functional and atomistic study. This study provide fundamental understanding on the size-dependent deformation mechanisms of nanostructured alloys.

  20. 49 CFR 180.205 - General requirements for requalification of specification cylinders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...) Periodic requalification of cylinders. Each cylinder bearing a DOT specification marking must be requalified and marked as specified in the Requalification Table in this subpart. Each cylinder bearing a DOT... inspection of cylinders. Without regard to any other periodic requalification requirements, a cylinder...

  1. 49 CFR 178.39 - Specification 3BN seamless nickel cylinders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Specification 3BN seamless nickel cylinders. 178... FOR PACKAGINGS Specifications for Cylinders § 178.39 Specification 3BN seamless nickel cylinders. (a) Type, size and service pressure. A DOT 3BN cylinder is a seamless nickel cylinder with a water...

  2. 49 CFR 178.39 - Specification 3BN seamless nickel cylinders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Specification 3BN seamless nickel cylinders. 178... FOR PACKAGINGS Specifications for Cylinders § 178.39 Specification 3BN seamless nickel cylinders. (a) Type, size and service pressure. A DOT 3BN cylinder is a seamless nickel cylinder with a water...

  3. 49 CFR 178.39 - Specification 3BN seamless nickel cylinders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Specification 3BN seamless nickel cylinders. 178... FOR PACKAGINGS Specifications for Cylinders § 178.39 Specification 3BN seamless nickel cylinders. (a) Type, size and service pressure. A DOT 3BN cylinder is a seamless nickel cylinder with a water...

  4. 49 CFR 178.55 - Specification 4B240ET welded or brazed cylinders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... cylinder bursts below five times the service pressure, then two additional cylinders must be selected and subjected to this test. If either of these cylinders fails by bursting below five times the service pressure... cylinders and plugged cylinders must be tested for leakage by gas or air pressure after the bottom has...

  5. 49 CFR 178.55 - Specification 4B240ET welded or brazed cylinders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... cylinder bursts below five times the service pressure, then two additional cylinders must be selected and subjected to this test. If either of these cylinders fails by bursting below five times the service pressure... cylinders and plugged cylinders must be tested for leakage by gas or air pressure after the bottom has...

  6. 49 CFR 178.55 - Specification 4B240ET welded or brazed cylinders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... cylinder bursts below five times the service pressure, then two additional cylinders must be selected and subjected to this test. If either of these cylinders fails by bursting below five times the service pressure... cylinders and plugged cylinders must be tested for leakage by gas or air pressure after the bottom has...

  7. 49 CFR 178.42 - Specification 3E seamless steel cylinders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Specification 3E seamless steel cylinders. 178.42... PACKAGINGS Specifications for Cylinders § 178.42 Specification 3E seamless steel cylinders. (a) Type, size, and service pressure. A DOT 3E cylinder is a seamless steel cylinder with an outside diameter...

  8. 49 CFR 178.38 - Specification 3B seamless steel cylinders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Specification 3B seamless steel cylinders. 178.38... PACKAGINGS Specifications for Cylinders § 178.38 Specification 3B seamless steel cylinders. (a) Type, size, and service pressure. A DOT 3B cylinder is seamless steel cylinder with a water capacity (nominal)...

  9. 49 CFR 178.36 - Specification 3A and 3AX seamless steel cylinders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Specification 3A and 3AX seamless steel cylinders... FOR PACKAGINGS Specifications for Cylinders § 178.36 Specification 3A and 3AX seamless steel cylinders... conform to the following: (1) A DOT-3A cylinder is a seamless steel cylinder with a water...

  10. 49 CFR 178.38 - Specification 3B seamless steel cylinders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Specification 3B seamless steel cylinders. 178.38... PACKAGINGS Specifications for Cylinders § 178.38 Specification 3B seamless steel cylinders. (a) Type, size, and service pressure. A DOT 3B cylinder is seamless steel cylinder with a water capacity (nominal)...

  11. 49 CFR 178.36 - Specification 3A and 3AX seamless steel cylinders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Specification 3A and 3AX seamless steel cylinders... FOR PACKAGINGS Specifications for Cylinders § 178.36 Specification 3A and 3AX seamless steel cylinders... conform to the following: (1) A DOT-3A cylinder is a seamless steel cylinder with a water...

  12. 49 CFR 178.56 - Specification 4AA480 welded steel cylinders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Specification 4AA480 welded steel cylinders. 178... FOR PACKAGINGS Specifications for Cylinders § 178.56 Specification 4AA480 welded steel cylinders. (a) Type, size, and service pressure. A DOT 4AA480 cylinder is a welded steel cylinder having a...

  13. 49 CFR 178.38 - Specification 3B seamless steel cylinders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Specification 3B seamless steel cylinders. 178.38... PACKAGINGS Specifications for Cylinders § 178.38 Specification 3B seamless steel cylinders. (a) Type, size, and service pressure. A DOT 3B cylinder is seamless steel cylinder with a water capacity (nominal)...

  14. 49 CFR 178.42 - Specification 3E seamless steel cylinders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Specification 3E seamless steel cylinders. 178.42... PACKAGINGS Specifications for Cylinders § 178.42 Specification 3E seamless steel cylinders. (a) Type, size, and service pressure. A DOT 3E cylinder is a seamless steel cylinder with an outside diameter...

  15. 49 CFR 178.60 - Specification 8AL steel cylinders with porous fillings for acetylene.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Specification 8AL steel cylinders with porous...) SPECIFICATIONS FOR PACKAGINGS Specifications for Cylinders § 178.60 Specification 8AL steel cylinders with porous fillings for acetylene. (a) Type and service pressure. A DOT 8AL cylinder is a seamless steel cylinder...

  16. 49 CFR 178.60 - Specification 8AL steel cylinders with porous fillings for acetylene.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Specification 8AL steel cylinders with porous...) SPECIFICATIONS FOR PACKAGINGS Specifications for Cylinders § 178.60 Specification 8AL steel cylinders with porous fillings for acetylene. (a) Type and service pressure. A DOT 8AL cylinder is a seamless steel cylinder...

  17. 49 CFR 178.45 - Specification 3T seamless steel cylinder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Specification 3T seamless steel cylinder. 178.45... PACKAGINGS Specifications for Cylinders § 178.45 Specification 3T seamless steel cylinder. (a) Type, size, and service pressure. A DOT 3T cylinder is a seamless steel cylinder with a minimum water capacity...

  18. 49 CFR 178.60 - Specification 8AL steel cylinders with porous fillings for acetylene.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Specification 8AL steel cylinders with porous...) SPECIFICATIONS FOR PACKAGINGS Specifications for Cylinders § 178.60 Specification 8AL steel cylinders with porous fillings for acetylene. (a) Type and service pressure. A DOT 8AL cylinder is a seamless steel cylinder...

  19. 49 CFR 178.45 - Specification 3T seamless steel cylinder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Specification 3T seamless steel cylinder. 178.45... PACKAGINGS Specifications for Cylinders § 178.45 Specification 3T seamless steel cylinder. (a) Type, size, and service pressure. A DOT 3T cylinder is a seamless steel cylinder with a minimum water capacity...

  20. 49 CFR 178.38 - Specification 3B seamless steel cylinders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Specification 3B seamless steel cylinders. 178.38... PACKAGINGS Specifications for Cylinders § 178.38 Specification 3B seamless steel cylinders. (a) Type, size, and service pressure. A DOT 3B cylinder is seamless steel cylinder with a water capacity (nominal)...

  1. 49 CFR 178.45 - Specification 3T seamless steel cylinder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Specification 3T seamless steel cylinder. 178.45... PACKAGINGS Specifications for Cylinders § 178.45 Specification 3T seamless steel cylinder. (a) Type, size, and service pressure. A DOT 3T cylinder is a seamless steel cylinder with a minimum water capacity...

  2. 49 CFR 178.56 - Specification 4AA480 welded steel cylinders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Specification 4AA480 welded steel cylinders. 178... FOR PACKAGINGS Specifications for Cylinders § 178.56 Specification 4AA480 welded steel cylinders. (a) Type, size, and service pressure. A DOT 4AA480 cylinder is a welded steel cylinder having a...

  3. 49 CFR 178.42 - Specification 3E seamless steel cylinders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Specification 3E seamless steel cylinders. 178.42... PACKAGINGS Specifications for Cylinders § 178.42 Specification 3E seamless steel cylinders. (a) Type, size, and service pressure. A DOT 3E cylinder is a seamless steel cylinder with an outside diameter...

  4. 49 CFR 178.56 - Specification 4AA480 welded steel cylinders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Specification 4AA480 welded steel cylinders. 178... FOR PACKAGINGS Specifications for Cylinders § 178.56 Specification 4AA480 welded steel cylinders. (a) Type, size, and service pressure. A DOT 4AA480 cylinder is a welded steel cylinder having a...

  5. 49 CFR 178.36 - Specification 3A and 3AX seamless steel cylinders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Specification 3A and 3AX seamless steel cylinders... FOR PACKAGINGS Specifications for Cylinders § 178.36 Specification 3A and 3AX seamless steel cylinders... conform to the following: (1) A DOT-3A cylinder is a seamless steel cylinder with a water...

  6. 49 CFR 178.36 - Specification 3A and 3AX seamless steel cylinders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Specification 3A and 3AX seamless steel cylinders... FOR PACKAGINGS Specifications for Cylinders § 178.36 Specification 3A and 3AX seamless steel cylinders... conform to the following: (1) A DOT-3A cylinder is a seamless steel cylinder with a water...

  7. 49 CFR 178.56 - Specification 4AA480 welded steel cylinders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Specification 4AA480 welded steel cylinders. 178... FOR PACKAGINGS Specifications for Cylinders § 178.56 Specification 4AA480 welded steel cylinders. (a) Type, size, and service pressure. A DOT 4AA480 cylinder is a welded steel cylinder having a...

  8. 49 CFR 178.45 - Specification 3T seamless steel cylinder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Specification 3T seamless steel cylinder. 178.45... PACKAGINGS Specifications for Cylinders § 178.45 Specification 3T seamless steel cylinder. (a) Type, size, and service pressure. A DOT 3T cylinder is a seamless steel cylinder with a minimum water capacity...

  9. 49 CFR 178.42 - Specification 3E seamless steel cylinders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Specification 3E seamless steel cylinders. 178.42... PACKAGINGS Specifications for Cylinders § 178.42 Specification 3E seamless steel cylinders. (a) Type, size, and service pressure. A DOT 3E cylinder is a seamless steel cylinder with an outside diameter...

  10. 49 CFR 178.60 - Specification 8AL steel cylinders with porous fillings for acetylene.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Specification 8AL steel cylinders with porous...) SPECIFICATIONS FOR PACKAGINGS Specifications for Cylinders § 178.60 Specification 8AL steel cylinders with porous fillings for acetylene. (a) Type and service pressure. A DOT 8AL cylinder is a seamless steel cylinder...

  11. 49 CFR 178.68 - Specification 4E welded aluminum cylinders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Specification 4E welded aluminum cylinders. 178.68... PACKAGINGS Specifications for Cylinders § 178.68 Specification 4E welded aluminum cylinders. (a) Type, size and service pressure. A DOT 4E cylinder is a welded aluminum cylinder with a water capacity...

  12. 49 CFR 178.68 - Specification 4E welded aluminum cylinders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Specification 4E welded aluminum cylinders. 178.68... PACKAGINGS Specifications for Cylinders § 178.68 Specification 4E welded aluminum cylinders. (a) Type, size and service pressure. A DOT 4E cylinder is a welded aluminum cylinder with a water capacity...

  13. 49 CFR 178.68 - Specification 4E welded aluminum cylinders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Specification 4E welded aluminum cylinders. 178.68... PACKAGINGS Specifications for Cylinders § 178.68 Specification 4E welded aluminum cylinders. (a) Type, size and service pressure. A DOT 4E cylinder is a welded aluminum cylinder with a water capacity...

  14. 49 CFR 178.68 - Specification 4E welded aluminum cylinders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Specification 4E welded aluminum cylinders. 178.68... PACKAGINGS Specifications for Cylinders § 178.68 Specification 4E welded aluminum cylinders. (a) Type, size and service pressure. A DOT 4E cylinder is a welded aluminum cylinder with a water capacity...

  15. Near-wake flow structure of elliptic cylinders close to a free surface: effect of cylinder aspect ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daichin, K. V.; Lee, Sang Joon

    The flow fields behind elliptic cylinders adjacent to a free surface were investigated experimentally in a circulating water channel. A range of cylinder aspect ratios (AR=2, 3, 4) were considered, while the cross-sectional area of the elliptical cylinder was kept constant. The main objective of this study was to investigate the effect of cylinder aspect ratio and a free surface on the flow structure in the near-wake behind elliptic cylinders. For each elliptic cylinder, the flow structure was analyzed for various values of the submergence depth of the cylinder beneath the free surface. The flow fields were measured using a single-frame double-exposure PIV (Particle Image Velocimetry) system. For each experimental condition, 350 instantaneous velocity fields were obtained and ensemble-averaged to obtain the mean velocity field and spatial distribution of the mean vorticity statistics. The results show that near-wake can be classified into three typical flow patterns: formation of a Coanda flow, generation of substantial jet-like flow, and attachment of this jet flow to the free surface. The general flow structure observed behind the elliptic cylinders resembles the structure previously reported for a circular cylinder submerged near a free surface. However, the wake width and the angle of downward deflection of the shear layer developed from the lower surface of the elliptic cylinder differ from those observed for a circular cylinder. These trends are enhanced as cylinder aspect ratio is increased. In addition, the free surface distortion is also discussed in the paper.

  16. An In-Cylinder Study of Soot and NO in a DI Diesel Engine. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Litzinger, T.A.

    1995-10-18

    Clearly the reduction of NOx and particulate emissions remains a major challenge to Diesel engine manufacturers due to increasingly stringent emission standards in the US and other countries. The well documented NOx/particulate trade-off observed in Diesel engines makes the simultaneous reduction of both emissions particularly difficult for manufacturers to achieve. In an effort to provide an improved understanding of the fundamental processes which result in this trade-off, a program was carried out at Penn State to develop the appropriate engine facilities and laser diagnostics to permit in-cylinder studies of Diesel combustion and emissions production with the support of the Department of Energy Advanced Industrial Technology Division . This work has also been supported by the Cummins Engine Company, Lubrizol Corporation and the National Science Foundation. An optically accessible, direct injection, Diesel engine was constructed for these studies. The major objective of the, design of the engine was to maximize optical access under conditions representative of Diesel engine combustion in small bore, commercial engines. Intake air is preheated and boosted in pressure to make the in-cylinder conditions of heat release and pressure as realistic as possible. Another important objective of the design was flexibility in combustion chamber geometry to permit a variety of head and bowl geometries to be studied. In all the results reported in this report a square bowl was used to simplify the introduction of laser light sheets into the engine.

  17. CORSSTOL: Cylinder Optimization of Rings, Skin, and Stringers with Tolerance sensitivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finckenor, J.; Bevill, M.

    1995-01-01

    Cylinder Optimization of Rings, Skin, and Stringers with Tolerance (CORSSTOL) sensitivity is a design optimization program incorporating a method to examine the effects of user-provided manufacturing tolerances on weight and failure. CORSSTOL gives designers a tool to determine tolerances based on need. This is a decisive way to choose the best design among several manufacturing methods with differing capabilities and costs. CORSSTOL initially optimizes a stringer-stiffened cylinder for weight without tolerances. The skin and stringer geometry are varied, subject to stress and buckling constraints. Then the same analysis and optimization routines are used to minimize the maximum material condition weight subject to the least favorable combination of tolerances. The adjusted optimum dimensions are provided with the weight and constraint sensitivities of each design variable. The designer can immediately identify critical tolerances. The safety of parts made out of tolerance can also be determined. During design and development of weight-critical systems, design/analysis tools that provide product-oriented results are of vital significance. The development of this program and methodology provides designers with an effective cost- and weight-saving design tool. The tolerance sensitivity method can be applied to any system defined by a set of deterministic equations.

  18. Network Formation by Condensed Tetrahedral [Au3Al] Units in Na2Au3Al: Crystal and Electronic Structure, Spectroscopic Investigations, and Physical Properties of an Ordered Ternary Auride.

    PubMed

    Stegemann, Frank; Benndorf, Christopher; Zhang, Yuemei; Bartsch, Manfred; Zacharias, Helmut; Fokwa, Boniface P T; Eckert, Hellmut; Janka, Oliver

    2017-02-20

    Na2Au3Al, the first experimentally prepared compound in the ternary Na-Au-Al system, crystallizes in the cubic crystal system with space group P4132 (a = 771.42(2) pm). It can be described as a P-centered ternary ordered variant of the F-centered Laves phase MgCu2 and is isostructural to Mo3Al2C. A phase width was found for the series Na2Au4-xAlx allowing a successive substitution of Au by Al. The primitive structure forms for x ≥ 0.5. Na2Au3Al is diamagnetic at room temperature but metallic in nature, as seen from susceptibility and electrical resistivity measurements. Band structure calculations and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirm the metallic nature of the title compound as states are found at the Fermi level of the DOS, along with its "auride" character. (23)Na and (27)Al solid-state-NMR investigations show the existence of both a disordered (x = 0.5 and 0.75) and a fully ordered (x = 1.0) representative within this series. Both COHP and Bader charge analyses suggest the presence of strong Au-Al interactions forming an anionic [Au3Al](δ-) network, with the Na cations occupying the cavities.

  19. Uniaxially aligned nanofibrous cylinders by electrospinning.

    PubMed

    Jana, Soumen; Cooper, Ashleigh; Ohuchi, Fumio; Zhang, Miqin

    2012-09-26

    Aligned nanofibers have drawn increasing interest for applications in biomedical engineering, electronics, and energy storage systems owing to the unique physicochemical properties provided by their anisotropy and high surface-to-volume ratio. Nevertheless, direct fabrication or assembly of aligned nanofibers into a 3-dimensional standalone construct with practically applicable dimensions presents an enormous challenge. We report a facile method to fabricate aligned nanofibrous cylinders, a widely used geometric form, by electrospinning aligned nanofibers across the gap between a pair of pin electrodes placed apart uniaxially. With this approach, cylindrical nanofibrous constructs of several millimeters in diameter and several centimeters in length can be readily produced. The versatility of the approach was demonstrated with several commonly used polymeric and ceramic materials, including polycaprolactone (PCL), chitosan/PCL, polyvinylidene fluoride, and titania. For a model application in tissue engineering, skeletal muscle cells were cultured on nanofibrous cylinders, which effectively produced highly aligned and densely populated myotubes along the nanofiber orientation, favorable for muscle tissue regeneration. With high structural integrity and stability, these can be directly integrated into devices or implanted in vivo as a standalone construct without the support of a substrate, thus increasing the portability, efficiency, and applicability of aligned nanofibers.

  20. CYLINDER LENS ALIGNMENT IN THE LTP

    SciTech Connect

    TAKACS, P.Z.

    2005-07-26

    The Long Trace Profiler (LTP), is well-suited for the measurement of the axial figure of cylindrical mirrors that usually have a long radius of curvature in the axial direction but have a short radius of curvature in the sagittal direction. The sagittal curvature causes the probe beam to diverge in the transverse direction without coming to a focus on the detector, resulting in a very weak signal. It is useful to place a cylinder lens into the optical system above the mirror under test to refocus the sagittal divergence and increase the signal level. A positive cylinder lens can be placed at two positions above the surface: the Cat's Eye reflection position and the Wavefront-Matching position. The Cat's Eye position, is very tolerant to mirror misalignment, which is not good if absolute axial radius of curvature is to be measured. Lateral positioning and rotational misalignments of lens and the mirror combine to produce unusual profile results. This paper looks at various alignment issues with measurements and by raytrace simulations to determine the best strategy to minimize radius of curvature errors in the measurement of cylindrical aspheres.

  1. Sandwich Cylinder Technology for Cryogenic Tank

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rambaud, Wladimir; Lukowiak, Denis; Damas, Alain; Michelot, David; Jousset, Frederic; Mercier, Antoine; Bouilly, Thibault; Leudiere, Vincent

    2014-06-01

    In the frame of the Research and Technology activities, CNES Launcher Directorate and EuroCryospace performed studies on cryogenic tank.Since 2009/2010, we realized analyses and tests on a promising technology for cryogenic tank submitted to high compressive loads. Indeed, the "Sandwich cylinder" (metallic shell, insulating core, composite shell) is a way to improve performance and costs with respect to classical structure. This concept presents specific stiffness behavior (advantageous stiffness/mass ratio) higher than an aluminum alloy structure and scalable thermal behavior.The relevancy of the Sandwich concept was first evaluated by calculation in comparison with 3 other cylinder architectures and then this R&T project was conducted from elementary characterizations to a buckling test of a representative demonstrator.The paper provides an overview of the different steps of the project and the main results obtained. Potential benefits for Ariane 6 launcher are also presented.The concept is submitted to ECSP patent and so, numerical values will not be present in the paper.

  2. UF{sub 6} pressure excursions during cylinder heating

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, P.G.

    1991-12-31

    As liquid UF{sub 6} inside a cylinder changes from a liquid to a solid, it forms a porous solid which occupies approximately the same volume as that of the liquid before cooling. Simultaneously as the liquid cools, UF{sub 6} vapor in the cylinder ullage above the liquid desublimes on the upper region of the inner cylinder wall. This solid is a dense, glass-like material which can accumulate to a significant thickness. The thickness of the solid coating on the upper cylinder wall and directly behind the cylinder valve area will vary depending on the conditions during the cooling stage. The amount of time lapsed between UF{sub 6} solidification and UF{sub 6} liquefaction can also affect the UF{sub 6} coating. This is due to the daily ambient heat cycle causing the coating to sublime from the cylinder wall to cooler areas, thus decreasing the thickness. Structural weakening of the dense UF{sub 6} layer also occurs due to cylinder transport vibration and thermal expansion. During cylinder heating, the UF{sub 6} nearest the cylinder wall will liquefy first. As the solid coating behind the cylinder valve begins to liquefy, it results in increased pressure depending upon the available volume for expansion. At the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) during the liquefaction of the UF{sub 6} in cylinders in the UF{sub 6} feed and sampling autoclaves, this pressure increase has resulted in the activation of the systems rupture discs which are rated at 100 pounds per square inch differential.

  3. PIV measurements of in-cylinder, large-scale structures in a water-analogue Diesel engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalpakli Vester, A.; Nishio, Y.; Alfredsson, P. H.

    2016-11-01

    Swirl and tumble are large-scale structures that develop in an engine cylinder during the intake stroke. Their structure and strength depend on the design of the inlet ports and valves, but also on the valve lift history. Engine manufacturers make their design to obtain a specific flow structure that is assumed to give the best engine performance. Despite many efforts, there are still open questions, such as how swirl and tumble depend on the dynamics of the valves/piston as well as how cycle-to-cycle variations should be minimized. In collaboration with Swedish vehicle industry we perform PIV measurements of the flow dynamics during the intake stroke inside a cylinder of a water-analogue engine model having the same geometrical characteristics as a typical truck Diesel engine. Water can be used since during the intake stroke the flow is nearly incompressible. The flow from the valves moves radially outwards, hits the vertical walls of the cylinder, entrains surrounding fluid, moves along the cylinder walls and creates a central backflow, i.e. a tumble motion. Depending on the port and valve design and orientation none, low, or high swirl can be established. For the first time, the effect of the dynamic motion of the piston/valves on the large-scale structures is captured. Supported by the Swedish Energy Agency, Scania CV AB and Volvo GTT, through the FFI program.

  4. Heat capacity and phase equilibria of almandine, Fe3Al2Si3O12

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anovitz, Lawrence M.; Essene, E.J.; Metz, G.W.; Bohlen, S.R.; Westrum, E.F.; Hemingway, B.S.

    1993-01-01

    The heat capacity of a synthetic almandine, Fe3Al2Si3O12, was measured from 6 to 350 K using equilibrium, intermittent-heating quasi-adiabatic calorimetry and from 420 to 1000 K using differential scanning calorimetry. These measurements yield Cp298 = 342.80 ?? 1.4 J/mol ?? K and S298o = 342.60 J/mol ?? K. Mo??ssbauer characterizations show the almandine to contain less than 2 ?? 1% of the total iron as Fe3+. X-ray diffraction studies of this synthetic almandine yield a = 11.521 ?? 0.001 A?? and V298o = 115.11 +- 0.01 cm3/mol, somewhat smaller than previously reported. The low-temperature Cp data indicate a lambda transition at 8.7 K related to an antiferromagnetic-paramagnetic transition with TN = 7.5 K. Modeling of the lattice contribution to the total entropy suggests the presence of entropy in excess of that attributable to the effects of lattice vibrations and the magnetic transition. This probably arises from a low-temperature electronic transition (Schottky contribution). Combination of the Cp data with existing thermodynamic and phase equilibrium data on almandine yields ??Gf,298o = -4938.3 kJ/mol and ??Hf,298o= -5261.3 kJ/mol for almandine when calculated from the elements. The equilibrium almandine = hercynite + fayalite + quartz limits the upper T P for almandine and is metastably located at ca. 570??C at P = 1 bar, with a dP dT of +17 bars/??C. This agrees well with reversed experiments on almandine stability when they are corrected for magnetite and hercynite solid-solutions. In {norm of matrix}O2-T space, almandine oxidizes near QFM by the reactions almandine + O2 = magnetite + sillimanite + quartz and almandine + 02 = hercynite + magnetite + quartz. With suitable correction for reduced activities of solid phases, these equilibria provide useful oxygen barometers for medium- to high-grade metamorphic rocks. ?? 1993.

  5. Influence of niobium additions on high-temperature-oxidation behavior of Ti{sub 3}Al alloys and coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Gauer, L.; Alperine, S.; Vassel, A.; Steinmetz, P.

    1994-08-01

    In this study, the oxidation properties of Ti{sub 3}Al + Nb bulk alloys, as well as IMI 829 alloy, coated with a Ti{sub 3}Al + Nb layer, have been considered. Model alloys have been prepared, with 5-25 at.% niobium contents; 50-{mu}m-thick Ti{sub 3}Al + 10 at.% Nb coatings have also been deposited on IMI 829 by triode sputtering. Bulk alloys and coated substrates have been exposed to cyclic and isothermal oxidation in air between 700 and 800{degrees}C. Niobium additions generally caused the oxidation rate of Ti{sub 3}Al to decrease significantly. In all cases rutile is the main oxide formed. It is believed that the ability of niobium to dissolve in the rutile lattice, and therefore to lower the oxygen diffusion rate through the oxide layer, is a contribution to the observed oxidation resistance enhancement. The formation of niobium oxide has also been envisaged for this matter.

  6. Nd3+:Y3Al5O12 laser ceramics: Influence of the size of yttrium oxide particles on sintering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosyanov, D. Yu.; Baumer, V. N.; Yavetskiy, R. P.; Voznyy, V. L.; Kravchenko, V. B.; Kopylov, Yu. L.; Tolmachev, A. V.

    2015-03-01

    The influence of the size of Y2O3 powder particles on the structure formation and densification of Nd3+:Y3Al5O12 laser ceramics has been studied. It is shown that the use of 50- and 100-nm yttrium oxide particles makes it possible to synthesize single-phase yttrium aluminum garnet at temperatures of 1200 and 1500°C, respectively, whereas in the case of 5000-nm yttrium oxide particles 2-h exposure at a temperature of 1500°C yields only 80 wt % of the Nd3+:Y3Al5O12 phase. Bulk swelling of pressed samples during sintering of 2.94Y2O3-0.06Nd2O3-5Al2O3 powders with the size ratio of the initial particles R(Al2O3/Y2O3) ˜ 5 is observed. The application of different-sized powders ( R ˜ 2.5) provides quantitative ratios between phases in the 3Y2O3-5Al2O3 system at which shrinkage in a temperature range of 20-1500°C is dominant. Laser ceramics 0-2 at % Nd3+:Y3Al5O12 have been obtained by the solid-phase sintering of oxide powders ( R ˜ 2.5). The slope efficiency for 1 at % Nd3+:Y3Al5O12 laser ceramics is found to be 33%.

  7. Strain-Induced Enhancement of Eu3+ Emission in Red Phosphor NaMgPO4:Eu3+, Al3+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Yong; Long, Qiwei; Nong, Rong; Wang, Tianman; Huang, Yingheng; Liao, Sen; Zhang, Huaxin

    2017-02-01

    A series of (NaMgPO4)0.98- x : {Eu}_{0.02}^{3 + }, {Al}x^{3 + } phosphors were prepared by the solid-state method. X-ray powder diffraction results confirm that the samples contain mixture phases of crystals. The doped effect of Al3+ on the photoluminescence properties of (NaMgPO4)0.98- x : {Eu}_{0.02}^{3 + }, {Al}x^{3 + } phosphors is discussed. The results indicate that two dependent curves of emission relative intensity and strain on Al3+ doping concentration are all Gaussian curves, and a high correlation is observed between emission relative intensity of Eu3+ and strain caused by Al3+. In other words, emission relative intensity of Eu3+ is enhanced with the increase of the strain. The enhanced mechanism of the strain is discussed. In addition, (NaMgPO4)0.98- x : {Eu}_{0.02}^{3 + }, {Al}x^{3 + } phosphors are electric dipole-dominated transition red phosphors. The optimal molar concentration of Al3+ for the samples is 9%, which (NaMgPO4)0.89: {Eu}_{0.02}^{3 + }, {Al}_{0.09}^{3 + } is a potential candidate as the red-emitting phosphor for ultraviolet-based white light-emitting diodes.

  8. The influence of boron-doping on the effectiveness of grain boundary hardening in Ni{sub 3}Al

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, C.S.; Lai, J.K.L.; Han, G.W. |; Smallman, R.E.; Feng, D.

    1999-04-23

    The influence of boron-doping on the effectiveness of grain boundary hardening in Ni{sub 3}Al has been investigated by measuring microhardness profiles across grain boundaries of binary and boron-doped Ni{sub 3}Al bicrystals. It was found that although boron gives rise to significant solution strengthening in Ni{sub 3}Al, the effectiveness of grain boundary hardening in Ni{sub 3}Al is lessened by the addition of boron. Furthermore, the contribution of grain boundary hardening to the overall strength decreases as the segregation extent of boron at the grain boundary increases. A theoretical model of grain boundary hardening considering the various effects of boron-doping has been developed. Application of the model can deconvolute the individual effects of boron-doping on solution hardening, distribution of microcavities along grain boundaries and the interaction of dislocations on different slip systems. Analyzing the experimental results with the model suggests that boron-doping can (1) improve the transfer efficiency of shear stress across a grain boundary by reducing the amount of microcavities along the grain boundary; (2) suppress the hardening effect from the interaction of dislocations moving on different slip systems; and (3) cause a significant solution hardening effect.

  9. Energy Use in Manufacturing

    EIA Publications

    2006-01-01

    This report addresses both manufacturing energy consumption and characteristics of the manufacturing economy related to energy consumption. In addition, special sections on fuel switching capacity and energy-management activities between 1998 and 2002 are also featured in this report.

  10. RRR Niobium Manufacturing Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, Ronald A.

    2007-08-09

    ATI Wah Chang has been manufacturing RRR niobium for more than 30 years using electron beam melting techniques. Fabricated forms include plate, sheet, foil, bar, rod and tubing. This paper provides manufacturing information.

  11. Fluid forces on two circular cylinders in crossflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jendrzejczyk, J. A.; Chen, S. S.

    1986-07-01

    Fluid excitation forces are measured in a water loop for two circular cylinders arranged in tandem and normal to flow. The Strouhal number and fluctuating drag and lift coefficients for both cylinders are presented for various spacings and incoming flow conditions. The results show the effects of Reynolds number, pitch ratio, and upstream turbulence on the fluid excitation forces.

  12. 14. VIEW OF OPERATING VALVE TO HYDRAULIC CYLINDER, SHOWING CAR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. VIEW OF OPERATING VALVE TO HYDRAULIC CYLINDER, SHOWING CAR OPERATING ROPE SHELVE, FIXED SHEAVES OF CYLINDER JUST VISIBLE BEHIND AIR CHAMBER PIPE; RISING THROUGH FLOOR ARE WATER DISCHARGE PIPE TO SEWER (LEFT) AND WATER SUPPLY FROM STREET MAIN (RIGHT); WATER CONSUMPTION METER MOUNTED TO WALL ABOVE OPERATING SHELVE - 72 Marlborough Street, Residential Hydraulic Elevator, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  13. 21 CFR 886.1840 - Simulatan (including crossed cylinder).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... of cylinder lenses that provides various equal plus and minus refractive strengths. The lenses are arranged so that the user can exchange the positions of plus and minus cylinder lenses of equal strengths... given object is clearly in focus, as the examiner uses different lenses). (b) Classification. Class...

  14. 21 CFR 886.1840 - Simulatan (including crossed cylinder).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... of cylinder lenses that provides various equal plus and minus refractive strengths. The lenses are arranged so that the user can exchange the positions of plus and minus cylinder lenses of equal strengths... given object is clearly in focus, as the examiner uses different lenses). (b) Classification. Class...

  15. 46 CFR 197.338 - Compressed gas cylinders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compressed gas cylinders. 197.338 Section 197.338 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.338 Compressed gas cylinders....

  16. 77 FR 37712 - High Pressure Steel Cylinders From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-22

    ... COMMISSION High Pressure Steel Cylinders From China Determinations On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed... imports of high pressure steel cylinders from China, provided for in subheading 7311.00.00 of the... following notification of preliminary determinations by Commerce that imports of high pressure...

  17. An Experiment in Heat Conduction Using Hollow Cylinders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ortuno, M.; Marquez, A.; Gallego, S.; Neipp, C.; Belendez, A.

    2011-01-01

    An experimental apparatus was designed and built to allow students to carry out heat conduction experiments in hollow cylinders made of different materials, as well as to determine the thermal conductivity of these materials. The evolution of the temperature difference between the inner and outer walls of the cylinder as a function of time is…

  18. Equations for solitary surface waves on a plasma cylinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stenflo, L.; Gradov, O. M.

    1986-08-01

    The theory for high-frequency envelope solitons, propagating along a plasma cylinder, is generalized. It is then shown that previously neglected second harmonic terms are of the same order of magnitude as the nonlinear density terms, if the axial wavelength is comparable, to, or larger than, the cylinder radius.

  19. Increasing the Utility of the Copper Cylinder Expansion Test

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-04-01

    existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing and reviewing this collection of information. Send comments...Garza, Detonation En- ergies from the Cylinder Test and CHEETAH V3.0, Propel- lants, Explos., Pyrotech. 2001, 26, 180. [10] W. C. Davis, Cylinder Test

  20. 21 CFR 886.1840 - Simulatan (including crossed cylinder).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... of cylinder lenses that provides various equal plus and minus refractive strengths. The lenses are arranged so that the user can exchange the positions of plus and minus cylinder lenses of equal strengths... given object is clearly in focus, as the examiner uses different lenses). (b) Classification. Class...

  1. Connecting American Manufacturers (CAM)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    AFRL-RX-WP-TR-2013-0221 CONNECTING AMERICAN MANUFACTURERS (CAM) Nainesh B. Rathod Imaginestics, LLC SEPTEMBER 2013...SUBTITLE CONNECTING AMERICAN MANUFACTURERS (CAM) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA8650-12-C-5515 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 63680F 6...Connecting American Manufacturing (CAM) initiative sought to improve participation of small manufacturers in building components for the military by

  2. 49 CFR 180.209 - Requirements for requalification of specification cylinders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ....209 Requirements for requalification of specification cylinders. (a) Periodic qualification of cylinders. Each specification cylinder that becomes due for periodic requalification, as specified in the following table, must be requalified and marked in conformance with the requirements of this...

  3. 76 FR 33239 - High Pressure Steel Cylinders From the People's Republic of China; Initiation of Countervailing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-08

    ... International Trade Administration High Pressure Steel Cylinders From the People's Republic of China; Initiation...'') petition concerning imports of high pressure steel cylinders (``steel cylinders'') from the People's... Petitions for the Imposition of Antidumping and Countervailing Duties Against High Pressure Steel...

  4. Designing using manufacturing features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szecsi, T.; Hoque, A. S. M.

    2012-04-01

    This paper presents a design system that enables the composition of a part using manufacturing features. Features are selected from feature libraries. Upon insertion, the system ensures that the feature does not contradict the design-for-manufacture rules. This helps eliminating costly manufacturing problems. The system is developed as an extension to a commercial CAD/CAM system Pro/Engineer.

  5. Workforce Development for Manufacturing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernard, Rosalie

    2007-01-01

    In a recent skills gap report, the National Association of Manufacturers (NAM) noted some disturbing trends in the gap between the demand for highly skilled manufacturing workers and the potential supply. The NAM report notes that smaller manufacturers rank finding qualified workers ahead of energy costs, taxes and government regulations on the…

  6. Method for Making a Carbon-Carbon Cylinder Block

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ransone, Phillip O. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    A method for making a lightweight cylinder block composed of carbon-carbon is disclosed. The use of carbon-carbon over conventional materials. such as cast iron or aluminum, reduces the weight of the cylinder block and improves thermal efficiency of the internal combustion reciprocating engine. Due to the negligible coefficient of thermal expansion and unique strength at elevated temperatures of carbon-carbon, the piston-to-cylinder wall clearance can be small, especially when the carbon-carbon cylinder block is used in conjunction with a carbon-carbon piston. Use of the carbon-carbon cylinder block has the effect of reducing the weight of other reciprocating engine components allowing the piston to run at higher speeds and improving specific engine performance.

  7. Reordering transitions during annealing of block copolymer cylinder phases

    SciTech Connect

    Majewski, Pawel W.; Yager, Kevin G.

    2015-10-06

    While equilibrium block-copolymer morphologies are dictated by energy-minimization effects, the semi-ordered states observed experimentally often depend on the details of ordering pathways and kinetics. In this study, we explore reordering transitions in thin films of block-copolymer cylinder-forming polystyrene-block-poly(methyl methacrylate). We observe several transient states as films order towards horizontally-aligned cylinders. In particular, there is an early-stage reorganization from randomly-packed cylinders into hexagonally-packed vertically-aligned cylinders; followed by a reorientation transition from vertical to horizontal cylinder states. These transitions are thermally activated. The growth of horizontal grains within an otherwise vertical morphology proceeds anisotropically, resulting in anisotropic grains in the final horizontal state. The size, shape, and anisotropy of grains are influenced by ordering history; for instance, faster heating rates reduce grain anisotropy. These results help elucidate aspects of pathway-dependent ordering in block-copolymer thin films.

  8. ``Reverse'' Lock-in Regime on a Freely Oscillating Cylinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atsavapranee, P.; Voorhees, A. V.; Benaroya, H.; Wei, T.

    1998-11-01

    DPIV and flow visualizations were used to characterize the flow in the near wake of a freely oscillating cylinder. A rigid cylinder with a low mass ratio was fixed at one end to a leaf spring and free to oscillate, pendulum-like, at the other end in the cross stream plane. It was found that only a subset of the synchronization range follows the behavior of a ``classical'' lock-in, i.e., when the difference between the natural Strouhal frequency and the natural frequency of the cylinder is small enough, vortex shedding frequency deviates from the linear Strouhal dependence and follows instead the cylinder natural frequency. However, over a range of flow speed in which the response amplitude of the cylinder is significant, it was found that the frequency of oscillation and of vortex shedding follow instead the natural Strouhal frequency, instead of the mechanical natural frequency.

  9. A Study of Air Flow in an Engine Cylinder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Dana W

    1939-01-01

    A 4-stroke-cycle test engine was equipped with a glass cylinder and the air movements within it were studied while the engine was being motored. Different types of air flow were produced by using shrouded intake valves in various arrangements and by altering the shape of the intake-air passage in the cylinder head. The air movements were made visible by mixing feathers with the entering air, and high-speed motion pictures were taken of them so that the air currents might be studied in detail and their velocities measured. Motion pictures were also taken of gasoline sprays injected into the cylinder on the intake stroke. The photographs showed that: a wide variety of induced air movements could be created in the cylinder; the movements always persisted throughout the compression stroke; and the only type of movement that persisted until the end of the cycle was rotation about the cylinder axis.

  10. Rotating cylinder drag balance with application to riblets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, T.; Joseph, D.

    2000-12-01

    Experimental results are reported and discussed for a rotating cylinder drag balance designed to predict drag reduction by surfaces like riblets. The apparatus functions by measuring the torque applied to the inner cylinder by a fluid, such as water, that is set in motion by the controlled rotation of the outer cylinder. The instrument was validated by calibration for laminar flow and comparison of turbulent flow results to the those of G. I. Taylor. The ability to predict drag reduction was demonstrated by testing 114 m symmetric sawtooth riblets, which gave a maximum reduction of about 5% and an overall drag reduction range of 5cylinder surface and to use cylinders for which the curvature of the flow is minimized.

  11. Acoustic resonances in cylinder bundles oscillating in a compressibile fluid

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, W.H.; Raptis, A.C.

    1984-12-01

    This paper deals with an analytical study on acoustic resonances of elastic oscillations of a group of parallel, circular, thin cylinders in an unbounded volume of barotropic, compressible, inviscid fluid. The perturbed motion of the fluid is assumed due entirely to the flexural oscillations of the cylinders. The motion of the fluid disturbances is first formulated in a three-dimensional wave form and then casted into a two-dimensional Helmholtz equation for the harmonic motion in time and in axial space. The acoustic motion in the fluid and the elastic motion in the cylinders are solved simultaneously. Acoustic resonances were approximately determined from the secular (eigenvalue) equation by the method of successive iteration with the use of digital computers for a given set of the fluid properties and the cylinders' geometry and properties. Effects of the flexural wavenumber and the configuration of and the spacing between the cylinders on the acoustic resonances were thoroughly investigated.

  12. Investigation of breached depleted UF{sub 6} cylinders

    SciTech Connect

    Barber, E.J.; Butler, T.R.; DeVan, J.H.; Googin, J.M.; Taylor, M.S.; Dyer, R.H.; Russell, J.R.

    1991-09-01

    In June 1990, during a three-site inspection of cylinders being used for long-term storage of solid depleted UF{sub 6}, two 14-ton steel cylinders at Portsmouth, Ohio, were discovered with holes in the barrel section of the cylinders. Both holes, concealed by UF{sub 4} reaction products identical in color to the cylinder coating, were similarly located near the front stiffening ring. The UF{sub 4} appeared to have self-sealed the holes, thus containing nearly all of the uranium contents. Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Vice President K.W. Sommerfeld immediately formed an investigation team to: (1) identify the most likely cause of failure for the two breached cylinders, (2) determine the impact of these incidents on the three-site inventory, and (3) provide recommendations and preventive measures. This document discusses the results of this investigation.

  13. Investigation of breached depleted UF sub 6 cylinders

    SciTech Connect

    Barber, E.J.; Butler, T.R.; DeVan, J.H.; Googin, J.M.; Taylor, M.S.; Dyer, R.H.; Russell, J.R.

    1991-09-01

    In June 1990, during a three-site inspection of cylinders being used for long-term storage of solid depleted UF{sub 6}, two 14-ton steel cylinders at Portsmouth, Ohio, were discovered with holes in the barrel section of the cylinders. Both holes, concealed by UF{sub 4} reaction products identical in color to the cylinder coating, were similarly located near the front stiffening ring. The UF{sub 4} appeared to have self-sealed the holes, thus containing nearly all of the uranium contents. Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Vice President K.W. Sommerfeld immediately formed an investigation team to: (1) identify the most likely cause of failure for the two breached cylinders, (2) determine the impact of these incidents on the three-site inventory, and (3) provide recommendations and preventive measures. This document discusses the results of this investigation.

  14. Relativistic currents on ideal Aharonov-Bohm cylinders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cotăescu, Ion I.; Băltăţeanu, Doru-Marcel S.; Cotăescu, Ion I.

    2016-06-01

    The relativistic theory of the Dirac fermions moving on cylinders in external Aharonov-Bohm (AB) field is built starting with a suitably restricted Dirac equation whose spin degrees of freedom are not affected. The exact solutions of this equation on finite or infinite AB cylinders allow one to derive the relativistic circular and longitudinal currents pointing out their principal features. It is shown that all the circular currents are related to the energy in the same manner on cylinders or rings either in the relativistic approach or in the nonrelativistic one. The specific relativistic effect is the saturation of the circular currents for high values of the total angular momentum. Based on this property some approximative closed formulas are deduced for the total persistent current at T = 0 on finite AB cylinders. Moreover, it is shown that all the persistent currents on finite cylinders or rings have similar nonrelativistic limits.

  15. Heat-transfer processes in air-cooled engine cylinders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinkel, Benjamin

    1938-01-01

    From a consideration of heat-transfer theory, semi-empirical expressions are set up for the transfer of heat from the combustion gases to the cylinder of an air-cooled engine and from the cylinder to the cooling air. Simple equations for the average head and barrel temperatures as functions of the important engine and cooling variables are obtained from these expressions. The expressions involve a few empirical constants, which may be readily determined from engine tests. Numerical values for these constants were obtained from single-cylinder engine tests for cylinders of the Pratt & Whitney 1535 and 1340-h engines. The equations provide a means of calculating the effect of the various engine and cooling variables on the cylinder temperatures and also of correlating the results of engine cooling tests. An example is given of the application of the equations to the correlation of cooling-test data obtained in flight.

  16. Self-assembly of Janus cylinders into hierarchical superstructures.

    PubMed

    Walther, Andreas; Drechsler, Markus; Rosenfeldt, Sabine; Harnau, Ludger; Ballauff, Matthias; Abetz, Volker; Müller, Axel H E

    2009-04-08

    We present in-depth studies of the size tunability and the self-assembly behavior of Janus cylinders possessing a phase segregation into two hemicylinders. The cylinders are prepared by cross-linking the lamella-cylinder morphology of a polystyrene-block-polybutadiene-block-poly(methyl methacrylate) block terpolymer. The length of the Janus cylinders can be adjusted by both the amplitude and the duration of a sonication treatment from the micro- to the nanometer length. The corona segregation into a biphasic particle is evidenced by selective staining of the PS domains with RuO(4) and subsequent imaging. The self-assembly behavior of these facial amphiphiles on different length scales is investigated combining dynamic light scattering (DLS), small-angle neutron scattering (SANS), and imaging procedures. Cryogenic transmission electron microscopy images of the Janus cylinders in THF, which is a good solvent for both blocks, exhibit unimolecularly dissolved Janus cylinders with a core-corona structure. These results are corroborated by SANS measurements. Supramolecular aggregation takes place in acetone, which is a nonsolvent for polystyrene, leading to the observation of fiber-like aggregates. The length of these fibers depends on the concentration of the solution. A critical aggregation concentration is found, under which unimolecularly dissolved Janus cylinders exist. The fibers are composed of 2-4 Janus cylinders, shielding the inner insoluble polystyrene hemicylinder against the solvent. Herein, the SANS data reveal a core-shell structure of the aggregates. Upon deposition of the Janus cylinders from more concentrated solution, a second type of superstructure is formed on a significantly larger length scale. The Janus cylinders form fibrillar networks, in which the pore size depends on the concentration and deposition time of the sample.

  17. Multiple Concentric Cylinder Model (MCCM) user's guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Todd O.; Pindera, Marek-Jerzy

    1994-01-01

    A user's guide for the computer program mccm.f is presented. The program is based on a recently developed solution methodology for the inelastic response of an arbitrarily layered, concentric cylinder assemblage under thermomechanical loading which is used to model the axisymmetric behavior of unidirectional metal matrix composites in the presence of various microstructural details. These details include the layered morphology of certain types of ceramic fibers, as well as multiple fiber/matrix interfacial layers recently proposed as a means of reducing fabrication-induced, and in-service, residual stress. The computer code allows efficient characterization and evaluation of new fibers and/or new coating systems on existing fibers with a minimum of effort, taking into account inelastic and temperature-dependent properties and different morphologies of the fiber and the interfacial region. It also facilitates efficient design of engineered interfaces for unidirectional metal matrix composites.

  18. MacBurn's cylinder test problem

    SciTech Connect

    Shestakov, Aleksei I.

    2016-02-29

    This note describes test problem for MacBurn which illustrates its performance. The source is centered inside a cylinder with axial-extent-to-radius ratio s.t. each end receives 1/4 of the thermal energy. The source (fireball) is modeled as either a point or as disk of finite radius, as described by Marrs et al. For the latter, the disk is divided into 13 equal area segments, each approximated as a point source and models a partially occluded fireball. If the source is modeled as a single point, one obtains very nearly the expected deposition, e.g., 1/4 of the flux on each end and energy is conserved. If the source is modeled as a disk, both conservation and energy fraction degrade. However, errors decrease if the source radius to domain size ratio decreases. Modeling the source as a disk increases run-times.

  19. Self-Contact for Rods on Cylinders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Heijden, G. H. M.; Peletier, M. A.; Planqué, R.

    2006-11-01

    We study self-contact phenomena in elastic rods that are constrained to lie on a cylinder. By choosing a particular set of variables to describe the rod centerline the variational setting is made particularly simple: the strain energy is a second-order functional of a single scalar variable, and the self-contact constraint is written as an integral inequality. Using techniques from ordinary differential equation theory (comparison principles) and variational calculus (cut-and-paste arguments) we fully characterize the structure of constrained minimizers. An important auxiliary result states that the set of self-contact points is continuous, a result that contrasts with known examples from contact problems in free rods.

  20. Switchable and Tunable Aerodynamic Drag on Cylinders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guttag, Mark; Lopéz Jiménez, Francisco; Upadhyaya, Priyank; Kumar, Shanmugam; Reis, Pedro

    We report results on the performance of Smart Morphable Surfaces (Smporhs) that can be mounted onto cylindrical structures to actively reduce their aerodynamic drag. Our system comprises of an elastomeric thin shell with a series of carefully designed subsurface cavities that, once depressurized, lead to a dramatic deformation of the surface topography, on demand. Our design is inspired by the morphology of the giant cactus (Carnegiea gigantea) which possesses an array of axial grooves, thought to help reduce aerodynamic drag, thereby enhancing the structural robustness of the plant under wind loading. We perform systematic wind tunnel tests on cylinders covered with our Smorphs and characterize their aerodynamic performance. The switchable and tunable nature of our system offers substantial advantages for aerodynamic performance when compared to static topographies, due to their operation over a wider range of flow conditions.

  1. Switchable and Tunable Aerodynamic Drag on Cylinders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guttag, Mark; Lopez Jimenez, Francisco; Reis, Pedro

    2015-11-01

    We report results on the performance of Smart Morphable Surfaces (Smporhs) that can be mounted onto cylindrical structures to actively reduce their aerodynamic drag. Our system comprises of an elastomeric thin shell with a series of carefully designed subsurface cavities that, once depressurized, lead to a dramatic deformation of the surface topography, on demand. Our design is inspired by the morphology of the giant cactus (Carnegiea gigantea) which possesses an array of axial grooves, which are thought to help reduce aerodynamic drag, thereby enhancing the structural robustness of the plant under wind loading. We perform systematic wind tunnel tests on cylinders covered with our Smorphs and characterize their aerodynamic performance. The switchable and tunable nature of our system offers substantial advantages for aerodynamic performance when compared to static topographies, due to their operation over a wider range of flow conditions.

  2. Torsion Tests of Stiffened Circular Cylinders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, R L; Wescoat, C

    1944-01-01

    The design of curved sheet panels to resist shear involves a consideration of several factors: the buckling resistance of the sheet, the stress at which buckling becomes permanent, and the strength which may be developed beyond the buckling limit by tension-field action. Although some experimental as well as theoretical work has been done on the buckling and tension-field phases of this problem, neither of these types of action appears to be very well understood. The problem is of sufficient importance from the standpoint of aircraft design, it is believed, to warrant further experimental investigation. This report presents the results of the first series of torsion tests of stiffened circular cylinders to be completed in connection with this study at Aluminum Research Laboratories. (author)

  3. Design for a Simple and Inexpensive Cylinder-within-a-Cylinder Gradient Maker for the Undergraduate Biochemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sims, Paul A.; O'Mealey, Gary B.; Khan, Nabeel A.; Larabee, Chelsea M.

    2011-01-01

    A design for a simple and inexpensive gradient maker is described. The gradient maker is assembled by (i) cutting the tops off two plastic bottles of differing diameters to produce two cylinders with intact bottoms; (ii) drilling a small hole toward the bottom of the smaller diameter cylinder and plugging the hole with a size 00 cork stopper; and…

  4. Direct sub-micron microstructuring on cylinder using TiO2 sol-gel process and radial phase mask based lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berthod, L.; Vocanson, F.; Langlet, M.; Veillas, C.; Reynaud, S.; Verrier, I.; Laukkanen, J.; Parriaux, O.; Jourlin, Y.

    2016-04-01

    Design and fabrication of a high efficiency phase mask have been performed for printing submicron period gratings along 8 mm diameter glass cylinders. In this article, the authors present the radial phase mask specially designed and manufactured for a cylindrical surface micro-structuring under UV photolithography. Its period is sub-micron (480 nm < ΛPM < 720 nm). The authors describe then the phase mask based UV lithography set-up using the interference between the transmitted beams of +1 and -1 orders generated by the phase mask. Preliminary results of printed gratings on a cylinder are described on a sol-gel TiO2 thin film layer, enabling direct photo patterning on functionalized layer. The feasibility of a grating printed with a period of Λcylin = 960 nm on an 8 mm diameter cylinder with this dedicated mask has been demonstrated.

  5. Generative design drives manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Logan, Frank A.

    1989-04-01

    This paper reviews the collaboration that is being forced on Engineering and Manufacturing as they move from the manual translation of Engineering drawings toward automatic decoding of Product Data Definitions (PDDs), a pre-requisite to integrated manufacture. Based on case studies and implementation experience gained over the last decade, it defines the step-by-step evolution of a generative design capability that will drive manufacturing logic. It reviews the changing relationship of Engineering to Manufacturing and Industrial Engineering and the challenge this presents to manufacturing management in its struggle to remain competitive in both domestic and international markets.

  6. Manufacturing Planning Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waid, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Manufacturing process, milestones and inputs are unknowns to first-time users of the manufacturing facilities. The Manufacturing Planning Guide aids in establishing expectations for both NASA and non-NASA facility customers. The potential audience for this guide includes both internal and commercial spaceflight hardware/software developers. It is intended to assist their project engineering personnel in manufacturing planning and execution. Material covered includes a roadmap of the manufacturing process, roles and responsibilities of facility and user, major milestones, facility capabilities, and inputs required by the facility. Samples of deliverables, products, and inputs necessary to define test scope, cost, and schedule are included as an appendix to the guide.

  7. 78 FR 58604 - Safety Advisory: Unauthorized Filling of Compressed Gas Cylinders

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-24

    ... cylinders containing Carbon dioxide, for restaurants and other establishments. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION... safety requirements for continued use. US DOT Cylinders filled with carbon dioxide must be...

  8. Formation of whispering gallery modes by scattering of an electromagnetic plane wave by two cylinders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abramov, Arnold; Kostikov, Alexander

    2017-03-01

    We report the effect of scattering of electromagnetic plane waves by two cylinders on whispering gallery mode (WGM) formation in a cylinder. WGM can occur because of the presence of additional cylinder scatterers at specific location, while WGMs can only form in a single cylinder for specific cylinder radius and/or wavelength values, the matching accuracy required would be much greater than that required in our model for the additional cylinders locations. Analysis of the general solution to the problem showed that the effect can be explained by the interference of waves scattered by additional cylinders and incident on the main cylinder.

  9. Cylinder head structure for V-type engine

    SciTech Connect

    Okada, M.; Asanomi, K.; Choshi, M.; Abe, R.

    1988-03-08

    A cylinder head structure for a V-type engine having a pair of cylinder banks is described comprising a pair of cylinder head members which are the same in shape and oriented in opposite directions and which are provided in each of the front and rear end wall portions with an opening, and camshaft supported for rotation in the respective cylinder head members so that the respective one ends of the camshafts project outside through the openings on the same end of the engine. A cam pulley is mounted on the projecting portion of each cam shaft, a transmission belt means is for transmitting the driving force off the crankshaft to the cam pulley on each camshaft, a pair of first cover members are mounted on the end wall portions of the respective cylinder head members through which the camshafts project to form closed cross section spaces together with the corresponding cylinder head members for covering the transmission belt means, and second cover members are mounted on the end wall portions of the respective cylinder heads opposite to the end wall portions through which the camshafts project to cover the openings therein.

  10. Benefits of an International Database for UF6 Cylinders

    SciTech Connect

    Babcock, R A; Whitaker, J M; Murphy, J; Oakberg, J

    2008-06-30

    A reasonable expectation regarding the nuclear energy renaissance is that the location of fuel cycle nuclear materials throughout the world will be known. We ask--would an international system for uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) cylinders provide the effective assurances expected for international fuel supply and of the international fuel centers? This paper introduces the question and discusses the potential benefits of tracking UF{sub 6} cylinders through the development of an international database. The nonproliferation benefits of an international database for UF{sub 6} cylinders being used in the fuel cycle include an enhanced capability to reconcile nuclear material imports and exports. Currently, import and export declarations only require the reporting of total 'rolled up' quantities of nuclear materials contained in all items--not the quantities of materials in individual items like individual UF{sub 6} cylinders. The database could provide supplier countries with more assurance on the location of the UF{sub 6} cylinders they export. Additionally, a comprehensive database on all declared cylinders would be a valuable resource in detecting and recognizing undeclared cylinders. The database could potentially be administered by the IAEA and be accessible to authorized countries around the world. During the nuclear renaissance, the general public, as well as the participants will expect transparency and quality information about movement of nuclear fuel cycle nuclear materials. We will discuss the potential benefits of such a database for the suppliers, inspectorates, and general public.

  11. Luminescence properties of phosphors based on Tb3Al5O12 (TbAG) terbium-aluminum garnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zorenko, Yu.; Gorbenko, V.; Voznyak, T.; Zorenko, T.; Kuklinski, B.; Turos-Matysyak, R.; Grinberg, M.

    2009-03-01

    The processes of excitation energy transfer in phosphors based on single-crystal Tb3Al5O12:Ce (TbAG:Ce) and Tb3Al5O12:Ce,Eu (TbAG:Ce,Eu) garnet films have been investigated. These films are considered to be promising materials for screens for X-ray images and luminescence converters of blue LED radiation. The conditions for excitation energy transfer from the matrix (Tb3+ cations) to Ce3+ and Eu3+ ions in TbAG:Ce and TbAG:Ce,Eu phosphors have been analyzed in detail. It is established that a cascade process of excitation energy transfer from Tb3+ ions to Ce3+ and Eu3+ ions and from Ce3+ ions to Eu3+ ions is implemented in TbAG:Ce,Eu via dipole-dipole interaction and through the Tb3+ cation sublattice.

  12. Isothermal Decomposition of β-Solid Solution in Titanium Alloy Ti - 10 V - 2Fe - 3Al

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Illarionov, A. G.; Trubochkin, A. V.; Shalaev, A. M.; Illarionova, S. M.; Popov, A. A.

    2017-03-01

    Regular features of variation of structure, phase composition and hardness characteristics in a β-phase-based titanium alloy Ti - 10 V - 2Fe - 3Al subjected to isothermal treatment in a melt of lead and tin for 5 sec - 32 h at 250 - 800 °C after a hold at 860 °C are considered. The types of the phases precipitated in the process of isothermal decomposition of the high-temperature β-solid solution and the dependences of the lattice constant of the β-phase and of the hardness on the temperature-and-time mode of the treatment are determined. Adiagram of isothermal decomposition of the β-solid solution in alloy Ti - 10 V - 2Fe - 3Al is plotted.

  13. Effects of F- on the optical and spectroscopic properties of Yb3+/Al3+-co-doped silica glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Wenbin; Yu, Chunlei; Wang, Shikai; Lou, Fengguang; Feng, Suya; Wang, Meng; Zhou, Qinling; Chen, Danping; Hu, Lili; Guzik, Malgorzata; Boulon, Georges

    2015-04-01

    Yb3+/Al3+-co-doped silica glasses with different F- content were prepared in this work by sol-gel method combined with high temperature sintering. XRF, FTIR and XPS methods were used to confirm the presence of F-. The effects of F- on the optical and spectroscopic properties of these glasses have been investigated. It is worth to notice that the F-/Si4+ mass ratio equal to 9% is a significant value showing a real change in the variation trends of numerous following parameters: refractive index, UV absorption edge, absorption and emission cross sections, scalar crystal-field NJ and fluorescent lifetimes. Furthermore, introduction of F- can adjust the refractive index of Yb3+/Al3+-co-doped silica glass and it is useful for large mode area (LMA) fibers.

  14. Surface Properties of the IN SITU Formed Ceramics Reinforced Composite Coatings on TI-3AL-2V Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Peng; Guo, Wei; Hu, Dakui; Luo, Hui; Zhang, Yuanbin

    2012-04-01

    The synthesis of hard composite coating on titanium alloy by laser cladding of Al/Fe/Ni+C/Si3N4 pre-placed powders has been investigated in detail. SEM result indicated that a composite coating with metallurgical joint to the substrate was formed. XRD result indicated that the composite coating mainly consisted of γ-(Fe, Ni), FeAl, Ti3Al, TiC, TiNi, TiC0.3N0.7, Ti2N, SiC, Ti5Si3 and TiNi. Compared with Ti-3Al-2V substrate, an improvement of the micro-hardness and the wear resistance was observed for this composite coating.

  15. Development of Ta-matrix Nb3Al Strand and Cable for High-Field Accelerator Magnet

    SciTech Connect

    Tsuchiya, K.; Ghosh, A.; Kikuchi, A.; Takeuchi, T.; Banno, N.; Iijima, Y.; Nimori, S.; Takigawa, H.; Terashima, A.; Nakamoto, T.; Kuroda, Y.; Maruyama, M.; Takao, T.; Tanaka, K.; Nakagawa, K.; Barzi, E.; Yamada, R.; Zlobin, A.

    2011-08-03

    Research and development of Nb{sub 3}Al strands and cables for a high field accelerator magnet is ongoing under the framework of the CERN-KEK collaboration. In this program, new Ta-matrix Nb{sub 3}Al strands were developed and their mechanical properties and superconducting properties were studied. The non-Cu J{sub c} values of these strands were 750 {approx} 800 A/mm{sup 2} at 15 T and 4.2 K. Using these strands, test fabrication of 27-strand Rutherford cable was carried out in collaboration with NIMS and Fermilab. The properties of the strands extracted from the cable were examined and it was found that there was no degradation of the superconducting properties of the strands. In this paper, we report the fabrication of the strands and the cable in brief and present some of the results obtained by studying their properties.

  16. An atomistic simulation of the structural and vibrational properties of A4Fe3Al32 (A = Th, U)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Ping; Hu, Qing-Yun; Shen, Jiang; Yu-Feng; Pan, Hao-Yang; Hu, Pan

    2010-06-01

    An atomistic simulation of the structural properties of the new ternary A4Fe3Al32 compounds, where A is Th, U, has been carried out using interatomic pair potentials based on the lattice inversion method. A4Fe3Al32 adopts the orthorhombic structure described by space group Cmmm. The unit cell contains 77 atoms which occupy 78 positions. Fe atoms prefer to substitute for Al in 4h sites. The Wyckoff positions 4g and 2d are partially occupied by Fe atoms. Calculated lattice constants are found to agree with a report in the literature. In particular, the phonon densities of states of these actinide compounds were evaluated for the first time. The analysis for the inverted potentials explains qualitatively the contributions of different atoms to the vibrational modes.

  17. Adaptive individual-cylinder thermal state control using intake air heating for a GDCI engine

    DOEpatents

    Roth, Gregory T.; Sellnau, Mark C.

    2016-08-09

    A system for a multi-cylinder compression ignition engine includes a plurality of heaters, at least one heater per cylinder, with each heater configured to heat air introduced into a cylinder. Independent control of the heaters is provided on a cylinder-by-cylinder basis. A combustion parameter is determined for combustion in each cylinder of the engine, and control of the heater for that cylinder is based on the value of the combustion parameter for combustion in that cylinder. A method for influencing combustion in a multi-cylinder compression ignition engine, including determining a combustion parameter for combustion taking place in a cylinder of the engine and controlling a heater configured to heat air introduced into that cylinder, is also provided.

  18. 104. Photocopied August 1978. CYLINDER USED IN THE ERECTION OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    104. Photocopied August 1978. CYLINDER USED IN THE ERECTION OF THE INCLINED BUTTRESSES FOR POWER HOUSE REINFORCEMENT IN 1916. AN AIR LOCK WAS PLACED ON TOP OF THE CYLINDER: THE LOWER PORTION OF THE VERTICAL ELEMENT RESTED ON THE POWER HOUSE FOUNDATION APRON: THE INCLINED ELEMENT WAS CUT LEVEL WITH THE RIVER BED. THE INCLINED PORTION OF THE CYLINDER CONTAINED THE SHIELD USED TO BEGIN THE ERECTION OF THE SEGMENTED INCLINED CAST IRON BUTTRESSES. (764) - Michigan Lake Superior Power Company, Portage Street, Sault Ste. Marie, Chippewa County, MI

  19. Nonlinear standing waves on a periodic array of circular cylinders.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Lijun; Lu, Ya Yan

    2015-08-10

    A periodic array of parallel and infinitely long dielectric circular cylinders surrounded by air can be regarded as a simple two-dimensional periodic waveguide. For linear cylinders, guided modes exist continuously below the lightline in various frequency intervals, but standing waves, which are special guided modes with a zero Bloch wavenumber, could exist above the lightline at a discrete set of frequencies. In this paper, we consider a periodic array of nonlinear circular cylinders with a Kerr nonlinearity, and show numerically that nonlinear standing waves exist continuously with the frequency and their amplitudes depend on the frequency. The amplitude-frequency relations are further investigated in a perturbation analysis.

  20. Speed control with end cushion for high speed air cylinder

    DOEpatents

    Stevens, Wayne W.; Solbrig, Charles W.

    1991-01-01

    A high speed air cylinder in which the longitudinal movement of the piston within the air cylinder tube is controlled by pressurizing the air cylinder tube on the accelerating side of the piston and releasing pressure at a controlled rate on the decelerating side of the piston. The invention also includes a method for determining the pressure required on both the accelerating and decelerating sides of the piston to move the piston with a given load through a predetermined distance at the desired velocity, bringing the piston to rest safely without piston bounce at the end of its complete stroke.

  1. EGR Distribution in Engine Cylinders Using Advanced Virtual Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Fan, Xuetong

    2000-08-20

    Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) is a well-known technology for reduction of NOx in diesel engines. With the demand for extremely low engine out NOx emissions, it is important to have a consistently balanced EGR flow to individual engine cylinders. Otherwise, the variation in the cylinders' NOx contribution to the overall engine emissions will produce unacceptable variability. This presentation will demonstrate the effective use of advanced virtual simulation in the development of a balanced EGR distribution in engine cylinders. An initial design is analyzed reflecting the variance in the EGR distribution, quantitatively and visually. Iterative virtual lab tests result in an optimized system.

  2. Analysis of the microstructure of Cr-Ni surface layers deposited on Fe{sub 3}Al by TIG

    SciTech Connect

    Ma Haijun . E-mail: hjma123@mail.sdu.edu.cn; Li Yajiang; Wang Juan

    2006-12-15

    A series of Cr-Ni alloys were overlaid on a Fe{sub 3}Al surface by tungsten inert gas arc welding (TIG) technology. The microstructure of the Cr-Ni surface layers were analysed by means of optical metallography, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results indicated that when the appropriate TIG parameters were used and Cr25-Ni13 and Cr25-Ni20 alloys were used for the overlaid materials, the Cr-Ni surface layers were crack-free. The matrix of the surface layer was austenite (A), pro-eutectoid ferrite (PF), acicular ferrite (AF), carbide-free bainite (CFB) and lath martensite (LM), distributed on the austenitic grain boundaries as well as inside the grains. The phase constituents of the Cr25-Ni13 surface layer were {gamma}-Fe, Fe{sub 3}Al, FeAl, NiAl, an Fe-C compound and an Fe-C-Cr compound. The microhardness of the fusion zone was lower than that of the Fe{sub 3}Al base metal and Cr25-Ni13 surface layer.

  3. Compact TPV Generation System Using Al2O3/Er3Al5O12 Eutectic Ceramics Selective Emitters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adachi, Yusuke; Yugami, Hiroo; Shibata, Kouji; Nakagawa, Narihito

    2004-11-01

    The emissive properties of Al2O3Er3Al5O12 eutectic ceramics have been measured as a candidate of selective emitters. It is identified that the Al2O3Er3Al5O12 eutectic ceramics have selective emission bands at the wavelength of 1.5 μm, and the emittance at the emission peak is over 0.8. The selective emissive power for GaSb photovoltaic (PV) cells of 49 kW/m2 is achieved by this material at 1600 K. Since the emission bands match the sensitive region of GaSb PV cells, the Al2O3Er3Al5O12 eutectic ceramics are suited as emitter materials in thermophotovoltaic (TPV) systems using GaSb PV cells. The optical design of small-scale TPV systems for portable power sources has been investigated with the three-dimensional ray tracing simulation. Using a mirror/PV optical design, the concentrated thermal radiation is irradiated on PV cells with the view factor over 0.75.

  4. Evaluation of the Transient Liquid Phase (TLP) Bonding Process for Ti3Al-Based Honeycomb Core Sandwich Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bird, R. Keith; Hoffman, Eric K.

    1998-01-01

    The suitability of using transient liquid phase (TLP) bonding to fabricate honeycomb core sandwich panels with Ti-14Al-21Nb (wt%) titanium aluminide (T3Al) face sheets for high-temperature hypersonic vehicle applications was evaluated. Three titanium alloy honeycomb cores and one Ti3Al alloy honeycomb core were investigated. Edgewise compression (EWC) and flatwise tension (FWT) tests on honeycomb core sandwich specimens and tensile tests of the face sheet material were conducted at temperatures ranging from room temperature to 1500 F. EWC tests indicated that the honeycomb cores and diffusion bonded joints were able to stabilize the face sheets up to and beyond the face sheet compressive yield strength for all temperatures investigated. The specimens with the T3Al honeycomb core produced the highest FWT strengths at temperatures above 1000 F. Tensile tests indicated that TLP processing conditions resulted in decreases in ductility of the Ti-14Al-21Nb face sheets. Microstructural examination showed that the side of the face sheets to which the filler metals had been applied was transformed from equiaxed alpha2 grains to coarse plates of alpha2 with intergranular Beta. Fractographic examination of the tensile specimens showed that this transformed region was dominated by brittle fracture.

  5. Habitat Demonstration Unit (HDU) Vertical Cylinder Habitat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howe, Alan; Kennedy, Kriss J.; Gill, Tracy R.; Tri, Terry O.; Toups, Larry; Howard, Robert I.; Spexarth, Gary R.; Cavanaugh, Stephen; Langford, William M.; Dorsey, John T.

    2014-01-01

    NASA's Constellation Architecture Team defined an outpost scenario optimized for intensive mobility that uses small, highly mobile pressurized rovers supported by portable habitat modules that can be carried between locations of interest on the lunar surface. A compact vertical cylinder characterizes the habitat concept, where the large diameter maximizes usable flat floor area optimized for a gravity environment and allows for efficient internal layout. The module was sized to fit into payload fairings for the Constellation Ares V launch vehicle, and optimized for surface transport carried by the All-Terrain Hex-Limbed Extra-Terrestrial Explorer (ATHLETE) mobility system. Launch and other loads are carried through the barrel to a top and bottom truss that interfaces with a structural support unit (SSU). The SSU contains self-leveling feet and docking interfaces for Tri-ATHLETE grasping and heavy lift. A pressurized module needed to be created that was appropriate for the lunar environment, could be easily relocated to new locations, and could be docked together in multiples for expanding pressurized volume in a lunar outpost. It was determined that horizontally oriented pressure vessels did not optimize floor area, which takes advantage of the gravity vector for full use. Hybrid hard-inflatable habitats added an unproven degree of complexity that may eventually be worked out. Other versions of vertically oriented pressure vessels were either too big, bulky, or did not optimize floor area. The purpose of the HDU vertical habitat module is to provide pressurized units that can be docked together in a modular way for lunar outpost pressurized volume expansion, and allow for other vehicles, rovers, and modules to be attached to the outpost to allow for IVA (intra-vehicular activity) transfer between them. The module is a vertically oriented cylinder with a large radius to allow for maximal floor area and use of volume. The modular, 5- m-diameter HDU vertical habitat

  6. Heat transfer measurements for Stirling machine cylinders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kornhauser, Alan A.; Kafka, B. C.; Finkbeiner, D. L.; Cantelmi, F. C.

    1994-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to measure the effects of inflow-produced heat turbulence on heat transfer in Stirling machine cylinders. A secondary purpose was to provide new experimental information on heat transfer in gas springs without inflow. The apparatus for the experiment consisted of a varying-volume piston-cylinder space connected to a fixed volume space by an orifice. The orifice size could be varied to adjust the level of inflow-produced turbulence, or the orifice plate could be removed completely so as to merge the two spaces into a single gas spring space. Speed, cycle mean pressure, overall volume ratio, and varying volume space clearance ratio could also be adjusted. Volume, pressure in both spaces, and local heat flux at two locations were measured. The pressure and volume measurements were used to calculate area averaged heat flux, heat transfer hysteresis loss, and other heat transfer-related effects. Experiments in the one space arrangement extended the range of previous gas spring tests to lower volume ratio and higher nondimensional speed. The tests corroborated previous results and showed that analytic models for heat transfer and loss based on volume ratio approaching 1 were valid for volume ratios ranging from 1 to 2, a range covering most gas springs in Stirling machines. Data from experiments in the two space arrangement were first analyzed based on lumping the two spaces together and examining total loss and averaged heat transfer as a function of overall nondimensional parameter. Heat transfer and loss were found to be significantly increased by inflow-produced turbulence. These increases could be modeled by appropriate adjustment of empirical coefficients in an existing semi-analytic model. An attempt was made to use an inverse, parameter optimization procedure to find the heat transfer in each of the two spaces. This procedure was successful in retrieving this information from simulated pressure-volume data with artificially

  7. Manufacturing Information System.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-12-22

    university classroom to aid in education and training of new manufacturing engineers. It is the purpose for this research to continue the development...PAUL R. SMITH 175 South 600 East #1 Provo, Utah 84601 (801) 377-8068 CAREER OBJECTIVE: Manufacturing Engineer using skills in development and...university classroom to aid in the education and train- ing of new manufacturing engineers. , . o i . o ., . . . . . - ,’ o . -2- 1.2. NEED There is a current

  8. Oxide-Dispersion-Strengthened Fe3Al-Based Alloy Tubes: Application-Specific Development for the Power Generation Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Kad, BK

    2001-07-20

    A detailed and comprehensive research and development methodology is being prescribed to produce Oxide Dispersion Strengthened (ODS)-Fe{sub 3}Al thin walled tubes, using powder extrusion methodologies, for eventual use at operating temperatures of up to 1100 C in the power generation industry. A particular ''in service application'' anomaly of Fe{sub 3}Al-based alloys is that the environmental resistance is maintained up to 1200 C, well beyond where such alloys retain sufficient mechanical strength. Grain boundary creep processes at such high temperatures are anticipated to be the dominant failure mechanism. Thus, the challenges of this program are manifold: (1) to produce thin walled ODS-Fe{sub 3}Al tubes, employing powder extrusion methodologies, with (2) adequate increased strength for service at operating temperatures, and (3) to mitigate creep failures by enhancing the as-processed grain size in ODS-Fe{sub 3}Al tubes. Our research progress till date has resulted in the successful batch production of typically 8 Ft. lengths of 1-3/8 inch diameter, 1/8 inch wall thickness, ODS-Fe{sub 3}Al tubes via a proprietary single step extrusion consolidation process. The process parameters for such consolidation methodologies have been prescribed and evaluated as being routinely reproducible. Such processing parameters (i.e., extrusion ratios, temperature, can design etc.) were particularly guided by the need to effect post-extrusion recrystallization and grain growth at a sufficiently low temperature, while still meeting the creep requirement at service temperatures. Static recrystallization studies show that elongated grains (with their long axis parallel to the extrusion axis), typically 200-2000 {micro}m in diameter, and several millimeters long can be obtained routinely, at 1200 C. The growth kinetics are affected by the interstitial impurity content in the powder batches. For example complete recrystallization, across the tube wall thickness, is observed for clean

  9. Oxide Dispersion Strengthened Fe3Al-Based Alloy Tubes: Application Specific Development for the Power Generation Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Kad, B.K.

    2002-02-08

    A detailed and comprehensive research and development methodology is being prescribed to produce Oxide Dispersion Strengthened (ODS)-Fe{sub 3}Al thin walled tubes, using powder extrusion methodologies, for eventual use at operating temperatures of up to 1100% in the power generation industry. A particular ''in service application'' anomaly of Fe{sub 3}Al-based alloys is that the environmental resistance is maintained up to 1200 C, well beyond where such alloys retain sufficient mechanical strength. Grain boundary creep processes at such high temperatures are anticipated to be the dominant failure mechanism. Thus, the challenges of this program are manifold: (1) to produce thin walled ODS-Fe{sub 3}Al tubes, employing powder extrusion methodologies, with (2) adequate increased strength for service at operating temperatures, and (3) to mitigate creep failures by enhancing the as-processed grain size in ODS-Fe{sub 3}Al tubes. Our research progress till date has resulted in the successful batch production of typically 8 Ft. lengths of 1-3/8 inch diameter, 1/8 inch wall thickness, ODS-Fe{sub 3}Al tubes via a proprietary single step extrusion consolidation process. The process parameters for such consolidation methodologies have been prescribed and evaluated as being routinely reproducible. Such processing parameters (i.e., extrusion ratios, temperature, can design etc.) were particularly guided by the need to effect post-extrusion recrystallization and grain growth at a sufficiently low temperature, while still meeting the creep requirement at service temperatures. Static recrystallization studies show that elongated grains (with their long axis parallel to the extrusion axis), typically 200-2000 {micro}m in diameter, and several millimeters long can be obtained routinely, at 1200 C. The growth kinetics are affected by the interstitial impurity content in the powder batches. For example complete recrystallization, across the tube wall thickness, is observed for clean

  10. Manufacture of high-density ceramic sinters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hibata, Y.

    1986-01-01

    High density ceramic sinters are manufactured by coating premolded or presintered porous ceramics with a sealing material of high SiO2 porous glass or nitride glass and then sintering by hot isostatic pressing. The ceramics have excellent abrasion and corrosion resistances. Thus LC-10 (Si3N2 powder) and Y2O3-Al2O3 type sintering were mixed and molded to give a premolded porous ceramic (porosity 37%, relative bulk density 63%). The ceramic was dipped in a slurry containing high SiO2 porous glass and an alcohol solution of cellulose acetate and dried. The coated ceramic was treated in a nitrogen atmosphere and then sintered by hot isostatic pressing to give a dense ceramic sinter.

  11. Plasmid DNA manufacturing technology.

    PubMed

    Carnes, Aaron E; Williams, James A

    2007-01-01

    Today, plasmid DNA is becoming increasingly important as the next generation of biotechnology products (gene medicines and DNA vaccines) make their way into clinical trials, and eventually into the pharmaceutical marketplace. This review summarizes recent patents and patent applications relating to plasmid manufacturing, in the context of a comprehensive description of the plasmid manufacturing intellectual property landscape. Strategies for plasmid manufacturers to develop or in-license key plasmid manufacturing technologies are described with the endpoint of efficiently producing kg quantities of plasmid DNA of a quality that meets anticipated European and FDA quality specifications for commercial plasmid products.

  12. Manufacturing with the Sun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Lawrence M.; Hauser, Steven G.; Clyne, Richard J.

    1991-01-01

    Concentrated solar radiation is now a viable alternative source for many advanced manufacturing processes. Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) have demonstrated the feasibility of processes such as solar induced surface transformation of materials (SISTM), solar based manufacturing, and solar pumped lasers. Researchers are also using sunlight to decontaminate water and soils polluted with organic compounds; these techniques could provide manufacturers with innovative alternatives to traditional methods of waste management. The solar technology that is now being integrated into today's manufacturing processes offer greater potential for tomorrow, especially as applied to the radiation abundant environment available in space and on the lunar surface.

  13. Piston Bowl Optimization for RCCI Combustion in a Light-Duty Multi-Cylinder Engine

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, Reed M; Curran, Scott; Wagner, Robert M; Reitz, Rolf; Kokjohn, Sage

    2012-01-01

    Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) is an engine combustion strategy that that produces low NO{sub x} and PM emissions with high thermal efficiency. Previous RCCI research has been investigated in single-cylinder heavy-duty engines. The current study investigates RCCI operation in a light-duty multi-cylinder engine at 3 operating points. These operating points were chosen to cover a range of conditions seen in the US EPA light-duty FTP test. The operating points were chosen by the Ad Hoc working group to simulate operation in the FTP test. The fueling strategy for the engine experiments consisted of in-cylinder fuel blending using port fuel-injection (PFI) of gasoline and early-cycle, direct-injection (DI) of diesel fuel. At these 3 points, the stock engine configuration is compared to operation with both the original equipment manufacturer (OEM) and custom machined pistons designed for RCCI operation. The pistons were designed with assistance from the KIVA 3V computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code. By using a genetic algorithm optimization, in conjunction with KIVA, the piston bowl profile was optimized for dedicated RCCI operation to reduce unburned fuel emissions and piston bowl surface area. By reducing these parameters, the thermal efficiency of the engine was improved while maintaining low NOx and PM emissions. Results show that with the new piston bowl profile and an optimized injection schedule, RCCI brake thermal efficiency was increased from 37%, with the stock EURO IV configuration, to 40% at the 2,600 rev/min, 6.9 bar BMEP condition, and NOx and PM emissions targets were met without the need for exhaust after-treatment.

  14. Heat transfer to small horizontal cylinders immersed in a fluidized bed

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, J.; Koundakjian, P.; Naylor, D.; Rosero, D.

    2006-10-15

    Heat transfer to horizontal cylinders immersed in fluidized beds has been extensively studied, but mainly in the context of heat transfer to boiler tubes in coal-fired beds. As a result, most correlations in the literature have been derived for cylinders of 25-50 mm diameter in vigorously fluidizing beds. In recent years, fluidized bed heat treating furnaces fired by natural gas have become increasingly popular, particularly in the steel wire manufacturing industry. These fluidized beds typically operate at relatively low fluidizing rates and with small diameter wires (1-6 mm). Nusselt number correlations developed based on boiler tube studies do not extrapolate down to these small size ranges and low fluidizing rates. In order to obtain reliable Nusselt number data for these size ranges, an experimental investigation has been undertaken using two heat treating fluidized beds; one a pilot-scale industrial unit and the other a lab-scale (300 mm diameter) unit. Heat transfer measurements were obtained using resistively heated cylindrical samples ranging from 1.3 to 9.5 mm in diameter at fluidizing rates ranging from approximately 0.5 x G{sub mf} (packed bed condition) to over 10 x G{sub mf} using aluminum oxide sand particles ranging from d{sub p}=145-330 {mu}m (50-90 grit). It has been found that for all cylinder sizes tested, the Nusselt number reaches a maximum near 2 x G{sub mf}, then remains relatively steady ({+-}5-10%) to the maximum fluidizing rate tested, typically 8-12xG{sub mf}. A correlation for maximum Nusselt number is developed.

  15. Clinical applications of custom-made vaginal cylinders constructed using three-dimensional printing technology

    PubMed Central

    Cunha, Adam; Mellis, Katherine; Siauw, Timmy; Diederich, Chris; Pouliot, Jean; Hsu, I-Chow

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Three-dimensional (3D) printing technology allows physicians to rapidly create customized devices for patients. We report our initial clinical experience using this technology to create custom applicators for vaginal brachytherapy. Material and methods Three brachytherapy patients with unique clinical needs were identified as likely to benefit from a customized vaginal applicator. Patient 1 underwent intracavitary vaginal cuff brachytherapy after hysterectomy and chemotherapy for stage IA papillary serous endometrial cancer using a custom printed 2.75 cm diameter segmented vaginal cylinder with a central channel. Patient 2 underwent interstitial brachytherapy for a vaginal cuff recurrence of endometrial cancer after prior hysterectomy, whole pelvis radiotherapy, and brachytherapy boost. We printed a 2 cm diameter vaginal cylinder with one central and six peripheral catheter channels to fit a narrow vaginal canal. Patient 3 underwent interstitial brachytherapy boost for stage IIIA vulvar cancer with vaginal extension. For more secure applicator fit within a wide vaginal canal, we printed a 3.5 cm diameter solid cylinder with one central tandem channel and ten peripheral catheter channels. The applicators were printed in a biocompatible, sterilizable thermoplastic. Results Patient 1 received 31.5 Gy to the surface in three fractions over two weeks. Patient 2 received 36 Gy to the CTV in six fractions over two implants one week apart, with interstitial hyperthermia once per implant. Patient 3 received 18 Gy in three fractions over one implant after 45 Gy external beam radiotherapy. Brachytherapy was tolerated well with no grade 3 or higher toxicity and no local recurrences. Conclusions We established a workflow to rapidly manufacture and implement customized vaginal applicators that can be sterilized and are made of biocompatible material, resulting in high-quality brachytherapy for patients whose anatomy is not ideally suited for standard, commercially

  16. Strain Localization in an Oscillating Maxwell Viscoelastic Cylinder.

    PubMed

    Massouros, Panagiotis G; Bayly, Philip V; Genin, Guy M

    2014-01-15

    The transient rotation responses of simple, axisymmetric, viscoelastic structures are of interest for interpretation of experiments designed to characterize materials and closed structures such as the brain using magnetic resonance techniques. Here, we studied the response of a Maxwell viscoelastic cylinder to small, sinusoidal displacement of its outer boundary. The transient strain field can be calculated in closed form using any of several conventional approaches. The solution is surprising: the strain field develops a singularity that appears when the wavefront leaves the center of the cylinder, and persists as the wavefront reflects to the outer boundary and back to the center of the cylinder. The singularity is alternately annihilated and reinitiated upon subsequent departures of the wavefront from the center of the cylinder until it disappears in the limit of steady state oscillations. We present the solution for this strain field, characterize the nature of this singularity, and discuss its potential role in the mechanical response and evolved morphology of the brain.

  17. Experimental and Computational Investigations of Flow past Spinning Cylinders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlucci, Pasquale; Mehmedagic, Igbal; Buckley, Liam; Carlucci, Donald; Thangam, Siva

    2011-11-01

    Experiments are performed in a low speed subsonic wind tunnel to analyze flow past spinning cylinders. The sting-mounted cylinders are oriented such that their axis of rotation is aligned with the mean flow. Data from spinning cylinders with both rear-mounted and fore-mounted stings are presented for a Reynolds numbers of up to 260000 and rotation numbers of up to 1.2 (based on cylinder diameter). Computations are performed using a two-equation turbulence model that is capable of capturing the effects of swirl and curvature. The model performance was validated with benchmark experimental flows and implemented for analyzing the flow configuration used in the experimental study. The results are analyzed and the predictive capability of the model is discussed. Funded in part by U. S. Army, ARDEC.

  18. Indicator system provides complete data of engine cylinder pressure variation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mc Jones, R. W.; Morgan, N. E.

    1966-01-01

    Varying reference pressure used together with a balanced pressure pickup /a diaphragm switch/ to switch the electric output of the pressure transducer in a reference pressure line obtains precise engine cylinder pressure data from a high speed internal combustion engine.

  19. View of hydrodynamic support cylinders, removed from structure and relocated ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of hydrodynamic support cylinders, removed from structure and relocated for reconditioning to return them to service. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Saturn V Dynamic Test Facility, East Test Area, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  20. 46 CFR 58.30-30 - Fluid power cylinders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... of part 54 of this subchapter. (c) Cylinders shall be designed for a bursting pressure of not less... steering gear rams, shall either be of corrosion resistant material or shall be of steel protected by...

  1. 46 CFR 58.30-30 - Fluid power cylinders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... of part 54 of this subchapter. (c) Cylinders shall be designed for a bursting pressure of not less... steering gear rams, shall either be of corrosion resistant material or shall be of steel protected by...

  2. 46 CFR 58.30-30 - Fluid power cylinders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... of part 54 of this subchapter. (c) Cylinders shall be designed for a bursting pressure of not less... steering gear rams, shall either be of corrosion resistant material or shall be of steel protected by...

  3. 46 CFR 58.30-30 - Fluid power cylinders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... of part 54 of this subchapter. (c) Cylinders shall be designed for a bursting pressure of not less... steering gear rams, shall either be of corrosion resistant material or shall be of steel protected by...

  4. Steady particulate flows in a horizontal rotating cylinder

    SciTech Connect

    Yamane, K.; Nakagawa, M.; Altobelli, S.A.; Tanaka, T.; Tsuji, Y.

    1998-06-01

    Results of discrete element method (DEM) simulation and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) experiments are compared for monodisperse granular materials flowing in a half-filled horizontal rotating cylinder. Because opacity is not a problem for MRI, a long cylinder with an aspect ratio {approximately}7 was used and the flow in a thin transverse slice near the center was studied. The particles were mustard seeds and the ratio of cylinder diameter to particle diameter was approximately 50. The parameters compared were dynamic angle of repose, velocity field in a plane perpendicular to the cylinder axis, and velocity fluctuations at rotation rates up to 30 rpm. The agreement between DEM and MRI was good when the friction coefficient and nonsphericity were adjusted in the simulation for the best fit. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  5. LOW VELOCITY INDICATOR USING SHED VORTICITY FREQUENCY OF CYLINDER.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    of accurately determining the velocity of a fluid and its rate of change . Static pressure variations across the top and bottom of the cylinder...instrument is highly feasible for determining velocity and its rate of change . (Author)

  6. 13. View of disassembled steam engine showing cylinder, piston rod, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. View of disassembled steam engine showing cylinder, piston rod, parallel motion links and steam chest. - Hacienda Azucarera La Esperanza, Steam Engine & Mill, 2.65 Mi. N of PR Rt. 2 Bridge over Manati River, Manati, Manati Municipio, PR

  7. 20. Engine identified as a 'single cylinder vacuum assist engine ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. Engine identified as a 'single cylinder vacuum assist engine for the Tod tandem compound engine' showing crank end. - Carnegie Steel-Ohio Works, Steam Engines, 912 Salt Springs Road, Youngstown, Mahoning County, OH

  8. 19. Engine identified as a single cylinder vacuum assist engine ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. Engine identified as a single cylinder vacuum assist engine for the Filer and Stowell 15-inch continuous mill. - Carnegie Steel-Ohio Works, Steam Engines, 912 Salt Springs Road, Youngstown, Mahoning County, OH

  9. 21. Engine identified as a 'single cylinder vacuum assist engine ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. Engine identified as a 'single cylinder vacuum assist engine for Tod tandem compound engine' showing compressor. - Carnegie Steel-Ohio Works, Steam Engines, 912 Salt Springs Road, Youngstown, Mahoning County, OH

  10. 7. Detail view of steam engine showing cylinder, crosshead guide, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Detail view of steam engine showing cylinder, crosshead guide, eccentric red and valve mechanism. - Hacienda Azucarera la Igualdad, Sugar Mill Ruins & Steam Engine, PR Route 332, Guanica, Guanica Municipio, PR

  11. Theoretical investigation of noise transmission into a finite cylinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Deyu; Vipperman, Jeffrey S.

    2004-05-01

    A new mathematical model for characterizing noise transmission into a finite elastic cylindrical structure with application to a ChamberCore composite cylinder is presented. A plane wave obliquely impinges on the structure, the external sound field is approximated by the solution for an infinite cylinder, and the internal sound field is solved with the structural and acoustic modal interaction method. The noise reduction spectrum for characterizing noise transmission into the cylinder is defined, and the analytical model for the calculation of the noise reduction spectrum is developed. The analytical results show that the cavity resonances dominate the noise transmission into the finite cylinder, and the longitudinal acoustic modes play an important role in the noise transmission at the low frequencies. These results are matched with experimental results.

  12. Diameter estimation of cylinders by the rigorous diffraction model.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Brea, Luis Miguel

    2005-07-01

    The Fraunhofer diffraction formula is commonly used for estimating the diameter of thin cylinders by far field diffractometry. However, an experimental systematic overestimation of the value of the cylinder diameter by this diffraction model and other three-dimensional models has been reported when this estimation is compared with those obtained from interferometric techniques. In this work, a rigorous electromagnetic diffraction model is analyzed to determine the cylinder diameter by using the envelope minima of the far field diffraction pattern. The results of this rigorous model are compared with those from the Fraunhofer diffraction formula. The overestimation by the Fraunhofer model is predicted theoretically, presenting a dependence on the wavelength, the polarization state of the incident wave, and the cylinder diameter. The discrepancies are shown to be due to the three-dimensional geometry.

  13. On the flow in an annulus surrounding a whirling cylinder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brennen, C.

    1976-01-01

    When fluid in an annulus between two cylinders is set in motion by whirling movements of one or both of the cylinders, dynamic forces are imposed by the fluid on the cylinders. Knowledge of these forces is frequently important, indeed often critical, to the engineer designing rotor systems or journal bearings. Quite general solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations are presented for this problem and are limited only by restrictions on the amplitude of the whirl motion. From these solutions, the forces are derived under a wide variety of circumstances, including large and small annular widths, high and low Reynolds numbers, and the presence and absence of a mean flow created by additional net rotation of one or both of the cylinders.

  14. Modal and Impact Dynamics Analysis of an Aluminum Cylinder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lessard, Wendy B.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents analyses for the modal characteristics and impact response of an all-aluminum cylinder. The analyses were performed in preparation for impact tests of the cylinder at The Impact Dynamics Research Facility (IDRF) at the NASA Langley Research Center. Mode shapes and frequencies were computed using NASTRAN and compared with existing experimental data to assess the overall accuracy of the mass and stiffness of the finite element model. A series of non-linear impact analyses were then performed using MSC Dytran in which the weight distribution on the floor and the impact velocity of the cylinder were varied. The effects of impact velocity and mass on the rebound and gross deformation of the cylinder were studied in this investigation.

  15. 27. UPPER STATION, LOWER FLOOR, BULL WHEEL, BRAKE AIR CYLINDER. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. UPPER STATION, LOWER FLOOR, BULL WHEEL, BRAKE AIR CYLINDER. - Monongahela Incline Plane, Connecting North side of Grandview Avenue at Wyoming Street with West Carson Street near Smithfield Street, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

  16. 9. DETAIL OF UNITEDTOD TWINTANDEM STEAM ENGINE, SHOWING HIGHPRESSURE CYLINDER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. DETAIL OF UNITED-TOD TWIN-TANDEM STEAM ENGINE, SHOWING HIGH-PRESSURE CYLINDER AND EXTENSION OF HOUSING. - Republic Iron & Steel Company, Youngstown Works, Blooming Mill & Blooming Mill Engines, North of Poland Avenue, Youngstown, Mahoning County, OH

  17. 49 CFR 178.50 - Specification 4B welded or brazed steel cylinders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Specification 4B welded or brazed steel cylinders... FOR PACKAGINGS Specifications for Cylinders § 178.50 Specification 4B welded or brazed steel cylinders. (a) Type, size, and service pressure. A DOT 4B is a welded or brazed steel cylinder with...

  18. 49 CFR 178.44 - Specification 3HT seamless steel cylinders for aircraft use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Specification 3HT seamless steel cylinders for...) SPECIFICATIONS FOR PACKAGINGS Specifications for Cylinders § 178.44 Specification 3HT seamless steel cylinders for aircraft use. (a) Type, size and service pressure. A DOT 3HT cylinder is a seamless steel...

  19. 49 CFR 178.53 - Specification 4D welded steel cylinders for aircraft use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Specification 4D welded steel cylinders for...) SPECIFICATIONS FOR PACKAGINGS Specifications for Cylinders § 178.53 Specification 4D welded steel cylinders for aircraft use. (a) Type, size, and service pressure. A DOT 4D cylinder is a welded steel sphere...

  20. 49 CFR 178.44 - Specification 3HT seamless steel cylinders for aircraft use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Specification 3HT seamless steel cylinders for...) SPECIFICATIONS FOR PACKAGINGS Specifications for Cylinders § 178.44 Specification 3HT seamless steel cylinders for aircraft use. (a) Type, size and service pressure. A DOT 3HT cylinder is a seamless steel...