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Sample records for 3clpro proteinase cleavage

  1. Ligand-induced Dimerization of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) Coronavirus nsp5 Protease (3CLpro)

    PubMed Central

    Tomar, Sakshi; Johnston, Melanie L.; St. John, Sarah E.; Osswald, Heather L.; Nyalapatla, Prasanth R.; Paul, Lake N.; Ghosh, Arun K.; Denison, Mark R.; Mesecar, Andrew D.

    2015-01-01

    All coronaviruses, including the recently emerged Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) from the β-CoV subgroup, require the proteolytic activity of the nsp5 protease (also known as 3C-like protease, 3CLpro) during virus replication, making it a high value target for the development of anti-coronavirus therapeutics. Kinetic studies indicate that in contrast to 3CLpro from other β-CoV 2c members, including HKU4 and HKU5, MERS-CoV 3CLpro is less efficient at processing a peptide substrate due to MERS-CoV 3CLpro being a weakly associated dimer. Conversely, HKU4, HKU5, and SARS-CoV 3CLpro enzymes are tightly associated dimers. Analytical ultracentrifugation studies support that MERS-CoV 3CLpro is a weakly associated dimer (Kd ∼52 μm) with a slow off-rate. Peptidomimetic inhibitors of MERS-CoV 3CLpro were synthesized and utilized in analytical ultracentrifugation experiments and demonstrate that MERS-CoV 3CLpro undergoes significant ligand-induced dimerization. Kinetic studies also revealed that designed reversible inhibitors act as activators at a low compound concentration as a result of induced dimerization. Primary sequence comparisons and x-ray structural analyses of two MERS-CoV 3CLpro and inhibitor complexes, determined to 1.6 Å, reveal remarkable structural similarity of the dimer interface with 3CLpro from HKU4-CoV and HKU5-CoV. Despite this structural similarity, substantial differences in the dimerization ability suggest that long range interactions by the nonconserved amino acids distant from the dimer interface may control MERS-CoV 3CLpro dimerization. Activation of MERS-CoV 3CLpro through ligand-induced dimerization appears to be unique within the genogroup 2c and may potentially increase the complexity in the development of MERS-CoV 3CLpro inhibitors as antiviral agents. PMID:26055715

  2. Conformational Flexibility of a Short Loop near the Active Site of the SARS-3CLpro is Essential to Maintain Catalytic Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chunmei; Teng, Xin; Qi, Yifei; Tang, Bo; Shi, Hailing; Ma, Xiaomin; Lai, Luhua

    2016-02-01

    The SARS 3C-like proteinase (SARS-3CLpro), which is the main proteinase of the SARS coronavirus, is essential to the virus life cycle. This enzyme has been shown to be active as a dimer in which only one protomer is active. However, it remains unknown how the dimer structure maintains an active monomer conformation. It has been observed that the Ser139-Leu141 loop forms a short 310-helix that disrupts the catalytic machinery in the inactive monomer structure. We have tried to disrupt this helical conformation by mutating L141 to T in the stable inactive monomer G11A/R298A/Q299A. The resulting tetra-mutant G11A/L141T/R298A/Q299A is indeed enzymatically active as a monomer. Molecular dynamics simulations revealed that the L141T mutation disrupts the 310-helix and helps to stabilize the active conformation. The coil-310-helix conformational transition of the Ser139-Leu141 loop serves as an enzyme activity switch. Our study therefore indicates that the dimer structure can stabilize the active conformation but is not a required structure in the evolution of the active enzyme, which can also arise through simple mutations.

  3. Mengo virus 3C proteinase: recombinant expression, intergenus substrate cleavage and localization in vivo.

    PubMed

    Hall, D J; Palmenberg, A C

    1996-01-01

    Mengo virus 3C proteinase was cloned and expressed to high levels in a bacterial vector system. The protein was solubilized from inclusion bodies then purified to homogeneity (> 95%) by ion exchange chromatography. The recombinant enzyme was proteolytically active in cell-free processing assays with a Mengo capsid precursor substrate, L-P1-2A, correctly and proficiently cleaving it into L, 1AB, 1C, 1D and 2A protein products. Further analyses with synthetic peptide substrates encompassing the Mengo or rhinovirus-14 2C/3A cleavage sequences, showed the Mengo 3C could recognize and process specific glutamine-glycine sites within these peptides. The reactivity with the rhinovirus peptide was unexpected, because cross-reactivity between a picornavirus 3C enzyme and a protein substrate from different genus of this family has otherwise never been observed. In reciprocal reactions, a rhinovirus-14 3C preparation was unable to cleave the Mengo-derived synthetic peptide substrate. The recombinant Mengo 3C reactions were also characterized with regard to substrate Km, optimum pH and temperature. The protein was additionally used to raise monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) in mice, which in turn localized natural 3C, 3ABC, 3CD and P3 in immunoblots, immunoprecipitations and indirect immunofluorescence assays of Mengo-infected HeLa cells. The monoclonals showed cross-reactivity with 3C and 3C-containing precursors from encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV), but did not react with 3C proteins from rhinovirus-14 or poliovirus-1M. PMID:8972564

  4. Human cytomegalovirus maturational proteinase: expression in Escherichia coli, purification, and enzymatic characterization by using peptide substrate mimics of natural cleavage sites.

    PubMed Central

    Burck, P J; Berg, D H; Luk, T P; Sassmannshausen, L M; Wakulchik, M; Smith, D P; Hsiung, H M; Becker, G W; Gibson, W; Villarreal, E C

    1994-01-01

    The proteolytic processing of the human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) assembly protein, resulting in truncation of its C terminus, is an essential step in virion maturation. The proteinase responsible for this cleavage is the amino-terminal half of the protein encoded by the UL80a open reading fame. We have obtained high expression levels of this 256-amino-acid HCMV proteinase, assemblin, in Escherichia coli. In addition to the 28-kDa proteinase, a 15-kDa protein comprising the first 143 amino acids and a 13-kDa protein comprising the last 113 amino acids of the 28-kDa HCMV proteinase were present. Both the 28-kDa proteinase and the 15-kDa protein were purified by a two-step chromatographic procedure utilizing anion exchange in urea and dithiothreitol and size exclusion in NaSCN and dithiothreitol. Activation of the purified 28-kDa proteinase required denaturation in urea as well as complete reduction of all five cysteine residues in the molecule. Removal of the urea by dialysis with retention of the reducing agent yielded an active proteinase. Addition of glycerol to 50% enhanced the activity. The HCMV proteinase cleaved the peptides RGVVNASSRLAK and SYVKASVSPE, which are mimics of the maturational (M)- and release (R)-site sequences, respectively, in the UL80a-encoded protein. The cleavage site in the peptides was at the same Ala-Ser scissile bond as observed in the UL80a protein. The Km value for the cleavage of RGVVNASSRLAK (M-site mimic) by the proteinase was similar to that for SYVKASVSPE (R-site mimic), but the turnover (kcat) of the M-site peptide mimic substrate by the proteinase was six to eight times faster. The peptide homologs of the herpes simplex virus type 1 M- and R-site sequences in the UL26-encoded protein were also cleaved by the HCMV proteinase, although at rates slower than those for the HCMV substrates. The HCMV proteinase was inhibited by Zn2+ and by alkylating agents, but only at very high inhibitor concentrations. The purified 15-kDa protein

  5. Potential Broad Spectrum Inhibitors of the Coronavirus 3CLpro: A Virtual Screening and Structure-Based Drug Design Study

    PubMed Central

    Berry, Michael; Fielding, Burtram C.; Gamieldien, Junaid

    2015-01-01

    Human coronaviruses represent a significant disease burden; however, there is currently no antiviral strategy to combat infection. The outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in 2003 and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) less than 10 years later demonstrates the potential of coronaviruses to cross species boundaries and further highlights the importance of identifying novel lead compounds with broad spectrum activity. The coronavirus 3CLpro provides a highly validated drug target and as there is a high degree of sequence homology and conservation in main chain architecture the design of broad spectrum inhibitors is viable. The ZINC drugs-now library was screened in a consensus high-throughput pharmacophore modeling and molecular docking approach by Vina, Glide, GOLD and MM-GBSA. Molecular dynamics further confirmed results obtained from structure-based techniques. A highly defined hit-list of 19 compounds was identified by the structure-based drug design methodologies. As these compounds were extensively validated by a consensus approach and by molecular dynamics, the likelihood that at least one of these compounds is bioactive is excellent. Additionally, the compounds segregate into 15 significantly dissimilar (p < 0.05) clusters based on shape and features, which represent valuable scaffolds that can be used as a basis for future anti-coronaviral inhibitor discovery experiments. Importantly though, the enriched subset of 19 compounds identified from the larger library has to be validated experimentally. PMID:26694449

  6. The eIF4G-eIF4E complex is the target for direct cleavage by the rhinovirus 2A proteinase.

    PubMed Central

    Haghighat, A; Svitkin, Y; Novoa, I; Kuechler, E; Skern, T; Sonenberg, N

    1996-01-01

    The 2A proteinases (2Apro) of certain picornaviruses induce the cleavage of the eIF4G subunit of the cap-binding protein complex, eIF4F. Several reports have demonstrated that 2Apro of rhinovirus and coxsackievirus B4 cleave eIF4G directly. However, it was suggested that in poliovirus infection, the 2Apro induces the activation of a cellular proteinase which in turn cleaves eIF4G. Furthermore, it is not clear whether eIF4G is cleaved as part of the eIF4F complex or as an individual polypeptide. To address these issues, recombinant eIF4G was purified from Sf9 insect cells and tested for cleavage by purified rhinovirus 2Apro. Here we report that eIF4G alone is a relatively poor substrate for cleavage by the rhinovirus 2Apro. However, an eIF4G-eIF4E complex is cleaved efficiently by the 2Apro, suggesting that eIF4F is a preferred substrate for cleavage by rhinovirus 2Apro. Furthermore, 2Apr drastically reduced the translation of a capped mRNA. An eIF4G-eIF4E complex, but not eIF4G alone, was required to restore translation. PMID:8970966

  7. Cleavage of human fibronectin and other basement membrane-associated proteins by a Cryptococcus neoformans serine proteinase.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Marcio L; dos Reis, Flavia C G; Puccia, Rosana; Travassos, Luiz R; Alviano, Celuta S

    2003-02-01

    The interaction between the fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans and human fibronectin (HFN) was examined in this study. Polypeptides from cryptococcal whole homogenates and cell wall with molecular masses of 25 and 35 kDa, respectively reacted with HFN. The relevance of the occurrence of these proteins in intact cells was uncertain, since yeast cells from different strains and serotypes of C. neoformans did not significantly adhere to soluble or solid-phased HFN. In contrast, an exocellular proteolytic activity that cleaves HFN was suggested. Degradation of HFN by culture supernatant fluids was demonstrated by Western blotting using a monoclonal anti-HFN antibody. Several fragments of lower molecular weights were observed which reacted with the antibody. Proteolysis was mediated by a serine protease activity, since HFN cleavage was completely inhibited by phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride (PMSF), aprotinin, and N-tosyl-L-phenylalanyl chloromethylketone (TPCK), but not by inhibitors of metalo, cysteine, or aspartyl proteases. Similar results were obtained when the fluorogenic peptide carbobenzoxy-phenylalanyl-arginyl-7-amido-4-methylcoumarin (CBZ-Phe-Arg-NHmet-C) was used as substrate. The cryptococcal supernatant also cleaved laminin and type IV collagen, as demonstrated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis with co-polymerized proteins. The hydrolysis of these proteins was mediated by a single cryptococcal protease with a molecular mass of 75 kDa. The cleavage of key host components of the basement membrane and extracellular matrix by C. neoformans may be a relevant factor in the process of fungal invasion.

  8. Engineering the substrate specificity of rhizopuspepsin: the role of Asp 77 of fungal aspartic proteinases in facilitating the cleavage of oligopeptide substrates with lysine in P1.

    PubMed Central

    Lowther, W. T.; Majer, P.; Dunn, B. M.

    1995-01-01

    Rhizopuspepsin and other fungal aspartic proteinases are distinct from the mammalian enzymes in that they are able to cleave substrates with lysine in the P1 position. Sequence and structural comparisons suggest that two aspartic acid residues, Asp 30 and Asp 77 (pig pepsin numbering), may be responsible for generating this unique specificity. Asp 30 and Asp 77 were changed to the corresponding residues in porcine pepsin, Ile 30 and Thr 77, to create single and double mutants. The zymogen forms of the wild-type and mutant enzymes were overexpressed in Escherichia coli as inclusion bodies. Following solubilization, denaturation, refolding, activation, and purification to homogeneity, structural and kinetic comparisons were made. The mutant enzymes exhibited a high degree of structural similarity to the wild-type recombinant protein and a native isozyme. The catalytic activities of the recombinant proteins were analyzed with chromogenic substrates containing lysine in the P1, P2, or P3 positions. Mutation of Asp 77 resulted in a loss of 7 kcal mol-1 of transition-state stabilization energy in the hydrolysis of the substrate containing lysine in P1. An inhibitor containing the positively charged P1-lysine side chain inhibited only the enzymes containing Asp 77. Inhibition of the Asp 77 mutants of rhizopuspepsin and several mammalian enzymes was restored upon acetylation of the lysine side chain. These results suggest that an exploitation of the specific electrostatic interaction of Asp 77 in the active site of fungal enzymes may lead to the design of compounds that preferentially inhibit a variety of related Candida proteinases in immunocompromised patients. PMID:7613467

  9. Activated recombinant adenovirus proteinases

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, C.W.; Mangel, W.F.

    1999-08-10

    This application describes methods and expression constructs for producing activatable recombinant adenovirus proteinases. Purified activatable recombinant adenovirus proteinases and methods of purification are described. Activated adenovirus proteinases and methods for obtaining activated adenovirus proteinases are further included. Isolated peptide cofactors of adenovirus proteinase activity, methods of purifying and identifying peptide cofactors are also described. Antibodies immunoreactive with adenovirus proteinases, immunospecific antibodies, and methods for preparing them are also described. Other related methods and materials are also described. 29 figs.

  10. Activated recombinant adenovirus proteinases

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Carl W.; Mangel, Walter F.

    1999-08-10

    This application describes methods and expression constructs for producing activatable recombinant adenovirus proteinases. Purified activatable recombinant adenovirus proteinases and methods of purification are described. Activated adenovirus proteinases and methods for obtaining activated adenovirus proteinases are further included. Isolated peptide cofactors of adenovirus proteinase activity, methods of purifying and identifying said peptide cofactors are also described. Antibodies immunoreactive with adenovirus proteinases, immunospecific antibodies, and methods for preparing them are also described. Other related methods and materials are also described.

  11. Sequential processing of lysosomal acid phosphatase by a cytoplasmic thiol proteinase and a lysosomal aspartyl proteinase.

    PubMed Central

    Gottschalk, S; Waheed, A; Schmidt, B; Laidler, P; von Figura, K

    1989-01-01

    BHK cells expressing human lysosomal acid phosphatase (LAP) transport LAP to lysosomes as an integral membrane protein. In lysosomes LAP is released from the membrane by proteolytic processing, which involves at least two cleavages at the C terminus of LAP. The first cleavage is catalysed by a thiol proteinase at the outside of the lysosomal membrane and removes the bulk of the cytoplasmic tail of LAP. The second cleavage is catalysed by an aspartyl proteinase inside the lysosomes and releases the luminal part of LAP from the membrane-spanning domain. The first cleavage at the cytoplasmic side of the lysosomal membrane depends on acidification of lysosomes and the second cleavage inside the lysosomes depends on prior processing of the cytoplasmic tail. These results suggest that the cytoplasmic tail controls the conformation of the luminal portion of LAP and vice versa. Images PMID:2684640

  12. Properties of a subtilisin-like proteinase from a psychrotrophic Vibrio species comparison with proteinase K and aqualysin I.

    PubMed

    Kristjánsson, M M; Magnússon, O T; Gudmundsson, H M; Alfredsson, G A; Matsuzawa, H

    1999-03-01

    An extracellular serine proteinase purified from cultures of a psychrotrophic Vibrio species (strain PA-44) belongs to the proteinase K family of the superfamily of subtilisin-like proteinases. The enzyme is secreted as a 47-kDa protein, but under mild heat treatment (30 min at 40 degrees C) undergoes autoproteolytic cleavage on the carboxyl-side of the molecule to give a proteinase with a molecular mass of about 36 kDa that apparently shares most of the enzymatic characteristics and the stability of the 47-kDa protein. In this study, selected enzymatic properties of the Vibrio proteinase were compared with those of the related proteinases, proteinase K and aqualysin I, as representative mesophilic and thermophilic enzymes, respectively. The catalytic efficiency (kcat/Km) for the amidase activity of the cold-adapted enzyme against succinyl-AAPF-p-nitroanilide was significantly higher than that of its mesophilic and thermophilic counterparts, especially when compared with aqualysin I. The stability of the Vibrio proteinase, both towards heat and denaturants, was found to be significantly lower than of either proteinase K or aqualysin I. One or more disulfide bonds in the psychrotrophic proteinase are important for the integrity of the active enzyme structure, as disulfide cleavage, either by reduction with dithiothreitol or by sulfitolysis, led to a loss in its activity. Under the same conditions, aqualysin I was also partially inactivated by dithiothreitol, but the activity of proteinase K was unaffected. The disulfides of either proteinase K or aqualysin I were not reactive towards sulfitolysis, except under denaturing conditions, while all disulfides of the Vibrio proteinase reacted in absence of a denaturant. The reactivity of the disulfides of the proteins as a function of denaturant concentration followed the order: Vibrio proteinase > proteinase K > aqualysin I. The same order of reactivity was also observed for the inactivation of the enzymes by H2O2

  13. Picornaviral 3C cysteine proteinases have a fold similar to the chymotrypsin-like serine proteinases

    SciTech Connect

    Allaire,M.; Chernaia, M.; Malcolm, B.; James, M.

    1994-01-01

    The picornavirus family includes several pathogens such as poliovirus, rhinovirus (the major cause of the common cold), hepatitis A virus and the foot-and-mouth disease virus. Picornaviral proteins are expressed by direct translation of the genomic RNA into a single, large polyprotein precursor. Proteolysis of the viral polyprotein into the mature proteins is assured by the viral 3C enzymes, which are cysteine proteinases. Here we report the X-ray crystal structure at 2.3 {angstrom} resolution of the 3C proteinase from hepatitis A virus (HAV-3C). The overall architecture of HAV-3C reveals a fold resembling that of the chymotrypsin family of serine proteinases, which is consistent with earlier predictions. Catalytic residues include Cys 172 as nucleophile and His 44 as general base. The 3C cleavage specificity for glutamine residues is defined primarily by His 191. The overall structure suggests that an inter-molecular (trans) cleavage releases 3C and that there is an active proteinase in the polyprotein.

  14. Characterization of a cloned subtilisin-like serine proteinase from a psychrotrophic Vibrio species.

    PubMed

    Arnórsdottir, Jóhanna; Smáradóttir, Rúna B; Magnússon, Olafur Th; Thorbjarnardóttir, Sigrídur H; Eggertsson, Gudmundur; Kristjánsson, Magnús M

    2002-11-01

    The gene encoding a subtilisin-like serine proteinase in the psychrotrophic Vibrio sp. PA44 has been successfully cloned, sequenced and expressed in Escherichia coli. The gene is 1593 basepairs and encodes a precursor protein of 530 amino acid residues with a calculated molecular mass of 55.7 kDa. The enzyme is isolated, however, as an active 40.6-kDa proteinase, without a 139 amino acid residue N-terminal prosequence. Under mild conditions the enzyme undergoes a further autocatalytic cleavage to give a 29.7-kDa proteinase that retains full enzymatic activity. The deduced amino acid sequence of the enzyme has high homology to proteinases of the proteinase K family of subtilisin-like proteinases. With respect to the enzyme characteristics compared in this study the properties of the wild-type and recombinant proteinases are the same. Sequence analysis revealed that especially with respect to the thermophilic homologues, aqualysin I from Thermus aquaticus and a proteinase from Thermus strain Rt41A, the cold-adapted Vibrio-proteinase has a higher content of polar/uncharged amino acids, as well as aspartate residues. The thermophilic enzymes had a higher content of arginines, and relatively higher number of hydrophobic amino acids and a higher aliphatic index. These factors may contribute to the adaptation of these proteinases to different temperature conditions.

  15. Neutrophil Elastase and Proteinase-3 Trigger G Protein-biased Signaling through Proteinase-activated Receptor-1 (PAR1)*

    PubMed Central

    Mihara, Koichiro; Ramachandran, Rithwik; Renaux, Bernard; Saifeddine, Mahmoud; Hollenberg, Morley D.

    2013-01-01

    Neutrophil proteinases released at sites of inflammation can affect tissue function by either activating or disarming signal transduction mediated by proteinase-activated receptors (PARs). Because PAR1 is expressed at sites where abundant neutrophil infiltration occurs, we hypothesized that neutrophil-derived enzymes might also regulate PAR1 signaling. We report here that both neutrophil elastase and proteinase-3 cleave the human PAR1 N terminus at sites distinct from the thrombin cleavage site. This cleavage results in a disarming of thrombin-activated calcium signaling through PAR1. However, the distinct non-canonical tethered ligands unmasked by neutrophil elastase and proteinase-3, as well as synthetic peptides with sequences derived from these novel exposed tethered ligands, selectively stimulated PAR1-mediated mitogen-activated protein kinase activation. This signaling was blocked by pertussis toxin, implicating a Gαi-triggered signal pathway. We conclude that neutrophil proteinases trigger biased PAR1 signaling and we describe a novel set of tethered ligands that are distinct from the classical tethered ligand revealed by thrombin. We further demonstrate the function of this biased signaling in regulating endothelial cell barrier integrity. PMID:24052258

  16. Metalloproteinase activity secreted by fibrogenic cells in the processing of prolysyl oxidase. Potential role of procollagen C-proteinase.

    PubMed

    Panchenko, M V; Stetler-Stevenson, W G; Trubetskoy, O V; Gacheru, S N; Kagan, H M

    1996-03-22

    Lysyl oxidase is secreted from fibrogenic cells as a 50-kDa proenzyme that is proteolytically processed to the mature enzyme in the extracellular space. To characterize the secreted proteinase activity, a truncated, recombinant form of lysyl oxidase was prepared as a proteinase substrate containing the sequence of the propeptide cleavage region. The processing proteinase activity secreted by cultured fibrogenic cells resists inhibitors of serine or aspartyl proteinases as well as tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases-2 (MMP-2) but is completely inhibited by metal ion chelators. Known metalloproteinases were tested for their activity toward this substrate. Carboxyl-terminal procollagen proteinase (C-proteinase), MMP-2, and conditioned fibrogenic cell culture medium cleave the lysyl oxidase substrate to the size of the mature enzyme. The NH2-terminal sequence generated by arterial smooth muscle conditioned medium and the C-proteinase but not by MMP-2, i.e. Asp-Asp-Pro-Tyr, was identical to that previously identified in mature lysyl oxidase isolated from connective tissue. The C-proteinase activity against the model substrate was inhibited by a synthetic oligopeptide mimic of the cleavage sequence (Ac-Met-Val-Gly-Asp-Asp-Pro-Tyr-Asn-amide), whereas this peptide also inhibited the generation of lysyl oxidase activity in the medium of fetal rat lung fibroblasts in culture. In toto, these results identify a secreted metalloproteinase activity participating in the activation of prolysyl oxidase, identify inhibitors of the processing activity, and implicate procollagen C-proteinase in this role.

  17. Sensitive, hydrosoluble, macromolecular fluorogenic substrates for human immunodeficiency virus 1 proteinase.

    PubMed Central

    Anjuère, F; Monsigny, M; Lelièvre, Y; Mayer, R

    1993-01-01

    Hydrosoluble macromolecular fluorogenic substrates specific for the human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) proteinase have been prepared. The fluoresceinyl peptide Ftc-epsilon-Ahx-Ser-Phe-Asn-Phe-Pro-Gln-Ile-Thr-(Gly)n, corresponding to the first cleavage site of HIV-1 gag-pol native precursor was linked to a water-soluble neutral (Lys)n derivative. The epsilon-aminohexanoyl residue (epsilon-Ahx) and the glycyl sequence were added in order to improve the stability of the substrate and the accessibility of the cleavage site to the HIV-1 proteinase respectively. This macro-molecular peptidic-substrate conjugate is significantly more water-soluble than the free peptide itself on a substrate molar concentration basis. The assay is based on the quantitative precipitation of the polymeric material by adding propan-2-ol whereas the fluorescent peptide moiety released upon proteolysis remains soluble in the supernatant. The proteinase activity is assessed by measuring the fluorescence of the supernatant. This assay allows the detection of a few fmol of HIV-1 proteinase, even in the presence of cell culture media, plasma or cell lysate and it gives accurate results within a large proteinase concentration range. The hydrosoluble macromolecular substrate is also suitable for determining the HIV-1 proteinase activity using 96-well microplates, allowing us to test accurately and rapidly numerous enzyme samples and/or the potency of new proteinase inhibitors. PMID:8489513

  18. Adult Schistosoma mansoni express cathepsin L proteinase activity.

    PubMed

    Smith, A M; Dalton, J P; Clough, K A; Kilbane, C L; Harrop, S A; Hole, N; Brindley, P J

    1994-09-01

    This report presents the deduced amino acid sequence of a novel cathepsin L proteinase from Schistosoma mansoni, and describes cathepsin L-like activity in extracts of adult schistosomes. Using consensus primers specific for cysteine proteinases, gene fragments were amplified from adult S. mansoni cDNA by PCR and cloned. One of these fragments showed marked identity to Sm31, the cathepsin B cysteine proteinase of adult S. mansoni, whereas another differed from Sm31 and was employed as a probe to isolate two cDNAs from an adult S. mansoni gene library. Together these cDNAs encoded a novel preprocathepsin L of 319 amino acids; this zymogen is predicted to be processed in vivo into a mature, active cathepsin L proteinase of 215 amino acids. Closest homologies were with cathepsins L from rat, mouse, and chicken (46-47% identity). Southern hybridization analysis suggested that only one or a few copies of the gene was present per genome, demonstrated that its locus was distinct from that of Sm31, and that a homologous sequence was present in Schistosoma japonicum. Because these results indicated that schistosomes expressed a cathepsin L proteinase, extracts of adult S. mansoni were examined for acidic, cysteine proteinase activity. Based on rates of cleavage of peptidyl substrates employed to discriminate between classes of cysteine proteinases, namely cathepsin L (Z-phe-arg-AMC), cathepsin B (Z-arg-arg-AMC) and cathepsin H (Bz-arg-AMC), the extracts were found to contain vigorous cathepsin L-like activity.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. Implantation serine proteinase 2 is a monomeric enzyme with mixed serine proteolytic activity and can silence signalling via proteinase activated receptors.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Navneet; Fahr, Jochen; Renaux, Bernard; Saifeddine, Mahmoud; Kumar, Rajeev; Nishikawa, Sandra; Mihara, Koichiro; Ramachandran, Rithwik; Hollenberg, Morley D; Rancourt, Derrick E

    2013-12-01

    Implantation serine proteinase 2 (ISP2), a S1 family serine proteinase, is known for its role in the critical processes of embryo hatching and implantation in the mouse uterus. Native implantation serine proteinases (ISPs) are co-expressed and co-exist as heterodimers in uterine and blastocyst tissues. The ISP1-ISP2 enzyme complex shows trypsin-like substrate specificity. In contrast, we found that ISP2, isolated as a 34 kDa monomer from a Pichia pastoris expression system, exhibited a mixed serine proteolytic substrate specificity, as determined by a phage display peptide cleavage approach and verified by the in vitro cleavage of synthetic peptides. Based upon the peptide sequence substrate selectivity, a database search identified many potential ISP2 targets of physiological relevance, including the proteinase activated receptor 2 (PAR2). The in vitro cleavage studies with PAR2-derived peptides confirmed the mixed substrate specificity of ISP2. Treatment of cell lines expressing proteinase-activated receptors (PARs) 1, 2, and 4 with ISP2 prevented receptor activation by either thrombin (PARs 1 and 4) or trypsin (PAR2). The disarming and silencing of PARs by ISP2 may play a role in successful embryo implantation.

  20. The isolation and properties of a non-pepsin proteinase from human gastric mucosa.

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, N B; Taylor, W H

    1978-01-01

    1. A non-pepsin proteinase, proteinase 2, was successfully isolated free from pepsinogen (by repetitive chromatography on DEAE- and CM-celluloses) from the gastric mucosa of a patient with a duodenal ulcer and the uninvaded mucosa of a patient with a gastric adenocarcinoma. 2. Proteinases 1a and 1b, found in gastric adenocarcinoma, were not found in the gastic mucosa of these patients. 3. Proteinase 2 was shown to have an asymmetrical broad pH-activity curve with a maximum over the pH range 3.0-3.7. 4. Proteolytic activity of proteinase 2 was inhibited by pepstatin; the concentration of pepstatin giving 50% inhibition is of the order of 3nm. 5. Inhibition of proteolytic activity by carbenoxolone and related triterpenoids indicated that at pH 4.0 proteinase 2 possesses structural characteristics relating it to the pepsins and at pH 7.4 to the pepsinogens. 6. The sites of cleavage of the B-chain of oxidized insulin for proteinase 2 at pH 1.7 and pH 3.5 were shown to be similar to those previously established for human pepsin 3 and for the cathepsin E of rabbit bone marrow. 7. The non-pepsin proteinase 2 (cathepsin) of human gastric mucosa has properties more similar to cathepsin E than to the cathepsins D. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 4. PMID:25649

  1. Co-factor activated recombinant adenovirus proteinases

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, C.W.; Mangel, W.F.

    1996-08-06

    This application describes methods and expression constructs for producing activatable recombinant adenovirus proteinases. Purified activatable recombinant adenovirus proteinases and methods of purification are described. Activated adenovirus proteinases and methods for obtaining activated adenovirus proteinases are further included. Isolated peptide cofactors of adenovirus proteinase activity, methods of purifying and identifying the peptide cofactors are also described. Antibodies immunoreactive with adenovirus proteinases, immunospecific antibodies, and methods for preparing them are also described. Other related methods and materials are also described. 29 figs.

  2. Co-factor activated recombinant adenovirus proteinases

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Carl W.; Mangel, Walter F.

    1996-08-06

    This application describes methods and expression constructs for producing activatable recombinant adenovirus proteinases. Purified activatable recombinant adenovirus proteinases and methods of purification are described. Activated adenovirus proteinases and methods for obtaining activated adenovirus proteinases are further included. Isolated peptide cofactors of adenovirus proteinase activity, methods of purifying and identifying said peptide cofactors are also described. Antibodies immunoreactive with adenovirus proteinases, immunospecific antibodies, and methods for preparing them are also described. Other related methods and materials are also described.

  3. Characterisation and mutational analysis of an ORF 1a-encoding proteinase domain responsible for proteolytic processing of the infectious bronchitis virus 1a/1b polyprotein.

    PubMed

    Liu, D X; Brown, T D

    1995-06-01

    Coronavirus gene expression involves proteolytic processing of the mRNA 1-encoded polyproteins by viral and cellular proteinases. Recently, we have demonstrated that an ORF 1b-encoded 100-kDa protein is proteolytically cleaved from the 1a/1b fusion polyprotein by a viral-specific proteinase of the picornavirus 3C proteinase group (3C-like proteinase). In this report, the 3C-like proteinase has been further analysed by internal deletion of a 2.3-kb fragment between the 3C-like proteinase-encoding region and ORF 1b and by substitution mutations of its catalytic centre as well as the two predicted cleavage sites flanking the 100-kDa protein. The results show that internal deletion of ORF 1a sequences from nucleotide 9911 to 12227 does not influence the catalytic activity of the proteinase in processing of the 1a/1b polyprotein to the 100-kDa protein species. Site-directed mutagenesis studies have confirmed that the predicted nucleophilic cysteine residue (Cys2922) and a histidine residue encoded by ORF 1a from nucleotide 8985 to 8987 (His2820) are essential for the catalytic activity of the proteinase, and that the QS(G) dipeptide bonds are its target cleavage sites. Substitution mutations of the third component of the putative catalytic triad, the glutamic acid 2843 (Glu2843) residue, however, do not affect the processing to the 100-kDa protein. In addition, cotransfection experiment shows that the 3C-like proteinase is capable of trans-cleavage of the 1a/1b polyprotein. These studies have confirmed the involvement of the 3C-like proteinase domain in processing of the 1a/1b polyprotein, the predicted catalytic centre of the proteinase, and its cleavage sites. PMID:7778277

  4. Mammalian tolloid proteinases: role in growth factor signalling.

    PubMed

    Troilo, Helen; Bayley, Christopher P; Barrett, Anne L; Lockhart-Cairns, Michael P; Jowitt, Thomas A; Baldock, Clair

    2016-08-01

    Tolloid proteinases are essential for tissue patterning and extracellular matrix assembly. The members of the family differ in their substrate specificity and activity, despite sharing similar domain organization. The mechanisms underlying substrate specificity and activity are complex, with variation between family members, and depend on both multimerization and substrate interaction. In addition, enhancers, such as Twisted gastrulation (Tsg), promote cleavage of tolloid substrate, chordin, to regulate growth factor signalling. Although Tsg and mammalian tolloid (mTLD) are involved in chordin cleavage, no interaction has been detected between them, suggesting Tsg induces a change in chordin to increase susceptibility to cleavage. All members of the tolloid family bind the N terminus of latent TGFβ-binding protein-1, providing support for their role in TGFβ signalling. PMID:27391803

  5. Characterization of a nucleotide stimulated aspartic proteinase in rat liver plasma membranes.

    PubMed

    Paule, C R; Larner, J

    1996-01-01

    Inositol phosphoglycan molecules are believed to mediate multiple intracellular actions of insulin. They are released from plasma membranes in response to insulin binding and are transported into the cell. Release of insulin mediators is stimulated by MnATP and MgATP and is inhibited by p-aminobenzamidine. Inositol phosphoglycan mediators may be released by a poorly characterized mechanism requiring proteolytic cleavage of an attached protein from the mediator and phospholipase cleavage of the mediator from its membrane anchor. We examined rat liver plasma membranes for proteinase activity stimulated by insulin and MnATP. Although we could not demonstrate insulin stimulation, we have found and characterized a nucleotide-stimulated aspartic proteinase bound to rat liver plasma membranes. We also detected and separated a soluble activating factor for the proteinase. The activating factor appears to be a protein with M(r) approximately 70 kDa. PMID:8876431

  6. Class specific inhibition of house dust mite proteinases which cleave cell adhesion, induce cell death and which increase the permeability of lung epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Winton, Helen L; Wan, Hong; Cannell, Mark B; Thompson, Philip J; Garrod, David R; Stewart, Geoffrey A; Robinson, Clive

    1998-01-01

    House dust mite (HDM) allergens with cysteine and serine proteinase activity are risk factors for allergic sensitization and asthma. A simple method to fractionate proteinase activity from HDM faecal pellets into cysteine and serine class activity is described. Both proteinase fractions increased the permeability of epithelial cell monolayers. The effects of the serine proteinase fraction were inhibited by 4-(2-aminoethyl)-benzenesulphonyl fluoride hydrochloride (AEBSF) and soybean trypsin inhibitor (SBTI). The effects of the cysteine proteinase fraction could be inhibited by E-64. No reciprocity of action was found. Treatment of epithelial monolayers with either proteinase fraction caused breakdown of tight junctions (TJs). AEBSF inhibited TJ breakdown caused by the serine proteinase fraction, whereas E-64 inhibited the cysteine proteinase fraction. Agarose gel electrophoresis revealed that the proteinases induced DNA cleavage which was inhibited by the matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor BB-250. Compound E-64 inhibited DNA fragmentation caused by the cysteine proteinase fraction, but was without effect on the serine proteinase fraction. Staining of proteinase-treated cells with annexin V (AV) and propidium iodide (PI) revealed a diversity of cellular responses. Some cells stained only with AV indicating early apoptosis, whilst others were dead and stained with both AV and PI. HDM proteinases exert profound effects on epithelial cells which will promote allergic sensitization; namely disruption of intercellular adhesion, increased paracellular permeability and initiation of cell death. Attenuation of these actions by proteinase inhibitors leads to the conclusion that compounds designed to be selective for the HDM enzymes may represent a novel therapy for asthma. PMID:9720772

  7. Biased signalling and proteinase-activated receptors (PARs): targeting inflammatory disease.

    PubMed

    Hollenberg, M D; Mihara, K; Polley, D; Suen, J Y; Han, A; Fairlie, D P; Ramachandran, R

    2014-03-01

    Although it has been known since the 1960s that trypsin and chymotrypsin can mimic hormone action in tissues, it took until the 1990s to discover that serine proteinases can regulate cells by cleaving and activating a unique four-member family of GPCRs known as proteinase-activated receptors (PARs). PAR activation involves the proteolytic exposure of its N-terminal receptor sequence that folds back to function as a 'tethered' receptor-activating ligand (TL). A key N-terminal arginine in each of PARs 1 to 4 has been singled out as a target for cleavage by thrombin (PARs 1, 3 and 4), trypsin (PARs 2 and 4) or other proteases to unmask the TL that activates signalling via Gq , Gi or G12 /13 . Similarly, synthetic receptor-activating peptides, corresponding to the exposed 'TL sequences' (e.g. SFLLRN-, for PAR1 or SLIGRL- for PAR2) can, like proteinase activation, also drive signalling via Gq , Gi and G12 /13 , without requiring receptor cleavage. Recent data show, however, that distinct proteinase-revealed 'non-canonical' PAR tethered-ligand sequences and PAR-activating agonist and antagonist peptide analogues can induce 'biased' PAR signalling, for example, via G12 /13 -MAPKinase instead of Gq -calcium. This overview summarizes implications of this 'biased' signalling by PAR agonists and antagonists for the recognized roles the PARs play in inflammatory settings. PMID:24354792

  8. Kinetics and mechanism of proteinase-binding of pregnancy zone protein (PZP). Appearance of sulfhydryl groups in reactions with proteinases.

    PubMed

    Christensen, U; Sottrup-Jensen, L; Simonsen, M

    1992-01-01

    Proteinase binding by pregnancy zone protein (PZP), an alpha-macroglobulin involves bait region cleavages, association of dimeric-PZP into tetrameric and reaction of internal gamma-glutamyl-beta-cysteinyl thiol esters of PZP with proteinase side chains. The product is an equimolar enzyme-PZP(tetramer) covalently linked complex with four free sulfhydryl groups. The kinetics of the appearances of sulfhydryl groups during the reaction of PZP with chymotrypsin has been investigated using stopped-flow and conventional mixing techniques over a broad concentration range. Thiol ester cleavages followed double exponential decays corresponding with two steps. The faster one resulted in the appearance of three sulfhydryl groups with an observed rate constant, k(obs) = k1.1 + k1.2 delta E, dependent on the excess concentration of chymotrypsin, delta E, and k1.1 = 0.03 s-1 and k1.2 = 4 x 10(4) M-1 s-1. The last sulfhydryl group appeared in a slower step, with similar concentration dependence and k2.1 approximately 0.003 s-1 and k2.2 approximately 5 x 10(3) M-1s-1. Covalent binding of the enzyme apparently was simultaneous with the faster thiol ester cleavage step. Based on these and previous results a model of the reaction mechanism of the proteinase binding reaction of PZP is proposed. It consists of four major steps: (i) Bait region cleavage of PZP-dimers by the enzyme, (ii) fast association of enzyme-PZP(dimer) species with native PZP or with another enzyme-PZP(dimer) compound resulting in release of one of the associated enzyme molecules (iii) reaction of an average of three thiol esters of the enzyme-PZP(tetramer) intermediate with the associated internal enzyme molecule or with an external one. In this step one enzyme molecule becomes covalently linked to the PZP-(tetramer), three sulfhydryl groups appear and the enzymic activity of the bound enzyme molecule decreases to the level of that of the final complex. (iv) Hydrolysis of the last thiol ester and in the presence of

  9. Pregnancy zone protein, a proteinase-binding macroglobulin. Interactions with proteinases and methylamine.

    PubMed

    Christensen, U; Simonsen, M; Harrit, N; Sottrup-Jensen, L

    1989-11-28

    Human pregnancy zone protein (PZP) is a major pregnancy-associated plasma protein, strongly related to alpha 2-macroglobulin (alpha 2M). Its properties and its reactions with a number of enzymes, particularly chymotrypsin, and with methylamine have been investigated. It is concluded that native PZP molecules are dimers of disulfide-bridged 180-kDa subunits and that proteinase binding results in covalent 1:1 (tetrameric)PZP-enzyme complexes. Native PZP is unstable, and storage should be avoided, but when kept unfrozen at 0 degree C most PZP preparations stay native 1-3 months. The reaction of PZP with chymotrypsin involves (i) proteolysis of bait regions, (ii) cleavage of beta-cysteinyl-gamma-glutamyl thiol ester groups, (iii) some change of the conformation and quaternary structure of PZP, and (iv) the formation of covalent 1:1 chymotrypsin-PZP(tetramer) complexes in which chymotrypsin is active but shows less activity than free chymotrypsin. The emission spectra of intrinsic fluorescence show significant differences between the PZP-chymotrypsin complex and its native components, whereas no differences are observed between methylamine-reacted PZP and native PZP. Methylamine reacts with the beta-cysteinyl-gamma-glutamyl thiol ester groups of PZP in a second-order process with k = (13.6 +/- 0.5) M-1 s-1, pH 7.6, 25 degrees C. The reaction product is PZP(dimers); no PZP(tetramers) are formed. The proteinase-binding specificity of PZP is far more restricted than that of alpha 2M. Certain chymotrypsin-like and trypsin-like enzymes are bound much less efficiently than is chymotrypsin itself.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. The cysteine proteinases of the pineapple plant.

    PubMed Central

    Rowan, A D; Buttle, D J; Barrett, A J

    1990-01-01

    The pineapple plant (Ananas comosus) was shown to contain at least four distinct cysteine proteinases, which were purified by a procedure involving active-site-directed affinity chromatography. The major proteinase present in extracts of plant stem was stem bromelain, whilst fruit bromelain was the major proteinase in the fruit. Two additional cysteine proteinases were detected only in the stem: these were ananain and a previously undescribed enzyme that we have called comosain. Stem bromelain, fruit bromelain and ananain were shown to be immunologically distinct. Enzymic characterization revealed differences in both substrate-specificities and inhibition profiles. A study of the cysteine proteinase derived from the related bromeliad Bromelia pinguin (pinguinain) indicated that in many respects it was similar to fruit bromelain, although it was found to be immunologically distinct. Images Fig. 4. Fig. 5. PMID:2327970

  11. The cysteine proteinases of the pineapple plant.

    PubMed

    Rowan, A D; Buttle, D J; Barrett, A J

    1990-03-15

    The pineapple plant (Ananas comosus) was shown to contain at least four distinct cysteine proteinases, which were purified by a procedure involving active-site-directed affinity chromatography. The major proteinase present in extracts of plant stem was stem bromelain, whilst fruit bromelain was the major proteinase in the fruit. Two additional cysteine proteinases were detected only in the stem: these were ananain and a previously undescribed enzyme that we have called comosain. Stem bromelain, fruit bromelain and ananain were shown to be immunologically distinct. Enzymic characterization revealed differences in both substrate-specificities and inhibition profiles. A study of the cysteine proteinase derived from the related bromeliad Bromelia pinguin (pinguinain) indicated that in many respects it was similar to fruit bromelain, although it was found to be immunologically distinct.

  12. [Ulysses retrotransposon aspartate proteinase (Drosophila virilis)].

    PubMed

    Volkov, D A; Savvateeva, L V; Dergousova, N I; Rumsh, L D

    2002-01-01

    Retrotransposones are mobile genetic elements occurring in genomes of bacteria, plants or animals. Retrotransposones were found to contain nucleotide sequences encoding proteins which are homological to retroviral aspartic proteinases. Our research has been focused on Ulysses which is mobile genetic element found in Drosophila virilis. We suggested a primary structure of Ulysses proteinase using comparative analysis of amino acid sequences of retroviral proteinases and proteinases from retrotransposones. The appropriate cDNA fragment has been cloned and expressed in E. coli. The purification of recombinant protein (12 kD) has been carried out by affinity chromatography using pepstatine-agarose. The obtained protein has proteolytic activity at optimum pH 5.5 like the majority of aspartic proteinases.

  13. Functions of Manduca sexta hemolymph proteinases HP6 and HP8 in two innate immune pathways.

    PubMed

    An, Chunju; Ishibashi, Jun; Ragan, Emily J; Jiang, Haobo; Kanost, Michael R

    2009-07-17

    Serine proteinases in insect plasma have been implicated in two types of immune responses; that is, activation of prophenoloxidase (proPO) and activation of cytokine-like proteins. We have identified more than 20 serine proteinases in hemolymph of the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta, but functions are known for only a few of them. We report here functions of two additional M. sexta proteinases, hemolymph proteinases 6 and 8 (HP6 and HP8). HP6 and HP8 are each composed of an amino-terminal clip domain and a carboxyl-terminal proteinase domain. HP6 is an apparent ortholog of Drosophila Persephone, whereas HP8 is most similar to Drosophila and Tenebrio spätzle-activating enzymes, all of which activate the Toll pathway. proHP6 and proHP8 are expressed constitutively in fat body and hemocytes and secreted into plasma, where they are activated by proteolytic cleavage in response to infection. To investigate activation and biological activity of HP6 and HP8, we purified recombinant proHP8, proHP6, and mutants of proHP6 in which the catalytic serine was replaced with alanine, and/or the activation site was changed to permit activation by bovine factor Xa. HP6 was found to activate proPO-activating proteinase (proPAP1) in vitro and induce proPO activation in plasma. HP6 was also determined to activate proHP8. Active HP6 or HP8 injected into larvae induced expression of antimicrobial peptides and proteins, including attacin, cecropin, gloverin, moricin, and lysozyme. Our results suggest that proHP6 becomes activated in response to microbial infection and participates in two immune pathways; activation of PAP1, which leads to proPO activation and melanin synthesis, and activation of HP8, which stimulates a Toll-like pathway. PMID:19487692

  14. Cofactoring and Dimerization of Proteinase-Activated Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Huilan; Liu, Allen P.; Smith, Thomas H.

    2013-01-01

    Proteinase-activated receptors (PARs) are G protein–coupled receptors that transmit cellular responses to extracellular proteases and have important functions in vascular physiology, development, inflammation, and cancer progression. The established paradigm for PAR activation involves proteolytic cleavage of the extracellular N terminus, which reveals a new N terminus that functions as a tethered ligand by binding intramolecularly to the receptor to trigger transmembrane signaling. Most cells express more than one PAR, which can influence the mode of PAR activation and signaling. Clear examples include murine PAR3 cofactoring of PAR4 and transactivation of PAR2 by PAR1. Thrombin binds to and cleaves murine PAR3, which facilitates PAR4 cleavage and activation. This process is essential for thrombin signaling and platelet activation, since murine PAR3 cannot signal alone. Although PAR1 and PAR4 are both competent to signal, PAR1 is able to act as a cofactor for PAR4, facilitating more rapid cleavage and activation by thrombin. PAR1 can also facilitate PAR2 activation through a different mechanism. Cleavage of the PAR1 N terminus by thrombin generates a tethered ligand domain that can bind intermolecularly to PAR2 to activate signaling. Thus, PARs can regulate each other’s activity by localizing thrombin when in complex with PAR3 and PAR4 or by cleaved PAR1, providing its tethered ligand domain for PAR2 activation. The ability of PARs to cofactor or transactivate other PARs would necessitate that the two receptors be in close proximity, likely in the form of a heterodimer. Here, we discuss the cofactoring and dimerization of PARs and the functional consequences on signaling. PMID:24064459

  15. Norovirus Proteinase-Polymerase and Polymerase Are Both Active Forms of RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase

    PubMed Central

    Belliot, Gaël; Sosnovtsev, Stanislav V.; Chang, Kyeong-Ok; Babu, Vijay; Uche, Uzo; Arnold, Jamie J.; Cameron, Craig E.; Green, Kim Y.

    2005-01-01

    In vitro mapping studies of the MD145 norovirus (Caliciviridae) ORF1 polyprotein identified two stable cleavage products containing the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) domains: ProPol (a precursor comprised of both the proteinase and polymerase) and Pol (the mature polymerase). The goal of this study was to identify the active form (or forms) of the norovirus polymerase. The recombinant ProPol (expressed as Pro−Pol with an inactivated proteinase domain to prevent autocleavage) and recombinant Pol were purified after synthesis in bacteria and shown to be active RdRp enzymes. In addition, the mutant His-E1189A-ProPol protein (with active proteinase but with the natural ProPol cleavage site blocked) was active as an RdRp, confirming that the norovirus ProPol precursor could possess two enzymatic activities simultaneously. The effects of several UTP analogs on the RdRp activity of the norovirus and feline calicivirus Pro−Pol enzymes were compared and found to be similar. Our data suggest that the norovirus ProPol is a bifunctional enzyme during virus replication. The availability of this recombinant ProPol enzyme might prove useful in the development of antiviral drugs for control of the noroviruses associated with acute gastroenteritis. PMID:15681440

  16. Simple Bond Cleavage

    SciTech Connect

    Gary S. Groenewold

    2005-08-01

    Simple bond cleavage is a class of fragmentation reactions in which a single bond is broken, without formation of new bonds between previously unconnected atoms. Because no bond making is involved, simple bond cleavages are endothermic, and activation energies are generally higher than for rearrangement eliminations. The rate of simple bond cleavage reactions is a strong function of the internal energy of the molecular ion, which reflects a loose transition state that resembles reaction products, and has a high density of accessible states. For this reason, simple bond cleavages tend to dominate fragmentation reactions for highly energized molecular ions. Simple bond cleavages have negligible reverse activation energy, and hence they are used as valuable probes of ion thermochemistry, since the energy dependence of the reactions can be related to the bond energy. In organic mass spectrometry, simple bond cleavages of odd electron ions can be either homolytic or heterolytic, depending on whether the fragmentation is driven by the radical site or the charge site. Simple bond cleavages of even electron ions tend to be heterolytic, producing even electron product ions and neutrals.

  17. Inhibition of proteolytic activity of poliovirus and rhinovirus 2A proteinases by elastase-specific inhibitors.

    PubMed Central

    Molla, A; Hellen, C U; Wimmer, E

    1993-01-01

    A polyprotein cleavage assay has been developed to assay the proteolytic activities in vitro of the 2A proteinases encoded by poliovirus and human rhinovirus 14, which are representative members of the Enterovirus and Rhinovirus genera of picornaviruses, respectively. The elastase-specific substrate-based inhibitors elastatinal and methoxysuccinyl-Ala-Ala-Pro-Val-chloromethylketone (MPCMK) inhibited both 2A proteinases in vitro. The electrophoretic mobilities of both 2A proteinases were reduced upon incubation with elastatinal, whereas the mobility of a Cys-109-->Ala poliovirus 2Apro mutant was unchanged, an observation suggesting that this inhibitor may have formed a covalent bond with the active-site Cys-109 nucleophile. Iodoacetamide, calpain inhibitor 1, and antipain inhibited poliovirus 2Apro. MPCMK caused a reduction in the yields of the enteroviruses poliovirus type 1 and coxsackievirus A21 and of human rhinovirus 2 in infected HeLa cells but did not affect the growth of encephalomyocarditis virus, a picornavirus of the Cardiovirus genus. MPCMK abrogated the shutoff of host cell protein synthesis that is induced by enterovirus and rhinovirus infection and reduced the synthesis of virus-encoded polypeptides in infected cells. These results indicate that the determinants of substrate recognition by 2A proteinases resemble those of pancreatic and leukocyte elastases. These results may be relevant to the development of broad-range chemotherapeutic agents against entero- and rhinoviruses. Images PMID:8392608

  18. [Extracellular proteinases of filamentous fungi as potential markers of phytopathogenesis].

    PubMed

    Dunaevskiĭ, Ia E; Gruban', T N; Beliakova, G A; Belozerskiĭ, M A

    2006-01-01

    The presence of proteins in the culture liquid of filamentous fungi under study was found to induce the secretion of proteinases. The inhibitory analysis of the major extracellular proteinases of the saprotrophic fungus Trichoderma harzianum and the phytopathogenic fungus Alternaria alternata showed that they both belong to the group of serine proteinases. The substrate specificity of these proteinases and their sensitivity to inhibitors suggest that the enzyme of T. harzianum is a subtilisin-like proteinase and the enzyme of A. alternata is a trypsin-like proteinase. This difference between the proteinases may reflect the physiological difference between their producers (saprotroph and phytopathogen). PMID:17205798

  19. [Extracellular proteinases of filamentous fungi as potential markers of phytopathogenesis].

    PubMed

    Dunaevskiĭ, Ia E; Gruban', T N; Beliakova, G A; Belozerskiĭ, M A

    2006-01-01

    The presence of proteins in the culture liquid of filamentous fungi under study was found to induce the secretion of proteinases. The inhibitory analysis of the major extracellular proteinases of the saprotrophic fungus Trichoderma harzianum and the phytopathogenic fungus Alternaria alternata showed that they both belong to the group of serine proteinases. The substrate specificity of these proteinases and their sensitivity to inhibitors suggest that the enzyme of T. harzianum is a subtilisin-like proteinase and the enzyme of A. alternata is a trypsin-like proteinase. This difference between the proteinases may reflect the physiological difference between their producers (saprotroph and phytopathogen).

  20. Cleavage of nucleic acids

    DOEpatents

    Prudent, James R.; Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor I.; Brow, Mary Ann D.; Dahlberg, James E.

    2000-01-01

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  1. Cleavage of nucleic acids

    DOEpatents

    Prudent, James R.; Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor L.; Brow, Mary Ann D.; Dahlberg, James E.

    2007-12-11

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  2. Cleavage of nucleic acids

    SciTech Connect

    Prudent, James R.; Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor I.; Brow; Mary Ann D.; Dahlberg, James E.

    2010-11-09

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  3. Characterization and cloning of metallo-proteinase in the excretory/secretory products of the infective-stage larva of Trichinella spiralis.

    PubMed

    Lun, H M; Mak, C H; Ko, R C

    2003-05-01

    Inhibitor sensitivity assays using azocaesin and FTC-caesin as substrates showed that the excretory/secretory (E/S) products of the infective-stage larvae of Trichinella spiralis contained serine, metallo-, cysteine and aspartic proteinases. The activity of the metallo-proteinase was zinc ion dependent (within a range of ZnSO(4) concentrations). Gelatin-substrate gel electrophoresis revealed two bands of molecular mass 48 and 58 kDa which were sensitive to the metallo-proteinase inhibitor EDTA. The former peptide was probably a cleavage product of the latter. The authenticity of the 58 kDa metallo-proteinase as an E/S product was confirmed by immunoprecipitation. Using PCR and RACE reactions, a complete nucleotide sequence of the metallo-proteinase gene was obtained. It comprised 2,223 bp with an open reading frame encoding 604 amino acid residues. The 3' untranslated region consisted of 352 bp, including a polyadenylation signal AATAA. A consensus catalytic zinc-binding motif was present. The conserved domains suggest that the cloned metallo-proteinase belongs to the astacin family and occurs as a single copy gene with 11 introns and 10 exons. Cluster analysis showed that the sequence of the metallo-proteinase gene of T. spiralis resembles those of Caenorhabdites elegans and Strongyloides stercoralis. PMID:12743801

  4. Activity dependent CAM cleavage and neurotransmission

    PubMed Central

    Conant, Katherine; Allen, Megan; Lim, Seung T.

    2015-01-01

    Spatially localized proteolysis represents an elegant means by which neuronal activity dependent changes in synaptic structure, and thus experience dependent learning and memory, can be achieved. In vitro and in vivo studies suggest that matrix metalloproteinase and adamalysin activity is concentrated at the cell surface, and emerging evidence suggests that increased peri-synaptic expression, release and/or activation of these proteinases occurs with enhanced excitatory neurotransmission. Synaptically expressed cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) could therefore represent important targets for neuronal activity-dependent proteolysis. Several CAM subtypes are expressed at the synapse, and their cleavage can influence the efficacy of synaptic transmission through a variety of non-mutually exclusive mechanisms. In the following review, we discuss mechanisms that regulate neuronal activity-dependent synaptic CAM shedding, including those that may be calcium dependent. We also highlight CAM targets of activity-dependent proteolysis including neuroligin and intercellular adhesion molecule-5 (ICAM-5). We include discussion focused on potential consequences of synaptic CAM shedding, with an emphasis on interactions between soluble CAM cleavage products and specific pre- and post-synaptic receptors. PMID:26321910

  5. Biased signalling and proteinase-activated receptors (PARs): targeting inflammatory disease

    PubMed Central

    Hollenberg, M D; Mihara, K; Polley, D; Suen, J Y; Han, A; Fairlie, D P; Ramachandran, R

    2014-01-01

    Although it has been known since the 1960s that trypsin and chymotrypsin can mimic hormone action in tissues, it took until the 1990s to discover that serine proteinases can regulate cells by cleaving and activating a unique four-member family of GPCRs known as proteinase-activated receptors (PARs). PAR activation involves the proteolytic exposure of its N-terminal receptor sequence that folds back to function as a ‘tethered’ receptor-activating ligand (TL). A key N-terminal arginine in each of PARs 1 to 4 has been singled out as a target for cleavage by thrombin (PARs 1, 3 and 4), trypsin (PARs 2 and 4) or other proteases to unmask the TL that activates signalling via Gq, Gi or G12/13. Similarly, synthetic receptor-activating peptides, corresponding to the exposed ‘TL sequences’ (e.g. SFLLRN—, for PAR1 or SLIGRL— for PAR2) can, like proteinase activation, also drive signalling via Gq, Gi and G12/13, without requiring receptor cleavage. Recent data show, however, that distinct proteinase-revealed ‘non-canonical’ PAR tethered-ligand sequences and PAR-activating agonist and antagonist peptide analogues can induce ‘biased’ PAR signalling, for example, via G12/13-MAPKinase instead of Gq-calcium. This overview summarizes implications of this ‘biased’ signalling by PAR agonists and antagonists for the recognized roles the PARs play in inflammatory settings. Linked ArticlesThis article is part of a themed section on Molecular Pharmacology of GPCRs. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2014.171.issue-5 PMID:24354792

  6. Mutational analysis of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 protease suggests functional homology with aspartic proteinases.

    PubMed Central

    Loeb, D D; Hutchison, C A; Edgell, M H; Farmerie, W G; Swanstrom, R

    1989-01-01

    Processing of the retroviral gag and pol gene products is mediated by a viral protease. Bacterial expression systems have been developed which permit genetic analysis of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 protease as measured by cleavage of the pol protein precursor. Deletion analysis of the pol reading frame locates the sequences required to encode a protein with appropriate proteolytic activity near the left end of the pol reading frame but largely outside the gag-pol overlap region, which is at the extreme left end of pol. Most missense mutations within an 11-amino-acid domain highly conserved among retroviral proteases and with sequence similarity to the active site of aspartic proteinases abolish appropriate processing, suggesting that the retrovirus proteases share a catalytic mechanism with aspartic proteinases. Substitution of the amino acids flanking the scissile bond at three of the processing sites encoded by pol demonstrates distinct sequence requirements for cleavage at these different sites. The inclusion of a charged amino acid at the processing site blocks cleavage. A subset of these substitutions also inhibits processing at the nonmutated sites. Images PMID:2642305

  7. Flavivirus enzyme-substrate interactions studied with chimeric proteinases: identification of an intragenic locus important for substrate recognition.

    PubMed

    Preugschat, F; Lenches, E M; Strauss, J H

    1991-09-01

    The proteins of flaviviruses are translated as a single long polyprotein which is co- and posttranslationally processed by both cellular and viral proteinases. We have studied the processing of flavivirus polyproteins in vitro by a viral proteinase located within protein NS3 that cleaves at least three sites within the nonstructural region of the polyprotein, acting primarily autocatalytically. Recombinant polyproteins in which part of the polyprotein is derived from yellow fever virus and part from dengue virus were used. We found that polyproteins containing the yellow fever virus cleavage sites were processed efficiently by the yellow fever virus enzyme, by the dengue virus enzyme, and by various chimeric enzymes. In contrast, dengue virus cleavage sites were cleaved inefficiently by the dengue virus enzyme and not at all by the yellow fever virus enzyme. Studies with chimeric proteinases and with site-directed mutants provided evidence for a direct interaction between the cleavage sites and the proposed substrate-binding pocket of the enzyme. We also found that the efficiency and order of processing could be altered by site-directed mutagenesis of the proposed substrate-binding pocket.

  8. Modification of cystatin C activity by bacterial proteinases and neutrophil elastase in periodontitis.

    PubMed Central

    Abrahamson, M; Wikström, M; Potempa, J; Renvert, S; Hall, A

    1997-01-01

    AIM: To study the interaction between the human cysteine proteinase inhibitor, cystatin C, and proteinases of periodontitis associated bacteria. METHODS: Gingival crevicular fluid samples were collected from discrete periodontitis sites and their cystatin C content was estimated by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The interaction between cystatin C and proteolytic enzymes from cultured strains of the gingival bacteria Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia, and Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans was studied by measuring inhibition of enzyme activity against peptidyl substrates, by detection of break down patterns of solid phase coupled and soluble cystatin C, and by N-terminal sequence analysis of cystatin C products resulting from the interactions. RESULTS: Gingival crevicular fluid contained cystatin C at a concentration of approximately 15 nM. Cystatin C did not inhibit the principal thiol stimulated proteinase activity of P gingivalis. Instead, strains of P gingivalis and P intermedia, but not A actinomycetemcomitans, released cystatin C modifying proteinases. Extracts of five P gingivalis and five P intermedia strains all hydrolysed bonds in the N-terminal region of cystatin C at physiological pH values. The modified cystatin C resulting from incubation with one P gingivalis strain was isolated and found to lack the eight most N-terminal residues. The affinity of the modified inhibitor for cathepsin B was 20-fold lower (Ki 5 nM) than that of full length cystatin C. A 50 kDa thiol stimulated proteinase, gingipain R, was isolated from P gingivalis and shown to be responsible for the Arg8-bond hydrolysis in cystatin C. The cathepsin B inhibitory activity of cystatin C incubated with gingival crevicular fluid was rapidly abolished after Val10-bond cleavage by elastase from exudate neutrophils, but cleavage at the gingipain specific Arg8-bond was also demonstrated. CONCLUSIONS: The physiological control of cathepsin B activity is impeded in

  9. Solution structure of the squash aspartic acid proteinase inhibitor (SQAPI) and mutational analysis of pepsin inhibition.

    PubMed

    Headey, Stephen J; Macaskill, Ursula K; Wright, Michele A; Claridge, Jolyon K; Edwards, Patrick J B; Farley, Peter C; Christeller, John T; Laing, William A; Pascal, Steven M

    2010-08-27

    The squash aspartic acid proteinase inhibitor (SQAPI), a proteinaceous proteinase inhibitor from squash, is an effective inhibitor of a range of aspartic proteinases. Proteinaceous aspartic proteinase inhibitors are rare in nature. The only other example in plants probably evolved from a precursor serine proteinase inhibitor. Earlier work based on sequence homology modeling suggested SQAPI evolved from an ancestral cystatin. In this work, we determined the solution structure of SQAPI using NMR and show that SQAPI shares the same fold as a plant cystatin. The structure is characterized by a four-strand anti-parallel beta-sheet gripping an alpha-helix in an analogous manner to fingers of a hand gripping a tennis racquet. Truncation and site-specific mutagenesis revealed that the unstructured N terminus and the loop connecting beta-strands 1 and 2 are important for pepsin inhibition, but the loop connecting strands 3 and 4 is not. Using ambiguous restraints based on the mutagenesis results, SQAPI was then docked computationally to pepsin. The resulting model places the N-terminal strand of SQAPI in the S' side of the substrate binding cleft, whereas the first SQAPI loop binds on the S side of the cleft. The backbone of SQAPI does not interact with the pepsin catalytic Asp(32)-Asp(215) diad, thus avoiding cleavage. The data show that SQAPI does share homologous structural elements with cystatin and appears to retain a similar protease inhibitory mechanism despite its different target. This strongly supports our hypothesis that SQAPI evolved from an ancestral cystatin.

  10. The picornaviral 3C proteinases: cysteine nucleophiles in serine proteinase folds.

    PubMed Central

    Malcolm, B. A.

    1995-01-01

    The 3C proteinases are a novel group of cysteine proteinases with a serine proteinase-like fold that are responsible for the bulk of polyprotein processing in the Picornaviridae. Because members of this viral family are to blame for several ongoing global pandemic problems (rhinovirus, hepatitis A virus) as well as sporadic outbreaks of more serious pathologies (poliovirus), there has been continuing interest over the last two decades in the development of antiviral therapies. The recent determination of the structure of two of the 3C proteinases by X-ray crystallography opens the door for the application of the latest advances in computer-assisted identification and design of anti-proteinase therapeutic/chemoprophylactic agents. PMID:8520469

  11. In Vitro Processing of Tomato Proteinase Inhibitor I by Barley Microsomal Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Osteryoung, Katherine W.; Sticher, Liliane; Jones, Russell L.; Bennett, Alan B.

    1992-01-01

    A plant-derived in vitro system for the study of cotranslational processing of plant endomembrane proteins has been developed and used to investigate cotranslational proteolytic processing of tomato proteinase inhibitor I. Translation of the inhibitor I precursor in wheat germ lysate supplemented with barley aleurone microsomal membranes resulted in cotranslational import of the protein into microsomal vesicles and cleavage of the signal sequence. NH2-terminal sequence analysis of the translocated inhibitor I processing intermediate showed that the signal sequence was cleaved between Ala23 and Arg24 of the precursor protein. Parallel experiments using dog pancreas microsomal membranes indicated an identical site of cleavage, suggesting that the substrate determinants for signal sequence processing are conserved across kingdoms. The plant-derived processing system used for this study may be valuable for analysis of cotranslational processing of other plant preproteins and for characterizing the components of the cotranslational import machinery in plants. ImagesFigure 1 PMID:16668894

  12. Proteinase K improves quantitative acylation studies.

    PubMed

    Fränzel, Benjamin; Fischer, Frank; Steegborn, Clemens; Wolters, Dirk Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Acetylation is a common PTM of proteins but is still challenging to analyze. Only few acetylome studies have been performed to tackle this issue. Yet, the detection of acetylated proteins in complex cell lysates remains to be improved. Here, we present a proteomic approach with proteinase K as a suitable protease to identify acetylated peptides quantitatively. We first optimized the digestion conditions using an artificial system of purified bovine histones to find the optimal protease. Subsequently, the capability of proteinase K was demonstrated in complex HEK293 cell lysates. Finally, SILAC in combination with MudPIT was used to show that quantification with proteinase K is possible. In this study, we identified a sheer number of 557 unique acetylated peptides originating from 633 acetylation sites.

  13. Roles of the Picornaviral 3C Proteinase in the Viral Life Cycle and Host Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Di; Chen, Shun; Cheng, Anchun; Wang, Mingshu

    2016-01-01

    The Picornaviridae family comprises a large group of non-enveloped viruses that have a major impact on human and veterinary health. The viral genome contains one open reading frame encoding a single polyprotein that can be processed by viral proteinases. The crucial 3C proteinases (3Cpros) of picornaviruses share similar spatial structures and it is becoming apparent that 3Cpro plays a significant role in the viral life cycle and virus host interaction. Importantly, the proteinase and RNA-binding activity of 3Cpro are involved in viral polyprotein processing and the initiation of viral RNA synthesis. In addition, 3Cpro can induce the cleavage of certain cellular factors required for transcription, translation and nucleocytoplasmic trafficking to modulate cell physiology for viral replication. Due to interactions between 3Cpro and these essential factors, 3Cpro is also involved in viral pathogenesis to support efficient infection. Furthermore, based on the structural conservation, the development of irreversible inhibitors and discovery of non-covalent inhibitors for 3Cpro are ongoing and a better understanding of the roles played by 3Cpro may provide insights into the development of potential antiviral treatments. In this review, the current knowledge regarding the structural features, multiple functions in the viral life cycle, pathogen host interaction, and development of antiviral compounds for 3Cpro is summarized. PMID:26999188

  14. Molecular dynamic and docking interaction study of Heterodera glycines serine proteinase with Vigna mungo proteinase inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Prasad, C V S Siva; Gupta, Saurabh; Gaponenko, Alex; Tiwari, Murlidhar

    2013-08-01

    Many plants do produce various defense proteins like proteinase inhibitors (PIs) to protect them against various pests. PIs function as pseudosubstrates of digestive proteinase, which inhibits proteolysis in pests and leads to amino acid deficiency-based mortality. This work reports the structural interaction studies of serine proteinase of Heterodera glycines (SPHG) with Vigna mungo proteinase inhibitor (VMPI). 3D protein structure modeling, validation of SPHG and VMPI, and their putative protein-protein binding sites were predicted. Protein-protein docking followed by molecular dynamic simulation was performed to find the reliable confirmation of SPHG-VMPI complex. Trajectory analysis of each successive conformation concludes better interaction of first loop in comparison with second loop. Lysine residues of first loop were actively participating in complex formation. Overall, this study discloses the structural aspects and interaction mechanisms of VMPI with SPHG, and it would be helpful in the development of pest-resistant genetically modified crops.

  15. Identification and characterization of a serine-like proteinase of the murine coronavirus MHV-A59.

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Y; Lu, X; Denison, M R

    1995-01-01

    Gene 1 of the murine coronavirus, MHV-A59, encodes approximately 800 kDa of protein products within two overlapping open reading frames (ORFs 1a and 1b). The gene is expressed as a polyprotein that is processed into individual proteins, presumably by virus-encoded proteinases. ORF 1a has been predicted to encode proteins with similarity to viral and cellular proteinases, such as papain, and to the 3C proteinases of the picornaviruses (A. E. Gorbalenya, A. P. Donchenko, V. M. Blinov, and E. V. Koonin, FEBS Lett. 243:103-114, 1989; A. E. Gorbalenya, E. V. Koonin, A. P. Donchenko, and V. M. Blinov, Nucleic Acids Res. 17:4847-4861, 1989). We have cloned into a T7 transcription vector a cDNA fragment containing the putative 3C-like proteinase domain of MHV-A59, along with portions of the flanking hydrophobic domains. The construct was used to express a polypeptide in a combined in vitro transcription-translation system. Major polypeptides with molecular masses of 38 and 33 kDa were detected at early times, whereas polypeptides with molecular masses of 32 and 27 kDa were predominant after 30 to 45 min and appeared to be products of specific proteolysis of larger precursors. Mutations at the putative catalytic histidine and cysteine residues abolished the processing of the 27-kDa protein. Translation products of the pGpro construct were able to cleave the 27-kDa protein in trans from polypeptides expressed from the noncleaving histidine or cysteine mutants. The amino-terminal cleavage of the 27-kDa protein occurred at a glutamine-serine dipeptide as previously predicted. This study provides experimental confirmation that the coronaviruses express an active proteinase within the 3C-like proteinase domain of gene 1 ORF 1a and that this proteinase utilizes at least one canonical QS dipeptide as a cleavage site in vitro. PMID:7745703

  16. Novel proteinase inhibitor promotes resistance to insects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A novel Beta vulgaris serine proteinase inhibitor gene (BvSTI) and its protein are identified in response to insect feeding on B. vulgaris seedlings. BvSTI is cloned into an expression vector with constitutive promoter and transformed into Nicotiana benthamiana plants to assess BvSTI’s ability to ...

  17. [Extracellular proteinases from the phytopathogenic fungus Fusarium culmorum].

    PubMed

    Ievleva, E V; Revina, T A; Kudriavtseva, N N; Sof'in, A V; Valueva, T A

    2006-01-01

    The growth of Fusarium culmorum fungus on a medium containing thermostable proteins from potato tubers was accompanied by the production of proteinases, exhibiting activity over a broad pH range (from 6.0-10.0). When studied by SDS-PAGE in the presence of beta-mercaptoethanol, extracellular proteinases were represented by at least five species with a molecular weight of 30-60 kDa. Inhibitor analysis and studies of enzyme activities with synthetic substrates demonstrated that the culture liquid of Fusarium culmorum contained serine proteinases of various classes. The amount of subtilisin-like proteinases was the highest. A near-complete inhibition of the enzymes was caused by proteinaceous proteinase inhibitors from potato tubers. These data suggest that proteinases of the phytopathogen Fusarium culmorum serve as a metabolic target for natural inhibitors of potato proteinases.

  18. Silk gland-specific proteinase inhibitor serpin16 from the Bombyx mori shows cysteine proteinase inhibitory activity.

    PubMed

    Guo, Peng-Chao; Dong, Zhaoming; Xiao, Li; Li, Tao; Zhang, Yan; He, Huawei; Xia, Qingyou; Zhao, Ping

    2015-01-30

    Serpins (serine proteinase inhibitors) are widely distributed in different species and are well known for their inhibitory activities towards serine proteinases. Here, we report the functional characterization of Bombyx mori serpin16. Expression analysis showed that serpin16 was specifically expressed at high levels in the silk gland at both the transcriptional and translational levels. Moreover, homology modeling and multi-sequence alignment suggested that serpin16 had a canonical serpin fold, but it contained a unique reactive center loop, which was obviously shorter than that of typical serpins. Inhibitory activity analyses revealed that the target proteinase of serpin18 is a cysteine proteinase, rather than a serine proteinase. Furthermore, a Michaelis complex model of serpin16 with its target proteinase was constructed to explain the structural basis of how serpin16 recognizes the cysteine proteinase and its target specificity.

  19. Diversity of digestive proteinases in Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) larvae.

    PubMed

    Vinokurov, K S; Elpidina, E N; Oppert, B; Prabhakar, S; Zhuzhikov, D P; Dunaevsky, Y E; Belozersky, M A

    2006-10-01

    The spectrum of Tenebrio molitor larval digestive proteinases was studied in the context of the spatial organization of protein digestion in the midgut. The pH of midgut contents increased from 5.2-5.6 to 7.8-8.2 from the anterior to the posterior. This pH gradient was reflected in the pH optima of the total proteolytic activity, 5.2 in the anterior and 9.0 in the posterior midgut. When measured at the pH and reducing conditions characteristic of each midgut section, 64% of the total proteolytic activity was in the anterior and 36% in the posterior midgut. In the anterior midgut, two-thirds of the total activity was due to cysteine proteinases, whereas the rest was from serine proteinases. In contrast, most (76%) of the proteolytic activity in the posterior midgut was from serine proteinases. Cysteine proteinases from the anterior were represented by a group of anionic fractions with similar electrophoretic mobility. Trypsin-like activity was predominant in the posterior midgut and was due to one cationic and three anionic proteinases. Chymotrypsin-like proteinases also were prominent in the posterior midgut and consisted of one cationic and four anionic proteinases, four with an extended binding site. Latent proteinase activity was detected in each midgut section. These data support a complex system of protein digestion, and the correlation of proteinase activity and pH indicates a physiological mechanism of enzyme regulation in the gut.

  20. Facile identification by electrospray mass spectrometry of the insulin fragment A14-21-B17-30 produced by insulin proteinase.

    PubMed

    Vu, L; Stöcklin, R; Rose, K; Offord, R E

    1993-11-01

    We confirm the cleavage at position B16-17 of porcine insulin which occurs during in vitro digestion by insulin proteinase. The fragment A14-21-B17-30 was purified by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography and characterized by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Fast-atom bombardment mass spectrometry, on the other hand, failed to detect the presence of this fragment.

  1. Purification and characterization of a salt-activated and organic solvent-stable heterotrimer proteinase from Virgibacillus sp. SK33 isolated from Thai fish sauce.

    PubMed

    Sinsuwan, Sornchai; Rodtong, Sureelak; Yongsawatdigul, Jirawat

    2010-01-13

    A NaCl-activated proteinase produced by Virgibacillus sp. SK33 was purified to homogeneity using phenyl-Sepharose and Sephadex G-75 with a yield of 12% and purification of 2.6-fold. A single protein was detected at approximately 32 kDa by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. However, three subunits with molecular weights of 27,858, 33,918, and 35,368 Da were obtained from MALDI-TOF mass spectra, implying that the enzyme was a heterotrimer. The isoelectric point of the proteinase was 5.4. Optimum catalytic activity was at 55 degrees C and pH 7.5. The enzyme showed serine characteristics as it was completely inhibited by phenylmethanesulfonyl fluoride. The purified proteinase showed broad specificity toward oxidized insulin B including Gln4, Cys7, Glu13, Ala14, Leu15,17, Tyr16,26, Arg22, Phe24,25, and Lys29. Dominant cleavage sites of the enzyme were Tyr16-Leu17 and Phe25-Tyr26, indicating that it preferably hydrolyzed aromatic amino acids located on the P1 site. Among various substrates studied, the enzyme hydrolyzed anchovy protein to the greatest extent at 4 M NaCl. Activity increased with either CaCl2 or NaCl concentration with the maximum 2-fold increase at either 50 mM CaCl2 or 4 M NaCl. The enzyme was also highly stable up to 500 mM CaCl2 or 4 M NaCl. The proteinase showed high stability in various organic solvents (25%, v/v) including dimethylsulfoxide, methanol, acetonitrile, and ethanol. Results of peptide mass fingerprint and de novo peptide sequencing showed that the purified proteinase is a novel proteinase. The proteinase from Virgibacillus sp. SK33 could have a potential application in high ionic strength environments and aqueous-organic solvent systems. PMID:19938835

  2. Keratinolytic proteinase from Bacillus thuringiensis AD-12.

    PubMed

    Gegeckas, Audrius; Gudiukaitė, Renata; Citavicius, Donaldas

    2014-08-01

    A new isolated strain noted to produce a novel detergent-stable serine keratinolytic proteinase and identified as Bacillus thuringiensis AD-12. Native keratinolytic proteinase from B. thuringiensis (BtKER) was purified and characterized. The purified BtKER enzyme is a monomer with a molecular mass of 39kDa. Biochemical characterization assays revealed that the BtKER attained optimal activity at pH 7 and 30°C. Residual activity after 1h incubation at 50°C was higher than 80%. The enzyme was activated and stabilized by Mn(2+) and Li(+) metal ions but inactivated by organic solvents. Purified BtKER showed the highest substrate specificity toward keratin from wool>sodium caseinate>collagen>BSA>gelatin in descending order. BtKER is the first reported keratinolytic proteinase from B. thuringiensis and obtained results suggested that new characterized enzyme can be a powerful biocatalyst in peptide production associated to hydrolysis of keratinous and/or keratin-like waste.

  3. Oxidized mucus proteinase inhibitor: a fairly potent neutrophil elastase inhibitor.

    PubMed Central

    Boudier, C; Bieth, J G

    1994-01-01

    N-chlorosuccinimide oxidizes one of the methionine residues of mucus proteinase inhibitor with a second-order rate constant of 1.5 M-1.s-1. Cyanogen bromide cleavage and NH2-terminal sequencing show that the modified residue is methionine-73, the P'1 component of the inhibitor's active centre. Oxidation of the inhibitor decreases its neutrophil elastase inhibitory capacity but does not fully abolish it. The kinetic parameters describing the elastase-oxidized inhibitor interaction are: association rate constant kass. = 2.6 x 10(5) M-1.s-1, dissociation rate constant kdiss. = 2.9 x 10(-3) s-1 and equilibrium dissociation constant Ki = 1.1 x 10(-8) M. Comparison with the native inhibitor indicates that oxidation decreases kass. by a factor of 18.8 and increases kdiss. by a factor of 6.4, and therefore leads to a 120-fold increase in Ki. Yet, the oxidized inhibitor may still act as a potent elastase inhibitor in the upper respiratory tract where its concentration is 500-fold higher than Ki, i.e. where the elastase inhibition is pseudo-irreversible. Experiments in vitro with fibrous human lung elastin, the most important natural substrate of elastase, support this view: 1.35 microM elastase is fully inhibited by 5-6 microM oxidized inhibitor whether the enzyme-inhibitor complex is formed in the presence or absence of elastin and whether elastase is pre-adsorbed on elastin or not. PMID:7945266

  4. Prediction of Protein Cleavage Site with Feature Selection by Random Forest

    PubMed Central

    Li, Bi-Qing; Cai, Yu-Dong; Feng, Kai-Yan; Zhao, Gui-Jun

    2012-01-01

    Proteinases play critical roles in both intra and extracellular processes by binding and cleaving their protein substrates. The cleavage can either be non-specific as part of degradation during protein catabolism or highly specific as part of proteolytic cascades and signal transduction events. Identification of these targets is extremely challenging. Current computational approaches for predicting cleavage sites are very limited since they mainly represent the amino acid sequences as patterns or frequency matrices. In this work, we developed a novel predictor based on Random Forest algorithm (RF) using maximum relevance minimum redundancy (mRMR) method followed by incremental feature selection (IFS). The features of physicochemical/biochemical properties, sequence conservation, residual disorder, amino acid occurrence frequency, secondary structure and solvent accessibility were utilized to represent the peptides concerned. Here, we compared existing prediction tools which are available for predicting possible cleavage sites in candidate substrates with ours. It is shown that our method makes much more reliable predictions in terms of the overall prediction accuracy. In addition, this predictor allows the use of a wide range of proteinases. PMID:23029276

  5. Characterization of an exocellular serine-thiol proteinase activity in Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Carmona, A K; Puccia, R; Oliveira, M C; Rodrigues, E G; Juliano, L; Travassos, L R

    1995-07-01

    An exocellular proteinase activity has been characterized in Paracoccidioides brasiliensis culture filtrates. Chromatographic analysis showed that the activity was eluted from an anion-exchange Resource Q column at 0.08-0.1 M NaCl, and by gel filtration near ovalbumin elution, in a single peak. Purification of the proteinase, however, was hampered by the low protein yield, in contrast to the high peptidase activity. Numerous chromogenic peptidyl p-nitroanilide derivatives and internally quenched fluorescent peptides, flanked by Abz (O-aminobenzoyl) and EDDnp (ethylenediaminedinitrophenyl), were tested as substrates. Cleavage was observed with Abz-MKRLTL-EDDnp, Abz-FRLVR-EDDnp, and Abz-PLGLLGR-EDDnp at Leu-Thr, Leu-Val and Leu-Leu/Leu-Gly bonds respectively as determined by isolation of the corresponding fragments by HPLC. Leucine at P1 seemed to be restrictive for the activity of the exocellular enzyme, but threonine (P'1) and leucine (P'2) in Abz-MKRLTL-EDDnp apparently were not essential. Also, a pair of alanines could substitute for lysine (P3) and arginine (P2) in this substrate, with a decrease in the Km values. The exocellular peptidase activity of P. brasiliensis had an optimum pH of > 9.0 and was irreversibly inhibited by PMSF, mercuric acetate and p-hydroxymercuribenzoate. Inhibition of the mercuriate compounds could be partially reversed by Cys/EDTA. E-64 [trans-epoxysuccinyl-L-leucylamido-(4-guanido)butene] was a weak and reversible inhibitor, whereas EDTA and pepstatin were not inhibitory. These results suggest that P. brasiliensis exocellular enzyme belongs to the subfamily of SH-containing serine proteinases.

  6. Invasive cleavage of nucleic acids

    DOEpatents

    Prudent, James R.; Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor I.; Brow, Mary Ann D.; Dahlberg, James E.

    2002-01-01

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  7. Invasive cleavage of nucleic acids

    DOEpatents

    Prudent, James R.; Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor I.; Brow, Mary Ann D.; Dahlberg, James E.

    1999-01-01

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  8. Manduca sexta proprophenoloxidase activating proteinase-3 (PAP3) stimulates melanization by activating proPAP3, proSPHs, and proPOs

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yang; Lu, Zhiqiang; Jiang, Haobo

    2014-01-01

    Melanization participates in various insect physiological processes including antimicrobial immune responses. Phenoloxidase (PO), a critical component of the enzyme system catalyzing melanin formation, is produced as an inactive precursor prophenoloxidase (proPO) and becomes active via specific proteolytic cleavage by proPO activating proteinase (PAP). In Manduca sexta, three PAPs can activate proPOs in the presence of two serine proteinase homologs (SPH1 and SPH2). While the hemolymph proteinases (HPs) that generate the active PAPs are known, it is unclear how the proSPHs (especially proSPH1) are activated. In this study, we isolated from plasma of bar-stage M. sexta larvae an Ile-Glu-Ala-Arg-p-nitroanilide hydrolyzing enzyme that cleaved the proSPHs. This proteinase, PAP3, generated active SPH1 and SPH2, which function as cofactors for PAP3 in proPO activation. Cleavage of the purified recombinant proSPHs by PAP3 yielded 38 kDa bands similar in mobility to the SPHs formed in vivo. Surprisingly, PAP3 also can activate proPAP3 to stimulate melanization in a direct positive feedback loop. The enhanced proPO activation concurred with the cleavage activation of proHP6, proHP8, proPAP1, proPAP3, proSPH1, proSPH2, proPOs, but not proHP14 or proHP21. These results indicate that PAP3, like PAP1, is a key factor of the self-reinforcing mechanism in the proPO activation system, which is linked to other immune responses in M. sexta. PMID:24768974

  9. New aspartic proteinase of Ulysses retrotransposon from Drosophila virilis.

    PubMed

    Volkov, D A; Dergousova, N I; Rumsh, L D

    2004-06-01

    This work is focused on the investigation of a proteinase of Ulysses mobile genetic element from Drosophila virilis. The primary structure of this proteinase is suggested based on comparative analysis of amino acid sequences of aspartic proteinases from retroviruses and retrotransposons. The corresponding cDNA fragment has been cloned and expressed in E. coli. The protein accumulated in inclusion bodies. The recombinant protein (12 kD) was subjected to refolding and purified by affinity chromatography on pepstatin-agarose. Proteolytic activity of the protein was determined using oligopeptide substrates melittin and insulin B-chain. It was found that the maximum of the proteolytic activity is displayed at pH 5.5 as for the majority of aspartic proteinases. We observed that hydrolysis of B-chain of insulin was totally inhibited by pepstatin A in the micromolar concentration range. The molecular weight of the monomer of the Ulysses proteinase was determined by MALDI-TOF mass-spectrometry.

  10. Activation of progelatinase A (MMP-2) by neutrophil elastase, cathepsin G, and proteinase-3: a role for inflammatory cells in tumor invasion and angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Shamamian, P; Schwartz, J D; Pocock, B J; Monea, S; Whiting, D; Marcus, S G; Mignatti, P

    2001-11-01

    Gelatinase A (MMP-2), a matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) involved in tumor invasion and angiogenesis, is secreted as an inactive zymogen (proMMP-2) and activated by proteolytic cleavage. Here we report that polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN)-derived elastase, cathepsin G, and proteinase-3 activate proMMP-2 through a mechanism that requires membrane-type 1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) expression. Immunoprecipitation of human PMN-conditioned medium with a mixture of antibodies to elastase, cathepsin G, and proteinase-3 abolished proMMP-2 activation, whereas individual antibodies were ineffective. Incubation of HT1080 cells with either purified PMN elastase or cathepsin G or proteinase-3 resulted in dose-and time-dependent proMMP-2 activation. Addition of PMN-conditioned medium to MT1-MMP expressing cells resulted in increased proMMP-2 activation and in vitro invasion of extracellular matrix (ECM), but had no effect with cells that express no MT1-MMP. MMP-2 activation by PMN-conditioned medium or purified elastase was blocked by the elastase inhibitor alpha(1)-antitrypsin but not by Batimastat, an MMP inhibitor, showing that elastase activation of MMP-2 is not mediated by MMP activities. The PMN-conditioned medium-induced increase in cell invasion was blocked by Batimastat as well as by alpha(1)-antitrypsin, showing that PMN serine proteinases trigger a proteinase cascade that entails proMMP-2 activation: this gelatinase is the downstream effector of the proinvasive activity of PMN proteinases. These findings indicate a novel role for PMN-mediated inflammation in a variety of tissue remodeling processes including tumor invasion and angiogenesis. PMID:11598905

  11. [Characterization of thermal denaturation process of proteinase K by spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qi-Bing; Na, Xin-Zhu; Yin, Zong-Ning

    2013-07-01

    The effect of different temperatures on the activity and conformational changes of proteinase K was studied. Methods Proteinase K was treated with different temperatures, then denatured natural substrate casein was used to assay enzyme activity, steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy was used to study tertiary structure, and circular dichroism was used to study secondary structure. Results show with the temperature rising from 25 to 65 degrees C, the enzyme activity and half-life of proteinase K dropped, maximum emission wavelength red shifted from 335 to 354 nm with fluorescence intensity decreasing. Synchronous fluorescence intensity of tryptophan residues decreased and that of tyrosine residues increased. Fluorescence lifetime of tryptophan residues reduced from 4. 427 1 to 4. 032 4 ns and the fraction of alpha-helix dropped. It was concluded that it is simple and accurate to use steady-state/time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy and circular dichroism to investigate thermal stability of proteinase K. Thermal denaturation of proteinase K followed a three-state process. Fluorescence intensity of proteinase K was affected by fluorescence resonance energy transfer from tyrosine to tryptophan residues. The alpha-helix was the main structure to maintain conformational stability of enzyme active site of proteinase K.

  12. Coevolution between pathogen-derived proteinases and proteinase inhibitors of host insects.

    PubMed

    Vilcinskas, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    Virulence is thought to coevolve as a result of reciprocal selection between pathogens and their hosts. This paper focuses on coevolution between microbial proteinases operating as virulence factors and host defense molecules of insects. Owing to shorter generation times and smaller genomes, microbes exhibit a high evolutionary adaptability in comparison with their hosts. Indeed, the latter can only compete with pathogens if they evolve mechanisms providing a comparable genetic plasticity. Gene or domain duplication and shuffling by recombination is the driving force behind the countermeasures in host defense effectors. Recent literature provides evidence for both diversifications of fungal proteinases involved in pathogenesis and expansion host proteinase inhibitors subsets contributing to insect innate immunity. For example, the pathogen-associated spectrum of proteolytic enzymes encompasses thermolysin-like metalloproteinases that putatively promoted the evolution of corresponding host inhibitors of these virulence factors which complement the insect repertoire of antimicrobial defense molecules. Beyond mutual diversification of effector molecules coevolution resulted also in sophisticated molecular adaptations of host insects such as sensing and feedback-loop regulation of microbial metalloproteinases and corresponding countermeasures of pathogens providing evasion of host immunity induced by these virulence factors.

  13. Mammalian subtilisin/kexin isozyme SKI-1: A widely expressed proprotein convertase with a unique cleavage specificity and cellular localization

    PubMed Central

    Seidah, Nabil G.; Mowla, Seyed J.; Hamelin, Josée; Mamarbachi, Aida M.; Benjannet, Suzanne; Touré, Barry B.; Basak, Ajoy; Munzer, Jon Scott; Marcinkiewicz, Jadwiga; Zhong, Mei; Barale, Jean-Christophe; Lazure, Claude; Murphy, Richard A.; Chrétien, Michel; Marcinkiewicz, Mieczyslaw

    1999-01-01

    Using reverse transcriptase–PCR and degenerate oligonucleotides derived from the active-site residues of subtilisin/kexin-like serine proteinases, we have identified a highly conserved and phylogenetically ancestral human, rat, and mouse type I membrane-bound proteinase called subtilisin/kexin-isozyme-1 (SKI-1). Computer databank searches reveal that human SKI-1 was cloned previously but with no identified function. In situ hybridization demonstrates that SKI-1 mRNA is present in most tissues and cells. Cleavage specificity studies show that SKI-1 generates a 28-kDa product from the 32-kDa brain-derived neurotrophic factor precursor, cleaving at an RGLT↓SL bond. In the endoplasmic reticulum of either LoVo or HK293 cells, proSKI-1 is processed into two membrane-bound forms of SKI-1 (120 and 106 kDa) differing by the nature of their N-glycosylation. Late along the secretory pathway some of the membrane-bound enzyme is shed into the medium as a 98-kDa form. Immunocytochemical analysis of stably transfected HK293 cells shows that SKI-1 is present in the Golgi apparatus and within small punctate structures reminiscent of endosomes. In vitro studies suggest that SKI-1 is a Ca2+-dependent serine proteinase exhibiting a wide pH optimum for cleavage of pro-brain-derived neurotrophic factor. PMID:9990022

  14. Protein inhibitors of serine proteinases: role of backbone structure and dynamics in controlling the hydrolysis constant.

    PubMed

    Song, Jikui; Markley, John L

    2003-05-13

    Standard mechanism protein inhibitors of serine proteinases bind as substrates and are cleaved by cognate proteinases at their reactive sites. The hydrolysis constant for this cleavage reaction at the P(1)-P(1)' peptide bond (K(hyd)) is determined by the relative concentrations at equilibrium of the "intact" (uncleaved, I) and "modified" (reactive site cleaved, I*) forms of the inhibitor. The pH dependence of K(hyd) can be explained in terms of a pH-independent term, K(hyd) degrees, plus the proton dissociation constants of the newly formed amino and carboxylate groups at the cleavage site. Two protein inhibitors that differ from one another by a single residue substitution have been found to have K(hyd) degrees values that differ by a factor of 5 [Ardelt, W., and Laskowski, M., Jr. (1991) J. Mol. Biol. 220, 1041-1052]: turkey ovomucoid third domain (OMTKY3) has K(hyd) degrees = 1.0, and Indian peafowl ovomucoid third domain (OMIPF3), which differs from OMTKY3 by the substitution P(2)'-Tyr(20)His, has K(hyd) degrees = 5.15. What mechanism is responsible for this small difference? Is it structural (enthalpic) or dynamic (entropic)? Does the mutation affect the free energy of the I state, the I* state, or both? We have addressed these questions through NMR investigations of the I and I forms of OMTKY3 and OMIPF3. Information about structure was derived from measurements of NMR chemical shift changes and trans-hydrogen-bond J-couplings; information about dynamics was obtained through measurements of (15)N relaxation rates and (1)H-(15)N heteronuclear NOEs with model-free analysis of the results. Although the I forms of each variant are more dynamic than the corresponding I forms, the study revealed no appreciable difference in the backbone dynamics of either intact inhibitor (OMIPF3 vs OMTKY3) or modified inhibitor (OMIPF3* vs OMTKY3*). Instead, changes in chemical shifts and trans-hydrogen-bond J-couplings suggested that the K(hyd) degrees difference arises from

  15. Protein inhibitors of serine proteinases: role of backbone structure and dynamics in controlling the hydrolysis constant.

    PubMed

    Song, Jikui; Markley, John L

    2003-05-13

    Standard mechanism protein inhibitors of serine proteinases bind as substrates and are cleaved by cognate proteinases at their reactive sites. The hydrolysis constant for this cleavage reaction at the P(1)-P(1)' peptide bond (K(hyd)) is determined by the relative concentrations at equilibrium of the "intact" (uncleaved, I) and "modified" (reactive site cleaved, I*) forms of the inhibitor. The pH dependence of K(hyd) can be explained in terms of a pH-independent term, K(hyd) degrees, plus the proton dissociation constants of the newly formed amino and carboxylate groups at the cleavage site. Two protein inhibitors that differ from one another by a single residue substitution have been found to have K(hyd) degrees values that differ by a factor of 5 [Ardelt, W., and Laskowski, M., Jr. (1991) J. Mol. Biol. 220, 1041-1052]: turkey ovomucoid third domain (OMTKY3) has K(hyd) degrees = 1.0, and Indian peafowl ovomucoid third domain (OMIPF3), which differs from OMTKY3 by the substitution P(2)'-Tyr(20)His, has K(hyd) degrees = 5.15. What mechanism is responsible for this small difference? Is it structural (enthalpic) or dynamic (entropic)? Does the mutation affect the free energy of the I state, the I* state, or both? We have addressed these questions through NMR investigations of the I and I forms of OMTKY3 and OMIPF3. Information about structure was derived from measurements of NMR chemical shift changes and trans-hydrogen-bond J-couplings; information about dynamics was obtained through measurements of (15)N relaxation rates and (1)H-(15)N heteronuclear NOEs with model-free analysis of the results. Although the I forms of each variant are more dynamic than the corresponding I forms, the study revealed no appreciable difference in the backbone dynamics of either intact inhibitor (OMIPF3 vs OMTKY3) or modified inhibitor (OMIPF3* vs OMTKY3*). Instead, changes in chemical shifts and trans-hydrogen-bond J-couplings suggested that the K(hyd) degrees difference arises from

  16. Multiple forms of calcium-dependent proteinase in crustacean muscle

    SciTech Connect

    Mykles, D.L.; Skinner, D.M.

    1986-01-01

    Four calcium-dependent proteinase (CDP) activities in lobster muscles have been resolved by high performance liquid chromatography. These activities differ in molecular weight and net charge. Though optimum activity occurred at high (5 and 10 mM) calcium at pH 6.8, the enzymes differ in activation at lower calcium concentrations. Only one of the CDPs is active at 100 ..mu..M calcium; none are active at 10 ..mu..M and below. Although all four CDPs are inhibited by the cysteine proteinase inhibitors leupeptin, E-64, and iodoacetamide, they show a differential response to the aspartic proteinase inhibitor pepstatin and the serine proteinase inhibitor PMSF. In contrast to CDPs from vertebrate tissues, crustacean muscles contain multiple forms that require calcium at millimolar levels. 17 refs., 6 figs.

  17. [Inactivation of T4 phage in water environment using proteinase].

    PubMed

    Lü, Wen-zhou; Yang, Qing-xiang; Zhang, Yu; Yang, Min; Zhu, Chun-fang

    2004-09-01

    The inactivation effectiveness of proteinase to viruses was investigated by using T4 phage as a model virus. The results showed that the inactivation effectiveness of proteinase to T4 phage was obvious. In the optimum conditions and 67.5 u/mL concentration, the inactivation rate of proteinase K to T4 phage in sterilized water and in sewage achieved 99.4% and 49.4% respectively in an hour, and achieved >99.9% and 81.1% in three hours. The inactivation rate of the industrial proteinase 1398 to T4 phage in sterilized water achieved 74.4% in an hour. The effects of pH and temperature on the inactivation effectiveness was not evident.

  18. Purification of human leucocyte DNA: proteinase K is not necessary.

    PubMed

    Douglas, A M; Georgalis, A M; Benton, L R; Canavan, K L; Atchison, B A

    1992-03-01

    A rapid nontoxic method for the purification of DNA from human leucocytes is described. Preliminary experiments which tested different methods of DNA purification indicated that digestion of proteins with proteinase K was unnecessary. This led to the development of a simple procedure involving lysis of the cells in SDS followed by extraction with 6 M NaCl. The method described overcomes the requirement for lengthy incubations in the presence of expensive proteinase K and subsequent extraction with toxic chemicals.

  19. BMP1 controls TGFβ1 activation via cleavage of latent TGFβ-binding protein

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Gaoxiang; Greenspan, Daniel S.

    2006-01-01

    Transforming growth factor β1 (TGFβ1), an important regulator of cell behavior, is secreted as a large latent complex (LLC) in which it is bound to its cleaved prodomain (latency-associated peptide [LAP]) and, via LAP, to latent TGFβ-binding proteins (LTBPs). The latter target LLCs to the extracellular matrix (ECM). Bone morphogenetic protein 1 (BMP1)–like metalloproteinases play key roles in ECM formation, by converting precursors into mature functional proteins, and in morphogenetic patterning, by cleaving the antagonist Chordin to activate BMP2/4. We provide in vitro and in vivo evidence that BMP1 cleaves LTBP1 at two specific sites, thus liberating LLC from ECM and resulting in consequent activation of TGFβ1 via cleavage of LAP by non–BMP1-like proteinases. In mouse embryo fibroblasts, LAP cleavage is shown to be predominantly matrix metalloproteinase 2 dependent. TGFβ1 is a potent inducer of ECM formation and of BMP1 expression. Thus, a role for BMP1-like proteinases in TGFβ1 activation completes a novel fast-forward loop in vertebrate tissue remodeling. PMID:17015622

  20. A low molecular weight proteinase inhibitor produced by T lymphocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Ganea, D; Teodorescu, M; Dray, S

    1986-01-01

    A low molecular weight (MW) proteinase inhibitor, between 6500 and 21,500 MW, appeared in the supernatant of rabbit spleen cells cultured at high density for 24 hr. The inhibitor inhibited the enzymatic activity of trypsin for both a high MW natural substrate, fibrinogen, and for a low MW artificial substrate, Chromozym TRY. The low MW proteinase inhibitor is protein in nature and is different, in terms of specificity for enzymes, MW and sensitivity to different physical or chemical treatments, from aprotinin, a low MW proteinase inhibitor (6500 MW) of bovine origin, and from the soybean trypsin inhibitor, a relatively high MW proteinase inhibitor (21,500 MW). The inhibitor was found in the supernatant of purified T cells but not B cells, and its production was increased in the presence of an optimal concentration of Con A. The possibility that this proteinase inhibitor has a role in the regulation of trypsin-like proteinases involved to the immune response remains to be investigated. Images Figure 4 PMID:2417942

  1. The induction of proteinases in corn and soybean by anoxia

    SciTech Connect

    VanToai, T.; Hwang, Shihying )

    1989-04-01

    This study characterized the anaerobic changes in proteinase activities in corn and soybean roots and to investigate the possibility that these changes might contribute to the differential anaerobiosis tolerance of the two species. After 24 h of anoxia, crude protein extracts from H60 corn and Keller soybean root tips (10cm) were assayed for proteinase activities at pH range from 4.5 to 9.5. Turnover of aberrant proteins was studied in seedlings labelled with {sup 3}H-leucine for 12 h under: (a) puromycin (0.64 mM) in air, (b) ethanol (1%) in air, (c) nitrogen and (d) air. After the treatment, the labelled proteins remaining in roots were determined every 2 h for 6 h. In both corn and soybean, activities of alkali proteinases increased, and activities of acid proteinases declined under anoxia. Neutral proteinases increase in anoxic corn roots, but decline in anoxic soybean roots. The protein turnover rate in corn treated with puromycin, ethanol and nitrogen was much higher than in control roots. The protein turnover rate in soybean roots treated with puromycin, ethanol was similar to the rate of the control. The results indicated that: (a) anoxic corn can degrade aberrant proteins, but anoxic soybean cannot, (b) the degradation of aberrant proteins in anoxic corn is accomplished by neutral proteinases, and (c) the accumulation of aberrant proteins in soybean might contribute to the susceptibility of this species to anoxia.

  2. The effect of calciums on molecular motions of proteinase K.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shu-Qun; Tao, Yan; Meng, Zhao-Hui; Fu, Yun-Xin; Zhang, Ke-Qin

    2011-02-01

    The native serine protease proteinase K binds two calcium cations. It has been reported that Ca(2+) removal decreased the enzyme's thermal stability and to some extent the substrate affinity, but has discrepant effects on catalytic activity of the enzyme. Molecular dynamics simulations were performed on the Ca(2+)-bound and Ca(2+)-free proteases to investigate the mechanism by which the calciums affect the structural stability, molecular motions, and catalytic activity of proteinase K. Very similar structural properties were observed between these two forms of proteinase K during simulations; and several long-lived hydrogen bonds and salt bridges common to both forms of proteinase K were found to be crucial in maintaining the local conformations around these two Ca(2+) sites. Although Ca(2+) removal enhanced the overall flexibility of proteinase K, the flexibility in a limited number of segments surrounding the substrate-binding pockets decreased. The largest differences in the equilibrium structures of the two simulations indicate that, upon the removal of Ca(2+), the large concerted motion originating from the Ca1 site can transmit to the substrate-binding regions but not to the catalytic triad residues. In conjunction with the large overlap of the essential subspaces between the two simulations, these results not only provide insight into the dynamics of the underlying molecular mechanism responsible for the unchanged enzymatic activity as well as the decreased thermal stability and substrate affinity of proteinase K upon Ca(2+) removal, but also complement the experimentally determined structural and biochemical data.

  3. An electroblotting, two-step procedure for the detection of proteinases and the study of proteinase/inhibitor complexes in gelatin-containing polyacrylamide gels.

    PubMed

    Visal-Shah, S; Vrain, T C; Yelle, T C; Nguyen-Quoc, B; Michaud, D

    2001-08-01

    A two-step gelatin/polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (gelatin/PAGE) procedure was devised for the detection of proteinases and the study of proteinase/inhibitor interactions in complex biological extracts. The proteins are first resolved by sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-PAGE under reducing or nonreducing conditions, and electrotransferred into a 0.75 mm-thick accompanying polyacrylamide slab gel containing 0.1% w/v porcine gelatin. The active proteinase bands are developed by a gelatin proteolysis step in the accompanying gel in the presence or absence of diagnostic proteinase inhibitors, allowing the assessment of proteinase classes and the visual discrimination of inhibitor-'sensitive' and -'insensitive' proteinases in complex extracts. Alternatively, protein extracts are preincubated with specific reversible inhibitors before electrophoresis, allowing a rapid discrimination of strong and weak interactions implicating proteinases and reversible inhibitors. In comparison with the standard gelatin/PAGE procedure, that involves copolymerization of gelatin with acrylamide in the resolving gel, this new procedure simplifies proteinase patterns, avoids overestimation of proteinase numbers in complex extracts, and allows in certain conditions the estimation of proteinase molecular weights. Stem bromelain (EC 3.4.22.32), bovine trypsin (EC 3.4.21.4), papain (EC 3.4.22.2), and the extracellular (digestive) cysteine proteinases of five herbivorous pests are used as model enzymes to illustrate the usefulness of this approach in detecting proteinases and in studying their interactions with specific proteinaceous inhibitors potentially useful in biotechnology.

  4. Isolation and restriction endonuclease cleavage of Anaplasma marginale DNA in situ in agarose.

    PubMed Central

    Krueger, C M; Buening, G M

    1988-01-01

    Bacterial restriction endonucleases were used to produce DNA cleavage patterns that could be useful as tools to study the relatedness among Anaplasma marginale isolates. Bovine erythrocytes infected with A. marginale were lysed, washed, and embedded in agarose. The embedded erythrocytes and bacterial pathogens were partially digested by sequential infiltration of the agarose with acetone, lysozyme, sodium dodecyl sulfate, and proteinase K. The unfragmented genomic DNA was left supported and protected in a porous matrix. The DNA was digested in situ in agarose under the following conditions: (i) brief treatment with phenol, (ii) brief washing with distilled water, and (iii) adjustment of restriction enzyme digestion mixture to compensate for the volume of the agarose. The cleaved DNA was electrophoresed horizontally to produce a DNA cleavage pattern. Of 19 restriction enzymes screened, 12 produced distinct DNA bands from the genomes of each of the five A. marginale isolates examined. The DNA cleavage pattern produced from each isolate with a given restriction enzyme was reproducible. However, the DNA cleavage patterns produced from different isolates with a given restriction enzyme were not necessarily identical. This procedure could be modified for general bacterial DNA isolation, in situ agarose digestion, and manipulations. Images PMID:2838504

  5. Feline Calicivirus Infection Disrupts Assembly of Cytoplasmic Stress Granules and Induces G3BP1 Cleavage

    PubMed Central

    Humoud, Majid N.; Doyle, Nicole; Royall, Elizabeth; Willcocks, Margaret M.; Sorgeloos, Frederic; van Kuppeveld, Frank; Roberts, Lisa O.; Goodfellow, Ian G.; Langereis, Martijn A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In response to stress such as virus infection, cells can stall translation by storing mRNAs away in cellular compartments called stress granules (SGs). This defense mechanism favors cell survival by limiting the use of energy and nutrients until the stress is resolved. In some cases it may also block viral propagation as viruses are dependent on the host cell resources to produce viral proteins. Human norovirus is a member of the Caliciviridae family responsible for gastroenteritis outbreaks worldwide. Previous studies on caliciviruses have identified mechanisms by which they can usurp the host translational machinery, using the viral protein genome-linked VPg, or regulate host protein synthesis through the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. Here, we examined the effect of feline calicivirus (FCV) infection on SG accumulation. We show that FCV infection impairs the assembly of SGs despite an increased phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor eIF2α, a hallmark of stress pathway activation. Furthermore, SGs did not accumulate in FCV-infected cells that were stressed with arsenite or hydrogen peroxide. FCV infection resulted in the cleavage of the SG-nucleating protein Ras-GTPase activating SH3 domain-binding protein (G3BP1), which is mediated by the viral 3C-like proteinase NS6Pro. Using mutational analysis, we identified the FCV-induced cleavage site within G3BP1, which differs from the poliovirus 3C proteinase cleavage site previously identified. Finally, we showed that NS6Pro-mediated G3BP1 cleavage impairs SG assembly. In contrast, murine norovirus (MNV) infection did not impact arsenite-induced SG assembly or G3BP1 integrity, suggesting that related caliciviruses have distinct effects on the stress response pathway. IMPORTANCE Human noroviruses are a major cause of viral gastroenteritis, and it is important to understand how they interact with the infected host cell. Feline calicivirus (FCV) and murine norovirus (MNV) are used as

  6. Developing novel anthelmintics from plant cysteine proteinases

    PubMed Central

    Behnke, Jerzy M; Buttle, David J; Stepek, Gillian; Lowe, Ann; Duce, Ian R

    2008-01-01

    Intestinal helminth infections of livestock and humans are predominantly controlled by treatment with three classes of synthetic drugs, but some livestock nematodes have now developed resistance to all three classes and there are signs that human hookworms are becoming less responsive to the two classes (benzimidazoles and the nicotinic acetylcholine agonists) that are licensed for treatment of humans. New anthelmintics are urgently needed, and whilst development of new synthetic drugs is ongoing, it is slow and there are no signs yet that novel compounds operating through different modes of action, will be available on the market in the current decade. The development of naturally-occurring compounds as medicines for human use and for treatment of animals is fraught with problems. In this paper we review the current status of cysteine proteinases from fruits and protective plant latices as novel anthelmintics, we consider some of the problems inherent in taking laboratory findings and those derived from folk-medicine to the market and we suggest that there is a wealth of new compounds still to be discovered that could be harvested to benefit humans and livestock. PMID:18761736

  7. Different cysteine proteinases involved in bone resorption and osteoclast formation.

    PubMed

    Brage, M; Abrahamson, M; Lindström, V; Grubb, A; Lerner, U H

    2005-06-01

    Cysteine proteinases, especially cathepsin K, play an important role in osteoclastic degradation of bone matrix proteins and the process can, consequently, be significantly inhibited by cysteine proteinase inhibitors. We have recently reported that cystatin C and other cysteine proteinase inhibitors also reduce osteoclast formation. However, it is not known which cysteine proteinase(s) are involved in osteoclast differentiation. In the present study, we compared the relative potencies of cystatins C and D as inhibitors of bone resorption in cultured mouse calvariae, osteoclastogenesis in mouse bone marrow cultures, and cathepsin K activity. Inhibition of cathepsin K activity was assessed by determining equilibrium constants for inhibitor complexes in fluorogenic substrate assays. The data demonstrate that whereas human cystatins C and D are equipotent as inhibitors of bone resorption, cystatin D is 10-fold less potent as an inhibitor of osteoclastogenesis and 200-fold less potent as an inhibitor of cathepsin K activity. A recombinant human cystatin C variant with Gly substitutions for residues Arg8, Leu9, Val10, and Trp106 did not inhibit bone resorption, had 1,000-fold decreased inhibitory effect on cathepsin K activity compared to wildtype cystatin C, but was equipotent with wildtype cystatin C as an inhibitor of osteoclastogenesis. It is concluded that (i) different cysteine proteinases are likely to be involved in bone resorption and osteoclast formation, (ii) cathepsin K may not be an exclusive target enzyme in any of the two systems, and (iii) the enzyme(s) involved in osteoclastogenesis might not be a typical papain-like cysteine proteinase.

  8. Aspartic proteinases in the digestive tract of marine decapod crustaceans.

    PubMed

    Navarrete del Toro, María de Los Angeles; García-Carreño, Fernando; López, Manuel Díaz; Celis-Guerrero, Laura; Saborowski, Reinhard

    2006-08-01

    Decapod crustaceans synthesize highly active proteolytic enzymes in the midgut gland and release at least a part of them into the stomach where they facilitate the first step in peptide hydrolysis. The most common proteinases in the gastric fluid characterized so far are serine proteinases, that is, trypsin and chymotrypsin. These enzymes show highest activities at neutral or slightly alkaline conditions. The presence of acid proteinases, as they prevail in vertebrates, has been discussed contradictorily yet in invertebrates. In this study, we show that acid aspartic proteinases appear in the gastric fluid of several decapods. Lobsters Homarus gammarus showed the highest activity with a maximum at pH 3. These activities were almost entirely inhibited by pepstatin A, which indicates a high share of aspartic proteinases. In other species (Panulirus interruptus, Cancer pagurus, Callinectes arcuatus and Callinectes bellicosus), proteolytic activities were present at acid conditions but were distinctly lower than in H. gammarus. Zymograms at pH 3 showed in each of the studied species at least one, but mostly two-four bands of activity. The apparent molecular weight of the enzymes ranged from 17.8 to 38.6 kDa. Two distinct bands were identified which were inhibited by pepstatin A. Acid aspartic proteinases may play an important role in the process of extracellular digestion in decapod crustaceans. Activities were significantly higher in clawed lobster than in spiny lobster and three species of brachyurans. Therefore, it may be suggested that the expression of acid proteinases is favored in certain groups and reduced in others. PMID:16788916

  9. Proteinase expression during differentiation of human osteoclasts in vitro.

    PubMed

    Blair, H C; Sidonio, R F; Friedberg, R C; Khan, N N; Dong, S S

    2000-06-12

    Osteoclasts are macrophage-derived polykaryons that degrade bone in an acidic extracellular space. This differentiation includes expression of proteinases and acid transport proteins, cell fusion, and bone attachment, but the sequence of events is unclear. We studied two proteins expressed at high levels only in the osteoclast, cathepsin K, a thiol proteinase, and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP), and compared this expression with acid transport and bone degradation. Osteoclastic differentiation was studied using human apheresis macrophages cocultured with MG63 osteosarcoma cells, which produce cytokines including RANKL and CSF-1 that mediate efficient osteoclast formation. Immunoreactive cathepsin K appeared at 3-5 days. Cathepsin K activity was seen on bone substrate but not within cells, and cathepsin K increased severalfold during further differentiation and multinucleation from 7 to 14 days. TRAP also appeared at 3-5 d, independently of cell fusion or bone attachment, and TRAP activity reached much higher levels in osteoclasts attached to bone fragments. Two proteinases that occur in the precursor macrophages, cathepsin B, a thiol proteinase related to cathepsin K, and an unrelated lysosomal aspartate proteinase, cathepsin D, were also studied to determine the specificity of the differentiation events. Cathepsin B occurred at all times, but increased two- to threefold in parallel with cathepsin K. Cathepsin D activity did not change with differentiation, and secreted activity was not significant. In situ acid transport measurements showed increased acid accumulation after 7 days either in cells on osteosarcoma matrix or attached to bone, but bone pit activity and maximal acid uptake required 10-14 days. We conclude that TRAP and thiol proteinase expression begin at essentially the same time, and precede cell fusion and bone attachment. However, major increases in acid secretion and proteinases expression continue during cell fusion and bone

  10. Compartmentalization of proteinases and amylases in Nauphoeta cinerea midgut.

    PubMed

    Elpidina, E N; Vinokurov, K S; Gromenko, V A; Rudenskaya, Y A; Dunaevsky, Y E; Zhuzhikov, D P

    2001-12-01

    Compartmentalization of proteinases, amylases, and pH in the midgut of Nauphoeta cinerea Oliv. (Blattoptera:Blaberidae) was studied in order to understand the organization of protein and starch digestion. Total proteolytic activity measured with azocasein was maximal at pH 11.5 both in anterior (AM) and posterior (PM) halves of the midgut, but the bulk of activity (67%) was found in PM. Total AM and PM preparations were fractionated on a Sephadex G-50 column and further analysed by means of activity electrophoresis and specific inhibitors and activators. The major activity in PM was classified as an unusual SH-dependent proteinase with M(r) 24,000 and pH optimum with synthetic substrate BApNA at 10.0. The enzyme was 43-fold activated in the presence of 1 mM DTT, insensitive to synthetic inhibitors of serine (PMSF, TLCK, TPCK) and cysteine (IAA, E-64) proteinases, strongly inhibited by STI, and displayed four active bands on zymograms. In PM, activities of trypsin-like, chymotrypsin-like, subtilisin-like, and cysteine proteinases were observed. Aspartic and metalloproteinases were not detected. In AM, activity of unusual SH-dependent proteinase also dominated and activity of chymotrypsin-like proteinase was observed, but their levels were much lower than in PM. Distribution of amylase activity, exhibiting an optimum at pH 6.0, was quite the opposite. The major part of it (67%) was located in AM. Treatment of amylase preparation with proteinases from AM and PM reduced amylase activity twofold. pH of the midgut contents was 6.0-7.2 in AM, 6.4-7.6 in the first and 8.8-9.3 in the second halves of PM. Thus, pH in AM is in good agreement with the optimal pH of amylase, located in this compartment, but the activity of proteinases, including the ability to degrade amylase, in such an environment is low. Active proteolysis takes place in the second half of PM, where pH of the gut is close to the optimal pH of proteinases.

  11. Centralspindlin in Rappaport's cleavage signaling.

    PubMed

    Mishima, Masanori

    2016-05-01

    Cleavage furrow in animal cell cytokinesis is formed by cortical constriction driven by contraction of an actomyosin network activated by Rho GTPase. Although the role of the mitotic apparatus in furrow induction has been well established, there remain discussions about the detailed molecular mechanisms of the cleavage signaling. While experiments in large echinoderm embryos highlighted the role of astral microtubules, data in smaller cells indicate the role of central spindle. Centralspindlin is a constitutive heterotetramer of MKLP1 kinesin and the non-motor CYK4 subunit and plays crucial roles in formation of the central spindle and recruitment of the downstream cytokinesis factors including ECT2, the major activator of Rho during cytokinesis, to the site of division. Recent reports have revealed a role of this centralspindlin-ECT2 pathway in furrow induction both by the central spindle and by the astral microtubules. Here, a unified view of the stimulation of cortical contractility by this pathway is discussed. Cytokinesis, the division of the whole cytoplasm, is an essential process for cell proliferation and embryonic development. In animal cells, cytokinesis is executed using a contractile network of actin filaments driven by a myosin-II motor that constricts the cell cortex (cleavage furrow ingression) into a narrow channel between the two daughter cells, which is resolved by scission (abscission) [1-3]. The anaphase-specific organization of the mitotic apparatus (MA, spindle with chromosomes plus asters) positions the cleavage furrow and plays a major role in spatial coupling between mitosis and cytokinesis [4-6]. The nucleus and chromosomes are dispensable for furrow specification [7-10], although they contribute to persistent furrowing and robust completion in some cell types [11,12]. Likewise, centrosomes are not essential for cytokinesis, but they contribute to the general fidelity of cell division [10,13-15]. Here, classical models of cleavage furrow

  12. A Monoclonal Antibody (MCPR3-7) Interfering with the Activity of Proteinase 3 by an Allosteric Mechanism*

    PubMed Central

    Hinkofer, Lisa C.; Seidel, Susanne A. I.; Korkmaz, Brice; Silva, Francisco; Hummel, Amber M.; Braun, Dieter; Jenne, Dieter E.; Specks, Ulrich

    2013-01-01

    Proteinase 3 (PR3) is an abundant serine protease of neutrophil granules and a major target of autoantibodies (PR3 anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies) in granulomatosis with polyangiitis. Some of the PR3 synthesized by promyelocytes in the bone marrow escapes the targeting to granules and occurs on the plasma membrane of naive and primed neutrophils. This membrane-associated PR3 antigen may represent pro-PR3, mature PR3, or both forms. To discriminate between mature PR3 and its inactive zymogen, which have different conformations, we generated and identified a monoclonal antibody called MCPR3-7. It bound much better to pro-PR3 than to mature PR3. This monoclonal antibody greatly reduced the catalytic activity of mature PR3 toward extended peptide substrates. Using diverse techniques and multiple recombinant PR3 variants, we characterized its binding properties and found that MCPR3-7 preferentially bound to the so-called activation domain of the zymogen and changed the conformation of mature PR3, resulting in impaired catalysis and inactivation by α1-proteinase inhibitor (α1-antitrypsin). Noncovalent as well as covalent complexation between PR3 and α1-proteinase inhibitor was delayed in the presence of MCPR3-7, but cleavage of certain thioester and paranitroanilide substrates with small residues in the P1 position was not inhibited. We conclude that MCPR3-7 reduces PR3 activity by an allosteric mechanism affecting the S1′ pocket and further prime side interactions with substrates. In addition, MCPR3-7 prevents binding of PR3 to cellular membranes. Inhibitory antibodies targeting the activation domain of PR3 could be exploited as highly selective inhibitors of PR3, scavengers, and clearers of the PR3 autoantigen in granulomatosis with polyangiitis. PMID:23902773

  13. Effects of leupeptin on proteinase and germination of castor beans

    SciTech Connect

    Alpi, A.; Beevers, H.

    1981-10-01

    Leupeptin, tripeptide inhibitor of some proteinases, was shown previously to maintain the stability of several enzymes (isocitrate lyase, fumarase, and catalase) in crude extracts of castor bean endosperm. This reagent is now shown to inhibit the breakdown of water-soluble and crystalloid-storage proteins of the protein bodies isolated from castor beans by the SH-proteinase and it also inhibits the endopeptidase from mung beans. When suitably introduced into the endosperm of dry castor beans it strongly inhibits germination and seedling development. Application of leupeptin to endosperm halves removed from the seed prevents the normal development of enzymes concerned with gluconeogenesis from fat and drastically curtails sugar production. The results suggest that the SH-proteinase is intimately involved in the mobilization of storage proteins.

  14. Proteinase-activated receptors (PARs) – focus on receptor-receptor-interactions and their physiological and pathophysiological impact

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Proteinase-activated receptors (PARs) are a subfamily of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) with four members, PAR1, PAR2, PAR3 and PAR4, playing critical functions in hemostasis, thrombosis, embryonic development, wound healing, inflammation and cancer progression. PARs are characterized by a unique activation mechanism involving receptor cleavage by different proteinases at specific sites within the extracellular amino-terminus and the exposure of amino-terminal “tethered ligand“ domains that bind to and activate the cleaved receptors. After activation, the PAR family members are able to stimulate complex intracellular signalling networks via classical G protein-mediated pathways and beta-arrestin signalling. In addition, different receptor crosstalk mechanisms critically contribute to a high diversity of PAR signal transduction and receptor-trafficking processes that result in multiple physiological effects. In this review, we summarize current information about PAR-initiated physical and functional receptor interactions and their physiological and pathological roles. We focus especially on PAR homo- and heterodimerization, transactivation of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) and receptor serine/threonine kinases (RSTKs), communication with other GPCRs, toll-like receptors and NOD-like receptors, ion channel receptors, and on PAR association with cargo receptors. In addition, we discuss the suitability of these receptor interaction mechanisms as targets for modulating PAR signalling in disease. PMID:24215724

  15. Surface-exposed antigenic cleavage fragments of Neisseria gonorrhoeae proteins 1A and IB.

    PubMed Central

    Schmitt, S; Layh, G; Buchanan, T B

    1986-01-01

    Whole bacteria, isolated outer membranes, and purified protein I (PI) from one transparent (O-) and two different opaque (O+) phenotype gonococcal strains (serogroups I, II, and III; PI serotypes 1, 5, and 9b) were each treated with tolylsulfonyl phenylalanyl chloromethyl ketone-trypsin, alpha-chymotrypsin, and proteinase K. Protein IA (PIA) of strain 7122 (O-, serotype 1, serogroup I) was resistant to proteolysis by tolysulfonyl phenylalanyl chloromethyl ketone-trypsin and alpha-chymotrypsin and only slightly affected by proteinase K, as long as it was associated with intact bacteria or isolated outer membranes. Purified PIA however was cleaved by these enzymes, resulting in two to five fragments. In contrast, all preparations of strains 5766 opaque phenotype (O+, serotype 7, serogroup II) and 1955 (O+, serotype 9b, serogroup III) were accessible to proteolysis, resulting in cleavage fragments of PIB compatible to those described previously by O. Barrera and J. Swanson (Infect. Immun. 44:565-568, 1984), M. S. Blake et al. (Infect. Immun. 33:212-222, 1981), and Blake (in G. K. Schoolnik, ed., The Pathogenic Neisseriae, 1985). Our data indicated that the purified PIB fraction was more accessible to proteases than the PIBs of whole bacteria or outer membranes. The fragmentation pattern of PIA cleavage products were quite different from PIB fragments, consistent with the different structure of these two groups of PI molecules. Time-dependent cleavage experiments with proteases, i.e., alpha-chymotrypsin, indicated that PIA was subsequently cleaved into smaller fragments. Highly reactive monoclonal antibodies, each specific for a surface-exposed epitope of PIA of strain 7122 or PIB of strains 5766 and 1955, as assessed by coagglutination, Western blot, and immunofluorescence, were reacted with PIA and PIB cleavage fragments in Western blot experiments. All cleavage fragments of the purified PIA and PIB preparations with molecular weights of greater than or equal to 14

  16. Differential inhibition of Helicoverpa armigera gut proteinases by proteinase inhibitors of pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan) and its wild relatives.

    PubMed

    Chougule, Nanasaheb P; Hivrale, Vandana K; Chhabda, Pavanjeet J; Giri, Ashok P; Kachole, Manvendra S

    2003-10-01

    The seeds of 36 pigeonpea [Cajanus cajan (L) Millsp.] cultivars, resistant and susceptible to pests and pathogens and 17 of its wild relatives were analysed for inhibitors of trypsin, chymotrypsin, and insect gut proteinases to identify potential inhibitors of insect (Helicoverpa armigera) gut enzymes. Proteinase inhibitors (PIs) of pigeonpea cultivars showed total inhibition of trypsin and chymotrypsin, and moderate inhibition potential towards H. armigera proteinases (HGP). PIs of wild relatives exhibited stronger inhibition of HGP, which was up to 87% by Rhynchosia PIs. Electrophoretic detection of HGPI proteins and inhibition of HGP isoforms by few pigeonpea wild relative PIs supported our enzyme inhibitor assay results. Present results indicate that PIs exhibit wide range of genetic diversity in the wild relatives of pigeonpea whereas pigeonpea cultivars (resistant as well as susceptible to pests and pathogens) are homogeneous. The potent HGPIs identified in this study need further exploration for their use in strengthening pigeonpea defence against H. armigera.

  17. A serpin-induced extensive proteolytic susceptibility of urokinase-type plasminogen activator implicates distortion of the proteinase substrate-binding pocket and oxyanion hole in the serpin inhibitory mechanism.

    PubMed

    Egelund, R; Petersen, T E; Andreasen, P A

    2001-02-01

    The formation of stable complexes between serpins and their target serine proteinases indicates formation of an ester bond between the proteinase active-site serine and the serpin P1 residue [Egelund, R., Rodenburg, K.W., Andreasen, P.A., Rasmussen, M.S., Guldberg, R.E. & Petersen, T.E. (1998) Biochemistry 37, 6375-6379]. An important question concerning serpin inhibition is the contrast between the stability of the ester bond in the complex and the rapid hydrolysis of the acyl-enzyme intermediate in general serine proteinase-catalysed peptide bond hydrolysis. To answer this question, we used limited proteolysis to detect conformational differences between free urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) and uPA in complex with plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1). Whereas the catalytic domain of free uPA, pro-uPA, uPA in complex with non-serpin inhibitors and anhydro-uPA in a non-covalent complex with PAI-1 was resistant to proteolysis, the catalytic domain of PAI-1-complexed uPA was susceptible to proteolysis. The cleavage sites for four different proteinases were localized in specific areas of the C-terminal beta-barrel of the catalytic domain of uPA, providing evidence that the serpin inhibitory mechanism involves a serpin-induced massive rearrangement of the proteinase active site, including the specificity pocket, the oxyanion hole, and main-chain binding area, rendering the proteinase unable to complete the normal hydrolysis of the acyl-enzyme intermediate. The distorted region includes the so-called activation domain, also known to change conformation on zymogen activation.

  18. Specificity of hammerhead ribozyme cleavage.

    PubMed Central

    Hertel, K J; Herschlag, D; Uhlenbeck, O C

    1996-01-01

    To be effective in gene inactivation, the hammerhead ribozyme must cleave a complementary RNA target without deleterious effects from cleaving non-target RNAs that contain mismatches and shorter stretches of complementarity. The specificity of hammerhead cleavage was evaluated using HH16, a well-characterized ribozyme designed to cleave a target of 17 residues. Under standard reaction conditions, HH16 is unable to discriminate between its full-length substrate and 3'-truncated substrates, even when six fewer base pairs are formed between HH16 and the substrate. This striking lack of specificity arises because all the substrates bind to the ribozyme with sufficient affinity so that cleavage occurs before their affinity differences are manifested. In contrast, HH16 does exhibit high specificity towards certain 3'-truncated versions of altered substrates that either also contain a single base mismatch or are shortened at the 5' end. In addition, the specificity of HH16 is improved in the presence of p7 nucleocapsid protein from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1, which accelerates the association and dissociation of RNA helices. These results support the view that the hammerhead has an intrinsic ability to discriminate against incorrect bases, but emphasizes that the high specificity is only observed in a certain range of helix lengths. Images PMID:8670879

  19. Serine proteinases from barley malt may degrade beta-amylase

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Barley seed proteinases are critically important to seed germination and malting in that they generate amino acids from seed N reserves, supporting embryo growth during germination and yeast fermentation during brewing. However, relatively little is known regarding the endogenous protein substrate ...

  20. Cystatin F regulates proteinase activity in IL-2-activated natural killer cells.

    PubMed

    Maher, Katarina; Konjar, Spela; Watts, Colin; Turk, Boris; Kopitar-Jerala, Natasa

    2014-01-01

    Cystatin F is a unique member of the cystatin family of cysteine protease inhibitors, which is synthesized as an inactive dimer and it is activated by N-terminal cleavage in the endolysosomes. It is expressed in the cells of the immune system: myeloid cells and the cells involved in target cell killing: natural killer (NK) cells and cytotoxic T cells (CTLs). Upon activation of the NK cells with interleukin 2 (IL-2), cystatin F was found upregulated and co-localized in cytotoxic granules with cathepsin C (CatC) and CatV. However, cystatin F inhibits the CatC in cells only when its N-terminal part is processed. Although cystatin F could inhibit both CatV and CatC, the IL-2 stimulation of the YT cells resulted in an increased CatV activity, while the CatC activity was unchanged. The incubation of IL-2 activated NK cells with a cysteine proteinase inhibitor E-64d increased the cystatin F dimer formation. Our results suggest that cystatin F not only inhibits CatV, but it is processed by the CatV in order to inhibit the CatC activity in cytotoxic granules. The regulation of the CatC activity in the cytotoxic granules of the NK cells by the cystatin F could be important for the processing and activation of granule-associated serine proteases - granzymes.

  1. Thrombin-Mediated Direct Activation of Proteinase-Activated Receptor-2: Another Target for Thrombin Signaling.

    PubMed

    Mihara, Koichiro; Ramachandran, Rithwik; Saifeddine, Mahmoud; Hansen, Kristina K; Renaux, Bernard; Polley, Danny; Gibson, Stacy; Vanderboor, Christina; Hollenberg, Morley D

    2016-05-01

    Thrombin is known to signal to cells by cleaving/activating a G-protein-coupled family of proteinase-activated receptors (PARs). The signaling mechanism involves the proteolytic unmasking of an N-terminal receptor sequence that acts as a tethered receptor-activating ligand. To date, the recognized targets of thrombin cleavage and activation for signaling are PAR1 and PAR4, in which thrombin cleaves at a conserved target arginine to reveal a tethered ligand. PAR2, which like PAR1 is also cleaved at an N-terminal arginine to unmask its tethered ligand, is generally regarded as a target for trypsin but not for thrombin signaling. We now show that thrombin, at concentrations that can be achieved at sites of acute injury or in a tumor microenvironment, can directly activate PAR2 vasorelaxation and signaling, stimulating calcium and mitogen-activated protein kinase responses along with triggeringβ-arrestin recruitment. Thus, PAR2 can be added alongside PAR1 and PAR4 to the targets, whereby thrombin can affect tissue function.

  2. Proteinase K and the structure of PrPSc: The good, the bad and the ugly.

    PubMed

    Silva, Christopher J; Vázquez-Fernández, Ester; Onisko, Bruce; Requena, Jesús R

    2015-09-01

    Infectious proteins (prions) are, ironically, defined by their resistance to proteolytic digestion. A defining characteristic of the transmissible isoform of the prion protein (PrP(Sc)) is its partial resistance to proteinase K (PK) digestion. Diagnosis of prion disease typically relies upon immunodetection of PK-digested PrP(Sc) by Western blot, ELISA or immunohistochemical detection. PK digestion has also been used to detect differences in prion strains. Thus, PK has been a crucial tool to detect and, thereby, control the spread of prions. PK has also been used as a tool to probe the structure of PrP(Sc). Mass spectrometry and antibodies have been used to identify PK cleavage sites in PrP(Sc). These results have been used to identify the more accessible, flexible stretches connecting the β-strand components in PrP(Sc). These data, combined with physical constraints imposed by spectroscopic results, were used to propose a qualitative model for the structure of PrP(Sc). Assuming that PrP(Sc) is a four rung β-solenoid, we have threaded the PrP sequence to satisfy the PK proteolysis data and other experimental constraints.

  3. Use of Proteinase K Nonspecific Digestion for Selective and Comprehensive Identification of Interpeptide Cross-links: Application to Prion Proteins*

    PubMed Central

    Petrotchenko, Evgeniy V.; Serpa, Jason J.; Hardie, Darryl B.; Berjanskii, Mark; Suriyamongkol, Bow P.; Wishart, David S.; Borchers, Christoph H.

    2012-01-01

    Chemical cross-linking combined with mass spectrometry is a rapidly developing technique for structural proteomics. Cross-linked proteins are usually digested with trypsin to generate cross-linked peptides, which are then analyzed by mass spectrometry. The most informative cross-links, the interpeptide cross-links, are often large in size, because they consist of two peptides that are connected by a cross-linker. In addition, trypsin targets the same residues as amino-reactive cross-linkers, and cleavage will not occur at these cross-linker-modified residues. This produces high molecular weight cross-linked peptides, which complicates their mass spectrometric analysis and identification. In this paper, we examine a nonspecific protease, proteinase K, as an alternative to trypsin for cross-linking studies. Initial tests on a model peptide that was digested by proteinase K resulted in a “family” of related cross-linked peptides, all of which contained the same cross-linking sites, thus providing additional verification of the cross-linking results, as was previously noted for other post-translational modification studies. The procedure was next applied to the native (PrPC) and oligomeric form of prion protein (PrPβ). Using proteinase K, the affinity-purifiable CID-cleavable and isotopically coded cross-linker cyanurbiotindipropionylsuccinimide and MALDI-MS cross-links were found for all of the possible cross-linking sites. After digestion with proteinase K, we obtained a mass distribution of the cross-linked peptides that is very suitable for MALDI-MS analysis. Using this new method, we were able to detect over 60 interpeptide cross-links in the native PrPC and PrPβ prion protein. The set of cross-links for the native form was used as distance constraints in developing a model of the native prion protein structure, which includes the 90–124-amino acid N-terminal portion of the protein. Several cross-links were unique to each form of the prion protein

  4. Use of proteinase K nonspecific digestion for selective and comprehensive identification of interpeptide cross-links: application to prion proteins.

    PubMed

    Petrotchenko, Evgeniy V; Serpa, Jason J; Hardie, Darryl B; Berjanskii, Mark; Suriyamongkol, Bow P; Wishart, David S; Borchers, Christoph H

    2012-07-01

    Chemical cross-linking combined with mass spectrometry is a rapidly developing technique for structural proteomics. Cross-linked proteins are usually digested with trypsin to generate cross-linked peptides, which are then analyzed by mass spectrometry. The most informative cross-links, the interpeptide cross-links, are often large in size, because they consist of two peptides that are connected by a cross-linker. In addition, trypsin targets the same residues as amino-reactive cross-linkers, and cleavage will not occur at these cross-linker-modified residues. This produces high molecular weight cross-linked peptides, which complicates their mass spectrometric analysis and identification. In this paper, we examine a nonspecific protease, proteinase K, as an alternative to trypsin for cross-linking studies. Initial tests on a model peptide that was digested by proteinase K resulted in a "family" of related cross-linked peptides, all of which contained the same cross-linking sites, thus providing additional verification of the cross-linking results, as was previously noted for other post-translational modification studies. The procedure was next applied to the native (PrP(C)) and oligomeric form of prion protein (PrPβ). Using proteinase K, the affinity-purifiable CID-cleavable and isotopically coded cross-linker cyanurbiotindipropionylsuccinimide and MALDI-MS cross-links were found for all of the possible cross-linking sites. After digestion with proteinase K, we obtained a mass distribution of the cross-linked peptides that is very suitable for MALDI-MS analysis. Using this new method, we were able to detect over 60 interpeptide cross-links in the native PrP(C) and PrPβ prion protein. The set of cross-links for the native form was used as distance constraints in developing a model of the native prion protein structure, which includes the 90-124-amino acid N-terminal portion of the protein. Several cross-links were unique to each form of the prion protein, including

  5. Differential Inhibition of Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner) Gut Proteinases by Proteinase Inhibitors of Okra and It's Wild Relatives

    PubMed Central

    Udamale, Shilpa K.; Moharil, M. P.; Ugale, T. B.; Mankar, J. M.

    2013-01-01

    The seeds of ten genotypes and twenty-nine wild relatives of okra were analysed for the presence of trypsin, chymotrypsin, and Helicoverpa gut proteinases (HGPs) inhibitors (HGPIs), with the aim to identify potent inhibitors of H. armigera gut proteinases. Proteinase inhibitors (PIs) obtained from wild relatives of okra exhibited stronger inhibition of HGPs than the genotypes of okra. In in vitro inhibitory assay against HGPs, A. tuberculatus 90396 and 90515 showed high tryptic inhibitory (71.8% and 69.2%), chymotryptic inhibitory (68.5% and 66.2%), and Helicoverpa gut proteinase activity (70.2% and 68.2%). In electrophoretic profile showed the same variation in the number of trypsin inhibitors (TIs), chymotrypsin Inhibitors (CIs), and HGPIs isoforms with different intensities, whereas genotypes of okra mostly showed monomorphic profile. Maximum eight HGPIs isoforms were found in A. tuberculatus (90396 and 90515). In bioassay studies, significant reduction in weight of H. armigera larvae was found, when larvae fed on PIs obtained from A. tuberculatus (90396 and 90515). Thus, the result of the present investigation indicates that further exploration of PIs obtained from A. tuberculatus (90396 and 90515) will be helpful for developing PIs-based insect resistance management strategies. PMID:25937977

  6. Digestive proteinases of yellow mealworm (Tenebrio molitor) larvae: purification and characterization of a trypsin-like proteinase.

    PubMed

    Tsybina, T A; Dunaevsky, Y E; Belozersky, M A; Zhuzhikov, D P; Oppert, B; Elpidina, E N

    2005-03-01

    A new trypsin-like proteinase was purified to homogeneity from the posterior midgut of Tenebrio molitor larvae by ion-exchange chromatography on DEAE-Sephadex A-50 and gel filtration on Superdex-75. The isolated enzyme had molecular mass of 25.5 kD and pI 7.4. The enzyme was also characterized by temperature optimum at 55 degrees C, pH optimum at 8.5, and K(m) value of 0.04 mM (for hydrolysis of Bz-Arg-pNA). According to inhibitor analysis the enzyme is a trypsin-like serine proteinase stable within the pH range of 5.0-9.5. The enzyme hydrolyzes peptide bonds formed by Arg or Lys residues in the P1 position with a preference for relatively long peptide substrates. The N-terminal amino acid sequence, IVGGSSISISSVPXQIXLQY, shares 50-72% identity with other insect trypsin-like proteinases, and 44-50% identity to mammalian trypsins. The isolated enzyme is sensitive to inhibition by plant proteinase inhibitors and it can serve as a suitable target for control of digestion in this stored product pest.

  7. Inactivation of the serine proteinase operon (proMCD) of Staphylococcus warneri M: serine proteinase and cysteine proteases are involved in the autolysis.

    PubMed

    Yokoi, Ken-Ji; Kuzuwa, Shinya; Kondo, Mitsuru; Yamakawa, Ayanori; Taketo, Akira; Kodaira, Ken-Ichi

    2013-01-10

    Unlike other members of coagulase negative staphylococci (CNS), strain warneri has proMCD operon, a homologue of sspABC proteinase operon of S. aureus. The proM and proC encode serine glutamyl endopeptidase and cysteine protease respectively, whereas proD directs homologue of SspC, putative cytoplasmic inhibitor which protects the host bacterium from premature activation of SspB. We determined whole nucleotide sequence of proMCD operon of S. warneri M, succeeded in expression of these genes, and investigated their functions by gene inactivation and complementation experiments. In gelatin zymography of the culture supernatant, a 20-kDa band corresponding to PROC cysteine protease was detected. By Western blotting, PROD was also confirmed in the cytoplasmic protein fraction. PROC and PROD showed significant similarity to SspB and SspC of S. aureus (73% and 58%, respectively). Inactivation mutants of proMCD, proCD and proD genes were established, separately. In the proMCD mutant, degradation/processing of extracellular proteins was drastically reduced, suggesting that PROM was responsible for the cleavage of extracellular proteins. By the proD mutation, the growth profile was not affected, and secretion of PROC was retained. Extracellular protein profiles of the proCD and proD mutants were not so different each other, but autolysin profiles were slightly dissimilar, around 39-48 kDa and 20kDa bands in zymogram. Experiments in buffer systems showed that autolysis was significantly diminished in proMCD mutant, and was promoted by addition of purified PROM. The proC gene was cloned into a multicopy plasmid, and introduced into the proMCD mutant. Compared with the wild type, autolysis of the proC-complemented strain was definitely enhanced by addition of purified PROM. These results suggested that PROM and PROC affected the coccal autolysis, through processing of the autolysin.

  8. Formation of a noncovalent serpin-proteinase complex involves no conformational change in the serpin. Use of 1H-15N HSQC NMR as a sensitive nonperturbing monitor of conformation.

    PubMed

    Peterson, F C; Gordon, N C; Gettins, P G

    2000-10-01

    A structural understanding of the nature and scope of serpin inhibition mechanisms has been limited by the inability so far to crystallize any serpin-proteinase complex. We describe here the application of [(1)H-(15)N]-HSQC NMR on uniformly and residue-selectively (15)N-labeled serpin alpha(1)-proteinase inhibitor (Pittsburgh variant with stabilizing mutations) to provide a nonperturbing and exquisitely sensitive means of probing the conformation of the serpin alone and in a noncovalent complex with inactive, serine 195-modified, bovine trypsin. The latter should be a good model both for the few examples of reversible serpin-proteinase complexes and for the initial Michaelis-like complex formed en route to irreversible covalent inhibition. Cleavage of the reactive center loop, with subsequent insertion into beta-sheet A, caused dramatic perturbation of most of the NMR cross-peaks. This was true for both the uniformly labeled and alanine-specifically labeled samples. The spectra of uniformly or leucine- or alanine-specifically labeled alpha(1)-proteinase inhibitor in noncovalent complex with unlabeled inactive trypsin gave almost no detectable chemical shift changes of cross-peaks, but some general increase in line width. Residue-specific assignments of the four alanines in the reactive center loop, at P12, P11, P9, and P4, allowed specific examination of the behavior of the reactive center loop. All four alanines showed higher mobility than the body of the serpin, consistent with a flexible reactive center loop, which remained flexible even in the noncovalent complex with proteinase. The three alanines near the hinge point for insertion showed almost no chemical shift perturbation upon noncovalent complex formation, while the alanine at P4 was perturbed, presumably by interaction with the active site of bound trypsin. Reporters from both the body of the serpin and the reactive center loop therefore indicate that noncovalent complex formation involves no

  9. Constitutive Cleavage of the Single-Pass Transmembrane Protein Alcadeinα Prevents Aberrant Peripheral Retention of Kinesin-1

    PubMed Central

    Maruta, Chiaki; Saito, Yuhki; Hata, Saori; Gotoh, Naoya; Suzuki, Toshiharu; Yamamoto, Tohru

    2012-01-01

    Various membrane proteins are shed by proteinases, constitutively and/or when stimulated by external signals. While the physiological significance of external signal-induced cleavages has been intensely investigated, relatively little is known about the function of constitutive cleavages. Alcadeinα (Alcα; also called Calsyntenin-1) is an evolutionarily conserved type I single-pass transmembrane protein that binds to kinesin-1 light chain (KLC) to activate kinesin-1's transport of Alcα-containing vesicles. We found that Alcα was constitutively and efficiently cleaved to liberate its ectodomain into the extracellular space, and that full-length Alcα protein was rarely detected on the cell surface. The secretion efficiency of the ectodomain was unaltered by a mutation that both abolished Alcα's KLC-binding activity and attenuated its peripheral transport, suggesting that Alcα's cleavage occurred, at least partly, en route to the cell surface. We further demonstrated that uncleavable mutant Alcα proteins readily accumulated on the cell surface and induced aberrant peripheral recruitment of KLC1 and kinesin heavy chain. Our observations suggest that Alcα is efficiently processed in part to minimize the inappropriate peripheral retention of kinesin-1. This role might exemplify the functional relevance of the constitutive cleavage of single-pass transmembrane proteins. PMID:22905201

  10. Ozone inactivation of human alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, D.A.

    1980-06-01

    Ozone decreased the trypsin, chymotrypsin, and elastase inhibitory activities of human alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor both in plasma and in solutions of the pure inhibitor. The total loss of porcine elastase inhibitory activity required 18 mol of ozone/mol of pure alpha 1-PI and approximately 850 mol of ozone/mol of alpha 1-PI in plasma. A corresponding loss of the ability to inhibit human leukocyte elastase was observed. Inactivated alpha 1-PI contains four residues of methionine sulfoxide, in addition to oxidized tryosine and tryptophan. Electrophoretic analysis demonstrated that the ozone-inactivated alpha 1-PI did not form normal complexes with serine proteinases. These findings suggest that the inhalation of ozone could inactivate alpha 1-PI on the airspace side of the lung to create a localized alpha 1-PI deficiency, which might contribute to the development of emphysema.

  11. CP30, a cysteine proteinase involved in Trichomonas vaginalis cytoadherence.

    PubMed

    Mendoza-López, M R; Becerril-Garcia, C; Fattel-Facenda, L V; Avila-Gonzalez, L; Ruíz-Tachiquín, M E; Ortega-Lopez, J; Arroyo, R

    2000-09-01

    We describe here the participation of a Trichomonas vaginalis 30-kDa proteinase (CP30) with affinity to the HeLa cell surface in attachment of this parasite to host epithelial cells. The CP30 band is a cysteine proteinase because its activity was inhibited by E-64, a thiol proteinase inhibitor. In two-dimensional substrate gel electrophoresis of total extracts of the trichomonad isolate CNCD 147, three spots with proteolytic activity were detected in the 30-kDa region, in the pI range from 4.5 to 5.5. Two of the spots (pI 4.5 and 5.0) bound to the surfaces of fixed HeLa cells corresponding to the CP30 band. The immunoglobulin G fraction of the rabbit anti-CP30 antiserum that recognized a 30-kDa band by Western blotting and immunoprecipitated CP30 specifically inhibited trichomonal cytoadherence to HeLa cell monolayers in a concentration-dependent manner and reacted with CP30 at the parasite surface. CP30 degraded proteins found on the female urogenital tract, including fibronectin, collagen IV, and hemoglobin. Interestingly, CP30 digested fibronectin and collagen IV only at pH levels between 4.5 and 5.0. Moreover, trichomonosis patients whose diagnosis was confirmed by in vitro culture possessed antibody to CP30 in both sera and vaginal washes, and CP30 activity was found in vaginal washes. Our results suggest that surface CP30 is a cysteine proteinase necessary for trichomonal adherence to human epithelial cells. PMID:10948104

  12. Design and synthesis of procollagen C-proteinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Turtle, Eric; Chow, Nicholas; Yang, Charles; Sosa, Sergio; Bauer, Udo; Brenner, Mitch; Solow-Cordero, David; Ho, Wen-Bin

    2012-12-15

    Non-peptidic inhibitors of procollagen C-proteinase (PCP) were designed from substrate leads. Compounds were optimized for potency and selectivity, with N-substituted aryl sulfonamide hydroxamates having the best combination of these properties. Compounds 89 and 60 have IC(50) values of 10 and 80 nM, respectively, against PCP; excellent selectivity over MMP's 1, 2, and 9; and activity in cell-based collagen deposition assays.

  13. CP30, a cysteine proteinase involved in Trichomonas vaginalis cytoadherence.

    PubMed

    Mendoza-López, M R; Becerril-Garcia, C; Fattel-Facenda, L V; Avila-Gonzalez, L; Ruíz-Tachiquín, M E; Ortega-Lopez, J; Arroyo, R

    2000-09-01

    We describe here the participation of a Trichomonas vaginalis 30-kDa proteinase (CP30) with affinity to the HeLa cell surface in attachment of this parasite to host epithelial cells. The CP30 band is a cysteine proteinase because its activity was inhibited by E-64, a thiol proteinase inhibitor. In two-dimensional substrate gel electrophoresis of total extracts of the trichomonad isolate CNCD 147, three spots with proteolytic activity were detected in the 30-kDa region, in the pI range from 4.5 to 5.5. Two of the spots (pI 4.5 and 5.0) bound to the surfaces of fixed HeLa cells corresponding to the CP30 band. The immunoglobulin G fraction of the rabbit anti-CP30 antiserum that recognized a 30-kDa band by Western blotting and immunoprecipitated CP30 specifically inhibited trichomonal cytoadherence to HeLa cell monolayers in a concentration-dependent manner and reacted with CP30 at the parasite surface. CP30 degraded proteins found on the female urogenital tract, including fibronectin, collagen IV, and hemoglobin. Interestingly, CP30 digested fibronectin and collagen IV only at pH levels between 4.5 and 5.0. Moreover, trichomonosis patients whose diagnosis was confirmed by in vitro culture possessed antibody to CP30 in both sera and vaginal washes, and CP30 activity was found in vaginal washes. Our results suggest that surface CP30 is a cysteine proteinase necessary for trichomonal adherence to human epithelial cells.

  14. CP30, a Cysteine Proteinase Involved in Trichomonas vaginalis Cytoadherence

    PubMed Central

    Mendoza-López, M. Remedios; Becerril-Garcia, Cecilia; Fattel-Facenda, Loriz V.; Avila-Gonzalez, Leticia; Ruíz-Tachiquín, Martha E.; Ortega-Lopez, Jaime; Arroyo, Rossana

    2000-01-01

    We describe here the participation of a Trichomonas vaginalis 30-kDa proteinase (CP30) with affinity to the HeLa cell surface in attachment of this parasite to host epithelial cells. The CP30 band is a cysteine proteinase because its activity was inhibited by E-64, a thiol proteinase inhibitor. In two-dimensional substrate gel electrophoresis of total extracts of the trichomonad isolate CNCD 147, three spots with proteolytic activity were detected in the 30-kDa region, in the pI range from 4.5 to 5.5. Two of the spots (pI 4.5 and 5.0) bound to the surfaces of fixed HeLa cells corresponding to the CP30 band. The immunoglobulin G fraction of the rabbit anti-CP30 antiserum that recognized a 30-kDa band by Western blotting and immunoprecipitated CP30 specifically inhibited trichomonal cytoadherence to HeLa cell monolayers in a concentration-dependent manner and reacted with CP30 at the parasite surface. CP30 degraded proteins found on the female urogenital tract, including fibronectin, collagen IV, and hemoglobin. Interestingly, CP30 digested fibronectin and collagen IV only at pH levels between 4.5 and 5.0. Moreover, trichomonosis patients whose diagnosis was confirmed by in vitro culture possessed antibody to CP30 in both sera and vaginal washes, and CP30 activity was found in vaginal washes. Our results suggest that surface CP30 is a cysteine proteinase necessary for trichomonal adherence to human epithelial cells. PMID:10948104

  15. Biochemical characterization of Acacia schweinfurthii serine proteinase inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Odei-Addo, Frank; Frost, Carminita; Smith, Nanette; Ogawa, Tomohisa; Muramoto, Koji; Oliva, Maria Luiza Vilela; Gráf, László; Naude, Ryno

    2014-10-01

    One of the many control mechanisms of serine proteinases is their specific inhibition by protein proteinase inhibitors. An extract of Acacia schweinfurthii was screened for potential serine proteinase inhibition. It was successfully purified to homogeneity by precipitating with 80% (v/v) acetone and sequential chromatographic steps, including ion-exchange, affinity purification and reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography. Reducing sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis conditions revealed an inhibitor (ASTI) consisting of two polypeptide chains A and B of approximate molecular weights of 16 and 10 kDa, respectively, and under non-reducing conditions, 26 kDa was observed. The inhibitor was shown to inhibit bovine trypsin (Ki of 3.45 nM) at an approximate molar ratio of inhibitor:trypsin (1:1). The A- and B-chains revealed complete sequences of 140 and 40 amino acid residues, respectively. Sequence similarity (70%) was reported between ASTI A-chain and ACTI A-chain (Acacia confusa) using ClustalW. The B-chain produced a 76% sequence similarity between ASTI and Leucaena leucocephala trypsin inhibitor. PMID:24090421

  16. Dental Enamel Development: Proteinases and Their Enamel Matrix Substrates

    PubMed Central

    Bartlett, John D.

    2013-01-01

    This review focuses on recent discoveries and delves in detail about what is known about each of the proteins (amelogenin, ameloblastin, and enamelin) and proteinases (matrix metalloproteinase-20 and kallikrein-related peptidase-4) that are secreted into the enamel matrix. After an overview of enamel development, this review focuses on these enamel proteins by describing their nomenclature, tissue expression, functions, proteinase activation, and proteinase substrate specificity. These proteins and their respective null mice and human mutations are also evaluated to shed light on the mechanisms that cause nonsyndromic enamel malformations termed amelogenesis imperfecta. Pertinent controversies are addressed. For example, do any of these proteins have a critical function in addition to their role in enamel development? Does amelogenin initiate crystallite growth, does it inhibit crystallite growth in width and thickness, or does it do neither? Detailed examination of the null mouse literature provides unmistakable clues and/or answers to these questions, and this data is thoroughly analyzed. Striking conclusions from this analysis reveal that widely held paradigms of enamel formation are inadequate. The final section of this review weaves the recent data into a plausible new mechanism by which these enamel matrix proteins support and promote enamel development. PMID:24159389

  17. Neutrophil-derived Oxidants and Proteinases as Immunomodulatory Mediators in Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Witko-Sarsat, V.

    1994-01-01

    Neutrophils generate potent microbicidal molecules via the oxygen-dependent pathway, leading to the generation of reactive oxygen intermediates (ROI), and via the non-oxygen dependent pathway, consisting in the release of serine proteinases and metalloproteinases stored in granules. Over the past years, the concept has emerged that both ROI and proteinases can be viewed as mediators able to modulate neutrophil responses as well as the whole inflammatory process. This is well illustrated by the oxidative regulation of proteinase activity showing that oxidants and proteinases acts is concert to optimize the microbicidal activity and to damage host tissues. ROI and proteinases can modify the activity of several proteins involved in the control of inflammatory process. Among them, tumour necrosis factor-α and interleukin-8, are elective targets for such a modulation. Moreover, ROI and proteinases are also able to modulate the adhesion process of neutrophils to endothelial cells, which is a critical step in the inflammatory process. PMID:18472951

  18. Dispersal of Bap-mediated Staphylococcus aureus biofilm by proteinase K.

    PubMed

    Kumar Shukla, Sudhir; Rao, Toleti Subba

    2013-02-01

    The dominant role of biofilm-associated protein (Bap) in Staphylococcus aureus biofilm development prompted us to investigate Bap as a potential target for proteinase-mediated biofilm dispersion. Biofilm assay in microtitre plates showed that proteinase K hampered the early adhesion of cells as well as biofilm development. Proteinase K treatment of 24- and 48-h-old biofilms showed enhanced dispersion of bap-positive S. aureus biofilm; however, proteinase K did not affect the bap-negative S. aureus biofilm. When antibiotics were used in combination with proteinase K, significant enhancement in antibiotic action was noticed against bap-positive S. aureus biofilm. This study establishes that antibiotics in combination with proteinase K can be used for controlling S. aureus biofilms in whose development Bap surface protein has a major role. We propose that Bap protein could be a potential target for therapeutic control of S. aureus infections (for example, bovine mastitis).

  19. Studies on proteinases from Calotropis gigantea latex. I. Purification and some properties of two proteinases containing carbohydrate.

    PubMed

    Abraham, K I; Joshi, P N

    1979-05-10

    Two proteinase containing carbohydrate, called calotropain-FI and calotropain-FII, were purified from Calotropis gigantea latex by CM-Sephadex C-50 chromatography. Both calotropain-FI and FII were found to be homogeneous by rechromatography on CM-Sephadex C-50, gel filtration on Sephadex G-100, electrophoresis on polyacrylamide gel and by N-terminal amino acid analysis. Some properties of these enzymes are reported.

  20. Proteinase inhibitor gene families: strategies for transformation to improve plant defenses against herbivores.

    PubMed

    Ryan, C A

    1989-01-01

    Recent evidence indicates that the presence of serine proteinase inhibitors in plant leaves can reduce predation by insects. Plants can now be transformed with proteinase inhibitor genes with strong promoters to express the inhibitor proteins in relatively high levels at specific times. Inhibitors having variable specificities against digestive proteinases of insects and pathogens can now be assessed for their possible role(s) in natural plant defense and for their potential usefulness in protecting crop plants against herbivores.

  1. Proteinases and their inhibitors in cells and tissues.

    PubMed

    Rappay, G

    1989-01-01

    A large body of evidence has been assembled to indicate the substantial importance of proteolytic processes in various physiological functions. It has recently become clear too that endo-acting peptide bond hydrolases provisionally characterized and classified at present as serine, cysteine, aspartic and metallo together with unknown catalytic mechanism proteinases sometimes act in cascades. They are controlled by natural proteinase inhibitors present in cells and body fluids. In the first part of the present monograph the author was concerned to present an overview on the morphological and physiological approach to localization, surveying reaction principles and methods suitable for visualization of proteolytic enzymes and their natural and synthetic inhibitors. In the second part the roles played by proteinases have been summarized from the point of view of cell biology. The selection of earlier and recent data reviewed on the involvement of proteolysis in the behavior of individual cells reveals that enzymes, whether they be exogeneous or intrinsic, can be effective and sensitive modulators of cellular growth and morphology. There exists a close correlation between malignant growth and degradation of cells. It appears likely that as yet unknown or at least so far inadequately characterized factors that influence the survival or the death of cells may turn out to be proteinases. The causal role of extracellular proteolysis in cancer cell metastases, in stopping cancer cell growth and in cytolysis remains for further investigated. Ovulation, fertilization and implantation are basic biological functions in which proteolytic enzymes play a key role. The emergence of new approaches in reproductive biology and a growing factual basis will inevitably necessitate a reevaluation of present knowledge of proteolytic processes involved. The molecular aspects of intracellular protein catabolism have been discussed in terms of the inhibition of lysosomal and/or non

  2. Serine proteinase inhibition by the active site titrant N alpha-(N, N-dimethylcarbamoyl)-alpha-azaornithine p-nitrophenyl ester. A comparative study.

    PubMed

    Ascenzi, P; Balliano, G; Gallina, C; Polticelli, F; Bolognesi, M

    2000-02-01

    Kinetics for the hydrolysis of the chromogenic active-site titrant N alpha-(N,N-dimethylcarbamoyl)-alpha-azaornithine p-nitrophenyl ester (Dmc-azaOrn-ONp) catalysed by bovine beta-trypsin, bovine alpha-thrombin, bovine Factor Xa, human alpha-thrombin, human Factor Xa, human Lys77-plasmin, human urinary kallikrein, Mr 33 000 and Mr 54 000 species of human urokinase, porcine pancreatic beta-kallikrein-A and -B and Ancrod (the coagulating serine proteinase from the Malayan pit viper Agkistrodon rhodostoma venom) have been obtained between pH 6.0 and 8.0, at 21.0 degrees C, and analysed in parallel with those for the enzymatic cleavage of N alpha-(N,N-dimethylcarbamoyl)-alpha-azalysine p-nitrophenyl ester (Dmc-azaLys-ONp). The enzyme kinetics are consistent with the minimum three-step catalytic mechanism of serine proteinases, the rate-limiting step being represented by the deacylation process. Bovine beta-trypsin kinetics are modulated by the acid-base equilibrium of the His57 catalytic residue (pKa approximately 6.9). Dmc-azaOrn-ONp and Dmc-azaLys-ONp bind stoichiometrically to the serine proteinase active site, and allow the reliable determination of the active enzyme concentration between 1.0 x 10-6 M and 3.0 x 10-4 M. The affinity and the reactivity for Dmc-azaOrn-ONp (expressed by Ks and k+2/Ks, respectively) of the serine proteinases considered are much lower than those for Dmc-azaLys-ONp. The very different affinity and reactivity properties for Dmc-azaOrn-ONp and Dmc-azaLys-ONp have been related to the different size of the ornithine/lysine side chains, and to the ensuing different positioning of the active-site titrants upon binding to the enzyme catalytic centre (i.e. to P1-S1 recognition). These data represent the first detailed comparative investigation on the catalytic properties of serine proteinases towards an ornithine derivative (i. e. Dmc-azaOrn-ONp).

  3. A new crystal form of proteinase A, a non-pepsin-type acid proteinase from Aspergillus niger var. macrosporus.

    PubMed

    Tanokura, M; Sasaki, H; Muramatsu, T; Iwata, S; Hamaya, T; Takizawa, T; Takahashi, K

    1993-10-01

    Proteinase A from Aspergillus niger var. macrosporus is a non-pepsin-type acid proteinase, whose catalytic residues and mechanism remain to be elucidated. A new form of proteinase A crystals more suitable for crystallography than that obtained previously was prepared from an ammonium sulfate solution at pH 3.5 by the hanging-drop vapor diffusion method. The space group of the crystals was P2(1)2(1)2(1), with unit cell dimensions of a = 69.75 +/- 0.06 A, b = 87.55 +/- 0.05 A, and c = 60.83 +/- 0.04 A. On the assumption of two enzyme molecules per asymmetric unit, the calculated volume to unit protein mass ratio (Vm) was 2.08 A3/Da. By assuming the specific volume to be 0.74 cm3/g, the solvent content (Vso1) was estimated to be 41%, i.e., much larger than that of the crystal form obtained previously at pH 2.0 (Vso1 = 26%). Diffraction data were collected up to a resolution higher than 1.6 A, using the Weissenberg camera for macromolecular crystallography with synchrotron radiation.

  4. Cloning of a serine proteinase inhibitor from bovine brain: expression in the brain and characterization of its target proteinases.

    PubMed

    Nakaya, N; Nishibori, M; Kawabata, M; Saeki, K

    1996-12-01

    A cDNA encoding of the serine proteinase inhibitor (serpin), B-43, was cloned from the cDNA library of the bovine brain. It encoded 378 amino acids, and the MW of the protein was estimated to be 42.6 kDa, which is consistent with that of the native B-43 purified from the bovine brain. The homology search revealed that B-43 belongs to the ovalbumin branch of the serpin superfamily. Among them, B-43 was most homologous to human placental thrombin inhibitor (PI-6) and its murine counterpart, with the amino acid identity of 76% and 71%, respectively. Northern blot analysis showed that the size of the transcript was 1.4 kb, and that the expression of B-43 in the bovine brain varied depending on the brain regions, i.e. a lower level of expression was observed in the cerebral cortex and the hippocampus compared to the level of expression that was observed in the medulla oblongata. [35S]-labeled B-43 protein was synthesized in vitro by using a rabbit reticulocyte lysate system, which formed complexes with proteinases such as thrombin, trypsin, alpha-chymotrypsin, and 7S nerve growth factor (NGF), but not with urokinase or plasmin. These results, together with the immunohistochemical localization of B-43 in astrocytes and in some neurons which was observed in the previous study suggest that B-43 may be involved in the regulation of serine proteinases present in the brain or extravasated from the blood.

  5. Photochemical cleavage of leader peptides†‡

    PubMed Central

    Bindman, Noah; Merkx, Remco; Koehler, Robert; Herrman, Nicholas; van der Donk, Wilfred A.

    2011-01-01

    We report a photolabile linker compatible with Fmoc solid phase peptide synthesis and Cu(I)-catalyzed alkyne–azide cycloaddition that allows photochemical cleavage to afford a C-terminal peptide fragment with a native amino terminus. PMID:21046030

  6. Characterization of a novel Kazal-type serine proteinase inhibitor of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Pariani, Sebastián; Contreras, Marisol; Rossi, Franco R; Sander, Valeria; Corigliano, Mariana G; Simón, Francisco; Busi, María V; Gomez-Casati, Diego F; Pieckenstain, Fernando L; Duschak, Vilma G; Clemente, Marina

    2016-04-01

    Many different types of serine proteinase inhibitors have been involved in several kinds of plant physiological processes, including defense mechanisms against phytopathogens. Kazal-type serine proteinase inhibitors, which are included in the serine proteinase inhibitor family, are present in several organisms. These proteins play a regulatory role in processes that involve serine proteinases like trypsin, chymotrypsin, thrombin, elastase and/or subtilisin. In the present work, we characterized two putative Kazal-type serine proteinase inhibitors from Arabidopsis thaliana, which have a single putative Kazal-type domain. The expression of these inhibitors is transiently induced in response to leaf infection by Botrytis cinerea, suggesting that they play some role in defense against pathogens. We also evaluated the inhibitory specificity of one of the Kazal-type serine proteinase inhibitors, which resulted to be induced during the local response to B. cinerea infection. The recombinant Kazal-type serine proteinase inhibitor displayed high specificity for elastase and subtilisin, but low specificity for trypsin, suggesting differences in its selectivity. In addition, this inhibitor exhibited a strong antifungal activity inhibiting the germination rate of B. cinerea conidia in vitro. Due to the important role of proteinase inhibitors in plant protection against pathogens and pests, the information about Kazal-type proteinase inhibitors described in the present work could contribute to improving current methods for plant protection against pathogens.

  7. Fractionation of digestive proteinases from Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) larvae and role in protein digestion.

    PubMed

    Vinokurov, K S; Elpidina, E N; Oppert, B; Prabhakar, S; Zhuzhikov, D P; Dunaevsky, Y E; Belozersky, M A

    2006-10-01

    Tenebrio molitor larval digestive proteinases were purified and characterized by gel filtration chromatography combined with activity electrophoresis. Cysteine proteinases, consisting of at least six distinct activities, were found in three chromatographic peaks in anterior and posterior midgut chromatographies. The major activity in the anterior midgut, peak cys II, consisted of cysteine proteinases with Mm of 23 kDa. The predominant peak in the posterior, cys I, was represented by 38 kDa proteinases. The activities of all cysteine proteinases were maximal in buffers from pH 5.0 to 7.0, with 80% stability at pH values from 4.0 to 7.0. In the conditions of the last third of the midgut, the activity and stability of cysteine proteinases was sharply decreased. Trypsin-like activity included a minor peak of "heavy" trypsins with Mm 59 kDa, located mainly in the anterior midgut. An in vitro study of the initial stages of digestion of the main dietary protein, oat 12S globulin, by anterior midgut proteinases revealed that hydrolysis occurred through the formation of intermediate high-Mm products, similar to those formed during oat seed germination. Cysteine proteinases from the cys III peak and heavy trypsins were capable of only limited proteolysis of the protein, whereas incubation with cys II proteinases resulted in substantial hydrolysis of the globulin.

  8. Proteinase-treated photoreceptor discs. Photoelectric activity of the partially-digested rhodopsin and membrane orientation.

    PubMed

    Bayramashvili, D I; Drachev, A L; Drachev, L A; Kaulen, A D; Kudelin, A B; Martynov, V I; Skulachev, V P

    1984-08-01

    Photoreceptor discs from rod outer segments of cattle retina were treated with (a) papain, (b) thermolysin or (c) trypsin, the procedures resulting in the cleavage of the rhodopsin polypeptide chain between (a) 323 and 324, 236 and 237, 241 and 242, (b) 327 and 328, 240 and 241, or (c) 339 and 340 amino acid residues, respectively. In all the cases, partially digested rhodopsins proved to be competent in generating photoelectric potential and increasing membrane conductance of the discs adsorbed onto phospholipid-impregnated collodion film. The kinetics of generation and dissipation of photopotential as well as of formation of metarhodopsin II and of the light-induced rhodopsin protonation were found to be the same in the partially digested preparations and in the intact one. Incubation of papain-treated or thermolysin-treated discs at pH 6.0 induced formation of inside-out vesicles which, when incorporated into the collodion film, generated an oppositely directed photopotential. Treatment of such vesicles with papain gave rise to further cleavages of the polypeptide localized between 30 and 31, 186 and 187 amino acid residues. One more proteinase-sensitive site, localized between 104 and 105 residues, has been discovered in the inside-out vesicles treated with thermolysin. This fact consistent with the scheme of the 'seven column' arrangement of the visual rhodopsin [Ovchinnikov, Yu. A. (1982) FEBS Lett. 148, 179-191]. Rhodopsin, when treated with papain on both sides, was deprived of sixty amino acid residues being split in two sites in the middle part of the polypeptide, but was still active as a photoelectric energy transducer. The main specific feature inherent in the photoelectric response of the papain-treated or thermolysin-treated rhodopsin and absent from the native protein is that the former survives addition of long trains of saturating flashes when the response of the intact preparation becomes negligible. This effect was shown to be due to conversion

  9. Residues in the human corticosteroid-binding globulin reactive center loop that influence steroid binding before and after elastase cleavage.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hai-Yan; Underhill, Caroline; Gardill, Bernd R; Muller, Yves A; Hammond, Geoffrey L

    2009-01-01

    Corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG) is a non-inhibitory serine proteinase inhibitor (serpin) that transports cortisol and progesterone in blood. Crystal structures of rat CBG and a thrombin-cleaved human CBG:anti-trypsin (Pittsburgh) chimera show how structural transitions after proteolytic cleavage of the CBG reactive center loop (RCL) could disrupt steroid binding. This ligand release mechanism is assumed to involve insertion of the cleaved RCL into the beta-sheet A of the serpin structure. We have, therefore, examined how amino acid substitutions in the human CBG RCL influence steroid binding before and after its cleavage by neutrophil elastase. Elastase-cleaved wild-type CBG or variants with substitutions at P15 and/or P16 (E334G/G335N or E334A) lost steroid binding completely, whereas deletion of Glu-334 resulted in no loss of steroid binding after RCL cleavage, presumably because this prevents its insertion into beta-sheet A. Similarly, the steroid binding properties of CBG variants with substitutions at P15 (G335P), P14 (V336R), or P12 (T338P) in the RCL hinge were largely unaffected after elastase cleavage, most likely because the re-orientation and/or insertion of the cleaved RCL was blocked. Substitutions at P10 (G340P, G340S) or P8 (T342P, T342N) resulted in a partial loss of steroid binding after proteolysis which we attribute to incomplete insertion of the cleaved RCL. Remarkably, several substitutions (E334A, V336R, G340S, and T342P) increased the steroid binding affinities of human CBG even before elastase cleavage, consistent with the concept that CBG normally toggles between a high affinity ligand binding state where the RCL is fully exposed and a lower affinity state in which the RCL is partly inserted into beta-sheet A.

  10. Midgut proteinases of Sitotroga cerealella (Oliver) (Lepidoptera:Gelechiidae): Characterization and relationship to resistance in cereals

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Lan.

    1989-01-01

    Midgut proteinases are vital to the insects which digest ingested food in the midgut. Insect midgut proteinases, therefore, have been considered as possible targets for the control of insect pests. Proteinaceous proteinase inhibitors are very attractive for their potential use in developing insect resistant plant varieties via genetic engineering. Sitotroga cerealella is one of the major storage pests of cereals, and no antibiotic resistance in wheat against this insect has been identified to date. A series of diagnostic inhibitors, thiol-reducing agents and a metal-ion chelator were used in the identification of proteinases in crude extracts from S. cerealella larval midguts with both protein and ester substrates. The partial inhibition of proteolytic activity in crude midgut extract toward ({sup 3}H)-methemoglobin by pepstatin A suggested the presence of another proteinase which was sensitive to pepstatin A. The optimum pH range for the proteolytic activity, however, indicated that the major midgut proteinases were not carboxyl proteinases. Two proteinases were successfully purified by a combination of fractionation with ammonium sulfate, gel permeation and anion exchange chromatography. Characterization of the enzymes with the purified enzyme preparations confirmed that the two major proteinases were serine endoproteinases with trypsin-like and chymotrypsin-like specificities respectively. Bioassays were conducted using the artificial seeds to test naturally occurring proteinaceous proteinase inhibitors of potential value. Soybean trypsin inhibitor and the Bowman-Birk proteinase inhibitor had adverse effects on the development of the insect. A predictive model was constructed to evaluate effects of seed resistance in conjunction with other control methods on S. cerealella population dynamics.

  11. Does Cleavage Work at Work? Men, but Not Women, Falsely Believe Cleavage Sells a Weak Product

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glick, Peter; Chrislock, Karyna; Petersik, Korinne; Vijay, Madhuri; Turek, Aleksandra

    2008-01-01

    We examined whether men, but not women, would be distracted by a female sales representative's exposed cleavage, leading to greater perceived efficacy for a weak, but not for a strong product. A community sample of 88 men and 97 women viewed a video of a female pharmaceutical sales representative who (a) had exposed cleavage or dressed modestly…

  12. Structural basis of cohesin cleavage by separase

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Zhonghui; Luo, Xuelian; Yu, Hongtao

    2016-01-01

    Accurate chromosome segregation requires timely dissolution of chromosome cohesion after chromosomes are properly attached to the mitotic spindle. Separase is absolutely essential for cohesion dissolution in organisms from yeast to man1,2. It cleaves the kleisin subunit of cohesin and opens the cohesin ring to allow chromosome segregation. Cohesin cleavage is spatiotemporally controlled by separase-associated regulatory proteins, including the inhibitory chaperone securin3–6, and by phosphorylation of both the enzyme and substrates7–12. Dysregulation of this process causes chromosome missegregation and aneuploidy, contributing to cancer and birth defects. Despite its essential functions, atomic structures of separase have not been determined. Here, we report crystal structures of the separase protease domain from Chaetomium thermophilum, alone or covalently bound to unphosphorylated and phosphorylated inhibitory peptides derived from a cohesin cleavage site. These structures reveal how separase recognizes cohesin and how cohesin phosphorylation by polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1) enhances cleavage. Consistent with a previous cellular study13, mutating two securin residues in a conserved motif that partially matches the separase cleavage consensus converts securin from a separase inhibitor to a substrate. Our study establishes atomic mechanisms of substrate cleavage by separase and suggests competitive inhibition by securin. PMID:27027290

  13. Controlled intracellular proteolysis during postpartal involution of the uterus: characterization and regulation of an alkaline proteinase.

    PubMed

    Roth, M; Hoechst, M; Afting, E G

    1981-01-01

    The postpartal involution of the uterus is predominantly due to cellular hypotrophy. This implies an intracellular proteolytic system which must be carefully controlled pre and post partum. We have characterized and partially purified a proteinase with an alkaline pH-optimum of activity and a proteinase inhibitor protein which inhibits this proteinase very strongly. The alkaline proteinase copurifies with the actomyosin complex of the uterine myometrium and degrades the actomyosin complex with a concomitant loss of its myosin-ATPase activity. The alkaline proteinase is a very labile enzyme, markedly sensitive to SH-group modifying agents and has very high molecular weight at the present state of purification. This proteolytic enzyme could specifically be separated from the main components of the actomyosin complex by extraction with low ionic strength phosphate buffers. The proteinase inhibitor protein may control the activity of this alkaline proteinase during pregnancy and involution. The inhibitor protein raises 15-fold during pregnancy, possibly blocks important steps of intracellular proteolysis and permits organ growth. The dramatic fall of the inhibitor protein activity after parturition, which precedes the loss of weight, could release the proteolytic system, including the alkaline proteinase, and permits controlled intracellular degradation.

  14. Gelatinases and serine proteinase inhibitors of seminal plasma and the reproductive tract of turkey (Meleagris gallopavo).

    PubMed

    Kotłowska, M; Kowalski, R; Glogowski, J; Jankowski, J; Ciereszko, A

    2005-04-01

    This study examined proteolytic enzymes and serine proteinase inhibitors in turkey seminal plasma with relation to their distribution within the reproductive tract and to yellow semen syndrome (YSS). Proteases of blood plasma, extracts from the reproductive tract, and seminal plasma were analyzed by gelatin zymography. We found a clear regional distribution of proteolytic enzymes in the turkey reproductive tract. Each part was characterized by a unique profile of serine proteolytic enzymes of molecular weights ranging from 29 to 88 kDa. The ductus deferens was found to be a site of very intense proteolytic activity. Two metalloproteases of 58 and 66 kDa were detected in all parts of the reproductive tract and seminal plasma. Using electrophoretic methods for detection of anti-trypsin activity, we found three serine proteinase inhibitors in turkey seminal plasma. Two inhibitors were found in the testis and epididymis and a third in the ductus deferens and seminal plasma. Blood plasma was characterized by the presence of two metalloproteinases and one serine proteinase inhibitor (of low migration rate) that were also detected in the reproductive tract. Amidase and anti-trypsin activities (expressed per gram of protein) differed for yellow and white seminal plasma. We concluded that turkey seminal plasma contains metalloproteases, serine proteinases, and serine proteinase inhibitors. The metalloproteases and one proteinase inhibitor are related to blood proteinases but the other two inhibitors and serine proteinases seem to be unique for the reproductive tract.

  15. Expression of virus-encoded proteinases: functional and structural similarities with cellular enzymes.

    PubMed Central

    Dougherty, W G; Semler, B L

    1993-01-01

    Many viruses express their genome, or part of their genome, initially as a polyprotein precursor that undergoes proteolytic processing. Molecular genetic analyses of viral gene expression have revealed that many of these processing events are mediated by virus-encoded proteinases. Biochemical activity studies and structural analyses of these viral enzymes reveal that they have remarkable similarities to cellular proteinases. However, the viral proteinases have evolved unique features that permit them to function in a cellular environment. In this article, the current status of plant and animal virus proteinases is described along with their role in the viral replication cycle. The reactions catalyzed by viral proteinases are not simple enzyme-substrate interactions; rather, the processing steps are highly regulated, are coordinated with other viral processes, and frequently involve the participation of other factors. Images PMID:8302216

  16. Use of a cysteine proteinase from Carica candamarcensis as a protective agent during DNA extraction.

    PubMed

    Genelhu, M S; Zanini, M S; Veloso, I F; Carneiro, A M; Lopes, M T; Salas, C E

    1998-09-01

    We describe the use of a plant cysteine proteinase isolated from latex of Carica candamarcensis as a protective agent during isolation of bacterial DNA following growth in culture of these cells. Between 100 to 720 units of proteinase (1 microgram = 6 units) afforded good DNA protection when incubated with various kinds of microorganisms. Agarose gel electrophoresis showed that the resulting DNA was similar in size to DNA preparations obtained by treatment with proteinase K. The viability of the resulting material was checked by PCR amplification using species-specific primers. After standing at room temperature (25 degrees C) for 35 days, the enzyme lost 10% of its initial activity. The enzyme stability and good yield of DNA suggest the use of this proteinase as an alternative to proteinase K.

  17. Inactivation of α1-proteinase inhibitor by Candida albicans aspartic proteases favors the epithelial and endothelial cell colonization in the presence of neutrophil extracellular traps.

    PubMed

    Gogol, Mariusz; Ostrowska, Dominika; Klaga, Kinga; Bochenska, Oliwia; Wolak, Natalia; Aoki, Wataru; Ueda, Mitsuyoshi; Kozik, Andrzej; Rapala-Kozik, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Candida albicans, a causative agent of opportunistic fungal infections in immunocompromised patients, uses ten secreted aspartic proteases (SAPs) to deregulate the homeostasis of the host organism on many levels. One of these deregulation mechanisms involves a SAP-dependent disturbance of the control over proteolytic enzymes of the host by a system of dedicated proteinase inhibitors, with one important example being the neutrophil elastase and alpha1-proteinase inhibitor (A1PI). In this study, we found that soluble SAPs 1-4 and the cell membrane-anchored SAP9 efficiently cleaved A1PI, with the major cleavage points located at the C-terminal part of A1PI in a close vicinity to the reactive-site loop that plays a critical role in the inhibition mechanism. Elastase is released by neutrophils to the environment during fungal infection through two major processes, a degranulation or formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NET). Both, free and NET-embedded elastase forms, were found to be controlled by A1PI. A local acidosis, resulting from the neutrophil activity at the infection sites, favors A1PI degradation by SAPs. The deregulation of NET-connected elastase affected a NET-dependent damage of epithelial and endothelial cells, resulting in the increased susceptibility of these host cells to candidal colonization. Moreover, the SAP-catalyzed cleavage of A1PI was found to decrease its binding affinity to a proinflammatory cytokine, interleukin-8. The findings presented here suggest a novel strategy used by C. albicans for the colonization of host tissues and overcoming the host defense. PMID:26641639

  18. The 2.5 A X-ray crystal structure of the acid-stable proteinase inhibitor from human mucous secretions analysed in its complex with bovine alpha-chymotrypsin.

    PubMed Central

    Grütter, M G; Fendrich, G; Huber, R; Bode, W

    1988-01-01

    Orthorhombic crystals of the complex formed between bovine alpha-chymotrypsin and a recombinant human mucous proteinase inhibitor (SLPI) were grown. Data to 2.3 A resolution were collected on the area-detector diffractometer FAST. The crystal structure of the complex was solved by Patterson search techniques using chymotrypsin as a search model. A cyclic procedure of modeling and crystallographic refinement enabled the determination of the SLPI structure. The current crystallographic R-value is 0.19. SLPI has a boomerang-like shape with both wings comprising two well separated domains of similar architecture. In each domain the polypeptide chain is arranged like a stretched spiral. Two internal strands form a regular beta-hairpin loop which is accompanied by two external strands linked by the proteinase binding segment. The polypeptide segment of each domain is interconnected by four disulfide bridges with a connectivity pattern hitherto unobserved. The reactive site loop of the second domain has elastase and chymotrypsin binding properties. It contains the scissile peptide bond between Leu72I and Met73I and has a similar conformation to that observed in other serine proteinase protein inhibitors. Eight residues of this loop, two of the adjacent hairpin loop, the C-terminal segment and Trp30I are in direct contact with the cognate enzyme. The binding loop of the first domain (probably with anti-trypsin activity) is disordered due to proteolytic cleavage occurring in the course of crystallization. PMID:3366116

  19. Dataset of cocoa aspartic protease cleavage sites.

    PubMed

    Janek, Katharina; Niewienda, Agathe; Wöstemeyer, Johannes; Voigt, Jürgen

    2016-09-01

    The data provide information in support of the research article, "The cleavage specificity of the aspartic protease of cocoa beans involved in the generation of the cocoa-specific aroma precursors" (Janek et al., 2016) [1]. Three different protein substrates were partially digested with the aspartic protease isolated from cocoa beans and commercial pepsin, respectively. The obtained peptide fragments were analyzed by matrix-assisted laser-desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS/MS) and identified using the MASCOT server. The N- and C-terminal ends of the peptide fragments were used to identify the corresponding in-vitro cleavage sites by comparison with the amino acid sequences of the substrate proteins. The same procedure was applied to identify the cleavage sites used by the cocoa aspartic protease during cocoa fermentation starting from the published amino acid sequences of oligopeptides isolated from fermented cocoa beans. PMID:27508221

  20. Activation of Proteinase 3 Contributes to Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Insulin Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Toonen, Erik JM; Mirea, Andreea-Manuela; Tack, Cees J; Stienstra, Rinke; Ballak, Dov B; van Diepen, Janna A; Hijmans, Anneke; Chavakis, Triantafyllos; Dokter, Wim H; Pham, Christine TN; Netea, Mihai G; Dinarello, Charles A; Joosten, Leo AB

    2016-01-01

    Activation of inflammatory pathways is known to accompany development of obesity-induced nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. In addition to caspase-1, the neutrophil serine proteases proteinase 3, neutrophil elastase and cathepsin G are able to process the inactive proinflammatory mediators interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-18 to their bioactive forms, thereby regulating inflammatory responses. In this study, we investigated whether proteinase 3 is involved in obesity-induced development of insulin resistance and NAFLD. We investigated the development of NAFLD and insulin resistance in mice deficient for neutrophil elastase/proteinase 3 and neutrophil elastase/cathepsin G and in wild-type mice treated with the neutrophil serine proteinase inhibitor human α-1 antitrypsin. Expression profiling of metabolically relevant tissues obtained from insulin-resistant mice showed that expression of proteinase 3 was specifically upregulated in the liver, whereas neutrophil elastase, cathepsin G and caspase-1 were not. Neutrophil elastase/proteinase 3-deficient mice showed strongly reduced levels of lipids in the liver after being fed a high-fat diet. Moreover, these mice were resistant to high–fat–diet-induced weight gain, inflammation and insulin resistance. Injection of proteinase 3 exacerbated insulin resistance in caspase-1–/– mice, indicating that proteinase 3 acts independently of caspase-1. Treatment with α-1 antitrypsin during the last 10 d of a 16-wk high-fat diet reduced hepatic lipid content and decreased fasting glucose levels. We conclude that proteinase 3 is involved in NAFLD and insulin resistance and that inhibition of proteinase 3 may have therapeutic potential. PMID:27261776

  1. Cationic inhibitors of serine proteinases from buckwheat seeds.

    PubMed

    Tsybina, T A; Dunaevsky, Y E; Musolyamov, A K; Egorov, T A; Belozersky, M A

    2001-09-01

    Preparations of low molecular weight protein inhibitors of serine proteinases have been obtained from buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) seeds by chromatography of seed extract on trypsin-Sepharose 4B, Mono-Q, and Mono-S ion exchangers (FPLC regime). Their molecular masses, determined by mass spectrometry, were 5203 (BWI-1c), 5347 (BWI-2c), 7760 (BWI-3c), and 6031 daltons (BWI-4c). All of the inhibitors possess high pH- and thermal stability in the pH range 2-12. In addition to trypsin, BWI-3c and BWI-4c inhibited chymotrypsin and subtilisin-like bacterial proteases. The N-terminal sequences of all of the inhibitors were determined: BWI-1c (23 residues), BWI-2c (33 residues), BWI-3c (18 residues), and BWI-4c (20 residues). In their physicochemical properties and N-terminal amino acid sequences, the buckwheat seed trypsin inhibitors BWI-3c and BWI-4c appear to belong to potato proteinase inhibitor I family. PMID:11703172

  2. Hormonal control of proteinase activity in squash cotyledons.

    PubMed

    Penner, D; Ashton, F M

    1967-06-01

    A crude proteolytic enzyme preparation which hydrolyzes casein was isolated from the cotyledons of squash seedlings. The presence of ethylene diamine tetraacetate or cysteine did not appreciably affect the activity of the preparation. During the course of germination, the level of proteolytic activity increased in the cotyledons of intact embryos through the third day and then decreased. The presence of the embryonic axis during the first 32 hours of germination was a prerequisite for the development of maximum proteolytic activity.The presence of a cytokinin, such as benzyladenine, kinetin, BTP [6-(benzylamino)-9-(2-tetrahydropyranyl)-9H-purine], or phenyladenine, in the culture solution could reproduce the effect of the embryonic axis. Other growth regulators did not produce this stimulation. High concentrations (1 mm) of all growth regulators examined were inhibitory. Various combinations of growth regulators failed to produce any synergistic effects. 6-Methylpurine inhibited the development of proteinase activity, and this inhibition was only partially restored by benzyladenine.A proteinase was partially purified from the cotyledons of 2-day-old squash seedlings and its synthesis was shown to be under the control of the embryonic axis.

  3. Purification and properties of an alkaline proteinase of Fusarium culmorum.

    PubMed

    Pekkarinen, Anja I; Jones, Berne L; Niku-Paavola, Marja-Leena

    2002-02-01

    The disease Fusarium head blight (scab) causes severe problems for farmers and for the industries that use cereals. It is likely that the fungi that cause scab (Fusarium spp.) use various enzymes when they invade grains. We are studying enzymes that the fungi may use to hydrolyze grain proteins. To do this, Fusarium culmorum was grown in a gluten-containing medium from which an alkaline serine proteinase with a molecular mass of 28.7 kDa was purified by size-exclusion and cation exchange chromatographies. The enzyme was maximally active at pH 8.3-9.6 and 50 degrees C, but was unstable under these conditions. It hydrolyzed the synthetic substrates N-succinyl-Ala-Ala-Pro-Phe p-nitroanilide and, to a lesser extent, N-succinyl-Ala-Ala-Pro-Leu p-nitroanilide. It was inhibited by phenylmethanesulfonyl fluoride and chymostatin, but not by soybean trypsin or Bowman-Birk inhibitors. Parts of the amino-acid sequence were up to 82% homologous with those of several fungal subtilisins. One of the active site amino acids was detected and it occupied the same relative position as in the other subtilisins. Therefore, on the basis of these characteristics, the proteinase is subtilisin-like. Purification of the enzyme was complicated by the fact that, when purified, it apparently underwent autolysis. The presence of extraneous protein stabilized the activity.

  4. Diisopropyl fluorophosphate labeling of sperm-associated proteinases

    SciTech Connect

    Odem, R.R.; Willand, J.L.; Polakoski, K.L. )

    1990-02-01

    Proteinase inhibitors have been shown to be capable of preventing various aspects of fertilization. Diisopropyl fluorophosphate (DFP) is an irreversible inhibitor of trypsin-like enzymes that is commercially available in a radiolabeled form. The experiments described herein were designed to determine if DFP would prevent sperm function in live, motile sperm and to identify the sperm proteins bound with DFP. DFP at 5 mM concentrations had no observable effect on sperm motility, but inhibited the penetration of zona-free hamster ova by human sperm (5.5%) compared to controls (33.5%). Acid extracts of motile sperm that had been incubated with radiolabeled DFP and collected by the swim-up procedure demonstrated the presence of radiolabeled DFP, and the autoradiography of the sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) gels of these extracts localized the uptake of radiolabeled DFP to proteins in the molecular weight region of the proacrosin-acrosin system. Acid-extracted proteinases from semen samples incubated with DFP demonstrated a concentration-dependent inhibition of both esterolytic hydrolysis of benzoyl-arginine ethyl ester on spectrophotometric analysis and proteolytic activity on gelatin SDS-PAGE zymography. DFP-labeled proteins were precipitated by highly specific antibodies to proacrosin. These results demonstrated that DFP is capable of inhibiting sperm function, and that it associates with the proacrosin-acrosin system in live motile sperm.

  5. [Assay of urine cysteine proteinase in diagnosing gynecological malignant tumors].

    PubMed

    Peng, Z L

    1992-09-01

    Cysteine proteinases (CP) belong to the subclass of endopeptidase, and have been considered to play an important role in spreading cancer cells. Cysteine proteinases in urine (UCP) were determined in 71 healthy women, 76 patients with gynecological benign tumors and 125 cases (173 samples) with gynecological malignant tumors. Enzyme levels were assayed using the artificial substrate CSZ-Ala-Arg-AFC by detecting the release of free AFC with the aid of a fluorometer. The value ranged from upper 80% to 99% of UCP in 71 normal women and was calculated with the percentile method. The results showed that ROC curve displayed a highly sensitive character. The sensitivity and specificity for gynecological malignant tumor were 91.8%, and 71.7% respectively. The sensitivities of UCP for ovarian cancer, cervical cancer, carcinoma of endometrium and cancer of vulva were 96%, 91%, 85.7% and 72.7% respectively. Due to its high sensitivity. It was suggested that UCP assay can be a good screening test to distinguish gynecological malignancy from benign tumors. The accuracy of diagnosing gynecological malignancy may be improved if UCP assay is combined with other tests with higher specificity.

  6. Proteinases of Pseudomonas aeruginosa evoke mucin release by tracheal epithelium.

    PubMed Central

    Klinger, J D; Tandler, B; Liedtke, C M; Boat, T F

    1984-01-01

    We have determined the potential of exoproducts from pathogenic bacteria to stimulate the release of high molecular weight mucins from goblet cells of airway epithelium in a rabbit tracheal explant system. Culture supernatants from proteolytic strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Serratia marcescens, but not supernatants from a number of non-proteolytic strains, released mucins from goblet cells. Highly purified elastase and alkaline proteinase from P. aeruginosa stimulated goblet cell mucin release in a dose-dependent fashion. Lipopolysaccharide, exotoxin A, and alginate of P. aeruginosa did not possess mucin release properties. Proteolytic activity was required for mucin release by P. aeruginosa elastase, but such release in goblet cells was not mediated by cyclic AMP. Morphologic studies suggested rapid release of mucins from goblet cells was response to elastase by a process resembling apocrine secretion. Several nonbacterial proteinases mimicked the effect of Pseudomonas proteases. These studies provide support for the hypothesis that bacterial and other play a role in the pathogenesis of mucus hypersecretion in acute and chronic lung infections. Images PMID:6568227

  7. Proteinase-activated receptor-1 mediates allogeneic CD8(+) T cell-induced apoptosis of vascular endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Quan, Li; Jian, Zhang; Ping, Zou; Weiming, Li

    2009-12-01

    Vascular endothelial-cells injury plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and transplant-associated endothelial injury syndrome. Vascular endothelial cells are an exposed target tissue for immune-mediated injury during GVHD. Early endothelial injury syndromes share common features with acute GVHD. Chronic GVHD leads to a rarefaction of microvessels caused by the infiltration of alloreactive cytotoxic T lymphocytes. In this context, allogeneic reactive cytotoxic T cell may contribute to apoptosis of vascular endothelial cells. The involvement of proteinase-activated receptor (PAR-1) in regulation of apoptosis has been recently recognized in many cell types. We hypothesized that apoptosis of vascular endothelial cells induced by allogeneic cytotoxic T cell are mediated via the PAR-1. Allogeneic CD8(+) T cell, PAR-1 agonist peptide (SFLLRN) induced apoptosis of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and human dermal microvascular endothelial cells (HDMECs) as assessed by AnnexinV-FITC labeling. To ascertain the mechanism of endothelial apoptosis, we determined that allogeneic CD8(+) T cell, SFLLRN enhanced cleavage of caspase-3 and led to p38MAPK activation as assessed by Western blot. The effects of allogeneic CD8(+) T cell and SFLLRN on apoptosis of vascular endothelial cells were largely prevented by a cleavage-blocking anti-human PAR-1-antibody (ATAP2) and a specific inhibitor of p38MAPK. In concert, these observations provide strong evidence that allogeneic CD8(+) T cell induces apoptosis of human vascular endothelial cells through PAR-1-dependent modulation of intrinsic apoptotic pathway via alterations of p38MAPK and caspase-3. PMID:19082770

  8. Cleavage oriented iron single crystal fracture toughness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hribernik, Michael Louis

    Fundamental understanding of atomic level mechanisms controlling cleavage fracture in bcc metals, and the corresponding brittle to ductile transition (BDT) has been a long sought, 'grand challenge' of science. This is particularly true for the BDT in Fe, which is among vital elements that underpin our technological civilization. A key obstacle to developing an understanding of the BDT in Fe is the absence of a reliable database on the temperature dependence of toughness in Fe. In ferritic alloys, the micro-arrest toughness of ferrite, Kmu(T), is hypothesized to control macroscopic cleavage. As a surrogate for Kmu(T), special techniques were developed to measure the arrest toughness, Ka(T), for cleavage oriented, Fe single crystals. Further, the mechanisms controlling cleavage and the BDT should be reflected in the loading rate dependence of static-dynamic initiation toughness, K Ic and KId. Thus KIc/d(T) were also measured for K-rate from 10-1 to 104 MPa√m/s. These studies led to the following conclusions: (1) Ka is semi-brittle, increasing from an average of ≈ 3.5 MPa√m at -196°C to ≈ 9 MPa√m at 0°C. (2) The (100) Ka are similar in the [010] and [011] and orientations, but cleavage does not occur on (110) planes. (3) The Ka for unalloyed Fe is about 150°C lower than that for Fe-3wt%Si, suggesting that equivalent Ka may occur at equivalent lattice sigmay. (4) Higher K-rate shift K Ic/d(T) curves to higher T. (5) The shifts of the KIc/d(T) and Ka(T) curves can be understood and modeled based on dislocation dynamics concepts for the glide of screw dislocations with a stress (and T) controlled activation energy, Ea, with a maximum value of about ≈ 0.5 eV. (6) This Ea is consistent with a double kink nucleation mechanism. Etch pit, slip trace and ledge patterns on side, fracture and sectioned surfaces of the crystals were characterized to study dislocation activity associated with cleavage and the BDT. The results showed extensive dislocation activity on

  9. Limited proteolysis by macrophage elastase inactivities human. cap alpha. /sub 1/-proteinase inhibitor

    SciTech Connect

    Banda, M.J.; Clark, E.J.; Werb, Z.

    1980-12-01

    Ever since the initial description of ..cap alpha../sub 1/-proteinase inhibitor (..cap alpha../sub 1/PI), the role of this plasma glycoprotein and its allelic polymorphism in disease and in healthy physiology has been the subject of much investigation, ..cap alpha../sub 1/PI inactivates a number of serine proteinases, including granulocyte elastase, and thus affords protection from the connective tissue degradation mediated by this class of proteinases. Because an imbalance in the ratio between ..cap alpha../sub 1/PI and proteinase may contribute to the development of destructive lung diseases, proteinases have been implicated in the pathogenesis of pulmonary emphysema. Both macrophages and polymorphonuclear leukocytes have been implicated in disruption of the ..cap alpha../sub 1/PI-proteinase balance. In this report, a new mechanism for alteration of the ..cap alpha../sub 1/PI-proteinase balance is demonstrated. It was found that the purified form of macrophage elastase catalytically degrades and inactivates ..cap alpha../sub 1/PI so that it no longer inhibits the elastinolytic activity of granulocyte elastase.

  10. [Phospholipase, proteinase and hemolytic activities of Candida albicans isolates obtained from clinical specimens].

    PubMed

    Yenişehirli, Gülgün; Bulut, Yunus; Tunçoglu, Ebru

    2010-01-01

    This study was aimed to determine the phospholipase, proteinase and hemolytic activities of Candida albicans strains isolated from clinical specimens. A total of 147 C. albicans strains isolated from blood (n = 29), respiratory specimens (n = 44), urine (n = 52), pus (n = 17) and stool (n = 5) were included in the study. Proteinase and phospholipase activities were determined in 81% and 76% of C. albicans isolates, respectively. All C. albicans isolates revealed beta-hemolytic activity on Sabouraud dextrose agar supplemented with 7% fresh sheep blood and 3% glucose. Phospholipase and proteinase positivity were highest among the respiratory isolates. Proteinase activity of respiratory (93%) and blood (83%) isolates were statistically significantly higher than that of urine (77%; p = 0.032), pus (65%; p = 0.007) and stool isolates (60%; p = 0.026). While phospholipase activity showed statistically significant difference between respiratory (84%) and pus (53%) isolates (p = 0.014), no statistically significant difference was determined for blood (79%), urine (75%) and stool (80%) isolates (p > 0.05). Two blood isolates with 4+ proteinase activity and 3 urine isolates with 3+ proteinase activity were phospholipase negative. One urine isolate with 4+ phospholipase activity and 4 with 3+ phospholipase activity were proteinase negative. Phospholipase and proteinase negative 1 isolate from stool and 1 isolate from pus were found to have 4+ hemolytic activity. In conclusion, besides proteinase and phospholipase enzyme activities, hemolytic activity may play an important role for the C.albicans infections. The pathogenetic role of these virulence factors should be evaluated by further clinical studies.

  11. Triacontanol negatively modulates the jasmonic acid-stimulated proteinase inhibitors in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum).

    PubMed

    Ramanarayan, Krishnamurthy; Swamy, Gangadharamurthy Sivakumar

    2004-04-01

    Triacontanol (TRIA), a long chain aliphatic alcohol (C30H61OH) reverses the effect of jasmonic acid (JA) in inducing proteinase inhibitors (PIs) in tomato leaves. Porcine pancreas trypsin and Spodoptera litura gut proteinases were inhibited in the presence of leaf proteins treated with JA, and TRIA partially reverses this effect. Spodoptera litura larvae fed with tomato leaves treated with JA were reduced in body weight and TRIA is able to partially reverse this JA-induced effect. These results reflect the partial reversal effect of TRIA in down regulating the JA-induced production of proteinase inhibitors.

  12. Ozone effects on inhibitors of human neutrophil proteinases

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, C.E.; Stack, M.S.; Johnson, D.A.

    1987-02-15

    The effects of ozone on human alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor (A-1-PI), alpha 1-antichymotrypsin (A-1-Achy), bronchial leukocyte proteinase inhibitor (BLPI), and Eglin C were studied using in vitro exposures in phosphate-buffered solutions. Following ozone exposure, inhibitory activities against human neutrophil elastase (HNE) and/or cathepsin G (Cat G) were measured. Exposure of A-1-PI to 50 mol O3/mol protein resulted in a complete loss of HNE inhibitory activity, whereas A-1-Achy lost only 50% of its Cat G inhibitory activity and remained half active even after exposure to 250 mol of O3. At 40 mol O3/mol protein, BLPI lost 79% of its activity against HNE and 87% of its Cat G inhibitory activity. Eglin C, a leech-derived inhibitor, lost 81% of its HNE inhibitory activity and 92% of its ability to inhibit Cat G when exposed to 40 mol O3/mol. Amino acid analyses of ozone-exposed inhibitors showed destruction of Trp, Met, Tyr, and His with as little as 10 mol O3/mol protein, and higher levels of O3 resulted in more extensive oxidation of susceptible residues. The variable ozone susceptibility of the different amino acid residues in the four proteins indicated that oxidation was a function of protein structure, as well as the inherent susceptibility of particular amino acids. Exposure of A-1-PI and BLPI in the presence of the antioxidants, Trolox C (water soluble vitamin E) and ascorbic acid (vitamin C), showed that antioxidant vitamins may protect proteins from oxidative inactivation by ozone. Methionine-specific modification of BLPI reduced its HNE and Cat G inhibitory activities. Two moles of N-chlorosuccinimide per mole of BLPI methionine caused an 80% reduction in activity against Cat G, but only a 40% reduction in HNE inhibitory activity.

  13. Proinflammatory genes expression in granulocytes activated by native proteinase-binding fragments of anti-proteinase 3 IgG.

    PubMed

    Surmiak, M; Kaczor, M; Sanak, M

    2015-08-01

    The classical pathway of neutrophils activation due to cytoplasmic antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (c-ANCA) involves specific antigen binding to proteinase-3 and activation of the immunoglobulin G receptors by the constant fragment of the antibody. A requirement for this double signaling was suggested also because proteinase-3 is presented within a complex of NB-1 glycoprotein lacking transmembrane domain. An integrin Mac-1 receptor was postulated to cooperate in neutrophil stimulation by anti-proteinase 3 (anti-PR3). A characteristic profile of transcriptional activation of neutrophils by c-ANCA was described by us previously. We ascertained mRNA expression of neutrophils following stimulation with antigen-binding fragments of native anti-PR3 IgG. Expression of targeted transcripts was compared with our previous results, in which intact anti-PR3 IgG was used. Human neutrophils were isolated from healthy volunteers negative for ANCAs. Antigen-binding fragments of human anti-PR3 were prepared from sera of patients with granulomatosis with polyangiitis. We analyzed reactive oxygen species production and abundance of mRNA of 151 genes by quantitative real time-PCR in neutrophils stimulated with anti-PR3 IgG F(ab)(2). We observed a consistent upregulation of 17 genes (CYSLTR1, HPGD, IL1R1, IL1RL1, MAPK1, MAPK8, NR3C1, PLA2G7, PTGDR, CD302, DNAJB1, F2R, F2RL1, IER3, RAC1, RPL41, PTGER3), whereas other 9 genes were up-regulated only in some donors. No reactive oxygen species production was observed in neutrophils stimulated with anti-PR3 F(ab)(2). Stimulation of neutrophils with F(ab)(2) of anti-PR3 autoantibodies activated cells to a lesser extent than intact IgG. However, several cellular pathways were up-regulated, involving calcium and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase AKT, nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling. Interestingly, binding of F(ab)(2) to the PR-3 present on the surface of neutrophil is sufficient for lipid

  14. Successive Use of Non-Host Plant Proteinase Inhibitors Required for Effective Inhibition of Helicoverpa armigera Gut Proteinases and Larval Growth1

    PubMed Central

    Harsulkar, Abhay M.; Giri, Ashok P.; Patankar, Aparna G.; Gupta, Vidya S.; Sainani, Mohini N.; Ranjekar, Prabhakar K.; Deshpande, Vasanti V.

    1999-01-01

    We report on the efficacy of proteinase inhibitors (PIs) from three host plants (chickpea [Cicer arietinum], pigeonpea [Cajanus cajan], and cotton [Gossypium arboreum]) and three non-host (groundnut [Arachis hypogea], winged bean [Psophocarpus tetragonolobus], and potato [Solanum tuberosum]) in retarding the growth of Helicoverpa armigera larvae, a devastating pest of important crop plants. Enzyme assays and electrophoretic analysis of interaction of H. armigera gut proteinases (HGPs) with PIs revealed that non-host PIs inhibited HGP activity efficiently whereas host PIs were ineffective. In the electrophoretic assay, trypsin inhibitor activity bands were detected in all of the host and non-host plants, but HGP inhibitor activity bands were present only in non-host plants (except cotton in the host plant group). H. armigera larvae reared on a diet containing non-host PIs showed growth retardation, a reduction in total and trypsin-like proteinase activity, and the production of inhibitor-insensitive proteinases. Electrophoretic analysis of PI-induced HGP showed differential regulation of proteinase isoforms. Interestingly, HGP activity induced in response to dietary potato PI-II was inhibited by winged bean PIs. The optimized combination of potato PI-II and winged bean PIs identified in the present study and their proposed successive use has potential in developing H. armigera-resistant transgenic plants. PMID:10517841

  15. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray investigation of proteinase A, a non-pepsin-type acid proteinase from Aspergillus niger var. macrosporus.

    PubMed

    Tanokura, M; Matsuzaki, H; Iwata, S; Nakagawa, A; Hamaya, T; Takizawa, T; Takahashi, K

    1992-01-01

    Proteinase A from Aspergillus niger var. macrosporus is a non-pepsin-type acid proteinase distinctly different in various properties from the family of pepsin-type aspartic proteinases, and so far it remains unknown which residues participate in the catalysis of the enzyme and how the mechanism operates. The acid proteinase A was crystallized from an ammonium sulfate solution by the hanging-drop vapor diffusion method. The space group of the crystals was P2(1)2(1)2(1) with unit cell dimensions of a = 54.7 A, b = 70.4 A and c = 38.0 A. On the assumption that there is one enzyme molecule in the asymmetric unit, the calculated ratio of volume to unit protein mass (Vm) was 1.64 A3 per dalton. Diffraction data were collected up to a resolution higher than 1.5 A, using the Weissenberg camera for macromolecular crystallography with synchrotron radiation. The crystal of proteinase A is, therefore, suitable for the structural analysis with a high resolution.

  16. Utilization of Dioxygen by Carotenoid Cleavage Oxygenases.

    PubMed

    Sui, Xuewu; Golczak, Marcin; Zhang, Jianye; Kleinberg, Katie A; von Lintig, Johannes; Palczewski, Krzysztof; Kiser, Philip D

    2015-12-18

    Carotenoid cleavage oxygenases (CCOs) are non-heme, Fe(II)-dependent enzymes that participate in biologically important metabolic pathways involving carotenoids and apocarotenoids, including retinoids, stilbenes, and related compounds. CCOs typically catalyze the cleavage of non-aromatic double bonds by dioxygen (O2) to form aldehyde or ketone products. Expressed only in vertebrates, the RPE65 sub-group of CCOs catalyzes a non-canonical reaction consisting of concerted ester cleavage and trans-cis isomerization of all-trans-retinyl esters. It remains unclear whether the former group of CCOs functions as mono- or di-oxygenases. Additionally, a potential role for O2 in catalysis by the RPE65 group of CCOs has not been evaluated to date. Here, we investigated the pattern of oxygen incorporation into apocarotenoid products of Synechocystis apocarotenoid oxygenase. Reactions performed in the presence of (18)O-labeled water and (18)O2 revealed an unambiguous dioxygenase pattern of O2 incorporation into the reaction products. Substitution of Ala for Thr at position 136 of apocarotenoid oxygenase, a site predicted to govern the mono- versus dioxygenase tendency of CCOs, greatly reduced enzymatic activity without altering the dioxygenase labeling pattern. Reevaluation of the oxygen-labeling pattern of the resveratrol-cleaving CCO, NOV2, previously reported to be a monooxygenase, using a purified enzyme sample revealed that it too is a dioxygenase. We also demonstrated that bovine RPE65 is not dependent on O2 for its cleavage/isomerase activity. In conjunction with prior research, the results of this study resolve key issues regarding the utilization of O2 by CCOs and indicate that dioxygenase activity is a feature common among double bond-cleaving CCOs.

  17. Nonspecific cleavage of proteins using graphene oxide.

    PubMed

    Lee, Heeyoung; Tran, Minh-Hai; Jeong, Hae Kyung; Han, Jinwoo; Jang, Sei-Heon; Lee, ChangWoo

    2014-04-15

    In this article, we report the intrinsic catalytic activity of graphene oxide (GO) for the nonspecific cleavage of proteins. We used bovine serum albumin (BSA) and a recombinant esterase (rEstKp) from the cold-adapted bacterium Pseudomonas mandelii as test proteins. Cleavage of BSA and rEstKp was nonspecific regarding amino acid sequence, but it exhibited dependence on temperature, time, and the amount of GO. However, cleavage of the proteins did not result in complete hydrolysis into their constituent amino acids. GO also invoked hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl esters at moderate temperatures lower than those required for peptide hydrolysis regardless of chain length of the fatty acyl esters. Based on the results, the functional groups of GO, including alcohols, phenols, and carboxylates, can be considered as crucial roles in the GO-mediated hydrolysis of peptides and esters via general acid-base catalysis. Our findings provide novel insights into the role of GO as a carbocatalyst with nonspecific endopeptidase activity in biochemical reactions. PMID:24508487

  18. KLEAT: CLEAVAGE SITE ANALYSIS OF TRANSCRIPTOMES*

    PubMed Central

    Birol, Inanç; Raymond, Anthony; Chiu, Readman; Nip, Ka Ming; Jackman, Shaun D; Kreitzman, Maayan; Docking, T Roderick; Ennis, Catherine A; Robertson, A Gordon; Karsan, Aly

    2015-01-01

    In eukaryotic cells, alternative cleavage of 3’ untranslated regions (UTRs) can affect transcript stability, transport and translation. For polyadenylated (poly(A)) transcripts, cleavage sites can be characterized with short-read sequencing using specialized library construction methods. However, for large-scale cohort studies as well as for clinical sequencing applications, it is desirable to characterize such events using RNA-seq data, as the latter are already widely applied to identify other relevant information, such as mutations, alternative splicing and chimeric transcripts. Here we describe KLEAT, an analysis tool that uses de novo assembly of RNA-seq data to characterize cleavage sites on 3’ UTRs. We demonstrate the performance of KLEAT on three cell line RNA-seq libraries constructed and sequenced by the ENCODE project, and assembled using Trans-ABySS. Validating the KLEAT predictions with matched ENCODE RNA-seq and RNA-PET libraries, we show that the tool has over 90% positive predictive value when there are at least three RNA-seq reads supporting a poly(A) tail and requiring at least three RNA-PET reads mapping within 100 nucleotides as validation. We also compare the performance of KLEAT with other popular RNA-seq analysis pipelines that reconstruct 3’ UTR ends, and show that it performs favourably, based on an ROC-like curve. PMID:25592595

  19. Coffee cysteine proteinases and related inhibitors with high expression during grain maturation and germination

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Cysteine proteinases perform multiple functions in seeds, including participation in remodelling polypeptides and recycling amino acids during maturation and germination. Currently, few details exist concerning these genes and proteins in coffee. Furthermore, there is limited information on the cysteine proteinase inhibitors which influence the activities of these proteinases. Results Two cysteine proteinase (CP) and four cysteine proteinase inhibitor (CPI) gene sequences have been identified in coffee with significant expression during the maturation and germination of coffee grain. Detailed expression analysis of the cysteine proteinase genes CcCP1 and CcCP4 in Robusta using quantitative RT-PCR showed that these transcripts accumulate primarily during grain maturation and germination/post germination. The corresponding proteins were expressed in E. coli and purified, but only one, CcCP4, which has a KDDL/KDEL C-terminal sequence, was found to be active after a short acid treatment. QRT-PCR expression analysis of the four cysteine proteinase inhibitor genes in Robusta showed that CcCPI-1 is primarily expressed in developing and germinating grain and CcCPI-4 is very highly expressed during the late post germination period, as well as in mature, but not immature leaves. Transcripts corresponding to CcCPI-2 and CcCPI-3 were detected in most tissues examined at relatively similar, but generally low levels. Conclusions Several cysteine proteinase and cysteine proteinase inhibitor genes with strong, relatively specific expression during coffee grain maturation and germination are presented. The temporal expression of the CcCP1 gene suggests it is involved in modifying proteins during late grain maturation and germination. The expression pattern of CcCP4, and its close identity with KDEL containing CP proteins, implies this proteinase may play a role in protein and/or cell remodelling during late grain germination, and that it is likely to play a strong role

  20. A novel cysteine proteinase (CP65) of Trichomonas vaginalis involved in cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Sánchez, M E; Avila-González, L; Becerril-García, C; Fattel-Facenda, L V; Ortega-López, J; Arroyo, R

    2000-04-01

    The goal of this study was to demonstrate the participation in cellular damage of a Trichomonas vaginalis proteinase with a molecular mass of 65 kDa (CP65). By two dimensional gelatin-gel electrophoresis of trichomonad proteins we detected four spots with proteolytic activity on the 65 kDa region, but only one, pI 7.2, binds to the HeLa cell surface. By indirect immunofluorescence, rabbit antibodies against this proteinase localized the CP65 on the plasma membrane and in the cytoplasm of T. vaginalis. Pretreatment of parasites with the specific anti-CP65 antibody reduced trichomonal cytotoxicity to HeLa cell monolayers. The specific cysteine proteinase inhibitor, L-3-carboxy-2, 3-trans-epoxypropionyl-leucylamido (4-guanidino) butane (E64) abrogated the proteinase activity and reduced cytotoxicity levels of T. vaginalis in cell culture monolayers, indicating that the trichomonad CP65 is a cysteine proteinase. Activity of the CP65 proteinase was optimal at pH 5.5 and 37 degrees C, conditions similar to those of patients with trichomonosis. Also, this proteinase degraded some of the proteins found in the vagina, i.e. collagen IV and fibronectin, but not laminin-1 or haemoglobin. Finally, immunoprecipitation assays showed that sera and vaginal washes from trichomonosis patient possess anti-CP65 antibodies. In conclusion, results presented in this work demonstrate that the CP65 is a surface cysteine proteinase involved in T. vaginalis cytotoxicity to HeLa cell monolayers, as a virulence factor. It is immunogenic during human infection and degrades some extracellular matrix proteins, i.e. collagen IV and fibronectin. PMID:10764610

  1. A novel cysteine proteinase (CP65) of Trichomonas vaginalis involved in cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Sánchez, M E; Avila-González, L; Becerril-García, C; Fattel-Facenda, L V; Ortega-López, J; Arroyo, R

    2000-04-01

    The goal of this study was to demonstrate the participation in cellular damage of a Trichomonas vaginalis proteinase with a molecular mass of 65 kDa (CP65). By two dimensional gelatin-gel electrophoresis of trichomonad proteins we detected four spots with proteolytic activity on the 65 kDa region, but only one, pI 7.2, binds to the HeLa cell surface. By indirect immunofluorescence, rabbit antibodies against this proteinase localized the CP65 on the plasma membrane and in the cytoplasm of T. vaginalis. Pretreatment of parasites with the specific anti-CP65 antibody reduced trichomonal cytotoxicity to HeLa cell monolayers. The specific cysteine proteinase inhibitor, L-3-carboxy-2, 3-trans-epoxypropionyl-leucylamido (4-guanidino) butane (E64) abrogated the proteinase activity and reduced cytotoxicity levels of T. vaginalis in cell culture monolayers, indicating that the trichomonad CP65 is a cysteine proteinase. Activity of the CP65 proteinase was optimal at pH 5.5 and 37 degrees C, conditions similar to those of patients with trichomonosis. Also, this proteinase degraded some of the proteins found in the vagina, i.e. collagen IV and fibronectin, but not laminin-1 or haemoglobin. Finally, immunoprecipitation assays showed that sera and vaginal washes from trichomonosis patient possess anti-CP65 antibodies. In conclusion, results presented in this work demonstrate that the CP65 is a surface cysteine proteinase involved in T. vaginalis cytotoxicity to HeLa cell monolayers, as a virulence factor. It is immunogenic during human infection and degrades some extracellular matrix proteins, i.e. collagen IV and fibronectin.

  2. Digestive proteinases of the larger black flour beetle, Cynaeus angustus (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae).

    PubMed

    Oppert, B; Walters, P; Zuercher, M

    2006-04-01

    Digestion in the larger black flour beetle, Cynaeus angustus (LeConte), was studied to identify new control methods for this pest of stored grains and grain products. The physiological pH of the larval gut, as measured with extracts in water, was approximately 6.1, and the pH for optimal hydrolysis of casein by gut extracts was 6.2 when buffers were reducing. However, under non-reducing conditions, hydrolysis of casein and synthetic serine proteinase substrates was optimal in alkaline buffer. Three major proteinase activities were observed in zymograms using casein or gelatin. Caseinolytic activity of C. angustus gut extracts was inhibited by inhibitors that target aspartic and serine proteinase classes, with minor inhibition by a cysteine proteinase inhibitor. In particular, soybean trypsin and trypsin/chymotrypsin inhibitors were most effective in reducing the in vitro caseinolytic activity of gut extracts. Based on these data, further studies are suggested on the effects of dietary soybean inhibitors of serine proteinases, singly and in combination with aspartic and cysteine proteinase inhibitors, on C. angustus larvae. Results from these studies can be used to develop new control strategies to prevent damage to grains and stored products by C. angustus and similar coleopteran pests.

  3. Cleavage crystallography of liquid metal embrittled aluminum alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reynolds, A. P.; Stoner, G. E.

    1991-01-01

    The crystallography of liquid metal-induced transgranular cleavage in six aluminum alloys having a variety of microstructures has been determined via Laue X-ray back reflection. The cleavage crystallography was independent of alloy microstructure, and the cleavage plane was 100-plane oriented in all cases. It was further determined that the cleavage crystallography was not influenced by alloy texture. Examination of the fracture surface indicated that there was not a unique direction of crack propagation. In addition, the existence of 100-plane cleavage on alloy 2024 fracture surfaces was inferred by comparison of secondary cleavage crack intersection geometry on the 2024 surfaces with the geometry of secondary cleavage crack intersections on the test alloys.

  4. Interference of Wegener's granulomatosis autoantibodies with neutrophil Proteinase 3 activity.

    PubMed

    van de Wiel, B A; Dolman, K M; van der Meer-Gerritsen, C H; Hack, C E; von dem Borne, A E; Goldschmeding, R

    1992-12-01

    Classic anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibodies (C-ANCA) are disease-specific markers of Wegener's granulomatosis (WG). The possible pathogenetic role of these autoantibodies, which are directed against Proteinase 3 (PR3), is not yet clear. We studied the effect of C-ANCA on PR3 proteolytic activity and on the complexation of PR3 with alpha 1-antitrypsin (alpha 1AT). C-ANCA IgG from eight patients with active WG significantly inhibited PR3 proteolytic activity, particularly towards elastin (median 84.2% inhibition). C-ANCA IgG significantly inhibited the complexation of PR3 with alpha 1AT (median 58.8% inhibition). Moreover, addition of purified PR3 to C-ANCA-positive sera from WG patients yielded less complexes with alpha 1AT (median 44.8%) compared with sera containing perinuclear anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibodies (P-ANCA) or ANCA-negative sera. These findings indicate the existence of a hitherto unknown property of C-ANCA, which may be of importance in the pathogenesis of WG.

  5. Proteinase 3-ANCA Vasculitis versus Myeloperoxidase-ANCA Vasculitis

    PubMed Central

    Hilhorst, Marc; van Paassen, Pieter

    2015-01-01

    In patients with GN or vasculitis, ANCAs are directed against proteinase 3 (PR3) or myeloperoxidase (MPO). The differences between PR3-ANCA-associated vasculitis (AAV) and MPO-AAV described in the past have been supplemented during the last decade. In this review, we discuss the differences between these two small-vessel vasculitides, focusing especially on possible etiologic and pathophysiologic differences. PR3-AAV is more common in northern parts of the world, whereas MPO-AAV is more common in southern regions of Europe, Asia, and the Pacific, with the exception of New Zealand and Australia. A genetic contribution has been extensively studied, and there is a high prevalence of the HLA-DPB1*04:01 allele in patients with PR3-AAV as opposed to patients with MPO-AAV and/or healthy controls. Histologically, MPO-AAV and PR3-AAV are similar but show qualitative differences when analyzed carefully. Clinically, both serotypes are difficult to distinguish, but quantitative differences are present. More organs are affected in PR3-AAV, whereas renal limited vasculitis occurs more often in patients with MPO-AAV. For future clinical trials, we advocate classifying patients by ANCA serotype as opposed to the traditional disease type classification. PMID:25956510

  6. The kinetics of proteinase K digestion of linear prion polymers.

    PubMed

    Masel, J; Jansen, V A

    1999-09-22

    Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies such as scrapie are caused by a protein-only infectious agent, known as a prion. It is not clear how a protein can be capable of replicating itself, and the mechanism remains controversial. One influential model hypothesizes that prions are nucleated, macroscopically linear polymers. We investigated the theoretical kinetics of this model and derived predictions which could be used to test the model. In the model, the polymerization and depolymerization rates are independent polymer size. This leads to an exponential size distribution at equilibrium. In agreement with a prediction stemming from this size distribution, the average size of PrP-res polymers was proportional to the square root of the concentration of PrP-res in a published study of in vitro conversion. Prion digestion by proteinase K (PK) is predicted to be biphasic. The second phase of digestion should be virtually independent of the PK concentration and should depend on the initial size distribution of prion polymers. For initially equilibrated polymers with an exponential size distribution, phase two digestion is exponential at a predicted rate. This rate varies in a defined way with the concentration used for equilibration and with other parameters which affect the average polymer size.

  7. Cleavage of rotavirus VP4 in vivo.

    PubMed

    Ludert, J E; Krishnaney, A A; Burns, J W; Vo, P T; Greenberg, H B

    1996-03-01

    The infectivity of rotavirus particles is dependent on proteolytic cleavage of the outer capsid protein, VP4, at a specific site. This cleavage event yields two fragments, identified as VP5* and VP8*. It has been hypothesized that the particle is more stable, but non-infectious, when VP4 is in the uncleaved state. Uncleaved VP4 and the resultant increased stability might be advantageous for the virus to resist environmental degradation until it infects a susceptible host. When VP4 is cleaved in the lumen of the host's gastrointestinal tract, the virus particle would become less stable but more infectious. To test this hypothesis, a series of experiments was undertaken to analyse the cleavage state of VP4 on virus shed by an infected host into the environment. Immunoblots of intestinal wash solutions derived from infant and adult BALB/c mice infected with a virulent cell culture-adapted variant of the EDIM virus (EW) or wild-type murine rotavirus EDIM-Cambridge were analysed. Virtually all of the VP4 in these samples was in the cleaved form. Moreover, cell culture titration of trypsin-treated and untreated intestinal contents from pups infected with EW indicated that excreted virus is fully activated prior to trypsin addition. It was also observed that trypsin-activated virus has no disadvantage in initiating infection in naive animals over virions containing an intact VP4. These studies indicate that VP4 is cleaved upon release from the intestinal cell and that virus shed into the environment does not have an intact VP4.

  8. Characterization of an Alphamesonivirus 3C-Like Protease Defines a Special Group of Nidovirus Main Proteases

    PubMed Central

    Blanck, Sandra; Stinn, Anne; Tsiklauri, Lali; Zirkel, Florian; Junglen, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cavally virus (CavV) and related viruses in the family Mesoniviridae diverged profoundly from other nidovirus lineages but largely retained the characteristic set of replicative enzymes conserved in the Coronaviridae and Roniviridae. The expression of these enzymes in virus-infected cells requires the extensive proteolytic processing of two large replicase polyproteins, pp1a and pp1ab, by the viral 3C-like protease (3CLpro). Here, we show that CavV 3CLpro autoproteolytic cleavage occurs at two N-terminal (N1 and N2) and one C-terminal (C1) processing site(s). The mature form of 3CLpro was revealed to be a 314-residue protein produced by cleavage at FKNK1386|SAAS (N2) and YYNQ1700|SATI (C1). Site-directed mutagenesis data suggest that the mesonivirus 3CLpro employs a catalytic Cys-His dyad comprised of CavV pp1a/pp1ab residues Cys-1539 and His-1434. The study further suggests that mesonivirus 3CLpro substrate specificities differ from those of related nidovirus proteases. The presence of Gln (or Glu) at the P1 position was not required for cleavage, although residues that control Gln/Glu specificity in related viral proteases are retained in the CavV 3CLpro sequence. Asn at the P2 position was identified as a key determinant for mesonivirus 3CLpro substrate specificity. Other positions, including P4 and P1′, each are occupied by structurally related amino acids, indicating a supportive role in substrate binding. Together, the data identify a new subgroup of nidovirus main proteases and support previous conclusions on phylogenetic relationships between the main nidovirus lineages. IMPORTANCE Mesoniviruses have been suggested to provide an evolutionary link between nidovirus lineages with small (13 to 16 kb) and large (26 to 32 kb) RNA genome sizes, and it has been proposed that a specific set of enzymes, including a proofreading exoribonuclease and other replicase gene-encoded proteins, play a key role in the major genome expansion leading to the currently

  9. Corticosteroid-binding globulin cleavage is paradoxically reduced in alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency: Implications for cortisol homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Nenke, Marni A; Holmes, Mark; Rankin, Wayne; Lewis, John G; Torpy, David J

    2016-01-15

    High-affinity corticosteroid-binding globulin (haCBG) is cleaved by neutrophil elastase (NE) resulting in permanent transition to the low cortisol-binding affinity form (laCBG), thereby increasing cortisol availability at inflammatory sites. Alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) is the major inhibitor of NE. AAT deficiency (AATD) predisposes patients to early-onset emphysema due to increased proteolytic destruction from the inherent proteinase-antiproteinase imbalance. We hypothesized that AATD may result in increased CBG cleavage in vivo. We collected demographic data and blood samples from 10 patients with AATD and 28 healthy controls measuring total CBG and haCBG levels by parallel in-house ELISAs, as well as AAT, total and free cortisol levels. haCBG was higher (median [range]); 329 [210-551] vs. 250 [175-365] nmol/L; P<0.005, and laCBG lower; 174 [68-229] vs. 220 [119-348] nmol/L; P=0.016 in the AATD group, compared with controls. The ratio of haCBG:total CBG was also higher in AATD; 72 [53-83] vs. 54 [41-72] %; P=0.0001). There was a negative correlation between haCBG:total CBG and AAT levels (P<0.05, R=-0.64). Paradoxically, proteolytic cleavage of CBG was reduced in AATD, despite the recognized increase in NE activity. This implies that NE activity is not the mechanism for systemic CBG cleavage in basal, low inflammatory conditions. Relatively low levels of laCBG may have implications for cortisol action in AATD.

  10. Trichomonas vaginalis surface proteinase activity is necessary for parasite adherence to epithelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Arroyo, R; Alderete, J F

    1989-01-01

    The role of cysteine proteinases in adherence of Trichomonas vaginalis NYH 286 to HeLa and human vaginal epithelial cells was evaluated. Only pretreatment of trichomonads, but not epithelial cells, with N-alpha-p-tosyl-L-lysine chloromethyl ketone (TLCK), an inhibitor of trichomonad cysteine proteinases, greatly diminished the ability of T. vaginalis to recognize and bind to epithelial cells. Leupeptin and L-1-tosylamide-2-phenylethyl chloromethyl ketone, other cysteine proteinase inhibitors, also decreased T. vaginalis cytadherence. Parasites incubated with TLCK and washed extensively still did not adhere to cells at levels equal to those seen for control trichomonads treated with phosphate-buffered saline or culture medium alone. Exposure of TLCK-treated organisms with other cysteine proteinases restored cytadherence levels, indicating that proteinase action on the parasite surface is prerequisite for host cell attachment. Concentrations of TLCK which inhibited cytadherence did not alter the metabolism of T. vaginalis, as determined by metabolic labeling of trichomonad proteins; the protein patterns of T. vaginalis in the presence and absence of TLCK were identical. Kinetics of TLCK-mediated inhibition of cytadherence of other T. vaginalis isolates with different levels of epithelial-cell parasitism were similar to the concentration-dependent inhibition seen for isolate NYH 286. Incubation of TLCK-treated, washed organisms in growth medium resulted in regeneration of adherence. Finally, treatment of T. vaginalis organisms with proteinase inhibitors for abrogation of cytadherence effectively rendered the trichomonads unable to kill host cells, which is consistent with the contact-dependent nature of host cytotoxicity. These data show for the first time the involvement of T. vaginalis cysteine proteinases in parasite attachment to human epithelial cells. These results have implications for future pharmacologic intervention at a key step in infection. PMID:2789190

  11. Studies on prekallikrein of bovine plasma. II. Activation of prekallikrein with proteinases and properties of kallikrein activated by bovine Hageman factor.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, H; Nagasawa, S; Suzuki, T

    1980-01-01

    Activation of bovine plasma prekallikrein was investigated with several proteinases. Highly purified bovine plasma prekallikrein was rapidly activated to kallikrein [EC 3.4.21.8] by bovine activated Hageman factor, trypsin [EC 3.4.21.4] and Pronase P (proteinases from Streptomyces griseus) and more gradually by papain [EC 3.4.22.2] and ficin [EC 3.4.22.3]. Activation of prekallikrein was also observed with bovine plasmin [EC 3.4.21.7], but not with bovine clotting factors Xa (Stuart factor) [EC 3.4.21.6] and IXa (Christmas factor) or thrombin [EC 3.4.21.5]. Urokinase [EC 3.4.99.26], Reptilase, collagenase [EC 3.4.24.3], elastase [EC 3.4.21.11], alpha-chymotrypsin [EC 3.4.21.1], Nagarse [EC 3.4.21.14], and stem bromelain [EC 3.4.22 4] did not convert prekallikrein to kallikrein. Plasma kallikrein activated to Hageman factor released kinin rapidly from bovine high molecular weight (HMW) kininogen. However, from bovine low molecular weight (LMW) kininogen, liberation of kinin was extremely slow. The kallikrein activity was inhibited by soybean trypsin inhibitor (SBTI), Trasylol, diisopropylfluorophosphate (DFP), and N-alpha-tosyl-L-lysine chloromethylketone (TLCK), but not by egg-white trypsin inhibitor (EWTI), lima bean trypsin inhibitor (LBTI), heparin or hexadimethrine bromide (Polybrene). The kallikrein formed an enzyme-inhibitor complex with SBTI and Trasylol, but not with LBTI. Prekallikrein did not react with SBTI. Prekallikrein consists of a single polypeptide chain of molecular weight about 90,000, as estimated by sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Activation of prekallikrein by Hageman factor was found to involve cleavage of the single peptide bond on the disulfide-bridged polypeptide chain, and no change of molecular weight was observed during the activation. The peptide bond cleaved in prekallikrein by the activation was an Arg-X peptide bond on a disulfide-bridged polypeptide chain.

  12. Additive Promotion of Viral Internal Ribosome Entry Site-Mediated Translation by Far Upstream Element-Binding Protein 1 and an Enterovirus 71-Induced Cleavage Product

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Chuan-Tien; Kung, Yu-An; Li, Mei-Ling; Lee, Kuo-Ming; Liu, Shih-Tung; Shih, Shin-Ru

    2016-01-01

    The 5' untranslated region (5' UTR) of the enterovirus 71 (EV71) RNA genome contains an internal ribosome entry site (IRES) that is indispensable for viral protein translation. Due to the limited coding capacity of their RNA genomes, EV71 and other picornaviruses typically recruit host factors, known as IRES trans-acting factors (ITAFs), to mediate IRES-dependent translation. Here, we show that EV71 viral proteinase 2A is capable of cleaving far upstream element-binding protein 1 (FBP1), a positive ITAF that directly binds to the EV71 5' UTR linker region to promote viral IRES-driven translation. The cleavage occurs at the Gly-371 residue of FBP1 during the EV71 infection process, and this generates a functional cleavage product, FBP11-371. Interestingly, the cleavage product acts to promote viral IRES activity. Footprinting analysis and gel mobility shift assay results showed that FBP11-371 similarly binds to the EV71 5' UTR linker region, but at a different site from full-length FBP1; moreover, FBP1 and FBP11-371 were found to act additively to promote IRES-mediated translation and virus yield. Our findings expand the current understanding of virus-host interactions with regard to viral recruitment and modulation of ITAFs, and provide new insights into translational control during viral infection. PMID:27780225

  13. Two novel asparaginyl endopeptidase-like cysteine proteinases from the protist Trichomonas vaginalis: their evolutionary relationship within the clan CD cysteine proteinases.

    PubMed

    León-Félix, Josefina; Ortega-López, Jaime; Orozco-Solís, Ricardo; Arroyo, Rossana

    2004-06-23

    Cysteine proteinases (CPs) are important virulence factors of the protozoan parasite Trichomonas vaginalis. A total of six genes coding for cathepsin L-like CPs belonging to clan CA have been identified in T. vaginalis. At least 23 distinct spots with proteolytic activity have been detected by two-dimensional (2-D) substrate gel electrophoresis from in vitro grown parasites; however, only few of them have been characterized. In this work, we detected six spots with proteolytic activity and molecular weights between 25 and 35 kDa. The six proteinases correspond to two distinct CP families: the papain-like family, represented by four spots with pIs between 4.5 and 5.5; and the legumain-like family represented by two spots with pI 6.3 and 6.5. Next, we obtained two cDNAs encoding for legumain-like CPs from T. vaginalis, which were named Tvlegu-1 and Tvlegu-2. The size of these cDNA clones were 1225 and 1364 bp, which encoded for 388 and 415 amino acids, respectively. Their putative translation products have molecular masses of 42.8 and 47.2 kDa, corresponding to inactive legumain-like CP precursors. The two sequences share approximately 40% identity at the amino acid level. These protein products can be classified within a branch of the legumain-like family in clan CD cysteine proteinases due to their sensitivity to specific proteinases inhibitors, their DNA sequences, and phylogenetic reconstruction. However, they do not correspond either to the typical asparaginyl endopeptidase or the glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI): protein transamidase subfamilies. These results suggest that the TVLEGU-1 and TVLEGU-2 peptidases are likely to be part of a new subfamily within the legumain-like family of clan CD cysteine proteinases. Furthermore, they could be one of the missing links between prokaryotic and eukaryotic CPs in clan CD enzymes.

  14. A zymogen form of masquerade-like serine proteinase homologue is cleaved during pro-phenoloxidase activation by Ca2+ in coleopteran and Tenebrio molitor larvae.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kum Young; Zhang, Rong; Kim, Moon Suk; Park, Ji Won; Park, Ho Young; Kawabata, Shun-ichiro; Lee, Bok Luel

    2002-09-01

    To elucidate the biochemical activation mechanism of the insect pro-phenoloxidase (pro-PO) system, we purified a 45-kDa protein to homogeneity from the hemolymph of Tenebrio molitor (mealworm) larvae, and cloned its cDNA. The overall structure of the 45-kDa protein is similar to Drosophila masquerade serine proteinase homologue, which is an essential component in Drosophila muscle development. This Tenebrio masquerade-like serine proteinase homologue (Tm-mas) contains a trypsin-like serine proteinase domain in the C-terminal region, except for the substitution of Ser to Gly at the active site triad, and a disulfide-knotted domain at the amino-terminal region. When the purified 45-kDa Tm-mas was incubated with CM-Toyopearl eluate solution containing pro-PO and other pro-PO activating factors, the resulting phenoloxidase (PO) activity was shown to be independent of Ca2+. This suggests that the purified 45-kDa Tm-mas is an activated form of pro-PO activating factor. The55-kDa zymogen form of Tm-mas was detected in the hemolymph when PO activity was not evident. However, when Tenebrio hemolymph was incubated with Ca2+, a 79-kDa Tenebrio pro-PO and the 55-kDa zymogen Tm-mas converted to 76-kDa PO and 45-kDa Tm-mas, respectively, with detectable PO activity. Furthermore, when Tenebrio hemolymph was incubated with Ca2+ and beta-1,3-glucan, the conversion of pro-PO to PO and the 55-kDa zymogen Tm-mas to the 45-kDa protein, was faster than in the presence of Ca2+ only. These results suggest that the cleavage of the 55-kDa zymogen of Tm-mas by a limited proteolysis is necessary for PO activity, and the Tm-mas is a pro-PO activating cofactor.

  15. Mapping Homing Endonuclease Cleavage Sites Using In Vitro Generated Protein

    PubMed Central

    Belfort, Marlene

    2015-01-01

    Mapping the precise position of endonucleolytic cleavage sites is a fundamental experimental technique used to describe the function of a homing endonuclease. However, these proteins are often recalcitrant to cloning and over-expression in biological systems because of toxicity induced by spurious DNA cleavage events. In this chapter we outline the steps to successfully express a homing endonuclease in vitro and use this product in nucleotide-resolution cleavage assays. PMID:24510259

  16. Characterization of recombinant CDR1, an Arabidopsis aspartic proteinase involved in disease resistance.

    PubMed

    Simões, Isaura; Faro, Rosário; Bur, Daniel; Faro, Carlos

    2007-10-26

    The Arabidopsis thaliana constitutive disease resistance 1 (CDR1) gene product is an aspartic proteinase that has been implicated in disease resistance signaling (Xia, Y., Suzuki, H., Borevitz, J., Blount, J., Guo, Z., Patel, K., Dixon, R. A., and Lamb, C. (2004) EMBO J. 23, 980-988). This apoplastic enzyme is a member of the group of "atypical" plant aspartic proteinases. As for other enzymes of this subtype, CDR1 has remained elusive until recently as a result of its unusual properties and localization. Here we report on the heterologous expression and characterization of recombinant CDR1, which displays unique enzymatic properties among plant aspartic proteinases. The highly restricted specificity requirements, insensitivity toward the typical aspartic proteinase inhibitor pepstatin A, an unusually high optimal pH of 6.0-6.5, proteinase activity without irreversible prosegment removal, and dependence of catalytic activity on formation of a homo-dimer are some of the unusual properties observed for recombinant CDR1. These findings unveil a pattern of unprecedented functional complexity for Arabidopsis CDR1 and are consistent with a highly specific and regulated biological function. PMID:17650510

  17. Expression of human recombinant granzyme A zymogen and its activation by the cysteine proteinase cathepsin C.

    PubMed

    Kummer, J A; Kamp, A M; Citarella, F; Horrevoets, A J; Hack, C E

    1996-04-19

    Human granzyme A is one of the serine proteinases present in the granules of cytotoxic T lymphocytes and natural killer cells. Granzymes are synthesized as inactive proenzymes with an amino-terminal prodipeptide, which is processed during transport of granzymes to the cytotoxic granules, where they are stored as active proteinases. In this study, we explored the possibility of producing recombinant granzymes. Recombinant human granzyme A zymogen was expressed in several eukaryotic cell lines (HepG2, Jurkat, and COS-1) after infection with a recombinant vaccinia virus containing full-length granzyme A cDNA. Immunoblot analysis of cell lysates showed that all infected cells produced a disulfide-linked homodimer of identical molecular weight as natural granzyme A. Infected HepG2 cells produced the largest amount of this protease (approximately 160 times more than lymphokine activated killer (LAK) cells). The recombinant protein only had high mannose type oligosaccharides as did the natural protein. Although infected HepG2 and COS cells contained high granzyme A antigen levels, lysates from these cells did not show any granzyme A proteolytic activity. However, the inactive proenzyme could be converted into active granzyme A by incubation with the thiol proteinase cathepsin C (dipeptidyl peptidase I). This study is the first to demonstrate expression of an active recombinant human cytotoxic lymphocyte proteinase and conversion of inactive progranzyme A into an active enzyme by cathepsin C. We suggest that a similar approach can be used for the production of other granzymes and related proteinases.

  18. Fluorometric determination of acid proteinase activity in Candida albicans strains from diabetic patients with vulvovaginal candidiasis.

    PubMed

    Yildirim, Zuhal; Kilic, Nedret; Kalkanci, Ayse

    2011-09-01

    Vulvovaginal candidiasis is one of the most frequent disorders in obstetrics and gynaecology. Approximately three-quarters of all adult women experience at least one episode of vulvovaginal candidiasis during their life span. Diabetes mellitus (DM) increases the rate of vaginal colonisation and infection with Candida species. The secreted acid proteinase might be especially relevant in the pathogenesis of vulvovaginal candidiasis. The aim of this study was to determine the acid proteinase activity in the samples of Candida albicans from diabetic patients with vulvovaginal candidiasis by a fluorometric method. Vaginal swabs were taken from 33 women (aged between 22 and 57 years) having symptoms of vaginitis. Patients were divided into three groups: control group, controlled diabetic group and uncontrolled diabetic group. The proteinase activity in the culture supernatants was determined by a modified fluorometric method. Acid proteinase activities were significantly increased in the uncontrolled diabetic group in comparison with both the control group and the controlled diabetic group (P < 0.05). Acid proteinase may play an important role in C. albicans pathogenesis in diabetic patients. Improving glucose control may reduce the risk of Candida colonisation and potentially symptomatic infection, among women with diabetes and hence may be useful even for weaker enzyme activity measurements.

  19. Kazal-type serine proteinase inhibitors in the midgut of Phlebotomus papatasi

    PubMed Central

    Sigle, Leah Theresa; Ramalho-Ortigão, Marcelo

    2013-01-01

    Sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae) are important disease vectors of parasites of the genus Leishmania, as well as bacteria and viruses. Following studies of the midgut transcriptome of Phlebotomus papatasi, the principal vector of Leishmania major, two non-classical Kazal-type serine proteinase inhibitors were identified (PpKzl1 and PpKzl2). Analyses of expression profiles indicated that PpKzl1 and PpKzl2 transcripts are both regulated by blood-feeding in the midgut of P. papatasi and are also expressed in males, larva and pupa. We expressed a recombinant PpKzl2 in a mammalian expression system (CHO-S free style cells) that was applied to in vitro studies to assess serine proteinase inhibition. Recombinant PpKzl2 inhibited α-chymotrypsin to 9.4% residual activity and also inhibited α-thrombin and trypsin to 33.5% and 63.9% residual activity, suggesting that native PpKzl2 is an active serine proteinase inhibitor and likely involved in regulating digestive enzymes in the midgut. Early stages of Leishmania are susceptible to killing by digestive proteinases in the sandfly midgut. Thus, characterising serine proteinase inhibitors may provide new targets and strategies to prevent transmission of Leishmania. PMID:24037187

  20. Molecular insights into mechanisms of lepidopteran serine proteinase resistance to natural plant defenses.

    PubMed

    Tamaki, Fábio K; Terra, Walter R

    2015-11-27

    Plants have a wide range of chemical defenses against predation, including substances that target digestive serine proteinases of herbivorous. Previous works demonstrated that lepidopteran insects have digestive serine proteinases resistant to plant proteinase inhibitors (PPIs) and ketone modifications, while coleopteran ones are sensitive to those plant defenses. This paper focuses on molecular aspects that lead lepidopteran serine proteinases to PPI and ketone modification resistance. Using biochemical experiments and computer 3D modeling we demonstrated that lepidopteran trypsins are more hydrophobic than coleopteran ones, a feature associated to trypsin oligomerization and decreased inhibition by PPI. Moreover, the determination of pKa values of chymotrypsin catalytic residues obtained by TPCK modification indicates that the environment around the active site of ketone-resistant and -sensitive chymotrypsins are different. Structural analysis using resistant and sensitive chymotrypsins data allowed us to point 2 hotspot regions around the active site that could explain the observed differences. Our set of results highlights features of serine proteinases important for understanding the resistance of insects to plant chemical defenses.

  1. NaCl-activated extracellular proteinase from Virgibacillus sp. SK37 isolated from fish sauce fermentation.

    PubMed

    Sinsuwan, S; Rodtong, S; Yongsawatdigul, J

    2007-06-01

    Virgibacillus sp. SK37 exhibited high extracellular proteolytic activity in skim milk broth containing 10% NaCl. Optimum conditions of the crude proteinase were at pH 8.0 and 65 degrees C. The proteinase was strongly inhibited by phenylmethanesulfonyl fluoride (PMSF) and preferably hydrolyzed Suc-Ala-Ala-Pro-Phe-AMC, suggesting the serine proteinase with a subtilisin-like characteristic. Proteolytic activity increased with NaCl concentration up to 20%. Ca(2+) activated the enzyme activity but reduced enzyme stability at 65 degrees C. Several proteinases with dominant molecular mass (MW) of 81, 67, 63, 50, 38, and 18 kDa were detected on native-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (native-PAGE) activity staining in the absence and presence of 25% NaCl. These results demonstrated that Virgibacillus sp. SK37 produced salt-activated extracellular proteinases. Virgibacillus sp. SK37 could be a promising strain for starter culture development used in fish sauce fermentation. PMID:17995713

  2. A low-molecular-weight inhibitor of the neutral proteinase from rat intestinal smooth muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Carney, I T; Curtis, C G; Kay, J K; Birket, N

    1980-01-01

    1. Rat intestinal smooth muscle was shown to contain endogenous inhibitory activity towards the neutral trypsin-like muscle proteinase described previously [Beynon & Kay (1978) Biochem. J. 173, 291--298]. 2. Comtamination of the muscle tissue by mucosal, blood and pancreatic inhibitors was shown to be unlikely. 3. The inhibitory activity was resolved into high- and low-molecular-weight components. 4. The low-molecular-weight component was purified to homogeneity. It has a molecular weight of approx. 9000 and was stable over the pH range 3--11. 5. It inhibited the muscle proteinase competitively (Ki congruent to t microM), but had no effect on any of the other proteinases tested. 6. Leupeptin also inhibited the muscle proteinase competitively (Ki congruent to 0.3 microM), whereas the low-molecular weight proteins gastrin, glucagon and insulin B-chain had very little effect. 7. A role for a weakly binding inhibitor in modulating the influence of the neutral proteinase on intracellular protein degradation is considered. Images Fig. 4. PMID:7396824

  3. Characterization of a secretory proteinase of Candida parapsilosis and evidence for the absence of the enzyme during infection in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Rüchel, R; Böning, B; Borg, M

    1986-01-01

    The opportunistic yeastlike fungi of the genus Candida comprise three species which are proteolytic in vitro. Among them, C. albicans and C. tropicalis are of foremost medical importance. However, a strict correlation between extracellular proteolytic activity and virulence is opposed by the low virulence of the third proteolytic species, C. parapsilosis. We purified the secretory acid proteinase of C. parapsilosis (clinical isolate 265). The enzyme is a carboxyl proteinase (EC 3.4.23) like all other secretory Candida proteinases handled so far. Proteinase 265 is distinguished by a lower molecular weight (approximately 33,000); it has increased hydrophobicity, which accounts for inhibition of the enzyme by hemin, and required the presence of nonionic detergent in the initial steps of purification. The enzyme already undergoes alkaline denaturation at neutrality. Its activity is thus confined to the acid microenvironment of the fungal cell wall. Within this range, the enzyme may degrade immunoglobulins like immunoglobulin A1 (IgA1), IgA2, and secretory IgA. No indication was found for glycosylation of proteinase 265 and the related enzyme of C. albicans CBS 2730. However, the comparable proteinase of C. tropicalis 293 was identified as a manno protein. Antiserum against proteinase 265 cross-reacted strongly with corresponding enzymes from other Candida species. Antisera against proteinases of C. albicans and C. tropicalis reacted only weakly with proteinase 265. Thus, secretory Candida proteinases are likely to possess common and species-specific antigenic sites. In contrast to C. albicans, infection of phagocytes by C. parapsilosis 265 was not accompanied by secretion of fungal proteinase. This lack of induction of the enzyme under conditions of infection may account for the low virulence of most isolates of C. parapsilosis. Images PMID:3525413

  4. Neutrophil elastase and proteinase 3 trafficking routes in myelomonocytic cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kaellquist, Linda; Rosen, Hanna; Nordenfelt, Pontus; Calafat, Jero; Janssen, Hans; Persson, Ann-Maj; Hansson, Markus; Olsson, Inge

    2010-11-15

    Neutrophil elastase (NE) and proteinase 3 (PR3) differ in intracellular localization, which may reflect different trafficking mechanisms of the precursor forms when synthesized at immature stages of neutrophils. To shed further light on these mechanisms, we compared the trafficking of precursor NE (proNE) and precursor PR3 (proPR3). Like proNE [1], proPR3 interacted with CD63 upon heterologous co-expression in COS cells but endogenous interaction was not detected although cell surface proNE/proPR3/CD63 were co-endocytosed in myelomonocytic cells. Cell surface proNE/proPR3 turned over more rapidly than cell surface CD63 consistent with processing/degradation of the pro-proteases but recycling of CD63. Colocalization of proNE/proPR3/CD63 with clathrin and Rab 7 suggested trafficking through coated vesicles and late endosomes. Partial caveolar trafficking of proNE/CD63 but not proPR3 was suggested by colocalization with caveolin-1. Blocking the C-terminus of proNE/proPR3 by creating a fusion with FK506 binding protein inhibited endosomal re-uptake of proNE but not proPR3 indicating 'pro{sub C}'-peptide-dependent structural/conformational requirements for proNE but not for proPR3 endocytosis. The NE aminoacid residue Y199 of a proposed NE sorting motif that interacts with AP-3 [2] was not required for proNE processing, sorting or endocytosis in rat basophilic leukemia (RBL) cells expressing heterologous Y199-deleted proNE; this suggests operation of another AP-3-link for proNE targeting. Our results show intracellular multi-step trafficking to be different between proNE and proPR3 consistent with their differential subcellular NE/PR3 localization in neutrophils.

  5. Proteinase-activated receptors (PARs) as targets for antiplatelet therapy.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Margaret; McIntosh, Kathryn; Bushell, Trevor; Sloan, Graeme; Plevin, Robin

    2016-04-15

    Since the identification of the proteinase-activated receptor (PAR) family as mediators of serine protease activity in the 1990s, there has been tremendous progress in the elucidation of their pathophysiological roles. The development of drugs that target PARs has been the focus of many laboratories for the potential treatment of thrombosis, cancer and other inflammatory diseases. Understanding the mechanisms of PAR activation and G protein signalling pathways evoked in response to the growing list of endogenous proteases has yielded great insight into receptor regulation at the molecular level. This has led to the development of new selective modulators of PAR activity, particularly PAR1. The mixed success of targeting PARs has been best exemplified in the context of inhibiting PAR1 as a new antiplatelet therapy. The development of the competitive PAR1 antagonist, vorapaxar (Zontivity), has clearly shown the value in targeting PAR1 in acute coronary syndrome (ACS); however the severity of associated bleeding with this drug has limited its use in the clinic. Due to the efficacy of thrombin acting via PAR1, strategies to selectively inhibit specific PAR1-mediated G protein signalling pathways or to target the second thrombin platelet receptor, PAR4, are being devised. The rationale behind these alternative approaches is to bias downstream thrombin activity via PARs to allow for inhibition of pro-thrombotic pathways but maintain other pathways that may preserve haemostatic balance and improve bleeding profiles for widespread clinical use. This review summarizes the structural determinants that regulate PARs and the modulators of PAR activity developed to date.

  6. Calcium waves along the cleavage furrows in cleavage-stage Xenopus embryos and its inhibition by heparin

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    Calcium signaling is known to be associated with cytokinesis; however, the detailed spatio-temporal pattern of calcium dynamics has remained unclear. We have studied changes of intracellular free calcium in cleavage-stage Xenopus embryos using fluorescent calcium indicator dyes, mainly Calcium Green-1. Cleavage formation was followed by calcium transients that localized to cleavage furrows and propagated along the furrows as calcium waves. The calcium transients at the cleavage furrows were observed at each cleavage furrow at least until blastula stage. The velocity of the calcium waves at the first cleavage furrow was approximately 3 microns/s, which was much slower than that associated with fertilization/egg activation. These calcium waves traveled only along the cleavage furrows and not in the direction orthogonal to the furrows. These observations imply that there exists an intracellular calcium-releasing activity specifically associated with cleavage furrows. The calcium waves occurred in the absence of extracellular calcium and were inhibited in embryos injected with heparin an inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP3) receptor antagonist. These results suggest that InsP3 receptor-mediated calcium mobilization plays an essential role in calcium wave formation at the cleavage furrows. PMID:8858172

  7. Biological roles of cysteine proteinases in the pathogenesis of Trichomonas vaginalis

    PubMed Central

    Hernández, Hilda M.; Marcet, Ricardo; Sarracent, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Human trichomonosis, infection with Trichomonas vaginalis, is the most common non-viral sexually transmitted disease in the world. The host-parasite interaction and pathophysiological processes of trichomonosis remain incompletely understood. This review focuses on the advancements reached in the area of the pathogenesis of T. vaginalis, especially in the role of the cysteine proteinases. It highlights various approaches made in this field and lists a group of trichomonad cysteine proteinases involved in diverse processes such as invasion of the mucous layer, cytoadherence, cytotoxicity, cytoskeleton disruption of red blood cells, hemolysis, and evasion of the host immune response. A better understanding of the biological roles of cysteine proteinases in the pathogenesis of this parasite could be used in the identification of new chemotherapeutic targets. An additional advantage could be the development of a vaccine in order to reduce transmission of T. vaginalis. PMID:25348828

  8. Biological roles of cysteine proteinases in the pathogenesis of Trichomonas vaginalis.

    PubMed

    Hernández, Hilda M; Marcet, Ricardo; Sarracent, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Human trichomonosis, infection with Trichomonas vaginalis, is the most common non-viral sexually transmitted disease in the world. The host-parasite interaction and pathophysiological processes of trichomonosis remain incompletely understood. This review focuses on the advancements reached in the area of the pathogenesis of T. vaginalis, especially in the role of the cysteine proteinases. It highlights various approaches made in this field and lists a group of trichomonad cysteine proteinases involved in diverse processes such as invasion of the mucous layer, cytoadherence, cytotoxicity, cytoskeleton disruption of red blood cells, hemolysis, and evasion of the host immune response. A better understanding of the biological roles of cysteine proteinases in the pathogenesis of this parasite could be used in the identification of new chemotherapeutic targets. An additional advantage could be the development of a vaccine in order to reduce transmission of T. vaginalis. PMID:25348828

  9. Biological roles of cysteine proteinases in the pathogenesis of Trichomonas vaginalis.

    PubMed

    Hernández, Hilda M; Marcet, Ricardo; Sarracent, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Human trichomonosis, infection with Trichomonas vaginalis, is the most common non-viral sexually transmitted disease in the world. The host-parasite interaction and pathophysiological processes of trichomonosis remain incompletely understood. This review focuses on the advancements reached in the area of the pathogenesis of T. vaginalis, especially in the role of the cysteine proteinases. It highlights various approaches made in this field and lists a group of trichomonad cysteine proteinases involved in diverse processes such as invasion of the mucous layer, cytoadherence, cytotoxicity, cytoskeleton disruption of red blood cells, hemolysis, and evasion of the host immune response. A better understanding of the biological roles of cysteine proteinases in the pathogenesis of this parasite could be used in the identification of new chemotherapeutic targets. An additional advantage could be the development of a vaccine in order to reduce transmission of T. vaginalis.

  10. The anthelmintic efficacy of natural plant cysteine proteinases against Hymenolepis microstoma in vivo.

    PubMed

    Mansur, F; Luoga, W; Buttle, D J; Duce, I R; Lowe, A; Behnke, J M

    2015-09-01

    Little is known about the efficacy of cysteine proteinases (CP) as anthelmintics for cestode infections in vivo. Hymenolepis microstoma is a natural parasite of house mice, and provides a convenient model system for the assessment of novel drugs for anthelmintic activity against cestodes. The experiments described in this paper indicate that treatment of H. microstoma infections in mice with the supernatant of papaya latex (PLS), containing active cysteine proteinases, is only minimally efficacious. The statistically significant effects seen on worm burden and biomass showed little evidence of dose dependency, were temporary and the role of cysteine proteinases as the active principles in PLS was not confirmed by specific inhibition with E-64. Worm fecundity was not affected by treatment at the doses used. We conclude also that this in vivo host-parasite system is not sensitive enough to be used reliably for the detection of cestocidal activity of compounds being screened as potential, novel anthelmintics.

  11. Modification of standard proteinase K/phenol method for extraction of DNA from small tumour biopsies.

    PubMed

    Pitera, R; Pitera, J E; Mufti, G J; Salisbury, J R

    1993-09-01

    The standard proteinase K/phenol DNA isolation method was found to produce unsatisfactory yields of DNA from small tissue biopsies (less than 50 mg). The influences of the volume of cell lysis buffer and the amount of proteinase K on the final DNA yield and quality were studied, and an improved method was devised and compared with both the standard procedure and a phenol-free protocol. The optimal volume of cell lysis buffer was found to be 200 microliters per mg of tissue while the optimal amount of proteinase K was 60 micrograms per mg of tissue. A mean yield of 12 mu/mg tissue of pure, high molecular weight DNA was achieved from 50 frozen samples prepared by crushing. Yields from 20 microns thick cryostat sections reached 30 micrograms/mg.

  12. Human placental extract mediated inhibition of proteinase K: implications of heparin and glycoproteins in wound physiology.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Kanika; Mukherjee, Chaitali; Roy, Siddhartha; De, Debashree; Bhattacharyya, Debasish

    2014-09-01

    Efficient debridement of the wound bed following the removal of microbial load prevents its progression into a chronic wound. Bacterial infection and excessive proteolysis characterize impaired healing and therefore, their inhibition might restore the disturbed equilibrium in the healing process. Human placental extract exhibits reversible, non-competitive inhibition towards Proteinase K, a microbial protease, by stabilizing it against auto-digestion. Scattering and fluorescence studies followed by biochemical analysis indicated the involvement of a glycan moiety. Surface plasmon resonance demonstrated specific interaction of heparin with Proteinase K having Kd in μM range. Further, Proteinase K contains sequence motifs similar to other heparin-binding proteins. Molecular docking revealed presence of clefts suitable for binding of heparin-derived oligosaccharides. Comprehensive analysis of this inhibitory property of placental extract partly explains its efficacy in curing wounds with common bacterial infections.

  13. Toll-like receptors recognize distinct proteinase-resistant glycoconjugates in Campylobacter jejuni and Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Phongsisay, Vongsavanh; Hara, Hiromitsu; Fujimoto, Shuji

    2015-03-01

    Campylobacter jejuni causes gastroenteritis and autoimmune neuropathy Guillain-Barré syndrome. The mechanism by which C. jejuni infection results in such the hyperimmunity is not completely understood. Host immunity plays an important role in the disease pathogenesis; however, little is known how immune system recognizes this human pathogen. In this study, we report that Toll-like receptors recognize distinct proteinase K-resistant glycoconjugates in C. jejuni and Escherichia coli. Lipopolysaccharide is solely proteinase-resistant glycoconjugate in E. coli. In contrast, C. jejuni possesses at least five different components that are resistant to proteinase digestion and are capable of inducing NF-κB activation through TLR2 and TLR4. Possession of multiple activators of Toll-like receptors may be the unique strategy of C. jejuni to trigger hyperimmunity.

  14. Ethylene-regulated expression of a carnation cysteine proteinase during flower petal senescence.

    PubMed

    Jones, M L; Larsen, P B; Woodson, W R

    1995-06-01

    The senescence of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) flower petals is regulated by the phytohormone ethylene and is associated with considerable catabolic activity including the loss of protein. In this paper we present the molecular cloning of a cysteine proteinase and show that its expression is regulated by ethylene and associated with petal senescence. A 1600 bp cDNA was amplified by polymerase chain reaction using a 5'-specific primer and 3'-nonspecific primer designed to amplify a 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase cDNA from reverse-transcribed stylar RNA. The nucleotide sequence of the cloned product (pDCCP1) was found to share significant homology to several cysteine proteinases rather than ACC synthase. A single open reading frame of 428 amino acids was shown to share significant homology with other plant cysteine proteinases including greater than 70% identity with a cysteine proteinase from Arabidopsis thaliana. Amino acids in the active site of cysteine proteinases were conserved in the pDCCP1 peptide. RNA gel blot analysis revealed that the expression of pDCCP1 increased substantially with the onset of ethylene production and senescence of petals. Increased pDCCP1 expression was also associated with ethylene production in other senescing floral organs including ovaries and styles. The pDCCP1 transcript accumulated in petals treated with exogenous ethylene within 3 h and treatment of flowers with 2,5-norbornadiene, an inhibitor of ethylene action, prevented the increase in pDCCP1 expression in petals. The temporal and spatial patterns of pDCCP1 expression suggests a role for cysteine proteinase in the loss of protein during floral senescence.

  15. Characterization of the binding activities of proteinase-adhesin complexes from Porphyromonas gingivalis.

    PubMed Central

    Pike, R N; Potempa, J; McGraw, W; Coetzer, T H; Travis, J

    1996-01-01

    Adhesins from oral bacteria perform an important function in colonizing target tissues within the dentogingival cavity. In Porphyromonas gingivalis certain of these adhesion proteins exist as a complex with either of two major proteinases referred to as gingipain R (arginine-specific gingipain) and gingipain K (lysine-specific gingipain) (R. N. Pike, W. T. McGraw, J. Potempa, and J. Travis, J. Biol. Chem. 269:406-411, 1994). With specific proteinase inhibitors, it was shown that hemagglutination by either proteinase-adhesin complex could occur independently of proteinase activity. Significantly, low concentrations of fibrinogen, fibronectin, and laminin inhibited hemagglutination, indicating that adherence to these proteins and not the hemagglutination activity was a primary property of the adhesin activity component of complexes. Binding studies with gingipain K and gingipain R suggest that interaction with fibrinogen is a major function of the adhesin domain, with dissociation constants for binding to fibrinogen being 4 and 8.5 nM, respectively. Specific association with fibronectin and laminin was also found. All bound proteins were degraded by the functional proteinase domain, with gingipain R being more active on laminin and fibronectin and gingipain K being more effective in the digestion of fibrinogen. Cumulatively, these data suggest that gingipain R and gingipain K, acting as proteinase-adhesin complexes, progressively attach to, degrade, and detach from target proteins. Since such complexes appear to be present on the surfaces of both vesicles and membranes of P. gingivalis, they may play an important role in the attachment of this bacterium to host cell surfaces. PMID:8631676

  16. Excessive fluoride induces endoplasmic reticulum stress and interferes enamel proteinases secretion.

    PubMed

    Wei, Wei; Gao, Yanhui; Wang, Cheng; Zhao, Lijun; Sun, Dianjun

    2013-06-01

    Protein retention in the enamel layer during tooth formation is well known to be associated with dental fluorosis but the underlying mechanism is unclear. The functions of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) correlate directly with secreted protein metabolism. We used an ameloblast-derived cell line to determine whether excessive amounts of fluoride cause ER stress, and whether this interferes with the secretion of enamel matrix proteinases. ER stress activates a signaling network called the unfolded protein response (UPR). Here, we used real-time RT-PCR and immunofluorescence to study the effect of fluoride on the expression, translation, and secretion of UPR transcription factors in ameloblast-like cells. Measurement of both the gene and protein expression of UPR transcription factors indicated that high-dose fluoride increases the expression of UPR transcription factors in a dose-dependent manner. We also used ELISA to detect and quantify the enamel proteinases secreted by ameloblasts. We found a corresponding decrease in extracellular secretion of the enamel proteinases matrix metalloproteinase-20 and kallikrein-4, after exposure to fluoride. Furthermore, correlation analysis indicated that the expression of UPR transcription factors showed a strong inverse correlation with that of enamel proteinases. The results suggest that high-dose fluoride initiates an ER stress response in ameloblasts and induces the UPR, which interferes with the synthesis and secretion of enamel proteinases. Taken together, these results suggest that excessive ingestion of fluoride during tooth formation can decrease the secretion of proteinases, thus causing protein retention in the enamel layer, indicating that the ER stress response may be responsible for dental fluorosis.

  17. Salicylic Acid Inhibits Synthesis of Proteinase Inhibitors in Tomato Leaves Induced by Systemin and Jasmonic Acid.

    PubMed Central

    Doares, S. H.; Narvaez-Vasquez, J.; Conconi, A.; Ryan, C. A.

    1995-01-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) and acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), previously shown to inhibit proteinase inhibitor synthesis induced by wounding, oligouronides (H.M. Doherty, R.R. Selvendran, D.J. Bowles [1988] Physiol Mol Plant Pathol 33: 377-384), and linolenic acid (H. Pena-Cortes, T. Albrecht, S. Prat, E.W. Weiler, L. Willmitzer [1993] Planta 191: 123-128), are shown here to be potent inhibitors of systemin-induced and jasmonic acid (JA)-induced synthesis of proteinase inhibitor mRNAs and proteins. The inhibition by SA and ASA of proteinase inhibitor synthesis induced by systemin and JA, as well as by wounding and oligosaccharide elicitors, provides further evidence that both oligosaccharide and polypeptide inducer molecules utilize the octadecanoid pathway to signal the activation of proteinase inhibitor genes. Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) leaves were pulse labeled with [35S]methionine, followed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and the inhibitory effects of SA are shown to be specific for the synthesis of a small number of JA-inducible proteins that includes the proteinase inhibitors. Previous results have shown that SA inhibits the conversion of 13S-hydroperoxy linolenic acid to 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid, thereby inhibiting the signaling pathway by blocking synthesis of JA. Here we report that the inhibition of synthesis of proteinase inhibitor proteins and mRNAs by SA in both light and darkness also occurs at a step in the signal transduction pathway, after JA synthesis but preceding transcription of the inhibitor genes. PMID:12228577

  18. Human sputum cathepsin B degrades proteoglycan, is inhibited by alpha 2-macroglobulin and is modulated by neutrophil elastase cleavage of cathepsin B precursor and cystatin C.

    PubMed Central

    Buttle, D J; Abrahamson, M; Burnett, D; Mort, J S; Barrett, A J; Dando, P M; Hill, S L

    1991-01-01

    The high-Mr alkali-stable form of cathepsin B was purified from purulent human sputum. It was shown to solubilize proteoglycan monomer entrapped in polyacrylamide at a rate comparable with that of human lysosomal cathepsin B. Like the enzyme from lysosomes, sputum cathepsin B was bound by human alpha 2-macroglobulin, which inhibited its action on proteoglycan. Cystatin C in purulent sputum was shown to be the N-terminally truncated form generated by neutrophil elastase cleavage, and sputum cathepsin B was only weakly inhibited by recombinant cystatin C that had been cleaved by neutrophil elastase in vitro. Addition of neutrophil elastase to mucoid sputum led to a 5-fold increase in cathepsin B activity concomitant with a lowering in Mr of the cysteine proteinase from 40,000 to 37,000, i.e. the size of the active enzyme purified from purulent sputum. It is concluded that the high-Mr form of cathepsin B present in purulent sputum is a functional proteinase, unlike similar forms of the enzyme secreted by mammary gland in organ culture. The activity of cathepsin B in sputum is modulated by neutrophil elastase, by a combination of inhibitor inactivation and zymogen activation. Images Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. PMID:1710889

  19. Proteinase, phospholipase, hyaluronidase and chondroitin-sulphatase production by Malassezia pachydermatis.

    PubMed

    Coutinho, S D; Paula, C R

    2000-02-01

    The production of four functional enzyme categories was investigated in 30 strains of Malassezia pachydermatis isolated from dogs with otitis or dermatitis. The most appropriate reading intervals for these assays were determined with the aid of statistical comparisons. All strains produced proteinase and chondroitin-sulphatase; hyaluronidase and phospholipase were produced by all skin isolates (15/15) and 14 out of 15 ear canal isolates. Strains from ear canals did not differ significantly as a group from skin strains in quantitative production of any of the four enzymes; production of proteinase and chondroitin-sulphatase in particular was markedly uniform. PMID:10746230

  20. Determination of proteinase 3-alpha 1-antitrypsin complexes in inflammatory fluids.

    PubMed

    Dolman, K M; van de Wiel, B A; Kam, C M; Abbink, J J; Hack, C E; Sonnenberg, A; Powers, J C; von dem Borne, A E; Goldschmeding, R

    1992-12-14

    Physiological inhibitors were tested for their in vitro interaction with neutrophil proteinase 3 (PR3). The major plasma proteinase inhibitor of PR3 is alpha 1AT. We have developed a radioimmunoassay (RIA) for quantitative detection of PR3-alpha 1AT complexes formed in vivo in inflammatory exudates such as synovial fluid and plasma from patients with sepsis. Levels of PR3-alpha 1AT complexes correlated significantly with levels of human neutrophil elastase (HNE)-alpha 1AT complexes. Thus, in vivo alpha 1AT not only protects against excessive HNE activity, but also against excessive PR3 activity.

  1. Effects of E-64, a cysteine proteinase inhibitor, on cowpea weevil growth, development, and fecundity

    SciTech Connect

    Murdock, L.L.; Shade, R.E.; Pomeroy, M.A.

    1988-06-01

    E-64, a specific inhibitor of cysteine proteinases, was incorporated into artificial seeds at low levels (0.01-0.25% by weight). It prolonged developmental time and increased mortality of the larval cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus (F.), in direct proportion to its concentration in the artificial seeds. The fecundity of females emerging from the artificial seeds was significantly decreased by E-64 concentrations of 0.06% and higher. These observations are compatible with the hypothesis that the midgut cysteine proteinase in C. maculatus is essential for normal growth and development.

  2. Specificity of proteinase K at P2 to P3' sub-sites and its comparison to other serine proteases.

    PubMed

    Qasim, Mohammad A

    2014-01-01

    Specificity of the commercially important serine protease, proteinase K, has been investigated by measuring free energies of association of proteinase K with turkey ovomucoid third domain inhibitor variants at contact positions P2, P1, P1', P2', and P3'. Correlations of these values were run with similar values that have been obtained for six other serine proteases. Among the six proteases, subtilisin Carlsberg shows a near perfect correlation (Pearson Product correlation coefficient = 0.93 to 0.99) with proteinase K at all of these positions. Proteinase K has only 35% sequence identity with subtilisin Carlsberg, yet, the two enzymes are nearly identical in their specificity at P2 to P3' positions. With other serine proteases such as bovine chymotrypsin, human leukocyte elastase, porcine pancreatic elastase, Streptomyces griseus protease A and B, proteinase K showed relatively poor or no correlation.

  3. Understanding and targeting a novel plant viral proteinase/substrate interaction. Final report, July 1, 1989--June 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Dougherty, W.

    1995-10-01

    The past 3 years of funding have focused our efforts on trying to understand the molecular basis of a unique substrate interaction displayed by a viral proteinase. We have made good progress and during this funding period we have made four contributions to the scientific literature and have developed the application of the proteinase in the expression and purification of recombinant fusion proteins. A comprehensive review of virus-encoded proteinases, written during the funding period, emphazing the tremendous similarity of viral proteinases with their cellular counterparts and at the same time detail the unique characteristics which permit them to function in a cellular environment. The focus of the research effort was the tobacco etch virus (TEV) 27kDa NIa proteinase.

  4. Biotic and abiotic carbon to sulfur bond cleavage

    SciTech Connect

    Frost, J.W.

    1991-01-01

    Mechanisms for cleavage of RCH{sub 2}-S bonds catalyzed by Escherichia coli can best be categorized by whether an alcohol RCH{sub 2}OH or an aldehyde RCHO are the products of the degradation. A study of the chemical processes involved has been used to establish the best formulation of carbon to sulfur bond cleavage. 2 figs.

  5. DNA Methylation Reduces Binding and Cleavage by Bleomycin

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    In a recent study, we described the enhanced double-strand cleavage of hairpin DNAs by Fe·bleomycin (Fe·BLM) that accompanies increasingly strong binding of this antitumor agent and suggested that this effect may be relevant to the mechanism by which BLM mediates its antitumor effects. Because the DNA in tumor cells is known to be hypomethylated on cytidine relative to that in normal cells, it seemed of interest to study the possible effects of methylation status on BLM-induced double-strand DNA cleavage. Three hairpin DNAs found to bind strongly to bleomycin, and their methylated counterparts, were used to study the effect of methylation on bleomycin-induced DNA degradation. Under conditions of limited DNA cleavage, there was a significant overall decrease in the cleavage of methylated hairpin DNAs. Cytidine methylation was found to result in decreased BLM-induced cleavage at the site of methylation and to result in enhanced cleavage at adjacent nonmethylated sites. For two of the three hairpin DNAs studied, methylation was accompanied by a dramatic decrease in the binding affinity for Fe·BLM, suggesting the likelihood of diminished double-strand cleavage. The source of the persistent binding of BLM by the third hairpin DNA was identified. Also identified was the probable molecular mechanism for diminished binding and cleavage of the methylated DNAs by BLM. The possible implications of these findings for the antitumor selectivity of bleomycin are discussed. PMID:25187079

  6. Cleavage factor Im (CFIm) as a regulator of alternative polyadenylation.

    PubMed

    Hardy, Jessica G; Norbury, Chris J

    2016-08-15

    Most mammalian protein coding genes are subject to alternative cleavage and polyadenylation (APA), which can generate distinct mRNA 3'UTRs with differing regulatory potential. Although this process has been intensely studied in recent years, it remains unclear how and to what extent cleavage site selection is regulated under different physiological conditions. The cleavage factor Im (CFIm) complex is a core component of the mammalian cleavage machinery, and the observation that its depletion causes transcriptome-wide changes in cleavage site use makes it a key candidate regulator of APA. This review aims to summarize current knowledge of the CFIm complex, and explores the evidence surrounding its potential contribution to regulation of APA. PMID:27528751

  7. Proteolytic cleavage in the S1-S2 linker of the Kv1.5 channel does not affect channel function.

    PubMed

    Hogan-Cann, Andrew; Li, Wentao; Guo, Jun; Yang, Tonghua; Zhang, Shetuan

    2016-06-01

    Kv1.5 channels mediate the ultra-rapidly activating delayed rectifier potassium current (IKur), which is important for atrial repolarization. It has been shown that cell-surface Kv1.5 channels are sensitive to cleavage by the extracellular serine protease, proteinase K (PK). Here, we investigated the effects of extracellular proteolytic digestion on the function of Kv1.5 channels stably expressed in HEK 293 cells. Our data demonstrate that PK treatment cleaved mature membrane-bound (75kDa) Kv1.5 channels at a single locus in the S1-S2 linker, producing 42-kDa N-terminal fragments and 33-kDa C-terminal fragments. Interestingly, such PK treatment did not affect the Kv1.5 current (IKv1.5) recorded using the whole-cell patch clamp technique. Analysis of cell-surface proteins isolated using biotinylation indicated that the PK-generated N- and C-terminal fragments were both present in the plasma membrane. Co-immunoprecipitation (co-IP) experiments indicated that the N- and C-terminal fragments are no longer associated after cleavage. Furthermore, following PK digestion, the N- and C-fragments degraded at different rates. PK is frequently used as a tool to analyze cell-surface localization of membrane proteins, and cleavage of cell-surface channels has been shown to abolish channel function (e.g. hERG). Our data, for the first time, demonstrate that cleavage of cell-surface channels assessed by Western blot analysis does not necessarily correlate with an elimination of the channel activities. PMID:26874203

  8. Global analyses of endonucleolytic cleavage in mammals reveal expanded repertoires of cleavage-inducing small RNAs and their targets

    PubMed Central

    Cass, Ashley A.; Bahn, Jae Hoon; Lee, Jae-Hyung; Greer, Christopher; Lin, Xianzhi; Kim, Yong; Hsiao, Yun-Hua Esther; Xiao, Xinshu

    2016-01-01

    In mammals, small RNAs are important players in post-transcriptional gene regulation. While their roles in mRNA destabilization and translational repression are well appreciated, their involvement in endonucleolytic cleavage of target RNAs is poorly understood. Very few microRNAs are known to guide RNA cleavage. Endogenous small interfering RNAs are expected to induce target cleavage, but their target genes remain largely unknown. We report a systematic study of small RNA-mediated endonucleolytic cleavage in mouse through integrative analysis of small RNA and degradome sequencing data without imposing any bias toward known small RNAs. Hundreds of small cleavage-inducing RNAs and their cognate target genes were identified, significantly expanding the repertoire of known small RNA-guided cleavage events. Strikingly, both small RNAs and their target sites demonstrated significant overlap with retrotransposons, providing evidence for the long-standing speculation that retrotransposable elements in mRNAs are leveraged as signals for gene targeting. Furthermore, our analysis showed that the RNA cleavage pathway is also present in human cells but affecting a different repertoire of retrotransposons. These results show that small RNA-guided cleavage is more widespread than previously appreciated. Their impact on retrotransposons in non-coding regions shed light on important aspects of mammalian gene regulation. PMID:26975654

  9. High-molecular-mass multicatalytic proteinase complexes produced by the nitrogen-fixing actinomycete Frankia strain BR.

    PubMed Central

    Benoist, P; Müller, A; Diem, H G; Schwencke, J

    1992-01-01

    A major-high-molecular mass proteinase and seven latent minor proteinases were found in cell extracts and in concentrates of culture medium from Frankia sp. strain BR after nondenaturing electrophoresis in mixed gelatin-polyacrylamide gels. All of these complexes showed multicatalytic properties. Their molecular masses and their sedimentation coefficients varied from 1,300 kDa (28S) to 270 kDa (12S). The electroeluted 1,300-kDa proteinase complex dissociated into 11 low-molecular-mass proteinases (40 to 19 kDa) after sodium dodecyl sulfate activation at 30 degrees C and electrophoresis under denaturing conditions. All of these electroeluted proteinases hydrolyzed N-carbobenzoxy-Pro-Ala-Gly-Pro-4-methoxy-beta- naphthylamide, D-Val-Leu-Arg-4-methoxy-beta-naphthylamide, and Boc-Val-Pro-Arg-4-methyl-7-coumarylamide, whereas Suc-Leu-Leu-Val-Tyr-4-methyl-7-coumarylamide was cleaved only by the six lower-molecular-mass proteinases (27.5 to 19 kDa). Examination by electron microscopy of uranyl acetate-stained, electroeluted 1,300- and 650-kDa intracellular and extracellular proteinase complexes showed ring-shaped and cylindrical particles (10 to 11 nm in diameter, 15 to 16 nm long) similar to those of eukaryotic prosomes and proteasomes. Polyclonal antibodies raised against rat skeletal muscle proteasomes cross-reacted with all of the high-molecular-mass proteinase complexes and, after denaturation of the electroeluted 1,300-kDa band, with polypeptides of 35 to 38, 65, and 90 kDa. Electrophoresis of the activated cell extracts under denaturing conditions revealed 11 to 17 gelatinases from 40 to 19 kDa, including the 11 proteinases of the 1,300-kDa proteinase complex. The inhibition pattern of these proteinases is complex. Thiol-reactive compounds and 1-10-phenanthroline strongly inhibited all of the proteinases, but inhibitors against serine-type proteinases were also effective for most of them. Images PMID:1537794

  10. Peptidase specificity from the substrate cleavage collection in the MEROPS database and a tool to measure cleavage site conservation

    PubMed Central

    Rawlings, Neil D.

    2016-01-01

    One peptidase can usually be distinguished from another biochemically by its action on proteins, peptides and synthetic substrates. Since 1996, the MEROPS database (http://merops.sanger.ac.uk) has accumulated a collection of cleavages in substrates that now amounts to 66,615 cleavages. The total number of peptidases for which at least one cleavage is known is 1700 out of a total of 2457 different peptidases. This paper describes how the cleavages are obtained from the scientific literature, how they are annotated and how cleavages in peptides and proteins are cross-referenced to entries in the UniProt protein sequence database. The specificity profiles of 556 peptidases are shown for which ten or more substrate cleavages are known. However, it has been proposed that at least 40 cleavages in disparate proteins are required for specificity analysis to be meaningful, and only 163 peptidases (6.6%) fulfil this criterion. Also described are the various displays shown on the website to aid with the understanding of peptidase specificity, which are derived from the substrate cleavage collection. These displays include a logo, distribution matrix, and tables to summarize which amino acids or groups of amino acids are acceptable (or not acceptable) in each substrate binding pocket. For each protein substrate, there is a display to show how it is processed and degraded. Also described are tools on the website to help with the assessment of the physiological relevance of cleavages in a substrate. These tools rely on the hypothesis that a cleavage site that is conserved in orthologues is likely to be physiologically relevant, and alignments of substrate protein sequences are made utilizing the UniRef50 database, in which in each entry sequences are 50% or more identical. Conservation in this case means substitutions are permitted only if the amino acid is known to occupy the same substrate binding pocket from at least one other substrate cleaved by the same peptidase. PMID

  11. Monomeric 55-kDa guanidinobenzoatase switches to a serine proteinase activity upon tetramerization. Tetrameric proteinase SP 220 K appears as the native form.

    PubMed

    Poustis-Delpont, C; Thaon, S; Auberger, P; Gerardi-Laffin, C; Sudaka, P; Rossi, B

    1994-05-20

    Guanidinobenzoatases are cell surface enzymes present in cells capable of migration or remodeling. The guanidinobenzoatase purified to homogeneity from human renal carcinoma did not display gelatinase activity under the 55-kDa form (Poustis-Delpont, C., Descomps, R., Auberger, P., Delque-Bayer, P., Sudaka, P., and Rossi, B. (1992) Cancer Res. 52, 3622-3628). We bring new insights into the structure-activity relationships of this enzyme using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, [3H]diisopropyl fluorophosphate labeling, gelatin zymography, and immunodetection using a polyclonal antibody raised against the 55-kDa entity. Upon aggregation into a 220-kDa form, the enzyme exhibited [3H]diisopropyl fluorophosphate labeling and diisopropyl fluorophosphate-inhibitable gelatinase activity whereas its capability to cleave p-nitrophenyl p'-guanidinobenzoate as a substrate was abolished. Thus, the guanidinobenzoatase property appears as a feature of a 55-kDa inactive form of a serine proteinase subunit. After boiling in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate (3% w/v), the 220-kDa entity subjected to SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis could be dissociated into a 55-kDa protein as shown by silver staining. The resulting 55-kDa band remained [3H]diisopropyl fluorophosphate-labeled and reacted with anti-55-kDa guanidinobenzoatase antibodies, strongly suggesting that the 220-kDa proteinase was a noncovalently associated tetramer. Interestingly, Triton X-100 extracts of renal carcinoma plasma membranes exhibited a 220-kDa serine proteinase activity, as expressed in gelatin zymography, which was barely detectable in the non-tumoral counterpart. It is noteworthy that an anti-55-kDa guanidinobenzoatase reactive 220-kDa species was also observed in renal carcinoma plasma membranes extracts as assessed by Western blot, whereas it was hardly visible in the non-tumoral counterpart. No signal was immunodetected at M(r) 55,000 in renal carcinoma and kidney cortex

  12. Measurement of the cleavage energy of graphite

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wen; Dai, Shuyang; Li, Xide; Yang, Jiarui; Srolovitz, David J.; Zheng, Quanshui

    2015-01-01

    The basal plane cleavage energy (CE) of graphite is a key material parameter for understanding many of the unusual properties of graphite, graphene and carbon nanotubes. Nonetheless, a wide range of values for the CE has been reported and no consensus has yet emerged. Here we report the first direct, accurate experimental measurement of the CE of graphite using a novel method based on the self-retraction phenomenon in graphite. The measured value, 0.37±0.01 J m−2 for the incommensurate state of bicrystal graphite, is nearly invariant with respect to temperature (22 °C≤T≤198 °C) and bicrystal twist angle, and insensitive to impurities from the atmosphere. The CE for the ideal ABAB graphite stacking, 0.39±0.02 J m−2, is calculated based on a combination of the measured CE and a theoretical calculation. These experimental measurements are also ideal for use in evaluating the efficacy of competing theoretical approaches. PMID:26314373

  13. Subunit structure of karatasin, the proteinase isolated from Bromelia plumieri (karatas).

    PubMed

    Montes, C; Amador, M; Cuevas, D; Cordoba, F

    1990-01-01

    Close to 15% of the karatasin proteinase activity in the fruit juice of Bromelia plumieri (karatas) is present outside dialysis Visking tubing in 7 days in 0.2 M acetate buffer (pH) 3.5 or 6.5) containing phenyl mercuric acetate. The small proteinase(s), distinct from the 85% activity in juice due to nondialysable karatasin with a reported Mr of 24,868, separates across Spectrapore (13 kDa) membranes but not across Spectrapore with 3.5 kDa average pore diameter. The dialyzed proteinase is named karatasin-D (K-D). Purified non-Dialysable karatasin can be dissociated to what seems to be K-D by incubation in a buffer solution, containing SDS and 2-mercaptoethanol with phenyl mercuric acetate, in dialysis experiments for 8 days at room temperature using Spectrapore 13 kDa tubing. Thus, native karatasin in B. plumieri fruit juice seem to be the result of association of 2 small molecular mass K-D subunits, linked together by disulfide bonds and electrostatic forces, in equilibrium with small amounts of free K-D molecules. The amino acid composition and partial sequence of karatasin up to the 14th position from the amino terminus have discrete analogies with papain and with stem bromelain.

  14. Production, purification and characterisation of recombinant Fahsin, a novel antistasin-type proteinase inhibitor.

    PubMed

    de Bruin, Eric C; Roem, Dorina; Bulder, Ingrid; Dieker, Miranda; Voerman, Gerard; Hack, C Erik

    2005-11-01

    Serine proteinases from inflammatory cells, including polymorphonuclear neutrophils, are involved in various inflammatory disorders, like pulmonary emphysema and rheumatoid arthritis. Inhibitors of these serine proteinases are potential drug candidates for the treatment of these disorders, since they prevent the unrestricted proteolysis. This study describes a novel specific antistasin-type inhibitor of neutrophil serine proteinases, we called Fahsin. This inhibitor was purified from the Nile leech Limnatis nilotica, sequenced and heterologously expressed using a synthetic gene in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris, yielding 0.5 g(-l) of the protein in the culture medium. Recombinant Fahsin was purified to homogeneity and characterised by N-terminal amino acid sequencing and mass spectrometry. Inhibition-kinetic analysis showed that recombinant Fahsin is a fast, tight-binding inhibitor of human neutrophil elastase with inhibition constant in the nanomolar range. Furthermore, recombinant Fahsin was, in contrast to various other neutrophil elastase inhibitors, insensitive to chemical oxidation and biological oxidation via myeloperoxidase-generated free oxygen radicals. Thus, Fahsin constitutes a novel member of a still expanding family of naturally occurring inhibitors of serine proteinases with potential therapeutic use for treatment of human diseases.

  15. Detergents modify proteinase K resistance of PrP Sc in different transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs).

    PubMed

    Breyer, Johanna; Wemheuer, Wiebke M; Wrede, Arne; Graham, Catherine; Benestad, Sylvie L; Brenig, Bertram; Richt, Jürgen A; Schulz-Schaeffer, Walter J

    2012-05-25

    Prion diseases are diagnosed by the detection of their proteinase K-resistant prion protein fragment (PrP(Sc)). Various biochemical protocols use different detergents for the tissue preparation. We found that the resistance of PrP(Sc) against proteinase K may vary strongly with the detergent used. In our study, we investigated the influence of the most commonly used detergents on eight different TSE agents derived from different species and distinct prion disease forms. For a high throughput we used a membrane adsorption assay to detect small amounts of prion aggregates, as well as Western blotting. Tissue lysates were prepared using DOC, SLS, SDS or Triton X-100 in different concentrations and these were digested with various amounts of proteinase K. Detergents are able to enhance or diminish the detectability of PrP(Sc) after proteinase K digestion. Depending on the kind of detergent, its concentration - but also on the host species that developed the TSE and the disease form or prion type - the detectability of PrP(Sc) can be very different. The results obtained here may be helpful during the development or improvement of a PrP(Sc) detection method and they point towards a detergent effect that can be additionally used for decontamination purposes. A plausible explanation for the detergent effects described in this article could be an interaction with the lipids associated with PrP(Sc) that may stabilize the aggregates.

  16. Nutritional requirements and nitrogen-dependent regulation of proteinase activity of Lactobacillus helveticus CRL 1062.

    PubMed

    Hebert, E M; Raya, R R; De Giori, G S

    2000-12-01

    The nutritional requirements of Lactobacillus helveticus CRL 1062 were determined with a simplified chemically defined medium (SCDM) and compared with those of L. helveticus CRL 974 (ATCC 15009). Both strains were found to be prototrophic for alanine, glycine, asparagine, glutamine, and cysteine. In addition, CRL 1062 also showed prototrophy for lysine and serine. The microorganisms also required riboflavin, calcium pantothenate, pyridoxal, nicotinic acid, and uracil for growth in liquid SCDM. The growth rate and the synthesis of their cell membrane-bound serine proteinases, but not of their intracellular leucyl-aminopeptidases, were influenced by the peptide content of the medium. The highest proteinase levels were found during cell growth in basal SCDM, while the synthesis of this enzyme was inhibited in SCDM supplemented with Casitone, Casamino Acids, or beta-casein. Low-molecular-mass peptides (<3,000 Da), extracted from Casitone, and the dipeptide leucylproline (final concentration, 5 mM) play important roles in the medium-dependent regulation of proteinase activity. The addition of the dipeptide leucylproline (5 mM) to SCDM reduced proteinase activity by 25%. PMID:11097908

  17. Proteinase K and the structure of PrPse: the good, the bad, and the ugly

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infectious proteins (prions) are, ironically, defined by their resistance to proteolytic digestion. A defining characteristic of the transmissible isoform of the prion protein (PrPSc) is its partial resistance to proteinase K (PK) digestion. Diagnosis of prion disease typically relies upon immunod...

  18. Insect and wound induced GUS gene expression from a Beta vulgaris proteinase inhibitor gene promoter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Inducible gene promoters that are specifically activated by pathogen invasion or insect pest attack are needed for effective expression of resistance genes to control plant diseases. In the present study, a promoter from a serine proteinase inhibitor gene (BvSTI) shown to be up-regulated in resist...

  19. Purification and characterization of a milk-clotting aspartic proteinase from globe artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.).

    PubMed

    Llorente, Berta E; Brutti, Cristina B; Caffini, Néstor O

    2004-12-29

    The study of proteinase expression in crude extracts from different organs of the globe artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) disclosed that enzymes with proteolytic and milk-clotting activity are mainly located in mature flowers. Maximum proteolytic activity was recorded at pH 5.0, and inhibition studies showed that only pepstatin, specific for aspartic proteinases, presented a significant inhibitory effect. Such properties, in addition to easy enzyme inactivation by moderate heating, make this crude protease extract potentially useful for cheese production. Adsorption with activated carbon, together with anion exchange and affinity chromatography, led to the isolation of a heterodimeric milk-clotting proteinase consisting of 30- and 15-kDa subunits. MALDI-TOF MS of the 15-kDa chain determined a 15.358-Da mass, and the terminal amino sequence presented 96% homology with the smaller cardosin A subunit. The amino terminal sequence of the 30-kDa chain proved to be identical to the larger cardosin A subunit. Electrophoresis evidenced proteinase self-processing that was confirmed by immunoblots presenting 62-, 30-, and 15-kDa bands.

  20. Isolation and characterization of cancer procoagulant: a cysteine proteinase from malignant tissue.

    PubMed

    Falanga, A; Gordon, S G

    1985-09-24

    Cancer procoagulant, a proteolytic procoagulant enzyme, has been purified from rabbit V2 carcinoma extracts by two procedures. In the first, the protein was purified by benzamidine--Sepharose affinity chromatography, gel filtration chromatography, and phenyl-Sepharose hydrophobic chromatography. Antiserum was raised against the purified protein and was used to prepare an immunoadsorbent column. In the second, tumor extracts were purified by immunoaffinity chromatography followed by p-(chloromercuri)benzoate affinity chromatography. The second procedure was substantially quicker and easier. The final product of both procedures was homogeneous on the basis of analytical sodium dodecyl sulfate--polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and isoelectric focusing. The molecular weight was 68 000 and the isoelectric point 4.8. The proteinase activity of cancer procoagulant directly activated factor X, in the absence of factor VII, and was inhibited by 1 mM iodoacetamide and 0.1 mM mercury which are classic cysteine proteinase inhibitors. A carbohydrate analysis showed less than 1 mol of hexose or sialic acid/mol of protein. The amino acid analysis showed that serine (19.1%), glycine (18.77%), and glutamic acid (12.5%) were the prevalent amino acids. The amino acid composition of cancer procoagulant was substantially different than other known factor X activating proteinases or other cysteine proteinases including cathepsin B.

  1. Proteinases release /sup 35/S-labeled macromolecules from cultured airway epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Varsano, S.; Borson, D.B.; Gold, M.; Forsberg, S.; Basbaum, C.B.; Nadel, J.A.

    1986-03-05

    To determine whether proteinases release radiolabeled macromolecules from airway cells devoid of secretory granules, they studied canine cultured tracheal epithelial cells grown to confluency. At this time the cells are bound by tight junctions, maintain anion transport, have a well developed glycocalyx, but contain no secretory granules. They labeled the cells with /sup 35/SO/sub 4/ (50..mu..ci/ml/24h) then changed the medium every 20 min and measured nondialyzable /sup 35/S released into the medium. Two h later, the rate of spontaneous release of /sup 35/S-labeled-macromolecules was 5700 +/- 1600 CPM/20 min (mean +/- SD). At this time trypsin, thermolysin, pseudomonas elastase and alkaline proteinase, each released /sup 35/S-labeled-macromolecules, whereas aspergillus acid proteinase did not. In more detailed studies, trypsin released /sup 35/S in a concentration dependent fashion, with a threshold below 10 units/ml and a response to 1000 units/ml of 1092 +/- 173% (mean +/- SD; n=5 cultures) above pre-trypsin baseline. Sepharose CL4B chromatography of the radiolabeled materials released by trypsin showed a void volume fraction (MW greater than or equal to 10/sup 6/), and a second, included fraction (MW 2-3 x 10/sup 5/). These results indicate that cultured airway epithelial cells synthesize macromolecules and release them into the medium, and that proteinases increase the rate of macromolecule release markedly.

  2. A triticale water-deficit-inducible phytocystatin inhibits endogenous cysteine proteinases in vitro.

    PubMed

    Chojnacka, Magdalena; Szewińska, Joanna; Mielecki, Marcin; Nykiel, Małgorzata; Imai, Ryozo; Bielawski, Wiesław; Orzechowski, Sławomir

    2015-02-01

    Water-deficit is accompanied by an increase in proteolysis. Phytocystatins are plant inhibitors of cysteine proteinases that belong to the papain and legumain family. A cDNA encoding the protein inhibitor TrcC-8 was identified in the vegetative organs of triticale. In response to water-deficit, increases in the mRNA levels of TrcC-8 were observed in leaf and root tissues. Immunoblot analysis indicated that accumulation of the TrcC-8 protein occurred after 72h of water-deficit in the seedlings. Using recombinant protein, inhibitory activity of TrcC-8 against cysteine proteases from triticale and wheat tissues was analyzed. Under water-deficit conditions, there are increases in cysteine proteinase activities in both plant tissues. The cysteine proteinase activities were inhibited by addition of the recombinant TrcC-8 protein. These results suggest a potential role for the triticale phytocystatin in modulating cysteine proteinase activities during water-deficit conditions. PMID:25462979

  3. Isolation and characterization of a proteinase K sensitive PrPSc fraction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent studies have shown that a sizeable fraction of PrPSc present in prion-infected tissues is,contrary to previous conceptions, sensitive to digestion by proteinase K (PK). This finding has important implications in the context of diagnosis of prion disease, as PK has been extensively used in att...

  4. Proteinase from germinating bean cotyledons. Evidence for involvement of a thiol group in catalysis.

    PubMed

    Csoma, C; Polgár, L

    1984-09-15

    To degrade storage proteins germinating seeds synthesize proteinases de novo that can be inhibited by thiol-blocking reagents [Baumgartner & Chrispeels (1977) Eur. J. Biochem. 77, 223-233]. We have elaborated a procedure for isolation of such a proteinase from the cotyledons of Phaseolus vulgaris. The purification procedure involved fractionation of the cotyledon homogenate with acetone and with (NH4)2SO4 and successive chromatographies on DEAE-cellulose, activated thiol-Sepharose Sepharose and Sephacryl S-200. The purified enzyme has an Mr of 23,400, proved to be highly specific for the asparagine side chain and blocking of its thiol group resulted in loss of the catalytic activity. The chemical properties of the thiol group of the bean enzyme were investigated by acylation with t-butyloxycarbonyl-L-asparagine p-nitro-phenyl ester and by alkylations with iodoacetamide and iodoacetate. Deviations from normal pH-rate profile were observed, which indicated that the thiol group is not a simple functional group, but constitutes a part of an interactive system at the active site. The pKa value for acylation and the magnitude of the rate constant for alkylation with iodoacetate revealed that the bean proteinase possesses some properties not shared by papain and the other cysteine proteinases studied to date.

  5. A triticale water-deficit-inducible phytocystatin inhibits endogenous cysteine proteinases in vitro.

    PubMed

    Chojnacka, Magdalena; Szewińska, Joanna; Mielecki, Marcin; Nykiel, Małgorzata; Imai, Ryozo; Bielawski, Wiesław; Orzechowski, Sławomir

    2015-02-01

    Water-deficit is accompanied by an increase in proteolysis. Phytocystatins are plant inhibitors of cysteine proteinases that belong to the papain and legumain family. A cDNA encoding the protein inhibitor TrcC-8 was identified in the vegetative organs of triticale. In response to water-deficit, increases in the mRNA levels of TrcC-8 were observed in leaf and root tissues. Immunoblot analysis indicated that accumulation of the TrcC-8 protein occurred after 72h of water-deficit in the seedlings. Using recombinant protein, inhibitory activity of TrcC-8 against cysteine proteases from triticale and wheat tissues was analyzed. Under water-deficit conditions, there are increases in cysteine proteinase activities in both plant tissues. The cysteine proteinase activities were inhibited by addition of the recombinant TrcC-8 protein. These results suggest a potential role for the triticale phytocystatin in modulating cysteine proteinase activities during water-deficit conditions.

  6. Quantification of DNA cleavage specificity in Hi-C experiments.

    PubMed

    Meluzzi, Dario; Arya, Gaurav

    2016-01-01

    Hi-C experiments produce large numbers of DNA sequence read pairs that are typically analyzed to deduce genomewide interactions between arbitrary loci. A key step in these experiments is the cleavage of cross-linked chromatin with a restriction endonuclease. Although this cleavage should happen specifically at the enzyme's recognition sequence, an unknown proportion of cleavage events may involve other sequences, owing to the enzyme's star activity or to random DNA breakage. A quantitative estimation of these non-specific cleavages may enable simulating realistic Hi-C read pairs for validation of downstream analyses, monitoring the reproducibility of experimental conditions and investigating biophysical properties that correlate with DNA cleavage patterns. Here we describe a computational method for analyzing Hi-C read pairs to estimate the fractions of cleavages at different possible targets. The method relies on expressing an observed local target distribution downstream of aligned reads as a linear combination of known conditional local target distributions. We validated this method using Hi-C read pairs obtained by computer simulation. Application of the method to experimental Hi-C datasets from murine cells revealed interesting similarities and differences in patterns of cleavage across the various experiments considered.

  7. Development of early composite cleavage in pelites from West Donegal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meneilly, A. W.

    In the Portnoo-Rosbeg area of west Donegal the main penetrative cleavage, S2, generally dips to the south with F2 folds facing up to the north. In places the S2 cleavage is cut by a gently SW-dipping crenulation cleavage ( S3) verging and facing south on the long limbs of F2 folds. A series of structural domains have been mapped in which the relationship of S2 and S3 changes from cross-cutting at a large angle (Rosbeg domain) to the development of a composite S {2}/{3} cleavage (Portnoo domain). The relationship between the two phases and the composite cleavage was investigated by mapping out cleavages (megascopic scale), detailed mesoscopic field observations and on a microscopic scale using textural relationships to widespread post D2-pre D3 garnet porphyroblasts. In addition to demonstrating the composite nature of the cleavage, the examples of D2/ D3 interference and the rotation of, and drag patterns around, the garnet porphyroblasts allow discussion of the kinematics of D3. D3 appears to have involved either bulk pure shear or north-directed bulk simple shear, or any intermediate type of deformation history, and was promoted by southerly directed active slip parallel to S2.

  8. [On the classification of the cleavage patterns in amphibian embryos].

    PubMed

    Desnitskiĭ, A G

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a brief survey and preliminary classification of embryonic cleavage patterns in the class Amphibia. We use published data on 41 anuran and 22 urodele species concerning the character of the third cleavage furrow (latitudinal or longitudinal) and the stage of transition from synchronous to asynchronous blastomere divisions in the animal hemisphere (4-8-celled stage, 8-16-celled stage or later). Based on this, four patterns of amphibian embryonic cleavage are recognized, and an attempt to elucidate the evolutionary relationships among these patterns is undertaken. The so-called "standard" cleavage pattern (the extensive series of synchronous blastomere divisions including latitudinal furrows of the third cleavage) with the typical model species Ambystoma mexicanum and Xenopus laevis seems to be derived and probably originated independently in the orders Anura and Caudata. The ancestral amphibian cleavage pattern seems to be represented by species with longitudinal furrows of the third cleavage and the loss ofsynchrony as early as the 8-celled stage (such as in primitive urodele species from the family Cryptobranchidae). PMID:25720261

  9. Improved DNA content histograms from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded liver tissue by proteinase K digestion.

    PubMed

    Albro, J; Bauer, K D; Hitchcock, C L; Wittwer, C T

    1993-01-01

    An improved method for the enzymatic digestion of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded liver tissue for DNA content analysis by flow cytometry is presented. Forty samples of histologically normal liver were alternately digested by the traditional pepsin method or a new method utilizing proteinase K and heat. Sixteen (40%) of the pepsin-digested samples had apparent DNA aneuploid peaks by flow cytometry. False DNA aneuploid peaks were not present in any of the histograms obtained after proteinase K digestion. Microscopy showed that the pepsin-digested samples had residual cytoplasmic remnants which contained fluorescent material. Samples digested with proteinase K had few cytoplasmic remnants. The average G0/G1 coefficient of variation after proteinase K treatment was lower (41%) and the fluorescent intensity higher (128%) than the pepsin-treated samples. The apparent mean S-phase (a combination of S-phase cells and underlying debris) after proteinase K digestion was 35% of the pepsin-treated samples. Primary and secondary tumors of the liver that were DNA aneuploid after pepsin treatment were also DNA aneuploid after proteinase K treatment. A modified digestion protocol utilizing proteinase K and heat can provide superior results for DNA content analysis of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded liver tissue.

  10. Hydrolytic activity of Virgibacillus sp. SK37, a starter culture of fish sauce fermentation, and its cell-bound proteinases.

    PubMed

    Sinsuwan, Sornchai; Rodtong, Sureelak; Yongsawatdigul, Jirawat

    2012-08-01

    Fish sauce production relies on a natural fermentation process requiring 12-18 months for process completion. Virgibacillus sp. SK37 has been shown to be a potential strain for fish sauce acceleration. However, hydrolytic activity of proteinases bound at cell surface of this strain has not been well elucidated. Addition of 0.2 % CaCl(2) (w/w) in conjunction with starter cultures of Virgibacillus sp. SK 37 increased protein hydrolysis as measured by α-amino group content throughout fermentation (P < 0.05). Cell-bound proteinases from Virgibacillus sp. SK 37 were extracted into a free form by incubating the washed cells in Ca(2+)-free buffer at 37 °C for 2 h. Cell-bound proteinases revealed molecular mass of 19, 20, 22, 32, 34, and 44 kDa based on a synthetic peptide zymogram. The proteinases showed subtilisin-like serine characteristics with the highest activity at 50 °C and pH 8 and 11. Activity of the extracted proteinases increased ~4 times at ≥100 mM CaCl(2). In addition, CaCl(2) enhanced thermal stability of the extracted proteinases. Enzymes showed proteolytic activity in either the absence or presence of 10 and 25 % NaCl toward fish muscle, soy protein isolate, and casein substrates. Cell-bound proteinases were likely to play an important role in protein hydrolysis during fish sauce fermentation. PMID:22806191

  11. Activities of amylase, proteinase, and lipase enzymes from Lactococcus chungangensis and its application in dairy products.

    PubMed

    Konkit, Maytiya; Kim, Wonyong

    2016-07-01

    Several enzymes are involved in the process of converting milk to lactic acid and coagulated milk to curd and, therefore, are important in dairy fermented products. Amylase, proteinase, and lipase are enzymes that play an important role in degrading milk into monomeric molecules such as oligosaccharides, amino acids, and fatty acids, which are the main molecules responsible for flavors in cheese. In the current study, we determined the amylase, proteinase, and lipase activities of Lactococcus chungangensis CAU 28(T), a bacterial strain of nondairy origin, and compared them with those of the reference strain, Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis KCTC 3769(T), which is commonly used in the dairy industry. Lactococcus chungangensis CAU 28(T) and L. lactis ssp. lactis KCTC 3769(T) were both found to have amylase, proteinase, and lipase activities in broth culture, cream cheese, and yogurt. Notably, the proteinase and lipase activities of L. chungangensis CAU 28(T) were higher than those of L. lactis ssp. lactis KCTC 3769(T), with proteinase activity of 10.50 U/mL in tryptic soy broth and 8.64 U/mL in cream cheese, and lipase activity of 100 U/mL of tryptic soy broth, and 100 U/mL of cream cheese. In contrast, the amylase activity was low, with 5.28 U/mL in tryptic soy broth and 8.86 U/mL in cream cheese. These enzyme activities in L. chungangensis CAU 28(T) suggest that this strain has potential to be used for manufacturing dairy fermented products, even though the strain is of nondairy origin. PMID:27108177

  12. Pest protection conferred by a Beta vulgaris serine proteinase inhibitor gene.

    PubMed

    Smigocki, Ann C; Ivic-Haymes, Snezana; Li, Haiyan; Savić, Jelena

    2013-01-01

    Proteinase inhibitors provide a means of engineering plant resistance to insect pests. A Beta vulgaris serine proteinase inhibitor gene (BvSTI) was fused to the constitutive CaMV35S promoter for over-expression in Nicotiana benthamiana plants to study its effect on lepidopteran insect pests. Independently derived BvSTI transgenic tobacco T2 homozygous progeny were shown to have relatively high BvSTI gene transcript levels. BvSTI-specific polyclonal antibodies cross-reacted with the expected 30 kDA recombinant BvSTI protein on Western blots. In gel trypsin inhibitor activity assays revealed a major clear zone that corresponded to the BvSTI proteinase inhibitor that was not detected in the untransformed control plants. BvSTI-transgenic plants were bioassayed for resistance to five lepidopteran insect pests. Spodoptera frugiperda, S. exigua and Manduca sexta larvae fed BvSTI leaves had significant reductions in larval weights as compared to larvae fed on untransformed leaves. In contrast, larval weights increased relative to the controls when Heliothis virescens and Agrotis ipsilon larvae were fed on BvSTI leaves. As the larvae entered the pupal stage, pupal sizes reflected the overall larval weights. Some developmental abnormalities of the pupae and emerging moths were noted. These findings suggest that the sugar beet BvSTI gene may prove useful for effective control of several different lepidopteran insect pests in genetically modified tobacco and other plants. The sugar beet serine proteinase inhibitor may be more effective for insect control because sugar beet is cropped in restricted geographical areas thus limiting the exposure of the insects to sugar beet proteinase inhibitors and build up of non-sensitive midgut proteases.

  13. A chymotrypsin-like proteinase from the midgut of Tenebrio molitor larvae.

    PubMed

    Elpidina, E N; Tsybina, T A; Dunaevsky, Y E; Belozersky, M A; Zhuzhikov, D P; Oppert, B

    2005-08-01

    A chymotrypsin-like proteinase was isolated from the posterior midgut of larvae of the yellow mealworm, Tenebrio molitor, by ion-exchange and gel filtration chromatography. The enzyme, TmC1, was purified to homogeneity as determined by SDS-PAGE and postelectrophoretic activity detection. TmC1 had a molecular mass of 23.0 kDa, pI of 8.4, a pH optimum of 9.5, and the optimal temperature for activity was 51 degrees C. The proteinase displayed high stability at temperatures below 43 degrees C and in the pH range 6.5-11.2, which is inclusive of the pH of the posterior and middle midgut. The enzyme hydrolyzed long chymotrypsin peptide substrates SucAAPFpNA, SucAAPLpNA and GlpAALpNA and did not hydrolyze short chymotrypsin substrates. Kinetic parameters of the enzymatic reaction demonstrated that the best substrate was SucAAPFpNA, with k(cat app) 36.5 s(-1) and K(m) 1.59 mM. However, the enzyme had a lower K(m) for SucAAPLpNA, 0.5 mM. Phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride (PMSF) was an effective inhibitor of TmC1, and the proteinase was not inhibited by either tosyl-l-phenylalanine chloromethyl ketone (TPCK) or N(alpha)-tosyl-l-lysine chloromethyl ketone (TLCK). However, the activity of TmC1 was reduced with sulfhydryl reagents. Several plant and insect proteinaceous proteinase inhibitors were active against the purified enzyme, the most effective being Kunitz soybean trypsin inhibitor (STI). The N-terminal sequence of the enzyme was IISGSAASKGQFPWQ, which was up to 67% similar to other insect chymotrypsin-like proteinases and 47% similar to mammalian chymotrypsin A. The amino acid composition of TmC1 differed significantly from previously isolated T. molitor enzymes.

  14. Proteinases in Naegleria Fowleri (strain NF3), a pathogenic amoeba: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Mat Amin, Nakisah

    2004-12-01

    Naegleria fowleri is a free-living amoeba, known as a causative agent for a fatal disease of the central nervous system (CNS) in man such as Primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM). Factors contributing to its pathogenicity and its distribution in the environment have been investigated by previous researchers. In case of its pathogenicity, several enzymes such as phospolipase A and sphingomyelinase, have been proposed to probably act as aggressors in promoting PAM but no study so far have been conducted to investigate the presence of proteinase enzyme in this amoeba although a 56kDa cystein proteinase enzyme has been identified in Entamoeba histolytica as an important contributing factor in the amoeba's virulence. In this preliminary study, a pathogenic amoeba, Naegleria fowleri (strain NF3) was examined for the presence of proteinases. Samples of enzymes in this amoeba were analysed by electrophoresis using SDS-PAGE-gelatin gels. The results showed that this amoeba possesses at least two high molecular weight proteinases on gelatin gels; their apparent molecular weights are approximately 128 kDa and approximately 170 kDa. Band of approximately 128 kDa enzyme is membrane-associated and its activity is higher at alkaline pH compared with lower pH; at lower pH, its activity is greatly stimulated by DTT. The approximately 170 kDa band enzyme appears to be inactivated at pH 8.0, at lower ph its activity is higher and DTT-dependance. The activity of this enzyme is partially inhibited by inhibitor E-64 but markedly inhibited to antipain suggesting it belongs to the cysteine proteinase group.

  15. Detection of nucleic acid sequences by invader-directed cleavage

    DOEpatents

    Brow, Mary Ann D.; Hall, Jeff Steven Grotelueschen; Lyamichev, Victor; Olive, David Michael; Prudent, James Robert

    1999-01-01

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The 5' nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof. The present invention further relates to methods and devices for the separation of nucleic acid molecules based by charge.

  16. Specific oxidative cleavage of carotenoids by VP14 of maize

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, S.H.; Zeevaart, J.A.D.; Gage, D.A.; Tan, Bao Cai

    1997-06-20

    The plant growth regulator abscisic acid (ABA) is formed by the oxidative cleavage of an epoxy-carotenoid. The synthesis of other apocarotenoids, such as vitamin A in animals, may occur by a similar mechanism. In ABA biosynthesis, oxidative cleavage is the first committed reaction and is believed to be the key regulatory step. A new ABA-deficient mutant of maize has been identified and the corresponding gene, Vp14, has been cloned. The recombinant VP14 protein catalyzes the cleavage of 9-cis-epoxy-carotenoids to form C{sub 25} apo-aldehydes and xanthoxin, a precursor of ABA in higher plants.

  17. 1-deoxynojirimycin impairs oligosaccharide processing of alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor and inhibits its secretion in primary cultures of rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Gross, V; Andus, T; Tran-Thi, T A; Schwarz, R T; Decker, K; Heinrich, P C

    1983-10-25

    1-Deoxynojirimycin was found to inhibit oligosaccharide processing of rat alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor. In normal hepatocytes alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor was present in the cells as a 49,000 Mr high mannose type glycoprotein with oligosaccharide side chains having the composition Man9GlcNAc and Man8GlcNAc with the former in a higher proportion. Hepatocytes treated with 5 mM 1-deoxynojirimycin accumulated alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor as a 51,000 Mr glycoprotein with carbohydrate side chains of the high mannose type, containing glucose as measured by their sensitivity against alpha-glucosidase, the largest species being Glc3Man9GlcNAc. Conversion to complex oligosaccharides was inhibited by the drug. In addition, increasing concentrations of 1-deoxynojirimycin inhibited glycosylation resulting in the formation of some alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor with two instead of three oligosaccharide side chains. 5 mM 1-deoxynojirimycin inhibited the secretion of alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor by about 50%, whereas secretion of albumin was unaffected. The oligosaccharides of alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor secreted from 1-deoxynojirimycin-treated cells were characterized by their susceptibility to endoglucosaminidase H, incorporation of [3H]galactose, and [3H]fucose and concanavalin A-Sepharose chromatography. It was found that 1-deoxynojirimycin did not completely block oligosaccharide processing, resulting in the formation of alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor molecules carrying one or two complex type oligosaccharides. Only these alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor molecules processed to the complex type in one or two of their oligosaccharide chains were nearly exclusively secreted. This finding demonstrates the importance of oligosaccharide processing for the secretion of alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor. PMID:6226656

  18. A sycamore cell wall polysaccharide and a chemically related tomato leaf polysaccharide possess similar proteinase inhibitor-inducing activities.

    PubMed

    Ryan, C A; Bishop, P; Pearce, G

    1981-09-01

    A large pectic polysaccharide, called rhamnogalacturonan I, that is solubilized by a fungal endo-alpha-1,4-polygalacturonase from the purified walls of suspension-cultured sycamore cells possesses proteinase inhibitor-inducing activity similar to that of the proteinase inhibitor-inducing factor, a pectic-like oligosaccharide fraction isolated from tomato leaves. This suggests that the proteinase inhibitor-inducing activity resides in particular polysaccharide fragments which can be released when plant cell walls are exposed to appropriate enzyme degradation as a result of either wounding or pest attack.

  19. Induction of a heparin-stimulated serine proteinase in sex accessory gland tumors of the Lobund-Wistar rat.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Michael J; Lind, Jeremy; Sinha, Akhouri A

    2015-08-01

    Induction of new proteinase activities that may process growth factors, modify cell surface receptors, cleave extracellular matrix proteins, etc. is considered fundamental in carcinogenesis. The purpose of this study was to characterize a novel proteinase activity induced in sex accessory gland cancers (about 70% in seminal vesicles) of adult male Lobund-Wistar rats by a single injection of N-nitroso-N-methylurea (NMU; 25mg/kg) followed by implanted testosterone propionate (45mg in silastic tubing every 2months) treatment for 10-14months. A 28kDa proteinase activity was detected in tumor extracts using SDS-gelatin gel zymography with incubations done without CaCl2. Its activity was stimulated 15 fold by heparin (optimal activity 1.5-3.0μg/lane) added to the tissue extract-SDS sample buffer prior to electrophoresis. No 28kDa heparin-stimulated proteinase (H-SP) was found in the dorsal, lateral and anterior (coagulating gland) prostate lobes or seminal vesicles of untreated adult rats, but there was a 26-30kDa Ca(2+)-independent proteinase activity in the ventral prostate that showed limited heparin stimulation. The 28kDa H-SP was completely inhibited by 1.0mM 4-(2-aminoethyl)benzenesulfonylfluoride (AESBF) indicating that it was a serine-type proteinase. Other types of proteinase inhibitors were without effect, including serine proteinase inhibitors benzamidine, tranexamic acid and ε-aminocaproic acid. Proteinase activities of about 28kDa were found with casein, fibrinogen or carboxymethylated transferrin as substrate, however, these activities were not stimulated by heparin. Similar levels of activities of the 28kDa H-SP were found in primary tumors and their metastases, but little/no activity was detected in serum, even from rats with large tumor volume and metastases. These data demonstrate overexpression of a heparin-stimulated 28kDa serine proteinase in the primary tumors of sex accessory gland cancers and their metastases. This proteinase either does not

  20. Detection of nucleic acids by multiple sequential invasive cleavages

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, Jeff G; Lyamichev, Victor I; Mast, Andrea L; Brow, Mary Ann D

    2012-10-16

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof. The present invention further relates to methods and devices for the separation of nucleic acid molecules based on charge. The present invention also provides methods for the detection of non-target cleavage products via the formation of a complete and activated protein binding region. The invention further provides sensitive and specific methods for the detection of human cytomegalovirus nucleic acid in a sample.

  1. Detection of nucleic acids by multiple sequential invasive cleavages

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, J.G.; Lyamichev, V.I.; Mast, A.L.; Brow, M.A.D.

    1999-11-30

    The present invention relates to methods for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations. The present invention further relates to methods and devices for the separation of nucleic acid molecules based on charge. The present invention also provides methods for the detection of non-target cleavage products via the formation of a complete and activated protein binding region. The invention further provides sensitive and specific methods for the detection of human cytomegalovirus nucleic acid in a sample.

  2. Detection of nucleic acids by multiple sequential invasive cleavages

    DOEpatents

    Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor I.; Mast, Andrea L.; Brow, Mary Ann D.

    1999-01-01

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof. The present invention further relates to methods and devices for the separation of nucleic acid molecules based on charge. The present invention also provides methods for the detection of non-target cleavage products via the formation of a complete and activated protein binding region. The invention further provides sensitive and specific methods for the detection of human cytomegalovirus nucleic acid in a sample.

  3. Detection of nucleic acids by multiple sequential invasive cleavages 02

    DOEpatents

    Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor I.; Mast, Andrea L.; Brow, Mary Ann D.

    2002-01-01

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof. The present invention further relates to methods and devices for the separation of nucleic acid molecules based on charge. The present invention also provides methods for the detection of non-target cleavage products via the formation of a complete and activated protein binding region. The invention further provides sensitive and specific methods for the detection of human cytomegalovirus nucleic acid in a sample.

  4. Mechanisms for ribotoxin-induced ribosomal RNA cleavage

    SciTech Connect

    He, Kaiyu; Zhou, Hui-Ren; Pestka, James J.

    2012-11-15

    The Type B trichothecene deoxynivalenol (DON), a ribotoxic mycotoxin known to contaminate cereal-based foods, induces ribosomal RNA (rRNA) cleavage in the macrophage via p38-directed activation of caspases. Here we employed the RAW 264.7 murine macrophage model to test the hypothesis that this rRNA cleavage pathway is similarly induced by other ribotoxins. Capillary electrophoresis confirmed that the antibiotic anisomycin (≥ 25 ng/ml), the macrocylic trichothecene satratoxin G (SG) (≥ 10 ng/ml) and ribosome-inactivating protein ricin (≥ 300 ng/ml) induced 18s and 28s rRNA fragmentation patterns identical to that observed for DON. Also, as found for DON, inhibition of p38, double-stranded RNA-activated kinase (PKR) and hematopoietic cell kinase (Hck) suppressed MAPK anisomycin-induced rRNA cleavage, while, in contrast, their inhibition did not affect SG- and ricin-induced rRNA fragmentation. The p53 inhibitor pifithrin-μ and pan caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-FMK suppressed rRNA cleavage induced by anisomycin, SG and ricin, indicating that these ribotoxins shared with DON a conserved downstream pathway. Activation of caspases 8, 9 and 3 concurrently with apoptosis further suggested that rRNA cleavage occurred in parallel with both extrinsic and intrinsic pathways of programmed cell death. When specific inhibitors of cathepsins L and B (lysosomal cysteine cathepsins active at cytosolic neutral pH) were tested, only the former impaired anisomycin-, SG-, ricin- and DON-induced rRNA cleavage. Taken together, the data suggest that (1) all four ribotoxins induced p53-dependent rRNA cleavage via activation of cathepsin L and caspase 3, and (2) activation of p53 by DON and anisomycin involved p38 whereas SG and ricin activated p53 by an alternative mechanism. Highlights: ► Deoxynivalenol (DON) anisomycin, satratoxin G (SG) and ricin are ribotoxins. ► Ribotoxins induce 18s and 28s rRNA cleavage in the RAW 264.7 macrophage model. ► Ribotoxins induce rRNA cleavage via

  5. Microbial cleavage of organic C-S bonds

    DOEpatents

    Kilbane, II, John J.

    1994-01-01

    A microbial process for selective cleavage of organic C--S bonds which may be used for reducing the sulfur content of sulfur-containing organic carbonaceous materials, Microorganisms of Rhodococcus rhodochrous and Bacillus sphaericus have been found which have the ability of selective cleavage of organic C--S bonds. Particularly preferred microorganisms are Rhodococcus rhodochrous strain ATCC 53968 and Bacillus sphaericus strain ATCC 53969 and their derivatives.

  6. Microbial cleavage of organic C-S bonds

    DOEpatents

    Kilbane, J.J. II.

    1994-10-25

    A microbial process is described for selective cleavage of organic C-S bonds which may be used for reducing the sulfur content of sulfur-containing organic carbonaceous materials. Microorganisms of Rhodococcus rhodochrous and Bacillus sphaericus have been found which have the ability of selective cleavage of organic C-S bonds. Particularly preferred microorganisms are Rhodococcus rhodochrous strain ATCC 53968 and Bacillus sphaericus strain ATCC 53969 and their derivatives.

  7. Granzyme B mediates both direct and indirect cleavage of extracellular matrix in skin after chronic low-dose ultraviolet light irradiation

    PubMed Central

    Parkinson, Leigh G; Toro, Ana; Zhao, Hongyan; Brown, Keddie; Tebbutt, Scott J; Granville, David J

    2015-01-01

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation is a hallmark of many chronic inflammatory diseases that can lead to a loss of function, aging, and disease progression. Ultraviolet light (UV) irradiation from the sun is widely considered as the major cause of visible human skin aging, causing increased inflammation and enhanced ECM degradation. Granzyme B (GzmB), a serine protease that is expressed by a variety of cells, accumulates in the extracellular milieu during chronic inflammation and cleaves a number of ECM proteins. We hypothesized that GzmB contributes to ECM degradation in the skin after UV irradiation through both direct cleavage of ECM proteins and indirectly through the induction of other proteinases. Wild-type and GzmB-knockout mice were repeatedly exposed to minimal erythemal doses of solar-simulated UV irradiation for 20 weeks. GzmB expression was significantly increased in wild-type treated skin compared to nonirradiated controls, colocalizing to keratinocytes and to an increased mast cell population. GzmB deficiency significantly protected against the formation of wrinkles and the loss of dermal collagen density, which was related to the cleavage of decorin, an abundant proteoglycan involved in collagen fibrillogenesis and integrity. GzmB also cleaved fibronectin, and GzmB-mediated fibronectin fragments increased the expression of collagen-degrading matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) in fibroblasts. Collectively, these findings indicate a significant role for GzmB in ECM degradation that may have implications in many age-related chronic inflammatory diseases. PMID:25495009

  8. Granzyme B mediates both direct and indirect cleavage of extracellular matrix in skin after chronic low-dose ultraviolet light irradiation.

    PubMed

    Parkinson, Leigh G; Toro, Ana; Zhao, Hongyan; Brown, Keddie; Tebbutt, Scott J; Granville, David J

    2015-02-01

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation is a hallmark of many chronic inflammatory diseases that can lead to a loss of function, aging, and disease progression. Ultraviolet light (UV) irradiation from the sun is widely considered as the major cause of visible human skin aging, causing increased inflammation and enhanced ECM degradation. Granzyme B (GzmB), a serine protease that is expressed by a variety of cells, accumulates in the extracellular milieu during chronic inflammation and cleaves a number of ECM proteins. We hypothesized that GzmB contributes to ECM degradation in the skin after UV irradiation through both direct cleavage of ECM proteins and indirectly through the induction of other proteinases. Wild-type and GzmB-knockout mice were repeatedly exposed to minimal erythemal doses of solar-simulated UV irradiation for 20 weeks. GzmB expression was significantly increased in wild-type treated skin compared to nonirradiated controls, colocalizing to keratinocytes and to an increased mast cell population. GzmB deficiency significantly protected against the formation of wrinkles and the loss of dermal collagen density, which was related to the cleavage of decorin, an abundant proteoglycan involved in collagen fibrillogenesis and integrity. GzmB also cleaved fibronectin, and GzmB-mediated fibronectin fragments increased the expression of collagen-degrading matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) in fibroblasts. Collectively, these findings indicate a significant role for GzmB in ECM degradation that may have implications in many age-related chronic inflammatory diseases.

  9. Internal guide RNA interactions interfere with Cas9-mediated cleavage.

    PubMed

    Thyme, Summer B; Akhmetova, Laila; Montague, Tessa G; Valen, Eivind; Schier, Alexander F

    2016-01-01

    The CRISPR/Cas system uses guide RNAs (gRNAs) to direct sequence-specific DNA cleavage. Not every gRNA elicits cleavage and the mechanisms that govern gRNA activity have not been resolved. Low activity could result from either failure to form a functional Cas9-gRNA complex or inability to recognize targets in vivo. Here we show that both phenomena influence Cas9 activity by comparing mutagenesis rates in zebrafish embryos with in vitro cleavage assays. In vivo, our results suggest that genomic factors such as CTCF inhibit mutagenesis. Comparing near-identical gRNA sequences with different in vitro activities reveals that internal gRNA interactions reduce cleavage. Even though gRNAs containing these structures do not yield cleavage-competent complexes, they can compete with active gRNAs for binding to Cas9. These results reveal that both genomic context and internal gRNA interactions can interfere with Cas9-mediated cleavage and illuminate previously uncharacterized features of Cas9-gRNA complex formation. PMID:27282953

  10. Internal guide RNA interactions interfere with Cas9-mediated cleavage

    PubMed Central

    Thyme, Summer B.; Akhmetova, Laila; Montague, Tessa G.; Valen, Eivind; Schier, Alexander F.

    2016-01-01

    The CRISPR/Cas system uses guide RNAs (gRNAs) to direct sequence-specific DNA cleavage. Not every gRNA elicits cleavage and the mechanisms that govern gRNA activity have not been resolved. Low activity could result from either failure to form a functional Cas9–gRNA complex or inability to recognize targets in vivo. Here we show that both phenomena influence Cas9 activity by comparing mutagenesis rates in zebrafish embryos with in vitro cleavage assays. In vivo, our results suggest that genomic factors such as CTCF inhibit mutagenesis. Comparing near-identical gRNA sequences with different in vitro activities reveals that internal gRNA interactions reduce cleavage. Even though gRNAs containing these structures do not yield cleavage-competent complexes, they can compete with active gRNAs for binding to Cas9. These results reveal that both genomic context and internal gRNA interactions can interfere with Cas9-mediated cleavage and illuminate previously uncharacterized features of Cas9–gRNA complex formation. PMID:27282953

  11. Cleavage fracture in high strength low alloy weld metal

    SciTech Connect

    Bose, W.W.; Bowen, P.; Strangwood, M.

    1996-12-31

    The present investigation gives an evaluation of the effect of microstructure on the cleavage fracture process of High Strength Low Alloy (HSLA) multipass weld metals. With additions of alloying elements, such as Ti, Ni, Mo and Cr, the microstructure of C-Mn weld metal changes from the classical composition, i.e., allotriomorphic ferrite with acicular ferrite and Widmanstaetten ferrite, to bainite and low carbon martensite. Although the physical metallurgy of some HSLA weld metals has been studied before, more work is necessary to correlate the effect of the microstructure on the fracture behavior of such weld metals. In this work detailed microstructural analysis was carried out using optical and electron (SEM and TEM) microscopy. Single edge notched (SEN) bend testpieces were used to assess the cleavage fracture stress, {sigma}{sub F}. Inclusions beneath the notch surface were identified as the crack initiators of unstable cleavage fracture. From the size of such inclusions and the value of tensile stress predicted at the initiation site, the effective surface energy for cleavage was calculated using a modified Griffth energy balance for a penny shape crack. The results suggest that even though inclusions initiate cleavage fracture, the local microstructure may play an important role in the fracture process of these weld metals. The implications of these observations for a quantitative theory of the cleavage fracture of ferritic steels is discussed.

  12. Effect of added proteinases and level of starter culture on the formation of biogenic amines in raw milk Manchego cheese.

    PubMed

    Fernández-García, E; Tomillo, J; Núñez, M

    1999-11-15

    The influence of two proteinases (Bacillus subtilis neutral proteinase and Micrococcus sp. cysteine proteinase) and two starter culture levels (0.1% and 1%) on biogenic amine formation has been studied in raw ewes' milk Manchego cheese. Amino acid decarboxylating micro-organisms were determined on tyrosine enriched selective media. Biogenic amines were analysed by capillary electrophoresis in citrate buffer at pH 3.6. Addition of proteinases and level of starter culture did not influence the population of micro-organisms with amino acid decarboxylating activity, which represented on average 1% of the bacterial population in 30-day-old cheeses. Tyramine and histamine were detected in all batches of cheese from day 30. Concentrations of tyramine and histamine were higher in cheeses made from milk with neutral proteinase (up to 356 and 284 mg kg(-1), respectively, after 90 days) than in cheeses made from milk with cysteine proteinase (up to 269 and 189 mg kg(-1), respectively) or with no proteinase added (up to 305 and 226 mg kg(-1), respectively). Formation of tyramine and histamine was also favoured in cheeses made with 1% starter culture with respect to cheeses made with only 0.1% starter culture, probably due to the higher pH values of the former cheeses. After 90 days of ripening, concentrations of 10-20 mg kg(-1) phenylethylamine were observed in 9 of the 12 batches, and levels < 10 mg kg(-1) tryptamine were only detected in 3 batches, with no significant relationship between the concentration of these amines and proteinase addition or level of starter culture. PMID:10733250

  13. [Properties of extracellular proteinase--an activator of protein C in blood plasma formed by Aspergillus ochraceus].

    PubMed

    Osmolovskiĭ, A A; Kreĭer, V G; Baranova, N A; Kurakov, A V; Egorov, N S

    2015-01-01

    The properties of an extracellular proteinase activating plasma protein C isolated from the culture supernatant of A. ochraceus VKM F-4104D have been studied. This enzyme demonstrated a substrate specificity absent of hydrolyzing activity toward chromogenic proteinase substrates. On the basis of inhibitory analysis, the protein C-activating proteinase from A. ochraceus VKM F-4104D appeared to be a serine proteinase, together with that isolated from the venom of Agkistrodon contortrix contortrix. The isolated enzyme was a nonglycosylated protein with a molecular weight of about 33 kDa, pI 6.0 with an observed optimal activity under a pH of 8.0-9.0 and 37°C. A comparison of the properties of the protein C-activating proteinase formed by A. ochraceus and the enzyme derived from the venom of Agkistrodon contortrix contortrix demonstrated a similarity in their properties; however, proteinase from the micromycete appeared to be in the nonglycosylated state and possessed the ability to hydrolyze the chromogenic plasmin substrate H-D-Val-Leu-Lys-pNA. PMID:25842908

  14. A trypsin-like proteinase in the midgut of Ectomyelois ceratoniae Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae): purification, characterization, and host plant inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Ranjbar, Mina; Zibaee, Arash; Sendi, Jalal Jalali

    2014-01-01

    A trypsin-like proteinase was purified and characterized in the midgut of Ectomyelois ceratoniae. A purification process that used Sepharyl G-100 and DEAE-cellulose fast flow chromatographies revealed a proteinase with specific activity of 66.7 μmol/min/mg protein, recovery of 27.04 and purification fold of 23.35. Molecular weight of the purified protein was found to be 35.8 kDa. Optimal pH and temperature were obtained 9 and 20°C for the purified trypsin proteinase, respectively. The purified enzyme was significantly inhibited by PMSF, TLCK, and SBTI as specific inhibitors of trypsins in which TLCK showed the highest inhibitory effect. Trypsin proteinase inhibitors were extracted from four varieties of pomegranate including Brait, Torsh-Sabz, May-Khosh, and Shirin by ion exchange chromatography. It was found that fractions 17-20 of Brait; fractions 18 and 21-26 of Torsh-Sabz; fractions 1-7, 11-17, and 19-21 of May-Khosh and fraction 8 for Shirin showed presence of trypsin inhibitor in these host. Comparison of their inhibitory effects on the purified trypsin proteinase of E. ceratoniae demonstrated that fractions from May-khosh variety had the highest effect on the enzyme among other extracted fractions. Characterization of serine proteinases of insects mainly trypsins is one of the promising methods to decrease population and damages via extracting their inhibitors and providing resistant varieties.

  15. The trichomonad cysteine proteinase TVCP4 transcript contains an iron-responsive element.

    PubMed

    Solano-González, Eduardo; Burrola-Barraza, Eduviges; León-Sicairos, Claudia; Avila-González, Leticia; Gutiérrez-Escolano, Lorena; Ortega-López, Jaime; Arroyo, Rossana

    2007-06-26

    The differential expression of the Trichomonas vaginalis cysteine proteinase TVCP4 by iron at the protein synthesis level and the prediction of an iron-responsive element (IRE)-like stem-loop structure at the 5'-region of the T. vaginalis cysteine proteinase 4 gene (tvcp4) mRNA suggest a post-transcriptional mechanism of iron regulation in trichomonads mediated by an IRE/IRP-like system. Gel-shifting, UV cross-linking and competition experiments demonstrated that this IRE-like structure specifically bound to human iron regulatory protein-1. IRP-like cytoplasmic proteins that bound human ferritin IRE sequence transcripts at low-iron conditions were also found in trichomonads. Thus, a post-transcriptional regulatory mechanism by iron for tvcp4 mediated by IRE/IRP-like interactions was found. PMID:17553495

  16. Kinetic analysis of a general model of activation of aspartic proteinase zymogens.

    PubMed

    Varón, R; García-Moreno, M; Valera-Ruipérez, D; García-Molina, F; García-Cánovas, F; Ladrón-de Guevara, R G; Masiá-Pérez, J; Havsteen, B H

    2006-10-01

    Starting from a simple general reaction mechanism of activation of aspartic proteinase zymogens involving an uni- and a bimolecular simultaneous route, the time course equation of the concentration of the zymogen and of the activated enzyme have been derived. From these equations, an analysis quantifying the relative contribution to the global process of the two routes has been carried out for the first time. This analysis suggests a way to predict the time course of the relative contribution as well as the effect of the initial zymogen and activating enzyme concentrations, on the relative weight. An experimental design and kinetic data analysis is suggested to estimate the kinetic parameters involved in the reaction mechanism proposed. Finally, we apply some of our results to experimental data obtained by other authors in experimental studies of the activation of some aspartic proteinase zymogens.

  17. Luminal proteinases from Plodia interpunctella and the hydrolysis of Bacillus thuringiensis CryIA(c) protoxin.

    PubMed

    Oppert, B; Kramer, K J; Johnson, D; Upton, S J; Mcgaughey, W H

    1996-06-01

    The ability of proteinases in gut extracts of the Indianmeal moth, Plodia interpunctella, to hydrolyze Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) protoxin, casein, and rho-nitroanilide substrates was investigated. A polyclonal antiserum to protoxin CryIA(c) was used in Western blots to demonstrate slower protoxin processing by gut enzymes from Bt subspecies entomocidus-resistant larvae than enzymes from susceptible or kurstaki-resistant strains. Enzymes from all three strains hydrolyzed N-alpha-benzoyl-L-arginine rho-nitroanilide, N-succinyl-ala-ala-pro-phenylalanine rho-nitroanilide, and N-succinyl-ala-ala-pro-leucine rho-nitroanilide. Zymograms and activity blots were used to estimate the apparent molecular masses, number of enzymes, and relative activities in each strain. Several serine proteinase inhibitors reduced gut enzyme activities, with two soybean trypsin inhibitors, two potato inhibitors, and chymostatin the most effective in preventing protoxin hydrolysis.

  18. Degradation of the human proteinase inhibitors alpha-1-antitrypsin and alpha-2-macroglobulin by Bacteroides gingivalis.

    PubMed Central

    Carlsson, J; Herrmann, B F; Höfling, J F; Sundqvist, G K

    1984-01-01

    Various strains of black-pigmented Bacteroides species were grown on horse blood agar and suspended in human serum. After various times of incubation the effect of the bacteria on the serum was evaluated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and "rocket" immunoelectrophoresis. The formation of trichloroacetic acid-soluble material in the suspensions and the capacity of the treated sera to inhibit the activity of trypsin were also determined. The two tested strains of Bacteroides gingivalis (W83, H185) degraded most serum proteins, including the plasma proteinase inhibitors alpha-1-antitrypsin and alpha-2-macroglobulin. They did not, however, degrade alpha-1-antichymotrypsin. Bacteroides intermedius NCTC 9336, Bacteroides asaccharolyticus NCTC 9337, and an asaccharolytic oral strain different from B. gingivalis (BN11a-f) did not degrade the plasma proteinase inhibitors. These strains were, however, able to inactivate the capacity of serum to inhibit the activity of trypsin. Images PMID:6198282

  19. The trichomonad cysteine proteinase TVCP4 transcript contains an iron-responsive element.

    PubMed

    Solano-González, Eduardo; Burrola-Barraza, Eduviges; León-Sicairos, Claudia; Avila-González, Leticia; Gutiérrez-Escolano, Lorena; Ortega-López, Jaime; Arroyo, Rossana

    2007-06-26

    The differential expression of the Trichomonas vaginalis cysteine proteinase TVCP4 by iron at the protein synthesis level and the prediction of an iron-responsive element (IRE)-like stem-loop structure at the 5'-region of the T. vaginalis cysteine proteinase 4 gene (tvcp4) mRNA suggest a post-transcriptional mechanism of iron regulation in trichomonads mediated by an IRE/IRP-like system. Gel-shifting, UV cross-linking and competition experiments demonstrated that this IRE-like structure specifically bound to human iron regulatory protein-1. IRP-like cytoplasmic proteins that bound human ferritin IRE sequence transcripts at low-iron conditions were also found in trichomonads. Thus, a post-transcriptional regulatory mechanism by iron for tvcp4 mediated by IRE/IRP-like interactions was found.

  20. Competitive inhibition of nitric oxide synthase by p-aminobenzamidine, a serine proteinase inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Venturini, G; Menegatti, E; Ascenzi, P

    1997-03-01

    p-Aminobenzamidine competitively inhibits bovine trypsin, human and bovine thrombin, and human plasmin, all of which act on substrates containing preferentially the L-arginyl side chain at their P1 position. Considering the structural and functional similarity between p-aminobenzamidine and the L-arginyl side chain in trypsin-like serine proteinases, we investigated the interaction of p-aminobenzamidine with mouse brain nitric oxide synthase (NOS), which uses L-arginine as the substrate for generating NO and L-citrulline. p-Aminobenzamidine is a competitive NOS inhibitor (Ki = 1.2 x 10(-4) M, at pH 7.5 and 37.0 degrees C), but not an NO precursor. Therefore, p-aminobenzamidine affects the NO production and the trypsin-like serine proteinase action. PMID:9125158

  1. Primary structure of a cysteine proteinase inhibitor from the fruit of avocado (Persea americana Mill).

    PubMed

    Kimura, M; Ikeda, T; Fukumoto, D; Yamasaki, N; Yonekura, M

    1995-12-01

    The complete amino acid sequence of a proteinaceous cysteine proteinase inhibitor from the fruit of avocado (avocado cystatin) is presented. The protein consists of 100 amino acid residues and has a molecular mass of 11,300 Da. Comparison of this sequence with sequences of plant cysteine proteinase inhibitors (phytocystatins), including oryzacystatins I and II from rice seeds, cowpea cystatin, and corn cystatin, showed that the avocado cystatin molecule has 60% and 54% residues identical with the two forms of the rice seed proteins, oryzacystatins I and II, respectively, and 64% and 63% with the cowpea and corn proteins, respectively. The totally conserved sequence, Gln-Val-Val-Ala-Gly, among several of the animal cystatins as well as phytocystatins, is at positions 47-51 in the avocado cystatin molecule.

  2. Modified TB rapid test by proteinase K for rapid diagnosis of pleural tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Yari, Shamsi; Hadizadeh Tasbiti, Alireza; Ghanei, Mostafa; Shokrgozar, Mohammad Ali; Fateh, Abolfazl; Yari, Fatemeh; Bahrmand, Ahmadreza

    2016-03-01

    The diagnosis of pleural tuberculosis continues to be a challenge due to the low sensitivity of traditional diagnostic methods. Better and more rapid tests are needed for diagnosis of pleural TB. In this study, pleural fluids were tested with rapid test to determine Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB antigen). Affinity chromatography was used to purify specific polyclonal antibodies against MTB antigen. Pleural samples after decontamination were treated with proteinase K. Rapid test for pleural fluids was prepared by specific antibody. Rapid test was performed on 85 pleural fluid patients. The patients had a mean age of 46.55 ± 15.96 years and 38 were men. The performance of rapid test, using proteinase K, was found to be the most impressive: sensitivity 93%, specificity 94%, PPV 90%, and NPV 96% compared with adenosine deaminase test (ADA), PCR, smear, and culture. The present study did demonstrate that modified TB rapid test can substantially improve the diagnosis of extrapulmonary TB.

  3. Enhanced response of a proteinase K-based conductometric biosensor using nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Nouira, Wided; Maaref, Abderrazak; Elaissari, Hamid; Vocanson, Francis; Siadat, Maryam; Jaffrezic-Renault, Nicole

    2014-07-23

    Proteinases are involved in a multitude of important physiological processes, such as protein metabolism. For this reason, a conductometric enzyme biosensor based on proteinase K was developed using two types of nanoparticles (gold and magnetic). The enzyme was directly adsorbed on negatively charged nanoparticles and then deposited and cross-linked on a planar interdigitated electrode (IDE). The biosensor was characterized with bovine serum albumin (BSA) as a standard protein. Higher sensitivity was obtained using gold nanoparticles. The linear range for BSA determination was then from 0.5 to 10 mg/L with a maximum response of 154 µs. These results are greater than that found without any nanoparticles (maximum response of 10 µs). The limit of detection (LOD) was 0.3 mg/L. An inter-sensor reproducibility of 3.5% was obtained.

  4. Purification and Characterization of a Keratinolytic Serine Proteinase from Streptomyces albidoflavus

    PubMed Central

    Bressollier, Philippe; Letourneau, François; Urdaci, Maria; Verneuil, Bernard

    1999-01-01

    Streptomyces strain K1-02, which was identified as a strain of Streptomyces albidoflavus, secreted at least six extracellular proteases when it was cultured on feather meal-based medium. The major keratinolytic serine proteinase was purified to homogeneity by a two-step procedure. This enzyme had a molecular weight of 18,000 and was optimally active at pH values ranging from 6 to 9.5 and at temperatures ranging from 40 to 70°C. Its sensitivity to protease inhibitors, its specificity on synthetic substrates, and its remarkably high level of NH2-terminal sequence homology with Streptomyces griseus protease B (SGPB) showed that the new enzyme, designated SAKase, was homologous to SGPB. We tested the activity of SAKase with soluble and fibrous substrates (elastin, keratin, and type I collagen) and found that it was very specific for keratinous substrates compared to SGPB and proteinase K. PMID:10347045

  5. The procollagen N-proteinases ADAMTS2, 3 and 14 in pathophysiology.

    PubMed

    Bekhouche, Mourad; Colige, Alain

    2015-01-01

    Collagen fibers are the main components of most of the extracellular matrices where they provide a structural support to cells, tissues and organs. Fibril-forming procollagens are synthetized as individual chains that associate to form homo- or hetero-trimers. They are characterized by the presence of a central triple helical domain flanked by amino and carboxy propeptides. Although there are some exceptions, these two propeptides have to be proteolytically removed to allow the almost spontaneous assembly of the trimers into collagen fibrils and fibers. While the carboxy-propeptide is mainly cleaved by proteinases from the tolloid family, the amino-propeptide is usually processed by procollagen N-proteinases: ADAMTS2, 3 and 14. This review summarizes the current knowledge concerning this subfamily of ADAMTS enzymes and discusses their potential involvement in physiopathological processes that are not directly linked to fibrillar procollagen processing. PMID:25863161

  6. Analysis of the autoproteolytic activity of the recombinant helper component proteinase from zucchini yellow mosaic virus.

    PubMed

    Boonrod, Kajohn; Füllgrabe, Marc W; Krczal, Gabi; Wassenegger, Michael

    2011-10-01

    The multifunctional helper component proteinase (HC-Pro) of potyviruses contains an autoproteolytic function that, together with the protein 1 (P1) and NIa proteinase, processes the polyprotein into mature proteins. In this study, we analysed the autoproteolytic active domain of zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV) HC-Pro. Several Escherichia coli-expressed MBP:HC-Pro:GFP mutants containing deletions or point mutations at either the N- or C-terminus of the HC-Pro protein were examined. Our results showed that amino acids essential for the proteolytic activity of ZYMV HC-Pro are distinct from those of the tobacco etch virus HC-Pro, although the amino acid sequences in the proteolytic active domain are conserved among potyviruses.

  7. Enhanced Response of a Proteinase K-Based Conductometric Biosensor Using Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Nouira, Wided; Maaref, Abderrazak; Elaissari, Abdelhamid; Vocanson, Francis; Siadat, Maryam; Jaffrezic-Renault, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    Proteinases are involved in a multitude of important physiological processes, such as protein metabolism. For this reason, a conductometric enzyme biosensor based on proteinase K was developed using two types of nanoparticles (gold and magnetic). The enzyme was directly adsorbed on negatively charged nanoparticles and then deposited and cross-linked on a planar interdigitated electrode (IDE). The biosensor was characterized with bovine serum albumin (BSA) as a standard protein. Higher sensitivity was obtained using gold nanoparticles. The linear range for BSA determination was then from 0.5 to 10 mg/L with a maximum response of 154 μs. These results are greater than that found without any nanoparticles (maximum response of 10 μs). The limit of detection (LOD) was 0.3 mg/L. An inter-sensor reproducibility of 3.5% was obtained. PMID:25057139

  8. Mechanisms for Ribotoxin-induced Ribosomal RNA Cleavage

    PubMed Central

    He, Kaiyu; Zhou, Hui-Ren; Pestka, James J.

    2012-01-01

    The Type B trichothecene deoxynivalenol (DON), a ribotoxic mycotoxin known to contaminate cereal-based foods, induces ribosomal RNA (rRNA) cleavage in the macrophage via p38-directed activation of caspases. Here we employed the RAW 264.7 murine macrophage model to test the hypothesis that this rRNA cleavage pathway is similarly induced by other ribotoxins. Capillary electrophoresis confirmed that the antibiotic anisomycin (≥25 ng/ml), the macrocylic trichothecene satratoxin G (SG) (≥10 ng/ml) and ribosome-inactivating protein ricin (≥300 ng/ml) induced 18s and 28s rRNA fragmentation patterns identical to that observed for DON. Also, as found for DON, inhibition of p38, double-stranded RNA-activated kinase (PKR) and hematopoietic cell kinase (Hck) suppressed MAPK anisomycin-induced rRNA cleavage, while, in contrast, their inhibition did not affect SG- and ricin-induced rRNA fragmentation. The p53 inhibitor pifithrin-μ and pan caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-FMK suppressed rRNA cleavage induced by anisomycin, SG and ricin, indicating that these ribotoxins shared with DON a conserved downstream pathway. Activation of caspase 8, 9 and 3 concurrently with apoptosis further suggested rRNA cleavage occurred in parallel with both extrinsic and intrinsic pathways of programmed cell death. When specific inhibitors cathepsin L and B (lysosomal cysteine cathepsins active at cytosolic neutral pH) were tested, only the former impaired anisomycin-, SG-, ricin- and DON-induced rRNA cleavage. Taken together, the data suggest that (1) all four ribotoxins induced p53-dependent rRNA cleavage via activation of cathepsin L and caspase 3, and (2) activation of p53 by DON and anisomycin involved p38 whereas SG and ricin activated p53 by an alternative mechanism. PMID:23022514

  9. Isolation and characterization of two forms of an acidic bromelain stem proteinase.

    PubMed

    Harrach, T; Eckert, K; Maurer, H R; Machleidt, I; Machleidt, W; Nuck, R

    1998-05-01

    Two forms of an acidic bromelain proteinase isolated from crude bromelain, an extract from pineapple stem, were found by a two-step FPLC purification procedure. The basic main components were removed by cation exchange chromatography and the breakthrough fraction was further resolved by anion exchange chromatography into 15 protein fractions, only two of which, called SBA/a and SBA/b, were proteolytically active. These components were characterized by electrospray mass spectroscopy (ESMS), isoelectric focusing, N-terminal amino acid sequence analysis, monosaccharide analysis, and enzymatic parameters. The molecular masses of SBA/a and SBA/b were determined by ESMS to be 23,550 and 23,560, respectively. The isoelectric points (pI) of the two bands of SBA/a were 4.8 and 4.9; SBA/b focused as a single band at pI = 4.8. Partial N-terminal amino acid sequences (11 residues) were identical to SBA/a and SBA/b and identical with those of stem bromelain, the basic main proteinase of the pineapple stem, and fruit bromelain, the acidic main proteinase of the pineapple fruit. Both components are highly glycosylated; hydrolysis of SBA/a yielded about twofold more monosaccharide per protein than SBA/b. The comparison of the catalytic properties of SBA/a with those of SBA/b revealed no relevant differences in the hydrolysis of three peptidyl-NH-Mec substrates and in the inhibition profiles using chicken cystatin and E-64, indicating that these components can be considered as two forms of a single enzyme. Both forms are scarcely inhibited by chicken cystatin and slowly inactivated by E-64, hence are nontypical cysteine proteinases of the papain superfamily.

  10. Identification and characterization of the immunogenic cytotoxic TvCP39 proteinase gene of Trichomonas vaginalis.

    PubMed

    Ramón-Luing, Lucero de Los Ángeles; Rendón-Gandarilla, Francisco Javier; Puente-Rivera, Jonathan; Ávila-González, Leticia; Arroyo, Rossana

    2011-10-01

    TvCP39 is a 39 kDa cysteine proteinase (CP) involved in Trichomonas vaginalis cytotoxicity that has been found in vaginal secretions and is immunogenic in patients with trichomonosis. The goal of this work was to identify, clone, express, and characterize the tvcp39 gene. The tvcp39 gene was identified using a proteomic approach, and the complete gene was amplified using PCR, cloned, and sequenced. TvCP39 is encoded by a 915-bp cathepsin L-like CP gene. A fragment corresponding to the mature region (TvCP39r) was expressed, purified, and used to produce rabbit polyclonal antibodies and in functional assays. In one- and two-dimensional western blot assays, the anti-TvCP39r antibody reacted with two protein bands of ~28 and 27 kDa and three spots of ~28, 27, and 24 kDa in trichomonad proteinase-rich extracts that could correspond to the mature and processed fragments of the TvCP39 peptidase. The anti-TvCP39r antibody reacted with the parasitic surface and the native TvCP39 present in vaginal washes from patients with trichomonosis. Moreover, the recombinant TvCP39 protein bound to the surface of HeLa cells and protected HeLa cell monolayers from trichomonal destruction in a concentration-dependent manner. In conclusion, our data support TvCP39 as one of the surface proteinases that is glycosylated and is involved in trichomonal cytotoxicity. Thus, TvCP39 is the first glycosylated cysteine proteinase detected in T. vaginalis. PMID:21777690

  11. Effect of acute ozone exposure on the proteinase-antiproteinase balance in the rat lung

    SciTech Connect

    Pickrell, J.A.; Gregory, R.E.; Cole, D.J.; Hahn, F.F.; Henderson, R.F.

    1987-04-01

    Lung disease may result from a persisting proteinase excess or a depletion of antiproteinase in pulmonary parenchyma. We investigated the in vivo effect of a 48-hr exposure to ozone at 0.5, 1.0, or 1.5 ppm on proteinase and antiproteinase activity of rat lungs. Elastase inhibitory capacities of serum, lung tissue, and airway washings were measured as indicators of antielastase activity. Trypsin inhibitory capacity was measured using an esterolytic procedure. Proteinase was measured as radioactive release from a /sup 14/C-globin substrate. The 48-hr exposures to O/sub 3/ at levels up to 1 ppm produced concentration-dependent decreases of 35-80% of antiproteinase activities in serum and in lung tissue. However, exposure to 1.5 ppm O/sub 3/ resulted in no decrease in antiproteinase activities. Acid proteinase activities (pH 4.2) were increased 65-120% by exposure to 1 or 1.5 ppm O/sub 3/, which correlated with inflammatory cells noted histologically. At 1.5 ppm O/sub 3/, pulmonary edema and hemorrhage were noted in histologic sections. These changes led to a flooding of the alveoli with up to 40 times normal protein levels and a greater than fivefold increase in airway antiproteinase. These data suggest that serum and soluble lung tissue antiproteinase activity decreased upon exposure to low levels of ozone. However, if O/sub 3/ exposure is high enough to produce pulmonary hemorrhage, antiproteinase may increase following serum exudation. These changes may be important in the development of ozone-induced lung diseases, especially emphysema.

  12. Benzyloxycarbonylphenylalanylcitrulline p-nitroanilide as a substrate for papain and other plant cysteine proteinases.

    PubMed Central

    Gray, C J; Boukouvalas, J; Szawelski, R J; Wharton, C W

    1984-01-01

    After preliminary assays, with papain, bromelain and ficin, on a range of citrulline p-nitroanilides, values of Km and kcat. for the papain-catalysed hydrolysis of three derivatives, N alpha- benzyloxycarbonylcitrulline p-nitroanilide, benzyloxycarbonylphenylalanylcitrulline p-nitroanilide and benzyloxycarbonylglycylphenylalanylcitrulline p-nitroanilide, were obtained. It is concluded that benzyloxycarbonylphenylalanylcitrulline p-nitroanilide is a highly selective substrate for the sensitive detection and assay of the plant cysteine proteinases. PMID:6721861

  13. Benzyloxycarbonylphenylalanylcitrulline p-nitroanilide as a substrate for papain and other plant cysteine proteinases.

    PubMed

    Gray, C J; Boukouvalas, J; Szawelski, R J; Wharton, C W

    1984-04-01

    After preliminary assays, with papain, bromelain and ficin, on a range of citrulline p-nitroanilides, values of Km and kcat. for the papain-catalysed hydrolysis of three derivatives, N alpha- benzyloxycarbonylcitrulline p-nitroanilide, benzyloxycarbonylphenylalanylcitrulline p-nitroanilide and benzyloxycarbonylglycylphenylalanylcitrulline p-nitroanilide, were obtained. It is concluded that benzyloxycarbonylphenylalanylcitrulline p-nitroanilide is a highly selective substrate for the sensitive detection and assay of the plant cysteine proteinases.

  14. Identification and characterization of the immunogenic cytotoxic TvCP39 proteinase gene of Trichomonas vaginalis.

    PubMed

    Ramón-Luing, Lucero de Los Ángeles; Rendón-Gandarilla, Francisco Javier; Puente-Rivera, Jonathan; Ávila-González, Leticia; Arroyo, Rossana

    2011-10-01

    TvCP39 is a 39 kDa cysteine proteinase (CP) involved in Trichomonas vaginalis cytotoxicity that has been found in vaginal secretions and is immunogenic in patients with trichomonosis. The goal of this work was to identify, clone, express, and characterize the tvcp39 gene. The tvcp39 gene was identified using a proteomic approach, and the complete gene was amplified using PCR, cloned, and sequenced. TvCP39 is encoded by a 915-bp cathepsin L-like CP gene. A fragment corresponding to the mature region (TvCP39r) was expressed, purified, and used to produce rabbit polyclonal antibodies and in functional assays. In one- and two-dimensional western blot assays, the anti-TvCP39r antibody reacted with two protein bands of ~28 and 27 kDa and three spots of ~28, 27, and 24 kDa in trichomonad proteinase-rich extracts that could correspond to the mature and processed fragments of the TvCP39 peptidase. The anti-TvCP39r antibody reacted with the parasitic surface and the native TvCP39 present in vaginal washes from patients with trichomonosis. Moreover, the recombinant TvCP39 protein bound to the surface of HeLa cells and protected HeLa cell monolayers from trichomonal destruction in a concentration-dependent manner. In conclusion, our data support TvCP39 as one of the surface proteinases that is glycosylated and is involved in trichomonal cytotoxicity. Thus, TvCP39 is the first glycosylated cysteine proteinase detected in T. vaginalis.

  15. A heat-stable serine proteinase from the extreme thermophilic archaebacterium Sulfolobus solfataricus.

    PubMed

    Burlini, N; Magnani, P; Villa, A; Macchi, F; Tortora, P; Guerritore, A

    1992-08-21

    A proteinase was purified to electrophoretic homogeneity from crude extracts of the thermoacidophilic archaebacterium Sulfolobus solfataricus. Molecular mass values assessed by SDS-PAGE and gel filtration were 54 and 118 kDa, respectively, which points to a dimeric structure of the molecule. An isoelectric point of 5.6 was also determined. The enzyme behaved as a chymotrypsin-like serine proteinase, as shown by the inhibitory effects exerted by phenylmethanesulfonyl fluoride, 3,4-dichloroisocoumarin, tosylphenylalaninechloromethyl ketone and chymostatin. Consistently with the inhibition pattern, the enzyme cleaved chromogenic substrates at the carboxyl side of aromatic or bulky aliphatic amino acids; however, it effectively attacked only a small number of such substrates, thus, displaying a specificity much narrower than and clearly different from that of chymotrypsin. This was confirmed by its inability to digest a set of natural substrate proteins, as well as insulin chains A and B; only after alkylation casein was degraded to some extent. Proteinase activity was significantly stimulated by Mn2+ which acted as a mixed-type nonessential activator. The enzyme also displayed a broad pH optimum in the range 6.5-8.0. Furthermore, it was completely stable up to 90 degrees C; above this temperature it underwent first-order thermal inactivation with half-lives ranging from 342 min (92 degrees C) to 7 min (101 degrees C). At 50 degrees C it could withstand 6 M urea and, to some extent, different organic solvents; however, at 95 degrees C it was extensively inactivated by all of these compounds. None of the chemical physical properties of the enzyme, including amino-acid analysis, provided evidence of a possible relation to other well-known microbial serine proteinases.

  16. Novel Aggregation Properties of Candida albicans Secreted Aspartyl Proteinase Sap6 Mediate Virulence in Oral Candidiasis.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rohitashw; Saraswat, Darpan; Tati, Swetha; Edgerton, Mira

    2015-07-01

    Candida albicans, a commensal fungus of the oral microbiome, causes oral candidiasis in humans with localized or systemic immune deficiencies. Secreted aspartic proteinases (Saps) are a family of 10 related proteases and are virulence factors due to their proteolytic activity, as well as their roles in adherence and colonization of host tissues. We found that mice infected sublingually with C. albicans cells overexpressing Sap6 (SAP6 OE and a Δsap8 strain) had thicker fungal plaques and more severe oral infection, while infection with the Δsap6 strain was attenuated. These hypervirulent strains had highly aggregative colony structure in vitro and higher secreted proteinase activity; however, the levels of proteinase activity of C. albicans Saps did not uniformly match their abilities to damage cultured oral epithelial cells (SCC-15 cells). Hyphal induction in cells overexpressing Sap6 (SAP6 OE and Δsap8 cells) resulted in formation of large cell-cell aggregates. These aggregates could be produced in germinated wild-type cells by addition of native or heat-inactivated Sap6. Sap6 bound only to germinated cells and increased C. albicans adhesion to oral epithelial cells. The adhesion properties of Sap6 were lost upon deletion of its integrin-binding motif (RGD) and could be inhibited by addition of RGD peptide or anti-integrin antibodies. Thus, Sap6 (but not Sap5) has an alternative novel function in cell-cell aggregation, independent of its proteinase activity, to promote infection and virulence in oral candidiasis.

  17. SARS CoV main proteinase: The monomer-dimer equilibrium dissociation constant.

    PubMed

    Graziano, Vito; McGrath, William J; Yang, Lin; Mangel, Walter F

    2006-12-12

    The SARS coronavirus main proteinase (SARS CoV main proteinase) is required for the replication of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS CoV), the virus that causes SARS. One function of the enzyme is to process viral polyproteins. The active form of the SARS CoV main proteinase is a homodimer. In the literature, estimates of the monomer-dimer equilibrium dissociation constant, KD, have varied more than 65,0000-fold, from <1 nM to more than 200 microM. Because of these discrepancies and because compounds that interfere with activation of the enzyme by dimerization may be potential antiviral agents, we investigated the monomer-dimer equilibrium by three different techniques: small-angle X-ray scattering, chemical cross-linking, and enzyme kinetics. Analysis of small-angle X-ray scattering data from a series of measurements at different SARS CoV main proteinase concentrations yielded KD values of 5.8 +/- 0.8 microM (obtained from the entire scattering curve), 6.5 +/- 2.2 microM (obtained from the radii of gyration), and 6.8 +/- 1.5 microM (obtained from the forward scattering). The KD from chemical cross-linking was 12.7 +/- 1.1 microM, and from enzyme kinetics, it was 5.2 +/- 0.4 microM. While each of these three techniques can present different, potential limitations, they all yielded similar KD values.

  18. Identification of monomeric alpha-macroglobulin proteinase inhibitors in birds, reptiles, amphibians and mammals, and purification and characterization of a monomeric alpha-macroglobulin proteinase inhibitor from the American bullfrog Rana catesbeiana.

    PubMed Central

    Rubenstein, D S; Thøgersen, I B; Pizzo, S V; Enghild, J J

    1993-01-01

    The alpha-macroglobulins are classified as broad-spectrum inhibitors because of their ability to entrap proteinases of different specificities and catalytic class. Tetrameric and dimeric alpha-macroglobulins have been identified in a wide variety of organisms including those as primitive as the mollusc Octopus vulgaris; however, monomeric alpha-macroglobulin proteinase inhibitors have been previously identified only in rodents. The monomeric alpha-macroglobulin proteinase inhibitors are believed to be analogous to the evolutionary precursor of the multimeric members of this family exemplified by the tetrameric human alpha 2-macroglobulin. Until now, monomeric alpha-macroglobulin proteinase inhibitors have only been identified in rodents and have therefore been considered an evolutionary anomaly. However, in this report we have utilized several sensitive assays to screen various plasmas and sera for the presence of monomeric alpha-macroglobulins, and our results suggest that monomeric alpha-macroglobulin proteinase inhibitors are present in organisms belonging to the avian, reptilian, amphibian and mammalian classes of the chordate phylum. This indicates that these proteins are more widespread than previously recognized and that their presence in rodents is not an anomaly. To demonstrate further that the identified proteins were indeed monomeric alpha-macroglobulin proteinase inhibitors, we purified the monomeric alpha-macroglobulin from the American bullfrog Rana catesbeiana. We conclude that this protein is a monomer of 180 kDa on the basis of its behaviour on (i) pore-limit gel electrophoresis, (ii) non-reducing and reducing SDS/PAGE and (iii) gel-filtration chromatography. In addition, we demonstrate that this protein is an alpha-macroglobulin proteinase inhibitor by virtue of (i) its ability to inhibit proteinases of different catalytic class, (ii) the presence of a putative internal beta-cysteinyl-gamma-glutamyl thioester and (iii) an inhibitory mechanism

  19. Identification of monomeric alpha-macroglobulin proteinase inhibitors in birds, reptiles, amphibians and mammals, and purification and characterization of a monomeric alpha-macroglobulin proteinase inhibitor from the American bullfrog Rana catesbeiana.

    PubMed

    Rubenstein, D S; Thøgersen, I B; Pizzo, S V; Enghild, J J

    1993-02-15

    The alpha-macroglobulins are classified as broad-spectrum inhibitors because of their ability to entrap proteinases of different specificities and catalytic class. Tetrameric and dimeric alpha-macroglobulins have been identified in a wide variety of organisms including those as primitive as the mollusc Octopus vulgaris; however, monomeric alpha-macroglobulin proteinase inhibitors have been previously identified only in rodents. The monomeric alpha-macroglobulin proteinase inhibitors are believed to be analogous to the evolutionary precursor of the multimeric members of this family exemplified by the tetrameric human alpha 2-macroglobulin. Until now, monomeric alpha-macroglobulin proteinase inhibitors have only been identified in rodents and have therefore been considered an evolutionary anomaly. However, in this report we have utilized several sensitive assays to screen various plasmas and sera for the presence of monomeric alpha-macroglobulins, and our results suggest that monomeric alpha-macroglobulin proteinase inhibitors are present in organisms belonging to the avian, reptilian, amphibian and mammalian classes of the chordate phylum. This indicates that these proteins are more widespread than previously recognized and that their presence in rodents is not an anomaly. To demonstrate further that the identified proteins were indeed monomeric alpha-macroglobulin proteinase inhibitors, we purified the monomeric alpha-macroglobulin from the American bullfrog Rana catesbeiana. We conclude that this protein is a monomer of 180 kDa on the basis of its behaviour on (i) pore-limit gel electrophoresis, (ii) non-reducing and reducing SDS/PAGE and (iii) gel-filtration chromatography. In addition, we demonstrate that this protein is an alpha-macroglobulin proteinase inhibitor by virtue of (i) its ability to inhibit proteinases of different catalytic class, (ii) the presence of a putative internal beta-cysteinyl-gamma-glutamyl thioester and (iii) an inhibitory mechanism

  20. Comparison of self-processing of foot-and-mouth disease virus leader proteinase and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus leader proteinase nsp1α.

    PubMed

    Steinberger, Jutta; Kontaxis, Georg; Rancan, Chiara; Skern, Tim

    2013-09-01

    The foot-and-mouth disease virus leader proteinase (Lb(pro)) cleaves itself off the nascent viral polyprotein. NMR studies on the monomeric variant Lb(pro) L200F provide structural evidence for intramolecular self-processing. (15)N-HSQC measurements of Lb(pro) L200F showed specifically shifted backbone signals in the active and substrate binding sites compared to the monomeric variant sLb(pro), lacking six C-terminal residues. This indicates transient intramolecular interactions between the C-terminal extension (CTE) of one molecule and its own active site. Contrastingly, the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) leader proteinase nsp1α, with a papain-like fold like Lb(pro), stably binds its own CTE. Parts of the β-sheet domains but none of the α-helical domains of Lb(pro) and nsp1α superimpose; consequently, the α-helical domain of nsp1α is oriented differently relative to its β-sheet domain. This provides a large interaction surface for the CTE with the globular domain, stabilising the intramolecular complex. Consequently, self-processing inactivates nsp1α but not Lb(pro).

  1. Clearance of human native, proteinase-complexed, and proteolytically inactivated C1-inhibitor in rats.

    PubMed

    de Smet, B J; de Boer, J P; Agterberg, J; Rigter, G; Bleeker, W K; Hack, C E

    1993-01-01

    C1-inhibitor is the only known inhibitor of the classical pathway of complement and the major inhibitor of the contact pathway of coagulation. Like other serine proteinase inhibitors, C1-inhibitor can exist in three conformations, ie, the native, the proteinase-complexed, and the proteolytically inactivated form. Here we studied the plasma elimination kinetics of these three forms of human C1-inhibitor in rats. The clearance of the complexed form of C1-inhibitor appeared to be the most rapid and depended in part on the proteinase involved (observed plasma t1/2 was 20 minutes for C1s-C1-inhibitor, 32 minutes for kallikrein-C1-inhibitor, and 47 minutes for beta XIIa-C1-inhibitor), whereas that of native C1-inhibitor was the slowest (observed plasma t1/2 4.5 hours). Inactivated C1-inhibitor was cleared with an apparent plasma t1/2 of 1.6 hours. Thus, the short plasma t1/2 of complexed relative to native C1-inhibitor explains why in patients only low concentrations of C1-inhibitor complexes may be observed despite activation of the contact and/or complement systems.

  2. Fibronectin-Degrading Activity of Trypanosoma cruzi Cysteine Proteinase Plays a Role in Host Cell Invasion

    PubMed Central

    Maeda, Fernando Yukio; Cortez, Cristian; Izidoro, Mario Augusto; Juliano, Luiz

    2014-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi, the agent of Chagas disease, binds to diverse extracellular matrix proteins. Such an ability prevails in the parasite forms that circulate in the bloodstream and contributes to host cell invasion. Whether this also applies to the insect-stage metacyclic trypomastigotes, the developmental forms that initiate infection in the mammalian host, is not clear. Using T. cruzi CL strain metacyclic forms, we investigated whether fibronectin bound to the parasites and affected target cell invasion. Fibronectin present in cell culture medium bound to metacyclic forms and was digested by cruzipain, the major T. cruzi cysteine proteinase. G strain, with negligible cruzipain activity, displayed a minimal fibronectin-degrading effect. Binding to fibronectin was mediated by gp82, the metacyclic stage-specific surface molecule implicated in parasite internalization. When exogenous fibronectin was present at concentrations higher than cruzipain can properly digest, or fibronectin expression was stimulated by treatment of epithelial HeLa cells with transforming growth factor beta, the parasite invasion was reduced. Treatment of HeLa cells with purified recombinant cruzipain increased parasite internalization, whereas the treatment of parasites with cysteine proteinase inhibitor had the opposite effect. Metacyclic trypomastigote entry into HeLa cells was not affected by anti-β1 integrin antibody but was inhibited by anti-fibronectin antibody. Overall, our results have indicated that the cysteine proteinase of T. cruzi metacyclic forms, through its fibronectin-degrading activity, is implicated in host cell invasion. PMID:25267835

  3. Identification of neutrophil elastase as the proteinase in burn wound fluid responsible for degradation of fibronectin.

    PubMed

    Grinnell, F; Zhu, M

    1994-08-01

    To identify proteinases responsible for fibronectin degradation in the wound environment we studied wound fluid obtained from burn patients. Immunoblotting experiments showed that extensive degradation of fibronectin had occurred in some burn wound fluid samples, in which case intact fibronectin molecules were undetectable, and the largest fibronectin fragment was 116 kDa. The 116-kDa fragment as well as a smaller 90-kDa fragment contained the fibronectin cell binding domain. These burn-fluid samples degraded freshly added fibronectin. Activity of the fibronectin-degrading enzyme was blocked by a broad-spectrum serine proteinase inhibitor or by specific neutrophil elastase inhibitors but not by metalloproteinase inhibitors or inhibitors of trypsin-like or chymotrypsin-like serine proteinases. Enzyme activity also was neutralized by antibodies against human neutrophil elastase. Incubation of fibronectin with burn wound fluid or purified human neutrophil elastase generated similar fibronectin-degradation products. Finally, direct assay of burn-wound-fluid samples with a synthetic elastase substrate showed a correlation between fluid-phase elastase activity and fibronectin degradation. Based on these findings, we conclude that burn-wound-fluid elastase is responsible for extensive fibronectin degradation. Acute elevation of elastase did not appear to hinder normal wound repair.

  4. Corticosteroid-binding globulin, a structural basis for steroid transport and proteinase-triggered release.

    PubMed

    Klieber, Michael A; Underhill, Caroline; Hammond, Geoffrey L; Muller, Yves A

    2007-10-01

    Corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG) is a serine proteinase inhibitor (serpin) family member that transports glucocorticoids in blood and regulates their access to target cells. The 1.9A crystal structure of rat CBG shows that its steroid-binding site resembles the thyroxin-binding site in the related serpin, thyroxin-binding globulin, and mutagenesis studies have confirmed the contributions of key residues that constitute the steroid-binding pocket. Unlike thyroxin-bound thyroxin-binding globulin, the cortisol-bound CBG displays an "active" serpin conformation with the proteinase-sensitive, reactive center loop (RCL) fully expelled from the regulatory beta-sheet A. Moreover, the CBG structure allows us to predict that complete insertion of the proteolytically cleaved RCL into the serpin fold occurs in concert with a displacement and unwinding of helix D that would disrupt the steroid-binding site. This allosteric coupling between RCL positioning and occupancy of the CBG steroid-binding site, which resembles the ligand (glycosamino-glycan)-dependent activation of the thrombin inhibitory serpins heparin cofactor II and anti-thrombin RCLs, ensures both optimal recognition of CBG by target proteinases and efficient release of steroid to sites of action.

  5. Activation of intracellular serine proteinase in Bacillus subtilis cells during sporulation.

    PubMed Central

    Burnett, T J; Shankweiler, G W; Hageman, J H

    1986-01-01

    Cells of Bacillus subtilis 168 (trpC2) growing and sporulating in a single chemically defined medium carried out intracellular protein degradation and increased their levels of intracellular serine protease-1 in a manner very similar to what had previously been reported for cells sporulating in nutrient broth. The results were interpreted to mean that these processes are intrinsic to sporulation rather than medium dependent. To determine the cause of these increases in specific activity of proteinases, we purified the protease, prepared rabbit immunoglobulins directed against it, and monitored changes in protease antigen levels by performing rocket immunoelectrophoresis. In cells sporulating in nutrient broth, the protease antigen levels increased about 7-fold, whereas the specific activity increased about 150-fold, for an activation of about 20-fold. In cells sporulating in the single chemically defined sporulation medium, the protease antigen increased about 10-fold, whereas the specific activity increased at least 400-fold, for an activation of about 40-fold. These results were interpreted to mean that a posttranslational event activated the protease in vivo; a previously described endogenous proteinase inhibitor was confirmed to be present in the strain used. Chloramphenicol added to the cultures inhibited both the increases in antigen levels and in the specific activity of the proteinase. PMID:3079745

  6. Trichomonas vaginalis: characterization of a 39-kDa cysteine proteinase found in patient vaginal secretions.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Gutiérrez, Rodolfo; Avila-González, Leticia; Ortega-López, Jaime; Cruz-Talonia, Fernando; Gómez-Gutierrez, Guillermo; Arroyo, Rossana

    2004-01-01

    Trichomonosis, a chronic sexually transmitted disease, remains a public health problem affecting yearly over 170 million people worldwide. This disease is caused by Trichomonas vaginalis, a protozoan flagellate rich in cysteine proteinases (CPs). Although CPs are involved in trichomonal cytopathogenicity, only few of them have been defined as virulence factors. In this study, we characterize a T. vaginalis 39-kDa proteinase (CP39) found in vaginal secretions from patients with trichomonosis. The CP39 proteinase bound to HeLa epithelial cells, vaginal epithelial cells (VECs), and human prostatic cancer cells (DU-145). CP39 did not bind to a human colon cancer (CaCo) cell line, suggesting tissue-specific binding. CP39 was found in six fresh trichomonad isolates tested. In two-dimensional gels, CP39 appeared as a single spot with a pI 4.5. CP39 is inhibited by E-64, stable at 50 degrees C, and active in a wide pH range (3.6-9.0), with an optimum pH at 7.0. In addition, CP39 degraded collagens I, III, IV, and V, human fibronectin, human hemoglobin, and human immunoglobulins A and G. Indirect immunofluorescence detected CP39 on the parasite surface with specific polyclonal antibody to purified CP39. Finally, CP39 was found to be immunogenic, as evidenced by detection on immunoblots with serum of patients with trichomonosis, but not control individuals. These data suggest that CP39 may play a role during trichomonal infection.

  7. Several murine metastasizing tumors possess a cysteine proteinase with cancer procoagulant characteristics.

    PubMed

    Falanga, A; Bolognese Dalessandro, A P; Casali, B; Roncaglioni, M C; Donati, M B

    1987-06-15

    Cancer Procoagulant (CP), a cysteine proteinase which triggers blood coagulation by directly activating Factor X (FX) in the absence of Factor VII (F VII), has recently been isolated from rabbit V2 carcinoma and biochemically characterized. We have studied the procoagulant activity of tissue extracts from 4 murine experimental tumors in order to define whether or not a F VII-independent activity with cysteine proteinase characteristics was present. The tumors studied were: Lewis lung carcinoma (3LL), B16 melanoma (B16), JW sarcoma (JWS) and the M4 variant of the mFS6 fibrosarcoma (M4). Extracts from 3LL, B16 and JWS tumor initiated coagulation in both the presence and absence of F VII, their procoagulant activity was sensitive to iodoacetamide (1 mM) and mercury chloride (0.1 mM). The procoagulant of M4 extract was dependent on the presence of F VII and was not significantly affected by the cysteine proteinase inhibitors. An Ouchterlony double immunodiffusion study showed immunological cross-reactivity of all but M4 extracts to a polyclonal antibody to purified CP. The present study suggests that the procoagulant(s) present in the murine tumors 3LL, B16 and JWS are enzymatically and immunologically indistinguishable from cancer procoagulant of the rabbit V2 carcinoma.

  8. [Characteristics of proteinase digestive function in invertebrates--inhabitants of cold seas].

    PubMed

    Mukhin, V A; Smirnova, E B; Novikov, V Iu

    2007-01-01

    Digestive proteinases of various taxa of invertebrates of the Northern seas have been studied: crustaceans Paralithodes camtchaticus, Pandalus borealis; molluscs Chlamys islandicus, Buccinum undatum, Serripes groenlandicus, and echinoderms Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis, Cucumaria frondosa, Asterias rubens, and Grossaster papposus. The presence of two proteolytic activity peaks in the acid (pH 2.5-3.5) and low alkaline zones (pH 7.5-8.5) and a similar proteinase spectrum have been revealed in digestive organs of the studied animals. The proteolytic activity in digestive organs of the Barents Sea invertebrates exceeds significantly that of terrestrial homoiothermal animals, which seems to be an extensive compensation for poor differentiation of the digestive system and for low substrate specificity of the enzymes as well as for cold conditions of the habitat. The principal qualitative difference between vertebrates and invertebrates consists in that the latter have no pepsin activity, but do have the cathepsin activity that is absent in vertebrate digestive organs. Contribution to the acid proteolysis is made by lysosomal cathepsins, rather than by pepsins. Activity in the alkaline and neutral pH zones is provided by serine proteinases. In digestive cavities of invertebrates, hydrolysis of proteins and mechanical processing of food occur only in the low alkaline zone, whereas acid proteolysis has intracellular lysosomal localization.

  9. A chestnut seed cystatin differentially effective against cysteine proteinases from closely related pests.

    PubMed

    Pernas, M; Sánchez-Monge, R; Gómez, L; Salcedo, G

    1998-12-01

    Cystatin CsC, a cysteine proteinase inhibitor from chestnut (Castanea sativa) seeds, has been purified and characterized. Its full-length cDNA clone was isolated from an immature chestnut cotyledon library. The inhibitor was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified from bacterial extracts. Identity of both seed and recombinant cystatin was confirmed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry analysis, two-dimensional electrophoresis and N-terminal sequencing. CsC has a molecular mass of 11,275 Da and pI of 6.9. Its amino acid sequence includes all three motifs that are thought to be essential for inhibitory activity, and shows significant identity to other phytocystatins, especially that of cowpea (70%). Recombinant CsC inhibited papain (Ki 29 nM), ficin (Ki 65 nM), chymopapain (Ki 366 nM), and cathepsin B (Ki 473 nM). By contrast with most cystatins, it was also effective towards trypsin (Ki 3489 nM). CsC is active against digestive proteinases from the insect Tribolium castaneum and the mite Dermatophagoides farinae, two important agricultural pests. Its effects on the cysteine proteinase activity of two closely related mite species revealed the high specificity of the chestnut cystatin.

  10. Ethylene regulates the expression of a cysteine proteinase gene during germination of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.).

    PubMed

    Cervantes, E; Rodríguez, A; Nicolás, G

    1994-05-01

    Synthetic oligonucleotides corresponding to conserved regions of cysteine proteinases were used as primers in the RT-PCR amplification of a fragment of cDNA corresponding to a region of a cysteine proteinase gene expressed during germination of chickpea (cac for Cicer arietinum cysteine proteinase). The identity of the PCR-amplified fragment was confirmed by sequencing and the fragment used as a probe to investigate the pattern of cac gene expression during germination and its hormonal regulation. The corresponding transcript is undetected in the seed during embryogenesis and before imbibition, being detected 24 h after imbibition. Ablation of the embryonic axis before imbibition results in a dramatic decrease in the amount of transcript detected. Expression of the cac transcript in excised cotyledons is restored in the presence of aqueous extracts from embryonic axes and also by incubating the excised cotyledons in 1 mM ethephon. Experiments with various known inhibitors of ethylene action indicate that ethylene activates the expression of cac gene in the cotyledons of chickpea during normal germination.

  11. Cloning and characterization of an Eimeria acervulina sporozoite gene homologous to aspartyl proteinases.

    PubMed

    Laurent, F; Bourdieu, C; Kaga, M; Chilmonczyk, S; Zgrzebski, G; Yvoré, P; Péry, P

    1993-12-01

    A lambda ZapII cDNA library was constructed using mRNA from Eimeria acervulina sporulated oocysts and screened with monoclonal antibodies raised against Eimeria tenella sporulated oocytes. Monoclonal antibody N3C8B12 identified a clone (6S2) potentially encoding an aspartyl proteinase since significant homology with cathepsin D, pepsin and renin proteinases was revealed by sequence comparisons. The 1500-bp cDNA fragment containing the coccidial gene was subcloned into pGEX-FA expression vector, leading to the production of an 80-kDa fusion protein (FA6S2) which was used to immunize rabbits. The anti-FA6S2 rabbit sera revealed a single 43-kDa protein present in Eimeria acervulina, Eimeria tenella, Eimeria maxima and Eimeria falciformis sporulated oocyst antigens. Indirect immunofluorescence and electron microscopy with mAb N3C8B12 localized the putative aspartyl proteinase in the refractile bodies of Eimeria tenella sporozoites.

  12. Cleavage of mispaired heteroduplex DNA substrates by numerous restriction enzymes.

    PubMed

    Langhans, Mark T; Palladino, Michael J

    2009-01-01

    The utility of restriction endonucleases as a tool in molecular biology is in large part due to the high degree of specificity with which they cleave well-characterized DNA recognition sequences. The specificity of restriction endonucleases is not absolute, yet many commonly used assays of biological phenomena and contemporary molecular biology techniques rely on the premise that restriction enzymes will cleave only perfect cognate recognition sites. In vitro, mispaired heteroduplex DNAs are commonly formed, especially subsequent to polymerase chain reaction amplification. We investigated a panel of restriction endonucleases to determine their ability to cleave mispaired heteroduplex DNA substrates. Two straightforward, non-radioactive assays are used to evaluate mispaired heteroduplex DNA cleavage: a PCR amplification method and an oligonucleotide-based assay. These assays demonstrated that most restriction endonucleases are capable of site-specific double-strand cleavage with heteroduplex mispaired DNA substrates, however, certain mispaired substrates do effectively abrogate cleavage to undetectable levels. These data are consistent with mispaired substrate cleavage previously reported for Eco RI and, importantly, extend our knowledge of mispaired heteroduplex substrate cleavage to 13 additional enzymes.

  13. Binding and cleavage of nucleic acids by the "hairpin" ribozyme.

    PubMed

    Chowrira, B M; Burke, J M

    1991-09-01

    The "hairpin" ribozyme derived from the minus strand of tobacco ringspot virus satellite RNA [(-)sTRSV] efficiently catalyzes sequence-specific RNA hydrolysis in trans (Feldstein et al., 1989; Hampel & Triz, 1989; Haseloff & Gerlach, 1989). The ribozyme does not cleave DNA. An RNA substrate analogue containing a single deoxyribonucleotide residue 5' to the cleavage site (A-1) binds to the ribozyme efficiently but cannot be cleaved. A DNA substrate analogue with a ribonucleotide at A-1 is cleaved; thus A-1 provides the only 2'-OH required for cleavage. These results support cleavage via a transphosphorylation mechanism initiated by attack of the 2'-OH of A-1 on the scissile phosphodiester. The ribozyme discriminates between DNA and RNA in both binding and cleavage. Results indicate that the 2'-OH of A-1 functions in complex stabilization as well as cleavage. The ribozyme efficiently cleaves a phosphorothioate diester linkage, suggesting that the pro-Rp oxygen at the scissile phosphodiester does not coordinate Mg2+. PMID:1909564

  14. Proteinase A, a storage-globulin-degrading endopeptidase of vetch (Vicia sativa L.) seeds, is not involved in early steps of storage-protein mobilization.

    PubMed

    Becker, C; Senyuk, V I; Shutov, A D; Nong, V H; Fischer, J; Horstmann, C; Müntz, K

    1997-09-01

    Proteinase A is a papain-like cysteine endopeptidase of vetch (Vicia sativa L.) which was assumed to initiate storage-globulin breakdown just after the onset of seed germination. This enzyme was purified from cotyledons of vetch seedlings. On gelatin-containg SDS gels, active proteinase A migrated with an apparent molecular mass of 21 kDa, whereas after heat denaturation its molecular size on SDS/PAGE was 29 kDa. Although proteinase A is capable of hydrolyzing storage globulins in vitro it could not be localized in the protein-body fraction of cotyledons from germinating seeds. cDNA clones encoding proteinase A precursor have been obtained by PCR. The precursor is composed of an N-terminal signal sequence followed by a propeptide, the region encoding mature proteinase A, and a C-terminal KDEL sequence. Mature proteinase A with a derived molecular mass of 25,244 Da does not have the KDEL sequence. The derived amino acid sequence of the proteinase A precursor is 78.2% identical to sulfhydryl-endopeptidase (SH-EP), a cysteine endopeptidase from germinating Vigna mungo seedlings. Northern blot analysis indicated that proteinase A mRNA appears de novo in cotyledons of 1-day-germinated vetch seeds, where its amount increases up to day 6. No proteinase A mRNA was detected in other vetch organs, not even in the embryo axis, which contains stored globulins. By means of antibodies raised against the purified and against recombinantly produced proteinase A, the 29-kDa bands of mature proteinase A were detected in cotyledon extracts of 6-day-germinated seeds when globulin degradation has already far proceeded. The reported data do not agree with the proposed triggering role of proteinase A in storage-globulin breakdown during germination.

  15. Alternative cleavage and polyadenylation: the long and short of it

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Bin; Manley, James L.

    2013-01-01

    Cleavage and polyadenylation (C/P) of nascent transcripts is essential for maturation of the 3′ ends of most eukaryotic mRNAs. Over the past three decades, biochemical studies have elucidated the machinery responsible for the seemingly simple C/P reaction. Recent genomic analyses have indicated that most eukaryotic genes have multiple cleavage and polyadenylation sites (pAs), leading to transcript isoforms with different coding potentials and/or variable 3′ untranslated regions (UTRs). As such, alternative cleavage and polyadenylation (APA) is an important layer of gene regulation impacting mRNA metabolism. Here, we review our current understanding of APA and recent progress in this field. PMID:23632313

  16. A Trypanosoma cruzi-secreted 80 kDa proteinase with specificity for human collagen types I and IV.

    PubMed Central

    Santana, J M; Grellier, P; Schrével, J; Teixeira, A R

    1997-01-01

    Specific interactions between parasites and extracellular matrix components are an important mechanism in the dissemination of Chagas' disease. Binding of the extracellular matrix proteins to Trypanosoma cruzi receptors has been described as a significant step in this phenomenon. In this study, a specific proteinase activity was identified in cell-free extracts of amastigote, trypomastigote and epimastigote forms of T. cruzi using the collagenase fluorogenic substrate N-Suc-Gly-Pro-Leu-Gly-Pro-7-amido-4-methylcoumarin. Isolation of this activity was achieved by a four-step FPLC procedure. Optimal enzyme activity was found to occur at pH 8.0 and was associated with a single T. cruzi 80 kDa protein (Tc 80 proteinase) on SDS/PAGE under reducing conditions. An internal peptide sequence of Tc 80 proteinase was obtained (AGDNYTPPE), and no similarity was found to previously described proteinases of T. cruzi. This enzyme activity is strongly inhibited by HgCl2, tosyl-lysylchloromethane ('TLCK') p-chloromercuribenzoate and benzyloxycarbonyl-Phe-Ala-diazomethane. The purified enzyme was able to hydrolyse purified human [14C]collagen types I and IV at neutral pH, but not 14C-labelled BSA, rat laminin, rabbit IgG or small proteins such as insulin or cytochrome c. In addition, Tc 80 proteinase activity was found to be secreted by T. cruzi forms infective to mammalian cells. Furthermore we demonstrated that purified Tc 80 proteinase mediates native collagen type I hydrolysis in rat mesentery. This feature is compared with that of Clostridium histolyticum collagenase. These findings suggest that Tc 80 proteinase may facilitate T. cruzi host-cell infection by degrading the collagens of the extracellular matrix and could represent a good target for Chagas' disease chemotherapy. PMID:9224638

  17. Phospholipase and Aspartyl Proteinase Activities of Candida Species Causing Vulvovaginal Candidiasis in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Bassyouni, Rasha H; Wegdan, Ahmed Ashraf; Abdelmoneim, Abdelsamie; Said, Wessam; AboElnaga, Fatma

    2015-10-01

    Few research had investigated the secretion of phospholipase and aspartyl proteinase from Candida spp. causing infection in females with type 2 diabetes mellitus. This research aimed to investigate the prevalence of vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) in diabetic versus non-diabetic women and compare the ability of identified Candida isolates to secrete phospholipases and aspartyl proteinases with characterization of their genetic profile. The study included 80 females with type 2 diabetes mellitus and 100 non-diabetic females within the child-bearing period. Candida strains were isolated and identified by conventional microbiological methods and by API Candida. The isolates were screened for their extracellular phospholipase and proteinase activities by culturing them on egg yolk and bovine serum albumin media, respectively. Detection of aspartyl proteinase genes (SAP1 to SAP8) and phospholipase genes (PLB1, PLB2) were performed by multiplex polymerase chain reaction. Our results indicated that vaginal candidiasis was significantly higher among the diabetic group versus nondiabetic group (50% versus 20%, respectively) (p = 0.004). C. albicans was the most prevalent species followed by C. glabrata in both groups. No significant association between diabetes mellitus and phospholipase activities was detected (p = 0.262), whereas high significant proteinase activities exhibited by Candida isolated from diabetic females were found (82.5%) (p = 0.000). Non-significant associations between any of the tested proteinase or phospholipase genes and diabetes mellitus were detected (p > 0.05). In conclusion, it is noticed that the incidence of C. glabrata causing VVC is increased. The higher prevalence of vaginal candidiasis among diabetics could be related to the increased aspartyl proteinase production in this group of patients.

  18. Kazal-type proteinase inhibitor from disk abalone (Haliotis discus discus): molecular characterization and transcriptional response upon immune stimulation.

    PubMed

    Wickramaarachchi, W D Niroshana; De Zoysa, Mahanama; Whang, Ilson; Wan, Qiang; Lee, Jehee

    2013-09-01

    Proteinases and proteinase inhibitors are involved in several biological and physiological processes in all multicellular organisms. Proteinase inhibitors play a key role in regulating the activity of the respective proteinases. Among serine proteinase inhibitors, kazal-type proteinase inhibitors (KPIs) are widely found in mammals, avians, and a variety of invertebrates. In this study, we describe the identification of a kazal-type serine proteinase inhibitor (Ab-KPI) from the disk abalone, Haliotis discus discus, which is presumably involved in innate immunity. The full-length cDNA of Ab-KPI includes 600 bp nucleotides with an open reading frame (ORF) encoding a polypeptide of 143 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence of Ab-KPI contains a putative 17-amino acid signal peptide and two tandem kazal domains with high similarity to other kazal-type SPIs. Each kazal domain consists of reactive site (P1) residue containing a leucine (L), and a threonine (T) located in the second amino acid position after the second conserved cysteine of each domain. Temporal expression of Ab-KPI was assessed by real time quantitative PCR in hemocytes and mantle tissue following bacterial and viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) challenge, and tissue injury. At 6 h post-bacterial and -VHSV challenge, Ab-KPI expression in hemocytes was increased 14-fold and 4-fold, respectively, compared to control samples. The highest up-regulations upon tissue injury were shown at 9 h and 12 h in hemocytes and mantle, respectively. The transcriptional modulation of Ab-KPI following bacterial and viral challenges and tissue injury indicates that it might be involved in immune defense as well as wound healing process in abalone.

  19. Limited proteolysis and sequence analysis of the 2-oxo acid dehydrogenase complexes from Escherichia coli. Cleavage sites and domains in the dihydrolipoamide acyltransferase components.

    PubMed Central

    Packman, L C; Perham, R N

    1987-01-01

    The structures of the dihydrolipoamide acyltransferase (E2) components of the 2-oxo acid dehydrogenase complexes from Escherichia coli were investigated by limited proteolysis. Trypsin and Staphylococcus aureus V8 proteinase were used to excise the three lipoyl domains from the E2p component of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex and the single lipoyl domain from the E2o component of the 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase complex. The principal sites of action of these enzymes on each E2 chain were determined by sequence analysis of the isolated lipoyl fragments and of the truncated E2p and E2o chains. Each of the numerous cleavage sites (12 in E2p, six in E2o) fell within similar segments of the E2 chains, namely stretches of polypeptide rich in alanine, proline and/or charged amino acids. These regions are clearly accessible to proteinases of Mr 24,000-28,000 and, on the basis of n.m.r. spectroscopy, some of them have previously been implicated in facilitating domain movements by virtue of their conformational flexibility. The limited proteolysis data suggest that E2p and E2o possess closer architectural similarities than would be predicted from inspection of their amino acid sequences. As a result of this work, an error was detected in the sequence of E2o inferred from the previously published sequence of the encoding gene, sucB. The relevant peptides from E2o were purified and sequenced by direct means; an amended sequence is presented. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. PMID:3297046

  20. Drosophila topoisomerase II double-strand DNA cleavage: analysis of DNA sequence homology at the cleavage site.

    PubMed Central

    Sander, M; Hsieh, T S

    1985-01-01

    In order to study the sequence specificity of double-strand DNA cleavage by Drosophila topoisomerase II, we have mapped and sequenced 16 strong and 47 weak cleavage sites in the recombinant plasmid p pi 25.1. Analysis of the nucleotide and dinucleotide frequencies in the region near the site of phosphodiester bond breakage revealed a nonrandom distribution. The nucleotide frequencies observed would occur by chance with a probability less than 0.05. The consensus sequence we derived is 5'GT.A/TAY decrease ATT.AT..G 3', where a dot means no preferred nucleotide, Y is for pyrimidine, and the arrow shows the point of bond cleavage. On average, strong sites match the consensus better than weak sites. Images PMID:2987816

  1. Evolution of development in the sea star genus Patiriella: clade-specific alterations in cleavage.

    PubMed

    Cerra, Anna; Byrne, Maria

    2004-01-01

    Examination of early development in five species of the Patiriella sea star species complex indicates that the ancestral-type radial holoblastic cleavage (Type I) is characteristic of P. regularis and P. exigua, whereas cleavage in species from the calcar clade followed multiple alternatives (Types II-IV) from holoblastic to meroblastic. Considering that invariant radial cleavage is thought to play a role in embryonic axis formation in echinoderms, we documented the details of blastomere formation in Patiriella sp. and followed development of the embryos. In Type II cleavage, the first and second cleavage planes appeared simultaneously at one pole of the embryo, dividing it directly into four equally sized blastomeres. In Type III cleavage, the first and second cleavage planes appeared simultaneously, followed promptly by the third cleavage plane, dividing the embryo directly into eight equally sized blastomeres. In Type IV cleavage, numerous furrows appeared simultaneously at one end of the embryo, dividing it into 32-40 equally sized blastomeres. Confocal sections revealed that embryos with cleavage Types II-IV were initially syncytial. The timing of karyokinesis in embryos with Types II and III cleavage was similar to that seen in clutch mates with Type I cleavage. Karyokinesis in embryos with Type IV cleavage, however, differed in timing compared with Type I clutch mates. Alteration in cleavage was not associated with polarized distribution of maternally provided nutrients. For each cleavage type, development was normal to the competent larval stage. Although variable blastomere configuration in the calcar clade may be linked to possession of a lecithotrophic development, other Patiriella species with this mode of development have typical cleavage. The presence of variable cleavage in all calcar clade species indicates that phylogenetic history has played a role in the distribution of this embryonic trait in Patiriella. The plasticity in early cleavage in these

  2. Evolution of development in the sea star genus Patiriella: clade-specific alterations in cleavage.

    PubMed

    Cerra, Anna; Byrne, Maria

    2004-01-01

    Examination of early development in five species of the Patiriella sea star species complex indicates that the ancestral-type radial holoblastic cleavage (Type I) is characteristic of P. regularis and P. exigua, whereas cleavage in species from the calcar clade followed multiple alternatives (Types II-IV) from holoblastic to meroblastic. Considering that invariant radial cleavage is thought to play a role in embryonic axis formation in echinoderms, we documented the details of blastomere formation in Patiriella sp. and followed development of the embryos. In Type II cleavage, the first and second cleavage planes appeared simultaneously at one pole of the embryo, dividing it directly into four equally sized blastomeres. In Type III cleavage, the first and second cleavage planes appeared simultaneously, followed promptly by the third cleavage plane, dividing the embryo directly into eight equally sized blastomeres. In Type IV cleavage, numerous furrows appeared simultaneously at one end of the embryo, dividing it into 32-40 equally sized blastomeres. Confocal sections revealed that embryos with cleavage Types II-IV were initially syncytial. The timing of karyokinesis in embryos with Types II and III cleavage was similar to that seen in clutch mates with Type I cleavage. Karyokinesis in embryos with Type IV cleavage, however, differed in timing compared with Type I clutch mates. Alteration in cleavage was not associated with polarized distribution of maternally provided nutrients. For each cleavage type, development was normal to the competent larval stage. Although variable blastomere configuration in the calcar clade may be linked to possession of a lecithotrophic development, other Patiriella species with this mode of development have typical cleavage. The presence of variable cleavage in all calcar clade species indicates that phylogenetic history has played a role in the distribution of this embryonic trait in Patiriella. The plasticity in early cleavage in these

  3. The complement system is involved in acute inflammation but not in the hemorrhage produced by a Bothrops atrox snake venom low molecular mass proteinase.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Flávia G; Petretski, Jorge H; Kanashiro, Milton M; Lemos, Luciana; da Silva, Wilmar Dias; Kipnis, Thereza L

    2004-03-01

    Low molecular weight hemorrhagins were purified from crude Bothrops atrox snake venom by gel filtration followed by ionic strength chromatography. The protein fractions obtained, designated HI-1 to HI-8, contained proteins with molecular masses lower than 30 kDa. HI-5, the most representative among of these fractions, exhibited, in vitro, proteolytic and C inactivating properties, as analyzed by proteolysis of a protein substrate, and C system consumptive activities as assayed by reduction of the hemolytic C activity in normal human serum and by cleavage of partially purified component C3. HI-5 hemorrhagin injected i.m. into C-sufficient BALB/c mice induced a local inflammation characterized by edema, accumulation of polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMN) and hemorrhage. In contrast, when injected into BALB/c mice previously C-depleted, the number of PMN per tissue section, but not hemorrhage, was significantly reduced (129.668 +/- 31.341 cells per microscopic field) as compared with the control C-sufficient mice (812.168 +/- 111.194 cells per microscopic field). The observations were confirmed by using C5-deficient mice instead of C-depleted mice. The average number of PMN per tissue section in C5-defficient A/J mice was 72.666 +/- 19.416 cells per microscopic field. These data indicate that the C system is involved in PMN accumulation, but not in the hemorrhage, at the local induced lesions by low molecular mass B. atrox hemorrhagins. HI-5 apparently is not contaminated with other direct or indirect inflammation mediators, PMN accumulation and hemorrhage, however, an independent phenomenon, could be mediated by the same hemorrhagin proteinase domain. PMID:15104120

  4. Disruption of the murine procollagen C-proteinase enhancer 2 gene causes accumulation of pro-apoA-I and increased HDL levels

    PubMed Central

    Francone, Omar L.; Ishida, Brian Y.; de la Llera-Moya, Margarita; Royer, Lori; Happe, Christiane; Zhu, Jian; Chalkey, Robert J.; Schaefer, Peter; Cox, Cheryl; Burlingame, Al; Kane, John P.; Rothblat, George H.

    2011-01-01

    Given the increased prevalence of cardiovascular disease in the world, the search for genetic variations that impact risk factors associated with the development of this disease continues. Multiple genetic association studies demonstrate that procollagen C-proteinase enhancer 2 (PCPE2) modulates HDL levels. Recent studies revealed an unexpected role for this protein in the proteolytic processing of pro-apolipoprotein (apo) A-I by enhancing the cleavage of the hexapeptide extension present at the N-terminus of apoA-I. To investigate the role of the PCPE2 protein in an in vivo model, PCPE2-deficient (PCPE2 KO) mice were examined, and a detailed characterization of plasma lipid profiles, apoA-I, HDL speciation, and function was done. Results of isoelectric focusing (IEF) electrophoresis together with the identification of the amino terminal peptides DEPQSQWDK and WHVWQQDEPQSQWDVK, representing mature apoA-I and pro-apoA-I, respectively, in serum from PCPE2 KO mice confirmed that PCPE2 has a role in apoA-I maturation. Lipid profiles showed a marked increase in plasma apoA-I and HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) levels in PCPE2 KO mice compared with wild-type littermates, regardless of gender or diet. Changes in HDL particle size and electrophoretic mobility observed in PCPE2 KO mice suggest that the presence of pro-apoA-I impairs the maturation of HDL. ABCA1-dependent cholesterol efflux is defective in PCPE2 KO mice, suggesting that the functionality of HDL is altered. PMID:21771977

  5. Comparison of self-processing of foot-and-mouth disease virus leader proteinase and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus leader proteinase nsp1α

    SciTech Connect

    Steinberger, Jutta; Rancan, Chiara; Skern, Tim

    2013-09-01

    The foot-and-mouth disease virus leader proteinase (Lb{sup pro}) cleaves itself off the nascent viral polyprotein. NMR studies on the monomeric variant Lb{sup pro} L200F provide structural evidence for intramolecular self-processing. {sup 15}N-HSQC measurements of Lb{sup pro} L200F showed specifically shifted backbone signals in the active and substrate binding sites compared to the monomeric variant sLb{sup pro}, lacking six C-terminal residues. This indicates transient intramolecular interactions between the C-terminal extension (CTE) of one molecule and its own active site. Contrastingly, the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) leader proteinase nsp1α, with a papain-like fold like Lb{sup pro}, stably binds its own CTE. Parts of the β-sheet domains but none of the α-helical domains of Lb{sup pro} and nsp1α superimpose; consequently, the α-helical domain of nsp1α is oriented differently relative to its β-sheet domain. This provides a large interaction surface for the CTE with the globular domain, stabilising the intramolecular complex. Consequently, self-processing inactivates nsp1α but not Lb{sup pro}. - Highlights: • We examine self-processing of the leader protease of foot-and-mouth disease virus. • NMR analysis strongly supports intramolecular self-processing. • Self-processing is a dynamic process with no stable complex. • Structural comparison with nsp1α of PRRSV which forms stable intramolecular complex. • Subdomain orientation explains differences in stability of intramolecular complexes.

  6. Protein digestion in cereal aphids (Sitobion avenae) as a target for plant defence by endogenous proteinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Pyati, Prashant; Bandani, Ali R; Fitches, Elaine; Gatehouse, John A

    2011-07-01

    Gut extracts from cereal aphids (Sitobion avenae) showed significant levels of proteolytic activity, which was inhibited by reagents specific for cysteine proteases and chymotrypsin-like proteases. Gut tissue contained cDNAs encoding cathepsin B-like cysteine proteinases, similar to those identified in the closely related pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum). Analysis of honeydew (liquid excreta) from cereal aphids fed on diet containing ovalbumin showed that digestion of ingested proteins occurred in vivo. Protein could partially substitute for free amino acids in diet, although it could not support complete development. Recombinant wheat proteinase inhibitors (PIs) fed in diet were antimetabolic to cereal aphids, even when normal levels of free amino acids were present. PIs inhibited proteolysis by aphid gut extracts in vitro, and digestion of protein fed to aphids in vivo. Wheat subtilisin/chymotrypsin inhibitor, which was found to inhibit serine and cysteine proteinases, was more effective in both inhibitory and antimetabolic activity than wheat cystatin, which inhibited cysteine proteases only. Digestion of ingested protein is unlikely to contribute significantly to nutritional requirements when aphids are feeding on phloem, and the antimetabolic activity of dietary proteinase inhibitors is suggested to result from effects on proteinases involved in degradation of endogenous proteins.

  7. A Sulfhydryl Reagent Modulates Systemic Signaling for Wound-Induced and Systemin-Induced Proteinase Inhibitor Synthesis.

    PubMed Central

    Narvaez-Vasquez, J.; Orozco-Cardenas, M. L.; Ryan, C. A.

    1994-01-01

    The sulfhydryl group reagent p-chloromecuribenzene sulfonic acid (PCMBS), an established inhibitor of active apoplastic phloem loading of sucrose in several plant species, is shown to be a powerful inhibitor of wound-induced and systemin-induced activation of proteinase inhibitor synthesis and accumulation in leaves of tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum cv Castlemart). PCMBS, supplied to young tomato plants through their cut stems, blocks accumulation of proteinase inhibitors in leaves in response to wounding. The application of systemin directly to fresh wounds enhances systemic accumulation of proteinase inhibitors to levels higher than wounding alone. Placed on fresh wounds, PCMBS severely inhibits systemic induction of proteinase inhibitors, in both the presence and absence of exogenous systemin. PCMBS inhibition can be reversed by cysteine, dithiothreitol, and glutathione. Radiolabeled systemin placed on fresh wounds is readily transported from the wounded leaves to upper leaves. However, in the presence of PCMBS, radiolabeled systemin is not transported away from wound sites. Induction of proteinase inhibitor I synthesis by oligouronides (degree of polymerization [almost equal to] 20), linolenic acid, or methyl jasmonate was not inhibited by PCMBS. The cumulative data support a possible role for sulfhydryl groups in mediating the translocation of systemin from wound sites to distal receptor sites in tomato plants and further support a role for systemin as a systemic wound signal. PMID:12232239

  8. Insight derived from molecular dynamics simulation into substrate-induced changes in protein motions of proteinase K.

    PubMed

    Tao, Yan; Rao, Zi-He; Liu, Shu-Qun

    2010-10-01

    Because of the significant industrial, agricultural and biotechnological importance of serine protease proteinase K, it has been extensively investigated using experimental approaches such as X-ray crystallography, site-directed mutagenesis and kinetic measurement. However, detailed aspects of enzymatic mechanism such as substrate binding, release and relevant regulation remain unstudied. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of the proteinase K alone and in complex with the peptide substrate AAPA were performed to investigate the effect of substrate binding on the dynamics/molecular motions of proteinase K. The results indicate that during simulations the substrate-complexed proteinase K adopt a more compact and stable conformation than the substrate-free form. Further essential dynamics (ED) analysis reveals that the major internal motions are confined within a subspace of very small dimension. Upon substrate binding, the overall flexibility of the protease is reduced; and the noticeable displacements are observed not only in substrate-binding regions but also in regions opposite the substrate-binding groove/pockets. The dynamic pockets caused by the large concerted motions are proposed to be linked to the substrate recognition, binding, orientation and product release; and the significant displacements in regions opposite the binding groove/pockets are considered to play a role in modulating the dynamics of enzyme-substrate interaction. Our simulation results complement the biochemical and structural studies, highlighting the dynamic mechanism of the functional properties of proteinase K.

  9. Induction of release and up-regulated gene expression of interleukin (IL)-8 in A549 cells by serine proteinases

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Haiyan; Zheng, Yanshan; He, Shaoheng

    2006-01-01

    Background Hypersecretion of cytokines and serine proteinases has been observed in asthma. Since protease-activated receptors (PARs) are receptors of several serine proteinases and airway epithelial cells are a major source of cytokines, the influence of serine proteinases and PARs on interleukin (IL)-8 secretion and gene expression in cultured A549 cells was examined. Results A549 cells express all four PARs at both protein and mRNA levels as assessed by flow cytometry, immunofluorescence microscopy and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Thrombin, tryptase, elastase and trypsin induce a up to 8, 4.3, 4.4 and 5.1 fold increase in IL-8 release from A549 cells, respectively following 16 h incubation period. The thrombin, elastase and trypsin induced secretion of IL-8 can be abolished by their specific inhibitors. Agonist peptides of PAR-1, PAR-2 and PAR-4 stimulate up to 15.6, 6.6 and 3.5 fold increase in IL-8 secretion, respectively. Real time PCR shows that IL-8 mRNA is up-regulated by the serine proteinases tested and by agonist peptides of PAR-1 and PAR-2. Conclusion The proteinases, possibly through activation of PARs can stimulate IL-8 release from A549 cells, suggesting that they are likely to contribute to IL-8 related airway inflammatory disorders in man. PMID:16696869

  10. Real-time monitoring of double-stranded DNA cleavage using molecular beacons.

    PubMed

    Ma, Changbei; Tang, Zhiwen; Huo, Xiqin; Yang, Xiaohai; Li, Wei; Tan, Weihong

    2008-07-15

    Traditional methods to assay enzymatic cleavage of DNA are discontinuous, time-consuming and laborious. Here, we report a new approach for real-time monitoring of double-stranded DNA cleavage by restriction endonuclease based on nucleic acid ligation using molecular beacon. Upon cleavage of DNA, the cleavage product can be ligated by DNA ligase, which results in a fluorescence enhancement of the molecular beacon. This method permits real-time monitoring of DNA cleavage and makes it easy to characterize the activity of restriction endonuclease and to study the cleavage reaction kinetics.

  11. In vitro evolution of preferred topoisomerase II DNA cleavage sites.

    PubMed

    Burden, D A; Osheroff, N

    1999-02-19

    Topoisomerase II is an essential enzyme that is the target for several clinically important anticancer drugs. Although this enzyme must create transient double-stranded breaks in the genetic material in order to carry out its indispensable DNA strand passage reaction, the factors that underlie its nucleotide cleavage specificity remain an enigma. Therefore, to address the critical issue of enzyme specificity, a modified systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX) protocol was employed to select/evolve DNA sequences that were preferentially cleaved by Drosophila melanogaster topoisomerase II. Levels of DNA scission rose substantially (from 3 to 20%) over 20 rounds of SELEX. In vitro selection/evolution converged on an alternating purine/pyrmidine sequence that was highly AT-rich (TATATATACATATATATA). The preference for this sequence was more pronounced for Drosophila topoisomerase II over other species and was increased in the presence of DNA cleavage-enhancing anticancer drugs. Enhanced cleavage appeared to be based on higher rates of DNA scission rather than increased binding affinity or decreased religation rates. The preferred sequence for topoisomerase II-mediated DNA cleavage is dramatically overrepresented ( approximately 10,000-fold) in the euchromatic genome of D. melanogaster, implying that it may be a site for the physiological action of this enzyme.

  12. CASPASE-1 RECOGNIZES EXTENDED CLEAVAGE SITES IN ITS NATURAL SUBSTRATES

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Jerry; Yin, Ying; Mai, Jietang; Xiong, Xinyu; Pansuria, Meghana; Liu, Jingshan; Maley, Erin; Saqib, Najam Us; Wang, Hong; Yang, Xiao-Feng

    2010-01-01

    Objective The preferred amino acids in the proteolytic sites have been considered to be similar between caspase-1 and caspase-9, which do not support their differential functions in inflammatory pyroptosis and apoptosis. We attempted to solve this problem. Methods We analyzed the flanking 20 amino acid residues in the cleavage sites in 34 caspase-1 and 11 capase-9 experimentally identified substrates. Results This study has made the following findings: first, we verified that caspase-1 and caspase-9 shared 100% aspartic acid in the P1 position. However, the structures in the cleavage sites of most caspase-1 substrates are different from that of caspase-9 substrates in the following three aspects, a) the amino acid residues with the statistically high frequencies; b) the hydrophobic amino acid occurrence frequencies; and c) the charged amino acid occurrence frequencies; second, the amino acid pairs P1-P1′ are different; third, our identified cleavage site patterns are useful in the prediction for the 91.4% cleavage sites of 35 new caspase-1 substrates. Conclusion Since most caspase-1 substrates are involved in vascular function, inflammation and atherogenesis, our novel structural patterns for the caspases’ substrates are significant in developing new diagnostics and therapeutics. PMID:20060974

  13. Mitochondria Localize to the Cleavage Furrow in Mammalian Cytokinesis

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, Elizabeth J.; Mandato, Craig A.

    2013-01-01

    Mitochondria are dynamic organelles with multiple cellular functions, including ATP production, calcium buffering, and lipid biosynthesis. Several studies have shown that mitochondrial positioning is regulated by the cytoskeleton during cell division in several eukaryotic systems. However, the distribution of mitochondria during mammalian cytokinesis and whether the distribution is regulated by the cytoskeleton has not been examined. Using live spinning disk confocal microscopy and quantitative analysis of mitochondrial fluorescence intensity, we demonstrate that mitochondria are recruited to the cleavage furrow during cytokinesis in HeLa cells. After anaphase onset, the mitochondria are recruited towards the site of cleavage furrow formation, where they remain enriched as the furrow ingresses and until cytokinesis completion. Furthermore, we show that recruitment of mitochondria to the furrow occurs in multiple mammalian cells lines as well as in monopolar, bipolar, and multipolar divisions, suggesting that the mechanism of recruitment is conserved and robust. Using inhibitors of cytoskeleton dynamics, we show that the microtubule cytoskeleton, but not actin, is required to transport mitochondria to the cleavage furrow. Thus, mitochondria are specifically recruited to the cleavage furrow in a microtubule-dependent manner during mammalian cytokinesis. Two possible reasons for this could be to localize mitochondrial function to the furrow to facilitate cytokinesis and / or ensure accurate mitochondrial inheritance. PMID:23991162

  14. Growth phase dependency of chromatin cleavage and degradation by bleomycin.

    PubMed Central

    Moore, C W; Jones, C S; Wall, L A

    1989-01-01

    Preferential cleavage of Saccharomyces cerevisiae chromosomes in internucleosomal (linker) regions and nonspecific degradation of chromatin by an anticancer antibiotic which degrades DNA were investigated and found to increase in consecutive stages of growth. Cleavage of DNA in internucleosomal regions and intensities and multiplicities of nucleosomal bands were dependent on drug concentration, growth phase of the cells, and length of incubation. Cellular DNA was least degraded during logarithmic phase. After cells progressed only one generation in logarithmic phase, low concentrations (6.7 x 10(-7) to 3.4 x 10(-6) M) of bleomycin produced approximately three to seven times more DNA breaks. Internucleosomal cleavage was highest, and the most extended oligonucleosomal series and extensive chromatin degradation were observed during stationary phase. It is concluded that the growth phase of cells is critical in determining amounts of the highly preferential cleavage in internucleosomal regions and overall breakage and degradation of DNA. Mononucleosomal bands were most intense, indicating the greatest accumulation of DNA of this size. Mean mononucleosomal lengths were 165.9 +/- 3.9 base pairs, in agreement with yeast mononucleosomal lengths. As high-molecular-weight chromatin was digested by bleomycin, oligonucleosomes and, eventually, mononucleosomes became digested. Therefore, it is also concluded that bleomycin degradation of oligonucleosomes and trimming of DNA linker regions proceed to degradation of the monosomes (core plus linker DNA). Images PMID:2479336

  15. Site-selective chemical cleavage of peptide bonds.

    PubMed

    Elashal, Hader E; Raj, Monika

    2016-05-01

    Site-selective cleavage of extremely unreactive peptide bonds is a very important chemical modification that provides invaluable information regarding protein sequence, and it acts as a modulator of protein structure and function for therapeutic applications. For controlled and selective cleavage, a daunting task, chemical reagents must selectively recognize or bind to one or more amino acid residues in the peptide chain and selectively cleave a peptide bond. Building on this principle, we have developed an approach that utilizes a chemical reagent to selectively modify the serine residue in a peptide chain and leads to the cleavage of a peptide backbone at the N-terminus of the serine residue. After cleavage, modified residues can be converted back to the original fragments. This method exhibits broad substrate scope and selectively cleaves various bioactive peptides with post-translational modifications (e.g. N-acetylation and -methylation) and mutations (d- and β-amino acids), which are a known cause of age related diseases.

  16. Modeling Radial Holoblastic Cleavage: A Laboratory Activity for Developmental Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Linda K.

    2000-01-01

    Introduces a laboratory activity designed for an undergraduate developmental biology course. Uses Play-Doh (plastic modeling clay) to build a multicellular embryo in order to provide a 3-D demonstration of cleavage. Includes notes for the instructor and student directions. (YDS)

  17. Perceiving Social Cleavages and Inequalities: The Case of Israeli Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dar, Yechezkel; Erhard, Rachel; Resh, Nura

    1998-01-01

    An analysis of perceptions of social cleavage and inequality among approximately 9000 Israeli eighth and ninth graders showed students accurately comprehended a multifaceted society with major social divisions. A social map with inequality was revealed in which ethnicity played the least prominent role. Personal and social traits influenced…

  18. Crack tip blunting and cleavage under dynamic conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajan, V. P.; Curtin, W. A.

    2016-05-01

    In structural materials with both brittle and ductile phases, cracks often initiate within the brittle phase and propagate dynamically towards the ductile phase. The macroscale, quasistatic toughness of the material thus depends on the outcome of this microscale, dynamic process. Indeed, dynamics has been hypothesized to suppress dislocation emission, which may explain the occurrence of brittle transgranular fracture in mild steels at low temperatures (Lin et al., 1987). Here, crack tip blunting and cleavage under dynamic conditions are explored using continuum mechanics and molecular dynamics simulations. The focus is on two questions: (1) whether dynamics can affect the energy barriers for dislocation emission and cleavage, and (2) what happens in the dynamic "overloaded" situation, in which both processes are energetically possible. In either case, dynamics may shift the balance between brittle cleavage and ductile blunting, thereby affecting the intrinsic ductility of the material. To explore these effects in simulation, a novel interatomic potential is used for which the intrinsic ductility is tunable, and a novel simulation technique is employed, termed as a "dynamic cleavage test", in which cracks can be run dynamically at a prescribed energy release rate into a material. Both theory and simulation reveal, however, that the intrinsic ductility of a material is unaffected by dynamics. The energy barrier to dislocation emission appears to be identical in quasi-static and dynamic conditions, and, in the overloaded situation, ductile crack tip behavior ultimately prevails since a single emission event can blunt and arrest the crack, preventing further cleavage. Thus, dynamics cannot embrittle a ductile material, and the origin of brittle failure in certain alloys (e.g., mild steels) appears unrelated to dynamic effects at the crack tip.

  19. Exposure to tobacco-derived materials induces overproduction of secreted proteinases in mast cells

    SciTech Connect

    Small-Howard, Andrea; Turner, Helen . E-mail: hturner@queens.org

    2005-04-15

    Mast cells reside at interfaces with the environment, including the mucosa of the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts. This localization exposes mast cells to inhaled, or ingested, environmental challenges. In the airways of smokers, resident immune cells will be in contact with the condensed components of cigarette smoke. Mast cells are of particular interest due to their ability to promote airway remodeling and mucus hypersecretion. Clinical data show increased levels of mast cell-secreted tryptase and increased numbers of degranulated mast cells in the lavage and bronchial tissue of smokers. Since mast cell-secreted proteinases (MCPTs), including tryptases, contribute to pathological airway remodeling, we investigated the relationship between mast cell proteinases and smoke exposure. We exposed a mast cell line to cigarette smoke condensate (CSC). We show that CSC exposure increases MCPT levels in mast cells using an assay for tryptase-type MCPT activity. We hypothesized that this increase in MCPT activity reflects a CSC-induced increase in the cytosolic pool of proteinase molecules, via stimulation of MCPT transcription. Transcript array data suggested that mRNA changes in response to CSC were limited in number and peaked after 3 h of CSC exposure. However, we noted marked transcriptional regulation of several MCPT genes. CSC-induced changes in the mRNA levels for MCPTs were confirmed using quantitative RT-PCR. Taken together, our data suggest that chronic exposure to cigarette smoke up-regulates MCPT levels in mast cells at both the protein and the mRNA level. We suggest that the pathological airway remodeling that has been described in clinical studies of smoke inhalation may be attributable to MCPT overproduction in vivo.

  20. Trichomonas vaginalis: characterization of a 39-kDa cysteine proteinase found in patient vaginal secretions.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Gutiérrez, Rodolfo; Avila-González, Leticia; Ortega-López, Jaime; Cruz-Talonia, Fernando; Gómez-Gutierrez, Guillermo; Arroyo, Rossana

    2004-01-01

    Trichomonosis, a chronic sexually transmitted disease, remains a public health problem affecting yearly over 170 million people worldwide. This disease is caused by Trichomonas vaginalis, a protozoan flagellate rich in cysteine proteinases (CPs). Although CPs are involved in trichomonal cytopathogenicity, only few of them have been defined as virulence factors. In this study, we characterize a T. vaginalis 39-kDa proteinase (CP39) found in vaginal secretions from patients with trichomonosis. The CP39 proteinase bound to HeLa epithelial cells, vaginal epithelial cells (VECs), and human prostatic cancer cells (DU-145). CP39 did not bind to a human colon cancer (CaCo) cell line, suggesting tissue-specific binding. CP39 was found in six fresh trichomonad isolates tested. In two-dimensional gels, CP39 appeared as a single spot with a pI 4.5. CP39 is inhibited by E-64, stable at 50 degrees C, and active in a wide pH range (3.6-9.0), with an optimum pH at 7.0. In addition, CP39 degraded collagens I, III, IV, and V, human fibronectin, human hemoglobin, and human immunoglobulins A and G. Indirect immunofluorescence detected CP39 on the parasite surface with specific polyclonal antibody to purified CP39. Finally, CP39 was found to be immunogenic, as evidenced by detection on immunoblots with serum of patients with trichomonosis, but not control individuals. These data suggest that CP39 may play a role during trichomonal infection. PMID:15363938

  1. Influence of immunoprotection on genetic variability of cysteine proteinases from Haemonchus contortus adult worms.

    PubMed

    Martín, S; Molina, J M; Hernández, Y I; Ferrer, O; Muñoz, Ma C; López, A; Ortega, L; Ruiz, A

    2015-11-01

    The limitations associated with the use of anthelmintic drugs in the control of gastrotintestinal nematodosis, such as the emergence of anthelmintic resistance, have stimulated the study of the immunological control of many parasites. In the case of Haemonchus contortus, several vaccination trials using native and recombinant antigens have been conducted. A group of antigens with demonstrated immunoprotective value are cathepsin B - like proteolytic enzymes of the cysteine proteinase type. These enzymes, which have been observed in both excretory-secretory products and somatic extracts of H. contortus, may vary among different geographic isolates and on strains isolated from different hosts, or even from the same host, as has been demonstrated in some comparative studies of genetic variability. In the present study, we evaluated the genetic variability of the worms that fully developed their endogenous cycle in immunised sheep and goat in order to identify the alleles of most immunoprotective value. To address these objectives, groups of sheep and goats were immunised with PBS soluble fractions enriched for cysteine proteinases from adult worms of H. contortus from either a strain of H. contortus isolated from goats of Gran Canaria Island (SP) or a strain isolated from sheep of North America (NA). The results confirmed the immunoprophylactic value of this type of enzyme against haemonchosis in both sheep and goats in association with increased levels of specific IgG. The genetic analysis demonstrated that the immunisation had a genetic selection on proteinase-encoding genes. In all the immunised animals, allelic frequencies were statistically different from those observed in non-immunised control animals in the four analysed genes. The reduction in the allelic frequencies suggests that parasites expressing these proteases are selectively targeted by the vaccine, and hence they should be considered in any subunit vaccine approach to control haemonchosis in small

  2. Enzymic and structural characterization of nepenthesin, a unique member of a novel subfamily of aspartic proteinases.

    PubMed

    Athauda, Senarath B P; Matsumoto, Koji; Rajapakshe, Sanath; Kuribayashi, Masayuki; Kojima, Masaki; Kubomura-Yoshida, Nobuko; Iwamatsu, Akihiro; Shibata, Chiaki; Inoue, Hideshi; Takahashi, Kenji

    2004-07-01

    Carnivorous plants are known to secrete acid proteinases to digest prey, mainly insects, for nitrogen uptake. In the present study, we have purified, for the first time, to homogeneity two acid proteinases (nepenthesins I and II) from the pitcher fluid of Nepenthes distillatoria (a pitcher-plant known locally as badura) and investigated their enzymic and structural characteristics. Both enzymes were optimally active at pH approx. 2.6 towards acid-denatured haemoglobin; the specificity of nepenthesin I towards oxidized insulin B chain appears to be similar, but slightly wider than those of other APs (aspartic proteinases). Among the enzymic properties, however, the most notable is their unusual stability: both enzymes were remarkably stable at or below 50 degrees C, especially nepenthesin I was extremely stable over a wide range of pH from 3 to 10 for over 30 days. This suggests an evolutionary adaptation of the enzymes to their specific habitat. We have also cloned the cDNAs and deduced the complete amino acid sequences of the precursors of nepenthesins I and II (437 and 438 residues respectively) from the pitcher tissue of N. gracilis. Although the corresponding mature enzymes (each 359 residues) are homologous with ordinary pepsin-type APs, both enzymes had a high content of cysteine residues (12 residues/molecule), which are assumed to form six unique disulphide bonds as suggested by computer modelling and are supposed to contribute towards the remarkable stability of nepenthesins. Moreover, the amino acid sequence identity of nepenthesins with ordinary APs, including plant vacuolar APs, is remarkably low (approx. 20%), and phylogenetic comparison shows that nepenthesins are distantly related to them to form a novel subfamily of APs with a high content of cysteine residues and a characteristic insertion, named 'the nepenthesin-type AP-specific insertion', that includes a large number of novel, orthologous plant APs emerging in the gene/protein databases. PMID

  3. Nepenthesin, a unique member of a novel subfamily of aspartic proteinases: enzymatic and structural characteristics.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Kenji; Athauda, Senarath B P; Matsumoto, Koji; Rajapakshe, Sanath; Kuribayashi, Masayuki; Kojima, Masaki; Kubomura-Yoshida, Nobuko; Iwamatsu, Akihiro; Shibata, Chiaki; Inoue, Hideshi

    2005-12-01

    Carnivorous plants are known to secrete acid proteinases to digest prey, mainly insects, for nitrogen uptake. In our recent study, we have purified, for the first time, to homogeneity two acid proteinases, nepenthesin I (Nep I) and nepenthesin II (Nep II) from the pitcher fluid of Nepenthes distillatoria and investigated their enzymatic and structural characteristics. Both enzymes were optimally active at pH approx. 2.6 toward acid-denatured hemoglobin; the specificity of Nep I toward oxidized insulin B chain appears to be similar, but slightly wider than those of other aspartic proteinases (APs). At or below 50 degrees C both enzymes were remarkably stable; especially Nep I was extremely stable over a wide range of pH from 3 to 10 for over 30 days. This suggests an evolutionary adaptation of the enzymes to their specific habitat. We have also cloned the cDNAs and deduced the complete amino acid sequences of the precursors of Nep I and Nep II from the pitcher tissue of Nepenthes gracilis. Although the corresponding mature enzymes are homologous with ordinary pepsin-type APs, both enzymes had a high content of cysteine residues (12 residues per molecule), which are assumed to form six unique disulfide bonds as suggested by computer modeling and are thought to contribute toward the remarkable stability of Neps. Moreover, the amino acid sequence identity of Neps with ordinary APs, including plant vacuolar APs, are remarkably low (approx. 20%), and phylogenetic comparison shows that Neps are distantly related to them to form a novel subfamily of APs with a high content of cysteine residues and a characteristic insertion, named 'the Nep-type AP (NAP)-specific insertion', including a large number of novel, orthologous plant APs emerging in the gene/protein databases. PMID:16381601

  4. Influence of immunoprotection on genetic variability of cysteine proteinases from Haemonchus contortus adult worms.

    PubMed

    Martín, S; Molina, J M; Hernández, Y I; Ferrer, O; Muñoz, Ma C; López, A; Ortega, L; Ruiz, A

    2015-11-01

    The limitations associated with the use of anthelmintic drugs in the control of gastrotintestinal nematodosis, such as the emergence of anthelmintic resistance, have stimulated the study of the immunological control of many parasites. In the case of Haemonchus contortus, several vaccination trials using native and recombinant antigens have been conducted. A group of antigens with demonstrated immunoprotective value are cathepsin B - like proteolytic enzymes of the cysteine proteinase type. These enzymes, which have been observed in both excretory-secretory products and somatic extracts of H. contortus, may vary among different geographic isolates and on strains isolated from different hosts, or even from the same host, as has been demonstrated in some comparative studies of genetic variability. In the present study, we evaluated the genetic variability of the worms that fully developed their endogenous cycle in immunised sheep and goat in order to identify the alleles of most immunoprotective value. To address these objectives, groups of sheep and goats were immunised with PBS soluble fractions enriched for cysteine proteinases from adult worms of H. contortus from either a strain of H. contortus isolated from goats of Gran Canaria Island (SP) or a strain isolated from sheep of North America (NA). The results confirmed the immunoprophylactic value of this type of enzyme against haemonchosis in both sheep and goats in association with increased levels of specific IgG. The genetic analysis demonstrated that the immunisation had a genetic selection on proteinase-encoding genes. In all the immunised animals, allelic frequencies were statistically different from those observed in non-immunised control animals in the four analysed genes. The reduction in the allelic frequencies suggests that parasites expressing these proteases are selectively targeted by the vaccine, and hence they should be considered in any subunit vaccine approach to control haemonchosis in small

  5. Effects of pH on the association between the inhibitor cystatin and the proteinase chymopapain.

    PubMed

    Reyes-Espinosa, Francisco; Arroyo-Reyna, Alfonso; Garcia-Gutierrez, Ponciano; Serratos, Iris N; Zubillaga, Rafael A

    2014-01-01

    Cysteine proteinases are involved in many aspects of physiological regulation. In humans, some cathepsins have shown another function in addition to their role as lysosomal proteases in intracellular protein degradation; they have been implicated in the pathogenesis of several heart and blood vessel diseases and in cancer development. In this work, we present a fluorometric and computational study of the binding of one representative plant cysteine proteinase, chymopapain, to one of the most studied inhibitors of these proteinases: chicken cystatin. The binding equilibrium constant, Kb, was determined in the pH range between 3.5 and 10.0, revealing a maximum in the affinity at pH 9.0. We constructed an atomic model for the chymopapain-cystatin dimer by docking the individual 3D protein structures; subsequently, the model was refined using a 100 ns NPT molecular dynamics simulation in explicit water. Upon scrutiny of this model, we identified 14 ionizing residues at the interface of the complex using a cutoff distance of 5.0 Å. Using the pKa values predicted with PROPKA and a modified proton-linkage model, we performed a regression analysis on our data to obtain the composite pKavalues for three isoacidic residues. We also calculated the electrostatic component of the binding energy (ΔGb,elec) at different pH values using an implicit solvent model and APBS software. The pH profile of this calculated energy compares well with the experimentally obtained binding energy, ΔGb. We propose that the residues that form an interchain ionic pair, Lys139A from chymopapain and Glu19B from cystatin, as well as Tyr61A and Tyr67A from chymopapain are the main residues responsible for the observed pH dependence in the chymopapain- cystatin affinity.

  6. Effects of pH on the association between the inhibitor cystatin and the proteinase chymopapain.

    PubMed

    Reyes-Espinosa, Francisco; Arroyo-Reyna, Alfonso; Garcia-Gutierrez, Ponciano; Serratos, Iris N; Zubillaga, Rafael A

    2014-01-01

    Cysteine proteinases are involved in many aspects of physiological regulation. In humans, some cathepsins have shown another function in addition to their role as lysosomal proteases in intracellular protein degradation; they have been implicated in the pathogenesis of several heart and blood vessel diseases and in cancer development. In this work, we present a fluorometric and computational study of the binding of one representative plant cysteine proteinase, chymopapain, to one of the most studied inhibitors of these proteinases: chicken cystatin. The binding equilibrium constant, Kb, was determined in the pH range between 3.5 and 10.0, revealing a maximum in the affinity at pH 9.0. We constructed an atomic model for the chymopapain-cystatin dimer by docking the individual 3D protein structures; subsequently, the model was refined using a 100 ns NPT molecular dynamics simulation in explicit water. Upon scrutiny of this model, we identified 14 ionizing residues at the interface of the complex using a cutoff distance of 5.0 Å. Using the pKa values predicted with PROPKA and a modified proton-linkage model, we performed a regression analysis on our data to obtain the composite pKavalues for three isoacidic residues. We also calculated the electrostatic component of the binding energy (ΔGb,elec) at different pH values using an implicit solvent model and APBS software. The pH profile of this calculated energy compares well with the experimentally obtained binding energy, ΔGb. We propose that the residues that form an interchain ionic pair, Lys139A from chymopapain and Glu19B from cystatin, as well as Tyr61A and Tyr67A from chymopapain are the main residues responsible for the observed pH dependence in the chymopapain- cystatin affinity. PMID:25426863

  7. Nepenthesin, a unique member of a novel subfamily of aspartic proteinases: enzymatic and structural characteristics.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Kenji; Athauda, Senarath B P; Matsumoto, Koji; Rajapakshe, Sanath; Kuribayashi, Masayuki; Kojima, Masaki; Kubomura-Yoshida, Nobuko; Iwamatsu, Akihiro; Shibata, Chiaki; Inoue, Hideshi

    2005-12-01

    Carnivorous plants are known to secrete acid proteinases to digest prey, mainly insects, for nitrogen uptake. In our recent study, we have purified, for the first time, to homogeneity two acid proteinases, nepenthesin I (Nep I) and nepenthesin II (Nep II) from the pitcher fluid of Nepenthes distillatoria and investigated their enzymatic and structural characteristics. Both enzymes were optimally active at pH approx. 2.6 toward acid-denatured hemoglobin; the specificity of Nep I toward oxidized insulin B chain appears to be similar, but slightly wider than those of other aspartic proteinases (APs). At or below 50 degrees C both enzymes were remarkably stable; especially Nep I was extremely stable over a wide range of pH from 3 to 10 for over 30 days. This suggests an evolutionary adaptation of the enzymes to their specific habitat. We have also cloned the cDNAs and deduced the complete amino acid sequences of the precursors of Nep I and Nep II from the pitcher tissue of Nepenthes gracilis. Although the corresponding mature enzymes are homologous with ordinary pepsin-type APs, both enzymes had a high content of cysteine residues (12 residues per molecule), which are assumed to form six unique disulfide bonds as suggested by computer modeling and are thought to contribute toward the remarkable stability of Neps. Moreover, the amino acid sequence identity of Neps with ordinary APs, including plant vacuolar APs, are remarkably low (approx. 20%), and phylogenetic comparison shows that Neps are distantly related to them to form a novel subfamily of APs with a high content of cysteine residues and a characteristic insertion, named 'the Nep-type AP (NAP)-specific insertion', including a large number of novel, orthologous plant APs emerging in the gene/protein databases.

  8. Enzymic and structural characterization of nepenthesin, a unique member of a novel subfamily of aspartic proteinases.

    PubMed

    Athauda, Senarath B P; Matsumoto, Koji; Rajapakshe, Sanath; Kuribayashi, Masayuki; Kojima, Masaki; Kubomura-Yoshida, Nobuko; Iwamatsu, Akihiro; Shibata, Chiaki; Inoue, Hideshi; Takahashi, Kenji

    2004-07-01

    Carnivorous plants are known to secrete acid proteinases to digest prey, mainly insects, for nitrogen uptake. In the present study, we have purified, for the first time, to homogeneity two acid proteinases (nepenthesins I and II) from the pitcher fluid of Nepenthes distillatoria (a pitcher-plant known locally as badura) and investigated their enzymic and structural characteristics. Both enzymes were optimally active at pH approx. 2.6 towards acid-denatured haemoglobin; the specificity of nepenthesin I towards oxidized insulin B chain appears to be similar, but slightly wider than those of other APs (aspartic proteinases). Among the enzymic properties, however, the most notable is their unusual stability: both enzymes were remarkably stable at or below 50 degrees C, especially nepenthesin I was extremely stable over a wide range of pH from 3 to 10 for over 30 days. This suggests an evolutionary adaptation of the enzymes to their specific habitat. We have also cloned the cDNAs and deduced the complete amino acid sequences of the precursors of nepenthesins I and II (437 and 438 residues respectively) from the pitcher tissue of N. gracilis. Although the corresponding mature enzymes (each 359 residues) are homologous with ordinary pepsin-type APs, both enzymes had a high content of cysteine residues (12 residues/molecule), which are assumed to form six unique disulphide bonds as suggested by computer modelling and are supposed to contribute towards the remarkable stability of nepenthesins. Moreover, the amino acid sequence identity of nepenthesins with ordinary APs, including plant vacuolar APs, is remarkably low (approx. 20%), and phylogenetic comparison shows that nepenthesins are distantly related to them to form a novel subfamily of APs with a high content of cysteine residues and a characteristic insertion, named 'the nepenthesin-type AP-specific insertion', that includes a large number of novel, orthologous plant APs emerging in the gene/protein databases.

  9. Protective role of purified cysteine proteinases against Fasciola gigantica infection in experimental animals.

    PubMed

    El-Ahwany, Eman; Rabia, Ibrahim; Nagy, Faten; Zoheiry, Mona; Diab, Tarek; Zada, Suher

    2012-03-01

    Fascioliasis is one of the public health problems in the world. Cysteine proteinases (CP) released by Fasciola gigantica play a key role in parasite feeding, migration through host tissues, and in immune evasion. There has been some evidence from several parasite systems that proteinases might have potential as protective antigens against parasitic infections. Cysteine proteinases were purified and tested in vaccine trials of sheep infected with the liver fluke. Multiple doses (2 mg of CP in Freund's adjuvant followed by 3 booster doses 1 mg each at 4 week intervals) were injected intramuscularly into sheep 1 week prior to infect orally with 300 F. gigantica metacercariae. All the sheep were humanely slaughtered 12 weeks after the first immunization. Changes in the worm burden, ova count, and humoral and cellular responses were evaluated. Significant reduction was observed in the worm burden (56.9%), bile egg count (70.7%), and fecel egg count (75.2%). Immunization with CP was also found to be associated with increases of total IgG, IgG(1), and IgG(2) (P<0.05). Data showed that the serum cytokine levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, IL-12, IFN-γ, and TNF-α, revealed significant decreases (P<0.05). However, the anti-inflammatory cytokine levels, IL-10, TGF-β, and IL-6, showed significant increases (P<0.05). In conclusion, it has been found that CP released by F. gigantica are highly important candidates for a vaccine antigen because of their role in the fluke biology and host-parasite relationships. PMID:22451733

  10. Structural analysis of new antihypertensive peptides derived from cheese whey protein by proteinase K digestion.

    PubMed

    Abubakar, A; Saito, T; Kitazawa, H; Kawai, Y; Itoh, T

    1998-12-01

    Whey protein was digested with one of seven kinds of proteases at 37 degrees C (trypsin, proteinase K, actinase E, thermolysin, or papain) or at 25 degrees C (pepsin or chymotrypsin) for 24 h. The digested samples were assayed for the inhibitory activity of angiotensin-converting enzyme and for changes in the systolic blood pressure caused in spontaneously hypertensive rats after gastric intubation. The strongest depressive effect on the systolic blood pressure (-55 mm Hg) was observed at 6 h after gastric intubation of the whey protein that was digested by proteinase K. Finally, six peptides were chromatographically isolated from the proteinase K digest by a combination of hydrophobic reversed-phase HPLC and gel filtration. The amino acid sequences and their origins were clarified as follows: Val-Tyr-Pro-Phe-Pro-Gly [beta-casein (CN); f 59-64], Gly-Lys-Pro (beta 2-microglobulin; f 18-20), Ile-Pro-Ala (beta-lactoglobulin; f 78-80), Phe-Pro (serum albumin; f 221-222; beta-CN, f 62-63, f 157-158, and f 205-206), Val-Tyr-Pro (beta-CN; f 59-61), and Thr-Pro-Val-Val-Val-Pro-Pro-Phe-Leu-Gln-Pro (beta-CN; f 80-90). Chemical synthesis of these six peptides confirmed that all peptides, except an undecapeptide, have antihypertensive activity in spontaneously hypertensive rats. The synthetic tripeptide Ile-Pro-Ala, originating from beta-lactoglobulin, showed the strongest antihypertensive activity (-31 mm Hg).

  11. Two distinct phases of apoptosis in mammary gland involution: proteinase-independent and -dependent pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Lund, Leif R; Romer, John; Thomasset, Nicole; Solberg, Helene; Pyke, Charles; Bissell, Mina J; Dano, Keld; Werb, Zena

    1996-01-01

    Postlactational involution of the mammary gland is characterized by two distinct physiological events: apoptosis of the secretory, epithelial cells undergoing programmed cell death, and proteolytic degradation of the mammary gland basement membrane. We examined the spatial and temporal patterns of apoptotic cells in relation to those of proteinases during involution of the BALB/c mouse mammary gland. Apoptosis was almost absent during lactation but became evident at day 2 of involution, when {beta}-casein gene expression was still high. Apoptotic cells were then seen at least up to day 8 of involution, when {beta}-casein gene expression was being extinguished. Expression of sulfated glycoprotein-2 (SGP-2), interleukin-1{beta} converting enzyme (ICE) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 was upregulated at day 2, when apoptotic cells were seen initially. Expression of the matrix metalloproteinases gelatinase A and stromelysin-1 and the serine proteinase urokinase-type plasminogen activator, which was low during lactation, was strongly upregulated in parallel starting at day 4 after weaning, coinciding with start of the collapse of the lobulo-alveolar structures and the intensive tissue remodeling in involution. The major sites of mRNA synthesis for these proteinases were fibroblast-like cells in the periductal stroma and stromal cells surrounding the collapsed alveoli, suggesting that the degradative phase of involution is due to a specialized mesenchymal-epithelial interaction. To elucidate the functional role of these proteinases during involution, at the onset of weaning we treated mice systemically with the glucocorticoid hydrocortisone, which is known to inhibit mammary gland involution. Although the initial wave of apoptotic cells appeared in the lumina of the gland, the dramatic regression and tissue remodeling usually evident by day 5 was substantially inhibited by systemic treatment with hydrocortisone. mRNA and protein for gelatinase A, stromelysin

  12. Design, synthesis and inhibitory effect of pentapeptidyl chloromethyl ketones on proteinase K.

    PubMed

    Kore, Anilkumar R; Shanmugasundaram, Muthian

    2010-12-01

    The synthesis and proteolytic inhibitor function of new modified pentapeptide MeOSuc-AAAPF-CH(2)Cl 6 is described. The efficacy of 6 in inhibiting the proteolytic activity of proteinase K at a concentration of 0.10 mM allows a signal to be obtained for an exogenous target ('Xeno RNA') at 29 PCR cycles (i.e., Ct=29), whereas the control MeOSuc-AAAPV-CH₂Cl 1 requires a 7.5-fold higher concentration (0.75 mM) to produce the same Ct.

  13. Substrate specificities of pepstatin-insensitive carboxyl proteinases from gram-negative bacteria.

    PubMed

    Ito, M; Dunn, B M; Oda, K

    1996-10-01

    Pseudomonas carboxyl proteinase (PCP), isolated from Pseudomonas sp. 101, and Xanthomonas carboxyl proteinase (XCP), isolated from Xanthomonas sp. T-22, are the first and second examples of unique carboxyl proteinases [EC 3.4.23.33] which are insensitive to aspartic proteinase inhibitors, such as pepstatin, diazoacetyl-DL-norleucine methylester, and 1,2-epoxy-3(p-nitrophenoxy)propane. The substrate specificities of PCP and XCP were studied using a series of synthetic chromogenic peptide substrates with the general structure, P5-P4-P3-P2-Phe-Nph-P2'-P3' (P5, P4, P3, P2, P2', P3': a variety of amino acids, Nph is p-nitro-L-phenylalanine, and the Phe-Nph bond is cleaved). PCP and XCP were shown to hydrolyze a synthetic substrate, Lys-Pro-Ala-Leu-Phe-Nph-Arg-Leu, most effectively among 28 substrates. The kinetic parameters of this peptide for PCP were Km = 6.3 microM, Kcat = 51.4 s-1, and kcat/Km = 8.16 microM-1.s-1. The kinetic parameters for XCP were Km = 3.6 microM, kcat = 52.2 s-1, and kcat/Km = 14.5 microM-1.s-1. PCP showed a stricter substrate specificity than XCP. That is, the specificity constant (kcat/Km) of each substrate for PCP was in general < 0.5 microM-1.s-1, but was drastically improved by the replacement of Lys by Leu at the P2 position. On the other hand, XCP showed a less stringent substrate specificity, with most of the peptides exhibiting reasonable kcat/Km values (> 1.0 microM-1.s-1). Thus it was found that the substrate specificities of PCP and XCP differ considerably, in spite of the high similarity in their primary structures. In addition, tyrostatin was found to be a competitive inhibitor for XCP, with a Ki value of 2.1 nM, as well as for PCP (Ki = 2.6 nM).

  14. Biochemical and biological characterization of two serine proteinases from Colombian Crotalus durissus cumanensis snake venom.

    PubMed

    Patiño, Arley Camilo; Pereañez, Jaime Andrés; Gutiérrez, José María; Rucavado, Alexandra

    2013-03-01

    Two clotting serine proteinases, named Cdc SI and Cdc SII, were isolated and characterized for the first time from Colombian Crotalus durissus cumanensis snake venom. The enzymes were purified using two chromatographic steps: molecular exclusion on Sephacryl S-200 and RP-HPLC on C8 Column. The molecular masses of the proteins, determined by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, were 28,561.4 and 28,799.2 Da for Cdc SI and Cdc SII, respectively. The aim of the present study was to evaluate enzymatic, coagulant and toxic properties of the two enzymes. The serine proteinases hydrolyzed specific chromogenic substrate (BaPNA) and exhibited a Michaelis-Menten behavior. Cdc SI had V(max) of 0.038 ± 0.003 nmol/min and K(M) of 0.034 ± 0.017 mM, while Cdc SII displayed values of V(max) of 0.267 ± 0.011 nmol/min and K(M) of 0.145 ± 0.023 mM. N-terminal sequences were VIGGDEXNIN and VIGGDICNINEHNFLVALYE for Cdc SI and Cdc SII, respectively. Molecular masses, N-terminal sequences, inhibition assays, and enzymatic profile suggest that Cdc SI and Cdc SII belong to the family of snake venom thrombin-like enzymes. These serine proteinases differed in their clotting activity on human plasma, showing a minimum coagulant dose of 25 μg and 0.571 μg for Cdc SI and Cdc SII, respectively. Enzymes also showed coagulant activity on bovine fibrinogen and degraded chain α of this protein. Toxins lack hemorrhagic and myotoxic activities, but are capable to induce defibrin(ogen)ation, moderate edema, and an increase in vascular permeability. These serine proteinases may contribute indirectly to the local hemorrhage induced by metalloproteinases, by causing blood clotting disturbances, and might also contribute to cardiovascular alterations characteristic of patients envenomed by C. d. cumanensis in Colombia.

  15. Purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic studies of a Kunitz-type proteinase inhibitor from tamarind (Tamarindus indica) seeds.

    PubMed

    Patil, Dipak N; Chaudhry, Anshul; Sharma, Ashwani K; Tomar, Shailly; Kumar, Pravindra

    2009-07-01

    A Kunitz-type proteinase inhibitor has been purified from tamarind (Tamarindus indica) seeds. SDS-PAGE analysis of a purified sample showed a homogeneous band corresponding to a molecular weight of 21 kDa. The protein was identified as a Kunitz-type proteinase inhibitor based on N-terminal amino-acid sequence analysis. It was crystallized by the vapour-diffusion method using PEG 6000. The crystals belonged to the orthorhombic space group C222(1), with unit-cell parameters a = 37.2, b = 77.1, c = 129.1 A. Diffraction data were collected to a resolution of 2.7 A. Preliminary crystallographic analysis indicated the presence of one proteinase inhibitor molecule in the asymmetric unit, with a solvent content of 44%.

  16. Crystal structure of a putative aspartic proteinase domain of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis cell surface antigen PE_PGRS16☆

    PubMed Central

    Barathy, Deivanayaga V.; Suguna, Kaza

    2013-01-01

    We report the crystal structure of the first prokaryotic aspartic proteinase-like domain identified in the genome of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. A search in the genomes of Mycobacterium species showed that the C-terminal domains of some of the PE family proteins contain two classic DT/SG motifs of aspartic proteinases with a low overall sequence similarity to HIV proteinase. The three-dimensional structure of one of them, Rv0977 (PE_PGRS16) of M. tuberculosis revealed the characteristic pepsin-fold and catalytic site architecture. However, the active site was completely blocked by the N-terminal His-tag. Surprisingly, the enzyme was found to be inactive even after the removal of the N-terminal His-tag. A comparison of the structure with pepsins showed significant differences in the critical substrate binding residues and in the flap tyrosine conformation that could contribute to the lack of proteolytic activity of Rv0977. PMID:23923105

  17. High-level expression of Proteinase K from Tritirachium album Limber in Pichia pastoris using multi-copy expression strains.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hu; Zhai, Chao; Yu, Xianhong; Li, Zhezhe; Tang, Wei; Liu, Yunyun; Ma, Xiaojian; Zhong, Xing; Li, Guolong; Wu, Di; Ma, Lixin

    2016-06-01

    Proteinase K is widely used in scientific research and industries. This report was aimed to achieve high-level expression of proteinase K using Pichia pastoris GS115 as the host strain. The coding sequence of a variant of proteinase K that has higher activity than the wild type protein was chosen and optimized based on the codon usage preference of P. pastoris. The novel open reading frame was synthesized and a series of multi-copy expression vectors were constructed based on the pHBM905BDM plasmid, allowing for the tandem integration of multiple copies of the target gene into the genome of P. pastoris with a single recombination. These strains were used to study the correlation between the gene copy number and the expression level of proteinase K. The results of quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) indicated that the tandem expression cassettes were integrated into the host genome stably. Meanwhile, the results of qPCR and enzyme activity assays indicated that the mRNA and protein expression levels of the target gene increased as the gene copy number increased. Moreover, the effect of gene dosage on the expression level of the recombinant protein was more obvious using high-density fermentation. The maximum expression level and enzyme activity of proteinase K, which were obtained from the recombinant yeast strain bearing 5 copies of the target gene after an 84-h induction, were approximately 8.069 mg/mL and 108,295 U/mL, respectively. The recombinant proteinase was purified and characterized. The optimum pH and temperature for the activity of this protease were approximately pH 11 and 55 °C, respectively. PMID:26892536

  18. The proteolytic system of Lactobacillus sanfrancisco CB1: purification and characterization of a proteinase, a dipeptidase, and an aminopeptidase.

    PubMed Central

    Gobbetti, M; Smacchi, E; Corsetti, A

    1996-01-01

    A cell envelope 57-kDa proteinase, a cytoplasmic 65-kDa dipeptidase, and a 75-kDa aminopeptidase were purified from Lactobacillus sanfrancisco CB1 sourdough lactic acid bacterium by sequential fast protein liquid chromatography steps. All of the enzymes are monomers. The proteinase was most active at pH 7.0 and 40 degrees C, while aminopeptidase and dipeptidase had optima at pH 7.5 and 30 to 35 degrees C. Relatively high activities were observed at the pH and temperature of the sourdough fermentation. The proteinase is a serine enzyme. Urea-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of digest of alpha s1- and beta-caseins showed differences in the pattern of peptides released by the purified proteinase and those produced by crude preparations of the cell envelope proteinases of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus B397 and Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis SK11. Reversed-phase fast protein liquid chromatography of gliadin digests showed a more-complex peptide pattern produced by the proteinase of Lactobacillus sanfrancisco CB1. The dipeptidase is a metalloenzyme with high affinity for dipeptides containing hydrophobic amino acids but had no activity on tripeptides or larger peptides. The aminopeptidase was also inhibited by metal-chelating agents, and showed a broad N-terminal hydrolytic activity including di- and tripeptides. Km values of 0.70 and 0.44 mM were determined for the dipeptidase on Leu-Leu and the aminopeptidase on Leu-p-nitroanilide, respectively. PMID:8795211

  19. High-level expression of Proteinase K from Tritirachium album Limber in Pichia pastoris using multi-copy expression strains.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hu; Zhai, Chao; Yu, Xianhong; Li, Zhezhe; Tang, Wei; Liu, Yunyun; Ma, Xiaojian; Zhong, Xing; Li, Guolong; Wu, Di; Ma, Lixin

    2016-06-01

    Proteinase K is widely used in scientific research and industries. This report was aimed to achieve high-level expression of proteinase K using Pichia pastoris GS115 as the host strain. The coding sequence of a variant of proteinase K that has higher activity than the wild type protein was chosen and optimized based on the codon usage preference of P. pastoris. The novel open reading frame was synthesized and a series of multi-copy expression vectors were constructed based on the pHBM905BDM plasmid, allowing for the tandem integration of multiple copies of the target gene into the genome of P. pastoris with a single recombination. These strains were used to study the correlation between the gene copy number and the expression level of proteinase K. The results of quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) indicated that the tandem expression cassettes were integrated into the host genome stably. Meanwhile, the results of qPCR and enzyme activity assays indicated that the mRNA and protein expression levels of the target gene increased as the gene copy number increased. Moreover, the effect of gene dosage on the expression level of the recombinant protein was more obvious using high-density fermentation. The maximum expression level and enzyme activity of proteinase K, which were obtained from the recombinant yeast strain bearing 5 copies of the target gene after an 84-h induction, were approximately 8.069 mg/mL and 108,295 U/mL, respectively. The recombinant proteinase was purified and characterized. The optimum pH and temperature for the activity of this protease were approximately pH 11 and 55 °C, respectively.

  20. Key features determining the specificity of aspartic proteinase inhibition by the helix-forming IA3 polypeptide.

    PubMed

    Winterburn, Tim J; Wyatt, David M; Phylip, Lowri H; Bur, Daniel; Harrison, Rebecca J; Berry, Colin; Kay, John

    2007-03-01

    The 68-residue IA(3) polypeptide from Saccharomyces cerevisiae is essentially unstructured. It inhibits its target aspartic proteinase through an unprecedented mechanism whereby residues 2-32 of the polypeptide adopt an amphipathic alpha-helical conformation upon contact with the active site of the enzyme. This potent inhibitor (K(i) < 0.1 nm) appears to be specific for a single target proteinase, saccharopepsin. Mutagenesis of IA(3) from S. cerevisiae and its ortholog from Saccharomyces castellii was coupled with quantitation of the interaction for each mutant polypeptide with saccharopepsin and closely related aspartic proteinases from Pichia pastoris and Aspergillus fumigatus. This identified the charged K18/D22 residues on the otherwise hydrophobic face of the amphipathic helix as key selectivity-determining residues within the inhibitor and implicated certain residues within saccharopepsin as being potentially crucial. Mutation of these amino acids established Ala-213 as the dominant specificity-governing feature in the proteinase. The side chain of Ala-213 in conjunction with valine 26 of the inhibitor marshals Tyr-189 of the enzyme precisely into a position in which its side-chain hydroxyl is interconnected via a series of water-mediated contacts to the key K18/D22 residues of the inhibitor. This extensive hydrogen bond network also connects K18/D22 directly to the catalytic Asp-32 and Tyr-75 residues of the enzyme, thus deadlocking the inhibitor in position. In most other aspartic proteinases, the amino acid at position 213 is a larger hydrophobic residue that prohibits this precise juxtaposition of residues and eliminates these enzymes as targets of IA(3). The exquisite specificity exhibited by this inhibitor in its interaction with its cognate folding partner proteinase can thus be readily explained. PMID:17145748

  1. School Desegregation and Racial Cleavage, 1954-1970: A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carithers, Martha W.

    1970-01-01

    Reviews the empirical studies dealing with school desegregation and racial cleavage which have appeared since the 1954 Supreme Court decision. Focuses on patterns and consequences of interracial association, and attitude change relevant to racial cleavage. (DM)

  2. [Characteristics of the Effect of Cestodes Parasitizing the Fish Intestine on the Activity of the Host Proteinases].

    PubMed

    Izvekova, G I; Solovyev, M M

    2016-01-01

    The activity and spectrum of proteinases in the intestines of host fishes change upon infestation with cestodes. Serine proteinases are found to make a greater contribution to the total proteolytic activity. The reduction of proteolytic activity is associated with adsorption of the enzymes of the host on the surface of cestodes, and the increase in the activity is caused by the injury of the intestinal mucosa by the attachment apparatuses of cestodes. The inhibition of proteainase activity indicates the possible participation of microbiota enzymes in protein hydrolyses.

  3. Hairpin DNA Sequences Bound Strongly by Bleomycin Exhibit Enhanced Double-Strand Cleavage

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Clinically used bleomycin A5 has been employed in a study of double-strand cleavage of a library of 10 hairpin DNAs originally selected on the basis of their strong binding to bleomycin. Each of the DNAs underwent double-strand cleavage at more than one site, and all of the cleavage sites were within, or in close proximity to, an eight-base-pair region of the duplex that had been randomized to create the original library. A total of 31 double-strand cleavage sites were identified on the 10 DNAs, and 14 of these sites were found to represent coupled cleavage sites, that is, events in which one of the two strands was always cleaved first, followed by the associated site on the opposite strand. Most of these coupled sites underwent cleavage by a mechanism described previously by the Povirk laboratory and afforded cleavage patterns entirely analogous to those reported. However, at least one coupled cleavage event was noted that did not conform to the pattern of those described previously. More surprisingly, 17 double-strand cleavages were found not to result from coupled double-strand cleavage, and we posit that these cleavages resulted from a new mechanism not previously described. Enhanced double-strand cleavages at these sites appear to be a consequence of the dynamic nature of the interaction of Fe·BLM A5 with the strongly bound hairpin DNAs. PMID:24548300

  4. Cleavage patterns and the topology of the metazoan tree of life

    PubMed Central

    Valentine, James W.

    1997-01-01

    Several major alliances of metazoan phyla have been identified by small subunit rRNA sequence comparisons. It is possible to arrange the phyla to produce a parsimonious distribution of cleavage types, requiring only one change from a radial ancestral condition to spiral cleavage and one other to “idiosyncratic” cleavage; this arrangement is consistent with most of the recent molecular phylogenies. The cleavage shifts are correlated with changes in many of the features that once were used to distinguish Protostomia and Deuterostomia. It is hypothesized that changes in cleavage direction are causally associated with changes in blastomere fates and thus that cleavage type correlates with such features as the identity of mesoderm founder cells, which in turn can constrain the mode of origination of the eucelom. Cleavage changes may also affect the timing of cell fate specification. In a tree that emphasizes cleavage parsimony, radial cleavage, regulative development, and enterocely are ancestral within the Bilateria, and spiral or idiosyncratic cleavages, mosaic development, and schizocely are associated with a change in cleavage direction. Deuterostomy is presumably ancestral and is correlated with radial cleavage for this reason, rather than mechanistically. PMID:9223303

  5. Use of Recombinant Entamoeba histolytica Cysteine Proteinase 1 To Identify a Potent Inhibitor of Amebic Invasion in a Human Colonic Model▿

    PubMed Central

    Meléndez-López, Samuel G.; Herdman, Scott; Hirata, Ken; Choi, Min-Ho; Choe, Youngchool; Craik, Charles; Caffrey, Conor R.; Hansell, Elisabeth; Chávez-Munguía, Bibiana; Chen, Yen Ting; Roush, William R.; McKerrow, James; Eckmann, Lars; Guo, Jianhua; Stanley, Samuel L.; Reed, Sharon L.

    2007-01-01

    Cysteine proteinases are key virulence factors of the protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica. We have shown that cysteine proteinases play a central role in tissue invasion and disruption of host defenses by digesting components of the extracellular matrix, immunoglobulins, complement, and cytokines. Analysis of the E. histolytica genome project has revealed more than 40 genes encoding cysteine proteinases. We have focused on E. histolytica cysteine proteinase 1 (EhCP1) because it is one of two cysteine proteinases unique to invasive E. histolytica and is highly expressed and released. Recombinant EhCP1 was expressed in Escherichia coli and refolded to an active enzyme with a pH optimum of 6.0. We used positional-scanning synthetic tetrapeptide combinatorial libraries to map the specificity of the P1 to P4 subsites of the active site cleft. Arginine was strongly preferred at P2, an unusual specificity among clan CA proteinases. A new vinyl sulfone inhibitor, WRR483, was synthesized based on this specificity to target EhCP1. Recombinant EhCP1 cleaved key components of the host immune system, C3, immunoglobulin G, and pro-interleukin-18, in a time- and dose-dependent manner. EhCP1 localized to large cytoplasmic vesicles, distinct from the sites of other proteinases. To gain insight into the role of secreted cysteine proteinases in amebic invasion, we tested the effect of the vinyl sulfone cysteine proteinase inhibitors K11777 and WRR483 on invasion of human colonic xenografts. The resultant dramatic inhibition of invasion by both inhibitors in this human colonic model of amebiasis strongly suggests a significant role of secreted amebic proteinases, such as EhCP1, in the pathogenesis of amebiasis. PMID:17513563

  6. A serine proteinase homologue, SPH-3, plays a central role in insect immunity.

    PubMed

    Felföldi, Gabriella; Eleftherianos, Ioannis; Ffrench-Constant, Richard H; Venekei, István

    2011-04-15

    Numerous vertebrate and invertebrate genes encode serine proteinase homologues (SPHs) similar to members of the serine proteinase family, but lacking one or more residues of the catalytic triad. These SPH proteins are thought to play a role in immunity, but their precise functions are poorly understood. In this study, we show that SPH-3 (an insect non-clip domain-containing SPH) is of central importance in the immune response of a model lepidopteran, Manduca sexta. We examine M. sexta infection with a virulent, insect-specific, Gram-negative bacterium Photorhabdus luminescens. RNA interference suppression of bacteria-induced SPH-3 synthesis severely compromises the insect's ability to defend itself against infection by preventing the transcription of multiple antimicrobial effector genes, but, surprisingly, not the transcription of immune recognition genes. Upregulation of the gene encoding prophenoloxidase and the activity of the phenoloxidase enzyme are among the antimicrobial responses that are severely attenuated on SPH-3 knockdown. These findings suggest the existence of two largely independent signaling pathways controlling immune recognition by the fat body, one governing effector gene transcription, and the other regulating genes encoding pattern recognition proteins.

  7. Effect of the Solvent Temperatures on Dynamics of Serine Protease Proteinase K.

    PubMed

    Sang, Peng; Yang, Qiong; Du, Xing; Yang, Nan; Yang, Li-Quan; Ji, Xing-Lai; Fu, Yun-Xin; Meng, Zhao-Hui; Liu, Shu-Qun

    2016-01-01

    To obtain detailed information about the effect of the solvent temperatures on protein dynamics, multiple long molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of serine protease proteinase K with the solute and solvent coupled to different temperatures (either 300 or 180 K) have been performed. Comparative analyses demonstrate that the internal flexibility and mobility of proteinase K are strongly dependent on the solvent temperatures but weakly on the protein temperatures. The constructed free energy landscapes (FELs) at the high solvent temperatures exhibit a more rugged surface, broader spanning range, and higher minimum free energy level than do those at the low solvent temperatures. Comparison between the dynamic hydrogen bond (HB) numbers reveals that the high solvent temperatures intensify the competitive HB interactions between water molecules and protein surface atoms, and this in turn exacerbates the competitive HB interactions between protein internal atoms, thus enhancing the conformational flexibility and facilitating the collective motions of the protein. A refined FEL model was proposed to explain the role of the solvent mobility in facilitating the cascade amplification of microscopic motions of atoms and atomic groups into the global collective motions of the protein. PMID:26907253

  8. Functional Characterization of Cucumis metuliferus Proteinase Inhibitor Gene (CmSPI) in Potyviruses Resistance.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chia-Wei; Su, Mei-Hsiu; Lin, Yu-Tsung; Chung, Chien-Hung; Ku, Hsin-Mei

    2015-07-01

    Proteinase inhibitors are ubiquitous proteins that block the active center or interact allosterically with proteinases and are involved in plant physiological processes and defense responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. The CmSPI gene identified from Cucumis metuliferus encodes a serine type PI (8 kDa) that belongs to potato I type family. To evaluate the effect of silencing CmSPI gene on Papaya ringspot virus resistance, RNA interference (RNAi) with an inter-space hairpin RNA (ihpRNA) construct was introduced into a PRSV-resistant C. metuliferus line. CmSPI was down-regulated in CmSPI RNAi transgenic lines in which synchronously PRSV symptoms were evident at 21 day post inoculation. Alternatively, heterogeneous expression of CmSPI in Nicotiana benthamiana was also conducted and showed that CmSPI can provide resistance to Potato virus Y, another member of Potyvirus, in transgenic N. benthamiana lines. This study demonstrated that CmSPI plays an important role in resistant function against potyviruses in C. metuliferus and N. benthamiana. PMID:26184285

  9. Isolation, characterization and antifungal activity of proteinase inhibitors from Capsicum chinense Jacq. Seeds.

    PubMed

    Dias, Germana Bueno; Gomes, Valdirene Moreira; Pereira, Umberto Zottich; Ribeiro, Suzanna F Ferreira; Carvalho, André O; Rodrigues, Rosana; Machado, Olga L Tavares; Fernandes, Kátia Valevski Sales; Ferreira, André Teixeira S; Perales, Jonas; Da Cunha, Maura

    2013-01-01

    Capsicum species belong to the Solanaceae family and have great social, economic and agronomical significance. The present research presents data on the isolation and characterization of Capsicum chinense Jacq. peptides which were scrutinized in relation to their toxicity towards a diverse set of yeast species. The protein extract was separated with C18 reverse-phase chromatography in high performance liquid chromatography, resulting in three different peptide enriched fractions (PEFs) termed PEF1, PEF2 and PEF3. Tricine-SDS-PAGE of the PEF2 revealed peptides with molecular masses of approximately 5.0 and 8.5 kDa. These PEFs also exhibited strong antifungal activity against different yeasts. In the presence of the PEF2, Candida tropicalis exhibited morphological changes, including cellular agglomeration and formation of pseudohyphae. Determined N-terminal sequences of PEF2 and PEF3 were proven to be highly homologous to serine proteinase inhibitors, when analysed by comparative database sequence tools. For this reason were performed protease inhibitory activity assay. The PEFs displayed high inhibitory activity against trypsin and low inhibitory activity against chymotrypsin. PEF2 and PEF3 were considerably unsusceptible to a broad interval of pH and temperatures. Due to the myriad of application of Proteinase inhibitors (PIs) in fields ranging from plant protection against pathogens and pests to medicine such as in cancer and virus replication inhibition, the discovery of new PIs with new properties are of great interest.

  10. Diversity in proteinase specificity of thermophilic lactobacilli as revealed by hydrolysis of dairy and vegetable proteins.

    PubMed

    Pescuma, Micaela; Espeche Turbay, María Beatriz; Mozzi, Fernanda; Font de Valdez, Graciela; Savoy de Giori, Graciela; Hebert, Elvira María

    2013-09-01

    Ability of industrially relevant species of thermophilic lactobacilli strains to hydrolyze proteins from animal (caseins and β-lactoglobulin) and vegetable (soybean and wheat) sources, as well as influence of peptide content of growth medium on cell envelope-associated proteinase (CEP) activity, was evaluated. Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis (CRL 581 and 654), L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus (CRL 454 and 656), Lactobacillus acidophilus (CRL 636 and 1063), and Lactobacillus helveticus (CRL 1062 and 1177) were grown in a chemically defined medium supplemented or not with 1 % Casitone. All strains hydrolyzed mainly β-casein, while degradation of αs-caseins was strain dependent. Contrariwise, κ-Casein was poorly degraded by the studied lactobacilli. β-Lactoglobulin was mainly hydrolyzed by CRL 656, CRL 636, and CRL 1062 strains. The L. delbrueckii subsp. lactis strains, L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus CRL 656, and L. helveticus CRL 1177 degraded gliadins in high extent, while the L. acidophilus and L. helveticus strains highly hydrolyzed soy proteins. Proteinase production was inhibited by Casitone, the most affected being the L. delbrueckii subsp. lactis species. This study highlights the importance of proteolytic diversity of lactobacilli for rational strain selection when formulating hydrolyzed dairy or vegetable food products.

  11. Functional Characterization of Cucumis metuliferus Proteinase Inhibitor Gene (CmSPI) in Potyviruses Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chia-Wei; Su, Mei-Hsiu; Lin, Yu-Tsung; Chung, Chien-Hung; Ku, Hsin-Mei

    2015-01-01

    Proteinase inhibitors are ubiquitous proteins that block the active center or interact allosterically with proteinases and are involved in plant physiological processes and defense responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. The CmSPI gene identified from Cucumis metuliferus encodes a serine type PI (8 kDa) that belongs to potato I type family. To evaluate the effect of silencing CmSPI gene on Papaya ringspot virus resistance, RNA interference (RNAi) with an inter-space hairpin RNA (ihpRNA) construct was introduced into a PRSV-resistant C. metuliferus line. CmSPI was down-regulated in CmSPI RNAi transgenic lines in which synchronously PRSV symptoms were evident at 21 day post inoculation. Alternatively, heterogeneous expression of CmSPI in Nicotiana benthamiana was also conducted and showed that CmSPI can provide resistance to Potato virus Y, another member of Potyvirus, in transgenic N. benthamiana lines. This study demonstrated that CmSPI plays an important role in resistant function against potyviruses in C. metuliferus and N. benthamiana. PMID:26184285

  12. Age-dependent changes in extracellular proteins, aminopeptidase and proteinase activities in Frankia isolate BR.

    PubMed

    Müller, A; Benoist, P; Diem, H G; Schwencke, J

    1991-12-01

    To investigate protein secretion by the nitrogen-fixing actinomycete Frankia isolate BR, we designed a rapid DEAE adsorption, salt elution and Biogel P6DG desalination method to concentrate protein from the growth medium. Secreted proteins reached a maximum concentration (5.6 gm l-1) in the medium at growth arrest. Analysis by SDS-PAGE detected up to 63 extracellular polypeptides when Frankia cells were grown under stirred conditions in BAP medium supplemented with phosphatidylcholine and MES buffer and 65 proteins in stirred BAP media alone. The pattern of extracellular polypeptides changed during growth. Several extracellular proteolytic activities were detected and compared with intracellular ones. The substrate specificity of the extracellular and intracellular aminopeptidase activities were the same. Also, the electrophoretic migration patterns of secreted and intracellular aminopeptidases could not be distinguished. Secretion of the proline-specific aminopeptidase FAP proteinase (PF) were secreted: 10 had the same electrophoretic mobility as their intracellular counterparts after SDS-gelatine-PAGE while five (PF - 39.5, PF - 38.5, PF - 36.5, PF - 25.5 and PF - 20.5 kDa) had a different electrophoretic mobility and, therefore, appeared to be exclusively extracellular. At least seven extracellular proteinases appeared to increase coordinately in activity shortly before growth arrest.

  13. Characterization of a New Cell Envelope Proteinase PrtP from Lactobacillus rhamnosus CGMCC11055.

    PubMed

    Guo, Tingting; Ouyang, Xudong; Xin, Yongping; Wang, Yue; Zhang, Susu; Kong, Jian

    2016-09-21

    Cell envelope proteinases (CEPs) play essential roles in lactic acid bacteria growth in milk and health-promoting properties of fermented dairy products. The genome of Lactobacillus rhamnosus CGMCC11055 possesses two putative CEP genes prtP and prtR2, and the PrtP displays the distinctive domain organization from PrtR2 reported. The PrtP was purified and biochemically characterized. The results showed that the optimal activity occurred at 44 °C, pH 6.5. p-Amidinophenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride obviously inhibited enzymatic activity, suggesting PrtP was a member of serine proteinases. Under the optimal conditions, β-casein was a favorite substrate over αS1- and κ-casein, and 35 oligopeptides were identified in the β-casein hydrolysate, including the phosphoserine peptide and bioactive isoleucine-proline-proline. By analysis of the amino acid sequences of those oligopeptides, proline was the preferred residue at the breakdown site. Therefore, we speculated that PrtP was a new type of CEPs from Lb. rhamnosus. PMID:27585760

  14. Effect of the Solvent Temperatures on Dynamics of Serine Protease Proteinase K

    PubMed Central

    Sang, Peng; Yang, Qiong; Du, Xing; Yang, Nan; Yang, Li-Quan; Ji, Xing-Lai; Fu, Yun-Xin; Meng, Zhao-Hui; Liu, Shu-Qun

    2016-01-01

    To obtain detailed information about the effect of the solvent temperatures on protein dynamics, multiple long molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of serine protease proteinase K with the solute and solvent coupled to different temperatures (either 300 or 180 K) have been performed. Comparative analyses demonstrate that the internal flexibility and mobility of proteinase K are strongly dependent on the solvent temperatures but weakly on the protein temperatures. The constructed free energy landscapes (FELs) at the high solvent temperatures exhibit a more rugged surface, broader spanning range, and higher minimum free energy level than do those at the low solvent temperatures. Comparison between the dynamic hydrogen bond (HB) numbers reveals that the high solvent temperatures intensify the competitive HB interactions between water molecules and protein surface atoms, and this in turn exacerbates the competitive HB interactions between protein internal atoms, thus enhancing the conformational flexibility and facilitating the collective motions of the protein. A refined FEL model was proposed to explain the role of the solvent mobility in facilitating the cascade amplification of microscopic motions of atoms and atomic groups into the global collective motions of the protein. PMID:26907253

  15. Proteinase-activated receptors 1 and 2 mediate contraction of human oesophageal muscularis mucosae.

    PubMed

    Chang, B-S; Chang, J-C; Huang, S-C

    2010-01-01

    Proteinase-activated receptors 1 and 2 mediate contraction of the human gallbladder. In the present study, we investigated effects mediated by proteinase-activated receptors (PARs) in the human oesophagus by measuring contraction of muscularis mucosae strips isolated from the human oesophagus. Both PAR(1) agonists (thrombin, SFLLRN-NH(2) and TFLLR-NH(2)) and PAR(2) agonists (trypsin, 2-furoyl-LIGRLO-NH(2) and SLIGKV-NH(2)) caused concentration-dependent contraction. In contrast, PAR(1) and PAR(2) control peptides did not cause contraction. The existence of PAR(1) and PAR(2) in the human oesophageal muscularis mucosae was confirmed by immunohistochemistry and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. On the other hand, PAR(4) agonists, GYPGKF-NH(2), GYPGQV-NH(2) and AYPGKF-NH(2), did not cause contraction or relaxation in resting or carbachol-contracted muscularis mucosae strips, suggesting that PAR(4) is not involved in human oesophageal motility. The contractile responses to SFLLRN-NH(2) and trypsin in the human oesophagus were insensitive to atropine and tetrodotoxin, indicating that the contractile response was not neurally mediated. Taken together, these results demonstrate that PAR(1) and PAR(2) but not PAR(4) mediate contraction in human oesophageal muscularis mucosae. PAR(1) and PAR(2) may influence human oesophageal motility. PMID:19694963

  16. Morphological confocal microscopy in arthropods and the enhancement of autofluorescence after proteinase K extraction.

    PubMed

    Valdecasas, Antonio G; Abad, Angela

    2011-02-01

    Procedures to study the molecular and morphological characteristics of microscopic organisms are often incompatible with each other. Therein, the realization of alternatives that make the characterization of these features compatible and simultaneously permit the deposition of the original material as a voucher sample into a reference collection is one of the foremost goals of biodiversity studies. In this study, we show that genomic extraction does not necessarily compromise the detailed study of the external morphology of microscopic organisms, and to do so, we used a group of aquatic mites (Acari, Hydrachnidia) as a test group. Hydrachnidia morphology is difficult to study when specimens have been stored in pure ethanol; however, proteinase K extraction leaves them flexible and easy to dissect, while, at the same time, maintaining all of their diagnostic features intact. Furthermore, autofluorescence is significantly enhanced after proteinase extraction. Our study was conducted with aquatic mites that were stored in absolute ethanol in the field and processed for DNA extraction using a Qiagen QIAamp minikit. Before and after molecular extraction, a laser scanning confocal microscopy morphological examination was carried out.

  17. Effect of the Solvent Temperatures on Dynamics of Serine Protease Proteinase K.

    PubMed

    Sang, Peng; Yang, Qiong; Du, Xing; Yang, Nan; Yang, Li-Quan; Ji, Xing-Lai; Fu, Yun-Xin; Meng, Zhao-Hui; Liu, Shu-Qun

    2016-02-19

    To obtain detailed information about the effect of the solvent temperatures on protein dynamics, multiple long molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of serine protease proteinase K with the solute and solvent coupled to different temperatures (either 300 or 180 K) have been performed. Comparative analyses demonstrate that the internal flexibility and mobility of proteinase K are strongly dependent on the solvent temperatures but weakly on the protein temperatures. The constructed free energy landscapes (FELs) at the high solvent temperatures exhibit a more rugged surface, broader spanning range, and higher minimum free energy level than do those at the low solvent temperatures. Comparison between the dynamic hydrogen bond (HB) numbers reveals that the high solvent temperatures intensify the competitive HB interactions between water molecules and protein surface atoms, and this in turn exacerbates the competitive HB interactions between protein internal atoms, thus enhancing the conformational flexibility and facilitating the collective motions of the protein. A refined FEL model was proposed to explain the role of the solvent mobility in facilitating the cascade amplification of microscopic motions of atoms and atomic groups into the global collective motions of the protein.

  18. Proteinase K-catalyzed synthesis of linear and star oligo(L-phenylalanine) conjugates.

    PubMed

    Ageitos, Jose M; Baker, Peter J; Sugahara, Michihiro; Numata, Keiji

    2013-10-14

    Chemoenzymatic synthesis of peptides is a green and clean chemical reaction that offers high yields without using organic synthesis and serves as an alternative to traditional peptide synthesis methods. This report describes the chemoenzymatic synthesis of oligo(L-phenylalanine) mediated by proteinase K from Tritirachium album, which is one of the most widely used proteases in molecular biological studies. The synthesized linear oligo-phenylalanine showed a unique self-assembly in aqueous solutions. To further functionalize linear oligo(L-phenylalanine) as a low-molecular-weight gelator, it was cosynthesized with tris(2-aminoethyl)amine to obtain star-oligo(L-phenylalanine), which was bioconjugated to demonstrate its self-assembly into fluorescent fibers. The self-assembled fibers of star-oligo(L-phenylalanine) formed fibrous networks with various branching ratios, which depended on the molecular weights and molecular aspect ratios of star-oligo(L-phenylalanine). This is the first study to demonstrate that proteinase K is a suitable enzyme for chemoenzymatic cosynthesis of oligopeptides and star-shaped heteropeptides.

  19. Proteinases involved in the degradation of trypsin inhibitor in germinating mung beans.

    PubMed

    Wilson, K A; Tan-Wilson, A L

    1983-01-01

    The mung bean (Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek) trypsin inhibitor (MBTI) is rapidly modified by limited proteolysis during the early stages of seedling growth. Using an electrophoretic assay that separates the unmodified inhibitor (MBTI-F) and the first two modified species (MBTI-E and -C), a pH optimum of approximately 4 was found for the modification reaction. The inhibitor modifying activity is initially low in ungerminated seeds, with the reaction F leads to E being the primary reaction catalyzed. Activity catalyzing the production of MBTI-C appears on the first day of germination. This activity (F leads to E leads to C) increases up to 6 days after inhibition, at which time the cotyledons begin to abscise. The activity converting MBTI-F and -E to MBTI-C was strongly inhibited by phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride (3.3 mM) but only weakly by iodoacetate (9 mM) and not at all by pepstatin A (9 microM), leupeptin (18 microM), or EDTA (5 mM). These results suggest the involvement of proteinases other than the major endopeptidase of the germinating seed, vicilin peptidohydrolase. This conclusion is further supported by gel filtration of the extracts of cotyledons on Sephacryl S-200. At least three proteinases are present in germinated cotyledons capable of modifying MBTI-F to MBTI-C and/or -E. All are distinguishable from vicilin peptidohydrolase on the basis of their molecular weight and inhibition by low molecular weight organic reagents.

  20. Proteinases, their receptors and inflammatory signalling: the Oxford South Parks Road connection*

    PubMed Central

    Hollenberg, M D

    2015-01-01

    In keeping with the aim of the Paton Memorial Lecture to ‘facilitate the historical study of pharmacology’, this overview, which is my distinct honour to write, represents a ‘Janus-like’ personal perspective looking both backwards and forwards at the birth and growth of ‘receptor molecular pharmacology’ with special relevance to inflammatory diseases. The overview begins in the Oxford Department of Pharmacology in the mid-1960s and then goes on to provide a current perspective of signalling by proteinases. Looking backwards, the synopsis describes the fruitful Oxford Pharmacology Department infrastructure that Bill Paton generated in keeping with the blueprint begun by his predecessor, J H Burn. Looking forwards, the overview illustrates the legacy of that environment in generating some of the first receptor ligand-binding data and providing the inspiration and vision for those like me who were training in the department at the same time. With apologies, I mention only in passing a number of individuals who benefitted from the ‘South Parks Road connection’ using myself as one of the ‘outcome study’ examples. It is also by looking forward that I can meet the complementary aim of summarizing the lecture presented at a ‘BPS 2014 Focused Meeting on Cell Signalling’ to provide an overview of the role of proteinases and their signalling mechanisms in the setting of inflammation. PMID:25521749

  1. The murine Spi-2 proteinase inhibitor locus: a multigene family with a hypervariable reactive site domain.

    PubMed Central

    Inglis, J D; Hill, R E

    1991-01-01

    We have isolated 10 closely linked members of a proteinase inhibitor multigene family from the inbred mouse strain 129. These sequences, termed the Serine Proteinase Inhibitor 2 (Spi-2) genes, appear to have been derived from a common ancestor represented in man by the single copy alpha 1-antichymotrypsin gene. The genes are clustered on two cloned genomic DNA segments spanning 220 kb, and have at least partially retained the intragenic structure of the ancestral Spi-2 gene. Sequence analysis from the final coding exon indicates that most of the mouse genes may be competent to encode functional proteins, some with a predictable inhibitory spectrum, and several representing novel inhibitor types. An oligonucleotide probe designed to one reactive centre sequence enabled the isolation of the cognate expressed transcript from a liver cDNA library. However, whether expressed or not, the reactive centre regions of all the sequences have diverged at a rapid rate relative to structurally defined flanking sequences. The divergence is also appreciably greater than that occurring in an adjacent non-coding sequence. This phenomenon has established novel potential inhibitory specificities, while maintaining a functional inhibitor structure. PMID:1991447

  2. Surface Structures on Cleaved Silicon by Cleavage Luminescence Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Dongguang

    This paper reports on further research into the structure and properties of the cleaved surfaces of silicon, using vacuum cleavage luminescence detection methods. Results show resistance partially recovers during the cleavage process through "crack healing". When the elasticity of the parts transmitting the applied stress temporarily absorbs the initial rupture stress, the crack stops and partially re-closes until the applied force "catches up" and reapplies stress. The high resistance created by the two Schottky barriers prevents resistance recovery from mere surfaces re-contact. Instead, resistance recovery from the atom-to-atom re-closure surface healing is more likely, as expected from a Three Bond Scission Model (TBS) silicon surface structure.

  3. Stille coupling via C–N bond cleavage

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Dong-Yu; Kawahata, Masatoshi; Yang, Ze-Kun; Miyamoto, Kazunori; Komagawa, Shinsuke; Yamaguchi, Kentaro; Wang, Chao; Uchiyama, Masanobu

    2016-01-01

    Cross-coupling is a fundamental reaction in the synthesis of functional molecules, and has been widely applied, for example, to phenols, anilines, alcohols, amines and their derivatives. Here we report the Ni-catalysed Stille cross-coupling reaction of quaternary ammonium salts via C–N bond cleavage. Aryl/alkyl-trimethylammonium salts [Ar/R–NMe3]+ react smoothly with arylstannanes in 1:1 molar ratio in the presence of a catalytic amount of commercially available Ni(cod)2 and imidazole ligand together with 3.0 equivalents of CsF, affording the corresponding biaryl with broad functional group compatibility. The reaction pathway, including C–N bond cleavage step, is proposed based on the experimental and computational findings, as well as isolation and single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis of Ni-containing intermediates. This reaction should be widely applicable for transformation of amines/quaternary ammonium salts into multi-aromatics. PMID:27686744

  4. Stille coupling via C-N bond cleavage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dong-Yu; Kawahata, Masatoshi; Yang, Ze-Kun; Miyamoto, Kazunori; Komagawa, Shinsuke; Yamaguchi, Kentaro; Wang, Chao; Uchiyama, Masanobu

    2016-09-01

    Cross-coupling is a fundamental reaction in the synthesis of functional molecules, and has been widely applied, for example, to phenols, anilines, alcohols, amines and their derivatives. Here we report the Ni-catalysed Stille cross-coupling reaction of quaternary ammonium salts via C-N bond cleavage. Aryl/alkyl-trimethylammonium salts [Ar/R-NMe3]+ react smoothly with arylstannanes in 1:1 molar ratio in the presence of a catalytic amount of commercially available Ni(cod)2 and imidazole ligand together with 3.0 equivalents of CsF, affording the corresponding biaryl with broad functional group compatibility. The reaction pathway, including C-N bond cleavage step, is proposed based on the experimental and computational findings, as well as isolation and single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis of Ni-containing intermediates. This reaction should be widely applicable for transformation of amines/quaternary ammonium salts into multi-aromatics.

  5. Development and application of bond cleavage reactions in bioorthogonal chemistry.

    PubMed

    Li, Jie; Chen, Peng R

    2016-03-01

    Bioorthogonal chemical reactions are a thriving area of chemical research in recent years as an unprecedented technique to dissect native biological processes through chemistry-enabled strategies. However, current concepts of bioorthogonal chemistry have largely centered on 'bond formation' reactions between two mutually reactive bioorthogonal handles. Recently, in a reverse strategy, a collection of 'bond cleavage' reactions has emerged with excellent biocompatibility. These reactions have expanded our bioorthogonal chemistry repertoire, enabling an array of exciting new biological applications that range from the chemically controlled spatial and temporal activation of intracellular proteins and small-molecule drugs to the direct manipulation of intact cells under physiological conditions. Here we highlight the development and applications of these bioorthogonal cleavage reactions. Furthermore, we lay out challenges and propose future directions along this appealing avenue of research.

  6. Brittle cleavage fracture: An overview of some historical aspects

    SciTech Connect

    Paris, P.C.

    1997-12-31

    Many aspects of cleavage fracture were not well understood by the mid-1950s when George R. Irwin coined the term Fracture Mechanics. This discussion will attempt to relate some of the common concepts and misconceptions of that period. The leadership of Dr. Irwin in developing new concepts and methods for clarifying the understanding of brittle fracture will be emphasized here. An essential part of the progress made was to bring together the Engineering Mechanics, Metallurgy, and Physics of the subject into a reasoned balance in trying to further understand the nature of the phenomena. This is illustrated by recalling some of the personalities of that time period and their concepts and claims and how they interacted to make progress toward today`s state of knowledge. Indeed today`s closer ties between fields such as mechanics and metallurgy were in part caused by these requirements of analysis of Brittle Cleavage Fracture.

  7. 4-Dimethylaminoazobenzenes: carcinogenicities and reductive cleavage by microsomal azo reductase.

    PubMed

    Lambooy, J P; Koffman, B M

    1985-01-01

    Twenty-four 4-dimethylaminoazobenzenes (DABs) in which systematic structural modifications have been made in the prime ring have been studied for substrate specificity for microsomal azo reductase. The DABs were also evaluated for carcinogenicity and it was found that there was no correlation between carcinogenicity and extent of azo bond cleavage by azo reductase. While any substituent in the prime ring reduces the rate of cleavage of the azo bond relative to the unsubstituted dye, there is a correlation between substituent size and susceptibility to the enzyme. Substituent size was also found to be a significant factor in the induction of hepatomas by the dyes. Preliminary studies have shown that there appears to be a positive correlation between microsomal riboflavin content and the activity of the azo reductase.

  8. Glutamic Acid Selective Chemical Cleavage of Peptide Bonds.

    PubMed

    Nalbone, Joseph M; Lahankar, Neelam; Buissereth, Lyssa; Raj, Monika

    2016-03-01

    Site-specific hydrolysis of peptide bonds at glutamic acid under neutral aqueous conditions is reported. The method relies on the activation of the backbone amide chain at glutamic acid by the formation of a pyroglutamyl (pGlu) imide moiety. This activation increases the susceptibility of a peptide bond toward hydrolysis. The method is highly specific and demonstrates broad substrate scope including cleavage of various bioactive peptides with unnatural amino acid residues, which are unsuitable substrates for enzymatic hydrolysis.

  9. Cleavage and activation of human factor IX by serine proteases

    SciTech Connect

    Enfield, D.L.; Thompson, A.R.

    1984-10-01

    Human factor IX circulates as a single-chain glycoprotein. Upon activation in vitro, it is cleaved into disulfide-linked light and heavy chains and an activation peptide. After reduction of activated /sup 125/I-factor IX, the heavy and light chains are readily identified by gel electrophoresis. A direct, immunoradiometric assay for factor IXa was developed to assess activation of factor IX for proteases that cleaved it. The assay utilized radiolabeled antithrombin III with heparin to identify the active site and antibodies to distinguish factor IX. After cleavage of factor IX by factor XIa, factor VIIa-tissue thromboplastin complex, or the factor X-activating enzyme from Russell's viper venom, antithrombin III bound readily to factor IXa. Cleavage of /sup 125/I-factor IX by trypsin, chymotrypsin, and granulocyte elastase in the presence of calcium yielded major polypeptide fragments of the sizes of the factor XIa-generated light and heavy chains. When the immunoradiometric assay was used to assess trypsin-cleaved factor IX, the product bound antithrombin III, but not maximally. After digesting with insolubilized trypsin, clotting activity confirmed activation. In evaluating activation of factor IX, physical evidence of activation cleavages does not necessarily correlate with generation of an active site.

  10. Hyperphosphorylation and Cleavage at D421 Enhance Tau Secretion

    PubMed Central

    Rivest-McGraw, Jessica; Bertrand, Johanne; Lauzon, Michel; Leclerc, Nicole

    2012-01-01

    It is well established that tau pathology propagates in a predictable manner in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Moreover, tau accumulates in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of AD’s patients. The mechanisms underlying the propagation of tau pathology and its accumulation in the CSF remain to be elucidated. Recent studies have reported that human tau was secreted by neurons and non-neuronal cells when it was overexpressed indicating that tau secretion could contribute to the spreading of tau pathology in the brain and could lead to its accumulation in the CSF. In the present study, we showed that the overexpression of human tau resulted in its secretion by Hela cells. The main form of tau secreted by these cells was cleaved at the C-terminal. Surprisingly, secreted tau was dephosphorylated at several sites in comparison to intracellular tau which presented a strong immunoreactivity to all phospho-dependent antibodies tested. Our data also revealed that phosphorylation and cleavage of tau favored its secretion by Hela cells. Indeed, the mimicking of phosphorylation at 12 sites known to be phosphorylated in AD enhanced tau secretion. A mutant form of tau truncated at D421, the preferential cleavage site of caspase-3, was also significantly more secreted than wild-type tau. Taken together, our results indicate that hyperphosphorylation and cleavage of tau by favoring its secretion could contribute to the propagation of tau pathology in the brain and its accumulation in the CSF. PMID:22615831

  11. Precocious (pre-anaphase) cleavage furrows in Mesostoma spermatocytes.

    PubMed

    Forer, Arthur; Pickett-Heaps, Jeremy

    2010-08-01

    It generally is assumed that cleavage furrows start ingression at anaphase, but this is not always true. Cleavage furrows are initiated during prometaphase in spermatocytes of the flatworm Mesostoma, becoming detectable soon after the spindles achieve bipolarity. The furrows deepen during prometaphase, but ingression soon arrests. After anaphase the pre-existing furrow recommences its ingression and rapidly cleaves the cell. Such "precocious" furrowing also commonly occurs in diatoms and other algae. The position of the "precocious" cleavage furrow changes when there are changes in the distribution of chromosomes. Each of the 4 unipolarly-oriented univalent chromosomes moves to a pole at the start of prometaphase but later in prometaphase may move to the opposite pole. The furrow position adjusts during prometaphase according to the numbers of univalents at the two poles: when there are two univalent chromosomes at each pole the furrow is symmetrical at the spindle equator, but when there are unequal numbers at the poles the furrow shifts 2-3 microm toward the half-spindle with fewer univalents. Nocodazole causes spindle microtubules to disappear. After addition of nocodazole, bivalents become detached from one pole and move toward the other, which causes the furrow to shift 2-3 microm toward the pole with fewer chromosomes. Furrow positioning thus is sensitive to the positioning of chromosomes in the spindle and furrow positions change in the absence of spindle microtubules. PMID:20434231

  12. DNA photoreacts by nucleobase ring cleavage to form labile isocyanates.

    PubMed

    Buschhaus, Laura; Rolf, Josefin; Kleinermanns, Karl

    2013-11-14

    Differential infrared absorption spectroscopy was used to study the formation of isocyanates and further photo-products in the oligonucleotides dG10, dC10 and dT10 and in their mononucleosides by ultraviolet light at 266 nm. We find that α-cleavage takes place in oligonucleotides and mononucleosides both in films and in solution. The very intense and spectrally isolated isocyanate (N=C=O) asymmetric stretch vibration at 2277 cm(-1) is used as a spectroscopic marker for detection of the photo-product. The band disappears upon reaction with small amounts of water vapour as expected for isocyanates. Quantum yields for isocyanate formation by nucleobase ring cleavage in the α-position to the carbonyl group are ∼5 × 10(-5) in the mononucleosides and up to 5 × 10(-4) in the oligonucleotides. In the mixed oligonucleotides dG10/dC10 and dA10/dT10 the quantum yield of α-cleavage drops by a factor of 10 compared to the single oligonucleotides. Implications for DNA repair and photo-induced DNA-protein cross-linking via isocyanate reaction with NH2 groups of amino acids are discussed.

  13. Photocatalytic cleavage of single TiO2/DNA nanoconjugates.

    PubMed

    Tachikawa, Takashi; Asanoi, Yoshiaki; Kawai, Kiyohiko; Tojo, Sachiko; Sugimoto, Akira; Fujitsuka, Mamoru; Majima, Tetsuro

    2008-01-01

    TiO(2)/DNA nanoconjugates were successfully fabricated by using the catechol moiety as a binding functional group, which was confirmed by steady-state absorption and fluorescence spectroscopies. Upon UV irradiation, the photocatalytic cleavage of the TiO(2)/DNA nanoconjugates was observed at the single-molecule level by using wide-field fluorescence microscopy. The decrease in the number of conjugates, which was estimated from the luminescent spots due to semiconductor quantum dots modified at the DNA strand, was significantly inhibited by a single A/C mismatch in the DNA sequences. This result strongly suggests that the migration of holes, which are injected from the photoexcited TiO(2) into the DNA, through the DNA bases plays an important role in the photocatalytic cleavage of the conjugates. The influences of the photogenerated reactive oxygen species (ROS) on the cleavage efficiency were also examined. According to the experimental results, it was concluded that oxidation of the catechol moiety and/or the DNA damage are key reactions in this process.

  14. Demethylation and cleavage of dimethylsulfoniopropionate in marine intertidal sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Visscher, P.T.; Kiene, R.P.; Taylor, B.F.

    1994-01-01

    Demethylation and cleavage of dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) was measured in three different types of,intertidal marine sediments: a cyanobacterial mat, a diatom-covered tidal flat and a carbonate sediment. Consumption rates of added DMSP were highest in cyanobacterial mat slurries (59 ?? mol DMSP l-1 slurry h-1) and lower in slurries from a diatom mat and a carbonate tidal sediment (24 and 9 ??mol DMSP l-1 h-1, respectively). Dimethyl sulfide (DMS) and 3-mercaptopropionate (MPA) were produced simultaneously during DMSP consumption, indicating that cleavage and demethylation occurred at the same time. Viable counts of DMSP-utilizing bacteria revealed a population of 2 x 107 cells cm-3 sediment (90% of these cleaved DMSP to DMS, 10% demethylated DMSP to MPA) in the cyanobacterial mat, 7 x 105 cells cm-3 in the diatom mat (23% cleavers, 77% demethylators), and 9 x 104 cells cm-3 (20% cleavers and 80% demethylators) in the carbonate sediment. In slurries of the diatom mat, the rate of MPA production from added 3-methiolpropionate (MMPA) was 50% of the rate of MPA formation from DMSP. The presence of a large population of demethylating bacteria and the production of MPA from DMSP suggest that the demethylation pathway, in addition to cleavage, contributes significantly to DMSP consumption in coastal sediments.

  15. Regioselective Cleavage of Thioether Linkages in Microcystin Conjugates.

    PubMed

    Zemskov, Ivan; Kropp, Heike M; Wittmann, Valentin

    2016-07-25

    Microcystins are cyanobacterial toxins that can be found in fresh and coastal waters during algal blooms. Microcystin contamination of water can cause severe poisoning of animals and humans. Quantification of these toxins in biological samples is complicated because a major proportion of microcystins is covalently linked to proteins through thioether bonds formed through a Michael-type addition of cysteine residues of proteins to an N-methyldehydroalanine residue in the microcystins. We investigated chemical methods that can be used to cleave such thioether bonds by means of an elimination reaction that leaves the microcystin backbone intact for subsequent analysis. The known reagent O-mesitylenesulfonylhydroxylamine (MSH) led to regioselective thioether cleavage, but a large excess of reagent was needed, thus making purification challenging. An unexpected side reaction observed during the investigation of the base-induced elimination inspired us to develop a new thioether-cleavage methodology based on the addition of propargylamine as a nucleophile that can trap the elimination product. This methodology could be successfully applied to the quantitative cleavage of a microcystin-LF-glutathione conjugate. The alkyne moiety introduced by this procedure offers the possibility for further reactions with azides by using click chemistry, which might be useful for the derivatization or isolation of microcystins. PMID:27346324

  16. Numerical modeling of ductile tearing effects on cleavage fracture toughness

    SciTech Connect

    Dodds, R.H. Jr.; Tang, M.; Anderson, T.L.

    1994-05-01

    Experimental studies demonstrate a significant effect of specimen size, a/W ratio and prior ductile tearing on cleavage fracture toughness values (J{sub c}) measured in the ductile-to-brittle transition region of ferritic materials. In the lower-transition region, cleavage fracture often occurs under conditions of large-scale yielding but without prior ductile crack extension. The increased toughness develops when plastic zones formed at the crack tip interact with nearby specimen surfaces which relaxes crack-tip constraint (stress triaxiality). In the mid-to-upper transition region, small amounts of ductile crack extension (often < 1-2 mm) routinely precede termination of the J-{Delta}a curve by brittle fracture. Large-scale yielding, coupled with small amounts of ductile tearing, magnifies the impact of small variations in microscale material properties on the macroscopic fracture toughness which contributes to the large amount scatter observed in measured J{sub c}-values. Previous work by the authors described a micromechanics fracture model to correct measured J{sub c}-values for the mechanistic effects of large-scale yielding. This new work extends the model to also include the influence of ductile crack extension prior to cleavage. The paper explores development of the new model, provides necessary graphs and procedures for its application and demonstrates the effects of the model on fracture data sets for two pressure vessel steels (A533B and A515).

  17. [Recent knowledge about intestinal absorption and cleavage of carotenoids].

    PubMed

    Borel, P; Drai, J; Faure, H; Fayol, V; Galabert, C; Laromiguière, M; Le Moël, G

    2005-01-01

    Our knowledge about intestinal absorption and cleavage of carotenoids has rapidly grown during the last years. New facts about carotenoid absorption have emerged while some controversies about cleavage are close to end. The knowledge of the absorption and conversion processes is indispensable to understand and interpret the perturbations that can occur in the metabolism of carotenoids and vitamin A. Recently, it has been shown that the absorption of certain carotenoids is not passive - as believed for a long time - but is a facilitated process that requires, at least for lutein, the class B-type 1 scavenger receptor (SR-B1). Various epidemiological and clinical studies have shown wide variations in carotenoid absorption from one subject to another, such differences are now explained by the structure of the concerned carotenoid, by the nature of the food that is absorbed with the carotenoid, by diverse exogenous factors like the intake of medicines or interfering components, by diet factors, by genetic factors, and by the nutritional status of the subject. Recently, the precise mechanism of beta-carotene cleavage by betabeta-carotene 15,15' monooxygenase (EC 1.14.99.36) - formerly called beta-carotene 15,15' dioxygenase (ex EC 1.13.11.21) - has been discovered, and a second enzyme which cleaves asymmetrically the beta-carotene molecule has been found. beta-carotene 15,15' monooxygenase only acts on the 15,15' bond, thus forming two molecules of retinal from one molecule of beta-carotene by central cleavage. Even though the betabeta-carotene 15,15' monooxygenase is much more active on the beta-carotene molecule, a study has shown that it can act on all carotenoids. Searchers now agree that other enzymes that can catalyse an eccentric cleavage of carotenoids probably exist, but under physiological conditions the betabeta-carotene 15,15' monooxygenase is by far the most active, and it is mainly effective in the small bowel mucosa and in the liver. However the

  18. Solution structure of PMP-C: a new fold in the group of small serine proteinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Mer, G; Hietter, H; Kellenberger, C; Renatus, M; Luu, B; Lefèvre, J F

    1996-04-26

    The solution structure and the disulfide pairings of a 36-residue proteinase inhibitor isolated from the insect Locusta migratoria have been determined using NMR spectroscopy and simulated annealing calculations. The peptide, termed PMP-C, was previously shown to inhibit bovine alpha-chymotrypsin as well as human leukocyte elastase, and was also found to block high-voltage-activated Ca2+ currents in rat sensory neurones. PMP-C has a prolate ellipsoid shape and adopts a tertiary fold hitherto unobserved in the large group of small "canonical" proteinase inhibitors. The over-all fold consists mainly of three strands arranged in a right-handed twisted, antiparallel, beta-sheet that demarcates a cavity, together with a linear amino-terminal segment oriented almost perpendicular to the three strands of the beta-sheet. Inside the cavity a phenyl ring constitutes the centre of a hydrophobic core. The proteinase binding loop is located in the carboxy-terminal part of the molecule, between two cysteine residues involved in disulfide bridges. Its conformation resembles that found in other small canonical proteinase inhibitors. A comparison of PMP-C structure with the recently published solution structure of the related peptide PMP-D2 shows that the most significant differences are complementary changes involved in the stabilization of similar folds. This comparison led us to review the structure of PMP-D2 and to identify two salt bridges in PMP-D2.

  19. Alpha-2-macroglobulin functions as an inhibitor of fibrinolytic, clotting, and neutrophilic proteinases in sepsis: studies using a baboon model.

    PubMed

    de Boer, J P; Creasey, A A; Chang, A; Abbink, J J; Roem, D; Eerenberg, A J; Hack, C E; Taylor, F B

    1993-12-01

    Alpha-2-macroglobulin (alpha 2M) may function as a proteinase inhibitor in vivo. Levels of this protein are decreased in sepsis, but the reason these levels are low is unknown. Therefore, we analyzed the behavior of alpha 2M in a baboon model for sepsis. Upon challenge with a lethal (4 baboons) or a sublethal (10 baboons) dose of Escherichia coli, levels of inactivated alpha 2M (i alpha 2M) steadily increased, the changes being more pronounced in the animals that received the lethal dose. The rise in i alpha 2M significantly correlated with the increase of thrombin-antithrombin III, plasmin-alpha 2-antiplasmin, and, to a lesser extent, with that of elastase-alpha 1-antitrypsin complexes, raising the question of involvement of fibrinolytic, clotting, and neutrophilic proteinases in the inactivation of alpha 2M. Experiments with chromogenic substrates confirmed that thrombin, plasmin, elastase, and cathepsin G indeed had formed complexes with alpha 2M. Changes in alpha 2M similar to those observed in the animals that received E. coli occurred in baboons challenged with Staphylococcus aureus, indicating that alpha 2M formed complexes with the proteinases just mentioned in gram-positive sepsis as well. We conclude that alpha 2M in this baboon model for sepsis is inactivated by formation of complexes with proteinases, derived from activated neutrophils and from fibrinolytic and coagulation cascades. We suggest that similar mechanisms may account for the decreased alpha 2M levels in clinical sepsis.

  20. DNase I and proteinase K impair Listeria monocytogenes biofilm formation and induce dispersal of pre-existing biofilms.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Uyen T; Burrows, Lori L

    2014-09-18

    Current sanitation methods in the food industry are not always sufficient for prevention or dispersal of Listeria monocytogenes biofilms. Here, we determined if prevention of adherence or dispersal of existing biofilms could occur if biofilm matrix components were disrupted enzymatically. Addition of DNase during biofilm formation reduced attachment (<50% of control) to polystyrene. Treatment of established 72h biofilms with 100μg/ml of DNase for 24h induced incomplete biofilm dispersal, with <25% biofilm remaining compared to control. In contrast, addition of proteinase K completely inhibited biofilm formation, and 72h biofilms-including those grown under stimulatory conditions-were completely dispersed with 100μg/ml proteinase K. Generally-regarded-as-safe proteases bromelain and papain were less effective dispersants than proteinase K. In a time course assay, complete dispersal of L. monocytogenes biofilms from both polystyrene and type 304H food-grade stainless steel occurred within 5min at proteinase K concentrations above 25μg/ml. These data confirm that both DNA and proteins are required for L. monocytogenes biofilm development and maintenance, and that these components of the biofilm matrix can be targeted for effective prevention and removal of biofilms.

  1. A serine proteinase inhibitor isolated from Tamarindus indica seeds and its effects on the release of human neutrophil elastase.

    PubMed

    Fook, J M S L L; Macedo, L L P; Moura, G E D D; Teixeira, F M; Oliveira, A S; Queiroz, A F S; Sales, M P

    2005-05-01

    Proteinaceous inhibitors with high inhibitory activities against human neutrophil elastase (HNE) were found in seeds of the Tamarind tree (Tamarindus indica). A serine proteinase inhibitor denoted PG50 was purified using ammonium sulphate and acetone precipitation followed by Sephacryl S-300 and Sephadex G-50 gel filtration chromatographies. Inhibitor PG50 showed a Mr of 14.9 K on Sephadex G-50 calibrated column and a Mr of 11.6 kDa on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. PG50 had selective activity while cysteine proteinases (papain and bromelain) and serine proteinases (porcine pancreatic elastase and bovine chymotrypsin) were not inhibited, it was strongly effective against serine proteinases such as bovine trypsin and isolated human neutrophil elastase. The IC50 value was determined to be 55.96 microg.mL-1. PG50 showed neither cytotoxic nor haemolytic activity on human blood cells. After pre-incubation of PG50 with cytochalasin B, the exocytosis of elastase was initiated using PAF and fMLP. PG50 exhibited different inhibition on elastase release by PAF, at 44.6% and on release by fMLP, at 28.4%. These results showed that PG50 preferentially affected elastase release by PAF stimuli and this may indicate selective inhibition on PAF receptors.

  2. Effects of cysteine proteinase inhibitors scN and E-64 on southern corn rootworm larval development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The southern corn rootworm (SCRW) can be a serious pest of peanut pods. A laboratory bioassay was developed to test feeding cysteine proteinase inhibitors soyacystatin N (scN) and E-64 against southern corn rootworm reared on artificial diet to determine the effects on larvae development and mortal...

  3. Enzymatic degradation of poly(L-lactide) film by proteinase K: quartz crystal microbalance and atomic force microscopy study.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Koichi; Kikkawa, Yoshihiro; Kurokawa, Kenji; Doi, Yoshiharu

    2005-01-01

    Enzymatic degradation of the poly(L-lactide) (PLLA) amorphous film by proteinase K has been investigated by combination of the complementary techniques of quartz crystal microbalance and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The erosion rate increased with increasing enzyme concentrations and attained to be constant under the condition of [proteinase K] > 100 microg/mL. The amount of the enzyme molecules adsorbed to the film was quantitatively evaluated at various concentrations by AFM, and it revealed that the erosion rate is determined by the amount of adsorbed enzyme. Adsorption of proteinase K was irreversible despite lack of the binding domain, so that the enzyme molecules on the film surface could be observed directly by AFM. Transformation of the enzyme molecule caused by packing in high density on the surface was observed at higher enzyme concentrations. The "footprint" of the individual proteinase K molecule on the PLLA film after enzymatic degradation suggests that the enzyme moves on the surface to hydrolyze the film around it.

  4. Phospholipase, proteinase and haemolytic activities of Candida albicans isolated from oral cavities of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Tsang, C S P; Chu, F C S; Leung, W K; Jin, L J; Samaranayake, L P; Siu, S C

    2007-10-01

    The aim of this study was to biotype and characterize phospholipase, proteinase and haemolytic activities of oral Candida albicans isolates from 210 Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) and 210 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Seventy-six and 50 C. albicans isolates were obtained from type 2 DM patients and controls, respectively, using the oral rinse technique. The isolates were characterized with a biotyping system based on enzyme profiles, carbohydrate assimilation patterns and boric acid resistance of the yeasts, and the isolates were further tested for in vitro phospholipase, proteinase and haemolytic activities. The major biotypes of C. albicans isolates from the type 2 DM and control groups were A1R (42.1 %) and J1R (36.0 %), respectively. Significantly higher proteinase and haemolytic activities were found in the isolates from the type 2 DM group (P<0.05). Proteinase activity was higher in isolates from patients with > or =10 years of DM history than those with <10 years (P<0.05). Haemolytic activity was significantly higher in isolates from female DM patients than in those from male counterparts (P<0.05). These data provide evidence of increased extracellular enzyme activity in Candida isolates taken from DM patients.

  5. Mapping of the Proteinase B Structural Gene PRB1, in SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE and Identification of Nonsense Alleles within the Locus

    PubMed Central

    Zubenko, George S.; Mitchell, Aaron P.; Jones, Elizabeth W.

    1980-01-01

    We report the mapping of the structural gene for proteinase B, PRB1. It is located 1.1 cM proximal to CAN1 on the left arm of chromosome V of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We have identified 34 amber and 12 ochre mutations among the 126 prb1 mutations in our collection. PMID:7009321

  6. Simultaneous isolation of the yeast cytosol and well-preserved mitochondria with negligible contamination by vacuolar proteinases.

    PubMed

    Schwencke, J; Canut, H; Flores, A

    1983-06-13

    Disruption of yeast spheroplasts by DEAE-dextran in isoosmotic conditions allows isolation of relatively undamaged subcellular fractions from yeast. The preservation of mitochondria and vacuoles permits the simultaneous isolation of the cytosol with negligible contamination by vacuolar proteinases and therefore, virtually eliminates proteolytic artefacts.

  7. Divalent metals stabilize cellular prion proteins and alter the rate of proteinase-K dependent limited proteolysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: The key biochemical event in the pathogenesis of prion diseases is the conversion of normal cellular prion proteins (PrP**c) to the proteinase K (PK) resistant, abnormal form (PrP**sc); however, the cellular mechanisms underlying the conversion remain enigmatic. Binding of divalent ca...

  8. Highly conserved salt bridge stabilizes a proteinase K subfamily enzyme, Aqualysin I, from Thermus aquaticus YT-1.

    PubMed

    Sakaguchi, Masayoshi; Osaku, Kanae; Maejima, Susumu; Ohno, Nao; Sugahara, Yasusato; Oyama, Fumitaka; Kawakita, Masao

    2014-01-01

    The proteinase K subfamily enzymes, thermophilic Aqualysin I (AQN) from Thermus aquaticus YT-1 and psychrophilic serine protease (VPR) from Vibrio sp. PA-44, have six and seven salt bridges, respectively. To understand the possible significance of salt bridges in the thermal stability of AQN, we prepared mutant proteins in which amino acid residues participating in salt bridges common to proteinase K subfamily members and intrinsic to AQN were replaced to disrupt the bridges one at a time. Disruption of a salt bridge common to proteinase K subfamily enzymes in the D183N mutant resulted in a significant reduction in thermal stability, and a massive change in the content of the secondary structure was observed, even at 70°C, in the circular dichroism (CD) analysis. These results indicate that the common salt bridge Asp183-Arg12 is important in maintaining the conformation of proteinase K subfamily enzymes and suggest the importance of proximity between the regions around Asp183 and the N-terminal region around Arg12. Of the three mutants that lack an AQN intrinsic salt bridge, D212N was more prone to unfolding at 80°C than the wild-type enzyme. Similarly, D17N and E237Q were less thermostable than the wild-type enzyme, although this may be partially due to increased autolysis. The AQN intrinsic salt bridges appear to confer additional thermal stability to this enzyme. These findings will further our understanding of the factors involved in stabilizing protein structure.

  9. DNase I and proteinase K impair Listeria monocytogenes biofilm formation and induce dispersal of pre-existing biofilms.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Uyen T; Burrows, Lori L

    2014-09-18

    Current sanitation methods in the food industry are not always sufficient for prevention or dispersal of Listeria monocytogenes biofilms. Here, we determined if prevention of adherence or dispersal of existing biofilms could occur if biofilm matrix components were disrupted enzymatically. Addition of DNase during biofilm formation reduced attachment (<50% of control) to polystyrene. Treatment of established 72h biofilms with 100μg/ml of DNase for 24h induced incomplete biofilm dispersal, with <25% biofilm remaining compared to control. In contrast, addition of proteinase K completely inhibited biofilm formation, and 72h biofilms-including those grown under stimulatory conditions-were completely dispersed with 100μg/ml proteinase K. Generally-regarded-as-safe proteases bromelain and papain were less effective dispersants than proteinase K. In a time course assay, complete dispersal of L. monocytogenes biofilms from both polystyrene and type 304H food-grade stainless steel occurred within 5min at proteinase K concentrations above 25μg/ml. These data confirm that both DNA and proteins are required for L. monocytogenes biofilm development and maintenance, and that these components of the biofilm matrix can be targeted for effective prevention and removal of biofilms. PMID:25043896

  10. Alpha-2-macroglobulin functions as an inhibitor of fibrinolytic, clotting, and neutrophilic proteinases in sepsis: studies using a baboon model.

    PubMed Central

    de Boer, J P; Creasey, A A; Chang, A; Abbink, J J; Roem, D; Eerenberg, A J; Hack, C E; Taylor, F B

    1993-01-01

    Alpha-2-macroglobulin (alpha 2M) may function as a proteinase inhibitor in vivo. Levels of this protein are decreased in sepsis, but the reason these levels are low is unknown. Therefore, we analyzed the behavior of alpha 2M in a baboon model for sepsis. Upon challenge with a lethal (4 baboons) or a sublethal (10 baboons) dose of Escherichia coli, levels of inactivated alpha 2M (i alpha 2M) steadily increased, the changes being more pronounced in the animals that received the lethal dose. The rise in i alpha 2M significantly correlated with the increase of thrombin-antithrombin III, plasmin-alpha 2-antiplasmin, and, to a lesser extent, with that of elastase-alpha 1-antitrypsin complexes, raising the question of involvement of fibrinolytic, clotting, and neutrophilic proteinases in the inactivation of alpha 2M. Experiments with chromogenic substrates confirmed that thrombin, plasmin, elastase, and cathepsin G indeed had formed complexes with alpha 2M. Changes in alpha 2M similar to those observed in the animals that received E. coli occurred in baboons challenged with Staphylococcus aureus, indicating that alpha 2M formed complexes with the proteinases just mentioned in gram-positive sepsis as well. We conclude that alpha 2M in this baboon model for sepsis is inactivated by formation of complexes with proteinases, derived from activated neutrophils and from fibrinolytic and coagulation cascades. We suggest that similar mechanisms may account for the decreased alpha 2M levels in clinical sepsis. PMID:7693593

  11. Nanolithography of Amyloid Precursor Protein Cleavage with β-Secretase by Atomic Force Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Han, Sung-Woong; Shin, Hoon-Kyu; Adachi, Taiji

    2016-03-01

    Cleavage of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) by secretases is critical in neural cell processes including the pathway for neural cell proliferation and that underlying the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Understanding the mechanism of APP cleavage and development of a convenient tool for the accurate evaluation of APP cleavage intensity by secretases are very important in the development of new AD therapeutic targets. In this study, we developed a sophisticated technology to evaluate the APP cleavage mechanism at the nano-molecular level by atomic force microscopic (AFM) nanolithography. APP was modified on a glass substrate; nanolithography of APP cleavage by β-secretase-modified AFM probe scanning was achieved. APP cleavage was verified by the AFM imaging and the fluorescent immunostaining. The present method will be very useful in understanding the molecular level of the APP cleavage mechanism by β-secretase in vitro; this method will facilitate inhibitor screening for the therapeutic target of AD. PMID:27280252

  12. Alterations in cysteine proteinase content of rat lung associated with development of Pneumocystis carinii infection.

    PubMed Central

    Hayes, D J; Stubberfield, C R; McBride, J D; Wilson, D L

    1991-01-01

    The rate of hydrolysis of three cysteine-type proteinase substrates, N-benzyloxycarbonyl-Arg-Arg-4-methyl-7-coumarylamide (AMC) (cathepsin B), Arg-AMC (cathepsin H), and N-benzyloxycarbonyl-Phe-Arg-AMC (cathepsin L), were determined in rat lung throughout the time course of the induction of Pneumocystis carinii infection by immunosuppression. Cathepsin B-like and cathepsin L-like activities fell below control values initially, but from week 8 of the immunosuppressive treatment significant increases above the control were noted. Cathepsin H-like activity was greater than control levels from week 3, and by week 12 it was 7,600% of the mean control value. When compared with the relative degree of infection, as assessed from the number of cysts present in lung impression smears, cathepsin B-like and cathepsin L-like activities were significantly increased only at heavy parasite burdens while cathepsin H-like activity displayed a close correlation with parasite number (r = 0.884; P less than 0.001). Activity was detected in lysates of purified P. carinii with all three substrates. Treatment of heavily infected animals with co-trimoxazole cleared the lungs of P. carinii, and this was accompanied by a marked reduction in proteinase activity, in particular, cathepsin H-like activity, which fell from 108- to 3-fold the mean control value following drug treatment. Analysis of cathepsin H isozyme patterns by fluorography following isoelectric focusing revealed differences between treated and control lung samples. In the immunosuppressed group, there was a time-dependent increase in the intensity of some of the bands observed in the controls and an appearance of several novel bands which corresponded to bands observed in lysates of P. carinii. It is likely, therefore, that the increased proteinase activity observed in the treated group is due, at least in part, to isozymes from P. carinii; consequently, cathepsin H-like activity might be of use diagnostically in the

  13. Serum concentrations of canine alpha(1)-proteinase inhibitor in cobalamin-deficient Yorkshire Terrier dogs.

    PubMed

    Grützner, Niels; Heilmann, Romy M; Bridges, Cory S; Suchodolski, Jan S; Steiner, Jörg M

    2013-05-01

    Fecal canine alpha1-proteinase inhibitor (cα1-PI) concentration has been reported to be increased in dogs with protein-losing enteropathy due to the loss of cα1-PI into the gastrointestinal tract. A chronic loss of cα1-PI may theoretically deplete serum cα1-PI, potentially altering the proteinase-to-proteinase inhibitor balance. Protein-losing enteropathy has been reported to occur frequently in certain dog breeds such as Yorkshire Terriers and to be associated with hypocobalaminemia. The objective was to compare serum cα1-PI concentrations in Yorkshire Terriers with and without cobalamin (COB) deficiency. Serum samples from 52 COB-deficient and 69 normocobalaminemic Yorkshire Terriers, which had been submitted to the Gastrointestinal Laboratory (2008-2011; College Station, TX), were included retrospectively. Serum cα1-PI concentrations were measured using an in-house radioimmunoassay and compared between Yorkshire Terriers with and without COB deficiency using a Mann-Whitney U test. A Fisher exact test was used to evaluate whether a decreased serum cα1-PI concentration is associated with COB deficiency in Yorkshire Terriers. Serum cα1-PI concentrations were significantly lower in COB-deficient Yorkshire Terriers (median: 1,016 mg/l, range: 315-3,945 mg/l) than in normocobalaminemic Yorkshire Terriers (median: 1,665 mg/l, range: 900-2,970 mg/l; P < 0.0001). One-fourth (n = 13) of the COB-deficient Yorkshire Terriers had a serum cα1-PI concentration below the lower limit of the reference interval (<732 mg/l), and COB deficiency was associated with decreased serum cα1-PI concentrations (P < 0.0001). In the current study, serum cα1-PI concentrations are significantly lower in COB-deficient Yorkshire Terriers when compared to normocobalaminemic Yorkshire Terriers. Further studies are needed to determine the functional and potential prognostic implications of serum cα1-PI concentrations in dogs with gastrointestinal disease.

  14. Comparison of specific activity and cytopathic effects of purified 33 kDa serine proteinase from Acanthamoeba strains with different degree of virulence

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Won-Tae; Kong, Hyun-Hee; Ha, Young-Ran; Hong, Yeon-Chul; Jeong, Hae Jin; Yu, Hak Sun

    2006-01-01

    The pathogenic mechanism of granulomatous amebic encephalitis (GAE) and amebic keratitis (AK) by Acanthamoeba has yet to be clarified. Protease has been recognized to play an important role in the pathogenesis of GAE and AK. In the present study, we have compared specific activity and cytopathic effects (CPE) of purified 33 kDa serine proteinases from Acanthamoeba strains with different degree of virulence (A. healyi OC-3A, A. lugdunensis KA/E2, and A. castellanii Neff). Trophozoites of the 3 strains revealed different degrees of CPE on human corneal epithelial (HCE) cells. The effect was remarkably reduced by adding phenylmethylsulfonylfluoride (PMSF), a serine proteinase inhibitor. This result indicated that PMSF-susceptible proteinase is the main component causing cytopathy to HCE cells by Acanthamoeba. The purified 33 kDa serine proteinase showed strong activity toward HCE cells and extracellular matrix proteins. The purified proteinase from OC-3A, the most virulent strain, demonstrated the highest enzyme activity compared to KA/E2, an ocular isolate, and Neff, a soil isolate. Polyclonal antibodies against the purified 33 kDa serine proteinase inhibit almost completely the proteolytic activity of culture supernatant of Acanthamoeba. In line with these results, the 33 kDa serine proteinase is suggested to play an important role in pathogenesis and to be the main component of virulence factor of Acanthamoeba. PMID:17170574

  15. Formation of biogenic amines in raw milk Hispánico cheese manufactured with proteinases and different levels of starter culture.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-García, E; Tomillo, J; Nuñez, M

    2000-11-01

    Two proteinases, a neutral proteinase from Bacillus subtilis and a cysteine proteinase from Micrococcus sp., were used to accelerate the ripening process of raw cow's milk Hispánico cheese, a semihard variety. Two levels (0.1% and 1%) of a commercial starter culture containing Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis and L. lactis subsp. cremoris were added for cheese manufacture. The influence of both factors, proteinase addition and level of starter culture, on the growth of amino acid-decarboxylating microorganisms and on the formation of biogenic amines during cheese ripening was investigated in duplicate experiments. The population of tyrosine decarboxylase-positive bacteria, which represented less than 1% of the total bacterial population in most cheese samples, and tyrosine decarboxylase-positive lactobacilli was not influenced by proteinase addition or level of starter culture. Tyramine was detected in all batches of cheese from day 30. Its concentration was significantly (P < 0.05) influenced by proteinase addition but not by the level of starter culture and increased with cheese age. After 90 days of ripening, 103 to 191 mg/kg of tyramine was found in the different cheese batches. Histamine was not detected until day 60 in cheese with neutral proteinase and 1% starter culture and until day 90 in the rest of the cheeses. The concentration of this amine did not exceed 20 mg/kg in any of the batches investigated. Phenylethylamine and tryptamine were not found in any of the samples.

  16. Small molecule activators of pre-mRNA 3′ cleavage

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, Kevin; Khleborodova, Asya; Pan, Jingyi; Ryan, Xiaozhou P.

    2009-01-01

    3′ Cleavage and polyadenylation are obligatory steps in the biogenesis of most mammalian pre-mRNAs. In vitro reconstitution of the 3′ cleavage reaction from human cleavage factors requires high concentrations of creatine phosphate (CP), though how CP activates cleavage is not known. Previously, we proposed that CP might work by competitively inhibiting a cleavage-suppressing serine/threonine (S/T) phosphatase. Here we show that fluoride/EDTA, a general S/T phosphatase inhibitor, activates in vitro cleavage in place of CP. Subsequent testing of inhibitors specific for different S/T phosphatases showed that inhibitors of the PPM family of S/T phosphatases, which includes PP2C, but not the PPP family, which includes PP1, PP2A, and PP2B, activated 3′ cleavage in vitro. In particular, NCI 83633, an inhibitor of PP2C, activated extensive 3′ cleavage at a concentration 50-fold below that required by fluoride or CP. The testing of structural analogs led to the identification of a more potent compound that activated 3′ cleavage at 200 μM. While testing CP analogs to understand the origin of its cleavage activation effect, we found phosphocholine to be a more effective activator than CP. The minimal structural determinants of 3′ cleavage activation by phosphocholine were identified. Our results describe a much improved small molecule activator of in vitro pre-mRNA cleavage, identify the molecular determinants of cleavage activation by phosphoamines such as phosphocholine, and suggest that a PPM family phosphatase is involved in the negative regulation of mammalian pre-mRNA 3′ cleavage. PMID:19155323

  17. The synthesis, kinetic characterization and application of biotinylated aminoacylchloromethanes for the detection of chymotrypsin and trypsin-like serine proteinases.

    PubMed Central

    Kay, G; Bailie, J R; Halliday, I M; Nelson, J; Walker, B

    1992-01-01

    The synthesis of two biotinylated affinity labels for chymotrypsin and trypsin-like serine proteinases is described, along with their kinetic characterization and application to the detection of these proteinases after PAGE and Western blotting. Thus the chloromethane analogues biotinylphenylalanylchloromethane (Bio-Phe-CH2Cl; reagent 1) and biotinylarginylchloromethane (Bio-Arg-CH2Cl, reagent 2), have been shown to be potent active-site-directed inactivators of chymotrypsin and trypsin respectively. The apparent overall second-order rate constants (kobs./[I]) for the inactivation of chymotrypsin and trypsin by reagent 1 (approximately 4.9 x 10(3) M-1.min-1) and reagent 2 (approximately 1.0 x 10(5) M-1.min-1) respectively are comparable with those obtained by other workers with simple urethane-protected analogues and demonstrates that the presence of the bulky biotinyl moiety is compatible with inhibitor effectiveness. Samples of chymotrypsin and trypsin that have been inactivated by reagents 1 and 2 respectively and which have been subjected to SDS/PAGE and Western blotting can be revealed with a streptavidin/alkaline phosphatase label. We can presently detect down to 20 ng of inactivated proteinase by using this system. The utility of the arginine derivative for the detection of the plasma trypsin-like proteinases plasmin and thrombin has also been demonstrated, thus holding out the possibility that this reagent may find general application as an active-site-directed label for this class of proteinase. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. PMID:1575691

  18. Purification and some physico-chemical and enzymic properties of a calcium ion-activated neutral proteinase from rabbit skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Azanza, Jean-Louis; Raymond, Jacques; Robin, Jean-Michel; Cottin, Patrick; Ducastaing, André

    1979-01-01

    Ca2+-activated neutral proteinase was purified from rabbit skeletal muscle by a method involving DEAE-Sephacel chromatography, affinity chromatography on organomercurial–Sepharose and gel filtration on Sephacryl S-200 and Sephadex G-150. The SDS (sodium dodecyl sulphate)/polyacrylamide-gel-electrophoresis data show that the purified enzyme contains only one polypeptide chain of mol.wt. 73000. The purification procedure used allowed us to eliminate a contaminant containing two components of mol.wt. about 30000 each. Whole casein or α1-casein were hydrolysed with a maximum rate at 30°C, pH7.5, and with 5mm-CaCl2, but myofibrils were found to be a very susceptible substrate for this proteinase. This activity is associated with the destruction of the Z-discs, which is caused by the solubilization of the Z-line proteins. The activity of the proteinase in vitro is not limited to the removal of Z-line. SDS/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis on larger plates showed the ability of the proteinase to degrade myofibrils more extensively than previously supposed. This proteolysis resulted in the production of a 30000-dalton component as well as in various other higher- and lower-molecular-weight peptide fragments. Troponin T, troponin I, α-tropomyosin, some high-molecular-weight proteins (M protein, heavy chain of myosin) and three unidentified proteins are degraded. Thus the number of proteinase-sensitive regions in the myofibrils is greater than as previously reported by Dayton, Goll, Zeece, Robson & Reville [(1976) Biochemistry 15, 2150–2158]. The Ca2+-activated neutral proteinase is not a chymotrypsin- or trypsin-like enzyme, but it reacted with all the classic thiol-proteinase inhibitors for cathepsin B, papain, bromelain and ficin. Thus the proteinase was proved to have an essential thiol group. Antipain and leupeptin are also inhibitors of the Ca2+-activated neutral proteinase. ImagesFig. 1.Fig. 2.Fig. 3. PMID:534501

  19. A theoretical study of the active sites of papain and S195C rat trypsin: implications for the low reactivity of mutant serine proteinases.

    PubMed Central

    Beveridge, A. J.

    1996-01-01

    The serine and cysteine proteinases represent two important classes of enzymes that use a catalytic triad to hydrolyze peptides and esters. The active site of the serine proteinases consists of three key residues, Asp...His...Ser. The hydroxyl group of serine functions as a nucleophile and the imidazole ring of histidine functions as a general acid/general base during catalysis. Similarly, the active site of the cysteine proteinases also involves three key residues: Asn, His, and Cys. The active site of the cysteine proteinases is generally believed to exist as a zwitterion (Asn...His+...Cys-) with the thiolate anion of the cysteine functioning as a nucleophile during the initial stages of catalysis. Curiously, the mutant serine proteinases, thiol subtilisin and thiol trypsin, which have the hybrid Asp...His...Cys triad, are almost catalytically inert. In this study, ab initio Hartree-Fock calculations have been performed on the active sites of papain and the mutant serine proteinase S195C rat trypsin. These calculations predict that the active site of papain exists predominately as a zwitterion (Cys-...His+...Asn). However, similar calculations on S195C rat trypsin demonstrate that the thiol mutant is unable to form a reactive thiolate anion prior to catalysis. Furthermore, structural comparisons between native papain and S195C rat trypsin have demonstrated that the spatial juxtapositions of the triad residues have been inverted in the serine and cysteine proteinases and, on this basis, I argue that it is impossible to convert a serine proteinase to a cysteine proteinase by site-directed mutagenesis. PMID:8819168

  20. Alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor is more sensitive to inactivation by cigarette smoke than is leukocyte elastase

    SciTech Connect

    Janoff, A.; Dearing, R.

    1982-10-01

    Aqueous solutions of gas phase cigarette smoke were incubated with pure human leukocyte elastase or with crude human leukocyte granule extract, and the effects on enzyme activity were determined using a synthetic amide substrate. Simultaneously, the same smoke solutions were incubated with 10% human serum under identical conditions, and the effects on serum inhibition of purified or crude leukocyte elastase were similarly measured. In addition, aqueous solutions of unfractionated cigarette smoke were incubated with leukocyte elastase or serum, and the abilities of the smoke-treated enzyme to digest elastin and of the smoke-treated serum to inhibit elastin digestion were determined. Both experimental protocols showed that serum elastase-inhibiting capacity (primarily caused by alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor) is more susceptible to inactivation by aqueous solutions of cigarette smoke than is leukocyte elastase, suggesting that elastase inhibition (rather than elastase activity) may be predominantly suppressed by cigarette smoke inhalation in vivo.

  1. Proteinase-activated receptor 2 is involved in the behavioural changes associated with sickness behaviour.

    PubMed

    Abulkassim, Roua; Brett, Ros; MacKenzie, Scott M; Bushell, Trevor J

    2016-06-15

    Proteinase-activated receptor-2 (PAR2) is widely expressed in the CNS but whether it plays a key role in inflammation-related behavioural changes remains unknown. Hence, in the present study we have examined whether PAR2 contributes to behaviour associated with systemic inflammation using PAR2 transgenic mice. The onset of sickness behaviour was delayed and the recovery accelerated in PAR2(-/-) mice in the LPS-induced model of sickness behaviour. In contrast, PAR2 does not contribute to behaviour under normal conditions. In conclusion, these data suggest that PAR2 does not contribute to behaviour in the normal healthy brain but it plays a role in inflammation-related behavioural changes.

  2. Role of calcium-dependent proteinase in molt-induced claw muscle atrophy

    SciTech Connect

    Mykles, D.L.; Skinner, D.M.

    1984-01-01

    The claw closer muscle of the Bermuda land crab Gecarcinus lateralis undergoes a sequential atrophy and restoration during each intermolt cycle. Muscle protein decreases 40% during proecdysis and is restored following ecdysis. Amino acid incorporation into protein of postecdysial muscle is five times greater than that in anecdysial muscle. Since the rates of protein synthesis in anecdysial and proecdysial muscle are the same it appears that proecdysial muscle atrophy is caused primarily by an increase in protein degradation. A calcium-dependent proteinase (CDP) active at neutral pH has been implicated in the nonlysosomal hydrolysis of myofibrillar proteins. We have examined the role of a CDP in atrophy of the claw closer muscle. The many similarities between crustacean and vertebrate CDPs have established this crustacean system as a simple and convenient model for the role of Ca/sup 2 +/-dependent proteolysis in myofibrillar protein turnover and its manifestation in the structure of the sarcomere. 16 references, 8 figures. (ACR)

  3. A four-straight-line model for the proteinase-binding characteristics of human blood serum.

    PubMed Central

    Topping, R M; Seilman, S

    1979-01-01

    Kinetic evaluation of the capacity of human blood serum to form complexes with bovine trypsin generated partition profiles that may be approximated by a series of four intersecting straight lines. Such profiles are suggested to reflect the binding of trypsin to alpha 2-macroglobulin in a kinetically preferred mode (alpha-sites), followed by a subsidiary mode (beta-sites) and finally to alpha 1-antitrypsin. The form of the profile, in addition to revealing a hitherto unreported proteinase-binding capability of alpha 2-macroglobulin (beta-sites), also indicates that saturation of alpha-sites corresponds to a molar binding ratio of alpha 2-macroglobulin/trypsin of 1:2. Finally the profile provides, for certain pathological states, a clinically valuable characteristic. PMID:435247

  4. Plants that express a potyvirus proteinase gene are resistant to virus infection.

    PubMed Central

    Maiti, I B; Murphy, J F; Shaw, J G; Hunt, A G

    1993-01-01

    Transgenic tobacco plants that express the genome-linked protein/proteinase-coding region of the potyvirus tobacco vein mottling virus (TVMV) were produced and tested for their reaction to inoculation with TVMV and two other potyviruses. These plants did not develop disease symptoms after being inoculated with large doses of TVMV but were as susceptible to infection by the other potyviruses as were control plants. Lines of tobacco that express the coat protein- or the nonstructural cylindrical inclusion protein-coding regions were also produced. The coat protein transgenic plants were protected against all three potyviruses, and the cylindrical inclusion transgenic plants were susceptible to all three potyviruses. These results indicate that some, but not all, TVMV genes can be used to confer protection against potyviruses in plants. The results also suggest that combinations of viral genes in transgenic plants might improve protection against potyviruses. Images Fig. 2 PMID:8327491

  5. Trichomonas vaginalis Cysteine Proteinases: Iron Response in Gene Expression and Proteolytic Activity

    PubMed Central

    Cárdenas-Guerra, Rosa Elena; Figueroa-Angulo, Elisa Elvira; Puente-Rivera, Jonathan; Zamudio-Prieto, Olga; Ortega-López, Jaime

    2015-01-01

    We focus on the iron response of Trichomonas vaginalis to gene family products such as the cysteine proteinases (CPs) involved in virulence properties. In particular, we examined the effect of iron on the gene expression regulation and function of cathepsin L-like and asparaginyl endopeptidase-like CPs as virulence factors. We addressed some important aspects about CPs genomic organization and we offer possible explanations to the fact that only few members of this large gene family are expressed at the RNA and protein levels and the way to control their proteolytic activity. We also summarized all known iron regulations of CPs at transcriptional, posttranscriptional, and posttranslational levels along with new insights into the possible epigenetic and miRNA processes. PMID:26090464

  6. Trichomonas vaginalis Cysteine Proteinases: Iron Response in Gene Expression and Proteolytic Activity.

    PubMed

    Arroyo, Rossana; Cárdenas-Guerra, Rosa Elena; Figueroa-Angulo, Elisa Elvira; Puente-Rivera, Jonathan; Zamudio-Prieto, Olga; Ortega-López, Jaime

    2015-01-01

    We focus on the iron response of Trichomonas vaginalis to gene family products such as the cysteine proteinases (CPs) involved in virulence properties. In particular, we examined the effect of iron on the gene expression regulation and function of cathepsin L-like and asparaginyl endopeptidase-like CPs as virulence factors. We addressed some important aspects about CPs genomic organization and we offer possible explanations to the fact that only few members of this large gene family are expressed at the RNA and protein levels and the way to control their proteolytic activity. We also summarized all known iron regulations of CPs at transcriptional, posttranscriptional, and posttranslational levels along with new insights into the possible epigenetic and miRNA processes.

  7. Itraconazole-resistant Candida auris with phospholipase, proteinase and hemolysin activity from a case of vulvovaginitis.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Dharmendra; Banerjee, Tuhina; Pratap, Chandra Bhan; Tilak, Ragini

    2015-04-15

    Since the emergence of pathogenic non-albicans Candida species, a number of new isolates have been added to the list. One such unusual species is Candida auris (C. auris), recently isolated and studied in few reports. In this study, a case of vulvovaginitis caused by Candida auris incidentally identified by molecular methods using internal transcribed spacer polymerase chain reaction (ITS PCR) is described. Antifungal susceptibility testing revealed the isolate to be resistant to itraconazole (MIC ≥ 2 µg/ml) and expressed important virulence factors including phospholipase, proteinase and hemolysin activity. The patient was successfully treated with oral fluconazole and did not have any invasive fungemia. Very few cases of this emerging pathogen have been reported. However, its isolation from clinical specimens reveals the significance of non-albicans candida species over C. albicans and the diversity of Candida spp causing infections.

  8. [Effect of proteinaceous proteinase inhibitors from potato tubers on the growth and development of phytopathogenic microorganisms].

    PubMed

    Revina, T A; Gerasimova, N G; Kladnitskaia, G V; Chalenko, G I; Valueva, T A

    2008-01-01

    We studied the effect of two proteins, PSPI-21 and PKSI, on the growth and development of phytopathogenic microorganisms (Phytophthora infestans oomycete and Fusarium culmorum fungus). Both proteins were isolated from potato tubers (Solanum tuberosum L., cv. Istrinskii) and served as inhibitors of serine proteinases. These proteins differed in the ability to inhibit growth of Phytophthora infestans oomycete and Fusarium culmorum fungus. PSPI-21 was the most potent in modulating the growth of oomycete mycelium. PKSI primarily affected the growth of the fungal mycelium. The proteins under study induced complete destruction of oomycete zoospores and partial destruction of fungal macroconidia. Our results suggest that these proteins are involved in the protection of potato plants from phytopathogenic microorganisms.

  9. Quantification of the degree of biotinylation of proteins using proteinase K digestion and competition ELISA.

    PubMed

    Rispens, Theo; Ooijevaar-de Heer, Pleuni

    2016-03-01

    Quantification of the degree of biotinylation of proteins is useful to achieve and maintain a high degree of consistency of reagents used in research and diagnostic setting. Unfortunately, existing protocols and commercial kits suffer from a number of shortcomings that limit their usefulness. Here, we describe a simple protocol that overcomes the limitations of current assays. A robust competition ELISA was developed that is easy to carry out, uses no specialized equipment other than a standard plate reader for absorbance measurements and only reagents that are commonly available. The protocol uses a proteinase K digestion step of a sample of biotinylated protein to eliminate multivalency issues and sterical hindrance from bulky proteins. Furthermore, the use of an anti-biotin antibody instead of streptavidin results in a convenient range of sensitivity, avoiding million-fold dilutions that may impair precision. The resulting assay typically consumes about 1 μg of biotinylated protein.

  10. Trichomonas vaginalis Cysteine Proteinases: Iron Response in Gene Expression and Proteolytic Activity.

    PubMed

    Arroyo, Rossana; Cárdenas-Guerra, Rosa Elena; Figueroa-Angulo, Elisa Elvira; Puente-Rivera, Jonathan; Zamudio-Prieto, Olga; Ortega-López, Jaime

    2015-01-01

    We focus on the iron response of Trichomonas vaginalis to gene family products such as the cysteine proteinases (CPs) involved in virulence properties. In particular, we examined the effect of iron on the gene expression regulation and function of cathepsin L-like and asparaginyl endopeptidase-like CPs as virulence factors. We addressed some important aspects about CPs genomic organization and we offer possible explanations to the fact that only few members of this large gene family are expressed at the RNA and protein levels and the way to control their proteolytic activity. We also summarized all known iron regulations of CPs at transcriptional, posttranscriptional, and posttranslational levels along with new insights into the possible epigenetic and miRNA processes. PMID:26090464

  11. Quantification of the degree of biotinylation of proteins using proteinase K digestion and competition ELISA.

    PubMed

    Rispens, Theo; Ooijevaar-de Heer, Pleuni

    2016-03-01

    Quantification of the degree of biotinylation of proteins is useful to achieve and maintain a high degree of consistency of reagents used in research and diagnostic setting. Unfortunately, existing protocols and commercial kits suffer from a number of shortcomings that limit their usefulness. Here, we describe a simple protocol that overcomes the limitations of current assays. A robust competition ELISA was developed that is easy to carry out, uses no specialized equipment other than a standard plate reader for absorbance measurements and only reagents that are commonly available. The protocol uses a proteinase K digestion step of a sample of biotinylated protein to eliminate multivalency issues and sterical hindrance from bulky proteins. Furthermore, the use of an anti-biotin antibody instead of streptavidin results in a convenient range of sensitivity, avoiding million-fold dilutions that may impair precision. The resulting assay typically consumes about 1 μg of biotinylated protein. PMID:26795634

  12. Selective killing of B-cell hybridomas targeting proteinase 3, Wegener's autoantigen

    PubMed Central

    Reiners, Katrin S; Hansen, Hinrich P; Krüssmann, Anne; Schön, Gisela; Csernok, Elena; Gross, Wolfgang L; Engert, Andreas; von Strandmann, Elke Pogge

    2004-01-01

    Wegener's granulomatosis (WG) is a rare disease characterized by granulomatous lesions, small vessel vasculitis and the presence of anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibodies (C-ANCAs) in the sera of affected patients. Their main target antigen is proteinase 3 (PR3), a neutrophil and monocyte-derived neutral serine protease. Since the standard treatment of this severe autoimmune disease, with cyclophosphamide and corticosteroids, is associated with potential side-effects, the development of a more specific immunotherapeutic agent is warranted. The key role of ANCA in the pathogenesis of vasculitis and the effectiveness of anti-CD20 antibodies in patients with refractory WG points towards the importance of B cells in WG. We thus evaluated a new approach to selectively eliminate PR3-specific autoreactive B cells by targeting the B-cell receptor. For this purpose we used a bifunctional recombinant fusion protein consisting of the antigen PR3 and a toxin. The cytotoxic component of this novel fusion protein was the ribonuclease angiogenin, a human toxin with low immunogenicity. The toxin was stabilized by exchanging the catalytically relevant histidine in position 44 with glutamine to eliminate the autoproteolytic activity. PR3H44Q was fused either to the N terminus or to the C terminus of angiogenin. The recombinant proteins were expressed in 293T cells. Binding assays demonstrated the appropriate size and recognition by anti-PR3 antibodies. Using TUNEL technology, we demonstrated that these autoantigen toxins kill proteinase 3-specific B-cell hybridomas selectively by inducing apoptosis. The data indicate that autoantigen-toxins are promising tools in the treatment or co-treatment of autoimmune diseases in which the antigen is known. PMID:15147566

  13. [Inhibitors of acrosomal proteinase as antifertility agents. A problem of acrosomal membrane permeability (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Schill, W B; Feifel, M; Fritz, H; Hammerstein, J

    1982-01-01

    In vitro studies were performed to investigate the accessibility of acrosin to various proteinase inhibitors inside the intact acrosome of testicular, ejaculated, and uterine human spermatozoa. As test system, the gelatin plate assay was used. For this assay, it was shown formerly that a correlation exists between the size of the digested lysis areas (halo formation) and acrosin activity estimated with synthetic substrates. In addition, saturation of the gelatin substrate membranes with acrosin inhibitors including highly specific ones before application of spermatozoa completely prevented halo formation indicating that the gelatinolytic activity of human spermatozoa is caused exclusively by acrosin. When human spermatozoa were incubated with various acrosin inhibitors (concentration: 1 mmol/1) prior to application to the gelatine membrane, reduction of halo formation could not be observed, however. This result indicates that most of the tested acrosin inhibitors (9 naturally occurring protein inhibitors, 2 microbial peptide inhibitors, 19 synthetic inhibitors) were unable to penetrate the acrosomal membranes of testicular, ejaculated, and uterine human spermatozoa. Only 2 inhibitors caused moderate to complete inhibition of the gelatinolytic activity of the spermatozoa if applied in concentrations between 1-10 mmol/l: the proteinase inhibitor aprotinin and the synthetic inhibitor NPGB (4-nitrophenyl 4-guanidinobenzoate). Obviously, human acrosomal membranes seem to be especially impenetrable to proteins, polypeptides, and synthetic agents. Those acrosin inhibitors penetrating the human sperm head membranes are either too toxic or the local concentration necessary for effective acrosin inhibition in vivo cannot be achieved within the male or female genital tract secretions. Therefore, acrosin inhitibors cannot be used for human contraception at present. Thus, it is mandatory to continue the search for suitable acrosin inhibitors with low toxicity easily penetrating

  14. Application of Asian pumpkin (Cucurbita ficifolia) serine proteinase for production of biologically active peptides from casein.

    PubMed

    Dąbrowska, Anna; Szołtysik, Marek; Babij, Konrad; Pokora, Marta; Zambrowicz, Aleksandra; Chrzanowska, Józefa

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to determine potential application of a serine proteinase derived from Asian pumpkin for obtaining biologically active peptides from casein. The course of casein hydrolysis by three doses of the enzyme (50, 150, 300 U/mg of protein) was monitored for 24 hours by the determinations of: hydrolysis degree DH (%), free amino group content (μmole Gly/g), RP HPLC peptide profiles and by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. In all hydrolyzates analyzed antioxidant activities were determined using three tests: the ability to reduce iron ions in FRAP test, the ability to scavenge free radicals in DPPH test, and Fe(2+) chelating activity. The antimicrobial activity of obtained peptide fractions was determined as the ability to inhibit the growth of Escherichia coli, Bacillus cereus and Pseudomonas fluorescens in a diffusion plate test. The deepest degradation, expressed as the DH [%] and the free amino group content (67% and 7528 µmole Gly/mg, respectively), was noted in samples hydrolyzed with 300 U/ml of enzyme for 24 hours, while in other samples the determined values were about three and two times lower. The results were in agreement with the peptide profiles obtained by RP HPLC. The highest antioxidative activities determined in all tests were seen for the casein hydrolysate obtained with 300 U/mg protein of serine proteinase after 24 h of reaction (2.15 µM Trolox/mg, 96.15 µg Fe(3+)/mg, 814.97 µg Fe(2+)/mg). Antimicrobial activity was presented in three preparations. In other samples no antimicrobial activity was detected.

  15. tvcp12: a novel Trichomonas vaginalis cathepsin L-like cysteine proteinase-encoding gene.

    PubMed

    León-Sicairos, Claudia R; León-Félix, Josefina; Arroyo, Rossana

    2004-05-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is the causative agent of trichomoniasis, one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases in humans. This protozoan has multiple proteinases that are mainly of the cysteine proteinase (CP) type, some of which are known to be involved in the parasite's virulence. Here, a novel T. vaginalis CP-encoding gene, tvcp12, was identified and characterized. tvcp12 is 948 bp long and encodes a predicted 34.4 kDa protein that has the characteristics of the papain-like CP family. TvCP12 does not appear to have a signal peptide, suggesting that this is a cytoplasmic CP. By Southern blot assays, the tvcp12 gene was found as a single copy in the T. vaginalis genome. Remarkably, Northern blot experiments showed a single transcript band of approximately 1.3 kb in the mRNA obtained from parasites grown in low iron conditions and no transcript was observed in the mRNA from parasites grown in high iron conditions. By RT-PCR assays, a 270 bp band was amplified from the cDNA of parasites grown in low iron medium, which was very faint when cDNA from parasites grown in high iron conditions was used. Transcripts of the 3' region obtained in both iron conditions presented differences in their poly(A) tail length. These data suggest that tvcp12 is another gene that is negatively regulated by iron and that the length of the poly(A) tail may be one of the factors involved in the iron-modulated protein expression.

  16. Unmasking of complements using proteinase-K in formalin fixed paraffin embedded renal biopsies.

    PubMed

    Nada, R; Kumar, A; Kumar, V G; Gupta, K L; Joshi, K

    2016-01-01

    Renal biopsy interpretation requires histopathology, direct immunofluorescence (DIF) and electron microscopy. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue (FFPE) sent for light microscopy can be used for DIF after antigen retrieval. However, complement staining has not been satisfactory. We standardized DIF using proteinase-K for antigen retrieval in FFPE renal biopsies. A pilot study was conducted on known cases of membranous glomerulonephritis (MGN), membranoproliferative type-1 (MPGN-1), immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN), and anti-glomerular basement disease (anti-GBM). Immunofluorescence panel included fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) conjugated IgG, IgA, IgM, complements (C3 and C1q), light chains (kappa, lambda) and fibrinogen antibodies. After standardization of the technique, 75 renal biopsies and 43 autopsies cases were stained. Out of 43 autopsy cases, immune-complex mediated glomerulonephritis (GN) was confirmed in 18 cases (Lupus nephritis-11, IgAN-6, MGN-1), complement-mediated dense deposit disease (DDD-1) and monoclonal diseases in 4 cases (amyloidosis-3, cast nephropathy-1). Immune-mediated injury was excluded in 17 cases (focal segmental glomerulosclerosis -3, crescentic GN-6 [pauci-immune-3, anti-GBM-3], thrombotic microangiopathy-5, atherosclerosis-3). Renal biopsies (n-75) where inadequate or no frozen sample was available; this technique classified 52 mesangiocapillary pattern as MPGN type-1-46, DDD-2 and (C3GN-4). Others were diagnosed as IgAN-3, lupus nephritis-2, MGN-4, diffuse proliferative glomerulonephritis (DPGN)-1, Non-IC crescentic GN-1, monoclonal diseases-3. In nine cases, DIF on FFPE tissue could not help in making diagnosis. Proteinase-K enzymatic digestion of FFPE renal biopsies can unmask complements (both C3 and C1q) in immune-complexes mediated and complement-mediated diseases. This method showed good results on autopsy tissues archived for as long as 15 years. PMID:27194832

  17. Effects of trypsin, thrombin and proteinase-activated receptors on guinea pig common bile duct motility.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shih-Che

    2012-11-10

    Trypsin and thrombin activate proteinase-activated receptors (PARs), which modulate gastrointestinal motility. The common bile duct is exposed to many proteinases that can activate PARs, especially during infection and stone obstruction. We investigated PAR effects on common bile duct motility in vitro. Contraction and relaxation of isolated guinea pig common bile duct strips caused by PAR(1), PAR(2) and PAR(4) agonists were measured using isometric transducers. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was performed to determine the expression of PAR(1) and PAR(2). Thrombin and two PAR(1) peptide agonists, TFLLR-NH(2) and SFLLRN-NH(2), evoked moderate relaxation of the carbachol-contracted common bile duct in a concentration-dependent manner. Trypsin and three PAR(2) peptide agonists, 2-furoyl-LIGRLO-NH(2), SLIGKV-NH(2) and SLIGRL-NH(2), generated moderate to marked relaxation as well. The existence of PAR(1) and PAR(2) mRNA in the common bile duct was identified by RT-PCR. Moreover, two PAR(4)-selective agonists, AYPGKF-NH(2) and GYPGQV-NH(2), produced relaxation of the common bile duct. In contrast, all PAR(1), PAR(2) and PAR(4) inactive control peptides did not elicit relaxation. This indicates that PAR(1), PAR(2) and PAR(4) mediate common bile duct relaxation. The thrombin, TFLLR-NH(2), trypsin, and AYPGKF-NH(2)-induced responses were not affected by tetrodotoxin, implying that the PAR effects are not neurally mediated. Our findings provide the first evidence that PAR(1) and PAR(2) mediate whereas agonists of PAR(4) elicit relaxation of the guinea pig common bile duct. Trypsin and thrombin relax the common bile duct. PARs may play an important role in the control of common bile duct motility. PMID:22960409

  18. Proteinase-activated receptors induce nonoxidative, antimicrobial peptides and increased antimicrobial activity in human mononuclear phagocytes.

    PubMed

    Lippuner, Nadine; Morell, Bernhard; Schaffner, Andreas; Schaer, Dominik J

    2007-02-01

    As thrombin and SFLLRNPNDKYEPF (SFLLRN-14), a synthetic ligand, mainly of the proteinase-activated receptor-1 (PAR-1), induce in monocytes the synthesis and secretion of chemokines, the PAR pathway can be viewed as a mononuclear phagocyte-activating principle. Classically, antimicrobial activity of mononuclear phagocytes is the measure for activation. Here, we investigated whether thrombin or SFLLRN-14 increases the antimicrobial activity of human monocytes and compared these effects to those of IFN-gamma. Furthermore, we measured the effects of these agents on the secretion of reactive oxygen intermediates and the antimicrobial activity of acid peptide extracts from monocytes. Human monocytes were exposed to maximally active concentrations of thrombin, SFLLRN-14, and IFN-gamma. Human monocytes treated with thrombin or SFLLRN-14 and then challenged with Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium, including its attenuated mutant phoP, or Listeria monocytogenes killed, within 3 h, significantly more bacteria than control cells, an effect comparable with or surpassing the effect of IFN-gamma. This finding establishes the proteinase-PAR pathway as a potent, alternate activation pathway of mononuclear phagocytes. Thrombin and SFLLRN-14 had no significant effects on the amount of H(2)O(2) secreted by monocytes. This was in contrast to IFN-gamma, which as expected, increased the secretion of H(2)O(2) by approximately fourfold. Thrombin and SFLLRN-14, but not IFN-gamma, however, significantly increased the antimicrobial activity of acid peptide extracts of monocytes in a radial diffusion assay. Taken together, these findings suggest that IFN-gamma and thrombin differentially regulate oxidative and nonoxidative killing systems of human monocytes. PMID:17095611

  19. Unmasking of complements using proteinase-K in formalin fixed paraffin embedded renal biopsies.

    PubMed

    Nada, R; Kumar, A; Kumar, V G; Gupta, K L; Joshi, K

    2016-01-01

    Renal biopsy interpretation requires histopathology, direct immunofluorescence (DIF) and electron microscopy. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue (FFPE) sent for light microscopy can be used for DIF after antigen retrieval. However, complement staining has not been satisfactory. We standardized DIF using proteinase-K for antigen retrieval in FFPE renal biopsies. A pilot study was conducted on known cases of membranous glomerulonephritis (MGN), membranoproliferative type-1 (MPGN-1), immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN), and anti-glomerular basement disease (anti-GBM). Immunofluorescence panel included fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) conjugated IgG, IgA, IgM, complements (C3 and C1q), light chains (kappa, lambda) and fibrinogen antibodies. After standardization of the technique, 75 renal biopsies and 43 autopsies cases were stained. Out of 43 autopsy cases, immune-complex mediated glomerulonephritis (GN) was confirmed in 18 cases (Lupus nephritis-11, IgAN-6, MGN-1), complement-mediated dense deposit disease (DDD-1) and monoclonal diseases in 4 cases (amyloidosis-3, cast nephropathy-1). Immune-mediated injury was excluded in 17 cases (focal segmental glomerulosclerosis -3, crescentic GN-6 [pauci-immune-3, anti-GBM-3], thrombotic microangiopathy-5, atherosclerosis-3). Renal biopsies (n-75) where inadequate or no frozen sample was available; this technique classified 52 mesangiocapillary pattern as MPGN type-1-46, DDD-2 and (C3GN-4). Others were diagnosed as IgAN-3, lupus nephritis-2, MGN-4, diffuse proliferative glomerulonephritis (DPGN)-1, Non-IC crescentic GN-1, monoclonal diseases-3. In nine cases, DIF on FFPE tissue could not help in making diagnosis. Proteinase-K enzymatic digestion of FFPE renal biopsies can unmask complements (both C3 and C1q) in immune-complexes mediated and complement-mediated diseases. This method showed good results on autopsy tissues archived for as long as 15 years.

  20. Antifeedant effects of proteinase inhibitors on feeding behaviors of adult western corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera).

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae Hak; Mullin, Christopher A

    2003-04-01

    Low-molecular-weight peptidyl proteinase inhibitors (PIs) including leupeptin, calpain inhibitor I, and calpeptin were found to be potent antifeedants for adult western corn rootworm (WCR) against the phagostimulation of cucurbitacin B (Cuc B) or a corn pollen extract (CPE). Leupeptin was the strongest (ED50 = 0.36 and 0.55 nmol/disk for Cuc B and CPE, respectively) among PIs tested with an antifeedant potency much stronger than the steroid progesterone (ED50 = 2.29 and 5.05 nmol/disk for Cuc B and CPE, respectively), but slightly less than the reference alkaloid, strychnine (ED50 = 0.17 and 0.37 nmol/disk for Cuc B and CPE, respectively). All active PIs contain a di- or tripeptidyl aldehyde moiety, indicating that PIs exert their antifeedant effects by covalent interaction with putative sulfhydryl (SH) groups on taste receptors as do these PIs with cysteine proteinases. However, opposite inhibition potency against Cuc B versus CPE by two thiol-group reducing agents, DTT and L-cysteine, and the results with other cysteine-modifying reagents obscure the net functional role of SH groups at WCR taste chemoreceptors. Surprisingly, the model phagostimulant for diabroticites, Cuc B, was more easily counteracted by these feeding deterrents than the stimulants present in CPE. Three-dimensional structure-antifeedant relationships for the PIs suggest that a novel taste chemoreception mechanism exists for these peptidyl aldehydes or that they fit partially into a strychnine binding pocket on protein chemoreceptors. Favorable economic benefit may be achieved if PIs are discovered to be useful in adult WCR control, since both pre- and postingestive sites would be targeted. PMID:12775144

  1. Carotenoid-cleavage activities of crude enzymes from Pandanous amryllifolius.

    PubMed

    Ningrum, Andriati; Schreiner, Matthias

    2014-11-01

    Carotenoid degradation products, known as norisoprenoids, are aroma-impact compounds in several plants. Pandan wangi is a common name of the shrub Pandanus amaryllifolius. The genus name 'Pandanus' is derived from the Indonesian name of the tree, pandan. In Indonesia, the leaves from the plant are used for several purposes, e.g., as natural colorants and flavor, and as traditional treatments. The aim of this study was to determine the cleavage of β-carotene and β-apo-8'-carotenal by carotenoid-cleavage enzymes isolated from pandan leaves, to investigate dependencies of the enzymatic activities on temperature and pH, to determine the enzymatic reaction products by using Headspace Solid Phase Microextraction Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrophotometry (HS-SPME GC/MS), and to investigate the influence of heat treatment and addition of crude enzyme on formation of norisoprenoids. Crude enzymes from pandan leaves showed higher activity against β-carotene than β-apo-8'-carotenal. The optimum temperature of crude enzymes was 70°, while the optimum pH value was 6. We identified β-ionone as the major volatile reaction product from the incubations of two different carotenoid substrates, β-carotene and β-apo-8'-carotenal. Several treatments, e.g., heat treatment and addition of crude enzymes in pandan leaves contributed to the norisoprenoid content. Our findings revealed that the crude enzymes from pandan leaves with carotenoid-cleavage activity might provide a potential application, especially for biocatalysis, in natural-flavor industry.

  2. 3C-like protease of rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus: identification of cleavage sites in the ORF1 polyprotein and analysis of cleavage specificity.

    PubMed Central

    Wirblich, C; Sibilia, M; Boniotti, M B; Rossi, C; Thiel, H J; Meyers, G

    1995-01-01

    Rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus, a positive-stranded RNA virus of the family Caliciviridae, encodes a trypsin-like cysteine protease as part of a large polyprotein. Upon expression in Escherichia coli, the protease releases itself from larger precursors by proteolytic cleavages at its N and C termini. Both cleavage sites were determined by N-terminal sequence analysis of the cleavage products. Cleavage at the N terminus of the protease occurred with high efficiency at an EG dipeptide at positions 1108 and 1109. Cleavage at the C terminus of the protease occurred with low efficiency at an ET dipeptide at positions 1251 and 1252. To study the cleavage specificity of the protease, amino acid substitutions were introduced at the P2, P1, and P1' positions at the cleavage site at the N-terminal boundary of the protease. This analysis showed that the amino acid at the P1 position is the most important determinant for substrate recognition. Only glutamic acid, glutamine, and aspartic acid were tolerated at this position. At the P1' position, glycine, serine, and alanine were the preferred substrates of the protease, but a number of amino acids with larger side chains were also tolerated. Substitutions at the P2 position had only little effect on the cleavage efficiency. Cell-free expression of the C-terminal half of the ORF1 polyprotein showed that the protease catalyzes cleavage at the junction of the RNA polymerase and the capsid protein. An EG dipeptide at positions 1767 and 1768 was identified as the putative cleavage site. Our data show that rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus encodes a trypsin-like cysteine protease that is similar to 3C proteases with regard to function and specificity but is more similar to 2A proteases with regard to size. PMID:7474137

  3. Disulfide bond cleavage: a redox reaction without electron transfer.

    PubMed

    Hofbauer, Florian; Frank, Irmgard

    2010-05-01

    By using Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics (CPMD) simulations we have simulated a mechanically induced redox reaction. Previous single-molecule atomic force microscopy (AFM) experiments demonstrated that the reduction of disulfide bonds in proteins with the weak reducing agent dithiothreitol depends on a mechanical destabilization of the breaking bond. With reactive molecular dynamics simulations the single steps of the reaction mechanism can be elucidated and the motion of the electrons can be monitored. The simulations show that the redox reaction consists of the heterolytic cleavage of the S--S bond followed by a sequence of proton transfers. PMID:20349464

  4. Biotic and abiotic carbon to sulfur bond cleavage

    SciTech Connect

    Frost, J.W.

    1991-01-01

    Cleavage of aliphatic organosulfonate carbon to sulfur (C-S) bonds, a critical link in the global biogeochemical sulfur cycle, has been identified in Escherichia coli K-12. Enormous quantities of inorganic sulfate are continuously converted (Scheme I) into methanesulfonic acid 1 and acylated 3-(6-sulfo-{alpha}-D-quinovopyranosyl)-L-glycerol 2. Biocatalytic desulfurization (Scheme I) of 1 and 2, which share the structural feature of an aliphatic carbon bonded to a sulfonic acid sulfur, completes the cycle, Discovery of this desulfurization in E. coli provides an invaluable paradigm for study of a biotic process which, via the biogeochemical cycle, significantly influences the atmospheric concentration of sulfur-containing molecules.

  5. Proteolytic Cleavage of Notch: “HIT and RUN”

    PubMed Central

    van Tetering, G.; Vooijs, M.

    2014-01-01

    The Notch pathway is a highly conserved signaling pathway in multicellular eukaryotes essential in controlling spatial patterning, morphogenesis and homeostasis in embryonic and adult tissues. Notch proteins coordinate cell-cell communication through receptor-ligand interactions between adjacent cells. Notch signaling is frequently deregulated by oncogenic mutation or overexpression in many cancer types. Notch activity is controlled by three sequential cleavage steps leading to ectodomain shedding and transcriptional activation. Here we review the key regulatory steps in the activation of Notch, from receptor maturation to receptor activation (HIT) via a rate-limiting proteolytic cascade (RUN) in the context of species-specific differences. PMID:21506924

  6. Molecular interactions between an insect predator and its herbivore prey on transgenic potato expressing a cysteine proteinase inhibitor from rice.

    PubMed

    Bouchard, Edith; Michaud, Dominique; Cloutier, Conrad

    2003-09-01

    Transgenic plants expressing resistance to herbivorous insects may represent a safe and sustainable pest control alternative if they do not interfere with the natural enemies of target pests. Here we examined interactions between oryzacystatin I (OCI), a proteinase inhibitor from rice genetically engineered into potato (Solanum tuberosum cv. Kennebec, line K52) to increase resistance to insect herbivory, and the insect predator Perillus bioculatus. This stinkbug is a relatively specialized predator of caterpillars and leaf-beetle larvae, and may also include plant sap in its predominantly carnivorous diet. One of its preferred prey is Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata), a major target of insect resistance development for potato field crops. Gelatin/sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) confirmed that a major fraction of proteinase (gelatinase) activity in P. bioculatus extracts is OCI-sensitive. Among five gelatinolytic bands detected, the slowest-moving one (proteinase I) was inhibited strongly by purified OCI expressed in Escherichia coli or by OCI-transgenic potato extracts, while three other proteinases were partly sensitive to these treatments. There was also evidence of slight inhibition of proteinase I by untransformed potato foliage, suggesting the presence of a natural inhibitor related to OCI at low level in potato foliage. Interestingly, only about 50% of the maximum potential activity of proteinase I was recovered in extracts of P. bioculatus feeding on L. decemlineata larval prey on a diet of OCI-potato foliage, indicating that the predator was sensitive to OCI in the midgut of its prey. However, P. bioculatus on OCI-prey survived, grew and developed normally, indicating ability to compensate prey-mediated exposure to the OCI inhibitor. Confinement of P. bioculatus to potato foliage provided no evidence that potato plant-derived nutrition is a viable alternative to predation, restriction to potato foliage

  7. A masquerade-like serine proteinase homologue is necessary for phenoloxidase activity in the coleopteran insect, Holotrichia diomphalia larvae.

    PubMed

    Kwon, T H; Kim, M S; Choi, H W; Joo, C H; Cho, M Y; Lee, B L

    2000-10-01

    Previously, we reported the molecular cloning of cDNA for the prophenoloxidase activating factor-I (PPAF-I) that encoded a member of the serine proteinase group with a disulfide-knotted motif at the N-terminus and a trypsin-like catalytic domain at the C-terminus [Lee, S.Y., Cho, M.Y., Hyun, J.H., Lee, K.M., Homma, K.I., Natori, S. , Kawabata, S.I., Iwanaga, S. & Lee, B.L. (1998) Eur. J. Biochem. 257, 615-621]. PPAF-I is directly involved in the activation of pro-phenoloxidase (pro-PO) by limited proteolysis and the overall structure is highly similar to that of Drosophila easter serine protease, an essential serine protease zymogen for pattern formation in normal embryonic development. Here, we report purification and molecular cloning of cDNA for another 45-kDa novel PPAF from the hemocyte lysate of Holotrichia diomphalia larvae. The gene encodes a serine proteinase homologue consisting of 415 amino-acid residues with a molecular mass of 45 256 Da. The overall structure of the 45-kDa protein is similar to that of masquerade, a serine proteinase homologue expressed during embryogenesis, larval, and pupal development in Drosophila melanogaster. The 45-kDa protein contained a trypsin-like serine proteinase domain at the C-terminus, except for the substitution of Ser of the active site triad to Gly and had a disulfide-knotted domain at the N-terminus. A highly similar 45-kDa serine proteinase homologue was also cloned from the larval cDNA library of another coleopteran, Tenebrio molitor. By in vitro reconstitution experiments, we found that the purified 45-kDa serine proteinase homologue, the purified active PPAF-I and the purified pro-PO were necessary for expressing phenoloxidase activity in the Holotrichia pro-PO system. However, incubation of pro-PO with either PPAF-I or 45-kDa protein, no phenoloxidase activity was observed. Interestingly, when the 45-kDa protein was incubated with PPAF-I and pro-PO in the absence, but not in the presence of Ca2+, the 45-k

  8. Localization of the papain cleavage site of H-2 glycoproteins.

    PubMed Central

    Ewenstein, B M; Freed, J H; Mole, L E; Nathenson, S G

    1976-01-01

    The antigenic products of the murine H-2K and H-2D genes are glycoproteins of about 45,000 molecular weight which are tightly integrated within the cell surface membrane. A glycoprotein fragment (FAg, antigenic fragment) of 37,000 daltons carrying the carbohydrate, antigenic sites, and the associated putative beta2-microglobulin of 12,000 daltons can be generated by papain cleavage either of the native molecules in the cell membrane or of immune precipitates made from the antigen solubilized by nonionic detergent. Partial NH2-terminal sequence analyses of the native H-2 glycoprotein and of the papain-cleaved glycoprotein fragment establish that the fragment is, in fact, the NH2-terminal portion of the native molecule. Thus, the cleavage by papain proteolysis is near the COOH-terminus, and removal of the COOH-terminal portion (Fm, membrane fragment) converts the glycoprotein to a water-soluble form. This observation suggests that the NH2-terminus of the native glycoprotein extends out of the hydrophobic bilayer of the cell membrane, and that the COOH-terminus contains the membrane binding region and is buried within the bilayer. PMID:1062805

  9. Cleavage of rabaptin-5 blocks endosome fusion during apoptosis.

    PubMed Central

    Cosulich, S C; Horiuchi, H; Zerial, M; Clarke, P R; Woodman, P G

    1997-01-01

    Cells undergoing apoptosis exhibit striking changes in membrane organization, including plasma membrane blebbing and invagination, vacuolation and fragmentation of organelles, and alterations in the surface expression of receptors. The underlying mechanisms for these changes are unknown, though alterations in vesicular fusion are likely to play a role. Using a cell-free system based on Xenopus laevis egg extracts we have found that endosome fusion is blocked during apoptosis. Inhibition of fusion is prevented by Bcl-2 or Bcl-xL, two negative regulators of apoptosis, or by specific inhibitors of members of the caspase family of apoptotic proteases. Selective cleavage of Rabaptin-5, an essential and rate-limiting component of endosome fusion, is responsible for the loss of fusion activity. Cleavage of Rabaptin-5 also occurs in cellular models for apoptosis. These results suggest that inactivation of Rabaptin-5 and inhibition of vesicle transport lead to fragmentation of endosomes and inhibition of the endocytic pathway during the execution phase of apoptosis. We propose that parallel changes to other membrane transport pathways would give rise to general membrane fragmentation in apoptotic cells. These changes are likely to play an important role in the generation of apoptotic bodies and their recognition by phagocytosing cells. PMID:9321397

  10. A novel mechano-enzymatic cleavage mechanism underlies transthyretin amyloidogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Marcoux, Julien; Mangione, P Patrizia; Porcari, Riccardo; Degiacomi, Matteo T; Verona, Guglielmo; Taylor, Graham W; Giorgetti, Sofia; Raimondi, Sara; Sanglier-Cianférani, Sarah; Benesch, Justin LP; Cecconi, Ciro; Naqvi, Mohsin M; Gillmore, Julian D; Hawkins, Philip N; Stoppini, Monica; Robinson, Carol V; Pepys, Mark B; Bellotti, Vittorio

    2015-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying transthyretin-related amyloidosis in vivo remain unclear. The abundance of the 49–127 transthyretin fragment in ex vivo deposits suggests that a proteolytic cleavage has a crucial role in destabilizing the tetramer and releasing the highly amyloidogenic 49–127 truncated protomer. Here, we investigate the mechanism of cleavage and release of the 49–127 fragment from the prototypic S52P variant, and we show that the proteolysis/fibrillogenesis pathway is common to several amyloidogenic variants of transthyretin and requires the action of biomechanical forces provided by the shear stress of physiological fluid flow. Crucially, the non-amyloidogenic and protective T119M variant is neither cleaved nor generates fibrils under these conditions. We propose that a mechano-enzymatic mechanism mediates transthyretin amyloid fibrillogenesis in vivo. This may be particularly important in the heart where shear stress is greatest; indeed, the 49–127 transthyretin fragment is particularly abundant in cardiac amyloid. Finally, we show that existing transthyretin stabilizers, including tafamidis, inhibit proteolysis-mediated transthyretin fibrillogenesis with different efficiency in different variants; however, inhibition is complete only when both binding sites are occupied. PMID:26286619

  11. A novel mechano-enzymatic cleavage mechanism underlies transthyretin amyloidogenesis.

    PubMed

    Marcoux, Julien; Mangione, P Patrizia; Porcari, Riccardo; Degiacomi, Matteo T; Verona, Guglielmo; Taylor, Graham W; Giorgetti, Sofia; Raimondi, Sara; Sanglier-Cianférani, Sarah; Benesch, Justin L P; Cecconi, Ciro; Naqvi, Mohsin M; Gillmore, Julian D; Hawkins, Philip N; Stoppini, Monica; Robinson, Carol V; Pepys, Mark B; Bellotti, Vittorio

    2015-10-01

    The mechanisms underlying transthyretin-related amyloidosis in vivo remain unclear. The abundance of the 49-127 transthyretin fragment in ex vivo deposits suggests that a proteolytic cleavage has a crucial role in destabilizing the tetramer and releasing the highly amyloidogenic 49-127 truncated protomer. Here, we investigate the mechanism of cleavage and release of the 49-127 fragment from the prototypic S52P variant, and we show that the proteolysis/fibrillogenesis pathway is common to several amyloidogenic variants of transthyretin and requires the action of biomechanical forces provided by the shear stress of physiological fluid flow. Crucially, the non-amyloidogenic and protective T119M variant is neither cleaved nor generates fibrils under these conditions. We propose that a mechano-enzymatic mechanism mediates transthyretin amyloid fibrillogenesis in vivo. This may be particularly important in the heart where shear stress is greatest; indeed, the 49-127 transthyretin fragment is particularly abundant in cardiac amyloid. Finally, we show that existing transthyretin stabilizers, including tafamidis, inhibit proteolysis-mediated transthyretin fibrillogenesis with different efficiency in different variants; however, inhibition is complete only when both binding sites are occupied. PMID:26286619

  12. Lysosomal Dysfunction Promotes Cleavage and Neurotoxicity of Tau In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Sharp, Katherine A.; Loewen, Carin A.; Mulkearns, Erin; Tyynelä, Jaana; Scherzer, Clemens R.; Feany, Mel B.

    2010-01-01

    Expansion of the lysosomal system, including cathepsin D upregulation, is an early and prominent finding in Alzheimer's disease brain. Cell culture studies, however, have provided differing perspectives on the lysosomal connection to Alzheimer's disease, including both protective and detrimental influences. We sought to clarify and molecularly define the connection in vivo in a genetically tractable model organism. Cathepsin D is upregulated with age in a Drosophila model of Alzheimer's disease and related tauopathies. Genetic analysis reveals that cathepsin D plays a neuroprotective role because genetic ablation of cathepsin D markedly potentiates tau-induced neurotoxicity. Further, generation of a C-terminally truncated form of tau found in Alzheimer's disease patients is significantly increased in the absence of cathepsin D. We show that truncated tau has markedly increased neurotoxicity, while solubility of truncated tau is decreased. Importantly, the toxicity of truncated tau is not affected by removal of cathepsin D, providing genetic evidence that modulation of neurotoxicity by cathepsin D is mediated through C-terminal cleavage of tau. We demonstrate that removing cathepsin D in adult postmitotic neurons leads to aberrant lysosomal expansion and caspase activation in vivo, suggesting a mechanism for C-terminal truncation of tau. We also demonstrate that both cathepsin D knockout mice and cathepsin D–deficient sheep show abnormal C-terminal truncation of tau and accompanying caspase activation. Thus, caspase cleavage of tau may be a molecular mechanism through which lysosomal dysfunction and neurodegeneration are causally linked in Alzheimer's disease. PMID:20664788

  13. Surveillance and Cleavage of Eukaryotic tRNAs

    PubMed Central

    Megel, Cyrille; Morelle, Geoffrey; Lalande, Stéphanie; Duchêne, Anne-Marie; Small, Ian; Maréchal-Drouard, Laurence

    2015-01-01

    Beyond their central role in protein synthesis, transfer RNAs (tRNAs) have many other crucial functions. This includes various roles in the regulation of gene expression, stress responses, metabolic processes and priming reverse transcription. In the RNA world, tRNAs are, with ribosomal RNAs, among the most stable molecules. Nevertheless, they are not eternal. As key elements of cell function, tRNAs need to be continuously quality-controlled. Two tRNA surveillance pathways have been identified. They act on hypo-modified or mis-processed pre-tRNAs and on mature tRNAs lacking modifications. A short overview of these two pathways will be presented here. Furthermore, while the exoribonucleases acting in these pathways ultimately lead to complete tRNA degradation, numerous tRNA-derived fragments (tRFs) are present within a cell. These cleavage products of tRNAs now potentially emerge as a new class of small non-coding RNAs (sncRNAs) and are suspected to have important regulatory functions. The tRFs are evolutionarily widespread and created by cleavage at different positions by various endonucleases. Here, we review our present knowledge on the biogenesis and function of tRFs in various organisms. PMID:25599528

  14. Is nucleophilic cleavage chemistry practical for 4-membered heterocycles?

    PubMed

    Banks, Harold D

    2009-11-01

    A computational study at the MP2(Full)/6-311++G(d,p)//MP2(Full)/6-31+G(d) level of the ammonolysis of halogen substituted azetidines, oxetanes and thietanes was performed in the gas phase and in the commonly used solvent, acetonitrile. Using the free energy of activation of a benchmark reaction for evaluation of synthetic viability, several haloazetidines and oxetanes that possessed the required reactivity were identified; however, no substituted thietane investigated herein was determined to be synthetically useful under the mild conditions selected for this study. In the case of the azetidines, the side reaction of displacement of halide ion was determined to be the preferred reaction course in acetonitrile; however, the amino product of the reactions of the 2-haloazetidines cleaved at an acceptable rate under mild conditions. For the oxetane derivatives investigated, 2-fluorooxetane proved to be a direct source of ring cleavage product. Nucleophilic cleavage of halogen-substituted azetidines and oxetanes is predicted to be a viable source of functionalized three-carbon moieties under mild conditions in organic synthesis.

  15. Surface energy of zinc. [Effective cleavage surface energy

    SciTech Connect

    Bilello, J.C.; Dew-Hughes, D.; Pucino, A.T.

    1981-01-01

    The influence of temperature and associated dislocation microstructure on the energetics of basal plane cleavage in zinc crystals has been investigated using the method of Hull, Beardmore and Valentine (HBV). A marked temperature dependence was observed in the zinc surface energy, over the range 77 to 298/sup 0/K, contrary to previous expectations. Plastic relaxation was associated with crack initiation at 77/sup 0/K, but not propagation, while at room temperature a plastic zone of 1200-1500 ..mu..m in depth was produced by crack extension. The surface energy could be estimated, independent of the usual Griffith analysis, by measuring the energy dissipation in a fully relaxed deformed zone associated with an explosively formed precursor crack. This method yielded surface energies of 0.066 to 0.079 J-m/sup -2/ which was in good agreement with previous work. It is demonstrated that the cleavage surface energy of zinc is well below the thermodynamic surface energy and that this discrepancy is not related to plastic deformation. 7 figures, 1 table.

  16. Impact of PCOS on early embryo cleavage kinetics.

    PubMed

    Wissing, M L; Bjerge, M R; Olesen, A I G; Hoest, T; Mikkelsen, A L

    2014-04-01

    This study investigated whether polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) affected early embryo development assessed by time-lapse analysis of embryo kinetics from fertilization to the blastocyst stage. This was a prospective cohort study of two pronuclei (2PN) embryos from 25 hyperandrogenic PCOS patients (110 2PN embryos), 26 normoandrogenic PCOS patients (140 2PN embryos) and 20 healthy, regularly cycling women (controls, 97 2PN embryos). Patients underwent the same baseline evaluation and the same ovarian stimulation from April 2010 to February 2013. Oocytes were fertilized by intracytoplasmic sperm injection and incubated in an EmbryoScope with pictures taken every 20 min in seven focal planes. Time to 2PN breakdown, first cleavage and cleavage to 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8 cells, morula and blastocyst (t₂, t₃, t₄, t₅, t₆, t₇, t₈, t(M), t(B)) were annotated. Differences in embryo kinetics between groups were assessed by mixed modelling. Compared with controls, embryos from hyperandrogenic PCOS patients were significantly delayed at 2PN breakdown, t₂, t₃, t₄ and t₇ but not at t₅, t₆, t₈, t(M) or t(B). Embryos from hyperandrogenic PCOS women had developed slower from fertilization to the 8-cell stage compared with embryos from controls.

  17. Site Specific Cleavage Mediated by MMPs Regulates Function of Agrin

    PubMed Central

    McFarlane, Ainsley; Xie, Irene; Overall, Christopher M.; Stetefeld, Jörg

    2012-01-01

    Background Agrin is the key inducer of postsynaptic differentiations at the neuromuscular junction. The multidomain heparan sulfate proteoglycan is mediating via its N-terminal segment the interaction with laminin, whereas the C-terminal portion is responsible for Dystroglycan binding and clustering of the Acetylcholine receptor. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) are known to play essential roles in matrix remodeling, degradation and regulation of extracellular signaling networks. Principal Findings Site-specific processing of Agrin provides key insight into regulatory effects of Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Here, we present a detailed study of agrin processing by different MMPs together with a molecular understanding of binding and cleavage at both terminal fragments. The data suggest for a regulatory effect of MMP cleavage at particularly important functional sites of agrin. Cleave of agrin abolishes the agrin-laminin complex formation and the Acetylcholine receptor clustering at the neuromuscular junction. Conclusion/Significance Agrin is a target of specific MMP processing resulting in agrin subfragments with different regulatory activities. MMP processing is a powerful tool to regulate extracellular signaling networks. PMID:22984437

  18. Quantitative Analysis of PMLA Nanoconjugate Components after Backbone Cleavage

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Hui; Patil, Rameshwar; Portilla-Arias, Jose; Black, Keith L.; Ljubimova, Julia Y.; Holler, Eggehard

    2015-01-01

    Multifunctional polymer nanoconjugates containing multiple components show great promise in cancer therapy, but in most cases complete analysis of each component is difficult. Polymalic acid (PMLA) based nanoconjugates have demonstrated successful brain and breast cancer treatment. They consist of multiple components including targeting antibodies, Morpholino antisense oligonucleotides (AONs), and endosome escape moieties. The component analysis of PMLA nanoconjugates is extremely difficult using conventional spectrometry and HPLC method. Taking advantage of the nature of polyester of PMLA, which can be cleaved by ammonium hydroxide, we describe a method to analyze the content of antibody and AON within nanoconjugates simultaneously using SEC-HPLC by selectively cleaving the PMLA backbone. The selected cleavage conditions only degrade PMLA without affecting the integrity and biological activity of the antibody. Although the amount of antibody could also be determined using the bicinchoninic acid (BCA) method, our selective cleavage method gives more reliable results and is more powerful. Our approach provides a new direction for the component analysis of polymer nanoconjugates and nanoparticles. PMID:25894227

  19. Improving the prospects of cleavage-based nanopore sequencing engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brady, Kyle T.; Reiner, Joseph E.

    2015-08-01

    Recently proposed methods for DNA sequencing involve the use of cleavage-based enzymes attached to the opening of a nanopore. The idea is that DNA interacting with either an exonuclease or polymerase protein will lead to a small molecule being cleaved near the mouth of the nanopore, and subsequent entry into the pore will yield information about the DNA sequence. The prospects for this approach seem promising, but it has been shown that diffusion related effects impose a limit on the capture probability of molecules by the pore, which limits the efficacy of the technique. Here, we revisit the problem with the goal of optimizing the capture probability via a step decrease in the nucleotide diffusion coefficient between the pore and bulk solutions. It is shown through random walk simulations and a simplified analytical model that decreasing the molecule's diffusion coefficient in the bulk relative to its value in the pore increases the nucleotide capture probability. Specifically, we show that at sufficiently high applied transmembrane potentials (≥100 mV), increasing the potential by a factor f is equivalent to decreasing the diffusion coefficient ratio Dbulk/Dpore by the same factor f. This suggests a promising route toward implementation of cleavage-based sequencing protocols. We also discuss the feasibility of forming a step function in the diffusion coefficient across the pore-bulk interface.

  20. Improving the prospects of cleavage-based nanopore sequencing engines.

    PubMed

    Brady, Kyle T; Reiner, Joseph E

    2015-08-21

    Recently proposed methods for DNA sequencing involve the use of cleavage-based enzymes attached to the opening of a nanopore. The idea is that DNA interacting with either an exonuclease or polymerase protein will lead to a small molecule being cleaved near the mouth of the nanopore, and subsequent entry into the pore will yield information about the DNA sequence. The prospects for this approach seem promising, but it has been shown that diffusion related effects impose a limit on the capture probability of molecules by the pore, which limits the efficacy of the technique. Here, we revisit the problem with the goal of optimizing the capture probability via a step decrease in the nucleotide diffusion coefficient between the pore and bulk solutions. It is shown through random walk simulations and a simplified analytical model that decreasing the molecule's diffusion coefficient in the bulk relative to its value in the pore increases the nucleotide capture probability. Specifically, we show that at sufficiently high applied transmembrane potentials (≥100 mV), increasing the potential by a factor f is equivalent to decreasing the diffusion coefficient ratio D(bulk)/D(pore) by the same factor f. This suggests a promising route toward implementation of cleavage-based sequencing protocols. We also discuss the feasibility of forming a step function in the diffusion coefficient across the pore-bulk interface. PMID:26298153

  1. The two-component NS2B-NS3 proteinase represses DNA unwinding activity of the West Nile virus NS3 helicase.

    PubMed

    Chernov, Andrei V; Shiryaev, Sergey A; Aleshin, Alexander E; Ratnikov, Boris I; Smith, Jeffrey W; Liddington, Robert C; Strongin, Alex Y

    2008-06-20

    Similar to many flavivirus types including Dengue and yellow fever viruses, the nonstructural NS3 multifunctional protein of West Nile virus (WNV) with an N-terminal serine proteinase domain and an RNA triphosphatase, an NTPase domain, and an RNA helicase in the C-terminal domain is implicated in both polyprotein processing and RNA replication and is therefore a promising drug target. To exhibit its proteolytic activity, NS3 proteinase requires the presence of the cofactor encoded by the upstream NS2B sequence. During our detailed investigation of the biology of the WNV helicase, we characterized the ATPase and RNA/DNA unwinding activities of the full-length NS2B-NS3 proteinase-helicase protein as well as the individual NS3 helicase domain lacking both the NS2B cofactor and the NS3 proteinase sequence and the individual NS3 proteinase-helicase lacking only the NS2B cofactor. We determined that both the NS3 helicase and NS3 proteinase-helicase constructs are capable of unwinding both the DNA and the RNA templates. In contrast, the full-length NS2B-NS3 proteinase-helicase unwinds only the RNA templates, whereas its DNA unwinding activity is severely repressed. Our data suggest that the productive, catalytically competent fold of the NS2B-NS3 proteinase moiety represents an essential component of the RNA-DNA substrate selectivity mechanism in WNV and, possibly, in other flaviviruses. Based on our data, we hypothesize that the mechanism we have identified plays a role yet to be determined in WNV replication occurring both within the virus-induced membrane-bound replication complexes in the host cytoplasm and in the nuclei of infected cells.

  2. Sequence selective double strand DNA cleavage by peptide nucleic acid (PNA) targeting using nuclease S1.

    PubMed Central

    Demidov, V; Frank-Kamenetskii, M D; Egholm, M; Buchardt, O; Nielsen, P E

    1993-01-01

    A novel method for sequence specific double strand DNA cleavage using PNA (peptide nucleic acid) targeting is described. Nuclease S1 digestion of double stranded DNA gives rise to double strand cleavage at an occupied PNA strand displacement binding site, and under optimized conditions complete cleavage can be obtained. The efficiency of this cleavage is more than 10 fold enhanced when a tandem PNA site is targeted, and additionally enhanced if this site is in trans rather than in cis orientation. Thus in effect, the PNA targeting makes the single strand specific nuclease S1 behave like a pseudo restriction endonuclease. Images PMID:8502550

  3. A single molecule assay for measuring site-specific DNA cleavage.

    PubMed

    Gambino, Stefano; Mousley, Briana; Cathcart, Lindsay; Winship, Janelle; Loparo, Joseph J; Price, Allen C

    2016-02-15

    Sequence-specific DNA cleavage is a key step in a number of genomic transactions. Here, we report a single-molecule technique that allows the simultaneous measurement of hundreds of DNAs, thereby collecting significant statistics in a single experiment. Microbeads are tethered with single DNA molecules in a microfluidic channel. After the DNA cleavage reaction is initiated, the time of cleavage of each DNA is recorded using video microscopy. We demonstrate the utility of our method by measuring the cleavage kinetics of NdeI, a type II restriction endonuclease.

  4. Mass spectrometric and theoretical studies on dissociation of the Ssbnd S bond in the allicin: Homolytic cleavage vs heterolytic cleavage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiang

    2012-08-01

    On the basis of the tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS) technique and DFT calculations, an experimental and theoretical investigation has been conducted into the gas-phase dissociation of the S1sbnd S1' bond in the allicin as well as that of the Ssbnd C (S1sbnd C2, S1'sbnd C2') bond. Meanwhile, the influence of protonation, alkali metal ion and electron transfer on the dissociation of the S1sbnd S1' bond has been taken into account. ESI-MS/MS experiments and DFT calculations show that in the neutral allicin, [allicin + Li]+ and [allicin + Na]+, the S1sbnd S1' bond favors homolytic cleavage, while in the allicin radical cation and protonated allicin, the S1sbnd S1' bond prefers heterolytic cleavage. In addition, alkali metal ions can strengthen the S1sbnd S1' bond in the allicin, while protonation or the loss of an electron will weaken the S1sbnd S1' bond.

  5. RNase L Cleavage Products Promote Switch from Autophagy to Apoptosis by Caspase-Mediated Cleavage of Beclin-1

    PubMed Central

    Siddiqui, Mohammad Adnan; Mukherjee, Sushovita; Manivannan, Praveen; Malathi, Krishnamurthy

    2015-01-01

    Autophagy and apoptosis share regulatory molecules enabling crosstalk in pathways that affect cellular homeostasis including response to viral infections and survival of tumor cells. Ribonuclease L (RNase L) is an antiviral endonuclease that is activated in virus-infected cells and cleaves viral and cellular single-stranded RNAs to produce small double-stranded RNAs with roles in amplifying host responses. Activation of RNase L induces autophagy and apoptosis in many cell types. However, the mechanism by which RNase L mediates crosstalk between these two pathways remains unclear. Here we show that small dsRNAs produced by RNase L promote a switch from autophagy to apoptosis by caspase-mediated cleavage of Beclin-1, terminating autophagy. The caspase 3-cleaved C-terminal fragment of Beclin-1 enhances apoptosis by translocating to the mitochondria along with proapoptotic protein, Bax, and inducing release of cytochrome C to the cytosol. Cleavage of Beclin-1 determines switch to apoptosis since expression of caspase-resistant Beclin-1 inhibits apoptosis and sustains autophagy. Moreover, inhibiting RNase L-induced autophagy promotes cell death and inhibiting apoptosis prolongs autophagy in a cross-inhibitory mechanism. Our results demonstrate a novel role of RNase L generated small RNAs in cross-talk between autophagy and apoptosis that impacts the fate of cells during viral infections and cancer. PMID:26263979

  6. RNase L Cleavage Products Promote Switch from Autophagy to Apoptosis by Caspase-Mediated Cleavage of Beclin-1.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Mohammad Adnan; Mukherjee, Sushovita; Manivannan, Praveen; Malathi, Krishnamurthy

    2015-01-01

    Autophagy and apoptosis share regulatory molecules enabling crosstalk in pathways that affect cellular homeostasis including response to viral infections and survival of tumor cells. Ribonuclease L (RNase L) is an antiviral endonuclease that is activated in virus-infected cells and cleaves viral and cellular single-stranded RNAs to produce small double-stranded RNAs with roles in amplifying host responses. Activation of RNase L induces autophagy and apoptosis in many cell types. However, the mechanism by which RNase L mediates crosstalk between these two pathways remains unclear. Here we show that small dsRNAs produced by RNase L promote a switch from autophagy to apoptosis by caspase-mediated cleavage of Beclin-1, terminating autophagy. The caspase 3-cleaved C-terminal fragment of Beclin-1 enhances apoptosis by translocating to the mitochondria along with proapoptotic protein, Bax, and inducing release of cytochrome C to the cytosol. Cleavage of Beclin-1 determines switch to apoptosis since expression of caspase-resistant Beclin-1 inhibits apoptosis and sustains autophagy. Moreover, inhibiting RNase L-induced autophagy promotes cell death and inhibiting apoptosis prolongs autophagy in a cross-inhibitory mechanism. Our results demonstrate a novel role of RNase L generated small RNAs in cross-talk between autophagy and apoptosis that impacts the fate of cells during viral infections and cancer. PMID:26263979

  7. [Activity of elastase-like proteinases and their inhibitors in indigent nearly healthy residents in various biogeochemical conditions of the Chuvash ASSR].

    PubMed

    Stepanov, R V; Platonova, L V; Suslikov, V L; Paskhina, T S

    1991-01-01

    A proteinase-inhibitory balance of blood (elastase-like activity, alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor and alpha 2-macroglobulin activities) was studied in practically healthy inhabitants of the Chuvash ASSR two subregions--Sura river basin and Cubninocivil region, which are distinctly dissimilar in all the biogeochemical parameters involving macro- and microtrace compositions. The higher activity of elastase-like proteinases and decreased content of alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor were detected in practically healthy inhabitants of the river Sura basin, where high incidence of myocardial infarction was found, as compared with those of the Cubninocivil people. The similar alterations in the proteinase-inhibitory balance were observed in blood of experimental animals maintained on a diet containing fresh water from these subregions. The data obtained suggest that there exists causative relationship between biogeochemical parameters and development of imbalance in the proteinase-inhibitor system in practically healthy inhabitants of the river Sura basin. This imbalance is considered as a pathogenetic factor responsible for development of atherosclerosis.

  8. Embryo apoptosis identification: Oocyte grade or cleavage stage?

    PubMed Central

    Bakri, Noraina Mohd; Ibrahim, Siti Fatimah; Osman, Nurul Atikah; Hasan, Nurhaslina; Jaffar, Farah Hanan Fathihah; Rahman, Zulaiha Abdul; Osman, Khairul

    2015-01-01

    Apoptosis is a programed cell death that is vital for tissue homeostasis. However, embryo apoptosis had been known to be related to embryo fragmentation which should be avoided in in vitro fertilization (IVF). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship of embryo apoptosis with the grade of immature oocytes and cleavage stage of in vitro produced (IVP) cattle embryos. This study consisted of 345 oocytes collected through ovary slicing. Immature oocytes were graded as A, B and C. This grading was based on cumulus cell thickness and compactness. All oocytes then underwent an in vitro maturation (IVM) procedure. An IVF was done 24 h after IVM culture. Prior to staining, stage of cleaved embryos was determined and classified as either 2, 4, 8 or >8-cell embryo stage. Apoptosis status of cleaved IVP embryos was determined by using annexin V-FITC staining technique at 48 and 72 h post insemination (hpi). Apoptosis status for each embryo was classified as either early or late. The result showed that there was no significant difference (p > 0.05) of apoptosis status among grade A, B and C embryos. All grades of oocytes showed embryo apoptosis where 1.5% late apoptosis for grade A, 4.5% and 10.4% of early and late apoptosis for grade B and grade C. Early apoptosis was not seen in grade A embryo. We also noted no significant difference (p > 0.05) of apoptosis status between 2, 4, 8 and >8-cell embryo stage. Early apoptosis was also not seen in >8-cell stage. Even though there were no differences in apoptosis expression between the three classes, the cleavage rate of grade A oocytes was significantly higher (p < 0.01) than grade B and grade C. In conclusion, the apoptosis expression in the embryo can occur regardless of the oocyte quality and the cleavage stage of the embryo produced. PMID:26858565

  9. The embryo's cystatin C and F expression functions as a protective mechanism against the maternal proteinase cathepsin S in mice.

    PubMed

    Baston-Buest, D M; Schanz, A; Buest, S; Fischer, J C; Kruessel, J S; Hess, A P

    2010-04-01

    A successful implantation of a mammalian embryo into the maternal endometrium depends on a highly synchronized fetal-maternal dialogue involving chemokines, growth factors, and matrix-modifying enzymes. A growing body of evidence suggests an important role for proteinases playing a role in matrix degeneration and enhancing the embryo's invasive capacity and influencing the mother's immunological status in favor of the conceptus. This study focused on the expression of cathepsin S (CTSS) and its inhibitors in the murine fetal-maternal interface as well as the detection of the cellular sources of either proteinase and inhibitors. Nested RT-PCR for detection of embryonic mRNAs, immunohistochemistry of maternal and fetal tissues in B6C3F1 mice, and FACS analysis for determination of immunocompetent cell population were applied. This study shows that the cysteine proteinase CTSS is upregulated in the stroma of the implantation site, and that pregnancy induces an influx of CTSS-positive uterine natural killer cells. Compared to maternal tissues, the CTSS inhibitors cystatin F and C, but not the proteinase itself, are expressed in blastocysts. In conclusion, CTSS underlies a hormonal regulation in the maternal tissue and therewith most likely supports the embryonic implantation. The invading embryo regulates the depth of its own invasion through the expression of the cathepsin inhibitors and furthermore, interleukin-6 to activate CTSS in maternal tissues. Additionally, the observed decrease in CD3(+) cells leads to the hypothesis that cells of the cytotoxic T-cell group are down-regulated in the decidua to support the implantation and ensure the survival of the embryo.

  10. Rhabdovirus-induced apoptosis in a fish cell line is inhibited by a human endogenous acid cysteine proteinase inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Björklund, H V; Johansson, T R; Rinne, A

    1997-07-01

    To determine the mechanisms of cell death in rhabdovirus-infected cells, we studied the infection of the epithelial papilloma of carp cell line with spring viremia of carp virus. Studies using electron microscopy, confocal microscopy, and agarose gel electrophoresis revealed changes in cell morphology and DNA fragmentation indicative of apoptosis. The virus-induced apoptosis was inhibited in cells treated with a human endogenous acid cysteine proteinase inhibitor. PMID:9188644

  11. Hepatocyte growth factor activator is a potential target proteinase for Kazal-type inhibitor in turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) seminal plasma.

    PubMed

    Słowińska, Mariola; Bukowska, Joanna; Hejmej, Anna; Bilińska, Barbara; Kozłowski, Krzysztof; Jankowski, Jan; Ciereszko, Andrzej

    2015-08-01

    A peculiar characteristic of turkey seminal plasma is the increased activity of serine proteinases. It is of interest if the single-domain Kazal-type inhibitor controls the activity of turkey seminal plasma proteinases. Pure preparations of the Kazal-type inhibitor and anti-Kazal-type inhibitor monospecific immunoglobulin Gs were used as ligands in affinity chromatography for proteinase isolation from turkey seminal plasma. Gene expression and the immunohistochemical detection of the single-domain Kazal-type inhibitor in the reproductive tract of turkey toms are described. The hepatocyte growth factor activator (HGFA) was identified in the binding fraction in affinity chromatography. Hepatocyte growth factor activator activity was inhibited by the Kazal-type inhibitor in a dose-dependent manner. This protease was a primary physiological target for the single-domain Kazal-type inhibitor. Numerous proteoforms of HGFA were present in turkey seminal plasma, and phosphorylation was the primary posttranslational modification of HGFA. In addition to HGFA, acrosin was a target proteinase for the single-domain Kazal-type inhibitor. In seminal plasma, acrosin was present only in complexes with the Kazal-type inhibitor and was not present as a free enzyme. The single-domain Kazal-type inhibitor was specific for the reproductive tract. The germ cell-specific expression of Kazal-type inhibitors in the testis indicated an important function in spermatogenesis; secretion by the epithelial cells of the epididymis and the ductus deferens indicated that the Kazal-type inhibitor was an important factor involved in the changes in sperm membranes during maturation and in the maintenance of the microenvironment in which sperm maturation occurred and sperm was stored. The role of HGFA in these processes remains to be established.

  12. In vitro Candida albicans biofilm induced proteinase activity and SAP8 expression correlates with in vivo denture stomatitis severity.

    PubMed

    Ramage, Gordon; Coco, Brent; Sherry, Leighann; Bagg, Jeremy; Lappin, David F

    2012-07-01

    Denture stomatitis is a common inflammatory disorder of the palatal mucosa amongst denture wearers. The pathological changes are induced by Candida albicans biofilm on the fitting surface of the upper denture, and different individuals experience different levels of disease. C. albicans is known to produce secreted aspartyl proteinases (SAPs) to aid adhesion, invasion and tissue destruction. We hypothesised that differential expression and activity of SAPs from denture stomatitis isolates results in different levels of disease amongst denture wearers. We selected C. albicans isolates from asymptomatic controls and three different severities of disease [Newton’s type (NT) 0, I, II and III]. We assessed biofilm formation and proteinase activity for each biofilm and investigated the transcriptional profile of SAPs 1, 2, 5, 6 and 8 from early (12 h) and mature (24 h) biofilms. There were no significant differences between isolates with respect to biofilm formation, whereas proteinase activity normalised to biofilm growth was significantly increased in the diseased groups (p < 0.0001). Proteinase activity correlated strongly with SAP expression (p < 0.0001). SAP8 expression was the greatest, followed by SAP5, 6, 2 and 1. The diseased groups showed the greatest levels of SAP expression, with significant differences also observed between the groups (p < 0.005). All SAPs except SAP5 were expressed in greater amounts in the mature biofilms compared to early biofilms. Overall, this study suggests that SAP activity in biofilms determined in vitro may help to explain differences in disease severity. SAP8 has been shown for the first time to play a prominent role in biofilms.

  13. Use of proteinase K in the excystation of Sarcocystis cruzi sporocysts for in vitro culture and DNA extraction.

    PubMed

    Ndiritu, W; Cawthorn, R J; Kibenge, F S

    1994-03-01

    Proteinase K was used for the cleaning of Sarcocystis cruzi (Apicomplexa) sporocysts prior to excystation. Bovine pulmonary endothelial cell cultures inoculated with the excysted sporozoites remained free of bacterial contamination for the duration of the experiment and had high yields of merozoites. The excysted sporozoites also yielded genomic DNA that could be labelled efficiently with 32P dATP by the random priming method.

  14. N-terminal extension of the yeast IA3 aspartic proteinase inhibitor relaxes the strict intrinsic selectivity.

    PubMed

    Winterburn, Tim J; Phylip, Lowri H; Bur, Daniel; Wyatt, David M; Berry, Colin; Kay, John

    2007-07-01

    Yeast IA(3) aspartic proteinase inhibitor operates through an unprecedented mechanism and exhibits a remarkable specificity for one target enzyme, saccharopepsin. Even aspartic proteinases that are very closely similar to saccharopepsin (e.g. the vacuolar enzyme from Pichia pastoris) are not susceptible to significant inhibition. The Pichia proteinase was selected as the target for initial attempts to engineer IA(3) to re-design the specificity. The IA(3) polypeptides from Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces castellii differ considerably in sequence. Alterations made by deletion or exchange of the residues in the C-terminal segment of these polypeptides had only minor effects. By contrast, extension of each of these wild-type and chimaeric polypeptides at its N-terminus by an MK(H)(7)MQ sequence generated inhibitors that displayed subnanomolar potency towards the Pichia enzyme. This gain-in-function was completely reversed upon removal of the extension sequence by exopeptidase trimming. Capture of the potentially positively charged aromatic histidine residues of the extension by remote, negatively charged side-chains, which were identified in the Pichia enzyme by modelling, may increase the local IA(3) concentration and create an anchor that enables the N-terminal segment residues to be harboured in closer proximity to the enzyme active site, thus promoting their interaction. In saccharopepsin, some of the counterpart residues are different and, consistent with this, the N-terminal extension of each IA(3) polypeptide was without major effect on the potency of interaction with saccharopepsin. In this way, it is possible to convert IA(3) polypeptides that display little affinity for the Pichia enzyme into potent inhibitors of this proteinase and thus broaden the target selectivity of this remarkable small protein. PMID:17608726

  15. Autophagy in yeast demonstrated with proteinase-deficient mutants and conditions for its induction.

    PubMed

    Takeshige, K; Baba, M; Tsuboi, S; Noda, T; Ohsumi, Y

    1992-10-01

    For determination of the physiological role and mechanism of vacuolar proteolysis in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, mutant cells lacking proteinase A, B, and carboxypeptidase Y were transferred from a nutrient medium to a synthetic medium devoid of various nutrients and morphological changes of their vacuoles were investigated. After incubation for 1 h in nutrient-deficient media, a few spherical bodies appeared in the vacuoles and moved actively by Brownian movement. These bodies gradually increased in number and after 3 h they filled the vacuoles almost completely. During their accumulation, the volume of the vacuolar compartment also increased. Electron microscopic examination showed that these bodies were surrounded by a unit membrane which appeared thinner than any other intracellular membrane. The contents of the bodies were morphologically indistinguishable from the cytosol; these bodies contained cytoplasmic ribosomes, RER, mitochondria, lipid granules and glycogen granules, and the density of the cytoplasmic ribosomes in the bodies was almost the same as that of ribosomes in the cytosol. The diameter of the bodies ranged from 400 to 900 nm. Vacuoles that had accumulated these bodies were prepared by a modification of the method of Ohsumi and Anraku (Ohsumi, Y., and Y. Anraku. 1981. J. Biol. Chem. 256:2079-2082). The isolated vacuoles contained ribosomes and showed latent activity of the cytosolic enzyme glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase. These results suggest that these bodies sequestered the cytosol in the vacuoles. We named these spherical bodies "autophagic bodies." Accumulation of autophagic bodies in the vacuoles was induced not only by nitrogen starvation, but also by depletion of nutrients such as carbon and single amino acids that caused cessation of the cell cycle. Genetic analysis revealed that the accumulation of autophagic bodies in the vacuoles was the result of lack of the PRB1 product proteinase B, and disruption of the PRB1 gene

  16. Isolation of a proteinase with plasminogen-activating activity from Lachesis muta muta (bushmaster) snake venom.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, E F; Santos, C I; Magalhaes, A; Diniz, C R; Figueiredo, S; Gilroy, J; Richardson, M

    2000-06-01

    A plasminogen activator enzyme (LV-PA) from Lachesis muta muta venom was purified to homogeneity using gel filtration and anion exchange chromatography. SDS-PAGE under reducing conditions showed a single protein band with an Mr of 33,000 Da. It is an acidic glycoprotein which activates plasminogen to plasmin indirectly, functioning via prior formation of a molecular complex, known as plasminogen activator. The purified preparation catalyzes the hydrolysis of several p-nitroanilide peptide substrates containing Lys at the scissile bond. In contrast, no hydrolysis was detected on the synthetic substrates TAME and BAPNA, which contain arginine. By the use of the plasmin-specific chromogenic substrate Tos-Gly-Pro-Lys-pNA, the preparation had a plasmin-like activity of 0.68 U/mg, which was 35.8-fold higher than that of the crude venom from which it was prepared. In vitro, fibrin hydrolysis using LV-PA as plasminogen activator displayed more similarity with the effect produced by streptokinase (SK). SDS-PAGE (10%) analysis showed a 115-kDa complex formation after incubation of plasminogen with either LV-PA or SK. At a molar ratio of 50:1 (fibrinogen:enzyme), the preparation exhibited weakly fibrinogenolytic activity. However, LV-PA is distinguished from thrombin in that it does not clot fibrinogen. After incubation of LV-PA with platelet-rich plasma, the enzyme (2 microM) showed no effect on platelet aggregation induced by ADP, epinephrine, or collagen. Comparison of the N-terminal sequence of LV-PA with other snake venom plasminogen activators revealed that LV-PA exhibits a high degree of sequence identity with the TsVPA from Trimeresurus stejnegeri (90%) and with the Haly-PA from Agkistrodon halys (85%). LV-PA also has homology with other snake venom serine proteinases such as the thrombin-like/gyroxin analogue (38%) from bushmaster venom and with other coagulation serine proteases. The proteinase was readily inhibited by treatment with p-nitrophenyl p

  17. Evolutionary fate of duplicate genes encoding aspartic proteinases. Nothepsin case study.

    PubMed

    Borrelli, Lucia; De Stasio, Roberta; Filosa, Silvana; Parisi, Elio; Riggio, Marilisa; Scudiero, Rosaria; Trinchella, Francesca

    2006-03-01

    Gene duplication is considered an important evolutionary mechanism leading to new gene functions. According to the classical model, one gene copy arising from gene duplication retains the ancestral function, whilst the other becomes subject to directional selection for some novel functions. Hence, according to this model, long-term persistence of two paralogous genes is possible only with the acquisition of functional innovation. In the absence of neofunctionalization, one of the duplicate genes may be lost following accumulation of deleterious mutations, ultimately leading to the loss of function. Recently, new mechanisms have been proposed according to which both paralogs are maintained without apparent neofunctionalization. In this paper we describe the molecular evolution of the aspartic proteinase gene family, with particular regard for the nothepsin gene, a sex- and tissue-specific form of aspartic proteinase active in fish. The finding of nothepsin in a reptile is indicative of the presence of this gene in organisms other than fish. However, the failure to find any nothepsin-like gene in avian, murine and human genome suggests that the gene has been lost in certain lineages during evolution. At variance with piscine nothepsin expressed exclusively in female liver under the estrogens action, the reptilian counterpart lacks both tissue and sex specificity, as it is constitutively expressed in different tissues of male and female specimens. The expression of the nothepsin gene in fish and lizard is accompanied by the expression of a paralogous gene encoding for cathepsin D. Functional divergence analysis indicates that cathepsin D accumulated amino acid substitutions, whereas nothepsin retained most of the ancestral functions. Phylogenetic analysis shows a preponderance of replacement substitutions compared to silent substitutions in the branch leading to the cathepsin D clade, whilst nothepsin evolves under negative selection. To explain the loss of the

  18. A thermolabile aspartic proteinase from Mucor mucedo DSM 809: gene identification, cloning, and functional expression in Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Yegin, Sirma; Fernandez-Lahore, Marcelo

    2013-06-01

    In this study, the cDNA encoding the aspartic proteinase of Mucor mucedo DSM 809 has been identified by RNA ligased-mediated and oligo-capping rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) technique. The gene contained an open reading frame of 1,200 bp and encoded for a signal peptide of 21 amino acid residues. Two N-glycosylation sites were observed within the identified sequence. The proteinase gene was cloned into the vector pGAPZαA and expressed in Pichia pastoris X-33 for the first time. The protein has been secreted in functionally active form into the culture medium. The expression system does not require any acid activation process. The factors affecting the expression level were optimized in shaking flask cultures. Maximum enzyme production was observed with an initial medium pH of 3.5 at 20 °C and 220 rpm shaking speed utilizing 4 % glucose as a carbon and energy source. The enzyme was purified with cation exchange chromatography and further studies revealed that the enzyme was secreted in glycosylated form. The purified enzyme exhibited remarkable sensitivity to thermal treatment and became completely inactivated after incubation at 55 °C for 10 min. These results indicated that the recombinant proteinase could be considered as a potential rennet candidate for the cheese-making industry.

  19. The death enzyme CP14 is a unique papain-like cysteine proteinase with a pronounced S2 subsite selectivity.

    PubMed

    Paireder, Melanie; Mehofer, Ulrich; Tholen, Stefan; Porodko, Andreas; Schähs, Philipp; Maresch, Daniel; Biniossek, Martin L; van der Hoorn, Renier A L; Lenarcic, Brigita; Novinec, Marko; Schilling, Oliver; Mach, Lukas

    2016-08-01

    The cysteine protease CP14 has been identified as a central component of a molecular module regulating programmed cell death in plant embryos. CP14 belongs to a distinct subfamily of papain-like cysteine proteinases of which no representative has been characterized thoroughly to date. However, it has been proposed that CP14 is a cathepsin H-like protease. We have now produced recombinant Nicotiana benthamiana CP14 (NbCP14) lacking the C-terminal granulin domain. As typical for papain-like cysteine proteinases, NbCP14 undergoes rapid autocatalytic activation when incubated at low pH. The mature protease is capable of hydrolysing several synthetic endopeptidase substrates, but cathepsin H-like aminopeptidase activity could not be detected. NbCP14 displays a strong preference for aliphatic over aromatic amino acids in the specificity-determining P2 position. This subsite selectivity was also observed upon digestion of proteome-derived peptide libraries. Notably, the specificity profile of NbCP14 differs from that of aleurain-like protease, the N. benthamiana orthologue of cathepsin H. We conclude that CP14 is a papain-like cysteine proteinase with unusual enzymatic properties which may prove of central importance for the execution of programmed cell death during plant development. PMID:27246477

  20. Secreted Frizzled Related Protein 2 is a procollagen C proteinase enhancer with a role in myocardial infarction-associated fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Koichi; Luo, Min; Zhang, Yue; Wilkes, David C.; Ge, Gaoxiang; Grieskamp, Thomas; Yamada, Chikaomi; Liu, Ting-Chun; Huang, Guorui; Basson, Craig T.; Kispert, Andreas; Greenspan, Daniel S.; Sato, Thomas N.

    2009-01-01

    Secreted frizzled related proteins (sFRPs) have emerged as key regulators of a wide range of developmental and disease processes, with virtually all known functions of mammalian sFRPs attributed to their ability to antagonize Wnt signaling. Recently however, the Xenopus and zebrafish sFRP, Sizzled, was shown to function as an antagonist of Chordin processing by Tolloid-like metalloproteinases, leading to the proposal that sFRPs may function as evolutionarily-conserved antagonists of the chordinase activities of this class of proteinases. Herein, in contrast to this proposal, we show that the mammalian sFRP, sFRP2, does not affect Chordin processing, but instead can serve as a direct enhancer of the procollagen C-proteinase activity of Tolloid-like metalloproteinases. We further show that the level of fibrosis, in which procollagen processing by Tolloid-like proteinases plays a rate-limiting role, is markedly reduced in sFRP2-null mice subjected to myocardial infarction. Importantly, this reduced level of fibrosis is accompanied by significantly improved cardiac function. This study thus uncovers a novel function for sFRP2 and a potential therapeutic application for sFRP2 antagonism in controlling fibrosis in the infarcted heart. PMID:19079247

  1. Coexpression of potato type I and II proteinase inhibitors gives cotton plants protection against insect damage in the field

    PubMed Central

    Dunse, K. M.; Stevens, J. A.; Lay, F. T.; Gaspar, Y. M.; Heath, R. L.; Anderson, M. A.

    2010-01-01

    Potato type I and II serine protease inhibitors are produced by solanaceous plants as a defense mechanism against insects and microbes. Nicotiana alata proteinase inhibitor (NaPI) is a multidomain potato type II inhibitor (pin II) that is produced at high levels in the female reproductive tissues of the ornamental tobacco, Nicotiana alata. The individual inhibitory domains of NaPI target the major classes of digestive enzymes, trypsin and chymotrypsin, in the gut of lepidopteran larval pests. Although consumption of NaPI dramatically reduced the growth and development of a major insect pest, Helicoverpa punctigera, we discovered that surviving larvae had high levels of chymotrypsin activity resistant to inhibition by NaPI. We found a potato type I inhibitor, Solanum tuberosum potato type I inhibitor (StPin1A), was a strong inhibitor of the NaPI-resistant chymotrypsin activity. The combined inhibitory effect of NaPI and StPin1A on H. armigera larval growth in the laboratory was reflected in the increased yield of cotton bolls in field trials of transgenic plants expressing both inhibitors. Better crop protection thus is achieved using combinations of inhibitors in which one class of proteinase inhibitor is used to match the genetic capacity of an insect to adapt to a second class of proteinase inhibitor. PMID:20696895

  2. Resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis by the Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella: comparison of midgut proteinases from susceptible and resistant larvae.

    PubMed

    Johnson, D E; Brookhart, G L; Kramer, K J; Barnett, B D; McGaughey, W H

    1990-03-01

    Midgut homogenates from susceptible and resistant strains of the Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella, were compared for their ability to activate the entomocidal parasporal crystal protein from Bacillus thuringiensis. The properties of midgut proteinases from both types of larvae were also examined. Electrophoretic patterns of crystal protein from B. thuringiensis subspecies kurstaki (HD-1) and aizawai (HD-133 and HD-144) were virtually unchanged following digestion by either type of midgut homogenate. Changes in pH (9.5 to 11.5) or midgut homogenate concentration during digestion failed to substantially alter protein electrophoretic patterns of B. thuringiensis HD-1 crystal toxin. In vitro toxicity of crystal protein activated by either type of midgut preparation was equal toward cultured insect cells from either Manduca sexta or Choristoneura fumiferana. Electrophoresis of midgut extracts in polyacrylamide gels containing gelatin as substrate also yielded matching mobility patterns of proteinases from both types of midguts. Quantitation of midgut proteolytic activity using tritiated casein as a substrate revealed variation between midgut preparations, but no statistically significant differences between proteolytic activities from susceptible and resistant Indian meal moth larvae. Inhibition studies indicated that a trypsin-like proteinase with maximal activity at pH 10 is a major constituent of Indian meal moth midguts. The results demonstrated that midguts from susceptible and resistant strains of P. interpunctella are similar both in their ability to activate B. thuringiensis protoxin and in their proteolytic activity.

  3. Molt cycle-associated changes in calcium-dependent proteinase activity that degrades actin and myosin in crustacean muscle

    SciTech Connect

    Mykles, D.L.; Skinner, D.M.

    1982-01-01

    The role of calcium-dependent proteinase (CDP) in the proecdysial atrophy of crustacean claw muscle has been investigated. During atrophy the molar ratio of actin to myosin heavy chain decreased 31%, confirming earlier ultrastructural observations that the ratio of thin:thick myofilaments declined from 9:1 to 6:1 (D.L. Mykles and D.M. Skinner, 1981, J. Ultrastruct. Res. 75, 314 to 325). The release of TCA-soluble material in muscle homogenates at neutral pH was stimulated by Ca/sup 2 +/ and completely inhibited by EGTA. The specific degradation of the major myofibrillar proteins (actin, myosin heavy and light chains, paramyosin, tropomyosin, troponin-T, and troponin-I) was demonstrated by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Proteolytic activity was more than twofold greater in proecdysial muscle homogenates. Degradation of myofibrillar proteins was inhibited by EGTA, and the two inhibitors of crysteine proteinases, leupeptin, and antipain, but not pepstatin, an inhibitor of aspartic proteinases. Unlike CDPs from vertebrate muscle, the CDP(s) in crab claw muscle degrades actin and myosin in addition to other myofibrillar proteins.

  4. Characterization of proteinases from the midgut of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus involved in the generation of antimicrobial peptides

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Hemoglobin is a rich source of biologically active peptides, some of which are potent antimicrobials (hemocidins). A few hemocidins have been purified from the midgut contents of ticks. Nonetheless, how antimicrobials are generated in the tick midgut and their role in immunity is still poorly understood. Here we report, for the first time, the contribution of two midgut proteinases to the generation of hemocidins. Results An aspartic proteinase, designated BmAP, was isolated from the midgut of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus using three chromatographic steps. Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction revealed that BmAP is restricted to the midgut. The other enzyme is a previously characterized midgut cathepsin L-like cysteine proteinase designated BmCL1. Substrate specificities of native BmAP and recombinant BmCL1 were mapped using a synthetic combinatorial peptide library and bovine hemoglobin. BmCL1 preferred substrates containing non-polar residues at P2 subsite and polar residues at P1, whereas BmAP hydrolysed substrates containing non-polar amino acids at P1 and P1'. Conclusions BmAP and BmCL1 generate hemocidins from hemoglobin alpha and beta chains in vitro. We postulate that hemocidins may be important for the control of tick pathogens and midgut flora. PMID:20663211

  5. Functional properties of a cysteine proteinase from pineapple fruit with improved resistance to fungal pathogens in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Zhang, Lu; Guo, Ning; Zhang, Xiumei; Zhang, Chen; Sun, Guangming; Xie, Jianghui

    2014-02-21

    In plant cells, many cysteine proteinases (CPs) are synthesized as precursors in the endoplasmic reticulum, and then are subject to post-translational modifications to form the active mature proteinases. They participate in various cellular and physiological functions. Here, AcCP2, a CP from pineapple fruit (Ananas comosus L.) belonging to the C1A subfamily is analyzed based on the molecular modeling and homology alignment. Transcripts of AcCP2 can be detected in the different parts of fruits (particularly outer sarcocarps), and gradually increased during fruit development until maturity. To analyze the substrate specificity of AcCP2, the recombinant protein was overexpressed and purified from Pichia pastoris. The precursor of purified AcCP2 can be processed to a 25 kDa active form after acid treatment (pH 4.3). Its optimum proteolytic activity to Bz-Phe-Val-Arg-NH-Mec is at neutral pH. In addition, the overexpression of AcCP2 gene in Arabidopsis thaliana can improve the resistance to fungal pathogen of Botrytis cinerea. These data indicate that AcCP2 is a multifunctional proteinase, and its expression could cause fruit developmental characteristics of pineapple and resistance responses in transgenic Arabidopsis plants.

  6. Developing a rapid throughput screen for detection of nematicidal activity of plant cysteine proteinases: the role of Caenorhabditis elegans cystatins.

    PubMed

    Phiri, A M; De Pomerai, D; Buttle, D J; Behnke, J M B

    2014-02-01

    Plant cysteine proteinases (CPs) from papaya (Carica papaya) are capable of killing parasitic nematode worms in vitro and have been shown to possess anthelmintic effects in vivo. The acute damage reported in gastrointestinal parasites has not been found in free-living nematodes such as Caenorhabditis elegans nor among the free-living stages of parasitic nematodes. This apparent difference in susceptibility might be the result of active production of cysteine proteinase inhibitors (such as cystatins) by the free-living stages or species. To test this possibility, a supernatant extract of refined papaya latex (PLS) with known active enzyme content was used. The effect on wild-type (Bristol N2) and cystatin null mutant (cpi-1(-/-) and cpi-2(-/-)) C. elegans was concentration-, temperature- and time-dependent. Cysteine proteinases digested the worm cuticle leading to release of internal structures and consequent death. Both cystatin null mutant strains were highly susceptible to PLS attack irrespective of the temperature and concentration of exposure, whereas wild-type N2 worms were generally resistant but far more susceptible to attack at low temperatures. PLS was able to induce elevated cpi-1 and cpi-2 cystatin expression. We conclude that wild-type C. elegans deploy cystatins CPI-1 and CPI-2 to resist CP attack. The results suggest that the cpi-1 or cpi-2 null mutants (or a double mutant combination of the two) could provide a cheap and effective rapid throughput C. elegans-based assay for screening plant CP extracts for anthelmintic activity.

  7. Isolation, characterization and cDNA sequencing of a Kazal family proteinase inhibitor from seminal plasma of turkey (Meleagris gallopavo).

    PubMed

    Słowińska, Mariola; Olczak, Mariusz; Wojtczak, Mariola; Glogowski, Jan; Jankowski, Jan; Watorek, Wiesław; Amarowicz, Ryszard; Ciereszko, Andrzej

    2008-06-01

    The turkey reproductive tract and seminal plasma contain a serine proteinase inhibitor that seems to be unique for the reproductive tract. Our experimental objective was to isolate, characterize and cDNA sequence the Kazal family proteinase inhibitor from turkey seminal plasma and testis. Seminal plasma contains two forms of a Kazal family inhibitor: virgin (Ia) represented by an inhibitor of moderate electrophoretic migration rate (present also in the testis) and modified (Ib, a split peptide bond) represented by an inhibitor with a fast migration rate. The inhibitor from the seminal plasma was purified by affinity, ion-exchange and reverse phase chromatography. The testis inhibitor was purified by affinity and ion-exchange chromatography. N-terminal Edman sequencing of the two seminal plasma inhibitors and testis inhibitor were identical. This sequence was used to construct primers and obtain a cDNA sequence from the testis. Analysis of a cDNA sequence indicated that turkey proteinase inhibitor belongs to Kazal family inhibitors (pancreatic secretory trypsin inhibitors, mammalian acrosin inhibitors) and caltrin. The turkey seminal plasma Kazal inhibitor belongs to low molecular mass inhibitors and is characterized by a high value of the equilibrium association constant for inhibitor/trypsin complexes.

  8. Impact of Mercury(II) on proteinase K catalytic center: investigations via classical and Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics.

    PubMed

    Panek, Jarosław J; Mazzarello, Riccardo; Novič, Marjana; Jezierska-Mazzarello, Aneta

    2011-02-01

    Mercury(II) has a strong affinity for the thiol groups in proteins often resulting in the disruption of their biological functions. In this study we present classical and first-principles, DFT-based molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of a complex of Hg(II) and proteinase K, a well-known serine protease with a very broad and diverse enzymatic activity. It contains a catalytic triad formed by Asp39, His69, and Ser224, which is responsible for its biological activity. It was found previously by X-ray diffraction experiments that the presence of Hg(II) inhibits the enzymatic action of proteinase K by affecting the stereochemistry of the triad. Our simulations predict that (i) the overall structure as well as the protein backbone dynamics are only slightly affected by the mercury cation, (ii) depending on the occupied mercury site, the hydrogen bonds of the catalytic triad are either severely disrupted (both bonds for mercury at site 1, and the His69-Ser224 contact for mercury at site 2) or slightly strengthened (the Asp39-His69 bond when mercury is at site 2), (iii) the network of hydrogen bonds of the catalytic triad is not static but undergoes constant fluctuations, which are significantly modified by the presence of the Hg(II) cation, influencing in turn the triad's ability to carry out the enzymatic function--these facts explain the experimental findings on the inhibition of proteinase K by Hg(II).

  9. Adaptation of the behaviour of an aspartic proteinase inhibitor by relocation of a lysine residue by one helical turn.

    PubMed

    Winterburn, Tim J; Wyatt, David M; Phylip, Lowri H; Berry, Colin; Bur, Daniel; Kay, John

    2006-08-01

    In addition to self-inhibition of aspartic proteinase zymogens by their intrinsic proparts, the activity of certain members of this enzyme family can be modulated through active-site occupation by extrinsic polypeptides such as the small IA3 protein from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The unprecedented mechanism by which IA3 helicates to inhibit its sole target aspartic proteinase locates an i, i+4 pair of charged residues (Lys18+Asp22) on an otherwise-hydrophobic face of the amphipathic helix. The nature of these residues is not crucial for effective inhibition, but re-location of the lysine residue by one turn (+4 residues) in the helical IA3 positions its side chain in the mutant IA3-proteinase complex in an orientation essentially identical to that of the key lysine residue in zymogen proparts. The binding of the extrinsic mutant IA3 shows pH dependence reminiscent of that required for the release of intrinsic zymogen proparts so that activation can occur. PMID:16895485

  10. An in-built proteinase inhibitor system for the protection of recombinant proteins recovered from transgenic plants.

    PubMed

    Rivard, Daniel; Anguenot, Raphaël; Brunelle, France; Le, Van Quy; Vézina, Louis-Philippe; Trépanier, Sonia; Michaud, Dominique

    2006-05-01

    Proteolytic degradation represents a significant barrier to the efficient production of several recombinant proteins in plants, both in vivo during their expression and in vitro during their recovery from source tissues. Here, we describe a strategy to protect recombinant proteins during the recovery process, based on the coexpression of a heterologous proteinase inhibitor acting as a 'mouse trap' against the host proteases during extraction. After confirming the importance of trypsin- and chymotrypsin-like activities in crude protein extracts of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) leaves, transgenic lines of potato expressing either tomato cathepsin D inhibitor (CDI) or bovine aprotinin, both active against trypsin and chymotrypsin, were generated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated genetic transformation. Leaf crude protein extracts from CDI-expressing lines, showing decreased levels of cathepsin D-like and ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase hydrolysing activities in vitro, conducted decreased turnover rates of the selection marker protein neomycin phosphotransferase II (NPTII) relative to the turnover rates measured for transgenic lines expressing only the marker protein. A similar stabilizing effect on NPTII was observed in leaf protein extracts from plant lines coexpressing bovine aprotinin, confirming the ability of ectopically expressed broad-spectrum serine proteinase inhibitors to reproduce the protein-stabilizing effect of low-molecular-weight proteinase inhibitors generally added to protein extraction media.

  11. Isolation of a putative receptor for KDEL-tailed cysteine proteinase (SH-EP) from cotyledons of Vigna mungo seedlings.

    PubMed

    Tsuru-Furuno, A; Okamoto, T; Minamikawa, T

    2001-10-01

    SH-EP is the major papain-type proteinase expressed in cotyledons of germinated Vigna mungo seeds. The proteinase possesses a KDEL sequence at the C-terminus although the mature form of SH-EP is localized in vacuoles. It has also been shown that the proform of SH-EP is accumulated at the edge or middle region of the endoplasmic reticulum, and the accumulated proSH-EP is directly transported to vacuoles via the KDEL-tailed cysteine proteinase-accumulating vesicle, KV. In this study, to address the transport machinery of proSH-EP through KV, putative receptor for proSH-EP was isolated from membrane proteins of cotyledons of V. mungo seedlings using a proSH-EP-immobilized column. The deduced amino acid sequence from cDNA to the protein revealed that the putative receptor for proSH-EP is a member of vacuolar sorting receptor, VSR, that is known to be localized in the Golgi-complex and/or clathrin coated vesicle. We carried out subcellular fractionation of cotyledon cells and subsequently conducted SDS-PAGE/immunoblotting and immunocytochemistry with anti-V. mungo VSR (VmVSR) or SH-EP antibody. The results showed that VmVSR is co-localized in the fraction of the gradient in which KV existed.

  12. Association of a 33-kilodalton cysteine proteinase found in corn callus with the inhibition of fall armyworm larval growth.

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, B; Siregar, U; Willeford, K O; Luthe, D S; Williams, W P

    1995-01-01

    Protein patterns of callus from corn (Zea mays L.) inbreds that are either resistant or susceptible to fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda [J.E. Smith]) were analyzed by two-dimensional electrophoresis. Fall armyworm larvae reared on callus initiated from resistant inbreds were significantly smaller than those reared on callus of susceptible inbreds. A 33-kD protein found in callus from the resistant inbreds Mp704 and Mp708 was absent in callus from the susceptible inbreds Tx601 and Ab24E. However, a 36-kD protein found in Ab24E callus immunoreacted with polyclonal antibody raised against the 33-kD protein. When Mp704 nonfriable callus changed to friable, larval growth was not inhibited and the 33-kD protein was absent. There was a significant negative correlation between the concentration of the 33-kD protein in the callus and the weight of the larvae feeding on the callus in the F2 progeny of Mp704 x Tx601. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of the 33-kD protein suggested that it was cysteine proteinase. Purification of the 33- (Mp708) and 36-kD (Ab24E) proteins indicated that they were both cysteine proteinases. The 33-kD cysteine proteinase had 7-fold higher specific activity than the 36-kD enzyme. PMID:7659755

  13. Biochemical and immunological characterization of a recombinantly-produced antifungal cysteine proteinase inhibitor from green kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa).

    PubMed

    Popovic, Milica; Andjelkovic, Uros; Burazer, Lidija; Lindner, Buko; Petersen, Arnd; Gavrovic-Jankulovic, Marija

    2013-10-01

    Plant proteinase inhibitors are considered important defense molecules against insect and pathogen attack. The cysteine proteinase inhibitor (CPI) from green kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa) belongs to the cystatin family and shows potent antifungal activity (in vitro and in vivo). However, the low abundance of this molecule in fruit (6μg/g of fresh fruit) seems to limit further investigations on the interaction between phytocystatin and photopathogenic fungi. In this paper the cDNA of the kiwi CPI was expressed in Escherichia coli. Fifteen N-terminal amino acids were identified by Edman degradation, and 77% of the rCPI primary structure was confirmed by mass fingerprint. The structural homology of recombinant CPI (rCPI) to its natural counterpart has been clearly demonstrated in immunological assays (immunoblot and ELISA inhibition). Biological activity of rCPI was demonstrated in inhibition assay with cysteine proteinase papain (EC50 2.78nM). In addition, rCPI reveals antifungal properties toward pathogenic fungi (Alternaria radicina and Botrytis cinerea), which designates it as an interesting model protein for the exploration of plant phytocystatins - pathogen interactions. Understanding the molecular mechanisms of natural plant resistance could lead to the development of ecologically safe fungicides for controlling post-harvest diseases and maintaining food quality.

  14. Mutations altering the cleavage specificity of a homing endonuclease

    PubMed Central

    Seligman, Lenny M.; Chisholm, Karen M.; Chevalier, Brett S.; Chadsey, Meggen S.; Edwards, Samuel T.; Savage, Jeremiah H.; Veillet, Adeline L.

    2002-01-01

    The homing endonuclease I-CreI recognizes and cleaves a particular 22 bp DNA sequence. The crystal structure of I-CreI bound to homing site DNA has previously been determined, leading to a number of predictions about specific protein–DNA contacts. We test these predictions by analyzing a set of endonuclease mutants and a complementary set of homing site mutants. We find evidence that all structurally predicted I-CreI/DNA contacts contribute to DNA recognition and show that these contacts differ greatly in terms of their relative importance. We also describe the isolation of a collection of altered specificity I-CreI derivatives. The in vitro DNA-binding and cleavage properties of two such endonucleases demonstrate that our genetic approach is effective in identifying homing endonucleases that recognize and cleave novel target sequences. PMID:12202772

  15. Catalysts of DNA Strand Cleavage at Apurinic/Apyrimidinic Sites

    PubMed Central

    Minko, Irina G.; Jacobs, Aaron C.; de Leon, Arnie R.; Gruppi, Francesca; Donley, Nathan; Harris, Thomas M.; Rizzo, Carmelo J.; McCullough, Amanda K.; Lloyd, R. Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) sites are constantly formed in cellular DNA due to instability of the glycosidic bond, particularly at purines and various oxidized, alkylated, or otherwise damaged nucleobases. AP sites are also generated by DNA glycosylases that initiate DNA base excision repair. These lesions represent a significant block to DNA replication and are extremely mutagenic. Some DNA glycosylases possess AP lyase activities that nick the DNA strand at the deoxyribose moiety via a β- or β,δ-elimination reaction. Various amines can incise AP sites via a similar mechanism, but this non-enzymatic cleavage typically requires high reagent concentrations. Herein, we describe a new class of small molecules that function at low micromolar concentrations as both β- and β,δ-elimination catalysts at AP sites. Structure-activity relationships have established several characteristics that appear to be necessary for the formation of an iminium ion intermediate that self-catalyzes the elimination at the deoxyribose ring. PMID:27363485

  16. Intramolecular Aminocyanation of Alkenes via N–CN Bond Cleavage**

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Zhongda; Pound, Sarah M.; Rondla, Naveen R.; Douglas, Christopher J.

    2014-01-01

    A metal-free, Lewis acid-promoted intramolecular aminocyanation of alkenes was developed. B(C6F5)3 activates N-sulfonyl cyanamides, leading an formal cleavage of the N-CN bonds in conjunction with vicinal addition of sulfonamide and nitrile groups across an alkene. This method enables atom-economical access to indolines and tetrahydroquinolines in excellent yields, and provides a complementary strategy for regioselective alkene difunctionalizations with sulfonamide and nitrile groups. Labeling experiments with 13C suggest a fully intramolecular cyclization pattern due to lack of label scrambling in double crossover experiments. Catalysis with Lewis acid is realized and the reaction can be conducted under air. PMID:24719371

  17. Enzymic Pathways for Formation of Carotenoid Cleavage Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleischmann, Peter; Zorn, Holger

    Degraded carotenoids (apocarotenoids, norisoprenoids) have been a subject of intensive research for several decades. From the perspective of human physiology and nutrition, the retinoids, acting as vitamins, signalling molecules, and visual pigments, attracted the greatest attention (Chapters 15 and 16). Plant scientists, however, detected a wealth of different apocarotenoids, presumably derived by the excentric cleavage of carotenoids in various species, the plant hormone abscisic acid (1, Scheme 6) being the best-investigated example. With the onset of fruit ripening, flower opening or senescence of green tissues, carotenoids are degraded oxidatively to smaller, volatile compounds. The natural biological functions of the reaction products are outlined in Chapter 15. As many of these apocarotenoids act as potent flavour compounds, food chemists and flavourists worldwide have investigated meticulously their structural and sensory properties. Many aspects of carotenoid metabolites and breakdown products as aroma compounds are presented in a comprehensive book [1].

  18. The crystallography of cleavage fracture in Al3Sc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneibel, J. H.; Hazzeldine, P. M.

    1992-04-01

    Detailed observations of fracture surface in Al3Sc are presented. Al3Sc is soft and exhibits five independent slip systems, yet it is brittle. The main fracture surface is 011-plane. The 001-plane, 111-plane, and 012-plane surfaces are only occasionally found and are usually highly localized. The fracture surfaces usually exhibit striations along the traces of slip planes and evidence for twinning is also found. Only occasionally are small regions found that may be atomically flat. Steps aligned along 0 1 -1 line consist of 111-plane cleavage planes. Most steps aligned along 2 1 -1 line exhibit multiple angles and are not fully crystallographic. Reactions between 001-line and 211-line steps are sometimes observed. Although fracture in Al3Sc is not thought to be primarily an environmental effect, certain fractographic similarities with the stress corrosion cracking of fcc materials and Cu3Au are found.

  19. Hydrogen cleavage by solid-phase frustrated Lewis pairs.

    PubMed

    Xing, Jun-Yi; Buffet, Jean-Charles; Rees, Nicholas H; Nørby, Peter; O'Hare, Dermot

    2016-08-18

    We report the direct synthesis of a solid-phase frustrated Lewis pair (s-FLP) by combining a silica-supported Lewis acid ([triple bond, length as m-dash]SiOB(C6F5)2, s-BCF) with a Lewis base (tri-tert-butylphosphine, (t)Bu3P) to give [[triple bond, length as m-dash]SiOB(C6F5)2][(t)Bu3P]. Reaction of this s-FLP with H2 under mild conditions led to heterolytic H-H bond cleavage and the formation of [[triple bond, length as m-dash]SiOB(H)(C6F5)2][(t)Bu3PH].

  20. Cleavage of an amide bond by a ribozyme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dai, X.; De Mesmaeker, A.; Joyce, G. F.; Miller, S. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1995-01-01

    A variant form of a group I ribozyme, optimized by in vitro evolution for its ability to catalyze magnesium-dependent phosphoester transfer reactions involving DNA substrates, also catalyzes the cleavage of an unactivated alkyl amide when that linkage is presented in the context of an oligodeoxynucleotide analog. Substrates containing an amide bond that joins either two DNA oligos, or a DNA oligo and a short peptide, are cleaved in a magnesium-dependent fashion to generate the expected products. The first-order rate constant, kcat, is 0.1 x 10(-5) min-1 to 1 x 10(-5) min-1 for the DNA-flanked substrates, which corresponds to a rate acceleration of more than 10(3) as compared with the uncatalyzed reaction.

  1. Catalysts of DNA Strand Cleavage at Apurinic/Apyrimidinic Sites.

    PubMed

    Minko, Irina G; Jacobs, Aaron C; de Leon, Arnie R; Gruppi, Francesca; Donley, Nathan; Harris, Thomas M; Rizzo, Carmelo J; McCullough, Amanda K; Lloyd, R Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) sites are constantly formed in cellular DNA due to instability of the glycosidic bond, particularly at purines and various oxidized, alkylated, or otherwise damaged nucleobases. AP sites are also generated by DNA glycosylases that initiate DNA base excision repair. These lesions represent a significant block to DNA replication and are extremely mutagenic. Some DNA glycosylases possess AP lyase activities that nick the DNA strand at the deoxyribose moiety via a β- or β,δ-elimination reaction. Various amines can incise AP sites via a similar mechanism, but this non-enzymatic cleavage typically requires high reagent concentrations. Herein, we describe a new class of small molecules that function at low micromolar concentrations as both β- and β,δ-elimination catalysts at AP sites. Structure-activity relationships have established several characteristics that appear to be necessary for the formation of an iminium ion intermediate that self-catalyzes the elimination at the deoxyribose ring. PMID:27363485

  2. Mechanism of endonuclease cleavage by the HigB toxin.

    PubMed

    Schureck, Marc A; Repack, Adrienne; Miles, Stacey J; Marquez, Jhomar; Dunham, Christine M

    2016-09-19

    Bacteria encode multiple type II toxin-antitoxin modules that cleave ribosome-bound mRNAs in response to stress. All ribosome-dependent toxin family members structurally characterized to date adopt similar microbial RNase architectures despite possessing low sequence identities. Therefore, determining which residues are catalytically important in this specialized RNase family has been a challenge in the field. Structural studies of RelE and YoeB toxins bound to the ribosome provided significant insights but biochemical experiments with RelE were required to clearly demonstrate which residues are critical for acid-base catalysis of mRNA cleavage. Here, we solved an X-ray crystal structure of the wild-type, ribosome-dependent toxin HigB bound to the ribosome revealing potential catalytic residues proximal to the mRNA substrate. Using cell-based and biochemical assays, we further determined that HigB residues His54, Asp90, Tyr91 and His92 are critical for activity in vivo, while HigB H54A and Y91A variants have the largest effect on mRNA cleavage in vitro Comparison of X-ray crystal structures of two catalytically inactive HigB variants with 70S-HigB bound structures reveal that HigB active site residues undergo conformational rearrangements likely required for recognition of its mRNA substrate. These data support the emerging concept that ribosome-dependent toxins have diverse modes of mRNA recognition.

  3. Proteolytic Cleavage of Apolipoprotein E in the Down Syndrome Brain

    PubMed Central

    Day, Ryan J.; McCarty, Katie L.; Ockerse, Kayla E.; Head, Elizabeth; Rohn, Troy T.

    2016-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is one of the most common genetic causes of intellectual disability and is characterized by a number of behavioral as well as cognitive symptoms. Many of the neuropathological features of early-onset Alzheimer’s disease (AD) including senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) are also present in people with DS as a result of triplication of the amyloid precursor gene on chromosome 21. Evidence suggests that harboring one or both apolipoprotein E4 (APOE4) alleles may increase the risk for AD due to the proteolytic cleavage of apoE4 and a subsequent loss of function. To investigate a role for the apoE proteolysis in vivo, we compared three autopsy groups; 7 DS with AD neuropathology cases over 40 years, 5 young DS cases without AD pathology under 40 years (YDS) and 5 age-matched control cases over 40 years by immunohistochemistry utilizing an antibody that detects the amino-terminal fragment of apoE. Application of this antibody, termed the amino-terminal apoE fragment antibody (nApoECF) revealed labeling of pyramidal neurons in the frontal cortex of YDS cases, whereas in the DS-AD group, labeling with nApoECF was prominent within NFTs. NFT labeling with nApoECF was significantly greater in the hippocampus versus the frontal cortex in the same DS-AD cases, suggesting a regional distribution of truncated apoE. Colocalization immunofluorescence experiments indicated that 52.5% and 53.2% of AT8- and PHF-1-positive NFTs, respectively, also contained nApoECF. Collectively, these data support a role for the proteolytic cleavage of apoE in DS and suggest that apoE fragmentation is closely associated with NFTs. PMID:27330841

  4. A designer bleomycin with significantly improved DNA cleavage activity.

    PubMed

    Huang, Sheng-Xiong; Feng, Zhiyang; Wang, Liyan; Galm, Ute; Wendt-Pienkowski, Evelyn; Yang, Dong; Tao, Meifeng; Coughlin, Jane M; Duan, Yanwen; Shen, Ben

    2012-08-15

    The bleomycins (BLMs) are used clinically in combination with a number of other agents for the treatment of several types of tumors, and the BLM, etoposide, and cisplatin treatment regimen cures 90-95% of metastatic testicular cancer patients. BLM-induced pneumonitis is the most feared, dose-limiting side effect of BLM in chemotherapy, which can progress into lung fibrosis and affect up to 46% of the total patient population. There have been continued efforts to develop new BLM analogues in the search for anticancer drugs with better clinical efficacy and lower lung toxicity. We have previously cloned and characterized the biosynthetic gene clusters for BLMs from Streptomyces verticillus ATCC15003, tallysomycins from Streptoalloteichus hindustanus E465-94 ATCC31158, and zorbamycin (ZBM) from Streptomyces flavoviridis SB9001. Comparative analysis of the three biosynthetic machineries provided the molecular basis for the formulation of hypotheses to engineer novel analogues. We now report engineered production of three new analogues, 6'-hydroxy-ZBM, BLM Z, and 6'-deoxy-BLM Z and the evaluation of their DNA cleavage activities as a measurement for their potential anticancer activity. Our findings unveiled: (i) the disaccharide moiety plays an important role in the DNA cleavage activity of BLMs and ZBMs, (ii) the ZBM disaccharide significantly enhances the potency of BLM, and (iii) 6'-deoxy-BLM Z represents the most potent BLM analogue known to date. The fact that 6'-deoxy-BLM Z can be produced in reasonable quantities by microbial fermentation should greatly facilitate follow-up mechanistic and preclinical studies to potentially advance this analogue into a clinical drug.

  5. A Designer Bleomycin with Significantly Improved DNA Cleavage Activity

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Sheng-Xiong; Feng, Zhiyang; Wang, Liyan; Galm, Ute; Wendt-Pienkowski, Evelyn; Yang, Dong; Tao, Meifeng; Coughlin, Jane M; Duan, Yanwen; Shen, Ben

    2012-01-01

    The bleomycins (BLMs) are used clinically in combination with a number of other agents for the treatment of several types of tumors, and the BLM, etoposide, and cisplatin treatment regimen cures 90–95% of metastatic testicular cancer patients. BLM-induced pneumonitis is the most feared, dose-limiting side effect of BLM in chemotherapy, which can progress into lung fibrosis and affect up to 46% of the total patient population. There have been continued efforts to develop new BLM analogues in the search for anticancer drugs with better clinical efficacy and lower lung toxicity. We have previously cloned and characterized the biosynthetic gene clusters for BLMs from Streptomyces verticillus ATCC15003, tallysomycins from Streptoalloteichus hindustanus E465-94 ATCC31158, and zorbamycin (ZBM) from Streptomyces flavoviridis SB9001. Comparative analysis of the three biosynthetic machineries provided the molecular basis for the formulation of hypotheses to engineer novel analogues. We now report engineered production of three new analogues, 6′-hydroxy-ZBM, BLM Z, and 6′-deoxy-BLM Z and the evaluation of their DNA cleavage activities as a measurement for their potential anticancer activity. Our findings unveiled: (i) the disaccharide moiety plays an important role in the DNA cleavage activity of BLMs and ZBMs, (ii) the ZBM disaccharide significantly enhances the potency of BLM, and (iii) 6′-deoxy-BLM Z represents the most potent BLM analogue known to date. The fact that 6′-deoxy-BLM Z can be produced in reasonable quantities by microbial fermentation should greatly facilitate follow-up mechanistic and preclinical studies to potentially advance this analogue into a clinical drug. PMID:22831455

  6. Mechanism of endonuclease cleavage by the HigB toxin

    PubMed Central

    Schureck, Marc A.; Repack, Adrienne; Miles, Stacey J.; Marquez, Jhomar; Dunham, Christine M.

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria encode multiple type II toxin–antitoxin modules that cleave ribosome-bound mRNAs in response to stress. All ribosome-dependent toxin family members structurally characterized to date adopt similar microbial RNase architectures despite possessing low sequence identities. Therefore, determining which residues are catalytically important in this specialized RNase family has been a challenge in the field. Structural studies of RelE and YoeB toxins bound to the ribosome provided significant insights but biochemical experiments with RelE were required to clearly demonstrate which residues are critical for acid-base catalysis of mRNA cleavage. Here, we solved an X-ray crystal structure of the wild-type, ribosome-dependent toxin HigB bound to the ribosome revealing potential catalytic residues proximal to the mRNA substrate. Using cell-based and biochemical assays, we further determined that HigB residues His54, Asp90, Tyr91 and His92 are critical for activity in vivo, while HigB H54A and Y91A variants have the largest effect on mRNA cleavage in vitro. Comparison of X-ray crystal structures of two catalytically inactive HigB variants with 70S-HigB bound structures reveal that HigB active site residues undergo conformational rearrangements likely required for recognition of its mRNA substrate. These data support the emerging concept that ribosome-dependent toxins have diverse modes of mRNA recognition. PMID:27378776

  7. C-S bond cleavage by a polyketide synthase domain.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ming; Lohman, Jeremy R; Liu, Tao; Shen, Ben

    2015-08-18

    Leinamycin (LNM) is a sulfur-containing antitumor antibiotic featuring an unusual 1,3-dioxo-1,2-dithiolane moiety that is spiro-fused to a thiazole-containing 18-membered lactam ring. The 1,3-dioxo-1,2-dithiolane moiety is essential for LNM's antitumor activity, by virtue of its ability to generate an episulfonium ion intermediate capable of alkylating DNA. We have previously cloned and sequenced the lnm gene cluster from Streptomyces atroolivaceus S-140. In vivo and in vitro characterizations of the LNM biosynthetic machinery have since established that: (i) the 18-membered macrolactam backbone is synthesized by LnmP, LnmQ, LnmJ, LnmI, and LnmG, (ii) the alkyl branch at C-3 of LNM is installed by LnmK, LnmL, LnmM, and LnmF, and (iii) leinamycin E1 (LNM E1), bearing a thiol moiety at C-3, is the nascent product of the LNM hybrid nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS)-acyltransferase (AT)-less type I polyketide synthase (PKS). Sulfur incorporation at C-3 of LNM E1, however, has not been addressed. Here we report that: (i) the bioinformatics analysis reveals a pyridoxal phosphate (PLP)-dependent domain, we termed cysteine lyase (SH) domain (LnmJ-SH), within PKS module-8 of LnmJ; (ii) the LnmJ-SH domain catalyzes C-S bond cleavage by using l-cysteine and l-cysteine S-modified analogs as substrates through a PLP-dependent β-elimination reaction, establishing l-cysteine as the origin of sulfur at C-3 of LNM; and (iii) the LnmJ-SH domain, sharing no sequence homology with any other enzymes catalyzing C-S bond cleavage, represents a new family of PKS domains that expands the chemistry and enzymology of PKSs and might be exploited to incorporate sulfur into polyketide natural products by PKS engineering.

  8. Proteolytic Cleavage of Apolipoprotein E in the Down Syndrome Brain.

    PubMed

    Day, Ryan J; McCarty, Katie L; Ockerse, Kayla E; Head, Elizabeth; Rohn, Troy T

    2016-05-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is one of the most common genetic causes of intellectual disability and is characterized by a number of behavioral as well as cognitive symptoms. Many of the neuropathological features of early-onset Alzheimer's disease (AD) including senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) are also present in people with DS as a result of triplication of the amyloid precursor gene on chromosome 21. Evidence suggests that harboring one or both apolipoprotein E4 (APOE4) alleles may increase the risk for AD due to the proteolytic cleavage of apoE4 and a subsequent loss of function. To investigate a role for the apoE proteolysis in vivo, we compared three autopsy groups; 7 DS with AD neuropathology cases over 40 years, 5 young DS cases without AD pathology under 40 years (YDS) and 5 age-matched control cases over 40 years by immunohistochemistry utilizing an antibody that detects the amino-terminal fragment of apoE. Application of this antibody, termed the amino-terminal apoE fragment antibody (nApoECF) revealed labeling of pyramidal neurons in the frontal cortex of YDS cases, whereas in the DS-AD group, labeling with nApoECF was prominent within NFTs. NFT labeling with nApoECF was significantly greater in the hippocampus versus the frontal cortex in the same DS-AD cases, suggesting a regional distribution of truncated apoE. Colocalization immunofluorescence experiments indicated that 52.5% and 53.2% of AT8- and PHF-1-positive NFTs, respectively, also contained nApoECF. Collectively, these data support a role for the proteolytic cleavage of apoE in DS and suggest that apoE fragmentation is closely associated with NFTs. PMID:27330841

  9. Proteolytic Cleavage of Apolipoprotein E in the Down Syndrome Brain.

    PubMed

    Day, Ryan J; McCarty, Katie L; Ockerse, Kayla E; Head, Elizabeth; Rohn, Troy T

    2016-05-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is one of the most common genetic causes of intellectual disability and is characterized by a number of behavioral as well as cognitive symptoms. Many of the neuropathological features of early-onset Alzheimer's disease (AD) including senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) are also present in people with DS as a result of triplication of the amyloid precursor gene on chromosome 21. Evidence suggests that harboring one or both apolipoprotein E4 (APOE4) alleles may increase the risk for AD due to the proteolytic cleavage of apoE4 and a subsequent loss of function. To investigate a role for the apoE proteolysis in vivo, we compared three autopsy groups; 7 DS with AD neuropathology cases over 40 years, 5 young DS cases without AD pathology under 40 years (YDS) and 5 age-matched control cases over 40 years by immunohistochemistry utilizing an antibody that detects the amino-terminal fragment of apoE. Application of this antibody, termed the amino-terminal apoE fragment antibody (nApoECF) revealed labeling of pyramidal neurons in the frontal cortex of YDS cases, whereas in the DS-AD group, labeling with nApoECF was prominent within NFTs. NFT labeling with nApoECF was significantly greater in the hippocampus versus the frontal cortex in the same DS-AD cases, suggesting a regional distribution of truncated apoE. Colocalization immunofluorescence experiments indicated that 52.5% and 53.2% of AT8- and PHF-1-positive NFTs, respectively, also contained nApoECF. Collectively, these data support a role for the proteolytic cleavage of apoE in DS and suggest that apoE fragmentation is closely associated with NFTs.

  10. Characterization of helical cleavages in type II collagen generated by matrixins.

    PubMed Central

    Vankemmelbeke, M; Dekeyser, P M; Hollander, A P; Buttle, D J; Demeester, J

    1998-01-01

    Several vertebrate collagenases have been reported to cleave type II collagen, leading to irreversible tissue destruction in osteoarthritis. We have investigated the action of MMP-1 and MMP-13 on type II collagen by use of neoepitope antibodies and N-terminal sequencing. Previous studies have suggested that the initial cleavage of type II collagen by MMP-13 is followed by a second cleavage, three amino acids carboxy-terminal to the primary cleavage site. We show here that this cleavage is also produced by APMA-activated MMP-1 in combination with MMP-3 (i.e. fully activated MMP-1). The use of a selective inhibitor of MMP-3 has shown that it is this enzyme, rather than interstitial collagenase which had been exposed to MMP-3, which makes the second cleavage. In addition we have identified, through N-terminal sequencing, a third cleavage site, three residues carboxy-terminal to the secondary site. Since MMP-2 is thought to be responsible for gelatinolytic action on type II collagen we have investigated the effect of MMP-2 after the initial helical cleavage made by either MMP-1 or MMP-13. A combination of MMPs-1, -2 and -3 results in both the second and third cleavage sites; adding MMP-2 to MMP-13 did not alter the cleavage pattern produced by MMP-13 on its own. We conclude that none of the three cleavage sites will provide information about the specific identity of the collagenolytic enzymes involved in collagen cleavage in situ. Staining of cartilage sections of osteoarthritis patients with the neoepitope antibodies revealed type II collagen degradation starting at or near the articular surface and extending into the mid and deep zones with increasing degeneration of the cartilage. PMID:9480869

  11. Progressive deformation of slaty cleavage in the Broken Bow uplift, Oklahoma

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Qingming; Nielsen, K.C. )

    1992-01-01

    The oldest rocks of the Ouachita Mountains are exposed in the Broken Bow uplift of OK. These low grade metasedimentary rocks reveal a polyphase deformational history in which folded cleavages are recorded. On a microscopic scale, zones of pressure solution residuals (PSR) consisting of mica, iron oxides, and other insoluble opaque materials are aligned parallel to the cleavage traces. Evaluation of the PSR has revealed two distinct morphologies: one high frequency spacing of narrow PSR and one low frequency spacing of broader PSR. Age relationships are difficult to establish; however, the low frequency spacing may be younger based on a few cross cutting relations. The slaty cleavage is folded and is rotated from regional northerly dip to a local southerly dip. These synforms are coaxial with the first generation folds and commonly are truncated by reverse faults on the south dipping limbs. Flattening on these south dipping limbs is apparent in the recumbent buckles; slip on favorable oriented PSR; and the development of local subhorizontal rough cleavage in the sandstones and siltstones as well as pencil structures in the finer grained rocks. Using the SEM, weakly developed fabrics can be seen in these fragments: the original bedding, slaty cleavage (1--3[mu]m PSR), and a third fabric oriented 15--20[degree] to the slaty cleavage. This flattening fabric appears to modify the slaty cleavage by reorienting the micaceous minerals in the PSR and locally truncating and reorienting the PSR. As a result, field observations of cleavage orientation reveal an upper limit to the sou