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Sample records for 3d alveolated bend

  1. Closed-loop control concept for kinematic 3D-profile bending

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staupendahl, Daniel; Chatti, Sami; Tekkaya, A. Erman

    2016-10-01

    Kinematic tube and profile bending processes produce bending contours by the relative movement of single process axes. Tools only need to be adapted to fit the cross-section of the tubular material. While offering a great flexibility in production, kinematic bending processes cause a high part springback and as a result, compensatory methods are needed to achieve target contours. These compensatory methods are generally embedded in bending tables or analytical calculations that in turn are embedded into the process control software. This procedure can cope with known material behavior, as for instance gained through a tensile test of the material batch prior to the bending process. Material variations inside a batch cannot be detected however and cause contour deviations. To counter this error, a closed-loop control system can be used, which can quickly adapt axes' movements to produce target shapes and thus reduce scrap. In this paper, two methods to apply closed-loop control to 3D profile bending will be presented. An indirect approach, using the bending force and torque, and a direct approach, by measuring the profile contour after bending.

  2. Bending response of 3-D woven and braided preform composite materials

    SciTech Connect

    Pochiraju, K.; Parvizi-Majidi, A.; Chou, T.W.; Shah, B.

    1994-12-31

    Three dimensional textile carbon-epoxy composites exhibit general anisotropy. Further, these materials may possess different modulus in uniaxial tension than that in compression. In an earlier material characterization effort, the tension, compression, and shear properties of these composites were determined. In this paper, theoretical modeling of flexure of the textile composites and experimental correlation are presented. Four point bending tests were conducted according to STM D709 standards to determine the load to mid-span deflection relationships for typical textile composites. The results of experimental analysis are compared with classical beam theory, theory of elasticity solutions considering material orthotropy and shear deflection, and finite element analysis considering material orthotropy and finite deformation/rotations. The derivation of a harmonic function, required for the theory of elasticity solution, is described in the paper. Homogeneous orthotropic elastic properties are assumed for the 3-D textile composites, which is a reasonable approximation for specimens considerably larger than the repeated geometric unit of the fiber preform. The so called ``flex modulus`` is determined from the experimental data.

  3. Rollable Microfluidic Systems with Microscale Bending Radius and Tuning of Device Function with Reconfigurable 3D Channel Geometry.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jihye; You, Jae Bem; Nam, Sung Min; Seo, Sumin; Im, Sung Gap; Lee, Wonhee

    2017-03-29

    Flexible microfluidic system is an essential component of wearable biosensors to handle body fluids. A parylene-based, thin-film microfluidic system is developed to achieve flexible microfluidics with microscale bending radius. A new molding and bonding technique is developed for parylene microchannel fabrication. Bonding with nanoadhesive layers deposited by initiated chemical vapor deposition (iCVD) enables the construction of microfluidic channels with short fabrication time and high bonding strength. The high mechanical strength of parylene allows less channel deformation from the internal pressure for the thin-film parylene channel than bulk PDMS channel. At the same time, negligible channel sagging or collapse is observed during channel bending down to a few hundreds of micrometers due to stress relaxation by prestretch structure. The flexible parylene channels are also developed into a rollable microfluidic system. In a rollable microfluidics format, 2D parylene channels can be rolled around a capillary tubing working as inlets to minimize the device footprint. In addition, we show that creating reconfigurable 3D channel geometry with microscale bending radius can lead to tunable device function: tunable Dean-flow mixer is demonstrated using reconfigurable microscale 3D curved channel. Flexible parylene microfluidics with microscale bending radius is expected to provide an important breakthrough for many fields including wearable biosensors and tunable 3D microfluidics.

  4. Biomaterial shell bending with 3D-printed templates in vertical and alveolar ridge augmentation: a technical note.

    PubMed

    Draenert, Florian G; Gebhart, Florian; Mitov, Gergo; Neff, Andreas

    2017-06-01

    Alveolar ridge and vertical augmentations are challenging procedures in dental implantology. Even material blocks with an interconnecting porous system are never completely resorbed. Shell techniques combined with autologous bone chips are therefore the gold standard. Using biopolymers for these techniques is well documented. We applied three-dimensional (3-D) techniques to create an individualized bending model for the adjustment of a plane biopolymer membrane made of polylactide. Two cases with a vertical alveolar ridge defect in the maxilla were chosen. The cone beam computed tomography data were processed with a 3-D slicer and the Autodesk Meshmixer to generate data about the desired augmentation result. STL data were used to print a bending model. A 0.2-mm poly-D, L-lactic acid membrane (KLS Matin Inc., Tuttlingen, Germany) was bended accordingly and placed into the defect via a tunnel approach in both cases. A mesh graft of autologous bone chips and hydroxylapatite material was augmented beneath the shell, which was fixed with osteosynthesis screws. The operative procedure was fast and without peri- or postoperative complications or complaints. The panoramic x-ray showed correct fitting of the material in the location. Bone quality at the time of implant placement was type II, resulting in good primary stability. A custom-made 3-D model for bending confectioned biomaterial pieces is an appropriate method for individualized adjustment in shell techniques. The advantages over direct printing of the biomaterial shell and products on the market, such as the Xyoss shell (Reoss Inc., Germany), include cost-efficiency and avoidance of regulatory issues. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Bending analyses for 3D engineered structural panels made from laminated paper and carbon fabric

    Treesearch

    Jinghao Li; John F. Hunt; Zhiyong Cai; Xianyan Zhou

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents analysis of a 3-dimensional engineered structural panel (3DESP) having a tri-axial core structure made from phenolic impregnated laminated-paper composites with and without high strength composite carbon-fiber fabric laminated to the outside of both faces. Both I-beam equations and finite element method were used to analyze four-point bending of the...

  6. A 3D forward stratigraphic model of fluvial meander-bend evolution for prediction of point-bar lithofacies architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Na; Mountney, Nigel P.; Colombera, Luca; Dorrell, Robert M.

    2017-08-01

    Although fundamental types of fluvial meander-bend transformations - expansion, translation, rotation, and combinations thereof - are widely recognised, the relationship between the migratory behaviour of a meander bend, and its resultant accumulated sedimentary architecture and lithofacies distribution remains relatively poorly understood. Three-dimensional data from both currently active fluvial systems and from ancient preserved successions known from outcrop and subsurface settings are limited. To tackle this problem, a 3D numerical forward stratigraphic model - the Point-Bar Sedimentary Architecture Numerical Deduction (PB-SAND) - has been devised as a tool for the reconstruction and prediction of the complex spatio-temporal migratory evolution of fluvial meanders, their generated bar forms and the associated lithofacies distributions that accumulate as heterogeneous fluvial successions. PB-SAND uses a dominantly geometric modelling approach supplemented by process-based and stochastic model components, and is constrained by quantified sedimentological data derived from modern point bars or ancient successions that represent suitable analogues. The model predicts the internal architecture and geometry of fluvial point-bar elements in three dimensions. The model is applied to predict the sedimentary lithofacies architecture of ancient preserved point-bar and counter-point-bar deposits of the middle Jurassic Scalby Formation (North Yorkshire, UK) to demonstrate the predictive capabilities of PB-SAND in modelling 3D architectures of different types of meander-bend transformations. PB-SAND serves as a practical tool with which to predict heterogeneity in subsurface hydrocarbon reservoirs and water aquifers.

  7. Electro-bending characterization of adaptive 3D fiber reinforced plastics based on shape memory alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashir, Moniruddoza; Hahn, Lars; Kluge, Axel; Nocke, Andreas; Cherif, Chokri

    2016-03-01

    The industrial importance of fiber reinforced plastics (FRPs) is growing steadily in recent years, which are mostly used in different niche products, has been growing steadily in recent years. The integration of sensors and actuators in FRP is potentially valuable for creating innovative applications and therefore the market acceptance of adaptive FRP is increasing. In particular, in the field of highly stressed FRP, structural integrated systems for continuous component parts monitoring play an important role. This presented work focuses on the electro-mechanical characterization of adaptive three-dimensional (3D)FRP with integrated textile-based actuators. Here, the friction spun hybrid yarn, consisting of shape memory alloy (SMA) in wire form as core, serves as an actuator. Because of the shape memory effect, the SMA-hybrid yarn returns to its original shape upon heating that also causes the deformation of adaptive 3D FRP. In order to investigate the influences of the deformation behavior of the adaptive 3D FRP, investigations in this research are varied according to the structural parameters such as radius of curvature of the adaptive 3D FRP, fabric types and number of layers of the fabric in the composite. Results show that reproducible deformations can be realized with adaptive 3D FRP and that structural parameters have a significant impact on the deformation capability.

  8. 3D MRI-based anisotropic FSI models with cyclic bending for human coronary atherosclerotic plaque mechanical analysis.

    PubMed

    Tang, Dalin; Yang, Chun; Kobayashi, Shunichi; Zheng, Jie; Woodard, Pamela K; Teng, Zhongzhao; Billiar, Kristen; Bach, Richard; Ku, David N

    2009-06-01

    Heart attack and stroke are often caused by atherosclerotic plaque rupture, which happens without warning most of the time. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based atherosclerotic plaque models with fluid-structure interactions (FSIs) have been introduced to perform flow and stress/strain analysis and identify possible mechanical and morphological indices for accurate plaque vulnerability assessment. For coronary arteries, cyclic bending associated with heart motion and anisotropy of the vessel walls may have significant influence on flow and stress/strain distributions in the plaque. FSI models with cyclic bending and anisotropic vessel properties for coronary plaques are lacking in the current literature. In this paper, cyclic bending and anisotropic vessel properties were added to 3D FSI coronary plaque models so that the models would be more realistic for more accurate computational flow and stress/strain predictions. Six computational models using one ex vivo MRI human coronary plaque specimen data were constructed to assess the effects of cyclic bending, anisotropic vessel properties, pulsating pressure, plaque structure, and axial stretch on plaque stress/strain distributions. Our results indicate that cyclic bending and anisotropic properties may cause 50-800% increase in maximum principal stress (Stress-P1) values at selected locations. The stress increase varies with location and is higher when bending is coupled with axial stretch, nonsmooth plaque structure, and resonant pressure conditions (zero phase angle shift). Effects of cyclic bending on flow behaviors are more modest (9.8% decrease in maximum velocity, 2.5% decrease in flow rate, 15% increase in maximum flow shear stress). Inclusion of cyclic bending, anisotropic vessel material properties, accurate plaque structure, and axial stretch in computational FSI models should lead to a considerable improvement of accuracy of computational stress/strain predictions for coronary plaque vulnerability

  9. Failure Progress of 3D Reinforced GFRP Laminate during Static Bending, Evaluated by Means of Acoustic Emission and Vibrations Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Koziol, Mateusz; Figlus, Tomasz

    2015-01-01

    The work aimed to assess the failure progress in a glass fiber-reinforced polymer laminate with a 3D-woven and (as a comparison) plain-woven reinforcement, during static bending, using acoustic emission signals. The innovative method of the separation of the signal coming from the fiber fracture and the one coming from the matrix fracture with the use of the acoustic event’s energy as a criterion was applied. The failure progress during static bending was alternatively analyzed by evaluation of the vibration signal. It gave a possibility to validate the results of the acoustic emission. Acoustic emission, as well as vibration signal analysis proved to be good and effective tools for the registration of failure effects in composite laminates. Vibration analysis is more complicated methodologically, yet it is more precise. The failure progress of the 3D laminate is “safer” and more beneficial than that of the plain-woven laminate. It exhibits less rapid load capacity drops and a higher fiber effort contribution at the moment of the main laminate failure. PMID:28793743

  10. Fibrosing alveolitis

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Peter

    1978-01-01

    Fibrosing alveolitis is a disease of unknown cause mainly involving the gas-exchanging portions of the lungs. It may occur in isolation and be called cryptogenic or idiopathic, in which case the clinical manifestations are mainly respiratory, or it may be associated with other disorders, such as rheumatoid arthritis. The histopathologic abnormalities of the pulmonary tissue are identical in either instance. Other names used for the disease have included usual interstitial pneumonia, desquamative interstitial pneumonia and the Hamman-Rich syndrome; these terms may describe different stages of the same pathologic process. Many authors in North America and those in the United Kingdom favour the term fibrosing alveolitis when describing chronic interstitial pneumonias. There may be accompanying nonspecific Immunologic abnormalities, which may denote that fibrosing alveolitis is part of the wide spectrum of diseases known as connective tissue disorders. Recently immune complexes have been found in the lung parenchyma; they probably result in the granulocyte destruction and reticuloendothelial proliferation seen in the acute phase of the disease. There are no specific diagnostic tests for the disease apart from lung biopsy, which can be performed at the time of thoracotomy or transbronchially, with the use of a flexible fibreoptic bronchoscope. Lavaged cells from the alveoli have also been obtained via the bronchoscope; in persons with fibrosing alveolitis a high proportion of these cells are neutrophils, and after corticosteroid treatment the proportion decreases. The progress of the disease can be followed by examination of these washings as well as by lung scanning with gallium-67 citrate. Newer methods of treatment using combinations of corticosteroids and immunosuppressant drugs are being evaluated and are initially proving to be successful. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4 PMID:369671

  11. Evaluating the bending response of two osseointegrated transfemoral implant systems using 3D digital image correlation.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Melanie L; Backman, David; Branemark, Rickard; Mechefske, Chris K

    2011-05-01

    Osseointegrated transfemoral implants have been introduced as a prosthetic solution for above knee amputees. They have shown great promise, providing an alternative for individuals who could not be accommodated by conventional, socket-based prostheses; however, the occurrence of device failures is of concern. In an effort to improve the strength and longevity of the device, a new design has been proposed. This study investigates the mechanical behavior of the new taper-based assembly in comparison to the current hex-based connection for osseointegrated transfemoral implant systems. This was done to better understand the behavior of components under loading, in order to optimize the assembly specifications and improve the useful life of the system. Digital image correlation was used to measure surface strains on two assemblies during static loading in bending. This provided a means to measure deformation over the entire sample and identify critical locations as the assembly was subjected to a series of loading conditions. It provided a means to determine the effects of tightening specifications and connection geometry on the material response and mechanical behavior of the assemblies. Both osseoinegrated assemblies exhibited improved strength and mechanical performance when tightened to a level beyond the current specified tightening torque of 12 N m. This was shown by decreased strain concentration values and improved distribution of tensile strain. Increased tightening torque provides an improved connection between components regardless of design, leading to increased torque retention, decreased peak tensile strain values, and a more gradual, primarily compressive distribution of strains throughout the assembly.

  12. Bending analysis of a general cross-ply laminate using 3D elasticity solution and layerwise theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yazdani Sarvestani, H.; Naghashpour, A.; Heidari-Rarani, M.

    2015-12-01

    In this study, the analytical solution of interlaminar stresses near the free edges of a general (symmetric and unsymmetric layups) cross-ply composite laminate subjected to pure bending loading is presented based on Reddy's layerwise theory (LWT) for the first time. First, the reduced form of displacement field is obtained for a general cross-ply composite laminate subjected to a bending moment by elasticity theory. Then, first-order shear deformation theory of plates and LWT is utilized to determine the global and local deformation parameters appearing in the displacement fields, respectively. One of the main advantages of the developed solution based on the LWT is exact prediction of interlaminar stresses at the boundary layer regions. To show the accuracy of this solution, three-dimensional elasticity bending problem of a laminated composite is solved for special set of boundary conditions as well. Finally, LWT results are presented for edge-effect problems of several symmetric and unsymmetric cross-ply laminates under the bending moment. The obtained results indicate high stress gradients of interlaminar stresses near the edges of laminates.

  13. 3D micro-scale deformations of wood in bending: synchrotron radiation muCT data analyzed with digital volume correlation.

    PubMed

    Forsberg, F; Mooser, R; Arnold, M; Hack, E; Wyss, P

    2008-12-01

    A micro-scale three-point-bending experiment with a wood specimen was carried out and monitored by synchrotron radiation micro-computed tomography. The full three-dimensional wood structure of the 1.57x3.42x0.75mm(3) specimen was reconstructed at cellular level in different loading states. Furthermore, the full three-dimensional deformation field of the loaded wood specimen was determined by digital volume correlation, applied to the reconstructed data at successive loading states. Results from two selected regions within the wood specimen are presented as continuous displacement and strain fields in both 2D and 3D. The applied combination of synchrotron radiation micro-computed tomography and digital volume correlation for the deformation analysis of wood under bending stress is a novel application in wood material science. The method offers the potential for the simultaneous observation of structural changes and quantified deformations during in situ micro-mechanical experiments. Moreover, the high spatial resolution allows studying the influence of anatomical features on the fracture behaviour of wood. Possible applications of this method range from bio-mechanical observations in fresh plant tissue to fracture mechanics aspects in structural timber.

  14. Estimating 3D L5/S1 moments and ground reaction forces during trunk bending using a full-body ambulatory inertial motion capture system.

    PubMed

    Faber, G S; Chang, C C; Kingma, I; Dennerlein, J T; van Dieën, J H

    2016-04-11

    Inertial motion capture (IMC) systems have become increasingly popular for ambulatory movement analysis. However, few studies have attempted to use these measurement techniques to estimate kinetic variables, such as joint moments and ground reaction forces (GRFs). Therefore, we investigated the performance of a full-body ambulatory IMC system in estimating 3D L5/S1 moments and GRFs during symmetric, asymmetric and fast trunk bending, performed by nine male participants. Using an ambulatory IMC system (Xsens/MVN), L5/S1 moments were estimated based on the upper-body segment kinematics using a top-down inverse dynamics analysis, and GRFs were estimated based on full-body segment accelerations. As a reference, a laboratory measurement system was utilized: GRFs were measured with Kistler force plates (FPs), and L5/S1 moments were calculated using a bottom-up inverse dynamics model based on FP data and lower-body kinematics measured with an optical motion capture system (OMC). Correspondence between the OMC+FP and IMC systems was quantified by calculating root-mean-square errors (RMSerrors) of moment/force time series and the interclass correlation (ICC) of the absolute peak moments/forces. Averaged over subjects, L5/S1 moment RMSerrors remained below 10Nm (about 5% of the peak extension moment) and 3D GRF RMSerrors remained below 20N (about 2% of the peak vertical force). ICCs were high for the peak L5/S1 extension moment (0.971) and vertical GRF (0.998). Due to lower amplitudes, smaller ICCs were found for the peak asymmetric L5/S1 moments (0.690-0.781) and horizontal GRFs (0.559-0.948). In conclusion, close correspondence was found between the ambulatory IMC-based and laboratory-based estimates of back load. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Extrinsic allergic alveolitis.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Tengku; McSharry, Charles; Boyd, Gavin

    2006-05-01

    Extrinsic allergic alveolitis (also known as hypersensitivity pneumonitis) is caused by repeated inhalation of mainly organic antigens by sensitized subjects. This induces a hypersensitivity response in the distal bronchioles and alveoli and subjects may present clinically with a variety of symptoms. The aims of this review are to describe the current concepts of the immunological response, the diverse clinical presentation of this disease, the relevant investigations and management, and areas for future studies.

  16. [Allergic alveolitis after influenza vaccination].

    PubMed

    Heinrichs, D; Sennekamp, J; Kirsten, A; Kirsten, D

    2009-09-01

    Allergic alveolitis as a side effect of vaccination is very rare. We report a life-threatening complication in a female patient after influenza vaccination. The causative antigen was the influenza virus itself. Our Patient has suffered from exogen-allergic alveolitis for 12 years. Because of the guidelines of regular administration of influenza vaccination in patients with chronic pulmonary disease further research in patients with known exogen-allergic alveolitis is vitally important for the pharmaceutical drug safety. (c) Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart-New York.

  17. Early neutrophil alveolitis after rechallenge in drug induced alveolitis.

    PubMed Central

    Salmeron, S; Brochard, L; Rain, B; Herve, P; Brenot, F; Simonneau, G; Duroux, P

    1988-01-01

    A patient with drug induced alveolitis due to an antidepressant drug, nomifensine, is described. After an inadvertent rechallenge by the patient sequential bronchoalveolar lavage was carried out. Twenty four hours after the rechallenge the lavage fluid contained a high cell count with neutrophils predominating. Seven days after challenge the cells were predominantly lymphocytes. PMID:3175978

  18. A multiple-shape memory polymer-metal composite actuator capable of programmable control, creating complex 3D motion of bending, twisting, and oscillation

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Qi; Trabia, Sarah; Stalbaum, Tyler; Palmre, Viljar; Kim, Kwang; Oh, Il-Kwon

    2016-01-01

    Development of biomimetic actuators has been an essential motivation in the study of smart materials. However, few materials are capable of controlling complex twisting and bending deformations simultaneously or separately using a dynamic control system. Here, we report an ionic polymer-metal composite actuator having multiple-shape memory effect, and is able to perform complex motion by two external inputs, electrical and thermal. Prior to the development of this type of actuator, this capability only could be realized with existing actuator technologies by using multiple actuators or another robotic system. This paper introduces a soft multiple-shape-memory polymer-metal composite (MSMPMC) actuator having multiple degrees-of-freedom that demonstrates high maneuverability when controlled by two external inputs, electrical and thermal. These multiple inputs allow for complex motions that are routine in nature, but that would be otherwise difficult to obtain with a single actuator. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this MSMPMC actuator is the first solitary actuator capable of multiple-input control and the resulting deformability and maneuverability. PMID:27080134

  19. A multiple-shape memory polymer-metal composite actuator capable of programmable control, creating complex 3D motion of bending, twisting, and oscillation.

    PubMed

    Shen, Qi; Trabia, Sarah; Stalbaum, Tyler; Palmre, Viljar; Kim, Kwang; Oh, Il-Kwon

    2016-04-15

    Development of biomimetic actuators has been an essential motivation in the study of smart materials. However, few materials are capable of controlling complex twisting and bending deformations simultaneously or separately using a dynamic control system. Here, we report an ionic polymer-metal composite actuator having multiple-shape memory effect, and is able to perform complex motion by two external inputs, electrical and thermal. Prior to the development of this type of actuator, this capability only could be realized with existing actuator technologies by using multiple actuators or another robotic system. This paper introduces a soft multiple-shape-memory polymer-metal composite (MSMPMC) actuator having multiple degrees-of-freedom that demonstrates high maneuverability when controlled by two external inputs, electrical and thermal. These multiple inputs allow for complex motions that are routine in nature, but that would be otherwise difficult to obtain with a single actuator. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this MSMPMC actuator is the first solitary actuator capable of multiple-input control and the resulting deformability and maneuverability.

  20. [Wood chip alveolitis].

    PubMed

    Müller-Wening, D; Renck, T; Neuhauss, M

    1999-07-01

    A 52 year old farmer was referred to us for investigation of suspected farmer's lung. For many years the farmer had been exposed to hay, straw, pigeons, and fuel chip dust. Under exertion he suffered from shortness of breath. In the farmer's own fuel chips we could identify Aspergillus fumigatus, Paecilomyces species and Mucor species. In the farmer's blood we found IgG-antibodies against his own fuel chips, thermophilic actinomycetes, Penicillium species, Mucor species and Aspergillus fumigatus. We did not detect any IgG-antibodies against pigeon serum or pigeon faeces. In order to determine the responsible allergen we performed two challenge tests. In the first test the farmer had to inhale his own hay and straw dust for one hour. This provocation was negative. A second one-hour inhalative challenge was carried out 16 days later using his own fuel chips. This time he experienced significant pulmonary and systemic reactions: body temperature rose by 3.3 degrees C, leucocytes by 12,200/mm3; PO2 fell by 39.4 mmHg, vital capacity by 52%, DLCO by 36%. After the challenge the farmer complained of coughing and dyspnoea. Rales could be heard on auscultation, and an interstitial infiltrate was seen to develop on chest x-rays. After the challenge the patient had to be treated with oxygen and systemic corticosteroids. We diagnosed a fuel chip-induced exogenous allergic alveolitis (EAA). Eight days later the parameters were back to normal and the farmer was discharged from our hospital with further corticosteroid medication. This method of inhalative provocation is very important in diagnosing an EAA. Problems arise when the mode and duration of exposure to substances has to be chosen. Because of the risk of severe reactions, inhalative provocations relating to EAAs should only be performed in special centres with an intensive care unit. In this paper we present a diagnosis of fuel chip lung, which is rarely seen in Germany. However, with the rising use of fuel chips as

  1. An integrated 3-D seismic facies analysis of productive Upper Cretaceous and Lower Tertiary Formations of the Willows-Beehive Bend Gas Field, Sacramento Basin, California

    SciTech Connect

    Gabay, S.H.; Link, M.H.; Damuth, J.E.; Kalkomey, C.T. )

    1990-05-01

    An integrated seismic facies analysis of the Willows-Beehive Bend gas field, using three-dimensional seismic data has led to improved identification of reservoir facies, depositional environments, and reservoir parameters. These three-dimensional data were interpreted together with cores, time-based wireline logs, synthetic seismograms, and six regional two-dimensional seismic lines. The three productive formations studied include (1) the Eocene Princeton Gorge fill, which represents a submarine canyon fill; (2) the Upper Cretaceous Kione Formation, which is composed of shelf and deltaic facies; and (3) the mud-rich Upper Cretaceous Forbes Formation, which represents deep water slope and submarine-fan facies. The Princeton Gorge fill consists of an upper shale-dominated facies and a lower sand-rich channel-dominated facies. These channel fills are sinuous, 0.4-0.8 km wide, trend north to south, and have the best reservoir quality of the field. Two facies are recognized in the Kione Formation: a sand-rich deltafront facies and a mud-rich prodelta facies. The delta-front facies shows west to east progradation across the survey area and has good reservoir quality. The prodelta deposits are transitional into the prograding shale-dominated slope deposits of the upper Forbes Formation. This slope facies contains shale-rich submarine-canyon and gully fills that trend northwest to southeast are 0.8-1.6 km wide, and locally contain sinuous sandy channel fills. The middle Forbes Formation consists of two turbidite facies: middle submarine-fan channel/levee complexes and lower fan depositional lobes. The channel/level complexes are sinuous, trend north to south, and are approximately 0.8-2.4 km wide, whereas the depositional lobes are 3-4 km in diameter.

  2. Kinematic 3-D Retro-Modeling of an Orogenic Bend in the South Limón Fold-and-Thrust Belt, Eastern Costa Rica: Prediction of the Incremental Internal Strain Distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandes, Christian; Tanner, David C.; Winsemann, Jutta

    2016-10-01

    The South Limón fold-and-thrust belt, in the back-arc area of southern Costa Rica, is characterized by a 90° curvature of the strike of the thrust planes and is therefore a natural laboratory for the analysis of curved orogens. The analysis of curved fold-and-thrust belts is a challenge because of the varying structural orientations within the belt. Based on seismic reflection lines, we created a 3-D subsurface model containing three major thrust faults and three stratigraphic horizons. 3-D kinematic retro-deformation modeling was carried out to analyze the spatial evolution of the fold-and-thrust belt. The maximum amount of displacement on each of the faults is (from hinterland to foreland); thrust 1: 800 m; thrust 2: 600 m; thrust 3: 250 m. The model was restored sequentially to its pre-deformational state. The strain history of the stratigraphic horizons in the model was calculated at every step. This shows that the internal strain pattern has an abrupt change at the orogenic bend. Contractional strain occurs in the forelimbs of the hanging-wall anticlines, while a zone of dilative strain spreads from the anticline crests to the backlimbs. The modeling shows that a NNE-directed transport direction best explains the structural evolution of the bend. This would require a left-lateral strike-slip zone in the North to compensate for the movement and thereby decoupling the South Limón fold-and-thrust belt from northern Costa Rica. Therefore, our modeling supports the presence of the Trans-Isthmic fault system, at least during the Plio-Pleistocene.

  3. [Alveolitis: review of the literature].

    PubMed

    Laraki, M; Chbicheb, S; El Wady, W

    2012-09-01

    Alveolitis are infectious complications following the dental extraction. They appear under two forms: dry, characterized by a painful syndrome and uninhabited alveolus, and suppurative, which becomes identified by provoked pain and alveolus filled. Their etiopathogenesis remain a subject of interrogation because of the rarity of studies concerning this complication. Nevertheless, treatment is mainly favorable by a sedation of the pain and the startup of a physiological healing. From this article, we are going to review their clinical forms, their etiology as well as the followed treatment.

  4. Autoantibodies in cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Suveer; du Bois, Ron

    2001-01-01

    The pathogenesis of cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis (CFA) involves injury, an immune/inflammatory response and fibrosis. The cause of the injury is unknown, but the identification of serum autoantibodies makes an autoimmune aetiology attractive. The core study on which this commentary is based used novel cloning and serum screening technologies in order to identify new public and private autoantibodies in sera from 12 patients with CFA. Largely negative conclusions were drawn from that study. However, we suggest that the prevalence of autoantibodies may have been underestimated, that the study was timely and that this approach is worth pursuing further. PMID:11686865

  5. Migratory eosinophilic alveolitis caused by radiation therapy

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Jun Hyeok; Kim, Hun Jung; Choi, Chang-Hwan; Park, In-Suh; Cho, Jae Hwa; Ryu, Jeong-Seon; Kwak, Seung Min; Lee, Hong Lyeol

    2015-01-01

    Although radiation pneumonitis is usually confined to irradiated areas, some studies have reported that radiation-induced lymphocytic alveolitis can also spread to the non-irradiated lung. However, there have been few reports of radiation-induced eosinophilic alveolitis. We report the case of a 27-year-old female with radiation pneumonitis, occurring 4 months after radiation therapy for cancer of the left breast. Clinical and radiological relapse followed withdrawal of corticosteroids. Examination of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) in patchy airspace consolidations revealed increased eosinophil counts. Finally, clinical and radiological signs resolved rapidly after reintroduction of corticosteroids. Eosinophilic alveolitis may be promoted by radiation therapy. In the present case report, possible mechanisms for radiation-induced eosinophilic alveolitis are also reviewed. PMID:26101656

  6. Migratory eosinophilic alveolitis caused by radiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Lim, Jun Hyeok; Nam, Hae-Seong; Kim, Hun Jung; Choi, Chang-Hwan; Park, In-Suh; Cho, Jae Hwa; Ryu, Jeong-Seon; Kwak, Seung Min; Lee, Hong Lyeol

    2015-05-01

    Although radiation pneumonitis is usually confined to irradiated areas, some studies have reported that radiation-induced lymphocytic alveolitis can also spread to the non-irradiated lung. However, there have been few reports of radiation-induced eosinophilic alveolitis. We report the case of a 27-year-old female with radiation pneumonitis, occurring 4 months after radiation therapy for cancer of the left breast. Clinical and radiological relapse followed withdrawal of corticosteroids. Examination of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) in patchy airspace consolidations revealed increased eosinophil counts. Finally, clinical and radiological signs resolved rapidly after reintroduction of corticosteroids. Eosinophilic alveolitis may be promoted by radiation therapy. In the present case report, possible mechanisms for radiation-induced eosinophilic alveolitis are also reviewed.

  7. Distinct loci influence radiation-induced alveolitis from fibrosing alveolitis in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Haston, Christina K; Begin, Michelle; Dorion, Genevieve; Cory, Sean M

    2007-11-15

    Thoracic radiotherapy may produce the morbidity-associated lung responses of alveolitis or fibrosing alveolitis in treated cancer patients. The genetic factors that influence a patient's likelihood of developing alveolitis and the relationship of this inflammatory response to the development of fibrosis are largely unknown. Herein we use genetic mapping to identify radiation-induced lung response susceptibility loci in reciprocal backcross mice bred from C3H/HeJ (alveolitis response) and C57BL/6J (fibrosing alveolitis/fibrosis response) strains. Mice were treated with 18-Gy whole thorax irradiation and their survival, lung histopathology, and bronchoalveolar lavage cell types were recorded. A genome-wide scan was completed using 139 markers. The C3H/HeJ alveolitis response included mast cell infiltration and increased neutrophil numbers in the lavage compared with the level in the C57BL/6J strain, which developed fibrosis. In backcross mice, posttreatment survival was dictated by the development of an alveolitis response with increased mast cell, bronchoalveolar lavage total cell, and neutrophil numbers. Fibrosis was measured only in a subset of mice developing alveolitis and, in these mice, was associated with neutrophil count. Genotyping revealed coinheritance of C3H alleles (chromosomes 2, 4, 19, and X) and C57BL/6J alleles (chromosomes 1, 7, 9, and 17) to result in higher fibrosis scores in backcross mice. Mice that inherited C57BL/6J alleles at the putative alveolitis susceptibility loci were spared this response and lived to the end of the experiment. In this animal model, independent loci control the development of alveolitis from fibrosis, whereas fibrosing alveolitis occurs with the coinheritance of these factors.

  8. Allergic alveolitis in a maltworker

    PubMed Central

    Riddle, H. F. V.; Channell, Sonia; Blyth, W.; Weir, D. M.; Lloyd, Melody; Amos, W. M. G.; Grant, I. W. B.

    1968-01-01

    A further example of diffuse pulmonary hypersensitivity to an inhaled organic antigen is reported. A 42-year-old maltworker, who developed an illness resembling farmer's lung, was found to have been heavily exposed to the spores of Aspergillus clavatus. Precipitating and complement-fixing antibodies against an extract of A. clavatus were detected in his serum, a late (Arthus-type) reaction was produced by intradermal injection of the same extract, and a pyrexial reaction, accompanied by a reduction in forced vital capacity and carbon monoxide transfer factor, occurred 6 hours after the inhalation of spores of A. clavatus. Two of the patient's four workmates complained of similar but less severe symptoms, and their sera also contained specific antibodies. Although the spores of A. clavatus and of Cryptostroma corticale, the fungus responsible for maple-bark disease, are much larger than the 1 μ spores of Micropolyspora sp., they may give rise to a diffuse pulmonary hypersensitivity reaction indistinguishable from that observed in farmer's lung. This suggests that the occurrence of such a reaction is not necessarily related to the size of the inhaled particles, and there is reason to believe that the concentration of spores or other antigenic particles in the inspired air may in this respect be more important than their size. The pulmonary hypersensitivity in this group of disorders appears to be a precipitin-mediated (type III) response to a variety of inhaled antigens, but some of these antigens may in certain patients, presumably atopic individuals, also provoke a reagin-mediated (type I) bronchial hypersensitivity reaction. It is suggested that a term such as `allergic alveolitis' or `extrinsic allergic alveolitis' may suitably be used to describe the group of diseases caused by pulmonary hypersensitivity to inhaled organic antigens. Images PMID:4968543

  9. Rising mortality from cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis.

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, I; Britton, J; Kinnear, W; Logan, R

    1990-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To determine the pattern of mortality ascribed to cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis and to identify factors that might be important in the aetiology of the disease; and to assess the validity of death certification of the disease. DESIGN--A retrospective examination of mortality ascribed to cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis in England and Wales between 1979 and 1988 with analysis, by multiple logistic regression, of independent effects of age, sex, region of residence, and social class as indicated by occupation on data for 1979-87; also a retrospective review of hospital records of patients certified as having died of cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis in Nottingham and of the certified cause of death of patients known to have had the disease. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Time trends in mortality nationally; effects on mortality of age, sex, and region of residence; validity of death certification in Nottingham. RESULTS--The annual number of deaths ascribed to cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis doubled from 336 in 1979 to 702 in 1988, the increase occurring mainly at ages over 65. Mortality standardised for age for both sexes likewise increased steadily over the period. Deaths due to cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis were commoner in men (odds ratio 2.24, 95% confidence interval 2.11 to 2.33) and increased substantially with age, being 7.84 (7.24 to 8.49) times higher in subjects aged much greater than 75 than those aged 45-64. Odds ratios of death due to cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis adjusted for age and sex were increased in the traditionally industrialised central areas of England and Wales (p less than 0.02, maximum odds ratio between regions 1.25), but no significant increase in odds of death was found for manual occupations. Of 23 people whose deaths were registered in Nottingham as having been due to cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis, 19 were ascertained from clinical records to have had the disease. Only 17 of 45 patients known to have had cryptogenic

  10. Extrinsic allergic alveolitis caused by misting fountains.

    PubMed

    Koschel, Dirk; Stark, Wolfram; Karmann, Fritz; Sennekamp, Jochen; Müller-Wening, Dietrich

    2005-08-01

    Recently, an increasing number of patients were presented to our clinics with febrile and respiratory symptoms associated with exposure to a new type of domestic ultrasonic humidifier. We report on 11 patients who developed recurrent episodes of fever, cough and dyspnea after repeated exposure to ultrasonic misting fountains at home. A diagnosis of extrinsic allergic alveolitis (EAA) or toxic alveolitis was made on the basis of the history and the clinical, radiological, laboratory and immunological findings. Eight patients were subjected to inhalative challenge tests with their own ultrasonic misting fountains, and all of them exhibited positive reactions. Nine patients were diagnosed with an EAA (humidifier lung) and two patients with a toxic alveolitis (humidifier fever). This study demonstrates the potential for ultrasonic misting fountains to cause illness in the home. In view of the increasing popularity of these devices, humidifier lung and humidifier fever should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with unexplained pulmonary or flu-like illnesses with fever.

  11. Gene expression profiling distinguishes radiation-induced fibrosing alveolitis from alveolitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Paun, Alexandra; Lemay, Anne-Marie; Haston, Christina K

    2010-04-01

    Thoracic cavity radiotherapy is limited by the development of alveolitis and fibrosis in susceptible patients. To define the response to 18 Gy pulmonary irradiation in mice at the gene expression level and to identify pathways that may influence the alveolitis and fibrosis phenotypes, expression profiling was undertaken. Male mice of three strains, A/J (late alveolitis response), C3H/HeJ (C3H, early alveolitis response) and C57BL/6J (B6, fibrosis response), were exposed to thoracic radiation and euthanized when moribund, and lung tissue gene expression was assessed with microarrays. The responses of A/J and C3H mice were more similar to each other (60% of differentially expressed genes detected in both strains) than to that of B6 mice (17% overlap). Pathway analysis revealed the expression of complement and of B-cell proliferation and activation genes to distinguish fibrosis from the alveolitis response and cytokine interactions and intracellular signaling differed between A/J and C3H mice. A genomic approach was used to identify specific pathways that likely contribute to the lung response to radiation as fibrosis or alveolitis in mice.

  12. [Recent advances in extrinsic allergic alveolitis].

    PubMed

    Sennekamp, J; Joest, M

    2008-01-01

    Extrinsic allergic alveolitis (hypersensitivity pneumonitis), especially humidifier lung, has been more frequently diagnosed over the last decades, whereas farmer's lung has decreased over the same time period. Today two types of the chronic course of extrinsic allergic alveolitis can be distinguished. The recurrent chronic course with a good prognosis may be differentiated from the insidious course with a poor prognosis by means of different histological patterns (UIP, NSIP, BOOP pattern). The characteristic neutrophilic infiltration of the lung in the insidious course cannot be detected by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) methods. Furthermore, lymphocytosis in the BAL can be absent or present at a low level. The CD4/CD8 ratio is not always decreased and may be normal or even increased in these insidious cases with a poor prognosis. Granulomas in the lung tissue, however, point to a good prognosis. In the diagnostic work-up of machine operator's and humidifier lung, it is advisable not only to look for serum antibodies against bacteria and molds but also for rapid growing mycobacteria in a sample of machine or humidifier water. IgM and IgG rheumatoid factors occur frequently in allergic alveolitis, especially in humidifier lung. The patients, however, do not suffer from arthritis. The IgM rheumatoid factor may simulate IgM antibodies against numerous infectious agents (e. g., Bordetella pertussis or Mycoplasma pneumoniae). Taking this phenomenon into account may improve the current differential diagnosis of allergic alveolitis.

  13. [Valuation of diagnostic methods of pneumonia alveolitis].

    PubMed

    Makhmudova, S Iu

    2010-05-01

    The aim of this study was to identify effectiveness of modern complex of roentgenological, endoscopic, functional, citomorphologic and immunological methods in diagnosis of alveolitis. Between May-June 2002 and July-August 2003 the single-stage diagnosis was conducted among 1192 workers (400 - Siasan broiler, 391 - Baku flour mill and 401 - tobacco from Gabala zone). The patients with the diagnosis of various forms alveolitis were examined. 89 patients with symptoms of tympanal, acrocyanosis, tachycardia, tarnished glass effect, vascular lungs deformation were selected. Cough, short breath, crackling, infiltrative and cystous changes in lungs, acceleration of erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) up to 27-36 mm/hour on average, decrease of total lung capacity, lymphocyte reaction, opacity, symptom of honeycomb lung and alteration in mucous of lung were considered as auxiliary factors. The investigation proofed that computed tomography was an effective technique for the diagnosis of alveolitis; the diagnostic reliability of computed tomography for the evaluation of various forms of alveolitis was 100%.

  14. [Cytomorphologic changes detected in bronchial biopsy specimens in patients with alveolitis].

    PubMed

    Makhmudova, S Iu

    2003-01-01

    Eighty-nine patients with alveolitis were followed up. Of them, 60 patients had exogenous allergic alveolitis (EAA) and 29 had idiopathic fibrosing alveolitis (IFA). Transbronchial lung biopsy (TLB) proved to be the most informative method for alveolitis. At the same time a cytomorphologic study of TLB specimens revealed exogenous allergic alveolitis in all phases of the disease in 91.2% of the cases. In idiopathic fibrosing alveolitis, the informative value of TLB was 59.7%.

  15. Extrinsic allergic alveolitis in the tobacco industry.

    PubMed Central

    Huuskonen, M S; Husman, K; Järvisalo, J; Korhonen, O; Kotimaa, M; Kuusela, T; Nordman, H; Zitting, A; Mäntyjärvi, R

    1984-01-01

    A total of 57 subjects who had been exposed to mould dust in the tobacco industry were studied. Their working environment showed exposure to spores of different moulds, and 29 subjects (51%) showed antibodies against one or more of the microbes. Fifteen (26%) had work related respiratory symptoms. Eight (14%) showed slight radiographic pulmonary fibrosis. Spirometry showed a tendency toward restriction and obstruction, especially in small airways. Diffusion capacity was decreased in 18% of the workers. Three clinical cases of typical allergic alveolitis were also found. All this suggests that exposure of spores of different moulds (especially Aspergillus fumigatus) in the manufacture of tobacco products may induce symptoms and signs relating to extrinsic allergic alveolitis. PMID:6318802

  16. [Bird fancier's lung--an allergic alveolitis].

    PubMed

    Al-Azawy, Kahtan; Gulsvik, Amund; Ruud, Arild

    2005-05-19

    Bird fancier's lung is globally the second most frequent cause of extrinsic allergic alveolitis. For many years, the patient had influenza-like symptoms and developed progressing pulmonary fibrosis. Over a period of 10 years she had been exposed to up to 43 birds in the house at any one time and serum precipitates against avian proteins had been found. After sanitation of the house of birds and avian proteins, the pulmonary function has not deteriorated further in 5 years. A thorough environmental history is essential in the diagnosis of extrinsic allergic alveolitis; at an earlier stage it would have made us think about this possible etiological factor. This could have prevented the development of permanent pulmonary fibrosis if the patient had been advised to avoid further exposure to antigens. There should be greater awareness of this disease among general practitioners as well as among chest consultants in Norway.

  17. Extrinsic allergic alveolitis in Scottish maltworkers.

    PubMed Central

    Grant, I W; Blackadder, E S; Greenberg, M; Blyth, W

    1976-01-01

    In a survey of respiratory disease in the Scottish malting industry 5.2% of employees were found to have symptoms of extrinsic allergic alveolitis. In most cases the disease was mild and not associated with any serious respiratory disability. It was significantly less common where modern mechanical methods of malting were used. Mycological and serological studies suggested that it was usually caused by a type 3 allergic reaction to Aspergillus clavatus. PMID:1252813

  18. Ellobiopsids of the genus Thalassomyces are alveolates.

    PubMed

    Silberman, Jeffrey D; Collins, Allen G; Gershwin, Lisa-Ann; Johnson, Patricia J; Roger, Andrew J

    2004-01-01

    Ellobiopsids are multinucleate protist parasites of aquatic crustaceans that possess a nutrient absorbing 'root' inside the host and reproductive structures that protrude through the carapace. Ellobiopsids have variously been affiliated with fungi, 'colorless algae', and dinoflagellates, although no morphological character has been identified that definitively allies them with any particular eukaryotic lineage. The arrangement of the trailing and circumferential flagella of the rarely observed bi-flagellated 'zoospore' is reminiscent of dinoflagellate flagellation, but a well-organized 'dinokaryotic nucleus' has never been observed. Using small subunit ribosomal RNA gene sequences from two species of Thalassomyces, phylogenetic analyses robustly place these ellobiopsid species among the alveolates (ciliates, apicomplexans, dinoflagellates and relatives) though without a clear affiliation to any established alveolate lineage. Our trees demonstrate that Thalassomyces fall within a dinoflagellate + apicomplexa + Perkinsidae + "marine alveolate group 1" clade, clustering most closely with dinoflagellates. However, the poor statistical support for branches within this region indicates that additional data will be needed to resolve relationships among these taxa.

  19. Europeana and 3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pletinckx, D.

    2011-09-01

    The current 3D hype creates a lot of interest in 3D. People go to 3D movies, but are we ready to use 3D in our homes, in our offices, in our communication? Are we ready to deliver real 3D to a general public and use interactive 3D in a meaningful way to enjoy, learn, communicate? The CARARE project is realising this for the moment in the domain of monuments and archaeology, so that real 3D of archaeological sites and European monuments will be available to the general public by 2012. There are several aspects to this endeavour. First of all is the technical aspect of flawlessly delivering 3D content over all platforms and operating systems, without installing software. We have currently a working solution in PDF, but HTML5 will probably be the future. Secondly, there is still little knowledge on how to create 3D learning objects, 3D tourist information or 3D scholarly communication. We are still in a prototype phase when it comes to integrate 3D objects in physical or virtual museums. Nevertheless, Europeana has a tremendous potential as a multi-facetted virtual museum. Finally, 3D has a large potential to act as a hub of information, linking to related 2D imagery, texts, video, sound. We describe how to create such rich, explorable 3D objects that can be used intuitively by the generic Europeana user and what metadata is needed to support the semantic linking.

  20. Pulmonary tumour microembolism clinically mimicking alveolitis

    PubMed Central

    Lo, A W I; Tse, G M K; Chu, W C W; Chan, A B W

    2003-01-01

    A 56 year old man with previously unsuspected recurrence of squamous cell carcinoma of the oesophagus presented with dyspnoea. Bronchoscopy and computed tomography suggested bronchopneumonic changes with an infectious cause. He suffered a rapidly deteriorating course and died despite active treatment, including antibiotics and mechanical ventilation. Necropsy revealed a florid pulmonary tumour microembolism mimicking alveolitis. No bronchopneumonia was seen. The emboli arose from loosely attached tumour vegetations in the tricuspid valve. In a patient with known malignancy, tumour microembolism should be considered as an uncommon cause of rapid respiratory failure, refractory to antibiotic treatment. PMID:14600135

  1. A 3d-3d appetizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pei, Du; Ye, Ke

    2016-11-01

    We test the 3d-3d correspondence for theories that are labeled by Lens spaces. We find a full agreement between the index of the 3d N=2 "Lens space theory" T [ L( p, 1)] and the partition function of complex Chern-Simons theory on L( p, 1). In particular, for p = 1, we show how the familiar S 3 partition function of Chern-Simons theory arises from the index of a free theory. For large p, we find that the index of T[ L( p, 1)] becomes a constant independent of p. In addition, we study T[ L( p, 1)] on the squashed three-sphere S b 3 . This enables us to see clearly, at the level of partition function, to what extent G ℂ complex Chern-Simons theory can be thought of as two copies of Chern-Simons theory with compact gauge group G.

  2. The alveolitis of pulmonary sarcoidosis. Evaluation of natural history and alveolitis-dependent changes in lung function

    SciTech Connect

    Keogh, B.A.; Hunninghake, G.W.; Line, B.R.; Crystal, R.G.

    1983-08-01

    Current concepts of the pathogenesis of pulmonary sarcoidosis suggest that a mononuclear cell alveolitis, comprised of activated T-lymphocytes and activated alveolar macrophages, precedes and modulates the formation of granuloma and fibrosis. To evaluate the natural history of this alveolitis and determine the relationship it has to subsequent changes in lung function, 19 untreated patients with pulmonary sarcoidosis without extrapulmonary manifestations were studied with bronchoalveolar lavage, /sup 67/Ga scanning, and pulmonary function tests to evaluate lung T-cells, lung alveolar macrophages, and lung function, respectively. In patients with sarcoidosis, low intensity alveolitis (lung T-cells less than or equal to 28% of all lung effector cells and/or /sup 67/Ga scan negative) was much more common (80% of all observations) than high intensity alveolitis (lung T-cells greater than 28% and /sup 67/Ga scan positive, 20% of all observations). Conventional clinical, roentgenographic, or physiologic studies could not predict the alveolitis status. Interestingly, of the 51 alveolitis evaluations in the 19 patients, there were 24 occurrences (47%) where the alveolitis was ''split,'' i.e., /sup 67/Ga scans positive and T-cells low (39%) or /sup 67/Ga negative and T-cells high (8%). Most untreated patients with sarcoidosis without extrapulmonary symptoms may have some inflammatory processes ongoing in their alveolar structures. Overall, whenever a high intensity alveolitis episode occurred, it was followed by deterioration over the next 6 months in at least one lung function parameter. A low intensity alveolitis episode was followed by functional deterioration only 8% of the time. The alveolitis parameters (lavage and /sup 67/Ga scanning) clearly predicted prognosis. These observations should prove useful in understanding the natural history of pulmonary sarcoidosis, in staging patients with this disease, and in making rational therapy decisions.

  3. 3d-3d correspondence revisited

    DOE PAGES

    Chung, Hee -Joong; Dimofte, Tudor; Gukov, Sergei; ...

    2016-04-21

    In fivebrane compactifications on 3-manifolds, we point out the importance of all flat connections in the proper definition of the effective 3d N = 2 theory. The Lagrangians of some theories with the desired properties can be constructed with the help of homological knot invariants that categorify colored Jones polynomials. Higgsing the full 3d theories constructed this way recovers theories found previously by Dimofte-Gaiotto-Gukov. As a result, we also consider the cutting and gluing of 3-manifolds along smooth boundaries and the role played by all flat connections in this operation.

  4. 3d-3d correspondence revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Hee -Joong; Dimofte, Tudor; Gukov, Sergei; Sułkowski, Piotr

    2016-04-21

    In fivebrane compactifications on 3-manifolds, we point out the importance of all flat connections in the proper definition of the effective 3d N = 2 theory. The Lagrangians of some theories with the desired properties can be constructed with the help of homological knot invariants that categorify colored Jones polynomials. Higgsing the full 3d theories constructed this way recovers theories found previously by Dimofte-Gaiotto-Gukov. As a result, we also consider the cutting and gluing of 3-manifolds along smooth boundaries and the role played by all flat connections in this operation.

  5. Can serial PEF measurements separate occupational asthma from allergic alveolitis?

    PubMed

    Burge, P S; Moore, V C; Burge, C B S G; Vellore, A D; Robertson, A S; Robertson, W

    2015-04-01

    Occupational asthma commonly results in work-related changes in serial peak expiratory flow (PEF) measurements. Whether alveolitis can result in similar changes is unknown. To identify differences and similarities of serial PEF between workers with occupational alveolitis and asthma seen during an outbreak investigation in a factory with metal-working fluid exposure. Workers with respiratory symptoms and rest-day improvement were identified by questionnaire. Each was asked to measure PEF 8 times daily for 4 weeks at home and work. Alveolitis was subsequently diagnosed from a validated scoring system including radiological changes, carbon monoxide diffusing capacity, bronchoalveolar lavage and biopsy results. Occupational asthma was confirmed with a positive Oasys score >2.5 and a mean rest-work PEF >16 l/min from serial 2-hourly PEF measurements. The Oasys PEF plotter calculated differences between rest and workdays for mean PEF, diurnal variation and the scores were used to confirm an occupational effect (Oasys, area between curve and time point). Records were compared between the alveolitis group and the group with occupational asthma without alveolitis. Forty workers with occupational asthma and 16 with alveolitis had indistinguishable PEF changes on workdays in terms of magnitude (median reduction 18.5 and 16.1 l/min, respectively) and diurnal variation. Immediate reactions were more common with occupational asthma and late reactions more common with alveolitis. PEF responses to metal-working fluid aerosols do not distinguish occupational asthma from alveolitis except in timing. They can be used to identify the workplace as the cause of asthma and also alveolitis. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Accuracy of the typical computed tomographic appearances of fibrosing alveolitis.

    PubMed Central

    Tung, K T; Wells, A U; Rubens, M B; Kirk, J M; du Bois, R M; Hansell, D M

    1993-01-01

    BACKGROUND--Open lung biopsy is often performed to confirm the diagnosis in patients with suspected fibrosing alveolitis. The superior sensitivity and specificity of high resolution computed tomography (CT) over chest radiography in various diffuse lung diseases suggest that the characteristic appearance of fibrosing alveolitis on high resolution CT might render biopsy confirmation unnecessary. METHODS--The chest radiographs and high resolution CT scans of 86 patients (41 with fibrosing alveolitis and 45 with various other diffuse lung diseases) were examined individually and independently by two observers. No clinical information was given and the observers gave a level of confidence when the diagnosis was thought to be fibrosing alveolitis. RESULTS--The observers correctly and confidently discriminated between fibrosing alveolitis and other diffuse lung diseases on high resolution CT with an accuracy of 88% and on chest radiography with an accuracy of 76%. The false negative rate for fibrosing alveolitis diminished from 29% on chest radiography to 11% on high resolution CT. The false positive rate on chest radiography was 19% and on high resolution CT 13%; the false positive diagnoses on CT were the result of a few conditions (extrinsic allergic alveolitis, sarcoidosis, cryptogenic organising pneumonia, and pulmonary eosinophilia) which mimicked some of the CT features of fibrosing alveolitis. The superficial similarity of the CT patterns of these conditions are discussed. CONCLUSIONS--High resolution CT is superior to chest radiography in establishing the diagnosis of fibrosing alveolitis and the typical CT appearances are virtually pathognomonic. The diagnostic advantages of CT over chest radiography should further reduce the need for open lung biopsy in this condition. Images PMID:8135910

  7. 3D and Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meulien Ohlmann, Odile

    2013-02-01

    Today the industry offers a chain of 3D products. Learning to "read" and to "create in 3D" becomes an issue of education of primary importance. 25 years professional experience in France, the United States and Germany, Odile Meulien set up a personal method of initiation to 3D creation that entails the spatial/temporal experience of the holographic visual. She will present some different tools and techniques used for this learning, their advantages and disadvantages, programs and issues of educational policies, constraints and expectations related to the development of new techniques for 3D imaging. Although the creation of display holograms is very much reduced compared to the creation of the 90ies, the holographic concept is spreading in all scientific, social, and artistic activities of our present time. She will also raise many questions: What means 3D? Is it communication? Is it perception? How the seeing and none seeing is interferes? What else has to be taken in consideration to communicate in 3D? How to handle the non visible relations of moving objects with subjects? Does this transform our model of exchange with others? What kind of interaction this has with our everyday life? Then come more practical questions: How to learn creating 3D visualization, to learn 3D grammar, 3D language, 3D thinking? What for? At what level? In which matter? for whom?

  8. Extrinsic allergic alveolitis: a disease commoner in non-smokers.

    PubMed Central

    Warren, C P

    1977-01-01

    The smoking habits of 18 patients with extrinsic allergic alveolitis, 22 with cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis, and 75 patients with sarcoidosis were compared with the smoking habits of the normal population of the Prairie Region for 1973. The patients were diagnosed at the same two hospitals over the four-year period November 1971--75 and were of comparable age. Non-smoking was significantly associated with allergic alveolitis in men and the three cases in women were all non-smokers. For the other two diseases, smoking habits were similar to those of the local population. PMID:594937

  9. Refined 3d-3d correspondence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alday, Luis F.; Genolini, Pietro Benetti; Bullimore, Mathew; van Loon, Mark

    2017-04-01

    We explore aspects of the correspondence between Seifert 3-manifolds and 3d N = 2 supersymmetric theories with a distinguished abelian flavour symmetry. We give a prescription for computing the squashed three-sphere partition functions of such 3d N = 2 theories constructed from boundary conditions and interfaces in a 4d N = 2∗ theory, mirroring the construction of Seifert manifold invariants via Dehn surgery. This is extended to include links in the Seifert manifold by the insertion of supersymmetric Wilson-'t Hooft loops in the 4d N = 2∗ theory. In the presence of a mass parameter cfor the distinguished flavour symmetry, we recover aspects of refined Chern-Simons theory with complex gauge group, and in particular construct an analytic continuation of the S-matrix of refined Chern-Simons theory.

  10. A 3d-3d appetizer

    DOE PAGES

    Pei, Du; Ye, Ke

    2016-11-02

    Here, we test the 3d-3d correspondence for theories that are labeled by Lens spaces. We find a full agreement between the index of the 3d N=2 “Lens space theory” T [L(p, 1)] and the partition function of complex Chern-Simons theory on L(p, 1). In particular, for p = 1, we show how the familiar S3 partition function of Chern-Simons theory arises from the index of a free theory. For large p, we find that the index of T[L(p, 1)] becomes a constant independent of p. In addition, we study T[L(p, 1)] on the squashed three-sphere Sb3. This enables us tomore » see clearly, at the level of partition function, to what extent GC complex Chern-Simons theory can be thought of as two copies of Chern-Simons theory with compact gauge group G.« less

  11. A 3d-3d appetizer

    SciTech Connect

    Pei, Du; Ye, Ke

    2016-11-02

    Here, we test the 3d-3d correspondence for theories that are labeled by Lens spaces. We find a full agreement between the index of the 3d N=2 “Lens space theory” T [L(p, 1)] and the partition function of complex Chern-Simons theory on L(p, 1). In particular, for p = 1, we show how the familiar S3 partition function of Chern-Simons theory arises from the index of a free theory. For large p, we find that the index of T[L(p, 1)] becomes a constant independent of p. In addition, we study T[L(p, 1)] on the squashed three-sphere Sb3. This enables us to see clearly, at the level of partition function, to what extent GC complex Chern-Simons theory can be thought of as two copies of Chern-Simons theory with compact gauge group G.

  12. 3D Imaging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hastings, S. K.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses 3 D imaging as it relates to digital representations in virtual library collections. Highlights include X-ray computed tomography (X-ray CT); the National Science Foundation (NSF) Digital Library Initiatives; output peripherals; image retrieval systems, including metadata; and applications of 3 D imaging for libraries and museums. (LRW)

  13. 3D Imaging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hastings, S. K.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses 3 D imaging as it relates to digital representations in virtual library collections. Highlights include X-ray computed tomography (X-ray CT); the National Science Foundation (NSF) Digital Library Initiatives; output peripherals; image retrieval systems, including metadata; and applications of 3 D imaging for libraries and museums. (LRW)

  14. Diamond in 3-D

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-08-20

    This 3-D, microscopic imager mosaic of a target area on a rock called Diamond Jenness was taken after NASA Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity ground into the surface with its rock abrasion tool for a second time. 3D glasses are necessary.

  15. Extrinsic allergic alveolitis with IgA deficiency.

    PubMed

    Sennekamp, J; Morr, H; Behr, J

    2004-12-22

    Up to now only 3 cases of extrinsic allergic alveolitis (hypersensitivity pneumonitis) with IgA deficiency have been published worldwide. We had the opportunity to detect two additional cases which will be presented here. Summarizing all cases IgA deficiency is a risk factor for a severe course of the disease and an increased susceptibility to acquire allergic alveolitis by low dose antigen exposure.

  16. Acute alveolitis following infliximab therapy for psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Bale, Jessica; Chee, Paul

    2013-02-01

    Infliximab is a high-affinity recombinant chimeric immunoglobulin-1 monoclonal antibody directed against tumour necrosis factor-alpha. It is used to treat a range of inflammatory disorders including psoriatic joint and skin changes. Acute interstitial lung disease is a rare but potentially fatal complication of therapy. We report the case of a 67-year-old man with severe psoriasis who presented with acute alveolitis shortly after his third infusion of infliximab. The infliximab was discontinued and investigations did not reveal an infective cause. His respiratory signs and symptoms improved quickly with corticosteroid therapy. Clinicians should be aware of this uncommon but potentially serious complication. © 2012 The Authors Australasian Journal of Dermatology © 2012 The Australasian College of Dermatologists.

  17. [Extrinsic allergic alveolitis--rarely diagnosed disease].

    PubMed

    Lauková, D; Marget, I; Plutinský, J

    2009-05-01

    Extrinsic allergic alveolitis (EAA), known as hypersensitive pneumonitis, causes interstitial lung involvement by inhaled antigen. The clinical presentation of the disease has been defined as acute, subacute and chronic. The most often symptoms of the acute form of the disease are flu-like symptoms, dyspnoe and cough. The progressive dyspnoe in particullary is characterized for the chronic form of EAA. Dyspnoe is worsed, if the disease is combinied with usual respiratory infection or reexposition of inhaled antigen. It seems the diagnostic definition of EAA should be easy and prevalence of EAA relative high. The disease belongs to the group of interstitial lung diseases and it is underestimated as a matter of fact. The clinic, radiographic, laboratory and histologic abnormalities are results of inhaled antigen contact and support the diagnosis of EAA. Specific IgG antibodies against the offending antigen along with them are consedered to be detected (established) of EAA.

  18. 3D Plasmon Ruler

    SciTech Connect

    2011-01-01

    In this animation of a 3D plasmon ruler, the plasmonic assembly acts as a transducer to deliver optical information about the structural dynamics of an attached protein. (courtesy of Paul Alivisatos group)

  19. Prominent Rocks - 3-D

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1997-07-13

    Many prominent rocks near the Sagan Memorial Station are featured in this image from NASA Mars Pathfinder. Shark, Half-Dome, and Pumpkin are at center 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail.

  20. 3D Laser System

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-09-16

    NASA Glenn's Icing Research Tunnel 3D Laser System used for digitizing ice shapes created in the wind tunnel. The ice shapes are later utilized for characterization, analysis, and software development.

  1. AE3D

    SciTech Connect

    Spong, Donald A

    2016-06-20

    AE3D solves for the shear Alfven eigenmodes and eigenfrequencies in a torodal magnetic fusion confinement device. The configuration can be either 2D (e.g. tokamak, reversed field pinch) or 3D (e.g. stellarator, helical reversed field pinch, tokamak with ripple). The equations solved are based on a reduced MHD model and sound wave coupling effects are not currently included.

  2. Radiochromic 3D Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oldham, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Radiochromic materials exhibit a colour change when exposed to ionising radiation. Radiochromic film has been used for clinical dosimetry for many years and increasingly so recently, as films of higher sensitivities have become available. The two principle advantages of radiochromic dosimetry include greater tissue equivalence (radiologically) and the lack of requirement for development of the colour change. In a radiochromic material, the colour change arises direct from ionising interactions affecting dye molecules, without requiring any latent chemical, optical or thermal development, with important implications for increased accuracy and convenience. It is only relatively recently however, that 3D radiochromic dosimetry has become possible. In this article we review recent developments and the current state-of-the-art of 3D radiochromic dosimetry, and the potential for a more comprehensive solution for the verification of complex radiation therapy treatments, and 3D dose measurement in general.

  3. 3-D Seismic Interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Gregory F.

    2009-05-01

    This volume is a brief introduction aimed at those who wish to gain a basic and relatively quick understanding of the interpretation of three-dimensional (3-D) seismic reflection data. The book is well written, clearly illustrated, and easy to follow. Enough elementary mathematics are presented for a basic understanding of seismic methods, but more complex mathematical derivations are avoided. References are listed for readers interested in more advanced explanations. After a brief introduction, the book logically begins with a succinct chapter on modern 3-D seismic data acquisition and processing. Standard 3-D acquisition methods are presented, and an appendix expands on more recent acquisition techniques, such as multiple-azimuth and wide-azimuth acquisition. Although this chapter covers the basics of standard time processing quite well, there is only a single sentence about prestack depth imaging, and anisotropic processing is not mentioned at all, even though both techniques are now becoming standard.

  4. Bootstrapping 3D fermions

    DOE PAGES

    Iliesiu, Luca; Kos, Filip; Poland, David; ...

    2016-03-17

    We study the conformal bootstrap for a 4-point function of fermions <ψψψψ> in 3D. We first introduce an embedding formalism for 3D spinors and compute the conformal blocks appearing in fermion 4-point functions. Using these results, we find general bounds on the dimensions of operators appearing in the ψ × ψ OPE, and also on the central charge CT. We observe features in our bounds that coincide with scaling dimensions in the GrossNeveu models at large N. Finally, we also speculate that other features could coincide with a fermionic CFT containing no relevant scalar operators.

  5. Bootstrapping 3D fermions

    SciTech Connect

    Iliesiu, Luca; Kos, Filip; Poland, David; Pufu, Silviu S.; Simmons-Duffin, David; Yacoby, Ran

    2016-03-17

    We study the conformal bootstrap for a 4-point function of fermions <ψψψψ> in 3D. We first introduce an embedding formalism for 3D spinors and compute the conformal blocks appearing in fermion 4-point functions. Using these results, we find general bounds on the dimensions of operators appearing in the ψ × ψ OPE, and also on the central charge CT. We observe features in our bounds that coincide with scaling dimensions in the GrossNeveu models at large N. Finally, we also speculate that other features could coincide with a fermionic CFT containing no relevant scalar operators.

  6. Medical 3-D Printing.

    PubMed

    Furlow, Bryant

    2017-05-01

    Three-dimensional printing is used in the manufacturing industry, medical and pharmaceutical research, drug production, clinical medicine, and dentistry, with implications for precision and personalized medicine. This technology is advancing the development of patient-specific prosthetics, stents, splints, and fixation devices and is changing medical education, treatment decision making, and surgical planning. Diagnostic imaging modalities play a fundamental role in the creation of 3-D printed models. Although most 3-D printed objects are rigid, flexible soft-tissue-like prosthetics also can be produced. ©2017 American Society of Radiologic Technologists.

  7. The HRCT features of extrinsic allergic alveolitis.

    PubMed

    Hartman, Thomas E

    2003-08-01

    Exposure to organic dusts can produce an immune-mediated inflammatory response in sensitized individuals. The pulmonary disease caused by this response has been called extrinsic allergic alveolitis (EAA) or hypersensitivity pneumonitis. The clinical phases associated with this process have been termed acute, subacute, and chronic. There are corresponding imaging findings that are characteristic of each of these phases, although there is some overlap between the phases. The acute phase is characterized by confluent opacities that may mimic infection or edema. The subacute phase is characterized by centrilobular nodules, areas of ground-glass attenuation, a mosaic perfusion pattern, and air trapping on expiratory imaging. The chronic phase is characterized by subpleural irregular linear opacities with associated architectural distortion. Honeycombing may sometimes also be present. In the acute and subacute phases, the disease is predominantly in the lower lungs, whereas in chronic EAA the findings are predominant in the mid to upper lungs. Although the high-resolution computed tomography findings individually are nonspecific, the combination of the findings coupled with the distribution of the findings can often narrow the differential or allow a presumptive diagnosis of EAA to be made.

  8. Venus in 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plaut, Jeffrey J.

    1993-01-01

    Stereographic images of the surface of Venus which enable geologists to reconstruct the details of the planet's evolution are discussed. The 120-meter resolution of these 3D images make it possible to construct digital topographic maps from which precise measurements can be made of the heights, depths, slopes, and volumes of geologic structures.

  9. 3D photoacoustic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carson, Jeffrey J. L.; Roumeliotis, Michael; Chaudhary, Govind; Stodilka, Robert Z.; Anastasio, Mark A.

    2010-06-01

    Our group has concentrated on development of a 3D photoacoustic imaging system for biomedical imaging research. The technology employs a sparse parallel detection scheme and specialized reconstruction software to obtain 3D optical images using a single laser pulse. With the technology we have been able to capture 3D movies of translating point targets and rotating line targets. The current limitation of our 3D photoacoustic imaging approach is its inability ability to reconstruct complex objects in the field of view. This is primarily due to the relatively small number of projections used to reconstruct objects. However, in many photoacoustic imaging situations, only a few objects may be present in the field of view and these objects may have very high contrast compared to background. That is, the objects have sparse properties. Therefore, our work had two objectives: (i) to utilize mathematical tools to evaluate 3D photoacoustic imaging performance, and (ii) to test image reconstruction algorithms that prefer sparseness in the reconstructed images. Our approach was to utilize singular value decomposition techniques to study the imaging operator of the system and evaluate the complexity of objects that could potentially be reconstructed. We also compared the performance of two image reconstruction algorithms (algebraic reconstruction and l1-norm techniques) at reconstructing objects of increasing sparseness. We observed that for a 15-element detection scheme, the number of measureable singular vectors representative of the imaging operator was consistent with the demonstrated ability to reconstruct point and line targets in the field of view. We also observed that the l1-norm reconstruction technique, which is known to prefer sparseness in reconstructed images, was superior to the algebraic reconstruction technique. Based on these findings, we concluded (i) that singular value decomposition of the imaging operator provides valuable insight into the capabilities of

  10. Extrinsic allergic alveolitis with an atypical immune expression.

    PubMed

    Costa, Teresa; Rodrigues, Cidália; Arrobas, Ana

    2009-01-01

    Extrinsic allergic alveolitis and sarcoidosis are two granulomatosis of the lung characterized by non- -necrotizing granuloma. Both have typical bronchoalveolar lavage immunology, with opposite CD4/CD8 relation. However, sarcoidosis does not have such well defined etiology as extrinsic allergic alveolitis. The authors present two cases with similar clinical course, imagiology, lung function and immunology, although they both had an histology that was not concordant with the bronchoalveolar lavage, and with the peculiarity of being two elements of the same family, co -inhabitants and with a clinical presentation only a few weeks apart.

  11. 3-D Grab!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connors, M. G.; Schofield, I. S.

    2012-12-01

    Modern technologies in imaging greatly extend the potential to present visual information. With recently developed software tools, the perception of the third dimension can not only dramatically enhance presentation, but also allow spatial data to be better encoded. 3-D images can be taken for many subjects with only one camera, carefully moved to generate a stereo pair. Color anaglyph viewing now can be very effective using computer screens, and active filter technologies can enhance visual effects with ever-decreasing cost. We will present various novel results of 3-D imaging, including those from the auroral observations of the new twinned Athabasca University Geophysical Observatories.; Single camera stereo image for viewing with red/cyan glasses.

  12. Unoriented 3d TFTs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhardwaj, Lakshya

    2017-05-01

    This paper generalizes two facts about oriented 3d TFTs to the unoriented case. On one hand, it is known that oriented 3d TFTs having a topological boundary condition admit a state-sum construction known as the Turaev-Viro construction. This is related to the string-net construction of fermionic phases of matter. We show how Turaev-Viro construction can be generalized to unoriented 3d TFTs. On the other hand, it is known that the "fermionic" versions of oriented TFTs, known as Spin-TFTs, can be constructed in terms of "shadow" TFTs which are ordinary oriented TFTs with an anomalous ℤ 2 1-form symmetry. We generalize this correspondence to Pin+-TFTs by showing that they can be constructed in terms of ordinary unoriented TFTs with anomalous ℤ 2 1-form symmetry having a mixed anomaly with time-reversal symmetry. The corresponding Pin+-TFT does not have any anomaly for time-reversal symmetry however and hence it can be unambiguously defined on a non-orientable manifold. In case a Pin+-TFT admits a topological boundary condition, one can combine the above two statements to obtain a Turaev-Viro-like construction of Pin+-TFTs. As an application of these ideas, we construct a large class of Pin+-SPT phases.

  13. Accuracy of diagnostic coding of hospital admissions for cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis.

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, I D; Bleasdale, C; Hind, C R; Woodcock, A A

    1991-01-01

    To determine the accuracy of diagnostic coding of cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis, the case notes of 166 admissions to four hospitals were reviewed. These consisted of all admissions that had been coded as "idiopathic fibrosing alveolitis" (ICD code 516.3: 97 admissions) or as "postinflammatory pulmonary fibrosis" (ICD code 515.9: 69 admissions). Of 88 available records of admissions coded as idiopathic fibrosing alveolitis, 70 (80%) patients had definite cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis, and six (7%) possible cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis according to predetermined conventional clinical criteria. Only seven (8%) admissions were clearly coded wrongly. Sixty four records were available for patients coded as having postinflammatory pulmonary fibrosis; 16 (25%) of these patients had definite cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis, a further 12 (19%) had possible cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis or fibrosing alveolitis with a connective tissue disorder, and the remainder had a very wide range of diagnoses. In this study the idiopathic fibrosing alveolitis (ICD 516.3) code was relatively reliable, but a substantial proportion of admissions coded under postinflammatory pulmonary fibrosis (ICD 515.9) also had cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis and code 515.9 was of little diagnostic value. The data are inadequate for case finding, though in respect of cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis may be adequate for planning purposes. There continues to be a need for more medical input into the process of diagnostic coding. PMID:1926030

  14. Extrinsic allergic alveolitis in domestic environments (Domestic allergic alveolitis) caused by mouldy tapestry

    PubMed

    Schwarz; Wettengel; Kramer

    2000-03-27

    Extrinsic allergic alveolitis often occures as bird fancier's lung or is caused by occupational treatment with antigenic materials. In housing environments antigens of allergic alveolitis are also found, especially mould fungi. lf a source of antigens is absent in the anamnesis and the clinical picture as well as the clinical findings are ambiguous, the diagnosis of extrinsic allergic alveolits is delayed or unobtained. The following example shows that in spite of a detailed allergic anamnesis the source of antigens may remain occult and only an inspection of the dwelling rooms leads to an elucidation. - A sixty-one year old non-smoking women was twice admitted to hospital with a temperature of more than 39 degrees C, intense dyspnea on exertion and a strong dry cough under the persumed diagnosis pneumonia. The laboratory values showed nonspecific signs of inflammation, the blood gas analysis was changed to a heavy hypoxemia (pO subset2 49.2 mmHg) and in the chest x-ray there were seen miliary and partly reticular alterations. The chest computed tomography showed extensive densities in both upper and lower parts of the lungs and the pulmonary function test corresponded with a low-grade to middle-grade restriction (VC subsetin = 67%, TLC = 69%). A high dose of corticosteroids produced an improvement of the radiological findings and of the pulmonary function. Also the specialized diagnostic in a hospital for pulmonary diseases yielded no new knowledge, and an interstitial pneumonia was diagnosed. Only the new formation of an acute pneumonic clinical picture on the day of returning to the patients own habitation suggested a noxious substance in the domestic environment. The inspection of the rooms finally showed the source of antigen to be from a condensation water soaked, moulded tapestry on the embrasure of a small unopenable window in the bedroom just on the head of the bed. The nutritive mediums left in the rooms furnished evidence of the mould-species Penicillium

  15. 3D Audio System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Ames Research Center research into virtual reality led to the development of the Convolvotron, a high speed digital audio processing system that delivers three-dimensional sound over headphones. It consists of a two-card set designed for use with a personal computer. The Convolvotron's primary application is presentation of 3D audio signals over headphones. Four independent sound sources are filtered with large time-varying filters that compensate for motion. The perceived location of the sound remains constant. Possible applications are in air traffic control towers or airplane cockpits, hearing and perception research and virtual reality development.

  16. Twin Peaks - 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The two hills in the distance, approximately one to two kilometers away, have been dubbed the 'Twin Peaks' and are of great interest to Pathfinder scientists as objects of future study. 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. The white areas on the left hill, called the 'Ski Run' by scientists, may have been formed by hydrologic processes.

    The IMP is a stereo imaging system with color capability provided by 24 selectable filters -- twelve filters per 'eye.

    Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  17. 3D and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fung, Y. C.

    1995-05-01

    This conference on physiology and function covers a wide range of subjects, including the vasculature and blood flow, the flow of gas, water, and blood in the lung, the neurological structure and function, the modeling, and the motion and mechanics of organs. Many technologies are discussed. I believe that the list would include a robotic photographer, to hold the optical equipment in a precisely controlled way to obtain the images for the user. Why are 3D images needed? They are to achieve certain objectives through measurements of some objects. For example, in order to improve performance in sports or beauty of a person, we measure the form, dimensions, appearance, and movements.

  18. 3D Surgical Simulation

    PubMed Central

    Cevidanes, Lucia; Tucker, Scott; Styner, Martin; Kim, Hyungmin; Chapuis, Jonas; Reyes, Mauricio; Proffit, William; Turvey, Timothy; Jaskolka, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the development of methods for computer-aided jaw surgery. Computer-aided jaw surgery allows us to incorporate the high level of precision necessary for transferring virtual plans into the operating room. We also present a complete computer-aided surgery (CAS) system developed in close collaboration with surgeons. Surgery planning and simulation include construction of 3D surface models from Cone-beam CT (CBCT), dynamic cephalometry, semi-automatic mirroring, interactive cutting of bone and bony segment repositioning. A virtual setup can be used to manufacture positioning splints for intra-operative guidance. The system provides further intra-operative assistance with the help of a computer display showing jaw positions and 3D positioning guides updated in real-time during the surgical procedure. The CAS system aids in dealing with complex cases with benefits for the patient, with surgical practice, and for orthodontic finishing. Advanced software tools for diagnosis and treatment planning allow preparation of detailed operative plans, osteotomy repositioning, bone reconstructions, surgical resident training and assessing the difficulties of the surgical procedures prior to the surgery. CAS has the potential to make the elaboration of the surgical plan a more flexible process, increase the level of detail and accuracy of the plan, yield higher operative precision and control, and enhance documentation of cases. Supported by NIDCR DE017727, and DE018962 PMID:20816308

  19. Martian terrain - 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    An area of rocky terrain near the landing site of the Sagan Memorial Station can be seen in this image, taken in stereo by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. This image is part of a 3D 'monster' panorama of the area surrounding the landing site.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

    Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  20. Martian terrain - 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    An area of rocky terrain near the landing site of the Sagan Memorial Station can be seen in this image, taken in stereo by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. This image is part of a 3D 'monster' panorama of the area surrounding the landing site.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

    Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  1. Filament-length-controlled elasticity in 3D fiber networks.

    PubMed

    Broedersz, C P; Sheinman, M; Mackintosh, F C

    2012-02-17

    We present a model for disordered 3D fiber networks to study their linear and nonlinear elasticity. In contrast to previous 2D models, these 3D networks with binary crosslinks are underconstrained with respect to fiber stretching elasticity, suggesting that bending may dominate their response. We find that such networks exhibit a bending-dominated elastic regime controlled by fiber length, as well as a crossover to a stretch-dominated regime for long fibers. Finally, by extending the model to the nonlinear regime, we show that these networks become intrinsically nonlinear with a vanishing linear response regime in the limit of flexible or long filaments.

  2. 3D field harmonics

    SciTech Connect

    Caspi, S.; Helm, M.; Laslett, L.J.

    1991-03-30

    We have developed an harmonic representation for the three dimensional field components within the windings of accelerator magnets. The form by which the field is presented is suitable for interfacing with other codes that make use of the 3D field components (particle tracking and stability). The field components can be calculated with high precision and reduced cup time at any location (r,{theta},z) inside the magnet bore. The same conductor geometry which is used to simulate line currents is also used in CAD with modifications more readily available. It is our hope that the format used here for magnetic fields can be used not only as a means of delivering fields but also as a way by which beam dynamics can suggest correction to the conductor geometry. 5 refs., 70 figs.

  3. Prominent rocks - 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Many prominent rocks near the Sagan Memorial Station are featured in this image, taken in stereo by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. Wedge is at lower left; Shark, Half-Dome, and Pumpkin are at center. Flat Top, about four inches high, is at lower right. The horizon in the distance is one to two kilometers away.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

    Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  4. Pluto in 3-D

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-10-23

    Global stereo mapping of Pluto surface is now possible, as images taken from multiple directions are downlinked from NASA New Horizons spacecraft. Stereo images will eventually provide an accurate topographic map of most of the hemisphere of Pluto seen by New Horizons during the July 14 flyby, which will be key to understanding Pluto's geological history. This example, which requires red/blue stereo glasses for viewing, shows a region 180 miles (300 kilometers) across, centered near longitude 130 E, latitude 20 N (the red square in the global context image). North is to the upper left. The image shows an ancient, heavily cratered region of Pluto, dotted with low hills and cut by deep fractures, which indicate extension of Pluto's crust. Analysis of these stereo images shows that the steep fracture in the upper left of the image is about 1 mile (1.6 kilometers) deep, and the craters in the lower right part of the image are up to 1.3 miles (2.1 km) deep. Smallest visible details are about 0.4 miles (0.6 kilometers) across. You will need 3D glasses to view this image showing an ancient, heavily cratered region of Pluto. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA20032

  5. Intraoral 3D scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kühmstedt, Peter; Bräuer-Burchardt, Christian; Munkelt, Christoph; Heinze, Matthias; Palme, Martin; Schmidt, Ingo; Hintersehr, Josef; Notni, Gunther

    2007-09-01

    Here a new set-up of a 3D-scanning system for CAD/CAM in dental industry is proposed. The system is designed for direct scanning of the dental preparations within the mouth. The measuring process is based on phase correlation technique in combination with fast fringe projection in a stereo arrangement. The novelty in the approach is characterized by the following features: A phase correlation between the phase values of the images of two cameras is used for the co-ordinate calculation. This works contrary to the usage of only phase values (phasogrammetry) or classical triangulation (phase values and camera image co-ordinate values) for the determination of the co-ordinates. The main advantage of the method is that the absolute value of the phase at each point does not directly determine the coordinate. Thus errors in the determination of the co-ordinates are prevented. Furthermore, using the epipolar geometry of the stereo-like arrangement the phase unwrapping problem of fringe analysis can be solved. The endoscope like measurement system contains one projection and two camera channels for illumination and observation of the object, respectively. The new system has a measurement field of nearly 25mm × 15mm. The user can measure two or three teeth at one time. So the system can by used for scanning of single tooth up to bridges preparations. In the paper the first realization of the intraoral scanner is described.

  6. 'Diamond' in 3-D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This 3-D, microscopic imager mosaic of a target area on a rock called 'Diamond Jenness' was taken after NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity ground into the surface with its rock abrasion tool for a second time.

    Opportunity has bored nearly a dozen holes into the inner walls of 'Endurance Crater.' On sols 177 and 178 (July 23 and July 24, 2004), the rover worked double-duty on Diamond Jenness. Surface debris and the bumpy shape of the rock resulted in a shallow and irregular hole, only about 2 millimeters (0.08 inch) deep. The final depth was not enough to remove all the bumps and leave a neat hole with a smooth floor. This extremely shallow depression was then examined by the rover's alpha particle X-ray spectrometer.

    On Sol 178, Opportunity's 'robotic rodent' dined on Diamond Jenness once again, grinding almost an additional 5 millimeters (about 0.2 inch). The rover then applied its Moessbauer spectrometer to the deepened hole. This double dose of Diamond Jenness enabled the science team to examine the rock at varying layers. Results from those grindings are currently being analyzed.

    The image mosaic is about 6 centimeters (2.4 inches) across.

  7. 'Diamond' in 3-D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This 3-D, microscopic imager mosaic of a target area on a rock called 'Diamond Jenness' was taken after NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity ground into the surface with its rock abrasion tool for a second time.

    Opportunity has bored nearly a dozen holes into the inner walls of 'Endurance Crater.' On sols 177 and 178 (July 23 and July 24, 2004), the rover worked double-duty on Diamond Jenness. Surface debris and the bumpy shape of the rock resulted in a shallow and irregular hole, only about 2 millimeters (0.08 inch) deep. The final depth was not enough to remove all the bumps and leave a neat hole with a smooth floor. This extremely shallow depression was then examined by the rover's alpha particle X-ray spectrometer.

    On Sol 178, Opportunity's 'robotic rodent' dined on Diamond Jenness once again, grinding almost an additional 5 millimeters (about 0.2 inch). The rover then applied its Moessbauer spectrometer to the deepened hole. This double dose of Diamond Jenness enabled the science team to examine the rock at varying layers. Results from those grindings are currently being analyzed.

    The image mosaic is about 6 centimeters (2.4 inches) across.

  8. 3D Printing and 3D Bioprinting in Pediatrics

    PubMed Central

    Vijayavenkataraman, Sanjairaj; Fuh, Jerry Y H; Lu, Wen Feng

    2017-01-01

    Additive manufacturing, commonly referred to as 3D printing, is a technology that builds three-dimensional structures and components layer by layer. Bioprinting is the use of 3D printing technology to fabricate tissue constructs for regenerative medicine from cell-laden bio-inks. 3D printing and bioprinting have huge potential in revolutionizing the field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. This paper reviews the application of 3D printing and bioprinting in the field of pediatrics. PMID:28952542

  9. 3D Printing and 3D Bioprinting in Pediatrics.

    PubMed

    Vijayavenkataraman, Sanjairaj; Fuh, Jerry Y H; Lu, Wen Feng

    2017-07-13

    Additive manufacturing, commonly referred to as 3D printing, is a technology that builds three-dimensional structures and components layer by layer. Bioprinting is the use of 3D printing technology to fabricate tissue constructs for regenerative medicine from cell-laden bio-inks. 3D printing and bioprinting have huge potential in revolutionizing the field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. This paper reviews the application of 3D printing and bioprinting in the field of pediatrics.

  10. Sulfasalazine-induced extrinsic allergic alveolitis in a patient with psoriatic arthritis.

    PubMed

    Woltsche, M; Woltsche-Kahr, I; Roeger, G M; Aberer, W; Popper, H

    2001-11-20

    We report the first case of a well defined extrinsic allergic alveolitis as a complication of sulfasalazine therapy in a patient treated for psoriatic arthritis. CT of the chest showed small nodular densities over both lungs, BAL demonstrated a highly active lymphocytic alveolitis and transbronchial biopsies revealed lymphoplasmocytic interstitial infiltration. Sulfasalazine as causative agent was proven by an inadvertent rechallenge three years later and a positive lymphocyte transformation test. sulfasalazine; psoriatic arthritis; extrinsic allergic alveolitis

  11. Infliximab-associated alveolitis after treatment for severe left-sided ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed

    Veerappan, Sundaram G; O'Morain, Colm A

    2009-07-01

    Here we describe a patient with ulcerative colitis who developed alveolitis after infliximab therapy. With earlier case reports of development of alveolitis in rheumatoid arthritis patients after infliximab infusion, the temporal relationship between the infliximab therapy and the development of alveolitis in this case, raises the possibility that the two might be causally related. With an increasing trend towards treating moderate to severely active ulcerative colitis patients with infliximab as a rescue therapy, clinicians should be aware of this potentially serious complication.

  12. High resolution computed tomographic assessment of asbestosis and cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis: a comparative study.

    PubMed Central

    al-Jarad, N; Strickland, B; Pearson, M C; Rubens, M B; Rudd, R M

    1992-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to compare the distribution and configuration of lung opacities in patients with cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis and asbestosis by high resolution computed tomography. METHODS: Eighteen patients with cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis and 24 with asbestosis were studied. Two independent observers assessed the type and distributions of opacities in the upper, middle, and lower zones of the computed tomogram. RESULTS: Upper zone fibrosis occurred in 10 of the 18 patients with cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis and in six of the 24 patients with asbestosis. A specific pattern in which fibrosis was distributed posteriorly in the lower zones, laterally in the middle zones, and anteriorly in the upper zones was seen in 11 patients with cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis and in four with asbestosis. Band like intrapulmonary opacities, often merging with the pleura, were seen in 19 patients with asbestosis but in only two with cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis. Areas with a reticular pattern and a confluent or ground glass pattern were the commonest features of cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis (15 and 14 patients respectively) but were uncommon in asbestosis (four and three patients). Pleural thickening or plaques were seen in 21 patients with asbestosis and in none with cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis. CONCLUSION: Apart from showing pleural disease high resolution computed tomography showed that confluent (ground glass) opacities are common in cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis and rare in asbestosis whereas thick, band like opacities are common in asbestosis and rare in cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis. Images PMID:1412123

  13. [Actualities in extrinsic allergic alveolities or hypersensitivity pneumonitis].

    PubMed

    Ndiaye, M; Soumah, M; Sow, M L

    2007-01-01

    Significant advances have been noticed in the pathogenesis and the diagnosis of extrinsic allergic alveolitis during the last few years. Indeed the immune mechanism and the enabling conditions have been more precisely defined, the clinical stages and the diagnosis criterias clearly defined, new antigens incriminated and some etiological agents have been reclassified. The present pathogenic explanation insists on the type IV hypersensitivity reaction with sensitization of T lymphocytes, activation macrophages, the formation of IgG type antibodies and immune complexes, activation of complement and secretion of cytokines. The involvement of certain HLA classes (HLA2, DR3, DRB1, DQB1), interaction of genetics and environments factors, the role of infections agents and smoking have been demonstrated in several studies. The development of news clinical and biological diagnosis criteria have led the discovery of new extrinsic allergic alveolitis in the work places, a better knowledge of the prognostic elements and an appropriate adaptation of prevention measures.

  14. Extrinsic allergic alveolitis induced by the yeast Debaryomyces hansenii.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Y; Osanai, S; Fujiuchi, S; Yamazaki, K; Nakano, H; Ohsaki, Y; Kikuchi, K

    2002-11-01

    A 65-yr-old female developed cough, fever and dyspnoea following repeated exposure to a home ultrasonic humidifier. High-resolution computed tomography showed ground-glass opacity in both lung fields. Arterial blood gas analysis gave an oxygen tension of 8.38 kPa (63 Torr). Pulmonary function testing revealed restrictive ventilatory impairment with a reduction in the diffusing capacity. The diagnosis of extrinsic allergic alveolitis (EAA) was confirmed by radiographic findings, pathological evidence of alveolitis and reproductive development by a provocation test to the humidifier water. The yeast Debaryomyces Hansenii was the only microorganism cultured from the water of the humidifier. The double diffusion precipitating test and lymphocyte proliferative response was positive for an extract of D. Hansenii, providing evidence to incriminate this fungus. This is the first described case of EAA caused by D. Hansenii.

  15. Eosinophil alveolitis in two patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Brix, Ninna; Rasmussen, Finn; Poletti, Venerino; Bendstrup, Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is typically characterized by a neutrophil inflammatory pattern and to a lesser extent (<25%) a mild eosinophil alveolitis. We here present two patients with a definite usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) pattern on high-resolution computed tomography of the thorax (HRCT) which demonstrated unusually high eosinophil counts in the BALF (40% and 51%). Based on HRCT, lack of response to steroids and the disease course they were both diagnosed as IPF after a multidisciplinary team discussion. This report discusses the diagnostic and etiological considerations of a coexisting UIP pattern and an eosinophil alveolitis. We conclude that these cases illustrate that high level BALF eosinophilia (40-50%) may occur among patients with IPF.

  16. [Fibrosing alveolitis with hepatitis C-related cryoglobulinemia].

    PubMed

    Witte, L; Rupp, J; Heyer, P; Dalhoff, K; Schaaf, B

    2008-04-01

    A 56-year-old man presented with fever, myalgia and weakness of the limbs for four weeks. The physical examination showed a skin rash, hepatomegaly and reduced mobility of the limbs due to pain. Laboratory tests revealed an elevated rheumatoid factor, cryoglobulins and were positive for hepatitis C-antibodies. The lung function tests indicated mild obstruction and a moderate decrease of diffusion capacity. Bronchoalveolar lavage showed lymphocytic alveolitis. Computed tomography of the thorax revealed mediastinal lymphadenopathy, diffuse ground-glass infiltrates and bilateral signs of fibrosis in the lower lung fields. Because of the fibrosing alveolitis associated with hepatitis C-related cryoglobulinemia, immunosuppression was started with high-dosage prednisone and azathioprine. The symptoms improved on this treatment. Hepatitis C-related cryoglobulinemia is a rare condition that usually presents with nonspecific symptoms. Severe pulmonary involvement is very uncommon. There are no general guidelines about treatment.

  17. [TINU syndrome and lymphoid interstitial alveolitis: a new observation].

    PubMed

    Khammassi, Naziha; Mohsen, Dorsaf; Ounissi, Mondher; Tougourti, Mohamed Nejib; Hamza, Mohsen

    2011-02-01

    TINU syndrome is a rare entity known Dobrin disease, combining uveitis mostly bilateral and recurrent with acute tubulo interstitial nephritis (AIN) occurring in young adults. The etiology and pathogenesis of this syndrome remain unknown. To report a new case of TINU syndrome and to discuss its etiopathogenesis. This 33 year old women is hospitalized for exploration of acute renal failure, in a context of deterioration of general condition, associated with a unilateral anterior uveitis. The bronchoalveolar lavage showed lymphoid interstitial alveolitis with CD4 and the renal biopsy found lesions characteristic of AIN. Evolution under corticoïd treatment was favorable. Lymphoid interstitial alveolitis associated with TINU syndrome has been reported only twice before. The discovery of a TINU syndrome must practice bronchoalveolar lavage in search of sub clinical pulmonary involvement.

  18. Spotlight on the diagnosis of extrinsic allergic alveolitis (hypersensitivity pneumonitis).

    PubMed

    Baur, Xaver; Fischer, Axel; Budnik, Lygia T

    2015-01-01

    Repeated inhalative exposures to antigenic material from a variety of sources, mainly from moulds, thermophilic Actinomycetes, and avians, respectively, can induce immune responses with the clinical picture of extrinsic allergic alveolitis (EAA) or hypersensitivity pneumonitis. Delays of years or even decades till the diagnosis is made are not uncommon; frequent misdiagnoses include allergic asthma, COPD, recurrent flue and other infections. We provide here the state of the art references, a detailed case description and recommend a current diagnostics schema.

  19. Chronic pulmonary thromboembolism pathologically showing homogeneous cellular alveolitis.

    PubMed

    Miwa, Seiichi; Shirai, Masahiro; Kobayashi, Shigeru; Kaida, Yusuke; Suda, Takafumi; Hayakawa, Hiroshi; Chida, Kingo

    2011-01-01

    A 60-year-old man was admitted to our hospital complaining of general malaise. Examination of arterial blood gases on room air revealed hypoxia. Pulmonary function test showed restrictive abnormality. Chest high-resolution CT showed diffuse mosaic attenuation without evident pulmonary artery abnormality on contrast chest CT. Based on these findings, interstitial pneumonia or chronic pulmonary thromboembolism was suspected. The findings of bronchoalveolar lavage revealed 4.4×10(5) cells/mL, including 89.6% macrophages, 9.4% lymphocytes, and 1.0% neutrophils. TBLB showed marked alveolitis. Moreover video-assisted thoracoscopic surgical biopsy was performed. Biopsies of the lung specimen showed focal infarct with surrounding mild mononuclear cell infiltrates (homogenous cellular alveolitis). (99m)Tc pulmonary perfusion and (81m)Kr ventilation scintigraphy showed V/Q mismatch. Furthermore, pulmonary angiography also revealed inadequate artery flow corresponding to the mismatch area of scintigraphy. Collagen vascular diseases and abnormality of coagulation factors were not detected. Multiple perfusion defects persisted for more than 6 months. Thus, finally the patient was diagnosed with chronic pulmonary thromboembolism, pathologically showing homogenous cellular alveolitis.

  20. Laser printing of 3D metallic interconnects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beniam, Iyoel; Mathews, Scott A.; Charipar, Nicholas A.; Auyeung, Raymond C. Y.; Piqué, Alberto

    2016-04-01

    The use of laser-induced forward transfer (LIFT) techniques for the printing of functional materials has been demonstrated for numerous applications. The printing gives rise to patterns, which can be used to fabricate planar interconnects. More recently, various groups have demonstrated electrical interconnects from laser-printed 3D structures. The laser printing of these interconnects takes place through aggregation of voxels of either molten metal or of pastes containing dispersed metallic particles. However, the generated 3D structures do not posses the same metallic conductivity as a bulk metal interconnect of the same cross-section and length as those formed by wire bonding or tab welding. An alternative is to laser transfer entire 3D structures using a technique known as lase-and-place. Lase-and-place is a LIFT process whereby whole components and parts can be transferred from a donor substrate onto a desired location with one single laser pulse. This paper will describe the use of LIFT to laser print freestanding, solid metal foils or beams precisely over the contact pads of discrete devices to interconnect them into fully functional circuits. Furthermore, this paper will also show how the same laser can be used to bend or fold the bulk metal foils prior to transfer, thus forming compliant 3D structures able to provide strain relief for the circuits under flexing or during motion from thermal mismatch. These interconnect "ridges" can span wide gaps (on the order of a millimeter) and accommodate height differences of tens of microns between adjacent devices. Examples of these laser printed 3D metallic bridges and their role in the development of next generation electronics by additive manufacturing will be presented.

  1. 3D Spectroscopy in Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mediavilla, Evencio; Arribas, Santiago; Roth, Martin; Cepa-Nogué, Jordi; Sánchez, Francisco

    2011-09-01

    Preface; Acknowledgements; 1. Introductory review and technical approaches Martin M. Roth; 2. Observational procedures and data reduction James E. H. Turner; 3. 3D Spectroscopy instrumentation M. A. Bershady; 4. Analysis of 3D data Pierre Ferruit; 5. Science motivation for IFS and galactic studies F. Eisenhauer; 6. Extragalactic studies and future IFS science Luis Colina; 7. Tutorials: how to handle 3D spectroscopy data Sebastian F. Sánchez, Begona García-Lorenzo and Arlette Pécontal-Rousset.

  2. Spherical 3D isotropic wavelets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanusse, F.; Rassat, A.; Starck, J.-L.

    2012-04-01

    Context. Future cosmological surveys will provide 3D large scale structure maps with large sky coverage, for which a 3D spherical Fourier-Bessel (SFB) analysis in spherical coordinates is natural. Wavelets are particularly well-suited to the analysis and denoising of cosmological data, but a spherical 3D isotropic wavelet transform does not currently exist to analyse spherical 3D data. Aims: The aim of this paper is to present a new formalism for a spherical 3D isotropic wavelet, i.e. one based on the SFB decomposition of a 3D field and accompany the formalism with a public code to perform wavelet transforms. Methods: We describe a new 3D isotropic spherical wavelet decomposition based on the undecimated wavelet transform (UWT) described in Starck et al. (2006). We also present a new fast discrete spherical Fourier-Bessel transform (DSFBT) based on both a discrete Bessel transform and the HEALPIX angular pixelisation scheme. We test the 3D wavelet transform and as a toy-application, apply a denoising algorithm in wavelet space to the Virgo large box cosmological simulations and find we can successfully remove noise without much loss to the large scale structure. Results: We have described a new spherical 3D isotropic wavelet transform, ideally suited to analyse and denoise future 3D spherical cosmological surveys, which uses a novel DSFBT. We illustrate its potential use for denoising using a toy model. All the algorithms presented in this paper are available for download as a public code called MRS3D at http://jstarck.free.fr/mrs3d.html

  3. [Pneumonia or drug-related exogenic allergic alveolitis? Key role of anamnesis in differential diagnosis].

    PubMed

    Skipskiĭ, I M; Efimov, N V; Dantsig, I I; Matiukhina, L M; Kostina, O Ia

    2011-01-01

    A case is reported of an old female patient with exogenic allergic alveolitis which was first diagnosed as pneumonia progressing in the presence of long-term and intensive antibiotic treatment. Detailed analysis of the case history gave grounds for suspected drug-related exogenic allergic alveolitis. Discontinuation of antibiotics, administration of glucocorticoids and antiplatelet drugs led to recovery.

  4. 3D Elevation Program—Virtual USA in 3D

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lukas, Vicki; Stoker, J.M.

    2016-04-14

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) uses a laser system called ‘lidar’ (light detection and ranging) to create a virtual reality map of the Nation that is very accurate. 3D maps have many uses with new uses being discovered all the time.  

  5. [Cytologic features of bronchoalveolar lavage in evaluation of course of exogenous allergic alveolitis].

    PubMed

    Lepekha, L N; Aleksandrova, E A; Evgushchenko, G V; Makar'iants, N N; Lovacheva, O V

    2012-01-01

    Application of complex of modern cytologic methods of research bronchoalveolar lavage allowed to allocate most characteristics of development of lymphocytic and macrophagic reaction of bronchial tree in different course of exogenous allergic alveolitis. The most indicative in assessment of origin of exogenous allergic alveolitis development is the characteristics of macrophagic population. In acute course of exogenous allergic alveolitis the considerable number of young activated and non-activated macrophages, increased number of mature phagocytes is observed. Even more significant increase of phagocytic macrophages is observed at dissemination which is primarily is connected with participation of these cells in lymphocytic apoptosis which takes place in high percentage of lymphocytes (up to 49%). Increased number of mature phagocytes is observed at chronic course of exogenous allergic alveolitis that is an important diagnostic pattern of this option of development of exogenous allergic alveolitis in association with the lowest T-helpers/T-supressors index.

  6. Perception of 3D spatial relations for 3D displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosen, Paul; Pizlo, Zygmunt; Hoffmann, Christoph; Popescu, Voicu S.

    2004-05-01

    We test perception of 3D spatial relations in 3D images rendered by a 3D display (Perspecta from Actuality Systems) and compare it to that of a high-resolution flat panel display. 3D images provide the observer with such depth cues as motion parallax and binocular disparity. Our 3D display is a device that renders a 3D image by displaying, in rapid succession, radial slices through the scene on a rotating screen. The image is contained in a glass globe and can be viewed from virtually any direction. In the psychophysical experiment several families of 3D objects are used as stimuli: primitive shapes (cylinders and cuboids), and complex objects (multi-story buildings, cars, and pieces of furniture). Each object has at least one plane of symmetry. On each trial an object or its "distorted" version is shown at an arbitrary orientation. The distortion is produced by stretching an object in a random direction by 40%. This distortion must eliminate the symmetry of an object. The subject's task is to decide whether or not the presented object is distorted under several viewing conditions (monocular/binocular, with/without motion parallax, and near/far). The subject's performance is measured by the discriminability d', which is a conventional dependent variable in signal detection experiments.

  7. LLNL-Earth3D

    SciTech Connect

    2013-10-01

    Earth3D is a computer code designed to allow fast calculation of seismic rays and travel times through a 3D model of the Earth. LLNL is using this for earthquake location and global tomography efforts and such codes are of great interest to the Earth Science community.

  8. 3D World Building System

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    This video provides an overview of the Sandia National Laboratories developed 3-D World Model Building capability that provides users with an immersive, texture rich 3-D model of their environment in minutes using a laptop and color and depth camera.

  9. Market study: 3-D eyetracker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    A market study of a proposed version of a 3-D eyetracker for initial use at NASA's Ames Research Center was made. The commercialization potential of a simplified, less expensive 3-D eyetracker was ascertained. Primary focus on present and potential users of eyetrackers, as well as present and potential manufacturers has provided an effective means of analyzing the prospects for commercialization.

  10. 3D Buckligami: Digital Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Hecke, Martin; de Reus, Koen; Florijn, Bastiaan; Coulais, Corentin

    2014-03-01

    We present a class of elastic structures which exhibit collective buckling in 3D, and create these by a 3D printing/moulding technique. Our structures consist of cubic lattice of anisotropic unit cells, and we show that their mechanical properties are programmable via the orientation of these unit cells.

  11. 3D World Building System

    SciTech Connect

    2013-10-30

    This video provides an overview of the Sandia National Laboratories developed 3-D World Model Building capability that provides users with an immersive, texture rich 3-D model of their environment in minutes using a laptop and color and depth camera.

  12. Euro3D Science Conference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, J. R.

    2004-02-01

    The Euro3D RTN is an EU funded Research Training Network to foster the exploitation of 3D spectroscopy in Europe. 3D spectroscopy is a general term for spectroscopy of an area of the sky and derives its name from its two spatial + one spectral dimensions. There are an increasing number of instruments which use integral field devices to achieve spectroscopy of an area of the sky, either using lens arrays, optical fibres or image slicers, to pack spectra of multiple pixels on the sky (``spaxels'') onto a 2D detector. On account of the large volume of data and the special methods required to reduce and analyse 3D data, there are only a few centres of expertise and these are mostly involved with instrument developments. There is a perceived lack of expertise in 3D spectroscopy spread though the astronomical community and its use in the armoury of the observational astronomer is viewed as being highly specialised. For precisely this reason the Euro3D RTN was proposed to train young researchers in this area and develop user tools to widen the experience with this particular type of data in Europe. The Euro3D RTN is coordinated by Martin M. Roth (Astrophysikalisches Institut Potsdam) and has been running since July 2002. The first Euro3D science conference was held in Cambridge, UK from 22 to 23 May 2003. The main emphasis of the conference was, in keeping with the RTN, to expose the work of the young post-docs who are funded by the RTN. In addition the team members from the eleven European institutes involved in Euro3D also presented instrumental and observational developments. The conference was organized by Andy Bunker and held at the Institute of Astronomy. There were over thirty participants and 26 talks covered the whole range of application of 3D techniques. The science ranged from Galactic planetary nebulae and globular clusters to kinematics of nearby galaxies out to objects at high redshift. Several talks were devoted to reporting recent observations with newly

  13. 3D printing in dentistry.

    PubMed

    Dawood, A; Marti Marti, B; Sauret-Jackson, V; Darwood, A

    2015-12-01

    3D printing has been hailed as a disruptive technology which will change manufacturing. Used in aerospace, defence, art and design, 3D printing is becoming a subject of great interest in surgery. The technology has a particular resonance with dentistry, and with advances in 3D imaging and modelling technologies such as cone beam computed tomography and intraoral scanning, and with the relatively long history of the use of CAD CAM technologies in dentistry, it will become of increasing importance. Uses of 3D printing include the production of drill guides for dental implants, the production of physical models for prosthodontics, orthodontics and surgery, the manufacture of dental, craniomaxillofacial and orthopaedic implants, and the fabrication of copings and frameworks for implant and dental restorations. This paper reviews the types of 3D printing technologies available and their various applications in dentistry and in maxillofacial surgery.

  14. 3D vision system assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pezzaniti, J. Larry; Edmondson, Richard; Vaden, Justin; Hyatt, Bryan; Chenault, David B.; Kingston, David; Geulen, Vanilynmae; Newell, Scott; Pettijohn, Brad

    2009-02-01

    In this paper, we report on the development of a 3D vision system consisting of a flat panel stereoscopic display and auto-converging stereo camera and an assessment of the system's use for robotic driving, manipulation, and surveillance operations. The 3D vision system was integrated onto a Talon Robot and Operator Control Unit (OCU) such that direct comparisons of the performance of a number of test subjects using 2D and 3D vision systems were possible. A number of representative scenarios were developed to determine which tasks benefited most from the added depth perception and to understand when the 3D vision system hindered understanding of the scene. Two tests were conducted at Fort Leonard Wood, MO with noncommissioned officers ranked Staff Sergeant and Sergeant First Class. The scenarios; the test planning, approach and protocols; the data analysis; and the resulting performance assessment of the 3D vision system are reported.

  15. PLOT3D user's manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walatka, Pamela P.; Buning, Pieter G.; Pierce, Larry; Elson, Patricia A.

    1990-01-01

    PLOT3D is a computer graphics program designed to visualize the grids and solutions of computational fluid dynamics. Seventy-four functions are available. Versions are available for many systems. PLOT3D can handle multiple grids with a million or more grid points, and can produce varieties of model renderings, such as wireframe or flat shaded. Output from PLOT3D can be used in animation programs. The first part of this manual is a tutorial that takes the reader, keystroke by keystroke, through a PLOT3D session. The second part of the manual contains reference chapters, including the helpfile, data file formats, advice on changing PLOT3D, and sample command files.

  16. Bronchoalveolar lavage and response to cyclophosphamide in scleroderma alveolitis.

    PubMed

    Colaci, M; Sebastiani, M; Giuggioli, D; Manfredi, A; Spagnolo, P; Luppi, F; Richeldi, L; Ferri, Clodoveo

    2010-03-01

    Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is characterized by abnormal fibrosis of the skin and internal organs, particularly the lungs. Recent reports have revealed a lack of correlation between bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) variations and response to cyclophosphamide (CYC) in patients with scleroderma-related alveolitis. Our study aimed to evaluate whether the normalization of BAL cellularity correlates with long-term response to CYC. We retrospectively studied 26 consecutive SSc patients with alveolitis diagnosed by BAL and treated with CYC therapy (cumulative dosage 26.5 +/- 11.7 g; 21.1 +/- 8.9 months of treatment). We evaluated high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT), forced vital capacity (FVC), and carbon monoxide diffusing capacity (DLCO) variations before and after CYC. Radiological and functional parameters were re-evaluated in 23 patients after 1-year follow-up. BAL cellularity normalized after CYC therapy in 12/26 (46.2%) patients (group 1), while it remained abnormal in 14/26 (53.8%) (group 2). FVC and DLCO of group 1 slightly increased after CYC (p = 0.014 and p = 0.07, respectively) and remained stable at follow-up, whereas in group 2 they did not change after CYC and at follow-up (p = not significant). Moreover, at the end of CYC, FVC and/or DLCO showed a clinical improvement/stabilization in all patients of group 1 versus 8/14 of group 2, while at the re-evaluation 1 year after completing CYC, 2/11 patients of group 1 worsened versus 5/12 of group 2. HRCT progression was observed in 1/11 of group 1 and 8/12 of group 2 (p = 0.009). BAL fluid normalization after CYC therapy correlated with long-term response to treatment, contrary to what is observed in individuals with persistent alveolitis.

  17. PLOT3D/AMES, APOLLO UNIX VERSION USING GMR3D (WITH TURB3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buning, P.

    1994-01-01

    PLOT3D is an interactive graphics program designed to help scientists visualize computational fluid dynamics (CFD) grids and solutions. Today, supercomputers and CFD algorithms can provide scientists with simulations of such highly complex phenomena that obtaining an understanding of the simulations has become a major problem. Tools which help the scientist visualize the simulations can be of tremendous aid. PLOT3D/AMES offers more functions and features, and has been adapted for more types of computers than any other CFD graphics program. Version 3.6b+ is supported for five computers and graphic libraries. Using PLOT3D, CFD physicists can view their computational models from any angle, observing the physics of problems and the quality of solutions. As an aid in designing aircraft, for example, PLOT3D's interactive computer graphics can show vortices, temperature, reverse flow, pressure, and dozens of other characteristics of air flow during flight. As critical areas become obvious, they can easily be studied more closely using a finer grid. PLOT3D is part of a computational fluid dynamics software cycle. First, a program such as 3DGRAPE (ARC-12620) helps the scientist generate computational grids to model an object and its surrounding space. Once the grids have been designed and parameters such as the angle of attack, Mach number, and Reynolds number have been specified, a "flow-solver" program such as INS3D (ARC-11794 or COS-10019) solves the system of equations governing fluid flow, usually on a supercomputer. Grids sometimes have as many as two million points, and the "flow-solver" produces a solution file which contains density, x- y- and z-momentum, and stagnation energy for each grid point. With such a solution file and a grid file containing up to 50 grids as input, PLOT3D can calculate and graphically display any one of 74 functions, including shock waves, surface pressure, velocity vectors, and particle traces. PLOT3D's 74 functions are organized into

  18. PLOT3D/AMES, APOLLO UNIX VERSION USING GMR3D (WITHOUT TURB3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buning, P.

    1994-01-01

    PLOT3D is an interactive graphics program designed to help scientists visualize computational fluid dynamics (CFD) grids and solutions. Today, supercomputers and CFD algorithms can provide scientists with simulations of such highly complex phenomena that obtaining an understanding of the simulations has become a major problem. Tools which help the scientist visualize the simulations can be of tremendous aid. PLOT3D/AMES offers more functions and features, and has been adapted for more types of computers than any other CFD graphics program. Version 3.6b+ is supported for five computers and graphic libraries. Using PLOT3D, CFD physicists can view their computational models from any angle, observing the physics of problems and the quality of solutions. As an aid in designing aircraft, for example, PLOT3D's interactive computer graphics can show vortices, temperature, reverse flow, pressure, and dozens of other characteristics of air flow during flight. As critical areas become obvious, they can easily be studied more closely using a finer grid. PLOT3D is part of a computational fluid dynamics software cycle. First, a program such as 3DGRAPE (ARC-12620) helps the scientist generate computational grids to model an object and its surrounding space. Once the grids have been designed and parameters such as the angle of attack, Mach number, and Reynolds number have been specified, a "flow-solver" program such as INS3D (ARC-11794 or COS-10019) solves the system of equations governing fluid flow, usually on a supercomputer. Grids sometimes have as many as two million points, and the "flow-solver" produces a solution file which contains density, x- y- and z-momentum, and stagnation energy for each grid point. With such a solution file and a grid file containing up to 50 grids as input, PLOT3D can calculate and graphically display any one of 74 functions, including shock waves, surface pressure, velocity vectors, and particle traces. PLOT3D's 74 functions are organized into

  19. PLOT3D/AMES, APOLLO UNIX VERSION USING GMR3D (WITHOUT TURB3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buning, P.

    1994-01-01

    PLOT3D is an interactive graphics program designed to help scientists visualize computational fluid dynamics (CFD) grids and solutions. Today, supercomputers and CFD algorithms can provide scientists with simulations of such highly complex phenomena that obtaining an understanding of the simulations has become a major problem. Tools which help the scientist visualize the simulations can be of tremendous aid. PLOT3D/AMES offers more functions and features, and has been adapted for more types of computers than any other CFD graphics program. Version 3.6b+ is supported for five computers and graphic libraries. Using PLOT3D, CFD physicists can view their computational models from any angle, observing the physics of problems and the quality of solutions. As an aid in designing aircraft, for example, PLOT3D's interactive computer graphics can show vortices, temperature, reverse flow, pressure, and dozens of other characteristics of air flow during flight. As critical areas become obvious, they can easily be studied more closely using a finer grid. PLOT3D is part of a computational fluid dynamics software cycle. First, a program such as 3DGRAPE (ARC-12620) helps the scientist generate computational grids to model an object and its surrounding space. Once the grids have been designed and parameters such as the angle of attack, Mach number, and Reynolds number have been specified, a "flow-solver" program such as INS3D (ARC-11794 or COS-10019) solves the system of equations governing fluid flow, usually on a supercomputer. Grids sometimes have as many as two million points, and the "flow-solver" produces a solution file which contains density, x- y- and z-momentum, and stagnation energy for each grid point. With such a solution file and a grid file containing up to 50 grids as input, PLOT3D can calculate and graphically display any one of 74 functions, including shock waves, surface pressure, velocity vectors, and particle traces. PLOT3D's 74 functions are organized into

  20. PLOT3D/AMES, APOLLO UNIX VERSION USING GMR3D (WITH TURB3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buning, P.

    1994-01-01

    PLOT3D is an interactive graphics program designed to help scientists visualize computational fluid dynamics (CFD) grids and solutions. Today, supercomputers and CFD algorithms can provide scientists with simulations of such highly complex phenomena that obtaining an understanding of the simulations has become a major problem. Tools which help the scientist visualize the simulations can be of tremendous aid. PLOT3D/AMES offers more functions and features, and has been adapted for more types of computers than any other CFD graphics program. Version 3.6b+ is supported for five computers and graphic libraries. Using PLOT3D, CFD physicists can view their computational models from any angle, observing the physics of problems and the quality of solutions. As an aid in designing aircraft, for example, PLOT3D's interactive computer graphics can show vortices, temperature, reverse flow, pressure, and dozens of other characteristics of air flow during flight. As critical areas become obvious, they can easily be studied more closely using a finer grid. PLOT3D is part of a computational fluid dynamics software cycle. First, a program such as 3DGRAPE (ARC-12620) helps the scientist generate computational grids to model an object and its surrounding space. Once the grids have been designed and parameters such as the angle of attack, Mach number, and Reynolds number have been specified, a "flow-solver" program such as INS3D (ARC-11794 or COS-10019) solves the system of equations governing fluid flow, usually on a supercomputer. Grids sometimes have as many as two million points, and the "flow-solver" produces a solution file which contains density, x- y- and z-momentum, and stagnation energy for each grid point. With such a solution file and a grid file containing up to 50 grids as input, PLOT3D can calculate and graphically display any one of 74 functions, including shock waves, surface pressure, velocity vectors, and particle traces. PLOT3D's 74 functions are organized into

  1. Takes your breath away--the immunology of allergic alveolitis.

    PubMed

    McSharry, C; Anderson, K; Bourke, S J; Boyd, G

    2002-04-01

    Extrinsic allergic alveolitis (synonym: hypersensitivity pneumonitis) is caused by inhaling antigenic aerosols which induce hypersensitivity responses in susceptible individuals. It is an interstitial inflammatory disease affecting the distal, gas-exchanging parts of the lung, in contrast to allergic asthma where the inflammation is more proximal, affecting the conducting airways. The aims of this review are to describe current concepts of the immunology of this model of lung inflammation, to describe some of the constitutional and environmental characteristics which affect disease susceptibility and development, and to describe topics for prospective study.

  2. [Extrinsic allergic alveolitis: a review for the practitioner].

    PubMed

    Pralong, G; Leuenberger, P

    1998-08-22

    Extrinsic allergic alveolitis (EAA) or hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) is a clinical syndrome characterised by an inflammatory, partly granulomatous, immune disorder involving interstitial and alveolar spaces secondary to inhalation of organic substances. The disorder is mainly due to occupational exposure, farmer's lung being the best-known example. Acute, subacute or chronic forms can be clinically differentiated. Given the fact that chronic forms may present a pattern of irreversible pulmonary fibrosis, clinicians must be aware of the diagnosis of EAA in every situation where the history shows a potential antigenic exposure. Prevention should be reinforced by increasing individual protective measures and by improving techniques used at the workplace.

  3. Fever and neutrophilic alveolitis caused by a vanadium based catalyst

    PubMed Central

    Vandenplas, O; Binard-Van, C; Gregoire, J; Brumagne, A; Larbanois, A

    2002-01-01

    Methods: The investigation included inhalation challenge with the suspected compound combined with monitoring of lung function tests and post-challenge bronchoalveolar lavage. Results: Exposure to the vanadium containing catalyst for 120 minutes resulted in a sustained decline in forced vital capacity and forced expiratory volume in one second, while the transfer factor for carbon monoxide did not change significantly. The subject developed fever and peripheral blood neutrophilia. Bronchoalveolar lavage performed 48 hours after the end of challenge exposure showed a marked increase in neutrophils (60% of total cell count). Conclusions: Exposure to vanadium can cause a metal fume fever-like syndrome associated with neutrophilic alveolitis. PMID:12409538

  4. Takes your breath away – the immunology of allergic alveolitis

    PubMed Central

    MCSHARRY, C; ANDERSON, K; BOURKE, S J; BOYD, G

    2002-01-01

    Extrinsic allergic alveolitis (synonym: hypersensitivity pneumonitis) is caused by inhaling antigenic aerosols which induce hypersensitivity responses in susceptible individuals. It is an interstitial inflammatory disease affecting the distal, gas-exchanging parts of the lung, in contrast to allergic asthma where the inflammation is more proximal, affecting the conducting airways. The aims of this review are to describe current concepts of the immunology of this model of lung inflammation, to describe some of the constitutional and environmental characteristics which affect disease susceptibility and development, and to describe topics for prospective study. PMID:11982584

  5. Unassisted 3D camera calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atanassov, Kalin; Ramachandra, Vikas; Nash, James; Goma, Sergio R.

    2012-03-01

    With the rapid growth of 3D technology, 3D image capture has become a critical part of the 3D feature set on mobile phones. 3D image quality is affected by the scene geometry as well as on-the-device processing. An automatic 3D system usually assumes known camera poses accomplished by factory calibration using a special chart. In real life settings, pose parameters estimated by factory calibration can be negatively impacted by movements of the lens barrel due to shaking, focusing, or camera drop. If any of these factors displaces the optical axes of either or both cameras, vertical disparity might exceed the maximum tolerable margin and the 3D user may experience eye strain or headaches. To make 3D capture more practical, one needs to consider unassisted (on arbitrary scenes) calibration. In this paper, we propose an algorithm that relies on detection and matching of keypoints between left and right images. Frames containing erroneous matches, along with frames with insufficiently rich keypoint constellations, are detected and discarded. Roll, pitch yaw , and scale differences between left and right frames are then estimated. The algorithm performance is evaluated in terms of the remaining vertical disparity as compared to the maximum tolerable vertical disparity.

  6. Bioprinting of 3D hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Stanton, M M; Samitier, J; Sánchez, S

    2015-08-07

    Three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting has recently emerged as an extension of 3D material printing, by using biocompatible or cellular components to build structures in an additive, layer-by-layer methodology for encapsulation and culture of cells. These 3D systems allow for cell culture in a suspension for formation of highly organized tissue or controlled spatial orientation of cell environments. The in vitro 3D cellular environments simulate the complexity of an in vivo environment and natural extracellular matrices (ECM). This paper will focus on bioprinting utilizing hydrogels as 3D scaffolds. Hydrogels are advantageous for cell culture as they are highly permeable to cell culture media, nutrients, and waste products generated during metabolic cell processes. They have the ability to be fabricated in customized shapes with various material properties with dimensions at the micron scale. 3D hydrogels are a reliable method for biocompatible 3D printing and have applications in tissue engineering, drug screening, and organ on a chip models.

  7. 3D Scan Systems Integration

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    AGENCY USE ONLY (Leave Blank) 2. REPORT DATE 5 Feb 98 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 3D Scan Systems Integration REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED...2-89) Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39-1 298-102 [ EDO QUALITY W3PECTEDI DLA-ARN Final Report for US Defense Logistics Agency on DDFG-T2/P3: 3D...SCAN SYSTEMS INTEGRATION Contract Number SPO100-95-D-1014 Contractor Ohio University Delivery Order # 0001 Delivery Order Title 3D Scan Systems

  8. [New therapy schemes for acute, subacute and chronic variants of extrinsic allergic alveolitis].

    PubMed

    Makar'iants, N N; Shmelev, E I

    2012-01-01

    In order to improve treatment of patients with exogenous allergic alveolitis morphologically different variants of the disease, i.e. acute, subacute and chronic were identified and confirmed. For each variant of exogenous allergic alveolitis new therapy schemes were proposed. The study included 74 patients who were divided into 5 groups. In the first group with acute exogenous allergic alveolitis inhalation glycocorticosteroids in high doses in combination with plasmapheresis were prescribed, in the second group standard therapy with systemic glycocorticosteroids was prescribed. The third and the fourth group consisted of patients with subacute exogenous allergic alveolitis. The protracted ambroxol inhalation using nebulizers and the reduced dose of systemic glycocorticosteroids were used in the third group; and the standard dose of systemic glycocorticosteroids was used in the fourth. The fifth group consisted of patients with chronic exogenous allergic alveolitis, who received the standard dose of glycocorticosteroids and cytostatic drugs. After one month of therapy, it was ascertained that the use of high doses of inhalation glycocorticosteroids in combination with plasmapheresis in patients with acute exogenous allergic alveolitis led to significant improvements in clinical and CT presentation, physical activity tolerance, as well as the use of systemic glycocorticosteroids. The use of ambroxol inhalation in patients with subacute exogenous allergic alveolitis led to a significant improvement in clinical symptomatology, functional parameters and CT presentation, thus enabling to reduce the dose of glycocorticosteroids used and to avoid unwanted side effects.

  9. ASI/MET - 3-D

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1997-07-13

    The Atmospheric Structure Instrument/Meteorology Package ASI/MET is the mast and windsocks at the center of this stereo image from NASA Mars Pathfinder. 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail.

  10. 3D Models of Immunotherapy

    Cancer.gov

    This collaborative grant is developing 3D models of both mouse and human biology to investigate aspects of therapeutic vaccination in order to answer key questions relevant to human cancer immunotherapy.

  11. 3D polymer scaffold arrays.

    PubMed

    Simon, Carl G; Yang, Yanyin; Dorsey, Shauna M; Ramalingam, Murugan; Chatterjee, Kaushik

    2011-01-01

    We have developed a combinatorial platform for fabricating tissue scaffold arrays that can be used for screening cell-material interactions. Traditional research involves preparing samples one at a time for characterization and testing. Combinatorial and high-throughput (CHT) methods lower the cost of research by reducing the amount of time and material required for experiments by combining many samples into miniaturized specimens. In order to help accelerate biomaterials research, many new CHT methods have been developed for screening cell-material interactions where materials are presented to cells as a 2D film or surface. However, biomaterials are frequently used to fabricate 3D scaffolds, cells exist in vivo in a 3D environment and cells cultured in a 3D environment in vitro typically behave more physiologically than those cultured on a 2D surface. Thus, we have developed a platform for fabricating tissue scaffold libraries where biomaterials can be presented to cells in a 3D format.

  12. Accepting the T3D

    SciTech Connect

    Rich, D.O.; Pope, S.C.; DeLapp, J.G.

    1994-10-01

    In April, a 128 PE Cray T3D was installed at Los Alamos National Laboratory`s Advanced Computing Laboratory as part of the DOE`s High-Performance Parallel Processor Program (H4P). In conjunction with CRI, the authors implemented a 30 day acceptance test. The test was constructed in part to help them understand the strengths and weaknesses of the T3D. In this paper, they briefly describe the H4P and its goals. They discuss the design and implementation of the T3D acceptance test and detail issues that arose during the test. They conclude with a set of system requirements that must be addressed as the T3D system evolves.

  13. [Tridimensional (3D) endoscopic ultrasonography].

    PubMed

    Varas Lorenzo, M J; Muñoz Agel, F; Abad Belando, R

    2007-01-01

    A review and update on 3D endoscopic ultrasonography is included regarding all of this technique s aspects, technical details, and current indications. Images from our own clinical experience are presented.

  14. Heterodyne 3D ghost imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xu; Zhang, Yong; Yang, Chenghua; Xu, Lu; Wang, Qiang; Zhao, Yuan

    2016-06-01

    Conventional three dimensional (3D) ghost imaging measures range of target based on pulse fight time measurement method. Due to the limit of data acquisition system sampling rate, range resolution of the conventional 3D ghost imaging is usually low. In order to take off the effect of sampling rate to range resolution of 3D ghost imaging, a heterodyne 3D ghost imaging (HGI) system is presented in this study. The source of HGI is a continuous wave laser instead of pulse laser. Temporal correlation and spatial correlation of light are both utilized to obtain the range image of target. Through theory analysis and numerical simulations, it is demonstrated that HGI can obtain high range resolution image with low sampling rate.

  15. Histologically proven extrinsic allergic alveolitis with severe obstructive pulmonary emphysema

    PubMed

    Bickhardt; Kunze; Rolle; Matthiessen

    2000-03-27

    Anamnesis: 61-year old man with progressive shortness of breath on exercise. Cough and expectoration during the last 6 years. - Exposure: Driver of cereals, massive exposure to mouldy and pest contaminated grains. Gave up his profession in 1979 due to dyspnea with short (2-3 h) latency after exposure. Since 1980 intermittent exposure during occasional jobs; renewed symptomatology. Aspergillus fumigatus detected on agar plates inoculated with material from wet areas in bathroom and kitchen. - Clinical symptoms: Barely audible vesicular breathing, barrel-shaped thorax, inspiratory-intercostal retraction. - Bodyplethysmography: Obstructive pulmonary emphysema with FEV1 0.8 l, TLC 7.8 l, RV/TLC relation 67%. - Precipitin-detection: Significantly increased IgG against Fusarium. Other moulds including Aspergillus: negative; thermophilic actinomycetes: negative; pigeon and chicken: negative; Ouchterlony with native material from patients flat: negative. - CT including HR-CT: Bilateral-substantial emphysema, no bullae, no ground glass-opacity, no signs for interstitial lung diseases, no mediastinal enlargement of lymph nodes. - Alpha-1-Antitrypsin: 1.67 to 2.3 g/l (normal range), phenotype M1. - Histology: In resected material from right-side lung-volume-resection detection of pulmonary emphysema as well as lymphocyte infiltration and numerous epitheloid cell granulomas with Langhans'giant cells without caseation assessed as residues of an exogenous allergic alveolitis. - Conclusion: In a patient with lung volume reduction surgery due to severe emphysema histologically a persistent exogenous allergic alveolitis was detected, which might have caused the emphysema.

  16. Cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis and Epstein-Barr virus: an association?

    PubMed

    Vergnon, J M; Vincent, M; de Thé, G; Mornex, J F; Weynants, P; Brune, J

    1984-10-06

    13 patients with cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis (CFA) and 12 with interstitial lung disease (ILD) of known cause were studied for their humoral response to herpes simplex virus (HSV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). Serum antibodies to HSV and CMV were within the normal range in all patients. 10 patients with CFA had raised serum antibodies to EBV, and IgA against viral-capsid antigen (VCA) was detectable in all 13. In the other 12 patients EBV serological profiles were normal and IgA against VCA was detectable in only 1 patient. The EBV antibody levels did not correlate with the level of circulating immune complexes, the presence of rheumatoid factors, or the cytological findings of the alveolitis. The presence of IgG against VCA in 5 CFA patients suggests local production of EBV-specific immunoglobulins. Elevated IgG and IgA against EBV in CFA may indicate non-specific depression of cell-mediated immunity or that EBV plays a part in the aetiology of CFA.

  17. [Comparative study of different diagnostic methods in pulmonary alveolitis].

    PubMed

    Makhmudova, S Iu

    2009-05-01

    To evaluate and analyze, clinical and roentgenological manifestations of extrinsic allergic alveolitis (EAA) and idiopathic fibrosing alveolitis (IFA) 89 patients underwent bronchoscopy survey and functional test of lungs. Average age of patients was 38,3+/-5,8. Among examined 89 patients 31 (34,8%) patients were poultry farmers, 30 (33,7%) - millers, and 28 (31,5%) - tobacco-growers. EAA was found among 22 poultry farmers, 19 tobacco-growers, and 19 millers. IFA was found among 11 millers, 9 tobacco-growers and 9 poultry farmers. Acute respiratory disease (ARD) was found among 58 patients; 38 patients suffer from lung diseases. Control group consisted of 20 healthy people. Along with general blood analysis, all patients underwent - roentgenological analysis of thorax in two shifts. Recent studies show that CT lung screening is more sensitive than standard lung screening methods in detecting lung disease. Comparative analysis allowed concluding that Real-Time CT method is the most effective. CT lung screening is more sensitive than standard lung screening methods in detecting lung diseases.

  18. [Drug-induced alveolitis associated with infliximab/azathioprine therapy].

    PubMed

    El-Hag, K; Dercken, H-G; Prenzel, R; Hölzle, E

    2008-04-01

    TNF-alpha is known to play a decisive role as a pro-inflammatory cytokine in several autoimmune conditions. Its neutralisation by TNF-alpha antagonists such as infliximab (Remicade), a chimeric monoclonal anti-TNF-alpha antibody, may be beneficial in patients with active disease. These anticytokine drugs have been approved and are being increasingly used in the therapy of rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, inflammatory bowel disease, psoriatic arthropathy and generalised psoriasis after established treatments have failed. Whenever therapy options are few, TNF-alpha antagonists are regarded as an effective, relatively safe and generally well-tolerated alternative, even if there is no detailed knowledge of their safety profile and possible long-term adverse events. In the respiratory tract an increased risk of viral, (myco-)bacterial, fungal and opportunistic infections has been observed. Furthermore, rare cases of severe fibrosing alveolitis in patients with concomitant immunosuppressant therapy or underlying lung disease have been reviewed recently. We present a case of drug-induced alveolitis following infliximab and azathioprine for the treatment of severe, generalised psoriasis and atopic eczema without pre-existing lung disease. Withdrawal of both drugs achieved clinical and functional stabilisation, and the addition of prednisolone resulted in a rapid improvement. As the pathophysiology of the pulmonary insult is unknown and since there are potentially serious adverse effects, we advise caution and close screening before and after initiation of TNF-alpha blockade, especially in patients with an underlying lung disease or with a combination of pneumotoxic agents.

  19. The diagnostic importance of the bronchoalveolar lavage in lymphocytic alveolitis.

    PubMed

    Mlika, Mona; Kria, Nourane; Braham, Emna; Chebbi, Chokri; El Mezni, Faouzi

    2017-01-01

    Multidisciplinary concertation is mandatory in order to assess interstitial pneumonias. The study of the bronchoalveolar lavage helps evoking a diagnosis according to the lavage profile. In lymphocytic alveolitis, immunocytochemistry, or in flux cytometry are necessary in order to identify the different clusters of lymphocytes implicated. Our objective was to evaluate the profile of 31 lymphocytic alveolitis using 2 different techniques which are the immunocytochemistry and the in flow cytometry in order to evaluate the efficacy of each technique and to compare the different results to the final diagnoses. We describe a retrospective study about 31 patients admitted to our hospital in order to explore an interstitial pneumonia between January and July 2014. Bronchial endoscopy and bronchoalveolar lavage were performed in all cases. The sensitivity of the in flow cytometry was estimated to 53% and its specificity reached 33%. On the other hand, the immunocytochemistry presented a specificity of 42.8% and a sensitivity of 42.8%. The final diagnoses retained consisted in sarcoidosis in 12 cases, infectious pneumonia in 10 cases, hypersensitivity pneumonia in 3 cases, cryptogenic pneumonia in 3 cases, idiopathic fibrosis in 2 cases, and adenocarcinoma in 1 case. The relevance of both techniques depends on many factors. They necessitate an available material, well-trained technicians, and experimented pathologists.

  20. Combinatorial 3D Mechanical Metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coulais, Corentin; Teomy, Eial; de Reus, Koen; Shokef, Yair; van Hecke, Martin

    2015-03-01

    We present a class of elastic structures which exhibit 3D-folding motion. Our structures consist of cubic lattices of anisotropic unit cells that can be tiled in a complex combinatorial fashion. We design and 3d-print this complex ordered mechanism, in which we combine elastic hinges and defects to tailor the mechanics of the material. Finally, we use this large design space to encode smart functionalities such as surface patterning and multistability.

  1. 3-D Experimental Fracture Analysis at High Temperature

    SciTech Connect

    John H. Jackson; Albert S. Kobayashi

    2001-09-14

    T*e, which is an elastic-plastic fracture parameter based on incremental theory of plasticity, was determined numerically and experimentally. The T*e integral of a tunneling crack in 2024-T3 aluminum, three point bend specimen was obtained through a hybrid analysis of moire interferometry and 3-D elastic-plastic finite element analysis. The results were verified by the good agreement between the experimentally and numerically determined T*e on the specimen surface.

  2. LASTRAC.3d: Transition Prediction in 3D Boundary Layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, Chau-Lyan

    2004-01-01

    Langley Stability and Transition Analysis Code (LASTRAC) is a general-purpose, physics-based transition prediction code released by NASA for laminar flow control studies and transition research. This paper describes the LASTRAC extension to general three-dimensional (3D) boundary layers such as finite swept wings, cones, or bodies at an angle of attack. The stability problem is formulated by using a body-fitted nonorthogonal curvilinear coordinate system constructed on the body surface. The nonorthogonal coordinate system offers a variety of marching paths and spanwise waveforms. In the extreme case of an infinite swept wing boundary layer, marching with a nonorthogonal coordinate produces identical solutions to those obtained with an orthogonal coordinate system using the earlier release of LASTRAC. Several methods to formulate the 3D parabolized stability equations (PSE) are discussed. A surface-marching procedure akin to that for 3D boundary layer equations may be used to solve the 3D parabolized disturbance equations. On the other hand, the local line-marching PSE method, formulated as an easy extension from its 2D counterpart and capable of handling the spanwise mean flow and disturbance variation, offers an alternative. A linear stability theory or parabolized stability equations based N-factor analysis carried out along the streamline direction with a fixed wavelength and downstream-varying spanwise direction constitutes an efficient engineering approach to study instability wave evolution in a 3D boundary layer. The surface-marching PSE method enables a consistent treatment of the disturbance evolution along both streamwise and spanwise directions but requires more stringent initial conditions. Both PSE methods and the traditional LST approach are implemented in the LASTRAC.3d code. Several test cases for tapered or finite swept wings and cones at an angle of attack are discussed.

  3. 3-D threat image projection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yildiz, Yesna O.; Abraham, Douglas Q.; Agaian, Sos; Panetta, Karen

    2008-02-01

    Automated Explosive Detection Systems utilizing Computed Tomography perform a series X-ray scans of passenger bags being checked in at the airport, and produce various 2-D projection images and 3-D volumetric images of the bag. The determination as to whether the passenger bag contains an explosive and needs to be searched manually is performed through trained Transportation Security Administration screeners following an approved protocol. In order to keep the screeners vigilant with regards to screening quality, the Transportation Security Administration has mandated the use of Threat Image Projection on 2-D projection X-ray screening equipment used at all US airports. These algorithms insert visual artificial threats into images of the normal passenger bags in order to test the screeners with regards to their screening efficiency and their screening quality at determining threats. This technology for 2-D X-ray system is proven and is widespread amongst multiple manufacturers of X-ray projection systems. Until now, Threat Image Projection has been unsuccessful at being introduced into 3-D Automated Explosive Detection Systems for numerous reasons. The failure of these prior attempts are mainly due to imaging queues that the screeners pickup on, and therefore make it easy for the screeners to discern the presence of the threat image and thus defeating the intended purpose. This paper presents a novel approach for 3-D Threat Image Projection for 3-D Automated Explosive Detection Systems. The method presented here is a projection based approach where both the threat object and the bag remain in projection sinogram space. Novel approaches have been developed for projection based object segmentation, projection based streak reduction used for threat object isolation along with scan orientation independence and projection based streak generation for an overall realistic 3-D image. The algorithms are prototyped in MatLab and C++ and demonstrate non discernible 3-D threat

  4. From 3D view to 3D print

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dima, M.; Farisato, G.; Bergomi, M.; Viotto, V.; Magrin, D.; Greggio, D.; Farinato, J.; Marafatto, L.; Ragazzoni, R.; Piazza, D.

    2014-08-01

    In the last few years 3D printing is getting more and more popular and used in many fields going from manufacturing to industrial design, architecture, medical support and aerospace. 3D printing is an evolution of bi-dimensional printing, which allows to obtain a solid object from a 3D model, realized with a 3D modelling software. The final product is obtained using an additive process, in which successive layers of material are laid down one over the other. A 3D printer allows to realize, in a simple way, very complex shapes, which would be quite difficult to be produced with dedicated conventional facilities. Thanks to the fact that the 3D printing is obtained superposing one layer to the others, it doesn't need any particular work flow and it is sufficient to simply draw the model and send it to print. Many different kinds of 3D printers exist based on the technology and material used for layer deposition. A common material used by the toner is ABS plastics, which is a light and rigid thermoplastic polymer, whose peculiar mechanical properties make it diffusely used in several fields, like pipes production and cars interiors manufacturing. I used this technology to create a 1:1 scale model of the telescope which is the hardware core of the space small mission CHEOPS (CHaracterising ExOPlanets Satellite) by ESA, which aims to characterize EXOplanets via transits observations. The telescope has a Ritchey-Chrétien configuration with a 30cm aperture and the launch is foreseen in 2017. In this paper, I present the different phases for the realization of such a model, focusing onto pros and cons of this kind of technology. For example, because of the finite printable volume (10×10×12 inches in the x, y and z directions respectively), it has been necessary to split the largest parts of the instrument in smaller components to be then reassembled and post-processed. A further issue is the resolution of the printed material, which is expressed in terms of layers

  5. YouDash3D: exploring stereoscopic 3D gaming for 3D movie theaters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schild, Jonas; Seele, Sven; Masuch, Maic

    2012-03-01

    Along with the success of the digitally revived stereoscopic cinema, events beyond 3D movies become attractive for movie theater operators, i.e. interactive 3D games. In this paper, we present a case that explores possible challenges and solutions for interactive 3D games to be played by a movie theater audience. We analyze the setting and showcase current issues related to lighting and interaction. Our second focus is to provide gameplay mechanics that make special use of stereoscopy, especially depth-based game design. Based on these results, we present YouDash3D, a game prototype that explores public stereoscopic gameplay in a reduced kiosk setup. It features live 3D HD video stream of a professional stereo camera rig rendered in a real-time game scene. We use the effect to place the stereoscopic effigies of players into the digital game. The game showcases how stereoscopic vision can provide for a novel depth-based game mechanic. Projected trigger zones and distributed clusters of the audience video allow for easy adaptation to larger audiences and 3D movie theater gaming.

  6. Reversal bending fatigue testing

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Jy-An John; Wang, Hong; Tan, Ting

    2014-10-21

    Embodiments for apparatuses for testing reversal bending fatigue in an elongated beam are disclosed. Embodiments are configured to be coupled to first and second end portions of the beam and to apply a bending moment to the beam and create a pure bending condition in an intermediate portion of the beam. Embodiments are further configured to cyclically alternate the direction of the bending moment applied to the beam such that the intermediate portion of the beam cyclically bends in opposite directions in a pure bending condition.

  7. Speaking Volumes About 3-D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    In 1999, Genex submitted a proposal to Stennis Space Center for a volumetric 3-D display technique that would provide multiple users with a 360-degree perspective to simultaneously view and analyze 3-D data. The futuristic capabilities of the VolumeViewer(R) have offered tremendous benefits to commercial users in the fields of medicine and surgery, air traffic control, pilot training and education, computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing, and military/battlefield management. The technology has also helped NASA to better analyze and assess the various data collected by its satellite and spacecraft sensors. Genex capitalized on its success with Stennis by introducing two separate products to the commercial market that incorporate key elements of the 3-D display technology designed under an SBIR contract. The company Rainbow 3D(R) imaging camera is a novel, three-dimensional surface profile measurement system that can obtain a full-frame 3-D image in less than 1 second. The third product is the 360-degree OmniEye(R) video system. Ideal for intrusion detection, surveillance, and situation management, this unique camera system offers a continuous, panoramic view of a scene in real time.

  8. Bending artificial muscle from nylon filaments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirvakili, Seyed M.; Hunter, Ian W.

    2016-04-01

    Highly oriented nylon and polyethylene fibers shrink in length and expand in diameter when heated. Using this property, in this work, for the first time we are introducing a type of bending artificial muscle from nylon filaments such as fishing line. Reversible radius of curvature of 0.23 mm-1 was achieved with maximum reversible bending amplitude of 115 mm for the nylon bending actuator. Peak force of up to 2040 mN was measured with a catch-state force of up to 40% of the active force. A 3 dB roll-off frequency of around 0.7 Hz was observed in the frequency response of the bending actuator in water.

  9. 3D Printed Bionic Nanodevices.

    PubMed

    Kong, Yong Lin; Gupta, Maneesh K; Johnson, Blake N; McAlpine, Michael C

    2016-06-01

    The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological and functional materials could enable the creation of bionic devices possessing unique and compelling geometries, properties, and functionalities. Indeed, interfacing high performance active devices with biology could impact a variety of fields, including regenerative bioelectronic medicines, smart prosthetics, medical robotics, and human-machine interfaces. Biology, from the molecular scale of DNA and proteins, to the macroscopic scale of tissues and organs, is three-dimensional, often soft and stretchable, and temperature sensitive. This renders most biological platforms incompatible with the fabrication and materials processing methods that have been developed and optimized for functional electronics, which are typically planar, rigid and brittle. A number of strategies have been developed to overcome these dichotomies. One particularly novel approach is the use of extrusion-based multi-material 3D printing, which is an additive manufacturing technology that offers a freeform fabrication strategy. This approach addresses the dichotomies presented above by (1) using 3D printing and imaging for customized, hierarchical, and interwoven device architectures; (2) employing nanotechnology as an enabling route for introducing high performance materials, with the potential for exhibiting properties not found in the bulk; and (3) 3D printing a range of soft and nanoscale materials to enable the integration of a diverse palette of high quality functional nanomaterials with biology. Further, 3D printing is a multi-scale platform, allowing for the incorporation of functional nanoscale inks, the printing of microscale features, and ultimately the creation of macroscale devices. This blending of 3D printing, novel nanomaterial properties, and 'living' platforms may enable next-generation bionic systems. In this review, we highlight this synergistic integration of the unique properties of nanomaterials with the

  10. 3D Printed Bionic Nanodevices

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Yong Lin; Gupta, Maneesh K.; Johnson, Blake N.; McAlpine, Michael C.

    2016-01-01

    Summary The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological and functional materials could enable the creation of bionic devices possessing unique and compelling geometries, properties, and functionalities. Indeed, interfacing high performance active devices with biology could impact a variety of fields, including regenerative bioelectronic medicines, smart prosthetics, medical robotics, and human-machine interfaces. Biology, from the molecular scale of DNA and proteins, to the macroscopic scale of tissues and organs, is three-dimensional, often soft and stretchable, and temperature sensitive. This renders most biological platforms incompatible with the fabrication and materials processing methods that have been developed and optimized for functional electronics, which are typically planar, rigid and brittle. A number of strategies have been developed to overcome these dichotomies. One particularly novel approach is the use of extrusion-based multi-material 3D printing, which is an additive manufacturing technology that offers a freeform fabrication strategy. This approach addresses the dichotomies presented above by (1) using 3D printing and imaging for customized, hierarchical, and interwoven device architectures; (2) employing nanotechnology as an enabling route for introducing high performance materials, with the potential for exhibiting properties not found in the bulk; and (3) 3D printing a range of soft and nanoscale materials to enable the integration of a diverse palette of high quality functional nanomaterials with biology. Further, 3D printing is a multi-scale platform, allowing for the incorporation of functional nanoscale inks, the printing of microscale features, and ultimately the creation of macroscale devices. This blending of 3D printing, novel nanomaterial properties, and ‘living’ platforms may enable next-generation bionic systems. In this review, we highlight this synergistic integration of the unique properties of nanomaterials with

  11. Macrophage podosomes go 3D.

    PubMed

    Van Goethem, Emeline; Guiet, Romain; Balor, Stéphanie; Charrière, Guillaume M; Poincloux, Renaud; Labrousse, Arnaud; Maridonneau-Parini, Isabelle; Le Cabec, Véronique

    2011-01-01

    Macrophage tissue infiltration is a critical step in the immune response against microorganisms and is also associated with disease progression in chronic inflammation and cancer. Macrophages are constitutively equipped with specialized structures called podosomes dedicated to extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation. We recently reported that these structures play a critical role in trans-matrix mesenchymal migration mode, a protease-dependent mechanism. Podosome molecular components and their ECM-degrading activity have been extensively studied in two dimensions (2D), but yet very little is known about their fate in three-dimensional (3D) environments. Therefore, localization of podosome markers and proteolytic activity were carefully examined in human macrophages performing mesenchymal migration. Using our gelled collagen I 3D matrix model to obligate human macrophages to perform mesenchymal migration, classical podosome markers including talin, paxillin, vinculin, gelsolin, cortactin were found to accumulate at the tip of F-actin-rich cell protrusions together with β1 integrin and CD44 but not β2 integrin. Macrophage proteolytic activity was observed at podosome-like protrusion sites using confocal fluorescence microscopy and electron microscopy. The formation of migration tunnels by macrophages inside the matrix was accomplished by degradation, engulfment and mechanic compaction of the matrix. In addition, videomicroscopy revealed that 3D F-actin-rich protrusions of migrating macrophages were as dynamic as their 2D counterparts. Overall, the specifications of 3D podosomes resembled those of 2D podosome rosettes rather than those of individual podosomes. This observation was further supported by the aspect of 3D podosomes in fibroblasts expressing Hck, a master regulator of podosome rosettes in macrophages. In conclusion, human macrophage podosomes go 3D and take the shape of spherical podosome rosettes when the cells perform mesenchymal migration. This work

  12. 3D Computations and Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Couch, R; Faux, D; Goto, D; Nikkel, D

    2004-04-05

    This project consists of two activities. Task A, Simulations and Measurements, combines all the material model development and associated numerical work with the materials-oriented experimental activities. The goal of this effort is to provide an improved understanding of dynamic material properties and to provide accurate numerical representations of those properties for use in analysis codes. Task B, ALE3D Development, involves general development activities in the ALE3D code with the focus of improving simulation capabilities for problems of mutual interest to DoD and DOE. Emphasis is on problems involving multi-phase flow, blast loading of structures and system safety/vulnerability studies.

  13. Petal, terrain & airbags - 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Portions of the lander's deflated airbags and a petal are at the lower area of this image, taken in stereo by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. The metallic object at lower right is part of the lander's low-gain antenna. This image is part of a 3D 'monster

    Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  14. Petal, terrain & airbags - 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Portions of the lander's deflated airbags and a petal are at the lower area of this image, taken in stereo by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. The metallic object at lower right is part of the lander's low-gain antenna. This image is part of a 3D 'monster

    Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  15. [TNF blockade in rheumatoid arthritis can cause severe fibrosing alveolitis. Six case reports].

    PubMed

    Tengstrand, Birgitta; Ernestam, Sofia; Engvall, Inga-Lill; Rydvald, Ylva; Hafström, Ingiäld

    TNF-blockade has been increasingly used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, the safety is unclear and an increased risk of both tuberculosis and other infections has been identified. Recently severe fibrosing alveolitis has also been reported in RA-patients treated with TNF-blockade. We report a further six RA patients, who during treatment with infliximab or etanercept developed fulminant lung fibrosis with alveolitis. For four of the patients, the fibrosing alveolitis was fatal. All patients were RF positive and above 60 years and five had mild fibrosis associated with RA before TNF-blockade treatment. Duration of TNF-blockade treatment was for three patients only two months and for the other three, 20-51 months. Age above 60 years and previous lung fibrosis appear to be risk factors for developing fibrosing alveolitis in RA patients treated with TNF-blockade.

  16. Finite element 3D reconstruction of the pulmonary acinus imaged by synchrotron X-ray tomography

    PubMed Central

    Tsuda, A.; Filipovic, N.; Haberthür, D.; Dickie, R.; Matsui, Y.; Stampanoni, M.; Schittny, J. C.

    2008-01-01

    The alveolated structure of the pulmonary acinus plays a vital role in gas exchange function. Three-dimensional (3D) analysis of the parenchymal region is fundamental to understanding this structure-function relationship, but only a limited number of attempts have been conducted in the past because of technical limitations. In this study, we developed a new image processing methodology based on finite element (FE) analysis for accurate 3D structural reconstruction of the gas exchange regions of the lung. Stereologically well characterized rat lung samples (Pediatr Res 53: 72–80, 2003) were imaged using high-resolution synchrotron radiation-based X-ray tomographic microscopy. A stack of 1,024 images (each slice: 1024 × 1024 pixels) with resolution of 1.4 μm3 per voxel were generated. For the development of FE algorithm, regions of interest (ROI), containing ∼7.5 million voxels, were further extracted as a working subunit. 3D FEs were created overlaying the voxel map using a grid-based hexahedral algorithm. A proper threshold value for appropriate segmentation was iteratively determined to match the calculated volume density of tissue to the stereologically determined value (Pediatr Res 53: 72–80, 2003). The resulting 3D FEs are ready to be used for 3D structural analysis as well as for subsequent FE computational analyses like fluid dynamics and skeletonization. PMID:18583378

  17. Treatment of allergic alveolitis with methylprednisolone pulse therapy.

    PubMed

    Chen, Christiane; Kleinau, Irene; Niggemann, Bodo; Weinhold, Nathalie; Wahn, Ulrich; Paul, Karl

    2003-02-01

    We report on a 13-year-old-boy who had been admitted to our hospital for dyspnea, hypoxia, and pulmonary infiltrates. The diagnosis of allergic alveolitis was based on history (provocation by exposure), lung function tests, bronchoalveolar lavage, and transbronchial lung biopsy. No specific allergen could be identified. Five courses of methylprednisolone pulse therapy (15 mg/kg on three consecutive days) stabilized the patient with normalization of lung function and blood gas analysis. Between pulses the boy returned to his home on a farm without relapse. It is estimated that the effect of a single pulse lasted for at least 2-4 weeks. We conclude that pulse therapy can be used instead of continuous therapy in this rare disease in childhood.

  18. Toxic alveolitis after inhalation of a water repellent.

    PubMed

    Epping, Guido; Van Baarlen, Joop; Van Der Valk, Paul D L P M

    2011-12-01

    Inhalation of fluorocarbon polymers can cause pulmonary toxicity. Although multiple cases of lung injury have been reported, cellular characterization of the associated alveolitis occurring acutely after inhalation is limited. We report the case of a previously healthy woman who presented at our Emergency Department with an acute pneumonitis following inhalation of a fluorocarbon polymer-based rain-proofing spray. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) performed shortly after the presentation showed an elevated total cell count, with a high proportion of neutrophils (58%) and eosinophils (9%). In addition, a lipid stain (Oil-Red-O-stain) showed a high level of lipid laden macrophages, a marker that could reflect a direct toxic effect of the spray on alveolar cells. The patient made a full recovery after four days of in-hospital observation with supportive care.

  19. 3D Printing: Exploring Capabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuels, Kyle; Flowers, Jim

    2015-01-01

    As 3D printers become more affordable, schools are using them in increasing numbers. They fit well with the emphasis on product design in technology and engineering education, allowing students to create high-fidelity physical models to see and test different iterations in their product designs. They may also help students to "think in three…

  20. Baghdad Sulcus in 3-D

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-02-23

    This anaglyph from images captured by NASA Cassini spacecraft shows a dramatic, 3-D view of one of the deep fractures nicknamed tiger stripes on Saturn moon Enceladus which are located near the moon south pole, spray jets of water ice.

  1. 3D Printing: Exploring Capabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuels, Kyle; Flowers, Jim

    2015-01-01

    As 3D printers become more affordable, schools are using them in increasing numbers. They fit well with the emphasis on product design in technology and engineering education, allowing students to create high-fidelity physical models to see and test different iterations in their product designs. They may also help students to "think in three…

  2. Making Inexpensive 3-D Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manos, Harry

    2016-01-01

    Visual aids are important to student learning, and they help make the teacher's job easier. Keeping with the "TPT" theme of "The Art, Craft, and Science of Physics Teaching," the purpose of this article is to show how teachers, lacking equipment and funds, can construct a durable 3-D model reference frame and a model gravity…

  3. Ganges Chasma in 3-D

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-06-25

    Ganges Chasma is part of the Valles Marineris trough system that stretches nearly 5,000 kilometers 3,000 miles across the western equatorial region of Mars. This stereo anaglyph is from NASA Mars Global Surveyor. 3D glasses are necessary.

  4. Opportunity Stretches Out 3-D

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-02-02

    This is a three-dimensional stereo anaglyph of an image taken by the front hazard-identification camera onboard NASA Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity, showing the rover arm in its extended position. 3D glasses are necessary to view this image.

  5. Making Inexpensive 3-D Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manos, Harry

    2016-01-01

    Visual aids are important to student learning, and they help make the teacher's job easier. Keeping with the "TPT" theme of "The Art, Craft, and Science of Physics Teaching," the purpose of this article is to show how teachers, lacking equipment and funds, can construct a durable 3-D model reference frame and a model gravity…

  6. The World of 3-D.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayshark, Robin K.

    1991-01-01

    Students explore three-dimensional properties by creating red and green wall decorations related to Christmas. Students examine why images seem to vibrate when red and green pieces are small and close together. Instructions to conduct the activity and construct 3-D glasses are given. (MDH)

  7. Rosetta Comet in 3-D

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-11-21

    A 3D image shows what it would look like to fly over the surface of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. The image was generated by data collected by ESA Philae spacecraft during the decent to the spacecraft initial touchdown on the comet Nov. 12, 2014.

  8. SNL3dFace

    SciTech Connect

    Russ, Trina; Koch, Mark; Koudelka, Melissa; Peters, Ralph; Little, Charles; Boehnen, Chris; Peters, Tanya

    2007-07-20

    This software distribution contains MATLAB and C++ code to enable identity verification using 3D images that may or may not contain a texture component. The code is organized to support system performance testing and system capability demonstration through the proper configuration of the available user interface. Using specific algorithm parameters the face recognition system has been demonstrated to achieve a 96.6% verification rate (Pd) at 0.001 false alarm rate. The system computes robust facial features of a 3D normalized face using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Fisher Linear Discriminant Analysis (FLDA). A 3D normalized face is obtained by alighning each face, represented by a set of XYZ coordinated, to a scaled reference face using the Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm. The scaled reference face is then deformed to the input face using an iterative framework with parameters that control the deformed surface regulation an rate of deformation. A variety of options are available to control the information that is encoded by the PCA. Such options include the XYZ coordinates, the difference of each XYZ coordinates from the reference, the Z coordinate, the intensity/texture values, etc. In addition to PCA/FLDA feature projection this software supports feature matching to obtain similarity matrices for performance analysis. In addition, this software supports visualization of the STL, MRD, 2D normalized, and PCA synthetic representations in a 3D environment.

  9. Cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis and lung cancer: the BTS study.

    PubMed

    Harris, J M; Johnston, I D A; Rudd, R; Taylor, A J Newman; Cullinan, P

    2010-01-01

    The risk of lung cancer is often reported to be increased for patients with cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis (CFA). Vital status was sought for all 588 members of the British Thoracic Society (BTS) cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis (CFA) study 11 years after entry to the cohort. Observed deaths due to lung cancer were compared with expected deaths using age-, sex- and period-adjusted national rates. The roles of reported asbestos exposure and smoking were also investigated. 488 cohort members (83%) had died; 46 (9%) were certified to lung cancer (ICD9 162). The standardised mortality ratio (SMR) was 7.4 (95% CI 5.4 to 9.9). Stratified analysis showed increased lung cancer mortality among younger subjects, men and ever smokers. Using an independent expert panel, 25 cohort members (4%) were considered to have at least moderate exposure to asbestos; the risk of lung cancer was increased for these subjects (SMR 13.1 (95% CI 3.6 to 33.6)) vs 7.2 (95% CI 5.2 to 9.7) for those with less or no asbestos exposure). Ever smoking was reported by 448 (73%) of the cohort and was considerably higher in men than in women (92% vs 49%; p<0.001). Most persons who died from lung cancer were male (87%), and all but two (96%) had ever smoked. Ever smokers presented at a younger age (mean 67 vs 70 years; p<0.001) and with less breathlessness (12% smokers reported no breathlessness vs 5% never smokers; p = 0.02). These findings confirm an association between CFA and lung cancer although this relationship may not be causal. The high rate of smoking and evidence that smokers present for medical attention earlier than non-smokers suggest that smoking could be confounding this association.

  10. TACO3D. 3-D Finite Element Heat Transfer Code

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, W.E.

    1992-03-04

    TACO3D is a three-dimensional, finite-element program for heat transfer analysis. An extension of the two-dimensional TACO program, it can perform linear and nonlinear analyses and can be used to solve either transient or steady-state problems. The program accepts time-dependent or temperature-dependent material properties, and materials may be isotropic or orthotropic. A variety of time-dependent and temperature-dependent boundary conditions and loadings are available including temperature, flux, convection, and radiation boundary conditions and internal heat generation. Additional specialized features treat enclosure radiation, bulk nodes, and master/slave internal surface conditions (e.g., contact resistance). Data input via a free-field format is provided. A user subprogram feature allows for any type of functional representation of any independent variable. A profile (bandwidth) minimization option is available. The code is limited to implicit time integration for transient solutions. TACO3D has no general mesh generation capability. Rows of evenly-spaced nodes and rows of sequential elements may be generated, but the program relies on separate mesh generators for complex zoning. TACO3D does not have the ability to calculate view factors internally. Graphical representation of data in the form of time history and spatial plots is provided through links to the POSTACO and GRAPE postprocessor codes.

  11. Forensic 3D scene reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Little, Charles Q.; Small, Daniel E.; Peters, Ralph R.; Rigdon, J. B.

    2000-05-01

    Traditionally law enforcement agencies have relied on basic measurement and imaging tools, such as tape measures and cameras, in recording a crime scene. A disadvantage of these methods is that they are slow and cumbersome. The development of a portable system that can rapidly record a crime scene with current camera imaging, 3D geometric surface maps, and contribute quantitative measurements such as accurate relative positioning of crime scene objects, would be an asset to law enforcement agents in collecting and recording significant forensic data. The purpose of this project is to develop a fieldable prototype of a fast, accurate, 3D measurement and imaging system that would support law enforcement agents to quickly document and accurately record a crime scene.

  12. 3D Printed Robotic Hand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pizarro, Yaritzmar Rosario; Schuler, Jason M.; Lippitt, Thomas C.

    2013-01-01

    Dexterous robotic hands are changing the way robots and humans interact and use common tools. Unfortunately, the complexity of the joints and actuations drive up the manufacturing cost. Some cutting edge and commercially available rapid prototyping machines now have the ability to print multiple materials and even combine these materials in the same job. A 3D model of a robotic hand was designed using Creo Parametric 2.0. Combining "hard" and "soft" materials, the model was printed on the Object Connex350 3D printer with the purpose of resembling as much as possible the human appearance and mobility of a real hand while needing no assembly. After printing the prototype, strings where installed as actuators to test mobility. Based on printing materials, the manufacturing cost of the hand was $167, significantly lower than other robotic hands without the actuators since they have more complex assembly processes.

  13. Forensic 3D Scene Reconstruction

    SciTech Connect

    LITTLE,CHARLES Q.; PETERS,RALPH R.; RIGDON,J. BRIAN; SMALL,DANIEL E.

    1999-10-12

    Traditionally law enforcement agencies have relied on basic measurement and imaging tools, such as tape measures and cameras, in recording a crime scene. A disadvantage of these methods is that they are slow and cumbersome. The development of a portable system that can rapidly record a crime scene with current camera imaging, 3D geometric surface maps, and contribute quantitative measurements such as accurate relative positioning of crime scene objects, would be an asset to law enforcement agents in collecting and recording significant forensic data. The purpose of this project is to develop a feasible prototype of a fast, accurate, 3D measurement and imaging system that would support law enforcement agents to quickly document and accurately record a crime scene.

  14. 3-D sprag ratcheting tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wade, Michael O. (Inventor); Poland, Jr., James W. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A ratcheting device comprising a driver head assembly which includes at least two 3-D sprag elements positioned within a first groove within the driver head assembly such that at least one of the 3-D sprag elements may lockingly engage the driver head assembly and a mating hub assembly to allow for rotation of the hub assembly in one direction with respect to the driver head assembly. This arrangement allows the ratcheting tool to impart torque in either the clockwise or counterclockwise direction without having to first rotate the ratcheting tool in the direction opposite the direction in which the torque is applied. This arrangement also allows the ratcheting tool to impart torque in either the clockwise or counterclockwise direction while in the neutral position.

  15. Comparing swimsuits in 3D.

    PubMed

    van Geer, Erik; Molenbroek, Johan; Schreven, Sander; deVoogd-Claessen, Lenneke; Toussaint, Huib

    2012-01-01

    In competitive swimming, suits have become more important. These suits influence friction, pressure and wave drag. Friction drag is related to the surface properties whereas both pressure and wave drag are greatly influenced by body shape. To find a relationship between the body shape and the drag, the anthropometry of several world class female swimmers wearing different suits was accurately defined using a 3D scanner and traditional measuring methods. The 3D scans delivered more detailed information about the body shape. On the same day the swimmers did performance tests in the water with the tested suits. Afterwards the result of the performance tests and the differences found in body shape was analyzed to determine the deformation caused by a swimsuit and its effect on the swimming performance. Although the amount of data is limited because of the few test subjects, there is an indication that the deformation of the body influences the swimming performance.

  16. 3D-graphite structure

    SciTech Connect

    Belenkov, E. A. Ali-Pasha, V. A.

    2011-01-15

    The structure of clusters of some new carbon 3D-graphite phases have been calculated using the molecular-mechanics methods. It is established that 3D-graphite polytypes {alpha}{sub 1,1}, {alpha}{sub 1,3}, {alpha}{sub 1,5}, {alpha}{sub 2,1}, {alpha}{sub 2,3}, {alpha}{sub 3,1}, {beta}{sub 1,2}, {beta}{sub 1,4}, {beta}{sub 1,6}, {beta}{sub 2,1}, and {beta}{sub 3,2} consist of sp{sup 2}-hybridized atoms, have hexagonal unit cells, and differ in regards to the structure of layers and order of their alternation. A possible way to experimentally synthesize new carbon phases is proposed: the polymerization and carbonization of hydrocarbon molecules.

  17. Circulating antibodies to lung protein(s) in patients with cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis.

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, W. A.; Roberts, S. N.; Caldwell, H.; Thornton, E.; Greening, A. P.; Lamb, D.; Howie, S. E.

    1994-01-01

    BACKGROUND--It has been hypothesised that cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis has an immunological pathogenesis mediated by T lymphocytes. It is, however, recognised that patients may show dysregulation of the humoral immune system and that the presence of large numbers of B lymphocytes in open lung biopsies may be associated with a poor prognosis. Evidence of a role for the humoral immune system in the pathogenesis of cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis has been suggested, but attempts to demonstrate circulating immunoglobulin to antigen within the lung have been inconclusive. METHODS--Plasma samples from 22 patients with cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis, 22 patients with sarcoidosis, and 17 healthy controls were screened by SDS-PAGE and Western blotting for the presence of autoantibodies to lung proteins derived from cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis, sarcoid and control lung tissue, as well as four normal non-pulmonary tissues. Possible site(s) of target protein(s) within the lung tissue were identified by immunohistochemical examination using IgG purified from the plasma of six patients and two controls. RESULTS--Eighteen of the plasma samples from patients with cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis had reactive IgG to lung protein(s) in the 70-90 kDa molecular weight range compared with five of 18 plasma samples from patients with sarcoidosis and one of 17 controls. Plasma from patients with cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis recognised antigen(s) of the same molecular weight in control and sarcoid lung tissue, but not non-pulmonary tissues, with a similar frequency. Immunohistochemical staining of cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis biopsy material using IgG purified from plasma samples from patients with cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis, but not control samples, revealed fine linear positivity in the lung parenchyma in a pattern suggestive of reaction with alveolar lining cells. The pattern was cytoplasmic/membranous and not nuclear. CONCLUSIONS--Patients with cryptogenic

  18. [Real time 3D echocardiography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, F.; Shiota, T.; Thomas, J. D.

    2001-01-01

    Three-dimensional representation of the heart is an old concern. Usually, 3D reconstruction of the cardiac mass is made by successive acquisition of 2D sections, the spatial localisation and orientation of which require complex guiding systems. More recently, the concept of volumetric acquisition has been introduced. A matricial emitter-receiver probe complex with parallel data processing provides instantaneous of a pyramidal 64 degrees x 64 degrees volume. The image is restituted in real time and is composed of 3 planes (planes B and C) which can be displaced in all spatial directions at any time during acquisition. The flexibility of this system of acquisition allows volume and mass measurement with greater accuracy and reproducibility, limiting inter-observer variability. Free navigation of the planes of investigation allows reconstruction for qualitative and quantitative analysis of valvular heart disease and other pathologies. Although real time 3D echocardiography is ready for clinical usage, some improvements are still necessary to improve its conviviality. Then real time 3D echocardiography could be the essential tool for understanding, diagnosis and management of patients.

  19. [Real time 3D echocardiography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, F.; Shiota, T.; Thomas, J. D.

    2001-01-01

    Three-dimensional representation of the heart is an old concern. Usually, 3D reconstruction of the cardiac mass is made by successive acquisition of 2D sections, the spatial localisation and orientation of which require complex guiding systems. More recently, the concept of volumetric acquisition has been introduced. A matricial emitter-receiver probe complex with parallel data processing provides instantaneous of a pyramidal 64 degrees x 64 degrees volume. The image is restituted in real time and is composed of 3 planes (planes B and C) which can be displaced in all spatial directions at any time during acquisition. The flexibility of this system of acquisition allows volume and mass measurement with greater accuracy and reproducibility, limiting inter-observer variability. Free navigation of the planes of investigation allows reconstruction for qualitative and quantitative analysis of valvular heart disease and other pathologies. Although real time 3D echocardiography is ready for clinical usage, some improvements are still necessary to improve its conviviality. Then real time 3D echocardiography could be the essential tool for understanding, diagnosis and management of patients.

  20. GPU-Accelerated Denoising in 3D (GD3D)

    SciTech Connect

    2013-10-01

    The raw computational power GPU Accelerators enables fast denoising of 3D MR images using bilateral filtering, anisotropic diffusion, and non-local means. This software addresses two facets of this promising application: what tuning is necessary to achieve optimal performance on a modern GPU? And what parameters yield the best denoising results in practice? To answer the first question, the software performs an autotuning step to empirically determine optimal memory blocking on the GPU. To answer the second, it performs a sweep of algorithm parameters to determine the combination that best reduces the mean squared error relative to a noiseless reference image.

  1. GPU-Accelerated Denoising in 3D (GD3D)

    SciTech Connect

    2013-10-01

    The raw computational power GPU Accelerators enables fast denoising of 3D MR images using bilateral filtering, anisotropic diffusion, and non-local means. This software addresses two facets of this promising application: what tuning is necessary to achieve optimal performance on a modern GPU? And what parameters yield the best denoising results in practice? To answer the first question, the software performs an autotuning step to empirically determine optimal memory blocking on the GPU. To answer the second, it performs a sweep of algorithm parameters to determine the combination that best reduces the mean squared error relative to a noiseless reference image.

  2. Interaction of low-frequency axisymmetric ultrasonic guided waves with bends in pipes of arbitrary bend angle and general bend radius.

    PubMed

    Verma, Bhupesh; Mishra, Tarun Kumar; Balasubramaniam, Krishnan; Rajagopal, Prabhu

    2014-03-01

    The use of ultrasonic guided waves for the inspection of pipes with elbow and U-type bends has received much attention in recent years, but studies for more general bend angles which may also occur commonly, for example in cross-country pipes, are limited. Here, we address this topic considering a general bend angle φ, a more general mean bend radius R in terms of the wavelength of the mode studied and pipe thickness b. We use 3D Finite Element (FE) simulation to understand the propagation of fundamental axisymmetric L(0,2) mode across bends of different angles φ. The effect of the ratio of the mean bend radius to the wavelength of the mode studied, on the transmission and reflection of incident wave is also considered. The studies show that as the bend angle is reduced, a progressively larger extent of mode-conversion affects the transmission and velocity characteristics of the L(0,2) mode. However the overall message on the potential of guided waves for inspection and monitoring of bent pipes remains positive, as bends seem to impact mode transmission only to the extent of 20% even at low bend angles. The conclusions seem to be valid for different typical pipe thicknesses b and bend radii. The modeling approach is validated by experiments and discussed in light of physics of guided waves.

  3. Magmatic Systems in 3-D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kent, G. M.; Harding, A. J.; Babcock, J. M.; Orcutt, J. A.; Bazin, S.; Singh, S.; Detrick, R. S.; Canales, J. P.; Carbotte, S. M.; Diebold, J.

    2002-12-01

    Multichannel seismic (MCS) images of crustal magma chambers are ideal targets for advanced visualization techniques. In the mid-ocean ridge environment, reflections originating at the melt-lens are well separated from other reflection boundaries, such as the seafloor, layer 2A and Moho, which enables the effective use of transparency filters. 3-D visualization of seismic reflectivity falls into two broad categories: volume and surface rendering. Volumetric-based visualization is an extremely powerful approach for the rapid exploration of very dense 3-D datasets. These 3-D datasets are divided into volume elements or voxels, which are individually color coded depending on the assigned datum value; the user can define an opacity filter to reject plotting certain voxels. This transparency allows the user to peer into the data volume, enabling an easy identification of patterns or relationships that might have geologic merit. Multiple image volumes can be co-registered to look at correlations between two different data types (e.g., amplitude variation with offsets studies), in a manner analogous to draping attributes onto a surface. In contrast, surface visualization of seismic reflectivity usually involves producing "fence" diagrams of 2-D seismic profiles that are complemented with seafloor topography, along with point class data, draped lines and vectors (e.g. fault scarps, earthquake locations and plate-motions). The overlying seafloor can be made partially transparent or see-through, enabling 3-D correlations between seafloor structure and seismic reflectivity. Exploration of 3-D datasets requires additional thought when constructing and manipulating these complex objects. As numbers of visual objects grow in a particular scene, there is a tendency to mask overlapping objects; this clutter can be managed through the effective use of total or partial transparency (i.e., alpha-channel). In this way, the co-variation between different datasets can be investigated

  4. Interactive 3D Mars Visualization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, Mark W.

    2012-01-01

    The Interactive 3D Mars Visualization system provides high-performance, immersive visualization of satellite and surface vehicle imagery of Mars. The software can be used in mission operations to provide the most accurate position information for the Mars rovers to date. When integrated into the mission data pipeline, this system allows mission planners to view the location of the rover on Mars to 0.01-meter accuracy with respect to satellite imagery, with dynamic updates to incorporate the latest position information. Given this information so early in the planning process, rover drivers are able to plan more accurate drive activities for the rover than ever before, increasing the execution of science activities significantly. Scientifically, this 3D mapping information puts all of the science analyses to date into geologic context on a daily basis instead of weeks or months, as was the norm prior to this contribution. This allows the science planners to judge the efficacy of their previously executed science observations much more efficiently, and achieve greater science return as a result. The Interactive 3D Mars surface view is a Mars terrain browsing software interface that encompasses the entire region of exploration for a Mars surface exploration mission. The view is interactive, allowing the user to pan in any direction by clicking and dragging, or to zoom in or out by scrolling the mouse or touchpad. This set currently includes tools for selecting a point of interest, and a ruler tool for displaying the distance between and positions of two points of interest. The mapping information can be harvested and shared through ubiquitous online mapping tools like Google Mars, NASA WorldWind, and Worldwide Telescope.

  5. A Clean Adirondack (3-D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This is a 3-D anaglyph showing a microscopic image taken of an area measuring 3 centimeters (1.2 inches) across on the rock called Adirondack. The image was taken at Gusev Crater on the 33rd day of the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit's journey (Feb. 5, 2004), after the rover used its rock abrasion tool brush to clean the surface of the rock. Dust, which was pushed off to the side during cleaning, can still be seen to the left and in low areas of the rock.

  6. A Clean Adirondack (3-D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This is a 3-D anaglyph showing a microscopic image taken of an area measuring 3 centimeters (1.2 inches) across on the rock called Adirondack. The image was taken at Gusev Crater on the 33rd day of the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit's journey (Feb. 5, 2004), after the rover used its rock abrasion tool brush to clean the surface of the rock. Dust, which was pushed off to the side during cleaning, can still be seen to the left and in low areas of the rock.

  7. Making Inexpensive 3-D Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manos, Harry

    2016-03-01

    Visual aids are important to student learning, and they help make the teacher's job easier. Keeping with the TPT theme of "The Art, Craft, and Science of Physics Teaching," the purpose of this article is to show how teachers, lacking equipment and funds, can construct a durable 3-D model reference frame and a model gravity well tailored to specific class lessons. Most of the supplies are readily available in the home or at school: rubbing alcohol, a rag, two colors of spray paint, art brushes, and masking tape. The cost of these supplies, if you don't have them, is less than 20.

  8. What Lies Ahead (3-D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This 3-D cylindrical-perspective mosaic taken by the navigation camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit on sol 82 shows the view south of the large crater dubbed 'Bonneville.' The rover will travel toward the Columbia Hills, seen here at the upper left. The rock dubbed 'Mazatzal' and the hole the rover drilled in to it can be seen at the lower left. The rover's position is referred to as 'Site 22, Position 32.' This image was geometrically corrected to make the horizon appear flat.

  9. What Lies Ahead (3-D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This 3-D cylindrical-perspective mosaic taken by the navigation camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit on sol 82 shows the view south of the large crater dubbed 'Bonneville.' The rover will travel toward the Columbia Hills, seen here at the upper left. The rock dubbed 'Mazatzal' and the hole the rover drilled in to it can be seen at the lower left. The rover's position is referred to as 'Site 22, Position 32.' This image was geometrically corrected to make the horizon appear flat.

  10. 3D Printed Shelby Cobra

    SciTech Connect

    Love, Lonnie

    2015-01-09

    ORNL's newly printed 3D Shelby Cobra was showcased at the 2015 NAIAS in Detroit. This "laboratory on wheels" uses the Shelby Cobra design, celebrating the 50th anniversary of this model and honoring the first vehicle to be voted a national monument. The Shelby was printed at the Department of Energy’s Manufacturing Demonstration Facility at ORNL using the BAAM (Big Area Additive Manufacturing) machine and is intended as a “plug-n-play” laboratory on wheels. The Shelby will allow research and development of integrated components to be tested and enhanced in real time, improving the use of sustainable, digital manufacturing solutions in the automotive industry.

  11. Positional Awareness Map 3D (PAM3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, Monica; Allen, Earl L.; Yount, John W.; Norcross, April Louise

    2012-01-01

    The Western Aeronautical Test Range of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s Dryden Flight Research Center needed to address the aging software and hardware of its current situational awareness display application, the Global Real-Time Interactive Map (GRIM). GRIM was initially developed in the late 1980s and executes on older PC architectures using a Linux operating system that is no longer supported. Additionally, the software is difficult to maintain due to its complexity and loss of developer knowledge. It was decided that a replacement application must be developed or acquired in the near future. The replacement must provide the functionality of the original system, the ability to monitor test flight vehicles in real-time, and add improvements such as high resolution imagery and true 3-dimensional capability. This paper will discuss the process of determining the best approach to replace GRIM, and the functionality and capabilities of the first release of the Positional Awareness Map 3D.

  12. Mechanical properties of 3D printed warped membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosmrlj, Andrej; Xiao, Kechao; Weaver, James C.; Vlassak, Joost J.; Nelson, David R.

    2015-03-01

    We explore how a frozen background metric affects the mechanical properties of solid planar membranes. Our focus is a special class of ``warped membranes'' with a preferred random height profile characterized by random Gaussian variables h (q) in Fourier space with zero mean and variance < | h (q) | 2 > q-m . It has been shown theoretically that in the linear response regime, this quenched random disorder increases the effective bending rigidity, while the Young's and shear moduli are reduced. Compared to flat plates of the same thickness t, the bending rigidity of warped membranes is increased by a factor hv / t while the in-plane elastic moduli are reduced by t /hv , where hv =√{< | h (x) | 2 > } describes the frozen height fluctuations. Interestingly, hv is system size dependent for warped membranes characterized with m > 2 . We present experimental tests of these predictions, using warped membranes prepared via high resolution 3D printing.

  13. 3D Printed Bionic Ears

    PubMed Central

    Mannoor, Manu S.; Jiang, Ziwen; James, Teena; Kong, Yong Lin; Malatesta, Karen A.; Soboyejo, Winston O.; Verma, Naveen; Gracias, David H.; McAlpine, Michael C.

    2013-01-01

    The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological tissue with functional electronics could enable the creation of bionic organs possessing enhanced functionalities over their human counterparts. Conventional electronic devices are inherently two-dimensional, preventing seamless multidimensional integration with synthetic biology, as the processes and materials are very different. Here, we present a novel strategy for overcoming these difficulties via additive manufacturing of biological cells with structural and nanoparticle derived electronic elements. As a proof of concept, we generated a bionic ear via 3D printing of a cell-seeded hydrogel matrix in the precise anatomic geometry of a human ear, along with an intertwined conducting polymer consisting of infused silver nanoparticles. This allowed for in vitro culturing of cartilage tissue around an inductive coil antenna in the ear, which subsequently enables readout of inductively-coupled signals from cochlea-shaped electrodes. The printed ear exhibits enhanced auditory sensing for radio frequency reception, and complementary left and right ears can listen to stereo audio music. Overall, our approach suggests a means to intricately merge biologic and nanoelectronic functionalities via 3D printing. PMID:23635097

  14. 3D Printable Graphene Composite

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Xiaojun; Li, Dong; Jiang, Wei; Gu, Zheming; Wang, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Zengxing; Sun, Zhengzong

    2015-01-01

    In human being’s history, both the Iron Age and Silicon Age thrived after a matured massive processing technology was developed. Graphene is the most recent superior material which could potentially initialize another new material Age. However, while being exploited to its full extent, conventional processing methods fail to provide a link to today’s personalization tide. New technology should be ushered in. Three-dimensional (3D) printing fills the missing linkage between graphene materials and the digital mainstream. Their alliance could generate additional stream to push the graphene revolution into a new phase. Here we demonstrate for the first time, a graphene composite, with a graphene loading up to 5.6 wt%, can be 3D printable into computer-designed models. The composite’s linear thermal coefficient is below 75 ppm·°C−1 from room temperature to its glass transition temperature (Tg), which is crucial to build minute thermal stress during the printing process. PMID:26153673

  15. 3D Printable Graphene Composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Xiaojun; Li, Dong; Jiang, Wei; Gu, Zheming; Wang, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Zengxing; Sun, Zhengzong

    2015-07-01

    In human being’s history, both the Iron Age and Silicon Age thrived after a matured massive processing technology was developed. Graphene is the most recent superior material which could potentially initialize another new material Age. However, while being exploited to its full extent, conventional processing methods fail to provide a link to today’s personalization tide. New technology should be ushered in. Three-dimensional (3D) printing fills the missing linkage between graphene materials and the digital mainstream. Their alliance could generate additional stream to push the graphene revolution into a new phase. Here we demonstrate for the first time, a graphene composite, with a graphene loading up to 5.6 wt%, can be 3D printable into computer-designed models. The composite’s linear thermal coefficient is below 75 ppm·°C-1 from room temperature to its glass transition temperature (Tg), which is crucial to build minute thermal stress during the printing process.

  16. 3D medical thermography device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moghadam, Peyman

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, a novel handheld 3D medical thermography system is introduced. The proposed system consists of a thermal-infrared camera, a color camera and a depth camera rigidly attached in close proximity and mounted on an ergonomic handle. As a practitioner holding the device smoothly moves it around the human body parts, the proposed system generates and builds up a precise 3D thermogram model by incorporating information from each new measurement in real-time. The data is acquired in motion, thus it provides multiple points of view. When processed, these multiple points of view are adaptively combined by taking into account the reliability of each individual measurement which can vary due to a variety of factors such as angle of incidence, distance between the device and the subject and environmental sensor data or other factors influencing a confidence of the thermal-infrared data when captured. Finally, several case studies are presented to support the usability and performance of the proposed system.

  17. 3D acoustic atmospheric tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, Kevin; Finn, Anthony

    2014-10-01

    This paper presents a method for tomographically reconstructing spatially varying 3D atmospheric temperature profiles and wind velocity fields based. Measurements of the acoustic signature measured onboard a small Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) are compared to ground-based observations of the same signals. The frequency-shifted signal variations are then used to estimate the acoustic propagation delay between the UAV and the ground microphones, which are also affected by atmospheric temperature and wind speed vectors along each sound ray path. The wind and temperature profiles are modelled as the weighted sum of Radial Basis Functions (RBFs), which also allow local meteorological measurements made at the UAV and ground receivers to supplement any acoustic observations. Tomography is used to provide a full 3D reconstruction/visualisation of the observed atmosphere. The technique offers observational mobility under direct user control and the capacity to monitor hazardous atmospheric environments, otherwise not justifiable on the basis of cost or risk. This paper summarises the tomographic technique and reports on the results of simulations and initial field trials. The technique has practical applications for atmospheric research, sound propagation studies, boundary layer meteorology, air pollution measurements, analysis of wind shear, and wind farm surveys.

  18. 3D printed bionic ears.

    PubMed

    Mannoor, Manu S; Jiang, Ziwen; James, Teena; Kong, Yong Lin; Malatesta, Karen A; Soboyejo, Winston O; Verma, Naveen; Gracias, David H; McAlpine, Michael C

    2013-06-12

    The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological tissue with functional electronics could enable the creation of bionic organs possessing enhanced functionalities over their human counterparts. Conventional electronic devices are inherently two-dimensional, preventing seamless multidimensional integration with synthetic biology, as the processes and materials are very different. Here, we present a novel strategy for overcoming these difficulties via additive manufacturing of biological cells with structural and nanoparticle derived electronic elements. As a proof of concept, we generated a bionic ear via 3D printing of a cell-seeded hydrogel matrix in the anatomic geometry of a human ear, along with an intertwined conducting polymer consisting of infused silver nanoparticles. This allowed for in vitro culturing of cartilage tissue around an inductive coil antenna in the ear, which subsequently enables readout of inductively-coupled signals from cochlea-shaped electrodes. The printed ear exhibits enhanced auditory sensing for radio frequency reception, and complementary left and right ears can listen to stereo audio music. Overall, our approach suggests a means to intricately merge biologic and nanoelectronic functionalities via 3D printing.

  19. 3D structured illumination microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dougherty, William M.; Goodwin, Paul C.

    2011-03-01

    Three-dimensional structured illumination microscopy achieves double the lateral and axial resolution of wide-field microscopy, using conventional fluorescent dyes, proteins and sample preparation techniques. A three-dimensional interference-fringe pattern excites the fluorescence, filling in the "missing cone" of the wide field optical transfer function, thereby enabling axial (z) discrimination. The pattern acts as a spatial carrier frequency that mixes with the higher spatial frequency components of the image, which usually succumb to the diffraction limit. The fluorescence image encodes the high frequency content as a down-mixed, moiré-like pattern. A series of images is required, wherein the 3D pattern is shifted and rotated, providing down-mixed data for a system of linear equations. Super-resolution is obtained by solving these equations. The speed with which the image series can be obtained can be a problem for the microscopy of living cells. Challenges include pattern-switching speeds, optical efficiency, wavefront quality and fringe contrast, fringe pitch optimization, and polarization issues. We will review some recent developments in 3D-SIM hardware with the goal of super-resolved z-stacks of motile cells.

  20. Martian terrain & airbags - 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Portions of the lander's deflated airbags and a petal are at lower left in this image, taken in stereo by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. This image is part of a 3D 'monster' panorama of the area surrounding the landing site.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

    Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  1. Martian terrain & airbags - 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Portions of the lander's deflated airbags and a petal are at the lower area of this image, taken in stereo by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. This image is part of a 3D 'monster' panorama of the area surrounding the landing site.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

    Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  2. Martian terrain & airbags - 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Portions of the lander's deflated airbags and a petal are at lower left in this image, taken in stereo by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. This image is part of a 3D 'monster' panorama of the area surrounding the landing site.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

    Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  3. Martian terrain & airbags - 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Portions of the lander's deflated airbags and a petal are at the lower area of this image, taken in stereo by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. This image is part of a 3D 'monster' panorama of the area surrounding the landing site.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

    Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  4. LOTT RANCH 3D PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Larry Lawrence; Bruce Miller

    2004-09-01

    The Lott Ranch 3D seismic prospect located in Garza County, Texas is a project initiated in September of 1991 by the J.M. Huber Corp., a petroleum exploration and production company. By today's standards the 126 square mile project does not seem monumental, however at the time it was conceived it was the most intensive land 3D project ever attempted. Acquisition began in September of 1991 utilizing GEO-SEISMIC, INC., a seismic data contractor. The field parameters were selected by J.M. Huber, and were of a radical design. The recording instruments used were GeoCor IV amplifiers designed by Geosystems Inc., which record the data in signed bit format. It would not have been practical, if not impossible, to have processed the entire raw volume with the tools available at that time. The end result was a dataset that was thought to have little utility due to difficulties in processing the field data. In 1997, Yates Energy Corp. located in Roswell, New Mexico, formed a partnership to further develop the project. Through discussions and meetings with Pinnacle Seismic, it was determined that the original Lott Ranch 3D volume could be vastly improved upon reprocessing. Pinnacle Seismic had shown the viability of improving field-summed signed bit data on smaller 2D and 3D projects. Yates contracted Pinnacle Seismic Ltd. to perform the reprocessing. This project was initiated with high resolution being a priority. Much of the potential resolution was lost through the initial summing of the field data. Modern computers that are now being utilized have tremendous speed and storage capacities that were cost prohibitive when this data was initially processed. Software updates and capabilities offer a variety of quality control and statics resolution, which are pertinent to the Lott Ranch project. The reprocessing effort was very successful. The resulting processed data-set was then interpreted using modern PC-based interpretation and mapping software. Production data, log data

  5. A complex distribution of elongation family GTPases EF1A and EFL in basal alveolate lineages.

    PubMed

    Mikhailov, Kirill V; Janouškovec, Jan; Tikhonenkov, Denis V; Mirzaeva, Gulnara S; Diakin, Andrei Yu; Simdyanov, Timur G; Mylnikov, Alexander P; Keeling, Patrick J; Aleoshin, Vladimir V

    2014-09-01

    Translation elongation factor-1 alpha (EF1A) and the related GTPase EF-like (EFL) are two proteins with a complex mutually exclusive distribution across the tree of eukaryotes. Recent surveys revealed that the distribution of the two GTPases in even closely related taxa is frequently at odds with their phylogenetic relationships. Here, we investigate the distribution of EF1A and EFL in the alveolate supergroup. Alveolates comprise three major lineages: ciliates and apicomplexans encode EF1A, whereas dinoflagellates encode EFL. We searched transcriptome databases for seven early-diverging alveolate taxa that do not belong to any of these groups: colpodellids, chromerids, and colponemids. Current data suggest all seven are expected to encode EF1A, but we find three genera encode EFL: Colpodella, Voromonas, and the photosynthetic Chromera. Comparing this distribution with the phylogeny of alveolates suggests that EF1A and EFL evolution in alveolates cannot be explained by a simple horizontal gene transfer event or lineage sorting.

  6. [Swimming pool lung -- extrinsic allergic alveolitis or mycobacterial disease?].

    PubMed

    Koschel, D; Pietrzyk, C; Sennekamp, J; Müller-Wening, D

    2006-05-01

    There have been several recent reports of pulmonary disease resulting from exposure to Mycobacterium avium complex in indoor hot tubs. The disease is thought to be due either to infection or extrinsic allergic alveolitis (EAA). In this report we describe the case of a patient who developed episodes of fever, dyspnea and cough 4-6 hours after cleaning his indoor swimming pool. A diagnosis of EAA was made on finding a restrictive lung function pattern with gas exchange abnormalities, a predominant lymphocytosis in the bronchoalveolar lavage, diffuse ground-glass opacities in the lower lobes on high-resolution computer tomography, and specific IgG antibody activity to the swimming pool water. There was no precipitin reaction or specific IgG antibody activity to microbes extracted from the water. Interestingly, the water contained Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) in huge amounts and in this case the histopathological features of the lung biopsy specimens differed from those seen in typical EAA, but were similar to those described in "hot tub lung" caused by mycobacteria. Solely by avoidance of cleaning the swimming pool, without any pharmacological treatment, the patient recovered completely within three months. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of EAA possibly associated with MAC exposure in a swimming pool environment.

  7. [Pathologic diagnosis and clinical analysis of chronic extrinsic allergic alveolitis].

    PubMed

    Diao, Xiao-li; Jin, Mu-lan; Dai, Hua-ping; Li, Xue; Wei, Ping; Zhang, Yun-gang

    2011-11-01

    To study the clinicopathologic features and diagnostic approach of chronic extrinsic allergic alveolitis (EAA). Seven cases of chronic EAA diagnosed by open lung biopsy or lung transplant were enrolled into the study. The clinical and pathologic features were analyzed and the literature was reviewed. There were altogether 4 men and 3 women. The age of the patients ranged from 30 to 65 years (mean = 48 years). All cases represented chronic form and five cases diagnosed by open lung biopsy also showed features of recent aggravation, leading to hospitalization. Four cases had known history of exposure to inciting gases, pollens and pets, and only 2 cases were positive for allergens. High-resolution CT scan showed ground-glass attenuation and reticular pattern that often had a patchy distribution and central predominance. Bronchoalveolar lavage analysis showed marked lymphocytosis, with CD4(+)/CD8(+) ratio less than 1. Lung function test demonstrated a restrictive ventilatory defect, with decreased compliance, reduced diffusion capacity and high airway obstruction. Five cases had open lung biopsy performed and two cases had undergone lung transplantation. Pathologic examination showed bronchiolocentric cellular interstitial pneumonia, interstitial fibrosis, non-caseating epithelioid granulomas, epithelioid histiocytic infiltrate in the respiratory bronchioles and intraluminal budding fibrosis. The five cases with open lung biopsy performed also showed neutrophilic infiltrate in the alveoli. The two lung transplant cases were complicated by severe fibrotic changes. Chronic EAA demonstrates characteristic pathologic features. Definitive diagnosis requires correlation with clinical and radiologic findings due to possible morphologic mimicry of other diffuse parenchymal lung diseases.

  8. An outbreak of extrinsic alveolitis at a car engine plant.

    PubMed

    Dawkins, Paul; Robertson, Alastair; Robertson, Wendy; Moore, Vicky; Reynolds, John; Langman, Gerald; Robinson, Edward; Harris-Roberts, Joanne; Crook, Brian; Burge, Sherwood

    2006-12-01

    Twelve workers from a car engine-manufacturing plant presented with extrinsic allergic alveolitis (EAA), with heterogeneous clinical, radiological and pathological findings. They were exposed to metalworking fluids (MWF) that cooled, lubricated and cleaned the machines. They were characterized by history, examination, lung function testing, radiology, bronchoscopic lavage, lung biopsy and serology. Sera were tested for precipitins to a crude extract of used MWF and to reference cultures of bacteria suspected to be implicated. All were males and none were current smokers. All had dyspnoea, many had weight loss and cough, but only half had influenza-like symptoms. Only half had auscultatory crackles. Five had peak flow variability, four with an occupational component. There was overall restrictive spirometry, decreased lung volumes and reduced gas transfers. Ten had radiological evidence of interstitial lung disease. Seven (of eight) had lymphocytosis on bronchial lavage, including the two with inconclusive radiology. Seven (of 11) had lung biopsies showing inflammatory infiltrates, two with fibrosis and one with granulomas. Three (of 11) had strong positive precipitins to an extract of the used MWF from the plant. Molecular biological analysis of the MWF revealed Acinetobacter and Ochrobactrum. Precipitins to Acinetobacter were detected in seven of 11 workers tested (and four of 11 control workers). Precipitins to Ochrobactrum were detected in three of 11 workers tested (and three of 11 control workers). This is the largest series reported in Europe of EAA due to an aerosol of microbiologically contaminated MWF in heavy manufacturing industry.

  9. Cladding waveguide gratings in standard single-mode fiber for 3D shape sensing.

    PubMed

    Waltermann, Christian; Doering, Alexander; Köhring, Michael; Angelmahr, Martin; Schade, Wolfgang

    2015-07-01

    Femtosecond laser pulses were used for the direct point-by-point inscription of waveguides into the cladding of standard single-mode fibers. Homogeneous S-shaped waveguides have been processed as a bundle of overlapping lines without damaging the surrounding material. Within these structures, FBGs have been successfully inscribed and characterized. A sensor device to measure the bending direction of a fiber was created by two perpendicular inscribed cladding waveguides with FBG. Finally, a complete 3D shape sensor consisting of several bending sensor planes, capable of detecting bending radii even below 2.5 cm is demonstrated.

  10. 3D Printed Shelby Cobra

    ScienceCinema

    Love, Lonnie

    2016-11-02

    ORNL's newly printed 3D Shelby Cobra was showcased at the 2015 NAIAS in Detroit. This "laboratory on wheels" uses the Shelby Cobra design, celebrating the 50th anniversary of this model and honoring the first vehicle to be voted a national monument. The Shelby was printed at the Department of Energy’s Manufacturing Demonstration Facility at ORNL using the BAAM (Big Area Additive Manufacturing) machine and is intended as a “plug-n-play” laboratory on wheels. The Shelby will allow research and development of integrated components to be tested and enhanced in real time, improving the use of sustainable, digital manufacturing solutions in the automotive industry.

  11. Quasi 3D dispersion experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakucz, P.

    2003-04-01

    This paper studies the problem of tracer dispersion in a coloured fluid flowing through a two-phase 3D rough channel-system in a 40 cm*40 cm plexi-container filled by homogen glass fractions and colourless fluid. The unstable interface between the driving coloured fluid and the colourless fluid develops viscous fingers with a fractal structure at high capillary number. Five two-dimensional fractal fronts have been observed at the same time using four cameras along the vertical side-walls and using one camera located above the plexi-container. In possession of five fronts the spatial concentration contours are determined using statistical models. The concentration contours are self-affine fractal curves with a fractal dimension D=2.19. This result is valid for disperison at high Péclet numbers.

  12. ShowMe3D

    SciTech Connect

    Sinclair, Michael B

    2012-01-05

    ShowMe3D is a data visualization graphical user interface specifically designed for use with hyperspectral image obtained from the Hyperspectral Confocal Microscope. The program allows the user to select and display any single image from a three dimensional hyperspectral image stack. By moving a slider control, the user can easily move between images of the stack. The user can zoom into any region of the image. The user can select any pixel or region from the displayed image and display the fluorescence spectrum associated with that pixel or region. The user can define up to 3 spectral filters to apply to the hyperspectral image and view the image as it would appear from a filter-based confocal microscope. The user can also obtain statistics such as intensity average and variance from selected regions.

  13. Supernova Remnant in 3-D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    wavelengths. Since the amount of the wavelength shift is related to the speed of motion, one can determine how fast the debris are moving in either direction. Because Cas A is the result of an explosion, the stellar debris is expanding radially outwards from the explosion center. Using simple geometry, the scientists were able to construct a 3-D model using all of this information. A program called 3-D Slicer modified for astronomical use by the Astronomical Medicine Project at Harvard University in Cambridge, Mass. was used to display and manipulate the 3-D model. Commercial software was then used to create the 3-D fly-through.

    The blue filaments defining the blast wave were not mapped using the Doppler effect because they emit a different kind of light synchrotron radiation that does not emit light at discrete wavelengths, but rather in a broad continuum. The blue filaments are only a representation of the actual filaments observed at the blast wave.

    This visualization shows that there are two main components to this supernova remnant: a spherical component in the outer parts of the remnant and a flattened (disk-like) component in the inner region. The spherical component consists of the outer layer of the star that exploded, probably made of helium and carbon. These layers drove a spherical blast wave into the diffuse gas surrounding the star. The flattened component that astronomers were unable to map into 3-D prior to these Spitzer observations consists of the inner layers of the star. It is made from various heavier elements, not all shown in the visualization, such as oxygen, neon, silicon, sulphur, argon and iron.

    High-velocity plumes, or jets, of this material are shooting out from the explosion in the plane of the disk-like component mentioned above. Plumes of silicon appear in the northeast and southwest, while those of iron are seen in the southeast and north. These jets were already known and Doppler velocity measurements have been made for these

  14. Supernova Remnant in 3-D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    wavelengths. Since the amount of the wavelength shift is related to the speed of motion, one can determine how fast the debris are moving in either direction. Because Cas A is the result of an explosion, the stellar debris is expanding radially outwards from the explosion center. Using simple geometry, the scientists were able to construct a 3-D model using all of this information. A program called 3-D Slicer modified for astronomical use by the Astronomical Medicine Project at Harvard University in Cambridge, Mass. was used to display and manipulate the 3-D model. Commercial software was then used to create the 3-D fly-through.

    The blue filaments defining the blast wave were not mapped using the Doppler effect because they emit a different kind of light synchrotron radiation that does not emit light at discrete wavelengths, but rather in a broad continuum. The blue filaments are only a representation of the actual filaments observed at the blast wave.

    This visualization shows that there are two main components to this supernova remnant: a spherical component in the outer parts of the remnant and a flattened (disk-like) component in the inner region. The spherical component consists of the outer layer of the star that exploded, probably made of helium and carbon. These layers drove a spherical blast wave into the diffuse gas surrounding the star. The flattened component that astronomers were unable to map into 3-D prior to these Spitzer observations consists of the inner layers of the star. It is made from various heavier elements, not all shown in the visualization, such as oxygen, neon, silicon, sulphur, argon and iron.

    High-velocity plumes, or jets, of this material are shooting out from the explosion in the plane of the disk-like component mentioned above. Plumes of silicon appear in the northeast and southwest, while those of iron are seen in the southeast and north. These jets were already known and Doppler velocity measurements have been made for these

  15. Discovering Gee's Bend Quilts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Ann

    2008-01-01

    Gee's Bend is a small community near Selma, Alabama where cotton plantations filled the land before the Civil War. After the war, the freed slaves of the plantations worked as tenant farmers and founded an African-American community. In 2002, the women of this community brought international attention and acclaim to Gee's Bend through the art of…

  16. Discovering Gee's Bend Quilts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Ann

    2008-01-01

    Gee's Bend is a small community near Selma, Alabama where cotton plantations filled the land before the Civil War. After the war, the freed slaves of the plantations worked as tenant farmers and founded an African-American community. In 2002, the women of this community brought international attention and acclaim to Gee's Bend through the art of…

  17. Microhole Tubing Bending Report

    DOE Data Explorer

    Oglesby, Ken

    2012-01-01

    A downhole tubing bending study was made and is reported herein. IT contains a report and 2 excel spreadsheets to calculate tubing bending and to estimate contact points of the tubing to the drilled hole wall (creating a new support point).

  18. 3D Printing of Graphene Aerogels.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiangqiang; Zhang, Feng; Medarametla, Sai Pradeep; Li, Hui; Zhou, Chi; Lin, Dong

    2016-04-06

    3D printing of a graphene aerogel with true 3D overhang structures is highlighted. The aerogel is fabricated by combining drop-on-demand 3D printing and freeze casting. The water-based GO ink is ejected and freeze-cast into designed 3D structures. The lightweight (<10 mg cm(-3) ) 3D printed graphene aerogel presents superelastic and high electrical conduction.

  19. Nano-Composite Material Development for 3-D Printers

    SciTech Connect

    Satches, Michael Randolph

    2015-12-01

    Graphene possesses excellent mechanical properties with a tensile strength that may exceed 130 GPa, excellent electrical conductivity, and good thermal properties. Future nano-composites can leverage many of these material properties in an attempt to build designer materials for a broad range of applications. 3-D printing has also seen vast improvements in recent years that have allowed many companies and individuals to realize rapid prototyping for relatively low capital investment. This research sought to create a graphene reinforced, polymer matrix nano-composite that is viable in commercial 3D printer technology, study the effects of ultra-high loading percentages of graphene in polymer matrices and determine the functional upper limit for loading. Loadings varied from 5 wt. % to 50 wt. % graphene nanopowder loaded in Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS) matrices. Loaded sample were characterized for their mechanical properties using three point bending, tensile tests, as well as dynamic mechanical analysis.

  20. Occipital bending in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Maller, Jerome J; Anderson, Rodney J; Thomson, Richard H; Daskalakis, Zafiris J; Rosenfeld, Jeffrey V; Fitzgerald, Paul B

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the prevalence of occipital bending (an occipital lobe crossing or twisting across the midline) in subjects with schizophrenia and matched healthy controls. Occipital bending prevalence was investigated in 37 patients with schizophrenia and 44 healthy controls. Ratings showed that prevalence was nearly three times higher among schizophrenia patients (13/37 [35.1%]) than in control subjects (6/44 [13.6%]). Furthermore, those with schizophrenia had greater normalized gray matter volume but less white matter volume and had larger brain-to-cranial ratio. The results suggest that occipital bending is more prevalent among schizophrenia patients than healthy subjects and that schizophrenia patients have different gray matter-white matter proportions. Although the cause and clinical ramifications of occipital bending are unclear, the results infer that occipital bending may be a marker of psychiatric illness.

  1. Backed Bending Actuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Costen, Robert C.; Su, Ji

    2004-01-01

    Bending actuators of a proposed type would partly resemble ordinary bending actuators, but would include simple additional components that would render them capable of exerting large forces at small displacements. Like an ordinary bending actuator, an actuator according to the proposal would include a thin rectangular strip that would comprise two bonded layers (possibly made of electroactive polymers with surface electrodes) and would be clamped at one end in the manner of a cantilever beam. Unlike an ordinary bending actuator, the proposed device would include a rigid flat backplate that would support part of the bending strip against backward displacement; because of this feature, the proposed device is called a backed bending actuator. When an ordinary bending actuator is inactive, the strip typically lies flat, the tip displacement is zero, and the force exerted by the tip is zero. During activation, the tip exerts a transverse force and undergoes a bending displacement that results from the expansion or contraction of one or more of the bonded layers. The tip force of an ordinary bending actuator is inversely proportional to its length; hence, a long actuator tends to be weak. The figure depicts an ordinary bending actuator and the corresponding backed bending actuator. The bending, the tip displacement (d(sub t)), and the tip force (F) exerted by the ordinary bending actuator are well approximated by the conventional equations for the loading and deflection of a cantilever beam subject to a bending moment which, in this case, is applied by the differential expansion or contraction of the bonded layers. The bending, displacement, and tip force of the backed bending actuator are calculated similarly, except that it is necessary to account for the fact that the force F(sub b) that resists the displacement of the tip could be sufficient to push part of the strip against the backplate; in such a condition, the cantilever beam would be effectively shortened

  2. 3D ultrafast laser scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahjoubfar, A.; Goda, K.; Wang, C.; Fard, A.; Adam, J.; Gossett, D. R.; Ayazi, A.; Sollier, E.; Malik, O.; Chen, E.; Liu, Y.; Brown, R.; Sarkhosh, N.; Di Carlo, D.; Jalali, B.

    2013-03-01

    Laser scanners are essential for scientific research, manufacturing, defense, and medical practice. Unfortunately, often times the speed of conventional laser scanners (e.g., galvanometric mirrors and acousto-optic deflectors) falls short for many applications, resulting in motion blur and failure to capture fast transient information. Here, we present a novel type of laser scanner that offers roughly three orders of magnitude higher scan rates than conventional methods. Our laser scanner, which we refer to as the hybrid dispersion laser scanner, performs inertia-free laser scanning by dispersing a train of broadband pulses both temporally and spatially. More specifically, each broadband pulse is temporally processed by time stretch dispersive Fourier transform and further dispersed into space by one or more diffractive elements such as prisms and gratings. As a proof-of-principle demonstration, we perform 1D line scans at a record high scan rate of 91 MHz and 2D raster scans and 3D volumetric scans at an unprecedented scan rate of 105 kHz. The method holds promise for a broad range of scientific, industrial, and biomedical applications. To show the utility of our method, we demonstrate imaging, nanometer-resolved surface vibrometry, and high-precision flow cytometry with real-time throughput that conventional laser scanners cannot offer due to their low scan rates.

  3. 3D multiplexed immunoplasmonics microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergeron, Éric; Patskovsky, Sergiy; Rioux, David; Meunier, Michel

    2016-07-01

    Selective labelling, identification and spatial distribution of cell surface biomarkers can provide important clinical information, such as distinction between healthy and diseased cells, evolution of a disease and selection of the optimal patient-specific treatment. Immunofluorescence is the gold standard for efficient detection of biomarkers expressed by cells. However, antibodies (Abs) conjugated to fluorescent dyes remain limited by their photobleaching, high sensitivity to the environment, low light intensity, and wide absorption and emission spectra. Immunoplasmonics is a novel microscopy method based on the visualization of Abs-functionalized plasmonic nanoparticles (fNPs) targeting cell surface biomarkers. Tunable fNPs should provide higher multiplexing capacity than immunofluorescence since NPs are photostable over time, strongly scatter light at their plasmon peak wavelengths and can be easily functionalized. In this article, we experimentally demonstrate accurate multiplexed detection based on the immunoplasmonics approach. First, we achieve the selective labelling of three targeted cell surface biomarkers (cluster of differentiation 44 (CD44), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and voltage-gated K+ channel subunit KV1.1) on human cancer CD44+ EGFR+ KV1.1+ MDA-MB-231 cells and reference CD44- EGFR- KV1.1+ 661W cells. The labelling efficiency with three stable specific immunoplasmonics labels (functionalized silver nanospheres (CD44-AgNSs), gold (Au) NSs (EGFR-AuNSs) and Au nanorods (KV1.1-AuNRs)) detected by reflected light microscopy (RLM) is similar to the one with immunofluorescence. Second, we introduce an improved method for 3D localization and spectral identification of fNPs based on fast z-scanning by RLM with three spectral filters corresponding to the plasmon peak wavelengths of the immunoplasmonics labels in the cellular environment (500 nm for 80 nm AgNSs, 580 nm for 100 nm AuNSs and 700 nm for 40 nm × 92 nm AuNRs). Third, the developed

  4. 3D Kitaev spin liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermanns, Maria

    The Kitaev honeycomb model has become one of the archetypal spin models exhibiting topological phases of matter, where the magnetic moments fractionalize into Majorana fermions interacting with a Z2 gauge field. In this talk, we discuss generalizations of this model to three-dimensional lattice structures. Our main focus is the metallic state that the emergent Majorana fermions form. In particular, we discuss the relation of the nature of this Majorana metal to the details of the underlying lattice structure. Besides (almost) conventional metals with a Majorana Fermi surface, one also finds various realizations of Dirac semi-metals, where the gapless modes form Fermi lines or even Weyl nodes. We introduce a general classification of these gapless quantum spin liquids using projective symmetry analysis. Furthermore, we briefly outline why these Majorana metals in 3D Kitaev systems provide an even richer variety of Dirac and Weyl phases than possible for electronic matter and comment on possible experimental signatures. Work done in collaboration with Kevin O'Brien and Simon Trebst.

  5. Crowdsourcing Based 3d Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somogyi, A.; Barsi, A.; Molnar, B.; Lovas, T.

    2016-06-01

    Web-based photo albums that support organizing and viewing the users' images are widely used. These services provide a convenient solution for storing, editing and sharing images. In many cases, the users attach geotags to the images in order to enable using them e.g. in location based applications on social networks. Our paper discusses a procedure that collects open access images from a site frequently visited by tourists. Geotagged pictures showing the image of a sight or tourist attraction are selected and processed in photogrammetric processing software that produces the 3D model of the captured object. For the particular investigation we selected three attractions in Budapest. To assess the geometrical accuracy, we used laser scanner and DSLR as well as smart phone photography to derive reference values to enable verifying the spatial model obtained from the web-album images. The investigation shows how detailed and accurate models could be derived applying photogrammetric processing software, simply by using images of the community, without visiting the site.

  6. NIF Ignition Target 3D Point Design

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, O; Marinak, M; Milovich, J; Callahan, D

    2008-11-05

    We have developed an input file for running 3D NIF hohlraums that is optimized such that it can be run in 1-2 days on parallel computers. We have incorporated increasing levels of automation into the 3D input file: (1) Configuration controlled input files; (2) Common file for 2D and 3D, different types of capsules (symcap, etc.); and (3) Can obtain target dimensions, laser pulse, and diagnostics settings automatically from NIF Campaign Management Tool. Using 3D Hydra calculations to investigate different problems: (1) Intrinsic 3D asymmetry; (2) Tolerance to nonideal 3D effects (e.g. laser power balance, pointing errors); and (3) Synthetic diagnostics.

  7. 3-D Cavern Enlargement Analyses

    SciTech Connect

    EHGARTNER, BRIAN L.; SOBOLIK, STEVEN R.

    2002-03-01

    Three-dimensional finite element analyses simulate the mechanical response of enlarging existing caverns at the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR). The caverns are located in Gulf Coast salt domes and are enlarged by leaching during oil drawdowns as fresh water is injected to displace the crude oil from the caverns. The current criteria adopted by the SPR limits cavern usage to 5 drawdowns (leaches). As a base case, 5 leaches were modeled over a 25 year period to roughly double the volume of a 19 cavern field. Thirteen additional leaches where then simulated until caverns approached coalescence. The cavern field approximated the geometries and geologic properties found at the West Hackberry site. This enabled comparisons are data collected over nearly 20 years to analysis predictions. The analyses closely predicted the measured surface subsidence and cavern closure rates as inferred from historic well head pressures. This provided the necessary assurance that the model displacements, strains, and stresses are accurate. However, the cavern field has not yet experienced the large scale drawdowns being simulated. Should they occur in the future, code predictions should be validated with actual field behavior at that time. The simulations were performed using JAS3D, a three dimensional finite element analysis code for nonlinear quasi-static solids. The results examine the impacts of leaching and cavern workovers, where internal cavern pressures are reduced, on surface subsidence, well integrity, and cavern stability. The results suggest that the current limit of 5 oil drawdowns may be extended with some mitigative action required on the wells and later on to surface structure due to subsidence strains. The predicted stress state in the salt shows damage to start occurring after 15 drawdowns with significant failure occurring at the 16th drawdown, well beyond the current limit of 5 drawdowns.

  8. America's National Parks 3d (4)

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2017-04-11

    article title:  America's National Parks Viewed in 3D by NASA's MISR (Anaglyph 4)   ... four new anaglyphs that showcase 33 of our nation's national parks, monuments, historical sites and recreation areas in glorious 3D.   ...

  9. America's National Parks 3d (3)

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-12-30

    article title:  America's National Parks Viewed in 3D by NASA's MISR (Anaglyph 3)   ... four new anaglyphs that showcase 33 of our nation's national parks, monuments, historical sites and recreation areas in glorious 3D.   ...

  10. America's National Parks 3d (2)

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-12-30

    article title:  America's National Parks Viewed in 3D by NASA's MISR (Anaglyph 2)   ... four new anaglyphs that showcase 33 of our nation's national parks, monuments, historical sites and recreation areas in glorious 3D.   ...

  11. America's National Parks 3d (1)

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-12-30

    article title:  America's National Parks Viewed in 3D by NASA's MISR (Anaglyph 1)   ... four new anaglyphs that showcase 33 of our nation's national parks, monuments, historical sites and recreation areas in glorious 3D.   ...

  12. 3D ultrasound in fetal spina bifida.

    PubMed

    Schramm, T; Gloning, K-P; Minderer, S; Tutschek, B

    2008-12-01

    3D ultrasound can be used to study the fetal spine, but skeletal mode can be inconclusive for the diagnosis of fetal spina bifida. We illustrate a diagnostic approach using 2D and 3D ultrasound and indicate possible pitfalls.

  13. An interactive multiview 3D display system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhaoxing; Geng, Zheng; Zhang, Mei; Dong, Hui

    2013-03-01

    The progresses in 3D display systems and user interaction technologies will help more effective 3D visualization of 3D information. They yield a realistic representation of 3D objects and simplifies our understanding to the complexity of 3D objects and spatial relationship among them. In this paper, we describe an autostereoscopic multiview 3D display system with capability of real-time user interaction. Design principle of this autostereoscopic multiview 3D display system is presented, together with the details of its hardware/software architecture. A prototype is built and tested based upon multi-projectors and horizontal optical anisotropic display structure. Experimental results illustrate the effectiveness of this novel 3D display and user interaction system.

  14. [3D emulation of epicardium dynamic mapping].

    PubMed

    Lu, Jun; Yang, Cui-Wei; Fang, Zu-Xiang

    2005-03-01

    In order to realize epicardium dynamic mapping of the whole atria, 3-D graphics are drawn with OpenGL. Some source codes are introduced in the paper to explain how to produce, read, and manipulate 3-D model data.

  15. 3D engineered fiberboard : finite element analysis of a new building product

    Treesearch

    John F. Hunt

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents finite element analyses that are being used to analyze and estimate the structural performance of a new product called 3D engineered fiberboard in bending and flat-wise compression applications. A 3x3x2 split-plot experimental design was used to vary geometry configurations to determine their effect on performance properties. The models are based on...

  16. 3-D Extensions for Trustworthy Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    modifications to the floor planning stage of the 3-D design flow that are necessary to support our design approach. We strongly recommend that the 3-D EDA ...and we outline problems, challenges, attacks, solutions, and topics for future research. 15. SUBJECT TERMS 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17...Requirements for automated 3-D IC design tools for the physical layout of components. Since fully automated Electronic Design Automation ( EDA ) for 3-D

  17. True 3d Images and Their Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Z.; wang@hzgeospace., zheng.

    2012-07-01

    A true 3D image is a geo-referenced image. Besides having its radiometric information, it also has true 3Dground coordinates XYZ for every pixels of it. For a true 3D image, especially a true 3D oblique image, it has true 3D coordinates not only for building roofs and/or open grounds, but also for all other visible objects on the ground, such as visible building walls/windows and even trees. The true 3D image breaks the 2D barrier of the traditional orthophotos by introducing the third dimension (elevation) into the image. From a true 3D image, for example, people will not only be able to read a building's location (XY), but also its height (Z). true 3D images will fundamentally change, if not revolutionize, the way people display, look, extract, use, and represent the geospatial information from imagery. In many areas, true 3D images can make profound impacts on the ways of how geospatial information is represented, how true 3D ground modeling is performed, and how the real world scenes are presented. This paper first gives a definition and description of a true 3D image and followed by a brief review of what key advancements of geospatial technologies have made the creation of true 3D images possible. Next, the paper introduces what a true 3D image is made of. Then, the paper discusses some possible contributions and impacts the true 3D images can make to geospatial information fields. At the end, the paper presents a list of the benefits of having and using true 3D images and the applications of true 3D images in a couple of 3D city modeling projects.

  18. Microfabricating 3D Structures by Laser Origami

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-11-09

    10.1117/2.1201111.003952 Microfabricating 3D structures by laser origami Alberto Piqué, Scott Mathews, Andrew Birnbaum, and Nicholas Charipar A new...folding known as origami allows the transformation of flat patterns into 3D shapes. A similar approach can be used to generate 3D structures com...materials Figure 1. (A–C) Schematic illustrating the steps in the laser origami process and (D) a resulting folded out-of-plane 3D structure. that can

  19. Laser Based 3D Volumetric Display System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-03-01

    Literature, Costa Mesa, CA July 1983. 3. "A Real Time Autostereoscopic Multiplanar 3D Display System", Rodney Don Williams, Felix Garcia, Jr., Texas...8217 .- NUMBERS LASER BASED 3D VOLUMETRIC DISPLAY SYSTEM PR: CD13 0. AUTHOR(S) PE: N/AWIU: DN303151 P. Soltan, J. Trias, W. Robinson, W. Dahlke 7...laser generated 3D volumetric images on a rotating double helix, (where the 3D displays are computer controlled for group viewing with the naked eye

  20. Design and development of a 3D printed UAV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banfield, Christopher P.

    The purpose of this project was to investigate the viability and practicality of using a desktop 3D printer to fabricate small UAV airframes. To that end, ASTM based bending and tensile tests were conducted to assess the effects of print orientation, infill density, infill pattern, and infill orientation on the structural properties of 3D printed components. A Vernier Structures & Materials Tester was used to record force and displacement data from which stress-strain diagrams, yielding strength, maximum strength, and the moduli of elasticity were found. Results indicated that print orientation and infill density had the greatest impact on strength. In bending, vertically printed test pieces showed the greatest strength, with yield strengths 1.6 - 10.4% higher than conventionally extruded ABS's 64.0MPa average flexural strength. In contrast, the horizontally printed specimens showed yield strengths reduced anywhere from 17.0 - 34.9%. The tensile test specimens also exhibited reduced strength relative to ABS's average tensile yield strength of 40.7MPa. Test pieces with 20% infill density saw strength reductions anywhere from 47.8 - 55.6%, and those with 50% saw strength reductions from 33.6 - 47.8%. Only a single test piece with 100%, 45° crisscross infill achieved tensile performance on par with that of conventionally fabricated ABS. Its yield strength was 43MPa, a positive strength difference of 5.5%. As a supplement to the tensile and bending tests, a prototype printable airplane, the Phoebe, was designed. Its development process in turn provided the opportunity to develop techniques for printing various aircraft components such as fuselage sections, airfoils, and live-in hinges. Initial results seem promising, with the prototype's first production run requiring 19 hours of print time and an additional 4 - 5 hours of assembly time. The maiden flight test demonstrated that the design was stable and controllable in sustained flight.

  1. Teaching Geography with 3-D Visualization Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anthamatten, Peter; Ziegler, Susy S.

    2006-01-01

    Technology that helps students view images in three dimensions (3-D) can support a broad range of learning styles. "Geo-Wall systems" are visualization tools that allow scientists, teachers, and students to project stereographic images and view them in 3-D. We developed and presented 3-D visualization exercises in several undergraduate courses.…

  2. Expanding Geometry Understanding with 3D Printing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochran, Jill A.; Cochran, Zane; Laney, Kendra; Dean, Mandi

    2016-01-01

    With the rise of personal desktop 3D printing, a wide spectrum of educational opportunities has become available for educators to leverage this technology in their classrooms. Until recently, the ability to create physical 3D models was well beyond the scope, skill, and budget of many schools. However, since desktop 3D printers have become readily…

  3. Imaging a Sustainable Future in 3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuhr, W.; Lee, J. D.; Kanngieser, E.

    2012-07-01

    It is the intention of this paper, to contribute to a sustainable future by providing objective object information based on 3D photography as well as promoting 3D photography not only for scientists, but also for amateurs. Due to the presentation of this article by CIPA Task Group 3 on "3D Photographs in Cultural Heritage", the presented samples are masterpieces of historic as well as of current 3D photography concentrating on cultural heritage. In addition to a report on exemplarily access to international archives of 3D photographs, samples for new 3D photographs taken with modern 3D cameras, as well as by means of a ground based high resolution XLITE staff camera and also 3D photographs taken from a captive balloon and the use of civil drone platforms are dealt with. To advise on optimum suited 3D methodology, as well as to catch new trends in 3D, an updated synoptic overview of the 3D visualization technology, even claiming completeness, has been carried out as a result of a systematic survey. In this respect, e.g., today's lasered crystals might be "early bird" products in 3D, which, due to lack in resolution, contrast and color, remember to the stage of the invention of photography.

  4. Expanding Geometry Understanding with 3D Printing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochran, Jill A.; Cochran, Zane; Laney, Kendra; Dean, Mandi

    2016-01-01

    With the rise of personal desktop 3D printing, a wide spectrum of educational opportunities has become available for educators to leverage this technology in their classrooms. Until recently, the ability to create physical 3D models was well beyond the scope, skill, and budget of many schools. However, since desktop 3D printers have become readily…

  5. Teaching Geography with 3-D Visualization Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anthamatten, Peter; Ziegler, Susy S.

    2006-01-01

    Technology that helps students view images in three dimensions (3-D) can support a broad range of learning styles. "Geo-Wall systems" are visualization tools that allow scientists, teachers, and students to project stereographic images and view them in 3-D. We developed and presented 3-D visualization exercises in several undergraduate courses.…

  6. 3D Printing and Its Urologic Applications

    PubMed Central

    Soliman, Youssef; Feibus, Allison H; Baum, Neil

    2015-01-01

    3D printing is the development of 3D objects via an additive process in which successive layers of material are applied under computer control. This article discusses 3D printing, with an emphasis on its historical context and its potential use in the field of urology. PMID:26028997

  7. Beowulf 3D: a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engle, Rob

    2008-02-01

    This paper discusses the creative and technical challenges encountered during the production of "Beowulf 3D," director Robert Zemeckis' adaptation of the Old English epic poem and the first film to be simultaneously released in IMAX 3D and digital 3D formats.

  8. 3D Flow Visualization Using Texture Advection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kao, David; Zhang, Bing; Kim, Kwansik; Pang, Alex; Moran, Pat (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Texture advection is an effective tool for animating and investigating 2D flows. In this paper, we discuss how this technique can be extended to 3D flows. In particular, we examine the use of 3D and 4D textures on 3D synthetic and computational fluid dynamics flow fields.

  9. 3D insight into fault geometries, deformation, and fluid-migration within the Hosgri Fault Zone offshore central California: Results from high-resolution 3D seismic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kluesner, J.; Brothers, D. S.; Johnson, S. Y.; Watt, J. T.

    2015-12-01

    High-resolution 3D seismic P-Cable data and advanced seismic attribute analyses were used to detect and interpret complex strike-slip fault geometries, deformation patterns, and fluid-pathways across a portion of the Hosgri Fault Zone (HFZ) offshore central California. Combination of the fault attribute results with structural analysis provides 3D insight into the geometry and internal structure of restraining and releasing bends, step-over zones, fault convergence zones, and apparent paired fault bends. The 3D seismic volume covers a 13.7 km2 region along the HFZ offshore of Point Sal and was collected in 2012 as part of the PG&E Central California Seismic Imaging Project (PG&E, 2014). Application of the fault attribute workflow isolated and delineated fault strands within the 3D volume. These results revealed that the northern and southern edges of the survey region are characterized by single fault strands that exhibit an approximate 6° change in strike across the 3D volume. Between these single faults strands is a complex network of fault splays, bends, stepovers, and convergence zones. Structural analysis reveals that the southern portion of the HFZ in the region is characterized by transtensional deformation, whereas transpressional-related folding dominates the central and northern portions of the HFZ. In the central region, convergence of the Lions Head Fault from the southeast results in an apparent impinging block, leading to development of a "paired fault bend" to the west. Combination of the fault and "chimney" attribute results indicates a strong connection between faults and fluid-migration pathways. Fluid-pathways are concentrated along discrete faults in the transtensional zones, but appear to be more broadly distributed amongst fault bounded anticlines and structurally controlled traps in the transpressional zones.

  10. 3-D Perspective Pasadena, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This perspective view shows the western part of the city of Pasadena, California, looking north towards the San Gabriel Mountains. Portions of the cities of Altadena and La Canada, Flintridge are also shown. The image was created from three datasets: the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) supplied the elevation data; Landsat data from November 11, 1986 provided the land surface color (not the sky) and U.S. Geological Survey digital aerial photography provides the image detail. The Rose Bowl, surrounded by a golf course, is the circular feature at the bottom center of the image. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory is the cluster of large buildings north of the Rose Bowl at the base of the mountains. A large landfill, Scholl Canyon, is the smooth area in the lower left corner of the scene. This image shows the power of combining data from different sources to create planning tools to study problems that affect large urban areas. In addition to the well-known earthquake hazards, Southern California is affected by a natural cycle of fire and mudflows. Wildfires strip the mountains of vegetation, increasing the hazards from flooding and mudflows for several years afterwards. Data such as shown on this image can be used to predict both how wildfires will spread over the terrain and also how mudflows will be channeled down the canyons. The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11, 2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission was designed to collect three dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency

  11. Study on 3D Flow Structures and Bed Deformations in Curved Open Channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimada, Ryuichi; Kimura, Ichiro; Shimizu, Yasuyuki

    Bed deformations in river bends are crucial for river management. However, due to the complex flow structures, the prediction of bed deformations in river bends is difficult. In this study, flow structures and bed deformations in curved open channels are discussed through laboratory experiments and 3D numerical simulations. In the 3D model, RANS approach was adopted. The numerical results were compared with experimental data performed by Hinokidani (1998). It is indicated that the fundamental properties of both flow and bed deformation can be captured well by present computations. In addition, numerical and laboratory experiments were conducted for verifying the difference of bed deformation patterns depending on different channel and hydraulic conditions. The experimental results showed that bed deformation patterns in river bends closely depend on two dimensionless parameters; the Dean number and the depth over the curvature radius.

  12. Tumor necrosis factor participates in the pathogenesis of acute immune complex alveolitis in the rat.

    PubMed Central

    Warren, J S; Yabroff, K R; Remick, D G; Kunkel, S L; Chensue, S W; Kunkel, R G; Johnson, K J; Ward, P A

    1989-01-01

    We have examined the role of intrapulmonary TNF in a rat model of acute immune complex-triggered alveolitis. Intratracheal instillation of IgG anti-bovine serum albumin (anti-BSA) followed by intravenous infusion of BSA results in acute alveolitis. Over the 4-h course of evolving lung injury, a 10-fold increase in TNF activity occurred in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid. Immunohistochemical analysis of lung sections and BAL cells revealed that alveolar macrophages are the chief source of TNF. Antibodies that specifically neutralize rat TNF activity were raised in rabbits immunized with recombinant mouse TNF alpha. When administered into the lungs with anti-BSA, anti-TNF resulted in a marked reduction (up to 61%) in lung injury. Intratracheal instillation of exogenous TNF alone, or in combination with anti-BSA, resulted in an increase in lung injury compared to controls. Morphometric analysis and measurements of myeloperoxidase activities in whole lung extracts from rats treated with anti-TNF revealed a marked reduction in neutrophils compared to positive controls. The anti-TNF antibody preparation did not inhibit in vitro complement activation or diminish neutrophil chemotactic activity present in activated rat serum. These data indicate that intrapulmonary TNF activity is required for the full development of acute immune complex-triggered alveolitis, that alveolar macrophages are the primary source of this cytokine, and that TNF participates in the pathogenesis of immune complex alveolitis through a mechanism involving neutrophil recruitment. Images PMID:2531759

  13. Extrinsic allergic alveolitis and asthma in a sawmill worker: case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed Central

    Halpin, D M; Graneek, B J; Turner-Warwick, M; Newman Taylor, A J

    1994-01-01

    A 34 year old sawmill maintenance engineer developed a dry cough that was associated with widespread wheezes and crackles in his lungs. His symptoms worsened, with work related lethargy, fever, and breathlessness, and the loss of a stone in weight. At that time, while still at work, he had a neutrophil leucocytosis and increased concentration of gamma globulins. When seen subsequently some two months after stopping work, his chest radiograph and lung function tests were normal, but the cells recovered at bronchoalveolar lavage showed an increase in lymphocytes and mast cells, a pattern consistent with extrinsic allergic alveolitis. Serum precipitins were identified to extracts of sawdust, wood chips, and bark from the sawmill, and to eight species of mould grown from these samples. Specific IgG binding inhibition studies suggested that a common epitope present on Trichoderma koningii might be responsible for the cross reactivity of the patient's serum with the wood and fungal extracts. A diagnosis of wood associated extrinsic allergic alveolitis was made and since changing his job the patient has remained well. Wood associated allergic alveolitis has not previously been described in British sawmill workers, but has been reported in Sweden, with a prevalence of 5%-10% in exposed workers. A review of published data suggests extrinsic allergic alveolitis in wood workers is primarily caused by inhalation of the spores of contaminating fungi, but inhaled wood dust may exert a synergistic effect. PMID:8130843

  14. Combined CXCR1/CXCR2 antagonism decreases radiation-induced alveolitis in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Fox, Jessica; Gordon, John R; Haston, Christina K

    2011-05-01

    The mechanisms leading to the radiation-induced lung responses of alveolitis and fibrosis are largely unknown. Herein we investigated whether CXC receptor 1 and 2 antagonism with CXCL8((3-72))K11R/G31P (G31P), a protein that reduces neutrophil chemotaxis in acute inflammatory response models, decreases the lung response to radiation. Mice of the AKR/J (alveolitis/pneumonitis responding) and KK/HIJ (fibrosis) strains received 18 Gy whole-thorax irradiation and a subset of these mice were treated with G31P (500 µg/kg) three times per week from the day of irradiation until euthanasia due to respiratory distress symptoms or 20 weeks after radiation treatment. Irradiated mice of both strains receiving G31P survived longer than mice receiving radiation alone. Radiation- and G31P-treated AKR/J mice surviving to the end of the experiment developed significantly less alveolitis, as measured histologically, than mice receiving radiation alone, but this difference was not evident in KK/HIJ mice. Using immunohistochemistry, G31P treatment was shown to increase the numbers of Gr-1-positive cells (neutrophils) in the lungs of unirradiated mice relative to control mice injected with saline, but the antagonist did not alter the numbers of Gr-1-positive cells in the lungs of radiation-treated mice. We conclude that G31P treatment reduces radiation-induced alveolitis but not fibrosis in mice.

  15. The significance of antinuclear and DNA antibodies in cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis.

    PubMed Central

    Holgate, S T; Haslam, P; Turner-Warwick, M

    1983-01-01

    The roles of antinuclear and DNA antibodies in the pathogenesis of cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis were investigated in 53 patients. Twenty-two patients who had antinuclear antibodies detected in their serum had a significantly higher proportion of women, a higher prevalence of Raynaud phenomenon and digital vasculitis, and higher erythrocyte sedimentation rates, paralleled by raised serum globulin and IgG levels, than patients with no antinuclear antibodies detected. Serum antibodies to double-strand DNA (DS-DNA), assayed by a Farr binding technique, were significantly raised in 25% of patients with cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis. Serum binding of single-strand DNA (SS-DNA) was greatly increased in all the patients with cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis, achieving levels similar to those found in systemic lupus erythematosus. Serum DS-DNA binding correlated with IgA levels but not with disease activity. Thus, unlike in systemic lupus erythematosus, antibodies to DS-DNA and SS-DNA with their capacity to form immune complexes are unlikely to be of major importance in the pathogenesis of cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis. PMID:6601861

  16. Experimental alveolitis in rats: microbiological, acute phase response and histometric characterization of delayed alveolar healing

    PubMed Central

    RODRIGUES, Moacyr Tadeu Vicente; CARDOSO, Camila Lopes; de CARVALHO, Paulo Sérgio Perri; CESTARI, Tânia Mary; FERES, Magda; GARLET, Gustavo Pompermaier; FERREIRA JÚNIOR, Osny

    2011-01-01

    The pathogenesis of alveolitis is not well known and therefore experimental situations that mimic some features of this disease should be developed. Objective In this study, the evolution of the experimentally induced infection in rat sockets is characterized, which leads to clinical signs of suppurative alveolitis with remarkable wound healing disturbs. Material and methods Non-infected (Group I) and experimentally infected sockets in Rattus novergicus (Group II) were histometrically evaluated regarding the kinetics of alveolar healing. In addition, the characterization of the present bacteria in inoculation material and the serum levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) were performed. The detected species were Capnocytophaga ochracea, Fusobacterium nucleatum ss nucleatum, Prevotella melaninogenica, Streptococcus anginosus, Treponema socranskii and Streptococcus sanguis. Results All experimentally infected rats developed suppurative alveolitis, showing higher levels of CRP in comparison to those non-infected ones. Furthermore, infected rats presented a significant delayed wound healing as measured by the histometric analysis (higher persistent polymorphonuclear infiltrate and lower density of newly formed bone). Conclusion These findings indicate that rat sockets with experimentally induced infection produced higher levels of serum CRP, showing the potential of disseminated infection and a disturb in the alveolar repair process in an interesting experimental model for alveolitis studies. PMID:21625744

  17. Experimental alveolitis in rats: microbiological, acute phase response and histometric characterization of delayed alveolar healing.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Moacyr Tadeu Vicente; Cardoso, Camila Lopes; Carvalho, Paulo Sérgio Perri de; Cestari, Tânia Mary; Feres, Magda; Garlet, Gustavo Pompermaier; Ferreira, Osny

    2011-01-01

    The pathogenesis of alveolitis is not well known and therefore experimental situations that mimic some features of this disease should be developed. In this study, the evolution of the experimentally induced infection in rat sockets is characterized, which leads to clinical signs of suppurative alveolitis with remarkable wound healing disturbs. Non-infected (Group I) and experimentally infected sockets in Rattus novergicus (Group II) were histometrically evaluated regarding the kinetics of alveolar healing. In addition, the characterization of the present bacteria in inoculation material and the serum levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) were performed. The detected species were Capnocytophaga ochracea, Fusobacterium nucleatum ss nucleatum, Prevotella melaninogenica, Streptococcus anginosus, Treponema socranskii and Streptococcus sanguis. All experimentally infected rats developed suppurative alveolitis, showing higher levels of CRP in comparison to those non-infected ones. Furthermore, infected rats presented a significant delayed wound healing as measured by the histometric analysis (higher persistent polymorphonuclear infiltrate and lower density of newly formed bone). These findings indicate that rat sockets with experimentally induced infection produced higher levels of serum CRP, showing the potential of disseminated infection and a disturb in the alveolar repair process in an interesting experimental model for alveolitis studies.

  18. [Computed tomography in the differential diagnosis of disseminated pulmonary tuberculosis and fibrosing alveolitis].

    PubMed

    Mursalova, G Kh

    2007-01-01

    The differential diagnostic signs of disseminated pulmonary processes were defined by computed tomography. A hundred and sixty-seven patients, including 117 (70%) with disseminated pulmonary tuberculosis (DPT) and 50 (30%) with alveolitis, were examined. Their mean age was 32.3 +/- 5.1 years; the history of disease averaged 4.6 +/- 1.2 years. Acute, subacute, and chronic DPT was observed in 17 (14.5%), 32 (27.3%), and 68 (58.1%) patients, respectively. Idiopathic fibrosing alveolitis (IFA) was seen in 38 patients; 12 patients had exogenous allergic alveolitis (EAA). IFA and EAA were chronic. Patients with DPT had most commonly signs, such as focal masses (45.3%), intra- and interlobular septal thickening (35%), lung tissue reticulation (35%), centrilobular empyema (29%), only focal masses being detected in its acute form, and other signs being more pronounced in its subacute and particularly chronic form. Glassy dark patches, the opal glass syndrome, were a common sign in patients with alveolitis. Septal thickening, lung tissue meshwork, and centrilobular emphysema were encountered only in patients with IDA and small-nodular focal masses and bronchial wall thickening were present in those with EAA.

  19. [Solcoseryl--dental adhesive paste--in the treatment of postextraction alveolitis].

    PubMed

    Kryst, L; Kowalik, S; Bartkowski, S; Henning, G

    1990-06-01

    After a study in three maxillofacial surgery teaching hospital departments the authors evaluated the usefulness of Solcoseryl dental adhesive paste as compared to Apernyl in the treatment of postextraction alveolitis. Solcoseryl paste was found to shorten the healing period by about 50% in comparison with Apernyl.

  20. Case study: Beauty and the Beast 3D: benefits of 3D viewing for 2D to 3D conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handy Turner, Tara

    2010-02-01

    From the earliest stages of the Beauty and the Beast 3D conversion project, the advantages of accurate desk-side 3D viewing was evident. While designing and testing the 2D to 3D conversion process, the engineering team at Walt Disney Animation Studios proposed a 3D viewing configuration that not only allowed artists to "compose" stereoscopic 3D but also improved efficiency by allowing artists to instantly detect which image features were essential to the stereoscopic appeal of a shot and which features had minimal or even negative impact. At a time when few commercial 3D monitors were available and few software packages provided 3D desk-side output, the team designed their own prototype devices and collaborated with vendors to create a "3D composing" workstation. This paper outlines the display technologies explored, final choices made for Beauty and the Beast 3D, wish-lists for future development and a few rules of thumb for composing compelling 2D to 3D conversions.

  1. High alveolar concentration of nitric oxide is associated with alveolitis in scleroderma.

    PubMed

    Tiev, Kiet Phong; Hua-Huy, Thong; Rivière, Sébastien; Le-Dong, Nhat-Nam; Febvre, Michel; Cabane, Jean; Dinh-Xuan, Anh Tuan

    2013-01-15

    Alveolar concentration of nitric oxide (C(A)NO) is a non invasive prognostic marker of systemic sclerosis (SSc) lung disease. There is, however, as yet no direct evidence showing concomitant increase of C(A)NO and the presence of inflammatory cells in alveoli. We have therefore measured C(A)NO and performed broncho-alveolar lavage (BAL) in SSc patients. Exhaled NO was measured, by the means of two different models, the two-compartment model (2CM) and the trumpet model with axial diffusion (TMAD), in 22 SSc patients and compared with 15 healthy controls. BAL was performed in all SSc patients. Alveolitis was defined as lymphocytes >14%, polymorphonuclears >4%, or eosinophils >3% on cell count in BAL fluid. Comparisons of C(A)NO levels were made between SSc patients with, and without, alveolitis. Levels of C(A)NO were significantly higher in SSc patients as compared with controls (p<0.001). Median C(A)NO was significantly higher in SSc patients with alveolitis as compared with SSc patients without alveolitis (8.4ppb; 1st and 3rd interquartile range: 6.0-10.5 vs 3.3ppb; 2.2-3.5; p=0.004 for 2CM and 5.4ppb; 3.2-9.2 vs 3.2ppb; 1.4-3.3, p=0.02 for TMAD), while bronchial airway output of NO (J'awNO, p=0.19), and fractional exhaled NO (F(E)NO, p=0.12) were comparable. C(A)NO was consistently high in SSc patients with alveolitis irrespective of the methods chosen (TMAD or 2CM). Our findings showed that increased C(A)NO was associated with alveolitis in patients with SSc. We submit that C(A)NO could be used as a reliable non-invasive surrogate biomarker of alveolitis in scleroderma lung disease. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Mini 3D for shallow gas reconnaissance

    SciTech Connect

    Vallieres, T. des; Enns, D.; Kuehn, H.; Parron, D.; Lafet, Y.; Van Hulle, D.

    1996-12-31

    The Mini 3D project was undertaken by TOTAL and ELF with the support of CEPM (Comite d`Etudes Petrolieres et Marines) to define an economical method of obtaining 3D seismic HR data for shallow gas assessment. An experimental 3D survey was carried out with classical site survey techniques in the North Sea. From these data 19 simulations, were produced to compare different acquisition geometries ranging from dual, 600 m long cables to a single receiver. Results show that short offset, low fold and very simple streamer positioning are sufficient to give a reliable 3D image of gas charged bodies. The 3D data allow a much more accurate risk delineation than 2D HR data. Moreover on financial grounds Mini-3D is comparable in cost to a classical HR 2D survey. In view of these results, such HR 3D should now be the standard for shallow gas surveying.

  3. [Lymphocytic alveolitis in the early stages of HIV infection: correlation with biological and prognostic factors].

    PubMed

    Quint, L; Autran, B; Guillon, J M; Parrot, A; Denis, M; Debre, P; Mayaud, C M; Akoun, G M

    1992-01-01

    Broncho-alveolar lavage was performed to assess the degree of pulmonary lymphocytic alveolitis in 32 asymptomatic patients who were infected with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (VIH). The patients were stages II and III of the CDC classification and the aim of the study was to determine the frequency, nature and prognostic role of the findings. 62.5% of the subjects (20/32) presented with a lymphocytic alveolitis which consisted predominantly of CD8 lymphocyte (64.3 +/- 3.5%), in the absence of an opportunistic infection or broncho-pulmonary tumours. Two sub-populations of alveolar CD8 were shown at comparable levels, a) sub-population CD8+D44+ (22.1 +/- 5%), in whom we showed the possession of cytotoxic activity in particular specific for VIH; b) sub-population CD8+CD57+ (19.6 +/- 3%) which we have shown to be capable in vitro of inhibiting the effector phase of cytotoxic activity of CD8+D44+ alveolar cells specific for VIH. In this group of 32 patients the occurrence of an alveolitis was not correlated with the usual prognostic factors of infection by VIH measured simultaneously with broncho-alveolar lavage (the level of CD4+ blood lymphocytes, and the beta 2-plasma microglobulins and the presence of p24 antigenaemia). In addition the level of CD4 lymphocytes supperior to 400/mm3 and of beta 2-microglobulins less then 3 mg/l whether a lymphocytic alveolitis was there or not confirmed the relatively poorly developed state of the VIH infection in these asymptomatic patients. Also the occurrence of a lymphocytic alveolitis did not seem to be linked to progression of the disease in the group of patients studied.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. Ciliate pellicular proteome identifies novel protein families with characteristic repeat motifs that are common to alveolates.

    PubMed

    Gould, Sven B; Kraft, Lesleigh G K; van Dooren, Giel G; Goodman, Christopher D; Ford, Kristina L; Cassin, Andrew M; Bacic, Antony; McFadden, Geoffrey I; Waller, Ross F

    2011-03-01

    The pellicles of alveolates (ciliates, apicomplexans, and dinoflagellates) share a common organization, yet perform very divergent functions, including motility, host cell invasion, and armor. The alveolate pellicle consists of a system of flattened membrane sacs (alveoli, which are the defining feature of the group) below the plasma membrane that is supported by a membrane skeleton as well as a network of microtubules and other filamentous elements. We recently showed that a family of proteins, alveolins, are common and unique to this pellicular structure in alveolates. To identify additional proteins that contribute to this structure, a pellicle proteome study was conducted for the ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila. We found 1,173 proteins associated with this structure, 45% (529 proteins) of which represented novel proteins without matches to other functionally characterized proteins. Expression of four newly identified T. thermophila pellicular proteins as green fluorescent protein-fusion constructs confirmed pellicular location, and one new protein located in the oral apparatus. Bioinformatic analysis revealed that 21% of the putative pellicular proteins, predominantly the novel proteins, contained highly repetitive regions with strong amino acid biases for particular residues (K, E, Q, L, I, and V). When the T. thermophila novel proteins were compared with apicomplexan genomic data, 278 proteins with high sequence similarity were identified, suggesting that many of these putative pellicular components are shared between the alveolates. Of these shared proteins, 126 contained the distinctive repeat regions. Localization of two such proteins in Toxoplasma gondii confirmed their role in the pellicle and in doing so identified two new proteins of the apicomplexan invasive structure--the apical complex. Screening broadly for these repetitive domains in genomic data revealed large and actively evolving families of such proteins in alveolates, suggesting that these

  5. Beam and Truss Finite Element Verification for DYNA3D

    SciTech Connect

    Rathbun, H J

    2007-07-16

    The explicit finite element (FE) software program DYNA3D has been developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to simulate the dynamic behavior of structures, systems, and components. This report focuses on verification of beam and truss element formulations in DYNA3D. An efficient protocol has been developed to verify the accuracy of these structural elements by generating a set of representative problems for which closed-form quasi-static steady-state analytical reference solutions exist. To provide as complete coverage as practically achievable, problem sets are developed for each beam and truss element formulation (and their variants) in all modes of loading and physical orientation. Analyses with loading in the elastic and elastic-plastic regimes are performed. For elastic loading, the FE results are within 1% of the reference solutions for all cases. For beam element bending and torsion loading in the plastic regime, the response is heavily dependent on the numerical integration rule chosen, with higher refinement yielding greater accuracy (agreement to within 1%). Axial loading in the plastic regime produces accurate results (agreement to within 0.01%) for all integration rules and element formulations. Truss elements are also verified to provide accurate results (within 0.01%) for elastic and elastic-plastic loading. A sample problem to verify beam element response in ParaDyn, the parallel version DYNA3D, is also presented.

  6. Adipose tissue-derived stem cells display a proangiogenic phenotype on 3D scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Neofytou, Evgenios A; Chang, Edwin; Patlola, Bhagat; Joubert, Lydia-Marie; Rajadas, Jayakumar; Gambhir, Sanjiv S; Cheng, Zhen; Robbins, Robert C; Beygui, Ramin E

    2011-09-01

    Ischemic heart disease is the leading cause of death worldwide. Recent studies suggest that adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ASCs) can be used as a potential source for cardiovascular tissue engineering due to their ability to differentiate along the cardiovascular lineage and to adopt a proangiogenic phenotype. To understand better ASCs' biology, we used a novel 3D culture device. ASCs' and b.END-3 endothelial cell proliferation, migration, and vessel morphogenesis were significantly enhanced compared to 2D culturing techniques. ASCs were isolated from inguinal fat pads of 6-week-old GFP+/BLI+ mice. Early passage ASCs cells (P3-P4), PKH26-labeled murine b.END-3 cells or a co-culture of ASCs and b.END-3 cells were seeded at a density of 1 × 10(5) on three different surface configurations: (a) a 2D surface of tissue culture plastic, (b) Matrigel, and (c) a highly porous 3D scaffold fabricated from inert polystyrene. VEGF expression, cell proliferation, and tubulization, were assessed using optical microscopy, fluorescence microscopy, 3D confocal microscopy, and SEM imaging (n = 6). Increased VEGF levels were seen in conditioned media harvested from co-cultures of ASCs and b.END-3 on either Matrigel or a 3D matrix. Fluorescence, confocal, SEM, bioluminescence revealed improved cell, proliferation, and tubule formation for cells seeded on the 3D polystyrene matrix. Collectively, these data demonstrate that co-culturing ASCs with endothelial cells in a 3D matrix environment enable us to generate prevascularized tissue-engineered constructs. This can potentially help us to surpass the tissue thickness limitations faced by the tissue engineering community today.

  7. 3-D Technology Approaches for Biological Ecologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Liyu; Austin, Robert; U. S-China Physical-Oncology Sciences Alliance (PS-OA) Team

    Constructing three dimensional (3-D) landscapes is an inevitable issue in deep study of biological ecologies, because in whatever scales in nature, all of the ecosystems are composed by complex 3-D environments and biological behaviors. Just imagine if a 3-D technology could help complex ecosystems be built easily and mimic in vivo microenvironment realistically with flexible environmental controls, it will be a fantastic and powerful thrust to assist researchers for explorations. For years, we have been utilizing and developing different technologies for constructing 3-D micro landscapes for biophysics studies in in vitro. Here, I will review our past efforts, including probing cancer cell invasiveness with 3-D silicon based Tepuis, constructing 3-D microenvironment for cell invasion and metastasis through polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) soft lithography, as well as explorations of optimized stenting positions for coronary bifurcation disease with 3-D wax printing and the latest home designed 3-D bio-printer. Although 3-D technologies is currently considered not mature enough for arbitrary 3-D micro-ecological models with easy design and fabrication, I hope through my talk, the audiences will be able to sense its significance and predictable breakthroughs in the near future. This work was supported by the State Key Development Program for Basic Research of China (Grant No. 2013CB837200), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11474345) and the Beijing Natural Science Foundation (Grant No. 7154221).

  8. RT3D tutorials for GMS users

    SciTech Connect

    Clement, T.P.; Jones, N.L.

    1998-02-01

    RT3D (Reactive Transport in 3-Dimensions) is a computer code that solves coupled partial differential equations that describe reactive-flow and transport of multiple mobile and/or immobile species in a three dimensional saturated porous media. RT3D was developed from the single-species transport code, MT3D (DoD-1.5, 1997 version). As with MT3D, RT3D also uses the USGS groundwater flow model MODFLOW for computing spatial and temporal variations in groundwater head distribution. This report presents a set of tutorial problems that are designed to illustrate how RT3D simulations can be performed within the Department of Defense Groundwater Modeling System (GMS). GMS serves as a pre- and post-processing interface for RT3D. GMS can be used to define all the input files needed by RT3D code, and later the code can be launched from within GMS and run as a separate application. Once the RT3D simulation is completed, the solution can be imported to GMS for graphical post-processing. RT3D v1.0 supports several reaction packages that can be used for simulating different types of reactive contaminants. Each of the tutorials, described below, provides training on a different RT3D reaction package. Each reaction package has different input requirements, and the tutorials are designed to describe these differences. Furthermore, the tutorials illustrate the various options available in GMS for graphical post-processing of RT3D results. Users are strongly encouraged to complete the tutorials before attempting to use RT3D and GMS on a routine basis.

  9. 3D change detection - Approaches and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Rongjun; Tian, Jiaojiao; Reinartz, Peter

    2016-12-01

    Due to the unprecedented technology development of sensors, platforms and algorithms for 3D data acquisition and generation, 3D spaceborne, airborne and close-range data, in the form of image based, Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) based point clouds, Digital Elevation Models (DEM) and 3D city models, become more accessible than ever before. Change detection (CD) or time-series data analysis in 3D has gained great attention due to its capability of providing volumetric dynamics to facilitate more applications and provide more accurate results. The state-of-the-art CD reviews aim to provide a comprehensive synthesis and to simplify the taxonomy of the traditional remote sensing CD techniques, which mainly sit within the boundary of 2D image/spectrum analysis, largely ignoring the particularities of 3D aspects of the data. The inclusion of 3D data for change detection (termed 3D CD), not only provides a source with different modality for analysis, but also transcends the border of traditional top-view 2D pixel/object-based analysis to highly detailed, oblique view or voxel-based geometric analysis. This paper reviews the recent developments and applications of 3D CD using remote sensing and close-range data, in support of both academia and industry researchers who seek for solutions in detecting and analyzing 3D dynamics of various objects of interest. We first describe the general considerations of 3D CD problems in different processing stages and identify CD types based on the information used, being the geometric comparison and geometric-spectral analysis. We then summarize relevant works and practices in urban, environment, ecology and civil applications, etc. Given the broad spectrum of applications and different types of 3D data, we discuss important issues in 3D CD methods. Finally, we present concluding remarks in algorithmic aspects of 3D CD.

  10. Dispersion suppressors with bending

    SciTech Connect

    Garren, A.

    1985-10-01

    Dispersion suppressors of two main types are usually used. In one the cell quadrupole focussing structure is the same as in normal cells but some of the dipoles are replaced by drifts. In the other, the quadrupole strengths and/or spacings are different from those of the normal cells, but the bending is about the same as it is in the cells. In SSC designs to date, dispersion suppressors of the former type have been used, consisting of two cells with bending equivalent to one. In this note a suppressor design with normal bending and altered focussing is presented. The advantage of this scheme is that circumference is reduced. The disadvantages are that additional special quadrupoles must be provided (however, they need not be adjustable), and the maximum beta values within them are about 30% higher than the cell maxima.

  11. 3D Printer Coupon removal and stowage

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-12-09

    iss042e031282 (12/09/2014) ---US Astronaut Barry (Butch) Wilmore holding a 3D coupon works with the new 3D printer aboard the International Space Station. The 3D Printing experiment in zero gravity demonstrates that a 3D printer works normally in space. In general, a 3D printer extrudes streams of heated plastic, metal or other material, building layer on top of layer to create 3 dimensional objects. Testing a 3D printer using relatively low-temperature plastic feedstock on the International Space Station is the first step towards establishing an on-demand machine shop in space, a critical enabling component for deep-space crewed missions and in-space manufacturing.

  12. 3D measurement for rapid prototyping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albrecht, Peter; Lilienblum, Tilo; Sommerkorn, Gerd; Michaelis, Bernd

    1996-08-01

    Optical 3-D measurement is an interesting approach for rapid prototyping. On one hand it's necessary to get the 3-D data of an object and on the other hand it's necessary to check the manufactured object (quality checking). Optical 3-D measurement can realize both. Classical 3-D measurement procedures based on photogrammetry cause systematic errors at strongly curved surfaces or steps in surfaces. One possibility to reduce these errors is to calculate the 3-D coordinates from several successively taken images. Thus it's possible to get higher spatial resolution and to reduce the systematic errors at 'problem surfaces.' Another possibility is to process the measurement values by neural networks. A modified associative memory smoothes and corrects the calculated 3-D coordinates using a-priori knowledge about the measurement object.

  13. Expedient Gap Definition Using 3D LADAR

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-09-01

    Research and Development Center (ERDC), ASI has developed an algorithm to reduce the 3D point cloud acquired with the LADAR system into sets of 2D ...developed an algorithm to extract from this 3D point cloud any user-defined number of 2D slices. ASI has incorporated this sensor and algorithm into...direction, ASI has developed an algorithm to condense the 3D point cloud acquired with the LADAR system into sets of 2D profiles that describe the

  14. Digital holography and 3-D imaging.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Partha; Barbastathis, George; Kim, Myung; Kukhtarev, Nickolai

    2011-03-01

    This feature issue on Digital Holography and 3-D Imaging comprises 15 papers on digital holographic techniques and applications, computer-generated holography and encryption techniques, and 3-D display. It is hoped that future work in the area leads to innovative applications of digital holography and 3-D imaging to biology and sensing, and to the development of novel nonlinear dynamic digital holographic techniques.

  15. 3D carotid plaque MR Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Dennis L.

    2015-01-01

    SYNOPSIS There has been significant progress made in 3D carotid plaque magnetic resonance imaging techniques in recent years. 3D plaque imaging clearly represents the future in clinical use. With effective flow suppression techniques, choices of different contrast weighting acquisitions, and time-efficient imaging approaches, 3D plaque imaging offers flexible imaging plane and view angle analysis, large coverage, multi-vascular beds capability, and even can be used in fast screening. PMID:26610656

  16. Photorefractive Polymers for Updateable 3D Displays

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-02-24

    Final Performance Report 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 01-01-2007 to 11-30-2009 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Photorefractive Polymers for Updateable 3D ...ABSTRACT During the tenure of this project a large area updateable 3D color display has been developed for the first time using a new co-polymer...photorefractive polymers have been demonstrated. Moreover, a 6 inch × 6 inch sample was fabricated demonstrating the feasibility of making large area 3D

  17. Dimensional accuracy of 3D printed vertebra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogden, Kent; Ordway, Nathaniel; Diallo, Dalanda; Tillapaugh-Fay, Gwen; Aslan, Can

    2014-03-01

    3D printer applications in the biomedical sciences and medical imaging are expanding and will have an increasing impact on the practice of medicine. Orthopedic and reconstructive surgery has been an obvious area for development of 3D printer applications as the segmentation of bony anatomy to generate printable models is relatively straightforward. There are important issues that should be addressed when using 3D printed models for applications that may affect patient care; in particular the dimensional accuracy of the printed parts needs to be high to avoid poor decisions being made prior to surgery or therapeutic procedures. In this work, the dimensional accuracy of 3D printed vertebral bodies derived from CT data for a cadaver spine is compared with direct measurements on the ex-vivo vertebra and with measurements made on the 3D rendered vertebra using commercial 3D image processing software. The vertebra was printed on a consumer grade 3D printer using an additive print process using PLA (polylactic acid) filament. Measurements were made for 15 different anatomic features of the vertebral body, including vertebral body height, endplate width and depth, pedicle height and width, and spinal canal width and depth, among others. It is shown that for the segmentation and printing process used, the results of measurements made on the 3D printed vertebral body are substantially the same as those produced by direct measurement on the vertebra and measurements made on the 3D rendered vertebra.

  18. TAURUS. 3-D Finite Element Code Postprocessor

    SciTech Connect

    Whirley, R.G.

    1984-05-01

    TAURUS reads the binary plot files generated by the LLNL three-dimensional finite element analysis codes, NIKE3D, DYNA3D, TACO3D, TOPAZ3D, and GEMINI and plots contours, time histories,and deformed shapes. Contours of a large number of quantities may be plotted on meshes consisting of plate, shell, and solid type elements. TAURUS can compute a variety of strain measures, reaction forces along constrained boundaries, and momentum. TAURUS has three phases: initialization, geometry display with contouring, and time history processing.

  19. TAURUS. 3-D Finite Element Code Postprocessor

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, T.

    1992-03-03

    TAURUS reads the binary plot files generated by the LLNL three-dimensional finite element analysis codes, NIKE3D, DYNA3D, TACO3D, TOPAZ3D, and GEMINI and plots contours, time histories, and deformed shapes. Contours of a large number of quantities may be plotted on meshes consisting of plate, shell, and solid type elements. TAURUS can compute a variety of strain measures, reaction forces along constrained boundaries, and momentum. TAURUS has three phases: initialization, geometry display with contouring, and time history processing.

  20. TAURUS. 3-D Finite Element Code Postprocessor

    SciTech Connect

    Whirley, R.G.

    1993-11-30

    TAURUS reads the binary plot files generated by the LLNL three-dimensional finite element analysis codes, NIKE3D, DYNA3D, TACO3D, TOPAZ3D, and GEMINI and plots contours, time histories,and deformed shapes. Contours of a large number of quantities may be plotted on meshes consisting of plate, shell, and solid type elements. TAURUS can compute a variety of strain measures, reaction forces along constrained boundaries, and momentum. TAURUS has three phases: initialization, geometry display with contouring, and time history processing.

  1. TAURUS. 3-d Finite Element Code Postprocessor

    SciTech Connect

    Whirley, R.G.

    1991-05-01

    TAURUS reads the binary plot files generated by the LLNL three-dimensional finite element analysis codes, NIKE3D (ESTSC 139), DYNA3D (ESTSC 138), TACO3D (ESTSC 287), TOPAZ3D (ESTSC 231), and GEMINI (ESTSC 455) and plots contours, time histories,and deformed shapes. Contours of a large number of quantities may be plotted on meshes consisting of plate, shell, and solid type elements. TAURUS can compute a variety of strain measures, reaction forces along constrained boundaries, and momentum. TAURUS has three phases: initialization, geometry display with contouring, and time history processing.

  2. TAURUS. 3-d Finite Element Code Postprocessor

    SciTech Connect

    Whirley, R.G.

    1992-03-03

    TAURUS reads the binary plot files generated by the LLNL three-dimensional finite element analysis codes, NIKE3D (ESTSC 139), DYNA3D (ESTSC 138), TACO3D (ESTSC 287), TOPAZ3D (ESTSC 231), and GEMINI (ESTSC 455) and plots contours, time histories,and deformed shapes. Contours of a large number of quantities may be plotted on meshes consisting of plate, shell, and solid type elements. TAURUS can compute a variety of strain measures, reaction forces along constrained boundaries, and momentum. TAURUS has three phases: initialization, geometry display with contouring, and time history processing.

  3. TAURUS. 3-D Finite Element Code Postprocessor

    SciTech Connect

    Whirley, R.G.

    1992-03-03

    TAURUS reads the binary plot files generated by the LLNL three-dimensional finite element analysis codes, NIKE3D, DYNA3D, TACO3D, TOPAZ3D, and GEMINI and plots contours, time histories,and deformed shapes. Contours of a large number of quantities may be plotted on meshes consisting of plate, shell, and solid type elements. TAURUS can compute a variety of strain measures, reaction forces along constrained boundaries, and momentum. TAURUS has three phases: initialization, geometry display with contouring, and time history processing.

  4. Big Bend sees big environmental push

    SciTech Connect

    Blankinship, S.

    2007-10-15

    The 1800 MW Big Bend Power Station is a coal-fired facility in Tampa Bay, Florida, USA owned by Tampa Electric. It has four pulverized coal- fired steam units equipped with FGD scrubbers and electrostatic precipitators. Currently the addition of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems is under consideration. The Unit 4 SCR retrofit was completed in June 2007; the remaining three systems are scheduled for completion by 2010. Boiler draft systems will be modified to a balance draft design to accommodate the increased pressure drop of the new systems. 3-D computer models were developed to determine constructability due to the tight clearance at the site. 1 photo.

  5. FastScript3D - A Companion to Java 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koenig, Patti

    2005-01-01

    FastScript3D is a computer program, written in the Java 3D(TM) programming language, that establishes an alternative language that helps users who lack expertise in Java 3D to use Java 3D for constructing three-dimensional (3D)-appearing graphics. The FastScript3D language provides a set of simple, intuitive, one-line text-string commands for creating, controlling, and animating 3D models. The first word in a string is the name of a command; the rest of the string contains the data arguments for the command. The commands can also be used as an aid to learning Java 3D. Developers can extend the language by adding custom text-string commands. The commands can define new 3D objects or load representations of 3D objects from files in formats compatible with such other software systems as X3D. The text strings can be easily integrated into other languages. FastScript3D facilitates communication between scripting languages [which enable programming of hyper-text markup language (HTML) documents to interact with users] and Java 3D. The FastScript3D language can be extended and customized on both the scripting side and the Java 3D side.

  6. 3D PDF - a means of public access to geological 3D - objects, using the example of GTA3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slaby, Mark-Fabian; Reimann, Rüdiger

    2013-04-01

    In geology, 3D modeling has become very important. In the past, two-dimensional data such as isolines, drilling profiles, or cross-sections based on those, were used to illustrate the subsurface geology, whereas now, we can create complex digital 3D models. These models are produced with special software, such as GOCAD ®. The models can be viewed, only through the software used to create them, or through viewers available for free. The platform-independent PDF (Portable Document Format), enforced by Adobe, has found a wide distribution. This format has constantly evolved over time. Meanwhile, it is possible to display CAD data in an Adobe 3D PDF file with the free Adobe Reader (version 7). In a 3D PDF, a 3D model is freely rotatable and can be assembled from a plurality of objects, which can thus be viewed from all directions on their own. In addition, it is possible to create moveable cross-sections (profiles), and to assign transparency to the objects. Based on industry-standard CAD software, 3D PDFs can be generated from a large number of formats, or even be exported directly from this software. In geoinformatics, different approaches to creating 3D PDFs exist. The intent of the Authority for Mining, Energy and Geology to allow free access to the models of the Geotectonic Atlas (GTA3D), could not be realized with standard software solutions. A specially designed code converts the 3D objects to VRML (Virtual Reality Modeling Language). VRML is one of the few formats that allow using image files (maps) as textures, and to represent colors and shapes correctly. The files were merged in Acrobat X Pro, and a 3D PDF was generated subsequently. A topographic map, a display of geographic directions and horizontal and vertical scales help to facilitate the use.

  7. 3D ultrafast ultrasound imaging in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Provost, Jean; Papadacci, Clement; Esteban Arango, Juan; Imbault, Marion; Fink, Mathias; Gennisson, Jean-Luc; Tanter, Mickael; Pernot, Mathieu

    2014-10-01

    Very high frame rate ultrasound imaging has recently allowed for the extension of the applications of echography to new fields of study such as the functional imaging of the brain, cardiac electrophysiology, and the quantitative imaging of the intrinsic mechanical properties of tumors, to name a few, non-invasively and in real time. In this study, we present the first implementation of Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging in 3D based on the use of either diverging or plane waves emanating from a sparse virtual array located behind the probe. It achieves high contrast and resolution while maintaining imaging rates of thousands of volumes per second. A customized portable ultrasound system was developed to sample 1024 independent channels and to drive a 32  ×  32 matrix-array probe. Its ability to track in 3D transient phenomena occurring in the millisecond range within a single ultrafast acquisition was demonstrated for 3D Shear-Wave Imaging, 3D Ultrafast Doppler Imaging, and, finally, 3D Ultrafast combined Tissue and Flow Doppler Imaging. The propagation of shear waves was tracked in a phantom and used to characterize its stiffness. 3D Ultrafast Doppler was used to obtain 3D maps of Pulsed Doppler, Color Doppler, and Power Doppler quantities in a single acquisition and revealed, at thousands of volumes per second, the complex 3D flow patterns occurring in the ventricles of the human heart during an entire cardiac cycle, as well as the 3D in vivo interaction of blood flow and wall motion during the pulse wave in the carotid at the bifurcation. This study demonstrates the potential of 3D Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging for the 3D mapping of stiffness, tissue motion, and flow in humans in vivo and promises new clinical applications of ultrasound with reduced intra—and inter-observer variability.

  8. An aerial 3D printing test mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirsch, Michael; McGuire, Thomas; Parsons, Michael; Leake, Skye; Straub, Jeremy

    2016-05-01

    This paper provides an overview of an aerial 3D printing technology, its development and its testing. This technology is potentially useful in its own right. In addition, this work advances the development of a related in-space 3D printing technology. A series of aerial 3D printing test missions, used to test the aerial printing technology, are discussed. Through completing these test missions, the design for an in-space 3D printer may be advanced. The current design for the in-space 3D printer involves focusing thermal energy to heat an extrusion head and allow for the extrusion of molten print material. Plastics can be used as well as composites including metal, allowing for the extrusion of conductive material. A variety of experiments will be used to test this initial 3D printer design. High altitude balloons will be used to test the effects of microgravity on 3D printing, as well as parabolic flight tests. Zero pressure balloons can be used to test the effect of long 3D printing missions subjected to low temperatures. Vacuum chambers will be used to test 3D printing in a vacuum environment. The results will be used to adapt a current prototype of an in-space 3D printer. Then, a small scale prototype can be sent into low-Earth orbit as a 3-U cube satellite. With the ability to 3D print in space demonstrated, future missions can launch production hardware through which the sustainability and durability of structures in space will be greatly improved.

  9. 3D ultrafast ultrasound imaging in vivo.

    PubMed

    Provost, Jean; Papadacci, Clement; Arango, Juan Esteban; Imbault, Marion; Fink, Mathias; Gennisson, Jean-Luc; Tanter, Mickael; Pernot, Mathieu

    2014-10-07

    Very high frame rate ultrasound imaging has recently allowed for the extension of the applications of echography to new fields of study such as the functional imaging of the brain, cardiac electrophysiology, and the quantitative imaging of the intrinsic mechanical properties of tumors, to name a few, non-invasively and in real time. In this study, we present the first implementation of Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging in 3D based on the use of either diverging or plane waves emanating from a sparse virtual array located behind the probe. It achieves high contrast and resolution while maintaining imaging rates of thousands of volumes per second. A customized portable ultrasound system was developed to sample 1024 independent channels and to drive a 32  ×  32 matrix-array probe. Its ability to track in 3D transient phenomena occurring in the millisecond range within a single ultrafast acquisition was demonstrated for 3D Shear-Wave Imaging, 3D Ultrafast Doppler Imaging, and, finally, 3D Ultrafast combined Tissue and Flow Doppler Imaging. The propagation of shear waves was tracked in a phantom and used to characterize its stiffness. 3D Ultrafast Doppler was used to obtain 3D maps of Pulsed Doppler, Color Doppler, and Power Doppler quantities in a single acquisition and revealed, at thousands of volumes per second, the complex 3D flow patterns occurring in the ventricles of the human heart during an entire cardiac cycle, as well as the 3D in vivo interaction of blood flow and wall motion during the pulse wave in the carotid at the bifurcation. This study demonstrates the potential of 3D Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging for the 3D mapping of stiffness, tissue motion, and flow in humans in vivo and promises new clinical applications of ultrasound with reduced intra--and inter-observer variability.

  10. Visualizing 3D velocity fields near contour surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Max, N.; Crawfis, R.; Grant, C.

    1994-03-01

    Vector field rendering is difficult in 3D because the vector icons overlap and hide each other. We propose four different techniques for visualizing vector fields only near surfaces. The first uses motion blurred particles in a thickened region around the surface. The second uses a voxel grid to contain integral curves of the vector field. The third uses many antialiased lines through the surface, and the fourth uses hairs sprouting from the surface and then bending in the direction of the vector field. All the methods use the graphite pipeline, allowing real time rotation and interaction, and the first two methods can animate the texture to move in the flow determined by the velocity field.

  11. Occipital bending in depression.

    PubMed

    Maller, Jerome J; Thomson, Richard H S; Rosenfeld, Jeffrey V; Anderson, Rodney; Daskalakis, Zafiris J; Fitzgerald, Paul B

    2014-06-01

    There are reports of differences in occipital lobe asymmetry within psychiatric populations when compared with healthy control subjects. Anecdotal evidence and enlarged lateral ventricles suggests that there may also be a different pattern of curvature whereby one occipital lobe wraps around the other, termed 'occipital bending'. We investigated the prevalence of occipital bending in 51 patients with major depressive disorder (males mean age = 41.96 ± 14.00 years, females mean age = 40.71 ± 12.41 years) and 48 age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects (males mean age = 40.29 ± 10.23 years, females mean age = 42.47 ± 14.25 years) and found the prevalence to be three times higher among patients with major depressive disorder (18/51, 35.3%) when compared with control subjects (6/48, 12.5%). The results suggest that occipital bending is more common among patients with major depressive disorder than healthy subjects, and that occipital asymmetry and occipital bending are separate phenomena. Incomplete neural pruning may lead to the cranial space available for brain growth being restricted, or ventricular enlargement may exacerbate the natural occipital curvature patterns, subsequently causing the brain to become squashed and forced to 'wrap' around the other occipital lobe. Although the clinical implications of these results are unclear, they provide an impetus for further research into the relevance of occipital bending in major depression disorder. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Dynamics of Structural Parameters and Accumulation of Collagen Fibrils in Rat Lung after Inhalations of Surfactant-BL at Various Terms of Bleomycin-Induced Alveolitis.

    PubMed

    Volchkov, V A; Dubrovskaya, V F; Valkovich, A A; Klestova, O V; Serzhanina, V A; Zhuikov, A G; Seiliev, A A; Rosenberg, O A

    2016-08-01

    Rats were subjected to surfactant-BL inhalations at the early and late phases of bleomycininduced alveolitis. In both regimens, the drug reduced the severity of inflammation. In the acute phase of alveolitis, the therapeutic effect of inhalation was accompanied by activation of the synthesis of fine lose collagen fibrils. In the late phase of alveolitis, inhalation of surfactant-BL thickened the fibrils and diminished their population in alveolar walls.

  13. Wow! 3D Content Awakens the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Dan

    2010-01-01

    From her first encounter with stereoscopic 3D technology designed for classroom instruction, Megan Timme, principal at Hamilton Park Pacesetter Magnet School in Dallas, sensed it could be transformative. Last spring, when she began pilot-testing 3D content in her third-, fourth- and fifth-grade classrooms, Timme wasn't disappointed. Students…

  14. Pathways for Learning from 3D Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrier, L. Mark; Rab, Saira S.; Rosen, Larry D.; Vasquez, Ludivina; Cheever, Nancy A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to find out if 3D stereoscopic presentation of information in a movie format changes a viewer's experience of the movie content. Four possible pathways from 3D presentation to memory and learning were considered: a direct connection based on cognitive neuroscience research; a connection through "immersion"…

  15. Wow! 3D Content Awakens the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Dan

    2010-01-01

    From her first encounter with stereoscopic 3D technology designed for classroom instruction, Megan Timme, principal at Hamilton Park Pacesetter Magnet School in Dallas, sensed it could be transformative. Last spring, when she began pilot-testing 3D content in her third-, fourth- and fifth-grade classrooms, Timme wasn't disappointed. Students…

  16. Infrastructure for 3D Imaging Test Bed

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-05-11

    analysis. (c.) Real time detection & analysis of human gait: using a video camera we capture walking human silhouette for pattern modeling and gait ... analysis . Fig. 5 shows the scanning result result that is fed into a Geo-magic software tool for 3D meshing. Fig. 5: 3D scanning result In

  17. Berries on the Ground 2 3-D

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-02-12

    This 3-D anaglyph, from NASA Mars Exploration Rover Spirit, shows a microscopic image taken of soil featuring round, blueberry-shaped rock formations on the crater floor at Meridiani Planum, Mars. 3D glasses are necessary to view this image.

  18. 3D Printing of Molecular Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Adam; Olson, Arthur

    2016-01-01

    Physical molecular models have played a valuable role in our understanding of the invisible nano-scale world. We discuss 3D printing and its use in producing models of the molecules of life. Complex biomolecular models, produced from 3D printed parts, can demonstrate characteristics of molecular structure and function, such as viral self-assembly,…

  19. 3D Printing. What's the Harm?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Love, Tyler S.; Roy, Ken

    2016-01-01

    Health concerns from 3D printing were first documented by Stephens, Azimi, Orch, and Ramos (2013), who found that commercially available 3D printers were producing hazardous levels of ultrafine particles (UFPs) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) when plastic materials were melted through the extruder. UFPs are particles less than 100 nanometers…

  20. 3D Printed Block Copolymer Nanostructures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scalfani, Vincent F.; Turner, C. Heath; Rupar, Paul A.; Jenkins, Alexander H.; Bara, Jason E.

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of 3D printing has dramatically advanced the availability of tangible molecular and extended solid models. Interestingly, there are few nanostructure models available both commercially and through other do-it-yourself approaches such as 3D printing. This is unfortunate given the importance of nanotechnology in science today. In this…

  1. 3D elastic control for mobile devices.

    PubMed

    Hachet, Martin; Pouderoux, Joachim; Guitton, Pascal

    2008-01-01

    To increase the input space of mobile devices, the authors developed a proof-of-concept 3D elastic controller that easily adapts to mobile devices. This embedded device improves the completion of high-level interaction tasks such as visualization of large documents and navigation in 3D environments. It also opens new directions for tomorrow's mobile applications.

  2. Immersive 3D Geovisualization in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philips, Andrea; Walz, Ariane; Bergner, Andreas; Graeff, Thomas; Heistermann, Maik; Kienzler, Sarah; Korup, Oliver; Lipp, Torsten; Schwanghart, Wolfgang; Zeilinger, Gerold

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we investigate how immersive 3D geovisualization can be used in higher education. Based on MacEachren and Kraak's geovisualization cube, we examine the usage of immersive 3D geovisualization and its usefulness in a research-based learning module on flood risk, called GEOSimulator. Results of a survey among participating students…

  3. Stereo 3-D Vision in Teaching Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zabunov, Svetoslav

    2012-01-01

    Stereo 3-D vision is a technology used to present images on a flat surface (screen, paper, etc.) and at the same time to create the notion of three-dimensional spatial perception of the viewed scene. A great number of physical processes are much better understood when viewed in stereo 3-D vision compared to standard flat 2-D presentation. The…

  4. 3D Printing of Molecular Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Adam; Olson, Arthur

    2016-01-01

    Physical molecular models have played a valuable role in our understanding of the invisible nano-scale world. We discuss 3D printing and its use in producing models of the molecules of life. Complex biomolecular models, produced from 3D printed parts, can demonstrate characteristics of molecular structure and function, such as viral self-assembly,…

  5. Computer Assisted Cancer Device - 3D Imaging

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-10-01

    tomosynthesis images of the breast. iCAD has identified several sources of 3D tomosynthesis data, and has begun adapting its image analysis...collaborative relationships with major manufacturers of tomosynthesis equipment. 21. iCAD believes that tomosynthesis , a 3D breast imaging technique...purported advantages of tomosynthesis relative to conventional mammography include; improved lesion visibility, improved lesion detectability and

  6. 3D Printed Block Copolymer Nanostructures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scalfani, Vincent F.; Turner, C. Heath; Rupar, Paul A.; Jenkins, Alexander H.; Bara, Jason E.

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of 3D printing has dramatically advanced the availability of tangible molecular and extended solid models. Interestingly, there are few nanostructure models available both commercially and through other do-it-yourself approaches such as 3D printing. This is unfortunate given the importance of nanotechnology in science today. In this…

  7. Stereo 3-D Vision in Teaching Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zabunov, Svetoslav

    2012-01-01

    Stereo 3-D vision is a technology used to present images on a flat surface (screen, paper, etc.) and at the same time to create the notion of three-dimensional spatial perception of the viewed scene. A great number of physical processes are much better understood when viewed in stereo 3-D vision compared to standard flat 2-D presentation. The…

  8. Case study of 3D fingerprints applications.

    PubMed

    Liu, Feng; Liang, Jinrong; Shen, Linlin; Yang, Meng; Zhang, David; Lai, Zhihui

    2017-01-01

    Human fingers are 3D objects. More information will be provided if three dimensional (3D) fingerprints are available compared with two dimensional (2D) fingerprints. Thus, this paper firstly collected 3D finger point cloud data by Structured-light Illumination method. Additional features from 3D fingerprint images are then studied and extracted. The applications of these features are finally discussed. A series of experiments are conducted to demonstrate the helpfulness of 3D information to fingerprint recognition. Results show that a quick alignment can be easily implemented under the guidance of 3D finger shape feature even though this feature does not work for fingerprint recognition directly. The newly defined distinctive 3D shape ridge feature can be used for personal authentication with Equal Error Rate (EER) of ~8.3%. Also, it is helpful to remove false core point. Furthermore, a promising of EER ~1.3% is realized by combining this feature with 2D features for fingerprint recognition which indicates the prospect of 3D fingerprint recognition.

  9. A 3D Geostatistical Mapping Tool

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, W. W.; Stevenson, Graig; Patel, Ketan; Wang, Jun

    1999-02-09

    This software provides accurate 3D reservoir modeling tools and high quality 3D graphics for PC platforms enabling engineers and geologists to better comprehend reservoirs and consequently improve their decisions. The mapping algorithms are fractals, kriging, sequential guassian simulation, and three nearest neighbor methods.

  10. Topology dictionary for 3D video understanding.

    PubMed

    Tung, Tony; Matsuyama, Takashi

    2012-08-01

    This paper presents a novel approach that achieves 3D video understanding. 3D video consists of a stream of 3D models of subjects in motion. The acquisition of long sequences requires large storage space (2 GB for 1 min). Moreover, it is tedious to browse data sets and extract meaningful information. We propose the topology dictionary to encode and describe 3D video content. The model consists of a topology-based shape descriptor dictionary which can be generated from either extracted patterns or training sequences. The model relies on 1) topology description and classification using Reeb graphs, and 2) a Markov motion graph to represent topology change states. We show that the use of Reeb graphs as the high-level topology descriptor is relevant. It allows the dictionary to automatically model complex sequences, whereas other strategies would require prior knowledge on the shape and topology of the captured subjects. Our approach serves to encode 3D video sequences, and can be applied for content-based description and summarization of 3D video sequences. Furthermore, topology class labeling during a learning process enables the system to perform content-based event recognition. Experiments were carried out on various 3D videos. We showcase an application for 3D video progressive summarization using the topology dictionary.

  11. 3D, or Not to Be?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norbury, Keith

    2012-01-01

    It may be too soon for students to be showing up for class with popcorn and gummy bears, but technology similar to that behind the 3D blockbuster movie "Avatar" is slowly finding its way into college classrooms. 3D classroom projectors are taking students on fantastic voyages inside the human body, to the ruins of ancient Greece--even to faraway…

  12. Immersive 3D Geovisualization in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philips, Andrea; Walz, Ariane; Bergner, Andreas; Graeff, Thomas; Heistermann, Maik; Kienzler, Sarah; Korup, Oliver; Lipp, Torsten; Schwanghart, Wolfgang; Zeilinger, Gerold

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we investigate how immersive 3D geovisualization can be used in higher education. Based on MacEachren and Kraak's geovisualization cube, we examine the usage of immersive 3D geovisualization and its usefulness in a research-based learning module on flood risk, called GEOSimulator. Results of a survey among participating students…

  13. 3D, or Not to Be?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norbury, Keith

    2012-01-01

    It may be too soon for students to be showing up for class with popcorn and gummy bears, but technology similar to that behind the 3D blockbuster movie "Avatar" is slowly finding its way into college classrooms. 3D classroom projectors are taking students on fantastic voyages inside the human body, to the ruins of ancient Greece--even to faraway…

  14. 3D Printing. What's the Harm?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Love, Tyler S.; Roy, Ken

    2016-01-01

    Health concerns from 3D printing were first documented by Stephens, Azimi, Orch, and Ramos (2013), who found that commercially available 3D printers were producing hazardous levels of ultrafine particles (UFPs) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) when plastic materials were melted through the extruder. UFPs are particles less than 100 nanometers…

  15. DOUGLAS XA3D-1 #413 AIRPLANE.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1955-07-27

    DOUGLAS XA3D-1 #413 AIRPLANE MOUNTED IN THE NACA AMES RESEARCH CENTER'S 40X80_FOOT SUBSONIC WIND TUNNEL Testing the boundary layer control of the A3D in the 40 x 80 wind tunnel. Boundary layer control was added to increase the lift of the wing for take off from an aircraft carrier.

  16. DOUGLAS XA3D-1 #413 AIRPLANE.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1955-07-27

    DOUGLAS XA3D-1 #413 AIRPLANE MOUNTED IN THE NACA AMES RESEARCH CENTER'S 40X80_FOOT SUBSONIC WIND TUNNEL sweptback wing Testing the wing boundary layer control of the A3D in the 40 x 80 wind tunnel. Boundary layer control was added to increase the lift of the wing for aircraft carrier take off and landing.

  17. Static & Dynamic Response of 3D Solids

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Jerry

    1996-07-15

    NIKE3D is a large deformations 3D finite element code used to obtain the resulting displacements and stresses from multi-body static and dynamic structural thermo-mechanics problems with sliding interfaces. Many nonlinear and temperature dependent constitutive models are available.

  18. Integration of real-time 3D image acquisition and multiview 3D display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhaoxing; Geng, Zheng; Li, Tuotuo; Li, Wei; Wang, Jingyi; Liu, Yongchun

    2014-03-01

    Seamless integration of 3D acquisition and 3D display systems offers enhanced experience in 3D visualization of the real world objects or scenes. The vivid representation of captured 3D objects displayed on a glasses-free 3D display screen could bring the realistic viewing experience to viewers as if they are viewing real-world scene. Although the technologies in 3D acquisition and 3D display have advanced rapidly in recent years, effort is lacking in studying the seamless integration of these two different aspects of 3D technologies. In this paper, we describe our recent progress on integrating a light-field 3D acquisition system and an autostereoscopic multiview 3D display for real-time light field capture and display. This paper focuses on both the architecture design and the implementation of the hardware and the software of this integrated 3D system. A prototype of the integrated 3D system is built to demonstrate the real-time 3D acquisition and 3D display capability of our proposed system.

  19. Quon 3D language for quantum information

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhengwei; Wozniakowski, Alex; Jaffe, Arthur M.

    2017-01-01

    We present a 3D topological picture-language for quantum information. Our approach combines charged excitations carried by strings, with topological properties that arise from embedding the strings in the interior of a 3D manifold with boundary. A quon is a composite that acts as a particle. Specifically, a quon is a hemisphere containing a neutral pair of open strings with opposite charge. We interpret multiquons and their transformations in a natural way. We obtain a type of relation, a string–genus “joint relation,” involving both a string and the 3D manifold. We use the joint relation to obtain a topological interpretation of the C∗-Hopf algebra relations, which are widely used in tensor networks. We obtain a 3D representation of the controlled NOT (CNOT) gate that is considerably simpler than earlier work, and a 3D topological protocol for teleportation. PMID:28167790

  20. 2D/3D switchable displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dekker, T.; de Zwart, S. T.; Willemsen, O. H.; Hiddink, M. G. H.; IJzerman, W. L.

    2006-02-01

    A prerequisite for a wide market acceptance of 3D displays is the ability to switch between 3D and full resolution 2D. In this paper we present a robust and cost effective concept for an auto-stereoscopic switchable 2D/3D display. The display is based on an LCD panel, equipped with switchable LC-filled lenticular lenses. We will discuss 3D image quality, with the focus on display uniformity. We show that slanting the lenticulars in combination with a good lens design can minimize non-uniformities in our 20" 2D/3D monitors. Furthermore, we introduce fractional viewing systems as a very robust concept to further improve uniformity in the case slanting the lenticulars and optimizing the lens design are not sufficient. We will discuss measurements and numerical simulations of the key optical characteristics of this display. Finally, we discuss 2D image quality, the switching characteristics and the residual lens effect.

  1. 6D Interpretation of 3D Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herfray, Yannick; Krasnov, Kirill; Scarinci, Carlos

    2017-02-01

    We show that 3D gravity, in its pure connection formulation, admits a natural 6D interpretation. The 3D field equations for the connection are equivalent to 6D Hitchin equations for the Chern–Simons 3-form in the total space of the principal bundle over the 3-dimensional base. Turning this construction around one gets an explanation of why the pure connection formulation of 3D gravity exists. More generally, we interpret 3D gravity as the dimensional reduction of the 6D Hitchin theory. To this end, we show that any \\text{SU}(2) invariant closed 3-form in the total space of the principal \\text{SU}(2) bundle can be parametrised by a connection together with a 2-form field on the base. The dimensional reduction of the 6D Hitchin theory then gives rise to 3D gravity coupled to a topological 2-form field.

  2. BEAMS3D Neutral Beam Injection Model

    SciTech Connect

    Lazerson, Samuel

    2014-04-14

    With the advent of applied 3D fi elds in Tokamaks and modern high performance stellarators, a need has arisen to address non-axisymmetric effects on neutral beam heating and fueling. We report on the development of a fully 3D neutral beam injection (NBI) model, BEAMS3D, which addresses this need by coupling 3D equilibria to a guiding center code capable of modeling neutral and charged particle trajectories across the separatrix and into the plasma core. Ionization, neutralization, charge-exchange, viscous velocity reduction, and pitch angle scattering are modeled with the ADAS atomic physics database [1]. Benchmark calculations are presented to validate the collisionless particle orbits, neutral beam injection model, frictional drag, and pitch angle scattering effects. A calculation of neutral beam heating in the NCSX device is performed, highlighting the capability of the code to handle 3D magnetic fields.

  3. Fabrication of 3D Silicon Sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Kok, A.; Hansen, T.E.; Hansen, T.A.; Lietaer, N.; Summanwar, A.; Kenney, C.; Hasi, J.; Da Via, C.; Parker, S.I.; /Hawaii U.

    2012-06-06

    Silicon sensors with a three-dimensional (3-D) architecture, in which the n and p electrodes penetrate through the entire substrate, have many advantages over planar silicon sensors including radiation hardness, fast time response, active edge and dual readout capabilities. The fabrication of 3D sensors is however rather complex. In recent years, there have been worldwide activities on 3D fabrication. SINTEF in collaboration with Stanford Nanofabrication Facility have successfully fabricated the original (single sided double column type) 3D detectors in two prototype runs and the third run is now on-going. This paper reports the status of this fabrication work and the resulted yield. The work of other groups such as the development of double sided 3D detectors is also briefly reported.

  4. Biocompatible 3D Matrix with Antimicrobial Properties.

    PubMed

    Ion, Alberto; Andronescu, Ecaterina; Rădulescu, Dragoș; Rădulescu, Marius; Iordache, Florin; Vasile, Bogdan Ștefan; Surdu, Adrian Vasile; Albu, Madalina Georgiana; Maniu, Horia; Chifiriuc, Mariana Carmen; Grumezescu, Alexandru Mihai; Holban, Alina Maria

    2016-01-20

    The aim of this study was to develop, characterize and assess the biological activity of a new regenerative 3D matrix with antimicrobial properties, based on collagen (COLL), hydroxyapatite (HAp), β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) and usnic acid (UA). The prepared 3D matrix was characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Fourier Transform Infrared Microscopy (FT-IRM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), and X-ray Diffraction (XRD). In vitro qualitative and quantitative analyses performed on cultured diploid cells demonstrated that the 3D matrix is biocompatible, allowing the normal development and growth of MG-63 osteoblast-like cells and exhibited an antimicrobial effect, especially on the Staphylococcus aureus strain, explained by the particular higher inhibitory activity of usnic acid (UA) against Gram positive bacterial strains. Our data strongly recommend the obtained 3D matrix to be used as a successful alternative for the fabrication of three dimensional (3D) anti-infective regeneration matrix for bone tissue engineering.

  5. Corner flow control in high through-flow axial commercial fan/booster using blade 3-D optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Fang; Jin, Donghai; Gui, Xingmin

    2012-02-01

    This study is aimed at using blade 3-D optimization to control corner flows in the high through-flow fan/booster of a high bypass ratio commercial turbofan engine. Two kinds of blade 3-D optimization, end-bending and bow, are focused on. On account of the respective operation mode and environment, the approach to 3-D aerodynamic modeling of rotor blades is different from stator vanes. Based on the understanding of the mechanism of the corner flow and the consideration of intensity problem for rotors, this paper uses a variety of blade 3-D optimization approaches, such as loading distribution optimization, perturbation of departure angles and stacking-axis manipulation, which are suitable for rotors and stators respectively. The obtained 3-D blades and vanes can improve the corner flow features by end-bending and bow effects. The results of this study show that flows in corners of the fan/booster, such as the fan hub region, the tip and hub of the vanes of the booster, are very complex and dominated by 3-D effects. The secondary flows there are found to have a strong detrimental effect on the compressor performance. The effects of both end-bending and bow can improve the flow separation in corners, but the specific ways they work and application scope are somewhat different. Redesigning the blades via blade 3-D optimization to control the corner flow has effectively reduced the loss generation and improved the stall margin by a large amount.

  6. 3D Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Provost, Jean; Papadacci, Clement; Arango, Juan Esteban; Imbault, Marion; Gennisson, Jean-Luc; Tanter, Mickael; Pernot, Mathieu

    2014-01-01

    Very high frame rate ultrasound imaging has recently allowed for the extension of the applications of echography to new fields of study such as the functional imaging of the brain, cardiac electrophysiology, and the quantitative real-time imaging of the intrinsic mechanical properties of tumors, to name a few, non-invasively and in real time. In this study, we present the first implementation of Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging in three dimensions based on the use of either diverging or plane waves emanating from a sparse virtual array located behind the probe. It achieves high contrast and resolution while maintaining imaging rates of thousands of volumes per second. A customized portable ultrasound system was developed to sample 1024 independent channels and to drive a 32×32 matrix-array probe. Its capability to track in 3D transient phenomena occurring in the millisecond range within a single ultrafast acquisition was demonstrated for 3-D Shear-Wave Imaging, 3-D Ultrafast Doppler Imaging and finally 3D Ultrafast combined Tissue and Flow Doppler. The propagation of shear waves was tracked in a phantom and used to characterize its stiffness. 3-D Ultrafast Doppler was used to obtain 3-D maps of Pulsed Doppler, Color Doppler, and Power Doppler quantities in a single acquisition and revealed, for the first time, the complex 3-D flow patterns occurring in the ventricles of the human heart during an entire cardiac cycle, and the 3-D in vivo interaction of blood flow and wall motion during the pulse wave in the carotid at the bifurcation. This study demonstrates the potential of 3-D Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging for the 3-D real-time mapping of stiffness, tissue motion, and flow in humans in vivo and promises new clinical applications of ultrasound with reduced intra- and inter-observer variability. PMID:25207828

  7. Pathways for Learning from 3D Technology

    PubMed Central

    Carrier, L. Mark; Rab, Saira S.; Rosen, Larry D.; Vasquez, Ludivina; Cheever, Nancy A.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to find out if 3D stereoscopic presentation of information in a movie format changes a viewer's experience of the movie content. Four possible pathways from 3D presentation to memory and learning were considered: a direct connection based on cognitive neuroscience research; a connection through "immersion" in that 3D presentations could provide additional sensorial cues (e.g., depth cues) that lead to a higher sense of being surrounded by the stimulus; a connection through general interest such that 3D presentation increases a viewer’s interest that leads to greater attention paid to the stimulus (e.g., "involvement"); and a connection through discomfort, with the 3D goggles causing discomfort that interferes with involvement and thus with memory. The memories of 396 participants who viewed two-dimensional (2D) or 3D movies at movie theaters in Southern California were tested. Within three days of viewing a movie, participants filled out an online anonymous questionnaire that queried them about their movie content memories, subjective movie-going experiences (including emotional reactions and "presence") and demographic backgrounds. The responses to the questionnaire were subjected to path analyses in which several different links between 3D presentation to memory (and other variables) were explored. The results showed there were no effects of 3D presentation, either directly or indirectly, upon memory. However, the largest effects of 3D presentation were on emotions and immersion, with 3D presentation leading to reduced positive emotions, increased negative emotions and lowered immersion, compared to 2D presentations. PMID:28078331

  8. 3D Visualization Development of SIUE Campus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nellutla, Shravya

    Geographic Information Systems (GIS) has progressed from the traditional map-making to the modern technology where the information can be created, edited, managed and analyzed. Like any other models, maps are simplified representations of real world. Hence visualization plays an essential role in the applications of GIS. The use of sophisticated visualization tools and methods, especially three dimensional (3D) modeling, has been rising considerably due to the advancement of technology. There are currently many off-the-shelf technologies available in the market to build 3D GIS models. One of the objectives of this research was to examine the available ArcGIS and its extensions for 3D modeling and visualization and use them to depict a real world scenario. Furthermore, with the advent of the web, a platform for accessing and sharing spatial information on the Internet, it is possible to generate interactive online maps. Integrating Internet capacity with GIS functionality redefines the process of sharing and processing the spatial information. Enabling a 3D map online requires off-the-shelf GIS software, 3D model builders, web server, web applications and client server technologies. Such environments are either complicated or expensive because of the amount of hardware and software involved. Therefore, the second objective of this research was to investigate and develop simpler yet cost-effective 3D modeling approach that uses available ArcGIS suite products and the free 3D computer graphics software for designing 3D world scenes. Both ArcGIS Explorer and ArcGIS Online will be used to demonstrate the way of sharing and distributing 3D geographic information on the Internet. A case study of the development of 3D campus for the Southern Illinois University Edwardsville is demonstrated.

  9. The psychology of the 3D experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janicke, Sophie H.; Ellis, Andrew

    2013-03-01

    With 3D televisions expected to reach 50% home saturation as early as 2016, understanding the psychological mechanisms underlying the user response to 3D technology is critical for content providers, educators and academics. Unfortunately, research examining the effects of 3D technology has not kept pace with the technology's rapid adoption, resulting in large-scale use of a technology about which very little is actually known. Recognizing this need for new research, we conducted a series of studies measuring and comparing many of the variables and processes underlying both 2D and 3D media experiences. In our first study, we found narratives within primetime dramas had the power to shift viewer attitudes in both 2D and 3D settings. However, we found no difference in persuasive power between 2D and 3D content. We contend this lack of effect was the result of poor conversion quality and the unique demands of 3D production. In our second study, we found 3D technology significantly increased enjoyment when viewing sports content, yet offered no added enjoyment when viewing a movie trailer. The enhanced enjoyment of the sports content was shown to be the result of heightened emotional arousal and attention in the 3D condition. We believe the lack of effect found for the movie trailer may be genre-related. In our final study, we found 3D technology significantly enhanced enjoyment of two video games from different genres. The added enjoyment was found to be the result of an increased sense of presence.

  10. High-strength cellular ceramic composites with 3D microarchitecture.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Jens; Hengsbach, Stefan; Tesari, Iwiza; Schwaiger, Ruth; Kraft, Oliver

    2014-02-18

    To enhance the strength-to-weight ratio of a material, one may try to either improve the strength or lower the density, or both. The lightest solid materials have a density in the range of 1,000 kg/m(3); only cellular materials, such as technical foams, can reach considerably lower values. However, compared with corresponding bulk materials, their specific strength generally is significantly lower. Cellular topologies may be divided into bending- and stretching-dominated ones. Technical foams are structured randomly and behave in a bending-dominated way, which is less weight efficient, with respect to strength, than stretching-dominated behavior, such as in regular braced frameworks. Cancellous bone and other natural cellular solids have an optimized architecture. Their basic material is structured hierarchically and consists of nanometer-size elements, providing a benefit from size effects in the material strength. Designing cellular materials with a specific microarchitecture would allow one to exploit the structural advantages of stretching-dominated constructions as well as size-dependent strengthening effects. In this paper, we demonstrate that such materials may be fabricated. Applying 3D laser lithography, we produced and characterized micro-truss and -shell structures made from alumina-polymer composite. Size-dependent strengthening of alumina shells has been observed, particularly when applied with a characteristic thickness below 100 nm. The presented artificial cellular materials reach compressive strengths up to 280 MPa with densities well below 1,000 kg/m(3).

  11. High-strength cellular ceramic composites with 3D microarchitecture

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Jens; Hengsbach, Stefan; Tesari, Iwiza; Schwaiger, Ruth; Kraft, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    To enhance the strength-to-weight ratio of a material, one may try to either improve the strength or lower the density, or both. The lightest solid materials have a density in the range of 1,000 kg/m3; only cellular materials, such as technical foams, can reach considerably lower values. However, compared with corresponding bulk materials, their specific strength generally is significantly lower. Cellular topologies may be divided into bending- and stretching-dominated ones. Technical foams are structured randomly and behave in a bending-dominated way, which is less weight efficient, with respect to strength, than stretching-dominated behavior, such as in regular braced frameworks. Cancellous bone and other natural cellular solids have an optimized architecture. Their basic material is structured hierarchically and consists of nanometer-size elements, providing a benefit from size effects in the material strength. Designing cellular materials with a specific microarchitecture would allow one to exploit the structural advantages of stretching-dominated constructions as well as size-dependent strengthening effects. In this paper, we demonstrate that such materials may be fabricated. Applying 3D laser lithography, we produced and characterized micro-truss and -shell structures made from alumina–polymer composite. Size-dependent strengthening of alumina shells has been observed, particularly when applied with a characteristic thickness below 100 nm. The presented artificial cellular materials reach compressive strengths up to 280 MPa with densities well below 1,000 kg/m3. PMID:24550268

  12. The inspiratory "squawk" in extrinsic allergic alveolitis and other pulmonary fibroses.

    PubMed Central

    Earis, J E; Marsh, K; Pearson, M G; Ogilvie, C M

    1982-01-01

    An inspiratory musical sound ("squawk") was recorded in 14 patients with diffuse pulmonary fibrosis. These were divided into two groups: nine patients suffering from extrinsic allergic alveolitis (seven with bird fancier's lung and two with farmer's lung) and five patients with pulmonary fibrosis due to other causes, including rheumatoid disease, Wegener's granulomatosis, systemic sclerosis, and sarcoidosis. Clinical studies and phonopneumographic analysis of 10 consecutive squawks in each patient showed that the sound in the group with extrinsic allergic alveolitis was of shorter duration, occurred later in inspiration, and tended to be of higher frequency than the sound heard in the other group. Inspiratory crackles were present in all patients and in eight a single loud crackle preceded the squawk. We suggest that squawks, like crackles, result from the opening of airways and that the differences between the squawks in the two groups may reflect the size of the affected airways. PMID:7170682

  13. [Which technique should be used in the phenotyping of lymphocytic alveolitis: Immunocytochemistry or flow cytometry].

    PubMed

    Mlika, Mona; Kasmi, Rihem; Safra, Ines; Braham, Emna; Chebbi, Chokri; Mezni, Faouzi El

    2017-09-18

    Diffuse interstitial pneumonias are considered as a group of multiple affections characterized by challenging diagnoses because of the lack of specific clinical signs. Radiologic investigations highlight the diagnoses in most of the cases but bronchoalveolar lavage plays a key role in the diagnostic diagram. We aim to compare the immunocytochemical technique and the flow cytometry in the phenotyping of lymphocytic alveolitis. We described a series of 32 lymphocytic alveolitis, which were analyzed using immunocytochemistry and flow cytometry. We found a good reproducibility between the immunocytochemistry performed on smears and cytoblocks (kappa=0.7) and a poor reproducibility between immunocytochemistry and flow cytometry (kappa=0.35). Our study emphasized on the poor reproducibility between immunocytochemistry and flow cytometry. Further studies about the reliability of both techniques are needed especially in discordant cases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. [Asthma, alveolitis, aspergillosis, berylliosis. What to do when there is allergic reaction of the lung?].

    PubMed

    Vier, H; Protze, M; Brunner, R; Gillissen, A

    2003-03-06

    Among the major allergic pulmonary disorders are bronchial asthma, extrinsic allergic alveolitis, allergic aspergillosis and berylliosis. Asthma is diagnosed on the basis of clinical symptoms (wheezing, respiratory distress, tight chest, coughing) and lung function tests possibly supplemented by allergic and provocative testing. Asthma treatment is differentiated into long-term medication and as-required medication. Specific immunotherapy is considered the sole causal therapy. Extrinsic allergic alveolitis is work- or hobby-related (farmer's/cheese worker's/bird-fancier's lung) and manifests as diffuse pneumonitis with dyspnea, coughing and fever. For the diagnosis, the antigen provocative test in particular plays a major role. In the main, treatment comprises strict avoidance of allergens. The diagnosis of allergic pulmonary aspergillosis is based on the history, clinical findings, skin tests, serology and radiography. Treatment is stage-related by means of immunosuppressive agents. In terms of radiographic and pulmonary function findings, berylliosis is similar to sarcoidosis. Here, too, immunosuppressive agents are to the fore.

  15. [Extrinsic allergic alveolitis: An initial form of presentation as a fever of unknown origin].

    PubMed

    Peña Irún, A; García Pérez, M; González Santamaría, A

    2012-10-01

    Extrinsic allergic alveolitis is characterised by an inflammatory immune process with pulmonary impairment caused by inhalation of organic dust. It is considered an occupational disease and is a very significant cause of temporary and permanent disability that can be prevented. The diagnosis is not often easy, but it is important to make it in the early stages, when the disease is still reversible. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier España, S.L. y SEMERGEN. All rights reserved.

  16. Lymphocytic alveolitis: A surprising index of poor prognosis in patients with primary Sjogren's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Dalavanga, Y A; Voulgari, P V; Georgiadis, A N; Leontaridi, C; Katsenos, S; Vassiliou, M; Drosos, A A; Constantopoulos, S H

    2006-07-01

    Twelve years ago we reported that lymphocytic alveolitis [or bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) lymphocytosis] correlates with clinical pulmonary involvement in primary Sjogren's syndrome (pSS). Our thesis was based on subtle clinical and functional evidence of interstitial lung disease (ILD) in pSS patients with "high lymphocytic alveolitis" (>15% lymphocytes in BAL). This report is a follow-up study of these patients. Basic clinical and functional re-evaluation of the 22 patients with pSS, studied in 1991, emphasized the differences between those with alveolitis and those without alveolitis. There was no significant functional decline. There were, however, two statistically significant differences between the two groups: (1) only patients with BAL lymphocytosis had to be treated with steroids (5/12 vs. 0/10, P < 0.05) and (2) only patients with BAL lymphocytosis had died in the mean time (6/12 vs. 0/10, P < 0.01). The causes of death were various. On only two occasions were they related to respiratory infections while there were no deaths from respiratory failure secondary to ILD. BAL lymphocytosis appears to be a surprisingly serious index of dismal prognosis in patients with pSS. We offer no unifying pathophysiologic mechanism for it and, therefore, all we propose is that BAL is performed early, in as many patients with pSS as possible. These patients should then be followed up systematically, in order to evaluate if BAL lymphocytosis has any pathophysiologic importance in the development of clinically serious pSS, which is serious enough to lead to death.

  17. Oceanic Plate Bending Along the Manila Trench

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, F.; Lin, J.; Zhan, W.

    2014-12-01

    We quantify along-trench variations in plate flexural bending along the Manila trench in the South China Sea. A 3-D interpreted flexural deformation surface of the subducting South China Sea Plate was obtained by removing from the observed bathymetry the effects of sediment loading, isostatically-compensated topography based on gravity modeling, age-related lithospheric thermal subsidence, and residual short-wavelength features. We analyzed flexural bending of 21 across-trench profile sections along the Manila trench and then calculated five best-fitting tectonic and plate parameters that control the flexural bending for each of the across-trench profile sections. Results of analysis revealed significant along-trench variations: The trench relief of the Manila trench varies from 0.8 to 2.2 km, trench-axis vertical loading (-V0) from -0.4x1012 to 1.21x1012 N/m, and axial bending moment (-M0) from 0.005x1017 to 0.6x1017 N. The effective elastic plate thickness seaward of the Manila outer-rise region (TeM) ranges from 30 to 40 km, while that trench-ward of the outer-rise (Tem) ranges from 11 to 30 km. This corresponds to a reduction in Te of 26-63% for the Manila trench. The transition from TeM to Tem occurs at a breaking distance of 50-120 km from the Manila trench axis. The axial vertical loading, bending moment, and the effective elastic thickness of the Manila trench are much smaller than the Mariana trench (Zhang et al., 2014). The contrast in the flexural bending between the Mariana and Manila trenches might be related to the difference in the ages of the subducting plates and other tectonic variables. Zhang, F., Lin, J., Zhan, W., 2014. Variations in oceanic plate bending along the Mariana trench, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 401, 206-214. doi: 10.1016/j.epsl.2014.05.032

  18. Optically rewritable 3D liquid crystal displays.

    PubMed

    Sun, J; Srivastava, A K; Zhang, W; Wang, L; Chigrinov, V G; Kwok, H S

    2014-11-01

    Optically rewritable liquid crystal display (ORWLCD) is a concept based on the optically addressed bi-stable display that does not need any power to hold the image after being uploaded. Recently, the demand for the 3D image display has increased enormously. Several attempts have been made to achieve 3D image on the ORWLCD, but all of them involve high complexity for image processing on both hardware and software levels. In this Letter, we disclose a concept for the 3D-ORWLCD by dividing the given image in three parts with different optic axis. A quarter-wave plate is placed on the top of the ORWLCD to modify the emerging light from different domains of the image in different manner. Thereafter, Polaroid glasses can be used to visualize the 3D image. The 3D image can be refreshed, on the 3D-ORWLCD, in one-step with proper ORWLCD printer and image processing, and therefore, with easy image refreshing and good image quality, such displays can be applied for many applications viz. 3D bi-stable display, security elements, etc.

  19. Medical 3D Printing for the Radiologist.

    PubMed

    Mitsouras, Dimitris; Liacouras, Peter; Imanzadeh, Amir; Giannopoulos, Andreas A; Cai, Tianrun; Kumamaru, Kanako K; George, Elizabeth; Wake, Nicole; Caterson, Edward J; Pomahac, Bohdan; Ho, Vincent B; Grant, Gerald T; Rybicki, Frank J

    2015-01-01

    While use of advanced visualization in radiology is instrumental in diagnosis and communication with referring clinicians, there is an unmet need to render Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) images as three-dimensional (3D) printed models capable of providing both tactile feedback and tangible depth information about anatomic and pathologic states. Three-dimensional printed models, already entrenched in the nonmedical sciences, are rapidly being embraced in medicine as well as in the lay community. Incorporating 3D printing from images generated and interpreted by radiologists presents particular challenges, including training, materials and equipment, and guidelines. The overall costs of a 3D printing laboratory must be balanced by the clinical benefits. It is expected that the number of 3D-printed models generated from DICOM images for planning interventions and fabricating implants will grow exponentially. Radiologists should at a minimum be familiar with 3D printing as it relates to their field, including types of 3D printing technologies and materials used to create 3D-printed anatomic models, published applications of models to date, and clinical benefits in radiology. Online supplemental material is available for this article. (©)RSNA, 2015.

  20. 3D imaging in forensic odontology.

    PubMed

    Evans, Sam; Jones, Carl; Plassmann, Peter

    2010-06-16

    This paper describes the investigation of a new 3D capture method for acquiring and subsequent forensic analysis of bite mark injuries on human skin. When documenting bite marks with standard 2D cameras errors in photographic technique can occur if best practice is not followed. Subsequent forensic analysis of the mark is problematic when a 3D structure is recorded into a 2D space. Although strict guidelines (BAFO) exist, these are time-consuming to follow and, due to their complexity, may produce errors. A 3D image capture and processing system might avoid the problems resulting from the 2D reduction process, simplifying the guidelines and reducing errors. Proposed Solution: a series of experiments are described in this paper to demonstrate that the potential of a 3D system might produce suitable results. The experiments tested precision and accuracy of the traditional 2D and 3D methods. A 3D image capture device minimises the amount of angular distortion, therefore such a system has the potential to create more robust forensic evidence for use in courts. A first set of experiments tested and demonstrated which method of forensic analysis creates the least amount of intra-operator error. A second set tested and demonstrated which method of image capture creates the least amount of inter-operator error and visual distortion. In a third set the effects of angular distortion on 2D and 3D methods of image capture were evaluated.

  1. NUBEAM developments and 3d halo modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorelenkova, M. V.; Medley, S. S.; Kaye, S. M.

    2012-10-01

    Recent developments related to the 3D halo model in NUBEAM code are described. To have a reliable halo neutral source for diagnostic simulation, the TRANSP/NUBEAM code has been enhanced with full implementation of ADAS atomic physic ground state and excited state data for hydrogenic beams and mixed species plasma targets. The ADAS codes and database provide the density and temperature dependence of the atomic data, and the collective nature of the state excitation process. To be able to populate 3D halo output with sufficient statistical resolution, the capability to control the statistics of fast ion CX modeling and for thermal halo launch has been added to NUBEAM. The 3D halo neutral model is based on modification and extension of the ``beam in box'' aligned 3d Cartesian grid that includes the neutral beam itself, 3D fast neutral densities due to CX of partially slowed down fast ions in the beam halo region, 3D thermal neutral densities due to CX deposition and fast neutral recapture source. More details on the 3D halo simulation design will be presented.

  2. Medical 3D Printing for the Radiologist

    PubMed Central

    Mitsouras, Dimitris; Liacouras, Peter; Imanzadeh, Amir; Giannopoulos, Andreas A.; Cai, Tianrun; Kumamaru, Kanako K.; George, Elizabeth; Wake, Nicole; Caterson, Edward J.; Pomahac, Bohdan; Ho, Vincent B.; Grant, Gerald T.

    2015-01-01

    While use of advanced visualization in radiology is instrumental in diagnosis and communication with referring clinicians, there is an unmet need to render Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) images as three-dimensional (3D) printed models capable of providing both tactile feedback and tangible depth information about anatomic and pathologic states. Three-dimensional printed models, already entrenched in the nonmedical sciences, are rapidly being embraced in medicine as well as in the lay community. Incorporating 3D printing from images generated and interpreted by radiologists presents particular challenges, including training, materials and equipment, and guidelines. The overall costs of a 3D printing laboratory must be balanced by the clinical benefits. It is expected that the number of 3D-printed models generated from DICOM images for planning interventions and fabricating implants will grow exponentially. Radiologists should at a minimum be familiar with 3D printing as it relates to their field, including types of 3D printing technologies and materials used to create 3D-printed anatomic models, published applications of models to date, and clinical benefits in radiology. Online supplemental material is available for this article. ©RSNA, 2015 PMID:26562233

  3. 3D bioprinting of tissues and organs.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Sean V; Atala, Anthony

    2014-08-01

    Additive manufacturing, otherwise known as three-dimensional (3D) printing, is driving major innovations in many areas, such as engineering, manufacturing, art, education and medicine. Recent advances have enabled 3D printing of biocompatible materials, cells and supporting components into complex 3D functional living tissues. 3D bioprinting is being applied to regenerative medicine to address the need for tissues and organs suitable for transplantation. Compared with non-biological printing, 3D bioprinting involves additional complexities, such as the choice of materials, cell types, growth and differentiation factors, and technical challenges related to the sensitivities of living cells and the construction of tissues. Addressing these complexities requires the integration of technologies from the fields of engineering, biomaterials science, cell biology, physics and medicine. 3D bioprinting has already been used for the generation and transplantation of several tissues, including multilayered skin, bone, vascular grafts, tracheal splints, heart tissue and cartilaginous structures. Other applications include developing high-throughput 3D-bioprinted tissue models for research, drug discovery and toxicology.

  4. Extra Dimensions: 3D in PDF Documentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graf, Norman A.

    2012-12-01

    Experimental science is replete with multi-dimensional information which is often poorly represented by the two dimensions of presentation slides and print media. Past efforts to disseminate such information to a wider audience have failed for a number of reasons, including a lack of standards which are easy to implement and have broad support. Adobe's Portable Document Format (PDF) has in recent years become the de facto standard for secure, dependable electronic information exchange. It has done so by creating an open format, providing support for multiple platforms and being reliable and extensible. By providing support for the ECMA standard Universal 3D (U3D) and the ISO PRC file format in its free Adobe Reader software, Adobe has made it easy to distribute and interact with 3D content. Until recently, Adobe's Acrobat software was also capable of incorporating 3D content into PDF files from a variety of 3D file formats, including proprietary CAD formats. However, this functionality is no longer available in Acrobat X, having been spun off to a separate company. Incorporating 3D content now requires the additional purchase of a separate plug-in. In this talk we present alternatives based on open source libraries which allow the programmatic creation of 3D content in PDF format. While not providing the same level of access to CAD files as the commercial software, it does provide physicists with an alternative path to incorporate 3D content into PDF files from such disparate applications as detector geometries from Geant4, 3D data sets, mathematical surfaces or tesselated volumes.

  5. Allergic alveolitis among agricultural workers in eastern Poland: a study of twenty cases.

    PubMed

    Milanowski, J; Dutkiewicz, J; Potoczna, H; Kuś, L; Urbanowicz, B

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the specific agents which caused extrinsic allergic alveolitis (EAA) in the selected group of 20 agricultural workers from eastern Poland. The microbiological analysis of the samples of plant materials or dusts reported by the patients as causing symptoms has been carried out, followed by allergological tests (inhalation challenge, agar-gel precipitation test, inhibition of leukocyte migration, skin test) with extrinsic microbial antigens. It was found that the causative agents of allergic alveolitis in the examined group of patients were mesophilic, non-branching bacteria associated with grain dust, mostly Pantoea agglomerans (synonyms: Erwinia herbicola, Enterobacter agglomerans) and Arthrobacter globiformis (each in eight cases). The remaining agents were Alcaligenes faecalis (in two cases), and Brevibacterium linens and Staphylococcus epidermidis (in one case each). On the basis of the clinical picture, the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and allergological tests, the diagnosis of the chronic form of the disease was stated in 14 patients and an acute form - in 6 patients. EAA patients demonstrated in the BAL fluid a typical lymphocytic alveolitis both in terms of percentage and absolute number of lymphocytes. Also, the numbers of eosinophils and neutrophils were significantly higher in EAA patients.

  6. Neutrophil chemotactic factor release and neutrophil alveolitis in asbestos-exposed individuals

    SciTech Connect

    Hayes, A.A.; Rose, A.H.; Musk, A.W.; Robinson, B.W.

    1988-09-01

    Alveolar neutrophil accumulation occurs in asbestosis. To evaluate a possible role for release of neutrophil chemotactic factor (NCF) in the pathogenesis of asbestosis, spontaneous NCF release from alveolar macrophages obtained by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) in eight individuals with asbestosis, 13 asbestos-exposed individuals without asbestosis, and five control subjects has been studied. Alveolar macrophages were incubated in medium (four hours; 37 degrees C), and neutrophil responses to the supernatants were assayed in a microchemotaxis chamber. Alveolar macrophages from subjects with asbestosis released more NCF (97 +/- 19 neutrophils per high-power field (N/HPF)) than controls (3 +/- 1 N/HPF; p less than 0.01). Alveolar macrophages from individuals with asbestos exposure and increased BAL neutrophil proportions (n = 7) released more NCF (93 +/- 24 N/HPF) than individuals with asbestos exposure and normal BAL neutrophil proportions (n = 6; 11 +/- 6 N/HPF; p less than 0.02). The results show that spontaneous NCF release occurs in asbestosis and that NCF release is associated with neutrophil alveolitis in asbestos-exposed individuals without asbestosis, suggesting a pathogenic role for NCF in mediating this neutrophil alveolitis. The results of the study also suggest that the presence of crackles is a better predictor of the presence of neutrophil alveolitis than is an abnormal chest x-ray film.

  7. Clinical evaluation of an ointment with 10% metronidazole and 2% lidocaine in the treatment of alveolitis.

    PubMed

    Silva, L J; Poi, W R; Panzarini, S R; Rodrigues, T S; Simonato, L E

    2006-01-01

    In this study, the authors evaluate the use of a 10% metronidazole and 2% lidocaine ointment, using a lanolin base and mint as flavoring, to treat alveolitis in humans. Twenty-five patients, with a diagnosis of alveolitis, were treated in the following way: locoregional anesthesia; surgical cleaning of the socket with alveolar curettes; saline solution irrigation with a 20 ml disposable syringe; and complete filling of the socket with the ointment. The analysis of the results showed that the painful symptoms were severe before and on the day of the treatment in 17 (68%) of the 25 patients treated. Post-treatment analysis presented 2 patients (18%) with severe painful symptoms after 24 h of the treatment and complete remission of painful symptoms after 48 h of the treatment with the ointment. Based on the results, it is possible to conclude that the 10% metronidazole and 2% lidocaine ointment, with mint flavoring and lanolin as a base, can be used to treat alveolitis.

  8. [Effect of prednisolon on trachea smooth muscle of normal rats and rats with fibrosing alveolitis].

    PubMed

    Fedin, A N; Nekrasova, E A; Frolova, S A; Danilov, L N; Lebedeva, E S; Il'kovich, M M

    2007-01-01

    Effect of prednisolone on isolated preparations of trachea of normal rats and rats with fibrosing alveolitis was studied. Prednisolone at a concentration of 0.4 microg/l decreased responses of smooth muscle on stimulation of preganglionar nerve fibers at trachea areas with intramural ganglia in rats with acute alveolitis by 48%, while in normal rats--by 19% of control. In trachea preparations without ganglia, prednisolone at a dose of 10 microg/l decreased responses of muscle to the nerve fiber stimulation by 21.3%. The higher prednisolone doses were less efficient: 0.1-10 microg/l glucocorticoid practically did not affect the smooth muscle responses produced by stimulation of muscle cells. In rats with fibrosing alveolitis, 10 microg/l prednisolone restored the smooth muscle responses to control values in preparations of trachea with intramural ganglia. After the prednisolone treatment, amplitude of the rat trachea muscle contraction in response to the nerve fiber electric stimulation did not differ statistically significantly from control and 0.1-10 microg/l prednisolone did not change the response value. The conclusion is made that prednisolone affected the diseased rats more efficiently than the healthy animals. The character of the glucocorticoid effect depends on the presence of intramural ganglia in the trachea wall.

  9. Significance of precipitins and asymptomatic lymphocytic alveolitis: a 20-yr follow-up.

    PubMed

    Cormier, Y; Létourneau, L; Racine, G

    2004-04-01

    What is the significance of serum precipitins and lymphocytic alveolitis in a healthy subject exposed to antigens responsible for hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP)? This study was done to evaluate the 20-yr outcome of asymptomatic dairy farmers with or without precipitins or lymphocytic alveolitis in their bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). Twenty-seven of the initial 43 farmers were restudied. Of the missing 16, 11 refused the follow-up, three had died and two could not be located. The restudied farmers had a clinical evaluation, lung function tests and a high resolution computed tomography (HRCT). Only one subject, an asthmatic, had dyspnoea, none described present or past symptoms suggestive of HP. Of those who were no longer on the farm, none had quit because of respiratory problems. Lung function changes were as expected with aging. The only difference was that farmers with positive precipitins had a statistically significant greater decrease in their forced expiratory volume in one second than the sero-negative farmers. Four HRCTs showed signs of minimal parenchymal abnormalities; these were not more prevalent for subjects with or without precipitins or BAL lymphocytosis. Serum precipitins and asymptomatic lymphocytic alveolitis in an asymptomatic, exposed dairy farmer have no clinically meaningful long-term consequences.

  10. 3D printing of surgical instruments for long-duration space missions.

    PubMed

    Wong, Julielynn Y; Pfahnl, Andreas C

    2014-07-01

    The first off-Earth fused deposition modeling (FDM) 3D printer will explore thermoplastic manufacturing capabilities in microgravity. This study evaluated the feasibility of FDM 3D printing 10 acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) thermoplastic surgical instruments on Earth. Three-point bending tests compared stiffness and yield strength between FDM 3D printed and conventionally manufactured ABS thermoplastic. To evaluate the relative speed of using four printed instruments compared to conventional instruments, 13 surgeons completed simulated prepping, draping, incising, and suturing tasks. Each surgeon ranked the performance of six printed instruments using a 5-point Likert scale. At a thickness of 5.75 mm or more, the FDM printing process had a less than 10% detrimental effect on the tested yield strength and stiffness of horizontally printed ABS thermoplastic relative to conventional ABS thermoplastic. Significant weakness was observed when a bending load was applied transversely to a 3D printed layer. All timed tasks were successfully performed using a printed sponge stick, towel clamp, scalpel handle, and toothed forceps. There was no substantial difference in time to completion of simulated surgical tasks with control vs. 3D printed instruments. Of the surgeons, 100%, 92%, 85%, 77%, 77%, and 69% agreed that the printed smooth and tissue forceps, curved and straight hemostats, tissue and right angle clamps, respectively, would perform adequately. It is feasible to 3D print ABS thermoplastic surgical instruments on Earth. Loadbearing structures were designed to be thicker, when possible. Printing orientations were selected so that the printing layering direction of critical structures would not be transverse to bending loads.

  11. How We 3D-Print Aerogel

    SciTech Connect

    2015-04-23

    A new type of graphene aerogel will make for better energy storage, sensors, nanoelectronics, catalysis and separations. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory researchers have made graphene aerogel microlattices with an engineered architecture via a 3D printing technique known as direct ink writing. The research appears in the April 22 edition of the journal, Nature Communications. The 3D printed graphene aerogels have high surface area, excellent electrical conductivity, are lightweight, have mechanical stiffness and exhibit supercompressibility (up to 90 percent compressive strain). In addition, the 3D printed graphene aerogel microlattices show an order of magnitude improvement over bulk graphene materials and much better mass transport.

  12. FUN3D Manual: 12.4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, Bil; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; hide

    2014-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 12.4, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixedelement unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  13. FUN3D Manual: 12.9

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Carlson, Jan-Renee; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, Bil; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.

    2016-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 12.9, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  14. FUN3D Manual: 13.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Carlson, Jan-Renee; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, Bill; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.

    2016-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 13.0, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  15. FUN3D Manual: 13.1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Carlson, Jan-Renee; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, Bil; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.

    2017-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 13.1, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  16. FUN3D Manual: 12.7

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Carlson, Jan-Renee; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, Bil; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.

    2015-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 12.7, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  17. FUN3D Manual: 12.6

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, William L.; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.

    2015-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 12.6, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  18. FUN3D Manual: 12.8

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Carlson, Jan-Renee; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, Bil; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.

    2015-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 12.8, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  19. A high capacity 3D steganography algorithm.

    PubMed

    Chao, Min-Wen; Lin, Chao-hung; Yu, Cheng-Wei; Lee, Tong-Yee

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we present a very high-capacity and low-distortion 3D steganography scheme. Our steganography approach is based on a novel multilayered embedding scheme to hide secret messages in the vertices of 3D polygon models. Experimental results show that the cover model distortion is very small as the number of hiding layers ranges from 7 to 13 layers. To the best of our knowledge, this novel approach can provide much higher hiding capacity than other state-of-the-art approaches, while obeying the low distortion and security basic requirements for steganography on 3D models.

  20. FIT3D: Fitting optical spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez, S. F.; Pérez, E.; Sánchez-Blázquez, P.; González, J. J.; Rosales-Ortega, F. F.; Cano-Díaz, M.; López-Cobá, C.; Marino, R. A.; Gil de Paz, A.; Mollá, M.; López-Sánchez, A. R.; Ascasibar, Y.; Barrera-Ballesteros, J.

    2016-09-01

    FIT3D fits optical spectra to deblend the underlying stellar population and the ionized gas, and extract physical information from each component. FIT3D is focused on the analysis of Integral Field Spectroscopy data, but is not restricted to it, and is the basis of Pipe3D, a pipeline used in the analysis of datasets like CALIFA, MaNGA, and SAMI. It can run iteratively or in an automatic way to derive the parameters of a large set of spectra.

  1. 3D packaging for integrated circuit systems

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, D.; Palmer, D.W.

    1996-11-01

    A goal was set for high density, high performance microelectronics pursued through a dense 3D packing of integrated circuits. A {open_quotes}tool set{close_quotes} of assembly processes have been developed that enable 3D system designs: 3D thermal analysis, silicon electrical through vias, IC thinning, mounting wells in silicon, adhesives for silicon stacking, pretesting of IC chips before commitment to stacks, and bond pad bumping. Validation of these process developments occurred through both Sandia prototypes and subsequent commercial examples.

  2. 3D Immersive Visualization with Astrophysical Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kent, Brian R.

    2017-01-01

    We present the refinement of a new 3D immersion technique for astrophysical data visualization.Methodology to create 360 degree spherical panoramas is reviewed. The 3D software package Blender coupled with Python and the Google Spatial Media module are used together to create the final data products. Data can be viewed interactively with a mobile phone or tablet or in a web browser. The technique can apply to different kinds of astronomical data including 3D stellar and galaxy catalogs, images, and planetary maps.

  3. 3D Characterization of Recrystallization Boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yubin; Godfrey, Andrew; MacDonald, Nicole; Jensen, Dorte Juul

    A three-dimensional (3D) volume containing a recrystallizing grain and a deformed matrix in a partially recrystallized pure aluminum was characterized using the 3D electron backscattering diffraction technique. The 3D shape of a recrystallizing boundary, separating the recrystallizing grain and deformed matrix, was reconstructed. The result shows a very complex structure containing several large protrusions and retrusions. A correlation between the protrusions/retrusions and the deformed matrix in front of the boundary shows that the deformed microstructure has a very strong influence on the formation of protrusions/retrusions.

  4. Explicit 3-D Hydrodynamic FEM Program

    SciTech Connect

    2000-11-07

    DYNA3D is a nonlinear explicit finite element code for analyzing 3-D structures and solid continuum. The code is vectorized and available on several computer platforms. The element library includes continuum, shell, beam, truss and spring/damper elements to allow maximum flexibility in modeling physical problems. Many materials are available to represent a wide range of material behavior, including elasticity, plasticity, composites, thermal effects and rate dependence. In addition, DYNA3D has a sophisticated contact interface capability, including frictional sliding, single surface contact and automatic contact generation.

  5. An Improved Version of TOPAZ 3D

    SciTech Connect

    Krasnykh, Anatoly

    2003-07-29

    An improved version of the TOPAZ 3D gun code is presented as a powerful tool for beam optics simulation. In contrast to the previous version of TOPAZ 3D, the geometry of the device under test is introduced into TOPAZ 3D directly from a CAD program, such as Solid Edge or AutoCAD. In order to have this new feature, an interface was developed, using the GiD software package as a meshing code. The article describes this method with two models to illustrate the results.

  6. RHOCUBE: 3D density distributions modeling code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikutta, Robert; Agliozzo, Claudia

    2016-11-01

    RHOCUBE models 3D density distributions on a discrete Cartesian grid and their integrated 2D maps. It can be used for a range of applications, including modeling the electron number density in LBV shells and computing the emission measure. The RHOCUBE Python package provides several 3D density distributions, including a powerlaw shell, truncated Gaussian shell, constant-density torus, dual cones, and spiralling helical tubes, and can accept additional distributions. RHOCUBE provides convenient methods for shifts and rotations in 3D, and if necessary, an arbitrary number of density distributions can be combined into the same model cube and the integration ∫ dz performed through the joint density field.

  7. FUN3D Manual: 12.5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, William L.; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.

    2014-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 12.5, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational uid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables ecient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  8. Fast vision-based catheter 3D reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Moradi Dalvand, Mohsen; Nahavandi, Saeid; Howe, Robert D

    2016-07-21

    Continuum robots offer better maneuverability and inherent compliance and are well-suited for surgical applications as catheters, where gentle interaction with the environment is desired. However, sensing their shape and tip position is a challenge as traditional sensors can not be employed in the way they are in rigid robotic manipulators. In this paper, a high speed vision-based shape sensing algorithm for real-time 3D reconstruction of continuum robots based on the views of two arbitrary positioned cameras is presented. The algorithm is based on the closed-form analytical solution of the reconstruction of quadratic curves in 3D space from two arbitrary perspective projections. High-speed image processing algorithms are developed for the segmentation and feature extraction from the images. The proposed algorithms are experimentally validated for accuracy by measuring the tip position, length and bending and orientation angles for known circular and elliptical catheter shaped tubes. Sensitivity analysis is also carried out to evaluate the robustness of the algorithm. Experimental results demonstrate good accuracy (maximum errors of  ±0.6 mm and  ±0.5 deg), performance (200 Hz), and robustness (maximum absolute error of 1.74 mm, 3.64 deg for the added noises) of the proposed high speed algorithms.

  9. Fast vision-based catheter 3D reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moradi Dalvand, Mohsen; Nahavandi, Saeid; Howe, Robert D.

    2016-07-01

    Continuum robots offer better maneuverability and inherent compliance and are well-suited for surgical applications as catheters, where gentle interaction with the environment is desired. However, sensing their shape and tip position is a challenge as traditional sensors can not be employed in the way they are in rigid robotic manipulators. In this paper, a high speed vision-based shape sensing algorithm for real-time 3D reconstruction of continuum robots based on the views of two arbitrary positioned cameras is presented. The algorithm is based on the closed-form analytical solution of the reconstruction of quadratic curves in 3D space from two arbitrary perspective projections. High-speed image processing algorithms are developed for the segmentation and feature extraction from the images. The proposed algorithms are experimentally validated for accuracy by measuring the tip position, length and bending and orientation angles for known circular and elliptical catheter shaped tubes. Sensitivity analysis is also carried out to evaluate the robustness of the algorithm. Experimental results demonstrate good accuracy (maximum errors of  ±0.6 mm and  ±0.5 deg), performance (200 Hz), and robustness (maximum absolute error of 1.74 mm, 3.64 deg for the added noises) of the proposed high speed algorithms.

  10. Springback Analysis of U-bending with Bottoming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogawa, Takayuki; Yoshida, Fusahito

    2011-08-01

    The effect of bottoming on the reduction of springback was investigated by performing U-shaped bending experiments and corresponding 3D FE simulation on 590 MPa level high strength steel sheet. From experiments using three punch-die sets, each have different gaps between punch and die (0, 5 and 10% less than the sheet thickness) at punch corner, it was clarified that springback decreases with increasing bottoming load to some extent but a certain amount of springback remains even under a higher load. From 3D FE simulation of the bottoming on U-shaped bending, it was found that bending stresses at punch R-corner are much reduced by bottoming, but these stresses around the end of R-corner cannot be eliminated. This is a reason why complete elimination of springback by bottoming on U-bending is so difficult. Therefore, it would be recommended in actual press forming operations to apply a certain amount of bottoming load, but it should not be too large, for reduction of springback. Another important conclusion, found in the present study, is that an appropriate choice of material model is essential for accurate FE simulation of bottoming. Furthermore, deformation of punch/die slightly affects the springback. The best combination is the use of Yoshida-Uemori kinematic hardening law for material model and 3D deformable solid model for tools.

  11. 3D-HIM: A 3D High-density Interleaved Memory for Bipolar RRAM Design

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-01

    JOURNAL ARTICLE (Post Print ) 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) DEC 2010 – NOV 2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 3D -HIM: A 3D HIGH-DENSITY INTERLEAVED MEMORY...emerged as one of the promising candidates for large data storage in computing systems. Moreover, building up RRAM in a three dimensional ( 3D ) stacking...brings in the potential reliability issue. To alleviate the situation, we introduce two novel 3D stacking structures built upon bipolar RRAM

  12. Optical 3D surface digitizing in forensic medicine: 3D documentation of skin and bone injuries.

    PubMed

    Thali, Michael J; Braun, Marcel; Dirnhofer, Richard

    2003-11-26

    Photography process reduces a three-dimensional (3D) wound to a two-dimensional level. If there is a need for a high-resolution 3D dataset of an object, it needs to be three-dimensionally scanned. No-contact optical 3D digitizing surface scanners can be used as a powerful tool for wound and injury-causing instrument analysis in trauma cases. The 3D skin wound and a bone injury documentation using the optical scanner Advanced TOpometric Sensor (ATOS II, GOM International, Switzerland) will be demonstrated using two illustrative cases. Using this 3D optical digitizing method the wounds (the virtual 3D computer model of the skin and the bone injuries) and the virtual 3D model of the injury-causing tool are graphically documented in 3D in real-life size and shape and can be rotated in the CAD program on the computer screen. In addition, the virtual 3D models of the bone injuries and tool can now be compared in a 3D CAD program against one another in virtual space, to see if there are matching areas. Further steps in forensic medicine will be a full 3D surface documentation of the human body and all the forensic relevant injuries using optical 3D scanners.

  13. Do-It-Yourself: 3D Models of Hydrogenic Orbitals through 3D Printing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith, Kaitlyn M.; de Cataldo, Riccardo; Fogarty, Keir H.

    2016-01-01

    Introductory chemistry students often have difficulty visualizing the 3-dimensional shapes of the hydrogenic electron orbitals without the aid of physical 3D models. Unfortunately, commercially available models can be quite expensive. 3D printing offers a solution for producing models of hydrogenic orbitals. 3D printing technology is widely…

  14. XML3D and Xflow: combining declarative 3D for the Web with generic data flows.

    PubMed

    Klein, Felix; Sons, Kristian; Rubinstein, Dmitri; Slusallek, Philipp

    2013-01-01

    Researchers have combined XML3D, which provides declarative, interactive 3D scene descriptions based on HTML5, with Xflow, a language for declarative, high-performance data processing. The result lets Web developers combine a 3D scene graph with data flows for dynamic meshes, animations, image processing, and postprocessing.

  15. Do-It-Yourself: 3D Models of Hydrogenic Orbitals through 3D Printing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith, Kaitlyn M.; de Cataldo, Riccardo; Fogarty, Keir H.

    2016-01-01

    Introductory chemistry students often have difficulty visualizing the 3-dimensional shapes of the hydrogenic electron orbitals without the aid of physical 3D models. Unfortunately, commercially available models can be quite expensive. 3D printing offers a solution for producing models of hydrogenic orbitals. 3D printing technology is widely…

  16. Perialveolar bacterial microbiota and bacteraemia after dental alveolitis in adult rats that had been subjected to neonatal malnutrition.

    PubMed

    de Araújo, Flávia Regina Gonçalves; de Castro, Célia Maria Machado Barbosa; Rocha, Judith Advíncula; Sampaio, Bruno; Diniz, Maria de Fátima Alves; Evêncio, Liriane Baratella; Montarroyos, Ulisses Ramos

    2012-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyse the bacteriological factors during the process of dental alveolitis, relating it to a higher incidence of bacteraemia in adult rats subjected to neonatal malnutrition. We used forty male Wistar rats, suckled by mothers fed a diet during lactation containing 17 % protein in the nourished group (N) or 8 % protein in the undernourished group (UN). After weaning, the animals were given the Labina standard diet. After 90 d, these animals underwent upper right incisor extraction and induction of alveolitis. The oral microbiota was obtained using a swab and blood culture through venous blood. These procedures were performed before the extraction, 5 min after extraction, on the 21st day after alveolitis for groups N-21 and UN-21 and on the 28th day after alveolitis for groups N-28 and UN-28. Data were expressed as means and standard deviations for parametric data, and as medians and interquartile intervals for non-parametric data. Statistical significance was considered by assuming a critical level of 5 %. Before and after extraction, lower bacterial growth was observed per colony-forming unit (CFU) in the perialveolar region of the upper right incisors of undernourished animals, while the opposite was true after alveolitis, when a larger number of CFU was observed in these animals. The percentage of positive blood cultures obtained after alveolitis was greater in the undernourished animals. The present study thus demonstrated the influence of neonatal malnutrition in the perialveolar microbiota and in the development of bacteraemia after dental alveolitis.

  17. Modeling cellular processes in 3D.

    PubMed

    Mogilner, Alex; Odde, David

    2011-12-01

    Recent advances in photonic imaging and fluorescent protein technology offer unprecedented views of molecular space-time dynamics in living cells. At the same time, advances in computing hardware and software enable modeling of ever more complex systems, from global climate to cell division. As modeling and experiment become more closely integrated we must address the issue of modeling cellular processes in 3D. Here, we highlight recent advances related to 3D modeling in cell biology. While some processes require full 3D analysis, we suggest that others are more naturally described in 2D or 1D. Keeping the dimensionality as low as possible reduces computational time and makes models more intuitively comprehensible; however, the ability to test full 3D models will build greater confidence in models generally and remains an important emerging area of cell biological modeling. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Quantifying Modes of 3D Cell Migration.

    PubMed

    Driscoll, Meghan K; Danuser, Gaudenz

    2015-12-01

    Although it is widely appreciated that cells migrate in a variety of diverse environments in vivo, we are only now beginning to use experimental workflows that yield images with sufficient spatiotemporal resolution to study the molecular processes governing cell migration in 3D environments. Since cell migration is a dynamic process, it is usually studied via microscopy, but 3D movies of 3D processes are difficult to interpret by visual inspection. In this review, we discuss the technologies required to study the diversity of 3D cell migration modes with a focus on the visualization and computational analysis tools needed to study cell migration quantitatively at a level comparable to the analyses performed today on cells crawling on flat substrates.

  19. 3D-printed Bioanalytical Devices

    PubMed Central

    Bishop, Gregory W; Satterwhite-Warden, Jennifer E; Kadimisetty, Karteek; Rusling, James F

    2016-01-01

    While 3D printing technologies first appeared in the 1980s, prohibitive costs, limited materials, and the relatively small number of commercially available printers confined applications mainly to prototyping for manufacturing purposes. As technologies, printer cost, materials, and accessibility continue to improve, 3D printing has found widespread implementation in research and development in many disciplines due to ease-of-use and relatively fast design-to-object workflow. Several 3D printing techniques have been used to prepare devices such as milli- and microfluidic flow cells for analyses of cells and biomolecules as well as interfaces that enable bioanalytical measurements using cellphones. This review focuses on preparation and applications of 3D-printed bioanalytical devices. PMID:27250897

  20. 3D-printed bioanalytical devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bishop, Gregory W.; Satterwhite-Warden, Jennifer E.; Kadimisetty, Karteek; Rusling, James F.

    2016-07-01

    While 3D printing technologies first appeared in the 1980s, prohibitive costs, limited materials, and the relatively small number of commercially available printers confined applications mainly to prototyping for manufacturing purposes. As technologies, printer cost, materials, and accessibility continue to improve, 3D printing has found widespread implementation in research and development in many disciplines due to ease-of-use and relatively fast design-to-object workflow. Several 3D printing techniques have been used to prepare devices such as milli- and microfluidic flow cells for analyses of cells and biomolecules as well as interfaces that enable bioanalytical measurements using cellphones. This review focuses on preparation and applications of 3D-printed bioanalytical devices.

  1. Eyes on the Earth 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kulikov, anton I.; Doronila, Paul R.; Nguyen, Viet T.; Jackson, Randal K.; Greene, William M.; Hussey, Kevin J.; Garcia, Christopher M.; Lopez, Christian A.

    2013-01-01

    Eyes on the Earth 3D software gives scientists, and the general public, a realtime, 3D interactive means of accurately viewing the real-time locations, speed, and values of recently collected data from several of NASA's Earth Observing Satellites using a standard Web browser (climate.nasa.gov/eyes). Anyone with Web access can use this software to see where the NASA fleet of these satellites is now, or where they will be up to a year in the future. The software also displays several Earth Science Data sets that have been collected on a daily basis. This application uses a third-party, 3D, realtime, interactive game engine called Unity 3D to visualize the satellites and is accessible from a Web browser.

  2. Modeling Cellular Processes in 3-D

    PubMed Central

    Mogilner, Alex; Odde, David

    2011-01-01

    Summary Recent advances in photonic imaging and fluorescent protein technology offer unprecedented views of molecular space-time dynamics in living cells. At the same time, advances in computing hardware and software enable modeling of ever more complex systems, from global climate to cell division. As modeling and experiment become more closely integrated, we must address the issue of modeling cellular processes in 3-D. Here, we highlight recent advances related to 3-D modeling in cell biology. While some processes require full 3-D analysis, we suggest that others are more naturally described in 2-D or 1-D. Keeping the dimensionality as low as possible reduces computational time and makes models more intuitively comprehensible; however, the ability to test full 3-D models will build greater confidence in models generally and remains an important emerging area of cell biological modeling. PMID:22036197

  3. Quantum dot based 3D photonic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakellari, Ioanna; Kabouraki, Elmina; Gray, David; Vamvakaki, Maria; Farsari, Maria

    2017-02-01

    In this work, we present our most recent results on the fabrication of 3D high-resolution woodpile photonic crystals containing an organic-inorganic silicon-zirconium (Si-Zr) composite and cadmium sulfide (CdS) quantum dots (QDs). The structures are fabricated by combining 3D Direct Laser Writing by two-photon absorption and in-situ synthesis of CdS nanoparticles inside the 3D photonic matrix. The CdS-Zr-Si composite material exhibits a high nonlinear refractive index value measured by means of Z-scan method. 3D woodpile photonic structures with varying inlayer periodicity from 600nm to 500nm show clear photonic stop bands in the wavelength region between 1000nm to 450nm.

  4. DNA biosensing with 3D printing technology.

    PubMed

    Loo, Adeline Huiling; Chua, Chun Kiang; Pumera, Martin

    2017-01-16

    3D printing, an upcoming technology, has vast potential to transform conventional fabrication processes due to the numerous improvements it can offer to the current methods. To date, the employment of 3D printing technology has been examined for applications in the fields of engineering, manufacturing and biological sciences. In this study, we examined the potential of adopting 3D printing technology for a novel application, electrochemical DNA biosensing. Metal 3D printing was utilized to construct helical-shaped stainless steel electrodes which functioned as a transducing platform for the detection of DNA hybridization. The ability of electroactive methylene blue to intercalate into the double helix structure of double-stranded DNA was then exploited to monitor the DNA hybridization process, with its inherent reduction peak serving as an analytical signal. The designed biosensing approach was found to demonstrate superior selectivity against a non-complementary DNA target, with a detection range of 1-1000 nM.

  5. Designing Biomaterials for 3D Printing.

    PubMed

    Guvendiren, Murat; Molde, Joseph; Soares, Rosane M D; Kohn, Joachim

    2016-10-10

    Three-dimensional (3D) printing is becoming an increasingly common technique to fabricate scaffolds and devices for tissue engineering applications. This is due to the potential of 3D printing to provide patient-specific designs, high structural complexity, rapid on-demand fabrication at a low-cost. One of the major bottlenecks that limits the widespread acceptance of 3D printing in biomanufacturing is the lack of diversity in "biomaterial inks". Printability of a biomaterial is determined by the printing technique. Although a wide range of biomaterial inks including polymers, ceramics, hydrogels and composites have been developed, the field is still struggling with processing of these materials into self-supporting devices with tunable mechanics, degradation, and bioactivity. This review aims to highlight the past and recent advances in biomaterial ink development and design considerations moving forward. A brief overview of 3D printing technologies focusing on ink design parameters is also included.

  6. 3D Printing for Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Jia; Yao, Hai; Mei, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Tissue engineering aims to fabricate functional tissue for applications in regenerative medicine and drug testing. More recently, 3D printing has shown great promise in tissue fabrication with a structural control from micro- to macro-scale by using a layer-by-layer approach. Whether through scaffold-based or scaffold-free approaches, the standard for 3D printed tissue engineering constructs is to provide a biomimetic structural environment that facilitates tissue formation and promotes host tissue integration (e.g., cellular infiltration, vascularization, and active remodeling). This review will cover several approaches that have advanced the field of 3D printing through novel fabrication methods of tissue engineering constructs. It will also discuss the applications of synthetic and natural materials for 3D printing facilitated tissue fabrication. PMID:26869728

  7. 3-D Flyover Visualization of Veil Nebula

    NASA Image and Video Library

    This 3-D visualization flies across a small portion of the Veil Nebula as photographed by the Hubble Space Telescope. This region is a small part of a huge expanding remnant from a star that explod...

  8. Future Engineers 3-D Print Timelapse

    NASA Image and Video Library

    NASA Challenges K-12 students to create a model of a container for space using 3-D modeling software. Astronauts need containers of all kinds - from advanced containers that can study fruit flies t...

  9. Landslide in Kashmir 3-D Perspective

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2005-10-12

    This 3D image was acquired by NASA Terra spacecraft on October 11, 2005 with digital topography from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. It depicts a large landslide which occurred in Kashmir, Pakistan.

  10. Cyclone Rusty's Landfall in 3-D

    NASA Image and Video Library

    This 3-D image derived from NASA's TRMM satellite Precipitation Radar data on February 26, 2013 at 0654 UTC showed that the tops of some towering thunderstorms in Rusty's eye wall were reaching hei...

  11. Sojourner Favorite Rocks - in 3-D

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1997-07-13

    Many prominent rocks near the Sagan Memorial Station are featured in this image, from NASA Mars Pathfinder. Wedge is at lower left; Shark, Half-Dome, and Pumpkin are at center. 3-D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail.

  12. Tropical Cyclone Jack in Satellite 3-D

    NASA Image and Video Library

    This 3-D flyby from NASA's TRMM satellite of Tropical Cyclone Jack on April 21 shows that some of the thunderstorms were shown by TRMM PR were still reaching height of at least 17 km (10.5 miles). ...

  13. 3D Printing for Tissue Engineering.

    PubMed

    Richards, Dylan Jack; Tan, Yu; Jia, Jia; Yao, Hai; Mei, Ying

    2013-10-01

    Tissue engineering aims to fabricate functional tissue for applications in regenerative medicine and drug testing. More recently, 3D printing has shown great promise in tissue fabrication with a structural control from micro- to macro-scale by using a layer-by-layer approach. Whether through scaffold-based or scaffold-free approaches, the standard for 3D printed tissue engineering constructs is to provide a biomimetic structural environment that facilitates tissue formation and promotes host tissue integration (e.g., cellular infiltration, vascularization, and active remodeling). This review will cover several approaches that have advanced the field of 3D printing through novel fabrication methods of tissue engineering constructs. It will also discuss the applications of synthetic and natural materials for 3D printing facilitated tissue fabrication.

  14. Intraoperative 3D Computed Tomography: Spine Surgery.

    PubMed

    Adamczak, Stephanie E; Bova, Frank J; Hoh, Daniel J

    2017-10-01

    Spinal instrumentation often involves placing implants without direct visualization of their trajectory or proximity to adjacent neurovascular structures. Two-dimensional fluoroscopy is commonly used to navigate implant placement, but with the advent of computed tomography, followed by the invention of a mobile scanner with an open gantry, three-dimensional (3D) navigation is now widely used. This article critically appraises the available literature to assess the influence of 3D navigation on radiation exposure, accuracy of instrumentation, operative time, and patient outcomes. Also explored is the latest technological advance in 3D neuronavigation: the manufacturing of, via 3D printers, patient-specific templates that direct implant placement. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. TRMM 3-D Flyby of Ingrid

    NASA Image and Video Library

    This 3-D flyby of Tropical Storm Ingrid's rainfall was created from TRMM satellite data for Sept. 16. Heaviest rainfall appears in red towers over the Gulf of Mexico, while moderate rainfall stretc...

  16. 3-D TRMM Flyby of Hurricane Amanda

    NASA Image and Video Library

    The TRMM satellite flew over Hurricane Amanda on Tuesday, May 27 at 1049 UTC (6:49 a.m. EDT) and captured rainfall rates and cloud height data that was used to create this 3-D simulated flyby. Cred...

  17. Spirit View on Sol 399 3-D

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2005-02-23

    An attempted drive NASA Mars Exploration Rover Spirit on Feb. 15, 2005 did not gain any ground toward nearby Larry Lookout because of slippage that churned the soil on the slope. 3D glasses are necessary to view this image.

  18. Sustaining Moore's law with 3D chips

    DOE PAGES

    DeBenedictis, Erik P.; Badaroglu, Mustafa; Chen, An; ...

    2017-08-01

    Here, rather than continue the expensive and time-consuming quest for transistor replacement, the authors argue that 3D chips coupled with new computer architectures can keep Moore's law on its traditional scaling path.

  19. Forward Ramp and Twin Peaks - 3-D

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1997-07-13

    Many prominent rocks near the Sagan Memorial Station are featured in this image, from NASA Mars Pathfinder. Flat Top and Little Flat Top are at center. 3-D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail.

  20. Quantifying modes of 3D cell migration

    PubMed Central

    Driscoll, Meghan K.; Danuser, Gaudenz

    2015-01-01

    Although it is widely appreciated that cells migrate in a variety of diverse environments in vivo, we are only now beginning to use experimental workflows that yield images with sufficient spatiotemporal resolution to study the molecular processes governing cell migration in 3D environments. Since cell migration is a dynamic process, it is usually studied via microscopy, but 3D movies of 3D processes are difficult to interpret by visual inspection. In this review, we discuss the technologies required to study the diversity of 3D cell migration modes with a focus on the visualization and computational analysis tools needed to study cell migration quantitatively at a level comparable to the analyses performed today on cells crawling on flat substrates. PMID:26603943

  1. Stressed-out Enceladus 3-D

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2005-03-24

    This high-resolution stereo anaglyph captured by NASA Cassini spacecraft of Saturn moon Enceladus shows a region of craters softened by time and torn apart by tectonic stresses. 3D glasses are necessary to view this image.

  2. 3-D Animation of Typhoon Bopha

    NASA Image and Video Library

    This 3-D animation of NASA's TRMM satellite data showed Typhoon Bopha tracking over the Philippines on Dec. 3 and moving into the Sulu Sea on Dec. 4, 2012. TRMM saw heavy rain (red) was falling at ...

  3. Making Tracks on Mars 3-D

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-08-12

    NASA Mars Exploration Rover Spirit has been making tracks on Mars for seven months now, well beyond its original 90-day mission, when it reached Columbia Hills. 3D glasses are necessary to view this image.

  4. Nonlaser-based 3D surface imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Shin-yee; Johnson, R.K.; Sherwood, R.J.

    1994-11-15

    3D surface imaging refers to methods that generate a 3D surface representation of objects of a scene under viewing. Laser-based 3D surface imaging systems are commonly used in manufacturing, robotics and biomedical research. Although laser-based systems provide satisfactory solutions for most applications, there are situations where non laser-based approaches are preferred. The issues that make alternative methods sometimes more attractive are: (1) real-time data capturing, (2) eye-safety, (3) portability, and (4) work distance. The focus of this presentation is on generating a 3D surface from multiple 2D projected images using CCD cameras, without a laser light source. Two methods are presented: stereo vision and depth-from-focus. Their applications are described.

  5. Spatioangular Prefiltering for Multiview 3D Displays.

    PubMed

    Ramachandra, Vikas; Hirakawa, Keigo; Zwicker, Matthias; Nguyen, Truong

    2011-05-01

    In this paper, we analyze the reproduction of light fields on multiview 3D displays. A three-way interaction between the input light field signal (which is often aliased), the joint spatioangular sampling grids of multiview 3D displays, and the interview light leakage in modern multiview 3D displays is characterized in the joint spatioangular frequency domain. Reconstruction of light fields by all physical 3D displays is prone to light leakage, which means that the reconstruction low-pass filter implemented by the display is too broad in the angular domain. As a result, 3D displays excessively attenuate angular frequencies. Our analysis shows that this reduces sharpness of the images shown in the 3D displays. In this paper, stereoscopic image recovery is recast as a problem of joint spatioangular signal reconstruction. The combination of the 3D display point spread function and human visual system provides the narrow-band low-pass filter which removes spectral replicas in the reconstructed light field on the multiview display. The nonideality of this filter is corrected with the proposed prefiltering. The proposed light field reconstruction method performs light field antialiasing as well as angular sharpening to compensate for the nonideal response of the 3D display. The union of cosets approach which has been used earlier by others is employed here to model the nonrectangular spatioangular sampling grids on a multiview display in a generic fashion. We confirm the effectiveness of our approach in simulation and in physical hardware, and demonstrate improvement over existing techniques.

  6. Ultrafast 3D imaging by holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awatsuji, Yasuhiro

    2017-02-01

    As an ultrafast 3D imaging technique, an improved light-in-flight recording by holography using a femtosecond is presented. To record 3D image of light propagation, a voluminous light-scattering medium is introduced to the light-inflight recording by holography. A mode-locked Ti:Sapphire laser are employed for the optical source. To generate the 3D image of propagating light, a voluminous light-scattering medium is made of gelatin jelly and set in the optical path of the object wave of holography. 3D motion picture of propagation of a femtosecond light pulse was achieved for 260ps with 220fs temporal resolution. Digital recording of 3D image of light propagation is also presented. To record the 3D image of the light propagation, digital holography is combined with the light-in-flight recording by holography using a voluminous light-scattering medium. The hologram is recorded with an image sensor such as CCD image sensor. The image of the light is reconstructed from the digitally recorded hologram by computer. To obtain the motion picture of the 3D image of the light propagation, a set of pieces of holograms consisting of 512 × 512 pixels are extracted from the whole area of the digitally recorded hologram. The position of the extracted piece on the recoded hologram is shifted along the direction in which the reference optical pulse swept on the image sensor, piece-by-piece of the hologram. The set of the pieces are reconstructed sequentially, then the 3D digital motion picture of propagation of femtosecond light pulse is achieved. The recordable time of the motion picture was 60 ps.

  7. 3D Fabrication of Embedded Microcomponents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugioka, Koji; Nolte, Stefan

    Multiphoton absorption in transparent materials irradiated by a femtosecond (fs) laser can be used for three-dimensional (3D) microstructuring inside the materials. This technique has been widely applied to produce optical microcomponents and microfluidics embedded in glass. In this chapter, the principles of internal modification and fabrication by the laser are introduced, and state-of-the-art techniques are reviewed for applications in 3D photonics devices and integrated microchips for biochemical analysis and medical inspection.

  8. Mars Express, 3-D Artist Concept

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-10-22

    The European Space Agency's Mars Express spacecraft is depicted in orbit around Mars in this artist's concept stereo illustration. The spacecraft was launched June 2, 2003, from Baikonur, Kazakhstan, on a journey to arrive at Mars in December 2003. This red-blue anaglyph artwork can be viewed in 3-D on your computer monitor or in color print form by wearing red-blue (cyan) 3-D glasses. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA04803

  9. Massive 3D gravity Big Bounce

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Louzada, H. L. C.; Camara Ds, U.; Sotkov, G. M.

    2010-03-01

    The properties of an extension of the new massive 3D gravity by scalar matter with Higgs-like self-interaction are investigated. Its perturbative unitarity consistency is verified for a family of cosmological bounce solutions found by the superpotential method. They correspond to the lower bound λ=-1 of the BHT unitarity window and describe eternally accelerated 3D Universe between two initial/final stable dS vacua states.

  10. 3D PMN Flextensional Stave Modeling

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-04-13

    WEIDLINGER ASSOCIATES, INC. 3D PMN Flextensional Stave Modeling** Greg Wojcik, John Mould, Paul Reynolds, Roger Richards* Weidlinger Associates Inc...2000 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 3D PMN Flextensional Stave Modeling 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d...broadband • To address general needs of Navy Consider PMN-driven projector • Staves of butted Class IV flextensional shells • Array composed of

  11. Stability of 3D Textile Composite Reinforcement Simulations: Solutions to Spurious Transverse Modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathieu, S.; Hamila, N.; Dupé, F.; Descamps, C.; Boisse, P.

    2016-08-01

    The simulation of thick 3D composite reinforcement forming brings to light new modeling challenges. The specific anisotropic material behavior due to the possible slippage between fibers induces, among other phenomena, the development of spurious transverse modes in bending-dominated 3D simulations. To obtain coherent finite element responses, two solutions are proposed. The first one uses a simple assumed strain formulation usually prescribed to prevent volumetric locking. This solution avoids spurious transverse modes by stiffening of the hourglass modes. Nevertheless the deformation obtained by this approach still suffers from the inability of the standard continuum mechanics of Cauchy to describe fibrous material deformation. The second proposed approach is based on the introduction of a bending stiffness which both avoids the spurious transverse modes and also improves the global behavior of the element formulation by enriching the underlying continuum. To emphasize the differences between different formulations, element stiffnesses are explicitly calculated and compared.

  12. 3D data merging using Holoimage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Song; Yau, Shing-Tung

    2007-09-01

    Three-dimensional data merging is critical for full-field 3-D shape measurement. 3-D range data patches, acquired either from different sensors or from the same sensor in different viewing angles, have to be merged into a single piece to facilitate future data analysis. In this research, we propose a novel method for 3-D data merging using Holoimage. Similar to the 3-D shape measurement system using a phase-shifting method, Holoimage is a phase-shifting-based computer synthesized fringe image. The virtual projector projects the phase-shifted fringe pattern onto the object, the reflected fringe images are rendered on the screen, and the Holoimage is generated by recording the screen. The 3-D information is retrieved from the Holoimage using a phase-shifting method. If two patches of 3-D data with overlapping areas are rendered by OpenGL, the overlapping areas are resolved by the graphics pipeline, i.e., only the front geometry can been visualized. Therefore, the merging is done if the front geometry information can be obtained. Holoimage is to obtain the front geometry by projecting the fringe patterns onto the rendered scene. Unlike real world, the virtual camera and projector can be used as orthogonal projective devices, and the setup of the system can be controlled accurately and easily. Both simulation and experiments demonstrated the success of the proposed method.

  13. 3D Viscoelastic traction force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Toyjanova, Jennet; Hannen, Erin; Bar-Kochba, Eyal; Darling, Eric M; Henann, David L; Franck, Christian

    2014-10-28

    Native cell-material interactions occur on materials differing in their structural composition, chemistry, and physical compliance. While the last two decades have shown the importance of traction forces during cell-material interactions, they have been almost exclusively presented on purely elastic in vitro materials. Yet, most bodily tissue materials exhibit some level of viscoelasticity, which could play an important role in how cells sense and transduce tractions. To expand the realm of cell traction measurements and to encompass all materials from elastic to viscoelastic, this paper presents a general, and comprehensive approach for quantifying 3D cell tractions in viscoelastic materials. This methodology includes the experimental characterization of the time-dependent material properties for any viscoelastic material with the subsequent mathematical implementation of the determined material model into a 3D traction force microscopy (3D TFM) framework. Utilizing this new 3D viscoelastic TFM (3D VTFM) approach, we quantify the influence of viscosity on the overall material traction calculations and quantify the error associated with omitting time-dependent material effects, as is the case for all other TFM formulations. We anticipate that the 3D VTFM technique will open up new avenues of cell-material investigations on even more physiologically relevant time-dependent materials including collagen and fibrin gels.

  14. Assessing 3d Photogrammetry Techniques in Craniometrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moshobane, M. C.; de Bruyn, P. J. N.; Bester, M. N.

    2016-06-01

    Morphometrics (the measurement of morphological features) has been revolutionized by the creation of new techniques to study how organismal shape co-varies with several factors such as ecophenotypy. Ecophenotypy refers to the divergence of phenotypes due to developmental changes induced by local environmental conditions, producing distinct ecophenotypes. None of the techniques hitherto utilized could explicitly address organismal shape in a complete biological form, i.e. three-dimensionally. This study investigates the use of the commercial software, Photomodeler Scanner® (PMSc®) three-dimensional (3D) modelling software to produce accurate and high-resolution 3D models. Henceforth, the modelling of Subantarctic fur seal (Arctocephalus tropicalis) and Antarctic fur seal (Arctocephalus gazella) skulls which could allow for 3D measurements. Using this method, sixteen accurate 3D skull models were produced and five metrics were determined. The 3D linear measurements were compared to measurements taken manually with a digital caliper. In addition, repetitive measurements were recorded by varying researchers to determine repeatability. To allow for comparison straight line measurements were taken with the software, assuming that close accord with all manually measured features would illustrate the model's accurate replication of reality. Measurements were not significantly different demonstrating that realistic 3D skull models can be successfully produced to provide a consistent basis for craniometrics, with the additional benefit of allowing non-linear measurements if required.

  15. Focus-distance-controlled 3D TV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanagisawa, Nobuaki; Kim, Kyung-tae; Son, Jung-Young; Murata, Tatsuya; Orima, Takatoshi

    1996-09-01

    There is a phenomenon that a 3D image appears in proportion to a focus distance when something is watched through a convex lens. An adjustable focus lens which can control the focus distance of the convex lens is contrived and applied to 3D TV. We can watch 3D TV without eyeglasses. The 3D TV image meets the NTSC standard. A parallax data and a focus data about the image can be accommodated at the same time. A continuous image method realizes much wider views. An anti 3D image effect can be avoided by using this method. At present, an analysis of proto-type lens and experiment are being carried out. As a result, a phantom effect and a viewing area can be improved. It is possible to watch the 3D TV at any distance. Distance data are triangulated by two cameras. A plan of AVI photo type using ten thousand lenses is discussed. This method is compared with four major conventional methods. As a result, it is revealed that this method can make the efficient use of Integral Photography and Varifocal type method. In the case of Integral Photography, a miniaturization of this system is possible. But it is difficult to get actual focus. In the case of varifocal type method, there is no problem with focusing, but the miniaturization is impossible. The theory investigated in this paper makes it possible to solve these problems.

  16. Focus-distance-controlled 3D TV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanagisawa, Nobuaki; Kim, Kyung-tae; Son, Jung-Young; Murata, Tatsuya; Orima, Takatoshi

    1997-05-01

    There is a phenomenon that a 3D image appears in proportion to a focus distance when something is watched through a convex lens. An adjustable focus lens which can control the focus distance of the convex lens is contrived and applied to 3D TV. We can watch 3D TV without eyeglasses. The 3D TV image meets the NTSC standard. A parallax data and a focus data about the image can be accommodated at the same time. A continuous image method realizes much wider views. An anti 3D image effect can be avoided by using this method. At present, an analysis of proto-type lens and experiment are being carried out. As a result, a phantom effect and a viewing area can be improved. It is possible to watch the 3D TV at any distance. Distance data are triangulated by two cameras. A plan of AVI proto type using ten thousands lenses is discussed. This method is compared with four major conventional methods. As a result, it is revealed that this method can make the efficient use of integral photography and varifocal type method. In the case of integral photography, a miniaturization of this system is possible. But it is difficult to get actual focus. In the case of varifocal type method, there is no problem with focusing, but the miniaturization is impossible. The theory investigated in this paper makes it possible to solve these problems.

  17. Auto convergence for stereoscopic 3D cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Buyue; Kothandaraman, Sreenivas; Batur, Aziz Umit

    2012-03-01

    Viewing comfort is an important concern for 3-D capable consumer electronics such as 3-D cameras and TVs. Consumer generated content is typically viewed at a close distance which makes the vergence-accommodation conflict particularly pronounced, causing discomfort and eye fatigue. In this paper, we present a Stereo Auto Convergence (SAC) algorithm for consumer 3-D cameras that reduces the vergence-accommodation conflict on the 3-D display by adjusting the depth of the scene automatically. Our algorithm processes stereo video in realtime and shifts each stereo frame horizontally by an appropriate amount to converge on the chosen object in that frame. The algorithm starts by estimating disparities between the left and right image pairs using correlations of the vertical projections of the image data. The estimated disparities are then analyzed by the algorithm to select a point of convergence. The current and target disparities of the chosen convergence point determines how much horizontal shift is needed. A disparity safety check is then performed to determine whether or not the maximum and minimum disparity limits would be exceeded after auto convergence. If the limits would be exceeded, further adjustments are made to satisfy the safety limits. Finally, desired convergence is achieved by shifting the left and the right frames accordingly. Our algorithm runs real-time at 30 fps on a TI OMAP4 processor. It is tested using an OMAP4 embedded prototype stereo 3-D camera. It significantly improves 3-D viewing comfort.

  18. 3D steerable wavelets in practice.

    PubMed

    Chenouard, Nicolas; Unser, Michael

    2012-11-01

    We introduce a systematic and practical design for steerable wavelet frames in 3D. Our steerable wavelets are obtained by applying a 3D version of the generalized Riesz transform to a primary isotropic wavelet frame. The novel transform is self-reversible (tight frame) and its elementary constituents (Riesz wavelets) can be efficiently rotated in any 3D direction by forming appropriate linear combinations. Moreover, the basis functions at a given location can be linearly combined to design custom (and adaptive) steerable wavelets. The features of the proposed method are illustrated with the processing and analysis of 3D biomedical data. In particular, we show how those wavelets can be used to characterize directional patterns and to detect edges by means of a 3D monogenic analysis. We also propose a new inverse-problem formalism along with an optimization algorithm for reconstructing 3D images from a sparse set of wavelet-domain edges. The scheme results in high-quality image reconstructions which demonstrate the feature-reduction ability of the steerable wavelets as well as their potential for solving inverse problems.

  19. Stereoscopic reconfiguration for 3D displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houde, Jean-Christophe; Jodoin, Pierre-Marc; Desch"nes, François

    2012-03-01

    In this paper, we present a method to reconfigure 3D movies in order to minimize distortion when seen on a different display than the one it has been configured for. By their very nature, 3D broadcasts come with a stereoscopic pair to be seen by the left and right eyes. However, according to reasons that we ought to explain in the paper, the cameras used to shoot a movie are calibrated according to specific viewing parameters such as the screen size, the viewing distance and the eye separation. As a consequence, a 3D broadcast seen on a different display (say a home theater or a PC screen) than the one it has been configured for (say an IMAX R screen) will suffer from noticeable distortions. In this paper, we describe the relationship between the size of the 3D display, the position of the observer, and the intrinsic and extrinsic parameters of the cameras. With this information, we propose a method to reorganize the stereoscopic pair in order to minimize distortion when seen on an arbitrary display. In addition to the raw video pair, our method uses the viewing distance, a rough estimate of the 3D scene, and some basic information on the 3D display. An inpainting technique is used to fill disoccluded areas.

  20. Towards next generation 3D cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Mohit

    2017-03-01

    We are in the midst of a 3D revolution. Robots enabled by 3D cameras are beginning to autonomously drive cars, perform surgeries, and manage factories. However, when deployed in the real-world, these cameras face several challenges that prevent them from measuring 3D shape reliably. These challenges include large lighting variations (bright sunlight to dark night), presence of scattering media (fog, body tissue), and optically complex materials (metal, plastic). Due to these factors, 3D imaging is often the bottleneck in widespread adoption of several key robotics technologies. I will talk about our work on developing 3D cameras based on time-of-flight and active triangulation that addresses these long-standing problems. This includes designing `all-weather' cameras that can perform high-speed 3D scanning in harsh outdoor environments, as well as cameras that recover shape of objects with challenging material properties. These cameras are, for the first time, capable of measuring detailed (<100 microns resolution) scans in extremely demanding scenarios with low-cost components. Several of these cameras are making a practical impact in industrial automation, being adopted in robotic inspection and assembly systems.

  1. Power spectral density of 3D noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haefner, David P.

    2017-05-01

    When evaluated with a spatially uniform irradiance, an imaging sensor exhibits both spatial and temporal variations, which can be described as a three-dimensional (3D) random process considered as noise. In the 1990s, NVESD engineers developed an approximation to the 3D power spectral density (PSD) for noise in imaging systems known as 3D noise. This correspondence describes the decomposition of the full 3D PSD into the familiar components from the 3D Noise model. The standard 3D noise method assumes spectrally (spatio-temporal) white random processes, which is demonstrated to be atypically in the case with complex modern imaging sensors. Using the spectral shape allows for more appropriate analysis of the impact of the noise of the sensor. The processing routines developed for this work consider finite memory constraints and utilize Welch's method for unbiased PSD estimation. In support of the reproducible research effort, the Matlab functions associated with this work can be found on the Mathworks file exchange [1].

  2. DYNA3D example problem manual

    SciTech Connect

    Lovejoy, S.C.; Whirley, R.G.

    1990-10-10

    This manual describes in detail the solution of ten example problems using the explicit nonlinear finite element code DYNA3D. The sample problems include solid, shell, and beam element types, and a variety of linear and nonlinear material models. For each example, there is first an engineering description of the physical problem to be studied. Next, the analytical techniques incorporated in the model are discussed and key features of DYNA3D are highlighted. INGRID commands used to generate the mesh are listed, and sample plots from the DYNA3D analysis are given. Finally, there is a description of the TAURUS post-processing commands used to generate the plots of the solution. This set of example problems is useful in verifying the installation of DYNA3D on a new computer system. In addition, these documented analyses illustrate the application of DYNA3D to a variety of engineering problems, and thus this manual should be helpful to new analysts getting started with DYNA3D. 7 refs., 56 figs., 9 tabs.

  3. Description of Colponema vietnamica sp.n. and Acavomonas peruviana n. gen. n. sp., two new alveolate phyla (Colponemidia nom. nov. and Acavomonidia nom. nov.) and their contributions to reconstructing the ancestral state of alveolates and eukaryotes.

    PubMed

    Tikhonenkov, Denis V; Janouškovec, Jan; Mylnikov, Alexander P; Mikhailov, Kirill V; Simdyanov, Timur G; Aleoshin, Vladimir V; Keeling, Patrick J

    2014-01-01

    The evolutionary and ecological importance of predatory flagellates are too often overlooked. This is not only a gap in our understanding of microbial diversity, but also impacts how we interpret their better-studied relatives. A prime example of these problems is found in the alveolates. All well-studied species belong to three large clades (apicomplexans, dinoflagellates, and ciliates), but the predatory colponemid flagellates are also alveolates that are rare in nature and seldom cultured, but potentially important to our understanding of alveolate evolution. Recently we reported the first cultivation and molecular analysis of several colponemid-like organisms representing two novel clades in molecular trees. Here we provide ultrastructural analysis and formal species descriptions for both new species, Colponema vietnamica n. sp. and Acavomonas peruviana n. gen. n. sp. Morphological and feeding characteristics concur with molecular data that both species are distinct members of alveolates, with Acavomonas lacking the longitudinal phagocytotic groove, a defining feature of Colponema. Based on ultrastructure and molecular phylogenies, which both provide concrete rationale for a taxonomic reclassification of Alveolata, we establish the new phyla Colponemidia nom. nov. for the genus Colponema and its close relatives, and Acavomonidia nom. nov. for the genus Acavomonas and its close relatives. The morphological data presented here suggests that colponemids are central to our understanding of early alveolate evolution, and suggest they also retain features of the common ancestor of all eukaryotes.

  4. Description of Colponema vietnamica sp.n. and Acavomonas peruviana n. gen. n. sp., Two New Alveolate Phyla (Colponemidia nom. nov. and Acavomonidia nom. nov.) and Their Contributions to Reconstructing the Ancestral State of Alveolates and Eukaryotes

    PubMed Central

    Tikhonenkov, Denis V.; Janouškovec, Jan; Mylnikov, Alexander P.; Mikhailov, Kirill V.; Simdyanov, Timur G.; Aleoshin, Vladimir V.; Keeling, Patrick J.

    2014-01-01

    The evolutionary and ecological importance of predatory flagellates are too often overlooked. This is not only a gap in our understanding of microbial diversity, but also impacts how we interpret their better-studied relatives. A prime example of these problems is found in the alveolates. All well-studied species belong to three large clades (apicomplexans, dinoflagellates, and ciliates), but the predatory colponemid flagellates are also alveolates that are rare in nature and seldom cultured, but potentially important to our understanding of alveolate evolution. Recently we reported the first cultivation and molecular analysis of several colponemid-like organisms representing two novel clades in molecular trees. Here we provide ultrastructural analysis and formal species descriptions for both new species, Colponema vietnamica n. sp. and Acavomonas peruviana n. gen. n. sp. Morphological and feeding characteristics concur with molecular data that both species are distinct members of alveolates, with Acavomonas lacking the longitudinal phagocytotic groove, a defining feature of Colponema. Based on ultrastructure and molecular phylogenies, which both provide concrete rationale for a taxonomic reclassification of Alveolata, we establish the new phyla Colponemidia nom. nov. for the genus Colponema and its close relatives, and Acavomonidia nom. nov. for the genus Acavomonas and its close relatives. The morphological data presented here suggests that colponemids are central to our understanding of early alveolate evolution, and suggest they also retain features of the common ancestor of all eukaryotes. PMID:24740116

  5. 3D goes digital: from stereoscopy to modern 3D imaging techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerwien, N.

    2014-11-01

    In the 19th century, English physicist Charles Wheatstone discovered stereopsis, the basis for 3D perception. His construction of the first stereoscope established the foundation for stereoscopic 3D imaging. Since then, many optical instruments were influenced by these basic ideas. In recent decades, the advent of digital technologies revolutionized 3D imaging. Powerful readily available sensors and displays combined with efficient pre- or post-processing enable new methods for 3D imaging and applications. This paper draws an arc from basic concepts of 3D imaging to modern digital implementations, highlighting instructive examples from its 175 years of history.

  6. CFL3D, FUN3d, and NSU3D Contributions to the Fifth Drag Prediction Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Michael A.; Laflin, Kelly R.; Chaffin, Mark S.; Powell, Nicholas; Levy, David W.

    2013-01-01

    Results presented at the Fifth Drag Prediction Workshop using CFL3D, FUN3D, and NSU3D are described. These are calculations on the workshop provided grids and drag adapted grids. The NSU3D results have been updated to reflect an improvement to skin friction calculation on skewed grids. FUN3D results generated after the workshop are included for custom participant generated grids and a grid from a previous workshop. Uniform grid refinement at the design condition shows a tight grouping in calculated drag, where the variation in the pressure component of drag is larger than the skin friction component. At this design condition, A fine-grid drag value was predicted with a smaller drag adjoint adapted grid via tetrahedral adaption to a metric and mixed-element subdivision. The buffet study produced larger variation than the design case, which is attributed to large differences in the predicted side-of-body separation extent. Various modeling and discretization approaches had a strong impact on predicted side-of-body separation. This large wing root separation bubble was not observed in wind tunnel tests indicating that more work is necessary in modeling wing root juncture flows to predict experiments.

  7. The NIH 3D Print Exchange: A Public Resource for Bioscientific and Biomedical 3D Prints.

    PubMed

    Coakley, Meghan F; Hurt, Darrell E; Weber, Nick; Mtingwa, Makazi; Fincher, Erin C; Alekseyev, Vsevelod; Chen, David T; Yun, Alvin; Gizaw, Metasebia; Swan, Jeremy; Yoo, Terry S; Huyen, Yentram

    2014-09-01

    The National Institutes of Health (NIH) has launched the NIH 3D Print Exchange, an online portal for discovering and creating bioscientifically relevant 3D models suitable for 3D printing, to provide both researchers and educators with a trusted source to discover accurate and informative models. There are a number of online resources for 3D prints, but there is a paucity of scientific models, and the expertise required to generate and validate such models remains a barrier. The NIH 3D Print Exchange fills this gap by providing novel, web-based tools that empower users with the ability to create ready-to-print 3D files from molecular structure data, microscopy image stacks, and computed tomography scan data. The NIH 3D Print Exchange facilitates open data sharing in a community-driven environment, and also includes various interactive features, as well as information and tutorials on 3D modeling software. As the first government-sponsored website dedicated to 3D printing, the NIH 3D Print Exchange is an important step forward to bringing 3D printing to the mainstream for scientific research and education.

  8. Recording stereoscopic 3D neurosurgery with a head-mounted 3D camera system.

    PubMed

    Lee, Brian; Chen, Brian R; Chen, Beverly B; Lu, James Y; Giannotta, Steven L

    2015-06-01

    Stereoscopic three-dimensional (3D) imaging can present more information to the viewer and further enhance the learning experience over traditional two-dimensional (2D) video. Most 3D surgical videos are recorded from the operating microscope and only feature the crux, or the most important part of the surgery, leaving out other crucial parts of surgery including the opening, approach, and closing of the surgical site. In addition, many other surgeries including complex spine, trauma, and intensive care unit procedures are also rarely recorded. We describe and share our experience with a commercially available head-mounted stereoscopic 3D camera system to obtain stereoscopic 3D recordings of these seldom recorded aspects of neurosurgery. The strengths and limitations of using the GoPro(®) 3D system as a head-mounted stereoscopic 3D camera system in the operating room are reviewed in detail. Over the past several years, we have recorded in stereoscopic 3D over 50 cranial and spinal surgeries and created a library for education purposes. We have found the head-mounted stereoscopic 3D camera system to be a valuable asset to supplement 3D footage from a 3D microscope. We expect that these comprehensive 3D surgical videos will become an important facet of resident education and ultimately lead to improved patient care.

  9. The NIH 3D Print Exchange: A Public Resource for Bioscientific and Biomedical 3D Prints

    PubMed Central

    Coakley, Meghan F.; Hurt, Darrell E.; Weber, Nick; Mtingwa, Makazi; Fincher, Erin C.; Alekseyev, Vsevelod; Chen, David T.; Yun, Alvin; Gizaw, Metasebia; Swan, Jeremy; Yoo, Terry S.; Huyen, Yentram

    2016-01-01

    The National Institutes of Health (NIH) has launched the NIH 3D Print Exchange, an online portal for discovering and creating bioscientifically relevant 3D models suitable for 3D printing, to provide both researchers and educators with a trusted source to discover accurate and informative models. There are a number of online resources for 3D prints, but there is a paucity of scientific models, and the expertise required to generate and validate such models remains a barrier. The NIH 3D Print Exchange fills this gap by providing novel, web-based tools that empower users with the ability to create ready-to-print 3D files from molecular structure data, microscopy image stacks, and computed tomography scan data. The NIH 3D Print Exchange facilitates open data sharing in a community-driven environment, and also includes various interactive features, as well as information and tutorials on 3D modeling software. As the first government-sponsored website dedicated to 3D printing, the NIH 3D Print Exchange is an important step forward to bringing 3D printing to the mainstream for scientific research and education. PMID:28367477

  10. 3-D SAR image formation from sparse aperture data using 3-D target grids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhalla, Rajan; Li, Junfei; Ling, Hao

    2005-05-01

    The performance of ATR systems can potentially be improved by using three-dimensional (3-D) SAR images instead of the traditional two-dimensional SAR images or one-dimensional range profiles. 3-D SAR image formation of targets from radar backscattered data collected on wide angle, sparse apertures has been identified by AFRL as fundamental to building an object detection and recognition capability. A set of data has been released as a challenge problem. This paper describes a technique based on the concept of 3-D target grids aimed at the formation of 3-D SAR images of targets from sparse aperture data. The 3-D target grids capture the 3-D spatial and angular scattering properties of the target and serve as matched filters for SAR formation. The results of 3-D SAR formation using the backhoe public release data are presented.

  11. Thin slice three dimentional (3D) reconstruction versus CT 3D reconstruction of human breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yi; Zhou, Yan; Yang, Xinhua; Tang, Peng; Qiu, Quanguang; Liang, Yong; Jiang, Jun

    2013-01-01

    Background & objectives: With improvement in the early diagnosis of breast cancer, breast conserving therapy (BCT) is being increasingly used. Precise preoperative evaluation of the incision margin is, therefore, very important. Utilizing three dimentional (3D) images in a preoperative evaluation for breast conserving surgery has considerable significance, but the currently 3D CT scan reconstruction commonly used has problems in accurately displaying breast cancer. Thin slice 3D reconstruction is also widely used now to delineate organs and tissues of breast cancers. This study was aimed to compare 3D CT with thin slice 3D reconstruction in breast cancer patients to find a better technique for accurate evaluation of breast cancer. Methods: A total of 16-slice spiral CT scans and 3D reconstructions were performed on 15 breast cancer patients. All patients had been treated with modified radical mastectomy; 2D and 3D images of breast and tumours were obtained. The specimens were fixed and sliced at 2 mm thickness to obtain serial thin slice images, and reconstructed using 3D DOCTOR software to gain 3D images. Results: Compared with 2D CT images, thin slice images showed more clearly the morphological characteristics of tumour, breast tissues and the margins of different tissues in each slice. After 3D reconstruction, the tumour shapes obtained by the two reconstruction methods were basically the same, but the thin slice 3D reconstruction showed the tumour margins more clearly. Interpretation & conclusions: Compared with 3D CT reconstruction, thin slice 3D reconstruction of breast tumour gave clearer images, which could provide guidance for the observation and application of CT 3D reconstructed images and contribute to the accurate evaluation of tumours using CT imaging technology. PMID:23481052

  12. Self assembled structures for 3D integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Madhav

    Three dimensional (3D) micro-scale structures attached to a silicon substrate have various applications in microelectronics. However, formation of 3D structures using conventional micro-fabrication techniques are not efficient and require precise control of processing parameters. Self assembly is a method for creating 3D structures that takes advantage of surface area minimization phenomena. Solder based self assembly (SBSA), the subject of this dissertation, uses solder as a facilitator in the formation of 3D structures from 2D patterns. Etching a sacrificial layer underneath a portion of the 2D pattern allows the solder reflow step to pull those areas out of the substrate plane resulting in a folded 3D structure. Initial studies using the SBSA method demonstrated low yields in the formation of five different polyhedra. The failures in folding were primarily attributed to nonuniform solder deposition on the underlying metal pads. The dip soldering method was analyzed and subsequently refined. A modified dip soldering process provided improved yield among the polyhedra. Solder bridging referred as joining of solder deposited on different metal patterns in an entity influenced the folding mechanism. In general, design parameters such as small gap-spacings and thick metal pads were found to favor solder bridging for all patterns studied. Two types of soldering: face and edge soldering were analyzed. Face soldering refers to the application of solder on the entire metal face. Edge soldering indicates application of solder only on the edges of the metal face. Mechanical grinding showed that face soldered SBSA structures were void free and robust in nature. In addition, the face soldered 3D structures provide a consistent heat resistant solder standoff height that serve as attachments in the integration of dissimilar electronic technologies. Face soldered 3D structures were developed on the underlying conducting channel to determine the thermo-electric reliability of

  13. PLOT3D Export Tool for Tecplot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alter, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    The PLOT3D export tool for Tecplot solves the problem of modified data being impossible to output for use by another computational science solver. The PLOT3D Exporter add-on enables the use of the most commonly available visualization tools to engineers for output of a standard format. The exportation of PLOT3D data from Tecplot has far reaching effects because it allows for grid and solution manipulation within a graphical user interface (GUI) that is easily customized with macro language-based and user-developed GUIs. The add-on also enables the use of Tecplot as an interpolation tool for solution conversion between different grids of different types. This one add-on enhances the functionality of Tecplot so significantly, it offers the ability to incorporate Tecplot into a general suite of tools for computational science applications as a 3D graphics engine for visualization of all data. Within the PLOT3D Export Add-on are several functions that enhance the operations and effectiveness of the add-on. Unlike Tecplot output functions, the PLOT3D Export Add-on enables the use of the zone selection dialog in Tecplot to choose which zones are to be written by offering three distinct options - output of active, inactive, or all zones (grid blocks). As the user modifies the zones to output with the zone selection dialog, the zones to be written are similarly updated. This enables the use of Tecplot to create multiple configurations of a geometry being analyzed. For example, if an aircraft is loaded with multiple deflections of flaps, by activating and deactivating different zones for a specific flap setting, new specific configurations of that aircraft can be easily generated by only writing out specific zones. Thus, if ten flap settings are loaded into Tecplot, the PLOT3D Export software can output ten different configurations, one for each flap setting.

  14. A microfluidic device for 2D to 3D and 3D to 3D cell navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shamloo, Amir; Amirifar, Leyla

    2016-01-01

    Microfluidic devices have received wide attention and shown great potential in the field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Investigating cell response to various stimulations is much more accurate and comprehensive with the aid of microfluidic devices. In this study, we introduced a microfluidic device by which the matrix density as a mechanical property and the concentration profile of a biochemical factor as a chemical property could be altered. Our microfluidic device has a cell tank and a cell culture chamber to mimic both 2D to 3D and 3D to 3D migration of three types of cells. Fluid shear stress is negligible on the cells and a stable concentration gradient can be obtained by diffusion. The device was designed by a numerical simulation so that the uniformity of the concentration gradients throughout the cell culture chamber was obtained. Adult neural cells were cultured within this device and they showed different branching and axonal navigation phenotypes within varying nerve growth factor (NGF) concentration profiles. Neural stem cells were also cultured within varying collagen matrix densities while exposed to NGF concentrations and they experienced 3D to 3D collective migration. By generating vascular endothelial growth factor concentration gradients, adult human dermal microvascular endothelial cells also migrated in a 2D to 3D manner and formed a stable lumen within a specific collagen matrix density. It was observed that a minimum absolute concentration and concentration gradient were required to stimulate migration of all types of the cells. This device has the advantage of changing multiple parameters simultaneously and is expected to have wide applicability in cell studies.

  15. Polymer optical fibers integrated directly into 3D orthogonal woven composites for sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamouda, Tamer; Seyam, Abdel-Fattah M.; Peters, Kara

    2015-02-01

    This study demonstrates that standard polymer optical fibers (POF) can be directly integrated into composites from 3D orthogonal woven preforms during the weaving process and then serve as in-situ sensors to detect damage due to bending or impact loads. Different composite samples with embedded POF were fabricated of 3D orthogonal woven composites with different parameters namely number of y-/x-layers and x-yarn density. The signal of POF was not affected significantly by the preform structure. During application of resin using VARTM technique, significant drop in backscattering level was observed due to pressure caused by vacuum on the embedded POF. Measurements of POF signal while in the final composites after resin cure indicated that the backscattering level almost returned to the original level of un-embedded POF. The POF responded to application of bending and impact loads to the composite with a reduction in the backscattering level. The backscattering level almost returned back to its original level after removing the bending load until damage was present in the composite. Similar behavior occurred due to impact events. As the POF itself is used as the sensor and can be integrated throughout the composite, large sections of future 3D woven composite structures could be monitored without the need for specialized sensors or complex instrumentation.

  16. ICER-3D Hyperspectral Image Compression Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xie, Hua; Kiely, Aaron; Klimesh, matthew; Aranki, Nazeeh

    2010-01-01

    Software has been developed to implement the ICER-3D algorithm. ICER-3D effects progressive, three-dimensional (3D), wavelet-based compression of hyperspectral images. If a compressed data stream is truncated, the progressive nature of the algorithm enables reconstruction of hyperspectral data at fidelity commensurate with the given data volume. The ICER-3D software is capable of providing either lossless or lossy compression, and incorporates an error-containment scheme to limit the effects of data loss during transmission. The compression algorithm, which was derived from the ICER image compression algorithm, includes wavelet-transform, context-modeling, and entropy coding subalgorithms. The 3D wavelet decomposition structure used by ICER-3D exploits correlations in all three dimensions of sets of hyperspectral image data, while facilitating elimination of spectral ringing artifacts, using a technique summarized in "Improving 3D Wavelet-Based Compression of Spectral Images" (NPO-41381), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 33, No. 3 (March 2009), page 7a. Correlation is further exploited by a context-modeling subalgorithm, which exploits spectral dependencies in the wavelet-transformed hyperspectral data, using an algorithm that is summarized in "Context Modeler for Wavelet Compression of Hyperspectral Images" (NPO-43239), which follows this article. An important feature of ICER-3D is a scheme for limiting the adverse effects of loss of data during transmission. In this scheme, as in the similar scheme used by ICER, the spatial-frequency domain is partitioned into rectangular error-containment regions. In ICER-3D, the partitions extend through all the wavelength bands. The data in each partition are compressed independently of those in the other partitions, so that loss or corruption of data from any partition does not affect the other partitions. Furthermore, because compression is progressive within each partition, when data are lost, any data from that partition received

  17. RAG-3D: A search tool for RNA 3D substructures

    SciTech Connect

    Zahran, Mai; Sevim Bayrak, Cigdem; Elmetwaly, Shereef; Schlick, Tamar

    2015-08-24

    In this study, to address many challenges in RNA structure/function prediction, the characterization of RNA's modular architectural units is required. Using the RNA-As-Graphs (RAG) database, we have previously explored the existence of secondary structure (2D) submotifs within larger RNA structures. Here we present RAG-3D—a dataset of RNA tertiary (3D) structures and substructures plus a web-based search tool—designed to exploit graph representations of RNAs for the goal of searching for similar 3D structural fragments. The objects in RAG-3D consist of 3D structures translated into 3D graphs, cataloged based on the connectivity between their secondary structure elements. Each graph is additionally described in terms of its subgraph building blocks. The RAG-3D search tool then compares a query RNA 3D structure to those in the database to obtain structurally similar structures and substructures. This comparison reveals conserved 3D RNA features and thus may suggest functional connections. Though RNA search programs based on similarity in sequence, 2D, and/or 3D structural elements are available, our graph-based search tool may be advantageous for illuminating similarities that are not obvious; using motifs rather than sequence space also reduces search times considerably. Ultimately, such substructuring could be useful for RNA 3D structure prediction, structure/function inference and inverse folding.

  18. RAG-3D: A search tool for RNA 3D substructures

    DOE PAGES

    Zahran, Mai; Sevim Bayrak, Cigdem; Elmetwaly, Shereef; ...

    2015-08-24

    In this study, to address many challenges in RNA structure/function prediction, the characterization of RNA's modular architectural units is required. Using the RNA-As-Graphs (RAG) database, we have previously explored the existence of secondary structure (2D) submotifs within larger RNA structures. Here we present RAG-3D—a dataset of RNA tertiary (3D) structures and substructures plus a web-based search tool—designed to exploit graph representations of RNAs for the goal of searching for similar 3D structural fragments. The objects in RAG-3D consist of 3D structures translated into 3D graphs, cataloged based on the connectivity between their secondary structure elements. Each graph is additionally describedmore » in terms of its subgraph building blocks. The RAG-3D search tool then compares a query RNA 3D structure to those in the database to obtain structurally similar structures and substructures. This comparison reveals conserved 3D RNA features and thus may suggest functional connections. Though RNA search programs based on similarity in sequence, 2D, and/or 3D structural elements are available, our graph-based search tool may be advantageous for illuminating similarities that are not obvious; using motifs rather than sequence space also reduces search times considerably. Ultimately, such substructuring could be useful for RNA 3D structure prediction, structure/function inference and inverse folding.« less

  19. 3D optical measuring technologies and systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chugui, Yuri V.

    2005-02-01

    The results of the R & D activity of TDI SIE SB RAS in the field of the 3D optical measuring technologies and systems for noncontact 3D optical dimensional inspection applied to atomic and railway industry safety problems are presented. This activity includes investigations of diffraction phenomena on some 3D objects, using the original constructive calculation method. The efficient algorithms for precise determining the transverse and longitudinal sizes of 3D objects of constant thickness by diffraction method, peculiarities on formation of the shadow and images of the typical elements of the extended objects were suggested. Ensuring the safety of nuclear reactors and running trains as well as their high exploitation reliability requires a 100% noncontact precise inspection of geometrical parameters of their components. To solve this problem we have developed methods and produced the technical vision measuring systems LMM, CONTROL, PROFIL, and technologies for noncontact 3D dimensional inspection of grid spacers and fuel elements for the nuclear reactor VVER-1000 and VVER-440, as well as automatic laser diagnostic COMPLEX for noncontact inspection of geometric parameters of running freight car wheel pairs. The performances of these systems and the results of industrial testing are presented and discussed. The created devices are in pilot operation at Atomic and Railway Companies.

  20. Miniaturized 3D microscope imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lan, Yung-Sung; Chang, Chir-Weei; Sung, Hsin-Yueh; Wang, Yen-Chang; Chang, Cheng-Yi

    2015-05-01

    We designed and assembled a portable 3-D miniature microscopic image system with the size of 35x35x105 mm3 . By integrating a microlens array (MLA) into the optical train of a handheld microscope, the biological specimen's image will be captured for ease of use in a single shot. With the light field raw data and program, the focal plane can be changed digitally and the 3-D image can be reconstructed after the image was taken. To localize an object in a 3-D volume, an automated data analysis algorithm to precisely distinguish profundity position is needed. The ability to create focal stacks from a single image allows moving or specimens to be recorded. Applying light field microscope algorithm to these focal stacks, a set of cross sections will be produced, which can be visualized using 3-D rendering. Furthermore, we have developed a series of design rules in order to enhance the pixel using efficiency and reduce the crosstalk between each microlens for obtain good image quality. In this paper, we demonstrate a handheld light field microscope (HLFM) to distinguish two different color fluorescence particles separated by a cover glass in a 600um range, show its focal stacks, and 3-D position.

  1. 3D culture for cardiac cells.

    PubMed

    Zuppinger, Christian

    2016-07-01

    This review discusses historical milestones, recent developments and challenges in the area of 3D culture models with cardiovascular cell types. Expectations in this area have been raised in recent years, but more relevant in vitro research, more accurate drug testing results, reliable disease models and insights leading to bioartificial organs are expected from the transition to 3D cell culture. However, the construction of organ-like cardiac 3D models currently remains a difficult challenge. The heart consists of highly differentiated cells in an intricate arrangement.Furthermore, electrical “wiring”, a vascular system and multiple cell types act in concert to respond to the rapidly changing demands of the body. Although cardiovascular 3D culture models have been predominantly developed for regenerative medicine in the past, their use in drug screening and for disease models has become more popular recently. Many sophisticated 3D culture models are currently being developed in this dynamic area of life science. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Cardiomyocyte Biology: Integration of Developmental and Environmental Cues in the Heart edited by Marcus Schaub and Hughes Abriel.

  2. Coloring 3D Printed Surfaces by Thermoforming.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yizhong; Tong, Yiying; Zhou, Kun

    2017-08-01

    Decorating the surfaces of 3D printed objects with color textures is still not readily available in most consumer-level or even high-end 3D printers. Existing techniques such as hydrographics color transfer suffer from the issues of air pockets in concave regions and discoloration in overly stretched regions. We propose a novel thermoforming-based coloring technique to alleviate these problems as well as to simplify the overall procedure. Thermoforming is a widely used technique in industry for plastic thin shell product manufacturing by pressing heated plastic sheets onto molds using atmospheric pressure. We attach on the transparent plastic sheet a precomputed color pattern decal prior to heating, and adhere it to 3D printed models treated as the molds in thermoforming. The 3D models are thus decorated with the desired color texture, as well as a thin, polished protective cover. The precomputation involves a physical simulation of the thermoforming process to compute the correct color pattern on the plastic sheet, and the vent hole layout on the 3D model for air pocket elimination. We demonstrate the effectiveness and accuracy of our computational model and our prototype thermoforming surface coloring system through physical experiments.

  3. The importance of 3D dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Low, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Radiation therapy has been getting progressively more complex for the past 20 years. Early radiation therapy techniques needed only basic dosimetry equipment; motorized water phantoms, ionization chambers, and basic radiographic film techniques. As intensity modulated radiation therapy and image guided therapy came into widespread practice, medical physicists were challenged with developing effective and efficient dose measurement techniques. The complex 3-dimensional (3D) nature of the dose distributions that were being delivered demanded the development of more quantitative and more thorough methods for dose measurement. The quality assurance vendors developed a wide array of multidetector arrays that have been enormously useful for measuring and characterizing dose distributions, and these have been made especially useful with the advent of 3D dose calculation systems based on the array measurements, as well as measurements made using film and portal imagers. Other vendors have been providing 3D calculations based on data from the linear accelerator or the record and verify system, providing thorough evaluation of the dose but lacking quality assurance (QA) of the dose delivery process, including machine calibration. The current state of 3D dosimetry is one of a state of flux. The vendors and professional associations are trying to determine the optimal balance between thorough QA, labor efficiency, and quantitation. This balance will take some time to reach, but a necessary component will be the 3D measurement and independent calculation of delivered radiation therapy dose distributions.

  4. T-HEMP3D user manual

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, D.

    1983-08-01

    The T-HEMP3D (Transportable HEMP3D) computer program is a derivative of the STEALTH three-dimensional thermodynamics code developed by Science Applications, Inc., under the direction of Ron Hofmann. STEALTH, in turn, is based entirely on the original HEMP3D code written at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The primary advantage STEALTH has over its predecessors is that it was designed using modern structured design techniques, with rigorous programming standards enforced. This yields two benefits. First, the code is easily changeable; this is a necessity for a physics code used for research. The second benefit is that the code is easily transportable between different types of computers. The STEALTH program was transferred to LLNL under a cooperative development agreement. Changes were made primarily in three areas: material specification, coordinate generation, and the addition of sliding surface boundary conditions. The code was renamed T-HEMP3D to avoid confusion with other versions of STEALTH. This document summarizes the input to T-HEMP3D, as used at LLNL. It does not describe the physics simulated by the program, nor the numerical techniques employed. Furthermore, it does not describe the separate job steps of coordinate generation and post-processing, including graphical display of results. (WHK)

  5. Extra dimensions: 3D in PDF documentation

    SciTech Connect

    Graf, Norman A.

    2011-01-11

    Experimental science is replete with multi-dimensional information which is often poorly represented by the two dimensions of presentation slides and print media. Past efforts to disseminate such information to a wider audience have failed for a number of reasons, including a lack of standards which are easy to implement and have broad support. Adobe's Portable Document Format (PDF) has in recent years become the de facto standard for secure, dependable electronic information exchange. It has done so by creating an open format, providing support for multiple platforms and being reliable and extensible. By providing support for the ECMA standard Universal 3D (U3D) file format in its free Adobe Reader software, Adobe has made it easy to distribute and interact with 3D content. By providing support for scripting and animation, temporal data can also be easily distributed to a wide, non-technical audience. We discuss how the field of radiation imaging could benefit from incorporating full 3D information about not only the detectors, but also the results of the experimental analyses, in its electronic publications. In this article, we present examples drawn from high-energy physics, mathematics and molecular biology which take advantage of this functionality. Furthermore, we demonstrate how 3D detector elements can be documented, using either CAD drawings or other sources such as GEANT visualizations as input.

  6. Extra dimensions: 3D in PDF documentation

    DOE PAGES

    Graf, Norman A.

    2011-01-11

    Experimental science is replete with multi-dimensional information which is often poorly represented by the two dimensions of presentation slides and print media. Past efforts to disseminate such information to a wider audience have failed for a number of reasons, including a lack of standards which are easy to implement and have broad support. Adobe's Portable Document Format (PDF) has in recent years become the de facto standard for secure, dependable electronic information exchange. It has done so by creating an open format, providing support for multiple platforms and being reliable and extensible. By providing support for the ECMA standard Universalmore » 3D (U3D) file format in its free Adobe Reader software, Adobe has made it easy to distribute and interact with 3D content. By providing support for scripting and animation, temporal data can also be easily distributed to a wide, non-technical audience. We discuss how the field of radiation imaging could benefit from incorporating full 3D information about not only the detectors, but also the results of the experimental analyses, in its electronic publications. In this article, we present examples drawn from high-energy physics, mathematics and molecular biology which take advantage of this functionality. Furthermore, we demonstrate how 3D detector elements can be documented, using either CAD drawings or other sources such as GEANT visualizations as input.« less

  7. Magnetic Properties of 3D Printed Toroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bollig, Lindsey; Otto, Austin; Hilpisch, Peter; Mowry, Greg; Nelson-Cheeseman, Brittany; Renewable Energy; Alternatives Lab (REAL) Team

    Transformers are ubiquitous in electronics today. Although toroidal geometries perform most efficiently, transformers are traditionally made with rectangular cross-sections due to the lower manufacturing costs. Additive manufacturing techniques (3D printing) can easily achieve toroidal geometries by building up a part through a series of 2D layers. To get strong magnetic properties in a 3D printed transformer, a composite filament is used containing Fe dispersed in a polymer matrix. How the resulting 3D printed toroid responds to a magnetic field depends on two structural factors of the printed 2D layers: fill factor (planar density) and fill pattern. In this work, we investigate how the fill factor and fill pattern affect the magnetic properties of 3D printed toroids. The magnetic properties of the printed toroids are measured by a custom circuit that produces a hysteresis loop for each toroid. Toroids with various fill factors and fill patterns are compared to determine how these two factors can affect the magnetic field the toroid can produce. These 3D printed toroids can be used for numerous applications in order to increase the efficiency of transformers by making it possible for manufacturers to make a toroidal geometry.

  8. 3D bioprinting for engineering complex tissues.

    PubMed

    Mandrycky, Christian; Wang, Zongjie; Kim, Keekyoung; Kim, Deok-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Bioprinting is a 3D fabrication technology used to precisely dispense cell-laden biomaterials for the construction of complex 3D functional living tissues or artificial organs. While still in its early stages, bioprinting strategies have demonstrated their potential use in regenerative medicine to generate a variety of transplantable tissues, including skin, cartilage, and bone. However, current bioprinting approaches still have technical challenges in terms of high-resolution cell deposition, controlled cell distributions, vascularization, and innervation within complex 3D tissues. While no one-size-fits-all approach to bioprinting has emerged, it remains an on-demand, versatile fabrication technique that may address the growing organ shortage as well as provide a high-throughput method for cell patterning at the micrometer scale for broad biomedical engineering applications. In this review, we introduce the basic principles, materials, integration strategies and applications of bioprinting. We also discuss the recent developments, current challenges and future prospects of 3D bioprinting for engineering complex tissues. Combined with recent advances in human pluripotent stem cell technologies, 3D-bioprinted tissue models could serve as an enabling platform for high-throughput predictive drug screening and more effective regenerative therapies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. 3D Spray Droplet Distributions in Sneezes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Techet, Alexandra; Scharfman, Barry; Bourouiba, Lydia

    2015-11-01

    3D spray droplet clouds generated during human sneezing are investigated using the Synthetic Aperture Feature Extraction (SAFE) method, which relies on light field imaging (LFI) and synthetic aperture (SA) refocusing computational photographic techniques. An array of nine high-speed cameras are used to image sneeze droplets and tracked the droplets in 3D space and time (3D + T). An additional high-speed camera is utilized to track the motion of the head during sneezing. In the SAFE method, the raw images recorded by each camera in the array are preprocessed and binarized, simplifying post processing after image refocusing and enabling the extraction of feature sizes and positions in 3D + T. These binary images are refocused using either additive or multiplicative methods, combined with thresholding. Sneeze droplet centroids, radii, distributions and trajectories are determined and compared with existing data. The reconstructed 3D droplet centroids and radii enable a more complete understanding of the physical extent and fluid dynamics of sneeze ejecta. These measurements are important for understanding the infectious disease transmission potential of sneezes in various indoor environments.

  10. BEAMS3D Neutral Beam Injection Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMillan, Matthew; Lazerson, Samuel A.

    2014-09-01

    With the advent of applied 3D fields in Tokamaks and modern high performance stellarators, a need has arisen to address non-axisymmetric effects on neutral beam heating and fueling. We report on the development of a fully 3D neutral beam injection (NBI) model, BEAMS3D, which addresses this need by coupling 3D equilibria to a guiding center code capable of modeling neutral and charged particle trajectories across the separatrix and into the plasma core. Ionization, neutralization, charge-exchange, viscous slowing down, and pitch angle scattering are modeled with the ADAS atomic physics database. Elementary benchmark calculations are presented to verify the collisionless particle orbits, NBI model, frictional drag, and pitch angle scattering effects. A calculation of neutral beam heating in the NCSX device is performed, highlighting the capability of the code to handle 3D magnetic fields. Notice: this manuscript has been authored by Princeton University under Contract Number DE-AC02-09CH11466 with the US Department of Energy. The United States Government retains and the publisher, by accepting the article for publication, acknowledges that the United States Government retains a non-exclusive, paid-up, irrevocable, world-wide license to publish or reproduce the published form of this manuscript, or allow others to do so, for United States Government purposes.

  11. 3D Bioprinting for Engineering Complex Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Mandrycky, Christian; Wang, Zongjie; Kim, Keekyoung; Kim, Deok-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Bioprinting is a 3D fabrication technology used to precisely dispense cell-laden biomaterials for the construction of complex 3D functional living tissues or artificial organs. While still in its early stages, bioprinting strategies have demonstrated their potential use in regenerative medicine to generate a variety of transplantable tissues, including skin, cartilage, and bone. However, current bioprinting approaches still have technical challenges in terms of high-resolution cell deposition, controlled cell distributions, vascularization, and innervation within complex 3D tissues. While no one-size-fits-all approach to bioprinting has emerged, it remains an on-demand, versatile fabrication technique that may address the growing organ shortage as well as provide a high-throughput method for cell patterning at the micrometer scale for broad biomedical engineering applications. In this review, we introduce the basic principles, materials, integration strategies and applications of bioprinting. We also discuss the recent developments, current challenges and future prospects of 3D bioprinting for engineering complex tissues. Combined with recent advances in human pluripotent stem cell technologies, 3D-bioprinted tissue models could serve as an enabling platform for high-throughput predictive drug screening and more effective regenerative therapies. PMID:26724184

  12. Full-color holographic 3D printer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takano, Masami; Shigeta, Hiroaki; Nishihara, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Masahiro; Takahashi, Susumu; Ohyama, Nagaaki; Kobayashi, Akihiko; Iwata, Fujio

    2003-05-01

    A holographic 3D printer is a system that produces a direct hologram with full-parallax information using the 3-dimensional data of a subject from a computer. In this paper, we present a proposal for the reproduction of full-color images with the holographic 3D printer. In order to realize the 3-dimensional color image, we selected the 3 laser wavelength colors of red (λ=633nm), green (λ=533nm), and blue (λ=442nm), and we built a one-step optical system using a projection system and a liquid crystal display. The 3-dimensional color image is obtained by synthesizing in a 2D array the multiple exposure with these 3 wavelengths made on each 250mm elementary hologram, and moving recording medium on a x-y stage. For the natural color reproduction in the holographic 3D printer, we take the approach of the digital processing technique based on the color management technology. The matching between the input and output colors is performed by investigating first, the relation between the gray level transmittance of the LCD and the diffraction efficiency of the hologram and second, by measuring the color displayed by the hologram to establish a correlation. In our first experimental results a non-linear functional relation for single and multiple exposure of the three components were found. These results are the first step in the realization of a natural color 3D image produced by the holographic color 3D printer.

  13. Accurate and reproducible reconstruction of coronary arteries and endothelial shear stress calculation using 3D OCT: comparative study to 3D IVUS and 3D QCA.

    PubMed

    Toutouzas, Konstantinos; Chatzizisis, Yiannis S; Riga, Maria; Giannopoulos, Andreas; Antoniadis, Antonios P; Tu, Shengxian; Fujino, Yusuke; Mitsouras, Dimitrios; Doulaverakis, Charalampos; Tsampoulatidis, Ioannis; Koutkias, Vassilis G; Bouki, Konstantina; Li, Yingguang; Chouvarda, Ioanna; Cheimariotis, Grigorios; Maglaveras, Nicos; Kompatsiaris, Ioannis; Nakamura, Sunao; Reiber, Johan H C; Rybicki, Frank; Karvounis, Haralambos; Stefanadis, Christodoulos; Tousoulis, Dimitris; Giannoglou, George D

    2015-06-01

    Geometrically-correct 3D OCT is a new imaging modality with the potential to investigate the association of local hemodynamic microenvironment with OCT-derived high-risk features. We aimed to describe the methodology of 3D OCT and investigate the accuracy, inter- and intra-observer agreement of 3D OCT in reconstructing coronary arteries and calculating ESS, using 3D IVUS and 3D QCA as references. 35 coronary artery segments derived from 30 patients were reconstructed in 3D space using 3D OCT. 3D OCT was validated against 3D IVUS and 3D QCA. The agreement in artery reconstruction among 3D OCT, 3D IVUS and 3D QCA was assessed in 3-mm-long subsegments using lumen morphometry and ESS parameters. The inter- and intra-observer agreement of 3D OCT, 3D IVUS and 3D QCA were assessed in a representative sample of 61 subsegments (n = 5 arteries). The data processing times for each reconstruction methodology were also calculated. There was a very high agreement between 3D OCT vs. 3D IVUS and 3D OCT vs. 3D QCA in terms of total reconstructed artery length and volume, as well as in terms of segmental morphometric and ESS metrics with mean differences close to zero and narrow limits of agreement (Bland-Altman analysis). 3D OCT exhibited excellent inter- and intra-observer agreement. The analysis time with 3D OCT was significantly lower compared to 3D IVUS. Geometrically-correct 3D OCT is a feasible, accurate and reproducible 3D reconstruction technique that can perform reliable ESS calculations in coronary arteries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Bending the Rings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Saturn's rings appear strangely warped in this view of the rings seen through the upper Saturn atmosphere.

    The atmosphere acts like a lens in refracting (bending) the light reflected from the rings. As the rings pass behind the overexposed limb (edge) of Saturn as seen from Cassini, the ring structure appears to curve downward due to the bending of the light as it passes through the upper atmosphere.

    This image was obtained using a near-infrared filter. The filter samples a wavelength where methane gas does not absorb light, thus making the far-off rings visible through the upper atmosphere.

    By comparing this image to similar ones taken using filters where methane gas does absorb, scientists can estimate the vertical profile of haze and the abundance of methane in Saturn's high atmosphere.

    The image was taken in visible light with the Cassini spacecraft narrow-angle camera on April 14, 2005, through a filter sensitive to wavelengths of infrared light centered at 938 nanometers and at a distance of approximately 197,000 kilometers (123,000 miles) from Saturn. The image scale is 820 meters (2,680 feet) per pixel.

  15. Resist loss in 3D compact modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Xin; Huang, Jensheng; Chin, Fook; Kazarian, Aram; Kuo, Chun-Chieh

    2012-03-01

    An enhancement to compact modeling capability to include photoresist (PR) loss at different heights is developed and discussed. A hypsometric map representing 3-D resist profile was built by applying a first principle approximation to estimate the "energy loss" from the resist top to any other plane of interest as a proportional corresponding change in model threshold, which is analogous to a change in exposure dose. The result is compared and validated with 3D rigorous modeling as well as SEM images. Without increase in computation time, this compact model can construct 3D resist profiles capturing resist profile degradation at any vertical plane. Sidewall angle and standing wave information can also be granted from the vertical profile reconstruction. Since this method does not change any form of compact modeling, it can be integrated to validation and correction without any additional work.

  16. Shaping 3D Root System Architecture.

    PubMed

    Morris, Emily C; Griffiths, Marcus; Golebiowska, Agata; Mairhofer, Stefan; Burr-Hersey, Jasmine; Goh, Tatsuaki; von Wangenheim, Daniel; Atkinson, Brian; Sturrock, Craig J; Lynch, Jonathan P; Vissenberg, Kris; Ritz, Karl; Wells, Darren M; Mooney, Sacha J; Bennett, Malcolm J

    2017-09-11

    Plants are sessile organisms rooted in one place. The soil resources that plants require are often distributed in a highly heterogeneous pattern. To aid foraging, plants have evolved roots whose growth and development are highly responsive to soil signals. As a result, 3D root architecture is shaped by myriad environmental signals to ensure resource capture is optimised and unfavourable environments are avoided. The first signals sensed by newly germinating seeds - gravity and light - direct root growth into the soil to aid seedling establishment. Heterogeneous soil resources, such as water, nitrogen and phosphate, also act as signals that shape 3D root growth to optimise uptake. Root architecture is also modified through biotic interactions that include soil fungi and neighbouring plants. This developmental plasticity results in a 'custom-made' 3D root system that is best adapted to forage for resources in each soil environment that a plant colonises. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. 3D differential phase contrast microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Michael; Tian, Lei; Waller, Laura

    2016-03-01

    We demonstrate three-dimensional (3D) optical phase and amplitude reconstruction based on coded source illumination using a programmable LED array. Multiple stacks of images along the optical axis are computed from recorded intensities captured by multiple images under off-axis illumination. Based on the first Born approximation, a linear differential phase contrast (DPC) model is built between 3D complex index of refraction and the intensity stacks. Therefore, 3D volume reconstruction can be achieved via a fast inversion method, without the intermediate 2D phase retrieval step. Our system employs spatially partially coherent illumination, so the transverse resolution achieves twice the NA of coherent systems, while axial resolution is also improved 2× as compared to holographic imaging.

  18. Ames Lab 101: 3D Metals Printer

    SciTech Connect

    Ott, Ryan

    2014-02-13

    To meet one of the biggest energy challenges of the 21st century - finding alternatives to rare-earth elements and other critical materials - scientists will need new and advanced tools. The Critical Materials Institute at the U.S. Department of Energy's Ames Laboratory has a new one: a 3D printer for metals research. 3D printing technology, which has captured the imagination of both industry and consumers, enables ideas to move quickly from the initial design phase to final form using materials including polymers, ceramics, paper and even food. But the Critical Materials Institute (CMI) will apply the advantages of the 3D printing process in a unique way: for materials discovery.

  19. 3D face analysis for demographic biometrics

    SciTech Connect

    Tokola, Ryan A; Mikkilineni, Aravind K; Boehnen, Chris Bensing

    2015-01-01

    Despite being increasingly easy to acquire, 3D data is rarely used for face-based biometrics applications beyond identification. Recent work in image-based demographic biometrics has enjoyed much success, but these approaches suffer from the well-known limitations of 2D representations, particularly variations in illumination, texture, and pose, as well as a fundamental inability to describe 3D shape. This paper shows that simple 3D shape features in a face-based coordinate system are capable of representing many biometric attributes without problem-specific models or specialized domain knowledge. The same feature vector achieves impressive results for problems as diverse as age estimation, gender classification, and race classification.

  20. Simple buffers for 3D STORM microscopy.

    PubMed

    Olivier, Nicolas; Keller, Debora; Rajan, Vinoth Sundar; Gönczy, Pierre; Manley, Suliana

    2013-06-01

    3D STORM is one of the leading methods for super-resolution imaging, with resolution down to 10 nm in the lateral direction, and 30-50 nm in the axial direction. However, there is one important requirement to perform this type of imaging: making dye molecules blink. This usually relies on the utilization of complex buffers, containing different chemicals and sensitive enzymatic systems, limiting the reproducibility of the method. We report here that the commercial mounting medium Vectashield can be used for STORM of Alexa-647, and yields images comparable or superior to those obtained with more complex buffers, especially for 3D imaging. We expect that this advance will promote the versatile utilization of 3D STORM by removing one of its entry barriers, as well as provide a more reproducible way to compare optical setups and data processing algorithms.

  1. 3D integral imaging with optical processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Corral, Manuel; Martínez-Cuenca, Raúl; Saavedra, Genaro; Javidi, Bahram

    2008-04-01

    Integral imaging (InI) systems are imaging devices that provide auto-stereoscopic images of 3D intensity objects. Since the birth of this new technology, InI systems have faced satisfactorily many of their initial drawbacks. Basically, two kind of procedures have been used: digital and optical procedures. The "3D Imaging and Display Group" at the University of Valencia, with the essential collaboration of Prof. Javidi, has centered its efforts in the 3D InI with optical processing. Among other achievements, our Group has proposed the annular amplitude modulation for enlargement of the depth of field, dynamic focusing for reduction of the facet-braiding effect, or the TRES and MATRES devices to enlarge the viewing angle.

  2. Methods for comparing 3D surface attributes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Alex; Freeman, Adam

    1996-03-01

    A common task in data analysis is to compare two or more sets of data, statistics, presentations, etc. A predominant method in use is side-by-side visual comparison of images. While straightforward, it burdens the user with the task of discerning the differences between the two images. The user if further taxed when the images are of 3D scenes. This paper presents several methods for analyzing the extent, magnitude, and manner in which surfaces in 3D differ in their attributes. The surface geometry are assumed to be identical and only the surface attributes (color, texture, etc.) are variable. As a case in point, we examine the differences obtained when a 3D scene is rendered progressively using radiosity with different form factor calculation methods. The comparison methods include extensions of simple methods such as mapping difference information to color or transparency, and more recent methods including the use of surface texture, perturbation, and adaptive placements of error glyphs.

  3. Impedance mammograph 3D phantom studies.

    PubMed

    Wtorek, J; Stelter, J; Nowakowski, A

    1999-04-20

    The results obtained using the Technical University of Gdansk Electroimpedance Mammograph (TUGEM) of a 3D phantom study are presented. The TUGEM system is briefly described. The hardware contains the measurement head and DSP-based identification modules controlled by a PC computer. A specially developed reconstruction algorithm, Regulated Correction Frequency Algebraic Reconstruction Technique (RCFART), is used to obtain 3D images. To visualize results, the Advance Visualization System (AVS) is used. It allows a powerful image processing on a fast workstation or on a high-performance computer. Results of three types of 3D conductivity perturbations used in the study (aluminum, Plexiglas, and cucumber) are shown. The relative volumes of perturbations less than 2% of the measurement chamber are easily evidenced.

  4. 3D Simulation: Microgravity Environments and Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Steve L.; Dischinger, Charles; Estes, Samantha; Parker, Nelson C. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Most, if not all, 3-D and Virtual Reality (VR) software programs are designed for one-G gravity applications. Space environments simulations require gravity effects of one one-thousandth to one one-million of that of the Earth's surface (10(exp -3) - 10(exp -6) G), thus one must be able to generate simulations that replicate those microgravity effects upon simulated astronauts. Unfortunately, the software programs utilized by the National Aeronautical and Space Administration does not have the ability to readily neutralize the one-G gravity effect. This pre-programmed situation causes the engineer or analysis difficulty during micro-gravity simulations. Therefore, microgravity simulations require special techniques or additional code in order to apply the power of 3D graphic simulation to space related applications. This paper discusses the problem and possible solutions to allow microgravity 3-D/VR simulations to be completed successfully without program code modifications.

  5. 3D Printed Multimaterial Microfluidic Valve

    PubMed Central

    Patrick, William G.; Sharma, Sunanda; Kong, David S.; Oxman, Neri

    2016-01-01

    We present a novel 3D printed multimaterial microfluidic proportional valve. The microfluidic valve is a fundamental primitive that enables the development of programmable, automated devices for controlling fluids in a precise manner. We discuss valve characterization results, as well as exploratory design variations in channel width, membrane thickness, and membrane stiffness. Compared to previous single material 3D printed valves that are stiff, these printed valves constrain fluidic deformation spatially, through combinations of stiff and flexible materials, to enable intricate geometries in an actuated, functionally graded device. Research presented marks a shift towards 3D printing multi-property programmable fluidic devices in a single step, in which integrated multimaterial valves can be used to control complex fluidic reactions for a variety of applications, including DNA assembly and analysis, continuous sampling and sensing, and soft robotics. PMID:27525809

  6. 3D nanopillar optical antenna photodetectors.

    PubMed

    Senanayake, Pradeep; Hung, Chung-Hong; Shapiro, Joshua; Scofield, Adam; Lin, Andrew; Williams, Benjamin S; Huffaker, Diana L

    2012-11-05

    We demonstrate 3D surface plasmon photoresponse in nanopillar arrays resulting in enhanced responsivity due to both Localized Surface Plasmon Resonances (LSPRs) and Surface Plasmon Polariton Bloch Waves (SPP-BWs). The LSPRs are excited due to a partial gold shell coating the nanopillar which acts as a 3D Nanopillar Optical Antenna (NOA) in focusing light into the nanopillar. Angular photoresponse measurements show that SPP-BWs can be spectrally coincident with LSPRs to result in a x2 enhancement in responsivity at 1180 nm. Full-wave Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) simulations substantiate both the spatial and spectral coupling of the SPP-BW / LSPR for enhanced absorption and the nature of the LSPR. Geometrical control of the 3D NOA and the self-aligned metal hole lattice allows the hybridization of both localized and propagating surface plasmon modes for enhanced absorption. Hybridized plasmonic modes opens up new avenues in optical antenna design in nanoscale photodetectors.

  7. Recent EFIT Developments and 3D Extension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lao, L. L.; Chu, M. S.; St. John, H. E.; Strait, E. J.; Montgomery, A. L.; Perkins, F. W.

    2006-10-01

    Recent developments of the equilibrium reconstruction code EFIT and its 3D extension to model toroidally asymmetric effects due to error and externally applied perturbation magnetic fields are presented. These include a new more complete uncertainty matrix for magnetic diagnostics based on detailed knowledge about their fabrication, installation, calibration, and operation. A new algorithm to efficiently compute high bootstrap-fraction equilibria that explicitly separates out the Pfirsch-Schluter and bootstrap contributions to the poloidal current stream function is also being developed. Other on-going and planned developments include a new computational structure based on Fortran 90/95 with a unified interface that can conveniently accommodate different tokamak devices and grid sizes, as well as a computational link that allows easy integration with transport and stability physics modules for integrated modeling. EFIT reconstruction capability is also being extended to 3D based on perturbation solutions to the 3D Grad-Shafranov equilibrium equation.

  8. Spectroradiometric characterization of autostereoscopic 3D displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubiño, Manuel; Salas, Carlos; Pozo, Antonio M.; Castro, J. J.; Pérez-Ocón, Francisco

    2013-11-01

    Spectroradiometric measurements have been made for the experimental characterization of the RGB channels of autostereoscopic 3D displays, giving results for different measurement angles with respect to the normal direction of the plane of the display. In the study, 2 different models of autostereoscopic 3D displays of different sizes and resolutions were used, making measurements with a spectroradiometer (model PR-670 SpectraScan of PhotoResearch). From the measurements made, goniometric results were recorded for luminance contrast, and the fundamental hypotheses have been evaluated for the characterization of the displays: independence of the RGB channels and their constancy. The results show that the display with the lower angle variability in the contrast-ratio value and constancy of the chromaticity coordinates nevertheless presented the greatest additivity deviations with the measurement angle. For both displays, when the parameters evaluated were taken into account, lower angle variability consistently resulted in the 2D mode than in the 3D mode.

  9. Atomic resolution 3D electron diffraction microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Miao, Jianwei; Ohsuna, Tetsu; Terasaki, Osamu; O'Keefe, Michael A.

    2002-03-01

    Electron lens aberration is the major barrier limiting the resolution of electron microscopy. Here we describe a novel form of electron microscopy to overcome electron lens aberration. By combining coherent electron diffraction with the oversampling phasing method, we show that the 3D structure of a 2 x 2 x 2 unit cell nano-crystal (framework of LTA [Al12Si12O48]8) can be ab initio determined at the resolution of 1 Angstrom from a series of simulated noisy diffraction pattern projections with rotation angles ranging from -70 degrees to +70 degrees in 5 degrees increments along a single rotation axis. This form of microscopy (which we call 3D electron diffraction microscopy) does not require any reference waves, and can image the 3D structure of nanocrystals, as well as non-crystalline biological and materials science samples, with the resolution limited only by the quality of sample diffraction.

  10. Active segmentation of 3D axonal images.

    PubMed

    Muralidhar, Gautam S; Gopinath, Ajay; Bovik, Alan C; Ben-Yakar, Adela

    2012-01-01

    We present an active contour framework for segmenting neuronal axons on 3D confocal microscopy data. Our work is motivated by the need to conduct high throughput experiments involving microfluidic devices and femtosecond lasers to study the genetic mechanisms behind nerve regeneration and repair. While most of the applications for active contours have focused on segmenting closed regions in 2D medical and natural images, there haven't been many applications that have focused on segmenting open-ended curvilinear structures in 2D or higher dimensions. The active contour framework we present here ties together a well known 2D active contour model [5] along with the physics of projection imaging geometry to yield a segmented axon in 3D. Qualitative results illustrate the promise of our approach for segmenting neruonal axons on 3D confocal microscopy data.

  11. 3D Gravity Inversion using Tikhonov Regularization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toushmalani, Reza; Saibi, Hakim

    2015-08-01

    Subsalt exploration for oil and gas is attractive in regions where 3D seismic depth-migration to recover the geometry of a salt base is difficult. Additional information to reduce the ambiguity in seismic images would be beneficial. Gravity data often serve these purposes in the petroleum industry. In this paper, the authors present an algorithm for a gravity inversion based on Tikhonov regularization and an automatically regularized solution process. They examined the 3D Euler deconvolution to extract the best anomaly source depth as a priori information to invert the gravity data and provided a synthetic example. Finally, they applied the gravity inversion to recently obtained gravity data from the Bandar Charak (Hormozgan, Iran) to identify its subsurface density structure. Their model showed the 3D shape of salt dome in this region.

  12. Ames Lab 101: 3D Metals Printer

    ScienceCinema

    Ott, Ryan

    2016-07-12

    To meet one of the biggest energy challenges of the 21st century - finding alternatives to rare-earth elements and other critical materials - scientists will need new and advanced tools. The Critical Materials Institute at the U.S. Department of Energy's Ames Laboratory has a new one: a 3D printer for metals research. 3D printing technology, which has captured the imagination of both industry and consumers, enables ideas to move quickly from the initial design phase to final form using materials including polymers, ceramics, paper and even food. But the Critical Materials Institute (CMI) will apply the advantages of the 3D printing process in a unique way: for materials discovery.

  13. 3-D Mesh Generation Nonlinear Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Christon, M. A.; Dovey, D.; Stillman, D. W.; Hallquist, J. O.; Rainsberger, R. B

    1994-04-07

    INGRID is a general-purpose, three-dimensional mesh generator developed for use with finite element, nonlinear, structural dynamics codes. INGRID generates the large and complex input data files for DYNA3D, NIKE3D, FACET, and TOPAZ3D. One of the greatest advantages of INGRID is that virtually any shape can be described without resorting to wedge elements, tetrahedrons, triangular elements or highly distorted quadrilateral or hexahedral elements. Other capabilities available are in the areas of geometry and graphics. Exact surface equations and surface intersections considerably improve the ability to deal with accurate models, and a hidden line graphics algorithm is included which is efficient on the most complicated meshes. The primary new capability is associated with the boundary conditions, loads, and material properties required by nonlinear mechanics programs. Commands have been designed for each case to minimize user effort. This is particularly important since special processing is almost always required for each load or boundary condition.

  14. A Hybrid 3D Indoor Space Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamali, Ali; Rahman, Alias Abdul; Boguslawski, Pawel

    2016-10-01

    GIS integrates spatial information and spatial analysis. An important example of such integration is for emergency response which requires route planning inside and outside of a building. Route planning requires detailed information related to indoor and outdoor environment. Indoor navigation network models including Geometric Network Model (GNM), Navigable Space Model, sub-division model and regular-grid model lack indoor data sources and abstraction methods. In this paper, a hybrid indoor space model is proposed. In the proposed method, 3D modeling of indoor navigation network is based on surveying control points and it is less dependent on the 3D geometrical building model. This research proposes a method of indoor space modeling for the buildings which do not have proper 2D/3D geometrical models or they lack semantic or topological information. The proposed hybrid model consists of topological, geometrical and semantical space.

  15. Reproducibility of 3D chromatin configuration reconstructions

    PubMed Central

    Segal, Mark R.; Xiong, Hao; Capurso, Daniel; Vazquez, Mariel; Arsuaga, Javier

    2014-01-01

    It is widely recognized that the three-dimensional (3D) architecture of eukaryotic chromatin plays an important role in processes such as gene regulation and cancer-driving gene fusions. Observing or inferring this 3D structure at even modest resolutions had been problematic, since genomes are highly condensed and traditional assays are coarse. However, recently devised high-throughput molecular techniques have changed this situation. Notably, the development of a suite of chromatin conformation capture (CCC) assays has enabled elicitation of contacts—spatially close chromosomal loci—which have provided insights into chromatin architecture. Most analysis of CCC data has focused on the contact level, with less effort directed toward obtaining 3D reconstructions and evaluating the accuracy and reproducibility thereof. While questions of accuracy must be addressed experimentally, questions of reproducibility can be addressed statistically—the purpose of this paper. We use a constrained optimization technique to reconstruct chromatin configurations for a number of closely related yeast datasets and assess reproducibility using four metrics that measure the distance between 3D configurations. The first of these, Procrustes fitting, measures configuration closeness after applying reflection, rotation, translation, and scaling-based alignment of the structures. The others base comparisons on the within-configuration inter-point distance matrix. Inferential results for these metrics rely on suitable permutation approaches. Results indicate that distance matrix-based approaches are preferable to Procrustes analysis, not because of the metrics per se but rather on account of the ability to customize permutation schemes to handle within-chromosome contiguity. It has recently been emphasized that the use of constrained optimization approaches to 3D architecture reconstruction are prone to being trapped in local minima. Our methods of reproducibility assessment provide a

  16. Real-time monitoring of 3D cell culture using a 3D capacitance biosensor.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sun-Mi; Han, Nalae; Lee, Rimi; Choi, In-Hong; Park, Yong-Beom; Shin, Jeon-Soo; Yoo, Kyung-Hwa

    2016-03-15

    Three-dimensional (3D) cell cultures have recently received attention because they represent a more physiologically relevant environment compared to conventional two-dimensional (2D) cell cultures. However, 2D-based imaging techniques or cell sensors are insufficient for real-time monitoring of cellular behavior in 3D cell culture. Here, we report investigations conducted with a 3D capacitance cell sensor consisting of vertically aligned pairs of electrodes. When GFP-expressing human breast cancer cells (GFP-MCF-7) encapsulated in alginate hydrogel were cultured in a 3D cell culture system, cellular activities, such as cell proliferation and apoptosis at different heights, could be monitored non-invasively and in real-time by measuring the change in capacitance with the 3D capacitance sensor. Moreover, we were able to monitor cell migration of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) with our 3D capacitance sensor.

  17. Some remarks on shell element analysis with DYNA3D and NIKE3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whirley, R. G.; Engelmann, B. E.; Maker, B. N.; Spelce, T. E.

    1992-03-01

    There has been some confusion in the user community recently regarding the various shell element formulations now available in DYNA3D (Whirley and Hadlquist, 1991) and NIKE3D (Maker, Ferencz, and Hallquist, 1991). In particular, questions have been raised about the behavior of these elements under large strain, and the display of meaningful results from such problems using TAURUS (Spelce and Hallquist, 1991). This brief report is intended to aid the DYNA/NIKE user community by elaborating on the formulation of the DYNA3D/NIKE3D shell elements and on the display of shell data using TAURUS. In the following discussion no attempt is made to give a complete description of the theoretical development or implementation of any of the elements. Readers interested in a more complete discussion of the shell elements in DYNA3D and NIKE3D are directed to the published papers cited in the code User Manuals.

  18. 3D whiteboard: collaborative sketching with 3D-tracked smart phones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lue, James; Schulze, Jürgen P.

    2014-02-01

    We present the results of our investigation of the feasibility of a new approach for collaborative drawing in 3D, based on Android smart phones. Our approach utilizes a number of fiduciary markers, placed in the working area where they can be seen by the smart phones' cameras, in order to estimate the pose of each phone in the room. Our prototype allows two users to draw 3D objects with their smart phones by moving their phones around in 3D space. For example, 3D lines are drawn by recording the path of the phone as it is moved around in 3D space, drawing line segments on the screen along the way. Each user can see the virtual drawing space on their smart phones' displays, as if the display was a window into this space. Besides lines, our prototype application also supports 3D geometry creation, geometry transformation operations, and it shows the location of the other user's phone.

  19. 3D scene reconstruction based on 3D laser point cloud combining UAV images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Huiyun; Yan, Yangyang; Zhang, Xitong; Wu, Zhenzhen

    2016-03-01

    It is a big challenge capturing and modeling 3D information of the built environment. A number of techniques and technologies are now in use. These include GPS, and photogrammetric application and also remote sensing applications. The experiment uses multi-source data fusion technology for 3D scene reconstruction based on the principle of 3D laser scanning technology, which uses the laser point cloud data as the basis and Digital Ortho-photo Map as an auxiliary, uses 3DsMAX software as a basic tool for building three-dimensional scene reconstruction. The article includes data acquisition, data preprocessing, 3D scene construction. The results show that the 3D scene has better truthfulness, and the accuracy of the scene meet the need of 3D scene construction.

  20. Light bending in radiation background

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Jin Young; Lee, Taekoon E-mail: tlee@kunsan.ac.kr

    2014-01-01

    We consider the velocity shift of light in presence of radiation emitted by a black body. Within geometric optics formalism we calculate the bending angle of a light ray when there is a gradient in the energy density. We model the bending for two simplified cases. The bending angle is proportional to the inverse square power of the impact parameter (∝1/b{sup 2}) when the dilution of energy density is spherically symmetric. The bending angle is inversely proportional to the impact parameter (∝1/b) when the energy density dilutes cylindrically. Assuming that a neutron star is an isothermal black body, we estimate the order of magnitude for such bending angle and compare it with the bending angle by magnetic field.

  1. 3D printed diffractive terahertz lenses.

    PubMed

    Furlan, Walter D; Ferrando, Vicente; Monsoriu, Juan A; Zagrajek, Przemysław; Czerwińska, Elżbieta; Szustakowski, Mieczysław

    2016-04-15

    A 3D printer was used to realize custom-made diffractive THz lenses. After testing several materials, phase binary lenses with periodic and aperiodic radial profiles were designed and constructed in polyamide material to work at 0.625 THz. The nonconventional focusing properties of such lenses were assessed by computing and measuring their axial point spread function (PSF). Our results demonstrate that inexpensive 3D printed THz diffractive lenses can be reliably used in focusing and imaging THz systems. Diffractive THz lenses with unprecedented features, such as extended depth of focus or bifocalization, have been demonstrated.

  2. Superplastic forming using NIKE3D

    SciTech Connect

    Puso, M.

    1996-12-04

    The superplastic forming process requires careful control of strain rates in order to avoid strain localizations. A load scheduler was developed and implemented into the nonlinear finite element code NIKE3D to provide strain rate control during forming simulation and process schedule output. Often the sheets being formed in SPF are very thin such that less expensive membrane elements can be used as opposed to shell elements. A large strain membrane element was implemented into NIKE3D to assist in SPF process modeling.

  3. 3D Modeling Engine Representation Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    Steven Prescott; Ramprasad Sampath; Curtis Smith; Timothy Yang

    2014-09-01

    Computers have been used for 3D modeling and simulation, but only recently have computational resources been able to give realistic results in a reasonable time frame for large complex models. This summary report addressed the methods, techniques, and resources used to develop a 3D modeling engine to represent risk analysis simulation for advanced small modular reactor structures and components. The simulations done for this evaluation were focused on external events, specifically tsunami floods, for a hypothetical nuclear power facility on a coastline.

  4. Delft3D turbine turbulence module

    SciTech Connect

    Chartrand, Chris; Jagers, Bert

    2016-04-18

    The DOE has funded Sandia National Labs (SNL) to develop an open-source modeling tool to guide the design and layout of marine hydrokinetic (MHK) arrays to maximize power production while minimizing environmental effects. This modeling framework simulates flows through and around a MHK arrays while quantifying environmental responses. As an augmented version of the Dutch company, Deltares’s, environmental hydrodynamics code, Delft3D, SNL-Delft3D includes a new module that simulates energy conversion (momentum withdrawal) by MHK devices with commensurate changes in the turbulent kinetic energy and its dissipation rate.

  5. Partial integrability of 3d Bohmian trajectories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contopoulos, G.; Tzemos, A. C.; Efthymiopoulos, C.

    2017-05-01

    In this paper we study the integrability of 3d Bohmian trajectories of a system of quantum harmonic oscillators. We show that the initial choice of quantum numbers is responsible for the existence (or not) of an integral of motion which confines the trajectories on certain invariant surfaces. We give a few examples of orbits in cases where there is or there is not an integral and make some comments on the impact of partial integrability in Bohmian Mechanics. Finally, we make a connection between our present results for the integrability in the 3d case and analogous results found in the 2d and 4d cases.

  6. [Delirium, depression, dementia: solving the 3D's].

    PubMed

    Schuerch, M; Farag, L; Deom, S

    2012-01-01

    As there is no consensus in the specialized literature, it is often difficult to recognize the ties existing between dementia, delirium and depression. Depression preceding dementia is well-documented. Depressive symptoms during the process of dementia are less well-known. So are the close relationships between dementia and delirium as well as between delirium and depression. The commonality of symptoms between the three often causes diagnostic dilemmas. Unfortunately, elderly patients can often present two, or even three, of the "3 D's" simultaneously. Untangling the 3 D's has been the subject of several articles. We propose a synthesis as well as our thoughts on the subject from a clinical psychogeriatric standpoint.

  7. Cryogenic 3D printing for tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Adamkiewicz, Michal; Rubinsky, Boris

    2015-12-01

    We describe a new cryogenic 3D printing technology for freezing hydrogels, with a potential impact to tissue engineering. We show that complex frozen hydrogel structures can be generated when the 3D object is printed immersed in a liquid coolant (liquid nitrogen), whose upper surface is maintained at the same level as the highest deposited layer of the object. This novel approach ensures that the process of freezing is controlled precisely, and that already printed frozen layers remain at a constant temperature. We describe the device and present results which illustrate the potential of the new technology.

  8. Mars Express, 3-D Artist's Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The European Space Agency's Mars Express spacecraft is depicted in orbit around Mars in this artist's concept stereo illustration.

    The spacecraft was launched June 2, 2003, from Baikonur, Kazakhstan, on a journey to arrive at Mars in December 2003.

    This red-blue anaglyph artwork can be viewed in 3-D on your computer monitor or in color print form by wearing red-blue (cyan) 3-D glasses.

    Mars Express is a mission of the European Space Agency. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., supplied the receiver for the mission's Mars Advanced Radar for Subsurface and Ionospheric Sounding instrument.

  9. Multifractal modelling and 3D lacunarity analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanen, Akkari; Imen, Bhouri; Asma, Ben Abdallah; Patrick, Dubois; Hédi, Bedoui Mohamed

    2009-09-01

    This study presents a comparative evaluation of lacunarity of 3D grey level models with different types of inhomogeneity. A new method based on the “Relative Differential Box Counting” was developed to estimate the lacunarity features of grey level volumes. To validate our method, we generated a set of 3D grey level multifractal models with random, anisotropic and hierarchical properties. Our method gives a lacunarity measurement correlated with the theoretical one and allows a better model classification compared with a classical approach.

  10. Immersive 3D geovisualisation in higher education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philips, Andrea; Walz, Ariane; Bergner, Andreas; Graeff, Thomas; Heistermann, Maik; Kienzler, Sarah; Korup, Oliver; Lipp, Torsten; Schwanghart, Wolfgang; Zeilinger, Gerold

    2014-05-01

    Through geovisualisation we explore spatial data, we analyse it towards a specific questions, we synthesise results, and we present and communicate them to a specific audience (MacEachren & Kraak 1997). After centuries of paper maps, the means to represent and visualise our physical environment and its abstract qualities have changed dramatically since the 1990s - and accordingly the methods how to use geovisualisation in teaching. Whereas some people might still consider the traditional classroom as ideal setting for teaching and learning geographic relationships and its mapping, we used a 3D CAVE (computer-animated virtual environment) as environment for a problem-oriented learning project called "GEOSimulator". Focussing on this project, we empirically investigated, if such a technological advance like the CAVE make 3D visualisation, including 3D geovisualisation, not only an important tool for businesses (Abulrub et al. 2012) and for the public (Wissen et al. 2008), but also for educational purposes, for which it had hardly been used yet. The 3D CAVE is a three-sided visualisation platform, that allows for immersive and stereoscopic visualisation of observed and simulated spatial data. We examined the benefits of immersive 3D visualisation for geographic research and education and synthesized three fundamental technology-based visual aspects: First, the conception and comprehension of space and location does not need to be generated, but is instantaneously and intuitively present through stereoscopy. Second, optical immersion into virtual reality strengthens this spatial perception which is in particular important for complex 3D geometries. And third, a significant benefit is interactivity, which is enhanced through immersion and allows for multi-discursive and dynamic data exploration and knowledge transfer. Based on our problem-oriented learning project, which concentrates on a case study on flood risk management at the Wilde Weisseritz in Germany, a river

  11. Acquisition and applications of 3D images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sterian, Paul; Mocanu, Elena

    2007-08-01

    The moiré fringes method and their analysis up to medical and entertainment applications are discussed in this paper. We describe the procedure of capturing 3D images with an Inspeck Camera that is a real-time 3D shape acquisition system based on structured light techniques. The method is a high-resolution one. After processing the images, using computer, we can use the data for creating laser fashionable objects by engraving them with a Q-switched Nd:YAG. In medical field we mention the plastic surgery and the replacement of X-Ray especially in pediatric use.

  12. PB3D: A new code for edge 3-D ideal linear peeling-ballooning stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weyens, T.; Sánchez, R.; Huijsmans, G.; Loarte, A.; García, L.

    2017-02-01

    A new numerical code PB3D (Peeling-Ballooning in 3-D) is presented. It implements and solves the intermediate-to-high-n ideal linear magnetohydrodynamic stability theory extended to full edge 3-D magnetic toroidal configurations in previous work [1]. The features that make PB3D unique are the assumptions on the perturbation structure through intermediate-to-high mode numbers n in general 3-D configurations, while allowing for displacement of the plasma edge. This makes PB3D capable of very efficient calculations of the full 3-D stability for the output of multiple equilibrium codes. As first verification, it is checked that results from the stability code MISHKA [2], which considers axisymmetric equilibrium configurations, are accurately reproduced, and these are then successfully extended to 3-D configurations, through comparison with COBRA [3], as well as using checks on physical consistency. The non-intuitive 3-D results presented serve as a tentative first proof of the capabilities of the code.

  13. Massively parallel implementation of 3D-RISM calculation with volumetric 3D-FFT.

    PubMed

    Maruyama, Yutaka; Yoshida, Norio; Tadano, Hiroto; Takahashi, Daisuke; Sato, Mitsuhisa; Hirata, Fumio

    2014-07-05

    A new three-dimensional reference interaction site model (3D-RISM) program for massively parallel machines combined with the volumetric 3D fast Fourier transform (3D-FFT) was developed, and tested on the RIKEN K supercomputer. The ordinary parallel 3D-RISM program has a limitation on the number of parallelizations because of the limitations of the slab-type 3D-FFT. The volumetric 3D-FFT relieves this limitation drastically. We tested the 3D-RISM calculation on the large and fine calculation cell (2048(3) grid points) on 16,384 nodes, each having eight CPU cores. The new 3D-RISM program achieved excellent scalability to the parallelization, running on the RIKEN K supercomputer. As a benchmark application, we employed the program, combined with molecular dynamics simulation, to analyze the oligomerization process of chymotrypsin Inhibitor 2 mutant. The results demonstrate that the massive parallel 3D-RISM program is effective to analyze the hydration properties of the large biomolecular systems.

  14. Innovations in 3D printing: a 3D overview from optics to organs.

    PubMed

    Schubert, Carl; van Langeveld, Mark C; Donoso, Larry A

    2014-02-01

    3D printing is a method of manufacturing in which materials, such as plastic or metal, are deposited onto one another in layers to produce a three dimensional object, such as a pair of eye glasses or other 3D objects. This process contrasts with traditional ink-based printers which produce a two dimensional object (ink on paper). To date, 3D printing has primarily been used in engineering to create engineering prototypes. However, recent advances in printing materials have now enabled 3D printers to make objects that are comparable with traditionally manufactured items. In contrast with conventional printers, 3D printing has the potential to enable mass customisation of goods on a large scale and has relevance in medicine including ophthalmology. 3D printing has already been proved viable in several medical applications including the manufacture of eyeglasses, custom prosthetic devices and dental implants. In this review, we discuss the potential for 3D printing to revolutionise manufacturing in the same way as the printing press revolutionised conventional printing. The applications and limitations of 3D printing are discussed; the production process is demonstrated by producing a set of eyeglass frames from 3D blueprints.

  15. Scalable 3D GIS environment managed by 3D-XML-based modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Beiqi; Rui, Jianxun; Chen, Neng

    2008-10-01

    Nowadays, the namely 3D GIS technologies become a key factor in establishing and maintaining large-scale 3D geoinformation services. However, with the rapidly increasing size and complexity of the 3D models being acquired, a pressing needed for suitable data management solutions has become apparent. This paper outlines that storage and exchange of geospatial data between databases and different front ends like 3D models, GIS or internet browsers require a standardized format which is capable to represent instances of 3D GIS models, to minimize loss of information during data transfer and to reduce interface development efforts. After a review of previous methods for spatial 3D data management, a universal lightweight XML-based format for quick and easy sharing of 3D GIS data is presented. 3D data management based on XML is a solution meeting the requirements as stated, which can provide an efficient means for opening a new standard way to create an arbitrary data structure and share it over the Internet. To manage reality-based 3D models, this paper uses 3DXML produced by Dassault Systemes. 3DXML uses opening XML schemas to communicate product geometry, structure and graphical display properties. It can be read, written and enriched by standard tools; and allows users to add extensions based on their own specific requirements. The paper concludes with the presentation of projects from application areas which will benefit from the functionality presented above.

  16. Development of 3D video and 3D data services for T-DMB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, Kugjin; Lee, Hyun; Hur, Namho; Kim, Jinwoong

    2008-02-01

    In this paper, we present motivation, system concept, and implementation details of stereoscopic 3D visual services on T-DMB. We have developed two types of 3D visual service : one is '3D video service', which provides 3D depth feeling for a video program by sending left and right view video streams, and the other is '3D data service', which provides presentation of 3D objects overlaid on top of 2D video program. We have developed several highly efficient and sophisticated transmission schemes for the delivery of 3D visual data in order to meet the system requirements such as (1) minimization of bitrate overhead to comply with the strict constraint of T-DMB channel bandwidth; (2) backward and forward compatibility with existing T-DMB; (3) maximize the eye-catching effect of 3D visual representation while reducing eye fatigue. We found that, in contrast to conventional way of providing a stereo version of a program as a whole, the proposed scheme can lead to variety of efficient and effective 3D visual services which can be adapted to many business models.

  17. Recent developments in DFD (depth-fused 3D) display and arc 3D display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suyama, Shiro; Yamamoto, Hirotsugu

    2015-05-01

    We will report our recent developments in DFD (Depth-fused 3D) display and arc 3D display, both of which have smooth movement parallax. Firstly, fatigueless DFD display, composed of only two layered displays with a gap, has continuous perceived depth by changing luminance ratio between two images. Two new methods, called "Edge-based DFD display" and "Deep DFD display", have been proposed in order to solve two severe problems of viewing angle and perceived depth limitations. Edge-based DFD display, layered by original 2D image and its edge part with a gap, can expand the DFD viewing angle limitation both in 2D and 3D perception. Deep DFD display can enlarge the DFD image depth by modulating spatial frequencies of front and rear images. Secondly, Arc 3D display can provide floating 3D images behind or in front of the display by illuminating many arc-shaped directional scattering sources, for example, arcshaped scratches on a flat board. Curved Arc 3D display, composed of many directional scattering sources on a curved surface, can provide a peculiar 3D image, for example, a floating image in the cylindrical bottle. The new active device has been proposed for switching arc 3D images by using the tips of dual-frequency liquid-crystal prisms as directional scattering sources. Directional scattering can be switched on/off by changing liquid-crystal refractive index, resulting in switching of arc 3D image.

  18. MRS3D: 3D Spherical Wavelet Transform on the Sphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanusse, F.; Rassat, A.; Starck, J.-L.

    2011-12-01

    Future cosmological surveys will provide 3D large scale structure maps with large sky coverage, for which a 3D Spherical Fourier-Bessel (SFB) analysis is natural. Wavelets are particularly well-suited to the analysis and denoising of cosmological data, but a spherical 3D isotropic wavelet transform does not currently exist to analyse spherical 3D data. We present a new fast Discrete Spherical Fourier-Bessel Transform (DSFBT) based on both a discrete Bessel Transform and the HEALPIX angular pixelisation scheme. We tested the 3D wavelet transform and as a toy-application, applied a denoising algorithm in wavelet space to the Virgo large box cosmological simulations and found we can successfully remove noise without much loss to the large scale structure. The new spherical 3D isotropic wavelet transform, called MRS3D, is ideally suited to analysing and denoising future 3D spherical cosmological surveys; it uses a novel discrete spherical Fourier-Bessel Transform. MRS3D is based on two packages, IDL and Healpix and can be used only if these two packages have been installed.

  19. The EISCAT_3D Science Case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tjulin, A.; Mann, I.; McCrea, I.; Aikio, A. T.

    2013-05-01

    EISCAT_3D will be a world-leading international research infrastructure using the incoherent scatter technique to study the atmosphere in the Fenno-Scandinavian Arctic and to investigate how the Earth's atmosphere is coupled to space. The EISCAT_3D phased-array multistatic radar system will be operated by EISCAT Scientific Association and thus be an integral part of an organisation that has successfully been running incoherent scatter radars for more than thirty years. The baseline design of the radar system contains a core site with transmitting and receiving capabilities located close to the intersection of the Swedish, Norwegian and Finnish borders and five receiving sites located within 50 to 250 km from the core. The EISCAT_3D project is currently in its Preparatory Phase and can smoothly transit into implementation in 2014, provided sufficient funding. Construction can start 2016 and first operations in 2018. The EISCAT_3D Science Case is prepared as part of the Preparatory Phase. It is regularly updated with annual new releases, and it aims at being a common document for the whole future EISCAT_3D user community. The areas covered by the Science Case are atmospheric physics and global change; space and plasma physics; solar system research; space weather and service applications; and radar techniques, new methods for coding and analysis. Two of the aims for EISCAT_3D are to understand the ways natural variability in the upper atmosphere, imposed by the Sun-Earth system, can influence the middle and lower atmosphere, and to improve the predictivity of atmospheric models by providing higher resolution observations to replace the current parametrised input. Observations by EISCAT_3D will also be used to monitor the direct effects from the Sun on the ionosphere-atmosphere system and those caused by solar wind magnetosphere-ionosphere interaction. In addition, EISCAT_3D will be used for remote sensing the large-scale behaviour of the magnetosphere from its

  20. An approach towards 3D sensitive AFM cantilevers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koops, Richard; Fokkema, Vincent

    2014-04-01

    The atomic force microscope (AFM) tapping mode is a highly sensitive local probing technique that is very useful to study and measure surface properties down to the atomic scale. The tapping mode is mostly implemented using the resonance of the first bending mode of the cantilever and therefore provides sensitivity mainly along the direction of this oscillation. Driven by the semiconductor industry, there is an increasing need for accurate measurements of nanoscale structures for side wall characterization by AFM that requires additional sensitivity in the lateral direction. The conventional tapping mode has been augmented by various authors, for example by tilting the cantilever system (Cho et al 2011 Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82 023707) to access the sidewall or using a torsion mode (Dai et al 2011 Meas. Sci. Technol. 22 094009) of the cantilever to provide additional lateral sensitivity. These approaches however trade lateral sensitivity for vertical sensitivity or still lack sensitivity in the remaining lateral direction. We present an approach towards true 3D sensitivity for AFM cantilevers based on simultaneous excitation and optical detection of multiple cantilever resonance modes along three axes. Tuning the excitation of the cantilever to specific frequencies provides a mechanism to select only those cantilever modes that have the desired characteristics. Additionally, cantilever engineering has been used to design and create a substructure within the cantilever that has been optimized for specific resonance behavior around 4 MHz. In contrast to the conventional approach of using a piezo to actuate the cantilever modulation, we present results on photo-thermal excitation using an intensity modulated low-power laser source. By tightly focusing the excitation spot on the cantilever we were able to attain a deflection efficiency of 0.7 nm µW-1 for the first bending mode. The presented approach results in an efficient all optical excitation and deflection detection