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Sample records for 3d angular vestibulo-ocular

  1. Unilateral adaptation of the human angular vestibulo-ocular reflex.

    PubMed

    Migliaccio, Americo A; Schubert, Michael C

    2013-02-01

    A recent study showed that the angular vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) can be better adaptively increased using an incremental retinal image velocity error signal compared with a conventional constant large velocity-gain demand (×2). This finding has important implications for vestibular rehabilitation that seeks to improve the VOR response after injury. However, a large portion of vestibular patients have unilateral vestibular hypofunction, and training that raises their VOR response during rotations to both the ipsilesional and contralesional side is not usually ideal. We sought to determine if the vestibular response to one side could selectively be increased without affecting the contralateral response. We tested nine subjects with normal vestibular function. Using the scleral search coil and head impulse techniques, we measured the active and passive VOR gain (eye velocity / head velocity) before and after unilateral incremental VOR adaptation training, consisting of self-generated (active) head impulses, which lasted ≈ 15 min. The head impulses consisted of rapid, horizontal head rotations with peak-amplitude 15°, peak-velocity 150°/s and peak-acceleration 3,000°/s(2). The VOR gain towards the adapting side increased after training from 0.92 ± 0.18 to 1.11 ± 0.22 (+22.7 ± 20.2 %) during active head impulses and from 0.91 ± 0.15 to 1.01 ± 0.17 (+11.3 ± 7.5 %) during passive head impulses. During active impulses, the VOR gain towards the non-adapting side also increased by ≈ 8 %, though this increase was ≈ 70 % less than to the adapting side. A similar increase did not occur during passive impulses. This study shows that unilateral vestibular adaptation is possible in humans with a normal VOR; unilateral incremental VOR adaptation may have a role in vestibular rehabilitation. The increase in passive VOR gain after active head impulse adaptation suggests that the training effect is robust.

  2. Effect of Spaceflight on Vestibulo-Ocular Reflexes (VORS) During Angular Head Motion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tomko, David L.; Clifford, James O.; Hargens, Alan R. (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    Vestibulo-ocular reflexes (VORs) stabilize the eyes during head motion. During Earth-horizontal (E-H) pitch or roll rotations, canal and otolith stimuli occur together. In Earth-vertical (E-V) pitch or roll rotations, only canal signals occur. In cats and squirrel monkeys, pitch/roll VOR gains during E-H motion have been shown to be larger than during E-V motion, implying that otolith modulation plays a role in producing angular VORs (aVORs). The present experiments replicated this experiment in rhesus monkeys, and examined how spaceflight affected AVOR gain. During yaw, pitch and roll (0.5 - 1.0 Hz, 40-50 deg/s pk) motion, 3-d eye movements were recorded in four Rhesus monkeys using scleral search coils. Mean E-H and E-V pitch VOR gains were 0.85 and 0.71. Torsional VOR gains during E-H and E-V were 0.47 and 0.39. Gains are more compensatory during E-H pitch or roll. Two of the four monkeys flew for 11 days on the COSMOS 2229 Biosatellite. E-H pitch VOR gains were attenuated immediately (72 hrs) post-flight, with similar values to pre-flight E-V pitch gains. Horizontal yaw VOR gains were similar pre- and post-flight.

  3. Signal processing related to the vestibulo-ocular reflex during combined angular rotation and linear translation of the head

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCrea, R. A.; Chen-Huang, C.; Peterson, B. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    The contributions of vestibular nerve afferents and central vestibular pathways to the angular (AVOR) and linear (LVOR) vestibulo-ocular reflex were studied in squirrel monkeys during fixation of near and far targets. Irregular vestibular afferents did not appear to be necessary for the LVOR, since when they were selectively silenced with galvanic currents the LVOR was essentially unaffected during both far- and near-target viewing. The linear translation signals generated by secondary AVOR neurons in the vestibular nuclei were, on average, in phase with head velocity, inversely related to viewing distance, and were nearly as strong as AVOR-related signals. We suggest that spatial-temporal transformation of linear head translation signals to angular eye velocity commands is accomplished primarily by the addition of viewing distance multiplied, centrally integrated, otolith regular afferent signals to angular VOR pathways.

  4. Cross-axis adaptation improves 3D vestibulo-ocular reflex alignment during chronic stimulation via a head-mounted multichannel vestibular prosthesis

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Chenkai; Fridman, Gene Y.; Chiang, Bryce; Davidovics, Natan; Melvin, Thuy-Anh; Cullen, Kathleen E.; Della Santina, Charles C.

    2012-01-01

    By sensing three-dimensional (3D) head rotation and electrically stimulating the three ampullary branches of a vestibular nerve to encode head angular velocity, a multichannel vestibular prosthesis (MVP) can restore vestibular sensation to individuals disabled by loss of vestibular hair cell function. However, current spread to afferent fibers innervating non-targeted canals and otolith endorgans can distort the vestibular nerve activation pattern, causing misalignment between the perceived and actual axis of head rotation. We hypothesized that over time, central neural mechanisms can adapt to correct this misalignment. To test this, we rendered five chinchillas vestibular-deficient via bilateral gentamicin treatment and unilaterally implanted them with a head mounted MVP. Comparison of 3D angular vestibulo-ocular reflex (aVOR) responses during 2 Hz, 50°/s peak horizontal sinusoidal head rotations in darkness on the first, third and seventh days of continual MVP use revealed that eye responses about the intended axis remained stable (at about 70% of the normal gain) while misalignment improved significantly by the end of one week of prosthetic stimulation. A comparable time course of improvement was also observed for head rotations about the other two semicircular canal axes and at every stimulus frequency examined (0.2–5 Hz). In addition, the extent of disconjugacy between the two eyes progressively improved during the same time window. These results indicate that the central nervous system rapidly adapts to multichannel prosthetic vestibular stimulation to markedly improve 3D aVOR alignment within the first week after activation. Similar adaptive improvements are likely to occur in other species, including humans. PMID:21374081

  5. Characterizing high-velocity angular vestibulo-ocular reflex function in service members post-blast exposure

    PubMed Central

    Scherer, Matthew R.; Shelhamer, Mark J.; Schubert, Michael C.

    2011-01-01

    Blasts (explosions) are the most common mechanism of injury in modern warfare. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) and dizziness are common sequelae associated with blasts, and many service members (SMs) report symptoms worsen with activity. The purpose of this study was to measure angular vestibulo-ocular reflex gain (aVOR) of blast-exposed SMs with TBI during head impulse testing. We also assessed their symptoms during exertion. Twenty-four SMs recovering from TBI were prospectively assigned to one of two groups based on the presence or absence of dizziness. Wireless monocular scleral search coil and rate sensor were used to characterize active and passive yaw and pitch head and eye rotations. Visual analog scale (VAS) was used to monitor symptoms during fast walking/running. For active yaw head impulses, aVOR gains were significantly lower in the symptomatic group (0.79 ± 0.15) versus asymptomatic (0.87 ± 0.18), but not for passive head rotation. For pitch head rotation, the symptomatic group had both active (0.915 ± 0.24) and passive (0.878 ± 0.22) aVOR gains lower than the asymptomatic group (active 1.03 ± 0.27, passive 0.97 ± 0.23). Some SMs had elevated aVOR gain. VAS scores for all symptoms were highest during exertion. Our data suggest symptomatic SMs with TBI as a result of blast have varied aVOR gain during high-velocity head impulses and provide compelling evidence of pathology affecting the vestibular system. Potential loci of injury in this population include the following: disruption of pathways relaying vestibular efference signals, differential destruction of type I vestibular hair cells, or selective damage to irregular afferent pathways—any of which may explain the common discrepancy between reports of vestibular-like symptoms and laboratory testing results. significantly reduced pitch aVOR in symptomatic SMs and peak symptom severity during exertional testing support earlier findings in the chronic blast-exposed active duty SMs. PMID:21113582

  6. Characterizing high-velocity angular vestibulo-ocular reflex function in service members post-blast exposure.

    PubMed

    Scherer, Matthew R; Shelhamer, Mark J; Schubert, Michael C

    2011-02-01

    Blasts (explosions) are the most common mechanism of injury in modern warfare. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) and dizziness are common sequelae associated with blasts, and many service members (SMs) report symptoms worsen with activity. The purpose of this study was to measure angular vestibulo-ocular reflex gain (aVOR) of blast-exposed SMs with TBI during head impulse testing. We also assessed their symptoms during exertion. Twenty-four SMs recovering from TBI were prospectively assigned to one of two groups based on the presence or absence of dizziness. Wireless monocular scleral search coil and rate sensor were used to characterize active and passive yaw and pitch head and eye rotations. Visual analog scale (VAS) was used to monitor symptoms during fast walking/running. For active yaw head impulses, aVOR gains were significantly lower in the symptomatic group (0.79 ± 0.15) versus asymptomatic (0.87 ± 0.18), but not for passive head rotation. For pitch head rotation, the symptomatic group had both active (0.915 ± 0.24) and passive (0.878 ± 0.22) aVOR gains lower than the asymptomatic group (active 1.03 ± 0.27, passive 0.97 ± 0.23). Some SMs had elevated aVOR gain. VAS scores for all symptoms were highest during exertion. Our data suggest symptomatic SMs with TBI as a result of blast have varied aVOR gain during high-velocity head impulses and provide compelling evidence of pathology affecting the vestibular system. Potential loci of injury in this population include the following: disruption of pathways relaying vestibular efference signals, differential destruction of type I vestibular hair cells, or selective damage to irregular afferent pathways-any of which may explain the common discrepancy between reports of vestibular-like symptoms and laboratory testing results. Significantly reduced pitch aVOR in symptomatic SMs and peak symptom severity during exertional testing support earlier findings in the chronic blast-exposed active duty SMs.

  7. The Chinchilla's vestibulo-ocular reflex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merwin, W. H., Jr.; Wall, Conrad, III; Tomko, D. L.

    1989-01-01

    The horizontal vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) was measured and characterized in seven adult chinchillas using 0.01 to 1.0 Hz angular velocity sinusoids. Gains were less than compensatory, and were variable from day to day, but phases were highly repeatable both within and between animals. The best fitting transfer function to the average data of all animals had a dominant time constant of 7.5 sec, and an adaptation operator with a time constant of 24.0 sec. There were certain nonlinearities in the horizontal VOR of this animal, and it was difficult to elicit a robust optokinetic response. Results are discussed in relation to similar measurements in other species.

  8. Inertial processing of vestibulo-ocular signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hess, B. J.; Angelaki, D. E.

    1999-01-01

    New evidence for a central resolution of gravito-inertial signals has been recently obtained by analyzing the properties of the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) in response to combined lateral translations and roll tilts of the head. It is found that the VOR generates robust compensatory horizontal eye movements independent of whether or not the interaural translatory acceleration component is canceled out by a gravitational acceleration component due to simultaneous roll-tilt. This response property of the VOR depends on functional semicircular canals, suggesting that the brain uses both otolith and semicircular canal signals to estimate head motion relative to inertial space. Vestibular information about dynamic head attitude relative to gravity is the basis for computing head (and body) angular velocity relative to inertial space. Available evidence suggests that the inertial vestibular system controls both head attitude and velocity with respect to a gravity-centered reference frame. The basic computational principles underlying the inertial processing of otolith and semicircular canal afferent signals are outlined.

  9. Spatial Transformation of the Vestibulo-Ocular Reflex during Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clement, Gilles; Wood, Scott J.; Reschke, Millard F.

    1996-01-01

    It was hypothesized that the absence of the gravitational reference cues may be responsible for adaptive changes in the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR). These changes result in the alteration of the direction of the compensatory slow phase (SP) eye movements in microgravity. In order to test this hypothesis, the direction of the VOR SP relative to head motion was investigated in three astronauts during and after an eight-day orbital flight by passive sinusoidal pitch or yaw angular motion at two frequencies. The results of the inflight and postflight testing are considered. The observed deviation between VOR SP and head motion suggests that spatial transformation in the VOR occurred during adaptation to microgravity. It is considered that, although this spatial transformation might be due to a sensory bias, it may reflect central changes in the reference system used for spatial orientation in microgravity.

  10. Ontogenetic Development of Vestibulo-Ocular Reflexes in Amphibians

    PubMed Central

    Branoner, Francisco; Chagnaud, Boris P.; Straka, Hans

    2016-01-01

    Vestibulo-ocular reflexes (VOR) ensure gaze stability during locomotion and passively induced head/body movements. In precocial vertebrates such as amphibians, vestibular reflexes are required very early at the onset of locomotor activity. While the formation of inner ears and the assembly of sensory-motor pathways is largely completed soon after hatching, angular and translational/tilt VOR display differential functional onsets and mature with different time courses. Otolith-derived eye movements appear immediately after hatching, whereas the appearance and progressive amelioration of semicircular canal-evoked eye movements is delayed and dependent on the acquisition of sufficiently large semicircular canal diameters. Moreover, semicircular canal functionality is also required to tune the initially omnidirectional otolith-derived VOR. The tuning is due to a reinforcement of those vestibulo-ocular connections that are co-activated by semicircular canal and otolith inputs during natural head/body motion. This suggests that molecular mechanisms initially guide the basic ontogenetic wiring, whereas semicircular canal-dependent activity is required to establish the spatio-temporal specificity of the reflex. While a robust VOR is activated during passive head/body movements, locomotor efference copies provide the major source for compensatory eye movements during tail- and limb-based swimming of larval and adult frogs. The integration of active/passive motion-related signals for gaze stabilization occurs in central vestibular neurons that are arranged as segmentally iterated functional groups along rhombomere 1–8. However, at variance with the topographic maps of most other sensory systems, the sensory-motor transformation of motion-related signals occurs in segmentally specific neuronal groups defined by the extraocular motor output targets. PMID:27877114

  11. Evolution of the vestibulo-ocular system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fritzsch, B.

    1998-01-01

    The evolutionary and developmental changes in the eye muscle innervation, the inner ear, and the vestibulo-ocular reflex are examined. Three eye muscle patterns, based on the innervation by distinct ocular motoneurons populations, can be identified: a lamprey, an elasmobranch, and a bony fish/tetrapod pattern. Four distinct patterns of variation in the vestibular system are described: a hagfish pattern, a lamprey pattern, an elasmobranch pattern, and a bony fish/tetrapod pattern. Developmental data suggest an influence of the hindbrain on ear pattern formation, thus potentially allowing a concomitant change of eye muscle innervation and ear variation. The connections between the ear and the vestibular nuclei and between the vestibular nuclei and ocular motoneurons are reviewed, and the role of neurotrophins for pattern specification is discussed. Three patterns are recognized in central projections: a hagfish pattern, a lamprey pattern, and a pattern for jawed vertebrates. Second-order connections show both similarities and differences between distantly related species such as lampreys and mammals. For example, elasmobranchs lack an internuclear system, which is at best poorly developed in lampreys. It is suggested that the vestibulo-ocular system shows only a limited degree of variation because of the pronounced functional constraints imposed on it.

  12. The human vestibulo-ocular reflex during linear locomotion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, S. T.; Hirasaki, E.; Raphan, T.; Cohen, B.

    2001-01-01

    During locomotion, there is a translation and compensatory rotation of the head in both the vertical and horizontal planes. During moderate to fast walking (100 m/min), vertical head translation occurs at the frequency of stepping (2 Hz) and generates peak linear acceleration of 0.37 g. Lateral head translation occurs at the stride frequency (1 Hz) and generates peak linear acceleration of 0.1 g. Peak head pitch and yaw angular velocities are approximately 17 degrees/s. The frequency and magnitude of these head movements are within the operational range of both the linear and angular vestibulo-ocular reflex (IVOR and aVOR). Vertical eye movements undergo a phase reversal from near to far targets. When viewing a far (>1 m) target, vertical eye velocity is typical of an aVOR response; that is, it is compensatory for head pitch. At close viewing distances (<1 m), vertical eye velocity is in phase with head pitch and is compensatory for vertical head translation, suggesting that the IVOR predominantly generates the eye movement response. Horizontal head movements during locomotion occur at the stride frequency of 1 Hz, where the IVOR gain is low. Horizontal eye movements are compensatory for head yaw at all viewing distances and are likely generated by the aVOR.

  13. The vestibulo-ocular reflex of hypergravity rats.

    PubMed

    Wubbels, R J; de Jong, H A

    2001-07-01

    The vertebrate vestibular system detects linear (otolith organs) and angular (semicircular canals) acceleration. The function of the otolith system is twofold, 1: perception of linear acceleration of the head, and 2: assessment of the spatial orientation of the head relative to the vector of gravity. Because of the latter function, a change of gravity will affect the vestibular input which, in turn, may have a wide range of serious physiological effects, for instance on ocular reflexes. The function of the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) is to stabilize the visual image on the retina. Measurement of this VOR provides a method to investigate the (processing within the) vestibular system. Discrimination between gravity and linear acceleration, caused by movement of the head, is not possible. Therefore, information from the otolith system must be constantly compared with additional information from other sensory systems in order to solve the inherent ambiguity between tilt and translation. In this processing, cues from the semicircular canals also play a role. During parabolic flight, experiments can be performed at altered gravity levels for brief periods of time. On earth, the only effective possibility to manipulate gravity for longer periods of time is a centrifuge. Together with experiments in weightlessness during orbital flight, these methods form useful tools to investigate the influence of gravity on physiology. In our laboratory, rats have been kept inside a centrifuge at 2.5 g during their entire life-span (i.e. including gestation).

  14. Vergence-dependent adaptation of the vestibulo-ocular reflex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Richard F.; Clendaniel, Richard A.; Zee, David S.; Shelhamer, M. J. (Principal Investigator)

    2003-01-01

    The gain of the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) normally depends on the distance between the subject and the visual target, but it remains uncertain whether vergence angle can be linked to changes in VOR gain through a process of context-dependent adaptation. In this study, we examined this question with an adaptation paradigm that modified the normal relationship between vergence angle and retinal image motion. Subjects were rotated sinusoidally while they viewed an optokinetic (OKN) stimulus through either diverging or converging prisms. In three subjects the diverging prisms were worn while the OKN stimulus moved out of phase with the head, and the converging prisms were worn when the OKN stimulus moved in-phase with the head. The relationship between the vergence angle and OKN stimulus was reversed in the fourth subject. After 2 h of training, the VOR gain at the two vergence angles changed significantly in all of the subjects, evidenced by the two different VOR gains that could be immediately accessed by switching between the diverged and converged conditions. The results demonstrate that subjects can learn to use vergence angle as the contextual cue that retrieves adaptive changes in the angular VOR.

  15. Initiation of the human heave linear vestibulo-ocular reflex.

    PubMed

    Crane, Benjamin T; Tian, Junru; Wiest, Gerald; Demer, Joseph L

    2003-01-01

    The linear vestibulo-ocular reflex (LVOR) was studied in eight normal human subjects of average age 24+/-5 years. Subjects underwent a sudden heave (mediolateral) translation delivered by a pneumatic servo-driven chair with a peak acceleration of 0.5 g while viewing earth-fixed targets at 15, 25, 50, and 200 cm. Stimuli were provided both with targets continuously visible or extinguished just prior to motion. Cancellation was tested using chair-fixed targets at each viewing distance. Eye movements were recorded using binocular magnetic search coils. Head translation was measured using a linear accelerometer attached to the upper teeth, to which also was attached a magnetic search coil verifying absence of head rotation. Vergence angles achieved by all subjects were appropriate to interpupillary distance and target distance. Heave translations evoked horizontal ocular rotations in the opposite direction following a brief latency. Latency of the LVOR was determined by automated algorithms based on identification of times when eye position and head acceleration exceeded three standard deviations (SDs) of baseline noise, and was corrected for differing transducer delays. Mean LVOR latency was 30+/-16 ms (mean +/- SD), range 12-53 ms. Slow phase LVOR amplitude was greater for near and less for more distant targets, although all observed responses were suboptimal. Measured 100 ms after head translation onset, mean response was 20% of ideal for the target at 15 cm, 22% at 25 cm, 31% at 50 cm, and 53% at 200 cm. Mean latency was significantly longer than the previously reported values for both the human angular VOR and the monkey LVOR, and had significant inverse correlation with response magnitude. The relatively longer latency of the human LVOR than angular VOR may be tailored to match human head movement dynamics.

  16. Abnormal Vestibulo-Ocular Reflexes in Autism: A Potential Endophenotype

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-01

    assistants trained in administration of Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS), certification required, and other testing administration...and UF Center for Autism and Related Disorders (CARD). Administration of the following questionnaires to each set of parent (s)/guardian(s...0382 TITLE: Abnormal Vestibulo-Ocular Reflexes in Autism : A Potential Endophenotype PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Keith D. White, Ph.D

  17. Abnormal Vestibulo-Ocular Reflexes in Autism: A Potential Endophenotype

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-01

    vertical VOR and torsional VOR, both without optokinetic feedback, using velocity step tests. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Vestibulo-ocular reflex, autism 16...characterize in ASD vertical VOR and torsional VOR, both without optokinetic feedback, using velocity step tests. This Final Report covers the period from...Specific Aims 1 and 2 of the proposal. The equipment purchased from Neuro Kinetics, Inc. was not designed for testing vertical or torsional nystagmus

  18. Adaptation of the vestibulo-ocular reflex for forward-eyed foveate vision

    PubMed Central

    Migliaccio, Americo A; Minor, Lloyd B; Santina, Charles C Della

    2010-01-01

    To maintain visual fixation on a distant target during head rotation, the angular vestibulo-ocular reflex (aVOR) should rotate the eyes at the same speed as the head and in exactly the opposite direction. However, in primates for which the 3-dimensional (3D) aVOR has been extensively characterised (humans and squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus)), the aVOR response to roll head rotation about the naso-occipital axis is lower than that elicited by yaw and pitch, causing errors in aVOR magnitude and direction that vary with the axis of head rotation. In other words, primates keep the central part of the retinal image on the fovea (where photoreceptor density and visual acuity are greatest) but fail to keep that image from twisting about the eyes' resting optic axes. We tested the hypothesis that aVOR direction dependence is an adaptation related to primates' frontal-eyed, foveate status through comparison with the aVOR of a lateral-eyed, afoveate mammal (Chinchilla lanigera). As chinchillas' eyes are afoveate and never align with each other, we predicted that the chinchilla aVOR would be relatively low in gain and isotropic (equal in gain for every head rotation axis). In 11 normal chinchillas, we recorded binocular 3D eye movements in darkness during static tilts, 20–100 deg s−1 whole-body sinusoidal rotations (0.5–15 Hz), and 3000 deg s−2 acceleration steps. Although the chinchilla 3D aVOR gain changed with both frequency and peak velocity over the range we examined, we consistently found that it was more nearly isotropic than the primate aVOR. Our results suggest that primates' anisotropic aVOR represents an adaptation to their forward-eyed, foveate status. In primates, yaw and pitch aVOR must be compensatory to stabilise images on both foveae, whereas roll aVOR can be under-compensatory because the brain tolerates torsion of binocular images that remain on the foveae. In contrast, the lateral-eyed chinchilla faces different adaptive demands and thus

  19. Apparatus and Method for Assessing Vestibulo-Ocular Function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shelhamer, Mark J. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A system for assessing vestibulo-ocular function includes a motion sensor system adapted to be coupled to a user's head; a data processing system configured to communicate with the motion sensor system to receive the head-motion signals; a visual display system configured to communicate with the data processing system to receive image signals from the data processing system; and a gain control device arranged to be operated by the user and to communicate gain adjustment signals to the data processing system.

  20. Studies of the horizontal vestibulo-ocular reflex in spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornton, William E.; Uri, John J.; Moore, Tom; Pool, Sam

    1989-01-01

    Changes in the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) during space flight have been suspected of contributing to space motion sickness. The horizontal VOR was studied in nine subjects on two space shuttle missions. Active unpaced head oscillation at 0.3 Hz was used as the stimulus to examine the gain and phase of the VOR with and without visual input, as well as the visual suppression of the reflex. No statistically significant changes were noted inflight in the gains or phase shifts of the VOR during any test condition, or between space motion sickness susceptible and nonsusceptible populations. Although VOR suppression was unaffected by spaceflight, the space motion sickness-susceptible group tended to exhibit greater error in the suppression than the nonsusceptible group. It is concluded that at this stimulus frequency, VOR gain is unaffected by space-flight, and any minor individual changes do not seem to contribute to space motion sickness.

  1. Vestibulo-ocular monitoring as a predictor of outcome after severe traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Based on the knowledge that traumatic brainstem damage often leads to alteration in brainstem functions, including the vestibulo-ocular reflex, the present study is designed to determine whether prediction of outcome in the early phase after severe traumatic brain injury is possible by means of vestibulo-ocular monitoring. Methods Vestibulo-ocular monitoring is based on video-oculographic recording of eye movements during galvanic labyrinth polarization. The integrity of vestibulo-ocular reflex is determined from the eye movement response during vestibular galvanic labyrinth polarization stimulation. Vestibulo-ocular monitoring is performed within three days after traumatic brain injury and the oculomotor response compared to outcome after six months (Glasgow Outcome Score). Results Twenty-seven patients underwent vestibulo-ocular monitoring within three days after severe traumatic brain injury. One patient was excluded from the study. In 16 patients oculomotor response was induced, in the remaining 11 patients no oculomotor response was observed. The patients' outcome was classified as Glasgow Outcome Score 1-2 or as Glasgow Outcome Score 3 to 5. Statistical testing supported the hypothesis that those patients with oculomotor response tended to recover (exact two-sided Fisher-Test (P < 10-3)). Conclusions The results indicate that vestibulo-ocular monitoring with galvanic labyrinth polarization performed during the first days after traumatic brain injury helps to predict favourable or unfavourable outcome. As an indicator of brainstem function, vestibulo-ocular monitoring provides a useful, complementary approach to the identification of brainstem lesions by imaging techniques. PMID:19948056

  2. The Vestibulo-ocular Reflex During Active Head Motion in Chiari II Malformation

    PubMed Central

    Salman, Michael S.; Sharpe, James A.; Lillakas, Linda; Dennis, Maureen; Steinbach, Martin J.

    2008-01-01

    Background Chiari type II malformation (CII) is a developmental anomaly of the cerebellum and brainstem, which are important structures for processing the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR). We investigated the effects of the deformity of CII on the angular VOR during active head motion. Methods Eye and head movements were recorded using an infrared eye tracker and magnetic head tracker in 20 participants with CII [11 males, age range 8-19 years, mean (SD) 14.4 (3.2) years]. Thirty-eight age-matched healthy children and adolescents (21 males) constituted the control group. Participants were instructed to ‘look’ in darkness at the position of their thumb, placed 25 cm away, while they made horizontal and vertical sinusoidal head rotations at frequencies of about 0.5 Hz and 2 Hz. Parametric and non-parametric tests were used to compare the two groups. Results The VOR gains, the ratio of eye to head velocities, were abnormally low in two participants with CII and abnormally high in one participant with CII. Conclusion The majority of participants with CII had normal VOR performance in this investigation. However, the deformity of CII can impair the active angular VOR in some patients with CII. Low gain is attributed to brainstem damage and high gain to cerebellar dysfunction. PMID:18973069

  3. Role of Cerebellum in Motion Perception and Vestibulo-ocular Reflex—Similarities and Disparities

    PubMed Central

    Shaikh, Aasef G.; Palla, Antonella; Marti, Sarah; Olasagasti, Itsaso; Optican, Lance M.; Zee, David S.; Straumann, Dominik

    2012-01-01

    Vestibular velocity storage enhances the efficacy of the angular vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) during relatively low-frequency head rotations. This function is modulated by GABA-mediated inhibitory cerebellar projections. Velocity storage also exists in perceptual pathway and has similar functional principles as VOR. However, it is not known whether the neural substrate for perception and VOR overlap. We propose two possibilities. First, there is the same velocity storage for both VOR and perception; second, there are nonoverlapping neural networks: one might be involved in perception and the other for the VOR. We investigated these possibilities by measuring VOR and perceptual responses in healthy human subjects during whole-body, constant-velocity rotation steps about all three dimensions (yaw, pitch, and roll) before and after 10 mg of 4-aminopyridine (4-AP). 4-AP, a selective blocker of inward rectifier potassium conductance, can lead to increased synchronization and precision of Purkinje neuron discharge and possibly enhance the GABAergic action. Hence 4-AP could reduce the decay time constant of the perceived angular velocity and VOR. We found that 4-AP reduced the decay time constant, but the amount of reduction in the two processes, perception and VOR, was not the same, suggesting the possibility of nonoverlapping or partially overlapping neural substrates for VOR and perception. We also noted that, unlike the VOR, the perceived angular velocity gradually built up and plateau prior to decay. Hence, the perception pathway may have additional mechanism that changes the dynamics of perceived angular velocity beyond the velocity storage. 4-AP had no effects on the duration of build-up of perceived angular velocity, suggesting that the higher order processing of perception, beyond the velocity storage, might not occur under the influence of mechanism that could be influenced by 4-AP. PMID:22777507

  4. Role of the flocculus of the cerebellum in motor learning of the vestibulo-ocular reflex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Highstein, S. M.

    1998-01-01

    Structure-function studies at the systems level are an effective method for understanding the relationship of the central nervous system to behavior. Motor learning or adaptation of the vestibulo-ocular reflex is a clear example wherein this approach has been productive. During a vestibulo-ocular reflex the brain converts a head velocity signal, transduced through the vestibular semicircular canals, into an eye movement command delivered to the extraocular muscles. If the viewed target remains on the fovea of the retina, the reflex is compensatory, and its gain, eye velocity/head velocity, is one. When the image of the viewed object slips across the retina, visual acuity decreases, and the gain of the reflex, which is no longer one, is plastically adapted or adjusted until retinal stability is restored. The anatomic substrate for this plasticity thus involves brain structures in which visual-vestibular interaction can potentially occur, as well as vestibular and visual sensory and oculomotor motor structures. Further, it has been known for many years that removal of the flocculus of the cerebellum permanently precludes further vestibulo-ocular reflex adaptation, demonstrating the involvement of the cerebellum in this behavior. Maekawa and Simpson (J Neurophysiol 1973;36: 649-66) discovered that one visual input to the flocculus involved the accessory optic system and the inferior olive. Ensuing work has demonstrated that the visual signals used to adapt the vestibulo-ocular reflex are transmitted by this accessory optic system to the flocculus and subsequently to brain stem structures involved in vestibulo-ocular reflex plasticity. Presently the inclusive list of anatomic sites involved in vestibulo-ocular reflex circuitry and its adaptive plasticity is small. Our laboratory continues to believe that this behavior should be caused by interactions within this small class of neurons. By studying each class of identified neuron and its interactions with others within

  5. Neural learning rules for the vestibulo-ocular reflex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raymond, J. L.; Lisberger, S. G.

    1998-01-01

    Mechanisms for the induction of motor learning in the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) were evaluated by recording the patterns of neural activity elicited in the cerebellum by a range of stimuli that induce learning. Patterns of climbing-fiber, vestibular, and Purkinje cell simple-spike signals were examined during sinusoidal head movement paired with visual image movement at stimulus frequencies from 0.5 to 10 Hz. A comparison of simple-spike and vestibular signals contained the information required to guide learning only at low stimulus frequencies, and a comparison of climbing-fiber and simple-spike signals contained the information required to guide learning only at high stimulus frequencies. Learning could be guided by comparison of climbing-fiber and vestibular signals at all stimulus frequencies tested, but only if climbing fiber responses were compared with the vestibular signals present 100 msec earlier. Computational analysis demonstrated that this conclusion is valid even if there is a broad range of vestibular signals at the site of plasticity. Simulations also indicated that the comparison of vestibular and climbing-fiber signals across the 100 msec delay must be implemented by a subcellular "eligibility" trace rather than by neural circuits that delay the vestibular inputs to the site of plasticity. The results suggest two alternative accounts of learning in the VOR. Either there are multiple mechanisms of learning that use different combinations of neural signals to drive plasticity, or there is a single mechanism tuned to climbing-fiber activity that follows activity in vestibular pathways by approximately 100 msec.

  6. Rapid motor learning in the translational vestibulo-ocular reflex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhou, Wu; Weldon, Patrick; Tang, Bingfeng; King, W. M.; Shelhamer, M. J. (Principal Investigator)

    2003-01-01

    Motor learning was induced in the translational vestibulo-ocular reflex (TVOR) when monkeys were repeatedly subjected to a brief (0.5 sec) head translation while they tried to maintain binocular fixation on a visual target for juice rewards. If the target was world-fixed, the initial eye speed of the TVOR gradually increased; if the target was head-fixed, the initial eye speed of the TVOR gradually decreased. The rate of learning acquisition was very rapid, with a time constant of approximately 100 trials, which was equivalent to <1 min of accumulated stimulation. These learned changes were consolidated over >or=1 d without any reinforcement, indicating induction of long-term synaptic plasticity. Although the learning generalized to targets with different viewing distances and to head translations with different accelerations, it was highly specific for the particular combination of head motion and evoked eye movement associated with the training. For example, it was specific to the modality of the stimulus (translation vs rotation) and the direction of the evoked eye movement in the training. Furthermore, when one eye was aligned with the heading direction so that it remained motionless during training, learning was not expressed in this eye, but only in the other nonaligned eye. These specificities show that the learning sites are neither in the sensory nor the motor limb of the reflex but in the sensory-motor transformation stage of the reflex. The dependence of the learning on both head motion and evoked eye movement suggests that Hebbian learning may be one of the underlying cellular mechanisms.

  7. Visual suppression of the vestibulo-ocular reflex during space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uri, John J.; Thornton, William E.; Moore, Thomas P.; Pool, Sam L.

    1989-01-01

    Visual suppression of the vestibulo-ocular reflex was studied in 16 subjects on 4 Space Shuttle missions. Eye movements were recorded by electro-oculography while subjects fixated a head mounted target during active sinusoidal head oscillation at 0.3 Hz. Adequacy of suppression was evaluated by the number of nystagmus beats, the mean amplitude of each beat, and the cumulative amplitude of nystagmus during two head oscillation cycles. Vestibulo-ocular reflex suppression was unaffected by space flight. Subjects with space motion sickness during flight had significantly more nystagmus beats than unaffected individuals. These susceptible subjects also tended to have more nystagmus beats before flight.

  8. Reversal of Motor Learning in the Vestibulo-Ocular Reflex in the Absence of Visual Input

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Marlene R.; Meissner, Geoffrey W.; Schafer, Robert J.; Raymond, Jennifer L.

    2004-01-01

    Motor learning in the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) and eyeblink conditioning use similar neural circuitry, and they may use similar cellular plasticity mechanisms. Classically conditioned eyeblink responses undergo extinction after prolonged exposure to the conditioned stimulus in the absence of the unconditioned stimulus. We investigated the…

  9. The bedside examination of the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR): An update

    PubMed Central

    Kheradmand, A.; Zee, D.S.

    2014-01-01

    Diagnosing dizzy patients remains a daunting challenge to the clinician in spite of modern imaging and increasingly sophisticated electrophysiological testing. Here we review the major bedside tests of the vestibulo-ocular reflex and how, when combined with a proper examination of the other eye movement systems, one can arrive at an accurate vestibular diagnosis. PMID:22981296

  10. Modeling the vestibulo-ocular reflex of the squirrel monkey during eccentric rotation and roll tilt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merfeld, D. M.; Paloski, W. H. (Principal Investigator)

    1995-01-01

    Model simulations of the squirrel monkey vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) are presented for two motion paradigms: constant velocity eccentric rotation and roll tilt about a naso-occipital axis. The model represents the implementation of three hypotheses: the "internal model" hypothesis, the "gravito-inertial force (GIF) resolution" hypothesis, and the "compensatory VOR" hypothesis. The internal model hypothesis is based on the idea that the nervous system knows the dynamics of the sensory systems and implements this knowledge as an internal dynamic model. The GIF resolution hypothesis is based on the idea that the nervous system knows that gravity minus linear acceleration equals GIF and implements this knowledge by resolving the otolith measurement of GIF into central estimates of gravity and linear acceleration, such that the central estimate of gravity minus the central estimate of acceleration equals the otolith measurement of GIF. The compensatory VOR hypothesis is based on the idea that the VOR compensates for the central estimates of angular velocity and linear velocity, which sum in a near-linear manner. During constant velocity eccentric rotation, the model correctly predicts that: (1) the peak horizontal response is greater while "facing-motion" than with "back-to-motion"; (2) the axis of eye rotation shifts toward alignment with GIF; and (3) a continuous vertical response, slow phase downward, exists prior to deceleration. The model also correctly predicts that a torsional response during the roll rotation is the only velocity response observed during roll rotations about a naso-occipital axis. The success of this model in predicting the observed experimental responses suggests that the model captures the essence of the complex sensory interactions engendered by eccentric rotation and roll tilt.

  11. Binocular Coordination of the Human Vestibulo-Ocular Reflex during Off-axis Pitch Rotation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, S. J.; Reschke, M. F.; Kaufman, G. D.; Black, F. O.; Paloski, W. H.

    2006-01-01

    Head movements in the sagittal pitch plane typically involve off-axis rotation requiring both vertical and horizontal vergence ocular reflexes to compensate for angular and translational motion relative to visual targets of interest. The purpose of this study was to compare passive pitch VOR responses during rotation about an Earth-vertical axis (canal only cues) with off-axis rotation (canal and otolith cues). Methods. Eleven human subjects were oscillated sinusoidally at 0.13, 0.3 and 0.56 Hz while lying left-side down with the interaural axis either aligned with the axis of rotation or offset by 50 cm. In a second set of measurements, twelve subjects were also tested during sinusoidally varying centrifugation over the same frequency range. The modulation of vertical and horizontal vergence ocular responses was measured with a binocular videography system. Results. Off-axis pitch rotation enhanced the vertical VOR at lower frequencies and enhanced the vergence VOR at higher frequencies. During sinusoidally varying centrifugation, the opposite trend was observed for vergence, with both vertical and vergence vestibulo-ocular reflexes being suppressed at the highest frequency. Discussion. These differential effects of off-axis rotation over the 0.13 to 0.56 Hz range are consistent with the hypothesis that otolith-ocular reflexes are segregated in part on the basis of stimulus frequency. At the lower frequencies, tilt otolith-ocular responses compensate for declining canal input. At higher frequencies, translational otolith-ocular reflexes compensate for declining visual contributions to the kinematic demands required for fixating near targets.

  12. Ontogeny of mouse vestibulo-ocular reflex following genetic or environmental alteration of gravity sensing.

    PubMed

    Beraneck, Mathieu; Bojados, Mickael; Le Séac'h, Anne; Jamon, Marc; Vidal, Pierre-Paul

    2012-01-01

    The vestibular organs consist of complementary sensors: the semicircular canals detect rotations while the otoliths detect linear accelerations, including the constant pull of gravity. Several fundamental questions remain on how the vestibular system would develop and/or adapt to prolonged changes in gravity such as during long-term space journey. How do vestibular reflexes develop if the appropriate assembly of otoliths and semi-circular canals is perturbed? The aim of present work was to evaluate the role of gravity sensing during ontogeny of the vestibular system. In otoconia-deficient mice (ied), gravity cannot be sensed and therefore maculo-ocular reflexes (MOR) were absent. While canals-related reflexes were present, the ied deficit also led to the abnormal spatial tuning of the horizontal angular canal-related VOR. To identify putative otolith-related critical periods, normal C57Bl/6J mice were subjected to 2G hypergravity by chronic centrifugation during different periods of development or adulthood (Adult-HG) and compared to non-centrifuged (control) C57Bl/6J mice. Mice exposed to hypergravity during development had completely normal vestibulo-ocular reflexes 6 months after end of centrifugation. Adult-HG mice all displayed major abnormalities in maculo-ocular reflexe one month after return to normal gravity. During the next 5 months, adaptation to normal gravity occurred in half of the individuals. In summary, genetic suppression of gravity sensing indicated that otolith-related signals might be necessary to ensure proper functioning of canal-related vestibular reflexes. On the other hand, exposure to hypergravity during development was not sufficient to modify durably motor behaviour. Hence, 2G centrifugation during development revealed no otolith-specific critical period.

  13. The vestibulo-ocular reflex of the squirrel monkey during eccentric rotation and roll tilt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merfeld, D. M.; Young, L. R.

    1995-01-01

    The vestibulo-ocular reflexes (VOR) are determined not only by angular acceleration, but also by the presence of gravity and linear acceleration. This phenomenon was studied by measuring three-dimensional nystagmic eye movements, with implanted search coils, in six male squirrel monkeys during eccentric rotation. Monkeys were rotated in the dark at a constant velocity of 200 degrees/s (centrally or 79 cm off axis) with the axis of rotation always aligned with gravity and the spinal axis of the upright monkeys. The monkey's orientation (facing-motion or back-to-motion) had a dramatic influence on the VOR. These experiments show that: (a) the axis of eye rotation always shifted toward alignment with gravito-inertial force; (b) the peak value of horizontal slow phase eye velocity was greater with the monkey facing-motion than with back-to-motion; and (c) the time constant of horizontal eye movement decay was smaller with the monkey facing-motion than with back-to-motion. All of these findings were statistically significant and consistent across monkeys. In another set of tests, the same monkeys were rapidly tilted about their naso-occipital (roll) axis. Tilted orientations of 45 degrees and 90 degrees were maintained for 1 min. Other than a compensatory angular VOR during the angular rotation, no consistent eye velocity response was observed during or following the tilt for any of the six monkeys. The absence of any eye movement response following tilt weighs against the possibility that translational linear VOR responses are due to simple high-pass filtering of the otolith signals. The VOR response during eccentric rotation was divided into the more familiar angular VOR and linear VOR components. The angular component is known to depend upon semicircular canal dynamics and central influences. The linear component of the response decays rapidly with a mean duration of only 6.6 s, while the axis of eye rotation rapidly aligns (< 10 s) with gravito-inertial force. These

  14. Systems analysis of the vestibulo-ocular system. [mathematical model of vestibularly driven head and eye movements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmid, R. M.

    1973-01-01

    The vestibulo-ocular system is examined from the standpoint of system theory. The evolution of a mathematical model of the vestibulo-ocular system in an attempt to match more and more experimental data is followed step by step. The final model explains many characteristics of the eye movement in vestibularly induced nystagmus. The analysis of the dynamic behavior of the model at the different stages of its development is illustrated in time domain, mainly in a qualitative way.

  15. Effect of aging on the human initial interaural linear vestibulo-ocular reflex.

    PubMed

    Tian, Jun-Ru; Crane, Benjamin T; Wiest, Gerald; Demer, Joseph L

    2002-07-01

    To determine age-related changes, the initial linear vestibulo-ocular reflex (LVOR) of eight older subjects of mean age 65+/-7 years (mean +/- SD, range 56-75 years) was compared with that of nine younger subjects of mean age 24+/-5 years (range 18-31 years) in response to random transients of whole-body heave (interaural) translation at peak acceleration of 0.5 g delivered by a pneumatic actuator. Binocular eye rotations were measured with magnetic search coils, while linear head position and acceleration were measured with a potentiometer and piezoelectric accelerometer. Subjects viewed targets 200 cm, 50 cm, or 15 cm distant immediately before the unpredictable onset of randomly directed translation in darkness (LVOR) and in light (LVVOR). All subjects maintained ideal vergence of 1.5-2 degrees for the 200-cm target, 6-8 degrees for the 50-cm target, and 21-26 degrees for the 15-cm target, with actual vergences depending on individual interpupillary distances. Search coil recording of angular position of the upper teeth showed head rotation to be negligible (less than 0.5 degrees ) for the first 250 ms after onset of head translation, excluding a role for the angular VOR in the responses studied. The LVOR response to heave translation was an oppositely directed eye rotation occurring after a mean latency of 62+/-3 ms for older and 42+/-3 ms (mean +/- SD) for younger subjects ( P<0.0001). The peak of the latency distribution was 60-100 ms for older and 20-60 ms for younger subjects. During the early interval, 70-80 ms from head motion onset prior to a pursuit contribution or saccades, all subjects had significantly enhanced LVOR with decreasing target distance. In this interval, the LVOR position amplitude of younger subjects was 0.17+/-0.01 degrees, 0.40+/-0.01 degrees, 0.57+/-0.01 degrees (mean +/- SE), respectively, in descending order of target distance. Early sensitivities were significantly reduced for older subjects to 0.07+/-0.01 degrees, 0

  16. Behavior of human horizontal vestibulo-ocular reflex in response to high-acceleration stimuli

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maas, E. F.; Huebner, W. P.; Seidman, S. H.; Leigh, R. J.

    1989-01-01

    The horizontal vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) during transient, high-acceleration (1900-7100 deg/sec-squared) head rotations was studied in four human subjects. Such stimuli perturbed the angle of gaze and caused illusory movement of a viewed target (oscillopsia). The disturbance of gaze could be attributed to the latency of the VOR (which ranged from 6-15 ms) and inadequate compensatory eye rotations (median VOR gain ranged from 0.61-0.83).

  17. Studies of the vestibulo-ocular reflex on STS 4, 5 and 6

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornton, William E.; Pool, Sam L.; Moore, Thomas P.; Uri, John J.

    1988-01-01

    The vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) may be altered by weightlessness. Since this reflex plays a large role in visual stabilization, it was important to document any changes caused by space flight. This is a report on findings on STS-4 through 6 and is part of a larger study of neurosensory adaptation done on STS-4 through 8. Voluntary horizontal head oscillations at 1/3 Hz with amplitude of 30 deg right and left of center were recorded by a potentiometer and compared to eye position recorded by electroculography under the following conditions: eyes open, head fixed, tracking horizontal targets switched 0, 15, and 30 degrees right and left (optokinetic reflex - OKR - and calibration); eyes open and fixed on static external target with oscillation, (vestibulo ocular reflex, eyes closed - VOR EC); eyes open and wearing opaque goggles with target fixed in imagination (vestibulo-ocular reflex, eyes shaded - VOR ES); and eyes open and fixed on a head synchronized target with head oscillation (VOR suppression). No significant changes were found in voluntary head oscillation frequency or amplitude in those with (n=5), and without (n=3), space motion sickness (SMS), with phase of flight or test condition. Variations in head oscillation were too small to have produced detectable changes in test results.

  18. Short-term adaptive changes in the human vestibulo-ocular reflex arc.

    PubMed

    Gonshor, A; Jones, G M

    1976-04-01

    1. Two sets of experiments have examined the vestibulo-ocular response (VOR) to repeated sinusoidal rotation (A) in the dark and (B) after attempting visual tracking of a mirror-reversed image of the visual surround.2. In both A and B a horizontal sinusoidal rotational stimulus of 1/6 Hz and 60 degrees /sec angular velocity amplitude was employed, specifically chosen to lie within the presumed range of natural stimulation of the semicircular canals.3. In A each of seven subjects underwent ten 2-min runs of the standard stimulus in the dark on each of three consecutive days, with 3-min rest periods between runs. Using d.c. electro-oculography (EOG) the VOR gain was measured throughout as eye velocity/head velocity. Mental arousal was maintained by competitive mental arithmetic. Constancy of EOG gain was assured by 50 min dark adaptation before experimentation.4. The results of A showed no consistent change of VOR gain over the three times scales of a run, a day and the 3-day experiment.5. In B the same subjects underwent a similar pattern of vestibular stimulation, but during eight of the 2-min daily runs they attempted the reversed visual tracking task. VOR gain was measured during the 1st, 6th and last runs which were conducted in the dark for this purpose. Constancy of EOG gain was maintained by using red light throughout.6. The results of B showed a substantial (approx. 25%) and highly significant (P < 0.001) reduction of VOR gain attributable solely to the 16 min of reversed visual tracking attempted during the 50 min daily experiment. In addition the pre-test control gain was lower on day 3 than on day 1 (approx. 10% attenuation, P < 0.01) indicating a small cumulative effect from beginning to end of the 3-day experiment.7. It is concluded (A) that the repeated vestibular stimulus did not itself cause significant attenuation of VOR gain, but (B) that superposition of a reversed visual tracking task did induce retained VOR attenuation which was solely due to

  19. Velocity storage in the human vertical rotational vestibulo-ocular reflex.

    PubMed

    Bertolini, G; Ramat, S

    2011-03-01

    Human horizontal rotational vestibulo-ocular reflex (rVOR) has been extensively investigated: the horizontal semicircular canals sense yaw rotations with high-pass filter dynamics and a time constant (TC) around 5 s, yet the rVOR response shows a longer TC due to a central processing stage, known as velocity storage mechanism (VSM). It is generally assumed that the vertical rVOR behaves similarly to the horizontal one; however, VSM processing of the human vertical rVOR is still to be proven. We investigated the vertical rVOR in eight healthy human subjects using three experimental paradigms: (1) per- and post-rotatory around an earth-vertical axis (ear down rotations, EDR), (2) post-rotatory around an earth-horizontal axis with different stopping positions (static otolith stimulation), (3) per-rotatory around an earth-horizontal axis (dynamic otolith stimulation). We found that the TC of vertical rVOR responses ranged 3-10 s, depending both on gravity and on the direction of rotation. The shortest TC were found in response to post-rotatory earth-horizontal stimulation averaging 3.6 s, while they were prolonged in EDR stimulation, i.e. when the head angular velocity vector is aligned with gravity, with a mean value of about 6.0 s. Overall, the longest TC were observed in per-rotatory earth-horizontal stimulation, averaging 7.8 s. The finding of longer TC in EDR than in post-rotatory earth-horizontal stimulation indicates a role for the VSM in the vertical rVOR, although its contribution appears to be weaker than on the horizontal rVOR and may be directionally asymmetric. The results from per-rotatory earth-horizontal stimulation, instead, imply a role for the otoliths in controlling the duration of the vertical rVOR response. We found no reorientation of the response toward earth horizontal, indicating a difference between human and monkey rVOR.

  20. A Reevaluation of the Vestibulo-Ocular Reflex: New Ideas of its Purpose, Properties, Neural Substrate, and Disorders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leigh, R. John; Brandt, Thomas

    1992-01-01

    Conventional views of the Vestibulo-Ocular Reflex (VOR) have emphasized testing with caloric stimuli and by passively rotating patients at low frequencies in a chair. The properties of the VOR tested under these conditions differ from the performance of this reflex during the natural function for which it evolved-locomotion. Only the VOR (and not visually mediated eye movements) can cope with the high-frequency angular and linear perturbations of the head that occur during locomotion; this is achieved by generating eye movements at short latency (less than 16 msec). Interpretation of vestibular testing is enhanced by the realization that, although the di- and trisynaptic components of the VOR are essential for this short-latency response, the overall accuracy and plasticity of the VOR depend upon a distributed, parallel network of neurons involving the vestibular nuclei. Neurons in this network variously encode inputs from the labyrinthine semicircular canals and otoliths, as well as from the visual and somatosensory systems. The central vestibular pathways branch to contact vestibular cortex (for perception) and the spinal cord (for control of posture). Thus, the vestibular nuclei basically coordinate the stabilization of gaze and posture, and contribute to the perception of verticality and self-motion. Consequently, brainstem disorders that disrupt the VOR cause not just only nystagmus, but also instability of posture (eg, increased fore-aft sway in patients with downbeat nystagmus) and disturbance of spatial orientation (eg, tilt of the subjective visual vertical in Wallenberg's syndrome).

  1. Variations in gravitoinertial force level affect the gain of the vestibulo-ocular reflex - Implications of the etiology of space motion sickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lackner, J. R.; Graybiel, A.

    1981-01-01

    Recordings of horizontal nystagmus were obtained on 16 male subjects exposed to repeated patterns of horizontal angular acceleration, constant velocity rotation, and sudden-stop deceleration in the laboratory and in the free-fall and high-force periods of parabolic flight. Nystagmus intensity was a clear function of gravitoinertial force level: slow phase velocity and beat frequency increased during exposure to high force levels and decreased in free-fall compared to values obtained at 1 G. These findings indicate that the gain of the vestibulo-ocular reflex decreases in free-fall. This fact likely accounts for the disorientation and dizziness sometimes experienced by astronauts when moving their heads in the early phases of orbital flight and again after splashdown. The implications of the present findings, both for the etiology and for the treatment of space motion sickness, are discussed.

  2. Variations in gravitoinertial force level affect the gain of the vestibulo-ocular reflex: implications for the etiology of space motion sickness.

    PubMed

    Lackner, J R; Graybiel, A

    1981-03-01

    Recordings of horizontal nystagmus were obtained on 16 male subjects exposed to repeated patterns of horizontal angular acceleration, constant velocity rotation, and sudden-stop deceleration in the laboratory and in the free-fall and high-force periods of parabolic flight. Nystagmus intensity was a clear function of gravitoinertial force level: slow phase velocity and beat frequency increased during exposure to high force levels and decreased in free-fall compared to values obtained at I G. These findings indicate that the gain of the vestibulo-ocular reflex decreases in free-fall. This fact likely accounts for the disorientation and dizziness sometimes experienced by astronauts when moving their heads in the early phases of orbital flight and again after splashdown. The implications of the present findings, both for the etiology and for the treatment of space motion sickness, are discussed.

  3. Vestibulo-ocular reflex of the squirrel monkey during eccentric rotation with centripetal acceleration along the naso-occipital axis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merfeld, D. M.; Paloski, W. H. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    The vestibulo-ocular reflexes (VOR) are determined not only by angular acceleration, but also by the presence of gravity and linear acceleration. This phenomenon was studied by measuring three-dimensional nystagmic eye movements, with implanted search coils, in four male squirrel monkeys. Monkeys were rotated in the dark at 200 degrees/s, centrally or 79 cm off-axis, with the axis of rotation always aligned with gravity and the spinal axis of the upright monkeys. The monkey's position relative to the centripetal acceleration (facing center or back to center) had a dramatic influence on the VOR. These studies show that a torsional response was always elicited that acted to shift the axis of eye rotation toward alignment with gravito-inertial force. On the other hand, a slow phase downward vertical response usually existed, which shifted the axis of eye rotation away from the gravito-inertial force. These findings were consistent across all monkeys. In another set of tests, the same monkeys were rapidly tilted about their interaural (pitch) axis. Tilt orientations of 45 degrees and 90 degrees were maintained for 1 min. Other than a compensatory angular VOR during the rotation, no consistent eye velocity response was ever observed during or following the tilt. The absence of any response following tilt proves that the observed torsional and vertical responses were not a positional nystagmus. Model simulations qualitatively predict all components of these eccentric rotation and tilt responses. These simulations support the conclusion that the VOR during eccentric rotation may consist of two components: a linear VOR and a rotational VOR. The model predicts a slow phase downward, vertical, linear VOR during eccentric rotation even though there was never a change in the force aligned with monkey's spinal (Z) axis. The model also predicts the torsional components of the response that shift the rotation axis of the angular VOR toward alignment with gravito-inertial force.

  4. Comparison between habituation of the cat vestibulo-ocular reflex by velocity steps and sinusoidal vestibular stimulation in the dark.

    PubMed

    Clément, Gilles; Flandrin, Jean-Marc; Courjon, Jean-Hubert

    2002-01-01

    Changes in the horizontal vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) in darkness were investigated in naive cats during: (1) repeated sessions of angular velocity steps, (2) one continuous 1-h session of sinusoidal oscillations at 0.01, 0.02, 0.04, or 0.12 Hz, and (3) repeated sessions of 1-h sinusoidal oscillations at 0.02 and 0.04 Hz. Before and after each vestibular training, the VOR response parameters elicited by both velocity steps and sinusoidal oscillations were measured in order to evaluate the transfer of habituation from one stimulus to the other. After training with velocity steps, the amplitude and duration of the VOR to velocity steps decreased by about 67% and 52%, respectively. This vestibular habituation transferred to the VOR response generated by sinusoidal oscillations, since a decrease in VOR gain was observed at 0.02 and 0.04 Hz, and an increase in phase lead was observed at 0.02, 0.04, and 0.08 Hz. After 1 h exposure to sinusoidal oscillations, the VOR gain was only reduced by 21-28%, whereas VOR phase lead decreased. The same changes were observed during subsequent sessions, with no retention of the response decrements from one session to the next. At the end of sinusoidal training, the amplitude of the VOR generated by velocity steps was slightly altered. After sinusoidal training, the weak changes in the VOR gain accompanied by a decrease in the VOR phase lead, and the absence of retention of these effects from one session to the next, suggest these changes are not characteristics of a vestibular habituation. Previous reports of vestibular habituation induced by repeated sinusoidal oscillations may be confounded by the fact that the angular velocity steps used for quantifying the effects may have been responsible for this habituation.

  5. A reevaluation of the vestibulo-ocular reflex: new ideas of its purpose, properties, neural substrate, and disorders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leigh, R. J.; Brandt, T.

    1993-01-01

    Conventional views of the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) have emphasized testing with caloric stimuli and by passively rotating patients at low frequencies in a chair. The properties of the VOR tested under these conditions differ from the performance of this reflex during the natural function for which it evolved--locomotion. Only the VOR (and not visually mediated eye movements) can cope with the high-frequency angular and linear perturbations of the head that occur during locomotion; this is achieved by generating eye movements at short latency (< 16 msec). Interpretation of vestibular testing is enhanced by the realization that, although the di- and trisynaptic components of the VOR are essential for this short-latency response, the overall accuracy and plasticity of the VOR depend upon a distributed, parallel network of neurons involving the vestibular nuclei. Neurons in this network variously upon a distributed, parallel network of neurons involving the vestibular nuclei. Neurons in this network variously encode inputs from the labyrinthine semicircular canals and otoliths, as well as from the visual and somatosensory systems. The central vestibular pathways branch to contact vestibular cortex (for perception) and the spinal cord (for control of posture). Thus, the vestibular nuclei basically coordinate the stabilization of gaze and posture, and contribute to the perception of verticality and self-motion. Consequently, brainstem disorders that disrupt the VOR cause not just only nystagmus, but also instability of posture (eg, increased fore-aft sway in patients with downbeat nystagmus) and disturbance of spatial orientation (eg, tilt of the subjective visual vertical in Wallenberg's syndrome).

  6. Two-dimensional angular filter array for angular domain imaging with 3D printed angular filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, Eldon; Carson, Jeffrey J. L.

    2013-02-01

    Angular Domain Imaging (ADI) is a technique that is capable of generating two dimensional shadowgrams of attenuating targets embedded in a scattering medium. In ADI, an angular filter array (AFA) is positioned between the sample and the detector to distinguish between quasi-ballistic photons and scattered photons. An AFA is a series of micro-channels with a high aspect ratio. Previous AFAs from our group were constructed by micro-machining the micro-channels into a silicon wafer, limiting the imaging area to a one dimensional line. Two dimensional images were acquired via scanning. The objective of this work was to extend the AFA design to two dimensions to allow for two dimensional imaging with minimal scanning. The second objective of this work was to perform an initial characterization of the imaging capabilities of the 2D AFA. Our approach was to use rapid 3D prototyping techniques to generate an array of micro-channels. The imaging capabilities were then evaluated by imaging a 0.9 mm graphite rod submerged in a scattering media. Contrast was observed to improve when a second angular filter array was placed in front of the sample to mask the incoming light.

  7. Age-related changes in human vestibulo-ocular and optokinetic reflexes: Pseudorandom rotation tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterka, R. J.; Black, F. O.; Schoenhoff, M. B.

    1989-01-01

    The dynamic response properties of horizontal vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) and optokinetic reflex (OKR) were characterized in 216 human subjects ranging in age from 7 to 81 years. The object of this cross-sectional study was to determine the effects of aging on VOR and OKR reflex dynamics, and to identify the distributions of parameters which describe VOR and OKR responses to pseudorandom stimuli in a putatively normal population. In general, VOR and OKR response parameters changed in a manner consistent with declining function with increasing age. For the VOR this was reflected in declining response amplitudes, although the magnitude of the decline was small relative to the variability of the data. For the OKR the lag time of the response, probably associated with the time required for visual information processing, increased linearly with age at a rate of about 1 ms per year.

  8. An adaptive gaze stabilization controller inspired by the vestibulo-ocular reflex.

    PubMed

    Lenz, A; Balakrishnan, T; Pipe, A G; Melhuish, C

    2008-09-01

    The vestibulo-ocular reflex stabilizes vision in many vertebrates. It integrates inertial and visual information to drive the eyes in the opposite direction to head movement and thereby stabilizes the image on the retina. Its adaptive nature guarantees stable vision even when the biological system undergoes dynamic changes (due to disease, growth or fatigue etc), a characteristic especially desirable in autonomous robotic systems. Based on novel, biologically plausible neurological models, we have developed a robotic testbed to qualitatively evaluate the performance of these algorithms. We show how the adaptive controller can adapt to a time varying plant and elaborate how this biologically inspired control architecture can be employed in general engineering applications where sensory feedback is very noisy and/or delayed.

  9. Effects of adaptation of vestibulo-ocular reflex function on manual target localization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloomberg, J. J.; Merkle, L. A.; Barry, S. R.; Huebner, W. P.; Cohen, H. S.; Mueller, S. A.; Fordice, J.

    2000-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to determine if adaptive modulation of vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) function is associated with commensurate alterations in manual target localization. To measure the effects of adapted VOR on manual responses we developed the Vestibular-Contingent Pointing Test (VCP). In the VCP test, subjects pointed to a remembered target following passive whole body rotation in the dark. In the first experiment, subjects performed VCP before and after wearing 0.5X minifying lenses that adaptively attenuate horizontal VOR gain. Results showed that adaptive reduction in horizontal VOR gain was accompanied by a commensurate change in VCP performance. In the second experiment, bilaterally labyrinthine deficient (LD) subjects were tested to confirm that vestibular cues were central to the spatial coding of both eye and hand movements during VCP. LD subjects performed significantly worse than normal subjects. These results demonstrate that adaptive change in VOR can lead to alterations in manual target localization.

  10. Clinical predictors of vestibulo-ocular dysfunction in pediatric sports-related concussion.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Michael J; Cordingley, Dean M; Vis, Sara; Reimer, Karen M; Leiter, Jeff; Russell, Kelly

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE There were 2 objectives of this study. The first objective was to identify clinical variables associated with vestibulo-ocular dysfunction (VOD) detected at initial consultation among pediatric patients with acute sports-related concussion (SRC) and postconcussion syndrome (PCS). The second objective was to reexamine the prevalence of VOD in this clinical cohort and evaluate the effect of VOD on length of recovery and the development of PCS. METHODS A retrospective review was conducted for all patients with acute SRC and PCS who were evaluated at a pediatric multidisciplinary concussion program from September 2013 to May 2015. Acute SRS was defined as presenting < 30 days postinjury, and PCS was defined according to the International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision criteria and included being symptomatic 30 days or longer postinjury. The initial assessment included clinical history and physical examination performed by 1 neurosurgeon. Patients were assessed for VOD, defined as the presence of more than 1 subjective vestibular and oculomotor complaint (dizziness, diplopia, blurred vision, etc.) and more than 1 objective physical examination finding (abnormal near point of convergence, smooth pursuits, saccades, or vestibulo-ocular reflex testing). Poisson regression analysis was used to identify factors that increased the risk of VOD at initial presentation and the development of PCS. RESULTS Three hundred ninety-nine children, including 306 patients with acute SRC and 93 with PCS, were included. Of these patients, 30.1% of those with acute SRC (65.0% male, mean age 13.9 years) and 43.0% of those with PCS (41.9% male, mean age 15.4 years) met the criteria for VOD at initial consultation. Independent predictors of VOD at initial consultation included female sex, preinjury history of depression, posttraumatic amnesia, and presence of dizziness, blurred vision, or difficulty focusing at the time of injury. Independent predictors of PCS among

  11. Studies of the horizontal vestibulo-ocular reflex on STS 7 and 8

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornton, William E.; Uri, John J.; Moore, Thomas P.; Pool, Sam L.

    1988-01-01

    Unpaced voluntary horizontal head oscillation was used to study the Vestibulo-Ocular Reflex (VOR) on Shuttle flights STS 7 and 8. Ten subjects performed head oscillations at 0.33 Hz + or - 30 deg amplitude under the followng conditions: VVOR (visual VOR), eyes open and fixed on a stationary target; VOR-EC, with eyes closed and fixed on the same target in imagination; and VOR-S (VOR suppression), with eyes open and fixed on a head-synchronized target. Effects of weightlessness, flight phase, and Space Motion Sickness (SMS) on head oscillation characteristics were examined. A significant increase in head oscillation frequency was noted inflight in subjects free from SMS. In subjects susceptible to SMS, frequency was reduced during their Symptomatic period. The data also suggest that the amplitude and peak velocity of head oscillation were reduced early inflight. No significant changes were noted in reflex gain or phase in any of the test conditions; however, there was a suggestion of an increase in VVOR and VOR-ES gain early inflight in asymptomatic subjects. A significant difference in VOR-S was found between SMS susceptible and non-susceptible subjects. There is no evidence that any changes in VOR characteristics contributed to SMS.

  12. Relation between perception of vertical axis rotation and vestibulo-ocular reflex symmetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterka, Robert J.; Benolken, Martha S.

    1992-01-01

    Subjects seated in a vertical axis rotation chair controlled their rotational velocity by adjusting a potentiometer. Their goal was to null out pseudorandom rotational perturbations in order to remain perceptually stationary. Most subjects showed a slow linear drift of velocity (a constant acceleration) to one side when they were deprived of an earth-fixed visual reference. The amplitude and direction of this drift can be considered a measure of a static bias in the subject's perception of rotation. The presence of a perceptual bias is consistent with a small, constant imbalance of vestibular function which could be of either central or peripheral origin. Deviations from perfect vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) symmetry are also assumed to be related to imbalances in either peripheral or central vestibular function. Researchers looked for correlations between perceptual bias and various measures of vestibular reflex symmetry that might suggest a common source for both reflective and perceptual imbalances. No correlations were found. Measurement errors could not account for these results since repeated tests on the same subjects of both perceptual bias and VOR symmetry were well correlated.

  13. Age-related changes in human vestibulo-ocular reflexes: Sinusoidal rotation and caloric tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterka, R. J.; Black, F. O.; Schoenhoff, M. B.

    1989-01-01

    The dynamic response properties of horizontal vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) were characterized in 216 human subjects ranging in age from 7 to 81 years. The object of this cross-sectional study was to determine the effects of aging on VOR dynamics, and to identify the distributions of parameters which describe VOR responses to caloric and to sinusoidal rotational stimuli in a putatively normal population. Caloric test parameters showed no consistent trend with age. Rotation test parameters showed declining response amplitude and slightly less compensatory response phase with increasing age. The magnitudes of these changes were not large relative to the variability within the population. The age-related trends in VOR were not consistent with the anatomic changes in the periphery reported by others which showed an increasing rate of peripheral hair cell and nerve fiber loss in subjects over 55 years. The poor correlation between physiological and anatomical data suggest that adaptive mechanisms in the central nervous system are important in maintaining the VOR.

  14. Automatic Classification of the Vestibulo-Ocular Reflex Nystagmus: Integration of Data Clustering and System Identification.

    PubMed

    Ranjbaran, Mina; Smith, Heather L H; Galiana, Henrietta L

    2016-04-01

    The vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) plays an important role in our daily activities by enabling us to fixate on objects during head movements. Modeling and identification of the VOR improves our insight into the system behavior and improves diagnosis of various disorders. However, the switching nature of eye movements (nystagmus), including the VOR, makes dynamic analysis challenging. The first step in such analysis is to segment data into its subsystem responses (here slow and fast segment intervals). Misclassification of segments results in biased analysis of the system of interest. Here, we develop a novel three-step algorithm to classify the VOR data into slow and fast intervals automatically. The proposed algorithm is initialized using a K-means clustering method. The initial classification is then refined using system identification approaches and prediction error statistics. The performance of the algorithm is evaluated on simulated and experimental data. It is shown that the new algorithm performance is much improved over the previous methods, in terms of higher specificity.

  15. A new vestibulo-ocular reflex recording system designed for routine vestibular clinical use.

    PubMed

    Funabiki, K; Naito, Y; Matsuda, K; Honjo, I

    1999-01-01

    A new vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) recording system was developed, which consists of an infrared eye camera, a small velocity sensor and a frequency modulator. Using this system, the head velocity signal was frequency modulated and simultaneously recorded as a sound signal on the audio track of a Hi8 video recorder with eye images. This device enabled recording of the VOR response in routine vestibular clinical practice. The reliability and effectiveness of this system were estimated by recording and analysing the VOR response against manually controlled rotation in normal subjects (n = 22) and in patients with unilateral severe vestibular hypofunction (n = 11). VOR gain on clockwise rotation viewed from the top was defined as R gain, and counterclockwise rotation as L gain. Directional preponderance (DP%) was also calculated. VOR gain towards the diseased side was significantly lower than that towards the intact side, and also significantly lower than that of normal subjects. DP% of unilateral vestibular hypofunction cases was significantly larger than that of normal subjects. These findings indicate that this VOR recording system reliably detects severe unilateral vestibular hypofunction.

  16. Vestibulo-ocular reflex function in children with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Carson, Tana B; Wilkes, Bradley J; Patel, Kunal; Pineda, Jill L; Ko, Ji H; Newell, Karl M; Bodfish, James W; Schubert, Michael C; Radonovich, Krestin; White, Keith D; Lewis, Mark H

    2017-02-01

    Sensorimotor processing alterations are a growing focus in the assessment and treatment of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). The rotational vestibulo-ocular reflex (rVOR), which functions to maintain stable vision during head movements, is a sensorimotor system that may be useful in understanding such alterations and their underlying neurobiology. In this study, we assessed post-rotary nystagmus elicited by continuous whole body rotation among children with high-functioning ASD and typically developing children. Children with ASD exhibited increased rVOR gain, the ratio of eye velocity to head velocity, indicating a possible lack of cerebellar inhibitory input to brainstem vestibular nuclei in this population. The ASD group also showed less regular or periodic horizontal eye movements as indexed by greater variance accounted for by multiple higher frequency bandwidths as well as greater entropy scores compared to typically developing children. The decreased regularity or dysrhythmia in the temporal structure of nystagmus beats in children with ASD may be due to alterations in cerebellum and brainstem circuitry. These findings could potentially serve as a model to better understand the functional effects of differences in these brain structures in ASD. Autism Res 2017, 10: 251-266. © 2016 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Effect of vergence on the gain of the linear vestibulo-ocular reflex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shelhamer, M.; Merfeld, D. M.; Mendoza, J. C.; Paloski, W. H. (Principal Investigator)

    1995-01-01

    We measured the linear vestibulo-ocular reflex (LVOR) and vergence, using binocular search coils, in 3 humans. The subjects were accelerated sinusoidally at 0.5 Hz and 0.2 g peak acceleration, in complete darkness, while performing three different tasks: i) mental arithmetic; ii) tracking a remembered target at either 0.34 m or 0.14 m distance; and iii) maintaining vergence at either of these distances by means of audio biofeedback based on vergence. Subjects could control vergence using the audio feedback; there was greater convergence with the near audio target. However, there was no significant difference in vergence between the near and far remembered target conditions. With audio feedback, the amplitude of smooth tracking was not consistently different for the near and the far conditions. However, the amplitude of tracking (saccades and smooth component) in the remembered target conditions was greater for near than for far targets. These results suggest that linear VOR amplitude is not determined by vergence alone.

  18. Dual adaptation and adaptive generalization of the human vestibulo-ocular reflex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welch, R. B.; Bridgeman, B.; Williams, J. A.; Semmler, R.

    1998-01-01

    In two experiments, we examined the possibility that the human vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) is subject to dual adaptation (the ability to adapt to a sensory rearrangement more rapidly and/or more completely after repeated experience with it) and adaptive generalization (the ability to adapt more readily to a novel sensory rearrangement as a result of prior dual adaptation training). In Experiment 1, the subjects actively turned the head during alternating exposure to a visual-vestibular rearrangement (target/head gain = 0.5) and the normal situation (target/head gain = 0.0). These conditions produced both adaptation and dual adaptation of the VOR but no evidence of adaptive generalization when tested with a target/head gain of 1.0. Experiment 2, in which exposure to the 0.5 gain entailed externally controlled (i.e., passive) whole body rotation, resulted in VOR adaptation but no dual adaptation. As in Experiment 1, no evidence of adaptive generalization was found.

  19. Functional organization of primate translational vestibulo-ocular reflexes and effects of unilateral labyrinthectomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angelaki, D. E.; McHenry, M. Q.; Newlands, S. D.; Dickman, J. D.

    1999-01-01

    Translational vestibulo-ocular reflexes (trVORs) are characterized by distinct spatio-temporal properties and sensitivities that are proportional to the inverse of viewing distance. Anodal (inhibitory) labyrinthine stimulation (100 microA, < 2 s) during motion decreased the high-pass filtered dynamics, as well as horizontal trVOR sensitivity and its dependence on viewing distance. Cathodal (excitatory) currents had opposite effects. Translational VORs were also affected after unilateral labyrinthectomy. Animals lost their ability to modulate trVOR sensitivity as a function of viewing distance acutely after the lesion. These deficits partially recovered over time, albeit a significant reduction in trVOR sensitivity as a function of viewing distance remained in compensated animals. During fore-aft motion, the effects of unilateral labyrinthectomy were more dramatic. Both acute and compensated animals permanently lost their ability to modulate fore-aft trVOR responses as a function of target eccentricity. These results suggest that (1) the dynamics and viewing distance-dependent properties of the trVORs are very sensitive to changes in the resting firing rate of vestibular afferents and, consequently, vestibular nuclei neurons; (2) the most irregularly firing primary otolith afferents that are most sensitive to labyrinthine electrical stimulation might contribute to reflex dynamics and sensitivity; (3) inputs from both labyrinths are necessary for the generation of the translational VORs.

  20. DVA as a Diagnostic Test for Vestibulo-Ocular Reflex Function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Scott J.; Appelbaum, Meghan

    2010-01-01

    The vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) stabilizes vision on earth-fixed targets by eliciting eyes movements in response to changes in head position. How well the eyes perform this task can be functionally measured by the dynamic visual acuity (DVA) test. We designed a passive, horizontal DVA test to specifically study the acuity and reaction time when looking in different target locations. Visual acuity was compared among 12 subjects using a standard Landolt C wall chart, a computerized static (no rotation) acuity test and dynamic acuity test while oscillating at 0.8 Hz (+/-60 deg/s). In addition, five trials with yaw oscillation randomly presented a visual target in one of nine different locations with the size and presentation duration of the visual target varying across trials. The results showed a significant difference between the static and dynamic threshold acuities as well as a significant difference between the visual targets presented in the horizontal plane versus those in the vertical plane when comparing accuracy of vision and reaction time of the response. Visual acuity increased proportional to the size of the visual target and increased between 150 and 300 msec duration. We conclude that dynamic visual acuity varies with target location, with acuity optimized for targets in the plane of rotation. This DVA test could be used as a functional diagnostic test for visual-vestibular and neuro-cognitive impairments by assessing both accuracy and reaction time to acquire visual targets.

  1. Cisplatin-induced toxicity decreases the mouse vestibulo-ocular reflex.

    PubMed

    Takimoto, Yasumitsu; Imai, Takao; Kondo, Makoto; Hanada, Yukiko; Uno, Atsuhiko; Ishida, Yusuke; Kamakura, Takefumi; Kitahara, Tadashi; Inohara, Hidenori; Shimada, Shoichi

    2016-11-16

    Cisplatin is a chemotherapeutic agent commonly used for the treatment of solid tumors, and its side-effects include vestibulotoxicity. Previous studies have reported cisplatin-induced vestibulotoxicity in various animal models, but no study has investigated in vivo mouse vestibular dysfunction after cisplatin. The aim of this study was to investigate cisplatin-induced vestibulotoxicity in C57BL/6J mice. Vestibular function was assessed by recording the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR). This was done during sinusoidal rotations in the horizontal plane at three frequencies (0.5, 1.0 and 2.5Hz). A high-resolution, high-frequency digital infra-red camera was used with eye-tracking algorithms. Cisplatin at 16mg/kg, but not 8mg/kg, decreased the VOR gain at 2.5Hz compared with the vehicle control. Following 16mg/kg cisplatin treatment, the animals showed no change in the optokinetic nystagmus response, suggesting that no major changes in visual or oculomotor functions had occurred. This mouse model may be useful for studying cisplatin-induced vestibulotoxicity and its treatment.

  2. [The influence of otolithic afferentation on the vestibulo-ocular interaction in the patients presenting with an unilateral lesion in a peripheral vestibular neuron].

    PubMed

    Likhac, S A; Pleshko, I V

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the present work was to study the influence of otolithic afferentation on the vestibulo-ocular interaction in 20 patients with vestibular neuronitis (at the stages of decompensation and subcompensation) and in 30 healthy subjects by the electronystagmographic technique. The sinusoidal (program 1) and eccentric (program 2) rotation was applied with the angular velocity of 10 degrees/s (stimulus 1, rotation rate 0.04 Hz), 30 degrees/s (stimulus II, rotation rate 0.12 Hz), 60 degrees/s (stimulus III) and oscillation periods of 18, 6, and 3 s respectively. No significant changes in the parameters of the vesicular reflex were observed in the patients with vestibular neuronitis and control subjects studied in the phase of decompensation under programs 1 and 2 . The study of the patients presenting with vestibular neuronitis in the subcompensation phase (program 2) revealed a significant increase of nystagmus intensity on the affected side compared with the respective parameters estimated in the framework of program 1 (p<0.001). The enhancement of stimulation did not result in any significant changes in the character of vestibuloocular interactions. The results of the study indicate that otolithic afferentation influences the process of compensation of peripheral vestibular labyrinth dysfunction in the patients presenting with vestibular neuronitis at the stage of decompensation.

  3. Extreme vestibulo-ocular adaptation induced by prolonged optical reversal of vision.

    PubMed

    Gonshor, A; Jones, G M

    1976-04-01

    1. These experiments investigated plastic changes in the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) of human subjects consequent to long-term optical reversal of vision during free head movement. Horizontal vision-reversal was produced by head-mounted dove prisms. Four normal adults were continuously exposed to these conditions during 2, 6, 7 and 27 days respectively.2. A sinusoidal rotational stimulus, previously shown to be nonhabituating (1/6 Hz; 60 degrees /sec amplitude), was used to test the VOR in the dark at frequent intervals both during the period of vision-reversal and an equal period after return to normal vision. D.c. electro-oculography (EOG) was used to record eye movement, taking care to avoid changes of EOG gain due to light/dark adaptation of the retina.3. All subjects showed substantial reduction of VOR gain (eye velocity/head velocity) during the first 2 days of vision-reversal. The 6-, 7- and 27-day subjects showed further reduction of gain which reached a low plateau at about 25% the normal value by the end of one week. At this time the attenuation of some EOG records was so marked as to defy extraction of a meaningful sinusoidal signal.4. After removal of the prisms VOR gain recovered along a time course which approximated that of the original adaptive attenuation.5. In the 27-day experiment large changes of phase developed in the VOR during the second week of vision-reversal. These changes generally progressed in a lagging sense, to reach 130 degrees phase lag relative to normal by the beginning of the third week. Accompanying this was a considerable restoration of gain from 25 to 50% the normal value. These adapted conditions, which approximate functional reversal of the reflex, were then maintained steady, even overnight, until return to normal vision on the 28th day.6. Thereafter, whereas VOR phase returned to near-normal in 2 hr, restoration of gain occupied a further 2-3 weeks.7. There was a highly systematic relation between instantaneous gain and

  4. Vestibulo-spinal and vestibulo-ocular reflexes are modulated when standing with increased postural threat.

    PubMed

    Naranjo, E N; Cleworth, T W; Allum, J H J; Inglis, J T; Lea, J; Westerberg, B D; Carpenter, M G

    2016-02-01

    We investigated how vestibulo-spinal reflexes (VSRs) and vestibulo-ocular reflexes (VORs) measured through vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (VEMPs) and video head impulse test (vHIT) outcomes, respectively, are modulated during standing under conditions of increased postural threat. Twenty-five healthy young adults stood quietly at low (0.8 m from the ground) and high (3.2 m) surface height conditions in two experiments. For the first experiment (n = 25) VEMPs were recorded with surface EMG from inferior oblique (IO), sternocleidomastoid (SCM), trapezius (TRP), and soleus (SOL) muscles in response to 256 air-conducted short tone bursts (125 dB SPL, 500 Hz, 4 ms) delivered via headphones. A subset of subjects (n = 19) also received horizontal and vertical head thrusts (∼150°/s) at each height in a separate session, comparing eye and head velocities by using a vHIT system for calculating the functional VOR gains. VEMP amplitudes (IO, TRP, SOL) and horizontal and vertical vHIT gains all increased with high surface height conditions (P < 0.05). Changes in IO and SCM VEMP amplitudes as well as horizontal vHIT gains were correlated with changes in electrodermal activity (ρ = 0.44-0.59, P < 0.05). VEMP amplitude for the IO also positively correlated with fear (ρ = 0.43, P = 0.03). Threat-induced anxiety, fear, and arousal have significant effects on VSR and VOR gains that can be observed in both physiological and functional outcome measures. These findings provide support for a potential central modulation of the vestibular nucleus complex through excitatory inputs from neural centers involved in processing fear, anxiety, arousal, and vigilance.

  5. Chronic symptoms after vestibular neuritis and the high velocity vestibulo-ocular reflex

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Mitesh; Arshad, Qadeer; Roberts, R Edward; Ahmad, Hena; Bronstein, Adolfo M.

    2015-01-01

    Hypothesis As the anterior and posterior semicircular canals are vital to the regulation of gaze stability, particularly during locomotion or vehicular travel, we tested whether the high velocity vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) of the three ipsilesional semicircular canals elicited by the modified Head Impulse Test would correlate with subjective dizziness or vertigo scores after vestibular neuritis (VN). Background Recovery following acute VN varies with around half reporting persistent symptoms long after the acute episode. However, an unanswered question is whether chronic symptoms are associated with impairment of the high velocity VOR of the anterior or posterior canals. Methods Twenty patients who had experienced an acute episode of VN at least three months earlier were included in this study. Participants were assessed with the video head impulse test (vHIT) of all six canals, bithermal caloric irrigation, the Dizziness Handicap Inventory (DHI) and the Vertigo Symptoms Scale short-form (VSS). Results Of these 20 patients, 12 felt that they had recovered from the initial episode whereas 8 did not and reported elevated DHI and VSS scores. However, we found no correlation between DHI or VSS scores and the ipsilesional single or combined vHIT gain, vHIT gain asymmetry or caloric paresis. The high velocity VOR was not different between patients who felt they had recovered and patients who felt they had not. Conclusions Our findings suggest that chronic symptoms of dizziness following VN are not associated with the high velocity VOR of the single or combined ipsilesional horizontal, anterior or posterior semicircular canals. PMID:26719963

  6. Temporal Dynamics of Ocular Position Dependence of the Initial Human Vestibulo-ocular Reflex

    PubMed Central

    Crane, Benjamin T.; Tian, Junru; Demer, Joseph L.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose While an ideal vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) generates ocular rotations compensatory for head motion, during visually guided movements, Listing’s Law (LL) constrains the eye to rotational axes lying in Listing’s Plane (LP). The present study was conducted to explore the recent proposal that the VOR’s rotational axis is not collinear with the head’s, but rather follows a time-dependent strategy intermediate between LL and an ideal VOR. Methods Binocular LPs were defined during visual fixation in eight normal humans. The VOR was evoked by a highly repeatable transient whole-body yaw rotation in darkness at a peak acceleration of 2800 deg/s2. Immediately before rotation, subjects regarded targets 15 or 500 cm distant located at eye level, 20° up, or 20° down. Eye and head responses were compared with LL predictions in the position and velocity domains. Results LP orientation varied both among subjects and between individual subject’s eyes, and rotated temporally with convergence by 5 ± 5° (±SEM). In the position domain, the eye compensated for head displacement even when the head rotated out of LP. Even within the first 20 ms from onset of head rotation, the ocular velocity axis tilted relative to the head axis by 30% ± 8% of vertical gaze position. Saccades increased this tilt. Regardless of vertical gaze position, the ocular rotation axis tilted backward 4° farther in abduction than in adduction. There was also a binocular vertical eye velocity transient and lateral tilt of the ocular axis. Conclusions These disconjugate, short-latency axis perturbations appear intrinsic to the VOR and may have neural or mechanical origins. PMID:16565376

  7. Kinematics of Vertical Saccades during the Yaw Vestibulo-ocular Reflex in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Crane, Benjamin T.; Tian, Junru; Demer, Joseph L.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose Listing’s law (LL) constrains the rotational axes of saccades and pursuit eye movements to Listing’s plane (LP). In the velocity domain, LL is ordinarily equivalent to a tilt in the ocular velocity axis equal to half the change in eye position, giving a tilt angle ratio (TAR) of 0.5. This study was undertaken to investigate vertical saccade behavior after the yaw vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) had driven eye torsion out of LP, an initial condition causing the position and velocity domain formulations of LL to differ. Methods Binocular eye and head motions were recorded with magnetic search coils in eight humans. With the head immobile, LP was determined for each eye, and mean TAR was 0.50 ± 0.07 (mean ± SD) for horizontal and 0.45 ± 0.11 for vertical saccades. The VOR was evoked by transient, whole-body yaw at 2800 deg/s2 peak acceleration, capable of evoking large, uninterrupted VOR slow phases. Before rotation, subjects viewed a target at eye level, 20° up, or 20° down. In two thirds of the trials, the target moved upward or downward at systematically varying times, triggering a vertical saccade during the horizontal VOR slow phase. Results Because the head rotation axis was generally misaligned with LP, the eye averaged 3.6° out of LP at vertical saccade onset. During the saccade, eye position continued to depart LP by an average 0.8°. The horizontal TAR at saccade onset was 0.29 ± 0.07. At peak saccade velocity 35 ± 3 ms later, the vertical TAR was 0.45 ± 0.07, statistically similar to that of head fixed saccades. Saccades did not return to LP. Conclusions Although they did not observe the position domain formulation of LL, vertical saccades, during the VOR, observed the half-angle velocity domain formulation of LL. PMID:16043853

  8. Cross-axis adaptation of torsional components in the yaw-axis vestibulo-ocular reflex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trillenberg, P.; Shelhamer, M.; Roberts, D. C.; Zee, D. S.

    2003-01-01

    The three pairs of semicircular canals within the labyrinth are not perfectly aligned with the pulling directions of the six extraocular muscles. Therefore, for a given head movement, the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) depends upon central neural mechanisms that couple the canals to the muscles with the appropriate functional gains in order to generate a response that rotates the eye the correct amount and around the correct axis. A consequence of these neural connections is a cross-axis adaptive capability, which can be stimulated experimentally when head rotation is around one axis and visual motion about another. From this visual-vestibular conflict the brain infers that the slow-phase eye movement is rotating around the wrong axis. We explored the capability of human cross-axis adaptation, using a short-term training paradigm, to determine if torsional eye movements could be elicited by yaw (horizontal) head rotation (where torsion is normally inappropriate). We applied yaw sinusoidal head rotation (+/-10 degrees, 0.33 Hz) and measured eye movement responses in the dark, and before and after adaptation. The adaptation paradigm lasted 45-60 min, and consisted of the identical head motion, coupled with a moving visual scene that required one of several types of eye movements: (1) torsion alone (-Roll); (2) horizontal/torsional, head right/CW torsion (Yaw-Roll); (3) horizontal/torsional, head right/CCW torsion (Yaw+Roll); (4) horizontal, vertical, torsional combined (Yaw+Pitch-Roll); and (5) horizontal and vertical together (Yaw+Pitch). The largest and most significant changes in torsional amplitude occurred in the Yaw-Roll and Yaw+Roll conditions. We conclude that short-term, cross-axis adaptation of torsion is possible but constrained by the complexity of the adaptation task: smaller torsional components are produced if more than one cross-coupling component is required. In contrast, vertical cross-axis components can be easily trained to occur with yaw head

  9. Dynamic properties of the human vestibulo-ocular reflex during head rotations in roll

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seidman, S. H.; Leigh, R. J.; Tomsak, R. L.; Grant, M. P.; Dell'Osso, L. F.

    1995-01-01

    We investigated the dynamic properties of the human vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) during roll head rotations in three human subjects using the magnetic search coil technique. In the first of two experiments, we quantify the behavior of the ocular motor plant in the torsional plane. The subject's eye was mechanically displaced into intorsion, extorsion or abduction, and the dynamic course of return of the eye to its resting position was measured. The mean predominant time constants of return were 210 msec from intorsion, 83 msec from extorsion, and 217 msec from abduction, although there was considerable variability of results from different trials and subjects. In the second experiment, we quantify the efficacy of velocity-to-position integration of the vestibular signal. Position-step stimuli were used to test the torsional or horizontal VOR, being applied with subjects heads erect or supine. After a torsional position-step, the eye drifted back to its resting position, but after a horizontal position-step the eye held its new horizontal position. To interpret these responses we used a simple model of the VOR with parameters of the ocular motor plant set to values determined during Exp 1. The time constant of the velocity-to-position neural integrator was smaller (typically 2 sec) in the torsional plane than in the horizontal plane (> 20 sec). No disconjugacy of torsional eye movements was observed. Thus, the dynamic properties of the VOR in roll differ significantly from those of the VOR in yaw, reflecting different visual demands placed on this reflex in these two planes.

  10. Modification of the Passive Vestibulo-Ocular Reflex During and After Short-Duration Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, S. J.; Reschke, M. F.

    2011-01-01

    The vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) is mediated by integration of canal and otolith inputs to generate compensatory eye movements during head movements. We hypothesized that adaptive change in vestibular processing of gravitoinertial cues would be reflected by plane specific modification of the VOR during passive whole-body rotation during and after spaceflight. Using a repeated measures design, the VOR was assessed in four payload crewmembers in yaw, pitch and roll planes during multiple sessions before, during and after an 8 day orbital mission (STS-42). Rotation was about an earth-vertical axis during ground tests, with the head located off-axis by up to 45cm during pitch and roll rotation (peak acceleration less than 0.2g). The motion profiles included sum-of-sinusoids between 0.02 - 1.39 Hz (yaw), single sinusoids between 0.05-1.25 Hz (yaw and pitch) and velocity steps (yaw, pitch and roll). Eye movements were recorded with both video and electro-oculographic techniques. As expected, VOR gain changes were greater in pitch than in yaw. During pitch rotation, there was a progressive shift in the axis of eye movements during the flight, which was also present during the early post-flight period. This increased horizontal component during pitch, most prevalent at 0.2 Hz, was interpreted as an increase in a translational vergence response elicited during eccentric rotation as subjects imagined a wall fixed target. There was also an increased horizontal component during the eccentric roll step runs performed on flight day 7. These results are consistent with a frequency-dependent increase in otolith-mediated translational VOR responses following adaptation to microgravity. We conclude that the adaptive changes in the VOR are likely to be greatest in the frequency range where there is a cross-over of otolith-mediated tilt and translation responses.

  11. Translational Vestibulo-Ocular Reflexes During Off-Vertical Axis Rotation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Scott J.; Clement, Gilles

    2009-01-01

    The translational vestibulo-ocular reflex (tVOR) is an otolith-mediated response that stabilizes near vision during linear acceleration at higher frequencies where visually mediated reflexes are not adequate. The modulation of horizontal and vergence eye movements during Off-Vertical Axis Rotation (OVAR) are presumed to reflect the tVOR in response to the continuously varying linear acceleration in the interaural and nasooccipital axes, respectively. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of frequency and fixation distance on the modulation of slow phase eye velocity (SPV) as further evidence that the tVOR is elicited during OVAR. Eighteen subjects were rotated about their longitudinal axis tilted by 30 deg off-vertical. Rotational velocities varied between 18 and 288 deg/sec corresponding to a frequency range of 0.05 to 0.8 Hz. Fixation distance was altered by asking subjects to imagine stationary targets that were briefly presented at 0.5, 1 and 2 m during some rotation cycles. The target flash was 40 msec in the nose-up position at eye level. Oculomotor responses were recorded in the dark using infrared binocular videography. Sinusoidal curve fits were used to derive amplitude, phase and bias velocity of the eye movements across multiple rotation cycles. Consistent with previous studies, the modulation of both horizontal and vergence SPV increased with stimulus frequency. The effect of fixation distance was negligible at lower frequencies. The modulation of horizontal and vergence SPV was; however, proportional to fixation distance during OVAR at 0.8 Hz. This increasing sensitivity and dependence on fixation distance of horizontal and vergence SPV during OVAR is consistent with tVOR characteristics measured during other types of linear motion. We conclude that the modulation of horizontal and vergence SPV will be diagnostically more useful at higher stimulus frequencies where the tVOR is more robust.

  12. Adaptability of the vestibulo-ocular reflex to vision reversal in strobe reared cats.

    PubMed

    Mandl, G; Melvill Jones, G; Cynader, M

    1981-03-23

    Optical reversal of vision brings about adaptive changes in the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) tending to reduce retinal image slip during head movement. The present experiments investigated this form of adaptation in cats whose complement of direction sensitive central visual cells had been substantially reduced by rearing in 8 Hz stroboscopic light. Horizontal vision reversal was produced by dove prisms carried in a skull-mounted mask. A scleral eye coil was used to measure horizontal eye movements. VOR gain and phase were measured in the dark during sinusoidal rotation using test stimuli of 1/8 Hz and 5- or 20 degrees/sec velocity amplitude. Initially, strobe reared cats produced virtually normal VOR in the dark, except for slight but significant exaggeration of the normal phase advancement to be expected at 1/8 Hz. Addition of their familiar strobe illumination produced almost perfect oculomotor compensation. Maintained vision reversal in both strobe and normal illumination produced similar patterns of adaptive change in normal and strobe reared subjects, i.e. all animals exhibited an initial fast, and subsequent much slower, stage of gain attenuation, with similar changes in phase. Thus, strobe rearing did not prevent the development of an essentially normal VOR, nor did it interfere significantly with the ability to adapt in response to vision reversal. Since strobe rearing depletes direction selective visual movement detectors in the cortex and superior colliculi, it is inferred that signals responsible for activating the adaptive process are probably carried mainly in the accessory optic, rather than cortical and collicular, visual system.

  13. Readaptation of the vestibulo-ocular reflex relieves the mal de debarquement syndrome.

    PubMed

    Dai, Mingjia; Cohen, Bernard; Smouha, Eric; Cho, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    The mal de debarquement syndrome (MdDS), a continuous feeling of swaying, rocking, and/or bobbing, generally follows travel on the sea. The associated symptoms cause considerable distress. The underlying neural mechanisms are unknown, and to date there have been no effective treatments for this condition. Results in monkeys and humans suggested that MdDS was caused by maladaptation of the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) to roll of the head during rotation. We studied 24 subjects with persistent MdDS (3 males, 21 females; 19.1 ± 33 months). Physical findings included body oscillation at 0.2 Hz, oscillating vertical nystagmus when the head was rolled from side-to-side in darkness, and unilateral rotation during the Fukuda stepping test. We posited that the maladapted rocking and the physical symptoms could be diminished or extinguished by readapting the VOR. Subjects were treated by rolling the head from side-to-side while watching a rotating full-field visual stimulus. Seventeen of the 24 subjects had a complete or substantial recovery on average for approximately 1 year. Six were initially better, but the symptoms recurred. One subject did not respond to treatment. Thus, readaptation of the VOR has led to a cure or substantial improvement in 70% of the subjects with MdDS. We conclude that the adaptive processes associated with roll-while-rotating are responsible for producing MdDS, and that the symptoms can be reduced or resolved by readapting the VOR.

  14. Kinematic principles of primate rotational vestibulo-ocular reflex. I. Spatial organization of fast phase velocity axes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hess, B. J.; Angelaki, D. E.

    1997-01-01

    The spatial organization of fast phase velocity vectors of the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) was studied in rhesus monkeys during yaw rotations about an earth-horizontal axis that changed continuously the orientation of the head relative to gravity ("barbecue spit" rotation). In addition to a velocity component parallel to the rotation axis, fast phases also exhibited a velocity component that invariably was oriented along the momentary direction of gravity. As the head rotated through supine and prone positions, torsional components of fast phase velocity axes became prominent. Similarly, as the head rotated through left and right ear-down positions, fast phase velocity axes exhibited prominent vertical components. The larger the speed of head rotation the greater the magnitude of this fast phase component, which was collinear with gravity. The main sequence properties of VOR fast phases were independent of head position. However, peak amplitude as well as peak velocity of fast phases were both modulated as a function of head orientation, exhibiting a minimum in prone position. The results suggest that the fast phases of vestibulo-ocular reflexes not only redirect gaze and reposition the eye in the direction of head motion but also reorient the eye with respect to earth-vertical when the head moves relative to gravity. As further elaborated in the companion paper, the underlying mechanism could be described as a dynamic, gravity-dependent modulation of the coordinates of ocular rotations relative to the head.

  15. Vestibulo-Ocular Response and Balance Control in Children and Young Adults with Mild-to-Moderate Intellectual and Developmental Disability: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zur, Oz; Ronen, Ayelet; Melzer, Itshak; Carmeli, Eli

    2013-01-01

    The vestibulo-ocular response (VOR) may not be fully developed in children with an intellectual and developmental disability (IDD). This study aimed to identify the presence of VOR deficit in children and young adults with unspecified mild-to-moderate intellectual and developmental disability and its effect on balance control. Twenty-one children…

  16. Torsional vestibulo-ocular reflex measurements for identifying otolith asymmetries possibly related to space motion sickness susceptibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterka, R. J.

    1994-01-01

    Recent studies by Diamond and Markham have identified significant correlations between space motion sickness susceptibility and measures of disconjugate torsional eye movements recorded during parabolic flights. These results support an earlier proposal by von Baumgarten and Thumler which hypothesized that an asymmetry of otolith function between the two ears is the cause of space motion sickness. It may be possible to devise experiments that can be performed in the 1 g environment on earth that could identify and quantify the presence of asymmetric otolith function. This paper summarizes the known physiological and anatomical properties of the otolith organs and the properties of the torsional vestibulo-ocular reflex which are relevant to the design of a stimulus to identify otolith asymmetries. A specific stimulus which takes advantage of these properties is proposed.

  17. An Indirect System Identification Technique for Stable Estimation of Continuous-Time Parameters of the Vestibulo-Ocular Reflex (VOR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kukreja, Sunil L.; Wallin, Ragnar; Boyle, Richard D.

    2013-01-01

    The vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) is a well-known dual mode bifurcating system that consists of slow and fast modes associated with nystagmus and saccade, respectively. Estimation of continuous-time parameters of nystagmus and saccade models are known to be sensitive to estimation methodology, noise and sampling rate. The stable and accurate estimation of these parameters are critical for accurate disease modelling, clinical diagnosis, robotic control strategies, mission planning for space exploration and pilot safety, etc. This paper presents a novel indirect system identification method for the estimation of continuous-time parameters of VOR employing standardised least-squares with dual sampling rates in a sparse structure. This approach permits the stable and simultaneous estimation of both nystagmus and saccade data. The efficacy of this approach is demonstrated via simulation of a continuous-time model of VOR with typical parameters found in clinical studies and in the presence of output additive noise.

  18. Torsional vestibulo-ocular reflex measurements for identifying otolith asymmetries possibly related to space motion sickness susceptibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterka, Robert J.

    1993-01-01

    Recent studies have identified significant correlations between space motion sickness susceptibility and measures of disconjugate torsional eye movements recorded during parabolic flights. These results support an earlier proposal which hypothesized that an asymmetry of otolith function between the two ears is the cause of space motion sickness. It may be possible to devise experiments that can be performed in the 1 g environment on earth that could identify and quantify the presence of asymmetric otolith function. This paper summarizes the known physiological and anatomical properties of the otolith organs and the properties of the torsional vestibulo-ocular reflex which are relevant to the design of a stimulus to identify otolith asymmetries. A specific stimulus which takes advantage of these properties is proposed.

  19. Kinematic principles of primate rotational vestibulo-ocular reflex. II. Gravity-dependent modulation of primary eye position

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hess, B. J.; Angelaki, D. E.

    1997-01-01

    The kinematic constraints of three-dimensional eye positions were investigated in rhesus monkeys during passive head and body rotations relative to gravity. We studied fast and slow phase components of the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) elicited by constant-velocity yaw rotations and sinusoidal oscillations about an earth-horizontal axis. We found that the spatial orientation of both fast and slow phase eye positions could be described locally by a planar surface with torsional variation of <2.0 +/- 0.4 degrees (displacement planes) that systematically rotated and/or shifted relative to Listing's plane. In supine/prone positions, displacement planes pitched forward/backward; in left/right ear-down positions, displacement planes were parallel shifted along the positive/negative torsional axis. Dynamically changing primary eye positions were computed from displacement planes. Torsional and vertical components of primary eye position modulated as a sinusoidal function of head orientation in space. The torsional component was maximal in ear-down positions and approximately zero in supine/prone orientations. The opposite was observed for the vertical component. Modulation of the horizontal component of primary eye position exhibited a more complex dependence. In contrast to the torsional component, which was relatively independent of rotational speed, modulation of the vertical and horizontal components of primary position depended strongly on the speed of head rotation (i.e., on the frequency of oscillation of the gravity vector component): the faster the head rotated relative to gravity, the larger was the modulation. Corresponding results were obtained when a model based on a sinusoidal dependence of instantaneous displacement planes (and primary eye position) on head orientation relative to gravity was fitted to VOR fast phase positions. When VOR fast phase positions were expressed relative to primary eye position estimated from the model fits, they were confined

  20. Kinematic principles of primate rotational vestibulo-ocular reflex. II. Gravity-dependent modulation of primary eye position.

    PubMed

    Hess, B J; Angelaki, D E

    1997-10-01

    The kinematic constraints of three-dimensional eye positions were investigated in rhesus monkeys during passive head and body rotations relative to gravity. We studied fast and slow phase components of the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) elicited by constant-velocity yaw rotations and sinusoidal oscillations about an earth-horizontal axis. We found that the spatial orientation of both fast and slow phase eye positions could be described locally by a planar surface with torsional variation of <2.0 +/- 0.4 degrees (displacement planes) that systematically rotated and/or shifted relative to Listing's plane. In supine/prone positions, displacement planes pitched forward/backward; in left/right ear-down positions, displacement planes were parallel shifted along the positive/negative torsional axis. Dynamically changing primary eye positions were computed from displacement planes. Torsional and vertical components of primary eye position modulated as a sinusoidal function of head orientation in space. The torsional component was maximal in ear-down positions and approximately zero in supine/prone orientations. The opposite was observed for the vertical component. Modulation of the horizontal component of primary eye position exhibited a more complex dependence. In contrast to the torsional component, which was relatively independent of rotational speed, modulation of the vertical and horizontal components of primary position depended strongly on the speed of head rotation (i.e., on the frequency of oscillation of the gravity vector component): the faster the head rotated relative to gravity, the larger was the modulation. Corresponding results were obtained when a model based on a sinusoidal dependence of instantaneous displacement planes (and primary eye position) on head orientation relative to gravity was fitted to VOR fast phase positions. When VOR fast phase positions were expressed relative to primary eye position estimated from the model fits, they were confined

  1. Aging reduces the high-frequency and short-term adaptation of the vestibulo-ocular reflex in mice.

    PubMed

    Khan, Serajul I; Hübner, Patrick P; Brichta, Alan M; Smith, Doug W; Migliaccio, Americo A

    2017-03-01

    Prevailing evidence indicates a relatively late life decline in human vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) function. Although mice are commonly used in mechanistic studies of vestibular function, it remains unclear whether aging produces a corresponding decline in VOR function in mice. We sought to determine how the baseline VOR and its short-term adaptation were affected by aging. We tested 8 young (3-month old) and 8 aged (30-month old-equivalent to a ∼80-year old human) C57BL/6 mice. We measured their VOR response to whole-body static tilts and during 0.1-10 Hz whole-body sinusoidal and transient rotations before and after VOR adaptation training. Our data revealed minimal differences in static counter-tilt response between young and aged mice, but a significant deficit in baseline VOR gain in aged mice during transient rotations. Moreover, aged mice had a significant decrease in short-term VOR adaptation, particularly for training that sought to decrease the VOR response.

  2. Vestibulo-Ocular Responses to Vertical Translation using a Hand-Operated Chair as a Field Measure of Otolith Function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, S. J.; Campbell, D. J.; Reschke, M. F.; Prather, L.; Clement, G.

    2016-01-01

    The translational Vestibulo-Ocular Reflex (tVOR) is an important otolith-mediated response to stabilize gaze during natural locomotion. One goal of this study was to develop a measure of the tVOR using a simple hand-operated chair that provided passive vertical motion. Binocular eye movements were recorded with a tight-fitting video mask in ten healthy subjects. Vertical motion was provided by a modified spring-powered chair (swopper.com) at approximately 2 Hz (+/- 2 cm displacement) to approximate the head motion during walking. Linear acceleration was measured with wireless inertial sensors (Xsens) mounted on the head and torso. Eye movements were recorded while subjects viewed near (0.5m) and far (approximately 4m) targets, and then imagined these targets in darkness. Subjects also provided perceptual estimates of target distances. Consistent with the kinematic properties shown in previous studies, the tVOR gain was greater with near targets, and greater with vision than in darkness. We conclude that this portable chair system can provide a field measure of otolith-ocular function at frequencies sufficient to elicit a robust tVOR.

  3. Use of a genetic algorithm for the analysis of eye movements from the linear vestibulo-ocular reflex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shelhamer, M.

    2001-01-01

    It is common in vestibular and oculomotor testing to use a single-frequency (sine) or combination of frequencies [sum-of-sines (SOS)] stimulus for head or target motion. The resulting eye movements typically contain a smooth tracking component, which follows the stimulus, in which are interspersed rapid eye movements (saccades or fast phases). The parameters of the smooth tracking--the amplitude and phase of each component frequency--are of interest; many methods have been devised that attempt to identify and remove the fast eye movements from the smooth. We describe a new approach to this problem, tailored to both single-frequency and sum-of-sines stimulation of the human linear vestibulo-ocular reflex. An approximate derivative is used to identify fast movements, which are then omitted from further analysis. The remaining points form a series of smooth tracking segments. A genetic algorithm is used to fit these segments together to form a smooth (but disconnected) wave form, by iteratively removing biases due to the missing fast phases. A genetic algorithm is an iterative optimization procedure; it provides a basis for extending this approach to more complex stimulus-response situations. In the SOS case, the genetic algorithm estimates the amplitude and phase values of the component frequencies as well as removing biases.

  4. Angular distribution of Auger electrons due to 3d-shell impact ionization of krypton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Omidvar, K.

    1977-01-01

    Cross sections for electron impact ionization of krypton due to ejection of a 3d-shell electron have been calculated using screened hydrogenic and Hartree-Slater wavefunctions for the target atom. While the total ionization cross sections in the two approximations are within 10% of each other, the Auger electron angular distribution, related to cross sections for specific magnetic quantum numbers of the 3d electrons, are widely different in the two approximations. The angular distribution due to the Hartree-Slater approximation is in excellent agreement with measurement. The physical reason for the discrepancies in the two approximations is explained.

  5. Behavioral analysis of signals that guide learned changes in the amplitude and dynamics of the vestibulo-ocular reflex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raymond, J. L.; Lisberger, S. G.

    1996-01-01

    We characterized the dependence of motor learning in the monkey vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) on the duration, frequency, and relative timing of the visual and vestibular stimuli used to induce learning. The amplitude of the VOR was decreased or increased through training with paired head and visual stimulus motion in the same or opposite directions, respectively. For training stimuli that consisted of simultaneous pulses of head and target velocity 80-1000 msec in duration, brief stimuli caused small changes in the amplitude of the VOR, whereas long stimuli caused larger changes in amplitude as well as changes in the dynamics of the reflex. When the relative timing of the visual and vestibular stimuli was varied, brief image motion paired with the beginning of a longer vestibular stimulus caused changes in the amplitude of the reflex alone, but the same image motion paired with a later time in the vestibular stimulus caused changes in the dynamics as well as the amplitude of the VOR. For training stimuli that consisted of sinusoidal head and visual stimulus motion, low-frequency training stimuli induced frequency-selective changes in the VOR, as reported previously, whereas high-frequency training stimuli induced changes in the amplitude of the VOR that were more similar across test frequency. The results suggest that there are at least two distinguishable components of motor learning in the VOR. One component is induced by short-duration or high-frequency stimuli and involves changes in only the amplitude of the reflex. A second component is induced by long-duration or low-frequency stimuli and involves changes in the amplitude and dynamics of the VOR.

  6. Effect of postural changes on 3D joint angular velocity during starting block phase.

    PubMed

    Slawinski, Jean; Dumas, Raphaël; Cheze, Laurence; Ontanon, Guy; Miller, Christian; Mazure-Bonnefoy, Alice

    2013-01-01

    Few studies have focused on the effect of posture during sprint start. The aim of this study was to measure the effect of the modification of horizontal distance between the blocks during sprint start on three dimensional (3D) joint angular velocity. Nine trained sprinters started using three different starting positions (bunched, medium and elongated). They were equipped with 63 passive reflective markers, and an opto-electronic Motion Analysis system was used to collect the 3D marker trajectories. During the pushing phase on the blocks, norm of the joint angular velocity (NJAV), 3D Euler angular velocity (EAV) and pushing time on the blocks were calculated. The results demonstrated that the decrease of the block spacing induces an opposite effect on the angular velocity of joints of the lower and the upper limbs. The NJAV of the upper limbs is greater in the bunched start, whereas the NJAV of the lower limbs is smaller. The modifications of NJAV were due to a combination of the movement of the joints in the different degrees of freedom. The medium start seems to be the best compromise because it leads, in a short pushing time, to a combination of optimal joint velocities for upper and lower segments.

  7. A Bayesian approach for suppression of limited angular sampling artifacts in single particle 3D reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Moriya, Toshio; Acar, Erman; Cheng, R Holland; Ruotsalainen, Ulla

    2015-09-01

    In the single particle reconstruction, the initial 3D structure often suffers from the limited angular sampling artifact. Selecting 2D class averages of particle images generally improves the accuracy and efficiency of the reference-free 3D angle estimation, but causes an insufficient angular sampling to fill the information of the target object in the 3D frequency space. Similarly, the initial 3D structure by the random-conical tilt reconstruction has the well-known "missing cone" artifact. Here, we attempted to solve the limited angular sampling problem by sequentially applying maximum a posteriori estimate with expectation maximization algorithm (sMAP-EM). Using both simulated and experimental cryo-electron microscope images, the sMAP-EM was compared to the direct Fourier method on the basis of reconstruction error and resolution. To establish selection criteria of the final regularization weight for the sMAP-EM, the effects of noise level and sampling sparseness on the reconstructions were examined with evenly distributed sampling simulations. The frequency information filled in the missing cone of the conical tilt sampling simulations was assessed by developing new quantitative measurements. All the results of visual and numerical evaluations showed the sMAP-EM performed better than the direct Fourier method, regardless of the sampling method, noise level, and sampling sparseness. Furthermore, the frequency domain analysis demonstrated that the sMAP-EM can fill the meaningful information in the unmeasured angular space without detailed a priori knowledge of the objects. The current research demonstrated that the sMAP-EM has a high potential to facilitate the determination of 3D protein structures at near atomic-resolution.

  8. Inverse cascades sustained by the transfer rate of angular momentum in a 3D turbulent flow.

    PubMed

    López-Caballero, Miguel; Burguete, Javier

    2013-03-22

    The existence of energy cascades as signatures of conserved magnitudes is one of the universal characteristics of turbulent flows. In homogeneous 3D turbulence, the energy conservation produces a direct cascade from large to small scales, although in 2D, it produces an inverse cascade pointing towards small wave numbers. In this Letter, we present the first evidence of an inverse cascade in a fully developed 3D experimental turbulent flow where the conserved magnitude is the angular momentum. Two counterrotating flows collide in a central region where very large fluctuations are produced, generating a turbulent drag that transfers the external torque between different fluid layers.

  9. Inverse Cascades Sustained by the Transfer Rate of Angular Momentum in a 3D Turbulent Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Caballero, Miguel; Burguete, Javier

    2013-03-01

    The existence of energy cascades as signatures of conserved magnitudes is one of the universal characteristics of turbulent flows. In homogeneous 3D turbulence, the energy conservation produces a direct cascade from large to small scales, although in 2D, it produces an inverse cascade pointing towards small wave numbers. In this Letter, we present the first evidence of an inverse cascade in a fully developed 3D experimental turbulent flow where the conserved magnitude is the angular momentum. Two counterrotating flows collide in a central region where very large fluctuations are produced, generating a turbulent drag that transfers the external torque between different fluid layers.

  10. Mesoscopic in vivo 3-D tracking of sparse cell populations using angular multiplexed optical projection tomography.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lingling; Alexandrov, Yuriy; Kumar, Sunil; Andrews, Natalie; Dallman, Margaret J; French, Paul M W; McGinty, James

    2015-04-01

    We describe an angular multiplexed imaging technique for 3-D in vivo cell tracking of sparse cell distributions and optical projection tomography (OPT) with superior time-lapse resolution and a significantly reduced light dose compared to volumetric time-lapse techniques. We demonstrate that using dual axis OPT, where two images are acquired simultaneously at different projection angles, can enable localization and tracking of features in 3-D with a time resolution equal to the camera frame rate. This is achieved with a 200x reduction in light dose compared to an equivalent volumetric time-lapse single camera OPT acquisition with 200 projection angles. We demonstrate the application of this technique to mapping the 3-D neutrophil migration pattern observed over ~25.5 minutes in a live 2 day post-fertilisation transgenic LysC:GFP zebrafish embryo following a tail wound.

  11. The effect of vestibulo-ocular reflex deficits and covert saccades on dynamic vision in opioid-induced vestibular dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Ramaioli, Cecilia; Colagiorgio, Paolo; Sağlam, Murat; Heuser, Fabian; Schneider, Erich; Ramat, Stefano; Lehnen, Nadine

    2014-01-01

    Patients with bilateral vestibular dysfunction cannot fully compensate passive head rotations with eye movements, and experience disturbing oscillopsia. To compensate for the deficient vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR), they have to rely on re-fixation saccades. Some can trigger "covert" saccades while the head still moves; others only initiate saccades afterwards. Due to their shorter latency, it has been hypothesized that covert saccades are particularly beneficial to improve dynamic visual acuity, reducing oscillopsia. Here, we investigate the combined effect of covert saccades and the VOR on clear vision, using the Head Impulse Testing Device-Functional Test (HITD-FT), which quantifies reading ability during passive high-acceleration head movements. To reversibly decrease VOR function, fourteen healthy men (median age 26 years, range 21-31) were continuously administrated the opioid remifentanil intravenously (0.15 µg/kg/min). VOR gain was assessed with the video head-impulse test, functional performance (i.e. reading) with the HITD-FT. Before opioid application, VOR and dynamic reading were intact (head-impulse gain: 0.87±0.08, mean±SD; HITD-FT rate of correct answers: 90±9%). Remifentanil induced impairment in dynamic reading (HITD-FT 26±15%) in 12/14 subjects, with transient bilateral vestibular dysfunction (head-impulse gain 0.63±0.19). HITD-FT score correlated with head-impulse gain (R = 0.63, p = 0.03) and with gain difference (before/with remifentanil, R = -0.64, p = 0.02). One subject had a non-pathological head-impulse gain (0.82±0.03) and a high HITD-FT score (92%). One subject triggered covert saccades in 60% of the head movements and could read during passive head movements (HITD-FT 93%) despite a pathological head-impulse gain (0.59±0.03) whereas none of the 12 subjects without covert saccades reached such high performance. In summary, early catch-up saccades may improve dynamic visual function. HITD-FT is an appropriate method

  12. Multiple subclasses of Purkinje cells in the primate floccular complex provide similar signals to guide learning in the vestibulo-ocular reflex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raymond, J. L.; Lisberger, S. G.

    1997-01-01

    The neural "learning rules" governing the induction of plasticity in the cerebellum were analyzed by recording the patterns of neural activity in awake, behaving animals during stimuli that induce a form of cerebellum-dependent learning. We recorded the simple- and complex-spike responses of a broad sample of Purkinje cells in the floccular complex during a number of stimulus conditions that induce motor learning in the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR). Each subclass of Purkinje cells carried essentially the same information about required changes in the gain of the VOR. The correlation of simple-spike activity in Purkinje cells with activity in vestibular pathways could guide learning during low-frequency but not high-frequency stimuli. Climbing fiber activity could guide learning during all stimuli tested but only if compared with the activity present approximately 100 msec earlier in either vestibular pathways or Purkinje cells.

  13. Altered gravitational experience during early periods of life affects the static vestibulo-ocular reflex of tadpoles of the southern clawed toad, Xenopus laevis Daudin.

    PubMed

    Sebastian, C; Esseling, K; Horn, E

    1996-11-01

    The effects of altered gravitational forces (AGF) on the development of the static vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) were investigated in Xenopus laevis tadpoles exposed to hypergravity (1.4g; 3g) or microgravity conditions (German spacelab mission D-2) for 9-10 days. The effects of light conditions during development were also tested by exposing tadpoles to either complete darkness (DD) or 12:12 h light-dark conditions (LD). The static VOR was induced by lateral roll. The efficacy of the VOR circuit after termination of AGF conditions was described by the peak-to-peak amplitude of the sinusoidal VOR characteristics (i.e. amplitude). The static VOR was first observed at stage 41 for both LD and DD tadpoles. Its further development was retarded in the DD tadpoles compared with the LD tadpoles up to stage 48. Microgravity as well as hypergravity exposure caused a significant (P < 0.05, at least) decrease in the static VOR amplitude during the first week after termination of the AGF period. The decreases were 39.4% in the microgravity group, 16.2% in the 1.4g group and 24.9-42.9% in the 3g group compared with the 1g ground-reared siblings at the same developmental stages. The response deficits usually disappeared but persisted for at least 2 weeks in animals whose development was retarded by hypergravity exposure. It is postulated (i) that gravity exerts an important influence on the normal development of the roll-induced static VOR; (ii) that hypergravity exposure decreases the sensitivity of the gravity-sensitive system so that recordings under 1g conditions cause a weaker static VOR; and (iii) that the vestibulo-spinal pathway possesses a higher degree of plasticity than the vestibulo-ocular pathway.

  14. Resonant structure of the 3d electron`s angular distribution in a free Mn{sup +}Ion

    SciTech Connect

    Amusia, M.Y.; Dolmatov, V.K.

    1995-08-01

    The 3d-electron angular anisotropy parameter of the free Mn{sup +} ion is calculated using the {open_quotes}spin-polarized{close_quotes} random-phase approximation with exchange. Strong resonance structure is discovered, which is due to interference with the powerful 3p {yields} 3d discrete excitation. The effect of the 3p {yields} 4s transition is also noticeable. The ordering of these respective resonances with phonon energy increase proved to be opposite in angular anisotropy parameter to that in 3d-photoionization cross section. A paper describing these results was published.

  15. Inverse cascades sustained by the transfer rate of angular momentum in a 3D turbulent flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burguete, Javier; Lopez-Caballero, Miguel

    2013-11-01

    The existence of energy cascades as signatures of conserved magnitudes is one of the universal characteristics of turbulent flows. In this work we present the evidence of an inverse cascade in a fully developed 3D experimental turbulent flow where the conserved magnitude is the angular momentum. We analyze the behavior of a fluid in a closed cavity where two inhomogeneous and strongly turbulent flows collide in a thin region. The experimental volume is a closed cylinder (diameter of 20 cm) where two impellers rotate in opposite directions. A key characteristic of this setup the high stability of the propellers (the instantaneous fluctuations are below 0 . 1 %). We have performed PIV and LDA measurements of the velocity fields. Typical characteristics of the turbulent flow in this setup are: turbulence intensity 50 % , the Reλ = 900 , the Taylor microscale λT = 1 . 8 mm and the integral scale LI = 15 mm. The analysis of the data series reveal that below the injection scales an inverse cascade can be identified (-1/3 in time, -7/3 in space) that can be explained as the transfer of angular momentum between the diferent fluid layers. A. de la Torre, J. Burguete, Phys Rev Lett 99 (2007) 054101. M. Lopez-Caballero, J. Burguete, Phys Rev Lett 110 (2013) 124501.

  16. Mechanisms of vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) cancellation in spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 (SCA-3) and episodic ataxia type 2 (EA-2).

    PubMed

    Gordon, Carlos R; Caspi, Avi; Levite, Ronen; Zivotofsky, Ari Z

    2008-01-01

    The vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) mechanism triggers eye movements as a result of head motion in order to keep gaze stationary relative to the world. However, in order to shift the direction of the gaze along with head motion, the VOR mechanism must be overridden ("cancelled"). Two mechanisms have been proposed to explain this cancellation: a reduction of the VOR gain or activation of smooth pursuit (SP) eye movements in the opposite direction. We studied VOR cancellation using the magnetic search coil in six spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 (SCA-3) and four episodic ataxia type 2 (EA-2) patients, conditions that are known to have degraded SP but different degrees of VOR impairment. Abnormal VOR was found in two of the four EA-2 patients and all of the SCA-3 patients. All subjects possessed residual VOR, although when tested using head thrusts it was almost negligible in the SCA-3 patients. The EA-2 patients showed essentially no SP and the SCA-3 patients had poor SP. However, for all patients, the gain during VOR cancellation was comparable to normals. These results provide additional evidence that SP cancellation of the VOR cannot be the sole mechanism utilized in overriding the VOR in these patients.

  17. Long-Lasting Visuo-Vestibular Mismatch in Freely-Behaving Mice Reduces the Vestibulo-Ocular Reflex and Leads to Neural Changes in the Direct Vestibular Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Carcaud, Julie; França de Barros, Filipa; Eugène, Daniel; Reveret, Lionel; Moore, Lee E.; Vidal, Pierre-Paul

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Calibration of the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) depends on the presence of visual feedback. However, the cellular mechanisms associated with VOR modifications at the level of the brainstem remain largely unknown. A new protocol was designed to expose freely behaving mice to a visuo-vestibular mismatch during a 2-week period. This protocol induced a 50% reduction of the VOR. In vivo pharmacological experiments demonstrated that the VOR reduction depends on changes located outside the flocculus/paraflocculus complex. The cellular mechanisms associated with the VOR reduction were then studied in vitro on brainstem slices through a combination of vestibular afferent stimulation and patch-clamp recordings of central vestibular neurons. The evoked synaptic activity demonstrated that the efficacy of the synapses between vestibular afferents and central vestibular neurons was decreased. In addition, a long-term depression protocol failed to further decrease the synapse efficacy, suggesting that the VOR reduction might have occurred through depression-like mechanisms. Analysis of the intrinsic membrane properties of central vestibular neurons revealed that the synaptic changes were supplemented by a decrease in the spontaneous discharge and excitability of a subpopulation of neurons. Our results provide evidence that a long-lasting visuo-vestibular mismatch leads to changes in synaptic transmission and intrinsic properties of central vestibular neurons in the direct VOR pathway. Overall, these results open new avenues for future studies on visual and vestibular interactions conducted in vivo and in vitro. PMID:28303261

  18. Vestibulo-ocular reflex gain as a measure of vestibular function in guinea pigs while in a recompression chamber: apparatus design and effects of nitrogen narcosis.

    PubMed

    Stevens, D M; Dutka, A J; Snyder, J E

    1995-05-01

    There are several mechanisms whereby alteration of barometric pressure can produce vertigo in divers or aviators. Development of a reliable measure of vestibular function in an animal model is the first requirement for further study of these mechanisms. This report presents the development of a rotatory table device capable of evoking the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) of a guinea pig while in a hyperbaric chamber. To assess the reproducibility of this response, eight animals were monitored by electronystagmography during rotations at three table velocities (62.4, 83.3, and 100 degrees/s). Two test sessions were performed on each animal with a 6-hour interval between sessions. The VOR gain was calculated by dividing the average peak velocity of the slow phase component of the nystagmus by the peak stimulus velocity. At least eight observations per test speed were averaged; calibration of eye movement was performed prior to each session by forced ocular abduction. Multifactorial analysis of variance revealed no significant differences (p > .05) between the differing rotation speeds nor between test sessions for individual animals. However, there was a significant difference in VOR gain between animals (p < .002). The VOR gain was then measured, using the same techniques, in another group of seven animals before, during, and after an air dive to the equivalent of 200 feet of seawater (7.06 atmospheres absolute) to assess the effects of nitrogen narcosis. Pre- and post-dive VOR gains were significantly greater than those measured at depth (p < .05). These results are consistent with the slow processing model of nitrogen narcosis and the controversial theory that central nervous system depressants decrease the VOR gain. The results also demonstrate the ability of this inexpensive apparatus to provide a sensitive measure of pressure-induced changes of vestibular function in guinea pigs.

  19. Segment-interaction in sprint start: Analysis of 3D angular velocity and kinetic energy in elite sprinters.

    PubMed

    Slawinski, J; Bonnefoy, A; Ontanon, G; Leveque, J M; Miller, C; Riquet, A; Chèze, L; Dumas, R

    2010-05-28

    The aim of the present study was to measure during a sprint start the joint angular velocity and the kinetic energy of the different segments in elite sprinters. This was performed using a 3D kinematic analysis of the whole body. Eight elite sprinters (10.30+/-0.14s 100 m time), equipped with 63 passive reflective markers, realised four maximal 10 m sprints start on an indoor track. An opto-electronic Motion Analysis system consisting of 12 digital cameras (250 Hz) was used to collect the 3D marker trajectories. During the pushing phase on the blocks, the 3D angular velocity vector and its norm were calculated for each joint. The kinetic energy of 16 segments of the lower and upper limbs and of the total body was calculated. The 3D kinematic analysis of the whole body demonstrated that joints such as shoulders, thoracic or hips did not reach their maximal angular velocity with a movement of flexion-extension, but with a combination of flexion-extension, abduction-adduction and internal-external rotation. The maximal kinetic energy of the total body was reached before clearing block (respectively, 537+/-59.3 J vs. 514.9+/-66.0 J; p< or =0.01). These results suggested that a better synchronization between the upper and lower limbs could increase the efficiency of pushing phase on the blocks. Besides, to understand low interindividual variances in the sprint start performance in elite athletes, a 3D complete body kinematic analysis shall be used.

  20. Intensity distribution angular shaping - Practical approach for 3D optical beamforming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wojtanowski, Jacek; Traczyk, Maciej; Zygmunt, Marek; Mierczyk, Zygmunt; Knysak, Piotr; Drozd, Tadeusz

    2014-12-01

    We present approach of optical design which enables to obtain aspheric lens shape optimized for providing the specific light power density distribution in space. Proposed method is based on the evaluation of corresponding angular intensity distribution which can be obtained by the decomposition of the desired spatial distribution into virtual light cones set and collapsing it to the equivalent angular fingerprint. Rigorous formulas have been derived to relate refractive aspheric shape and the corresponding intensity distribution which is used for lens optimization. Algorithms of modeling and optimization were implemented in Matlab© and the calculated designs were successfully tested in Zemax environment.

  1. Angular distribution of Auger electrons due to 3d-shell ionization of krypton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Omidvar, K.

    1977-01-01

    Cross sections for electron impact ionization of krypton due to ejection of a 3rd shell electron have been calculated using screened hydrogenic and Hartree-Slater wave functions for target atom. While the total ionization cross sections in the two approximations are within 10% of each other, the Auger electron angular distribution, related to cross sections for specific magnetic quantum numbers of the 3rd electrons, is widely different in the two approximations. The angular distribution due to Hartree-Slater approximation is in excellent agreement with measurement. The physical reason for the discrepancies in the two approximations is explained.

  2. 3-D Coupled FE Analysis and Experimental Validation of Restrained Welding to Control Angular Distortion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damale, A. V.; Nandurkar, K. N.

    2012-10-01

    Welding induced distortion is one of the critical defects in the welded structures. Angular distortion is most pronounced which badly affects the welded structures. Non-uniform heating during welding develops this angular distortion. Various methods are available to control/minimize the welding distortions. One of the methods available to control this distortion is restraining, in which clamping pressure is applied on the deforming edges of the plates. In the present study, a 3-dimensional coupled transient thermal analysis is done for simulating the restraining phenomenon of welding. The developed transient thermal heat source was used to simulate the arc welding phenomenon. The element birth and death technique was used for simulating filler material deposition. Thermal model was verified by comparing the macrograph of Finite Element Analysis (FEA) model and the weld and verification of structural model was done by comparing the measured and predicted angular distortions. Experimental and Finite Element (FE) analysis is done for both conventional welding and welding under restraining pressure. Transient thermal and non-linear structural analyses were carried out in order to predict angular distortions. The Finite Element Method analysis and experimental verification is done for manual metal arc welding process.

  3. Dual-projection 3D-2D registration for surgical guidance: preclinical evaluation of performance and minimum angular separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uneri, A.; Otake, Y.; Wang, A. S.; Kleinszig, G.; Vogt, S.; Gallia, G. L.; Rigamonti, D.; Wolinsky, J.-P.; Gokaslan, Ziya L.; Khanna, A. J.; Siewerdsen, J. H.

    2014-03-01

    An algorithm for 3D-2D registration of CT and x-ray projections has been developed using dual projection views to provide 3D localization with accuracy exceeding that of conventional tracking systems. The registration framework employs a normalized gradient information (NGI) similarity metric and covariance matrix adaptation evolution strategy (CMAES) to solve for the patient pose in 6 degrees of freedom. Registration performance was evaluated in anthropomorphic head and chest phantoms, as well as a human torso cadaver, using C-arm projection views acquired at angular separations (Δ𝜃) ranging 0-178°. Registration accuracy was assessed in terms target registration error (TRE) and compared to that of an electromagnetic tracker. Studies evaluated the influence of C-arm magnification, x-ray dose, and preoperative CT slice thickness on registration accuracy and the minimum angular separation required to achieve TRE ~2 mm. The results indicate that Δ𝜃 as small as 10-20° is adequate to achieve TRE <2 mm with 95% confidence, comparable or superior to that of commercial trackers. The method allows direct registration of preoperative CT and planning data to intraoperative fluoroscopy, providing 3D localization free from conventional limitations associated with external fiducial markers, stereotactic frames, trackers, and manual registration. The studies support potential application to percutaneous spine procedures and intracranial neurosurgery.

  4. Study of Multi Pass Equal Channel Angular Pressing Using 3D Finite Element Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Setia, Rajat; Sharma, Rahul Swarup; Sharma, Shanti Swarup; Raj, K. Hans

    2011-01-01

    Equal Channel Angular Pressing (ECAP) has emerged as most prominent Severe Plastic Deformation (SPD) technique used to produce an ultrafine grained (UFG) structure in metals in order to improve their mechanical and physical properties. In this work Finite Element modeling of ECAP is attempted in FORGE 2007 environment. Four passes of the ECAP process of 10mm square shaped AL 6061 billet were carried out for routes A, BA and C for different channel angles and values of coefficient of friction to investigate their influence on the billet. The models were developed assuming a range of friction conditions at the billet-die contact region considering eight distinct friction coefficient (μ) values of 0.0, 0.10, 0.15, 0.20, 0.25, 0.30, 0.35 and 0.40, respectively. The simulations are carried out using three distinct situations of die channel angles (Φ), 90°, 105°, and 120° respectively. Route `BA' emerged as a better method among the three routes studied and 90° channel angle appeared to be optimal in terms of producing high equivalent strain.

  5. iBem3D, a three-dimensional iterative boundary element method using angular dislocations for modeling geologic structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maerten, F.; Maerten, L.; Pollard, D. D.

    2014-11-01

    Most analytical solutions to engineering or geological problems are limited to simple geometries. For example, analytical solutions have been found to solve for stresses around a circular hole in a plate. To solve more complex problems, mathematicians and engineers have developed powerful computer-aided numerical methods, which can be categorized into two main types: differential methods and integral methods. The finite element method (FEM) is a differential method that was developed in the 1950s and is one of the most commonly used numerical methods today. Since its development, other differential methods, including the boundary element method (BEM), have been developed to solve different types of problems. The purpose of this paper is to describe iBem3D, formally called Poly3D, a C++ and modular 3D boundary element computer program based on the theory of angular dislocations for modeling three-dimensional (3D) discontinuities in an elastic, heterogeneous, isotropic whole- or half-space. After 20 years and more than 150 scientific publications, we present in detail the formulation behind this method, its enhancements over the years as well as some important applications in several domains of the geosciences. The main advantage of using this formulation, for describing geological objects such as faults, resides in the possibility of modeling complex geometries without gaps and overlaps between adjacent triangular dislocation elements, which is a significant shortcoming for models using rectangular dislocation elements. Reliability, speed, simplicity, and accuracy are enhanced in the latest version of the computer code. Industrial applications include subseismic fault modeling, fractured reservoir modeling, interpretation and validation of fault connectivity and reservoir compartmentalization, depleted area and fault reactivation, and pressurized wellbore stability. Academic applications include earthquake and volcano monitoring, hazard mitigation, and slope

  6. Unifying Vestibulo-Ocular Reflexes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    its definition. With regard to modeling, anatomical and physiological findings of biological gaze systems support an integrated approach to gaze...Gains along branches have been omitted to improve readability . New symbol definitions: ∆G gaze error; T target in space; SC superior colliculus...incorporated recent physiological findings in biological gaze control. Yet, it was based on two assumptions that needed reconciliation. The first

  7. A Multi-channel Semicircular Canal Neural Prosthesis Using Electrical Stimulation to Restore 3D Vestibular Sensation

    PubMed Central

    Della Santina, Charles C.; Migliaccio, Americo A.; Patel, Amit H.

    2009-01-01

    Bilateral loss of vestibular sensation can be disabling. Those afflicted suffer illusory visual field movement during head movements, chronic disequilibrium and postural instability due to failure of vestibulo-ocular and vestibulo-spinal reflexes. A neural prosthesis that emulates the normal transduction of head rotation by semicircular canals could significantly improve quality of life for these patients. Like the 3 semicircular canals in a normal ear, such a device should at least transduce 3 orthogonal (or linearly separable) components of head rotation into activity on corresponding ampullary branches of the vestibular nerve. We describe the design, circuit performance and in vivo application of a head-mounted, semi-implantable multi-channel vestibular prosthesis that encodes head movement in 3 dimensions as pulse-frequency-modulated electrical stimulation of 3 or more ampullary nerves. In chinchillas treated with intratympanic gentamicin to ablate vestibular sensation bilaterally, prosthetic stimuli elicited a partly compensatory angular vestibulo-ocular reflex in multiple planes. Minimizing misalignment between the axis of eye and head rotation, apparently caused by current spread beyond each electrode’s targeted nerve branch, emerged as a key challenge. Increasing stimulation selectivity via improvements in electrode design, surgical technique and stimulus protocol will likely be required to restore AVOR function over the full range of normal behavior. PMID:17554821

  8. Free-space coherent optical communication with orbital angular, momentum multiplexing/demultiplexing using a hybrid 3D photonic integrated circuit.

    PubMed

    Guan, Binbin; Scott, Ryan P; Qin, Chuan; Fontaine, Nicolas K; Su, Tiehui; Ferrari, Carlo; Cappuzzo, Mark; Klemens, Fred; Keller, Bob; Earnshaw, Mark; Yoo, S J B

    2014-01-13

    We demonstrate free-space space-division-multiplexing (SDM) with 15 orbital angular momentum (OAM) states using a three-dimensional (3D) photonic integrated circuit (PIC). The hybrid device consists of a silica planar lightwave circuit (PLC) coupled to a 3D waveguide circuit to multiplex/demultiplex OAM states. The low excess loss hybrid device is used in individual and two simultaneous OAM states multiplexing and demultiplexing link experiments with a 20 Gb/s, 1.67 b/s/Hz quadrature phase shift keyed (QPSK) signal, which shows error-free performance for 379,960 tested bits for all OAM states.

  9. The effect of CT scanner parameters and 3D volume rendering techniques on the accuracy of linear, angular, and volumetric measurements of the mandible

    PubMed Central

    Whyms, B.J.; Vorperian, H.K.; Gentry, L.R.; Schimek, E.M.; Bersu, E.T.; Chung, M.K.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives This study investigates the effect of scanning parameters on the accuracy of measurements from three-dimensional multi-detector computed tomography (3D-CT) mandible renderings. A broader range of acceptable parameters can increase the availability of CT studies for retrospective analysis. Study Design Three human mandibles and a phantom object were scanned using 18 combinations of slice thickness, field of view, and reconstruction algorithm and three different threshold-based segmentations. Measurements of 3D-CT models and specimens were compared. Results Linear and angular measurements were accurate, irrespective of scanner parameters or rendering technique. Volume measurements were accurate with a slice thickness of 1.25 mm, but not 2.5 mm. Surface area measurements were consistently inflated. Conclusions Linear, angular and volumetric measurements of mandible 3D-CT models can be confidently obtained from a range of parameters and rendering techniques. Slice thickness is the primary factor affecting volume measurements. These findings should also apply to 3D rendering using cone-beam-CT. PMID:23601224

  10. Simultaneous estimation of size, radial and angular locations of a malignant tumor in a 3-D human breast - A numerical study.

    PubMed

    Das, Koushik; Mishra, Subhash C

    2015-08-01

    This article reports a numerical study pertaining to simultaneous estimation of size, radial location and angular location of a malignant tumor in a 3-D human breast. The breast skin surface temperature profile is specific to a tumor of specific size and location. The temperature profiles are always the Gaussian one, though their peak magnitudes and areas differ according to the size and location of the tumor. The temperature profiles are obtained by solving the Pennes bioheat equation using the finite element method based solver COMSOL 4.3a. With temperature profiles known, simultaneous estimation of size, radial location and angular location of the tumor is done using the curve fitting method. Effect of measurement errors is also included in the study. Estimations are accurate, and since in the inverse analysis, the curve fitting method does not require solution of the governing bioheat equation, the estimation is very fast.

  11. The human ocular torsion position response during yaw angular acceleration.

    PubMed

    Smith, S T; Curthoys, I S; Moore, S T

    1995-07-01

    Recent results by Wearne [(1993) Ph.D. thesis] using the scleral search-coil method of measuring eye position indicate that changes in ocular torsion position (OTP) occur during yaw angular acceleration about an earth vertical axis. The present set of experiments, using an image processing method of eye movement measurement free from the possible confound of search coil slippage, demonstrates the generality and repeatability of this phenomenon and examines its possible causes. The change in torsion position is not a linear vestibulo-ocular reflex (LVOR) response to interaural linear acceleration stimulation of the otoliths, but rather the effect is dependent on the characteristics of the angular acceleration stimulus, commencing at the onset and decaying at the offset of the angular acceleration. In the experiments reported here, the magnitude of the angular acceleration stimulus was varied and the torsion position response showed corresponding variations. We consider that the change in torsion position observed during angular acceleration is most likely to be due to activity of the semicircular canals.

  12. Complex angular momentum theory of state-to-state integral cross sections: resonance effects in the F + HD → HF(v' = 3) + D reaction.

    PubMed

    Sokolovski, D; Akhmatskaya, E; Echeverría-Arrondo, C; De Fazio, D

    2015-07-28

    State-to-state reactive integral cross sections (ICSs) are often affected by quantum mechanical resonances, especially near a reactive threshold. An ICS is usually obtained by summing partial waves at a given value of energy. For this reason, the knowledge of pole positions and residues in the complex energy plane is not sufficient for a quantitative description of the patterns produced by resonance. Such description is available in terms of the poles of an S-matrix element in the complex plane of the total angular momentum. The approach was recently implemented in a computer code ICS_Regge, available in the public domain [Comput. Phys. Commun., 2014, 185, 2127]. In this paper, we employ the ICS_Regge package to analyse in detail, for the first time, the resonance patterns predicted for integral cross sections (ICSs) of the benchmark F + HD → HF(v' = 3) + D reaction. The v = 0, j = 0, Ω = 0 → v' = 3, j' = 0, 1, 2, and Ω' = 0, 1, 2 transitions are studied for collision energies from 58.54 to 197.54 meV. For these energies, we find several resonances, whose contributions to the ICS vary from symmetric and asymmetric Fano shapes to smooth sinusoidal Regge oscillations. Complex energies of metastable states and Regge pole positions and residues are found by Padé reconstruction of the scattering matrix elements. The accuracy of the ICS_Regge code, relation between complex energies and Regge poles, various types of Regge trajectories, and the origin of the J-shifting approximation are also discussed.

  13. A kinematic model for 3-D head-free gaze-shifts

    PubMed Central

    Daemi, Mehdi; Crawford, J. Douglas

    2015-01-01

    Rotations of the line of sight are mainly implemented by coordinated motion of the eyes and head. Here, we propose a model for the kinematics of three-dimensional (3-D) head-unrestrained gaze-shifts. The model was designed to account for major principles in the known behavior, such as gaze accuracy, spatiotemporal coordination of saccades with vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR), relative eye and head contributions, the non-commutativity of rotations, and Listing's and Fick constraints for the eyes and head, respectively. The internal design of the model was inspired by known and hypothesized elements of gaze control physiology. Inputs included retinocentric location of the visual target and internal representations of initial 3-D eye and head orientation, whereas outputs were 3-D displacements of eye relative to the head and head relative to shoulder. Internal transformations decomposed the 2-D gaze command into 3-D eye and head commands with the use of three coordinated circuits: (1) a saccade generator, (2) a head rotation generator, (3) a VOR predictor. Simulations illustrate that the model can implement: (1) the correct 3-D reference frame transformations to generate accurate gaze shifts (despite variability in other parameters), (2) the experimentally verified constraints on static eye and head orientations during fixation, and (3) the experimentally observed 3-D trajectories of eye and head motion during gaze-shifts. We then use this model to simulate how 2-D eye-head coordination strategies interact with 3-D constraints to influence 3-D orientations of the eye-in-space, and the implications of this for spatial vision. PMID:26113816

  14. TH-E-BRE-01: A 3D Solver of Linear Boltzmann Transport Equation Based On a New Angular Discretization Method with Positivity for Photon Dose Calculation Benchmarked with Geant4

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, X; Gao, H

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: The Linear Boltzmann Transport Equation (LBTE) solved through statistical Monte Carlo (MC) method provides the accurate dose calculation in radiotherapy. This work is to investigate the alternative way for accurately solving LBTE using deterministic numerical method due to its possible advantage in computational speed from MC. Methods: Instead of using traditional spherical harmonics to approximate angular scattering kernel, our deterministic numerical method directly computes angular scattering weights, based on a new angular discretization method that utilizes linear finite element method on the local triangulation of unit angular sphere. As a Result, our angular discretization method has the unique advantage in positivity, i.e., to maintain all scattering weights nonnegative all the time, which is physically correct. Moreover, our method is local in angular space, and therefore handles the anisotropic scattering well, such as the forward-peaking scattering. To be compatible with image-guided radiotherapy, the spatial variables are discretized on the structured grid with the standard diamond scheme. After discretization, the improved sourceiteration method is utilized for solving the linear system without saving the linear system to memory. The accuracy of our 3D solver is validated using analytic solutions and benchmarked with Geant4, a popular MC solver. Results: The differences between Geant4 solutions and our solutions were less than 1.5% for various testing cases that mimic the practical cases. More details are available in the supporting document. Conclusion: We have developed a 3D LBTE solver based on a new angular discretization method that guarantees the positivity of scattering weights for physical correctness, and it has been benchmarked with Geant4 for photon dose calculation.

  15. Hip and knee joints are more stabilized than driven during the stance phase of gait: an analysis of the 3D angle between joint moment and joint angular velocity.

    PubMed

    Dumas, R; Cheze, L

    2008-08-01

    Joint power is commonly used in orthopaedics, ergonomics or sports analysis but its clinical interpretation remains controversial. Some basic principles on muscle actions and energy transfer have been proposed in 2D. The decomposition of power on 3 axes, although questionable, allows the same analysis in 3D. However, these basic principles have been widely criticized, mainly because bi-articular muscles must be considered. This requires a more complex computation in order to determine how the individual muscle force contributes to drive the joint. Conversely, with simple 3D inverse dynamics, the analysis of both joint moment and angular velocity directions is essential to clarify when the joint moment can contribute or not to drive the joint. The present study evaluates the 3D angle between the joint moment and the joint angular velocity and investigates when the hip, knee and ankle joints are predominantly driven (angle close to 0 degrees and 180 degrees ) or stabilized (angle close to 90 degrees ) during gait. The 3D angle curves show that the three joints are never fully but only partially driven and that the hip and knee joints are mainly stabilized during the stance phase. The notion of stabilization should be further investigated, especially for subjects with motion disorders or prostheses.

  16. Spherical 3D isotropic wavelets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanusse, F.; Rassat, A.; Starck, J.-L.

    2012-04-01

    Context. Future cosmological surveys will provide 3D large scale structure maps with large sky coverage, for which a 3D spherical Fourier-Bessel (SFB) analysis in spherical coordinates is natural. Wavelets are particularly well-suited to the analysis and denoising of cosmological data, but a spherical 3D isotropic wavelet transform does not currently exist to analyse spherical 3D data. Aims: The aim of this paper is to present a new formalism for a spherical 3D isotropic wavelet, i.e. one based on the SFB decomposition of a 3D field and accompany the formalism with a public code to perform wavelet transforms. Methods: We describe a new 3D isotropic spherical wavelet decomposition based on the undecimated wavelet transform (UWT) described in Starck et al. (2006). We also present a new fast discrete spherical Fourier-Bessel transform (DSFBT) based on both a discrete Bessel transform and the HEALPIX angular pixelisation scheme. We test the 3D wavelet transform and as a toy-application, apply a denoising algorithm in wavelet space to the Virgo large box cosmological simulations and find we can successfully remove noise without much loss to the large scale structure. Results: We have described a new spherical 3D isotropic wavelet transform, ideally suited to analyse and denoise future 3D spherical cosmological surveys, which uses a novel DSFBT. We illustrate its potential use for denoising using a toy model. All the algorithms presented in this paper are available for download as a public code called MRS3D at http://jstarck.free.fr/mrs3d.html

  17. Abnormal Vestibulo-Ocular Reflexes in Autism: A Potential Endophenotype

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    psychological results. This work is currently in progress, it was not possible to start this subtask meaningfully until Year 1 Month 12. Subtask 2d... psychological tests to be administered, as approved by UF IRB and HRPO. Subtask 3b. (year 1, months 6 - 12) Recruitment of 4 non-ASD control...the specifc forms of neuro- psychological tests to be administered to child participants, as approved by UF IRB and HRPO. Subtask 3c. (year 1

  18. Yaw sensory rearrangement alters pitch vestibulo-ocular reflex responses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petropoulos, A. E.; Wall, C. 3rd; Oman, C. M.

    1997-01-01

    Ten male subjects underwent two types of adaptation paradigm designed either to enhance or to attenuate the gain of the canal-ocular reflex (COR), before undergoing otolith-ocular reflex (OOR) testing with constant velocity, earth horizontal axis and pitch rotation. The adaptation paradigm paired a 0.2 Hz sinusoidal rotation about an earth vertical axis with a 0.2 Hz optokinetic stimulus that was deliberately mismatched in peak velocity or phase and was designed to produce short-term changes in the COR. Preadaptation and postadaptation OOR tests occurred at a constant velocity of 60 degrees/sec in the dark and produced a modulation component of the slow phase velocity with a frequency of 0.16 Hz due to otolithic stimulation by the sinusoidally changing gravity vector. Of the seven subjects who showed enhancement of the COR gain, six also showed enhancement of the OOR modulation component. Of the seven subjects who showed attenuation of the COR gain, five also showed attenuation of the OOR modulation component. The probability that these two cross-axis adaptation effects would occur by chance is less than 0.02. This suggests that visual-vestibular conditioning of the yaw axis COR also induced changes in the pitch axis OOR. We thus postulate that the central nervous system pathways that process horizontal canal yaw stimuli have elements in common with those processing otolithic stimuli about the pitch axis.

  19. Vestibulo-ocular reflex and gravity in fish.

    PubMed

    Takabayashi, Akira; Iwata, Kaori; Ohmura-Iwasaki, Terue; Mori, Shigeo

    2004-11-01

    An otolith organ on ground behave as a detector of both gravity and linear acceleration, and play an important role in controlling posture and eye movement for tilt of the head or translational motion. On the other hand, a gravitational acceleration ingredient to an otolith organ disappears in microgravity environment. However, linear acceleration can be received by otolith organ and produce a sensation that is different from that on Earth. It is suggested that in microgravity signal from the otolith organ may cause abnormality of posture control and eye movement. We examined function of otolith organ in goldfish revealed from analysis of eye movement induced by linear acceleration. We analyzed vertical eye movements from video images frame by frame. In normal fish, leftward lateral acceleration induced downward eye rotation in the left eye and upward eye rotation in the right eye. Acceleration from caudal to rostra1 evoked downward eye rotation in both eyes. When the direction of acceleration was shifted 15 degrees left, the responses in the left eye disappeared. These results suggested that otolith organs in each side transmitted different signals.

  20. Europeana and 3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pletinckx, D.

    2011-09-01

    The current 3D hype creates a lot of interest in 3D. People go to 3D movies, but are we ready to use 3D in our homes, in our offices, in our communication? Are we ready to deliver real 3D to a general public and use interactive 3D in a meaningful way to enjoy, learn, communicate? The CARARE project is realising this for the moment in the domain of monuments and archaeology, so that real 3D of archaeological sites and European monuments will be available to the general public by 2012. There are several aspects to this endeavour. First of all is the technical aspect of flawlessly delivering 3D content over all platforms and operating systems, without installing software. We have currently a working solution in PDF, but HTML5 will probably be the future. Secondly, there is still little knowledge on how to create 3D learning objects, 3D tourist information or 3D scholarly communication. We are still in a prototype phase when it comes to integrate 3D objects in physical or virtual museums. Nevertheless, Europeana has a tremendous potential as a multi-facetted virtual museum. Finally, 3D has a large potential to act as a hub of information, linking to related 2D imagery, texts, video, sound. We describe how to create such rich, explorable 3D objects that can be used intuitively by the generic Europeana user and what metadata is needed to support the semantic linking.

  1. 3d-3d correspondence revisited

    DOE PAGES

    Chung, Hee -Joong; Dimofte, Tudor; Gukov, Sergei; ...

    2016-04-21

    In fivebrane compactifications on 3-manifolds, we point out the importance of all flat connections in the proper definition of the effective 3d N = 2 theory. The Lagrangians of some theories with the desired properties can be constructed with the help of homological knot invariants that categorify colored Jones polynomials. Higgsing the full 3d theories constructed this way recovers theories found previously by Dimofte-Gaiotto-Gukov. As a result, we also consider the cutting and gluing of 3-manifolds along smooth boundaries and the role played by all flat connections in this operation.

  2. 3D and Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meulien Ohlmann, Odile

    2013-02-01

    Today the industry offers a chain of 3D products. Learning to "read" and to "create in 3D" becomes an issue of education of primary importance. 25 years professional experience in France, the United States and Germany, Odile Meulien set up a personal method of initiation to 3D creation that entails the spatial/temporal experience of the holographic visual. She will present some different tools and techniques used for this learning, their advantages and disadvantages, programs and issues of educational policies, constraints and expectations related to the development of new techniques for 3D imaging. Although the creation of display holograms is very much reduced compared to the creation of the 90ies, the holographic concept is spreading in all scientific, social, and artistic activities of our present time. She will also raise many questions: What means 3D? Is it communication? Is it perception? How the seeing and none seeing is interferes? What else has to be taken in consideration to communicate in 3D? How to handle the non visible relations of moving objects with subjects? Does this transform our model of exchange with others? What kind of interaction this has with our everyday life? Then come more practical questions: How to learn creating 3D visualization, to learn 3D grammar, 3D language, 3D thinking? What for? At what level? In which matter? for whom?

  3. 3D imaging in forensic odontology.

    PubMed

    Evans, Sam; Jones, Carl; Plassmann, Peter

    2010-06-16

    This paper describes the investigation of a new 3D capture method for acquiring and subsequent forensic analysis of bite mark injuries on human skin. When documenting bite marks with standard 2D cameras errors in photographic technique can occur if best practice is not followed. Subsequent forensic analysis of the mark is problematic when a 3D structure is recorded into a 2D space. Although strict guidelines (BAFO) exist, these are time-consuming to follow and, due to their complexity, may produce errors. A 3D image capture and processing system might avoid the problems resulting from the 2D reduction process, simplifying the guidelines and reducing errors. Proposed Solution: a series of experiments are described in this paper to demonstrate that the potential of a 3D system might produce suitable results. The experiments tested precision and accuracy of the traditional 2D and 3D methods. A 3D image capture device minimises the amount of angular distortion, therefore such a system has the potential to create more robust forensic evidence for use in courts. A first set of experiments tested and demonstrated which method of forensic analysis creates the least amount of intra-operator error. A second set tested and demonstrated which method of image capture creates the least amount of inter-operator error and visual distortion. In a third set the effects of angular distortion on 2D and 3D methods of image capture were evaluated.

  4. 3D Imaging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hastings, S. K.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses 3 D imaging as it relates to digital representations in virtual library collections. Highlights include X-ray computed tomography (X-ray CT); the National Science Foundation (NSF) Digital Library Initiatives; output peripherals; image retrieval systems, including metadata; and applications of 3 D imaging for libraries and museums. (LRW)

  5. Spatioangular Prefiltering for Multiview 3D Displays.

    PubMed

    Ramachandra, Vikas; Hirakawa, Keigo; Zwicker, Matthias; Nguyen, Truong

    2011-05-01

    In this paper, we analyze the reproduction of light fields on multiview 3D displays. A three-way interaction between the input light field signal (which is often aliased), the joint spatioangular sampling grids of multiview 3D displays, and the interview light leakage in modern multiview 3D displays is characterized in the joint spatioangular frequency domain. Reconstruction of light fields by all physical 3D displays is prone to light leakage, which means that the reconstruction low-pass filter implemented by the display is too broad in the angular domain. As a result, 3D displays excessively attenuate angular frequencies. Our analysis shows that this reduces sharpness of the images shown in the 3D displays. In this paper, stereoscopic image recovery is recast as a problem of joint spatioangular signal reconstruction. The combination of the 3D display point spread function and human visual system provides the narrow-band low-pass filter which removes spectral replicas in the reconstructed light field on the multiview display. The nonideality of this filter is corrected with the proposed prefiltering. The proposed light field reconstruction method performs light field antialiasing as well as angular sharpening to compensate for the nonideal response of the 3D display. The union of cosets approach which has been used earlier by others is employed here to model the nonrectangular spatioangular sampling grids on a multiview display in a generic fashion. We confirm the effectiveness of our approach in simulation and in physical hardware, and demonstrate improvement over existing techniques.

  6. AE3D

    SciTech Connect

    Spong, Donald A

    2016-06-20

    AE3D solves for the shear Alfven eigenmodes and eigenfrequencies in a torodal magnetic fusion confinement device. The configuration can be either 2D (e.g. tokamak, reversed field pinch) or 3D (e.g. stellarator, helical reversed field pinch, tokamak with ripple). The equations solved are based on a reduced MHD model and sound wave coupling effects are not currently included.

  7. 3-D Seismic Interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Gregory F.

    2009-05-01

    This volume is a brief introduction aimed at those who wish to gain a basic and relatively quick understanding of the interpretation of three-dimensional (3-D) seismic reflection data. The book is well written, clearly illustrated, and easy to follow. Enough elementary mathematics are presented for a basic understanding of seismic methods, but more complex mathematical derivations are avoided. References are listed for readers interested in more advanced explanations. After a brief introduction, the book logically begins with a succinct chapter on modern 3-D seismic data acquisition and processing. Standard 3-D acquisition methods are presented, and an appendix expands on more recent acquisition techniques, such as multiple-azimuth and wide-azimuth acquisition. Although this chapter covers the basics of standard time processing quite well, there is only a single sentence about prestack depth imaging, and anisotropic processing is not mentioned at all, even though both techniques are now becoming standard.

  8. Radiochromic 3D Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oldham, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Radiochromic materials exhibit a colour change when exposed to ionising radiation. Radiochromic film has been used for clinical dosimetry for many years and increasingly so recently, as films of higher sensitivities have become available. The two principle advantages of radiochromic dosimetry include greater tissue equivalence (radiologically) and the lack of requirement for development of the colour change. In a radiochromic material, the colour change arises direct from ionising interactions affecting dye molecules, without requiring any latent chemical, optical or thermal development, with important implications for increased accuracy and convenience. It is only relatively recently however, that 3D radiochromic dosimetry has become possible. In this article we review recent developments and the current state-of-the-art of 3D radiochromic dosimetry, and the potential for a more comprehensive solution for the verification of complex radiation therapy treatments, and 3D dose measurement in general.

  9. Bootstrapping 3D fermions

    DOE PAGES

    Iliesiu, Luca; Kos, Filip; Poland, David; ...

    2016-03-17

    We study the conformal bootstrap for a 4-point function of fermions <ψψψψ> in 3D. We first introduce an embedding formalism for 3D spinors and compute the conformal blocks appearing in fermion 4-point functions. Using these results, we find general bounds on the dimensions of operators appearing in the ψ × ψ OPE, and also on the central charge CT. We observe features in our bounds that coincide with scaling dimensions in the GrossNeveu models at large N. Finally, we also speculate that other features could coincide with a fermionic CFT containing no relevant scalar operators.

  10. Bootstrapping 3D fermions

    SciTech Connect

    Iliesiu, Luca; Kos, Filip; Poland, David; Pufu, Silviu S.; Simmons-Duffin, David; Yacoby, Ran

    2016-03-17

    We study the conformal bootstrap for a 4-point function of fermions <ψψψψ> in 3D. We first introduce an embedding formalism for 3D spinors and compute the conformal blocks appearing in fermion 4-point functions. Using these results, we find general bounds on the dimensions of operators appearing in the ψ × ψ OPE, and also on the central charge CT. We observe features in our bounds that coincide with scaling dimensions in the GrossNeveu models at large N. Finally, we also speculate that other features could coincide with a fermionic CFT containing no relevant scalar operators.

  11. Venus in 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plaut, Jeffrey J.

    1993-01-01

    Stereographic images of the surface of Venus which enable geologists to reconstruct the details of the planet's evolution are discussed. The 120-meter resolution of these 3D images make it possible to construct digital topographic maps from which precise measurements can be made of the heights, depths, slopes, and volumes of geologic structures.

  12. 3D photoacoustic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carson, Jeffrey J. L.; Roumeliotis, Michael; Chaudhary, Govind; Stodilka, Robert Z.; Anastasio, Mark A.

    2010-06-01

    Our group has concentrated on development of a 3D photoacoustic imaging system for biomedical imaging research. The technology employs a sparse parallel detection scheme and specialized reconstruction software to obtain 3D optical images using a single laser pulse. With the technology we have been able to capture 3D movies of translating point targets and rotating line targets. The current limitation of our 3D photoacoustic imaging approach is its inability ability to reconstruct complex objects in the field of view. This is primarily due to the relatively small number of projections used to reconstruct objects. However, in many photoacoustic imaging situations, only a few objects may be present in the field of view and these objects may have very high contrast compared to background. That is, the objects have sparse properties. Therefore, our work had two objectives: (i) to utilize mathematical tools to evaluate 3D photoacoustic imaging performance, and (ii) to test image reconstruction algorithms that prefer sparseness in the reconstructed images. Our approach was to utilize singular value decomposition techniques to study the imaging operator of the system and evaluate the complexity of objects that could potentially be reconstructed. We also compared the performance of two image reconstruction algorithms (algebraic reconstruction and l1-norm techniques) at reconstructing objects of increasing sparseness. We observed that for a 15-element detection scheme, the number of measureable singular vectors representative of the imaging operator was consistent with the demonstrated ability to reconstruct point and line targets in the field of view. We also observed that the l1-norm reconstruction technique, which is known to prefer sparseness in reconstructed images, was superior to the algebraic reconstruction technique. Based on these findings, we concluded (i) that singular value decomposition of the imaging operator provides valuable insight into the capabilities of

  13. Tuning of gravity-dependent and gravity-independent vertical angular VOR gain changes by frequency of adaptation.

    PubMed

    Yakushin, Sergei B

    2012-06-01

    The gain of the vertical angular vestibulo-ocular reflex (aVOR) was adaptively increased and decreased in a side-down head orientation for 4 h in two cynomolgus monkeys. Adaptation was performed at 0.25, 1, 2, or 4 Hz. The gravity-dependent and -independent gain changes were determined over a range of head orientations from left-side-down to right-side-down at frequencies from 0.25 to 10 Hz, before and after adaptation. Gain changes vs. frequency data were fit with a Gaussian to determine the frequency at which the peak gain change occurred, as well as the tuning width. The frequency at which the peak gravity-dependent gain change occurred was approximately equal to the frequency of adaptation, and the width increased monotonically with increases in the frequency of adaptation. The gravity-independent component was tuned to the adaptive frequency of 0.25 Hz but was uniformly distributed over all frequencies when the adaptation frequency was 1-4 Hz. The amplitude of the gravity-independent gain changes was larger after the aVOR gain decrease than after the gain increase across all tested frequencies. For the aVOR gain decrease, the phase lagged about 4° for frequencies below the adaptation frequency and led for frequencies above the adaptation frequency. For gain increases, the phase relationship as a function of frequency was inverted. This study demonstrates that the previously described dependence of aVOR gain adaptation on frequency is a property of the gravity-dependent component of the aVOR only. The gravity-independent component of the aVOR had a substantial tuning curve only at an adaptation frequency of 0.25 Hz.

  14. MRS3D: 3D Spherical Wavelet Transform on the Sphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanusse, F.; Rassat, A.; Starck, J.-L.

    2011-12-01

    Future cosmological surveys will provide 3D large scale structure maps with large sky coverage, for which a 3D Spherical Fourier-Bessel (SFB) analysis is natural. Wavelets are particularly well-suited to the analysis and denoising of cosmological data, but a spherical 3D isotropic wavelet transform does not currently exist to analyse spherical 3D data. We present a new fast Discrete Spherical Fourier-Bessel Transform (DSFBT) based on both a discrete Bessel Transform and the HEALPIX angular pixelisation scheme. We tested the 3D wavelet transform and as a toy-application, applied a denoising algorithm in wavelet space to the Virgo large box cosmological simulations and found we can successfully remove noise without much loss to the large scale structure. The new spherical 3D isotropic wavelet transform, called MRS3D, is ideally suited to analysing and denoising future 3D spherical cosmological surveys; it uses a novel discrete spherical Fourier-Bessel Transform. MRS3D is based on two packages, IDL and Healpix and can be used only if these two packages have been installed.

  15. 3D nanopillar optical antenna photodetectors.

    PubMed

    Senanayake, Pradeep; Hung, Chung-Hong; Shapiro, Joshua; Scofield, Adam; Lin, Andrew; Williams, Benjamin S; Huffaker, Diana L

    2012-11-05

    We demonstrate 3D surface plasmon photoresponse in nanopillar arrays resulting in enhanced responsivity due to both Localized Surface Plasmon Resonances (LSPRs) and Surface Plasmon Polariton Bloch Waves (SPP-BWs). The LSPRs are excited due to a partial gold shell coating the nanopillar which acts as a 3D Nanopillar Optical Antenna (NOA) in focusing light into the nanopillar. Angular photoresponse measurements show that SPP-BWs can be spectrally coincident with LSPRs to result in a x2 enhancement in responsivity at 1180 nm. Full-wave Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) simulations substantiate both the spatial and spectral coupling of the SPP-BW / LSPR for enhanced absorption and the nature of the LSPR. Geometrical control of the 3D NOA and the self-aligned metal hole lattice allows the hybridization of both localized and propagating surface plasmon modes for enhanced absorption. Hybridized plasmonic modes opens up new avenues in optical antenna design in nanoscale photodetectors.

  16. Twin Peaks - 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The two hills in the distance, approximately one to two kilometers away, have been dubbed the 'Twin Peaks' and are of great interest to Pathfinder scientists as objects of future study. 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. The white areas on the left hill, called the 'Ski Run' by scientists, may have been formed by hydrologic processes.

    The IMP is a stereo imaging system with color capability provided by 24 selectable filters -- twelve filters per 'eye.

    Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  17. 3D and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fung, Y. C.

    1995-05-01

    This conference on physiology and function covers a wide range of subjects, including the vasculature and blood flow, the flow of gas, water, and blood in the lung, the neurological structure and function, the modeling, and the motion and mechanics of organs. Many technologies are discussed. I believe that the list would include a robotic photographer, to hold the optical equipment in a precisely controlled way to obtain the images for the user. Why are 3D images needed? They are to achieve certain objectives through measurements of some objects. For example, in order to improve performance in sports or beauty of a person, we measure the form, dimensions, appearance, and movements.

  18. 3D Audio System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Ames Research Center research into virtual reality led to the development of the Convolvotron, a high speed digital audio processing system that delivers three-dimensional sound over headphones. It consists of a two-card set designed for use with a personal computer. The Convolvotron's primary application is presentation of 3D audio signals over headphones. Four independent sound sources are filtered with large time-varying filters that compensate for motion. The perceived location of the sound remains constant. Possible applications are in air traffic control towers or airplane cockpits, hearing and perception research and virtual reality development.

  19. 3D Surgical Simulation

    PubMed Central

    Cevidanes, Lucia; Tucker, Scott; Styner, Martin; Kim, Hyungmin; Chapuis, Jonas; Reyes, Mauricio; Proffit, William; Turvey, Timothy; Jaskolka, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the development of methods for computer-aided jaw surgery. Computer-aided jaw surgery allows us to incorporate the high level of precision necessary for transferring virtual plans into the operating room. We also present a complete computer-aided surgery (CAS) system developed in close collaboration with surgeons. Surgery planning and simulation include construction of 3D surface models from Cone-beam CT (CBCT), dynamic cephalometry, semi-automatic mirroring, interactive cutting of bone and bony segment repositioning. A virtual setup can be used to manufacture positioning splints for intra-operative guidance. The system provides further intra-operative assistance with the help of a computer display showing jaw positions and 3D positioning guides updated in real-time during the surgical procedure. The CAS system aids in dealing with complex cases with benefits for the patient, with surgical practice, and for orthodontic finishing. Advanced software tools for diagnosis and treatment planning allow preparation of detailed operative plans, osteotomy repositioning, bone reconstructions, surgical resident training and assessing the difficulties of the surgical procedures prior to the surgery. CAS has the potential to make the elaboration of the surgical plan a more flexible process, increase the level of detail and accuracy of the plan, yield higher operative precision and control, and enhance documentation of cases. Supported by NIDCR DE017727, and DE018962 PMID:20816308

  20. Martian terrain - 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    An area of rocky terrain near the landing site of the Sagan Memorial Station can be seen in this image, taken in stereo by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. This image is part of a 3D 'monster' panorama of the area surrounding the landing site.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

    Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  1. 3D field harmonics

    SciTech Connect

    Caspi, S.; Helm, M.; Laslett, L.J.

    1991-03-30

    We have developed an harmonic representation for the three dimensional field components within the windings of accelerator magnets. The form by which the field is presented is suitable for interfacing with other codes that make use of the 3D field components (particle tracking and stability). The field components can be calculated with high precision and reduced cup time at any location (r,{theta},z) inside the magnet bore. The same conductor geometry which is used to simulate line currents is also used in CAD with modifications more readily available. It is our hope that the format used here for magnetic fields can be used not only as a means of delivering fields but also as a way by which beam dynamics can suggest correction to the conductor geometry. 5 refs., 70 figs.

  2. Intraoral 3D scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kühmstedt, Peter; Bräuer-Burchardt, Christian; Munkelt, Christoph; Heinze, Matthias; Palme, Martin; Schmidt, Ingo; Hintersehr, Josef; Notni, Gunther

    2007-09-01

    Here a new set-up of a 3D-scanning system for CAD/CAM in dental industry is proposed. The system is designed for direct scanning of the dental preparations within the mouth. The measuring process is based on phase correlation technique in combination with fast fringe projection in a stereo arrangement. The novelty in the approach is characterized by the following features: A phase correlation between the phase values of the images of two cameras is used for the co-ordinate calculation. This works contrary to the usage of only phase values (phasogrammetry) or classical triangulation (phase values and camera image co-ordinate values) for the determination of the co-ordinates. The main advantage of the method is that the absolute value of the phase at each point does not directly determine the coordinate. Thus errors in the determination of the co-ordinates are prevented. Furthermore, using the epipolar geometry of the stereo-like arrangement the phase unwrapping problem of fringe analysis can be solved. The endoscope like measurement system contains one projection and two camera channels for illumination and observation of the object, respectively. The new system has a measurement field of nearly 25mm × 15mm. The user can measure two or three teeth at one time. So the system can by used for scanning of single tooth up to bridges preparations. In the paper the first realization of the intraoral scanner is described.

  3. 'Diamond' in 3-D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This 3-D, microscopic imager mosaic of a target area on a rock called 'Diamond Jenness' was taken after NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity ground into the surface with its rock abrasion tool for a second time.

    Opportunity has bored nearly a dozen holes into the inner walls of 'Endurance Crater.' On sols 177 and 178 (July 23 and July 24, 2004), the rover worked double-duty on Diamond Jenness. Surface debris and the bumpy shape of the rock resulted in a shallow and irregular hole, only about 2 millimeters (0.08 inch) deep. The final depth was not enough to remove all the bumps and leave a neat hole with a smooth floor. This extremely shallow depression was then examined by the rover's alpha particle X-ray spectrometer.

    On Sol 178, Opportunity's 'robotic rodent' dined on Diamond Jenness once again, grinding almost an additional 5 millimeters (about 0.2 inch). The rover then applied its Moessbauer spectrometer to the deepened hole. This double dose of Diamond Jenness enabled the science team to examine the rock at varying layers. Results from those grindings are currently being analyzed.

    The image mosaic is about 6 centimeters (2.4 inches) across.

  4. Prominent rocks - 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Many prominent rocks near the Sagan Memorial Station are featured in this image, taken in stereo by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. Wedge is at lower left; Shark, Half-Dome, and Pumpkin are at center. Flat Top, about four inches high, is at lower right. The horizon in the distance is one to two kilometers away.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

    Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  5. 3D Spectroscopy in Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mediavilla, Evencio; Arribas, Santiago; Roth, Martin; Cepa-Nogué, Jordi; Sánchez, Francisco

    2011-09-01

    Preface; Acknowledgements; 1. Introductory review and technical approaches Martin M. Roth; 2. Observational procedures and data reduction James E. H. Turner; 3. 3D Spectroscopy instrumentation M. A. Bershady; 4. Analysis of 3D data Pierre Ferruit; 5. Science motivation for IFS and galactic studies F. Eisenhauer; 6. Extragalactic studies and future IFS science Luis Colina; 7. Tutorials: how to handle 3D spectroscopy data Sebastian F. Sánchez, Begona García-Lorenzo and Arlette Pécontal-Rousset.

  6. 3D Elevation Program—Virtual USA in 3D

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lukas, Vicki; Stoker, J.M.

    2016-04-14

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) uses a laser system called ‘lidar’ (light detection and ranging) to create a virtual reality map of the Nation that is very accurate. 3D maps have many uses with new uses being discovered all the time.  

  7. ABS 3D printed solutions for cryogenic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartolomé, E.; Bozzo, B.; Sevilla, P.; Martínez-Pasarell, O.; Puig, T.; Granados, X.

    2017-03-01

    3D printing has become a common, inexpensive and rapid prototyping technique, enabling the ad hoc fabrication of complex shapes. In this paper, we demonstrate that 3D printed objects in ABS can be used at cryogenic temperatures, offering flexible solutions in different fields. Firstly, a thermo-mechanical characterization of ABS 3D printed specimens at 77 K is reported, which allowed us to delimit the type of cryogenic uses where 3D printed pieces may be implemented. Secondly, we present three different examples where ABS 3D printed objects working at low temperatures have provided specific solutions: (i) SQUID inserts for angular magnetometry (low temperature material characterization field); (ii) a cage support for a metamaterial ;magnetic concentrator; (superconductivity application), and (iii) dedicated tools for cryopreservation in assisted reproductive techniques (medicine field).

  8. 3D World Building System

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    This video provides an overview of the Sandia National Laboratories developed 3-D World Model Building capability that provides users with an immersive, texture rich 3-D model of their environment in minutes using a laptop and color and depth camera.

  9. 3D Buckligami: Digital Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Hecke, Martin; de Reus, Koen; Florijn, Bastiaan; Coulais, Corentin

    2014-03-01

    We present a class of elastic structures which exhibit collective buckling in 3D, and create these by a 3D printing/moulding technique. Our structures consist of cubic lattice of anisotropic unit cells, and we show that their mechanical properties are programmable via the orientation of these unit cells.

  10. 3D World Building System

    SciTech Connect

    2013-10-30

    This video provides an overview of the Sandia National Laboratories developed 3-D World Model Building capability that provides users with an immersive, texture rich 3-D model of their environment in minutes using a laptop and color and depth camera.

  11. LLNL-Earth3D

    SciTech Connect

    2013-10-01

    Earth3D is a computer code designed to allow fast calculation of seismic rays and travel times through a 3D model of the Earth. LLNL is using this for earthquake location and global tomography efforts and such codes are of great interest to the Earth Science community.

  12. Market study: 3-D eyetracker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    A market study of a proposed version of a 3-D eyetracker for initial use at NASA's Ames Research Center was made. The commercialization potential of a simplified, less expensive 3-D eyetracker was ascertained. Primary focus on present and potential users of eyetrackers, as well as present and potential manufacturers has provided an effective means of analyzing the prospects for commercialization.

  13. Euro3D Science Conference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, J. R.

    2004-02-01

    The Euro3D RTN is an EU funded Research Training Network to foster the exploitation of 3D spectroscopy in Europe. 3D spectroscopy is a general term for spectroscopy of an area of the sky and derives its name from its two spatial + one spectral dimensions. There are an increasing number of instruments which use integral field devices to achieve spectroscopy of an area of the sky, either using lens arrays, optical fibres or image slicers, to pack spectra of multiple pixels on the sky (``spaxels'') onto a 2D detector. On account of the large volume of data and the special methods required to reduce and analyse 3D data, there are only a few centres of expertise and these are mostly involved with instrument developments. There is a perceived lack of expertise in 3D spectroscopy spread though the astronomical community and its use in the armoury of the observational astronomer is viewed as being highly specialised. For precisely this reason the Euro3D RTN was proposed to train young researchers in this area and develop user tools to widen the experience with this particular type of data in Europe. The Euro3D RTN is coordinated by Martin M. Roth (Astrophysikalisches Institut Potsdam) and has been running since July 2002. The first Euro3D science conference was held in Cambridge, UK from 22 to 23 May 2003. The main emphasis of the conference was, in keeping with the RTN, to expose the work of the young post-docs who are funded by the RTN. In addition the team members from the eleven European institutes involved in Euro3D also presented instrumental and observational developments. The conference was organized by Andy Bunker and held at the Institute of Astronomy. There were over thirty participants and 26 talks covered the whole range of application of 3D techniques. The science ranged from Galactic planetary nebulae and globular clusters to kinematics of nearby galaxies out to objects at high redshift. Several talks were devoted to reporting recent observations with newly

  14. 3D vision system assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pezzaniti, J. Larry; Edmondson, Richard; Vaden, Justin; Hyatt, Bryan; Chenault, David B.; Kingston, David; Geulen, Vanilynmae; Newell, Scott; Pettijohn, Brad

    2009-02-01

    In this paper, we report on the development of a 3D vision system consisting of a flat panel stereoscopic display and auto-converging stereo camera and an assessment of the system's use for robotic driving, manipulation, and surveillance operations. The 3D vision system was integrated onto a Talon Robot and Operator Control Unit (OCU) such that direct comparisons of the performance of a number of test subjects using 2D and 3D vision systems were possible. A number of representative scenarios were developed to determine which tasks benefited most from the added depth perception and to understand when the 3D vision system hindered understanding of the scene. Two tests were conducted at Fort Leonard Wood, MO with noncommissioned officers ranked Staff Sergeant and Sergeant First Class. The scenarios; the test planning, approach and protocols; the data analysis; and the resulting performance assessment of the 3D vision system are reported.

  15. 3D printing in dentistry.

    PubMed

    Dawood, A; Marti Marti, B; Sauret-Jackson, V; Darwood, A

    2015-12-01

    3D printing has been hailed as a disruptive technology which will change manufacturing. Used in aerospace, defence, art and design, 3D printing is becoming a subject of great interest in surgery. The technology has a particular resonance with dentistry, and with advances in 3D imaging and modelling technologies such as cone beam computed tomography and intraoral scanning, and with the relatively long history of the use of CAD CAM technologies in dentistry, it will become of increasing importance. Uses of 3D printing include the production of drill guides for dental implants, the production of physical models for prosthodontics, orthodontics and surgery, the manufacture of dental, craniomaxillofacial and orthopaedic implants, and the fabrication of copings and frameworks for implant and dental restorations. This paper reviews the types of 3D printing technologies available and their various applications in dentistry and in maxillofacial surgery.

  16. PLOT3D user's manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walatka, Pamela P.; Buning, Pieter G.; Pierce, Larry; Elson, Patricia A.

    1990-01-01

    PLOT3D is a computer graphics program designed to visualize the grids and solutions of computational fluid dynamics. Seventy-four functions are available. Versions are available for many systems. PLOT3D can handle multiple grids with a million or more grid points, and can produce varieties of model renderings, such as wireframe or flat shaded. Output from PLOT3D can be used in animation programs. The first part of this manual is a tutorial that takes the reader, keystroke by keystroke, through a PLOT3D session. The second part of the manual contains reference chapters, including the helpfile, data file formats, advice on changing PLOT3D, and sample command files.

  17. PLOT3D/AMES, APOLLO UNIX VERSION USING GMR3D (WITHOUT TURB3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buning, P.

    1994-01-01

    PLOT3D is an interactive graphics program designed to help scientists visualize computational fluid dynamics (CFD) grids and solutions. Today, supercomputers and CFD algorithms can provide scientists with simulations of such highly complex phenomena that obtaining an understanding of the simulations has become a major problem. Tools which help the scientist visualize the simulations can be of tremendous aid. PLOT3D/AMES offers more functions and features, and has been adapted for more types of computers than any other CFD graphics program. Version 3.6b+ is supported for five computers and graphic libraries. Using PLOT3D, CFD physicists can view their computational models from any angle, observing the physics of problems and the quality of solutions. As an aid in designing aircraft, for example, PLOT3D's interactive computer graphics can show vortices, temperature, reverse flow, pressure, and dozens of other characteristics of air flow during flight. As critical areas become obvious, they can easily be studied more closely using a finer grid. PLOT3D is part of a computational fluid dynamics software cycle. First, a program such as 3DGRAPE (ARC-12620) helps the scientist generate computational grids to model an object and its surrounding space. Once the grids have been designed and parameters such as the angle of attack, Mach number, and Reynolds number have been specified, a "flow-solver" program such as INS3D (ARC-11794 or COS-10019) solves the system of equations governing fluid flow, usually on a supercomputer. Grids sometimes have as many as two million points, and the "flow-solver" produces a solution file which contains density, x- y- and z-momentum, and stagnation energy for each grid point. With such a solution file and a grid file containing up to 50 grids as input, PLOT3D can calculate and graphically display any one of 74 functions, including shock waves, surface pressure, velocity vectors, and particle traces. PLOT3D's 74 functions are organized into

  18. PLOT3D/AMES, APOLLO UNIX VERSION USING GMR3D (WITH TURB3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buning, P.

    1994-01-01

    PLOT3D is an interactive graphics program designed to help scientists visualize computational fluid dynamics (CFD) grids and solutions. Today, supercomputers and CFD algorithms can provide scientists with simulations of such highly complex phenomena that obtaining an understanding of the simulations has become a major problem. Tools which help the scientist visualize the simulations can be of tremendous aid. PLOT3D/AMES offers more functions and features, and has been adapted for more types of computers than any other CFD graphics program. Version 3.6b+ is supported for five computers and graphic libraries. Using PLOT3D, CFD physicists can view their computational models from any angle, observing the physics of problems and the quality of solutions. As an aid in designing aircraft, for example, PLOT3D's interactive computer graphics can show vortices, temperature, reverse flow, pressure, and dozens of other characteristics of air flow during flight. As critical areas become obvious, they can easily be studied more closely using a finer grid. PLOT3D is part of a computational fluid dynamics software cycle. First, a program such as 3DGRAPE (ARC-12620) helps the scientist generate computational grids to model an object and its surrounding space. Once the grids have been designed and parameters such as the angle of attack, Mach number, and Reynolds number have been specified, a "flow-solver" program such as INS3D (ARC-11794 or COS-10019) solves the system of equations governing fluid flow, usually on a supercomputer. Grids sometimes have as many as two million points, and the "flow-solver" produces a solution file which contains density, x- y- and z-momentum, and stagnation energy for each grid point. With such a solution file and a grid file containing up to 50 grids as input, PLOT3D can calculate and graphically display any one of 74 functions, including shock waves, surface pressure, velocity vectors, and particle traces. PLOT3D's 74 functions are organized into

  19. Unassisted 3D camera calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atanassov, Kalin; Ramachandra, Vikas; Nash, James; Goma, Sergio R.

    2012-03-01

    With the rapid growth of 3D technology, 3D image capture has become a critical part of the 3D feature set on mobile phones. 3D image quality is affected by the scene geometry as well as on-the-device processing. An automatic 3D system usually assumes known camera poses accomplished by factory calibration using a special chart. In real life settings, pose parameters estimated by factory calibration can be negatively impacted by movements of the lens barrel due to shaking, focusing, or camera drop. If any of these factors displaces the optical axes of either or both cameras, vertical disparity might exceed the maximum tolerable margin and the 3D user may experience eye strain or headaches. To make 3D capture more practical, one needs to consider unassisted (on arbitrary scenes) calibration. In this paper, we propose an algorithm that relies on detection and matching of keypoints between left and right images. Frames containing erroneous matches, along with frames with insufficiently rich keypoint constellations, are detected and discarded. Roll, pitch yaw , and scale differences between left and right frames are then estimated. The algorithm performance is evaluated in terms of the remaining vertical disparity as compared to the maximum tolerable vertical disparity.

  20. 3D Scan Systems Integration

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    AGENCY USE ONLY (Leave Blank) 2. REPORT DATE 5 Feb 98 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 3D Scan Systems Integration REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED...2-89) Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39-1 298-102 [ EDO QUALITY W3PECTEDI DLA-ARN Final Report for US Defense Logistics Agency on DDFG-T2/P3: 3D...SCAN SYSTEMS INTEGRATION Contract Number SPO100-95-D-1014 Contractor Ohio University Delivery Order # 0001 Delivery Order Title 3D Scan Systems

  1. The Adaptive Effects Of Virtual Interfaces: Vestibulo-Ocular Reflex and Simulator Sickness.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    sincerity and true love which continuously enlightens me as it will our soon to be born child. And to my wonderful parents, Alfred and Bernadette Draper...complete neurophysiological models of VOR adaptation presented by Ito and Robinson (See Section 2.2). The novel aspect of this hypothesis lies within the... Neurophysiology of motion sickness, In G.H. Crampton (Ed.), Motion and Space Sickness, Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press. Cruz-Neira, C, Sandin, D.J., & Defanti, T.A

  2. Sound-evoked vestibulo-ocular reflexes (VOR) in trained monkeys.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wu; Mustain, W; Simpson, I

    2004-05-01

    Acoustic stimulation of the vestibular system has been well documented in humans and has been accepted as a useful tool to diagnose vestibular disorders. The goal of this study was to establish an awake and behaving primate model that might be useful for investigating the neural mechanisms underlying acoustic activation of the vestibular system. We recorded sound-evoked eye movements in monkeys while they performed ocular motor tasks. In the first part of the study, an acoustic click (1 ms, 99 to approximately 125 db peak SPL) was delivered to one of the monkeys' ears while they fixated on visual targets of varying eccentricities and viewing distances. Acoustic clicks were found to evoke well-defined biphasic eye velocity responses. For the movement in the horizontal direction, the first eye velocity peaks were always away from the stimulated ear. For the movement in the vertical direction, however, the directions of the first eye velocity peaks varied from monkey to monkey. This variability was difficult to interpret in the absence of torsional measurement. Thus, our analysis in this report was focused on horizontal eye movements. We found that click-evoked eye movements were disjunctive, with larger first horizontal eye velocity peaks from the eye ipsilateral to the stimulated ear (the amplitude ratio was 1.8 +/- 0.3, n=4). The amplitudes of the first horizontal peaks were also linearly correlated with gaze eccentricity and viewing distance. In the second part of the study, we found that a brief tone-pulse (100 ms, 125 db peak SPL) evoked eye movements that exhibited a well-defined frequency tuning with the most effective stimulating frequencies ranging from 1 K to 1.5 KHz. These data demonstrate that the sound-evoked eye movements in behaving monkeys are well defined and reproducible. This paradigm may be useful for studying the neural mechanisms underlying acoustic activation of the vestibular system.

  3. An Investigation and Analysis of the Vestibulo-Ocular Reflex (VOR) in a Vibration Environment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    filtering and time-dependency,” Ergonomics , 613-626. Paddan, G. and M. Griffin (1988). “The transmission of translational seat vibration to the head...understand and describe the VOR in the presence of head slued imagery as a function of whole body low-frequency vibration. An experimental HMD was designed ...circuitry design to assisting with software coding. Finally, I would like to thank my beautiful fiancée for her love and support throughout the

  4. Does Vergence Influence the Vestibulo-Ocular Reflex in Human Subjects Rotating in the Dark?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-08-01

    body. The resulting disorientation can cause harmless motion sickness during a roller coaster ride or catastrophic accidents such as plane crashes. It...80 FIGURE B.6. Vertical Calibration configuration ................................ 81 LIST OF FIGURES ix APPENDIX C FIGURE C. 1. 0 versus Y for the...Horizontal Calibration .................................... 86 TABLE C.3. Left Eye Vertical Calibration .......................................... 87

  5. Physical activity after retirement enhances vestibulo-ocular reflex in elderly humans.

    PubMed

    Gauchard, Gérome C; Vançon, Guy; Gentine, André; Jeandel, Claude; Perrin, Philippe P

    2004-04-22

    Vestibular information decreases in sensitivity with ageing, and its role becomes less important in the regulation of postural control. In addition, the practice of physical activity (PA) helps to improve vestibular sensitivity. This study aimed to evaluate PA-related benefit on vestibular function in 36 subjects split into four groups according to the period of practice. Caloric and rotatory vestibular testings showed that the performance of subjects who had begun practising PA recently were close to those of subjects active for a long time, whereas those of subjects who had stopped practising at an early age were close to those of inactive subjects. Although starting to practise PA has immediate beneficial effects on the vestibule, in terms of vestibular stimulation mechanisms these effects soon disappear if this activity is stopped.

  6. Vestibulo-ocular and vestibulospinal function before and after cochlear implant surgery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Black, F. O.; Lilly, D. J.; Peterka, R. J.; Fowler, L. P.; Simmons, F. B.

    1987-01-01

    Vestibular function in cochlear implant candidates varies from normal to total absence of function. In patients with intact vestibular function preoperatively, invasion of the otic capsule places residual vestibular function at risk. Speech-processing strategies that result in large amplitude electrical transients or strategies that employ high amplitude broad frequency carrier signals have the potential for disrupting vestibular function. Five patients were tested with and without electrical stimulation via cochlear electrodes. Two patients experienced subjective vestibular effects that were quickly resolved. No long-term vestibular effects were noted for the two types of second generation cochlear implants evaluated. Histopathological findings from another patient, who had electrically generated vestibular reflex responses to intramodiolar electrodes, indicated that responses elicited were a function of several variables including electrode location, stimulus intensity, stimulus amplitude, and stimulus frequency. Differential auditory, vestibulocolic, and vestibulospinal reflexes were demonstrated from the same electrode as a function of stimulus amplitude, frequency, and duration.

  7. Coordination of Lower Limb Joints During Locomotion: The Effects of Vestibulo-Ocular Reflex Adaptation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Chris; Mulavara, Ajitkumar; Richards, Jason; Peters, Brian; Houser, Jeremy; Marshburn, Ann; Bloomberg, Jacob

    2003-01-01

    Controlling locomotion while maintaining a stable gaze requires precise coordination between several, interdependent full-body sensorimotor subsystems (Bloomberg and Mulavara, 2003; McDonald, et al., 1997). The overall goal of this study is to determine how this full-body gaze stabilization system responds to adaptive changes in vestibuloocular reflex (VOR) function. Locomotion involves cyclical physical interactions (impacts) with the environment. Hence, focusing on a target and maintaining visual acuity during this activity may require mechanisms to manage the energy flow, so it does not disrupt the visual and vestibular sensory information processing that stabilizes gaze. It has been shown that increasing the difficulty of a gaze task (reading numbers on a screen as opposed to simply focusing on a central dot pattern) resulted in an increase in the amount of knee flexion movement during the critical phase immediately following the heel strike event (Mulavara and Bloomberg, 2003). The increase in knee flexion during the stance phase of the gait cycle has been suggested to function as a shock absorbing mechanism associated with the rapid weight transfer from the trailing to the leading leg during walking. To understand this full-body coordination, the relative contributions of each component and the resulting effects should be assessed. In this study, we hypothesized that VOR adaptation would result in a reorganization of the lower limb joint coordination during treadmill walking in a manner to facilitate the gaze stabilization task and preserve locomotor function.

  8. Lightweight device to stimulate and monitor human vestibulo-ocular reflex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McStravick, M. Catherine (Inventor); Proctor, David R. (Inventor); Wood, Scott J. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A helmet formed of a rigid shell is disclosed. The shell is lined with several air filled bladders to contact firmly the head of a user. The shell has a rigid chin bar supporting a bite bar connected fixedly to a mouthpiece bearing against the teeth and hard palate to firmly anchor the helmet without movement. The outer shell surface supports various air pumping bulbs and accelerometers. Separate left and right visor pivot on the side guided in a central tongue and groove track to move optical lens mounts into the user's field of vision. The chin bar is connected to the shell by a pair of releasable clasps. A safety lanyard connects to the clasps to quickly pull pins from the clasps to enable quick release in case of motion sickness.

  9. Relation between perception of vertical axis rotation and vestibulo-ocular reflex symmetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterka, Robert J.; Benolken, Martha S.

    1991-01-01

    Subjects seated in a vertical axis rotation chair controlled their rotational velocity by adjusting a potentiometer. Their goal was to null out pseudorandom rotational perturbations in order to remain perceptually stationary. Most subjects showed a slow linear drift of velocity (a constant acceleration) to one side when they were deprived of an earth-fixed visual reference. The amplitude and direction of this drift can be considered a measure of a static bias in the subject's perception of rotation. The presence of a perceptual bias is consistent with a small, constant imbalance of vestibular function which could be of either central or peripheral origin. Deviations from perfect vestibulocular reflex (VOR) symmetry are also assumed to be related to imbalances in either peripheral or central vestibular function. Researchers looked for correlations between perceptual bias and various measures of vestibular reflex symmetry that might suggest a common source for both reflective and perceptual imbalances. No correlations were found. Measurement errors could not account for these results since repeated tests on the same subjects of both perceptual bias and VOR symmetry were well correlated.

  10. 3D polymer scaffold arrays.

    PubMed

    Simon, Carl G; Yang, Yanyin; Dorsey, Shauna M; Ramalingam, Murugan; Chatterjee, Kaushik

    2011-01-01

    We have developed a combinatorial platform for fabricating tissue scaffold arrays that can be used for screening cell-material interactions. Traditional research involves preparing samples one at a time for characterization and testing. Combinatorial and high-throughput (CHT) methods lower the cost of research by reducing the amount of time and material required for experiments by combining many samples into miniaturized specimens. In order to help accelerate biomaterials research, many new CHT methods have been developed for screening cell-material interactions where materials are presented to cells as a 2D film or surface. However, biomaterials are frequently used to fabricate 3D scaffolds, cells exist in vivo in a 3D environment and cells cultured in a 3D environment in vitro typically behave more physiologically than those cultured on a 2D surface. Thus, we have developed a platform for fabricating tissue scaffold libraries where biomaterials can be presented to cells in a 3D format.

  11. Autofocus for 3D imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee-Elkin, Forest

    2008-04-01

    Three dimensional (3D) autofocus remains a significant challenge for the development of practical 3D multipass radar imaging. The current 2D radar autofocus methods are not readily extendable across sensor passes. We propose a general framework that allows a class of data adaptive solutions for 3D auto-focus across passes with minimal constraints on the scene contents. The key enabling assumption is that portions of the scene are sparse in elevation which reduces the number of free variables and results in a system that is simultaneously solved for scatterer heights and autofocus parameters. The proposed method extends 2-pass interferometric synthetic aperture radar (IFSAR) methods to an arbitrary number of passes allowing the consideration of scattering from multiple height locations. A specific case from the proposed autofocus framework is solved and demonstrates autofocus and coherent multipass 3D estimation across the 8 passes of the "Gotcha Volumetric SAR Data Set" X-Band radar data.

  12. Angular Momentum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shakur, Asif; Sinatra, Taylor

    2013-01-01

    The gyroscope in a smartphone was employed in a physics laboratory setting to verify the conservation of angular momentum and the nonconservation of rotational kinetic energy. As is well-known, smartphones are ubiquitous on college campuses. These devices have a panoply of built-in sensors. This creates a unique opportunity for a new paradigm in…

  13. Combinatorial 3D Mechanical Metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coulais, Corentin; Teomy, Eial; de Reus, Koen; Shokef, Yair; van Hecke, Martin

    2015-03-01

    We present a class of elastic structures which exhibit 3D-folding motion. Our structures consist of cubic lattices of anisotropic unit cells that can be tiled in a complex combinatorial fashion. We design and 3d-print this complex ordered mechanism, in which we combine elastic hinges and defects to tailor the mechanics of the material. Finally, we use this large design space to encode smart functionalities such as surface patterning and multistability.

  14. Dynamics of 3D isolated thermal filaments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walkden, N. R.; Easy, L.; Militello, F.; Omotani, J. T.

    2016-11-01

    Simulations have been carried out to establish how electron thermal physics, introduced in the form of a dynamic electron temperature, affects isolated filament motion and dynamics in 3D. It is found that thermal effects impact filament motion in two major ways when the pressure perturbation within the filament is supported primarily through a temperature increase as opposed to density: they lead to a strong increase in filament propagation in the bi-normal direction and a significant decrease in net radial propagation. Both effects arise from the temperature dependence of the sheath current which leads to a non-uniform floating potential, with the latter effect supplemented by faster pressure loss. The reduction in radial velocity can only occur when the filament cross-section loses angular symmetry. The behaviour is observed across different filament sizes and suggests that filaments with much larger temperature perturbations than density perturbations are more strongly confined to the near SOL region.

  15. Changes in the gaze fixation reaction in rhesus monkeys during the initial stage of water immersion.

    PubMed

    Eron, Julia N; Miller, Natalia V; Badakva, Anatoly M

    2004-07-01

    The gaze fixation reaction was studied in three rhesus monkeys before and during thermoneutral (34.5 degrees C) water immersion to the mid-chest level. The angular vestibulo-ocular reflex gain increased and the head angular velocity decreased significantly in all monkeys in 5 h after the start of immersion. Additionally, one animal was immersed to the neck level. Two hours in the condition of more pronounced support deprivation decreased significantly angular velocity of the head but not increased the angular vestibulo-ocular reflex gain. Therefore, support deprivation act upon the head movement control first.

  16. From 3D view to 3D print

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dima, M.; Farisato, G.; Bergomi, M.; Viotto, V.; Magrin, D.; Greggio, D.; Farinato, J.; Marafatto, L.; Ragazzoni, R.; Piazza, D.

    2014-08-01

    In the last few years 3D printing is getting more and more popular and used in many fields going from manufacturing to industrial design, architecture, medical support and aerospace. 3D printing is an evolution of bi-dimensional printing, which allows to obtain a solid object from a 3D model, realized with a 3D modelling software. The final product is obtained using an additive process, in which successive layers of material are laid down one over the other. A 3D printer allows to realize, in a simple way, very complex shapes, which would be quite difficult to be produced with dedicated conventional facilities. Thanks to the fact that the 3D printing is obtained superposing one layer to the others, it doesn't need any particular work flow and it is sufficient to simply draw the model and send it to print. Many different kinds of 3D printers exist based on the technology and material used for layer deposition. A common material used by the toner is ABS plastics, which is a light and rigid thermoplastic polymer, whose peculiar mechanical properties make it diffusely used in several fields, like pipes production and cars interiors manufacturing. I used this technology to create a 1:1 scale model of the telescope which is the hardware core of the space small mission CHEOPS (CHaracterising ExOPlanets Satellite) by ESA, which aims to characterize EXOplanets via transits observations. The telescope has a Ritchey-Chrétien configuration with a 30cm aperture and the launch is foreseen in 2017. In this paper, I present the different phases for the realization of such a model, focusing onto pros and cons of this kind of technology. For example, because of the finite printable volume (10×10×12 inches in the x, y and z directions respectively), it has been necessary to split the largest parts of the instrument in smaller components to be then reassembled and post-processed. A further issue is the resolution of the printed material, which is expressed in terms of layers

  17. YouDash3D: exploring stereoscopic 3D gaming for 3D movie theaters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schild, Jonas; Seele, Sven; Masuch, Maic

    2012-03-01

    Along with the success of the digitally revived stereoscopic cinema, events beyond 3D movies become attractive for movie theater operators, i.e. interactive 3D games. In this paper, we present a case that explores possible challenges and solutions for interactive 3D games to be played by a movie theater audience. We analyze the setting and showcase current issues related to lighting and interaction. Our second focus is to provide gameplay mechanics that make special use of stereoscopy, especially depth-based game design. Based on these results, we present YouDash3D, a game prototype that explores public stereoscopic gameplay in a reduced kiosk setup. It features live 3D HD video stream of a professional stereo camera rig rendered in a real-time game scene. We use the effect to place the stereoscopic effigies of players into the digital game. The game showcases how stereoscopic vision can provide for a novel depth-based game mechanic. Projected trigger zones and distributed clusters of the audience video allow for easy adaptation to larger audiences and 3D movie theater gaming.

  18. Speaking Volumes About 3-D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    In 1999, Genex submitted a proposal to Stennis Space Center for a volumetric 3-D display technique that would provide multiple users with a 360-degree perspective to simultaneously view and analyze 3-D data. The futuristic capabilities of the VolumeViewer(R) have offered tremendous benefits to commercial users in the fields of medicine and surgery, air traffic control, pilot training and education, computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing, and military/battlefield management. The technology has also helped NASA to better analyze and assess the various data collected by its satellite and spacecraft sensors. Genex capitalized on its success with Stennis by introducing two separate products to the commercial market that incorporate key elements of the 3-D display technology designed under an SBIR contract. The company Rainbow 3D(R) imaging camera is a novel, three-dimensional surface profile measurement system that can obtain a full-frame 3-D image in less than 1 second. The third product is the 360-degree OmniEye(R) video system. Ideal for intrusion detection, surveillance, and situation management, this unique camera system offers a continuous, panoramic view of a scene in real time.

  19. A non-conforming 3D spherical harmonic transport solver

    SciTech Connect

    Van Criekingen, S.

    2006-07-01

    A new 3D transport solver for the time-independent Boltzmann transport equation has been developed. This solver is based on the second-order even-parity form of the transport equation. The angular discretization is performed through the expansion of the angular neutron flux in spherical harmonics (PN method). The novelty of this solver is the use of non-conforming finite elements for the spatial discretization. Such elements lead to a discontinuous flux approximation. This interface continuity requirement relaxation property is shared with mixed-dual formulations such as the ones based on Raviart-Thomas finite elements. Encouraging numerical results are presented. (authors)

  20. Macrophage podosomes go 3D.

    PubMed

    Van Goethem, Emeline; Guiet, Romain; Balor, Stéphanie; Charrière, Guillaume M; Poincloux, Renaud; Labrousse, Arnaud; Maridonneau-Parini, Isabelle; Le Cabec, Véronique

    2011-01-01

    Macrophage tissue infiltration is a critical step in the immune response against microorganisms and is also associated with disease progression in chronic inflammation and cancer. Macrophages are constitutively equipped with specialized structures called podosomes dedicated to extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation. We recently reported that these structures play a critical role in trans-matrix mesenchymal migration mode, a protease-dependent mechanism. Podosome molecular components and their ECM-degrading activity have been extensively studied in two dimensions (2D), but yet very little is known about their fate in three-dimensional (3D) environments. Therefore, localization of podosome markers and proteolytic activity were carefully examined in human macrophages performing mesenchymal migration. Using our gelled collagen I 3D matrix model to obligate human macrophages to perform mesenchymal migration, classical podosome markers including talin, paxillin, vinculin, gelsolin, cortactin were found to accumulate at the tip of F-actin-rich cell protrusions together with β1 integrin and CD44 but not β2 integrin. Macrophage proteolytic activity was observed at podosome-like protrusion sites using confocal fluorescence microscopy and electron microscopy. The formation of migration tunnels by macrophages inside the matrix was accomplished by degradation, engulfment and mechanic compaction of the matrix. In addition, videomicroscopy revealed that 3D F-actin-rich protrusions of migrating macrophages were as dynamic as their 2D counterparts. Overall, the specifications of 3D podosomes resembled those of 2D podosome rosettes rather than those of individual podosomes. This observation was further supported by the aspect of 3D podosomes in fibroblasts expressing Hck, a master regulator of podosome rosettes in macrophages. In conclusion, human macrophage podosomes go 3D and take the shape of spherical podosome rosettes when the cells perform mesenchymal migration. This work

  1. 3D Printed Bionic Nanodevices.

    PubMed

    Kong, Yong Lin; Gupta, Maneesh K; Johnson, Blake N; McAlpine, Michael C

    2016-06-01

    The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological and functional materials could enable the creation of bionic devices possessing unique and compelling geometries, properties, and functionalities. Indeed, interfacing high performance active devices with biology could impact a variety of fields, including regenerative bioelectronic medicines, smart prosthetics, medical robotics, and human-machine interfaces. Biology, from the molecular scale of DNA and proteins, to the macroscopic scale of tissues and organs, is three-dimensional, often soft and stretchable, and temperature sensitive. This renders most biological platforms incompatible with the fabrication and materials processing methods that have been developed and optimized for functional electronics, which are typically planar, rigid and brittle. A number of strategies have been developed to overcome these dichotomies. One particularly novel approach is the use of extrusion-based multi-material 3D printing, which is an additive manufacturing technology that offers a freeform fabrication strategy. This approach addresses the dichotomies presented above by (1) using 3D printing and imaging for customized, hierarchical, and interwoven device architectures; (2) employing nanotechnology as an enabling route for introducing high performance materials, with the potential for exhibiting properties not found in the bulk; and (3) 3D printing a range of soft and nanoscale materials to enable the integration of a diverse palette of high quality functional nanomaterials with biology. Further, 3D printing is a multi-scale platform, allowing for the incorporation of functional nanoscale inks, the printing of microscale features, and ultimately the creation of macroscale devices. This blending of 3D printing, novel nanomaterial properties, and 'living' platforms may enable next-generation bionic systems. In this review, we highlight this synergistic integration of the unique properties of nanomaterials with the

  2. Petal, terrain & airbags - 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Portions of the lander's deflated airbags and a petal are at the lower area of this image, taken in stereo by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. The metallic object at lower right is part of the lander's low-gain antenna. This image is part of a 3D 'monster

    Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  3. 3D Computations and Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Couch, R; Faux, D; Goto, D; Nikkel, D

    2004-04-05

    This project consists of two activities. Task A, Simulations and Measurements, combines all the material model development and associated numerical work with the materials-oriented experimental activities. The goal of this effort is to provide an improved understanding of dynamic material properties and to provide accurate numerical representations of those properties for use in analysis codes. Task B, ALE3D Development, involves general development activities in the ALE3D code with the focus of improving simulation capabilities for problems of mutual interest to DoD and DOE. Emphasis is on problems involving multi-phase flow, blast loading of structures and system safety/vulnerability studies.

  4. The World of 3-D.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayshark, Robin K.

    1991-01-01

    Students explore three-dimensional properties by creating red and green wall decorations related to Christmas. Students examine why images seem to vibrate when red and green pieces are small and close together. Instructions to conduct the activity and construct 3-D glasses are given. (MDH)

  5. 3D Printing: Exploring Capabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuels, Kyle; Flowers, Jim

    2015-01-01

    As 3D printers become more affordable, schools are using them in increasing numbers. They fit well with the emphasis on product design in technology and engineering education, allowing students to create high-fidelity physical models to see and test different iterations in their product designs. They may also help students to "think in three…

  6. SNL3dFace

    SciTech Connect

    Russ, Trina; Koch, Mark; Koudelka, Melissa; Peters, Ralph; Little, Charles; Boehnen, Chris; Peters, Tanya

    2007-07-20

    This software distribution contains MATLAB and C++ code to enable identity verification using 3D images that may or may not contain a texture component. The code is organized to support system performance testing and system capability demonstration through the proper configuration of the available user interface. Using specific algorithm parameters the face recognition system has been demonstrated to achieve a 96.6% verification rate (Pd) at 0.001 false alarm rate. The system computes robust facial features of a 3D normalized face using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Fisher Linear Discriminant Analysis (FLDA). A 3D normalized face is obtained by alighning each face, represented by a set of XYZ coordinated, to a scaled reference face using the Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm. The scaled reference face is then deformed to the input face using an iterative framework with parameters that control the deformed surface regulation an rate of deformation. A variety of options are available to control the information that is encoded by the PCA. Such options include the XYZ coordinates, the difference of each XYZ coordinates from the reference, the Z coordinate, the intensity/texture values, etc. In addition to PCA/FLDA feature projection this software supports feature matching to obtain similarity matrices for performance analysis. In addition, this software supports visualization of the STL, MRD, 2D normalized, and PCA synthetic representations in a 3D environment.

  7. Making Inexpensive 3-D Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manos, Harry

    2016-01-01

    Visual aids are important to student learning, and they help make the teacher's job easier. Keeping with the "TPT" theme of "The Art, Craft, and Science of Physics Teaching," the purpose of this article is to show how teachers, lacking equipment and funds, can construct a durable 3-D model reference frame and a model gravity…

  8. TACO3D. 3-D Finite Element Heat Transfer Code

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, W.E.

    1992-03-04

    TACO3D is a three-dimensional, finite-element program for heat transfer analysis. An extension of the two-dimensional TACO program, it can perform linear and nonlinear analyses and can be used to solve either transient or steady-state problems. The program accepts time-dependent or temperature-dependent material properties, and materials may be isotropic or orthotropic. A variety of time-dependent and temperature-dependent boundary conditions and loadings are available including temperature, flux, convection, and radiation boundary conditions and internal heat generation. Additional specialized features treat enclosure radiation, bulk nodes, and master/slave internal surface conditions (e.g., contact resistance). Data input via a free-field format is provided. A user subprogram feature allows for any type of functional representation of any independent variable. A profile (bandwidth) minimization option is available. The code is limited to implicit time integration for transient solutions. TACO3D has no general mesh generation capability. Rows of evenly-spaced nodes and rows of sequential elements may be generated, but the program relies on separate mesh generators for complex zoning. TACO3D does not have the ability to calculate view factors internally. Graphical representation of data in the form of time history and spatial plots is provided through links to the POSTACO and GRAPE postprocessor codes.

  9. Validity and limitation of manual rotational test to detect impaired visual-vestibular interaction due to cerebellar disorders.

    PubMed

    Murai, Norihiko; Funabiki, Kazuo; Naito, Yasushi; Ito, Juichi; Fukuyama, Hidenao

    2005-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate validity and limitation of the novel infrared system to record and analyze horizontal visual-vestibular interaction using whole-body rotation rapidly and conveniently in the routine vestibular clinic. We examined 11 patients with cerebellar dysequilibrium and 25 patients with peripheral dysequilibrium for vestibulo-ocular reflex in darkness (DVOR), visually-enhanced vestibulo-ocular reflex (VEVOR), and fixation suppression of vestibulo-ocular reflex (FSVOR), and compared the results with those of examination for head-fixed smooth pursuit and fixation suppression during caloric stimulation. The manual rotation stimuli were 0.5-0.75 Hz in frequency and 60-90 degrees /s in maximal angular velocity. Gain of vestibulo-ocular reflex in darkness was not significantly correlated with maximal slow phase velocity (MSPV) of caloric-induced nystagmus at that stimulus condition either in patients with peripheral dysequilibrium or in those with cerebellar dysequilibrium. An index for fixation suppression of vestibulo-ocular reflex during rotation stimulus was significantly lower in patients with cerebellar dysequilibrium than in normal control subjects and those with peripheral dysequilibrium. On the other hand, there was no significant difference among the two disease groups and the normal control group in gain of visually-enhanced vestibulo-ocular reflex. In about a half of patients with cerebellar dysequilibrium, measured smooth pursuit gain was lower than estimated smooth pursuit gain calculated based on a simple superposition theory of vestibulo-ocular reflex and smooth pursuit. Testing fixation suppression using the present system is an unusually convenient tool for detection of cerebellar dysequilibrium.

  10. Forensic 3D scene reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Little, Charles Q.; Small, Daniel E.; Peters, Ralph R.; Rigdon, J. B.

    2000-05-01

    Traditionally law enforcement agencies have relied on basic measurement and imaging tools, such as tape measures and cameras, in recording a crime scene. A disadvantage of these methods is that they are slow and cumbersome. The development of a portable system that can rapidly record a crime scene with current camera imaging, 3D geometric surface maps, and contribute quantitative measurements such as accurate relative positioning of crime scene objects, would be an asset to law enforcement agents in collecting and recording significant forensic data. The purpose of this project is to develop a fieldable prototype of a fast, accurate, 3D measurement and imaging system that would support law enforcement agents to quickly document and accurately record a crime scene.

  11. 3D Printed Robotic Hand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pizarro, Yaritzmar Rosario; Schuler, Jason M.; Lippitt, Thomas C.

    2013-01-01

    Dexterous robotic hands are changing the way robots and humans interact and use common tools. Unfortunately, the complexity of the joints and actuations drive up the manufacturing cost. Some cutting edge and commercially available rapid prototyping machines now have the ability to print multiple materials and even combine these materials in the same job. A 3D model of a robotic hand was designed using Creo Parametric 2.0. Combining "hard" and "soft" materials, the model was printed on the Object Connex350 3D printer with the purpose of resembling as much as possible the human appearance and mobility of a real hand while needing no assembly. After printing the prototype, strings where installed as actuators to test mobility. Based on printing materials, the manufacturing cost of the hand was $167, significantly lower than other robotic hands without the actuators since they have more complex assembly processes.

  12. Comparing swimsuits in 3D.

    PubMed

    van Geer, Erik; Molenbroek, Johan; Schreven, Sander; deVoogd-Claessen, Lenneke; Toussaint, Huib

    2012-01-01

    In competitive swimming, suits have become more important. These suits influence friction, pressure and wave drag. Friction drag is related to the surface properties whereas both pressure and wave drag are greatly influenced by body shape. To find a relationship between the body shape and the drag, the anthropometry of several world class female swimmers wearing different suits was accurately defined using a 3D scanner and traditional measuring methods. The 3D scans delivered more detailed information about the body shape. On the same day the swimmers did performance tests in the water with the tested suits. Afterwards the result of the performance tests and the differences found in body shape was analyzed to determine the deformation caused by a swimsuit and its effect on the swimming performance. Although the amount of data is limited because of the few test subjects, there is an indication that the deformation of the body influences the swimming performance.

  13. Forensic 3D Scene Reconstruction

    SciTech Connect

    LITTLE,CHARLES Q.; PETERS,RALPH R.; RIGDON,J. BRIAN; SMALL,DANIEL E.

    1999-10-12

    Traditionally law enforcement agencies have relied on basic measurement and imaging tools, such as tape measures and cameras, in recording a crime scene. A disadvantage of these methods is that they are slow and cumbersome. The development of a portable system that can rapidly record a crime scene with current camera imaging, 3D geometric surface maps, and contribute quantitative measurements such as accurate relative positioning of crime scene objects, would be an asset to law enforcement agents in collecting and recording significant forensic data. The purpose of this project is to develop a feasible prototype of a fast, accurate, 3D measurement and imaging system that would support law enforcement agents to quickly document and accurately record a crime scene.

  14. 3D-graphite structure

    SciTech Connect

    Belenkov, E. A. Ali-Pasha, V. A.

    2011-01-15

    The structure of clusters of some new carbon 3D-graphite phases have been calculated using the molecular-mechanics methods. It is established that 3D-graphite polytypes {alpha}{sub 1,1}, {alpha}{sub 1,3}, {alpha}{sub 1,5}, {alpha}{sub 2,1}, {alpha}{sub 2,3}, {alpha}{sub 3,1}, {beta}{sub 1,2}, {beta}{sub 1,4}, {beta}{sub 1,6}, {beta}{sub 2,1}, and {beta}{sub 3,2} consist of sp{sup 2}-hybridized atoms, have hexagonal unit cells, and differ in regards to the structure of layers and order of their alternation. A possible way to experimentally synthesize new carbon phases is proposed: the polymerization and carbonization of hydrocarbon molecules.

  15. [Real time 3D echocardiography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, F.; Shiota, T.; Thomas, J. D.

    2001-01-01

    Three-dimensional representation of the heart is an old concern. Usually, 3D reconstruction of the cardiac mass is made by successive acquisition of 2D sections, the spatial localisation and orientation of which require complex guiding systems. More recently, the concept of volumetric acquisition has been introduced. A matricial emitter-receiver probe complex with parallel data processing provides instantaneous of a pyramidal 64 degrees x 64 degrees volume. The image is restituted in real time and is composed of 3 planes (planes B and C) which can be displaced in all spatial directions at any time during acquisition. The flexibility of this system of acquisition allows volume and mass measurement with greater accuracy and reproducibility, limiting inter-observer variability. Free navigation of the planes of investigation allows reconstruction for qualitative and quantitative analysis of valvular heart disease and other pathologies. Although real time 3D echocardiography is ready for clinical usage, some improvements are still necessary to improve its conviviality. Then real time 3D echocardiography could be the essential tool for understanding, diagnosis and management of patients.

  16. GPU-Accelerated Denoising in 3D (GD3D)

    SciTech Connect

    2013-10-01

    The raw computational power GPU Accelerators enables fast denoising of 3D MR images using bilateral filtering, anisotropic diffusion, and non-local means. This software addresses two facets of this promising application: what tuning is necessary to achieve optimal performance on a modern GPU? And what parameters yield the best denoising results in practice? To answer the first question, the software performs an autotuning step to empirically determine optimal memory blocking on the GPU. To answer the second, it performs a sweep of algorithm parameters to determine the combination that best reduces the mean squared error relative to a noiseless reference image.

  17. Magmatic Systems in 3-D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kent, G. M.; Harding, A. J.; Babcock, J. M.; Orcutt, J. A.; Bazin, S.; Singh, S.; Detrick, R. S.; Canales, J. P.; Carbotte, S. M.; Diebold, J.

    2002-12-01

    Multichannel seismic (MCS) images of crustal magma chambers are ideal targets for advanced visualization techniques. In the mid-ocean ridge environment, reflections originating at the melt-lens are well separated from other reflection boundaries, such as the seafloor, layer 2A and Moho, which enables the effective use of transparency filters. 3-D visualization of seismic reflectivity falls into two broad categories: volume and surface rendering. Volumetric-based visualization is an extremely powerful approach for the rapid exploration of very dense 3-D datasets. These 3-D datasets are divided into volume elements or voxels, which are individually color coded depending on the assigned datum value; the user can define an opacity filter to reject plotting certain voxels. This transparency allows the user to peer into the data volume, enabling an easy identification of patterns or relationships that might have geologic merit. Multiple image volumes can be co-registered to look at correlations between two different data types (e.g., amplitude variation with offsets studies), in a manner analogous to draping attributes onto a surface. In contrast, surface visualization of seismic reflectivity usually involves producing "fence" diagrams of 2-D seismic profiles that are complemented with seafloor topography, along with point class data, draped lines and vectors (e.g. fault scarps, earthquake locations and plate-motions). The overlying seafloor can be made partially transparent or see-through, enabling 3-D correlations between seafloor structure and seismic reflectivity. Exploration of 3-D datasets requires additional thought when constructing and manipulating these complex objects. As numbers of visual objects grow in a particular scene, there is a tendency to mask overlapping objects; this clutter can be managed through the effective use of total or partial transparency (i.e., alpha-channel). In this way, the co-variation between different datasets can be investigated

  18. VISRAD, 3-D Target Design and Radiation Simulation Code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golovkin, Igor; Macfarlane, Joseph; Golovkina, Viktoriya

    2016-10-01

    The 3-D view factor code VISRAD is widely used in designing HEDP experiments at major laser and pulsed-power facilities, including NIF, OMEGA, OMEGA-EP, ORION, LMJ, Z, and PLX. It simulates target designs by generating a 3-D grid of surface elements, utilizing a variety of 3-D primitives and surface removal algorithms, and can be used to compute the radiation flux throughout the surface element grid by computing element-to-element view factors and solving power balance equations. Target set-up and beam pointing are facilitated by allowing users to specify positions and angular orientations using a variety of coordinates systems (e.g., that of any laser beam, target component, or diagnostic port). Analytic modeling for laser beam spatial profiles for OMEGA DPPs and NIF CPPs is used to compute laser intensity profiles throughout the grid of surface elements. We will discuss recent improvements to the software package and plans for future developments.

  19. Interactive 3D Mars Visualization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, Mark W.

    2012-01-01

    The Interactive 3D Mars Visualization system provides high-performance, immersive visualization of satellite and surface vehicle imagery of Mars. The software can be used in mission operations to provide the most accurate position information for the Mars rovers to date. When integrated into the mission data pipeline, this system allows mission planners to view the location of the rover on Mars to 0.01-meter accuracy with respect to satellite imagery, with dynamic updates to incorporate the latest position information. Given this information so early in the planning process, rover drivers are able to plan more accurate drive activities for the rover than ever before, increasing the execution of science activities significantly. Scientifically, this 3D mapping information puts all of the science analyses to date into geologic context on a daily basis instead of weeks or months, as was the norm prior to this contribution. This allows the science planners to judge the efficacy of their previously executed science observations much more efficiently, and achieve greater science return as a result. The Interactive 3D Mars surface view is a Mars terrain browsing software interface that encompasses the entire region of exploration for a Mars surface exploration mission. The view is interactive, allowing the user to pan in any direction by clicking and dragging, or to zoom in or out by scrolling the mouse or touchpad. This set currently includes tools for selecting a point of interest, and a ruler tool for displaying the distance between and positions of two points of interest. The mapping information can be harvested and shared through ubiquitous online mapping tools like Google Mars, NASA WorldWind, and Worldwide Telescope.

  20. 3D Nanostructuring of Semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blick, Robert

    2000-03-01

    Modern semiconductor technology allows to machine devices on the nanometer scale. I will discuss the current limits of the fabrication processes, which enable the definition of single electron transistors with dimensions down to 8 nm. In addition to the conventional 2D patterning and structuring of semiconductors, I will demonstrate how to apply 3D nanostructuring techniques to build freely suspended single-crystal beams with lateral dimension down to 20 nm. In transport measurements in the temperature range from 30 mK up to 100 K these nano-crystals are characterized regarding their electronic as well as their mechanical properties. Moreover, I will present possible applications of these devices.

  1. What Lies Ahead (3-D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This 3-D cylindrical-perspective mosaic taken by the navigation camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit on sol 82 shows the view south of the large crater dubbed 'Bonneville.' The rover will travel toward the Columbia Hills, seen here at the upper left. The rock dubbed 'Mazatzal' and the hole the rover drilled in to it can be seen at the lower left. The rover's position is referred to as 'Site 22, Position 32.' This image was geometrically corrected to make the horizon appear flat.

  2. Making Inexpensive 3-D Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manos, Harry

    2016-03-01

    Visual aids are important to student learning, and they help make the teacher's job easier. Keeping with the TPT theme of "The Art, Craft, and Science of Physics Teaching," the purpose of this article is to show how teachers, lacking equipment and funds, can construct a durable 3-D model reference frame and a model gravity well tailored to specific class lessons. Most of the supplies are readily available in the home or at school: rubbing alcohol, a rag, two colors of spray paint, art brushes, and masking tape. The cost of these supplies, if you don't have them, is less than 20.

  3. A Clean Adirondack (3-D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This is a 3-D anaglyph showing a microscopic image taken of an area measuring 3 centimeters (1.2 inches) across on the rock called Adirondack. The image was taken at Gusev Crater on the 33rd day of the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit's journey (Feb. 5, 2004), after the rover used its rock abrasion tool brush to clean the surface of the rock. Dust, which was pushed off to the side during cleaning, can still be seen to the left and in low areas of the rock.

  4. 3D Printed Shelby Cobra

    SciTech Connect

    Love, Lonnie

    2015-01-09

    ORNL's newly printed 3D Shelby Cobra was showcased at the 2015 NAIAS in Detroit. This "laboratory on wheels" uses the Shelby Cobra design, celebrating the 50th anniversary of this model and honoring the first vehicle to be voted a national monument. The Shelby was printed at the Department of Energy’s Manufacturing Demonstration Facility at ORNL using the BAAM (Big Area Additive Manufacturing) machine and is intended as a “plug-n-play” laboratory on wheels. The Shelby will allow research and development of integrated components to be tested and enhanced in real time, improving the use of sustainable, digital manufacturing solutions in the automotive industry.

  5. 3D Vortices in Protoplanetary Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamal, Samy; Barranco, Joseph; Marcus, Philip

    2010-11-01

    Like the atmosphere of Jupiter, protoplanetary disks (thin disks of gas & dust in orbit around newly-formed stars) are characterized by rapid rotation and intense shear, inspiring proposals that disks may also be populated with long-lived, robust storms analogous to the Great Red Spot. Such vortices may play key roles in the formation of stars and planets by transporting angular momentum, as well as trapping and concentrating dust grains, seeding the formation of planetesimals, the "building blocks" of planets. In our previous work (Barranco & Marcus 2005), we showed via numerical simulation (with an anelastic spectral code) that vortices near the midplane of the disk suffer an antisymmetric instability and are destroyed. However, internal gravity waves propagate away from the midplane, amplify and break, creating bands of vorticity that roll-up into new long-lived, stable vortices above and below the midplane. We will present new results on 3D vortex dynamics in protoplanetary disks, exploring the role of factors unique to this context: the Coriolis parameter f, the shear rate σ, and the Brunt-Väisälä frequency N are all of the same order of magnitude. In the region around the midplane Nf. This leads to strong refraction of internal gravity waves, causing the waves to amplify and break, generating vorticity.

  6. Positional Awareness Map 3D (PAM3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, Monica; Allen, Earl L.; Yount, John W.; Norcross, April Louise

    2012-01-01

    The Western Aeronautical Test Range of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s Dryden Flight Research Center needed to address the aging software and hardware of its current situational awareness display application, the Global Real-Time Interactive Map (GRIM). GRIM was initially developed in the late 1980s and executes on older PC architectures using a Linux operating system that is no longer supported. Additionally, the software is difficult to maintain due to its complexity and loss of developer knowledge. It was decided that a replacement application must be developed or acquired in the near future. The replacement must provide the functionality of the original system, the ability to monitor test flight vehicles in real-time, and add improvements such as high resolution imagery and true 3-dimensional capability. This paper will discuss the process of determining the best approach to replace GRIM, and the functionality and capabilities of the first release of the Positional Awareness Map 3D.

  7. 3D printed bionic ears.

    PubMed

    Mannoor, Manu S; Jiang, Ziwen; James, Teena; Kong, Yong Lin; Malatesta, Karen A; Soboyejo, Winston O; Verma, Naveen; Gracias, David H; McAlpine, Michael C

    2013-06-12

    The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological tissue with functional electronics could enable the creation of bionic organs possessing enhanced functionalities over their human counterparts. Conventional electronic devices are inherently two-dimensional, preventing seamless multidimensional integration with synthetic biology, as the processes and materials are very different. Here, we present a novel strategy for overcoming these difficulties via additive manufacturing of biological cells with structural and nanoparticle derived electronic elements. As a proof of concept, we generated a bionic ear via 3D printing of a cell-seeded hydrogel matrix in the anatomic geometry of a human ear, along with an intertwined conducting polymer consisting of infused silver nanoparticles. This allowed for in vitro culturing of cartilage tissue around an inductive coil antenna in the ear, which subsequently enables readout of inductively-coupled signals from cochlea-shaped electrodes. The printed ear exhibits enhanced auditory sensing for radio frequency reception, and complementary left and right ears can listen to stereo audio music. Overall, our approach suggests a means to intricately merge biologic and nanoelectronic functionalities via 3D printing.

  8. 3D Printable Graphene Composite

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Xiaojun; Li, Dong; Jiang, Wei; Gu, Zheming; Wang, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Zengxing; Sun, Zhengzong

    2015-01-01

    In human being’s history, both the Iron Age and Silicon Age thrived after a matured massive processing technology was developed. Graphene is the most recent superior material which could potentially initialize another new material Age. However, while being exploited to its full extent, conventional processing methods fail to provide a link to today’s personalization tide. New technology should be ushered in. Three-dimensional (3D) printing fills the missing linkage between graphene materials and the digital mainstream. Their alliance could generate additional stream to push the graphene revolution into a new phase. Here we demonstrate for the first time, a graphene composite, with a graphene loading up to 5.6 wt%, can be 3D printable into computer-designed models. The composite’s linear thermal coefficient is below 75 ppm·°C−1 from room temperature to its glass transition temperature (Tg), which is crucial to build minute thermal stress during the printing process. PMID:26153673

  9. 3D Printed Bionic Ears

    PubMed Central

    Mannoor, Manu S.; Jiang, Ziwen; James, Teena; Kong, Yong Lin; Malatesta, Karen A.; Soboyejo, Winston O.; Verma, Naveen; Gracias, David H.; McAlpine, Michael C.

    2013-01-01

    The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological tissue with functional electronics could enable the creation of bionic organs possessing enhanced functionalities over their human counterparts. Conventional electronic devices are inherently two-dimensional, preventing seamless multidimensional integration with synthetic biology, as the processes and materials are very different. Here, we present a novel strategy for overcoming these difficulties via additive manufacturing of biological cells with structural and nanoparticle derived electronic elements. As a proof of concept, we generated a bionic ear via 3D printing of a cell-seeded hydrogel matrix in the precise anatomic geometry of a human ear, along with an intertwined conducting polymer consisting of infused silver nanoparticles. This allowed for in vitro culturing of cartilage tissue around an inductive coil antenna in the ear, which subsequently enables readout of inductively-coupled signals from cochlea-shaped electrodes. The printed ear exhibits enhanced auditory sensing for radio frequency reception, and complementary left and right ears can listen to stereo audio music. Overall, our approach suggests a means to intricately merge biologic and nanoelectronic functionalities via 3D printing. PMID:23635097

  10. Martian terrain & airbags - 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Portions of the lander's deflated airbags and a petal are at lower left in this image, taken in stereo by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. This image is part of a 3D 'monster' panorama of the area surrounding the landing site.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

    Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  11. Martian terrain & airbags - 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Portions of the lander's deflated airbags and a petal are at the lower area of this image, taken in stereo by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. This image is part of a 3D 'monster' panorama of the area surrounding the landing site.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

    Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  12. 3D structured illumination microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dougherty, William M.; Goodwin, Paul C.

    2011-03-01

    Three-dimensional structured illumination microscopy achieves double the lateral and axial resolution of wide-field microscopy, using conventional fluorescent dyes, proteins and sample preparation techniques. A three-dimensional interference-fringe pattern excites the fluorescence, filling in the "missing cone" of the wide field optical transfer function, thereby enabling axial (z) discrimination. The pattern acts as a spatial carrier frequency that mixes with the higher spatial frequency components of the image, which usually succumb to the diffraction limit. The fluorescence image encodes the high frequency content as a down-mixed, moiré-like pattern. A series of images is required, wherein the 3D pattern is shifted and rotated, providing down-mixed data for a system of linear equations. Super-resolution is obtained by solving these equations. The speed with which the image series can be obtained can be a problem for the microscopy of living cells. Challenges include pattern-switching speeds, optical efficiency, wavefront quality and fringe contrast, fringe pitch optimization, and polarization issues. We will review some recent developments in 3D-SIM hardware with the goal of super-resolved z-stacks of motile cells.

  13. Factors influencing perceived angular velocity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaiser, Mary K.; Calderone, Jack B.

    1991-01-01

    Angular velocity perception is examined for rotations both in depth and in the image plane and the influence of several object properties on this motion parameter is explored. Two major object properties are considered, namely, texture density which determines the rate of edge transitions for rotations in depth, i.e., the number of texture elements that pass an object's boundary per unit of time, and object size which determines the tangential linear velocities and 2D image velocities of texture elements for a given angular velocity. Results of experiments show that edge-transition rate biased angular velocity estimates only when edges were highly salient. Element velocities had an impact on perceived angular velocity; this bias was associated with 2D image velocity rather than 3D tangential velocity. Despite these biases judgements were most strongly determined by the true angular velocity. Sensitivity to this higher order motion parameter appeared to be good for rotations both in depth (y-axis) and parallel to the line of sight (z-axis).

  14. 3D Printing of Graphene Aerogels.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiangqiang; Zhang, Feng; Medarametla, Sai Pradeep; Li, Hui; Zhou, Chi; Lin, Dong

    2016-04-06

    3D printing of a graphene aerogel with true 3D overhang structures is highlighted. The aerogel is fabricated by combining drop-on-demand 3D printing and freeze casting. The water-based GO ink is ejected and freeze-cast into designed 3D structures. The lightweight (<10 mg cm(-3) ) 3D printed graphene aerogel presents superelastic and high electrical conduction.

  15. Quasi 3D dispersion experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakucz, P.

    2003-04-01

    This paper studies the problem of tracer dispersion in a coloured fluid flowing through a two-phase 3D rough channel-system in a 40 cm*40 cm plexi-container filled by homogen glass fractions and colourless fluid. The unstable interface between the driving coloured fluid and the colourless fluid develops viscous fingers with a fractal structure at high capillary number. Five two-dimensional fractal fronts have been observed at the same time using four cameras along the vertical side-walls and using one camera located above the plexi-container. In possession of five fronts the spatial concentration contours are determined using statistical models. The concentration contours are self-affine fractal curves with a fractal dimension D=2.19. This result is valid for disperison at high Péclet numbers.

  16. ShowMe3D

    SciTech Connect

    Sinclair, Michael B

    2012-01-05

    ShowMe3D is a data visualization graphical user interface specifically designed for use with hyperspectral image obtained from the Hyperspectral Confocal Microscope. The program allows the user to select and display any single image from a three dimensional hyperspectral image stack. By moving a slider control, the user can easily move between images of the stack. The user can zoom into any region of the image. The user can select any pixel or region from the displayed image and display the fluorescence spectrum associated with that pixel or region. The user can define up to 3 spectral filters to apply to the hyperspectral image and view the image as it would appear from a filter-based confocal microscope. The user can also obtain statistics such as intensity average and variance from selected regions.

  17. 3D Printed Shelby Cobra

    ScienceCinema

    Love, Lonnie

    2016-11-02

    ORNL's newly printed 3D Shelby Cobra was showcased at the 2015 NAIAS in Detroit. This "laboratory on wheels" uses the Shelby Cobra design, celebrating the 50th anniversary of this model and honoring the first vehicle to be voted a national monument. The Shelby was printed at the Department of Energy’s Manufacturing Demonstration Facility at ORNL using the BAAM (Big Area Additive Manufacturing) machine and is intended as a “plug-n-play” laboratory on wheels. The Shelby will allow research and development of integrated components to be tested and enhanced in real time, improving the use of sustainable, digital manufacturing solutions in the automotive industry.

  18. Supernova Remnant in 3-D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    wavelengths. Since the amount of the wavelength shift is related to the speed of motion, one can determine how fast the debris are moving in either direction. Because Cas A is the result of an explosion, the stellar debris is expanding radially outwards from the explosion center. Using simple geometry, the scientists were able to construct a 3-D model using all of this information. A program called 3-D Slicer modified for astronomical use by the Astronomical Medicine Project at Harvard University in Cambridge, Mass. was used to display and manipulate the 3-D model. Commercial software was then used to create the 3-D fly-through.

    The blue filaments defining the blast wave were not mapped using the Doppler effect because they emit a different kind of light synchrotron radiation that does not emit light at discrete wavelengths, but rather in a broad continuum. The blue filaments are only a representation of the actual filaments observed at the blast wave.

    This visualization shows that there are two main components to this supernova remnant: a spherical component in the outer parts of the remnant and a flattened (disk-like) component in the inner region. The spherical component consists of the outer layer of the star that exploded, probably made of helium and carbon. These layers drove a spherical blast wave into the diffuse gas surrounding the star. The flattened component that astronomers were unable to map into 3-D prior to these Spitzer observations consists of the inner layers of the star. It is made from various heavier elements, not all shown in the visualization, such as oxygen, neon, silicon, sulphur, argon and iron.

    High-velocity plumes, or jets, of this material are shooting out from the explosion in the plane of the disk-like component mentioned above. Plumes of silicon appear in the northeast and southwest, while those of iron are seen in the southeast and north. These jets were already known and Doppler velocity measurements have been made for these

  19. Angle estimation of simultaneous orthogonal rotations from 3D gyroscope measurements.

    PubMed

    Stančin, Sara; Tomažič, Sašo

    2011-01-01

    A 3D gyroscope provides measurements of angular velocities around its three intrinsic orthogonal axes, enabling angular orientation estimation. Because the measured angular velocities represent simultaneous rotations, it is not appropriate to consider them sequentially. Rotations in general are not commutative, and each possible rotation sequence has a different resulting angular orientation. None of these angular orientations is the correct simultaneous rotation result. However, every angular orientation can be represented by a single rotation. This paper presents an analytic derivation of the axis and angle of the single rotation equivalent to three simultaneous rotations around orthogonal axes when the measured angular velocities or their proportions are approximately constant. Based on the resulting expressions, a vector called the simultaneous orthogonal rotations angle (SORA) is defined, with components equal to the angles of three simultaneous rotations around coordinate system axes. The orientation and magnitude of this vector are equal to the equivalent single rotation axis and angle, respectively. As long as the orientation of the actual rotation axis is constant, given the SORA, the angular orientation of a rigid body can be calculated in a single step, thus making it possible to avoid computing the iterative infinitesimal rotation approximation. The performed test measurements confirm the validity of the SORA concept. SORA is simple and well-suited for use in the real-time calculation of angular orientation based on angular velocity measurements derived using a gyroscope. Moreover, because of its demonstrated simplicity, SORA can also be used in general angular orientation notation.

  20. 3D Kitaev spin liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermanns, Maria

    The Kitaev honeycomb model has become one of the archetypal spin models exhibiting topological phases of matter, where the magnetic moments fractionalize into Majorana fermions interacting with a Z2 gauge field. In this talk, we discuss generalizations of this model to three-dimensional lattice structures. Our main focus is the metallic state that the emergent Majorana fermions form. In particular, we discuss the relation of the nature of this Majorana metal to the details of the underlying lattice structure. Besides (almost) conventional metals with a Majorana Fermi surface, one also finds various realizations of Dirac semi-metals, where the gapless modes form Fermi lines or even Weyl nodes. We introduce a general classification of these gapless quantum spin liquids using projective symmetry analysis. Furthermore, we briefly outline why these Majorana metals in 3D Kitaev systems provide an even richer variety of Dirac and Weyl phases than possible for electronic matter and comment on possible experimental signatures. Work done in collaboration with Kevin O'Brien and Simon Trebst.

  1. 3D multiplexed immunoplasmonics microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergeron, Éric; Patskovsky, Sergiy; Rioux, David; Meunier, Michel

    2016-07-01

    Selective labelling, identification and spatial distribution of cell surface biomarkers can provide important clinical information, such as distinction between healthy and diseased cells, evolution of a disease and selection of the optimal patient-specific treatment. Immunofluorescence is the gold standard for efficient detection of biomarkers expressed by cells. However, antibodies (Abs) conjugated to fluorescent dyes remain limited by their photobleaching, high sensitivity to the environment, low light intensity, and wide absorption and emission spectra. Immunoplasmonics is a novel microscopy method based on the visualization of Abs-functionalized plasmonic nanoparticles (fNPs) targeting cell surface biomarkers. Tunable fNPs should provide higher multiplexing capacity than immunofluorescence since NPs are photostable over time, strongly scatter light at their plasmon peak wavelengths and can be easily functionalized. In this article, we experimentally demonstrate accurate multiplexed detection based on the immunoplasmonics approach. First, we achieve the selective labelling of three targeted cell surface biomarkers (cluster of differentiation 44 (CD44), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and voltage-gated K+ channel subunit KV1.1) on human cancer CD44+ EGFR+ KV1.1+ MDA-MB-231 cells and reference CD44- EGFR- KV1.1+ 661W cells. The labelling efficiency with three stable specific immunoplasmonics labels (functionalized silver nanospheres (CD44-AgNSs), gold (Au) NSs (EGFR-AuNSs) and Au nanorods (KV1.1-AuNRs)) detected by reflected light microscopy (RLM) is similar to the one with immunofluorescence. Second, we introduce an improved method for 3D localization and spectral identification of fNPs based on fast z-scanning by RLM with three spectral filters corresponding to the plasmon peak wavelengths of the immunoplasmonics labels in the cellular environment (500 nm for 80 nm AgNSs, 580 nm for 100 nm AuNSs and 700 nm for 40 nm × 92 nm AuNRs). Third, the developed

  2. Crowdsourcing Based 3d Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somogyi, A.; Barsi, A.; Molnar, B.; Lovas, T.

    2016-06-01

    Web-based photo albums that support organizing and viewing the users' images are widely used. These services provide a convenient solution for storing, editing and sharing images. In many cases, the users attach geotags to the images in order to enable using them e.g. in location based applications on social networks. Our paper discusses a procedure that collects open access images from a site frequently visited by tourists. Geotagged pictures showing the image of a sight or tourist attraction are selected and processed in photogrammetric processing software that produces the 3D model of the captured object. For the particular investigation we selected three attractions in Budapest. To assess the geometrical accuracy, we used laser scanner and DSLR as well as smart phone photography to derive reference values to enable verifying the spatial model obtained from the web-album images. The investigation shows how detailed and accurate models could be derived applying photogrammetric processing software, simply by using images of the community, without visiting the site.

  3. [3D emulation of epicardium dynamic mapping].

    PubMed

    Lu, Jun; Yang, Cui-Wei; Fang, Zu-Xiang

    2005-03-01

    In order to realize epicardium dynamic mapping of the whole atria, 3-D graphics are drawn with OpenGL. Some source codes are introduced in the paper to explain how to produce, read, and manipulate 3-D model data.

  4. An interactive multiview 3D display system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhaoxing; Geng, Zheng; Zhang, Mei; Dong, Hui

    2013-03-01

    The progresses in 3D display systems and user interaction technologies will help more effective 3D visualization of 3D information. They yield a realistic representation of 3D objects and simplifies our understanding to the complexity of 3D objects and spatial relationship among them. In this paper, we describe an autostereoscopic multiview 3D display system with capability of real-time user interaction. Design principle of this autostereoscopic multiview 3D display system is presented, together with the details of its hardware/software architecture. A prototype is built and tested based upon multi-projectors and horizontal optical anisotropic display structure. Experimental results illustrate the effectiveness of this novel 3D display and user interaction system.

  5. Laser Based 3D Volumetric Display System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-03-01

    Literature, Costa Mesa, CA July 1983. 3. "A Real Time Autostereoscopic Multiplanar 3D Display System", Rodney Don Williams, Felix Garcia, Jr., Texas...8217 .- NUMBERS LASER BASED 3D VOLUMETRIC DISPLAY SYSTEM PR: CD13 0. AUTHOR(S) PE: N/AWIU: DN303151 P. Soltan, J. Trias, W. Robinson, W. Dahlke 7...laser generated 3D volumetric images on a rotating double helix, (where the 3D displays are computer controlled for group viewing with the naked eye

  6. True 3d Images and Their Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Z.; wang@hzgeospace., zheng.

    2012-07-01

    A true 3D image is a geo-referenced image. Besides having its radiometric information, it also has true 3Dground coordinates XYZ for every pixels of it. For a true 3D image, especially a true 3D oblique image, it has true 3D coordinates not only for building roofs and/or open grounds, but also for all other visible objects on the ground, such as visible building walls/windows and even trees. The true 3D image breaks the 2D barrier of the traditional orthophotos by introducing the third dimension (elevation) into the image. From a true 3D image, for example, people will not only be able to read a building's location (XY), but also its height (Z). true 3D images will fundamentally change, if not revolutionize, the way people display, look, extract, use, and represent the geospatial information from imagery. In many areas, true 3D images can make profound impacts on the ways of how geospatial information is represented, how true 3D ground modeling is performed, and how the real world scenes are presented. This paper first gives a definition and description of a true 3D image and followed by a brief review of what key advancements of geospatial technologies have made the creation of true 3D images possible. Next, the paper introduces what a true 3D image is made of. Then, the paper discusses some possible contributions and impacts the true 3D images can make to geospatial information fields. At the end, the paper presents a list of the benefits of having and using true 3D images and the applications of true 3D images in a couple of 3D city modeling projects.

  7. 3D Printing and Its Urologic Applications

    PubMed Central

    Soliman, Youssef; Feibus, Allison H; Baum, Neil

    2015-01-01

    3D printing is the development of 3D objects via an additive process in which successive layers of material are applied under computer control. This article discusses 3D printing, with an emphasis on its historical context and its potential use in the field of urology. PMID:26028997

  8. Teaching Geography with 3-D Visualization Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anthamatten, Peter; Ziegler, Susy S.

    2006-01-01

    Technology that helps students view images in three dimensions (3-D) can support a broad range of learning styles. "Geo-Wall systems" are visualization tools that allow scientists, teachers, and students to project stereographic images and view them in 3-D. We developed and presented 3-D visualization exercises in several undergraduate courses.…

  9. Expanding Geometry Understanding with 3D Printing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochran, Jill A.; Cochran, Zane; Laney, Kendra; Dean, Mandi

    2016-01-01

    With the rise of personal desktop 3D printing, a wide spectrum of educational opportunities has become available for educators to leverage this technology in their classrooms. Until recently, the ability to create physical 3D models was well beyond the scope, skill, and budget of many schools. However, since desktop 3D printers have become readily…

  10. Beowulf 3D: a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engle, Rob

    2008-02-01

    This paper discusses the creative and technical challenges encountered during the production of "Beowulf 3D," director Robert Zemeckis' adaptation of the Old English epic poem and the first film to be simultaneously released in IMAX 3D and digital 3D formats.

  11. 3D Flow Visualization Using Texture Advection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kao, David; Zhang, Bing; Kim, Kwansik; Pang, Alex; Moran, Pat (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Texture advection is an effective tool for animating and investigating 2D flows. In this paper, we discuss how this technique can be extended to 3D flows. In particular, we examine the use of 3D and 4D textures on 3D synthetic and computational fluid dynamics flow fields.

  12. The propagation of a CME front in 3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maloney, Shane; Byrne, Jason; Gallagher, Peter T.; McAteer, R. T. James

    We present a new three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of an Earth-directed coronal mass ejec-tion (CME), providing new insight into the processes that control its evolution and propagation. Previously limited fields-of-view and single vantage point observations made it impossible to confidently describe CMEs in 3D. This uncertainty in a CME's position and geometry made comparison to theory difficult and hindered progress. Our 3D reconstruction unambiguously shows three effects at play on the CME: deflection from a high latitude source region, angular width expansion, and interplanetary drag. The CME undergoes a deflection of ˜20° degrees below 10 RSun and slowly tends towards the ecliptic throughout its subsequent propagation. We interpret this deflection as a direct result of the interplay between the CME and the drawn-out dipolar topology of the (solar minimum) coronal magnetic field. The increasing angular width is in excess of that due to simple spherical expansion in the diverging solar wind so an additional source of expansion must be present. The additional source is inferred to be a pressure gradient between the internal pressure (magnetic and gas) of the flux rope relative to the ambient solar wind pressure. Low in the corona there is rapid expansion due to a large pressure difference, but further out the CME approaches equilibrium with the solar wind, and the angular width tends to a constant. The 3D reconstruction allows us to accurately determine the CME kinematics, and we show unambiguously that the interplanetary acceleration is due to aerodynamic drag. Furthermore we derive parameters from our reconstruction that act as inputs to an ENLIL model of the CME's propagation to Earth. The results show the CME undergoes a significant degrease in velocity where it encounters a slow-speed solar wind stream ahead of it (>50 RSun ). This lower velocity agrees with the derived velocity from in-situ data at the L1 point and predicts the correct arrival time

  13. 3-D Perspective Pasadena, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This perspective view shows the western part of the city of Pasadena, California, looking north towards the San Gabriel Mountains. Portions of the cities of Altadena and La Canada, Flintridge are also shown. The image was created from three datasets: the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) supplied the elevation data; Landsat data from November 11, 1986 provided the land surface color (not the sky) and U.S. Geological Survey digital aerial photography provides the image detail. The Rose Bowl, surrounded by a golf course, is the circular feature at the bottom center of the image. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory is the cluster of large buildings north of the Rose Bowl at the base of the mountains. A large landfill, Scholl Canyon, is the smooth area in the lower left corner of the scene. This image shows the power of combining data from different sources to create planning tools to study problems that affect large urban areas. In addition to the well-known earthquake hazards, Southern California is affected by a natural cycle of fire and mudflows. Wildfires strip the mountains of vegetation, increasing the hazards from flooding and mudflows for several years afterwards. Data such as shown on this image can be used to predict both how wildfires will spread over the terrain and also how mudflows will be channeled down the canyons. The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11, 2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission was designed to collect three dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency

  14. Case study: Beauty and the Beast 3D: benefits of 3D viewing for 2D to 3D conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handy Turner, Tara

    2010-02-01

    From the earliest stages of the Beauty and the Beast 3D conversion project, the advantages of accurate desk-side 3D viewing was evident. While designing and testing the 2D to 3D conversion process, the engineering team at Walt Disney Animation Studios proposed a 3D viewing configuration that not only allowed artists to "compose" stereoscopic 3D but also improved efficiency by allowing artists to instantly detect which image features were essential to the stereoscopic appeal of a shot and which features had minimal or even negative impact. At a time when few commercial 3D monitors were available and few software packages provided 3D desk-side output, the team designed their own prototype devices and collaborated with vendors to create a "3D composing" workstation. This paper outlines the display technologies explored, final choices made for Beauty and the Beast 3D, wish-lists for future development and a few rules of thumb for composing compelling 2D to 3D conversions.

  15. Mini 3D for shallow gas reconnaissance

    SciTech Connect

    Vallieres, T. des; Enns, D.; Kuehn, H.; Parron, D.; Lafet, Y.; Van Hulle, D.

    1996-12-31

    The Mini 3D project was undertaken by TOTAL and ELF with the support of CEPM (Comite d`Etudes Petrolieres et Marines) to define an economical method of obtaining 3D seismic HR data for shallow gas assessment. An experimental 3D survey was carried out with classical site survey techniques in the North Sea. From these data 19 simulations, were produced to compare different acquisition geometries ranging from dual, 600 m long cables to a single receiver. Results show that short offset, low fold and very simple streamer positioning are sufficient to give a reliable 3D image of gas charged bodies. The 3D data allow a much more accurate risk delineation than 2D HR data. Moreover on financial grounds Mini-3D is comparable in cost to a classical HR 2D survey. In view of these results, such HR 3D should now be the standard for shallow gas surveying.

  16. 3-D Technology Approaches for Biological Ecologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Liyu; Austin, Robert; U. S-China Physical-Oncology Sciences Alliance (PS-OA) Team

    Constructing three dimensional (3-D) landscapes is an inevitable issue in deep study of biological ecologies, because in whatever scales in nature, all of the ecosystems are composed by complex 3-D environments and biological behaviors. Just imagine if a 3-D technology could help complex ecosystems be built easily and mimic in vivo microenvironment realistically with flexible environmental controls, it will be a fantastic and powerful thrust to assist researchers for explorations. For years, we have been utilizing and developing different technologies for constructing 3-D micro landscapes for biophysics studies in in vitro. Here, I will review our past efforts, including probing cancer cell invasiveness with 3-D silicon based Tepuis, constructing 3-D microenvironment for cell invasion and metastasis through polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) soft lithography, as well as explorations of optimized stenting positions for coronary bifurcation disease with 3-D wax printing and the latest home designed 3-D bio-printer. Although 3-D technologies is currently considered not mature enough for arbitrary 3-D micro-ecological models with easy design and fabrication, I hope through my talk, the audiences will be able to sense its significance and predictable breakthroughs in the near future. This work was supported by the State Key Development Program for Basic Research of China (Grant No. 2013CB837200), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11474345) and the Beijing Natural Science Foundation (Grant No. 7154221).

  17. 3D change detection - Approaches and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Rongjun; Tian, Jiaojiao; Reinartz, Peter

    2016-12-01

    Due to the unprecedented technology development of sensors, platforms and algorithms for 3D data acquisition and generation, 3D spaceborne, airborne and close-range data, in the form of image based, Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) based point clouds, Digital Elevation Models (DEM) and 3D city models, become more accessible than ever before. Change detection (CD) or time-series data analysis in 3D has gained great attention due to its capability of providing volumetric dynamics to facilitate more applications and provide more accurate results. The state-of-the-art CD reviews aim to provide a comprehensive synthesis and to simplify the taxonomy of the traditional remote sensing CD techniques, which mainly sit within the boundary of 2D image/spectrum analysis, largely ignoring the particularities of 3D aspects of the data. The inclusion of 3D data for change detection (termed 3D CD), not only provides a source with different modality for analysis, but also transcends the border of traditional top-view 2D pixel/object-based analysis to highly detailed, oblique view or voxel-based geometric analysis. This paper reviews the recent developments and applications of 3D CD using remote sensing and close-range data, in support of both academia and industry researchers who seek for solutions in detecting and analyzing 3D dynamics of various objects of interest. We first describe the general considerations of 3D CD problems in different processing stages and identify CD types based on the information used, being the geometric comparison and geometric-spectral analysis. We then summarize relevant works and practices in urban, environment, ecology and civil applications, etc. Given the broad spectrum of applications and different types of 3D data, we discuss important issues in 3D CD methods. Finally, we present concluding remarks in algorithmic aspects of 3D CD.

  18. RT3D tutorials for GMS users

    SciTech Connect

    Clement, T.P.; Jones, N.L.

    1998-02-01

    RT3D (Reactive Transport in 3-Dimensions) is a computer code that solves coupled partial differential equations that describe reactive-flow and transport of multiple mobile and/or immobile species in a three dimensional saturated porous media. RT3D was developed from the single-species transport code, MT3D (DoD-1.5, 1997 version). As with MT3D, RT3D also uses the USGS groundwater flow model MODFLOW for computing spatial and temporal variations in groundwater head distribution. This report presents a set of tutorial problems that are designed to illustrate how RT3D simulations can be performed within the Department of Defense Groundwater Modeling System (GMS). GMS serves as a pre- and post-processing interface for RT3D. GMS can be used to define all the input files needed by RT3D code, and later the code can be launched from within GMS and run as a separate application. Once the RT3D simulation is completed, the solution can be imported to GMS for graphical post-processing. RT3D v1.0 supports several reaction packages that can be used for simulating different types of reactive contaminants. Each of the tutorials, described below, provides training on a different RT3D reaction package. Each reaction package has different input requirements, and the tutorials are designed to describe these differences. Furthermore, the tutorials illustrate the various options available in GMS for graphical post-processing of RT3D results. Users are strongly encouraged to complete the tutorials before attempting to use RT3D and GMS on a routine basis.

  19. Computing Radiative Transfer in a 3D Medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Von Allmen, Paul; Lee, Seungwon

    2012-01-01

    A package of software computes the time-dependent propagation of a narrow laser beam in an arbitrary three- dimensional (3D) medium with absorption and scattering, using the transient-discrete-ordinates method and a direct integration method. Unlike prior software that utilizes a Monte Carlo method, this software enables simulation at very small signal-to-noise ratios. The ability to simulate propagation of a narrow laser beam in a 3D medium is an improvement over other discrete-ordinate software. Unlike other direct-integration software, this software is not limited to simulation of propagation of thermal radiation with broad angular spread in three dimensions or of a laser pulse with narrow angular spread in two dimensions. Uses for this software include (1) computing scattering of a pulsed laser beam on a material having given elastic scattering and absorption profiles, and (2) evaluating concepts for laser-based instruments for sensing oceanic turbulence and related measurements of oceanic mixed-layer depths. With suitable augmentation, this software could be used to compute radiative transfer in ultrasound imaging in biological tissues, radiative transfer in the upper Earth crust for oil exploration, and propagation of laser pulses in telecommunication applications.

  20. Design of 3D eye-safe middle range vibrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Polulyakh, Valeriy; Poutivski, Iouri

    2014-05-27

    Laser Doppler Vibrometer and Range Meter (3D-MRV) is designed for middle range distances [1–100 meters]. 3D-MRV combines more than one laser in one device for a simultaneous real time measuring the distance and movement of the targets. The first laser has a short pulse (t∼30psec) and low energy (E∼200nJ) for distance measurement and the second one is a CW (continuous wave) single frequency laser for the velocity measurement with output power (P∼30mW). Both lasers perform on the eye-safe wavelength 1.5 μm. 3D-MRV uses the same mono-static optical transmitting and receiving channel for both lasers including an output telescope and a scanning angular system. 3D-MRV has an optical polarization switch to combine linear polarized laser beams from two lasers into one optical channel. The laser beams from both lasers by turns illuminate the target and the scattered laser radiation is collected by the telescope on a photo detector. The electrical signal from photo detector is used for measuring the distance to the target and its movement. For distance measurement the time of flight method is employed. For targets movement the optical heterodyne method is employed. The received CW laser radiation is mixed on a photo detector with the frequency-shifted laser radiation that is taken from CW laser and passed through an acousto-optic cell. The electrical signal from a photo detector on the difference frequency and phase has information about movement of the scattered targets. 3D-MVR may be used for the real time picturing of vibration of the extensive targets like bridges or aircrafts.

  1. 3D measurement for rapid prototyping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albrecht, Peter; Lilienblum, Tilo; Sommerkorn, Gerd; Michaelis, Bernd

    1996-08-01

    Optical 3-D measurement is an interesting approach for rapid prototyping. On one hand it's necessary to get the 3-D data of an object and on the other hand it's necessary to check the manufactured object (quality checking). Optical 3-D measurement can realize both. Classical 3-D measurement procedures based on photogrammetry cause systematic errors at strongly curved surfaces or steps in surfaces. One possibility to reduce these errors is to calculate the 3-D coordinates from several successively taken images. Thus it's possible to get higher spatial resolution and to reduce the systematic errors at 'problem surfaces.' Another possibility is to process the measurement values by neural networks. A modified associative memory smoothes and corrects the calculated 3-D coordinates using a-priori knowledge about the measurement object.

  2. Photorefractive Polymers for Updateable 3D Displays

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-02-24

    Final Performance Report 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 01-01-2007 to 11-30-2009 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Photorefractive Polymers for Updateable 3D ...ABSTRACT During the tenure of this project a large area updateable 3D color display has been developed for the first time using a new co-polymer...photorefractive polymers have been demonstrated. Moreover, a 6 inch × 6 inch sample was fabricated demonstrating the feasibility of making large area 3D

  3. 3D Microperfusion Model of ADPKD

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    Stratasys 3D printer . PDMS was cast in the negative molds in order to create permanent biocompatible plastic masters (SmoothCast 310). All goals of task...1 AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0304 TITLE: 3D Microperfusion Model of ADPKD PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: David L. Kaplan CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION...ADDRESS. 1. REPORT DATE October 2015 2. REPORT TYPE Annual Report 3. DATES COVERED 15 Sep 2014 - 14 Sep 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 3D

  4. 3D carotid plaque MR Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Dennis L.

    2015-01-01

    SYNOPSIS There has been significant progress made in 3D carotid plaque magnetic resonance imaging techniques in recent years. 3D plaque imaging clearly represents the future in clinical use. With effective flow suppression techniques, choices of different contrast weighting acquisitions, and time-efficient imaging approaches, 3D plaque imaging offers flexible imaging plane and view angle analysis, large coverage, multi-vascular beds capability, and even can be used in fast screening. PMID:26610656

  5. 3-D Extensions for Trustworthy Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    3- D Extensions for Trustworthy Systems (Invited Paper) Ted Huffmire∗, Timothy Levin∗, Cynthia Irvine∗, Ryan Kastner† and Timothy Sherwood...address these problems, we propose an approach to trustworthy system development based on 3- D integration, an emerging chip fabrication technique in...which two or more integrated circuit dies are fabricated individually and then combined into a single stack using vertical conductive posts. With 3- D

  6. Hardware Trust Implications of 3-D Integration

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-01

    enhancing a commod- ity processor with a variety of security functions. This paper examines the 3-D design approach and provides an analysis concluding...of key components. The question addressed by this paper is, “Can a 3-D control plane provide useful secure services when it is conjoined with an...untrust- worthy computation plane?” Design-level investigation of this question yields a definite yes. This paper explores 3- D applications and their

  7. Digital holography and 3-D imaging.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Partha; Barbastathis, George; Kim, Myung; Kukhtarev, Nickolai

    2011-03-01

    This feature issue on Digital Holography and 3-D Imaging comprises 15 papers on digital holographic techniques and applications, computer-generated holography and encryption techniques, and 3-D display. It is hoped that future work in the area leads to innovative applications of digital holography and 3-D imaging to biology and sensing, and to the development of novel nonlinear dynamic digital holographic techniques.

  8. Dimensional accuracy of 3D printed vertebra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogden, Kent; Ordway, Nathaniel; Diallo, Dalanda; Tillapaugh-Fay, Gwen; Aslan, Can

    2014-03-01

    3D printer applications in the biomedical sciences and medical imaging are expanding and will have an increasing impact on the practice of medicine. Orthopedic and reconstructive surgery has been an obvious area for development of 3D printer applications as the segmentation of bony anatomy to generate printable models is relatively straightforward. There are important issues that should be addressed when using 3D printed models for applications that may affect patient care; in particular the dimensional accuracy of the printed parts needs to be high to avoid poor decisions being made prior to surgery or therapeutic procedures. In this work, the dimensional accuracy of 3D printed vertebral bodies derived from CT data for a cadaver spine is compared with direct measurements on the ex-vivo vertebra and with measurements made on the 3D rendered vertebra using commercial 3D image processing software. The vertebra was printed on a consumer grade 3D printer using an additive print process using PLA (polylactic acid) filament. Measurements were made for 15 different anatomic features of the vertebral body, including vertebral body height, endplate width and depth, pedicle height and width, and spinal canal width and depth, among others. It is shown that for the segmentation and printing process used, the results of measurements made on the 3D printed vertebral body are substantially the same as those produced by direct measurement on the vertebra and measurements made on the 3D rendered vertebra.

  9. 3D weak lensing with spin wavelets on the ball

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leistedt, Boris; McEwen, Jason D.; Kitching, Thomas D.; Peiris, Hiranya V.

    2015-12-01

    We construct the spin flaglet transform, a wavelet transform to analyze spin signals in three dimensions. Spin flaglets can probe signal content localized simultaneously in space and frequency and, moreover, are separable so that their angular and radial properties can be controlled independently. They are particularly suited to analyzing cosmological observations such as the weak gravitational lensing of galaxies. Such observations have a unique 3D geometrical setting since they are natively made on the sky, have spin angular symmetries, and are extended in the radial direction by additional distance or redshift information. Flaglets are constructed in the harmonic space defined by the Fourier-Laguerre transform, previously defined for scalar functions and extended here to signals with spin symmetries. Thanks to various sampling theorems, both the Fourier-Laguerre and flaglet transforms are theoretically exact when applied to bandlimited signals. In other words, in numerical computations the only loss of information is due to the finite representation of floating point numbers. We develop a 3D framework relating the weak lensing power spectrum to covariances of flaglet coefficients. We suggest that the resulting novel flaglet weak lensing estimator offers a powerful alternative to common 2D and 3D approaches to accurately capture cosmological information. While standard weak lensing analyses focus on either real- or harmonic-space representations (i.e., correlation functions or Fourier-Bessel power spectra, respectively), a wavelet approach inherits the advantages of both techniques, where both complicated sky coverage and uncertainties associated with the physical modeling of small scales can be handled effectively. Our codes to compute the Fourier-Laguerre and flaglet transforms are made publicly available.

  10. FastScript3D - A Companion to Java 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koenig, Patti

    2005-01-01

    FastScript3D is a computer program, written in the Java 3D(TM) programming language, that establishes an alternative language that helps users who lack expertise in Java 3D to use Java 3D for constructing three-dimensional (3D)-appearing graphics. The FastScript3D language provides a set of simple, intuitive, one-line text-string commands for creating, controlling, and animating 3D models. The first word in a string is the name of a command; the rest of the string contains the data arguments for the command. The commands can also be used as an aid to learning Java 3D. Developers can extend the language by adding custom text-string commands. The commands can define new 3D objects or load representations of 3D objects from files in formats compatible with such other software systems as X3D. The text strings can be easily integrated into other languages. FastScript3D facilitates communication between scripting languages [which enable programming of hyper-text markup language (HTML) documents to interact with users] and Java 3D. The FastScript3D language can be extended and customized on both the scripting side and the Java 3D side.

  11. On the vector model of angular momentum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saari, Peeter

    2016-09-01

    Instead of (or in addition to) the common vector diagram with cones, we propose to visualize the peculiarities of quantum mechanical angular momentum by a completely quantized 3D model. It spotlights the discrete eigenvalues and noncommutativity of components of angular momentum and corresponds to outcomes of measurements—real or computer-simulated. The latter can be easily realized by an interactive worksheet of a suitable program package of algebraic calculations. The proposed complementary method of visualization helps undergraduate students to better understand the counterintuitive properties of this quantum mechanical observable.

  12. Digital acquisition system for high-speed 3-D imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yafuso, Eiji

    1997-11-01

    High-speed digital three-dimensional (3-D) imagery is possible using multiple independent charge-coupled device (CCD) cameras with sequentially triggered acquisition and individual field storage capability. The system described here utilizes sixteen independent cameras, providing versatility in configuration and image acquisition. By aligning the cameras in nearly coincident lines-of-sight, a sixteen frame two-dimensional (2-D) sequence can be captured. The delays can be individually adjusted lo yield a greater number of acquired frames during the more rapid segments of the event. Additionally, individual integration periods may be adjusted to ensure adequate radiometric response while minimizing image blur. An alternative alignment and triggering scheme arranges the cameras into two angularly separated banks of eight cameras each. By simultaneously triggering correlated stereo pairs, an eight-frame sequence of stereo images may be captured. In the first alignment scheme the camera lines-of-sight cannot be made precisely coincident. Thus representation of the data as a monocular sequence introduces the issue of independent camera coordinate registration with the real scene. This issue arises more significantly using the stereo pair method to reconstruct quantitative 3-D spatial information of the event as a function of time. The principal development here will be the derivation and evaluation of a solution transform and its inverse for the digital data which will yield a 3-D spatial mapping as a function of time.

  13. 3D ultrafast ultrasound imaging in vivo.

    PubMed

    Provost, Jean; Papadacci, Clement; Arango, Juan Esteban; Imbault, Marion; Fink, Mathias; Gennisson, Jean-Luc; Tanter, Mickael; Pernot, Mathieu

    2014-10-07

    Very high frame rate ultrasound imaging has recently allowed for the extension of the applications of echography to new fields of study such as the functional imaging of the brain, cardiac electrophysiology, and the quantitative imaging of the intrinsic mechanical properties of tumors, to name a few, non-invasively and in real time. In this study, we present the first implementation of Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging in 3D based on the use of either diverging or plane waves emanating from a sparse virtual array located behind the probe. It achieves high contrast and resolution while maintaining imaging rates of thousands of volumes per second. A customized portable ultrasound system was developed to sample 1024 independent channels and to drive a 32  ×  32 matrix-array probe. Its ability to track in 3D transient phenomena occurring in the millisecond range within a single ultrafast acquisition was demonstrated for 3D Shear-Wave Imaging, 3D Ultrafast Doppler Imaging, and, finally, 3D Ultrafast combined Tissue and Flow Doppler Imaging. The propagation of shear waves was tracked in a phantom and used to characterize its stiffness. 3D Ultrafast Doppler was used to obtain 3D maps of Pulsed Doppler, Color Doppler, and Power Doppler quantities in a single acquisition and revealed, at thousands of volumes per second, the complex 3D flow patterns occurring in the ventricles of the human heart during an entire cardiac cycle, as well as the 3D in vivo interaction of blood flow and wall motion during the pulse wave in the carotid at the bifurcation. This study demonstrates the potential of 3D Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging for the 3D mapping of stiffness, tissue motion, and flow in humans in vivo and promises new clinical applications of ultrasound with reduced intra--and inter-observer variability.

  14. 3D ultrafast ultrasound imaging in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Provost, Jean; Papadacci, Clement; Esteban Arango, Juan; Imbault, Marion; Fink, Mathias; Gennisson, Jean-Luc; Tanter, Mickael; Pernot, Mathieu

    2014-10-01

    Very high frame rate ultrasound imaging has recently allowed for the extension of the applications of echography to new fields of study such as the functional imaging of the brain, cardiac electrophysiology, and the quantitative imaging of the intrinsic mechanical properties of tumors, to name a few, non-invasively and in real time. In this study, we present the first implementation of Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging in 3D based on the use of either diverging or plane waves emanating from a sparse virtual array located behind the probe. It achieves high contrast and resolution while maintaining imaging rates of thousands of volumes per second. A customized portable ultrasound system was developed to sample 1024 independent channels and to drive a 32  ×  32 matrix-array probe. Its ability to track in 3D transient phenomena occurring in the millisecond range within a single ultrafast acquisition was demonstrated for 3D Shear-Wave Imaging, 3D Ultrafast Doppler Imaging, and, finally, 3D Ultrafast combined Tissue and Flow Doppler Imaging. The propagation of shear waves was tracked in a phantom and used to characterize its stiffness. 3D Ultrafast Doppler was used to obtain 3D maps of Pulsed Doppler, Color Doppler, and Power Doppler quantities in a single acquisition and revealed, at thousands of volumes per second, the complex 3D flow patterns occurring in the ventricles of the human heart during an entire cardiac cycle, as well as the 3D in vivo interaction of blood flow and wall motion during the pulse wave in the carotid at the bifurcation. This study demonstrates the potential of 3D Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging for the 3D mapping of stiffness, tissue motion, and flow in humans in vivo and promises new clinical applications of ultrasound with reduced intra—and inter-observer variability.

  15. An aerial 3D printing test mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirsch, Michael; McGuire, Thomas; Parsons, Michael; Leake, Skye; Straub, Jeremy

    2016-05-01

    This paper provides an overview of an aerial 3D printing technology, its development and its testing. This technology is potentially useful in its own right. In addition, this work advances the development of a related in-space 3D printing technology. A series of aerial 3D printing test missions, used to test the aerial printing technology, are discussed. Through completing these test missions, the design for an in-space 3D printer may be advanced. The current design for the in-space 3D printer involves focusing thermal energy to heat an extrusion head and allow for the extrusion of molten print material. Plastics can be used as well as composites including metal, allowing for the extrusion of conductive material. A variety of experiments will be used to test this initial 3D printer design. High altitude balloons will be used to test the effects of microgravity on 3D printing, as well as parabolic flight tests. Zero pressure balloons can be used to test the effect of long 3D printing missions subjected to low temperatures. Vacuum chambers will be used to test 3D printing in a vacuum environment. The results will be used to adapt a current prototype of an in-space 3D printer. Then, a small scale prototype can be sent into low-Earth orbit as a 3-U cube satellite. With the ability to 3D print in space demonstrated, future missions can launch production hardware through which the sustainability and durability of structures in space will be greatly improved.

  16. On the breakdown of axisymmetric smooth solutions for the 3-D Euler equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chae, Dongho; Kim, Namkwon

    1996-05-01

    We refine the Beale-Kato-Majda criterion for the breakdown of smooth solutions of the 3-D incompressible Euler equations in the case of axisymmetry. In this case the angular component of vorticity in the cylindrical coordinates alone controls blow-up of the higher Sobolev norms of the velocity.

  17. Integration of real-time 3D image acquisition and multiview 3D display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhaoxing; Geng, Zheng; Li, Tuotuo; Li, Wei; Wang, Jingyi; Liu, Yongchun

    2014-03-01

    Seamless integration of 3D acquisition and 3D display systems offers enhanced experience in 3D visualization of the real world objects or scenes. The vivid representation of captured 3D objects displayed on a glasses-free 3D display screen could bring the realistic viewing experience to viewers as if they are viewing real-world scene. Although the technologies in 3D acquisition and 3D display have advanced rapidly in recent years, effort is lacking in studying the seamless integration of these two different aspects of 3D technologies. In this paper, we describe our recent progress on integrating a light-field 3D acquisition system and an autostereoscopic multiview 3D display for real-time light field capture and display. This paper focuses on both the architecture design and the implementation of the hardware and the software of this integrated 3D system. A prototype of the integrated 3D system is built to demonstrate the real-time 3D acquisition and 3D display capability of our proposed system.

  18. Immersive 3D Geovisualization in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philips, Andrea; Walz, Ariane; Bergner, Andreas; Graeff, Thomas; Heistermann, Maik; Kienzler, Sarah; Korup, Oliver; Lipp, Torsten; Schwanghart, Wolfgang; Zeilinger, Gerold

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we investigate how immersive 3D geovisualization can be used in higher education. Based on MacEachren and Kraak's geovisualization cube, we examine the usage of immersive 3D geovisualization and its usefulness in a research-based learning module on flood risk, called GEOSimulator. Results of a survey among participating students…

  19. A 3D Geostatistical Mapping Tool

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, W. W.; Stevenson, Graig; Patel, Ketan; Wang, Jun

    1999-02-09

    This software provides accurate 3D reservoir modeling tools and high quality 3D graphics for PC platforms enabling engineers and geologists to better comprehend reservoirs and consequently improve their decisions. The mapping algorithms are fractals, kriging, sequential guassian simulation, and three nearest neighbor methods.

  20. 3D Printing. What's the Harm?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Love, Tyler S.; Roy, Ken

    2016-01-01

    Health concerns from 3D printing were first documented by Stephens, Azimi, Orch, and Ramos (2013), who found that commercially available 3D printers were producing hazardous levels of ultrafine particles (UFPs) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) when plastic materials were melted through the extruder. UFPs are particles less than 100 nanometers…

  1. Topology dictionary for 3D video understanding.

    PubMed

    Tung, Tony; Matsuyama, Takashi

    2012-08-01

    This paper presents a novel approach that achieves 3D video understanding. 3D video consists of a stream of 3D models of subjects in motion. The acquisition of long sequences requires large storage space (2 GB for 1 min). Moreover, it is tedious to browse data sets and extract meaningful information. We propose the topology dictionary to encode and describe 3D video content. The model consists of a topology-based shape descriptor dictionary which can be generated from either extracted patterns or training sequences. The model relies on 1) topology description and classification using Reeb graphs, and 2) a Markov motion graph to represent topology change states. We show that the use of Reeb graphs as the high-level topology descriptor is relevant. It allows the dictionary to automatically model complex sequences, whereas other strategies would require prior knowledge on the shape and topology of the captured subjects. Our approach serves to encode 3D video sequences, and can be applied for content-based description and summarization of 3D video sequences. Furthermore, topology class labeling during a learning process enables the system to perform content-based event recognition. Experiments were carried out on various 3D videos. We showcase an application for 3D video progressive summarization using the topology dictionary.

  2. 3D elastic control for mobile devices.

    PubMed

    Hachet, Martin; Pouderoux, Joachim; Guitton, Pascal

    2008-01-01

    To increase the input space of mobile devices, the authors developed a proof-of-concept 3D elastic controller that easily adapts to mobile devices. This embedded device improves the completion of high-level interaction tasks such as visualization of large documents and navigation in 3D environments. It also opens new directions for tomorrow's mobile applications.

  3. 3D Printing of Molecular Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Adam; Olson, Arthur

    2016-01-01

    Physical molecular models have played a valuable role in our understanding of the invisible nano-scale world. We discuss 3D printing and its use in producing models of the molecules of life. Complex biomolecular models, produced from 3D printed parts, can demonstrate characteristics of molecular structure and function, such as viral self-assembly,…

  4. 3D Printed Block Copolymer Nanostructures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scalfani, Vincent F.; Turner, C. Heath; Rupar, Paul A.; Jenkins, Alexander H.; Bara, Jason E.

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of 3D printing has dramatically advanced the availability of tangible molecular and extended solid models. Interestingly, there are few nanostructure models available both commercially and through other do-it-yourself approaches such as 3D printing. This is unfortunate given the importance of nanotechnology in science today. In this…

  5. Infrastructure for 3D Imaging Test Bed

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-05-11

    analysis. (c.) Real time detection & analysis of human gait: using a video camera we capture walking human silhouette for pattern modeling and gait ... analysis . Fig. 5 shows the scanning result result that is fed into a Geo-magic software tool for 3D meshing. Fig. 5: 3D scanning result In

  6. Wow! 3D Content Awakens the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Dan

    2010-01-01

    From her first encounter with stereoscopic 3D technology designed for classroom instruction, Megan Timme, principal at Hamilton Park Pacesetter Magnet School in Dallas, sensed it could be transformative. Last spring, when she began pilot-testing 3D content in her third-, fourth- and fifth-grade classrooms, Timme wasn't disappointed. Students…

  7. Stereo 3-D Vision in Teaching Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zabunov, Svetoslav

    2012-01-01

    Stereo 3-D vision is a technology used to present images on a flat surface (screen, paper, etc.) and at the same time to create the notion of three-dimensional spatial perception of the viewed scene. A great number of physical processes are much better understood when viewed in stereo 3-D vision compared to standard flat 2-D presentation. The…

  8. Pathways for Learning from 3D Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrier, L. Mark; Rab, Saira S.; Rosen, Larry D.; Vasquez, Ludivina; Cheever, Nancy A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to find out if 3D stereoscopic presentation of information in a movie format changes a viewer's experience of the movie content. Four possible pathways from 3D presentation to memory and learning were considered: a direct connection based on cognitive neuroscience research; a connection through "immersion"…

  9. 3D, or Not to Be?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norbury, Keith

    2012-01-01

    It may be too soon for students to be showing up for class with popcorn and gummy bears, but technology similar to that behind the 3D blockbuster movie "Avatar" is slowly finding its way into college classrooms. 3D classroom projectors are taking students on fantastic voyages inside the human body, to the ruins of ancient Greece--even to faraway…

  10. Static & Dynamic Response of 3D Solids

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Jerry

    1996-07-15

    NIKE3D is a large deformations 3D finite element code used to obtain the resulting displacements and stresses from multi-body static and dynamic structural thermo-mechanics problems with sliding interfaces. Many nonlinear and temperature dependent constitutive models are available.

  11. BEAMS3D Neutral Beam Injection Model

    SciTech Connect

    Lazerson, Samuel

    2014-04-14

    With the advent of applied 3D fi elds in Tokamaks and modern high performance stellarators, a need has arisen to address non-axisymmetric effects on neutral beam heating and fueling. We report on the development of a fully 3D neutral beam injection (NBI) model, BEAMS3D, which addresses this need by coupling 3D equilibria to a guiding center code capable of modeling neutral and charged particle trajectories across the separatrix and into the plasma core. Ionization, neutralization, charge-exchange, viscous velocity reduction, and pitch angle scattering are modeled with the ADAS atomic physics database [1]. Benchmark calculations are presented to validate the collisionless particle orbits, neutral beam injection model, frictional drag, and pitch angle scattering effects. A calculation of neutral beam heating in the NCSX device is performed, highlighting the capability of the code to handle 3D magnetic fields.

  12. Fabrication of 3D Silicon Sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Kok, A.; Hansen, T.E.; Hansen, T.A.; Lietaer, N.; Summanwar, A.; Kenney, C.; Hasi, J.; Da Via, C.; Parker, S.I.; /Hawaii U.

    2012-06-06

    Silicon sensors with a three-dimensional (3-D) architecture, in which the n and p electrodes penetrate through the entire substrate, have many advantages over planar silicon sensors including radiation hardness, fast time response, active edge and dual readout capabilities. The fabrication of 3D sensors is however rather complex. In recent years, there have been worldwide activities on 3D fabrication. SINTEF in collaboration with Stanford Nanofabrication Facility have successfully fabricated the original (single sided double column type) 3D detectors in two prototype runs and the third run is now on-going. This paper reports the status of this fabrication work and the resulted yield. The work of other groups such as the development of double sided 3D detectors is also briefly reported.

  13. 2D/3D switchable displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dekker, T.; de Zwart, S. T.; Willemsen, O. H.; Hiddink, M. G. H.; IJzerman, W. L.

    2006-02-01

    A prerequisite for a wide market acceptance of 3D displays is the ability to switch between 3D and full resolution 2D. In this paper we present a robust and cost effective concept for an auto-stereoscopic switchable 2D/3D display. The display is based on an LCD panel, equipped with switchable LC-filled lenticular lenses. We will discuss 3D image quality, with the focus on display uniformity. We show that slanting the lenticulars in combination with a good lens design can minimize non-uniformities in our 20" 2D/3D monitors. Furthermore, we introduce fractional viewing systems as a very robust concept to further improve uniformity in the case slanting the lenticulars and optimizing the lens design are not sufficient. We will discuss measurements and numerical simulations of the key optical characteristics of this display. Finally, we discuss 2D image quality, the switching characteristics and the residual lens effect.

  14. 6D Interpretation of 3D Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herfray, Yannick; Krasnov, Kirill; Scarinci, Carlos

    2017-02-01

    We show that 3D gravity, in its pure connection formulation, admits a natural 6D interpretation. The 3D field equations for the connection are equivalent to 6D Hitchin equations for the Chern–Simons 3-form in the total space of the principal bundle over the 3-dimensional base. Turning this construction around one gets an explanation of why the pure connection formulation of 3D gravity exists. More generally, we interpret 3D gravity as the dimensional reduction of the 6D Hitchin theory. To this end, we show that any \\text{SU}(2) invariant closed 3-form in the total space of the principal \\text{SU}(2) bundle can be parametrised by a connection together with a 2-form field on the base. The dimensional reduction of the 6D Hitchin theory then gives rise to 3D gravity coupled to a topological 2-form field.

  15. Biocompatible 3D Matrix with Antimicrobial Properties.

    PubMed

    Ion, Alberto; Andronescu, Ecaterina; Rădulescu, Dragoș; Rădulescu, Marius; Iordache, Florin; Vasile, Bogdan Ștefan; Surdu, Adrian Vasile; Albu, Madalina Georgiana; Maniu, Horia; Chifiriuc, Mariana Carmen; Grumezescu, Alexandru Mihai; Holban, Alina Maria

    2016-01-20

    The aim of this study was to develop, characterize and assess the biological activity of a new regenerative 3D matrix with antimicrobial properties, based on collagen (COLL), hydroxyapatite (HAp), β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) and usnic acid (UA). The prepared 3D matrix was characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Fourier Transform Infrared Microscopy (FT-IRM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), and X-ray Diffraction (XRD). In vitro qualitative and quantitative analyses performed on cultured diploid cells demonstrated that the 3D matrix is biocompatible, allowing the normal development and growth of MG-63 osteoblast-like cells and exhibited an antimicrobial effect, especially on the Staphylococcus aureus strain, explained by the particular higher inhibitory activity of usnic acid (UA) against Gram positive bacterial strains. Our data strongly recommend the obtained 3D matrix to be used as a successful alternative for the fabrication of three dimensional (3D) anti-infective regeneration matrix for bone tissue engineering.

  16. Quon 3D language for quantum information

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhengwei; Wozniakowski, Alex; Jaffe, Arthur M.

    2017-01-01

    We present a 3D topological picture-language for quantum information. Our approach combines charged excitations carried by strings, with topological properties that arise from embedding the strings in the interior of a 3D manifold with boundary. A quon is a composite that acts as a particle. Specifically, a quon is a hemisphere containing a neutral pair of open strings with opposite charge. We interpret multiquons and their transformations in a natural way. We obtain a type of relation, a string–genus “joint relation,” involving both a string and the 3D manifold. We use the joint relation to obtain a topological interpretation of the C∗-Hopf algebra relations, which are widely used in tensor networks. We obtain a 3D representation of the controlled NOT (CNOT) gate that is considerably simpler than earlier work, and a 3D topological protocol for teleportation. PMID:28167790

  17. 3D Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Provost, Jean; Papadacci, Clement; Arango, Juan Esteban; Imbault, Marion; Gennisson, Jean-Luc; Tanter, Mickael; Pernot, Mathieu

    2014-01-01

    Very high frame rate ultrasound imaging has recently allowed for the extension of the applications of echography to new fields of study such as the functional imaging of the brain, cardiac electrophysiology, and the quantitative real-time imaging of the intrinsic mechanical properties of tumors, to name a few, non-invasively and in real time. In this study, we present the first implementation of Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging in three dimensions based on the use of either diverging or plane waves emanating from a sparse virtual array located behind the probe. It achieves high contrast and resolution while maintaining imaging rates of thousands of volumes per second. A customized portable ultrasound system was developed to sample 1024 independent channels and to drive a 32×32 matrix-array probe. Its capability to track in 3D transient phenomena occurring in the millisecond range within a single ultrafast acquisition was demonstrated for 3-D Shear-Wave Imaging, 3-D Ultrafast Doppler Imaging and finally 3D Ultrafast combined Tissue and Flow Doppler. The propagation of shear waves was tracked in a phantom and used to characterize its stiffness. 3-D Ultrafast Doppler was used to obtain 3-D maps of Pulsed Doppler, Color Doppler, and Power Doppler quantities in a single acquisition and revealed, for the first time, the complex 3-D flow patterns occurring in the ventricles of the human heart during an entire cardiac cycle, and the 3-D in vivo interaction of blood flow and wall motion during the pulse wave in the carotid at the bifurcation. This study demonstrates the potential of 3-D Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging for the 3-D real-time mapping of stiffness, tissue motion, and flow in humans in vivo and promises new clinical applications of ultrasound with reduced intra- and inter-observer variability. PMID:25207828

  18. 3D Visualization Development of SIUE Campus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nellutla, Shravya

    Geographic Information Systems (GIS) has progressed from the traditional map-making to the modern technology where the information can be created, edited, managed and analyzed. Like any other models, maps are simplified representations of real world. Hence visualization plays an essential role in the applications of GIS. The use of sophisticated visualization tools and methods, especially three dimensional (3D) modeling, has been rising considerably due to the advancement of technology. There are currently many off-the-shelf technologies available in the market to build 3D GIS models. One of the objectives of this research was to examine the available ArcGIS and its extensions for 3D modeling and visualization and use them to depict a real world scenario. Furthermore, with the advent of the web, a platform for accessing and sharing spatial information on the Internet, it is possible to generate interactive online maps. Integrating Internet capacity with GIS functionality redefines the process of sharing and processing the spatial information. Enabling a 3D map online requires off-the-shelf GIS software, 3D model builders, web server, web applications and client server technologies. Such environments are either complicated or expensive because of the amount of hardware and software involved. Therefore, the second objective of this research was to investigate and develop simpler yet cost-effective 3D modeling approach that uses available ArcGIS suite products and the free 3D computer graphics software for designing 3D world scenes. Both ArcGIS Explorer and ArcGIS Online will be used to demonstrate the way of sharing and distributing 3D geographic information on the Internet. A case study of the development of 3D campus for the Southern Illinois University Edwardsville is demonstrated.

  19. Pathways for Learning from 3D Technology

    PubMed Central

    Carrier, L. Mark; Rab, Saira S.; Rosen, Larry D.; Vasquez, Ludivina; Cheever, Nancy A.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to find out if 3D stereoscopic presentation of information in a movie format changes a viewer's experience of the movie content. Four possible pathways from 3D presentation to memory and learning were considered: a direct connection based on cognitive neuroscience research; a connection through "immersion" in that 3D presentations could provide additional sensorial cues (e.g., depth cues) that lead to a higher sense of being surrounded by the stimulus; a connection through general interest such that 3D presentation increases a viewer’s interest that leads to greater attention paid to the stimulus (e.g., "involvement"); and a connection through discomfort, with the 3D goggles causing discomfort that interferes with involvement and thus with memory. The memories of 396 participants who viewed two-dimensional (2D) or 3D movies at movie theaters in Southern California were tested. Within three days of viewing a movie, participants filled out an online anonymous questionnaire that queried them about their movie content memories, subjective movie-going experiences (including emotional reactions and "presence") and demographic backgrounds. The responses to the questionnaire were subjected to path analyses in which several different links between 3D presentation to memory (and other variables) were explored. The results showed there were no effects of 3D presentation, either directly or indirectly, upon memory. However, the largest effects of 3D presentation were on emotions and immersion, with 3D presentation leading to reduced positive emotions, increased negative emotions and lowered immersion, compared to 2D presentations. PMID:28078331

  20. The psychology of the 3D experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janicke, Sophie H.; Ellis, Andrew

    2013-03-01

    With 3D televisions expected to reach 50% home saturation as early as 2016, understanding the psychological mechanisms underlying the user response to 3D technology is critical for content providers, educators and academics. Unfortunately, research examining the effects of 3D technology has not kept pace with the technology's rapid adoption, resulting in large-scale use of a technology about which very little is actually known. Recognizing this need for new research, we conducted a series of studies measuring and comparing many of the variables and processes underlying both 2D and 3D media experiences. In our first study, we found narratives within primetime dramas had the power to shift viewer attitudes in both 2D and 3D settings. However, we found no difference in persuasive power between 2D and 3D content. We contend this lack of effect was the result of poor conversion quality and the unique demands of 3D production. In our second study, we found 3D technology significantly increased enjoyment when viewing sports content, yet offered no added enjoyment when viewing a movie trailer. The enhanced enjoyment of the sports content was shown to be the result of heightened emotional arousal and attention in the 3D condition. We believe the lack of effect found for the movie trailer may be genre-related. In our final study, we found 3D technology significantly enhanced enjoyment of two video games from different genres. The added enjoyment was found to be the result of an increased sense of presence.

  1. Dose fractionation theorem in 3-D reconstruction (tomography)

    SciTech Connect

    Glaeser, R.M.

    1997-02-01

    It is commonly assumed that the large number of projections for single-axis tomography precludes its application to most beam-labile specimens. However, Hegerl and Hoppe have pointed out that the total dose required to achieve statistical significance for each voxel of a computed 3-D reconstruction is the same as that required to obtain a single 2-D image of that isolated voxel, at the same level of statistical significance. Thus a statistically significant 3-D image can be computed from statistically insignificant projections, as along as the total dosage that is distributed among these projections is high enough that it would have resulted in a statistically significant projection, if applied to only one image. We have tested this critical theorem by simulating the tomographic reconstruction of a realistic 3-D model created from an electron micrograph. The simulations verify the basic conclusions of high absorption, signal-dependent noise, varying specimen contrast and missing angular range. Furthermore, the simulations demonstrate that individual projections in the series of fractionated-dose images can be aligned by cross-correlation because they contain significant information derived from the summation of features from different depths in the structure. This latter information is generally not useful for structural interpretation prior to 3-D reconstruction, owing to the complexity of most specimens investigated by single-axis tomography. These results, in combination with dose estimates for imaging single voxels and measurements of radiation damage in the electron microscope, demonstrate that it is feasible to use single-axis tomography with soft X-ray microscopy of frozen-hydrated specimens.

  2. 3D bioprinting of tissues and organs.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Sean V; Atala, Anthony

    2014-08-01

    Additive manufacturing, otherwise known as three-dimensional (3D) printing, is driving major innovations in many areas, such as engineering, manufacturing, art, education and medicine. Recent advances have enabled 3D printing of biocompatible materials, cells and supporting components into complex 3D functional living tissues. 3D bioprinting is being applied to regenerative medicine to address the need for tissues and organs suitable for transplantation. Compared with non-biological printing, 3D bioprinting involves additional complexities, such as the choice of materials, cell types, growth and differentiation factors, and technical challenges related to the sensitivities of living cells and the construction of tissues. Addressing these complexities requires the integration of technologies from the fields of engineering, biomaterials science, cell biology, physics and medicine. 3D bioprinting has already been used for the generation and transplantation of several tissues, including multilayered skin, bone, vascular grafts, tracheal splints, heart tissue and cartilaginous structures. Other applications include developing high-throughput 3D-bioprinted tissue models for research, drug discovery and toxicology.

  3. Medical 3D Printing for the Radiologist.

    PubMed

    Mitsouras, Dimitris; Liacouras, Peter; Imanzadeh, Amir; Giannopoulos, Andreas A; Cai, Tianrun; Kumamaru, Kanako K; George, Elizabeth; Wake, Nicole; Caterson, Edward J; Pomahac, Bohdan; Ho, Vincent B; Grant, Gerald T; Rybicki, Frank J

    2015-01-01

    While use of advanced visualization in radiology is instrumental in diagnosis and communication with referring clinicians, there is an unmet need to render Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) images as three-dimensional (3D) printed models capable of providing both tactile feedback and tangible depth information about anatomic and pathologic states. Three-dimensional printed models, already entrenched in the nonmedical sciences, are rapidly being embraced in medicine as well as in the lay community. Incorporating 3D printing from images generated and interpreted by radiologists presents particular challenges, including training, materials and equipment, and guidelines. The overall costs of a 3D printing laboratory must be balanced by the clinical benefits. It is expected that the number of 3D-printed models generated from DICOM images for planning interventions and fabricating implants will grow exponentially. Radiologists should at a minimum be familiar with 3D printing as it relates to their field, including types of 3D printing technologies and materials used to create 3D-printed anatomic models, published applications of models to date, and clinical benefits in radiology. Online supplemental material is available for this article.

  4. Medical 3D Printing for the Radiologist

    PubMed Central

    Mitsouras, Dimitris; Liacouras, Peter; Imanzadeh, Amir; Giannopoulos, Andreas A.; Cai, Tianrun; Kumamaru, Kanako K.; George, Elizabeth; Wake, Nicole; Caterson, Edward J.; Pomahac, Bohdan; Ho, Vincent B.; Grant, Gerald T.

    2015-01-01

    While use of advanced visualization in radiology is instrumental in diagnosis and communication with referring clinicians, there is an unmet need to render Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) images as three-dimensional (3D) printed models capable of providing both tactile feedback and tangible depth information about anatomic and pathologic states. Three-dimensional printed models, already entrenched in the nonmedical sciences, are rapidly being embraced in medicine as well as in the lay community. Incorporating 3D printing from images generated and interpreted by radiologists presents particular challenges, including training, materials and equipment, and guidelines. The overall costs of a 3D printing laboratory must be balanced by the clinical benefits. It is expected that the number of 3D-printed models generated from DICOM images for planning interventions and fabricating implants will grow exponentially. Radiologists should at a minimum be familiar with 3D printing as it relates to their field, including types of 3D printing technologies and materials used to create 3D-printed anatomic models, published applications of models to date, and clinical benefits in radiology. Online supplemental material is available for this article. ©RSNA, 2015 PMID:26562233

  5. NUBEAM developments and 3d halo modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorelenkova, M. V.; Medley, S. S.; Kaye, S. M.

    2012-10-01

    Recent developments related to the 3D halo model in NUBEAM code are described. To have a reliable halo neutral source for diagnostic simulation, the TRANSP/NUBEAM code has been enhanced with full implementation of ADAS atomic physic ground state and excited state data for hydrogenic beams and mixed species plasma targets. The ADAS codes and database provide the density and temperature dependence of the atomic data, and the collective nature of the state excitation process. To be able to populate 3D halo output with sufficient statistical resolution, the capability to control the statistics of fast ion CX modeling and for thermal halo launch has been added to NUBEAM. The 3D halo neutral model is based on modification and extension of the ``beam in box'' aligned 3d Cartesian grid that includes the neutral beam itself, 3D fast neutral densities due to CX of partially slowed down fast ions in the beam halo region, 3D thermal neutral densities due to CX deposition and fast neutral recapture source. More details on the 3D halo simulation design will be presented.

  6. Optically rewritable 3D liquid crystal displays.

    PubMed

    Sun, J; Srivastava, A K; Zhang, W; Wang, L; Chigrinov, V G; Kwok, H S

    2014-11-01

    Optically rewritable liquid crystal display (ORWLCD) is a concept based on the optically addressed bi-stable display that does not need any power to hold the image after being uploaded. Recently, the demand for the 3D image display has increased enormously. Several attempts have been made to achieve 3D image on the ORWLCD, but all of them involve high complexity for image processing on both hardware and software levels. In this Letter, we disclose a concept for the 3D-ORWLCD by dividing the given image in three parts with different optic axis. A quarter-wave plate is placed on the top of the ORWLCD to modify the emerging light from different domains of the image in different manner. Thereafter, Polaroid glasses can be used to visualize the 3D image. The 3D image can be refreshed, on the 3D-ORWLCD, in one-step with proper ORWLCD printer and image processing, and therefore, with easy image refreshing and good image quality, such displays can be applied for many applications viz. 3D bi-stable display, security elements, etc.

  7. 3D packaging for integrated circuit systems

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, D.; Palmer, D.W.

    1996-11-01

    A goal was set for high density, high performance microelectronics pursued through a dense 3D packing of integrated circuits. A {open_quotes}tool set{close_quotes} of assembly processes have been developed that enable 3D system designs: 3D thermal analysis, silicon electrical through vias, IC thinning, mounting wells in silicon, adhesives for silicon stacking, pretesting of IC chips before commitment to stacks, and bond pad bumping. Validation of these process developments occurred through both Sandia prototypes and subsequent commercial examples.

  8. FUN3D Manual: 12.5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, William L.; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.

    2014-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 12.5, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational uid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables ecient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  9. FUN3D Manual: 12.4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, Bil; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.

    2014-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 12.4, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixedelement unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  10. 3D Immersive Visualization with Astrophysical Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kent, Brian R.

    2017-01-01

    We present the refinement of a new 3D immersion technique for astrophysical data visualization.Methodology to create 360 degree spherical panoramas is reviewed. The 3D software package Blender coupled with Python and the Google Spatial Media module are used together to create the final data products. Data can be viewed interactively with a mobile phone or tablet or in a web browser. The technique can apply to different kinds of astronomical data including 3D stellar and galaxy catalogs, images, and planetary maps.

  11. A high capacity 3D steganography algorithm.

    PubMed

    Chao, Min-Wen; Lin, Chao-hung; Yu, Cheng-Wei; Lee, Tong-Yee

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we present a very high-capacity and low-distortion 3D steganography scheme. Our steganography approach is based on a novel multilayered embedding scheme to hide secret messages in the vertices of 3D polygon models. Experimental results show that the cover model distortion is very small as the number of hiding layers ranges from 7 to 13 layers. To the best of our knowledge, this novel approach can provide much higher hiding capacity than other state-of-the-art approaches, while obeying the low distortion and security basic requirements for steganography on 3D models.

  12. How We 3D-Print Aerogel

    SciTech Connect

    2015-04-23

    A new type of graphene aerogel will make for better energy storage, sensors, nanoelectronics, catalysis and separations. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory researchers have made graphene aerogel microlattices with an engineered architecture via a 3D printing technique known as direct ink writing. The research appears in the April 22 edition of the journal, Nature Communications. The 3D printed graphene aerogels have high surface area, excellent electrical conductivity, are lightweight, have mechanical stiffness and exhibit supercompressibility (up to 90 percent compressive strain). In addition, the 3D printed graphene aerogel microlattices show an order of magnitude improvement over bulk graphene materials and much better mass transport.

  13. FUN3D Manual: 12.6

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, William L.; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.

    2015-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 12.6, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  14. FUN3D Manual: 12.9

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Carlson, Jan-Renee; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, Bil; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.

    2016-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 12.9, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  15. FUN3D Manual: 13.1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Carlson, Jan-Renee; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, Bil; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.

    2017-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 13.1, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  16. FUN3D Manual: 12.7

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Carlson, Jan-Renee; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, Bil; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.

    2015-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 12.7, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  17. FUN3D Manual: 13.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Carlson, Jan-Renee; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, Bill; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.

    2016-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 13.0, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  18. FUN3D Manual: 12.8

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Carlson, Jan-Renee; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, Bil; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.

    2015-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 12.8, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  19. An Improved Version of TOPAZ 3D

    SciTech Connect

    Krasnykh, Anatoly

    2003-07-29

    An improved version of the TOPAZ 3D gun code is presented as a powerful tool for beam optics simulation. In contrast to the previous version of TOPAZ 3D, the geometry of the device under test is introduced into TOPAZ 3D directly from a CAD program, such as Solid Edge or AutoCAD. In order to have this new feature, an interface was developed, using the GiD software package as a meshing code. The article describes this method with two models to illustrate the results.

  20. RHOCUBE: 3D density distributions modeling code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikutta, Robert; Agliozzo, Claudia

    2016-11-01

    RHOCUBE models 3D density distributions on a discrete Cartesian grid and their integrated 2D maps. It can be used for a range of applications, including modeling the electron number density in LBV shells and computing the emission measure. The RHOCUBE Python package provides several 3D density distributions, including a powerlaw shell, truncated Gaussian shell, constant-density torus, dual cones, and spiralling helical tubes, and can accept additional distributions. RHOCUBE provides convenient methods for shifts and rotations in 3D, and if necessary, an arbitrary number of density distributions can be combined into the same model cube and the integration ∫ dz performed through the joint density field.

  1. Explicit 3-D Hydrodynamic FEM Program

    SciTech Connect

    2000-11-07

    DYNA3D is a nonlinear explicit finite element code for analyzing 3-D structures and solid continuum. The code is vectorized and available on several computer platforms. The element library includes continuum, shell, beam, truss and spring/damper elements to allow maximum flexibility in modeling physical problems. Many materials are available to represent a wide range of material behavior, including elasticity, plasticity, composites, thermal effects and rate dependence. In addition, DYNA3D has a sophisticated contact interface capability, including frictional sliding, single surface contact and automatic contact generation.

  2. 3D-HIM: A 3D High-density Interleaved Memory for Bipolar RRAM Design

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-01

    JOURNAL ARTICLE (Post Print ) 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) DEC 2010 – NOV 2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 3D -HIM: A 3D HIGH-DENSITY INTERLEAVED MEMORY...emerged as one of the promising candidates for large data storage in computing systems. Moreover, building up RRAM in a three dimensional ( 3D ) stacking...brings in the potential reliability issue. To alleviate the situation, we introduce two novel 3D stacking structures built upon bipolar RRAM

  3. Do-It-Yourself: 3D Models of Hydrogenic Orbitals through 3D Printing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith, Kaitlyn M.; de Cataldo, Riccardo; Fogarty, Keir H.

    2016-01-01

    Introductory chemistry students often have difficulty visualizing the 3-dimensional shapes of the hydrogenic electron orbitals without the aid of physical 3D models. Unfortunately, commercially available models can be quite expensive. 3D printing offers a solution for producing models of hydrogenic orbitals. 3D printing technology is widely…

  4. Optical 3D surface digitizing in forensic medicine: 3D documentation of skin and bone injuries.

    PubMed

    Thali, Michael J; Braun, Marcel; Dirnhofer, Richard

    2003-11-26

    Photography process reduces a three-dimensional (3D) wound to a two-dimensional level. If there is a need for a high-resolution 3D dataset of an object, it needs to be three-dimensionally scanned. No-contact optical 3D digitizing surface scanners can be used as a powerful tool for wound and injury-causing instrument analysis in trauma cases. The 3D skin wound and a bone injury documentation using the optical scanner Advanced TOpometric Sensor (ATOS II, GOM International, Switzerland) will be demonstrated using two illustrative cases. Using this 3D optical digitizing method the wounds (the virtual 3D computer model of the skin and the bone injuries) and the virtual 3D model of the injury-causing tool are graphically documented in 3D in real-life size and shape and can be rotated in the CAD program on the computer screen. In addition, the virtual 3D models of the bone injuries and tool can now be compared in a 3D CAD program against one another in virtual space, to see if there are matching areas. Further steps in forensic medicine will be a full 3D surface documentation of the human body and all the forensic relevant injuries using optical 3D scanners.

  5. XML3D and Xflow: combining declarative 3D for the Web with generic data flows.

    PubMed

    Klein, Felix; Sons, Kristian; Rubinstein, Dmitri; Slusallek, Philipp

    2013-01-01

    Researchers have combined XML3D, which provides declarative, interactive 3D scene descriptions based on HTML5, with Xflow, a language for declarative, high-performance data processing. The result lets Web developers combine a 3D scene graph with data flows for dynamic meshes, animations, image processing, and postprocessing.

  6. The reliability and response stability of dynamic testing of the vestibulo-ocular reflex in patients with vestibular disease

    PubMed Central

    Mohammad, Maha T.; Whitney, Susan L.; Marchetti, Gregory F.; Sparto, Patrick J.; Ward, Bryan K.; Furman, Joseph M.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the test-retest reliability and response stability of the Dynamic Visual Acuity (DVA) and Gaze Stabilization Test (GST) in patients with vestibular disorders. Twenty-nine patients with vestibular disease (16 – 78 years) participated. Subjects performed the GST and DVA in pitch and yaw planes, twice in one session and once after 7 – 10 days. The GST output is the maximum head velocity at which the patient was able to identify orientation of the letter E. The DVA output is the change in visual acuity when moving the head compared to static acuity. Subjects indicated their level of dizziness and visual blurring using a visual analog scale. Within- and between-sessions intraclass correlation coefficients ranged between 0 – 0.5 for the DVA and GST measures, with better correlations for within-session assessments. Response stability (standard error of measurement / mean) of the GST ranged between 21 – 32% and the DVA ranged between 25 – 69% with vertical DVA being most influenced by measurement error. Subjects’ symptoms did not correlate with performance on either test. The current test protocol needs refinement to enhance reliability and stability in persons with vestibular disorders. PMID:22101298

  7. Dynamics of the human linear vestibulo-ocular reflex at medium frequency and modification by short-term training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shelhamer, M.; Roberts, D. C.; Zee, D. S.

    2000-01-01

    We study here the effect of a short-term training paradigm on the gain and phase of the human translational VOR (the linear VOR: LVOR). Subjects were exposed to lateral sinusoidal translations on a sled, at 0.5 Hz, 0.3 g peak acceleration. With subjects tracking a remembered target at 1.2 m, the LVOR (slow-phase) under these conditions typically has a phase lead or lag, and a gain that falls short of compensatory. To induce short-term adaptation (training), we presented an earth-fixed visual scene at 1.2 m during sinusoidal translation (x 1 viewing) for 20 minutes, so as to drive the LVOR toward compensatory phase and gain. We examined both the slow-phase and the saccadic responses to these stimuli. Testing after training showed changes in slow-component gain and phase which were mostly but not always in the compensatory direction. These changes were more consistent in naive subjects than in subjects who had previous LVOR experience. Changes in gain were seen with step as well as sinusoidal test stimuli; gain changes were not correlated with vergence changes. There was a strong correlation between gain changes and phase changes across subjects. Fast phases (catch-up saccades) formed a large component of the LVOR under our testing conditions (approximately 30% of the changes in gain but not in phase due to training.

  8. Adaptation of the phase of the human linear vestibulo-ocular reflex (LVOR) and effects on the oculomotor neural integrator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hegemann, S.; Shelhamer, M.; Kramer, P. D.; Zee, D. S.

    2000-01-01

    The phase of the translational linear VOR (LVOR) can be adaptively modified by exposure to a visual-vestibular mismatch. We extend here our earlier work on LVOR phase adaptation, and discuss the role of the oculomotor neural integrator. Ten subjects were oscillated laterally at 0.5 Hz, 0.3 g peak acceleration, while sitting upright on a linear sled. LVOR was assessed before and after adaptation with subjects tracking the remembered location of a target at 1 m in the dark. Phase and gain were measured by fitting sine waves to the desaccaded eye movements, and comparing sled and eye position. To adapt LVOR phase, the subject viewed a computer-generated stereoscopic visual display, at a virtual distance of 1 m, that moved so as to require either a phase lead or a phase lag of 53 deg. Adaptation lasted 20 min, during which subjects were oscillated at 0.5 Hz/0.3 g. Four of five subjects produced an adaptive change in the lag condition (range 4-45 deg), and each of five produced a change in the lead condition (range 19-56 deg), as requested. Changes in drift on eccentric gaze suggest that the oculomotor velocity-to-position integrator may be involved in the phase changes.

  9. Translational Vestibulo-Ocular Reflex and Motion Perception During Interaural Linear Acceleration: Comparison of Different Motion Paradigms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beaton, K. H.; Holly, J. E.; Clement, G. R.; Wood, S. J.

    2011-01-01

    The neural mechanisms to resolve ambiguous tilt-translation motion have been hypothesized to be different for motion perception and eye movements. Previous studies have demonstrated differences in ocular and perceptual responses using a variety of motion paradigms, including Off-Vertical Axis Rotation (OVAR), Variable Radius Centrifugation (VRC), translation along a linear track, and tilt about an Earth-horizontal axis. While the linear acceleration across these motion paradigms is presumably equivalent, there are important differences in semicircular canal cues. The purpose of this study was to compare translation motion perception and horizontal slow phase velocity to quantify consistencies, or lack thereof, across four different motion paradigms. Twelve healthy subjects were exposed to sinusoidal interaural linear acceleration between 0.01 and 0.6 Hz at 1.7 m/s/s (equivalent to 10 tilt) using OVAR, VRC, roll tilt, and lateral translation. During each trial, subjects verbally reported the amount of perceived peak-to-peak lateral translation and indicated the direction of motion with a joystick. Binocular eye movements were recorded using video-oculography. In general, the gain of translation perception (ratio of reported linear displacement to equivalent linear stimulus displacement) increased with stimulus frequency, while the phase did not significantly vary. However, translation perception was more pronounced during both VRC and lateral translation involving actual translation, whereas perceptions were less consistent and more variable during OVAR and roll tilt which did not involve actual translation. For each motion paradigm, horizontal eye movements were negligible at low frequencies and showed phase lead relative to the linear stimulus. At higher frequencies, the gain of the eye movements increased and became more inphase with the acceleration stimulus. While these results are consistent with the hypothesis that the neural computational strategies for motion perception and eye movements differ, they also indicate that the specific motion platform employed can have a significant effect on both the amplitude and phase of each.

  10. Eye Position Feedback in a Model of the Vestibulo-Ocular Reflex for Spino-Cerebellar Ataxia 6

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    neurodegenerative diseases characterized by progressive instability of posture and gait, incoordination, ocular motor dysfunction, and dysarthria ...characterized by progressive instability of posture and gait, incoordination, ocular motor dysfunction, and dysarthria due to degeneration of cerebellar

  11. Dynamics of the human linear vestibulo-ocular reflex at medium frequency and modification by short-term training.

    PubMed

    Shelhamer, M; Roberts, D C; Zee, D S

    2000-01-01

    We study here the effect of a short-term training paradigm on the gain and phase of the human translational VOR (the linear VOR: LVOR). Subjects were exposed to lateral sinusoidal translations on a sled, at 0.5 Hz, 0.3 g peak acceleration. With subjects tracking a remembered target at 1.2 m, the LVOR (slow-phase) under these conditions typically has a phase lead or lag, and a gain that falls short of compensatory. To induce short-term adaptation (training), we presented an earth-fixed visual scene at 1.2 m during sinusoidal translation (x 1 viewing) for 20 minutes, so as to drive the LVOR toward compensatory phase and gain. We examined both the slow-phase and the saccadic responses to these stimuli. Testing after training showed changes in slow-component gain and phase which were mostly but not always in the compensatory direction. These changes were more consistent in naive subjects than in subjects who had previous LVOR experience. Changes in gain were seen with step as well as sinusoidal test stimuli; gain changes were not correlated with vergence changes. There was a strong correlation between gain changes and phase changes across subjects. Fast phases (catch-up saccades) formed a large component of the LVOR under our testing conditions (approximately 30% of the changes in gain but not in phase due to training.

  12. Quantifying modes of 3D cell migration

    PubMed Central

    Driscoll, Meghan K.; Danuser, Gaudenz

    2015-01-01

    Although it is widely appreciated that cells migrate in a variety of diverse environments in vivo, we are only now beginning to use experimental workflows that yield images with sufficient spatiotemporal resolution to study the molecular processes governing cell migration in 3D environments. Since cell migration is a dynamic process, it is usually studied via microscopy, but 3D movies of 3D processes are difficult to interpret by visual inspection. In this review, we discuss the technologies required to study the diversity of 3D cell migration modes with a focus on the visualization and computational analysis tools needed to study cell migration quantitatively at a level comparable to the analyses performed today on cells crawling on flat substrates. PMID:26603943

  13. Modeling cellular processes in 3D.

    PubMed

    Mogilner, Alex; Odde, David

    2011-12-01

    Recent advances in photonic imaging and fluorescent protein technology offer unprecedented views of molecular space-time dynamics in living cells. At the same time, advances in computing hardware and software enable modeling of ever more complex systems, from global climate to cell division. As modeling and experiment become more closely integrated we must address the issue of modeling cellular processes in 3D. Here, we highlight recent advances related to 3D modeling in cell biology. While some processes require full 3D analysis, we suggest that others are more naturally described in 2D or 1D. Keeping the dimensionality as low as possible reduces computational time and makes models more intuitively comprehensible; however, the ability to test full 3D models will build greater confidence in models generally and remains an important emerging area of cell biological modeling.

  14. Cyclone Rusty's Landfall in 3-D

    NASA Video Gallery

    This 3-D image derived from NASA's TRMM satellite Precipitation Radar data on February 26, 2013 at 0654 UTC showed that the tops of some towering thunderstorms in Rusty's eye wall were reaching hei...

  15. Tropical Cyclone Jack in Satellite 3-D

    NASA Video Gallery

    This 3-D flyby from NASA's TRMM satellite of Tropical Cyclone Jack on April 21 shows that some of the thunderstorms were shown by TRMM PR were still reaching height of at least 17 km (10.5 miles). ...

  16. Future Engineers 3-D Print Timelapse

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Challenges K-12 students to create a model of a container for space using 3-D modeling software. Astronauts need containers of all kinds - from advanced containers that can study fruit flies t...

  17. 3-D Animation of Typhoon Bopha

    NASA Video Gallery

    This 3-D animation of NASA's TRMM satellite data showed Typhoon Bopha tracking over the Philippines on Dec. 3 and moving into the Sulu Sea on Dec. 4, 2012. TRMM saw heavy rain (red) was falling at ...

  18. DNA biosensing with 3D printing technology.

    PubMed

    Loo, Adeline Huiling; Chua, Chun Kiang; Pumera, Martin

    2017-01-16

    3D printing, an upcoming technology, has vast potential to transform conventional fabrication processes due to the numerous improvements it can offer to the current methods. To date, the employment of 3D printing technology has been examined for applications in the fields of engineering, manufacturing and biological sciences. In this study, we examined the potential of adopting 3D printing technology for a novel application, electrochemical DNA biosensing. Metal 3D printing was utilized to construct helical-shaped stainless steel electrodes which functioned as a transducing platform for the detection of DNA hybridization. The ability of electroactive methylene blue to intercalate into the double helix structure of double-stranded DNA was then exploited to monitor the DNA hybridization process, with its inherent reduction peak serving as an analytical signal. The designed biosensing approach was found to demonstrate superior selectivity against a non-complementary DNA target, with a detection range of 1-1000 nM.

  19. Designing Biomaterials for 3D Printing.

    PubMed

    Guvendiren, Murat; Molde, Joseph; Soares, Rosane M D; Kohn, Joachim

    2016-10-10

    Three-dimensional (3D) printing is becoming an increasingly common technique to fabricate scaffolds and devices for tissue engineering applications. This is due to the potential of 3D printing to provide patient-specific designs, high structural complexity, rapid on-demand fabrication at a low-cost. One of the major bottlenecks that limits the widespread acceptance of 3D printing in biomanufacturing is the lack of diversity in "biomaterial inks". Printability of a biomaterial is determined by the printing technique. Although a wide range of biomaterial inks including polymers, ceramics, hydrogels and composites have been developed, the field is still struggling with processing of these materials into self-supporting devices with tunable mechanics, degradation, and bioactivity. This review aims to highlight the past and recent advances in biomaterial ink development and design considerations moving forward. A brief overview of 3D printing technologies focusing on ink design parameters is also included.

  20. 3D Printing for Tissue Engineering.

    PubMed

    Richards, Dylan Jack; Tan, Yu; Jia, Jia; Yao, Hai; Mei, Ying

    2013-10-01

    Tissue engineering aims to fabricate functional tissue for applications in regenerative medicine and drug testing. More recently, 3D printing has shown great promise in tissue fabrication with a structural control from micro- to macro-scale by using a layer-by-layer approach. Whether through scaffold-based or scaffold-free approaches, the standard for 3D printed tissue engineering constructs is to provide a biomimetic structural environment that facilitates tissue formation and promotes host tissue integration (e.g., cellular infiltration, vascularization, and active remodeling). This review will cover several approaches that have advanced the field of 3D printing through novel fabrication methods of tissue engineering constructs. It will also discuss the applications of synthetic and natural materials for 3D printing facilitated tissue fabrication.

  1. 3-D Flyover Visualization of Veil Nebula

    NASA Video Gallery

    This 3-D visualization flies across a small portion of the Veil Nebula as photographed by the Hubble Space Telescope. This region is a small part of a huge expanding remnant from a star that explod...

  2. TRMM 3-D Flyby of Ingrid

    NASA Video Gallery

    This 3-D flyby of Tropical Storm Ingrid's rainfall was created from TRMM satellite data for Sept. 16. Heaviest rainfall appears in red towers over the Gulf of Mexico, while moderate rainfall stretc...

  3. Quantifying Modes of 3D Cell Migration.

    PubMed

    Driscoll, Meghan K; Danuser, Gaudenz

    2015-12-01

    Although it is widely appreciated that cells migrate in a variety of diverse environments in vivo, we are only now beginning to use experimental workflows that yield images with sufficient spatiotemporal resolution to study the molecular processes governing cell migration in 3D environments. Since cell migration is a dynamic process, it is usually studied via microscopy, but 3D movies of 3D processes are difficult to interpret by visual inspection. In this review, we discuss the technologies required to study the diversity of 3D cell migration modes with a focus on the visualization and computational analysis tools needed to study cell migration quantitatively at a level comparable to the analyses performed today on cells crawling on flat substrates.

  4. 3D Printing for Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Jia; Yao, Hai; Mei, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Tissue engineering aims to fabricate functional tissue for applications in regenerative medicine and drug testing. More recently, 3D printing has shown great promise in tissue fabrication with a structural control from micro- to macro-scale by using a layer-by-layer approach. Whether through scaffold-based or scaffold-free approaches, the standard for 3D printed tissue engineering constructs is to provide a biomimetic structural environment that facilitates tissue formation and promotes host tissue integration (e.g., cellular infiltration, vascularization, and active remodeling). This review will cover several approaches that have advanced the field of 3D printing through novel fabrication methods of tissue engineering constructs. It will also discuss the applications of synthetic and natural materials for 3D printing facilitated tissue fabrication. PMID:26869728

  5. Eyes on the Earth 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kulikov, anton I.; Doronila, Paul R.; Nguyen, Viet T.; Jackson, Randal K.; Greene, William M.; Hussey, Kevin J.; Garcia, Christopher M.; Lopez, Christian A.

    2013-01-01

    Eyes on the Earth 3D software gives scientists, and the general public, a realtime, 3D interactive means of accurately viewing the real-time locations, speed, and values of recently collected data from several of NASA's Earth Observing Satellites using a standard Web browser (climate.nasa.gov/eyes). Anyone with Web access can use this software to see where the NASA fleet of these satellites is now, or where they will be up to a year in the future. The software also displays several Earth Science Data sets that have been collected on a daily basis. This application uses a third-party, 3D, realtime, interactive game engine called Unity 3D to visualize the satellites and is accessible from a Web browser.

  6. Nonlaser-based 3D surface imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Shin-yee; Johnson, R.K.; Sherwood, R.J.

    1994-11-15

    3D surface imaging refers to methods that generate a 3D surface representation of objects of a scene under viewing. Laser-based 3D surface imaging systems are commonly used in manufacturing, robotics and biomedical research. Although laser-based systems provide satisfactory solutions for most applications, there are situations where non laser-based approaches are preferred. The issues that make alternative methods sometimes more attractive are: (1) real-time data capturing, (2) eye-safety, (3) portability, and (4) work distance. The focus of this presentation is on generating a 3D surface from multiple 2D projected images using CCD cameras, without a laser light source. Two methods are presented: stereo vision and depth-from-focus. Their applications are described.

  7. 3-D TRMM Flyby of Hurricane Amanda

    NASA Video Gallery

    The TRMM satellite flew over Hurricane Amanda on Tuesday, May 27 at 1049 UTC (6:49 a.m. EDT) and captured rainfall rates and cloud height data that was used to create this 3-D simulated flyby. Cred...

  8. 3D-printed bioanalytical devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bishop, Gregory W.; Satterwhite-Warden, Jennifer E.; Kadimisetty, Karteek; Rusling, James F.

    2016-07-01

    While 3D printing technologies first appeared in the 1980s, prohibitive costs, limited materials, and the relatively small number of commercially available printers confined applications mainly to prototyping for manufacturing purposes. As technologies, printer cost, materials, and accessibility continue to improve, 3D printing has found widespread implementation in research and development in many disciplines due to ease-of-use and relatively fast design-to-object workflow. Several 3D printing techniques have been used to prepare devices such as milli- and microfluidic flow cells for analyses of cells and biomolecules as well as interfaces that enable bioanalytical measurements using cellphones. This review focuses on preparation and applications of 3D-printed bioanalytical devices.

  9. 3D liver surgery simulation: computer-assisted surgical planning with 3D simulation software and 3D printing.

    PubMed

    Oshiro, Yukio; Ohkohchi, Nobuhiro

    2017-03-27

    To perform accurate hepatectomy without injury, it is necessary to understand the anatomical relationship among the branches of Glisson's sheath, hepatic veins, and tumor. In Japan, three-dimensional (3D) preoperative simulation for liver surgery is becoming increasingly common, and liver 3D modeling and 3D hepatectomy simulation by 3D analysis software for liver surgery have been covered by universal healthcare insurance since 2012. Herein, we review the history of virtual hepatectomy using computer-aided surgery (CAS) and our research to date, and we discuss the future prospects of CAS. We have used the SYNAPSE VINCENT medical imaging system (Fujifilm Medical, Tokyo, Japan) for 3D visualization and virtual resection of the liver since 2010. We developed a novel fusion imaging technique combining 3D computed tomography (CT) with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The fusion image enables us to easily visualize anatomic relationships among the hepatic arteries, portal veins, bile duct, and tumor in the hepatic hilum. In 2013, we developed an original software, called Liversim, that enables real-time deformation of the liver using physical simulation, and a randomized control trial has recently been conducted to evaluate the use of Liversim and SYNAPSE VINCENT for preoperative simulation and planning. Furthermore, we developed a novel hollow 3D-printed liver model whose surface is covered with frames. This model is useful for safe liver resection, has better visibility, and the production cost is reduced to one-third of a previous model. Preoperative simulation and navigation with CAS in liver resection are expected to help planning and conducting a surgery and surgical education. Thus, a novel CAS system will contribute to not only the performance of reliable hepatectomy but also to surgical education.

  10. Microfabricating 3D Structures by Laser Origami

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-11-09

    technique generates 3D microstructures by controlled out-of- plane folding of 2D patterns through a variety of laser-based digital fabrication...processes. Digital microfabrication techniques such as laser direct-write (LDW) offer a viable alternative for generating 3D self-folding designs. These...folding at the microscale where manual or mechanized actuation of the smaller struc- tures is not practical. LDW techniques allow micromachining and

  11. Holography of 3D asymptotically flat black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fareghbal, Reza; Hosseini, Seyed Morteza

    2015-04-01

    We study the asymptotically flat rotating hairy black hole solution of a three-dimensional gravity theory which is given by taking the flat-space limit (zero cosmological constant limit) of new massive gravity. We propose that the dual field theory of the flat-space limit of new massive gravity can be described by a contracted conformal field theory which is invariant under the action of the BMS3 group. Using the flat/contracted conformal field theory correspondence, we construct a stress tensor which yields the conserved charges of the asymptotically flat black hole solution. We check that our expressions of the mass and angular momentum fit with the first law of black hole thermodynamics. Furthermore, by taking the appropriate limit of the Cardy formula in the parent conformal field theory, we find a Cardy-like formula which reproduces the Wald's entropy of the 3D asymptotically flat black hole.

  12. Auto convergence for stereoscopic 3D cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Buyue; Kothandaraman, Sreenivas; Batur, Aziz Umit

    2012-03-01

    Viewing comfort is an important concern for 3-D capable consumer electronics such as 3-D cameras and TVs. Consumer generated content is typically viewed at a close distance which makes the vergence-accommodation conflict particularly pronounced, causing discomfort and eye fatigue. In this paper, we present a Stereo Auto Convergence (SAC) algorithm for consumer 3-D cameras that reduces the vergence-accommodation conflict on the 3-D display by adjusting the depth of the scene automatically. Our algorithm processes stereo video in realtime and shifts each stereo frame horizontally by an appropriate amount to converge on the chosen object in that frame. The algorithm starts by estimating disparities between the left and right image pairs using correlations of the vertical projections of the image data. The estimated disparities are then analyzed by the algorithm to select a point of convergence. The current and target disparities of the chosen convergence point determines how much horizontal shift is needed. A disparity safety check is then performed to determine whether or not the maximum and minimum disparity limits would be exceeded after auto convergence. If the limits would be exceeded, further adjustments are made to satisfy the safety limits. Finally, desired convergence is achieved by shifting the left and the right frames accordingly. Our algorithm runs real-time at 30 fps on a TI OMAP4 processor. It is tested using an OMAP4 embedded prototype stereo 3-D camera. It significantly improves 3-D viewing comfort.

  13. Assessing 3d Photogrammetry Techniques in Craniometrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moshobane, M. C.; de Bruyn, P. J. N.; Bester, M. N.

    2016-06-01

    Morphometrics (the measurement of morphological features) has been revolutionized by the creation of new techniques to study how organismal shape co-varies with several factors such as ecophenotypy. Ecophenotypy refers to the divergence of phenotypes due to developmental changes induced by local environmental conditions, producing distinct ecophenotypes. None of the techniques hitherto utilized could explicitly address organismal shape in a complete biological form, i.e. three-dimensionally. This study investigates the use of the commercial software, Photomodeler Scanner® (PMSc®) three-dimensional (3D) modelling software to produce accurate and high-resolution 3D models. Henceforth, the modelling of Subantarctic fur seal (Arctocephalus tropicalis) and Antarctic fur seal (Arctocephalus gazella) skulls which could allow for 3D measurements. Using this method, sixteen accurate 3D skull models were produced and five metrics were determined. The 3D linear measurements were compared to measurements taken manually with a digital caliper. In addition, repetitive measurements were recorded by varying researchers to determine repeatability. To allow for comparison straight line measurements were taken with the software, assuming that close accord with all manually measured features would illustrate the model's accurate replication of reality. Measurements were not significantly different demonstrating that realistic 3D skull models can be successfully produced to provide a consistent basis for craniometrics, with the additional benefit of allowing non-linear measurements if required.

  14. 3D steerable wavelets in practice.

    PubMed

    Chenouard, Nicolas; Unser, Michael

    2012-11-01

    We introduce a systematic and practical design for steerable wavelet frames in 3D. Our steerable wavelets are obtained by applying a 3D version of the generalized Riesz transform to a primary isotropic wavelet frame. The novel transform is self-reversible (tight frame) and its elementary constituents (Riesz wavelets) can be efficiently rotated in any 3D direction by forming appropriate linear combinations. Moreover, the basis functions at a given location can be linearly combined to design custom (and adaptive) steerable wavelets. The features of the proposed method are illustrated with the processing and analysis of 3D biomedical data. In particular, we show how those wavelets can be used to characterize directional patterns and to detect edges by means of a 3D monogenic analysis. We also propose a new inverse-problem formalism along with an optimization algorithm for reconstructing 3D images from a sparse set of wavelet-domain edges. The scheme results in high-quality image reconstructions which demonstrate the feature-reduction ability of the steerable wavelets as well as their potential for solving inverse problems.

  15. 3D Viscoelastic traction force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Toyjanova, Jennet; Hannen, Erin; Bar-Kochba, Eyal; Darling, Eric M; Henann, David L; Franck, Christian

    2014-10-28

    Native cell-material interactions occur on materials differing in their structural composition, chemistry, and physical compliance. While the last two decades have shown the importance of traction forces during cell-material interactions, they have been almost exclusively presented on purely elastic in vitro materials. Yet, most bodily tissue materials exhibit some level of viscoelasticity, which could play an important role in how cells sense and transduce tractions. To expand the realm of cell traction measurements and to encompass all materials from elastic to viscoelastic, this paper presents a general, and comprehensive approach for quantifying 3D cell tractions in viscoelastic materials. This methodology includes the experimental characterization of the time-dependent material properties for any viscoelastic material with the subsequent mathematical implementation of the determined material model into a 3D traction force microscopy (3D TFM) framework. Utilizing this new 3D viscoelastic TFM (3D VTFM) approach, we quantify the influence of viscosity on the overall material traction calculations and quantify the error associated with omitting time-dependent material effects, as is the case for all other TFM formulations. We anticipate that the 3D VTFM technique will open up new avenues of cell-material investigations on even more physiologically relevant time-dependent materials including collagen and fibrin gels.

  16. Focus-distance-controlled 3D TV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanagisawa, Nobuaki; Kim, Kyung-tae; Son, Jung-Young; Murata, Tatsuya; Orima, Takatoshi

    1996-09-01

    There is a phenomenon that a 3D image appears in proportion to a focus distance when something is watched through a convex lens. An adjustable focus lens which can control the focus distance of the convex lens is contrived and applied to 3D TV. We can watch 3D TV without eyeglasses. The 3D TV image meets the NTSC standard. A parallax data and a focus data about the image can be accommodated at the same time. A continuous image method realizes much wider views. An anti 3D image effect can be avoided by using this method. At present, an analysis of proto-type lens and experiment are being carried out. As a result, a phantom effect and a viewing area can be improved. It is possible to watch the 3D TV at any distance. Distance data are triangulated by two cameras. A plan of AVI photo type using ten thousand lenses is discussed. This method is compared with four major conventional methods. As a result, it is revealed that this method can make the efficient use of Integral Photography and Varifocal type method. In the case of Integral Photography, a miniaturization of this system is possible. But it is difficult to get actual focus. In the case of varifocal type method, there is no problem with focusing, but the miniaturization is impossible. The theory investigated in this paper makes it possible to solve these problems.

  17. Focus-distance-controlled 3D TV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanagisawa, Nobuaki; Kim, Kyung-tae; Son, Jung-Young; Murata, Tatsuya; Orima, Takatoshi

    1997-05-01

    There is a phenomenon that a 3D image appears in proportion to a focus distance when something is watched through a convex lens. An adjustable focus lens which can control the focus distance of the convex lens is contrived and applied to 3D TV. We can watch 3D TV without eyeglasses. The 3D TV image meets the NTSC standard. A parallax data and a focus data about the image can be accommodated at the same time. A continuous image method realizes much wider views. An anti 3D image effect can be avoided by using this method. At present, an analysis of proto-type lens and experiment are being carried out. As a result, a phantom effect and a viewing area can be improved. It is possible to watch the 3D TV at any distance. Distance data are triangulated by two cameras. A plan of AVI proto type using ten thousands lenses is discussed. This method is compared with four major conventional methods. As a result, it is revealed that this method can make the efficient use of integral photography and varifocal type method. In the case of integral photography, a miniaturization of this system is possible. But it is difficult to get actual focus. In the case of varifocal type method, there is no problem with focusing, but the miniaturization is impossible. The theory investigated in this paper makes it possible to solve these problems.

  18. 3D-shape-based retrieval within the MPEG-7 framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaharia, Titus; Preteux, Francoise J.

    2001-05-01

    Because of the continuous development of multimedia technologies, virtual worlds and augmented reality, 3D contents become a common feature of the today information systems. Hence, standardizing tools for content-based indexing of visual data is a key issue for computer vision related applications. Within the framework of the future MPEG-7 standard, tools for intelligent content-based access to 3D information, targeting applications such as search and retrieval and browsing of 3D model databases, have been recently considered and evaluated. In this paper, we present the 3D Shape Spectrum Descriptor (3D SSD), recently adopted within the current MPEG-7 Committee Draft (CD). The proposed descriptor aims at providing an intrinsic shape description of a 3D mesh and is defined as the distribution of the shape index over the entire mesh. The shape index is a local geometric attribute of a 3D surface, expressed as the angular coordinate of a polar representation of the principal curvature vector. Experimental results have been carried out upon the MPEG-7 3D model database consisting of about 1300 meshes in VRML 2.0 format. Objective retrieval results, based upon the definition of a ground truth subset, are reported in terms of Bull Eye Percentage (BEP) score.

  19. New approach on calculating multiview 3D crosstalk for autostereoscopic displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Sung-Min; Lee, Kyeong-Jin; Kang, Ji-Na; Lee, Seung-Chul; Lim, Kyoung-Moon

    2012-03-01

    In this study, we suggest a new concept of 3D crosstalk for auto-stereoscopic displays and obtain 3D crosstalk values of several multi-view systems based on the suggested definition. First, we measure the angular dependencies of the luminance for auto-stereoscopic displays under various test patterns corresponding to each view of a multi-view system and then calculate the 3D crosstalk based on our new definition with respect to the measured luminance profiles. Our new approach gives just a single 3D crosstalk value for single device without any ambiguity and shows similar order of values to the conventional stereoscopic displays. These results are compared with the conventional 3D crosstalk values of selected auto-stereoscopic displays such as 4-view and 9-view systems. From the result, we believe that this new approach is very useful for controlling 3D crosstalk values of the 3D displays manufacturing and benchmarking of the 3D performances among the various auto-stereoscopic displays.

  20. 3D goes digital: from stereoscopy to modern 3D imaging techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerwien, N.

    2014-11-01

    In the 19th century, English physicist Charles Wheatstone discovered stereopsis, the basis for 3D perception. His construction of the first stereoscope established the foundation for stereoscopic 3D imaging. Since then, many optical instruments were influenced by these basic ideas. In recent decades, the advent of digital technologies revolutionized 3D imaging. Powerful readily available sensors and displays combined with efficient pre- or post-processing enable new methods for 3D imaging and applications. This paper draws an arc from basic concepts of 3D imaging to modern digital implementations, highlighting instructive examples from its 175 years of history.

  1. On Angular Momentum

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Schwinger, J.

    1952-01-26

    The commutation relations of an arbitrary angular momentum vector can be reduced to those of the harmonic oscillator. This provides a powerful method for constructing and developing the properties of angular momentum eigenvectors. In this paper many known theorems are derived in this way, and some new results obtained. Among the topics treated are the properties of the rotation matrices; the addition of two, three, and four angular momenta; and the theory of tensor operators.

  2. The NIH 3D Print Exchange: A Public Resource for Bioscientific and Biomedical 3D Prints

    PubMed Central

    Coakley, Meghan F.; Hurt, Darrell E.; Weber, Nick; Mtingwa, Makazi; Fincher, Erin C.; Alekseyev, Vsevelod; Chen, David T.; Yun, Alvin; Gizaw, Metasebia; Swan, Jeremy; Yoo, Terry S.; Huyen, Yentram

    2016-01-01

    The National Institutes of Health (NIH) has launched the NIH 3D Print Exchange, an online portal for discovering and creating bioscientifically relevant 3D models suitable for 3D printing, to provide both researchers and educators with a trusted source to discover accurate and informative models. There are a number of online resources for 3D prints, but there is a paucity of scientific models, and the expertise required to generate and validate such models remains a barrier. The NIH 3D Print Exchange fills this gap by providing novel, web-based tools that empower users with the ability to create ready-to-print 3D files from molecular structure data, microscopy image stacks, and computed tomography scan data. The NIH 3D Print Exchange facilitates open data sharing in a community-driven environment, and also includes various interactive features, as well as information and tutorials on 3D modeling software. As the first government-sponsored website dedicated to 3D printing, the NIH 3D Print Exchange is an important step forward to bringing 3D printing to the mainstream for scientific research and education. PMID:28367477

  3. CFL3D, FUN3d, and NSU3D Contributions to the Fifth Drag Prediction Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Michael A.; Laflin, Kelly R.; Chaffin, Mark S.; Powell, Nicholas; Levy, David W.

    2013-01-01

    Results presented at the Fifth Drag Prediction Workshop using CFL3D, FUN3D, and NSU3D are described. These are calculations on the workshop provided grids and drag adapted grids. The NSU3D results have been updated to reflect an improvement to skin friction calculation on skewed grids. FUN3D results generated after the workshop are included for custom participant generated grids and a grid from a previous workshop. Uniform grid refinement at the design condition shows a tight grouping in calculated drag, where the variation in the pressure component of drag is larger than the skin friction component. At this design condition, A fine-grid drag value was predicted with a smaller drag adjoint adapted grid via tetrahedral adaption to a metric and mixed-element subdivision. The buffet study produced larger variation than the design case, which is attributed to large differences in the predicted side-of-body separation extent. Various modeling and discretization approaches had a strong impact on predicted side-of-body separation. This large wing root separation bubble was not observed in wind tunnel tests indicating that more work is necessary in modeling wing root juncture flows to predict experiments.

  4. A 360-degree floating 3D display based on light field regeneration.

    PubMed

    Xia, Xinxing; Liu, Xu; Li, Haifeng; Zheng, Zhenrong; Wang, Han; Peng, Yifan; Shen, Weidong

    2013-05-06

    Using light field reconstruction technique, we can display a floating 3D scene in the air, which is 360-degree surrounding viewable with correct occlusion effect. A high-frame-rate color projector and flat light field scanning screen are used in the system to create the light field of real 3D scene in the air above the spinning screen. The principle and display performance of this approach are investigated in this paper. The image synthesis method for all the surrounding viewpoints is analyzed, and the 3D spatial resolution and angular resolution of the common display zone are employed to evaluate display performance. The prototype is achieved and the real 3D color animation image has been presented vividly. The experimental results verified the representability of this method.

  5. Optimal projector configuration design for 300-Mpixel multi-projection 3D display.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jin-Ho; Park, Juyong; Nam, Dongkyung; Choi, Seo Young; Park, Du-Sik; Kim, Chang Yeong

    2013-11-04

    To achieve an immersive natural 3D experience on a large screen, a 300-Mpixel multi-projection 3D display that has a 100-inch screen and a 40° viewing angle has been developed. To increase the number of rays emanating from each pixel to 300 in the horizontal direction, three hundred projectors were used. The projector configuration is an important issue in generating a high-quality 3D image, the luminance characteristics were analyzed and the design was optimized to minimize the variation in the brightness of projected images. The rows of the projector arrays were repeatedly changed according to a predetermined row interval and the projectors were arranged in an equi-angular pitch toward the constant central point. As a result, we acquired very smooth motion parallax images without discontinuity. There is no limit of viewing distance, so natural 3D images can be viewed from 2 m to over 20 m.

  6. 3D Zombie Vortices in Rotating Stratified Shear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcus, Philip; Pei, Suyang; Jiang, Chung-Hsiang; Hassanzadeh, Pedram; Barranco, Joseph; Lecoanet, Daniel

    2013-11-01

    We have shown that there is a finite-amplitude instability in linearly-stable, rotating, vertically-stratified, horizontally-shearing flows. The instability is due to excitations of baroclinic critical layers in which the vertical velocity of a neutrally-stable eigenmode is singular in the inviscid limit. This singularity coupled with the Coriolis and stretching terms in the vertical vorticity equation create intense vortex layers. Those layers roll-up into 3D vortices, which then de-stabilize other critical layers. These vortices, which we call zombie vortices, can fill the dead zone of a protoplanetary disk around a forming star. The vortices, either by themselves or by exciting inertio-gravity waves or acoustic waves, can transport angular momentum in a protoplanetary disk and thereby allow a protostar to form into a star. We find that the zombie vortices are similar in flows with Boussinesq, anelastic, and fully compressible equations of state. However, the rates of angular momentum transport and the mechanisms by which it is transported vary significantly in flows with different equations of state.

  7. Ultra wide band 3-D cross section (RCS) holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, H. D.; Hall, T. E.

    1992-07-01

    Ultra wide band impulse holography is an exciting new concept for predictive radar cross section (RCS) evaluation employing near-field measurements. Reconstruction of the near-field hologram data maps the target's scattering areas, and uniquely identifies the 'hot spot' locations on the target. In addition, the target and calibration sphere's plane wave angular spectrums are computed (via digital algorithm) and used to generate the target's far-field RCS values in three dimensions for each frequency component in the impulse. Thin and thick targets are defined in terms of their near-field amplitude variations in range. Range gating and computer holographic techniques are applied to correct these variations. Preliminary experimental results on various targets verify the concept of RCS holography. The unique 3-D presentation (i.e., typically containing 524,288 RCS values for a 1024 (times) 512 sampled aperture for every frequency component) illustrates the efficacy of target recognition in terms of its far-field plane wave angular spectrum image. RCS images can then be viewed at different angles for target recognition, etc.

  8. Ultra wide band 3-D cross section (RCS) holography

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, H.D.; Hall, T.E.

    1992-07-01

    Ultra wide band impulse holography is an exciting new concept for predictive radar cross section (RCS) evaluation employing near-field measurements. Reconstruction of the near-field hologram data maps the target's scattering areas, and uniquely identifies the hot spot'' locations on the target. In addition, the target and calibration sphere's plane wave angular spectrums are computed (via digital algorithm) and used to generate the target's far-field RCS values in three dimensions for each frequency component in the impulse. Thin and thick targets are defined in terms of their near-field amplitude variations in range. Range gating and computer holographic techniques are applied to correct these variations. Preliminary experimental results on various targets verify the concept of RCS holography. The unique 3-D presentation (i.e., typically containing 524,288 RCS values for a 1024 {times} 512 sampled aperture for every frequency component) illustrates the efficacy of target recognition in terms of its far-field plane wave angular spectrum image. RCS images can then be viewed at different angles for target recognition, etc.

  9. Ultra wide band 3-D cross section (RCS) holography

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, H.D.; Hall, T.E.

    1992-07-01

    Ultra wide band impulse holography is an exciting new concept for predictive radar cross section (RCS) evaluation employing near-field measurements. Reconstruction of the near-field hologram data maps the target`s scattering areas, and uniquely identifies the ``hot spot`` locations on the target. In addition, the target and calibration sphere`s plane wave angular spectrums are computed (via digital algorithm) and used to generate the target`s far-field RCS values in three dimensions for each frequency component in the impulse. Thin and thick targets are defined in terms of their near-field amplitude variations in range. Range gating and computer holographic techniques are applied to correct these variations. Preliminary experimental results on various targets verify the concept of RCS holography. The unique 3-D presentation (i.e., typically containing 524,288 RCS values for a 1024 {times} 512 sampled aperture for every frequency component) illustrates the efficacy of target recognition in terms of its far-field plane wave angular spectrum image. RCS images can then be viewed at different angles for target recognition, etc.

  10. Self assembled structures for 3D integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Madhav

    Three dimensional (3D) micro-scale structures attached to a silicon substrate have various applications in microelectronics. However, formation of 3D structures using conventional micro-fabrication techniques are not efficient and require precise control of processing parameters. Self assembly is a method for creating 3D structures that takes advantage of surface area minimization phenomena. Solder based self assembly (SBSA), the subject of this dissertation, uses solder as a facilitator in the formation of 3D structures from 2D patterns. Etching a sacrificial layer underneath a portion of the 2D pattern allows the solder reflow step to pull those areas out of the substrate plane resulting in a folded 3D structure. Initial studies using the SBSA method demonstrated low yields in the formation of five different polyhedra. The failures in folding were primarily attributed to nonuniform solder deposition on the underlying metal pads. The dip soldering method was analyzed and subsequently refined. A modified dip soldering process provided improved yield among the polyhedra. Solder bridging referred as joining of solder deposited on different metal patterns in an entity influenced the folding mechanism. In general, design parameters such as small gap-spacings and thick metal pads were found to favor solder bridging for all patterns studied. Two types of soldering: face and edge soldering were analyzed. Face soldering refers to the application of solder on the entire metal face. Edge soldering indicates application of solder only on the edges of the metal face. Mechanical grinding showed that face soldered SBSA structures were void free and robust in nature. In addition, the face soldered 3D structures provide a consistent heat resistant solder standoff height that serve as attachments in the integration of dissimilar electronic technologies. Face soldered 3D structures were developed on the underlying conducting channel to determine the thermo-electric reliability of

  11. PLOT3D Export Tool for Tecplot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alter, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    The PLOT3D export tool for Tecplot solves the problem of modified data being impossible to output for use by another computational science solver. The PLOT3D Exporter add-on enables the use of the most commonly available visualization tools to engineers for output of a standard format. The exportation of PLOT3D data from Tecplot has far reaching effects because it allows for grid and solution manipulation within a graphical user interface (GUI) that is easily customized with macro language-based and user-developed GUIs. The add-on also enables the use of Tecplot as an interpolation tool for solution conversion between different grids of different types. This one add-on enhances the functionality of Tecplot so significantly, it offers the ability to incorporate Tecplot into a general suite of tools for computational science applications as a 3D graphics engine for visualization of all data. Within the PLOT3D Export Add-on are several functions that enhance the operations and effectiveness of the add-on. Unlike Tecplot output functions, the PLOT3D Export Add-on enables the use of the zone selection dialog in Tecplot to choose which zones are to be written by offering three distinct options - output of active, inactive, or all zones (grid blocks). As the user modifies the zones to output with the zone selection dialog, the zones to be written are similarly updated. This enables the use of Tecplot to create multiple configurations of a geometry being analyzed. For example, if an aircraft is loaded with multiple deflections of flaps, by activating and deactivating different zones for a specific flap setting, new specific configurations of that aircraft can be easily generated by only writing out specific zones. Thus, if ten flap settings are loaded into Tecplot, the PLOT3D Export software can output ten different configurations, one for each flap setting.

  12. A microfluidic device for 2D to 3D and 3D to 3D cell navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shamloo, Amir; Amirifar, Leyla

    2016-01-01

    Microfluidic devices have received wide attention and shown great potential in the field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Investigating cell response to various stimulations is much more accurate and comprehensive with the aid of microfluidic devices. In this study, we introduced a microfluidic device by which the matrix density as a mechanical property and the concentration profile of a biochemical factor as a chemical property could be altered. Our microfluidic device has a cell tank and a cell culture chamber to mimic both 2D to 3D and 3D to 3D migration of three types of cells. Fluid shear stress is negligible on the cells and a stable concentration gradient can be obtained by diffusion. The device was designed by a numerical simulation so that the uniformity of the concentration gradients throughout the cell culture chamber was obtained. Adult neural cells were cultured within this device and they showed different branching and axonal navigation phenotypes within varying nerve growth factor (NGF) concentration profiles. Neural stem cells were also cultured within varying collagen matrix densities while exposed to NGF concentrations and they experienced 3D to 3D collective migration. By generating vascular endothelial growth factor concentration gradients, adult human dermal microvascular endothelial cells also migrated in a 2D to 3D manner and formed a stable lumen within a specific collagen matrix density. It was observed that a minimum absolute concentration and concentration gradient were required to stimulate migration of all types of the cells. This device has the advantage of changing multiple parameters simultaneously and is expected to have wide applicability in cell studies.

  13. Shared Memory Parallelism for 3D Cartesian Discrete Ordinates Solver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moustafa, Salli; Dutka-Malen, Ivan; Plagne, Laurent; Ponçot, Angélique; Ramet, Pierre

    2014-06-01

    This paper describes the design and the performance of DOMINO, a 3D Cartesian SN solver that implements two nested levels of parallelism (multicore+SIMD) on shared memory computation nodes. DOMINO is written in C++, a multi-paradigm programming language that enables the use of powerful and generic parallel programming tools such as Intel TBB and Eigen. These two libraries allow us to combine multi-thread parallelism with vector operations in an efficient and yet portable way. As a result, DOMINO can exploit the full power of modern multi-core processors and is able to tackle very large simulations, that usually require large HPC clusters, using a single computing node. For example, DOMINO solves a 3D full core PWR eigenvalue problem involving 26 energy groups, 288 angular directions (S16), 46 × 106 spatial cells and 1 × 1012 DoFs within 11 hours on a single 32-core SMP node. This represents a sustained performance of 235 GFlops and 40:74% of the SMP node peak performance for the DOMINO sweep implementation. The very high Flops/Watt ratio of DOMINO makes it a very interesting building block for a future many-nodes nuclear simulation tool.

  14. Recent progress in 3-D imaging of sea freight containers

    SciTech Connect

    Fuchs, Theobald Schön, Tobias Sukowski, Frank; Dittmann, Jonas; Hanke, Randolf

    2015-03-31

    The inspection of very large objects like sea freight containers with X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) is an emerging technology. A complete 3-D CT scan of a see-freight container takes several hours. Of course, this is too slow to apply it to a large number of containers. However, the benefits of a 3-D CT for sealed freight are obvious: detection of potential threats or illicit cargo without being confronted with legal complications or high time consumption and risks for the security personnel during a manual inspection. Recently distinct progress was made in the field of reconstruction of projections with only a relatively low number of angular positions. Instead of today’s 500 to 1000 rotational steps, as needed for conventional CT reconstruction techniques, this new class of algorithms provides the potential to reduce the number of projection angles approximately by a factor of 10. The main drawback of these advanced iterative methods is the high consumption for numerical processing. But as computational power is getting steadily cheaper, there will be practical applications of these complex algorithms in a foreseeable future. In this paper, we discuss the properties of iterative image reconstruction algorithms and show results of their application to CT of extremely large objects scanning a sea-freight container. A specific test specimen is used to quantitatively evaluate the image quality in terms of spatial and contrast resolution and depending on different number of projections.

  15. The new CORIMP CME catalog & 3D reconstructions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byrne, Jason; Morgan, Huw; Gallagher, Peter; Habbal, Shadia; Davies, Jackie

    2015-04-01

    A new coronal mass ejection catalog has been built from a unique set of coronal image processing techniques, called CORIMP, that overcomes many of the limitations of current catalogs in operation. An online database has been produced for the SOHO/LASCO data and event detections therein; providing information on CME onset time, position angle, angular width, speed, acceleration, and mass, along with kinematic plots and observation movies. The high-fidelity and robustness of these methods and derived CME structure and kinematics will lead to an improved understanding of the dynamics of CMEs, and a realtime version of the algorithm has been implemented to provide CME detection alerts to the interested space weather community. Furthermore, STEREO data has been providing the ability to perform 3D reconstructions of CMEs that are observed in multipoint observations. This allows a determination of the 3D kinematics and morphologies of CMEs characterised in STEREO data via the 'elliptical tie-pointing' technique. The associated observations of SOHO, SDO and PROBA2 (and intended use of K-Cor) provide additional measurements and constraints on the CME analyses in order to improve their accuracy.

  16. "Stereo Compton cameras" for the 3-D localization of radioisotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeuchi, K.; Kataoka, J.; Nishiyama, T.; Fujita, T.; Kishimoto, A.; Ohsuka, S.; Nakamura, S.; Adachi, S.; Hirayanagi, M.; Uchiyama, T.; Ishikawa, Y.; Kato, T.

    2014-11-01

    The Compton camera is a viable and convenient tool used to visualize the distribution of radioactive isotopes that emit gamma rays. After the nuclear disaster in Fukushima in 2011, there is a particularly urgent need to develop "gamma cameras", which can visualize the distribution of such radioisotopes. In response, we propose a portable Compton camera, which comprises 3-D position-sensitive GAGG scintillators coupled with thin monolithic MPPC arrays. The pulse-height ratio of two MPPC-arrays allocated at both ends of the scintillator block determines the depth of interaction (DOI), which dramatically improves the position resolution of the scintillation detectors. We report on the detailed optimization of the detector design, based on Geant4 simulation. The results indicate that detection efficiency reaches up to 0.54%, or more than 10 times that of other cameras being tested in Fukushima, along with a moderate angular resolution of 8.1° (FWHM). By applying the triangular surveying method, we also propose a new concept for the stereo measurement of gamma rays by using two Compton cameras, thus enabling the 3-D positional measurement of radioactive isotopes for the first time. From one point source simulation data, we ensured that the source position and the distance to the same could be determined typically to within 2 meters' accuracy and we also confirmed that more than two sources are clearly separated by the event selection from two point sources of simulation data.

  17. RAG-3D: A search tool for RNA 3D substructures

    SciTech Connect

    Zahran, Mai; Sevim Bayrak, Cigdem; Elmetwaly, Shereef; Schlick, Tamar

    2015-08-24

    In this study, to address many challenges in RNA structure/function prediction, the characterization of RNA's modular architectural units is required. Using the RNA-As-Graphs (RAG) database, we have previously explored the existence of secondary structure (2D) submotifs within larger RNA structures. Here we present RAG-3D—a dataset of RNA tertiary (3D) structures and substructures plus a web-based search tool—designed to exploit graph representations of RNAs for the goal of searching for similar 3D structural fragments. The objects in RAG-3D consist of 3D structures translated into 3D graphs, cataloged based on the connectivity between their secondary structure elements. Each graph is additionally described in terms of its subgraph building blocks. The RAG-3D search tool then compares a query RNA 3D structure to those in the database to obtain structurally similar structures and substructures. This comparison reveals conserved 3D RNA features and thus may suggest functional connections. Though RNA search programs based on similarity in sequence, 2D, and/or 3D structural elements are available, our graph-based search tool may be advantageous for illuminating similarities that are not obvious; using motifs rather than sequence space also reduces search times considerably. Ultimately, such substructuring could be useful for RNA 3D structure prediction, structure/function inference and inverse folding.

  18. RAG-3D: A search tool for RNA 3D substructures

    DOE PAGES

    Zahran, Mai; Sevim Bayrak, Cigdem; Elmetwaly, Shereef; ...

    2015-08-24

    In this study, to address many challenges in RNA structure/function prediction, the characterization of RNA's modular architectural units is required. Using the RNA-As-Graphs (RAG) database, we have previously explored the existence of secondary structure (2D) submotifs within larger RNA structures. Here we present RAG-3D—a dataset of RNA tertiary (3D) structures and substructures plus a web-based search tool—designed to exploit graph representations of RNAs for the goal of searching for similar 3D structural fragments. The objects in RAG-3D consist of 3D structures translated into 3D graphs, cataloged based on the connectivity between their secondary structure elements. Each graph is additionally describedmore » in terms of its subgraph building blocks. The RAG-3D search tool then compares a query RNA 3D structure to those in the database to obtain structurally similar structures and substructures. This comparison reveals conserved 3D RNA features and thus may suggest functional connections. Though RNA search programs based on similarity in sequence, 2D, and/or 3D structural elements are available, our graph-based search tool may be advantageous for illuminating similarities that are not obvious; using motifs rather than sequence space also reduces search times considerably. Ultimately, such substructuring could be useful for RNA 3D structure prediction, structure/function inference and inverse folding.« less

  19. ICER-3D Hyperspectral Image Compression Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xie, Hua; Kiely, Aaron; Klimesh, matthew; Aranki, Nazeeh

    2010-01-01

    Software has been developed to implement the ICER-3D algorithm. ICER-3D effects progressive, three-dimensional (3D), wavelet-based compression of hyperspectral images. If a compressed data stream is truncated, the progressive nature of the algorithm enables reconstruction of hyperspectral data at fidelity commensurate with the given data volume. The ICER-3D software is capable of providing either lossless or lossy compression, and incorporates an error-containment scheme to limit the effects of data loss during transmission. The compression algorithm, which was derived from the ICER image compression algorithm, includes wavelet-transform, context-modeling, and entropy coding subalgorithms. The 3D wavelet decomposition structure used by ICER-3D exploits correlations in all three dimensions of sets of hyperspectral image data, while facilitating elimination of spectral ringing artifacts, using a technique summarized in "Improving 3D Wavelet-Based Compression of Spectral Images" (NPO-41381), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 33, No. 3 (March 2009), page 7a. Correlation is further exploited by a context-modeling subalgorithm, which exploits spectral dependencies in the wavelet-transformed hyperspectral data, using an algorithm that is summarized in "Context Modeler for Wavelet Compression of Hyperspectral Images" (NPO-43239), which follows this article. An important feature of ICER-3D is a scheme for limiting the adverse effects of loss of data during transmission. In this scheme, as in the similar scheme used by ICER, the spatial-frequency domain is partitioned into rectangular error-containment regions. In ICER-3D, the partitions extend through all the wavelength bands. The data in each partition are compressed independently of those in the other partitions, so that loss or corruption of data from any partition does not affect the other partitions. Furthermore, because compression is progressive within each partition, when data are lost, any data from that partition received

  20. Full-color holographic 3D printer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takano, Masami; Shigeta, Hiroaki; Nishihara, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Masahiro; Takahashi, Susumu; Ohyama, Nagaaki; Kobayashi, Akihiko; Iwata, Fujio

    2003-05-01

    A holographic 3D printer is a system that produces a direct hologram with full-parallax information using the 3-dimensional data of a subject from a computer. In this paper, we present a proposal for the reproduction of full-color images with the holographic 3D printer. In order to realize the 3-dimensional color image, we selected the 3 laser wavelength colors of red (λ=633nm), green (λ=533nm), and blue (λ=442nm), and we built a one-step optical system using a projection system and a liquid crystal display. The 3-dimensional color image is obtained by synthesizing in a 2D array the multiple exposure with these 3 wavelengths made on each 250mm elementary hologram, and moving recording medium on a x-y stage. For the natural color reproduction in the holographic 3D printer, we take the approach of the digital processing technique based on the color management technology. The matching between the input and output colors is performed by investigating first, the relation between the gray level transmittance of the LCD and the diffraction efficiency of the hologram and second, by measuring the color displayed by the hologram to establish a correlation. In our first experimental results a non-linear functional relation for single and multiple exposure of the three components were found. These results are the first step in the realization of a natural color 3D image produced by the holographic color 3D printer.

  1. 3D bioprinting for engineering complex tissues.

    PubMed

    Mandrycky, Christian; Wang, Zongjie; Kim, Keekyoung; Kim, Deok-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Bioprinting is a 3D fabrication technology used to precisely dispense cell-laden biomaterials for the construction of complex 3D functional living tissues or artificial organs. While still in its early stages, bioprinting strategies have demonstrated their potential use in regenerative medicine to generate a variety of transplantable tissues, including skin, cartilage, and bone. However, current bioprinting approaches still have technical challenges in terms of high-resolution cell deposition, controlled cell distributions, vascularization, and innervation within complex 3D tissues. While no one-size-fits-all approach to bioprinting has emerged, it remains an on-demand, versatile fabrication technique that may address the growing organ shortage as well as provide a high-throughput method for cell patterning at the micrometer scale for broad biomedical engineering applications. In this review, we introduce the basic principles, materials, integration strategies and applications of bioprinting. We also discuss the recent developments, current challenges and future prospects of 3D bioprinting for engineering complex tissues. Combined with recent advances in human pluripotent stem cell technologies, 3D-bioprinted tissue models could serve as an enabling platform for high-throughput predictive drug screening and more effective regenerative therapies.

  2. 3D optical measuring technologies and systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chugui, Yuri V.

    2005-02-01

    The results of the R & D activity of TDI SIE SB RAS in the field of the 3D optical measuring technologies and systems for noncontact 3D optical dimensional inspection applied to atomic and railway industry safety problems are presented. This activity includes investigations of diffraction phenomena on some 3D objects, using the original constructive calculation method. The efficient algorithms for precise determining the transverse and longitudinal sizes of 3D objects of constant thickness by diffraction method, peculiarities on formation of the shadow and images of the typical elements of the extended objects were suggested. Ensuring the safety of nuclear reactors and running trains as well as their high exploitation reliability requires a 100% noncontact precise inspection of geometrical parameters of their components. To solve this problem we have developed methods and produced the technical vision measuring systems LMM, CONTROL, PROFIL, and technologies for noncontact 3D dimensional inspection of grid spacers and fuel elements for the nuclear reactor VVER-1000 and VVER-440, as well as automatic laser diagnostic COMPLEX for noncontact inspection of geometric parameters of running freight car wheel pairs. The performances of these systems and the results of industrial testing are presented and discussed. The created devices are in pilot operation at Atomic and Railway Companies.

  3. Magnetic Properties of 3D Printed Toroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bollig, Lindsey; Otto, Austin; Hilpisch, Peter; Mowry, Greg; Nelson-Cheeseman, Brittany; Renewable Energy; Alternatives Lab (REAL) Team

    Transformers are ubiquitous in electronics today. Although toroidal geometries perform most efficiently, transformers are traditionally made with rectangular cross-sections due to the lower manufacturing costs. Additive manufacturing techniques (3D printing) can easily achieve toroidal geometries by building up a part through a series of 2D layers. To get strong magnetic properties in a 3D printed transformer, a composite filament is used containing Fe dispersed in a polymer matrix. How the resulting 3D printed toroid responds to a magnetic field depends on two structural factors of the printed 2D layers: fill factor (planar density) and fill pattern. In this work, we investigate how the fill factor and fill pattern affect the magnetic properties of 3D printed toroids. The magnetic properties of the printed toroids are measured by a custom circuit that produces a hysteresis loop for each toroid. Toroids with various fill factors and fill patterns are compared to determine how these two factors can affect the magnetic field the toroid can produce. These 3D printed toroids can be used for numerous applications in order to increase the efficiency of transformers by making it possible for manufacturers to make a toroidal geometry.

  4. 3D culture for cardiac cells.

    PubMed

    Zuppinger, Christian

    2016-07-01

    This review discusses historical milestones, recent developments and challenges in the area of 3D culture models with cardiovascular cell types. Expectations in this area have been raised in recent years, but more relevant in vitro research, more accurate drug testing results, reliable disease models and insights leading to bioartificial organs are expected from the transition to 3D cell culture. However, the construction of organ-like cardiac 3D models currently remains a difficult challenge. The heart consists of highly differentiated cells in an intricate arrangement.Furthermore, electrical “wiring”, a vascular system and multiple cell types act in concert to respond to the rapidly changing demands of the body. Although cardiovascular 3D culture models have been predominantly developed for regenerative medicine in the past, their use in drug screening and for disease models has become more popular recently. Many sophisticated 3D culture models are currently being developed in this dynamic area of life science. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Cardiomyocyte Biology: Integration of Developmental and Environmental Cues in the Heart edited by Marcus Schaub and Hughes Abriel.

  5. 3D Spray Droplet Distributions in Sneezes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Techet, Alexandra; Scharfman, Barry; Bourouiba, Lydia

    2015-11-01

    3D spray droplet clouds generated during human sneezing are investigated using the Synthetic Aperture Feature Extraction (SAFE) method, which relies on light field imaging (LFI) and synthetic aperture (SA) refocusing computational photographic techniques. An array of nine high-speed cameras are used to image sneeze droplets and tracked the droplets in 3D space and time (3D + T). An additional high-speed camera is utilized to track the motion of the head during sneezing. In the SAFE method, the raw images recorded by each camera in the array are preprocessed and binarized, simplifying post processing after image refocusing and enabling the extraction of feature sizes and positions in 3D + T. These binary images are refocused using either additive or multiplicative methods, combined with thresholding. Sneeze droplet centroids, radii, distributions and trajectories are determined and compared with existing data. The reconstructed 3D droplet centroids and radii enable a more complete understanding of the physical extent and fluid dynamics of sneeze ejecta. These measurements are important for understanding the infectious disease transmission potential of sneezes in various indoor environments.

  6. BEAMS3D Neutral Beam Injection Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMillan, Matthew; Lazerson, Samuel A.

    2014-09-01

    With the advent of applied 3D fields in Tokamaks and modern high performance stellarators, a need has arisen to address non-axisymmetric effects on neutral beam heating and fueling. We report on the development of a fully 3D neutral beam injection (NBI) model, BEAMS3D, which addresses this need by coupling 3D equilibria to a guiding center code capable of modeling neutral and charged particle trajectories across the separatrix and into the plasma core. Ionization, neutralization, charge-exchange, viscous slowing down, and pitch angle scattering are modeled with the ADAS atomic physics database. Elementary benchmark calculations are presented to verify the collisionless particle orbits, NBI model, frictional drag, and pitch angle scattering effects. A calculation of neutral beam heating in the NCSX device is performed, highlighting the capability of the code to handle 3D magnetic fields. Notice: this manuscript has been authored by Princeton University under Contract Number DE-AC02-09CH11466 with the US Department of Energy. The United States Government retains and the publisher, by accepting the article for publication, acknowledges that the United States Government retains a non-exclusive, paid-up, irrevocable, world-wide license to publish or reproduce the published form of this manuscript, or allow others to do so, for United States Government purposes.

  7. Extra dimensions: 3D in PDF documentation

    SciTech Connect

    Graf, Norman A.

    2011-01-11

    Experimental science is replete with multi-dimensional information which is often poorly represented by the two dimensions of presentation slides and print media. Past efforts to disseminate such information to a wider audience have failed for a number of reasons, including a lack of standards which are easy to implement and have broad support. Adobe's Portable Document Format (PDF) has in recent years become the de facto standard for secure, dependable electronic information exchange. It has done so by creating an open format, providing support for multiple platforms and being reliable and extensible. By providing support for the ECMA standard Universal 3D (U3D) file format in its free Adobe Reader software, Adobe has made it easy to distribute and interact with 3D content. By providing support for scripting and animation, temporal data can also be easily distributed to a wide, non-technical audience. We discuss how the field of radiation imaging could benefit from incorporating full 3D information about not only the detectors, but also the results of the experimental analyses, in its electronic publications. In this article, we present examples drawn from high-energy physics, mathematics and molecular biology which take advantage of this functionality. Furthermore, we demonstrate how 3D detector elements can be documented, using either CAD drawings or other sources such as GEANT visualizations as input.

  8. Extra dimensions: 3D in PDF documentation

    DOE PAGES

    Graf, Norman A.

    2011-01-11

    Experimental science is replete with multi-dimensional information which is often poorly represented by the two dimensions of presentation slides and print media. Past efforts to disseminate such information to a wider audience have failed for a number of reasons, including a lack of standards which are easy to implement and have broad support. Adobe's Portable Document Format (PDF) has in recent years become the de facto standard for secure, dependable electronic information exchange. It has done so by creating an open format, providing support for multiple platforms and being reliable and extensible. By providing support for the ECMA standard Universalmore » 3D (U3D) file format in its free Adobe Reader software, Adobe has made it easy to distribute and interact with 3D content. By providing support for scripting and animation, temporal data can also be easily distributed to a wide, non-technical audience. We discuss how the field of radiation imaging could benefit from incorporating full 3D information about not only the detectors, but also the results of the experimental analyses, in its electronic publications. In this article, we present examples drawn from high-energy physics, mathematics and molecular biology which take advantage of this functionality. Furthermore, we demonstrate how 3D detector elements can be documented, using either CAD drawings or other sources such as GEANT visualizations as input.« less

  9. Angular Acceleration without Torque?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Richard D.

    2012-01-01

    Hardly. Just as Robert Johns qualitatively describes angular acceleration by an internal force in his article "Acceleration Without Force?" here we will extend the discussion to consider angular acceleration by an internal torque. As we will see, this internal torque is due to an internal force acting at a distance from an instantaneous center.

  10. Viscous damping of toroidal angular momentum in tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Stacey, W. M.

    2014-09-15

    The Braginskii viscous stress tensor formalism was generalized to accommodate non-axisymmetric 3D magnetic fields in general toroidal flux surface geometry in order to provide a representation for the viscous damping of toroidal rotation in tokamaks arising from various “neoclassical toroidal viscosity” mechanisms. In the process, it was verified that the parallel viscosity contribution to damping toroidal angular momentum still vanishes even in the presence of toroidal asymmetries, unless there are 3D radial magnetic fields.

  11. 3D Simulation: Microgravity Environments and Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Steve L.; Dischinger, Charles; Estes, Samantha; Parker, Nelson C. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Most, if not all, 3-D and Virtual Reality (VR) software programs are designed for one-G gravity applications. Space environments simulations require gravity effects of one one-thousandth to one one-million of that of the Earth's surface (10(exp -3) - 10(exp -6) G), thus one must be able to generate simulations that replicate those microgravity effects upon simulated astronauts. Unfortunately, the software programs utilized by the National Aeronautical and Space Administration does not have the ability to readily neutralize the one-G gravity effect. This pre-programmed situation causes the engineer or analysis difficulty during micro-gravity simulations. Therefore, microgravity simulations require special techniques or additional code in order to apply the power of 3D graphic simulation to space related applications. This paper discusses the problem and possible solutions to allow microgravity 3-D/VR simulations to be completed successfully without program code modifications.

  12. 3D Printed Multimaterial Microfluidic Valve

    PubMed Central

    Patrick, William G.; Sharma, Sunanda; Kong, David S.; Oxman, Neri

    2016-01-01

    We present a novel 3D printed multimaterial microfluidic proportional valve. The microfluidic valve is a fundamental primitive that enables the development of programmable, automated devices for controlling fluids in a precise manner. We discuss valve characterization results, as well as exploratory design variations in channel width, membrane thickness, and membrane stiffness. Compared to previous single material 3D printed valves that are stiff, these printed valves constrain fluidic deformation spatially, through combinations of stiff and flexible materials, to enable intricate geometries in an actuated, functionally graded device. Research presented marks a shift towards 3D printing multi-property programmable fluidic devices in a single step, in which integrated multimaterial valves can be used to control complex fluidic reactions for a variety of applications, including DNA assembly and analysis, continuous sampling and sensing, and soft robotics. PMID:27525809

  13. Impedance mammograph 3D phantom studies.

    PubMed

    Wtorek, J; Stelter, J; Nowakowski, A

    1999-04-20

    The results obtained using the Technical University of Gdansk Electroimpedance Mammograph (TUGEM) of a 3D phantom study are presented. The TUGEM system is briefly described. The hardware contains the measurement head and DSP-based identification modules controlled by a PC computer. A specially developed reconstruction algorithm, Regulated Correction Frequency Algebraic Reconstruction Technique (RCFART), is used to obtain 3D images. To visualize results, the Advance Visualization System (AVS) is used. It allows a powerful image processing on a fast workstation or on a high-performance computer. Results of three types of 3D conductivity perturbations used in the study (aluminum, Plexiglas, and cucumber) are shown. The relative volumes of perturbations less than 2% of the measurement chamber are easily evidenced.

  14. Spectroradiometric characterization of autostereoscopic 3D displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubiño, Manuel; Salas, Carlos; Pozo, Antonio M.; Castro, J. J.; Pérez-Ocón, Francisco

    2013-11-01

    Spectroradiometric measurements have been made for the experimental characterization of the RGB channels of autostereoscopic 3D displays, giving results for different measurement angles with respect to the normal direction of the plane of the display. In the study, 2 different models of autostereoscopic 3D displays of different sizes and resolutions were used, making measurements with a spectroradiometer (model PR-670 SpectraScan of PhotoResearch). From the measurements made, goniometric results were recorded for luminance contrast, and the fundamental hypotheses have been evaluated for the characterization of the displays: independence of the RGB channels and their constancy. The results show that the display with the lower angle variability in the contrast-ratio value and constancy of the chromaticity coordinates nevertheless presented the greatest additivity deviations with the measurement angle. For both displays, when the parameters evaluated were taken into account, lower angle variability consistently resulted in the 2D mode than in the 3D mode.

  15. Ames Lab 101: 3D Metals Printer

    SciTech Connect

    Ott, Ryan

    2014-02-13

    To meet one of the biggest energy challenges of the 21st century - finding alternatives to rare-earth elements and other critical materials - scientists will need new and advanced tools. The Critical Materials Institute at the U.S. Department of Energy's Ames Laboratory has a new one: a 3D printer for metals research. 3D printing technology, which has captured the imagination of both industry and consumers, enables ideas to move quickly from the initial design phase to final form using materials including polymers, ceramics, paper and even food. But the Critical Materials Institute (CMI) will apply the advantages of the 3D printing process in a unique way: for materials discovery.

  16. 3D Gravity Inversion using Tikhonov Regularization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toushmalani, Reza; Saibi, Hakim

    2015-08-01

    Subsalt exploration for oil and gas is attractive in regions where 3D seismic depth-migration to recover the geometry of a salt base is difficult. Additional information to reduce the ambiguity in seismic images would be beneficial. Gravity data often serve these purposes in the petroleum industry. In this paper, the authors present an algorithm for a gravity inversion based on Tikhonov regularization and an automatically regularized solution process. They examined the 3D Euler deconvolution to extract the best anomaly source depth as a priori information to invert the gravity data and provided a synthetic example. Finally, they applied the gravity inversion to recently obtained gravity data from the Bandar Charak (Hormozgan, Iran) to identify its subsurface density structure. Their model showed the 3D shape of salt dome in this region.

  17. 3D face analysis for demographic biometrics

    SciTech Connect

    Tokola, Ryan A; Mikkilineni, Aravind K; Boehnen, Chris Bensing

    2015-01-01

    Despite being increasingly easy to acquire, 3D data is rarely used for face-based biometrics applications beyond identification. Recent work in image-based demographic biometrics has enjoyed much success, but these approaches suffer from the well-known limitations of 2D representations, particularly variations in illumination, texture, and pose, as well as a fundamental inability to describe 3D shape. This paper shows that simple 3D shape features in a face-based coordinate system are capable of representing many biometric attributes without problem-specific models or specialized domain knowledge. The same feature vector achieves impressive results for problems as diverse as age estimation, gender classification, and race classification.

  18. Active segmentation of 3D axonal images.

    PubMed

    Muralidhar, Gautam S; Gopinath, Ajay; Bovik, Alan C; Ben-Yakar, Adela

    2012-01-01

    We present an active contour framework for segmenting neuronal axons on 3D confocal microscopy data. Our work is motivated by the need to conduct high throughput experiments involving microfluidic devices and femtosecond lasers to study the genetic mechanisms behind nerve regeneration and repair. While most of the applications for active contours have focused on segmenting closed regions in 2D medical and natural images, there haven't been many applications that have focused on segmenting open-ended curvilinear structures in 2D or higher dimensions. The active contour framework we present here ties together a well known 2D active contour model [5] along with the physics of projection imaging geometry to yield a segmented axon in 3D. Qualitative results illustrate the promise of our approach for segmenting neruonal axons on 3D confocal microscopy data.

  19. Atomic resolution 3D electron diffraction microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Miao, Jianwei; Ohsuna, Tetsu; Terasaki, Osamu; O'Keefe, Michael A.

    2002-03-01

    Electron lens aberration is the major barrier limiting the resolution of electron microscopy. Here we describe a novel form of electron microscopy to overcome electron lens aberration. By combining coherent electron diffraction with the oversampling phasing method, we show that the 3D structure of a 2 x 2 x 2 unit cell nano-crystal (framework of LTA [Al12Si12O48]8) can be ab initio determined at the resolution of 1 Angstrom from a series of simulated noisy diffraction pattern projections with rotation angles ranging from -70 degrees to +70 degrees in 5 degrees increments along a single rotation axis. This form of microscopy (which we call 3D electron diffraction microscopy) does not require any reference waves, and can image the 3D structure of nanocrystals, as well as non-crystalline biological and materials science samples, with the resolution limited only by the quality of sample diffraction.

  20. Simple buffers for 3D STORM microscopy.

    PubMed

    Olivier, Nicolas; Keller, Debora; Rajan, Vinoth Sundar; Gönczy, Pierre; Manley, Suliana

    2013-06-01

    3D STORM is one of the leading methods for super-resolution imaging, with resolution down to 10 nm in the lateral direction, and 30-50 nm in the axial direction. However, there is one important requirement to perform this type of imaging: making dye molecules blink. This usually relies on the utilization of complex buffers, containing different chemicals and sensitive enzymatic systems, limiting the reproducibility of the method. We report here that the commercial mounting medium Vectashield can be used for STORM of Alexa-647, and yields images comparable or superior to those obtained with more complex buffers, especially for 3D imaging. We expect that this advance will promote the versatile utilization of 3D STORM by removing one of its entry barriers, as well as provide a more reproducible way to compare optical setups and data processing algorithms.

  1. 3D integral imaging with optical processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Corral, Manuel; Martínez-Cuenca, Raúl; Saavedra, Genaro; Javidi, Bahram

    2008-04-01

    Integral imaging (InI) systems are imaging devices that provide auto-stereoscopic images of 3D intensity objects. Since the birth of this new technology, InI systems have faced satisfactorily many of their initial drawbacks. Basically, two kind of procedures have been used: digital and optical procedures. The "3D Imaging and Display Group" at the University of Valencia, with the essential collaboration of Prof. Javidi, has centered its efforts in the 3D InI with optical processing. Among other achievements, our Group has proposed the annular amplitude modulation for enlargement of the depth of field, dynamic focusing for reduction of the facet-braiding effect, or the TRES and MATRES devices to enlarge the viewing angle.

  2. Methods for comparing 3D surface attributes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Alex; Freeman, Adam

    1996-03-01

    A common task in data analysis is to compare two or more sets of data, statistics, presentations, etc. A predominant method in use is side-by-side visual comparison of images. While straightforward, it burdens the user with the task of discerning the differences between the two images. The user if further taxed when the images are of 3D scenes. This paper presents several methods for analyzing the extent, magnitude, and manner in which surfaces in 3D differ in their attributes. The surface geometry are assumed to be identical and only the surface attributes (color, texture, etc.) are variable. As a case in point, we examine the differences obtained when a 3D scene is rendered progressively using radiosity with different form factor calculation methods. The comparison methods include extensions of simple methods such as mapping difference information to color or transparency, and more recent methods including the use of surface texture, perturbation, and adaptive placements of error glyphs.

  3. Recent EFIT Developments and 3D Extension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lao, L. L.; Chu, M. S.; St. John, H. E.; Strait, E. J.; Montgomery, A. L.; Perkins, F. W.

    2006-10-01

    Recent developments of the equilibrium reconstruction code EFIT and its 3D extension to model toroidally asymmetric effects due to error and externally applied perturbation magnetic fields are presented. These include a new more complete uncertainty matrix for magnetic diagnostics based on detailed knowledge about their fabrication, installation, calibration, and operation. A new algorithm to efficiently compute high bootstrap-fraction equilibria that explicitly separates out the Pfirsch-Schluter and bootstrap contributions to the poloidal current stream function is also being developed. Other on-going and planned developments include a new computational structure based on Fortran 90/95 with a unified interface that can conveniently accommodate different tokamak devices and grid sizes, as well as a computational link that allows easy integration with transport and stability physics modules for integrated modeling. EFIT reconstruction capability is also being extended to 3D based on perturbation solutions to the 3D Grad-Shafranov equilibrium equation.

  4. A Hybrid 3D Indoor Space Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamali, Ali; Rahman, Alias Abdul; Boguslawski, Pawel

    2016-10-01

    GIS integrates spatial information and spatial analysis. An important example of such integration is for emergency response which requires route planning inside and outside of a building. Route planning requires detailed information related to indoor and outdoor environment. Indoor navigation network models including Geometric Network Model (GNM), Navigable Space Model, sub-division model and regular-grid model lack indoor data sources and abstraction methods. In this paper, a hybrid indoor space model is proposed. In the proposed method, 3D modeling of indoor navigation network is based on surveying control points and it is less dependent on the 3D geometrical building model. This research proposes a method of indoor space modeling for the buildings which do not have proper 2D/3D geometrical models or they lack semantic or topological information. The proposed hybrid model consists of topological, geometrical and semantical space.

  5. 3D differential phase contrast microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Michael; Tian, Lei; Waller, Laura

    2016-03-01

    We demonstrate three-dimensional (3D) optical phase and amplitude reconstruction based on coded source illumination using a programmable LED array. Multiple stacks of images along the optical axis are computed from recorded intensities captured by multiple images under off-axis illumination. Based on the first Born approximation, a linear differential phase contrast (DPC) model is built between 3D complex index of refraction and the intensity stacks. Therefore, 3D volume reconstruction can be achieved via a fast inversion method, without the intermediate 2D phase retrieval step. Our system employs spatially partially coherent illumination, so the transverse resolution achieves twice the NA of coherent systems, while axial resolution is also improved 2× as compared to holographic imaging.

  6. 3-D Mesh Generation Nonlinear Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Christon, M. A.; Dovey, D.; Stillman, D. W.; Hallquist, J. O.; Rainsberger, R. B

    1994-04-07

    INGRID is a general-purpose, three-dimensional mesh generator developed for use with finite element, nonlinear, structural dynamics codes. INGRID generates the large and complex input data files for DYNA3D, NIKE3D, FACET, and TOPAZ3D. One of the greatest advantages of INGRID is that virtually any shape can be described without resorting to wedge elements, tetrahedrons, triangular elements or highly distorted quadrilateral or hexahedral elements. Other capabilities available are in the areas of geometry and graphics. Exact surface equations and surface intersections considerably improve the ability to deal with accurate models, and a hidden line graphics algorithm is included which is efficient on the most complicated meshes. The primary new capability is associated with the boundary conditions, loads, and material properties required by nonlinear mechanics programs. Commands have been designed for each case to minimize user effort. This is particularly important since special processing is almost always required for each load or boundary condition.

  7. Ames Lab 101: 3D Metals Printer

    ScienceCinema

    Ott, Ryan

    2016-07-12

    To meet one of the biggest energy challenges of the 21st century - finding alternatives to rare-earth elements and other critical materials - scientists will need new and advanced tools. The Critical Materials Institute at the U.S. Department of Energy's Ames Laboratory has a new one: a 3D printer for metals research. 3D printing technology, which has captured the imagination of both industry and consumers, enables ideas to move quickly from the initial design phase to final form using materials including polymers, ceramics, paper and even food. But the Critical Materials Institute (CMI) will apply the advantages of the 3D printing process in a unique way: for materials discovery.

  8. 3D scene reconstruction based on 3D laser point cloud combining UAV images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Huiyun; Yan, Yangyang; Zhang, Xitong; Wu, Zhenzhen

    2016-03-01

    It is a big challenge capturing and modeling 3D information of the built environment. A number of techniques and technologies are now in use. These include GPS, and photogrammetric application and also remote sensing applications. The experiment uses multi-source data fusion technology for 3D scene reconstruction based on the principle of 3D laser scanning technology, which uses the laser point cloud data as the basis and Digital Ortho-photo Map as an auxiliary, uses 3DsMAX software as a basic tool for building three-dimensional scene reconstruction. The article includes data acquisition, data preprocessing, 3D scene construction. The results show that the 3D scene has better truthfulness, and the accuracy of the scene meet the need of 3D scene construction.

  9. 3D whiteboard: collaborative sketching with 3D-tracked smart phones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lue, James; Schulze, Jürgen P.

    2014-02-01

    We present the results of our investigation of the feasibility of a new approach for collaborative drawing in 3D, based on Android smart phones. Our approach utilizes a number of fiduciary markers, placed in the working area where they can be seen by the smart phones' cameras, in order to estimate the pose of each phone in the room. Our prototype allows two users to draw 3D objects with their smart phones by moving their phones around in 3D space. For example, 3D lines are drawn by recording the path of the phone as it is moved around in 3D space, drawing line segments on the screen along the way. Each user can see the virtual drawing space on their smart phones' displays, as if the display was a window into this space. Besides lines, our prototype application also supports 3D geometry creation, geometry transformation operations, and it shows the location of the other user's phone.

  10. Real-time monitoring of 3D cell culture using a 3D capacitance biosensor.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sun-Mi; Han, Nalae; Lee, Rimi; Choi, In-Hong; Park, Yong-Beom; Shin, Jeon-Soo; Yoo, Kyung-Hwa

    2016-03-15

    Three-dimensional (3D) cell cultures have recently received attention because they represent a more physiologically relevant environment compared to conventional two-dimensional (2D) cell cultures. However, 2D-based imaging techniques or cell sensors are insufficient for real-time monitoring of cellular behavior in 3D cell culture. Here, we report investigations conducted with a 3D capacitance cell sensor consisting of vertically aligned pairs of electrodes. When GFP-expressing human breast cancer cells (GFP-MCF-7) encapsulated in alginate hydrogel were cultured in a 3D cell culture system, cellular activities, such as cell proliferation and apoptosis at different heights, could be monitored non-invasively and in real-time by measuring the change in capacitance with the 3D capacitance sensor. Moreover, we were able to monitor cell migration of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) with our 3D capacitance sensor.

  11. Reproducibility of 3D chromatin configuration reconstructions

    PubMed Central

    Segal, Mark R.; Xiong, Hao; Capurso, Daniel; Vazquez, Mariel; Arsuaga, Javier

    2014-01-01

    It is widely recognized that the three-dimensional (3D) architecture of eukaryotic chromatin plays an important role in processes such as gene regulation and cancer-driving gene fusions. Observing or inferring this 3D structure at even modest resolutions had been problematic, since genomes are highly condensed and traditional assays are coarse. However, recently devised high-throughput molecular techniques have changed this situation. Notably, the development of a suite of chromatin conformation capture (CCC) assays has enabled elicitation of contacts—spatially close chromosomal loci—which have provided insights into chromatin architecture. Most analysis of CCC data has focused on the contact level, with less effort directed toward obtaining 3D reconstructions and evaluating the accuracy and reproducibility thereof. While questions of accuracy must be addressed experimentally, questions of reproducibility can be addressed statistically—the purpose of this paper. We use a constrained optimization technique to reconstruct chromatin configurations for a number of closely related yeast datasets and assess reproducibility using four metrics that measure the distance between 3D configurations. The first of these, Procrustes fitting, measures configuration closeness after applying reflection, rotation, translation, and scaling-based alignment of the structures. The others base comparisons on the within-configuration inter-point distance matrix. Inferential results for these metrics rely on suitable permutation approaches. Results indicate that distance matrix-based approaches are preferable to Procrustes analysis, not because of the metrics per se but rather on account of the ability to customize permutation schemes to handle within-chromosome contiguity. It has recently been emphasized that the use of constrained optimization approaches to 3D architecture reconstruction are prone to being trapped in local minima. Our methods of reproducibility assessment provide a

  12. Delft3D turbine turbulence module

    SciTech Connect

    Chartrand, Chris; Jagers, Bert

    2016-04-18

    The DOE has funded Sandia National Labs (SNL) to develop an open-source modeling tool to guide the design and layout of marine hydrokinetic (MHK) arrays to maximize power production while minimizing environmental effects. This modeling framework simulates flows through and around a MHK arrays while quantifying environmental responses. As an augmented version of the Dutch company, Deltares’s, environmental hydrodynamics code, Delft3D, SNL-Delft3D includes a new module that simulates energy conversion (momentum withdrawal) by MHK devices with commensurate changes in the turbulent kinetic energy and its dissipation rate.

  13. Superplastic forming using NIKE3D

    SciTech Connect

    Puso, M.

    1996-12-04

    The superplastic forming process requires careful control of strain rates in order to avoid strain localizations. A load scheduler was developed and implemented into the nonlinear finite element code NIKE3D to provide strain rate control during forming simulation and process schedule output. Often the sheets being formed in SPF are very thin such that less expensive membrane elements can be used as opposed to shell elements. A large strain membrane element was implemented into NIKE3D to assist in SPF process modeling.

  14. [Delirium, depression, dementia: solving the 3D's].

    PubMed

    Schuerch, M; Farag, L; Deom, S

    2012-01-01

    As there is no consensus in the specialized literature, it is often difficult to recognize the ties existing between dementia, delirium and depression. Depression preceding dementia is well-documented. Depressive symptoms during the process of dementia are less well-known. So are the close relationships between dementia and delirium as well as between delirium and depression. The commonality of symptoms between the three often causes diagnostic dilemmas. Unfortunately, elderly patients can often present two, or even three, of the "3 D's" simultaneously. Untangling the 3 D's has been the subject of several articles. We propose a synthesis as well as our thoughts on the subject from a clinical psychogeriatric standpoint.

  15. 3D Modeling Engine Representation Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    Steven Prescott; Ramprasad Sampath; Curtis Smith; Timothy Yang

    2014-09-01

    Computers have been used for 3D modeling and simulation, but only recently have computational resources been able to give realistic results in a reasonable time frame for large complex models. This summary report addressed the methods, techniques, and resources used to develop a 3D modeling engine to represent risk analysis simulation for advanced small modular reactor structures and components. The simulations done for this evaluation were focused on external events, specifically tsunami floods, for a hypothetical nuclear power facility on a coastline.

  16. Cryogenic 3D printing for tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Adamkiewicz, Michal; Rubinsky, Boris

    2015-12-01

    We describe a new cryogenic 3D printing technology for freezing hydrogels, with a potential impact to tissue engineering. We show that complex frozen hydrogel structures can be generated when the 3D object is printed immersed in a liquid coolant (liquid nitrogen), whose upper surface is maintained at the same level as the highest deposited layer of the object. This novel approach ensures that the process of freezing is controlled precisely, and that already printed frozen layers remain at a constant temperature. We describe the device and present results which illustrate the potential of the new technology.

  17. Immersive 3D geovisualisation in higher education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philips, Andrea; Walz, Ariane; Bergner, Andreas; Graeff, Thomas; Heistermann, Maik; Kienzler, Sarah; Korup, Oliver; Lipp, Torsten; Schwanghart, Wolfgang; Zeilinger, Gerold

    2014-05-01

    Through geovisualisation we explore spatial data, we analyse it towards a specific questions, we synthesise results, and we present and communicate them to a specific audience (MacEachren & Kraak 1997). After centuries of paper maps, the means to represent and visualise our physical environment and its abstract qualities have changed dramatically since the 1990s - and accordingly the methods how to use geovisualisation in teaching. Whereas some people might still consider the traditional classroom as ideal setting for teaching and learning geographic relationships and its mapping, we used a 3D CAVE (computer-animated virtual environment) as environment for a problem-oriented learning project called "GEOSimulator". Focussing on this project, we empirically investigated, if such a technological advance like the CAVE make 3D visualisation, including 3D geovisualisation, not only an important tool for businesses (Abulrub et al. 2012) and for the public (Wissen et al. 2008), but also for educational purposes, for which it had hardly been used yet. The 3D CAVE is a three-sided visualisation platform, that allows for immersive and stereoscopic visualisation of observed and simulated spatial data. We examined the benefits of immersive 3D visualisation for geographic research and education and synthesized three fundamental technology-based visual aspects: First, the conception and comprehension of space and location does not need to be generated, but is instantaneously and intuitively present through stereoscopy. Second, optical immersion into virtual reality strengthens this spatial perception which is in particular important for complex 3D geometries. And third, a significant benefit is interactivity, which is enhanced through immersion and allows for multi-discursive and dynamic data exploration and knowledge transfer. Based on our problem-oriented learning project, which concentrates on a case study on flood risk management at the Wilde Weisseritz in Germany, a river

  18. Acquisition and applications of 3D images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sterian, Paul; Mocanu, Elena

    2007-08-01

    The moiré fringes method and their analysis up to medical and entertainment applications are discussed in this paper. We describe the procedure of capturing 3D images with an Inspeck Camera that is a real-time 3D shape acquisition system based on structured light techniques. The method is a high-resolution one. After processing the images, using computer, we can use the data for creating laser fashionable objects by engraving them with a Q-switched Nd:YAG. In medical field we mention the plastic surgery and the replacement of X-Ray especially in pediatric use.

  19. The Galicia 3D experiment: an Introduction.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reston, Timothy; Martinez Loriente, Sara; Holroyd, Luke; Merry, Tobias; Sawyer, Dale; Morgan, Julia; Jordan, Brian; Tesi Sanjurjo, Mari; Alexanian, Ara; Shillington, Donna; Gibson, James; Minshull, Tim; Karplus, Marianne; Bayracki, Gaye; Davy, Richard; Klaeschen, Dirk; Papenberg, Cord; Ranero, Cesar; Perez-Gussinye, Marta; Martinez, Miguel

    2014-05-01

    In June and July 2013, scientists from 8 institutions took part in the Galicia 3D seismic experiment, the first ever crustal -scale academic 3D MCS survey over a rifted margin. The aim was to determine the 3D structure of a critical portion of the west Galicia rifted margin. At this margin, well-defined tilted fault blocks, bound by west-dipping faults and capped by synrift sediments are underlain by a bright reflection, undulating on time sections, termed the S reflector and thought to represent a major detachment fault of some kind. Moving west, the crust thins to zero thickness and mantle is unroofed, as evidence by the "Peridotite Ridge" first reported at this margin, but since observed at many other magma-poor margins. By imaging such a margin in detail, the experiment aimed to resolve the processes controlling crustal thinning and mantle unroofing at a type example magma poor margin. The experiment set out to collect several key datasets: a 3D seismic reflection volume measuring ~20x64km and extending down to ~14s TWT, a 3D ocean bottom seismometer dataset suitable for full wavefield inversion (the recording of the complete 3D seismic shots by 70 ocean bottom instruments), the "mirror imaging" of the crust using the same grid of OBS, a single 2D combined reflection/refraction profile extending to the west to determine the transition from unroofed mantle to true oceanic crust, and the seismic imaging of the water column, calibrated by regular deployment of XBTs to measure the temperature structure of the water column. We collected 1280 km2 of seismic reflection data, consisting of 136533 shots recorded on 1920 channels, producing 260 million seismic traces, each ~ 14s long. This adds up to ~ 8 terabytes of data, representing, we believe, the largest ever academic 3D MCS survey in terms of both the area covered and the volume of data. The OBS deployment was the largest ever within an academic 3D survey.

  20. Conserved charges in 3D gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Blagojevic, M.; Cvetkovic, B.

    2010-06-15

    The covariant canonical expression for the conserved charges, proposed by Nester, is tested on several solutions in three-dimensional gravity with or without torsion and topologically massive gravity. In each of these cases, the calculated values of energy momentum and angular momentum are found to satisfy the first law of black hole thermodynamics.

  1. Scalable 3D GIS environment managed by 3D-XML-based modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Beiqi; Rui, Jianxun; Chen, Neng

    2008-10-01

    Nowadays, the namely 3D GIS technologies become a key factor in establishing and maintaining large-scale 3D geoinformation services. However, with the rapidly increasing size and complexity of the 3D models being acquired, a pressing needed for suitable data management solutions has become apparent. This paper outlines that storage and exchange of geospatial data between databases and different front ends like 3D models, GIS or internet browsers require a standardized format which is capable to represent instances of 3D GIS models, to minimize loss of information during data transfer and to reduce interface development efforts. After a review of previous methods for spatial 3D data management, a universal lightweight XML-based format for quick and easy sharing of 3D GIS data is presented. 3D data management based on XML is a solution meeting the requirements as stated, which can provide an efficient means for opening a new standard way to create an arbitrary data structure and share it over the Internet. To manage reality-based 3D models, this paper uses 3DXML produced by Dassault Systemes. 3DXML uses opening XML schemas to communicate product geometry, structure and graphical display properties. It can be read, written and enriched by standard tools; and allows users to add extensions based on their own specific requirements. The paper concludes with the presentation of projects from application areas which will benefit from the functionality presented above.

  2. Development of 3D video and 3D data services for T-DMB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, Kugjin; Lee, Hyun; Hur, Namho; Kim, Jinwoong

    2008-02-01

    In this paper, we present motivation, system concept, and implementation details of stereoscopic 3D visual services on T-DMB. We have developed two types of 3D visual service : one is '3D video service', which provides 3D depth feeling for a video program by sending left and right view video streams, and the other is '3D data service', which provides presentation of 3D objects overlaid on top of 2D video program. We have developed several highly efficient and sophisticated transmission schemes for the delivery of 3D visual data in order to meet the system requirements such as (1) minimization of bitrate overhead to comply with the strict constraint of T-DMB channel bandwidth; (2) backward and forward compatibility with existing T-DMB; (3) maximize the eye-catching effect of 3D visual representation while reducing eye fatigue. We found that, in contrast to conventional way of providing a stereo version of a program as a whole, the proposed scheme can lead to variety of efficient and effective 3D visual services which can be adapted to many business models.

  3. Massively parallel implementation of 3D-RISM calculation with volumetric 3D-FFT.

    PubMed

    Maruyama, Yutaka; Yoshida, Norio; Tadano, Hiroto; Takahashi, Daisuke; Sato, Mitsuhisa; Hirata, Fumio

    2014-07-05

    A new three-dimensional reference interaction site model (3D-RISM) program for massively parallel machines combined with the volumetric 3D fast Fourier transform (3D-FFT) was developed, and tested on the RIKEN K supercomputer. The ordinary parallel 3D-RISM program has a limitation on the number of parallelizations because of the limitations of the slab-type 3D-FFT. The volumetric 3D-FFT relieves this limitation drastically. We tested the 3D-RISM calculation on the large and fine calculation cell (2048(3) grid points) on 16,384 nodes, each having eight CPU cores. The new 3D-RISM program achieved excellent scalability to the parallelization, running on the RIKEN K supercomputer. As a benchmark application, we employed the program, combined with molecular dynamics simulation, to analyze the oligomerization process of chymotrypsin Inhibitor 2 mutant. The results demonstrate that the massive parallel 3D-RISM program is effective to analyze the hydration properties of the large biomolecular systems.

  4. Innovations in 3D printing: a 3D overview from optics to organs.

    PubMed

    Schubert, Carl; van Langeveld, Mark C; Donoso, Larry A

    2014-02-01

    3D printing is a method of manufacturing in which materials, such as plastic or metal, are deposited onto one another in layers to produce a three dimensional object, such as a pair of eye glasses or other 3D objects. This process contrasts with traditional ink-based printers which produce a two dimensional object (ink on paper). To date, 3D printing has primarily been used in engineering to create engineering prototypes. However, recent advances in printing materials have now enabled 3D printers to make objects that are comparable with traditionally manufactured items. In contrast with conventional printers, 3D printing has the potential to enable mass customisation of goods on a large scale and has relevance in medicine including ophthalmology. 3D printing has already been proved viable in several medical applications including the manufacture of eyeglasses, custom prosthetic devices and dental implants. In this review, we discuss the potential for 3D printing to revolutionise manufacturing in the same way as the printing press revolutionised conventional printing. The applications and limitations of 3D printing are discussed; the production process is demonstrated by producing a set of eyeglass frames from 3D blueprints.

  5. PB3D: A new code for edge 3-D ideal linear peeling-ballooning stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weyens, T.; Sánchez, R.; Huijsmans, G.; Loarte, A.; García, L.

    2017-02-01

    A new numerical code PB3D (Peeling-Ballooning in 3-D) is presented. It implements and solves the intermediate-to-high-n ideal linear magnetohydrodynamic stability theory extended to full edge 3-D magnetic toroidal configurations in previous work [1]. The features that make PB3D unique are the assumptions on the perturbation structure through intermediate-to-high mode numbers n in general 3-D configurations, while allowing for displacement of the plasma edge. This makes PB3D capable of very efficient calculations of the full 3-D stability for the output of multiple equilibrium codes. As first verification, it is checked that results from the stability code MISHKA [2], which considers axisymmetric equilibrium configurations, are accurately reproduced, and these are then successfully extended to 3-D configurations, through comparison with COBRA [3], as well as using checks on physical consistency. The non-intuitive 3-D results presented serve as a tentative first proof of the capabilities of the code.

  6. A strategy for sampling on a sphere applied to 3D selective RF pulse design.

    PubMed

    Wong, S T; Roos, M S

    1994-12-01

    Conventional constant angular velocity sampling of the surface of a sphere results in a higher sampling density near the two poles relative to the equatorial region. More samples, and hence longer sampling time, are required to achieve a given sampling density in the equatorial region when compared with uniform sampling. This paper presents a simple expression for a continuous sample path through a nearly uniform distribution of points on the surface of a sphere. Sampling of concentric spherical shells in k-space with the new strategy is used to design 3D selective inversion and spin-echo pulses. These new 3D selective pulses have been implemented and verified experimentally.

  7. The EISCAT_3D Science Case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tjulin, A.; Mann, I.; McCrea, I.; Aikio, A. T.

    2013-05-01

    EISCAT_3D will be a world-leading international research infrastructure using the incoherent scatter technique to study the atmosphere in the Fenno-Scandinavian Arctic and to investigate how the Earth's atmosphere is coupled to space. The EISCAT_3D phased-array multistatic radar system will be operated by EISCAT Scientific Association and thus be an integral part of an organisation that has successfully been running incoherent scatter radars for more than thirty years. The baseline design of the radar system contains a core site with transmitting and receiving capabilities located close to the intersection of the Swedish, Norwegian and Finnish borders and five receiving sites located within 50 to 250 km from the core. The EISCAT_3D project is currently in its Preparatory Phase and can smoothly transit into implementation in 2014, provided sufficient funding. Construction can start 2016 and first operations in 2018. The EISCAT_3D Science Case is prepared as part of the Preparatory Phase. It is regularly updated with annual new releases, and it aims at being a common document for the whole future EISCAT_3D user community. The areas covered by the Science Case are atmospheric physics and global change; space and plasma physics; solar system research; space weather and service applications; and radar techniques, new methods for coding and analysis. Two of the aims for EISCAT_3D are to understand the ways natural variability in the upper atmosphere, imposed by the Sun-Earth system, can influence the middle and lower atmosphere, and to improve the predictivity of atmospheric models by providing higher resolution observations to replace the current parametrised input. Observations by EISCAT_3D will also be used to monitor the direct effects from the Sun on the ionosphere-atmosphere system and those caused by solar wind magnetosphere-ionosphere interaction. In addition, EISCAT_3D will be used for remote sensing the large-scale behaviour of the magnetosphere from its

  8. Application of a 3D volumetric display for radiation therapy treatment planning I: quality assurance procedures.

    PubMed

    Gong, Xing; Kirk, Michael Collins; Napoli, Josh; Stutsman, Sandy; Zusag, Tom; Khelashvili, Gocha; Chu, James

    2009-07-17

    To design and implement a set of quality assurance tests for an innovative 3D volumetric display for radiation treatment planning applications. A genuine 3D display (Perspecta Spatial 3D, Actuality-Systems Inc., Bedford, MA) has been integrated with the Pinnacle TPS (Philips Medical Systems, Madison WI), for treatment planning. The Perspecta 3D display renders a 25 cm diameter volume that is viewable from any side, floating within a translucent dome. In addition to displaying all 3D data exported from Pinnacle, the system provides a 3D mouse to define beam angles and apertures and to measure distance. The focus of this work is the design and implementation of a quality assurance program for 3D displays and specific 3D planning issues as guided by AAPM Task Group Report 53. A series of acceptance and quality assurance tests have been designed to evaluate the accuracy of CT images, contours, beams, and dose distributions as displayed on Perspecta. Three-dimensional matrices, rulers and phantoms with known spatial dimensions were used to check Perspecta's absolute spatial accuracy. In addition, a system of tests was designed to confirm Perspecta's ability to import and display Pinnacle data consistently. CT scans of phantoms were used to confirm beam field size, divergence, and gantry and couch angular accuracy as displayed on Perspecta. Beam angles were verified through Cartesian coordinate system measurements and by CT scans of phantoms rotated at known angles. Beams designed on Perspecta were exported to Pinnacle and checked for accuracy. Dose at sampled points were checked for consistency with Pinnacle and agreed within 1% or 1 mm. All data exported from Pinnacle to Perspecta was displayed consistently. The 3D spatial display of images, contours, and dose distributions were consistent with Pinnacle display. When measured by the 3D ruler, the distances between any two points calculated using Perspecta agreed with Pinnacle within the measurement error.

  9. How to See Shadows in 3D

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parikesit, Gea O. F.

    2014-01-01

    Shadows can be found easily everywhere around us, so that we rarely find it interesting to reflect on how they work. In order to raise curiosity among students on the optics of shadows, we can display the shadows in 3D, particularly using a stereoscopic set-up. In this paper we describe the optics of stereoscopic shadows using simple schematic…

  10. 3D printed microfluidics for biological applications.

    PubMed

    Ho, Chee Meng Benjamin; Ng, Sum Huan; Li, King Ho Holden; Yoon, Yong-Jin

    2015-01-01

    The term "Lab-on-a-Chip," is synonymous with describing microfluidic devices with biomedical applications. Even though microfluidics have been developing rapidly over the past decade, the uptake rate in biological research has been slow. This could be due to the tedious process of fabricating a chip and the absence of a "killer application" that would outperform existing traditional methods. In recent years, three dimensional (3D) printing has been drawing much interest from the research community. It has the ability to make complex structures with high resolution. Moreover, the fast building time and ease of learning has simplified the fabrication process of microfluidic devices to a single step. This could possibly aid the field of microfluidics in finding its "killer application" that will lead to its acceptance by researchers, especially in the biomedical field. In this paper, a review is carried out of how 3D printing helps to improve the fabrication of microfluidic devices, the 3D printing technologies currently used for fabrication and the future of 3D printing in the field of microfluidics.

  11. 3D Cell Culture in Alginate Hydrogels

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Therese; Auk-Emblem, Pia; Dornish, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This review compiles information regarding the use of alginate, and in particular alginate hydrogels, in culturing cells in 3D. Knowledge of alginate chemical structure and functionality are shown to be important parameters in design of alginate-based matrices for cell culture. Gel elasticity as well as hydrogel stability can be impacted by the type of alginate used, its concentration, the choice of gelation technique (ionic or covalent), and divalent cation chosen as the gel inducing ion. The use of peptide-coupled alginate can control cell–matrix interactions. Gelation of alginate with concomitant immobilization of cells can take various forms. Droplets or beads have been utilized since the 1980s for immobilizing cells. Newer matrices such as macroporous scaffolds are now entering the 3D cell culture product market. Finally, delayed gelling, injectable, alginate systems show utility in the translation of in vitro cell culture to in vivo tissue engineering applications. Alginate has a history and a future in 3D cell culture. Historically, cells were encapsulated in alginate droplets cross-linked with calcium for the development of artificial organs. Now, several commercial products based on alginate are being used as 3D cell culture systems that also demonstrate the possibility of replacing or regenerating tissue. PMID:27600217

  12. 3D Printed Terahertz Focusing Grating Couplers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jahn, David; Weidenbach, Marcel; Lehr, Jannik; Becker, Leonard; Beltrán-Mejía, Felipe; Busch, Stefan F.; Balzer, Jan C.; Koch, Martin

    2017-02-01

    We have designed, constructed and characterized a grating that focuses electromagnetic radiation at specific frequencies out of a dielectric waveguide. A simple theoretical model predicts the focusing behaviour of these chirped gratings, along with numerical results that support our assumptions and improved the grating geometry. The leaky waveguide was 3D printed and characterized at 120 GHz demonstrating its potential for manipulating terahertz waves.

  13. A Cray T3D performance study

    SciTech Connect

    Nallana, A.; Kincaid, D.R.

    1996-05-01

    We carry out a performance study using the Cray T3D parallel supercomputer to illustrate some important features of this machine. Timing experiments show the speed of various basic operations while more complicated operations give some measure of its parallel performance.

  14. Rubber Impact on 3D Textile Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heimbs, Sebastian; Van Den Broucke, Björn; Duplessis Kergomard, Yann; Dau, Frederic; Malherbe, Benoit

    2012-06-01

    A low velocity impact study of aircraft tire rubber on 3D textile-reinforced composite plates was performed experimentally and numerically. In contrast to regular unidirectional composite laminates, no delaminations occur in such a 3D textile composite. Yarn decohesions, matrix cracks and yarn ruptures have been identified as the major damage mechanisms under impact load. An increase in the number of 3D warp yarns is proposed to improve the impact damage resistance. The characteristic of a rubber impact is the high amount of elastic energy stored in the impactor during impact, which was more than 90% of the initial kinetic energy. This large geometrical deformation of the rubber during impact leads to a less localised loading of the target structure and poses great challenges for the numerical modelling. A hyperelastic Mooney-Rivlin constitutive law was used in Abaqus/Explicit based on a step-by-step validation with static rubber compression tests and low velocity impact tests on aluminium plates. Simulation models of the textile weave were developed on the meso- and macro-scale. The final correlation between impact simulation results on 3D textile-reinforced composite plates and impact test data was promising, highlighting the potential of such numerical simulation tools.

  15. NASA Sees Typhoon Rammasun in 3-D

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA's TRMM satellite flew over on July 14, 2014 at 1819 UTC and data was used to make this 3-D flyby showing thunderstorms to heights of almost 17km (10.5 miles). Rain was measured falling at a ra...

  16. The New Realm of 3-D Vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Dimension Technologies Inc., developed a line of 2-D/3-D Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) screens, including a 15-inch model priced at consumer levels. DTI's family of flat panel LCD displays, called the Virtual Window(TM), provide real-time 3-D images without the use of glasses, head trackers, helmets, or other viewing aids. Most of the company initial 3-D display research was funded through NASA's Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program. The images on DTI's displays appear to leap off the screen and hang in space. The display accepts input from computers or stereo video sources, and can be switched from 3-D to full-resolution 2-D viewing with the push of a button. The Virtual Window displays have applications in data visualization, medicine, architecture, business, real estate, entertainment, and other research, design, military, and consumer applications. Displays are currently used for computer games, protein analysis, and surgical imaging. The technology greatly benefits the medical field, as surgical simulators are helping to increase the skills of surgical residents. Virtual Window(TM) is a trademark of Dimension Technologies Inc.

  17. Accuracy of 3-D reconstruction with occlusions.

    PubMed

    Begon, Mickaël; Lacouture, Patrick

    2010-02-01

    A marker has to be seen by at least two cameras for its three-dimensional (3-D) reconstruction, and the accuracy can be improved with more cameras. However, a change in the set of cameras used in the reconstruction can alter the kinematics. The purpose of this study was to quantify the harmful effect of occlusions on two-dimensional (2-D) images and to make recommendations about the signal processing. A reference kinematics data set was collected for a three degree-of-freedom linkage with three cameras of a commercial motion analysis system without any occlusion on the 2-D images. In the 2-D images, some occlusions were artificially created based on trials of real cyclic motions. An interpolation of 2-D trajectories before the 3-D reconstruction and two filters (Savitsky-Golay and Butterworth filters) after reconstruction were successively applied to minimize the effect of the 2-D occlusions. The filter parameters were optimized by minimizing the root mean square error between the reference and the filtered data. The optimal parameters of the filters were marker dependent, whereas no filter was necessary after a 2-D interpolation. As the occlusions cause systematic error in the 3-D reconstruction, the interpolation of the 2-D trajectories is more appropriate than filtering the 3-D trajectories.

  18. Spacecraft 3D Augmented Reality Mobile App

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hussey, Kevin J.; Doronila, Paul R.; Kumanchik, Brian E.; Chan, Evan G.; Ellison, Douglas J.; Boeck, Andrea; Moore, Justin M.

    2013-01-01

    The Spacecraft 3D application allows users to learn about and interact with iconic NASA missions in a new and immersive way using common mobile devices. Using Augmented Reality (AR) techniques to project 3D renditions of the mission spacecraft into real-world surroundings, users can interact with and learn about Curiosity, GRAIL, Cassini, and Voyager. Additional updates on future missions, animations, and information will be ongoing. Using a printed AR Target and camera on a mobile device, users can get up close with these robotic explorers, see how some move, and learn about these engineering feats, which are used to expand knowledge and understanding about space. The software receives input from the mobile device's camera to recognize the presence of an AR marker in the camera's field of view. It then displays a 3D rendition of the selected spacecraft in the user's physical surroundings, on the mobile device's screen, while it tracks the device's movement in relation to the physical position of the spacecraft's 3D image on the AR marker.

  19. 3-D Teaching Models for All

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Joan; Farland-Smith, Donna

    2010-01-01

    Allowing a student to "see" through touch what other students see through a microscope can be a challenging task. Therefore, author Joan Bradley created three-dimensional (3-D) models with one student's visual impairment in mind. They are meant to benefit all students and can be used to teach common high school biology topics, including the…

  20. A Rotation Invariant in 3-D Reaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitra, Suvobrata; Turvey, M. T.

    2004-01-01

    In 3 experiments, the authors investigated changes in hand orientation during a 3-D reaching task that imposed specific position and orientation requirements on the hand's initial and final postures. Instantaneous hand orientation was described using 3-element rotation vectors representing current orientation as a rotation from a fixed reference…

  1. Planetary Torque in 3D Isentropic Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fung, Jeffrey; Masset, Frédéric; Lega, Elena; Velasco, David

    2017-03-01

    Planetary migration is inherently a three-dimensional (3D) problem, because Earth-size planetary cores are deeply embedded in protoplanetary disks. Simulations of these 3D disks remain challenging due to the steep resolution requirements. Using two different hydrodynamics codes, FARGO3D and PEnGUIn, we simulate disk–planet interaction for a one to five Earth-mass planet embedded in an isentropic disk. We measure the torque on the planet and ensure that the measurements are converged both in resolution and between the two codes. We find that the torque is independent of the smoothing length of the planet’s potential (r s), and that it has a weak dependence on the adiabatic index of the gaseous disk (γ). The torque values correspond to an inward migration rate qualitatively similar to previous linear calculations. We perform additional simulations with explicit radiative transfer using FARGOCA, and again find agreement between 3D simulations and existing torque formulae. We also present the flow pattern around the planets that show active flow is present within the planet’s Hill sphere, and meridional vortices are shed downstream. The vertical flow speed near the planet is faster for a smaller r s or γ, up to supersonic speeds for the smallest r s and γ in our study.

  2. 3D imaging system for biometric applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harding, Kevin; Abramovich, Gil; Paruchura, Vijay; Manickam, Swaminathan; Vemury, Arun

    2010-04-01

    There is a growing interest in the use of 3D data for many new applications beyond traditional metrology areas. In particular, using 3D data to obtain shape information of both people and objects for applications ranging from identification to game inputs does not require high degrees of calibration or resolutions in the tens of micron range, but does require a means to quickly and robustly collect data in the millimeter range. Systems using methods such as structured light or stereo have seen wide use in measurements, but due to the use of a triangulation angle, and thus the need for a separated second viewpoint, may not be practical for looking at a subject 10 meters away. Even when working close to a subject, such as capturing hands or fingers, the triangulation angle causes occlusions, shadows, and a physically large system that may get in the way. This paper will describe methods to collect medium resolution 3D data, plus highresolution 2D images, using a line of sight approach. The methods use no moving parts and as such are robust to movement (for portability), reliable, and potentially very fast at capturing 3D data. This paper will describe the optical methods considered, variations on these methods, and present experimental data obtained with the approach.

  3. GPM 3D Flyby of Hurricane Lester

    NASA Video Gallery

    This 3-D flyby of Lester was created using GPM's Radar data. NASA/JAXA's GPM core observatory satellite flew over Hurricane Lester on August 29, 2016 at 7:21 p.m. EDT. Rain was measured by GPM's ra...

  4. 3-D Flyby of Enawo by GPM

    NASA Video Gallery

    In this 3-D Flyby animation of GPM rainfall data, rain was falling at a rate of over 220 mm (8.7 inches) per hour in intense downpours. Many of these storms were reaching altitudes above 16 km (9.9...

  5. Counter-sniper 3D laser radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shepherd, Orr; LePage, Andrew J.; Wijntjes, Geert J.; Zehnpfennig, Theodore F.; Sackos, John T.; Nellums, Robert O.

    1999-01-01

    Visidyne, Inc., teaming with Sandia National Laboratories, has developed the preliminary design for an innovative scannerless 3-D laser radar capable of acquiring, tracking, and determining the coordinates of small caliber projectiles in flight with sufficient precision, so their origin can be established by back projecting their tracks to their source. The design takes advantage of the relatively large effective cross-section of a bullet at optical wavelengths. Kay to its implementation is the use of efficient, high- power laser diode arrays for illuminators and an imaging laser receiver using a unique CCD imager design, that acquires the information to establish x, y (angle-angle) and range coordinates for each bullet at very high frame rates. The detection process achieves a high degree of discrimination by using the optical signature of the bullet, solar background mitigation, and track detection. Field measurements and computer simulations have been used to provide the basis for a preliminary design of a robust bullet tracker, the Counter Sniper 3-D Laser Radar. Experimental data showing 3-D test imagery acquired by a lidar with architecture similar to that of the proposed Counter Sniper 3-D Lidar are presented. A proposed Phase II development would yield an innovative, compact, and highly efficient bullet-tracking laser radar. Such a device would meet the needs of not only the military, but also federal, state, and local law enforcement organizations.

  6. Virtual Representations in 3D Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shonfeld, Miri; Kritz, Miki

    2013-01-01

    This research explores the extent to which virtual worlds can serve as online collaborative learning environments for students by increasing social presence and engagement. 3D environments enable learning, which simulates face-to-face encounters while retaining the advantages of online learning. Students in Education departments created avatars…

  7. Introduction to 3D Graphics through Excel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benacka, Jan

    2013-01-01

    The article presents a method of explaining the principles of 3D graphics through making a revolvable and sizable orthographic parallel projection of cuboid in Excel. No programming is used. The method was tried in fourteen 90 minute lessons with 181 participants, which were Informatics teachers, undergraduates of Applied Informatics and gymnasium…

  8. Constructing Arguments with 3-D Printed Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McConnell, William; Dickerson, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe a fourth-grade lesson where 3-D printing technologies were not only a stimulus for engagement but also served as a modeling tool providing meaningful learning opportunities. Specifically, fourth-grade students construct an argument that animals' external structures function to support survival in a particular…

  9. Signal and Noise in 3D Environments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-30

    algorithms. The 3D environment causes beam splitting, which affects both the perceived bearing and the received level on a towed array. 2 To date... sound level as dozens of ships crisscross an area. The variations in intensity should allow us to infer the range-integrated transmission loss

  10. Model-based 3D SAR reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knight, Chad; Gunther, Jake; Moon, Todd

    2014-06-01

    Three dimensional scene reconstruction with synthetic aperture radar (SAR) is desirable for target recognition and improved scene interpretability. The vertical aperture, which is critical to reconstruct 3D SAR scenes, is almost always sparsely sampled due to practical limitations, which creates an underdetermined problem. This papers explores 3D scene reconstruction using a convex model-based approach. The approach developed is demonstrated on 3D scenes, but can be extended to SAR reconstruction of sparsely sampled signals in the spatial and, or, frequency domains. The model-based approach enables knowledge-aided image formation (KAIF) by incorporating spatial, aspect, and sparsity magnitude terms into the image reconstruction. The incorporation of these terms, which are based on prior scene knowledge, will demonstrate improved results compared to traditional image formation algorithms. The SAR image formation problem is formulated as a second order cone program (SOCP) and the results are demonstrated on 3D scenes using simulated data and data from the GOTCHA data collect.1 The model-based results are contrasted against traditional backprojected images.

  11. 3-D imaging of the CNS.

    PubMed

    Runge, V M; Gelblum, D Y; Wood, M L

    1990-01-01

    3-D gradient echo techniques, and in particular FLASH, represent a significant advance in MR imaging strategy allowing thin section, high resolution imaging through a large region of interest. Anatomical areas of application include the brain, spine, and extremities, although the majority of work to date has been performed in the brain. Superior T1 contrast and thus sensitivity to the presence of GdDTPA is achieved with 3-D FLASH when compared to 2-D spin echo technique. There is marked arterial and venous enhancement following Gd DTPA administration on 3-D FLASH, a less common finding with 2-D spin echo. Enhancement of the falx and tentorium is also more prominent. From a single data acquisition, requiring less than 11 min of scan time, high resolution reformatted sagittal, coronal, and axial images can obtained in addition to sections in any arbitrary plane. Tissue segmentation techniques can be applied and lesions displayed in three dimensions. These results may lead to the replacement of 2-D spin echo with 3-D FLASH for high resolution T1-weighted MR imaging of the CNS, particularly in the study of mass lesions and structural anomalies. The application of similar T2-weighted gradient echo techniques may follow, however the signal-to-noise ratio which can be achieved remains a potential limitation.

  12. Spatial Visualization by Realistic 3D Views

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yue, Jianping

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the popular Purdue Spatial Visualization Test-Visualization by Rotations (PSVT-R) in isometric drawings was recreated with CAD software that allows 3D solid modeling and rendering to provide more realistic pictorial views. Both the original and the modified PSVT-R tests were given to students and their scores on the two tests were…

  13. Smoothing 3-D Data for Torpedo Paths

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-05-01

    parametric estimation , consider data collected at 200 sequential observation times (e.g., 800 to 1,000 for the 3-D data used in this section). Samples...sample when the fitted curve is a straight line (refer to Appendix B). (e) Parametric estimation could also be modified to delete some samples (e.g

  14. Scoops3D: software to analyze 3D slope stability throughout a digital landscape

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reid, Mark E.; Christian, Sarah B.; Brien, Dianne L.; Henderson, Scott T.

    2015-01-01

    The computer program, Scoops3D, evaluates slope stability throughout a digital landscape represented by a digital elevation model (DEM). The program uses a three-dimensional (3D) method of columns approach to assess the stability of many (typically millions) potential landslides within a user-defined size range. For each potential landslide (or failure), Scoops3D assesses the stability of a rotational, spherical slip surface encompassing many DEM cells using a 3D version of either Bishop’s simplified method or the Ordinary (Fellenius) method of limit-equilibrium analysis. Scoops3D has several options for the user to systematically and efficiently search throughout an entire DEM, thereby incorporating the effects of complex surface topography. In a thorough search, each DEM cell is included in multiple potential failures, and Scoops3D records the lowest stability (factor of safety) for each DEM cell, as well as the size (volume or area) associated with each of these potential landslides. It also determines the least-stable potential failure for the entire DEM. The user has a variety of options for building a 3D domain, including layers or full 3D distributions of strength and pore-water pressures, simplistic earthquake loading, and unsaturated suction conditions. Results from Scoops3D can be readily incorporated into a geographic information system (GIS) or other visualization software. This manual includes information on the theoretical basis for the slope-stability analysis, requirements for constructing and searching a 3D domain, a detailed operational guide (including step-by-step instructions for using the graphical user interface [GUI] software, Scoops3D-i) and input/output file specifications, practical considerations for conducting an analysis, results of verification tests, and multiple examples illustrating the capabilities of Scoops3D. Easy-to-use software installation packages are available for the Windows or Macintosh operating systems; these packages

  15. Effect of viewing distance on 3D fatigue caused by viewing mobile 3D content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mun, Sungchul; Lee, Dong-Su; Park, Min-Chul; Yano, Sumio

    2013-05-01

    With an advent of autostereoscopic display technique and increased needs for smart phones, there has been a significant growth in mobile TV markets. The rapid growth in technical, economical, and social aspects has encouraged 3D TV manufacturers to apply 3D rendering technology to mobile devices so that people have more opportunities to come into contact with many 3D content anytime and anywhere. Even if the mobile 3D technology leads to the current market growth, there is an important thing to consider for consistent development and growth in the display market. To put it briefly, human factors linked to mobile 3D viewing should be taken into consideration before developing mobile 3D technology. Many studies have investigated whether mobile 3D viewing causes undesirable biomedical effects such as motion sickness and visual fatigue, but few have examined main factors adversely affecting human health. Viewing distance is considered one of the main factors to establish optimized viewing environments from a viewer's point of view. Thus, in an effort to determine human-friendly viewing environments, this study aims to investigate the effect of viewing distance on human visual system when exposing to mobile 3D environments. Recording and analyzing brainwaves before and after watching mobile 3D content, we explore how viewing distance affects viewing experience from physiological and psychological perspectives. Results obtained in this study are expected to provide viewing guidelines for viewers, help ensure viewers against undesirable 3D effects, and lead to make gradual progress towards a human-friendly mobile 3D viewing.

  16. Uncertainty in 3D gel dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Deene, Yves; Jirasek, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) gel dosimetry has a unique role to play in safeguarding conformal radiotherapy treatments as the technique can cover the full treatment chain and provides the radiation oncologist with the integrated dose distribution in 3D. It can also be applied to benchmark new treatment strategies such as image guided and tracking radiotherapy techniques. A major obstacle that has hindered the wider dissemination of gel dosimetry in radiotherapy centres is a lack of confidence in the reliability of the measured dose distribution. Uncertainties in 3D dosimeters are attributed to both dosimeter properties and scanning performance. In polymer gel dosimetry with MRI readout, discrepancies in dose response of large polymer gel dosimeters versus small calibration phantoms have been reported which can lead to significant inaccuracies in the dose maps. The sources of error in polymer gel dosimetry with MRI readout are well understood and it has been demonstrated that with a carefully designed scanning protocol, the overall uncertainty in absolute dose that can currently be obtained falls within 5% on an individual voxel basis, for a minimum voxel size of 5 mm3. However, several research groups have chosen to use polymer gel dosimetry in a relative manner by normalizing the dose distribution towards an internal reference dose within the gel dosimeter phantom. 3D dosimetry with optical scanning has also been mostly applied in a relative way, although in principle absolute calibration is possible. As the optical absorption in 3D dosimeters is less dependent on temperature it can be expected that the achievable accuracy is higher with optical CT. The precision in optical scanning of 3D dosimeters depends to a large extend on the performance of the detector. 3D dosimetry with X-ray CT readout is a low contrast imaging modality for polymer gel dosimetry. Sources of error in x-ray CT polymer gel dosimetry (XCT) are currently under investigation and include inherent

  17. DVL Angular Velocity Recorder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liebe, Wolfgang

    1944-01-01

    In many studies, especially of nonstationary flight motion, it is necessary to determine the angular velocities at which the airplane rotates about its various axes. The three-component recorder is designed to serve this purpose. If the angular velocity for one flight attitude is known, other important quantities can be derived from its time rate of change, such as the angular acceleration by differentiations, or - by integration - the angles of position of the airplane - that is, the angles formed by the airplane axes with the axis direction presented at the instant of the beginning of the motion that is to be investigated.

  18. Development of three-dimensional memory (3D-M)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Hong-Yu; Shen, Chen; Jiang, Lingli; Dong, Bin; Zhang, Guobiao

    2016-10-01

    Since the invention of 3-D ROM in 1996, three-dimensional memory (3D-M) has been under development for nearly two decades. In this presentation, we'll review the 3D-M history and compare different 3D-Ms (including 3D-OTP from Matrix Semiconductor, 3D-NAND from Samsung and 3D-XPoint from Intel/Micron).

  19. 3-D Force-balanced Magnetospheric Configurations

    SciTech Connect

    Sorin Zaharia; C.Z. Cheng; K. Maezawa

    2003-02-10

    The knowledge of plasma pressure is essential for many physics applications in the magnetosphere, such as computing magnetospheric currents and deriving magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling. A thorough knowledge of the 3-D pressure distribution has however eluded the community, as most in-situ pressure observations are either in the ionosphere or the equatorial region of the magnetosphere. With the assumption of pressure isotropy there have been attempts to obtain the pressure at different locations by either (a) mapping observed data (e.g., in the ionosphere) along the field lines of an empirical magnetospheric field model or (b) computing a pressure profile in the equatorial plane (in 2-D) or along the Sun-Earth axis (in 1-D) that is in force balance with the magnetic stresses of an empirical model. However, the pressure distributions obtained through these methods are not in force balance with the empirical magnetic field at all locations. In order to find a global 3-D plasma pressure distribution in force balance with the magnetospheric magnetic field, we have developed the MAG-3D code, that solves the 3-D force balance equation J x B = (upside-down delta) P computationally. Our calculation is performed in a flux coordinate system in which the magnetic field is expressed in terms of Euler potentials as B = (upside-down delta) psi x (upside-down delta) alpha. The pressure distribution, P = P(psi,alpha), is prescribed in the equatorial plane and is based on satellite measurements. In addition, computational boundary conditions for y surfaces are imposed using empirical field models. Our results provide 3-D distributions of magnetic field and plasma pressure as well as parallel and transverse currents for both quiet-time and disturbed magnetospheric conditions.

  20. Laser printing of 3D metallic interconnects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beniam, Iyoel; Mathews, Scott A.; Charipar, Nicholas A.; Auyeung, Raymond C. Y.; Piqué, Alberto

    2016-04-01

    The use of laser-induced forward transfer (LIFT) techniques for the printing of functional materials has been demonstrated for numerous applications. The printing gives rise to patterns, which can be used to fabricate planar interconnects. More recently, various groups have demonstrated electrical interconnects from laser-printed 3D structures. The laser printing of these interconnects takes place through aggregation of voxels of either molten metal or of pastes containing dispersed metallic particles. However, the generated 3D structures do not posses the same metallic conductivity as a bulk metal interconnect of the same cross-section and length as those formed by wire bonding or tab welding. An alternative is to laser transfer entire 3D structures using a technique known as lase-and-place. Lase-and-place is a LIFT process whereby whole components and parts can be transferred from a donor substrate onto a desired location with one single laser pulse. This paper will describe the use of LIFT to laser print freestanding, solid metal foils or beams precisely over the contact pads of discrete devices to interconnect them into fully functional circuits. Furthermore, this paper will also show how the same laser can be used to bend or fold the bulk metal foils prior to transfer, thus forming compliant 3D structures able to provide strain relief for the circuits under flexing or during motion from thermal mismatch. These interconnect "ridges" can span wide gaps (on the order of a millimeter) and accommodate height differences of tens of microns between adjacent devices. Examples of these laser printed 3D metallic bridges and their role in the development of next generation electronics by additive manufacturing will be presented.

  1. Tracking earthquake source evolution in 3-D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennett, B. L. N.; Gorbatov, A.; Spiliopoulos, S.

    2014-08-01

    Starting from the hypocentre, the point of initiation of seismic energy, we seek to estimate the subsequent trajectory of the points of emission of high-frequency energy in 3-D, which we term the `evocentres'. We track these evocentres as a function of time by energy stacking for putative points on a 3-D grid around the hypocentre that is expanded as time progresses, selecting the location of maximum energy release as a function of time. The spatial resolution in the neighbourhood of a target point can be simply estimated by spatial mapping using the properties of isochrons from the stations. The mapping of a seismogram segment to space is by inverse slowness, and thus more distant stations have a broader spatial contribution. As in hypocentral estimation, the inclusion of a wide azimuthal distribution of stations significantly enhances 3-D capability. We illustrate this approach to tracking source evolution in 3-D by considering two major earthquakes, the 2007 Mw 8.1 Solomons islands event that ruptured across a plate boundary and the 2013 Mw 8.3 event 610 km beneath the Sea of Okhotsk. In each case we are able to provide estimates of the evolution of high-frequency energy that tally well with alternative schemes, but also to provide information on the 3-D characteristics that is not available from backprojection from distant networks. We are able to demonstrate that the major characteristics of event rupture can be captured using just a few azimuthally distributed stations, which opens the opportunity for the approach to be used in a rapid mode immediately after a major event to provide guidance for, for example tsunami warning for megathrust events.

  2. 3D fascicle orientations in triceps surae.

    PubMed

    Rana, Manku; Hamarneh, Ghassan; Wakeling, James M

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the three-dimensional (3D) muscle fascicle architecture in human triceps surae muscles at different contraction levels and muscle lengths. Six male subjects were tested for three contraction levels (0, 30, and 60% of maximal voluntary contraction) and four ankle angles (-15, 0, 15, and 30° of plantar flexion), and the muscles were imaged with B-mode ultrasound coupled to 3D position sensors. 3D fascicle orientations were represented in terms of pennation angle relative to the major axis of the muscle and azimuthal angle (a new architectural parameter introduced in this study representing the radial angle around the major axis). 3D orientations of the fascicles, and the sheets along which they lie, were regionalized in all the three muscles (medial and lateral gastrocnemius and the soleus) and changed significantly with contraction level and ankle angle. Changes in the azimuthal angle were of similar magnitude to the changes in pennation angle. The 3D information was used for an error analysis to determine the errors in predictions of pennation that would occur in purely two-dimensional studies. A comparison was made for assessing pennation in the same plane for different contraction levels, or for adjusting the scanning plane orientation for different contractions: there was no significant difference between the two simulated scanning conditions for the gastrocnemii; however, a significant difference of 4.5° was obtained for the soleus. Correct probe orientation is thus more critical during estimations of pennation for the soleus than the gastrocnemii due to its more complex fascicle arrangement.

  3. Parallel CARLOS-3D code development

    SciTech Connect

    Putnam, J.M.; Kotulski, J.D.

    1996-02-01

    CARLOS-3D is a three-dimensional scattering code which was developed under the sponsorship of the Electromagnetic Code Consortium, and is currently used by over 80 aerospace companies and government agencies. The code has been extensively validated and runs on both serial workstations and parallel super computers such as the Intel Paragon. CARLOS-3D is a three-dimensional surface integral equation scattering code based on a Galerkin method of moments formulation employing Rao- Wilton-Glisson roof-top basis for triangular faceted surfaces. Fully arbitrary 3D geometries composed of multiple conducting and homogeneous bulk dielectric materials can be modeled. This presentation describes some of the extensions to the CARLOS-3D code, and how the operator structure of the code facilitated these improvements. Body of revolution (BOR) and two-dimensional geometries were incorporated by simply including new input routines, and the appropriate Galerkin matrix operator routines. Some additional modifications were required in the combined field integral equation matrix generation routine due to the symmetric nature of the BOR and 2D operators. Quadrilateral patched surfaces with linear roof-top basis functions were also implemented in the same manner. Quadrilateral facets and triangular facets can be used in combination to more efficiently model geometries with both large smooth surfaces and surfaces with fine detail such as gaps and cracks. Since the parallel implementation in CARLOS-3D is at high level, these changes were independent of the computer platform being used. This approach minimizes code maintenance, while providing capabilities with little additional effort. Results are presented showing the performance and accuracy of the code for some large scattering problems. Comparisons between triangular faceted and quadrilateral faceted geometry representations will be shown for some complex scatterers.

  4. Vestibular functions and sleep in space experiments. [using rhesus and owl monkeys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perachio, A. A.

    1977-01-01

    Physical indices of sleep were continuously monitored in an owl monkey living in a chamber continuously rotating at a constant angular velocity. The electrophysiological data obtained from chronically implanted electrodes was analyzed to determine the chronic effects of vestibular stimulation on sleep and wakefulness cycles. The interaction of linear and angular acceleration on the vestibulo-ocular reflex was investigated in three rhesus monkeys at various angular accelerations.

  5. 3 d -electron Heisenberg pyrochlore Mn2Sb2O7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peets, Darren C.; Sim, Hasung; Avdeev, Maxim; Park, Je-Geun

    2016-11-01

    In frustrated magnetic systems, geometric constraints or the competition among interactions introduce extre-mely high degeneracy and prevent the system from readily selecting a low-temperature ground state. The most frustrated known spin arrangement is on the pyrochlore lattice, but nearly all magnetic pyrochlores have unquenched orbital angular momenta, constraining the spin directions through spin-orbit coupling. Pyrochlore Mn2Sb2O7 is an extremely rare Heisenberg pyrochlore system with directionally unconstrained spins and low chemical disorder. We show that it undergoes a spin-glass transition at 5.5 K, which is suppressed by disorder arising from Mn vacancies, indicating this ground state to be a direct consequence of the spins' interactions. The striking similarities to 3 d transition-metal pyrochlores with unquenched angular momenta suggests that the low spin-orbit coupling in the 3 d block makes Heisenberg pyrochlores far more accessible than previously imagined.

  6. Evaluation of reproducibility and reliability of 3D soft tissue analysis using 3D stereophotogrammetry.

    PubMed

    Plooij, J M; Swennen, G R J; Rangel, F A; Maal, T J J; Schutyser, F A C; Bronkhorst, E M; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A M; Bergé, S J

    2009-03-01

    In 3D photographs the bony structures are neither available nor palpable, therefore, the bone-related landmarks, such as the soft tissue gonion, need to be redefined. The purpose of this study was to determine the reproducibility and reliability of 49 soft tissue landmarks, including newly defined 3D bone-related soft tissue landmarks with the use of 3D stereophotogrammetric images. Two observers carried out soft-tissue analysis on 3D photographs twice for 20 patients. A reference frame and 49 landmarks were identified on each 3D photograph. Paired Student's t-test was used to test the reproducibility and Pearson's correlation coefficient to determine the reliability of the landmark identification. Intra- and interobserver reproducibility of the landmarks were high. The study showed a high reliability coefficient for intraobserver (0.97 (0.90 - 0.99)) and interobserver reliability (0.94 (0.69 - 0.99)). Identification of the landmarks in the midline was more precise than identification of the paired landmarks. In conclusion, the redefinition of bone-related soft tissue 3D landmarks in combination with the 3D photograph reference system resulted in an accurate and reliable 3D photograph based soft tissue analysis. This shows that hard tissue data are not needed to perform accurate soft tissue analysis.

  7. Three-dimensional (3D) printing of mouse primary hepatocytes to generate 3D hepatic structure

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yohan; Kang, Kyojin; Jeong, Jaemin; Paik, Seung Sam; Kim, Ji Sook; Park, Su A; Kim, Wan Doo; Park, Jisun

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The major problem in producing artificial livers is that primary hepatocytes cannot be cultured for many days. Recently, 3-dimensional (3D) printing technology draws attention and this technology regarded as a useful tool for current cell biology. By using the 3D bio-printing, these problems can be resolved. Methods To generate 3D bio-printed structures (25 mm × 25 mm), cells-alginate constructs were fabricated by 3D bio-printing system. Mouse primary hepatocytes were isolated from the livers of 6–8 weeks old mice by a 2-step collagenase method. Samples of 4 × 107 hepatocytes with 80%–90% viability were printed with 3% alginate solution, and cultured with well-defined culture medium for primary hepatocytes. To confirm functional ability of hepatocytes cultured on 3D alginate scaffold, we conducted quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunofluorescence with hepatic marker genes. Results Isolated primary hepatocytes were printed with alginate. The 3D printed hepatocytes remained alive for 14 days. Gene expression levels of Albumin, HNF-4α and Foxa3 were gradually increased in the 3D structures. Immunofluorescence analysis showed that the primary hepatocytes produced hepatic-specific proteins over the same period of time. Conclusion Our research indicates that 3D bio-printing technique can be used for long-term culture of primary hepatocytes. It can therefore be used for drug screening and as a potential method of producing artificial livers. PMID:28203553

  8. R3D-2-MSA: the RNA 3D structure-to-multiple sequence alignment server

    PubMed Central

    Cannone, Jamie J.; Sweeney, Blake A.; Petrov, Anton I.; Gutell, Robin R.; Zirbel, Craig L.; Leontis, Neocles

    2015-01-01

    The RNA 3D Structure-to-Multiple Sequence Alignment Server (R3D-2-MSA) is a new web service that seamlessly links RNA three-dimensional (3D) structures to high-quality RNA multiple sequence alignments (MSAs) from diverse biological sources. In this first release, R3D-2-MSA provides manual and programmatic access to curated, representative ribosomal RNA sequence alignments from bacterial, archaeal, eukaryal and organellar ribosomes, using nucleotide numbers from representative atomic-resolution 3D structures. A web-based front end is available for manual entry and an Application Program Interface for programmatic access. Users can specify up to five ranges of nucleotides and 50 nucleotide positions per range. The R3D-2-MSA server maps these ranges to the appropriate columns of the corresponding MSA and returns the contents of the columns, either for display in a web browser or in JSON format for subsequent programmatic use. The browser output page provides a 3D interactive display of the query, a full list of sequence variants with taxonomic information and a statistical summary of distinct sequence variants found. The output can be filtered and sorted in the browser. Previous user queries can be viewed at any time by resubmitting the output URL, which encodes the search and re-generates the results. The service is freely available with no login requirement at http://rna.bgsu.edu/r3d-2-msa. PMID:26048960

  9. 3D Printing: 3D Printing of Highly Stretchable and Tough Hydrogels into Complex, Cellularized Structures.

    PubMed

    Hong, Sungmin; Sycks, Dalton; Chan, Hon Fai; Lin, Shaoting; Lopez, Gabriel P; Guilak, Farshid; Leong, Kam W; Zhao, Xuanhe

    2015-07-15

    X. Zhao and co-workers develop on page 4035 a new biocompatible hydrogel system that is extremely tough and stretchable and can be 3D printed into complex structures, such as the multilayer mesh shown. Cells encapsulated in the tough and printable hydrogel maintain high viability. 3D-printed structures of the tough hydrogel can sustain high mechanical loads and deformations.

  10. R3D-2-MSA: the RNA 3D structure-to-multiple sequence alignment server.

    PubMed

    Cannone, Jamie J; Sweeney, Blake A; Petrov, Anton I; Gutell, Robin R; Zirbel, Craig L; Leontis, Neocles

    2015-07-01

    The RNA 3D Structure-to-Multiple Sequence Alignment Server (R3D-2-MSA) is a new web service that seamlessly links RNA three-dimensional (3D) structures to high-quality RNA multiple sequence alignments (MSAs) from diverse biological sources. In this first release, R3D-2-MSA provides manual and programmatic access to curated, representative ribosomal RNA sequence alignments from bacterial, archaeal, eukaryal and organellar ribosomes, using nucleotide numbers from representative atomic-resolution 3D structures. A web-based front end is available for manual entry and an Application Program Interface for programmatic access. Users can specify up to five ranges of nucleotides and 50 nucleotide positions per range. The R3D-2-MSA server maps these ranges to the appropriate columns of the corresponding MSA and returns the contents of the columns, either for display in a web browser or in JSON format for subsequent programmatic use. The browser output page provides a 3D interactive display of the query, a full list of sequence variants with taxonomic information and a statistical summary of distinct sequence variants found. The output can be filtered and sorted in the browser. Previous user queries can be viewed at any time by resubmitting the output URL, which encodes the search and re-generates the results. The service is freely available with no login requirement at http://rna.bgsu.edu/r3d-2-msa.

  11. Development of a 3D pixel module for an ultralarge screen 3D display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashiba, Toshihiko; Takaki, Yasuhiro

    2004-10-01

    A large screen 2D display used at stadiums and theaters consists of a number of pixel modules. The pixel module usually consists of 8x8 or 16x16 LED pixels. In this study we develop a 3D pixel module in order to construct a large screen 3D display which is glass-free and has the motion parallax. This configuration for a large screen 3D display dramatically reduces the complexity of wiring 3D pixels. The 3D pixel module consists of several LCD panels, several cylindrical lenses, and one small PC. The LCD panels are slanted in order to differentiate the distances from same color pixels to the axis of the cylindrical lens so that the rays from the same color pixels are refracted into the different horizontal directions by the cylindrical lens. We constructed a prototype 3D pixel module, which consists of 8x4 3D pixels. The prototype module is designed to display 300 different patterns into different horizontal directions with the horizontal display angle pitch of 0.099 degree. The LCD panels are controlled by a small PC and the 3D image data is transmitted through the Gigabit Ethernet.

  12. NIKE3D96. Static & Dynamic Response of 3D Solids

    SciTech Connect

    Maker, B.; Hallquist, J.O.; Ferencz, R.M.

    1991-02-01

    NIKE3D is a large deformations 3D finite element code used to obtain the resulting displacements and stresses from multi-body static and dynamic structural thermo-mechanics problems with sliding interfaces. Many nonlinear and temperature dependent constitutive models are available.

  13. SB3D User Manual, Santa Barbara 3D Radiative Transfer Model

    SciTech Connect

    O'Hirok, William

    1999-01-01

    SB3D is a three-dimensional atmospheric and oceanic radiative transfer model for the Solar spectrum. The microphysics employed in the model are the same as used in the model SBDART. It is assumed that the user of SB3D is familiar with SBDART and IDL. SB3D differs from SBDART in that computations are conducted on media in three-dimensions rather than a single column (i.e. plane-parallel), and a stochastic method (Monte Carlo) is employed instead of a numerical approach (Discrete Ordinates) for estimating a solution to the radiative transfer equation. Because of these two differences between SB3D and SBDART, the input and running of SB3D is more unwieldy and requires compromises between model performance and computational expense. Hence, there is no one correct method for running the model and the user must develop a sense to the proper input and configuration of the model.

  14. The dimension added by 3D scanning and 3D printing of meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Vet, S. J.

    2016-01-01

    An overview for the 3D photodocumentation of meteorites is presented, focussing on two 3D scanning methods in relation to 3D printing. The 3D photodocumention of meteorites provides new ways for the digital preservation of culturally, historically or scientifically unique meteorites. It has the potential for becoming a new documentation standard of meteorites that can exist complementary to traditional photographic documentation. Notable applications include (i.) use of physical properties in dark flight-, strewn field-, or aerodynamic modelling; (ii.) collection research of meteorites curated by different museum collections, and (iii.) public dissemination of meteorite models as a resource for educational users. The possible applications provided by the additional dimension of 3D illustrate the benefits for the meteoritics community.

  15. 3-D transient analysis of pebble-bed HTGR by TORT-TD/ATTICA3D

    SciTech Connect

    Seubert, A.; Sureda, A.; Lapins, J.; Buck, M.; Bader, J.; Laurien, E.

    2012-07-01

    As most of the acceptance criteria are local core parameters, application of transient 3-D fine mesh neutron transport and thermal hydraulics coupled codes is mandatory for best estimate evaluations of safety margins. This also applies to high-temperature gas cooled reactors (HTGR). Application of 3-D fine-mesh transient transport codes using few energy groups coupled with 3-D thermal hydraulics codes becomes feasible in view of increasing computing power. This paper describes the discrete ordinates based coupled code system TORT-TD/ATTICA3D that has recently been extended by a fine-mesh diffusion solver. Based on transient analyses for the PBMR-400 design, the transport/diffusion capabilities are demonstrated and 3-D local flux and power redistribution effects during a partial control rod withdrawal are shown. (authors)

  16. 3D gaze tracking system for NVidia 3D Vision®.

    PubMed

    Wibirama, Sunu; Hamamoto, Kazuhiko

    2013-01-01

    Inappropriate parallax setting in stereoscopic content generally causes visual fatigue and visual discomfort. To optimize three dimensional (3D) effects in stereoscopic content by taking into account health issue, understanding how user gazes at 3D direction in virtual space is currently an important research topic. In this paper, we report the study of developing a novel 3D gaze tracking system for Nvidia 3D Vision(®) to be used in desktop stereoscopic display. We suggest an optimized geometric method to accurately measure the position of virtual 3D object. Our experimental result shows that the proposed system achieved better accuracy compared to conventional geometric method by average errors 0.83 cm, 0.87 cm, and 1.06 cm in X, Y, and Z dimensions, respectively.

  17. Recurrence of angular cheilitis.

    PubMed

    Ohman, S C; Jontell, M; Dahlen, G

    1988-08-01

    The incidence of recurrence of angular cheilitis following a successful antimicrobial treatment was studied in 48 patients. Clinical assessments including a microbial examination were carried out 8 months and 5 yr after termination of treatment. Eighty percent of the patients reported recurrence of their angular cheilitis on one or more occasions during the observation period. Patients with cutaneous disorders associated with dry skin or intraoral leukoplakia had an increased incidence of recrudescence. Neither the presence of denture stomatitis nor the type of microorganisms isolated from the original lesions of angular cheilitis, i.e. Candida albicans and/or Staphylococcus aureus, were associated with the number of recurrences. The present observations indicate that treatment of the majority of patients with angular cheilitis should be considered in a longer perspective than previously supposed, due to the short lasting therapeutic effects of the antimicrobial therapy.

  18. [Malignant angular cheilitis].

    PubMed

    Seoane, J; Vázquez, J; Cazenave, A; de la Cruz Mera, A; Argila, F; Aguado, A

    1996-01-01

    A case of chronic angular cheilitis is reported. Candida albicans was isolated repeatedly and the process developed into epitheliomatous carcinoma. The etiopathogenic role of Candida albicans and possible mechanism of action are discussed.

  19. Quasi 3D dosimetry (EPID, conventional 2D/3D detector matrices)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bäck, A.

    2015-01-01

    Patient specific pretreatment measurement for IMRT and VMAT QA should preferably give information with a high resolution in 3D. The ability to distinguish complex treatment plans, i.e. treatment plans with a difference between measured and calculated dose distributions that exceeds a specified tolerance, puts high demands on the dosimetry system used for the pretreatment measurements and the results of the measurement evaluation needs a clinical interpretation. There are a number of commercial dosimetry systems designed for pretreatment IMRT QA measurements. 2D arrays such as MapCHECK® (Sun Nuclear), MatriXXEvolution (IBA Dosimetry) and OCTAVIOUS® 1500 (PTW), 3D phantoms such as OCTAVIUS® 4D (PTW), ArcCHECK® (Sun Nuclear) and Delta4 (ScandiDos) and software for EPID dosimetry and 3D reconstruction of the dose in the patient geometry such as EPIDoseTM (Sun Nuclear) and Dosimetry CheckTM (Math Resolutions) are available. None of those dosimetry systems can measure the 3D dose distribution with a high resolution (full 3D dose distribution). Those systems can be called quasi 3D dosimetry systems. To be able to estimate the delivered dose in full 3D the user is dependent on a calculation algorithm in the software of the dosimetry system. All the vendors of the dosimetry systems mentioned above provide calculation algorithms to reconstruct a full 3D dose in the patient geometry. This enables analyzes of the difference between measured and calculated dose distributions in DVHs of the structures of clinical interest which facilitates the clinical interpretation and is a promising tool to be used for pretreatment IMRT QA measurements. However, independent validation studies on the accuracy of those algorithms are scarce. Pretreatment IMRT QA using the quasi 3D dosimetry systems mentioned above rely on both measurement uncertainty and accuracy of calculation algorithms. In this article, these quasi 3D dosimetry systems and their use in patient specific pretreatment IMRT

  20. Angular velocity discrimination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaiser, Mary K.

    1990-01-01

    Three experiments designed to investigate the ability of naive observers to discriminate rotational velocities of two simultaneously viewed objects are described. Rotations are constrained to occur about the x and y axes, resulting in linear two-dimensional image trajectories. The results indicate that observers can discriminate angular velocities with a competence near that for linear velocities. However, perceived angular rate is influenced by structural aspects of the stimuli.

  1. 3D visualization of polymer nanostructure

    SciTech Connect

    Werner, James H

    2009-01-01

    Soft materials and structured polymers are extremely useful nanotechnology building blocks. Block copolymers, in particular, have served as 2D masks for nanolithography and 3D scaffolds for photonic crystals, nanoparticle fabrication, and solar cells. F or many of these applications, the precise 3 dimensional structure and the number and type of defects in the polymer is important for ultimate function. However, directly visualizing the 3D structure of a soft material from the nanometer to millimeter length scales is a significant technical challenge. Here, we propose to develop the instrumentation needed for direct 3D structure determination at near nanometer resolution throughout a nearly millimeter-cubed volume of a soft, potentially heterogeneous, material. This new capability will be a valuable research tool for LANL missions in chemistry, materials science, and nanoscience. Our approach to soft materials visualization builds upon exciting developments in super-resolution optical microscopy that have occurred over the past two years. To date, these new, truly revolutionary, imaging methods have been developed and almost exclusively used for biological applications. However, in addition to biological cells, these super-resolution imaging techniques hold extreme promise for direct visualization of many important nanostructured polymers and other heterogeneous chemical systems. Los Alamos has a unique opportunity to lead the development of these super-resolution imaging methods for problems of chemical rather than biological significance. While these optical methods are limited to systems transparent to visible wavelengths, we stress that many important functional chemicals such as polymers, glasses, sol-gels, aerogels, or colloidal assemblies meet this requirement, with specific examples including materials designed for optical communication, manipulation, or light-harvesting Our Research Goals are: (1) Develop the instrumentation necessary for imaging materials

  2. INCORPORATING DYNAMIC 3D SIMULATION INTO PRA

    SciTech Connect

    Steven R Prescott; Curtis Smith

    2011-07-01

    Through continued advancement in computational resources, development that was previously done by trial and error production is now performed through computer simulation. These virtual physical representations have the potential to provide accurate and valid modeling results and are being used in many different technical fields. Risk assessment now has the opportunity to use 3D simulation to improve analysis results and insights, especially for external event analysis. By using simulations, the modeler only has to determine the likelihood of an event without having to also predict the results of that event. The 3D simulation automatically determines not only the outcome of the event, but when those failures occur. How can we effectively incorporate 3D simulation into traditional PRA? Most PRA plant modeling is made up of components with different failure modes, probabilities, and rates. Typically, these components are grouped into various systems and then are modeled together (in different combinations) as a “system” with logic structures to form fault trees. Applicable fault trees are combined through scenarios, typically represented by event tree models. Though this method gives us failure results for a given model, it has limitations when it comes to time-based dependencies or dependencies that are coupled to physical processes which may themselves be space- or time-dependent. Since, failures from a 3D simulation are naturally time related, they should be used in that manner. In our simulation approach, traditional static models are converted into an equivalent state diagram representation with start states, probabilistic driven movements between states and terminal states. As the state model is run repeatedly, it converges to the same results as the PRA model in cases where time-related factors are not important. In cases where timing considerations are important (e.g., when events are dependent upon each other), then the simulation approach will typically

  3. CASTLE3D - A Computer Aided System for Labelling Archaeological Excavations in 3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houshiar, H.; Borrmann, D.; Elseberg, J.; Nüchter, A.; Näth, F.; Winkler, S.

    2015-08-01

    Documentation of archaeological excavation sites with conventional methods and tools such as hand drawings, measuring tape and archaeological notes is time consuming. This process is prone to human errors and the quality of the documentation depends on the qualification of the archaeologist on site. Use of modern technology and methods in 3D surveying and 3D robotics facilitate and improve this process. Computer-aided systems and databases improve the documentation quality and increase the speed of data acquisition. 3D laser scanning is the state of the art in modelling archaeological excavation sites, historical sites and even entire cities or landscapes. Modern laser scanners are capable of data acquisition of up to 1 million points per second. This provides a very detailed 3D point cloud of the environment. 3D point clouds and 3D models of an excavation site provide a better representation of the environment for the archaeologist and for documentation. The point cloud can be used both for further studies on the excavation and for the presentation of results. This paper introduces a Computer aided system for labelling archaeological excavations in 3D (CASTLE3D). Consisting of a set of tools for recording and georeferencing the 3D data from an excavation site, CASTLE3D is a novel documentation approach in industrial archaeology. It provides a 2D and 3D visualisation of the data and an easy-to-use interface that enables the archaeologist to select regions of interest and to interact with the data in both representations. The 2D visualisation and a 3D orthogonal view of the data provide cuts of the environment that resemble the traditional hand drawings. The 3D perspective view gives a realistic view of the environment. CASTLE3D is designed as an easy-to-use on-site semantic mapping tool for archaeologists. Each project contains a predefined set of semantic information that can be used to label findings in the data. Multiple regions of interest can be joined under

  4. 3D Imaging of Rapidly Spinning Space Targets Based on a Factorization Method

    PubMed Central

    Bi, Yanxian; Wei, Shaoming; Wang, Jun; Mao, Shiyi

    2017-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) imaging of space targets can provide crucial information about the target shape and size, which are significant supports for the application of automatic target classification and recognition. In this paper, a new 3D imaging of space spinning targets via a factorization method is proposed. Firstly, after the translational compensation, the scattering centers two-dimensional (2D) range and range-rate sequence induced by the target spinning is extracted using a high resolution spectral estimation technique. Secondly, measurement data association is implemented to obtain the scattering center trajectory matrix by using a range-Doppler tracker. Then, we use an initial coarse angular velocity to generate the projection matrix, which consists of the scattering centers range and cross-range, and a factorization method is applied iteratively to the projection matrix to estimate the accurate angular velocity. Finally, we use the accurate estimate spinning angular velocity to rescale the projection matrix and the well-scaled target 3D geometry is reconstructed. Compared to the previous literature methods, ambiguity in the spatial axes can be removed by this method. Simulation results have demonstrated the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed method. PMID:28216588

  5. Characterisation of dynamic couplings at lower limb residuum/socket interface using 3D motion capture.

    PubMed

    Tang, Jinghua; McGrath, Michael; Laszczak, Piotr; Jiang, Liudi; Bader, Dan L; Moser, David; Zahedi, Saeed

    2015-12-01

    Design and fitting of artificial limbs to lower limb amputees are largely based on the subjective judgement of the prosthetist. Understanding the science of three-dimensional (3D) dynamic coupling at the residuum/socket interface could potentially aid the design and fitting of the socket. A new method has been developed to characterise the 3D dynamic coupling at the residuum/socket interface using 3D motion capture based on a single case study of a trans-femoral amputee. The new model incorporated a Virtual Residuum Segment (VRS) and a Socket Segment (SS) which combined to form the residuum/socket interface. Angular and axial couplings between the two segments were subsequently determined. Results indicated a non-rigid angular coupling in excess of 10° in the quasi-sagittal plane and an axial coupling of between 21 and 35 mm. The corresponding angular couplings of less than 4° and 2° were estimated in the quasi-coronal and quasi-transverse plane, respectively. We propose that the combined experimental and analytical approach adopted in this case study could aid the iterative socket fitting process and could potentially lead to a new socket design.

  6. PLOT3D/AMES, DEC VAX VMS VERSION USING DISSPLA (WITH TURB3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buning, P.

    1994-01-01

    PLOT3D is an interactive graphics program designed to help scientists visualize computational fluid dynamics (CFD) grids and solutions. Today, supercomputers and CFD algorithms can provide scientists with simulations of such highly complex phenomena that obtaining an understanding of the simulations has become a major problem. Tools which help the scientist visualize the simulations can be of tremendous aid. PLOT3D/AMES offers more functions and features, and has been adapted for more types of computers than any other CFD graphics program. Version 3.6b+ is supported for five computers and graphic libraries. Using PLOT3D, CFD physicists can view their computational models from any angle, observing the physics of problems and the quality of solutions. As an aid in designing aircraft, for example, PLOT3D's interactive computer graphics can show vortices, temperature, reverse flow, pressure, and dozens of other characteristics of air flow during flight. As critical areas become obvious, they can easily be studied more closely using a finer grid. PLOT3D is part of a computational fluid dynamics software cycle. First, a program such as 3DGRAPE (ARC-12620) helps the scientist generate computational grids to model an object and its surrounding space. Once the grids have been designed and parameters such as the angle of attack, Mach number, and Reynolds number have been specified, a "flow-solver" program such as INS3D (ARC-11794 or COS-10019) solves the system of equations governing fluid flow, usually on a supercomputer. Grids sometimes have as many as two million points, and the "flow-solver" produces a solution file which contains density, x- y- and z-momentum, and stagnation energy for each grid point. With such a solution file and a grid file containing up to 50 grids as input, PLOT3D can calculate and graphically display any one of 74 functions, including shock waves, surface pressure, velocity vectors, and particle traces. PLOT3D's 74 functions are organized into

  7. PLOT3D/AMES, DEC VAX VMS VERSION USING DISSPLA (WITHOUT TURB3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buning, P. G.

    1994-01-01

    PLOT3D is an interactive graphics program designed to help scientists visualize computational fluid dynamics (CFD) grids and solutions. Today, supercomputers and CFD algorithms can provide scientists with simulations of such highly complex phenomena that obtaining an understanding of the simulations has become a major problem. Tools which help the scientist visualize the simulations can be of tremendous aid. PLOT3D/AMES offers more functions and features, and has been adapted for more types of computers than any other CFD graphics program. Version 3.6b+ is supported for five computers and graphic libraries. Using PLOT3D, CFD physicists can view their computational models from any angle, observing the physics of problems and the quality of solutions. As an aid in designing aircraft, for example, PLOT3D's interactive computer graphics can show vortices, temperature, reverse flow, pressure, and dozens of other characteristics of air flow during flight. As critical areas become obvious, they can easily be studied more closely using a finer grid. PLOT3D is part of a computational fluid dynamics software cycle. First, a program such as 3DGRAPE (ARC-12620) helps the scientist generate computational grids to model an object and its surrounding space. Once the grids have been designed and parameters such as the angle of attack, Mach number, and Reynolds number have been specified, a "flow-solver" program such as INS3D (ARC-11794 or COS-10019) solves the system of equations governing fluid flow, usually on a supercomputer. Grids sometimes have as many as two million points, and the "flow-solver" produces a solution file which contains density, x- y- and z-momentum, and stagnation energy for each grid point. With such a solution file and a grid file containing up to 50 grids as input, PLOT3D can calculate and graphically display any one of 74 functions, including shock waves, surface pressure, velocity vectors, and particle traces. PLOT3D's 74 functions are organized into

  8. 3D Geo: An Alternative Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgopoulos, A.

    2016-10-01

    The expression GEO is mostly used to denote relation to the earth. However it should not be confined to what is related to the earth's surface, as other objects also need three dimensional representation and documentation, like cultural heritage objects. They include both tangible and intangible ones. In this paper the 3D data acquisition and 3D modelling of cultural heritage assets are briefly described and their significance is also highlighted. Moreover the organization of such information, related to monuments and artefacts, into relational data bases and its use for various purposes, other than just geometric documentation is also described and presented. In order to help the reader understand the above, several characteristic examples are presented and their methodology explained and their results evaluated.

  9. Optical microcavity scanning 3D tomography.

    PubMed

    Di Donato, Andrea; Criante, Luigino; LoTurco, Sara; Farina, Marco

    2014-10-01

    A scanning optical microcavity is exploited to achieve lens-free 3D tomography of microfluidic channels. The microcavity, powered by a low-coherence source, is realized by approaching a cleaved fiber to few tens of micrometers over the sample. The interference of scattered waves inside the cavity shapes the transverse field distribution by focusing the beam and overcoming the diffraction limit due to the optical-fiber numerical aperture. The focusing effect is also preserved in the inner layers of the sample, allowing optical 3D tomography. Analysis of microfluidic channels was demonstrated through this noninvasive technique. Although the experimental setup recalls the well-known fiber-optic Fourier-domain common-path optical coherence tomography, the proposed method has intrinsic characteristics that distinguish it from the former one.

  10. Slate characterization using 3D laser scanning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López, M.; Taboada, J.; Martínez, J.; Matías, J. M.; Vilán, J. A.

    2012-12-01

    Quality control is a necessary component of the slate slab manufacturing process so as to evaluate defects as defined by the current standard for slate. Quality control has traditionally been performed manually by an expert in the field, with the consequent human subjectivity. We studied the feasibility of using a 3D laser scanner to measure slate slabs and analyze possible defects that would lead to the rejection of slabs for particular industrial processes. The application requires slate characterization to be performed in real time and thereby requires a short computation time. We describe an optimized calibration method based on Tsai's approach that reduces calculation complexity and cost in this key 3D laser scanning stage. Configured and implemented for slate slab characterization, the system produces the required information in real time during the production process.

  11. 3D Multifunctional Ablative Thermal Protection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feldman, Jay; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj; Wilkinson, Curt; Mercer, Ken

    2015-01-01

    NASA is developing the Orion spacecraft to carry astronauts farther into the solar system than ever before, with human exploration of Mars as its ultimate goal. One of the technologies required to enable this advanced, Apollo-shaped capsule is a 3-dimensional quartz fiber composite for the vehicle's compression pad. During its mission, the compression pad serves first as a structural component and later as an ablative heat shield, partially consumed on Earth re-entry. This presentation will summarize the development of a new 3D quartz cyanate ester composite material, 3-Dimensional Multifunctional Ablative Thermal Protection System (3D-MAT), designed to meet the mission requirements for the Orion compression pad. Manufacturing development, aerothermal (arc-jet) testing, structural performance, and the overall status of material development for the 2018 EM-1 flight test will be discussed.

  12. 3D plasma camera for planetary missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berthomier, Matthieu; Morel, Xavier; Techer, Jean-Denis

    2014-05-01

    A new 3D field-of-view toroidal space plasma analyzer based on an innovative optical concept allows the coverage of 4π str solid angle with only two sensor heads. It fits the need of all-sky thermal plasma measurements on three-axis stabilized spacecraft which are the most commonly used platforms for planetary missions. The 3D plasma analyzer also takes advantage of the new possibilities offered by the development of an ultra low-power multi-channel charge sensitive amplifier used for the imaging detector of the instrument. We present the design and measured performances of a prototype model that will fly on a test rocket in 2014.

  13. Techniques for interactive 3-D scientific visualization

    SciTech Connect

    Glinert, E.P. . Dept. of Computer Science); Blattner, M.M. Hospital and Tumor Inst., Houston, TX . Dept. of Biomathematics California Univ., Davis, CA . Dept. of Applied Science Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA ); Becker, B.G. . Dept. of Applied Science Lawrence Livermore National La

    1990-09-24

    Interest in interactive 3-D graphics has exploded of late, fueled by (a) the allure of using scientific visualization to go where no-one has gone before'' and (b) by the development of new input devices which overcome some of the limitations imposed in the past by technology, yet which may be ill-suited to the kinds of interaction required by researchers active in scientific visualization. To resolve this tension, we propose a flat 5-D'' environment in which 2-D graphics are augmented by exploiting multiple human sensory modalities using cheap, conventional hardware readily available with personal computers and workstations. We discuss how interactions basic to 3-D scientific visualization, like searching a solution space and comparing two such spaces, are effectively carried out in our environment. Finally, we describe 3DMOVE, an experimental microworld we have implemented to test out some of our ideas. 40 refs., 4 figs.

  14. 3D Visualization of Cooperative Trajectories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaefer, John A.

    2014-01-01

    Aerodynamicists and biologists have long recognized the benefits of formation flight. When birds or aircraft fly in the upwash region of the vortex generated by leaders in a formation, induced drag is reduced for the trail bird or aircraft, and efficiency improves. The major consequence of this is that fuel consumption can be greatly reduced. When two aircraft are separated by a large enough longitudinal distance, the aircraft are said to be flying in a cooperative trajectory. A simulation has been developed to model autonomous cooperative trajectories of aircraft; however it does not provide any 3D representation of the multi-body system dynamics. The topic of this research is the development of an accurate visualization of the multi-body system observable in a 3D environment. This visualization includes two aircraft (lead and trail), a landscape for a static reference, and simplified models of the vortex dynamics and trajectories at several locations between the aircraft.

  15. Debris Dispersion Model Using Java 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thirumalainambi, Rajkumar; Bardina, Jorge

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes web based simulation of Shuttle launch operations and debris dispersion. Java 3D graphics provides geometric and visual content with suitable mathematical model and behaviors of Shuttle launch. Because the model is so heterogeneous and interrelated with various factors, 3D graphics combined with physical models provides mechanisms to understand the complexity of launch and range operations. The main focus in the modeling and simulation covers orbital dynamics and range safety. Range safety areas include destruct limit lines, telemetry and tracking and population risk near range. If there is an explosion of Shuttle during launch, debris dispersion is explained. The shuttle launch and range operations in this paper are discussed based on the operations from Kennedy Space Center, Florida, USA.

  16. Volumetric visualization of 3D data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, Gregory; Miles, Richard

    1989-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a rapid growth in the ability to obtain detailed data on large complex structures in three dimensions. This development occurred first in the medical field, with CAT (computer aided tomography) scans and now magnetic resonance imaging, and in seismological exploration. With the advances in supercomputing and computational fluid dynamics, and in experimental techniques in fluid dynamics, there is now the ability to produce similar large data fields representing 3D structures and phenomena in these disciplines. These developments have produced a situation in which currently there is access to data which is too complex to be understood using the tools available for data reduction and presentation. Researchers in these areas are becoming limited by their ability to visualize and comprehend the 3D systems they are measuring and simulating.

  17. 3D differential phase contrast microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Michael; Tian, Lei; Waller, Laura

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate 3D phase and absorption recovery from partially coherent intensity images captured with a programmable LED array source. Images are captured through-focus with four different illumination patterns. Using first Born and weak object approximations (WOA), a linear 3D differential phase contrast (DPC) model is derived. The partially coherent transfer functions relate the sample’s complex refractive index distribution to intensity measurements at varying defocus. Volumetric reconstruction is achieved by a global FFT-based method, without an intermediate 2D phase retrieval step. Because the illumination is spatially partially coherent, the transverse resolution of the reconstructed field achieves twice the NA of coherent systems and improved axial resolution. PMID:27867705

  18. 3-D seismic data for geohazards assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Gafford, W.T.

    1996-10-01

    Three-dimensional (3-D) seismic data, acquired for oil and gas exploration purposes, is now being used to supplement, or in some cases, even replace conventional high resolution geohazard surveys in the Gulf of Mexico. The use of 3-D seismic data has improved the identification and understanding of some types of geohazards and has resulted in a more thorough interpretation of the shallow geologic section. The use of seismic interpretation workstations has allowed the geohazard interpreter to apply new tools in geohazard analysis. Some of the newer geohazard analysis. Some of the newer geophysical technologies used for exploration purposes are now being adapted for use in the identification and assessment of drilling hazards in the near-seafloor sedimentary section.

  19. 3D FFTs on a Single FPGA.

    PubMed

    Humphries, Benjamin; Zhang, Hansen; Sheng, Jiayi; Landaverde, Raphael; Herbordt, Martin C

    2014-05-01

    The 3D FFT is critical in many physical simulations and image processing applications. On FPGAs, however, the 3D FFT was thought to be inefficient relative to other methods such as convolution-based implementations of multi-grid. We find the opposite: a simple design, operating at a conservative frequency, takes 4μs for 16(3), 21μs for 32(3), and 215μs for 64(3) single precision data points. The first two of these compare favorably with the 25μs and 29μs obtained running on a current Nvidia GPU. Some broader significance is that this is a critical piece in implementing a large scale FPGA-based MD engine: even a single FPGA is capable of keeping the FFT off of the critical path for a large fraction of possible MD simulations.

  20. 3D Elevation Program: summary for Vermont

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carswell, William J.

    2015-01-01

    The National Enhanced Elevation Assessment evaluated multiple elevation data acquisition options to determine the optimal data quality and data replacement cycle relative to cost to meet the identified requirements of the user community. The evaluation demonstrated that lidar acquisition at quality level 2 for the conterminous United States and quality level 5 interferometric synthetic aperture radar (ifsar) data for Alaska with a 6- to 10-year acquisition cycle provided the highest benefit/cost ratios. The 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) initiative selected an 8-year acquisition cycle for the respective quality levels. 3DEP, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey, the Office of Management and Budget Circular A–16 lead agency for terrestrial elevation data, responds to the growing need for high-quality topographic data and a wide range of other 3D representations of the Nation’s natural and constructed features.

  1. 3D Elevation Program: summary for Nebraska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carswell, William J.

    2015-01-01

    The National Enhanced Elevation Assessment evaluated multiple elevation data acquisition options to determine the optimal data quality and data replacement cycle relative to cost to meet the identified requirements of the user community. The evaluation demonstrated that lidar acquisition at quality level 2 for the conterminous United States and quality level 5 interferometric synthetic aperture radar (ifsar) data for Alaska with a 6- to 10-year acquisition cycle provided the highest benefit/cost ratios. The 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) initiative selected an 8-year acquisition cycle for the respective quality levels. 3DEP, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey, the Office of Management and Budget Circular A–16 lead agency for terrestrial elevation data, responds to the growing need for high-quality topographic data and a wide range of other 3D representations of the Nation’s natural and constructed features.

  2. Pattern based 3D image Steganography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiyagarajan, P.; Natarajan, V.; Aghila, G.; Prasanna Venkatesan, V.; Anitha, R.

    2013-03-01

    This paper proposes a new high capacity Steganographic scheme using 3D geometric models. The novel algorithm re-triangulates a part of a triangle mesh and embeds the secret information into newly added position of triangle meshes. Up to nine bits of secret data can be embedded into vertices of a triangle without causing any changes in the visual quality and the geometric properties of the cover image. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm is secure, with high capacity and low distortion rate. Our algorithm also resists against uniform affine transformations such as cropping, rotation and scaling. Also, the performance of the method is compared with other existing 3D Steganography algorithms. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  3. Recent Development in 3D Food Printing.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fan; Zhang, Min; Bhandari, Bhesh

    2015-10-19

    Robots and softwares have been significantly improving our daily lives by rendering us much convenience. And 3D printing is a typical example, for it is going to usher in a new era of localized manufacturing that is actually based on digital fabrication by layer-by-layer deposition in three dimensional space. In terms of food industry, the revolution that three-dimensional printing technologies is bringing to food manufacturing is convenience of low-cost customized fabrication and even precise nutrition control. This paper is aimed to give a brief introduction of recent development of food printing and material property of food ingredients that can be used to design the 3D food matrix and investigate the relationship between process parameters and resulting printed food properties in order to establish a food manufacturing process with this new food production approach.

  4. Faster Aerodynamic Simulation With Cart3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    A NASA-developed aerodynamic simulation tool is ensuring the safety of future space operations while providing designers and engineers with an automated, highly accurate computer simulation suite. Cart3D, co-winner of NASA's 2002 Software of the Year award, is the result of over 10 years of research and software development conducted by Michael Aftosmis and Dr. John Melton of Ames Research Center and Professor Marsha Berger of the Courant Institute at New York University. Cart3D offers a revolutionary approach to computational fluid dynamics (CFD), the computer simulation of how fluids and gases flow around an object of a particular design. By fusing technological advancements in diverse fields such as mineralogy, computer graphics, computational geometry, and fluid dynamics, the software provides a new industrial geometry processing and fluid analysis capability with unsurpassed automation and efficiency.

  5. EFIT 3D Reconstruction and Recent Developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lao, L. L.; Chu, M. S.; St. John, H. E.; Strait, E. J.; Turnbull, A. D.; Ren, Q.; Jeon, Y. M.; Flannagan, D.

    2007-11-01

    Recent 3D extension of the EFIT equilibrium reconstruction code to model toroidally asymmetric effects due to error and externally applied perturbation magnetic fields and other developments are presented. The 3D extension is based on an expansion of the MHD equations. Other developments include a new computational structure based on Fortran 90/95 with a unified interface that can conveniently accommodate different tokamak devices and grid sizes, as well as a Python-based GUI. New computational links that allow easy integration with transport and stability physics modules to facilitate kinetic reconstruction and stability analysis are also being developed. A new more complete uncertainty matrix for magnetic diagnostics based on knowledge about their fabrication, installation, calibration, and operation has also been implemented into EFIT and tested. Reconstructions with the new magnetic uncertainty matrix yield results similar to those using the existing one but with more realistic fitting merit figures.

  6. Azimuthally Anisotropic 3D Velocity Continuation

    DOE PAGES

    Burnett, William; Fomel, Sergey

    2011-01-01

    We extend time-domain velocity continuation to the zero-offset 3D azimuthally anisotropic case. Velocity continuation describes how a seismic image changes given a change in migration velocity. This description turns out to be of a wave propagation process, in which images change along a velocity axis. In the anisotropic case, the velocity model is multiparameter. Therefore, anisotropic image propagation is multidimensional. We use a three-parameter slowness model, which is related to azimuthal variations in velocity, as well as their principal directions. This information is useful for fracture and reservoir characterization from seismic data. We provide synthetic diffraction imaging examples to illustratemore » the concept and potential applications of azimuthal velocity continuation and to analyze the impulse response of the 3D velocity continuation operator.« less

  7. Fabricating 3D figurines with personalized faces.

    PubMed

    Tena, J Rafael; Mahler, Moshe; Beeler, Thabo; Grosse, Max; Hengchin Yeh; Matthews, Iain

    2013-01-01

    We present a semi-automated system for fabricating figurines with faces that are personalised to the individual likeness of the customer. The efficacy of the system has been demonstrated by commercial deployments at Walt Disney World Resort and Star Wars Celebration VI in Orlando Florida. Although the system is semi automated, human intervention is limited to a few simple tasks to maintain the high throughput and consistent quality required for commercial application. In contrast to existing systems that fabricate custom heads that are assembled to pre-fabricated plastic bodies, our system seamlessly integrates 3D facial data with a predefined figurine body into a unique and continuous object that is fabricated as a single piece. The combination of state-of-the-art 3D capture, modelling, and printing that are the core of our system provide the flexibility to fabricate figurines whose complexity is only limited by the creativity of the designer.

  8. Visualizing realistic 3D urban environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Aaron; Chen, Tuolin; Brunig, Michael; Schmidt, Hauke

    2003-05-01

    Visualizing complex urban environments has been an active research topic due to its wide variety of applications in city planning: road construction, emergency facilities planning, and optimal placement of wireless carrier base stations. Traditional 2D visualizations have been around for a long time but they only provide a schematic line-drawing bird's eye view and are sometimes confusing to understand due to the lack of depth information. Early versions of 3D systems have been developed for very expensive graphics workstations which seriously limited the availability. In this paper we describe a 3D visualization system for a desktop PC which integrates multiple resolutions of data and provides a realistic view of the urban environment.

  9. Illustrative visualization of 3D city models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doellner, Juergen; Buchholz, Henrik; Nienhaus, Marc; Kirsch, Florian

    2005-03-01

    This paper presents an illustrative visualization technique that provides expressive representations of large-scale 3D city models, inspired by the tradition of artistic and cartographic visualizations typically found in bird"s-eye view and panoramic maps. We define a collection of city model components and a real-time multi-pass rendering algorithm that achieves comprehensible, abstract 3D city model depictions based on edge enhancement, color-based and shadow-based depth cues, and procedural facade texturing. Illustrative visualization provides an effective visual interface to urban spatial information and associated thematic information complementing visual interfaces based on the Virtual Reality paradigm, offering a huge potential for graphics design. Primary application areas include city and landscape planning, cartoon worlds in computer games, and tourist information systems.

  10. Sensing and compressing 3-D models

    SciTech Connect

    Krumm, J.

    1998-02-01

    The goal of this research project was to create a passive and robust computer vision system for producing 3-D computer models of arbitrary scenes. Although the authors were unsuccessful in achieving the overall goal, several components of this research have shown significant potential. Of particular interest is the application of parametric eigenspace methods for planar pose measurement of partially occluded objects in gray-level images. The techniques presented provide a simple, accurate, and robust solution to the planar pose measurement problem. In addition, the representational efficiency of eigenspace methods used with gray-level features were successfully extended to binary features, which are less sensitive to illumination changes. The results of this research are presented in two papers that were written during the course of this project. The papers are included in sections 2 and 3. The first section of this report summarizes the 3-D modeling efforts.

  11. Crashworthiness simulations with DYNA3D

    SciTech Connect

    Schauer, D.A.; Hoover, C.G.; Kay, G.J.; Lee, A.S.; De Groot, A.J.

    1996-04-01

    Current progress in parallel algorithm research and applications in vehicle crash simulation is described for the explicit, finite element algorithms in DYNA3D. Problem partitioning methods and parallel algorithms for contact at material interfaces are the two challenging algorithm research problems that are addressed. Two prototype parallel contact algorithms have been developed for treating the cases of local and arbitrary contact. Demonstration problems for local contact are crashworthiness simulations with 222 locally defined contact surfaces and a vehicle/barrier collision modeled with arbitrary contact. A simulation of crash tests conducted for a vehicle impacting a U-channel small sign post embedded in soil has been run on both the serial and parallel versions of DYNA3D. A significant reduction in computational time has been observed when running these problems on the parallel version. However, to achieve maximum efficiency, complex problems must be appropriately partitioned, especially when contact dominates the computation.

  12. 3D Structures of Responsive Nanocompartmentalized Microgels.

    PubMed

    Gelissen, Arjan P H; Oppermann, Alex; Caumanns, Tobias; Hebbeker, Pascal; Turnhoff, Sarah K; Tiwari, Rahul; Eisold, Sabine; Simon, Ulrich; Lu, Yan; Mayer, Joachim; Richtering, Walter; Walther, Andreas; Wöll, Dominik

    2016-11-09

    Compartmentalization in soft matter is important for segregating and coordinating chemical reactions, sequestering (re)active components, and integrating multifunctionality. Advances depend crucially on quantitative 3D visualization in situ with high spatiotemporal resolution. Here, we show the direct visualization of different compartments within adaptive microgels using a combination of in situ electron and super-resolved fluorescence microscopy. We unravel new levels of structural details and address the challenge of reconstructing 3D information from 2D projections for nonuniform soft matter as opposed to monodisperse proteins. Moreover, we visualize the thermally induced shrinkage of responsive core-shell microgels live in water. This strategy opens doors for systematic in situ studies of soft matter systems and their application as smart materials.

  13. Scalable large format 3D displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Nelson L.; Damera-Venkata, Niranjan

    2010-02-01

    We present a general framework for the modeling and optimization of scalable large format 3-D displays using multiple projectors. Based on this framework, we derive algorithms that can robustly optimize the visual quality of an arbitrary combination of projectors (e.g. tiled, superimposed, combinations of the two) without manual adjustment. The framework creates for the first time a new unified paradigm that is agnostic to a particular configuration of projectors yet robustly optimizes for the brightness, contrast, and resolution of that configuration. In addition, we demonstrate that our algorithms support high resolution stereoscopic video at real-time interactive frame rates achieved on commodity graphics hardware. Through complementary polarization, the framework creates high quality multi-projector 3-D displays at low hardware and operational cost for a variety of applications including digital cinema, visualization, and command-and-control walls.

  14. PLOT3D/AMES, GENERIC UNIX VERSION USING DISSPLA (WITHOUT TURB3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buning, P.

    1994-01-01

    PLOT3D is an interactive graphics program designed to help scientists visualize computational fluid dynamics (CFD) grids and solutions. Today, supercomputers and CFD algorithms can provide scientists with simulations of such highly complex phenomena that obtaining an understanding of the simulations has become a major problem. Tools which help the scientist visualize the simulations can be of tremendous aid. PLOT3D/AMES offers more functions and features, and has been adapted for more types of computers than any other CFD graphics program. Version 3.6b+ is supported for five computers and graphic libraries. Using PLOT3D, CFD physicists can view their computational models from any angle, observing the physics of problems and the quality of solutions. As an aid in designing aircraft, for example, PLOT3D's interactive computer graphics can show vortices, temperature, reverse flow, pressure, and dozens of other characteristics of air flow during flight. As critical areas become obvious, they can easily be studied more closely using a finer grid. PLOT3D is part of a computational fluid dynamics software cycle. First, a program such as 3DGRAPE (ARC-12620) helps the scientist generate computational grids to model an object and its surrounding space. Once the grids have been designed and parameters such as the angle of attack, Mach number, and Reynolds number have been specified, a "flow-solver" program such as INS3D (ARC-11794 or COS-10019) solves the system of equations governing fluid flow, usually on a supercomputer. Grids sometimes have as many as two million points, and the "flow-solver" produces a solution file which contains density, x- y- and z-momentum, and stagnation energy for each grid point. With such a solution file and a grid file containing up to 50 grids as input, PLOT3D can calculate and graphically display any one of 74 functions, including shock waves, surface pressure, velocity vectors, and particle traces. PLOT3D's 74 functions are organized into

  15. PLOT3D/AMES, GENERIC UNIX VERSION USING DISSPLA (WITH TURB3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buning, P.

    1994-01-01

    PLOT3D is an interactive graphics program designed to help scientists visualize computational fluid dynamics (CFD) grids and solutions. Today, supercomputers and CFD algorithms can provide scientists with simulations of such highly complex phenomena that obtaining an understanding of the simulations has become a major problem. Tools which help the scientist visualize the simulations can be of tremendous aid. PLOT3D/AMES offers more functions and features, and has been adapted for more types of computers than any other CFD graphics program. Version 3.6b+ is supported for five computers and graphic libraries. Using PLOT3D, CFD physicists can view their computational models from any angle, observing the physics of problems and the quality of solutions. As an aid in designing aircraft, for example, PLOT3D's interactive computer graphics can show vortices, temperature, reverse flow, pressure, and dozens of other characteristics of air flow during flight. As critical areas become obvious, they can easily be studied more closely using a finer grid. PLOT3D is part of a computational fluid dynamics software cycle. First, a program such as 3DGRAPE (ARC-12620) helps the scientist generate computational grids to model an object and its surrounding space. Once the grids have been designed and parameters such as the angle of attack, Mach number, and Reynolds number have been specified, a "flow-solver" program such as INS3D (ARC-11794 or COS-10019) solves the system of equations governing fluid flow, usually on a supercomputer. Grids sometimes have as many as two million points, and the "flow-solver" produces a solution file which contains density, x- y- and z-momentum, and stagnation energy for each grid point. With such a solution file and a grid file containing up to 50 grids as input, PLOT3D can calculate and graphically display any one of 74 functions, including shock waves, surface pressure, velocity vectors, and particle traces. PLOT3D's 74 functions are organized into

  16. Simulation of 3D diamond detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forcolin, G. T.; Oh, A.; Murphy, S. A.

    2017-02-01

    3D diamond detectors present an interesting prospect for future Particle Physics experiments. They have been studied in detail at beam tests with 120 GeV protons and 4 MeV protons. To understand the observations that have been made, simulations have been carried out using Synopsys TCAD in order to explain the movement of charge carriers within the sample, as well as the effects of charge sharing. Reasonable agreement has been observed between simulation and experiment.

  17. Recognizing 3D Object Using Photometric Invariant.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-02-01

    model and the data space coordinates, using centroid invariance of corresponding groups of feature positions. Tests are given to show the stability and...positions in the model and the data space coordinates, using centroid invariance of corresponding groups of feature positions. Tests are given to show the...ognizing 3D objects. In our testing , it took only 0.2 seconds to derive corresponding positions in the model and the image for natural pictures. 2

  18. 'Berries' on the Ground 2 (3-D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This is the 3-D anaglyph showing a microscopic image taken of soil featuring round, blueberry-shaped rock formations on the crater floor at Meridiani Planum, Mars. This image was taken on the 13th day of the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's journey, before the Moessbauer spectrometer, an instrument located on the rover's instrument deployment device, or 'arm,' was pressed down to take measurements. The area in this image is approximately 3 centimeters (1.2 inches) across.

  19. Inferential modeling of 3D chromatin structure.

    PubMed

    Wang, Siyu; Xu, Jinbo; Zeng, Jianyang

    2015-04-30

    For eukaryotic cells, the biological processes involving regulatory DNA elements play an important role in cell cycle. Understanding 3D spatial arrangements of chromosomes and revealing long-range chromatin interactions are critical to decipher these biological processes. In recent years, chromosome conformation capture (3C) related techniques have been developed to measure the interaction frequencies between long-range genome loci, which have provided a great opportunity to decode the 3D organization of the genome. In this paper, we develop a new Bayesian framework to derive the 3D architecture of a chromosome from 3C-based data. By modeling each chromosome as a polymer chain, we define the conformational energy based on our current knowledge on polymer physics and use it as prior information in the Bayesian framework. We also propose an expectation-maximization (EM) based algorithm to estimate the unknown parameters of the Bayesian model and infer an ensemble of chromatin structures based on interaction frequency data. We have validated our Bayesian inference approach through cross-validation and verified the computed chromatin conformations using the geometric constraints derived from fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) experiments. We have further confirmed the inferred chromatin structures using the known genetic interactions derived from other studies in the literature. Our test results have indicated that our Bayesian framework can compute an accurate ensemble of 3D chromatin conformations that best interpret the distance constraints derived from 3C-based data and also agree with other sources of geometric constraints derived from experimental evidence in the previous studies. The source code of our approach can be found in https://github.com/wangsy11/InfMod3DGen.

  20. 3D Integration for Wireless Multimedia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimmich, Georg

    The convergence of mobile phone, internet, mapping, gaming and office automation tools with high quality video and still imaging capture capability is becoming a strong market trend for portable devices. High-density video encode and decode, 3D graphics for gaming, increased application-software complexity and ultra-high-bandwidth 4G modem technologies are driving the CPU performance and memory bandwidth requirements close to the PC segment. These portable multimedia devices are battery operated, which requires the deployment of new low-power-optimized silicon process technologies and ultra-low-power design techniques at system, architecture and device level. Mobile devices also need to comply with stringent silicon-area and package-volume constraints. As for all consumer devices, low production cost and fast time-to-volume production is key for success. This chapter shows how 3D architectures can bring a possible breakthrough to meet the conflicting power, performance and area constraints. Multiple 3D die-stacking partitioning strategies are described and analyzed on their potential to improve the overall system power, performance and cost for specific application scenarios. Requirements and maturity of the basic process-technology bricks including through-silicon via (TSV) and die-to-die attachment techniques are reviewed. Finally, we highlight new challenges which will arise with 3D stacking and an outlook on how they may be addressed: Higher power density will require thermal design considerations, new EDA tools will need to be developed to cope with the integration of heterogeneous technologies and to guarantee signal and power integrity across the die stack. The silicon/wafer test strategies have to be adapted to handle high-density IO arrays, ultra-thin wafers and provide built-in self-test of attached memories. New standards and business models have to be developed to allow cost-efficient assembly and testing of devices from different silicon and technology