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Sample records for 3d antiferromagnetic ordering

  1. Antiferromagnetic spin chain behavior and a transition to 3D magnetic order in Cu(D,L-alanine)2: Roles of H-bonds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calvo, Rafael; Sartoris, Rosana P.; Calvo, Hernán L.; Chagas, Edson F.; Rapp, Raul E.

    2016-05-01

    We study the spin chain behavior, a transition to 3D magnetic order and the magnitudes of the exchange interactions for the metal-amino acid complex Cu(D,L-alanine)2•H2O, a model compound to investigate exchange couplings supported by chemical paths characteristic of biomolecules. Thermal and magnetic data were obtained as a function of temperature (T) and magnetic field (B0). The magnetic contribution to the specific heat, measured between 0.48 and 30 K, displays above 1.8 K a 1D spin-chain behavior that can be fitted with an intrachain antiferromagnetic (AFM) exchange coupling constant 2J0=(-2.12±0.08) cm-1 (defined as ℋex(i,i+1) = -2J0SiṡSi+1), between neighbor coppers at 4.49 Å along chains connected by non-covalent and H-bonds. We also observe a narrow specific heat peak at 0.89 K indicating a phase transition to a 3D magnetically ordered phase. Magnetization curves at fixed T = 2, 4 and 7 K with B0 between 0 and 9 T, and at T between 2 and 300 K with several fixed values of B0 were globally fitted by an intrachain AFM exchange coupling constant 2J0=(-2.27±0.02) cm-1 and g = 2.091±0.005. Interchain interactions J1 between coppers in neighbor chains connected through long chemical paths with total length of 9.51 Å cannot be estimated from magnetization curves. However, observation of the phase transition in the specific heat data allows estimating the range 0.1≤|2J1|≤0.4 cm-1, covering the predictions of various approximations. We analyze the magnitudes of 2J0 and 2J1 in terms of the structure of the corresponding chemical paths. The main contribution in supporting the intrachain interaction is assigned to H-bonds while the interchain interactions are supported by paths containing H-bonds and carboxylate bridges, with the role of the H-bonds being predominant. We compare the obtained intrachain coupling with studies of compounds showing similar behavior and discuss the validity of the approximations allowing to calculate the interchain

  2. Critical Dynamics of The Classical 3-D Heisenberg Antiferromagnet with Anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunker, Alex; Chen, Kun; Landau, D. P.

    1997-03-01

    Using large scale Monte Carlo and spin-dynamics techniques^1 we studied the dynamic behavior of the body-centered cubic classical Heisenberg antiferromagnet with single site anisotropy. In order to directly compare our results to experiment, we set the anisotropy to match that found^2 in FeF2 (strong anisotropy) and MnF2 (weak anisotropy). We determined the form of the dynamic structure factor, S(q,ω), at Tc and found agreement with experiment^3 and theory^4 which indicate a strong diffusive longitudinal component that is critical and a weak, non-critical propagative transverse component. Supported in part by the NSF ^**current address: Solid State Division, ORNL ^1 K. Chen, D. P. Landau, Phys. Rev. B \\underline49, 3266, (1994) ^2 J. Als-Nielsen in Phase Transitions and Critical Phenomena, \\underline5A, C. Domb, M. S. Green, (Academic Press, 1976) ^3 M. P. Schulhof et. al., Phys. Rev. B \\underline1, 2304, (1970) ^4 S. W. Lovesey, E. Balcar, J. Phys. Cond. Matt. \\underline7, 2147, (1995)

  3. Long-range Antiferromagnetic Order in [MnTe/ZnTe] Superlattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhyne, J.; Lin, J.; Furdyna, J.; Giebultowicz, T.

    1997-03-01

    Long range antiferromagnetic order has been found in epitaxially-grown superlattices of [(MnTe)_x/(ZnTe)_y] with thin ZnTe interlayers (e.g, y=3D4-6 monolayers) and MnTe layer thicknesses x =3D 10 and 20. Previous studies(T.M. Giebultowicz, P. Klosowski, N. Samarth, H. Luo, J. K. Furdyna, and J.J. Rhyne, Phys. Rev. B 48), 12817 (1993). of [MnTe/ZnTe] superlattices with thicker ZnTe interlayers (e.g., y=3D18) revealed antiferromagnetic order confined to single MnTe layers consistent with strong nearest-neighbor (NN) exchange and relatively weak higher-neighbor exchange. The thin ZnTe layer superlattices show an inphase antiferromagnetic interlayer coupling coherent across several bilayers with spin directions on adjacent MnTe layers determined by assuming "phantom" spins on the ZnTe layers with the same AFM order as the MnTe layers. As the temperature is raised, this ordering slowly transforms into an antiphase coupling with spin directions in alternate MnTe layers reversed from their low temperature structure. The magnetic scattered intensity from both co-existing phases vanishes at a common Neel temperature near 75 K.

  4. Higher Order Lagrange Finite Elements In M3D

    SciTech Connect

    J. Chen; H.R. Strauss; S.C. Jardin; W. Park; L.E. Sugiyama; G. Fu; J. Breslau

    2004-12-17

    The M3D code has been using linear finite elements to represent multilevel MHD on 2-D poloidal planes. Triangular higher order elements, up to third order, are constructed here in order to provide M3D the capability to solve highly anisotropic transport problems. It is found that higher order elements are essential to resolve the thin transition layer characteristic of the anisotropic transport equation, particularly when the strong anisotropic direction is not aligned with one of the Cartesian coordinates. The transition layer is measured by the profile width, which is zero for infinite anisotropy. It is shown that only higher order schemes have the ability to make this layer converge towards zero when the anisotropy gets stronger and stronger. Two cases are considered. One has the strong transport direction partially aligned with one of the element edges, the other doesn't have any alignment. Both cases have the strong transport direction misaligned with the grid line by some angles.

  5. Field-Tuned Order by Disorder in Frustrated Ising Magnets with Antiferromagnetic Interactions.

    PubMed

    Guruciaga, P C; Tarzia, M; Ferreyra, M V; Cugliandolo, L F; Grigera, S A; Borzi, R A

    2016-10-14

    We demonstrate the appearance of thermal order by disorder in Ising pyrochlores with staggered antiferromagnetic order frustrated by an applied magnetic field. We use a mean-field cluster variational method, a low-temperature expansion, and Monte Carlo simulations to characterize the order-by-disorder transition. By direct evaluation of the density of states, we quantitatively show how a symmetry-broken state is selected by thermal excitations. We discuss the relevance of our results to experiments in 2D and 3D samples and evaluate how anomalous finite-size effects could be exploited to detect this phenomenon experimentally in two-dimensional artificial systems, or in antiferromagnetic all-in-all-out pyrochlores like Nd_{2}Hf_{2}O_{7} or Nd_{2}Zr_{2}O_{7}, for the first time.

  6. Field-Tuned Order by Disorder in Frustrated Ising Magnets with Antiferromagnetic Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guruciaga, P. C.; Tarzia, M.; Ferreyra, M. V.; Cugliandolo, L. F.; Grigera, S. A.; Borzi, R. A.

    2016-10-01

    We demonstrate the appearance of thermal order by disorder in Ising pyrochlores with staggered antiferromagnetic order frustrated by an applied magnetic field. We use a mean-field cluster variational method, a low-temperature expansion, and Monte Carlo simulations to characterize the order-by-disorder transition. By direct evaluation of the density of states, we quantitatively show how a symmetry-broken state is selected by thermal excitations. We discuss the relevance of our results to experiments in 2D and 3D samples and evaluate how anomalous finite-size effects could be exploited to detect this phenomenon experimentally in two-dimensional artificial systems, or in antiferromagnetic all-in-all-out pyrochlores like Nd2 Hf2 O7 or Nd2 Zr2 O7 , for the first time.

  7. Nonthermal antiferromagnetic order and nonequilibrium criticality in the Hubbard model.

    PubMed

    Tsuji, Naoto; Eckstein, Martin; Werner, Philipp

    2013-03-29

    We study dynamical phase transitions from antiferromagnetic to paramagnetic states driven by an interaction quench in the fermionic Hubbard model using the nonequilibrium dynamical mean-field theory. We identify two dynamical transition points where the relaxation behavior qualitatively changes: one corresponds to the thermal phase transition at which the order parameter decays critically slowly in a power law ∝t(-1/2), and the other is connected to the existence of nonthermal antiferromagnetic order in systems with effective temperature above the thermal critical temperature. The frequency of the amplitude mode extrapolates to zero as one approaches the nonthermal (quasi)critical point, and thermalization is significantly delayed by the trapping in the nonthermal state. A slow relaxation of the nonthermal order is followed by a faster thermalization process.

  8. Superconductivity in the vicinity of antiferromagnetic order in CrAs and related materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Jianlin

    2015-03-01

    Transition-metal oxides or pnictides are in rich of novel and intriguing electronic behaviors due to multiple quantum orders and competing phenomena. Among the different electronic states, the emergence of superconductivity in the vicinity of other quantum orders is at the heart of the rich physics. Superconductivity has been observed in a majority of 3d transition-metal compounds except for the Cr- and Mn- based compounds. It is thus of high interest in exploring possible superconductivity in those systems. In this talk, I will present the discovery of superconductivity on the verge of antiferromagnetic order in CrAs via the application of external high pressure. Bulk superconductivity with Tc ~ 2 K emerges at the critical pressure Pc ~ 8 kbar, where the first-order antiferromagnetic transition at TN ~ 265 K under ambient pressure is completely suppressed. In addition, quantum criticality and non-Fermi liquid behavior are observed near Pc, which we interpret as originating from a nearly second-order magnetic quantum phase transition that is concomitant with a first-order structural transition. The present finding opens a new avenue for searching novel superconductors in the Cr and other 3d transitional-metal based systems. In collaboration with Wei Wu, Jinguang Cheng, Kazuyuki Matsubayashi, Panpan Kong, Fukun Lin, Changqing Jin, Nanlin Wang, Yoshiya Uwatoko, Rong Yi, and Qimiao Si.

  9. Antiferromagnetic order in MnO spherical nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Cuihuan; Baker, Sheila N; Lumsden, Mark D; Nagler, Stephen E; Heller, William T; Baker, Gary A; Deen, P P; Cranswick, Lachlan M.D.; Su, Y.; Christianson, Andrew D

    2011-01-01

    We have performed unpolarized and polarized neutron diffraction experiments on monodisperse 8- and 13-nm antiferromagnetic MnO nanoparticles. For the 8-nm sample, the antiferromagnetic transition temperature T{sub N} (114 K) is suppressed compared to that in the bulk material (119 K), while for the 13-nm sample T{sub N} (120 K) is comparable to that in the bulk. The neutron diffraction data of the nanoparticles is well described using the bulk MnO magnetic structure but with a substantially reduced average magnetic moment of 4.2 {+-} 0.3 {micro}{sub B}/Mn for the 8-nm sample and 3.9 {+-} 0.2 {micro}{sub B}/Mn for the 13-nm sample. An analysis of the polarized neutron data on both samples shows that in an individual MnO nanoparticle about 80% of Mn ions order. These results can be explained by a structure in which the monodisperse nanoparticles studied here have a core that behaves similar to the bulk with a surface layer which does not contribute significantly to the magnetic order.

  10. A unique 2D → 3D polycatenation cobalt(II)-based molecule magnet showing coexistence of paramagnetism and canted antiferromagnetism.

    PubMed

    Xu, Bo; Lin, Xi; He, Zhangzhen; Lin, Zujin; Cao, Rong

    2011-04-07

    A novel entangled architecture [Co(1.5)(bpmp)(Hcda)(cda)(H(2)O)] (1) based on 4(4)-sql subunits, showing an interesting 2D → 3D inclined polycatenation structure feature, is reported. Magnetic investigation shows that compound 1 exhibits coexistence of paramagnetism and canted antiferromagnetism with Tc of 48 K.

  11. G -type antiferromagnetic order in the metallic oxide LaC u3C r4O12

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Takashi; Zhang, Shoubao; Khalyavin, Dmitry; Manuel, Pascal; Attfield, J. Paul; Shimakawa, Yuichi

    2017-01-01

    The A -site-ordered cubic perovskite LaC u3C r4O12 , where a partial Cu-Cr intersite charge transfer transition occurs at TCT=220 K , was found to be an unconventional metallic and G -type antiferromagnetic oxide. Neutron powder diffraction revealed a G -type antiferromagnetic ordering at the Cr sites and no ordered moments at the Cu sites. Ab initio electronic structure calculations revealed that the narrowing of the Cr-O-Cr bands due to heavy tilting of the Cr O6 octahedra and the strong hybridization of the Cu -3 d ,Cr -3 d , and O - 2 p orbitals near the Fermi level give an unusual electronic structure in the vicinity of a localized-electron regime. The G -type magnetic structure is primarily stabilized by nearest-neighbor antiferromagnetic superexchange interactions of the near-localized Cr spins. The ferromagnetic {1 1 1 } layers of the G -type antiferromagnetic Cr-spin sublattice allow the spin-polarized electron transfer through the strongly hybridized Cu orbitals.

  12. Kinetically Inhibited Order in a Diamond-Lattice Antiferromagnet

    SciTech Connect

    MacDougall, Gregory J; Gout, Delphine J; Zarestky, Jerel L; Ehlers, Georg; Podlesnyak, Andrey A; McGuire, Michael A; Mandrus, David; Nagler, Stephen E

    2011-01-01

    Frustrated magnetic systems exhibit highly degenerate ground states and strong fluctuations, often leading to new physics. An intriguing example of current interest is the antiferromagnet on a diamond lattice, realized physically in the A-site spinel materials. This is a prototypical system in three dimensions where frustration arises from competing interactions rather than purely geometric constraints, and theory suggests the possibility of novel order at low temperature. Here we present a comprehensive single crystal neutron scattering study CoAl2O4, a highly frustrated A-site spinel. We observe strong diffuse scattering that peaks at wavevectors associated with Neel ordering. Below the temperature T*=6.5K, there is a dramatic change in elastic scattering lineshape accompanied by the emergence of well-defined spin-wave excitations. T* had previously been associated with the onset of glassy behavior. Our new results suggest instead that in fact T* signifies a first-order phase transition, but with true long-range order inhibited by the kinetic freezing of domain walls. This scenario might be expected to occur widely in frustrated systems containing first-order phase transitions and is a natural explanation for existing reports of anomalous glassy behavior in other materials.

  13. Charge dynamics of the antiferromagnetically ordered Mott insulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Xing-Jie; Liu, Yu; Liu, Zhi-Yuan; Li, Xin; Chen, Jing; Liao, Hai-Jun; Xie, Zhi-Yuan; Normand, B.; Xiang, Tao

    2016-10-01

    We introduce a slave-fermion formulation in which to study the charge dynamics of the half-filled Hubbard model on the square lattice. In this description, the charge degrees of freedom are represented by fermionic holons and doublons and the Mott-insulating characteristics of the ground state are the consequence of holon-doublon bound-state formation. The bosonic spin degrees of freedom are described by the antiferromagnetic Heisenberg model, yielding long-ranged (Néel) magnetic order at zero temperature. Within this framework and in the self-consistent Born approximation, we perform systematic calculations of the average double occupancy, the electronic density of states, the spectral function and the optical conductivity. Qualitatively, our method reproduces the lower and upper Hubbard bands, the spectral-weight transfer into a coherent quasiparticle band at their lower edges and the renormalisation of the Mott gap, which is associated with holon-doublon binding, due to the interactions of both quasiparticle species with the magnons. The zeros of the Green function at the chemical potential give the Luttinger volume, the poles of the self-energy reflect the underlying quasiparticle dispersion with a spin-renormalised hopping parameter and the optical gap is directly related to the Mott gap. Quantitatively, the square-lattice Hubbard model is one of the best-characterised problems in correlated condensed matter and many numerical calculations, all with different strengths and weaknesses, exist with which to benchmark our approach. From the semi-quantitative accuracy of our results for all but the weakest interaction strengths, we conclude that a self-consistent treatment of the spin-fluctuation effects on the charge degrees of freedom captures all the essential physics of the antiferromagnetic Mott-Hubbard insulator. We remark in addition that an analytical approximation with these properties serves a vital function in developing a full understanding of the

  14. Ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic order in bacterial vortex lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wioland, Hugo; Woodhouse, Francis G.; Dunkel, Jörn; Goldstein, Raymond E.

    2016-04-01

    Despite their inherently non-equilibrium nature, living systems can self-organize in highly ordered collective states that share striking similarities with the thermodynamic equilibrium phases of conventional condensed-matter and fluid systems. Examples range from the liquid-crystal-like arrangements of bacterial colonies, microbial suspensions and tissues to the coherent macro-scale dynamics in schools of fish and flocks of birds. Yet, the generic mathematical principles that govern the emergence of structure in such artificial and biological systems are elusive. It is not clear when, or even whether, well-established theoretical concepts describing universal thermostatistics of equilibrium systems can capture and classify ordered states of living matter. Here, we connect these two previously disparate regimes: through microfluidic experiments and mathematical modelling, we demonstrate that lattices of hydrodynamically coupled bacterial vortices can spontaneously organize into distinct patterns characterized by ferro- and antiferromagnetic order. The coupling between adjacent vortices can be controlled by tuning the inter-cavity gap widths. The emergence of opposing order regimes is tightly linked to the existence of geometry-induced edge currents, reminiscent of those in quantum systems. Our experimental observations can be rationalized in terms of a generic lattice field theory, suggesting that bacterial spin networks belong to the same universality class as a wide range of equilibrium systems.

  15. Ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic order in bacterial vortex lattices

    PubMed Central

    Wioland, Hugo; Woodhouse, Francis G.; Dunkel, Jörn; Goldstein, Raymond E.

    2016-01-01

    Despite their inherent non-equilibrium nature1, living systems can self-organize in highly ordered collective states2,3 that share striking similarities with the thermodynamic equilibrium phases4,5 of conventional condensed matter and fluid systems. Examples range from the liquid-crystal-like arrangements of bacterial colonies6,7, microbial suspensions8,9 and tissues10 to the coherent macro-scale dynamics in schools of fish11 and flocks of birds12. Yet, the generic mathematical principles that govern the emergence of structure in such artificial13 and biological6–9,14 systems are elusive. It is not clear when, or even whether, well-established theoretical concepts describing universal thermostatistics of equilibrium systems can capture and classify ordered states of living matter. Here, we connect these two previously disparate regimes: Through microfluidic experiments and mathematical modelling, we demonstrate that lattices of hydrodynamically coupled bacterial vortices can spontaneously organize into distinct phases of ferro- and antiferromagnetic order. The preferred phase can be controlled by tuning the vortex coupling through changes of the inter-cavity gap widths. The emergence of opposing order regimes is tightly linked to the existence of geometry-induced edge currents15,16, reminiscent of those in quantum systems17–19. Our experimental observations can be rationalized in terms of a generic lattice field theory, suggesting that bacterial spin networks belong to the same universality class as a wide range of equilibrium systems. PMID:27213004

  16. Interplay between microstructure and magnetism in NiO nanoparticles: breakdown of the antiferromagnetic order.

    PubMed

    Rinaldi-Montes, N; Gorria, P; Martínez-Blanco, D; Fuertes, A B; Fernández Barquín, L; Rodríguez Fernández, J; de Pedro, I; Fdez-Gubieda, M L; Alonso, J; Olivi, L; Aquilanti, G; Blanco, J A

    2014-01-07

    The possibility of tuning the magnetic behaviour of nanostructured 3d transition metal oxides has opened up the path for extensive research activity in the nanoscale world. In this work we report on how the antiferromagnetism of a bulk material can be broken when reducing its size under a given threshold. We combined X-ray diffraction, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, extended X-ray absorption fine structure and magnetic measurements in order to describe the influence of the microstructure and morphology on the magnetic behaviour of NiO nanoparticles (NPs) with sizes ranging from 2.5 to 9 nm. The present findings reveal that size effects induce surface spin frustration which competes with the expected antiferromagnetic (AFM) order, typical of bulk NiO, giving rise to a threshold size for the AFM phase to nucleate. Ni(2+) magnetic moments in 2.5 nm NPs seem to be in a spin glass (SG) state, whereas larger NPs are formed by an uncompensated AFM core with a net magnetic moment surrounded by a SG shell. The coupling at the core-shell interface leads to an exchange bias effect manifested at low temperature as horizontal shifts of the hysteresis loop (~1 kOe) and a coercivity enhancement (~0.2 kOe).

  17. Antiferromagnetic order and spin dynamics in iron-based superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Pengcheng

    2015-07-01

    High-transition temperature (high-Tc) superconductivity in the iron pnictides or chalcogenides emerges from the suppression of the static antiferromagnetic order in their parent compounds, similar to copper oxide superconductors. This raises a fundamental question concerning the role of magnetism in the superconductivity of these materials. Neutron scattering, a powerful probe to study the magnetic order and spin dynamics, plays an essential role in determining the relationship between magnetism and superconductivity in high-Tc superconductors. The rapid development of modern neutron time-of-flight spectrometers allows a direct determination of the spin dynamical properties of iron-based superconductors throughout the entire Brillouin zone. In this paper, an overview is presented of the neutron scattering results on iron-based superconductors, focusing on the evolution of spin-excitation spectra as a function of electron and hole doping and isoelectronic substitution. Spin dynamical properties of iron-based superconductors are compared with those of copper oxide and heavy fermion superconductors and the common features of spin excitations in these three families of unconventional superconductors and their relationship with superconductivity are discussed.

  18. Antiferromagnetic Ordering of Mn(III)F(salen)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meisel, M. W.; Wang, Tong; Brown, S. E.; Botko, M.; Čižmár, E.; Risset, O. N.; Talham, D. R.

    2014-03-01

    Due to a report suggesting Mn(III)F(salen), salen = H14C16N2O2, is an S = 2 Haldane system with J /kB = 50 K and no long-range order down to 2 K based on standard magnetometry studies,[2] specific heat and NMR measurements were performed. Using small single crystals, specific heat studies revealed the presence of an anomaly near 23 K, and this response was robust in fields up to 9 T. The 1H NMR results performed on a single crystal in 1 T revealed a sharp transition characteristic of antiferromagnetic ordering at 22.5 K. Measuring the magnetic response of the same single crystal in a commercial magnetometer reveals the presence of a subtle feature, near 23 K, that is not resolved with as-grown, randomlly oriented microcrystalline samples. These findings provide insight into the results obtained in torque magnetometry, EPR, and neutron scattering data.[3] Supported by NSF via DMR-1202033 (MWM), DMR-1105531 (SEB), DMR-1005581 (DRT), and DMR-1157490 (NHMFL), by the Slovak Agency for Research and Development via APVV-0132-11 (EČ), and by the Fulbright Commission of the Slovak Republic (MWM).

  19. Transient carrier dynamics in a Mott insulator with antiferromagnetic order

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iyoda, Eiki; Ishihara, Sumio

    2014-03-01

    We study transient dynamics of hole carriers injected into a Mott insulator with antiferromagnetic long-range order. This "dynamical hole doping" contrasts with chemical hole doping. The theoretical framework for the transient carrier dynamics is presented based on the two-dimensional t-J model. The time dependencies of the optical conductivity spectra, as well as the one-particle excitation spectra, are calculated based on the Keldysh Green's function formalism at zero temperature combined with the self-consistent Born approximation. In the early stage after dynamical hole doping, the Drude component appears, and then incoherent components originating from hole-magnon scattering start to grow. Fast oscillatory behavior owing to coherent magnon and slow relaxation dynamics are confirmed in the spectra. The time profiles are interpreted as doped bare holes being dressed by magnon clouds and relaxed into spin polaron quasiparticle states. The characteristic relaxation times for Drude and incoherent peaks strongly depend on the momentum of the dynamically doped hole and the exchange constant. Implications for recent pump-probe experiments are discussed.

  20. Antiferromagnetic half metallicity in codoped chalcopyrite semiconductors Cu(Al 1 - 2 xAxBx)Se2 (A and B are 3d transition-metal atoms)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahjahan, M.; Oguchi, T.

    2016-06-01

    Electronic structures and magnetic properties of group I-III-VI2 chalcopyrite-type compounds Cu(Al 1 - 2 xAxBx)Se2 are calculated using the Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker Green's function method, where A (Ti, V, Cr, Mn) and B (Fe, Co, Ni) are 3d transition metal atoms, and x is atomic concentration. We found that codoping of Cr-Co and V-Ni pairs at Al site of host CuAlSe2 exhibit antiferromagnetic (AF) half metallicity with low Curie temperature (TC). The AF half metallic property is supported by nullified net magnetic moment and compensated density of states in the minority spin direction. On the other hand, codoping of Cr-Ni, Mn-Co, V-Co, and Ti-Co pairs at Al site of host CuAlSe2 manifest ferrimagnetic half metallicity with a small net magnetization and keeping antiparallel local spin moments. In Mn-Co case TC is close to room temperature. Besides, Cr-Fe, V-Fe, and Ti-Ni codoping cases lead to an instable magnetic ordering and therefore obtain a disordered local moment (spin-glass like) state.

  1. Velocity of excitations in ordered, disordered, and critical antiferromagnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sen, Arnab; Suwa, Hidemaro; Sandvik, Anders W.

    2015-11-01

    We test three different approaches, based on quantum Monte Carlo simulations, for computing the velocity c of triplet excitations in antiferromagnets. We consider the standard S =1 /2 one- and two-dimensional Heisenberg models, as well as a bilayer Heisenberg model at its critical point. Computing correlation functions in imaginary time and using their long-time behavior, we extract the lowest excitation energy versus momentum using improved fitting procedures and a generalized moment method. The velocity is then obtained from the dispersion relation. We also exploit winding numbers to define a cubic space-time geometry, where the velocity is obtained as the ratio of the spatial and temporal lengths of the system when all winding number fluctuations are equal. The two methods give consistent results for both ordered and critical systems, but the winding number estimator is more precise. For the Heisenberg chain, we accurately reproduce the exactly known velocity. For the two-dimensional Heisenberg model, our results are consistent with other recent calculations, but with an improved statistical precision, c =1.65847 (4 ) . We also use the hydrodynamic relation c2=ρs/χ⊥(q →0 ) between c , the spin stiffness ρs, and the transversal susceptibility χ⊥, using the smallest non-zero momentum q =2 π /L . This method also is well controlled in two dimensions, but the cubic criterion for winding numbers delivers better numerical precision. In one dimension, the hydrodynamic relation is affected by logarithmic corrections which make accurate extrapolations difficult. As an application of the winding number method, for the quantum-critical bilayer model our high-precision determination of the velocity enables us to quantitatively test, at an unprecedented level, the field-theoretic low-temperature scaling forms χ =(a /c2)T and C =(b /c2) T2 . We find agreement to within 3 % with the leading 1 /N results for the factors a and b in the O (N ) model, but the agreement

  2. Relaxation of antiferromagnetic order in spin-1/2 chains following a quantum quench.

    PubMed

    Barmettler, Peter; Punk, Matthias; Gritsev, Vladimir; Demler, Eugene; Altman, Ehud

    2009-04-03

    We study the unitary time evolution of antiferromagnetic order in anisotropic Heisenberg chains that are initially prepared in a pure quantum state far from equilibrium. Our analysis indicates that the antiferromagnetic order imprinted in the initial state vanishes exponentially. Depending on the anisotropy parameter, oscillatory or nonoscillatory relaxation dynamics is observed. Furthermore, the corresponding relaxation time exhibits a minimum at the critical point, in contrast to the usual notion of critical slowing down, from which a maximum is expected.

  3. Antiferromagnetic S=1/2 Spin Chain Driven by p-Orbital Ordering in CsO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riyadi, Syarif; Zhang, Baomin; de Groot, Robert A.; Caretta, Antonio; van Loosdrecht, Paul H. M.; Palstra, Thomas T. M.; Blake, Graeme R.

    2012-05-01

    We demonstrate, using a combination of experiment and density functional theory, that orbital ordering drives the formation of a one-dimensional (1D) S=1/2 antiferromagnetic spin chain in the 3D rocksalt structure of cesium superoxide (CsO2). The magnetic superoxide anion (O2-) exhibits degeneracy of its 2p-derived molecular orbitals, which is lifted by a structural distortion on cooling. A spin chain is then formed by zigzag ordering of the half-filled superoxide orbitals, promoting a superexchange pathway mediated by the pz orbitals of Cs+ along only one crystal direction. This scenario is analogous to the 3d-orbital-driven spin chain found in the perovskite KCuF3 and is the first example of an inorganic quantum spin system with unpaired p electrons.

  4. Crystal, magnetic and electronic structures of 3d-5d ordered double perovskite Ba2CoReO6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musa Saad H.-E., M.; Rammeh, N.

    2016-12-01

    A comprehensive study on crystal, magnetic and electronic structures of ordered double perovskite Ba2CoReO6 was carried out using X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID). Also, the density functional theory (DFT) calculations were performed by full potential linear muffin-tin orbital (FP-LMTO) method within the localized spin density approximation (LSDA+U) and generalized gradient approximation (GGA+U). At room temperature, the crystal structure of Ba2CoReO6 is face-centered cubic, space group Fm 3 bar m , containing an almost completely ordered arrangement of CoO6-ReO6 octahedra. Magnetic structure showed an antiferromagnetic (AF) behavior below TN=41 K. The magnetic and electronic structures are consistent with the electronic configurations Co2+(3d7)-Re6+(5d1) having a total spin magnetic moment of about 2.0 μB/f.u. DFT electronic structures predicted half-metallic yields from 3d-t2g↓ and 5d-t2g↓ through O2-.

  5. Resonant soft x-ray magnetic scattering from the 4f and 3d electrons in DyFe{sub 4}Al{sub 8}: Magnetic interactions in a cycloidal antiferromagnet

    SciTech Connect

    Beale, T. A. W.; Hatton, P. D.; Wilkins, S. B.; Abbamonte, P.; Stanescu, S.; Paixao, J. A.

    2007-05-01

    Soft x-ray resonant scattering has been used to examine the charge and magnetic interactions in the cycloidal antiferromagnetic compound DyFe{sub 4}Al{sub 8}. By tuning to the Dy M{sub 4} and M{sub 5} absorption edges and the Fe L{sub 2} and L{sub 3} absorption edges, we can directly observe the behavior of the Dy 4f and Fe 3d electron shells. Magnetic satellites surrounding the (110) Bragg peak were observed below 65 K. The diffraction peaks display complex spectra at the Dy M{sub 5} edge, indicative of a split 4f electron band. This is in contrast to the simple resonance observed at the Fe L{sub 3} absorption edge, which probes the Fe 3d electron shell. Temperature-dependent measurements detail the ordering of the magnetic moments on both the iron and the dysprosium antiferromagnetic cycloids. The ratio between the superlattice peak intensities of the Dy M{sub 4} and M{sub 5} absorption edges remained constant throughout the temperature range, in contrast to a previous study conducted at the Dy L{sub 2,3} edges. Our results demonstrate the ability of soft x-ray diffraction to separate the individual magnetic components in complicated multielement magnetic structures.

  6. Pressure Induced Stripe-Order Antiferromagnetism and First-Order Phase Transition in Fese

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, P. S.; Sun, S. S.; Cui, Y.; Song, W. H.; Li, T. R.; Yu, Rong; Lei, Hechang; Yu, Weiqiang

    2016-12-01

    To elucidate the magnetic structure and the origin of the nematicity in FeSe, we perform a high-pressure 77Se NMR study on FeSe single crystals. We find a suppression of the structural transition temperature with pressure up to about 2 GPa from the anisotropy of the Knight shift. Above 2 GPa, a stripe-order antiferromagnetism that breaks the spatial fourfold rotational symmetry is determined by the NMR spectra under different field orientations and with temperatures down to 50 mK. The magnetic phase transition is revealed to be first-order type, implying the existence of a concomitant structural transition via a spin-lattice coupling. Stripe-type spin fluctuations are observed at high temperatures, and remain strong with pressure. These results provide clear evidence for strong coupling between nematicity and magnetism in FeSe, and therefore support a universal scenario of magnetic driven nematicity in iron-based superconductors.

  7. A symmetric, triply interlaced 3-D anionic MOF that exhibits both magnetic order and SMM behaviour.

    PubMed

    Campo, J; Falvello, L R; Forcén-Vázquez, E; Sáenz de Pipaón, C; Palacio, F; Tomás, M

    2016-11-14

    A newly prepared 3-D polymer of cobalt citrate cubanes bridged by high-spin Co(ii) centres displays both single-molecule magnet (SMM) behaviour and magnetic ordering. Triple interpenetration of the 3-D diamondoid polymers yields a crystalline solid with channels that host cations and free water molecules, with the SMM behaviour of the Co4O4 cores preserved. The octahedrally coordinated Co(ii) bridges are implicated in the onset of magnetic order at an experimentally accessible temperature.

  8. The magnetic order of two-dimensional anisotropic antiferromagnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Ai-Yuan; Wang, Qin

    2011-01-01

    We study the two-dimensional quantum Heisenberg antiferromagnet on the square lattice with easy-axis exchange anisotropy by means of Green's function approach within random phase and Callen's approximations. The Néel temperature TN, energy gap w0 and staggered magnetization m are calculated. The theoretical predictions of TN and w0 for K2NiF4, Rb2MnF4, K2MnF4, Rb2MnCl4 and (CH3NH3)2MnCl4 fit well to the measured values. The power law behavior of w(T)/w(0)=β[ is also investigated. The exponents β and ν for K2NiF4 are in excellent agreement with the experimental results.

  9. Detection of antiferromagnetic order by cooling atoms in an optical lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Tsung-Lin; Teles, Rafael; Hazzard, Kaden; Hulet, Randall; Rice University Collaboration

    2016-05-01

    We have realized the Fermi-Hubbard model with fermionic 6 Li atoms in a three-dimensional compensated optical lattice. The compensated optical lattice has provided low enough temperatures to produce short-range antiferromagnetic (AF) spin correlations, which we detect via Bragg scattering of light. Previously, we reached temperatures down to 1.4 times that of the AFM phase transition, more than a factor of 2 below temperatures obtained previously in 3D optical lattices with fermions. In order to further reduce the entropy in the compensated lattice, we implement an entropy conduit - which is a single blue detuned laser beam with a waist size smaller than the overall atomic sample size. This repulsive narrow potential provides a conductive metallic path between the low entropy core and the edges of the atomic sample where atoms may be evaporated. In addition, the entropy conduit may store entropy, thus further lowering the entropy in the core. We will report on the status of these efforts to further cool atoms in the optical lattice. Work supported by ARO MURI Grant, NSF and The Welch Foundation.

  10. Antiferromagnetic spintronics.

    PubMed

    Jungwirth, T; Marti, X; Wadley, P; Wunderlich, J

    2016-03-01

    Antiferromagnetic materials are internally magnetic, but the direction of their ordered microscopic moments alternates between individual atomic sites. The resulting zero net magnetic moment makes magnetism in antiferromagnets externally invisible. This implies that information stored in antiferromagnetic moments would be invisible to common magnetic probes, insensitive to disturbing magnetic fields, and the antiferromagnetic element would not magnetically affect its neighbours, regardless of how densely the elements are arranged in the device. The intrinsic high frequencies of antiferromagnetic dynamics represent another property that makes antiferromagnets distinct from ferromagnets. Among the outstanding questions is how to manipulate and detect the magnetic state of an antiferromagnet efficiently. In this Review we focus on recent works that have addressed this question. The field of antiferromagnetic spintronics can also be viewed from the general perspectives of spin transport, magnetic textures and dynamics, and materials research. We briefly mention this broader context, together with an outlook of future research and applications of antiferromagnetic spintronics.

  11. Probing spin ordering in iron-platinum based antiferromagnetic films using neutron diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mani, Prakash

    The antiferromagnetic properties of chemically ordered and epitaxial films of FexPt100-x grown on MgO(111) & MgO(100) and Fe50Pt50- xRhx grown on MgO(100) have been studied with neutron diffraction. Epitaxial films of FexPt 100-x (x = 25, 30) have two kinds of antiferromagnetic ordering. The Neel temperature of spin wave vector QA = (1/2 1/2 0) is T N = 160 K and QB = (1/2 0 0) is TN = 100 K, respectively. Neutron diffraction is used to determine the phase diagram of the antiferromagnetic ordering as a function of composition and temperature. The nature of antiferromagnetic ordering was found to be strongly related to the lattice strain present in the system. Lattice-matched antiferromagnetic/ferromagnetic films offer an ideal layered system to study exchange bias. The loop shifts in FePt3(AF)/CoPt 3(F) multilayers are correlated with rocking curve peak widths, and it has been shown that films with a narrower full-width-half-maximum have a smaller exchange bias. Neutron reflectivity is also applied to CoPt 3/FePt3 multilayers in order to probe layer-specific magnetizations owing to the significant difference in neutron scattering length density between Fe and Co. Fe50Pt50-xRh x (x˜10) exhibits a temperature dependent antiferromagnetic-ferromagnetic-paramagnetic triple point near 400 K. The temperature and composition dependent spin structure of Fe50Pt 50-xRhx alloy films grown on MgO(100) have been determined for the first time with neutron diffraction. Three types of antiferromagnetic orderings were observed: (0 0 1/2), (1/2 1/2 1/2), and (1/2 1/2 3/2). Future studies have been planned to explore a magnetic field induced antiferromagnetic to ferromagnetic transition in Fe50Pt50-xRh x alloy films.

  12. Superconductivity in the vicinity of antiferromagnetic order in CrAs.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wei; Cheng, Jinguang; Matsubayashi, Kazuyuki; Kong, Panpan; Lin, Fukun; Jin, Changqing; Wang, Nanlin; Uwatoko, Yoshiya; Luo, Jianlin

    2014-11-19

    One of the common features of unconventional superconducting systems such as the heavy-fermion, high transition-temperature cuprate and iron-pnictide superconductors is that the superconductivity emerges in the vicinity of long-range antiferromagnetically ordered state. In addition to doping charge carriers, the application of external pressure is an effective and clean approach to induce unconventional superconductivity near a magnetic quantum critical point. Here we report on the discovery of superconductivity on the verge of antiferromagnetic order in CrAs via the application of external pressure. Bulk superconductivity with Tc≈2 K emerges at the critical pressure Pc≈8 kbar, where the first-order antiferromagnetic transition at T(N)≈265 K under ambient pressure is completely suppressed. The close proximity of superconductivity to an antiferromagnetic order suggests an unconventional pairing mechanism for CrAs. The present finding opens a new avenue for searching novel superconductors in the Cr and other transition metal-based systems.

  13. Proof-of-Concept: Assembling Carbon Nanocrystals for Ordered 3D Network

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-13

    for 3D ordering carbon nanotube networks. In this project, a ultra-thin poly( methyl methacrylate ) (PMMA) was coated to ~50nm graphene film. At the...mechanical performance. Subsequently, the filtered graphene film was immersed into acetone to etch the filter membrane, and the resultant freestanding

  14. Development of Unsteady Aerodynamic and Aeroelastic Reduced-Order Models Using the FUN3D Code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silva, Walter A.; Vatsa, Veer N.; Biedron, Robert T.

    2009-01-01

    Recent significant improvements to the development of CFD-based unsteady aerodynamic reduced-order models (ROMs) are implemented into the FUN3D unstructured flow solver. These improvements include the simultaneous excitation of the structural modes of the CFD-based unsteady aerodynamic system via a single CFD solution, minimization of the error between the full CFD and the ROM unsteady aero- dynamic solution, and computation of a root locus plot of the aeroelastic ROM. Results are presented for a viscous version of the two-dimensional Benchmark Active Controls Technology (BACT) model and an inviscid version of the AGARD 445.6 aeroelastic wing using the FUN3D code.

  15. Synthesis on structure and properties of zinc nanocrystal in high ordered 3D nanostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Sathyaseelan, B.; Manigandan, A.; Anbarasu, V.; Sivakumar, K.

    2015-06-24

    The wet impregnation method was employed to prepare ZnO encapsulated in mesoporous silica (ZnO/KIT-6). The prepared ZnO/KIT-6 samples have been studied by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscope, and nitrogen adsorption–desorption isotherm. The low angle powder XRD patterns of Calcined ZnO/KIT-6 materials showed a phase that can be indexed to cubic Ia3d. Tem images revealed well ordered cubic 3D nanoporous chennels. The ZnO encapsulated in KIT-6 can be used as light-emitting diodes and ultraviolet nanolasers.

  16. Synthesis on structure and properties of zinc nanocrystal in high ordered 3D nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sathyaseelan, B.; Manigandan, A.; Anbarasu, V.; Sivakumar, K.

    2015-06-01

    The wet impregnation method was employed to prepare ZnO encapsulated in mesoporous silica (ZnO/KIT-6). The prepared ZnO/KIT-6 samples have been studied by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscope, and nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherm. The low angle powder XRD patterns of Calcined ZnO/KIT-6 materials showed a phase that can be indexed to cubic Ia3d. Tem images revealed well ordered cubic 3D nanoporous chennels. The ZnO encapsulated in KIT-6 can be used as light-emitting diodes and ultraviolet nanolasers.

  17. Transition from the Z2 spin liquid to antiferromagnetic order: Spectrum on the torus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitsitt, Seth; Sachdev, Subir

    2016-08-01

    We describe the finite-size spectrum in the vicinity of the quantum critical point between a Z2 spin liquid and a coplanar antiferromagnet on the torus. We obtain the universal evolution of all low-lying states in an antiferromagnet with global SU(2) spin rotation symmetry, as it moves from the fourfold topological degeneracy in a gapped Z2 spin liquid to the Anderson "tower-of-states" in the ordered antiferromagnet. Due to the existence of nontrivial order on either side of this transition, this critical point cannot be described in a conventional Landau-Ginzburg-Wilson framework. Instead, it is described by a theory involving fractionalized degrees of freedom known as the O (4) * model, whose spectrum is altered in a significant way by its proximity to a topologically ordered phase. We compute the spectrum by relating it to the spectrum of the O (4 ) Wilson-Fisher fixed point on the torus, modified with a selection rule on the states, and with nontrivial boundary conditions corresponding to topological sectors in the spin liquid. The spectrum of the critical O (2 N ) model is calculated directly at N =∞ , which then allows a reconstruction of the full spectrum of the O (2N ) * model at leading order in 1 /N . This spectrum is a unique characteristic of the vicinity of a fractionalized quantum critical point, as well as a universal signature of the existence of proximate Z2 topological and antiferromagnetically ordered phases, and can be compared with numerical computations on quantum antiferromagnets on two-dimensional lattices.

  18. Pressure-tuned spin and charge ordering in an itinerant antiferromagnet.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yejun; Jaramillo, R; Srajer, G; Lang, J C; Islam, Z; Somayazulu, M S; Shpyrko, O G; Pluth, J J; Mao, H-K; Isaacs, E D; Aeppli, G; Rosenbaum, T F

    2007-09-28

    Elemental chromium orders antiferromagnetically near room temperature, but the ordering temperature can be driven to zero by applying large pressures. We combine diamond anvil cell and synchrotron x-ray diffraction techniques to measure directly the spin and charge order in the pure metal at the approach to its quantum critical point. Both spin and charge order are suppressed exponentially with pressure, well beyond the region where disorder cuts off such a simple evolution, and they maintain a harmonic scaling relationship over decades in scattering intensity. By comparing the development of the order parameter with that of the magnetic wave vector, it is possible to ascribe the destruction of antiferromagnetism to the growth in electron kinetic energy relative to the underlying magnetic exchange interaction.

  19. 3D Ordered Mesoporous Bifunctional Oxygen Catalyst for Electrically Rechargeable Zinc-Air Batteries.

    PubMed

    Park, Moon Gyu; Lee, Dong Un; Seo, Min Ho; Cano, Zachary Paul; Chen, Zhongwei

    2016-05-01

    To enhance energy efficiency and durability, a highly active and durable 3D ordered mesoporous cobalt oxide framework has been developed for rechargeable zinc-air batteries. The bifunctional air electrode consisting of 3DOM Co3 O4 having high active surface area and robust structure, results in superior charge and discharge battery voltages, and durable performance for electrically rechargeable zinc-air batteries.

  20. Determining the chronological order of crossing lines using 3D imaging techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heikkinen, V.; Barbeau, C.; Kassamakov, I.; Lehto, S.; Reinikainen, T.; Aaltonen, J.; Hæggström, E.

    2010-10-01

    The chronological order of creation of crossing lines scratched into a copper surface was determined using 3D profiles measured with SWLI and CM. As the methods used are based only on the deformations of the surface and since the imaging techniques can be used for different materials, the proposed methods are potentially effective also on other materials. Determining the chronological order of orthogonally crossing lines is studied in forensic science. The order of creation of such lines allows in some cases determination of the history of an object without comparing it to other objects.. Methods based on two dimensional (2D) imaging have been used for this task, but such methods are ineffective if the lines are made with a similar tool. We apply Scanning White Light Interferometry (SWLI) and Confocal Microscopy (CM) to study crossing lines on a copper surface scratched with a scratching device. Both SWLI and CM quantitatively measure the 3D surface profiles with sufficient accuracy for forensic applications. 3D image processing allows removing unimportant features, such as surface form and roughness, as well as measurement noise from the measured profiles. Separating inherent features in the crossing area, from other surface characteristics allows one to determine the sequence of creation of the lines even on a rough and wavy surface.

  1. Orbital driven impurity spin effect on the magnetic order of quasi-3D cupric oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganga, B. G.; Santhosh, P. N.; Nanda, B. R. K.

    2017-04-01

    Density functional calculations are performed to study the magnetic order of the severely distorted square planar cupric oxide (CuO) and local spin disorder in it in the presence of the transition metal impurities M (=Cr, Mn, Fe, Co and Ni). The distortion in the crystal structure, arisen to reduce the band energy by minimizing the covalent interaction, creates two crisscrossing zigzag spin-1/2 chains. From the spin dimer analysis we find that while the spin chain along ≤ft[1 0 \\bar{1}\\right] has strong Heisenberg type antiferromagnetic coupling (J ~ 127 meV), along ≤ft[1 0 1\\right] it exhibits weak, but robust, ferromagnetic coupling (J ~ 9 meV) mediated by reminiscent p-d covalent interactions. The impurity effect on the magnetic ordering is independent of M and purely orbital driven. If the given spin-state of M is such that the {{d}{{x2}-{{y}2}}} orbital is spin-polarized, then the original long-range ordering is maintained. However, if {{d}{{x2}-{{y}2}}} orbital is unoccupied, the absence of corresponding covalent interaction breaks the weak ferromagnetic coupling and a spin-flip takes place at the impurity site leading to breakdown of the long range magnetic ordering.

  2. Orbital driven impurity spin effect on the magnetic order of quasi-3D cupric oxide.

    PubMed

    Ganga, B G; Santhosh, P N; Nanda, B R K

    2017-04-20

    Density functional calculations are performed to study the magnetic order of the severely distorted square planar cupric oxide (CuO) and local spin disorder in it in the presence of the transition metal impurities M (=Cr, Mn, Fe, Co and Ni). The distortion in the crystal structure, arisen to reduce the band energy by minimizing the covalent interaction, creates two crisscrossing zigzag spin-1/2 chains. From the spin dimer analysis we find that while the spin chain along [Formula: see text] has strong Heisenberg type antiferromagnetic coupling (J ~ 127 meV), along [Formula: see text] it exhibits weak, but robust, ferromagnetic coupling (J ~ 9 meV) mediated by reminiscent p-d covalent interactions. The impurity effect on the magnetic ordering is independent of M and purely orbital driven. If the given spin-state of M is such that the [Formula: see text] orbital is spin-polarized, then the original long-range ordering is maintained. However, if [Formula: see text] orbital is unoccupied, the absence of corresponding covalent interaction breaks the weak ferromagnetic coupling and a spin-flip takes place at the impurity site leading to breakdown of the long range magnetic ordering.

  3. Antiferromagnetic order in the Cd6R (R = rare earth) quasicrystal approximants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldman, Alan; Kim, Min Gyu; Beutier, Guillaume; Kreyssig, Andreas; Hiroto, Takanobu; Yamada, Tsunetomo; Kim, Jong Woo; de Boissieu, Marc; Tamura, Ryuji

    2013-03-01

    Many theoretical treatments of spins on aperiodic lattices support the notion of long-range antiferromagnetic order. However, to date, there has been no experimental confirmation of long-range magnetic order in quasicrystalline systems. The absence of long-range magnetic order extends to crystalline approximant phases of the icosahedral structures as well. Surprisingly, the 1/1 approximant to the Cd-Mg-R icosahedral phases, Cd6 R , appears to be an exception to the rule. Here, we report on the results of x-ray resonant magnetic scattering measurements on Cd6 R approximants which show that long range antiferromagnetic order is, indeed, realized. For R = Tb and Ho, viewing the structure as a body-centered cubic packing of Tsai clusters, we find that the R ions associated with the icosahedral cluster at the corner of the unit cell are antiferromagnetically correlated with the R ions associated with the icosahedral cluster at the body-center of the unit cell. Work at the Ames Laboratory was supported by the Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, US Department of Energy. Work at the Tokyo University of Science was supported by KAKENHI (Grant No. 20045017)

  4. GISAXS analysis of 3D nanoparticle assemblies--effect of vertical nanoparticle ordering.

    PubMed

    Vegso, K; Siffalovic, P; Benkovicova, M; Jergel, M; Luby, S; Majkova, E; Capek, I; Kocsis, T; Perlich, J; Roth, S V

    2012-02-03

    We report on grazing-incidence small-angle x-ray scattering (GISAXS) study of 3D nanoparticle arrays prepared by two different methods from colloidal solutions-layer-by-layer Langmuir-Schaefer deposition and spontaneous self-assembling during the solvent evaporation. GISAXS results are evaluated within the distorted wave Born approximation (DWBA) considering the multiple scattering effects and employing a simplified multilayer model to reduce the computing time. In the model, particular layers are represented by nanoparticle chains where the positions of individual nanoparticles are generated following a model of cumulative disorder. The nanoparticle size dispersion is considered as well. Three model cases are distinguished-no shift between the neighboring chains (AA stacking), a shift equal to half of the mean interparticle distance (AB stacking) and random shift between the chains. The first two cases correspond to vertically correlated nanoparticle positions across different chains. A comparison of the experimental GISAXS patterns with the model cases enabled us to distinguish important differences between the 3D arrays prepared by the two methods. In particular, laterally ordered layers without vertical correlation of the nanoparticle positions were found in the nanoparticle multilayers prepared by the Langmuir-Schaefer method. On the other hand, the solvent evaporation under particular conditions produced highly ordered 3D nanoparticle assemblies where both laterally and vertically correlated nanoparticle positions were found.

  5. Probing the antiferromagnetic long-range order with Glauber spin states

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cabrera, Guillermo G.

    1994-01-01

    It is well known that the ground state of low-dimensional antiferromagnets deviates from Neel states due to strong quantum fluctuations. Even in the presence of long-range order, those fluctuations produce a substantial reduction of the magnetic moment from its saturation value. Numerical simulations in anisotropic antiferromagnetic chains suggest that quantum fluctuations over Neel order appear in the form of localized reversal of pairs of neighboring spins. In this paper, we propose a coherent state representation for the ground state to describe the above situation. In the one-dimensional case, our wave function corresponds to a two-mode Glauber state, when the Neel state is used as a reference, while the boson fields are associated to coherent flip of spin pairs. The coherence manifests itself through the antiferromagnetic long-range order that survives the action of quantum fluctuations. The present representation is different from the standard zero-point spin wave state, and is asymptotically exact in the limit of strong anisotropy. The fermionic version of the theory, obtained through the Jordan-Wigner transformation, is also investigated.

  6. Antiferromagnetic order induced by gadolinium substitution in Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} single crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, S. W.; Jung, M. H.; Vrtnik, S.; Dolinšek, J.

    2015-06-22

    Magnetic topological insulators can serve as a fundamental platform for various spin-based device applications. We report the antiferromagnetic order induced by the magnetic impurity dopants of Gd in Gd{sub x}Bi{sub 2−x}Se{sub 3} and the systematic results with varying the Gd concentration x ( = 0.14, 0.20, 0.30, and 0.40). The antiferromagnetic order is demonstrated by the magnetic susceptibility, electrical resistivity, and specific heat measurements. The anomaly observed at T{sub N} = 6 K for x ≥ 0.30 shifts towards lower temperature with increasing the magnetic field, indicative of antiferromagnetic ground state. The Gd substitution into Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} enables not only tuning the magnetism from paramagnetic to antiferromagnetic for high x (≥ 0.30) but also giving a promising candidate for antiferromagnetic topological insulators.

  7. Second order superintegrable systems in conformally flat spaces. IV. The classical 3D Staeckel transform and 3D classification theory

    SciTech Connect

    Kalnins, E.G.; Kress, J.M.; Miller, W. Jr.

    2006-04-15

    This article is one of a series that lays the groundwork for a structure and classification theory of second order superintegrable systems, both classical and quantum, in conformally flat spaces. In the first part of the article we study the Staeckel transform (or coupling constant metamorphosis) as an invertible mapping between classical superintegrable systems on different three-dimensional spaces. We show first that all superintegrable systems with nondegenerate potentials are multiseparable and then that each such system on any conformally flat space is Staeckel equivalent to a system on a constant curvature space. In the second part of the article we classify all the superintegrable systems that admit separation in generic coordinates. We find that there are eight families of these systems.

  8. Long-Range Antiferromagnetic Ordering in B-Site Ordered Double Perovskite Ca2ScOsO6.

    PubMed

    Russell, David D; Neer, Abbey J; Melot, Brent C; Derakhshan, Shahab

    2016-03-07

    A new Os-based B-site ordered double perovskite with the chemical composition of Ca2ScOsO6 was successfully synthesized. The crystal structure of the title compound was determined by employing the powder X-ray diffraction method and was found to crystallize in the monoclinic P21/n space group with the cell constants of a = 5.4716(1) Å, b = 5.6165(1) Å, c = 7.8168 (1) Å, and β = 89.889 (2)°. The temperature-dependent magnetic susceptibility data suggest that this novel S = (3)/2 compound undergoes an antiferromagnetic transition at ∼ 69 K. Fitting the high-temperature susceptibility data (100-300 K) to Currie-Weisse behavior showed C = 1.734 emu·K/mol (μeff = 3.72 bohr magnetons) and θ = -341 K, which is indicative of dominant antiferromagnetic interactions. Temperature-dependent specific heat measurements exhibit a λ shape anomaly at 69 K, which is consistent with a long-range ordering of the spins. Because of a triangular arrangement of antiferromagnetically ordered magnetic ions, the system exhibits some degree of geometric magnetic frustration (GMF), but not strongly. Spin-dimer analysis, employing extended Hückel theory, reveals that a dominant exchange interaction exists (along the a crystallographic axis in perovskite layer), which violates the perfect condition for GMF.

  9. Higher Order Finite Element Methods for Compositional Simulation in 3D Multiphase Multicomponent Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahraeeni, E.; Firoozabadi, A.

    2012-12-01

    We present a 3D model for fully compositional multi-phase multi-component flow in porous media with species transfer between the phases. Phase properties are modeled with the Peng-Robinson equation of state. Because phase properties may exhibit strong discontinuities, we approximate the mass transport update by the means of discontinuous Galerkin method. Pressure and velocity fields are continuous across the whole domain of solution, which is guaranteed by using the mixed hybrid finite element method. Complexity of the flow necessitates the use of either very fine mesh or higher-order schemes. The use of higher-order finite element methods significantly reduces numerical dispersion and grid orientation effects that plague traditional finite difference methods. We have shown that in 3D the convergence rate of our scheme is twice as first order method and the CPU time may improve up to three orders of magnitude for the same level of accuracy. Our numerical model facilitates accurate simulation of delicate feature of compositional flow like fingering and CO2 injection in complex reservoirs for a broad range of applications, including CO2 sequestration in finite aquifer and water flooded reservoirs with transfer of all species between the phases.

  10. Spin-Lattice-Coupled Order in Heisenberg Antiferromagnets on the Pyrochlore Lattice.

    PubMed

    Aoyama, Kazushi; Kawamura, Hikaru

    2016-06-24

    Effects of local lattice distortions on the spin ordering are investigated for the antiferromagnetic classical Heisenberg model on the pyrochlore lattice. It is found by Monte Carlo simulations that the spin-lattice coupling (SLC) originating from site phonons induces a first-order transition into two different types of collinear magnetic ordered states. The state realized at the stronger SLC is cubic symmetric characterized by the magnetic (1/2,1/2,1/2) Bragg peaks, while that at the weaker SLC is tetragonal symmetric characterized by the (1,1,0) ones, each accompanied by the commensurate local lattice distortions. Experimental implications to chromium spinels are discussed.

  11. Spin-Lattice-Coupled Order in Heisenberg Antiferromagnets on the Pyrochlore Lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoyama, Kazushi; Kawamura, Hikaru

    2016-06-01

    Effects of local lattice distortions on the spin ordering are investigated for the antiferromagnetic classical Heisenberg model on the pyrochlore lattice. It is found by Monte Carlo simulations that the spin-lattice coupling (SLC) originating from site phonons induces a first-order transition into two different types of collinear magnetic ordered states. The state realized at the stronger SLC is cubic symmetric characterized by the magnetic (1/2 ,1/2 ,1/2 ) Bragg peaks, while that at the weaker SLC is tetragonal symmetric characterized by the (1,1,0) ones, each accompanied by the commensurate local lattice distortions. Experimental implications to chromium spinels are discussed.

  12. Higher-Order Neural Networks Applied to 2D and 3D Object Recognition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spirkovska, Lilly; Reid, Max B.

    1994-01-01

    A Higher-Order Neural Network (HONN) can be designed to be invariant to geometric transformations such as scale, translation, and in-plane rotation. Invariances are built directly into the architecture of a HONN and do not need to be learned. Thus, for 2D object recognition, the network needs to be trained on just one view of each object class, not numerous scaled, translated, and rotated views. Because the 2D object recognition task is a component of the 3D object recognition task, built-in 2D invariance also decreases the size of the training set required for 3D object recognition. We present results for 2D object recognition both in simulation and within a robotic vision experiment and for 3D object recognition in simulation. We also compare our method to other approaches and show that HONNs have distinct advantages for position, scale, and rotation-invariant object recognition. The major drawback of HONNs is that the size of the input field is limited due to the memory required for the large number of interconnections in a fully connected network. We present partial connectivity strategies and a coarse-coding technique for overcoming this limitation and increasing the input field to that required by practical object recognition problems.

  13. Antiferromagnetic ordering in magnetic ionic liquid Emim[FeCl 4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Pedro, I.; Rojas, D. P.; Blanco, Jesús A.; Fernández, J. Rodríguez

    2011-05-01

    The magnetic ionic liquids (MILs) are considered to open up a wide range of applications because of their magnetic and electrochromic switching. Until recently almost all magnetic ionic liquids containing tetrachloroferrate ion FeCl 4- evidenced a paramagnetic temperature dependence of the magnetic susceptibility, with only small deviations from the Curie law at low temperatures. However, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrachloroferrate, Emim[FeCl 4], clearly exhibits a long-range antiferromagnetic ordering below the Neel temperature TN≈3.8 K. In addition, the shape of the magnetic ordering depends on the cooling speed, indicating that the magnetic coupling could be modified.

  14. Quantum selection of order in an XXZ antiferromagnet on a Kagome lattice.

    PubMed

    Chernyshev, A L; Zhitomirsky, M E

    2014-12-05

    Selection of the ground state of the kagome-lattice XXZ antiferromagnet by quantum fluctuations is investigated by combining nonlinear spin-wave and real-space perturbation theories. The two methods unanimously favor q=0 over sqrt[3]×sqrt[3] magnetic order in a wide range of the anisotropy parameter 0≤Δ≲0.72. Both approaches are also in accord on the magnitude of the quantum order-by-disorder effect generated by topologically nontrivial, looplike spin-flip processes. A tentative S-Δ phase diagram of the model is proposed.

  15. 3D Higher Order Modeling in the BEM/FEM Hybrid Formulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fink, P. W.; Wilton, D. R.

    2000-01-01

    Higher order divergence- and curl-conforming bases have been shown to provide significant benefits, in both convergence rate and accuracy, in the 2D hybrid finite element/boundary element formulation (P. Fink and D. Wilton, National Radio Science Meeting, Boulder, CO, Jan. 2000). A critical issue in achieving the potential for accuracy of the approach is the accurate evaluation of all matrix elements. These involve products of high order polynomials and, in some instances, singular Green's functions. In the 2D formulation, the use of a generalized Gaussian quadrature method was found to greatly facilitate the computation and to improve the accuracy of the boundary integral equation self-terms. In this paper, a 3D, hybrid electric field formulation employing higher order bases and higher order elements is presented. The improvements in convergence rate and accuracy, compared to those resulting from lower order modeling, are established. Techniques developed to facilitate the computation of the boundary integral self-terms are also shown to improve the accuracy of these terms. Finally, simple preconditioning techniques are used in conjunction with iterative solution procedures to solve the resulting linear system efficiently. In order to handle the boundary integral singularities in the 3D formulation, the parent element- either a triangle or rectangle-is subdivided into a set of sub-triangles with a common vertex at the singularity. The contribution to the integral from each of the sub-triangles is computed using the Duffy transformation to remove the singularity. This method is shown to greatly facilitate t'pe self-term computation when the bases are of higher order. In addition, the sub-triangles can be further divided to achieve near arbitrary accuracy in the self-term computation. An efficient method for subdividing the parent element is presented. The accuracy obtained using higher order bases is compared to that obtained using lower order bases when the number

  16. Denoising of 3D magnetic resonance images by using higher-order singular value decomposition.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xinyuan; Xu, Zhongbiao; Jia, Nan; Yang, Wei; Feng, Qianjin; Chen, Wufan; Feng, Yanqiu

    2015-01-01

    The denoising of magnetic resonance (MR) images is important to improve the inspection quality and reliability of quantitative image analysis. Nonlocal filters by exploiting similarity and/or sparseness among patches or cubes achieve excellent performance in denoising MR images. Recently, higher-order singular value decomposition (HOSVD) has been demonstrated to be a simple and effective method for exploiting redundancy in the 3D stack of similar patches during denoising 2D natural image. This work aims to investigate the application and improvement of HOSVD to denoising MR volume data. The wiener-augmented HOSVD method achieves comparable performance to that of BM4D. For further improvement, we propose to augment the standard HOSVD stage by a second recursive stage, which is a repeated HOSVD filtering of the weighted summation of the residual and denoised image in the first stage. The appropriate weights have been investigated by experiments with different image types and noise levels. Experimental results over synthetic and real 3D MR data demonstrate that the proposed method outperforms current state-of-the-art denoising methods.

  17. Dipolar order by disorder in the classical Heisenberg antiferromagnet on the kagome lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chern, Gia-Wei

    2014-03-01

    The first experiments on the ``kagome bilayer'' SCGO triggered a wave of interest in kagome antiferromagnets in particular, and frustrated systems in general. A cluster of early seminal theoretical papers established kagome magnets as model systems for novel ordering phenomena, discussing in particular spin liquidity, partial order, disorder-free glassiness and order by disorder. Despite significant recent progress in understanding the ground state for the quantum S = 1 / 2 model, the nature of the low-temperature phase for the classical kagome Heisenberg antiferromagnet has remained a mystery: the non-linear nature of the fluctuations around the exponentially numerous harmonically degenerate ground states has not permitted a controlled theory, while its complex energy landscape has precluded numerical simulations at low temperature. Here we present an efficient Monte Carlo algorithm which removes the latter obstacle. Our simulations detect a low-temperature regime in which correlations saturate at a remarkably small value. Feeding these results into an effective model and analyzing the results in the framework of an appropriate field theory implies the presence of long-range dipolar spin order with a tripled unit cell.

  18. Interplay between charge density wave and antiferromagnetic order in GdNiC2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanasaki, N.; Shimomura, S.; Mikami, K.; Nogami, Y.; Nakao, H.; Onodera, H.

    2017-02-01

    The correlation between the charge density wave (CDW) and f local moments is observed in GdNiC2 by means of x-ray diffraction in a magnetic field. Various kinds of electronic states exist in the magnetic field. The intensity of the CDW peak changes in the successive transitions and the commensurate-incommensurate transition of the CDW takes place as well. The successive transitions are explained in terms of a cooperative effect of the Peierls instability and the spin Friedel oscillation, in which the antiferromagnetic order of the f local moments is coupled to the spin density wave coexisting with the CDW of the conduction electron.

  19. Spin Disorder and Order in Quasi-2D Triangular Heisenberg Antiferromagnets: Comparative Study of FeGa2S4, Fe2Ga2S5, and NiGa2S4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakatsuji, S.; Tonomura, H.; Onuma, K.; Nambu, Y.; Sakai, O.; Maeno, Y.; Macaluso, R. T.; Chan, Julia Y.

    2007-10-01

    Our single crystal study reveals that the single-layer S=2 triangular Heisenberg antiferromagnet FeGa2S4 forms a frozen spin-disordered state, similar to the S=1 isostructural magnet NiGa2S4. In this state, the magnetic specific heat CM is not only insensitive to the field, but shows a T2 dependence that scales to CM of NiGa2S4, suggesting the same underlying mechanism of the 2D coherent behavior. In contrast, the bilayer system Fe2Ga2S5 exhibits a 3D antiferromagnetic order.

  20. Resonant x-ray scattering in 3d-transition-metal oxides: Anisotropy and charge orderings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subías, G.; García, J.; Blasco, J.; Herrero-Martín, J.; Sánchez, M. C.

    2009-11-01

    The structural, magnetic and electronic properties of transition metal oxides reflect in atomic charge, spin and orbital degrees of freedom. Resonant x-ray scattering (RXS) allows us to perform an accurate investigation of all these electronic degrees. RXS combines high-Q resolution x-ray diffraction with the properties of the resonance providing information similar to that obtained by atomic spectroscopy (element selectivity and a large enhancement of scattering amplitude for this particular element and sensitivity to the symmetry of the electronic levels through the multipole electric transitions). Since electronic states are coupled to the local symmetry, RXS reveals the occurrence of symmetry breaking effects such as lattice distortions, onset of electronic orbital ordering or ordering of electronic charge distributions. We shall discuss the strength of RXS at the K absorption edge of 3d transition-metal oxides by describing various applications in the observation of local anisotropy and charge disproportionation. Examples of these resonant effects are (I) charge ordering transitions in manganites, Fe3O4 and ferrites and (II) forbidden reflections and anisotropy in Mn3+ perovskites, spinel ferrites and cobalt oxides. In all the studied cases, the electronic (charge and/or anisotropy) orderings are determined by the structural distortions.

  1. Effect of rare locally ordered regions on a disordered itinerant quantum antiferromagnet with cubic anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayanan, Rajesh; Vojta, Thomas

    2001-01-01

    We study the quantum phase transition of an itinerant antiferromagnet with cubic anisotropy in the presence of quenched disorder, paying particular attention to the locally ordered spatial regions that form in the Griffiths region. We derive an effective action where these rare regions are described in terms of static annealed disorder. A one-loop renormalization-group analysis of the effective action shows that for order-parameter dimensions p<4, the rare regions destroy the conventional critical behavior, and the renormalized disorder flows to infinity. For order-parameter dimensions p>4, the critical behavior is not influenced by the rare regions; it is described by the conventional dirty cubic fixed point. We also discuss the influence of the rare regions on the fluctuation-driven first-order transition in this system.

  2. 2D and 3D ordered arrays of Co magnetic nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, J.; Prida, V. M.; Vega, V.; Rosa, W. O.; Caballero-Flores, R.; Iglesias, L.; Hernando, B.

    2015-06-01

    Cobalt nanowire arrays spatially distributed in 2D and 3D arrangements have been performed by pulsed electrodeposition into the pores of planar and cylindrical nanoporous anodic alumina membranes, respectively. Morphological characterization points out the good filling factor reached by electroplated Co nanowires in both kinds of alumina membranes exhibiting hexagonally self-ordered porous structures. Co nanowires grown in both kinds of alumina templates exhibit the same crystalline phases. DC magnetometry and First Order Reversal Curve (FORC) analysis were carried out in order to determine the overall magnetic behavior for both nanowire array geometries. It is found that when the Co nanowires of two kinds of arrays are perpendicularly magnetized, both hysteresis loops are identical, suggesting that neither the intrinsic magnetic behavior of the nanowires nor the collective one depend on the arrays geometry. FORC analysis performed along the radial direction of the Co nanowire arrays embedded in the cylindrical alumina template reveals that the contribution of each nanowire to the magnetization reversal process involves its specific orientation with respect to the applied field direction. Furthermore, the comparison between the magnetic properties for both kinds of Co nanowire arrays allows discussing about the effect of the cylindrical geometry of the template on the magnetostatic interaction among nanowires.

  3. Antiferromagnetic order and the structural order-disorder transition in the Cd6Ho quasicrystal approximant

    SciTech Connect

    Kreyssig, Andreas; Beutier, Guillaume; Hiroto, Takanobu; Kim, Min Gyu; Tucker, Gregory S.; de Boissieu, Marc; Tamura, Ryuji; Goldman, Alan I.

    2014-09-22

    It has generally been accepted that the orientational ordering of the Cd4 tetrahedron within the Cd6 R quasicrystal approximants is kinetically inhibited for R = Ho, Er, Tm and Lu by steric constraints. Our high-resolution X-ray scattering measurements of the Cd6Ho quasicrystal approximant, however, reveal an abrupt (first-order) transition to a monoclinic structure below T S = 178 K for samples that have ‘aged’ at room temperature for approximately one year, reopening this question. Using X-ray resonant magnetic scattering at the Ho L 3-edge we have elucidated the nature of the antiferromagnetic ordering below T N = 8.5 K in Cd6Ho. The magnetic Bragg peaks are found at the charge forbidden H + K + L = 2n + 1 positions, referenced to the high-temperature body-centred cubic structure. In general terms, this corresponds to antiferromagnetic arrangements of the Ho moments on adjacent clusters in the unit cell as previously found for Cd6Tb.

  4. Coalescence-driven magnetic order of the uncompensated antiferromagnetic Co doped ZnO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ney, V.; Henne, B.; Lumetzberger, J.; Wilhelm, F.; Ollefs, K.; Rogalev, A.; Kovacs, A.; Kieschnick, M.; Ney, A.

    2016-12-01

    The evolution of the structural and magnetic properties of Co doped ZnO has been investigated over an unprecedented concentration range above the coalescence limit. ZnO films with Co concentrations from 20% to 60% of the cationic lattice have been grown by reactive magnetron sputtering. The wurtzite crystal structure was maintained even for these high dopant concentrations. By measuring the x-ray absorption at the near edge and the linear and circular dichroism of the films at the Zn and Co K edge, it could be shown that Co substitutes predominantly for Zn in the lattice. No indications of metallic Co have been found in the samples. At low Co concentrations, the films are paramagnetic, but with increasing Co content, the films become antiferromagnetically ordered with increasing order temperature. Uncompensated spins, coupled to the antiferromagnetic dopant configurations, lead to a vertical exchange-bias-like effect, which increases with increasing Co concentration. In parallel, the single-ion anisotropy is gradually lost.

  5. Second order Method for Solving 3D Elasticity Equations with Complex Interfaces

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Bao; Xia, Kelin; Wei, Guo-Wei

    2015-01-01

    Elastic materials are ubiquitous in nature and indispensable components in man-made devices and equipments. When a device or equipment involves composite or multiple elastic materials, elasticity interface problems come into play. The solution of three dimensional (3D) elasticity interface problems is significantly more difficult than that of elliptic counterparts due to the coupled vector components and cross derivatives in the governing elasticity equation. This work introduces the matched interface and boundary (MIB) method for solving 3D elasticity interface problems. The proposed MIB elasticity interface scheme utilizes fictitious values on irregular grid points near the material interface to replace function values in the discretization so that the elasticity equation can be discretized using the standard finite difference schemes as if there were no material interface. The interface jump conditions are rigorously enforced on the intersecting points between the interface and the mesh lines. Such an enforcement determines the fictitious values. A number of new techniques has been developed to construct efficient MIB elasticity interface schemes for dealing with cross derivative in coupled governing equations. The proposed method is extensively validated over both weak and strong discontinuity of the solution, both piecewise constant and position-dependent material parameters, both smooth and nonsmooth interface geometries, and both small and large contrasts in the Poisson’s ratio and shear modulus across the interface. Numerical experiments indicate that the present MIB method is of second order convergence in both L∞ and L2 error norms for handling arbitrarily complex interfaces, including biomolecular surfaces. To our best knowledge, this is the first elasticity interface method that is able to deliver the second convergence for the molecular surfaces of proteins.. PMID:25914422

  6. A fast hybrid (3-D/1-D) model for thermal radiative transfer in cirrus via successive orders of scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fauchez, Thomas; Davis, Anthony B.; Cornet, Céline; Szczap, Fredéric; Platnick, Steven; Dubuisson, Philippe; Thieuleux, François

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the impact of cirrus cloud heterogeneity on the direct emission by cloud or surface and on the scattering by ice particles in the thermal infrared (TIR). Realistic 3-D cirri are modeled with the 3DCLOUD code, and top-of-atmosphere radiances are simulated by the 3-D Monte Carlo radiative transfer (RT) algorithm 3DMCPOL for two (8.65 μm and 12.05 μm) channels of the Imaging Infrared Radiometer on CALIPSO. At nadir, comparisons of 1-D and 3-D RT show that 3-D radiances are larger than their 1-D counterparts for direct emission but smaller for scattered radiation. For our cirrus cases, 99% of the 3-D total radiance is computed by the third scattering order, which corresponds to 90% of the total computational effort, but larger optical thicknesses need more scattering orders. To radically accelerate the 3-D RT computations (using only few percent of 3-D RT time with a Monte Carlo code), even in the presence of large optical depths, we develop a hybrid model based on exact 3-D direct emission, the first scattering order from 1-D in each homogenized column, and an empirical adjustment linearly dependent on the optical thickness to account for higher scattering orders. Good agreement is found between the hybrid model and the exact 3-D radiances for two very different cirrus models without changing the empirical parameters. We anticipate that a future deterministic implementation of the hybrid model will be fast enough to process multiangle thermal imagery in a practical tomographic reconstruction of 3-D cirrus fields.

  7. A Fast Hybrid (3-D/1-D) Model for Thermal Radiative Transfer in Cirrus via Successive Orders of Scattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fauchez, Thomas; Davis, Anthony B.; Cornet, Celine; Szczap, Frederic; Platnick, Steven; Dubuisson, Philippe; Thieuleux, Francois

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the impact of cirrus cloud heterogeneity on the direct emission by cloud or surface and on the scattering by ice particles in the thermal infrared (TIR). Realistic 3-D cirri are modeled with the 3DCLOUD code, and top-of-atmosphere radiances are simulated by the 3-D Monte Carlo radiative transfer (RT) algorithm 3DMCPOL for two (8.65 micrometers and 12.05 micrometers) channels of the Imaging Infrared Radiometer on CALIPSO. At nadir, comparisons of 1-D and 3-D RT show that 3-D radiances are larger than their 1-D counterparts for direct emission but smaller for scattered radiation. For our cirrus cases, 99% of the 3-D total radiance is computed by the third scattering order, which corresponds to 90% of the total computational effort, but larger optical thicknesses need more scattering orders. To radically accelerate the 3-D RT computations (using only few percent of 3-D RT time with a Monte Carlo code), even in the presence of large optical depths, we develop a hybrid model based on exact 3-D direct emission, the first scattering order from 1-D in each homogenized column, and an empirical adjustment linearly dependent on the optical thickness to account for higher scattering orders. Good agreement is found between the hybrid model and the exact 3-D radiances for two very different cirrus models without changing the empirical parameters. We anticipate that a future deterministic implementation of the hybrid model will be fast enough to process multiangle thermal imagery in a practical tomographic reconstruction of 3-D cirrus fields.

  8. Competing antiferromagnetic orders in the double perovskite Mn2MnReO6 (Mn3ReO6).

    PubMed

    Arévalo-López, A M; Stegemann, F; Attfield, J P

    2016-04-25

    The new double perovskite Mn2MnReO6 has been synthesised at high pressure. Mn(2+) and Re(6+) spins order antiferromagnetically through two successive transitions that are coupled by magnetoelastic effects, as order of the Mn spins at 109 K leads to lattice distortions that reduce frustration prompting Re order at 99 K.

  9. Antiferromagnetic order in the pyrochlores R2Ge2O7 (R = Er, Yb)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dun, Zhiling; Li, Xiang; Freitas, Rafael; Arrighi, Everton; Cruz, Clarina; Lee, Minseong; Choi, Eun Sang; Cao, Huibo; Silverstein, Harlyn; Wiebe, Chris; Chen, Jinguang; Zhou, Haidong

    Elastic neutron scattering, ac susceptibility, and specific heat experiments on the pyrochlores Er2Ge2O7 and Yb2Ge2O7 show that both systems are antiferromagnetically ordered in the Γ5 manifold. The ground state is a ψ3 phase for the Er sample and a ψ2 or ψ3 phase for the Yb sample, which suggests ``Order by Disorder''(ObD) physics. Furthermore, we unify the various magnetic ground states of all known R2X2O7 (R = Er, Yb, X = Sn, Ti, Ge) compounds through the enlarged XY type exchange interaction J+/- under chemical pressure. The mechanism for this evolution is discussed in terms of the phase diagram proposed in the theoretical study [Wong et al., Phys. Rev. B 88, 144402, (2013)].

  10. Antiferromagnetic order in the pyrochlores R2Ge2O7 (R =Er ,Yb )

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dun, Z. L.; Li, X.; Freitas, R. S.; Arrighi, E.; Dela Cruz, C. R.; Lee, M.; Choi, E. S.; Cao, H. B.; Silverstein, H. J.; Wiebe, C. R.; Cheng, J. G.; Zhou, H. D.

    2015-10-01

    Elastic neutron scattering, ac susceptibility, and specific heat experiments on the pyrochlores Er2Ge2O7 and Yb2Ge2O7 show that both systems are antiferromagnetically ordered in the Γ5 manifold. The ground state is a ψ3 phase for the Er sample and a ψ2 or ψ3 phase for the Yb sample, which suggests "Order by Disorder" physics. Furthermore, we unify the various magnetic ground states of all known R2X2O7 (R =Er , Yb; X =Sn , Ti, Ge) compounds through the enlarged X Y -type exchange interaction J± under chemical pressure. The mechanism for this evolution is discussed in terms of the phase diagram proposed in the theoretical study by Wong et al. [Phys. Rev. B 88, 144402 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevB.88.144402].

  11. Dipolar order by disorder in the classical Heisenberg antiferromagnet on the kagome lattice.

    PubMed

    Chern, Gia-Wei; Moessner, R

    2013-02-15

    Ever since the experiments which founded the field of highly frustrated magnetism, the kagome Heisenberg antiferromagnet has been the archetypical setting for the study of fluctuation induced exotic ordering. To this day the nature of its classical low-temperature state has remained a mystery: the nonlinear nature of the fluctuations around the exponentially numerous harmonically degenerate ground states has not permitted a controlled theory, while its complex energy landscape has precluded numerical simulations at low temperature, T. Here we present an efficient Monte Carlo algorithm which removes the latter obstacle. Our simulations detect a low-temperature regime in which correlations asymptote to a remarkably small value as T→0. Feeding these results into an effective model and analyzing the results in the framework of an appropriate field theory implies the presence of long-range dipolar spin order with a tripled unit cell.

  12. Orbital degeneracy removed by charge order in triangular antiferromagnet AgNiO2.

    PubMed

    Wawrzyńska, E; Coldea, R; Wheeler, E M; Mazin, I I; Johannes, M D; Sörgel, T; Jansen, M; Ibberson, R M; Radaelli, P G

    2007-10-12

    We report a high-resolution neutron diffraction study on the orbitally degenerate spin-1/2 hexagonal metallic antiferromagnet AgNiO2. A structural transition to a tripled unit cell with expanded and contracted NiO6 octahedra indicates sqrt[3]xsqrt[3] charge order on the Ni triangular lattice. This suggests charge order as a possible mechanism of lifting the orbital degeneracy in the presence of charge fluctuations, as an alternative to the more usual Jahn-Teller distortions. A novel magnetic ground state is observed at low temperatures with the electron-rich S=1 Ni sites arranged in alternating ferromagnetic rows on a triangular lattice, surrounded by a honeycomb network of nonmagnetic and metallic Ni ions. We also report first-principles band-structure calculations that explain microscopically the origin of these phenomena.

  13. Antiferromagnetism and hidden order in isoelectronic doping of URu2Si2

    DOE PAGES

    Wilson, Murray N.; Williams, Travis J.; Cai, Yipeng; ...

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, we present muon spin rotation (mu SR) and susceptibility measurements on single crystals of isoelectronically doped URu2-xTxSi2 (T = Fe, Os) for doping levels up to 50%. Zero field (ZF) μ SR measurements show long-lived oscillations demonstrating that an antiferromagnetic state exists down to low doping levels for both Os and Fe dopants. The measurements further show an increase in the internal field with doping for both Fe and Os. Comparison of the local moment-hybridization crossover temperature from susceptibility measurements and our magnetic transition temperature shows that changes in hybridization, rather than solely chemical pressure, are importantmore » in driving the evolution of magnetic order with doping.« less

  14. The study of the coupling mechanism between antiferromagnetic and ferroelectric ordering and thermodynamic properties in ferroelectromagnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Chong Gui; Jiang, Qing

    2002-09-01

    We study the coupling mechanism between antiferromagnetic and ferroelectric ordering that coexist spontaneously at low temperatures. According to the results of experiment and previous theoretical considerations, we propose a possible coupling form related to a combination of electric polar and spin correlation and use it to calculate the thermodynamic properties of a ferroelectromagnetic system, including its magnetization m, polarization p, magnetization susceptibility χm, magnetoelectric susceptibility χme and polarization susceptibility χp, in the case of magnetization m perpendicular to polarization p. It is found that the relationship between m, χm and χme is in agreement with that of phenomenological theory, and polarization induced by magnetic coupling leads to an anomaly of χp at low temperature, which is consistent qualitatively with experimental results.

  15. Spatially Inhomogeneous Development of Antiferromagnetic Ordering on URu_2Si2 Observed by High Pressure NMR*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohara, Takao; Matsuda, K.; Kohori, Y.; Kuwahara, K.; Amitsuka, H.

    2002-03-01

    In order to identify the nature of unconventional antiferromagnetic (AF) ordering with a "tiny staggered moment" below T_0=17.5 K in URu_2Si_2, ^29Si NMR has been performed under pressure up to 17.5 kbar. In the pressure range 3.0 kbar to 15 kbar of P_c, we have observed new ^29Si NMR signal arising from the AF region besides the previously reported ^29Si NMR signal, which corresponds to the paramagnetic (PM) region. The AF region increases in volume at the expense of the PM region on cooling, which shows a coexistence of the AF and the PM regions below T_0. The volume fraction is enhanced by applied pressure, whereas the value of internal field (910 Oe) remains constant up to 15 kbar. This gives definite evidence for spatially inhomogeneous development of AF ordering below T_0. Our Si NMR results have shown that the weakness of Bragg peak observed by neutron diffraction originates not from an extremely reduced moment (0.03 μ _B/U) but from the smallness of AF region with an ordered moment of 0.4 μ _B/U in the sample. The temperature dependence of nuclear spin lattice relaxation rates for both signal is also now measured under pressure. * Supported by a Grand-in -Aid from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan.

  16. Melting of Three-Sublattice Order in Easy-Axis Antiferromagnets on Triangular and Kagome Lattices.

    PubMed

    Damle, Kedar

    2015-09-18

    When the constituent spins have an energetic preference to lie along an easy axis, triangular and kagome lattice antiferromagnets often develop long-range order that distinguishes the three sublattices of the underlying triangular Bravais lattice. In zero magnetic field, this three-sublattice order melts either in a two-step manner, i.e., via an intermediate phase with power-law three-sublattice order controlled by a temperature-dependent exponent η(T)∈(1/9,1/4), or via a transition in the three-state Potts universality class. Here, I predict that the uniform susceptibility to a small easy-axis field B diverges as χ(B)∼|B|^{-[(4-18η)/(4-9η)]} in a large part of the intermediate power-law ordered phase [corresponding to η(T)∈(1/9,2/9)], providing an easy-to-measure thermodynamic signature of two-step melting. I also show that these two melting scenarios can be generically connected via an intervening multicritical point and obtain numerical estimates of multicritical exponents.

  17. Antiferromagnetic interaction between A'-site Mn spins in A-site-ordered perovskite YMn3Al4O12.

    PubMed

    Tohyama, Takenori; Saito, Takashi; Mizumaki, Masaichiro; Agui, Akane; Shimakawa, Yuichi

    2010-03-01

    The A-site-ordered perovskite YMn(3)Al(4)O(12) was prepared by high-pressure synthesis. Structural analysis with synchrotron powder X-ray diffraction data and the Mn L-edges X-ray absorption spectrum revealed that the compound has a chemical composition Y(3+)Mn(3+)(3)Al(3+)(4)O(2-)(12) with magnetic Mn(3+) at the A' site and non-magnetic Al(3+) at the B site. An antiferromagnetic interaction between the A'-site Mn(3+) spins is induced by the nearest neighboring Mn-Mn direct exchange interaction and causes an antiferromagnetic transition at 34.3 K.

  18. Observation of antiferromagnetic order collapse in the pressurized insulator LaMnPO

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Jing; Simonson, J. W.; Sun, Liling; Wu, Qi; Gao, Peiwen; Zhang, Chao; Gu, Dachun; Kotliar, Gabriel; Aronson, Meigan; Zhao, Zhongxian

    2013-01-01

    The emergence of superconductivity in the iron pnictide or cuprate high temperature superconductors usually accompanies the suppression of a long-ranged antiferromagnetic (AFM) order state in a corresponding parent compound by doping or pressurizing. A great deal of effort by doping has been made to find superconductivity in Mn-based compounds, which are thought to bridge the gap between the two families of high temperature superconductors, but the AFM order was not successfully suppressed. Here we report the first observations of the pressure-induced elimination of long-ranged AFM order at ~ 34 GPa and a crossover from an AFM insulating to an AFM metallic state at ~ 20 GPa in LaMnPO single crystals that are iso-structural to the LaFeAsO superconductor by in-situ high pressure resistance and ac susceptibility measurements. These findings are of importance to explore potential superconductivity in Mn-based compounds and to shed new light on the underlying mechanism of high temperature superconductivity. PMID:23989921

  19. Longitudinal spin excitations and magnetic anisotropy in antiferromagnetically ordered BaFe2As2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yuan; Wang, Chong; Zhang, Rui; Luo, Huiqian; Wang, Fa; Dai, Pengcheng; Regnault, Louis-Pierre

    2014-03-01

    In the iron-based superconductors, there is an outstanding debate on the microscopic origin of the magnetism, whether it arises from local moments or itinerant electrons with Fermi-surface nesting. To answer this question, we performed a spin-polarized inelastic neutron scattering study of spin waves in the antiferromagnetically ordered state of BaFe2As2. Three distinct excitation components are identified, with spins fluctuating along the c-axis, perpendicular to the ordering direction in the ab -plane, and parallel to the ordering direction. While the first two ``transverse'' components can be described by a linear spin-wave theory with magnetic anisotropy and inter-layer coupling, the third ``longitudinal'' component is generically incompatible with the local moment picture. It points towards a contribution of itinerant electrons to the magnetism already in the parent compound of this family of Fe-based superconductors. (arXiv:1309.7553) Supported by the National Basic Research Program of China, the National Science Foundation of China, and the US National Science Foundation.

  20. 3D Magnetically Ordered Open Supramolecular Architectures Based on Ferrimagnetic Cu/Adenine/Hydroxide Heptameric Wheels.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Aguirre, Rubén; Beobide, Garikoitz; Castillo, Oscar; de Pedro, Imanol; Luque, Antonio; Pérez-Yáñez, Sonia; Rodríguez Fernández, Jesús; Román, Pascual

    2016-08-01

    The present work provides two new examples of supramolecular metal-organic frameworks consisting of three-dimensional extended noncovalent assemblies of wheel-shaped heptanuclear [Cu7(μ-H2O)6(μ3-OH)6(μ-adeninato-κN3:κN9)6](2+) entities. The heptanuclear entity consists of a central [Cu(OH)6](4-) core connected to six additional copper(II) metal centers in a radial and planar arrangement through the hydroxides. It generates a wheel-shaped entity in which water molecules and μ-κN3:κN9 adeninato ligands bridge the peripheral copper atoms. The magnetic characterization indicates the central copper(II) center is anti-ferromagnetically coupled to external copper(II) centers, which are ferromagnetically coupled among them leading to an S = 5/2 ground state. The packing of these entities is sustained by π-π stacking interactions between the adenine nucleobases and by hydrogen bonds established among the hydroxide ligands, sulfate anions, and adenine nucleobases. The sum of both types of supramolecular interactions creates a rigid synthon that in combination with the rigidity of the heptameric entity generates an open supramolecular structure (40-50% of available space) in which additional sulfate and triethylammonium ions are located altogether with solvent molecules. These compounds represent an interesting example of materials combining both porosity and magnetic relevant features.

  1. The "Pure Marriage" between 3D Printing and Well-Ordered Nanoarrays by Using PEALD Assisted Hydrothermal Surface Engineering.

    PubMed

    Xue, Chaowen; Shi, Xiaotong; Fang, Xuan; Tao, Haiyan; Zhu, Hui; Yu, Fen; Ding, Xingwei; Liu, Miaoxing; Fang, Fang; Yang, Fan; Wei, Zhipeng; Chen, Tingtao; Wang, Zongliang; Wang, Guoping; Cheng, Xigao; Wei, Junchao; Lin, Yingjie; Deng, Keyu; Wang, Xiaolei; Xin, Hongbo

    2016-04-06

    For the first time, homogeneous and well-ordered functional nanoarrays were grown densely on the complex structured three-dimensional (3D) printing frameworks through a general plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD) assisted hydrothermal surface engineering process. The entire process was free from toxic additives or harmful residues and, therefore, can meet the critical requirements of high-purity products. As a practical example, 3D customized earplugs were precisely manufactured according to the model of ear canals at the 0.1 mm level. Meanwhile, well-ordered ZnO nanoarrays, formed on the surfaces of these 3D printed earplugs, could effectively prevent the growth of five main pathogens derived from the patients with otitis media and exhibited excellent wear resistance as well. On the basis of both animal experiments and volunteers' investigations, the 3D customized earplugs showed sound insulation capabilities superior to those of traditional earplugs. Further animal experiments demonstrated the potential of as-modified implant scaffolds in practical clinical applications. This work, exemplified with earplugs and implant scaffolds, oriented the development direction of 3D printing in biomedical devices, which precisely integrated customized architecture and tailored surface performance.

  2. High- Tc superconductors with antiferromagnetic order: limitations on spin-fluctuation pairing mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulić, Miodrag L.; Kulić, Igor M.

    2003-08-01

    The antagonistic interplay of antiferromagnetism (AF) and superconductivity (SC), recently discovered in high-temperature superconductors, is studied in the framework of a microscopic theory. We explain the surprisingly large increase of the magnetic Bragg peak intensity IQ at Q∼( π, π) in the magnetic field H≪ Hc2 at low temperatures 0< T≪ Tc, TAF in La 2- xSr xCuO 4. Good agreement with experimental results is found. The theory predicts large anisotropy of the relative intensity RQ( H)=( IQ( H)- IQ(0))/ IQ(0), i.e. R Q( H∥c -axis)≫R Q( H⊥c -axis) . The quantum ( T=0) phase diagram at H=0 is constructed. The theory also predicts: (i) that the magnetic field can induce the AF order in the SC state; (ii) that the spin-fluctuation (SF) effective coupling constant g<0.1 eV is small, which gives small SC critical temperature Tc (≪40 K)--thus questioning the SF mechanism of pairing in HTS oxides.

  3. NMR Study of Antiferromagnetic Spinel CoCo2O4 in Paramagnetic and Ordered State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukai, Toshio; Furukawa, Yuji; Wada, Shinji; Miyatani, Kazuo

    1996-12-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance of 59Co at both the tetrahedral A-site and octahedral B-site in an older generation spinel compound of antiferromagnetic CoCo2O4 (T N=34 K) was carried out between T=1.4 and 300 K to provide additional information on the importance of the local crystal field parameters and electron-electron correlations. From an analysis of the T-independent relaxation rate of 59Co at the A-site in the paramagnetic state, the super-exchange interaction J between the Co2+ ions at the A-site through intervening O2- and Co3+ ions is estimated to be 0.050 cm-1 with an exchange frequency ω e=5.9×1010 sec-1, which can not simply be explained within the framework of the Weiss field.A small experimental value of the spin hyperfine field at the A-site, A s=1.63×10-4 cm-1, is well understood when the second-order orbital moment due to the spin-orbit interaction is taken into consideration. The energy difference Δ between t2g and eg orbitals at the A- and B-site in CoCo2O4 is found to be 3.3×103 cm-1 and 17.7×103 cm-1, respectively.

  4. Dissipative preparation of antiferromagnetic order in the Fermi-Hubbard model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaczmarczyk, J.; Weimer, H.; Lemeshko, M.

    2016-09-01

    The Fermi-Hubbard model is one of the key models of condensed matter physics, which holds a potential for explaining the mystery of high-temperature superconductivity. Recent progress in ultracold atoms in optical lattices has paved the way to studying the model’s phase diagram using the tools of quantum simulation, which emerged as a promising alternative to the numerical calculations plagued by the infamous sign problem. However, the temperatures achieved using elaborate laser cooling protocols so far have been too high to show the appearance of antiferromagnetic (AF) and superconducting quantum phases directly. In this work, we demonstrate that using the machinery of dissipative quantum state engineering, one can observe the emergence of the AF order in the Fermi-Hubbard model with fermions in optical lattices. The core of the approach is to add incoherent laser scattering in such a way that the AF state emerges as the dark state of the driven-dissipative dynamics. The proposed controlled dissipation channels described in this work are straightforward to add to already existing experimental setups.

  5. Characterizing the antiferromagnetic ordering of fermions in a compensated optical lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duarte, P. M.; Hart, R. A.; Yang, T. L.; Liu, X.; Hulet, R. G.; Paiva, T. C. L.; Huse, D.; Scalettar, R.; Trivedi, N.

    2014-05-01

    We realize the Fermi-Hubbard model with fermionic 6Li atoms in a three-dimensional, red-detuned optical lattice. The lattice is compensated by the addition of three blue-detuned gaussian beams which overlap each of the lattice laser beams, but are not retro-reflected. Using the compensated lattice potential, we have reached temperatures low enough to produce antiferromagnetic (AF) spin correlations, which we detect via Bragg scattering of light. The variation of the measured AF correlations as a function of the Hubbard interaction strength, U / t , provides a way to determine the temperature of the atoms in the lattice by comparison with quantum Monte Carlo calculations. This method suggests our temperature is in the range of 2-3 times the Néel ordering temperature. In this poster we present our Bragg scattering results along with our studies of the effect of the compensating potential in helping us cool the atoms in the lattice and also enlarge the size of the AF phase. Work supported by DARPA, ONR, NSF and The Welch Foundation.

  6. Layout consistent segmentation of 3-D meshes via conditional random fields and spatial ordering constraints.

    PubMed

    Zouhar, Alexander; Baloch, Sajjad; Tsin, Yanghai; Fang, Tong; Fuchs, Siegfried

    2010-01-01

    We address the problem of 3-D Mesh segmentation for categories of objects with known part structure. Part labels are derived from a semantic interpretation of non-overlapping subsurfaces. Our approach models the label distribution using a Conditional Random Field (CRF) that imposes constraints on the relative spatial arrangement of neighboring labels, thereby ensuring semantic consistency. To this end, each label variable is associated with a rich shape descriptor that is intrinsic to the surface. Randomized decision trees and cross validation are employed for learning the model, which is eventually applied using graph cuts. The method is flexible enough for segmenting even geometrically less structured regions and is robust to local and global shape variations.

  7. Design of novel 3D gene activated PEG scaffolds with ordered pore structure.

    PubMed

    Orsi, Silvia; Guarnieri, Daniela; Netti, Paolo A

    2010-03-01

    The ability to genetically modify cells seeded inside synthetic hydrogel scaffolds offers a suitable approach to induce and control tissue repair and regeneration guiding cell fate. In fact the transfected cells can act as local in vivo bioreactor, secreting plasmid encoded proteins that augment tissue regeneration processes. We have realized a DNA bioactivated high porous poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) matrix by polyethyleneimine (PEI)/DNA complexes adsorption. As the design of the microarchitectural features of a scaffold also contributes to promote and influence cell fate, we appropriately designed the inner structure of gene activated PEG hydrogels by gelatine microparticles templating. Microarchitectural properties of the scaffold were analysed by scanning electron microscopy. 3D cell migration and transfection were monitored through time-lapse videomicroscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy.

  8. Helical antiferromagnetic ordering in Lu1-xScxMnSi

    SciTech Connect

    Goetsch, Ryan J; Anand, V K; Johnston, David C

    2014-08-01

    Polycrystalline samples of Lu1-xScxMnSi (x=0, 0.25, 0.5) are studied using powder x-ray diffraction, heat capacity Cp, magnetization, magnetic susceptibility χ, and electrical resistivity ρ measurements versus temperature T and magnetic field H. This system crystallizes in the primitive orthorhombic TiNiSi-type structure (space group Pnma) as previously reported. The ρ(T) data indicate metallic behavior. The Cp(T), χ(T), and ρ(T) measurements consistently indicate long-range antiferromagnetic (AF) transitions with AF ordering temperatures TN=246, 215, and 188 K for x=0, 0.25, and 0.5, respectively. A second transition is observed at somewhat lower T for each sample from the χ(T) and ρ(T) measurements, which we speculate are due to spin reorientation transitions; these second transitions are completely suppressed in H=5.5 T. The Cp data below 10 K for each composition indicate an enhanced Sommerfeld electronic heat capacity coefficient for the series in the range γ=24–29 mJ/mol K2. The χ(T) measurements up to 1000 K were fitted by local-moment Curie-Weiss behaviors which indicate a low Mn spin S~1. The χ data below TN are analyzed using the Weiss molecular field theory for a planar noncollinear cycloidal AF structure with a composition-dependent pitch, following the previous neutron diffraction work of Venturini et al. [J. Alloys Compd. 256, 65 (1997)]. Within this model, the fits indicate a turn angle between Mn ordered moments along the cycloid axis of ~100° or ~145°, either of which indicate dominant AF interactions between the Mn spins in the Lu1-xScxMnSi series of compounds.

  9. Spin Liquid State in the 3D Frustrated Antiferromagnet PbCuTe_{2}O_{6}: NMR and Muon Spin Relaxation Studies.

    PubMed

    Khuntia, P; Bert, F; Mendels, P; Koteswararao, B; Mahajan, A V; Baenitz, M; Chou, F C; Baines, C; Amato, A; Furukawa, Y

    2016-03-11

    PbCuTe_{2}O_{6} is a rare example of a spin liquid candidate featuring a three-dimensional magnetic lattice. Strong geometric frustration arises from the dominant antiferromagnetic interaction that generates a hyperkagome network of Cu^{2+} ions although additional interactions enhance the magnetic lattice connectivity. Through a combination of magnetization measurements and local probe investigations by NMR and muon spin relaxation down to 20 mK, we provide robust evidence for the absence of magnetic freezing in the ground state. The local spin susceptibility probed by the NMR shift hardly deviates from the macroscopic one down to 1 K pointing to a homogeneous magnetic system with a low defect concentration. The saturation of the NMR shift and the sublinear power law temperature (T) evolution of the 1/T_{1} NMR relaxation rate at low T point to a nonsinglet ground state favoring a gapless fermionic description of the magnetic excitations. Below 1 K a pronounced slowing down of the spin dynamics is witnessed, which may signal a reconstruction of spinon Fermi surface. Nonetheless, the compound remains in a fluctuating spin liquid state down to the lowest temperature of the present investigation.

  10. Spin liquid state in the 3D frustrated antiferromagnet PbCuTe2O6: NMR and muon spin relaxation studies

    DOE PAGES

    Khuntia, P.; Bert, F.; Mendels, P.; ...

    2016-03-11

    In this study, PbCuTe2O6 is a rare example of a spin liquid candidate featuring a three-dimensional magnetic lattice. Strong geometric frustration arises from the dominant antiferromagnetic interaction that generates a hyperkagome network of Cu2+ ions although additional interactions enhance the magnetic lattice connectivity. Through a combination of magnetization measurements and local probe investigations by NMR and muon spin relaxation down to 20 mK, we provide robust evidence for the absence of magnetic freezing in the ground state. The local spin susceptibility probed by the NMR shift hardly deviates from the macroscopic one down to 1 K pointing to a homogeneousmore » magnetic system with a low defect concentration. The saturation of the NMR shift and the sublinear power law temperature (T) evolution of the 1/T1 NMR relaxation rate at low T point to a nonsinglet ground state favoring a gapless fermionic description of the magnetic excitations. Below 1 K a pronounced slowing down of the spin dynamics is witnessed, which may signal a reconstruction of spinon Fermi surface. Nonetheless, the compound remains in a fluctuating spin liquid state down to the lowest temperature of the present investigation.« less

  11. Long-range antiferromagnetic interactions in Ni-Co-Mn-Ga metamagnetic Heusler alloys: A two-step ordering studied by neutron diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlandi, F.; Fabbrici, S.; Albertini, F.; Manuel, P.; Khalyavin, D. D.; Righi, L.

    2016-10-01

    We report on the experimental observation of a long-range antiferromagnetic structure in the metamagnetic Ni-Co-Mn-Ga Heusler alloys. The accurate magnetic symmetry analysis based on experimental neutron diffraction data, exploiting the Shubnikov theory, allows the determination of the correct magnetic space group of the system. A two-step process, featuring the ordering of the Ni and Mn sublattices at different temperatures, leads to the antiferromagnetic structure in martensite. A perfect, constrained by the symmetry, antiferromagnetic ordering of the Ni sublattice in the "paramagnetic gap" is observed, followed by the ordering of the Mn sublattice at lower temperatures. The observation of such antiferromagnetic structure clarifies the current debate on the presence of antiferromagnetic interactions in the (Ni,Co)-Mn-X (X =Ga , Sn, Sb, and In) ferromagnetic shape memory alloys and yields new insights in understanding the magnetostructural properties of this relevant class of materials.

  12. Partial order optimum likelihood (POOL): maximum likelihood prediction of protein active site residues using 3D Structure and sequence properties.

    PubMed

    Tong, Wenxu; Wei, Ying; Murga, Leonel F; Ondrechen, Mary Jo; Williams, Ronald J

    2009-01-01

    A new monotonicity-constrained maximum likelihood approach, called Partial Order Optimum Likelihood (POOL), is presented and applied to the problem of functional site prediction in protein 3D structures, an important current challenge in genomics. The input consists of electrostatic and geometric properties derived from the 3D structure of the query protein alone. Sequence-based conservation information, where available, may also be incorporated. Electrostatics features from THEMATICS are combined with multidimensional isotonic regression to form maximum likelihood estimates of probabilities that specific residues belong to an active site. This allows likelihood ranking of all ionizable residues in a given protein based on THEMATICS features. The corresponding ROC curves and statistical significance tests demonstrate that this method outperforms prior THEMATICS-based methods, which in turn have been shown previously to outperform other 3D-structure-based methods for identifying active site residues. Then it is shown that the addition of one simple geometric property, the size rank of the cleft in which a given residue is contained, yields improved performance. Extension of the method to include predictions of non-ionizable residues is achieved through the introduction of environment variables. This extension results in even better performance than THEMATICS alone and constitutes to date the best functional site predictor based on 3D structure only, achieving nearly the same level of performance as methods that use both 3D structure and sequence alignment data. Finally, the method also easily incorporates such sequence alignment data, and when this information is included, the resulting method is shown to outperform the best current methods using any combination of sequence alignments and 3D structures. Included is an analysis demonstrating that when THEMATICS features, cleft size rank, and alignment-based conservation scores are used individually or in combination

  13. Characterization of Ordered 3D Arrays of Ag2S Nanocrystallites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motte, L.; Billoudet, F.; Thiaudière, D.; Naudon, A.; Pileni, M.-P.

    1997-03-01

    Reverse micelles have been used to synthetize 5.6 nm silver sulfide particles. These nanoparticles are coated with dodecanethiol, extracted from reverse micelles and then dissolved in heptane. The extracting process induces a size selection with a decrease in the polydispersity from 30% to 14%. By leaving a drop of a solution on any support, or immerse the support in the solution, mono and multilayers made of nanosized particles are formed. The monolayer is arranged in a hexagonal network whereas the 3D multilayers are arranged in a face centered cubic structure. From T.E.M. (Transmission Electron Microscopy) and G.I.S.A.X.S (Grazing Incidence Small Angle X-ray Scattering) techniques morphological information is provided. Dans cet article, la préparation et la caractérisation de réseaux ordonnés à deux et trois dimensions de nanocristallites de sulfure d'argent sont présentées. La morphologie des réseaux est étudiée à l'aide de deux techniques : la microscopie électronique à transmission et la diffusion des rayons X aux petits angles sous incidence rasante. La microscopie électronique met en évidence un empilement de nanoparticules selon une structure cubique à faces centrées. La distance moyenne entre particules et le nombre de couches formant la structure tridimensionnelle sont déterminés.

  14. Direct Observation by Neutron Diffraction of Antiferromagnetic Ordering in s Electrons Confined in Regular Nanospace of Sodalite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakano, Takehito; Matsuura, Masato; Hanazawa, Atsufumi; Hirota, Kazuma; Nozue, Yasuo

    2012-10-01

    Sodium clusters formed in the regular nanospace of sodalite (aluminosilicate zeolite) are known to show antiferromagnetic order without any magnetic elements. The clusters are arrayed in a body centered cubic structure. We have performed a neutron diffraction study and succeeded in detecting the magnetic Bragg peaks of the s-electron spins for the first time. The observation of both 001 and 111 magnetic reflections confirms the antiferromagnetic order with the antiparallel coupling between the nearest neighbor clusters. The magnetic form factor was examined by analyzing the intensity ratios of the magnetic and nuclear Bragg peaks. The result is in good agreement with the shape of the s-electron wave function derived from theoretical studies of the sodium nanoclusters in the cages.

  15. Direct observation by neutron diffraction of antiferromagnetic ordering in s electrons confined in regular nanospace of sodalite.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Takehito; Matsuura, Masato; Hanazawa, Atsufumi; Hirota, Kazuma; Nozue, Yasuo

    2012-10-19

    Sodium clusters formed in the regular nanospace of sodalite (aluminosilicate zeolite) are known to show antiferromagnetic order without any magnetic elements. The clusters are arrayed in a body centered cubic structure. We have performed a neutron diffraction study and succeeded in detecting the magnetic Bragg peaks of the s-electron spins for the first time. The observation of both 001 and 111 magnetic reflections confirms the antiferromagnetic order with the antiparallel coupling between the nearest neighbor clusters. The magnetic form factor was examined by analyzing the intensity ratios of the magnetic and nuclear Bragg peaks. The result is in good agreement with the shape of the s-electron wave function derived from theoretical studies of the sodium nanoclusters in the cages.

  16. Glass-like recovery of antiferromagnetic spin ordering in a photo-excited manganite Pr0.7Ca0.3MnO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, S. Y.; Langner, M. C.; Zhu, Y.; Chuang, Y.-D.; Rini, M.; Glover, T. E.; Hertlein, M. P.; Gonzalez, A. G. Cruz; Tahir, N.; Tomioka, Y.; Tokura, Y.; Hussain, Z.; Schoenlein, R. W.

    2014-02-01

    Electronic orderings of charges, orbitals and spins are observed in many strongly correlated electron materials, and revealing their dynamics is a critical step toward undertsanding the underlying physics of important emergent phenomena. Here we use time-resolved resonant soft x-ray scattering spectroscopy to probe the dynamics of antiferromagnetic spin ordering in the manganite Pr0.7Ca0.3MnO3 following ultrafast photo-exitation. Our studies reveal a glass-like recovery of the spin ordering and a crossover in the dimensionality of the restoring interaction from quasi-1D at low pump fluence to 3D at high pump fluence. This behavior arises from the metastable state created by photo-excitation, a state characterized by spin disordered metallic droplets within the larger charge- and spin-ordered insulating domains. Comparison with time-resolved resistivity measurements suggests that the collapse of spin ordering is correlated with the insulator-to-metal transition, but the recovery of the insulating phase does not depend on the re-establishment of the spin ordering.

  17. Glass-like recovery of antiferromagnetic spin ordering in a photo-excited manganite Pr₀.₇Ca₀.₃MnO₃.

    PubMed

    Zhou, S Y; Langner, M C; Zhu, Y; Chuang, Y-D; Rini, M; Glover, T E; Hertlein, M P; Gonzalez, A G Cruz; Tahir, N; Tomioka, Y; Tokura, Y; Hussain, Z; Schoenlein, R W

    2014-02-13

    Electronic orderings of charges, orbitals and spins are observed in many strongly correlated electron materials, and revealing their dynamics is a critical step toward undertsanding the underlying physics of important emergent phenomena. Here we use time-resolved resonant soft x-ray scattering spectroscopy to probe the dynamics of antiferromagnetic spin ordering in the manganite Pr₀.₇Ca₀.₃MnO₃ following ultrafast photo-exitation. Our studies reveal a glass-like recovery of the spin ordering and a crossover in the dimensionality of the restoring interaction from quasi-1D at low pump fluence to 3D at high pump fluence. This behavior arises from the metastable state created by photo-excitation, a state characterized by spin disordered metallic droplets within the larger charge- and spin-ordered insulating domains. Comparison with time-resolved resistivity measurements suggests that the collapse of spin ordering is correlated with the insulator-to-metal transition, but the recovery of the insulating phase does not depend on the re-establishment of the spin ordering.

  18. Glass-like recovery of antiferromagnetic spin ordering in a photo-excited manganite Pr0.7Ca0.3MnO3

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, S. Y.; Langner, M. C.; Zhu, Y.; Chuang, Y. -D.; Rini, M.; Glover, T. E.; Hertlein, M. P.; Gonzalez, A.G. Cruz; Tahir, N.; Tomioka, Y.; Tokura, Y.; Hussain, Z.; Schoenlein, R. W.

    2014-01-16

    Electronic orderings of charges, orbitals and spins are observed in many strongly correlated electron materials, and revealing their dynamics is a critical step toward understanding the underlying physics of important emergent phenomena. Here we use time-resolved resonant soft x-ray scattering spectroscopy to probe the dynamics of antiferromagnetic spin ordering in the manganite Pr0:7Ca0:3MnO3 following ultrafast photo-exitation. Our studies reveal a glass-like recovery of the spin ordering and a crossover in the dimensionality of the restoring interaction from quasi-1D at low pump fluence to 3D at high pump fluence. This behavior arises from the metastable state created by photo-excitation, a state characterized by spin disordered metallic droplets within the larger charge- and spin-ordered insulating domains. Comparison with time-resolved resistivity measurements suggests that the collapse of spin ordering is correlated with the insulator-to-metal transition, but the recovery of the insulating phase does not depend on the re-establishment of the spin ordering.

  19. Glass-like recovery of antiferromagnetic spin ordering in a photo-excited manganite Pr0.7Ca0.3MnO3

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, S. Y.; Langner, M. C.; Zhu, Y.; Chuang, Y.-D.; Rini, M.; Glover, T. E.; Hertlein, M. P.; Gonzalez, A. G. Cruz; Tahir, N.; Tomioka, Y.; Tokura, Y.; Hussain, Z.; Schoenlein, R. W.

    2014-01-01

    Electronic orderings of charges, orbitals and spins are observed in many strongly correlated electron materials, and revealing their dynamics is a critical step toward undertsanding the underlying physics of important emergent phenomena. Here we use time-resolved resonant soft x-ray scattering spectroscopy to probe the dynamics of antiferromagnetic spin ordering in the manganite Pr0.7Ca0.3MnO3 following ultrafast photo-exitation. Our studies reveal a glass-like recovery of the spin ordering and a crossover in the dimensionality of the restoring interaction from quasi-1D at low pump fluence to 3D at high pump fluence. This behavior arises from the metastable state created by photo-excitation, a state characterized by spin disordered metallic droplets within the larger charge- and spin-ordered insulating domains. Comparison with time-resolved resistivity measurements suggests that the collapse of spin ordering is correlated with the insulator-to-metal transition, but the recovery of the insulating phase does not depend on the re-establishment of the spin ordering. PMID:24522173

  20. Room Temperature Antiferromagnetic Ordering of Nanocrystalline Tb1.90Ni0.10O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandal, J.; Dalal, M.; Sarkar, B. J.; Chakrabarti, P. K.

    2017-02-01

    Nanocrystalline Ni-doped terbium oxide (Tb1.90Ni0.10O3) has been synthesized by the co-precipitation method followed by annealing at 700°C for 6 h in vacuum. The crystallographic phase and the substitution of Ni2+ ions in the lattice of Tb2O3 are confirmed by Rietveld analysis of the x-ray diffraction pattern using the software MAUD. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy is also carried out to study the morphology of the sample. Magnetic measurements are carried out at different temperatures from 5 K to 300 K using a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometer. The dependence of the magnetization of Tb1.90Ni0.10O3 as a function of temperature ( M- T) and magnetic field ( M- H) suggests the presence of both paramagnetic and antiferromagnetic phase at room temperature, but antiferromagnetic phase dominates below ˜120 K. The lack of saturation in the M- H curve and good fitting of the M- T curve by the Johnston formula also indicate the presence of both paramagnetic and antiferromagnetic phase at room temperature. Interestingly, an antiferromagnetic to ferromagnetic phase transition is observed below ˜40 K. The result also shows a high value of magnetization at 5 K.

  1. Color ice states, weathervane modes, and order by disorder in the bilinear-biquadratic pyrochlore Heisenberg antiferromagnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Yuan; Gingras, Michel J. P.

    2016-11-01

    We study the pyrochlore Heisenberg antiferromagnet with additional positive biquadratic interaction in the semiclassical limit. The classical ground-state manifold of the model contains an extensively large family of noncoplanar spin states known as "color ice states." Starting from a color ice state, a subset of spins may rotate collectively at no energy cost. Such excitation may be viewed in this three-dimensional system as a "membranelike" analog of the well-known weathervane modes in the classical kagome Heisenberg antiferromagnet. We investigate the weathervane modes in detail and elucidate their physical properties. Furthermore, we study the order by disorder phenomenon in this model, focusing on the role of harmonic fluctuations. Our computationally limited phase space search suggests that quantum fluctuations select three different states as the magnitude of the biquadratic interaction increases relative to the bilinear interaction, implying a sequence of phase transitions solely driven by fluctuations.

  2. An overset mesh approach for 3D mixed element high-order discretizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brazell, Michael J.; Sitaraman, Jayanarayanan; Mavriplis, Dimitri J.

    2016-10-01

    A parallel high-order Discontinuous Galerkin (DG) method is used to solve the compressible Navier-Stokes equations in an overset mesh framework. The DG solver has many capabilities including: hp-adaption, curved cells, support for hybrid, mixed-element meshes, and moving meshes. Combining these capabilities with overset grids allows the DG solver to be used in problems with bodies in relative motion and in a near-body off-body solver strategy. The overset implementation is constructed to preserve the design accuracy of the baseline DG discretization. Multiple simulations are carried out to validate the accuracy and performance of the overset DG solver. These simulations demonstrate the capability of the high-order DG solver to handle complex geometry and large scale parallel simulations in an overset framework.

  3. Increasing 3D Supramolecular Order by Decreasing Molecular Order. A Comparative Study of Helical Assemblies of Dendronized Nonchlorinated and Tetrachlorinated Perylene Bisimides.

    PubMed

    Partridge, Benjamin E; Leowanawat, Pawaret; Aqad, Emad; Imam, Mohammad R; Sun, Hao-Jan; Peterca, Mihai; Heiney, Paul A; Graf, Robert; Spiess, Hans W; Zeng, Xiangbing; Ungar, Goran; Percec, Virgil

    2015-04-22

    A nonplanar, twisted, and flexible tetrachlorinated perylene bisimide (Cl4PBI) was functionalized with two AB3 minidendrons containing hydrogenated or semifluorinated dodecyl groups. The hydrogenated dendron was attached to the imide groups of Cl4PBI via m = 0, 1, and 2 methylenic units, whereas the dendron containing semifluorinated groups was attached via m = 3 or a di(ethylene oxide) linker (m = 2EO). The supramolecular structures of these compounds, determined by a combination of differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction, and solid-state NMR, were compared with those of nonchlorinated planar and rigid PBI reported previously, which demonstrated the thermodynamically controlled formation of 2D periodic arrays at high temperatures and 3D arrays at low temperatures. The molecularly less ordered Cl4PBI containing hydrogenated dendrons self-organize into exclusively 3D crystalline periodic arrays under thermodynamic control for m = 0 and 2, while the more highly molecularly ordered PBI produced less stable and ordered 3D crystals and also 2D assemblies. This induction of a higher degree of 3D order in supramolecular assemblies of the less well-ordered molecular building blocks was unanticipated. The semifluorinated dendronized Cl4PBI with m = 3 formed a 2D columnar hexagonal array under kinetic control, whereas the compound with m = 2EO formed an unusual 2D honeycomb-like hexagonal phase under thermodynamic control. These Cl4PBI compounds provide a new route to stable crystalline assemblies via thermodynamic control at lower temperatures than previously obtained with PBI, thus generating 3D order in an accessible range of temperature of interest for structural analysis and for technological applications.

  4. A 3D Unstructured Mesh Euler Solver Based on the Fourth-Order CESE Method

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-01

    conservation in space and time without using a one-dimensional Riemann solver, (ii) genuinely multi-dimensional treatment without dimensional splitting (iii...of the original second-order CESE method, including: (i) flux conservation in space and time without using a one-dimensional Riemann solver, (ii...treated in a unified manner. The geometry for a three-dimensional CESE method is more difficult to visualize than the one- and two-dimensional methods

  5. Antiferromagnetic order in single crystals of the S =2 quasi-one-dimensional chain MnCl3(bpy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinozaki, Shin-ichi; Okutani, Akira; Yoshizawa, Daichi; Kida, Takanori; Takeuchi, Tetsuya; Yamamoto, Shoji; Risset, Olivia N.; Talham, Daniel R.; Meisel, Mark W.; Hagiwara, Masayuki

    2016-01-01

    A suite of experimental tools, including high-field magnetization and electron spin resonance (ESR) studies in magnetic fields of up to 50 T and heat capacity studies up to 9 T, have revealed antiferromagnetic order in single crystals of the Heisenberg S =2 chain compound MnCl3(bpy), where bpy is 2 ,2'-bipyridine . The Néel temperature, which depends on the strength of the applied magnetic field and its orientation with respect to the crystalline axes that was revealed by heat capacity measurements, is near 11.5 K in zero field. The spin-flop transition is identified in the magnetization curve acquired at 1.7 K and at μoHSFc=24 T along the c axis. The transition field HSF is lower than that expected from the previous antiferromagnetic resonance (AFMR) studies on a powder sample. The identification of the long-range antiferromagnetic order resolves an earlier report by Granroth et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 1616 (1996)], 10.1103/PhysRevLett.77.1616 that identified MnCl3(bpy) as an S =2 Haldane system down to 40 mK. The ESR studies identify a wide range of antiferromagnetic resonance modes that provide additional microscopic information about the g values (ga*=2.09 , gb=1.92 , and gc=2.07 ), the zero-field splitting constants, D /kB=-1.5 K and E /kB=-0.17 K when the nearest-neighbor spin interaction J /kB=31.2 K, which is evaluated from fitting the susceptibility, and the anisotropy of this compound (easy axis is the c axis, the second easy-axis is the b axis, and the hard axis is the a* axis), when using a standard (two-sublattice) AFMR analysis that does not quantitatively reproduce the observed HSFc value. The observed resonance mode indicates the frequency minimum at HSFc.

  6. Study of the structure of 3D-ordered macroporous GaN-ZnS:Mn nanocomposite films

    SciTech Connect

    Kurdyukov, D. A. Shishkin, I. I.; Grudinkin, S. A.; Sitnikova, A. A.; Zamoryanskaya, M. V.; Golubev, V. G.

    2015-05-15

    A film-type 3D-ordered macroporous GaN-ZnS:Mn nanocomposite with the structure of an inverted opal is fabricated. Structural studies of the nanocomposite are performed, and it is shown that GaN and ZnS:Mn introduced into the pores of the silica opal are nanocrystallites misoriented with respect to each other. It is shown that the nanocomposite is a structurally perfect 3D photonic crystal. The efficiency of using a buffer of GaN crystallites to preclude interaction between the surface of the spherical a-SiO{sub 2} particles forming the opal matrix and chemically active substances introduced into the pores is demonstrated.

  7. 3D profile measurements of objects by using zero order Generalized Morse Wavelet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kocahan, Özlem; Durmuş, ćaǧla; Elmas, Merve Naz; Coşkun, Emre; Tiryaki, Erhan; Özder, Serhat

    2017-02-01

    Generalized Morse wavelets are proposed to evaluate the phase information from projected fringe pattern with the spatial carrier frequency in the x direction. The height profile of the object is determined through the phase change distribution by using the phase of the continuous wavelet transform. The phase distribution is extracted from the optical fringe pattern choosing zero order Generalized Morse Wavelet (GMW) as a mother wavelet. In this study, standard fringe projection technique is used for obtaining images. Experimental results for the GMW phase method are compared with the results of Morlet and Paul wavelet transform.

  8. A novel high-order, entropy stable, 3D AMR MHD solver with guaranteed positive pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derigs, Dominik; Winters, Andrew R.; Gassner, Gregor J.; Walch, Stefanie

    2016-07-01

    We describe a high-order numerical magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) solver built upon a novel non-linear entropy stable numerical flux function that supports eight travelling wave solutions. By construction the solver conserves mass, momentum, and energy and is entropy stable. The method is designed to treat the divergence-free constraint on the magnetic field in a similar fashion to a hyperbolic divergence cleaning technique. The solver described herein is especially well-suited for flows involving strong discontinuities. Furthermore, we present a new formulation to guarantee positivity of the pressure. We present the underlying theory and implementation of the new solver into the multi-physics, multi-scale adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) simulation code FLASH (http://flash.uchicago.edu)

  9. Direct observation of multistep energy transfer in LHCII with fifth-order 3D electronic spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhengyang; Lambrev, Petar H.; Wells, Kym L.; Garab, Győző; Tan, Howe-Siang

    2015-07-01

    During photosynthesis, sunlight is efficiently captured by light-harvesting complexes, and the excitation energy is then funneled towards the reaction centre. These photosynthetic excitation energy transfer (EET) pathways are complex and proceed in a multistep fashion. Ultrafast two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy (2DES) is an important tool to study EET processes in photosynthetic complexes. However, the multistep EET processes can only be indirectly inferred by correlating different cross peaks from a series of 2DES spectra. Here we directly observe multistep EET processes in LHCII using ultrafast fifth-order three-dimensional electronic spectroscopy (3DES). We measure cross peaks in 3DES spectra of LHCII that directly indicate energy transfer from excitons in the chlorophyll b (Chl b) manifold to the low-energy level chlorophyll a (Chl a) via mid-level Chl a energy states. This new spectroscopic technique allows scientists to move a step towards mapping the complete complex EET processes in photosynthetic systems.

  10. High order spatial expansion for the method of characteristics applied to 3-D geometries

    SciTech Connect

    Naymeh, L.; Masiello, E.; Sanchez, R.

    2013-07-01

    The method of characteristics is an efficient and flexible technique to solve the neutron transport equation and has been extensively used in two-dimensional calculations because it permits to deal with complex geometries. However, because of a very fast increase in storage requirements and number of floating operations, its direct application to three-dimensional routine transport calculations it is not still possible. In this work we introduce and analyze several modifications aimed to reduce memory requirements and to diminish the computing burden. We explore high-order spatial approximation, the use of intermediary trajectory-dependent flux expansions and the possibility of dynamic trajectory reconstruction from local tracking for typed subdomains. (authors)

  11. Direct observation of multistep energy transfer in LHCII with fifth-order 3D electronic spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhengyang; Lambrev, Petar H.; Wells, Kym L.; Garab, Győző; Tan, Howe-Siang

    2015-01-01

    During photosynthesis, sunlight is efficiently captured by light-harvesting complexes, and the excitation energy is then funneled towards the reaction centre. These photosynthetic excitation energy transfer (EET) pathways are complex and proceed in a multistep fashion. Ultrafast two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy (2DES) is an important tool to study EET processes in photosynthetic complexes. However, the multistep EET processes can only be indirectly inferred by correlating different cross peaks from a series of 2DES spectra. Here we directly observe multistep EET processes in LHCII using ultrafast fifth-order three-dimensional electronic spectroscopy (3DES). We measure cross peaks in 3DES spectra of LHCII that directly indicate energy transfer from excitons in the chlorophyll b (Chl b) manifold to the low-energy level chlorophyll a (Chl a) via mid-level Chl a energy states. This new spectroscopic technique allows scientists to move a step towards mapping the complete complex EET processes in photosynthetic systems. PMID:26228055

  12. A 3D High-Order Unstructured Finite-Volume Algorithm for Solving Maxwell's Equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Yen; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    A three-dimensional finite-volume algorithm based on arbitrary basis functions for time-dependent problems on general unstructured grids is developed. The method is applied to the time-domain Maxwell equations. Discrete unknowns are volume integrals or cell averages of the electric and magnetic field variables. Spatial terms are converted to surface integrals using the Gauss curl theorem. Polynomial basis functions are introduced in constructing local representations of the fields and evaluating the volume and surface integrals. Electric and magnetic fields are approximated by linear combinations of these basis functions. Unlike other unstructured formulations used in Computational Fluid Dynamics, the new formulation actually does not reconstruct the field variables at each time step. Instead, the spatial terms are calculated in terms of unknowns by precomputing weights at the beginning of the computation as functions of cell geometry and basis functions to retain efficiency. Since no assumption is made for cell geometry, this new formulation is suitable for arbitrarily defined grids, either smooth or unsmooth. However, to facilitate the volume and surface integrations, arbitrary polyhedral cells with polygonal faces are used in constructing grids. Both centered and upwind schemes are formulated. It is shown that conventional schemes (second order in Cartesian grids) are equivalent to the new schemes using first degree polynomials as the basis functions and the midpoint quadrature for the integrations. In the new formulation, higher orders of accuracy are achieved by using higher degree polynomial basis functions. Furthermore, all the surface and volume integrations are carried out exactly. Several model electromagnetic scattering problems are calculated and compared with analytical solutions. Examples are given for cases based on 0th to 3rd degree polynomial basis functions. In all calculations, a centered scheme is applied in the interior, while an upwind

  13. Propagation of 3D nonlinear waves over complex bathymetry using a High-Order Spectral method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gouin, Maïté; Ducrozet, Guillaume; Ferrant, Pierre

    2016-04-01

    Scattering of regular and irregular surface gravity waves propagating over a region of arbitrary three-dimensional varying bathymetry is considered here. The three-dimensional High-Order Spectral method (HOS) with an extension to account for a variable bathymetry is used. The efficiency of the model has been proved to be conserved even with this extension. The method is first applied to a bathymetry consisting of an elliptical lens, as used in the Vincent and Briggs (1989) experiment. Incident waves passing across the lens are transformed and a strong convergence region is observed after the elliptical mound. The wave amplification depends on the incident wave. Numerical results for regular and irregular waves are analysed and compared with other methods and experimental data demonstrating the efficiency and practical applicability of the present approach. Then the method is used to model waves propagating over a real bathymetry: the canyons of Scripps/La Jolla in California. The implementation of this complex bathymetry in the model is presented, as well as the first results achieved. They will be compared to the ones obtained with another numerical model.

  14. Emergence of Long Period Antiferromagnetic Orders from Haldane Phase in S=1 Heisenberg Chains with D-Modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hida, Kazuo; Chen, Wei

    2005-07-01

    The effect of spatial modulation of the single-site anisotropy D on the ground state of the S=1 Heisenberg chains is investigated. In the case of period 2 modulation, it is found that the phase diagram contains the Haldane phase, large-D phase, Néel phase of udud-type and u0d0-type. It is shown that the hidden antiferromagnetic order in the Haldane phase compatible with the spatial modulation of D-term get frozen resulting in the emergence of various types of Néel orders. The investigation of the model with longer period D-modulation also confirms this picture.

  15. An itinerant antiferromagnetic metal without magnetic constituents

    SciTech Connect

    Svanidze, E.; Wang, Jiakui K.; Besara, T.; Liu, L.; Huang, Q.; Siegrist, T.; Frandsen, B.; Lynn, J. W.; Nevidomskyy, Andriy H.; Gamża, Monika B.; Aronson, M. C.; Uemura, Y. J.; Morosan, E.

    2015-07-13

    The origin of magnetism in metals has been traditionally discussed in two diametrically opposite limits: itinerant and local moments. Surprisingly, there are very few known examples of materials that are close to the itinerant limit, and their properties are not universally understood. In the case of the two such examples discovered several decades ago, the itinerant ferromagnets ZrZn2 and Sc3In, the understanding of their magnetic ground states draws on the existence of 3d electrons subject to strong spin fluctuations. Similarly, in Cr, an elemental itinerant antiferromagnet with a spin density wave ground state, its 3d electron character has been deemed crucial to it being magnetic. Here, we report evidence for an itinerant antiferromagnetic metal with no magnetic constituents: TiAu. Antiferromagnetic order occurs below a Néel temperature of 36 K, about an order of magnitude smaller than in Cr, rendering the spin fluctuations in TiAu more important at low temperatures. In conclusion, this itinerant antiferromagnet challenges the currently limited understanding of weak itinerant antiferromagnetism, while providing insights into the effects of spin fluctuations in itinerant–electron systems.

  16. An itinerant antiferromagnetic metal without magnetic constituents

    DOE PAGES

    Svanidze, E.; Wang, Jiakui K.; Besara, T.; ...

    2015-07-13

    The origin of magnetism in metals has been traditionally discussed in two diametrically opposite limits: itinerant and local moments. Surprisingly, there are very few known examples of materials that are close to the itinerant limit, and their properties are not universally understood. In the case of the two such examples discovered several decades ago, the itinerant ferromagnets ZrZn2 and Sc3In, the understanding of their magnetic ground states draws on the existence of 3d electrons subject to strong spin fluctuations. Similarly, in Cr, an elemental itinerant antiferromagnet with a spin density wave ground state, its 3d electron character has been deemedmore » crucial to it being magnetic. Here, we report evidence for an itinerant antiferromagnetic metal with no magnetic constituents: TiAu. Antiferromagnetic order occurs below a Néel temperature of 36 K, about an order of magnitude smaller than in Cr, rendering the spin fluctuations in TiAu more important at low temperatures. In conclusion, this itinerant antiferromagnet challenges the currently limited understanding of weak itinerant antiferromagnetism, while providing insights into the effects of spin fluctuations in itinerant–electron systems.« less

  17. Thickness-Dependent and Magnetic-Field-Driven Suppression of Antiferromagnetic Order in Thin V5S8 Single Crystals.

    PubMed

    Hardy, Will J; Yuan, Jiangtan; Guo, Hua; Zhou, Panpan; Lou, Jun; Natelson, Douglas

    2016-06-28

    With materials approaching the 2D limit yielding many exciting systems with intriguing physical properties and promising technological functionalities, understanding and engineering magnetic order in nanoscale, layered materials is generating keen interest. One such material is V5S8, a metal with an antiferromagnetic ground state below the Néel temperature TN ∼ 32 K and a prominent spin-flop signature in the magnetoresistance (MR) when H∥c ∼ 4.2 T. Here we study nanoscale-thickness single crystals of V5S8, focusing on temperatures close to TN and the evolution of material properties in response to systematic reduction in crystal thickness. Transport measurements just below TN reveal magnetic hysteresis that we ascribe to a metamagnetic transition, the first-order magnetic-field-driven breakdown of the ordered state. The reduction of crystal thickness to ∼10 nm coincides with systematic changes in the magnetic response: TN falls, implying that antiferromagnetism is suppressed; and while the spin-flop signature remains, the hysteresis disappears, implying that the metamagnetic transition becomes second order as the thickness approaches the 2D limit. This work demonstrates that single crystals of magnetic materials with nanometer thicknesses are promising systems for future studies of magnetism in reduced dimensionality and quantum phase transitions.

  18. The route to magnetic order in the spin-1/2 kagome Heisenberg antiferromagnet: The role of interlayer coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Götze, Oliver; Richter, Johannes

    2016-06-01

    While the existence of a spin-liquid ground state of the spin-1/2 kagome Heisenberg antiferromagnet (KHAF) is well established, the discussion of the effect of an interlayer coupling (ILC) by controlled theoretical approaches is still lacking. Here we study this problem by using the coupled-cluster method to high orders of approximation. We consider a stacked KHAF with a perpendicular ILC J_\\perp , where we study ferro- as well as antiferromagnetic J_\\perp . We find that the spin-liquid ground state (GS) persists until relatively large strengths of the ILC. Only if the strength of the ILC exceeds about 15% of the intralayer coupling the spin-liquid phase gives way for q = 0 magnetic long-range order, where the transition between both phases is continuous and the critical strength of the ILC, |J^c_\\perp| , is almost independent of the sign of J_\\perp . Thus, by contrast to the quantum GS selection of the strictly two-dimensional KHAF at large spin s, the ILC leads first to a selection of the q = 0 GS. Only at larger |J_\\perp| the ILC drives a first-order transition to the \\sqrt{3}×\\sqrt{3} long-range ordered GS. As a result, the stacked spin-1/2 KHAF exhibits a rich GS phase diagram with two continuous and two discontinuous transitions driven by the ILC.

  19. Formulation and implementation of a high-order 3-D domain integral method for the extraction of energy release rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozer, H.; Duarte, C. A.; Al-Qadi, I. L.

    2012-04-01

    This article presents a three dimensional (3-D) formulation and implementation of a high-order domain integral method for the computation of energy release rate. The method is derived using surface and domain formulations of the J-integral and the weighted residual method. The J-integral along 3-D crack fronts is approximated by high-order Legendre polynomials. The proposed implementation is tailored for the Generalized/eXtended Finite Element Method and can handle discontinuities arbitrarily located within a finite element mesh. The domain integral calculations are based on the same integration elements used for the computation of the stiffness matrix. Discontinuities of the integrands across crack surfaces and across computational element boundaries are fully accounted for. The proposed method is able to deliver smooth approximations and to capture the boundary layer behavior of the J-integral using tetrahedral meshes. Numerical simulations of mode-I and mixed mode benchmark fracture mechanics examples verify expected convergence rates for the computed energy release rates. The results are also in good agreement with other numerical solutions available in the literature.

  20. Effect of canted antiferromagnetic order on the electronic structure in the t-J* model within the cluster perturbation theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuz'min, V. I.; Nikolaev, S. V.; Ovchinnikov, S. G.

    2016-09-01

    The electronic structure in the two-dimensional t-J* model with canted antiferromagnetic order in an external magnetic field has been calculated within the cluster perturbation theory. In zero external field, the evolution of the Fermi surface with n-type doping has been obtained in good agreement with experimental data on cuprate superconductors. It has been shown that the inclusion of short-range correlations can result in a nonmonotonic dependence of the spectral weight distribution at the Fermi level on the external magnetic field. In contrast to the case of electron doping, such changes in the case of hole doping can be expected at experimentally achievable fields.

  1. Ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic orders of a phase-separated manganite probed throughout the B -T phase diagram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Windsor, Y. W.; Tanaka, Yoshikazu; Scagnoli, V.; Garganourakis, M.; de Souza, R. A.; Medarde, M.; Cheong, S.-W.; Staub, U.

    2016-12-01

    We employ resonant soft x-ray diffraction (RSXD) to isolate the signal from the CE-type antiferromagnetic phase of (La,Pr)1- xC axMn O3 (with x ≈3 /8 ), and follow only this phase through the known phases of the material in the B -T phase diagram. This material is known to exhibit a range of electronic ordering phenomena, most notably a metal-insulator transition (associated with colossal magnetoresistance) and phase separation between the antiferromagnetic phase and a ferromagnetic phase. Bulk magnetization measurements under the same B -T conditions were also conducted, giving a full picture of both phases for direct side-by-side comparison. The comparison specifically focuses on the metal-insulator transition. Upon magnetic field ramping to this transition, we find that the CE-type order undergoes a sharp quench at high temperatures (above phase coexistence temperatures) but that at lower temperatures, where the CE order is metastable, the transition broadens significantly. At the lowest temperatures, where a spin glass-type phase is expected, a slow annihilation of remanent CE domains is observed. Finally, a refined phase diagram is presented.

  2. Magnetic ordering of the antiferromagnet Cu2MnSnS4 from magnetization and neutron-scattering measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fries, T.; Shapira, Y.; Palacio, Fernando; Morón, M. Carmen; McIntyre, Garry J.; Kershaw, R.; Wold, A.; McNiff, E. J., Jr.

    1997-09-01

    Magnetization and neutron-diffraction measurements were performed on a single crystal of Cu2MnSnS4. This quartenary magnetic semiconductor has the stannite structure (derived from the zinc-blende structure which is common to many II-VI dilute magnetic semiconductors), and it orders antiferromagnetically at low temperature. The neutron data for the nuclear structure confirm that the space group is I4¯2m. Both the neutron and magnetization data give TN=8.8 K for the Néel temperature. The neutron data show a collinear antiferromagnetic (AF) structure with a propagation vector k=[1/2,0,1/2], in agreement with earlier neutron data on a powder. However, the deduced angle θ between the spin axis and the crystallographic c direction is between 6° and 16°, in contrast to the earlier value of 40°. The magnetization curve at T<antiferromagnetic interactions are an order of magnitude smaller than in II-VI dilute magnetic semiconductors (DMS's). The much weaker antiferromagnetic interactions are expected from the difference in the crystal structures (stannite versus zinc-blende). A more surprising result is that the exchange constant which controls the AF order below TN is not between Mn ions with the smallest separation. This result contrasts with a prediction made for the related II-VI DMS, according to which the exchange constants decrease rapidly with distance.

  3. Multi-scale 3D characterization of long period stacking ordered structure in Mg-Zn-Gd cast alloys.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Masahiro; Yoshioka, Satoru; Yamamoto, Tomokazu; Yasuda, Kazuhiro; Matsumura, Syo

    2014-11-01

    Magnesium alloys containing rare earth elements are attractive as lightweight structural materials due to their low density, high-specific strength and recycling efficiency. Mg-Zn-Gd system is one of promising systems because of their high creep-resistant property[1]. It is reported that the coherent precipitation formation of the 14H long period stacking ordered structure (LPSO) in Mg-Zn-Gd system at temperatures higher than 623 K[2,3]. In this study, the 14H LPSO phase formed in Mg-Zn-Gd alloys were investigated by multi-scale characterization with X-ray computer tomography (X-CT), focused ion beam (FIB) tomography and aberration-corrected STEM observation for further understanding of the LPSO formation mechanism.The Mg89.5 Zn4.5 Gd6 alloy ingots were cast using high-frequency induction heating in argon atmosphere. The specimens were aged at 753 K for 24 h in air. The aged specimen were cut and polished mechanically for microstructural analysis. The micrometer resolution X-CT observation was performed by conventional scaner (Bruker SKY- SCAN1172) at 80 kV. The FIB tomography and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) were carried out by a dual beam FIB-SEM system (Hitachi MI-4000L) with silicon drift detector (SDD) (Oxford X-Max(N)). The electron acceleration voltages were used with 3 kV for SEM observation and 10 kV for EDX spectroscopy. The 3D reconstruction from image series was performed by Avizo Fire 8.0 software (FEI). TEM/STEM observations were also performed by transmission electron microscopes (JEOL JEM 2100, JEM-ARM 200F) at the acceleration voltage of 200 keV.The LPSO phase was observed clearly in SEM image of the Mg89.5Zn4.5Gd6 alloy at 753 K for 2h (Fig.1 (a)). The atomic structure of LPSO phase observed as white gray region of SEM image was also confirmed as 14H LPSO structure by using selected electron diffraction patterns and high-resolution STEM observations. The elemental composition of LPSO phase was determined as Mg97Zn1Gd2 by EDS analyses

  4. Adsorption and structural properties of ordered mesoporous carbons synthesized by using various carbon precursors and ordered siliceous P6mm and Ia3d mesostructures as templates.

    PubMed

    Gierszal, Kamil P; Kim, Tae-Wan; Ryoo, Ryong; Jaroniec, Mietek

    2005-12-15

    Adsorption and structural properties of inverse carbon replicas of two ordered siliceous P6mm and Ia3d mesostructures have been studied by nitrogen adsorption, powder X-ray diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy. These carbon replicas were prepared by filling the pores of SBA-15 and KIT-6 siliceous templates with various carbon precursors followed by carbonization and silica dissolution. Sucrose, furfuryl alcohol, acenaphthene, mesophase pitch, and petroleum pitch were used to obtain inverse carbon replicas of SBA-15 and KIT-6. While structural properties of the resulting ordered mesoporous carbons are mainly determined by the hard template used, their adsorption properties depend on the type of the carbon precursor.

  5. Magnetic Ordering of Antiferromagnetic Trimer System 2b·3CuCl2·2H2O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanda, M.; Kubo, K.; Asano, T.; Morodomi, H.; Inagaki, Y.; Kawae, T.; Wang, J.; Matsuo, A.; Kindo, K.; Sato, T. J.

    2012-12-01

    In this paper, we present the magnetic properties of 2b·3CuCl2·2H2O (b = betaine, C5H11NO2). 2b·3CuCl2·2H2O is the first model substance for a two-dimensional S = 1/2 orthogonal antiferromagnetic trimer system. We have performed magnetic susceptibility, magnetization curve, and specific heat under extreme conditions: low temperatures and high magnetic fields in this system. The experimental results indicate that this substance is a magnetically S = 1/2 antiferromagnetic trimer system. The magnetization also shows one-third of the saturation value (MS ~ 3.2μB/f.u.) between 5 and 14T The specific heat in a zero field shows a sharp peak at 1.38K corresponding to a long-range magnetic ordering, TN. As the magnetic field increases, the TN shifts remarkably to a lower temperature and is suppressed. Above 5T, the specific heat has no anomaly down to 150mK In the plateau region with an energy gap, the magnetic ordering seems to be disappeared.

  6. Antiferromagnetic order in CeCoIn5 oriented by spin-orbital coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mineev, V. P.

    2017-01-01

    An incommensurate spin-density wave (Q phase) confined inside the superconducting state at high basal plane magnetic field is an unique property of the heavy-fermion metal CeCoIn5. The neutron scattering experiments and the theoretical studies point out that this state come out from the soft mode condensation of magnetic resonance excitations. We show that the fixation of direction of antiferromagnetic modulations by a magnetic field reported by Gerber et al. [Nat. Phys. 10, 126 (2014)], is explained by spin-orbit coupling. This result, obtained on the basis of quite general phenomenological arguments, is supported by the microscopic derivation of the χ z z susceptibility dependence on the mutual orientation of the basal plane magnetic field and the direction of modulation of spin polarization in a multiband metal.

  7. Antiferromagnetic order in a semiconductor quantum well with spin-orbit coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marinescu, D. C.

    2015-05-01

    An argument is made on the existence of a low-temperature itinerant antiferromagnetic (AF) spin alignment, rather than persistent helical (PH), in the ground state of a two dimensional electron gas in a semiconductor quantum well with linear spin-orbit Rashba-Dresselhaus interaction at equal coupling strengths, α. This result is obtained on account of the opposite-spin single-particle state degeneracy at k = 0 that makes the spin instability possible. A theory of the resulting magnetic phase is formulated within the Hartree-Fock approximation of the Coulomb interaction. In the AF state the direction of the fractional polarization is obtained to be aligned along the displacement vector of the single-particle states.

  8. Optimal fourth-order staggered-grid finite-difference scheme for 3D frequency-domain viscoelastic wave modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Y.; Han, B.; Métivier, L.; Brossier, R.

    2016-09-01

    We investigate an optimal fourth-order staggered-grid finite-difference scheme for 3D frequency-domain viscoelastic wave modeling. An anti-lumped mass strategy is incorporated to minimize the numerical dispersion. The optimal finite-difference coefficients and the mass weighting coefficients are obtained by minimizing the misfit between the normalized phase velocities and the unity. An iterative damped least-squares method, the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm, is utilized for the optimization. Dispersion analysis shows that the optimal fourth-order scheme presents less grid dispersion and anisotropy than the conventional fourth-order scheme with respect to different Poisson's ratios. Moreover, only 3.7 grid-points per minimum shear wavelength are required to keep the error of the group velocities below 1%. The memory cost is then greatly reduced due to a coarser sampling. A parallel iterative method named CARP-CG is used to solve the large ill-conditioned linear system for the frequency-domain modeling. Validations are conducted with respect to both the analytic viscoacoustic and viscoelastic solutions. Compared with the conventional fourth-order scheme, the optimal scheme generates wavefields having smaller error under the same discretization setups. Profiles of the wavefields are presented to confirm better agreement between the optimal results and the analytic solutions.

  9. Modeling Three-Phase Compositional Flow on Complex 3D Unstructured Grids with Higher-Order Finite Element Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moortgat, J.; Firoozabadi, A.

    2013-12-01

    Most problems of interest in hydrogeology and subsurface energy resources involve complex heterogeneous geological formations. Such domains are most naturally represented in numerical reservoir simulations by unstructured computational grids. Finite element methods are a natural choice to describe fluid flow on unstructured meshes, because the governing equations can be readily discretized for any grid-element geometry. In this work, we consider the challenging problem of fully compositional three-phase flow in 3D unstructured grids, discretized by tetrahedra, prisms, or hexahedra, and compare to simulations on 3D structured grids. We employ a combination of mixed hybrid finite element methods to solve for the pressure and flux fields in a fractional flow formulation, and higher-order discontinuous Galerkin methods for the mass transport equations. These methods are well suited to simulate flow in heterogeneous and fractured reservoirs, because they provide a globally continuous pressure and flux field, while allowing for sharp discontinuities in the phase properties, such as compositions and saturations. The increased accuracy from using higher-order methods improves the modeling of highly non-linear flow, such as gravitational and viscous fingering. We present several numerical examples to study convergence rates and the (lack of) sensitivity to gridding/mesh orientation, and mesh quality. These examples consider gravity depletion, water and gas injection in oil saturated subsurface reservoirs with species exchange between up to three fluid phases. The examples demonstrate the wide applicability of our chosen finite element methods in the study of challenging multiphase flow problems in porous, geometrically complex, subsurface media.

  10. Crystal structure and antiferromagnetic ordering of quasi-2D [Cu(HF{sub 2})(pyz){sub 2}]TaF{sub 6} (pyz = pyrazine).

    SciTech Connect

    Manson, J. L.; Schlueter, J. A.; McDonald, R. D.; Singleton, J.; Materials Science Division; Eastern Washington Univ.; LANL

    2010-04-01

    The crystal structure of the title compound was determined by X-ray diffraction at 90 and 295 K. Copper(II) ions are coordinated to four bridging pyz ligands to form square layers in the ab-plane. Bridging HF{sub 2}{sup -} ligands join the layers together along the c-axis to afford a tetragonal, three-dimensional (3D) framework that contains Taf{sub 6}{sup -} anions in every cavity. At 295 K, the pyz rings lie exactly perpendicular to the layers and cooling to 90 K induces a canting of those rings. Magnetically, the compound exhibits 2D antiferromagnetic correlations within the 2D layers with an exchange interaction of -13.1(1) K. Weak interlayer interactions, as mediated by Cu-F-H-F-Cu, leads to long-range magnetic order below 4.2 K. Pulsed-field magnetization data at 0.5 K show a concave curvature with increasing B and reveal a saturation magnetization at 35.4 T.

  11. Reduced order modelling of an unstructured mesh air pollution model and application in 2D/3D urban street canyons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, F.; Zhang, T.; Pavlidis, D.; Pain, C. C.; Buchan, A. G.; Navon, I. M.

    2014-10-01

    A novel reduced order model (ROM) based on proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) has been developed for a finite-element (FE) adaptive mesh air pollution model. A quadratic expansion of the non-linear terms is employed to ensure the method remained efficient. This is the first time such an approach has been applied to air pollution LES turbulent simulation through three dimensional landscapes. The novelty of this work also includes POD's application within a FE-LES turbulence model that uses adaptive resolution. The accuracy of the reduced order model is assessed and validated for a range of 2D and 3D urban street canyon flow problems. By comparing the POD solutions against the fine detail solutions obtained from the full FE model it is shown that the accuracy is maintained, where fine details of the air flows are captured, whilst the computational requirements are reduced. In the examples presented below the size of the reduced order models is reduced by factors up to 2400 in comparison to the full FE model while the CPU time is reduced by up to 98% of that required by the full model.

  12. Magnetic-resonance investigation of the ordering in randomly-site-diluted antiferromagnets: KMnF3: Mg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Ariano, G.; Borsa, F.

    1982-12-01

    Measurements of 19F NMR in a series of polycrystalline mixed paramagnetic compounds KMnxMg1-xF3 with x varying over the whole concentration range have been performed as a function of temperature. The paramagnetic shift and the linewidth and relaxation time of the three NMR lines corresponding to those distinct classes of 19F nuclei that have different numbers of nearest-neighbor magnetic ions were measured as the temperature approaches the transition temperature. The paramagnetic shifts of fluorine nuclei having one and two nearest-neighbor Mn ions compare well with the predictions of a simple random-molecular-field approximation (RMFA). It is shown that the substitution of Mn with Mg modifies locally the nuclear-electron transferred hfs interaction by about 20%. The linewidth of the two lines increases drastically as TN is approached. The attempt to explain the data by utilizing Moriya's theory rescaled in the RMFA framework fails completely, indicating that the dynamic effects should be treated in real space. The antiferromagnetic ordering was monitored by measuring the rf susceptibility in zero external magnetic field. It is found that the antiferromagnetic transition is broadened by the concentration gradients present in the samples. The average transition temperature was determined as a function of the average concentration, and the results are compared with the theoretical predictions of recent calculations. Good agreement is found if one takes into account the concentration dependence of the exchange coupling constant.

  13. Quantum measurement-induced antiferromagnetic order and density modulations in ultracold Fermi gases in optical lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzucchi, Gabriel; Caballero-Benitez, Santiago F.; Mekhov, Igor B.

    2016-08-01

    Ultracold atomic systems offer a unique tool for understanding behavior of matter in the quantum degenerate regime, promising studies of a vast range of phenomena covering many disciplines from condensed matter to quantum information and particle physics. Coupling these systems to quantized light fields opens further possibilities of observing delicate effects typical of quantum optics in the context of strongly correlated systems. Measurement backaction is one of the most funda- mental manifestations of quantum mechanics and it is at the core of many famous quantum optics experiments. Here we show that quantum backaction of weak measurement can be used for tailoring long-range correlations of ultracold fermions, realizing quantum states with spatial modulations of the density and magnetization, thus overcoming usual requirement for a strong interatomic interactions. We propose detection schemes for implementing antiferromagnetic states and density waves. We demonstrate that such long-range correlations cannot be realized with local addressing, and they are a consequence of the competition between global but spatially structured backaction of weak quantum measurement and unitary dynamics of fermions.

  14. Quantum measurement-induced antiferromagnetic order and density modulations in ultracold Fermi gases in optical lattices

    PubMed Central

    Mazzucchi, Gabriel; Caballero-Benitez, Santiago F.; Mekhov, Igor B.

    2016-01-01

    Ultracold atomic systems offer a unique tool for understanding behavior of matter in the quantum degenerate regime, promising studies of a vast range of phenomena covering many disciplines from condensed matter to quantum information and particle physics. Coupling these systems to quantized light fields opens further possibilities of observing delicate effects typical of quantum optics in the context of strongly correlated systems. Measurement backaction is one of the most funda- mental manifestations of quantum mechanics and it is at the core of many famous quantum optics experiments. Here we show that quantum backaction of weak measurement can be used for tailoring long-range correlations of ultracold fermions, realizing quantum states with spatial modulations of the density and magnetization, thus overcoming usual requirement for a strong interatomic interactions. We propose detection schemes for implementing antiferromagnetic states and density waves. We demonstrate that such long-range correlations cannot be realized with local addressing, and they are a consequence of the competition between global but spatially structured backaction of weak quantum measurement and unitary dynamics of fermions. PMID:27510369

  15. Competing nematic, antiferromagnetic, and spin-flux orders in the ground state of bilayer graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemonik, Y.; Aleiner, I.; Fal'ko, V. I.

    2012-06-01

    We analyze the phase diagram of bilayer graphene (BLG) at zero temperature and zero doping. Assuming that at high energies the electronic system of BLG can be described within a weak-coupling theory (consistent with the experimental evidence), we systematically study the evolution of the couplings with going from high to low energies. The divergences of the couplings at some energies indicate the tendency towards certain symmetry breakings. Carrying out this program, we found that the phase diagram is determined by microscopic couplings defined on the short distances (initial conditions). We explored all plausible space of these initial conditions and found that the three states have the largest phase volume of the initial couplings: nematic, antiferromagnetic, and spin flux (a.k.a. quantum spin Hall). In addition, ferroelectric and two superconducting phases appear only near the very limits of the applicability of the weak-coupling approach. The paper also contains the derivation and analysis of the renormalization group equations and the group theory classification of all the possible phases which might arise from the symmetry breakings of the lattice, spin rotation, and gauge symmetries of graphene.

  16. Ultrafast quenching of the antiferromagnetic order in FeBO3: direct optical probing of the phonon-magnon coupling.

    PubMed

    Kimel, A V; Pisarev, R V; Hohlfeld, J; Rasing, Th

    2002-12-31

    The dynamics of the optically induced phase transition from the antiferromagnetic to the paramagnetic state in FeBO3 is observed using a pump-probe magneto-optical Faraday technique employing 100 fs laser pulses. At the pump energy of 1.55 eV phonon-assisted transitions dominate in the absorption of light and ultrafast heating of the lattice occurs. The quenching of the magnetic order is caused by an increase of the magnon temperature due to energy transfer from the heated lattice. The heating time of the magnon system is around 700 ps, which is a factor of 20 faster than previously reported phonon-magnon interaction times.

  17. Antiferromagnetism and hidden order in isoelectronic doping of URu2Si2

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, Murray N.; Williams, Travis J.; Cai, Yipeng; Hallas, Alannah M.; Medina, Teresa; Munsie, Timothy J.; Cheung, Sky C.; Frandsen, Benjamin A.; Liu, Lian; Uemura, Yasutomo J.; Luke, Graeme M.

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, we present muon spin rotation (mu SR) and susceptibility measurements on single crystals of isoelectronically doped URu2-xTxSi2 (T = Fe, Os) for doping levels up to 50%. Zero field (ZF) μ SR measurements show long-lived oscillations demonstrating that an antiferromagnetic state exists down to low doping levels for both Os and Fe dopants. The measurements further show an increase in the internal field with doping for both Fe and Os. Comparison of the local moment-hybridization crossover temperature from susceptibility measurements and our magnetic transition temperature shows that changes in hybridization, rather than solely chemical pressure, are important in driving the evolution of magnetic order with doping.

  18. 3D-Printing of Meso-structurally Ordered Carbon Fiber/Polymer Composites with Unprecedented Orthotropic Physical Properties

    PubMed Central

    Lewicki, James P.; Rodriguez, Jennifer N.; Zhu, Cheng; Worsley, Marcus A.; Wu, Amanda S.; Kanarska, Yuliya; Horn, John D.; Duoss, Eric B.; Ortega, Jason M.; Elmer, William; Hensleigh, Ryan; Fellini, Ryan A.; King, Michael J.

    2017-01-01

    Here we report the first example of a class of additively manufactured carbon fiber reinforced composite (AMCFRC) materials which have been achieved through the use of a latent thermal cured aromatic thermoset resin system, through an adaptation of direct ink writing (DIW) 3D-printing technology. We have developed a means of printing high performance thermoset carbon fiber composites, which allow the fiber component of a resin and carbon fiber fluid to be aligned in three dimensions via controlled micro-extrusion and subsequently cured into complex geometries. Characterization of our composite systems clearly show that we achieved a high order of fiber alignment within the composite microstructure, which in turn allows these materials to outperform equivalently filled randomly oriented carbon fiber and polymer composites. Furthermore, our AM carbon fiber composite systems exhibit highly orthotropic mechanical and electrical responses as a direct result of the alignment of carbon fiber bundles in the microscale which we predict will ultimately lead to the design of truly tailorable carbon fiber/polymer hybrid materials having locally programmable complex electrical, thermal and mechanical response. PMID:28262669

  19. 3D-Printing of Meso-structurally Ordered Carbon Fiber/Polymer Composites with Unprecedented Orthotropic Physical Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewicki, James P.; Rodriguez, Jennifer N.; Zhu, Cheng; Worsley, Marcus A.; Wu, Amanda S.; Kanarska, Yuliya; Horn, John D.; Duoss, Eric B.; Ortega, Jason M.; Elmer, William; Hensleigh, Ryan; Fellini, Ryan A.; King, Michael J.

    2017-03-01

    Here we report the first example of a class of additively manufactured carbon fiber reinforced composite (AMCFRC) materials which have been achieved through the use of a latent thermal cured aromatic thermoset resin system, through an adaptation of direct ink writing (DIW) 3D-printing technology. We have developed a means of printing high performance thermoset carbon fiber composites, which allow the fiber component of a resin and carbon fiber fluid to be aligned in three dimensions via controlled micro-extrusion and subsequently cured into complex geometries. Characterization of our composite systems clearly show that we achieved a high order of fiber alignment within the composite microstructure, which in turn allows these materials to outperform equivalently filled randomly oriented carbon fiber and polymer composites. Furthermore, our AM carbon fiber composite systems exhibit highly orthotropic mechanical and electrical responses as a direct result of the alignment of carbon fiber bundles in the microscale which we predict will ultimately lead to the design of truly tailorable carbon fiber/polymer hybrid materials having locally programmable complex electrical, thermal and mechanical response.

  20. 3D-Printing of Meso-structurally Ordered Carbon Fiber/Polymer Composites with Unprecedented Orthotropic Physical Properties.

    PubMed

    Lewicki, James P; Rodriguez, Jennifer N; Zhu, Cheng; Worsley, Marcus A; Wu, Amanda S; Kanarska, Yuliya; Horn, John D; Duoss, Eric B; Ortega, Jason M; Elmer, William; Hensleigh, Ryan; Fellini, Ryan A; King, Michael J

    2017-03-06

    Here we report the first example of a class of additively manufactured carbon fiber reinforced composite (AMCFRC) materials which have been achieved through the use of a latent thermal cured aromatic thermoset resin system, through an adaptation of direct ink writing (DIW) 3D-printing technology. We have developed a means of printing high performance thermoset carbon fiber composites, which allow the fiber component of a resin and carbon fiber fluid to be aligned in three dimensions via controlled micro-extrusion and subsequently cured into complex geometries. Characterization of our composite systems clearly show that we achieved a high order of fiber alignment within the composite microstructure, which in turn allows these materials to outperform equivalently filled randomly oriented carbon fiber and polymer composites. Furthermore, our AM carbon fiber composite systems exhibit highly orthotropic mechanical and electrical responses as a direct result of the alignment of carbon fiber bundles in the microscale which we predict will ultimately lead to the design of truly tailorable carbon fiber/polymer hybrid materials having locally programmable complex electrical, thermal and mechanical response.

  1. The spin-half XXZ antiferromagnet on the square lattice revisited: A high-order coupled cluster treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bishop, R. F.; Li, P. H. Y.; Zinke, R.; Darradi, R.; Richter, J.; Farnell, D. J. J.; Schulenburg, J.

    2017-04-01

    We use the coupled cluster method (CCM) to study the ground-state properties and lowest-lying triplet excited state of the spin-half XXZ antiferromagnet on the square lattice. The CCM is applied to it to high orders of approximation by using an efficient computer code that has been written by us and which has been implemented to run on massively parallelized computer platforms. We are able therefore to present precise data for the basic quantities of this model over a wide range of values for the anisotropy parameter Δ in the range - 1 ≤ Δ < ∞ of interest, including both the easy-plane (- 1 < Δ < 1) and easy-axis (Δ > 1) regimes, where Δ → ∞ represents the Ising limit. We present results for the ground-state energy, the sublattice magnetization, the zero-field transverse magnetic susceptibility, the spin stiffness, and the triplet spin gap. Our results provide a useful yardstick against which other approximate methods and/or experimental studies of relevant antiferromagnetic square-lattice compounds may now compare their own results. We also focus particular attention on the behaviour of these parameters for the easy-axis system in the vicinity of the isotropic Heisenberg point (Δ = 1) , where the model undergoes a phase transition from a gapped state (for Δ > 1) to a gapless state (for Δ ≤ 1), and compare our results there with those from spin-wave theory (SWT). Interestingly, the nature of the criticality at Δ = 1 for the present model with spins of spin quantum number s =1/2 that is revealed by our CCM results seems to differ qualitatively from that predicted by SWT, which becomes exact only for its near-classical large-s counterpart.

  2. Hidden landscapes in thin film topological insulators: between order and disorder, 2D and 3D, normal and topological phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Seongshik

    Topological insulator (TI) is one of the rare systems in the history of condensed matter physics that is initiated by theories and followed by experiments. Although this theory-driven advance helped move the field quite fast despite its short history, apparently there exist significant gaps between theories and experiments. Many of these discrepancies originate from the very fact that the worlds readily accessible to theories are often far from the real worlds that are available in experiments. For example, the very paradigm of topological protection of the surface states on Z2 TIs such as Bi2Se3, Bi2Te3, Sb2Te3, etc, is in fact valid only if the sample size is infinite and the crystal momentum is well-defined in all three dimensions. On the other hand, many widely studied forms of TIs such as thin films and nano-wires have significant confinement in one or more of the dimensions with varying level of disorders. In other words, many of the real world topological systems have some important parameters that are not readily captured by theories, and thus it is often questionable how far the topological theories are valid to real systems. Interestingly, it turns out that this very uncertainty of the theories provides additional control knobs that allow us to explore hidden topological territories. In this talk, I will discuss how these additional knobs in thin film topological insulators reveal surprising, at times beautiful, landscapes at the boundaries between order and disorder, 2D and 3D, normal and topological phases. This work is supported by Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation's EPiQS Initiative (GBMF4418).

  3. Antiferromagnetic and Orbital Ordering on a Diamond Lattice Near Quantum Criticality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plumb, K. W.; Morey, J. R.; Rodriguez-Rivera, J. A.; Wu, Hui; Podlesnyak, A. A.; McQueen, T. M.; Broholm, C. L.

    2016-10-01

    We present neutron scattering measurements on powder samples of the spinel FeSc2S4 that reveal a previously unobserved magnetic ordering transition occurring at 11.8(2) K. Magnetic ordering occurs subsequent to a subtle cubic-to-tetragonal structural transition that distorts Fe coordinating sulfur tetrahedra and lifts the orbital degeneracy. The orbital ordering is not truly long ranged, but occurs over finite-sized domains that limit magnetic correlation lengths. The application of 1 GPa hydrostatic pressure appears to destabilize this Néel state, reducing the transition temperature to 8.6(8) K and redistributing magnetic spectral weight to higher energies. The relative magnitudes of ordered ⟨m ⟩2=3.1 (2 ) μB2 and fluctuating moments ⟨δ m ⟩=13 (1 ) μB2 show that the magnetically ordered state of FeSc2 S4 is drastically renormalized and close to criticality.

  4. Interfacial superconductivity in a bi-collinear antiferromagnetically ordered FeTe monolayer on a topological insulator.

    PubMed

    Manna, S; Kamlapure, A; Cornils, L; Hänke, T; Hedegaard, E M J; Bremholm, M; Iversen, B B; Hofmann, Ph; Wiebe, J; Wiesendanger, R

    2017-01-17

    The discovery of high-temperature superconductivity in Fe-based compounds triggered numerous investigations on the interplay between superconductivity and magnetism, and on the enhancement of transition temperatures through interface effects. It is widely believed that the emergence of optimal superconductivity is intimately linked to the suppression of long-range antiferromagnetic (AFM) order, although the exact microscopic picture remains elusive because of the lack of atomically resolved data. Here we present spin-polarized scanning tunnelling spectroscopy of ultrathin FeTe1-xSex (x=0, 0.5) films on bulk topological insulators. Surprisingly, we find an energy gap at the Fermi level, indicating superconducting correlations up to Tc∼6 K for one unit cell FeTe grown on Bi2Te3, in contrast to the non-superconducting bulk FeTe. The gap spatially coexists with bi-collinear AFM order. This finding opens perspectives for theoretical studies of competing orders in Fe-based superconductors and for experimental investigations of exotic phases in superconducting layers on topological insulators.

  5. Band-renormalization effect in coexistent state of d-wave superconducting and antiferromagnetic orders for Hubbard model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, R.; Yokoyama, H.

    2016-11-01

    In view of cuprate superconductors, we apply a variational Monte Carlo method to a strongly correlated square-lattice Hubbard (t-t‧-U) model. As a one-body part in a trial wave function, we use a coexistent state of antiferromagnetic (AF) and d-wave superconducting (SC) orders for each of which band-renormalization effect (BRE) is considered independently. We focus on t‧/t and doping-rate (δ) dependence of properties of this state. It is found that the BRE for the AF order causes expansion of the AF area up to δ ∼ 0.2 for a large |t‧/t|. For t‧ / t = 0 (- 0.3), the AF and SC orders are coexistent (mutually exclusive), and the state is unstable toward (stable against) phase separation. This feature of coexistence or exclusion depends on the position of the Fermi surface in the underlying pure AF state, and indicates that antinodal Fermi surfaces are crucial for forming d-wave SC.

  6. Interfacial superconductivity in a bi-collinear antiferromagnetically ordered FeTe monolayer on a topological insulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manna, S.; Kamlapure, A.; Cornils, L.; Hänke, T.; Hedegaard, E. M. J.; Bremholm, M.; Iversen, B. B.; Hofmann, Ph.; Wiebe, J.; Wiesendanger, R.

    2017-01-01

    The discovery of high-temperature superconductivity in Fe-based compounds triggered numerous investigations on the interplay between superconductivity and magnetism, and on the enhancement of transition temperatures through interface effects. It is widely believed that the emergence of optimal superconductivity is intimately linked to the suppression of long-range antiferromagnetic (AFM) order, although the exact microscopic picture remains elusive because of the lack of atomically resolved data. Here we present spin-polarized scanning tunnelling spectroscopy of ultrathin FeTe1-xSex (x=0, 0.5) films on bulk topological insulators. Surprisingly, we find an energy gap at the Fermi level, indicating superconducting correlations up to Tc~6 K for one unit cell FeTe grown on Bi2Te3, in contrast to the non-superconducting bulk FeTe. The gap spatially coexists with bi-collinear AFM order. This finding opens perspectives for theoretical studies of competing orders in Fe-based superconductors and for experimental investigations of exotic phases in superconducting layers on topological insulators.

  7. Interfacial superconductivity in a bi-collinear antiferromagnetically ordered FeTe monolayer on a topological insulator

    PubMed Central

    Manna, S.; Kamlapure, A.; Cornils, L.; Hänke, T.; Hedegaard, E. M. J.; Bremholm, M.; Iversen, B. B.; Hofmann, Ph.; Wiebe, J.; Wiesendanger, R.

    2017-01-01

    The discovery of high-temperature superconductivity in Fe-based compounds triggered numerous investigations on the interplay between superconductivity and magnetism, and on the enhancement of transition temperatures through interface effects. It is widely believed that the emergence of optimal superconductivity is intimately linked to the suppression of long-range antiferromagnetic (AFM) order, although the exact microscopic picture remains elusive because of the lack of atomically resolved data. Here we present spin-polarized scanning tunnelling spectroscopy of ultrathin FeTe1−xSex (x=0, 0.5) films on bulk topological insulators. Surprisingly, we find an energy gap at the Fermi level, indicating superconducting correlations up to Tc∼6 K for one unit cell FeTe grown on Bi2Te3, in contrast to the non-superconducting bulk FeTe. The gap spatially coexists with bi-collinear AFM order. This finding opens perspectives for theoretical studies of competing orders in Fe-based superconductors and for experimental investigations of exotic phases in superconducting layers on topological insulators. PMID:28094258

  8. Kinetic arrest induced antiferromagnetic order in hexagonal FeMnP{sub 0.75}Si{sub 0.25} alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Guijiang Li, Wei; Schönecker, Stephan; Li, Xiaoqing; Delczeg-Czirjak, Erna K.; Kvashnin, Yaroslav O.; Eriksson, Olle; Johansson, Börje; Vitos, Levente

    2014-12-29

    The magnetic state of the FeMnP{sub 0.75}Si{sub 0.25} alloy was investigated by first principles calculations. The coexistence of ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic phases in FeMnP{sub 0.75}Si{sub 0.25} with the same hexagonal crystal structure was revealed. It was found that kinetic arrest during the transition from the high temperature disordered paramagnetic phase to the low temperature ordered ferromagnetic phase results in the intermediate metastable and partially disordered antiferromagnetic phase. We propose that the ratio of the ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic phases in the FeMnP{sub 0.75}Si{sub 0.25} sample can be tuned by adjusting the kinetic process of atomic diffusion. The investigations suggest that careful control of the kinetic diffusion process provides another tuning parameter to design candidate magnetocaloric materials.

  9. Thermodynamic properties of antiferromagnetic ordered states of π -d interacting systems of κ -(BETS) 2Fe X4(X =Br ,Cl )

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuoka, Shuhei; Yamashita, Satoshi; Nakazawa, Yasuhiro; Yamamoto, Takashi; Fujiwara, Hideki; Shirahata, Takashi; Takahashi, Kazuko

    2016-06-01

    The results are presented for systematic heat capacity measurements of π-d interacting systems of κ -(BETS) 2Fe Br4 and κ -(BETS) 2FeC l4 [BETS = bis(ethylenedithio)tetraselenafulvalene] performed under in-plane magnetic fields. We observed sharp thermal anomalies at 2.47 K for κ -(BETS) 2FeB r4 and at 0.47 K for κ -(BETS) 2FeC l4 at 0 T that are associated with antiferromagnetic transitions of the 3 d electrons in the anion layers. From analyses of the magnetic heat capacity data, we indicate that the two compounds show unconventional thermodynamic behaviors inherent in the π-d interacting layered system. In the case of κ -(BETS) 2FeB r4 , a small hump structure was observed in the magnetic heat capacity below the transition temperature when a magnetic field was applied parallel to the a axis. In the case of κ -(BETS) 2FeC l4 , a similar hump structure was observed at 0 T that remained in the data with magnetic fields applied parallel to the a axis. We demonstrate that the temperature dependencies of the magnetic heat capacities scale well by normalizing the temperatures with dominant one-dimensional direct interactions (Jdd/kB) of each compound. The field dependencies of the transition temperatures and the hump structures are elucidated in one simple magnetic field vs temperature (H -T ) phase diagram. These results indicate that the thermodynamic features of both κ-type BETS salts are essentially equivalent, and the observed hump structures are derived from the one-dimensional Jdd interaction characters, which are still influential for magnetic features even in the long-range magnetic ordered states.

  10. Raman scattering study on the hidden order and antiferromagnetic phases in URu2-xFexSi2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kung, Hsiang-Hsi; Ran, Sheng; Kanchanavatee, Noravee; Lee, Alexander; Krapivin, Viktor; Haule, Kristjan; Maple, M. Brian; Blumberg, Girsh

    The heavy fermion compound URu2Si2 possesses an unusual ground state known as the ``hidden order'' (HO) phase below T = 17 . 5 K, which evolves into an large moment antiferromagnetic (LMAFM) phase under pressure. A recent Raman scattering study shows that an A2 g symmetry (D4 h) in-gap mode emerges in the HO phase, characterizing the excitation from a chirality density wave. Here, we report Raman scattering results for single crystal URu2-xFexSi2 with x <= 0 . 2 , where the Fe substitution acts as chemical pressure, shifting the system's ground state from HO to LMAFM. We found that the A2 g mode softens with doping, vanishes at the HO and LMAFM phase boundary, then re-emerges and hardens with doping in the LMAFM phase. The relations between the A2 g mode energy and the strength of the HO/LMAFM order parameters will be discussed in this talk. GB and HHK acknowledge support from DOE BES Award DE-SC0005463. AL and VK acknowledge NSF Award DMR-1104884. KH acknowledges NSF Award DMR-1405303. MBM, SR and NK acknowledge DOE BES Award DE-FG02-04ER46105 and NSF Award DMR 1206553.

  11. Cycloid manipulation by electric field in BiFeO3 films: Coupling between polarization, octahedral rotation, and antiferromagnetic order

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popkov, A. F.; Kulagin, N. E.; Soloviov, S. V.; Sukmanova, K. S.; Gareeva, Z. V.; Zvezdin, A. K.

    2015-10-01

    The room temperature multiferroic BiFeO3, by far the most studied experimentally, exhibits outstanding ferroelectric properties with a cycloidal magnetic order in the bulk and many unexpected advantages for possible applications in spintronics, sensor techniques, and photovoltaics. To consider ferroelectric and magnetic phase transitions in multiferroic BiFeO3 under electric field, we suggest the Ginsburg-Landau-like approach based on the symmetry and P -ω -L coupling, where the order parameters are: P is the electric polarization, ω is the axial vector of antidistorsion (describing a rotation of the oxygen octahedrons), and L is the antiferromagnetic vector. The theoretical model is consistent with experiment and ab initio calculations data. We give the complete set of numerical coefficients of the model and explore the behavior of P and ω vectors in strong electric field. The proposed approach is particularly promising for the analysis of magnetoelectric phenomena whose length scale is significantly larger than the length of the cell used in ab initio calculations. The considered cycloid problem is the clear example of such a system. Electric field-induced transformations of cycloid are exemplified on an epitaxial BiFeO3 film grown on the (001)-oriented substrate. We show that the jump of vectors P and ω in the field E =6 MV/m is accompanied by a jump of a cycloid spin rotation plane. This effect is of particular interest for spintronics and nanoelectronics.

  12. Magnetic and orbital orders coupled to negative thermal expansion in Mott insulators, Ca2Ru1--xM xO4 (M = 3d transition metal ion)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Tongfei

    Ca2RuO4 is a structurally-driven Mott insulator with a metal-insulator (MI) transition at TMI = 357K, followed by a well-separated antiferromagnetic order at T N = 110 K. Slightly substituting Ru with a 3d transition metal ion M effectively shifts TMI and induces exotic magnetic behavior below TN. Moreover, M doping for Ru produces negative thermal expansion in Ca2Ru1-- xMxO4 (M = Cr, Mn, Fe or Cu); the lattice volume expands on cooling with a total volume expansion ratio, DeltaV/V, reaching as high as 1%. The onset of the negative thermal expansion closely tracks TMI and TN, sharply contrasting classic negative thermal expansion that shows no relevance to electronic properties. In addition, the observed negative thermal expansion occurs near room temperature and extends over a wide temperature interval. These findings underscores new physics driven by a complex interplay between orbital, spin and lattice degrees of freedom. These materials constitute a new class of Negative Thermal Expansion (NTE) materials with novel electronic and magnetic functions. KEYWORDS: Transition Metal Oxide, Ruthenate, Negative Thermal Expansion, Single crystal XRD, Invar Effect, Orbital Ordering, Magnetic Ordering, Jahn-Teller Effect.

  13. A Form of Ge-Fe-oxide With Antiferromagnetic Ordering Temperature Near 265 K.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barghout, K.; Hamdeh, H. H.; Ho, J. C.; Willey, R. J.; O'Shea, M. J.

    1997-03-01

    Fine powders with nominal composition of GeFe_2O4 were prepared by the aerogel method, and were calcined in air at 950^0C for 10 hours. Preliminary, x-ray diffraction data show the as-prepared to comprise of small crystallites, smaller than 3 nm, in a mixture of an amo rphous matrix and the calcined powders of multiple phases. However, Mossbauer data show the calcined powder to have multiple sites but with a sharp magnetic order near 265 K, and magnetization data depict a complex magnetic structure.

  14. Three-dimensional antiferromagnetic order of single-chain magnets: a new approach to design molecule-based magnets.

    PubMed

    Miyasaka, Hitoshi; Takayama, Karin; Saitoh, Ayumi; Furukawa, Sachie; Yamashita, Masahiro; Clérac, Rodolphe

    2010-03-22

    Two one-dimensional compounds composed of a 1:1 ratio of Mn(III) salen-type complex and Ni(II) oximato moiety with different counter anions, PF(6)(-) and BPh(4)(-), were synthesized: [Mn(3,5-Cl(2)saltmen)Ni(pao)(2)(phen)]PF(6) (1) and [Mn(5-Clsaltmen)Ni(pao)(2)(phen)]BPh(4) (2), where 3,5-Cl(2)saltmen(2-) = N,N'-(1,1,2,2-tetramethylethylene)bis(3,5-dichlorosalicylideneiminate); 5-Clsaltmen(2-) = N,N'-(1,1,2,2-tetramethylethylene)bis(5-chlorosalicylideneiminate); pao(-) = pyridine-2-aldoximate; and phen = 1,10-phenanthroline. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction study was carried out for both compounds. In 1 and 2, the chain topology is very similar forming an alternating linear chain with a [-Mn(III)-ON-Ni(II)-NO-] repeating motif (where -ON- is the oximate bridge). The use of a bulky counteranion, such as BPh(4)(-), located between the chains in 2 rather than PF(6)(-) in 1, successfully led to the magnetic isolation of the chains in 2. This minimization of the interchain interactions allows the study of the intrinsic magnetic properties of the chains present in 1 and 2. While 1 and 2 possess, as expected, very similar paramagnetic properties above 15 K, their ground state is antiferromagnetic below 9.4 K and paramagnetic down to 1.8 K, respectively. Nevertheless, both compounds exhibit a magnet-type behavior at temperatures below 6 K. While for 2, the observed magnetism is well explained by a Single-Chain Magnet (SCM) behavior, the magnet properties for 1 are induced by the presence in the material of SCM building units that order antiferromagnetically. By controlling both intra- and interchain magnetic interactions in this new [Mn(III)Ni(II)] SCM system, a remarkable AF phase with a magnet-type behavior has been stabilized in relation with the intrinsic SCM properties of the chains present in 1. This result suggests that the simultaneous enhancement of both intrachain (J) and interchain (J') magnetic interactions (with keeping J > J'), independently of the presence

  15. Antiferromagnetic ordering with an anisotropy reversal in USn{sub 0.5}Sb{sub 1.5}

    SciTech Connect

    Tran, V.H. . E-mail: V.H.Tran@int.pan.wroc.pl; Bukowski, Z.; Stepien-Damm, J.; Troc, R.

    2006-05-15

    We report on single crystal growth, crystal structure refinements and on the measurements of low-temperature magnetic properties of a novel uranium intermetallic USn{sub 0.5}Sb{sub 1.5}. Single crystals were grown by means of the antimony flux technique. The crystal structure, refined from single crystal X-ray data, appears to be similar to that of USb{sub 2}, i.e., the tetragonal, anti-Cu{sub 2}Sb type unit cell with space group P4/nmm. Magnetisation and electrical resistivity measurements revealed that this compound orders antiferromagnetically below T{sub N}=177(1)K. A large magnetocrystalline anisotropy observed in the magnetic properties of USn{sub 0.5}Sb{sub 1.5} changes dramatically with decreasing temperature, switching from an easy magnetisation c-axis to an easy ab-plane at 163K. Due to the opening a superzone gap, the electrical resistivity in-plane shows a small hump just below T{sub N} in a manner resembling the formation of spin-density wave or/and charge-density wave.

  16. Quantum Monte Carlo analysis of a charge ordered insulating antiferromagnet: The Ti4O7 Magneli phase

    DOE PAGES

    Benali, Anouar; Shulenburger, Luke; Krogel, Jaron T.; ...

    2016-06-07

    The Magneli phase Ti4O7 is an important transition metal oxide with a wide range of applications because of its interplay between charge, spin, and lattice degrees of freedom. At low temperatures, it has non-trivial magnetic states very close in energy, driven by electronic exchange and correlation interactions. We have examined three low- lying states, one ferromagnetic and two antiferromagnetic, and calculated their energies as well as Ti spin moment distributions using highly accurate Quantum Monte Carlo methods. We compare our results to those obtained from density functional theory- based methods that include approximate corrections for exchange and correlation. Our resultsmore » confirm the nature of the states and their ordering in energy, as compared with density-functional theory methods. However, the energy differences and spin distributions differ. Here, a detailed analysis suggests that non-local exchange-correlation functionals, in addition to other approximations such as LDA+U to account for correlations, are needed to simultaneously obtain better estimates for spin moments, distributions, energy differences and energy gaps.« less

  17. Quantum Monte Carlo analysis of a charge ordered insulating antiferromagnet: the Ti4O7 Magnéli phase

    DOE PAGES

    Benali, Anouar; Shulenburger, Luke; Krogel, Jaron T.; ...

    2016-06-07

    The Magnéli phase Ti4O7 is an important transition metal oxide with a wide range of applications because of its interplay between charge, spin, and lattice degrees of freedom. At low temperatures, it has non-trivial magnetic states very close in energy, driven by electronic exchange and correlation interactions. In this paper, we have examined three low-lying states, one ferromagnetic and two antiferromagnetic, and calculated their energies as well as Ti spin moment distributions using highly accurate quantum Monte Carlo methods. We compare our results to those obtained from density functional theory-based methods that include approximate corrections for exchange and correlation. Ourmore » results confirm the nature of the states and their ordering in energy, as compared with density-functional theory methods. However, the energy differences and spin distributions differ. Finally, a detailed analysis suggests that non-local exchange–correlation functionals, in addition to other approximations such as LDA+U to account for correlations, are needed to simultaneously obtain better estimates for spin moments, distributions, energy differences and energy gaps.« less

  18. Lattice distortion and stripelike antiferromagnetic order in Ca10(Pt3As8)(Fe2As2)5

    SciTech Connect

    Sapkota, Aashish; Tucker, Gregory S; Ramazanoglu, Mehmet; Tian, Wei; Ni, N; Cava, R J; McQueeney, Robert J; Goldman, Alan I; Kreyssig, Andreas

    2014-09-01

    Ca10(Pt3As8)(Fe2As2)5 is the parent compound for a class of Fe-based high-temperature superconductors where superconductivity with transition temperatures up to 30 K can be introduced by partial element substitution. We present a combined high-resolution high-energy x-ray diffraction and elastic neutron scattering study on a Ca10(Pt3As8)(Fe2As2)5 single crystal. This study reveals the microscopic nature of two distinct and continuous phase transitions to be very similar to other Fe-based high-temperature superconductors: an orthorhombic distortion of the high-temperature tetragonal Fe-As lattice below TS=110(2) K followed by stripelike antiferromagnetic ordering of the Fe moments below TN=96(2) K. These findings demonstrate that major features of the Fe-based high-temperature superconductors are very robust against variations in chemical constitution as well as structural imperfection of the layers separating the Fe-As layers from each other and confirms that the Fe-As layers primarily determine the physics in this class of material.

  19. Spin-ordered ground state and thermodynamic behaviors of the spin-3/2 kagome Heisenberg antiferromagnet.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tao; Li, Wei; Su, Gang

    2016-09-01

    Three different tensor network (TN) optimization algorithms are employed to accurately determine the ground state and thermodynamic properties of the spin-3/2 kagome Heisenberg antiferromagnet. We found that the sqrt[3]×sqrt[3] state (i.e., the state with 120^{∘} spin configuration within a unit cell containing 9 sites) is the ground state of this system, and such an ordered state is melted at any finite temperature, thereby clarifying the existing experimental controversies. Three magnetization plateaus (m/m_{s}=1/3,23/27, and 25/27) were obtained, where the 1/3-magnetization plateau has been observed experimentally. The absence of a zero-magnetization plateau indicates a gapless spin excitation that is further supported by the thermodynamic asymptotic behaviors of the susceptibility and specific heat. At low temperatures, the specific heat is shown to exhibit a T^{2} behavior, and the susceptibility approaches a finite constant as T→0. Our TN results of thermodynamic properties are compared with those from high-temperature series expansion. In addition, we disclose a quantum phase transition between q=0 state (i.e., the state with 120^{∘} spin configuration within a unit cell containing three sites) and sqrt[3]×sqrt[3] state in a spin-3/2 kagome XXZ model at the critical point Δ_{c}=0.54. This study provides reliable and useful information for further explorations on high-spin kagome physics.

  20. Spin-ordered ground state and thermodynamic behaviors of the spin-3/2 kagome Heisenberg antiferromagnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Tao; Li, Wei; Su, Gang

    2016-09-01

    Three different tensor network (TN) optimization algorithms are employed to accurately determine the ground state and thermodynamic properties of the spin-3/2 kagome Heisenberg antiferromagnet. We found that the √{3 }×√{3 } state (i.e., the state with 120° spin configuration within a unit cell containing 9 sites) is the ground state of this system, and such an ordered state is melted at any finite temperature, thereby clarifying the existing experimental controversies. Three magnetization plateaus (m /ms=1 /3 ,23 /27 , and 25/27) were obtained, where the 1/3-magnetization plateau has been observed experimentally. The absence of a zero-magnetization plateau indicates a gapless spin excitation that is further supported by the thermodynamic asymptotic behaviors of the susceptibility and specific heat. At low temperatures, the specific heat is shown to exhibit a T2 behavior, and the susceptibility approaches a finite constant as T →0 . Our TN results of thermodynamic properties are compared with those from high-temperature series expansion. In addition, we disclose a quantum phase transition between q =0 state (i.e., the state with 120° spin configuration within a unit cell containing three sites) and √{3 }×√{3 } state in a spin-3/2 kagome XXZ model at the critical point Δc=0.54 . This study provides reliable and useful information for further explorations on high-spin kagome physics.

  1. Universal Bounds for the Littlewood-Paley First-Order Moments of the 3D Navier-Stokes Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otto, Felix; Ramos, Fabio

    2010-12-01

    We derive upper bounds for the infinite-time and space average of the L 1-norm of the Littlewood-Paley decomposition of weak solutions of the 3 D periodic Navier-Stokes equations. The result suggests that the Kolmogorov characteristic velocity scaling, {mathbf{U}_kappa˜ɛ^{1/3} kappa^{-1/3}} , holds as an upper bound for a region of wavenumbers near the dissipative cutoff.

  2. Linear magnetoelectric effect as a signature of long-range collinear antiferromagnetic ordering in the frustrated spinel CoA l2O4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghara, Somnath; Ter-Oganessian, N. V.; Sundaresan, A.

    2017-03-01

    The ground state of the frustrated A -site magnetic spinel CoA l2O4 has been a controversial issue whether it is a collinear antiferromagnetic ordering or a spiral spin-liquid state, as the ratio of the two competing interactions J2/J1 lies close to the boundary between these two ground states. Here we address the magnetic ground state in CoA l2O4 with different amounts of C o2 +/A l3 + site disorder from the study of magnetoelectric effect and Monte Carlo simulations. CoA l2O4 with low site disorder exhibits a linear magnetoelectric effect below the magnetic ordering temperature. With increasing disorder, the magnetoelectric effect is suppressed and the sample with 14 % disorder exhibits a spin glass behavior without the magnetoelectric effect. Monte Carlo simulations support the experimental findings and suggest that the site disorder suppresses long-range antiferromagnetic order and induces a spin glass state. Since the linear magnetoelectric effect requires a long-range magnetic ordering, we suggest that the ground state of CoA l2O4 with low site disorder is a collinear antiferromagnet.

  3. Elucidating the higher-order structure of biopolymers by structural probing and mass spectrometry: MS3D

    PubMed Central

    Fabris, Daniele; Yu, Eizadora T.

    2010-01-01

    Chemical probing represents a very versatile alternative for studying the structure and dynamics of substrates that are intractable by established high-resolution techniques. The implementation of MS-based strategies for the characterization of probing products has not only extended the range of applicability to virtually all types of biopolymers, but has also paved the way for the introduction of new reagents that would not have been viable with traditional analytical platforms. As the availability of probing data is steadily increasing on the wings of the development of dedicated interpretation aids, powerful computational approaches have been explored to enable the effective utilization of such information to generate valid molecular models. This combination of factors has contributed to making the possibility of obtaining actual 3D structures by MS-based technologies (MS3D) a reality. Although approaches for achieving structure determination of unknown substrates or assessing the dynamics of known structures may share similar reagents and development trajectories, they clearly involve distinctive experimental strategies, analytical concerns, and interpretation paradigms. This Perspective offers a commentary on methods aimed at obtaining distance constraints for the modeling of full-fledged structures, while highlighting common elements, salient distinctions, and complementary capabilities exhibited by methods employed in dynamics studies. We discuss critical factors to be addressed for completing effective structural determinations and expose possible pitfalls of chemical methods. We survey programs developed for facilitating the interpretation of experimental data and discuss possible computational strategies for translating sparse spatial constraints into all-atom models. Examples are provided to illustrate how the concerted application of very diverse probing techniques can lead to the solution of actual biological substrates. PMID:20648672

  4. A reduced-order model based on the coupled 1D-3D finite element simulations for an efficient analysis of hemodynamics problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soudah, Eduardo; Rossi, Riccardo; Idelsohn, Sergio; Oñate, Eugenio

    2014-10-01

    A reduced-order model for an efficient analysis of cardiovascular hemodynamics problems using multiscale approach is presented in this work. Starting from a patient-specific computational mesh obtained by medical imaging techniques, an analysis methodology based on a two-step automatic procedure is proposed. First a coupled 1D-3D Finite Element Simulation is performed and the results are used to adjust a reduced-order model of the 3D patient-specific area of interest. Then, this reduced-order model is coupled with the 1D model. In this way, three-dimensional effects are accounted for in the 1D model in a cost effective manner, allowing fast computation under different scenarios. The methodology proposed is validated using a patient-specific aortic coarctation model under rest and non-rest conditions.

  5. Unusual magnetic excitations in the weakly ordered spin- 12 chain antiferromagnet Sr2CuO3: Possible evidence for Goldstone magnon coupled with the amplitude mode

    DOE PAGES

    Sergeicheva, E. G.; Sosin, S. S.; Prozorova, L. A.; ...

    2017-01-18

    We report on an electron spin resonance (ESR) study of a nearly one-dimensional (1D) spin-1/2 chain antiferromagnet, Sr2CuO3, with extremely weak magnetic ordering. The ESR spectra at T > TN, in the disordered Luttinger-spin-liquid phase, reveal nearly ideal Heisenberg-chain behavior with only a very small, field-independent linewidth, ~1/T. In the ordered state, below TN, we identify field-dependent antiferromagnetic resonance modes, which are well described by pseudo-Goldstone magnons in the model of a collinear biaxial antiferromagnet. Additionally, we observe a major resonant mode with unusual and strongly anisotropic properties, which is not anticipated by the conventional theory of Goldstone spin waves.more » Lastly, we propose that this unexpected magnetic excitation can be attributed to a field-independent magnon mode renormalized due to its interaction with the high-energy amplitude (Higgs) mode in the regime of weak spontaneous symmetry breaking.« less

  6. A Two Colorable Fourth Order Compact Difference Scheme and Parallel Iterative Solution of the 3D Convection Diffusion Equation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Jun; Ge, Lixin; Kouatchou, Jules

    2000-01-01

    A new fourth order compact difference scheme for the three dimensional convection diffusion equation with variable coefficients is presented. The novelty of this new difference scheme is that it Only requires 15 grid points and that it can be decoupled with two colors. The entire computational grid can be updated in two parallel subsweeps with the Gauss-Seidel type iterative method. This is compared with the known 19 point fourth order compact differenCe scheme which requires four colors to decouple the computational grid. Numerical results, with multigrid methods implemented on a shared memory parallel computer, are presented to compare the 15 point and the 19 point fourth order compact schemes.

  7. General principles of describing second- and higher-order null points of a potential magnetic field in 3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukashenko, A. T.; Veselovsky, I. S.

    2015-12-01

    General principles of describing secondand higher-order null points of a potential magnetic field are formulated. The potential near a second-order null of the general form can be specified by a linear combination of four basic functions, the list of which is presented. Near secondand higher-order null points, field line equations often cannot be integrated analytically; however, in some cases, it is possible to present a qualitative description of the geometry of null vicinities with consideration of the behavior of field lines near rays outgoing from null, at which the field is radial or equals zero.

  8. Order parameter re-mapping algorithm for 3D phase field model of grain growth using FEM

    SciTech Connect

    Permann, Cody J.; Tonks, Michael R.; Fromm, Bradley; Gaston, Derek R.

    2016-01-14

    Phase field modeling (PFM) is a well-known technique for simulating microstructural evolution. To model grain growth using PFM, typically each grain is assigned a unique non-conserved order parameter and each order parameter field is evolved in time. Traditional approaches using a one-to-one mapping of grains to order parameters present a challenge when modeling large numbers of grains due to the computational expense of using many order parameters. This problem is exacerbated when using an implicit finite element method (FEM), as the global matrix size is proportional to the number of order parameters. While previous work has developed methods to reduce the number of required variables and thus computational complexity and run time, none of the existing approaches can be applied for an implicit FEM implementation of PFM. Here, we present a modular, dynamic, scalable reassignment algorithm suitable for use in such a system. Polycrystal modeling with grain growth and stress require careful tracking of each grain’s position and orientation which is lost when using a reduced order parameter set. In conclusion, the method presented in this paper maintains a unique ID for each grain even after reassignment, to allow the PFM to be tightly coupled to calculations of the stress throughout the polycrystal. Implementation details and comparative results of our approach are presented.

  9. Order parameter re-mapping algorithm for 3D phase field model of grain growth using FEM

    DOE PAGES

    Permann, Cody J.; Tonks, Michael R.; Fromm, Bradley; ...

    2016-01-14

    Phase field modeling (PFM) is a well-known technique for simulating microstructural evolution. To model grain growth using PFM, typically each grain is assigned a unique non-conserved order parameter and each order parameter field is evolved in time. Traditional approaches using a one-to-one mapping of grains to order parameters present a challenge when modeling large numbers of grains due to the computational expense of using many order parameters. This problem is exacerbated when using an implicit finite element method (FEM), as the global matrix size is proportional to the number of order parameters. While previous work has developed methods to reducemore » the number of required variables and thus computational complexity and run time, none of the existing approaches can be applied for an implicit FEM implementation of PFM. Here, we present a modular, dynamic, scalable reassignment algorithm suitable for use in such a system. Polycrystal modeling with grain growth and stress require careful tracking of each grain’s position and orientation which is lost when using a reduced order parameter set. In conclusion, the method presented in this paper maintains a unique ID for each grain even after reassignment, to allow the PFM to be tightly coupled to calculations of the stress throughout the polycrystal. Implementation details and comparative results of our approach are presented.« less

  10. Ising-like chain magnetism, Arrhenius magnetic relaxation, and case against 3D magnetic ordering in β-manganese phthalocyanine (C32H16MnN8)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhengjun; Seehra, Mohindar S.

    2016-04-01

    Previous magnetic studies in the organic semiconductor β-manganese phthalocyanine (β-MnPc) have reported it to be a canted ferromagnet below T C  ≈  8.6 K. However, the recent result of the lack of a λ-type anomaly in the specific heat versus temperature data near the quoted T C has questioned the presence of long-range 3-dimensional (3D) magnetic ordering in this system. In this paper, detailed measurements and analysis of the temperature (2 K-300 K) and magnetic field (up to 90 kOe) dependence of the dc and ac magnetic susceptibilities in a powder sample of β-MnPc leads us to conclude that 3D long-range magnetic ordering is absent in this material. This is supported by the Arrott plots and the lack of a peak in the ac susceptibilities, χ‧ and χ″, near the quoted T C. Instead, the system can be best described as an Ising-like chain magnet with Arrhenius relaxation of the magnetization governed by an intra-layer ferromagnetic exchange constant J/k B  =  2.6 K and the single ion anisotropy energy parameter |D|/k B  =  8.3 K. The absence of 3D long range order is consistent with the measured \\mid D\\mid   >  J.

  11. Long-Range Order of the Three-Sublattice Structure in theS=1 Heisenberg Antiferromagnet on a Spatially Anisotropic Triangular Lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakano, Hiroki; Todo, Synge; Sakai, Tôru

    2013-04-01

    We study the S=1 Heisenberg antiferromagnet on a spatially anisotropic triangular lattice by the numerical diagonalization method. We examine the stability of the long-range order of a three-sublattice structure observed in the isotropic system between the isotropic case and the case of isolated one-dimensional chains. It is found that the long-range-ordered ground state with this structure exists in the range of 0.7 \\simle J_2/J_1 \\le 1, where J_1 is the interaction amplitude along the chains and J_2 is the amplitude of other interactions.

  12. Antiferromagnetic hedgehogs with superconducting cores

    SciTech Connect

    Goldbart, P.M.; Sheehy, D.E.

    1998-09-01

    Excitations of the antiferromagnetic state that resemble antiferromagnetic hedgehogs at large distances but are predominantly superconducting inside a core region are discussed within the context of Zhang{close_quote}s SO(5)-symmetry-based approach to the physics of high-temperature superconducting materials. Nonsingular, in contrast with their hedgehog cousins in pure antiferromagnetism, these texture excitations are what hedgehogs become when the antiferromagnetic order parameter is permitted to {open_quotes}escape{close_quotes} into superconducting directions. The structure of such excitations is determined in a simple setting, and a number of their experimental implications are examined. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

  13. Antiferromagnetic hedgehogs with superconducting cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldbart, Paul M.; Sheehy, Daniel E.

    1998-09-01

    Excitations of the antiferromagnetic state that resemble antiferromagnetic hedgehogs at large distances but are predominantly superconducting inside a core region are discussed within the context of Zhang's SO(5)-symmetry-based approach to the physics of high-temperature superconducting materials. Nonsingular, in contrast with their hedgehog cousins in pure antiferromagnetism, these texture excitations are what hedgehogs become when the antiferromagnetic order parameter is permitted to ``escape'' into superconducting directions. The structure of such excitations is determined in a simple setting, and a number of their experimental implications are examined.

  14. Second-Order Inelastic Dynamic Analysis of 3D Semi-Rigid Steel Frames Under Earthquake Loads with Three Components

    SciTech Connect

    Ozakgul, Kadir

    2008-07-08

    In this study, it has been presented an algorithm for second-order elastoplastic dynamic time-history analysis of three dimensional frames that have steel members with semirigid joints. The proposed analysis accounts for material, geometric and connection nonlinearities. Material nonlinearity have been modeled by the Ramberg-Osgood relation. While the geometric nonlinearity caused by axial force has been described by the use of the geometric stiffness matrix, the nonlinearity caused by the interaction between the axial force and bending moment has been also described by the use of the stability functions. The independent hardening model has been used to describe the nonlinear behaviour of semi-rigid connections. Dynamic equation of motion has been solved by Newmark's constant acceleration method in time history domain.

  15. Antiferromagnetic skyrmions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tretiakov, Oleg; Barker, Joseph

    Skyrmions are topologically protected entities in magnetic materials which have the potential to be used in spintronics for information storage and processing. However, skyrmions in ferromagnets have some intrinsic difficulties which must be overcome to use them for spintronic applications, such as the inability to move straight along current. We show that skyrmions can also be stabilized and manipulated in antiferromagnetic materials. An antiferromagnetic skyrmion is a compound topological object with a similar but of opposite sign spin texture on each sublattice, which e.g. results in a complete cancelation of the Magnus force. We find that the composite nature of antiferromagnetic skyrmions gives rise to different dynamical behavior, both due to an applied current and temperature effects. O.A.T. and J.B. acknowledge support by the Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research (Nos. 25800184, 25247056, 25220910 and 15H01009) from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) of Japan and SpinNet.

  16. Highly-Ordered 3D Vertical Resistive Switching Memory Arrays with Ultralow Power Consumption and Ultrahigh Density.

    PubMed

    Al-Haddad, Ahmed; Wang, Chengliang; Qi, Haoyuan; Grote, Fabian; Wen, Liaoyong; Bernhard, Jörg; Vellacheri, Ranjith; Tarish, Samar; Nabi, Ghulam; Kaiser, Ute; Lei, Yong

    2016-09-07

    Resistive switching random access memories (RRAM) have attracted great scientific and industrial attention for next generation data storage because of their advantages of nonvolatile properties, high density, low power consumption, fast writing/erasing speed, good endurance, and simple and small operation system. Here, by using a template-assisted technique, we demonstrate a three-dimensional highly ordered vertical RRAM device array with density as high as that of the nanopores of the template (10(8)-10(9) cm(-2)), which can also be fabricated in large area. The high crystallinity of the materials, the large contact area and the intimate semiconductor/electrode interface (3 nm interfacial layer) make the ultralow voltage operation (millivolt magnitude) and ultralow power consumption (picowatt) possible. Our procedure for fabrication of the nanodevice arrays in large area can be used for producing many other different materials and such three-dimensional electronic device arrays with the capability to adjust the device densities can be extended to other applications of the next generation nanodevice technology.

  17. Field-induced transition of the magnetic ground state from A-type antiferromagnetic to ferromagnetic order in CsCo2Se2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Rohr, Fabian; Krzton-Maziopa, Anna; Pomjakushin, Vladimir; Grundmann, Henrik; Guguchia, Zurab; Schnick, Wolfgang; Schilling, Andreas

    2016-07-01

    We report on the magnetic properties of CsCo2Se2 with ThCr2Si2 structure, which we have characterized through a series of magnetization and neutron diffraction measurements. We find that CsCo2Se2 undergoes a phase transition to an antiferromagnetically ordered state with a Néel temperature of {{T}\\text{N}}≈ 66 K. The nearest neighbour interactions are ferromagnetic as observed by the positive Curie-Weiss temperature of \\Theta≈ 51.0 K. We find that the magnetic structure of CsCo2Se2 consists of ferromagnetic sheets, which are stacked antiferromagnetically along the tetragonal c-axis, generally referred to as A-type antiferromagnetic order. The observed magnitude of the ordered magnetic moment at T  =  1.5 K is found to be only 0.20(1){μ\\text{Bohr}}  / Co. Already in comparably small magnetic fields of {μ0}H{{}\\text{MM}}(5~K)≈ 0.3 T, we observe a metamagnetic transition that can be attributed to spin-rearrangements of CsCo2Se2, with the moments fully ferromagnetically saturated in a magnetic field of {μ0}{{H}\\text{FM}}(5~K)≈ 6.4 T. We discuss the entire experimentally deduced magnetic phase diagram for CsCo2Se2 with respect to its unconventionally weak magnetic coupling. Our study characterizes CsCo2Se2, which is chemically and electronically posed closely to the A x Fe2-y Se2 superconductors, as a host of versatile magnetic interactions.

  18. Long-range antiferromagnetic ordering in Cu{sub 2}NiB{sub 2}O{sub 6}

    SciTech Connect

    He Zhangzhen . E-mail: he@issp.u-tokyo.ac.jp; Kyomen, Toru; Taniyama, Tomoyasu; Itoh, Mitsuru

    2006-12-15

    Magnetic properties of peculiar structural type borate Cu{sub 2}NiB{sub 2}O{sub 6} are investigated by means of ac susceptibility, dc magnetization, and heat capacity measurements. This material is isostructural to Cu{sub 2}CoB{sub 2}O{sub 6}, of which the structural configuration is composed of quasi-one-dimensional six-columns ribbons. Our experimental results show that this material displays an antiferromagnetic phase transition at {approx}15 K, which differs from Cu{sub 2}CoB{sub 2}O{sub 6} showing spin-glass behavior below 5 K. The different magnetic ground states in these compounds may be attributed mainly to the subtle balance of the exchange energy in the scalene triangles. - Graphical abstract: Cu{sub 2}NiB{sub 2}O{sub 6} is found to display an antiferromagnetic phase transition at {approx}15 K, which differs from isostructural Cu{sub 2}CoB{sub 2}O{sub 6} showing spin-glass behavior below 5 K. The nature of different magnetic ground states in these compounds can be understood by a non-equilateral triangle model.

  19. Resonant X-ray scattering measurements of a spatial modulation of the Cu 3d and O 2p energies in stripe-ordered cuprate superconductors.

    PubMed

    Achkar, A J; He, F; Sutarto, R; Geck, J; Zhang, H; Kim, Y-J; Hawthorn, D G

    2013-01-04

    A prevailing description of the stripe phase in underdoped cuprate superconductors is that the charge carriers (holes) phase segregate on a microscopic scale into hole-rich and hole-poor regions. We report resonant elastic x-ray scattering measurements of stripe-ordered La(1.475)Nd(0.4)Sr(0.125)CuO(4) at the Cu L and O K absorption edges that identify an additional feature of stripe order. Analysis of the energy dependence of the scattering intensity reveals that the dominant signature of the stripe order is a spatial modulation in the energies of Cu 3d and O 2p states rather than the large modulation of the charge density (valence) envisioned in the common stripe paradigm. These energy shifts are interpreted as a spatial modulation of the electronic structure and may point to a valence-bond-solid interpretation of the stripe phase.

  20. Using a time-domain higher-order boundary element method to simulate wave and current diffraction from a 3-D body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhen; Teng, Bin; Ning, De-Zhi; Sun, Liang

    2010-06-01

    To study wave-current actions on 3-D bodies a time-domain numerical model was established using a higher-order boundary element method (HOBEM). By assuming small flow velocities, the velocity potential could be expressed for linear and higher order components by perturbation expansion. A 4th-order Runge-Kutta method was applied for time marching. An artificial damping layer was adopted at the outer zone of the free surface mesh to dissipate scattering waves. Validation of the numerical method was carried out on run-up, wave exciting forces, and mean drift forces for wave-currents acting on a bottom-mounted vertical cylinder. The results were in close agreement with the results of a frequency-domain method and a published time-domain method. The model was then applied to compute wave-current forces and run-up on a Seastar mini tension-leg platform.

  1. Electrical switching of an antiferromagnet.

    PubMed

    Wadley, P; Howells, B; Železný, J; Andrews, C; Hills, V; Campion, R P; Novák, V; Olejník, K; Maccherozzi, F; Dhesi, S S; Martin, S Y; Wagner, T; Wunderlich, J; Freimuth, F; Mokrousov, Y; Kuneš, J; Chauhan, J S; Grzybowski, M J; Rushforth, A W; Edmonds, K W; Gallagher, B L; Jungwirth, T

    2016-02-05

    Antiferromagnets are hard to control by external magnetic fields because of the alternating directions of magnetic moments on individual atoms and the resulting zero net magnetization. However, relativistic quantum mechanics allows for generating current-induced internal fields whose sign alternates with the periodicity of the antiferromagnetic lattice. Using these fields, which couple strongly to the antiferromagnetic order, we demonstrate room-temperature electrical switching between stable configurations in antiferromagnetic CuMnAs thin-film devices by applied current with magnitudes of order 10(6) ampere per square centimeter. Electrical writing is combined in our solid-state memory with electrical readout and the stored magnetic state is insensitive to and produces no external magnetic field perturbations, which illustrates the unique merits of antiferromagnets for spintronics.

  2. The relative abundances of resolved l2CH2D2 and 13CH3D and mechanisms controlling isotopic bond ordering in abiotic and biotic methane gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, E. D.; Kohl, I. E.; Lollar, B. Sherwood; Etiope, G.; Rumble, D.; Li (李姝宁), S.; Haghnegahdar, M. A.; Schauble, E. A.; McCain, K. A.; Foustoukos, D. I.; Sutclife, C.; Warr, O.; Ballentine, C. J.; Onstott, T. C.; Hosgormez, H.; Neubeck, A.; Marques, J. M.; Pérez-Rodríguez, I.; Rowe, A. R.; LaRowe, D. E.; Magnabosco, C.; Yeung, L. Y.; Ash, J. L.; Bryndzia, L. T.

    2017-04-01

    We report measurements of resolved 12CH2D2 and 13CH3D at natural abundances in a variety of methane gases produced naturally and in the laboratory. The ability to resolve 12CH2D2 from 13CH3D provides unprecedented insights into the origin and evolution of CH4. The results identify conditions under which either isotopic bond order disequilibrium or equilibrium are expected. Where equilibrium obtains, concordant Δ12CH2D2 and Δ13CH3D temperatures can be used reliably for thermometry. We find that concordant temperatures do not always match previous hypotheses based on indirect estimates of temperature of formation nor temperatures derived from CH4/H2 D/H exchange, underscoring the importance of reliable thermometry based on the CH4 molecules themselves. Where Δ12CH2D2 and Δ13CH3D values are inconsistent with thermodynamic equilibrium, temperatures of formation derived from these species are spurious. In such situations, while formation temperatures are unavailable, disequilibrium isotopologue ratios nonetheless provide novel information about the formation mechanism of the gas and the presence or absence of multiple sources or sinks. In particular, disequilibrium isotopologue ratios may provide the means for differentiating between methane produced by abiotic synthesis vs. biological processes. Deficits in 12CH2D2 compared with equilibrium values in CH4 gas made by surface-catalyzed abiotic reactions are so large as to point towards a quantum tunneling origin. Tunneling also accounts for the more moderate depletions in 13CH3D that accompany the low 12CH2D2 abundances produced by abiotic reactions. The tunneling signature may prove to be an important tracer of abiotic methane formation, especially where it is preserved by dissolution of gas in cool hydrothermal systems (e.g., Mars). Isotopologue signatures of abiotic methane production can be erased by infiltration of microbial communities, and Δ12CH2D2 values are a key tracer of microbial recycling.

  3. Electronic, magnetic, and optical characteristics of half-semiconductor double perovskite oxide Sr2CrOsO6 governed by 3d (t2g3)-5d (t2g3) antiferromagnetic coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    H.-E., M. Musa Saad

    2016-07-01

    In this study, motivated by observations of the remarkable magnetic insulating nature and high Curie temperature (TC=725 K) of double perovskite oxide Sr2CrOsO6, the electronic, magnetic, and optical characteristics of Sr2CrOsO6 were determined using the full potential linear muffin-tin orbital method according to density functional theory. The spin-orbit coupling contribution was included in the local spin density approximation (LSDA) and generalized gradient approximation (GGA). In addition, the Coulomb repulsion (U) and Hund's exchange (J) energies were considered in both methods (LSDA+U and GGA+U). Full structural optimization confirmed that the ground state of Sr2CrOsO6 is face-centered cubic (Fm-3m symmetry). Calculations predicted that Sr2CrOsO6 is ferrimagnetic half-semiconductive (HSC) due to the vertical hopping of t2g electrons via antiferromagnetic coupling [Cr3+ (t2g3↑)-O (2pπ)-Os5+ (t2g3↓)], which agreed with the experimental results. The HSC energy-gaps originate from the splitting of three partially occupied Os5+ (5d) bands into two fully filled bands and one empty spin-down band. The real ε1 (ω) and imaginary ε2 (ω) parts of the dielectric function ε (ω) and energy-loss spectrum L (ω) were calculated, analyzed, and compared with the electronic results.

  4. Slow relaxation of the magnetization observed in an antiferromagnetically ordered phase for SCM-based two-dimensional layered compounds.

    PubMed

    Kagesawa, Koichi; Nishimura, Yuki; Yoshida, Hiroki; Breedlove, Brian K; Yamashita, Masahiro; Miyasaka, Hitoshi

    2017-03-07

    Two-dimensional layered compounds with different counteranions, [{Mn(salen)}4C6](BF4)2·2(CH3OH) (1) and [{Mn(salen)}4C6](PF6)2·2(CH3OH) (2) (salen(2-) = N,N'-bis(salicylideneiminato), C6(2-) = C6H12(COO)2(2-)), were synthesized by assembling [Mn(salen)(H2O)]X (X(-) = BF4(-) and PF6(-)) and C6H12(CO2(-))2 (C6(2-)) in a methanol/2-propanol medium. The compounds have similar structures, which are composed of Mn(salen) out-of-plane dimers bridged by μ(4)-type C6(2-) ions, forming a brick-wall-type network of [-{Mn2}-OCO-] chains alternately connected via C6H12 linkers of C6(2-) moieties. The counteranions for 1 and 2, i.e., BF4(-) and PF6(-), respectively, are located between layers. Since the size of BF4(-) is smaller than that of PF6(-), intra-layer inter-chain and inter-plane nearest-neighbor MnMn distances are shorter in 1 than in 2. The zigzag chain moiety of [-{Mn2}-OCO-] leads to a canted S = 2 spin arrangement with ferromagnetic coupling in the Mn(III) out-of-plane dimer moiety and antiferromagnetic coupling through -OCO- bridges. Due to strong uniaxial anisotropy of the Mn(III) ion, the [-{Mn2}-OCO-] chains could behave as a single-chain magnet (SCM), which exhibits slow relaxation of magnetization at low temperatures. Nevertheless, these compounds fall into an antiferromagnetic ground state at higher temperatures of TN = 4.6 and 3.8 K for 1 and 2, respectively, than active temperatures for SCM behavior. The spin flip field at 1.8 K is 2.7 and 1.8 kOe for 1 and 2, respectively, which is attributed to the inter-chain interactions tuned by the size of the counteranions. The relaxation times of magnetization become longer at the boundary between the antiferromagnetic phase and the paramagnetic phase.

  5. Crystalline Electric Field as a Probe for Long-Range Antiferromagnetic Order and Superconducting State of CeFeAsO1-xFx

    SciTech Connect

    Chi, Songxue; Adroja, D. T.; GUIDI, T.; Bewley, Robert I.; Li, Shiliang; Zhao, Jun; Lynn, J. W.; Brown, C. M.; Qiu, Y.; Chen, G. F,; Luo, J. L.; Wang, N. L.; Dai, Pengcheng

    2008-01-01

    We use inelastic neutron scattering to study the crystalline electric field (CEF) excitations of Ce{sup 3+} in CeFeAsO{sub 1-x}F{sub x} (x=0, 0.16). For nonsuperconducting CeFeAsO, the Ce CEF levels have three magnetic doublets in the paramagnetic state, but these doublets split into six singlets when the Fe ions order antiferromagnetically. For superconducting CeFeAsO{sub 0.84}F{sub 0.16} (T{sub c} = 41 K), where the static antiferromagnetic order is suppressed, the Ce CEF levels have three magnetic doublets at {h_bar}{sub {omega}} = 0, 18.7, 58.4 meV at all temperatures. Careful measurements of the intrinsic linewidth {Lambda} and the peak position of the 18.7 meV mode reveal a clear anomaly at T{sub c}, consistent with a strong enhancement of local magnetic susceptibility {chi}{double_prime}({h_bar}{sub {omega}}) below T{sub c}. These results suggest that CEF excitations in the rare-earth oxypnictides can be used as a probe of spin dynamics in the nearby FeAs planes.

  6. Torque magnetometry study of magnetically ordered state and spin reorientation in the quasi-one-dimensional S =1/2 Heisenberg antiferromagnet CuSb2O6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herak, Mirta; Žilić, Dijana; Matković Čalogović, Dubravka; Berger, Helmuth

    2015-05-01

    The antiferromagnetically ordered state of the monoclinic quasi-one-dimensional S =1 /2 Heisenberg antiferromagnet CuSb2O6 was studied combining torque magnetometry with a phenomenological approach to magnetic anisotropy. This system is known to have a number of different twins in the monoclinic β phase, which differ in the orientation of the two CuO6 octahedra in the unit cell resulting in different orientation of magnetic axes with respect to crystal axes for each twin. We performed torque measurements in magnetic fields H ≤0.8 T on a sample where a certain type of twin was shown to be dominant by ESR spectroscopy. The measured data reveal that the easy axis is the crystallographic b axis for this sample. Phenomenological magnetocrystalline anisotropy energy invariant to crystal symmetry operations was used to model the spin axis direction in zero and finite magnetic fields. Our model reproduces the value of the spin-flop field HSF=1.25 T found in literature. A combination of this approach with our torque results shows that the spin axis will flop in the direction of the maximal value of measured g tensor when the magnetic field H >HSF is applied along the easy axis direction. Our analysis of magnetocrystalline anisotropy energy predicts two possibilities for the easy axis direction in this system, b or a , connected to different crystallographic twins that can be realized in CuSb2O6 . These results offer a possibility to reconcile the different reports of easy axis direction found in literature for this system and also nicely demonstrate how a combination of torque magnetometry and a phenomenological approach to magnetic anisotropy can be used to determine the value of the spin-flop field and the direction of spin axis in antiferromagnets in both H HSF by performing measurements in fields significantly smaller than HSF.

  7. The f-spin physics of rare-earth iron pnictides: influence of d-electron antiferromagnetic order on heavy fermion phase diagram

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Jian-xin; Dai, Jianhui; Si, Qimiao

    2009-01-01

    Some of the high {Tc} iron pnictides contain rare-earth elements, raising the question of how the existence and tunability of a d-electron antiferromagnetic order influences the heavy fermion behavior of the f-moments. With CeOFeP and CeOFeAs in mind as prototypes, we derive an extended Anderson lattice model appropriate for these quaternary systems. We show that the Kondo screening of the f-moments are efficiently suppressed by the d-electron ordering. We also argue that, inside the d-electron ordered state (as in CeOFeAs), the f-moments provide a rare realization of a quantum frustrated magnet with competing J{sub 1}-J{sub 2}-J{sub 3} interactions in an effective square lattice. Implications ofr the heavy fermion physics in broader contexts are also discussed.

  8. Bicollinear antiferromagnetic order, monoclinic distortion, and reversed resistivity anisotropy in FeTe as a result of spin-lattice coupling

    DOE PAGES

    Bishop, Christopher B.; Moreo, Adriana; Dagotto, Elbio

    2016-09-08

    The bicollinear antiferromagnetic order experimentally observed in FeTe is shown to be stabilized by the coupling g~12 between monoclinic lattice distortions and the spin-nematic order parameter with B2g symmetry, within a three-orbital spin-fermion model studied with Monte Carlo techniques. A finite but small value of g~12 is required, with a concomitant lattice distortion compatible with experiments, and a tetragonal-monoclinic transition strongly first order. Remarkably, the bicollinear state found here displays a planar resistivity with the reversed puzzling anisotropy discovered in transport experiments. Orthorhombic distortions are also incorporated, and phase diagrams interpolating between pnictides and chalcogenides are presented. Here, we concludemore » that the spin-lattice coupling we introduce is sufficient to explain the challenging properties of FeTe.« less

  9. Bicollinear antiferromagnetic order, monoclinic distortion, and reversed resistivity anisotropy in FeTe as a result of spin-lattice coupling

    SciTech Connect

    Bishop, Christopher B.; Moreo, Adriana; Dagotto, Elbio

    2016-09-08

    The bicollinear antiferromagnetic order experimentally observed in FeTe is shown to be stabilized by the coupling g~12 between monoclinic lattice distortions and the spin-nematic order parameter with B2g symmetry, within a three-orbital spin-fermion model studied with Monte Carlo techniques. A finite but small value of g~12 is required, with a concomitant lattice distortion compatible with experiments, and a tetragonal-monoclinic transition strongly first order. Remarkably, the bicollinear state found here displays a planar resistivity with the reversed puzzling anisotropy discovered in transport experiments. Orthorhombic distortions are also incorporated, and phase diagrams interpolating between pnictides and chalcogenides are presented. Here, we conclude that the spin-lattice coupling we introduce is sufficient to explain the challenging properties of FeTe.

  10. Enhanced photovoltaic properties of Nb₂O₅-coated TiO₂ 3D ordered porous electrodes in dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hye-Na; Moon, Jun Hyuk

    2012-11-01

    This paper describes the use of Nb₂O₅-coated TiO₂ 3D ordered porous electrodes in dye-sensitized solar cells. We employed bilayer inverse opal structures as a backbone of 3D porous structures, and the number of Nb₂O₅ coatings was controlled, determining the concentration of Nb₂O₅ coating. XPS measurements confirmed the formation of Nb₂O₅. The uniformity of the Nb₂O₅ coating was characterized by elemental mapping using SEM and TEM measurements. Photovoltaic measurement on dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) that incorporated Nb₂O₅/TiO₂ inverse opal electrodes yielded a maximum efficiency of 7.23% for a 3.3 wt % Nb₂O₅ coating on a TiO₂ IO structure. The Nb₂O₅ significantly increased the short-circuit current density (J(SC)). Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was used to measure the J(SC), revealing an enhanced electron injection upon deposition of the Nb₂O₅ coating.

  11. Application of rank-ordered multifractal analysis (ROMA) to intermittent fluctuations in 3D turbulent flows, 2D MHD simulation and solar wind data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, C.; Chang, T.

    2010-12-01

    A new method in describing the multifractal characteristics of intermittent events was introduced by Cheng and Wu [Chang T. and Wu C.C., Physical Rev, E77, 045401(R), 2008]. The procedure provides a natural connection between the rank-ordered spectrum and the idea of one-parameter scaling for monofractals. This technique has been demonstrated using results obtained from a 2D MHD simulation. It has also been successfully applied to in-situ solar wind observations [Chang T., Wu, C.C. and Podesta, J., AIP Conf Proc. 1039, 75, 2008], and the broadband electric field oscillations from the auroral zone [Tam, S.W.Y. et al., Physical Rev, E81, 036414, 2010]. We take the next step in this procedure. By using the ROMA spectra and the scaled probability distribution functions (PDFs), raw PDFs can be calculated, which can be compared directly with PDFs from observations or simulation results. In addition to 2D MHD simulation results and in-situ solar wind observation, we show clearly using the ROMA analysis the multifractal character of the 3D fluid simulation data obtained from the JHU turbulence database cluster at http://turbulence.pha.jhu.edu. In particular, we show the scaling of the non-symmetrical PDF for the parallel-velocity fluctuations of this 3D fluid data.

  12. Antiferromagnetism in chromium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaramillo, Rafael

    I present two experimental studies of the spin density wave antiferromagnetic order in elemental Chromium. The first addresses the response of the magnetic ground state to applied pressure. The spin and charge order parameters are probed at high pressure and low temperature in a diamond anvil cell using monochromatic X-ray diffraction. We find that the magnetism is suppressed exponentially with pressure, providing a canonical example of a weak-coupling, mean-field ground state, before terminating at a quantum phase transition. We confirm the harmonic relationship between the spin and charge degrees of freedom in the low temperature regime, and we identify the microscopic coupling between pressure and magnetism. The discovery of the long-sought-after quantum critical regime sets the stage for a complete study of antiferromagnetic quantum criticality in this clean model system. The second study addresses the thermodynamics and transport properties of antiferromagnetic domain structure. We find a robust thermal hysteresis in the longitudinal and Hall resistivities of sub-mm bulk Cr samples. The temperature limits of the hysteresis are correlated with domain wall fluctuations and freezing. The persistent sign of the hysteresis and the macroscopic return point memory warrant a new understanding of domain wall energetics. By combining electrical transport and X-ray microdiffraction measurements we are able to pinpoint the effects of antiferromagnetic domain walls on electron transport.

  13. Collinear order in the frustrated three-dimensional spin-1/2 antiferromagnet Li2CuW2O8

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranjith, K. M.; Nath, R.; Skoulatos, M.; Keller, L.; Kasinathan, D.; Skourski, Y.; Tsirlin, A. A.

    2015-09-01

    Magnetic frustration in three dimensions (3D) manifests itself in the spin-1/2 insulator Li2CuW2O8 . Density-functional band-structure calculations reveal a peculiar spin lattice built of triangular planes with frustrated interplane couplings. The saturation field of 29 T contrasts with the susceptibility maximum at 8.5 K and a relatively low Néel temperature TN≃3.9 K . Magnetic order below TN is collinear with the propagation vector (0 ,1/2 ,0 ) and an ordered moment of 0.65(4) μB according to neutron diffraction data. This reduced ordered moment together with the low maximum of the magnetic specific heat (Cmax/R ≃0.35 ) pinpoint strong magnetic frustration in 3D. Collinear magnetic order suggests that quantum fluctuations play a crucial role in this system, where a noncollinear spiral state would be stabilized classically.

  14. First-order insulator-to-metal Mott transition in the paramagnetic 3D system GaTa4Se8.

    PubMed

    Camjayi, A; Acha, C; Weht, R; Rodríguez, M G; Corraze, B; Janod, E; Cario, L; Rozenberg, M J

    2014-08-22

    The nature of the Mott transition in the absence of any symmetry breaking remains a matter of debate. We study the correlation-driven insulator-to-metal transition in the prototypical 3D Mott system GaTa(4)Se(8), as a function of temperature and applied pressure. We report novel experiments on single crystals, which demonstrate that the transition is of first order and follows from the coexistence of two states, one insulating and one metallic, that we toggle with a small bias current. We provide support for our findings by contrasting the experimental data with calculations that combine local density approximation with dynamical mean-field theory, which are in very good agreement.

  15. MIMO radar 3D imaging based on combined amplitude and total variation cost function with sequential order one negative exponential form.

    PubMed

    Ma, Changzheng; Yeo, Tat Soon; Zhao, Yongbo; Feng, Junjie

    2014-05-01

    In inverse synthetic aperture radar (ISAR) imaging, a target is usually regarded as consist of a few strong (specular) scatterers and the distribution of these strong scatterers is sparse in the imaging volume. In this paper, we propose to incorporate the sparse signal recovery method in 3D multiple-input multiple-output radar imaging algorithm. Sequential order one negative exponential (SOONE) function, which forms homotopy between 1 and 0 norms, is proposed to measure the sparsity. Gradient projection is used to solve a constrained nonconvex SOONE function minimization problem and recover the sparse signal. However, while the gradient projection method is computationally simple, it is not robust when a matrix in the algorithm is ill conditioned. We thus further propose using diagonal loading and singular value decomposition methods to improve the robustness of the algorithm. In order to handle targets with large flat surfaces, a combined amplitude and total-variation objective function is also proposed to regularize the shapes of the flat surfaces. Simulation results show that the proposed gradient projection of SOONE function method is better than orthogonal matching pursuit, CoSaMp, l1-magic, Bayesian method with Laplace prior, smoothed l0 method, and l1-ls in high SNR cases for recovery of ± 1 random spikes sparse signal. The quality of the simulated 3D images and real data ISAR images obtained using the new method is better than that of the conventional correlation method and minimum l2 norm method, and competitive to the aforementioned sparse signal recovery algorithms.

  16. Electric Polarization Induced by Spin Ordering under Magnetic Fields in Distorted Triangular Lattice Antiferromagnet RbCoBr3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishiwaki, Yoichi; Tokunaga, Masashi; Sakakura, Ryo; Takeyama, Shojiro; Kato, Tetsuya; Iio, Katsunori

    2017-04-01

    Magnetization and electric polarization are measured for RbCoBr3 in the presence of an applied high magnetic field. The saturation of magnetization is recognized in the magnetization curve. The g-value of pseudospin and the nearest-neighbor intrachain exchange interaction of RbCoBr3, which has the properties of a quasi-one-dimensional Ising antiferromagnet, are evaluated. The electric polarization parallel to the c-axis under a magnetic field alone and also under the simultaneous application of electric and magnetic fields along the c-axis is observed to increase around the magnetic phase transition point from the ferrimagnetic low-temperature phase to the partially disordered high-temperature phase. Experimental results indicate that the electric polarization is induced through the rearrangement of the spin structure accompanied by the magnetic phase transition under an applied magnetic field. A probable reason for the enhancement of electric polarization is given from the viewpoint of the interplay between the distortion of the triangular lattice and the interchain exchange interactions.

  17. Antiferromagnetic order competing with topological state in Ce{sub x}Bi{sub 2−x}Te{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, H. S.; Kim, J.; Jung, M. H.; Lee, K.; Jelen, A.; Vrtnik, S.; Jagličić, Z.; Dolinšek, J.

    2015-11-02

    The topological surface states in three-dimensional topological insulators are easily tuned by chemical doping, especially by magnetic impurities. We prepared single crystals of Ce{sub x}Bi{sub 2−x}Te{sub 3} with various x (=0.04, 0.06, 0.08, 0.10, and 0.12). The obtained crystals were characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The magnetic susceptibility data revealed that the Ce atoms are well substituted for Bi into Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3}. From the Curie-Weiss fits, we observed that the effective magnetic moments μ{sub eff} are close to 2.54 μ{sub B} for free Ce ion, and the paramagnetic Curie-Weiss temperatures θ{sub p} are negatively increased from 2.87 K to −59.3 K with increasing x. The magnetization data clearly showed antiferromagnetic orders around T{sub N} = 4.1 K for x ≥ 0.08, where θ{sub p} suddenly increases, and the electrical resistivity is simply metallic and the magnetoresistance is parabolic. Only for x = 0.06, exotic physical properties arising from the topological states were observed such as non-metallic behavior in the electrical resistivity and linear dependence of the magnetoresistance. Moreover, the carrier concentration of x = 0.06 is one order lower than that of x ≥ 0.08. These observations propose that the antiferromagnetic order is strongly competing with the topological state in Ce{sub x}Bi{sub 2−x}Te{sub 3}.

  18. A high-order 3D spectral-element method for the forward modelling and inversion of gravimetric data - Application to the western Pyrenees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Roland; Chevrot, Sébastien; Komatitsch, Dimitri; Seoane, Lucia; Spangenberg, Hannah; Wang, Yi; Dufréchou, Grégory; Bonvalot, Sylvain; Bruinsma, Sean

    2017-01-01

    We image the internal density structure of the Pyrenees by inverting gravity data using an a priori density model derived by scaling a Vp model obtained by full waveform inversion of teleseismic P-waves. Gravity anomalies are computed via a 3D high-order finite-element integration in the same high-order spectral-element grid as the one used to solve the wave equation and thus to obtain the velocity model. The curvature of the Earth and surface topography are taken into account in order to obtain a density model as accurate as possible. The method is validated through comparisons with exact semi-analytical solutions. We show that the spectral element method drastically accelerates the computations when compared to other more classical methods. Different scaling relations between compressional velocity and density are tested, and the Nafe-Drake relation is the one that leads to the best agreement between computed and observed gravity anomalies. Gravity data inversion is then performed and the results allow us to put more constraints on the density structure of the shallow crust and on the deep architecture of the mountain range.

  19. Antiferromagnetic ordering in spin-chain multiferroic Gd{sub 2}BaNiO{sub 5} studied by electronic spin resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Y. M.; Ruan, M. Y.; Cheng, J. J.; Sun, Y. C.; Ouyang, Z. W. Xia, Z. C.; Rao, G. H.

    2015-06-14

    High-field electron spin resonance (ESR) has been employed to study the antiferromagnetic (AFM) ordering state (T < T{sub N} = 55 K) of spin-chain multiferroic Gd{sub 2}BaNiO{sub 5}. The spin reorientation at T{sub SR} = 24 K is well characterized by the temperature-dependent ESR spectra. The magnetization data evidence a field-induced spin-flop transition at 2 K. The frequency-field relationship of the ESR data can be explained by conventional AFM resonance theory with uniaxial anisotropy, in good agreement with magnetization data. Related discussion on zero-field spin gap is presented.

  20. Melt-rock reaction in the asthenospheric mantle: Perspectives from high-order accurate numerical simulations in 2D and 3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tirupathi, S.; Schiemenz, A. R.; Liang, Y.; Parmentier, E.; Hesthaven, J.

    2013-12-01

    The style and mode of melt migration in the mantle are important to the interpretation of basalts erupted on the surface. Both grain-scale diffuse porous flow and channelized melt migration have been proposed. To better understand the mechanisms and consequences of melt migration in a heterogeneous mantle, we have undertaken a numerical study of reactive dissolution in an upwelling and viscously deformable mantle where solubility of pyroxene increases upwards. Our setup is similar to that described in [1], except we use a larger domain size in 2D and 3D and a new numerical method. To enable efficient simulations in 3D through parallel computing, we developed a high-order accurate numerical method for the magma dynamics problem using discontinuous Galerkin methods and constructed the problem using the numerical library deal.II [2]. Linear stability analyses of the reactive dissolution problem reveal three dynamically distinct regimes [3] and the simulations reported in this study were run in the stable regime and the unstable wave regime where small perturbations in porosity grows periodically. The wave regime is more relevant to melt migration beneath the mid-ocean ridges but computationally more challenging. Extending the 2D simulations in the stable regime in [1] to 3D using various combinations of sustained perturbations in porosity at the base of the upwelling column (which may result from a viened mantle), we show the geometry and distribution of dunite channel and high-porosity melt channels are highly correlated with inflow perturbation through superposition. Strong nonlinear interactions among compaction, dissolution, and upwelling give rise to porosity waves and high-porosity melt channels in the wave regime. These compaction-dissolution waves have well organized but time-dependent structures in the lower part of the simulation domain. High-porosity melt channels nucleate along nodal lines of the porosity waves, growing downwards. The wavelength scales

  1. Beyond Textbook Illustrations: Hand-Held Models of Ordered DNA and Protein Structures as 3D Supplements to Enhance Student Learning of Helical Biopolymers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jittivadhna, Karnyupha; Ruenwongsa, Pintip; Panijpan, Bhinyo

    2010-01-01

    Textbook illustrations of 3D biopolymers on printed paper, regardless of how detailed and colorful, suffer from its two-dimensionality. For beginners, computer screen display of skeletal models of biopolymers and their animation usually does not provide the at-a-glance 3D perception and details, which can be done by good hand-held models. Here, we…

  2. Holes in Heisenberg antiferromagnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yang

    1990-05-01

    In this Brief Report we show that a recent model proposed by Shankar [Phys. Rev. Lett. 63, 203 (1989)], describing the motion of holes in quantum antiferromagnets is equivalent to the Schwinger model [Phys. Rev. 128, 2425 (1962)] in 1+1 dimensions. Some exact results are deduced. In addition to the superconducting long-range order found by Shankar, it is shown that there is a 2pF hole density wave existing with the superconducting pairing instability.

  3. A 3D finite element-based model order reduction method for parametric resonance and whirling analysis of anisotropic rotor-bearing systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shuai; Wang, Yu; Zi, Yanyang; He, Zhengjia

    2015-12-01

    A generalized and efficient model for rotating anisotropic rotor-bearing systems is presented in this paper with full considerations of the system's anisotropy in stiffness, inertia and damping. Based on the 3D finite element model and the model order reduction method, the effects of anisotropy in shaft and bearings on the forced response and whirling of anisotropic rotor-bearing systems are systematically investigated. First, the coefficients of journal bearings are transformed from the fixed frame to the rotating one. Due to the anisotropy in shaft and bearings, the motion is governed by differential equations with periodically time-variant coefficients. Then, a free-interface complex component mode synthesis (CMS) method is employed to generate efficient reduced-order models (ROM) for the periodically time-variant systems. In order to solve the obtained equations, a variant of Hill's method for systems with multiple harmonic excitations is developed. Four dimensionless parameters are defined to quantify the types and levels of anisotropy of bearings. Finally, the effects of the four types of anisotropy on the forced response and whirl orbits are studied. Numerical results show that the anisotropy of bearings in stiffness splits the sole resonant peak into two isolated ones, but the anisotropy of bearings in damping coefficients mainly affect the response amplitudes. Moreover, the whirl orbits become much more complex when the shaft and bearings are both anisotropic. In addition, the cross-coupling stiffness coefficients of bearings significantly affect the dynamic behaviors of the systems and cannot be neglected, though they are often much smaller than the principle stiffness terms.

  4. Studies of the magnetic structure at the ferromagnet - antiferromagnet interface

    SciTech Connect

    Scholl, A.; Nolting, F.; Stohr, J.; Luning, J.; Seo, J.W.; Locquet, J.-P.; Anders, S.; Ohldag, H.; Padmore, H.A.

    2001-01-02

    Antiferromagnetic layers are a scientifically challenging component in magneto-electronic devices such as magnetic sensors in hard disk heads, or magnetic RAM elements. In this paper we show that photo-electron emission microscopy (PEEM) is capable of determining the magnetic structure at the interface of ferromagnets and antiferromagnets with high spatial resolution (down to 20 nm). Dichroism effects at the L edges of the magnetic 3d transition metals, using circularly or linearly polarized soft x-rays from a synchrotron source, give rise to a magnetic image contrast. Images, acquired with the PEEM2 experiment at the Advanced Light Source, show magnetic contrast for antiferromagnetic LaFeO{sub 3}, microscopically resolving the magnetic domain structure in an antiferromagnetically ordered thin film for the first time. Magnetic coupling between LaFeO{sub 3} and an adjacent Co layer results in a complete correlation of their magnetic domain structures. From field dependent measurements a unidirectional anisotropy resulting in a local exchange bias of up to 30 Oe in single domains could be deduced. The elemental specificity and the quantitative magnetic sensitivity render PEEM a perfect tool to study magnetic coupling effects in multi-layered thin film samples.

  5. Quasiclassical magnetic order and its loss in a spin-1/2 Heisenberg antiferromagnet on a triangular lattice with competing bonds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, P. H. Y.; Bishop, R. F.; Campbell, C. E.

    2015-01-01

    We use the coupled cluster method (CCM) to study the zero-temperature ground-state (GS) properties of a spin-1/2 J1-J2 Heisenberg antiferromagnet on a triangular lattice with competing nearest-neighbor and next-nearest-neighbor exchange couplings J1>0 and J2≡κ J1>0 , respectively, in the window 0 ≤κ <1 . The classical version of the model has a single GS phase transition at κcl=1/8 in this window from a phase with 3-sublattice antiferromagnetic (AFM) 120∘ Néel order for κ <κcl to an infinitely degenerate family of 4-sublattice AFM Néel phases for κ >κcl . This classical accidental degeneracy is lifted by quantum fluctuations, which favor a 2-sublattice AFM striped phase. For the quantum model we work directly in the thermodynamic limit of an infinite number of spins, with no consequent need for any finite-size scaling analysis of our results. We perform high-order CCM calculations within a well-controlled hierarchy of approximations, which we show how to extrapolate to the exact limit. In this way we find results for the case κ =0 of the spin-1/2 model for the GS energy per spin, E /N =-0.5521 (2 ) J1 , and the GS magnetic order parameter, M =0.198 (5 ) (in units where the classical value is Mcl=1/2), which are among the best available. For the spin-1/2 J1-J2 model we find that the classical transition at κ =κcl is split into two quantum phase transitions at κ1c=0.060 (10 ) and κ2c=0.165 (5 ) . The two quasiclassical AFM states (viz., the 120∘ Néel state and the striped state) are found to be the stable GS phases in the regime κ <κ1c and κ >κ2c , respectively, while in the intermediate regimes κ1c<κ <κ2c the stable GS phase has no evident long-range magnetic order.

  6. 3D and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fung, Y. C.

    1995-05-01

    This conference on physiology and function covers a wide range of subjects, including the vasculature and blood flow, the flow of gas, water, and blood in the lung, the neurological structure and function, the modeling, and the motion and mechanics of organs. Many technologies are discussed. I believe that the list would include a robotic photographer, to hold the optical equipment in a precisely controlled way to obtain the images for the user. Why are 3D images needed? They are to achieve certain objectives through measurements of some objects. For example, in order to improve performance in sports or beauty of a person, we measure the form, dimensions, appearance, and movements.

  7. Smoothing of geoelectrical resistivity profiles in order to build a 3D model: A case study from an outcropping limestone block

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tóth, Krisztina; Kovács, Gábor

    2014-05-01

    Geoelectrical imaging is one of the most common survey methods in the field of shallow geophysics. In order to get information from the subsurface electric current is induced into the ground. In our summer camp organized by the Department of Geophysics and Space Sciences, Eötvös Loránd University we have carried out resistivity surveys to get more accurate information about the lithology of the Dorog basin located in the Transdanubian range, Middle Hungary. This study focused on the outcropping limestone block located next to the village Leányvár in the Dorog basin. The main aim of the research is the impoundment of the subsurface continuation of the limestone outcrop. Cable problems occurred during field survey therefore the dataset obtained by the measurement have become very noisy thus we had to gain smoothed data with the appropriate editing steps. The goal was to produce an optimized model to demonstrate the reality beneath the subsurface. In order to achieve better results from the noisy dataset we changed some parameters based on the description of the program. Whereas cable problems occurred we exterminated the bad datum points visually and statistically as well. Because of the noisiness we increased the value of the so called damping factor which is a variable parameter in the equation used by the inversion routine responsible for smoothing the data. The limitation of the range of model resistivity values based on our knowledge about geological environment was also necessary in order to avoid physically unrealistic results. The purpose of the modification was to obtain smoothed and more interpretable geoelectric profiles. The geological background combined with the explanation of the profiles gave us the approximate location of the block. In the final step of the research we created a 3D model with proper location and smoothed resistivity data included. This study was supported by the Hungarian Scientific Research Fund (OTKA NK83400) and was realized

  8. 3D Scan Systems Integration

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    AGENCY USE ONLY (Leave Blank) 2. REPORT DATE 5 Feb 98 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 3D Scan Systems Integration REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED...2-89) Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39-1 298-102 [ EDO QUALITY W3PECTEDI DLA-ARN Final Report for US Defense Logistics Agency on DDFG-T2/P3: 3D...SCAN SYSTEMS INTEGRATION Contract Number SPO100-95-D-1014 Contractor Ohio University Delivery Order # 0001 Delivery Order Title 3D Scan Systems

  9. Doping effects on the hybridization gap and antiferromagnetic order in the Kondo semiconductor CeO s2A l10 studied by break-junction experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawabata, J.; Ekino, T.; Yamada, Y.; Okada, Y.; Sugimoto, A.; Muro, Y.; Takabatake, T.

    2017-01-01

    The Kondo semiconductors Ce T2A l10 (T =Ru and Os) exhibit antiferromagnetic (AFM) orders at unexpectedly high temperatures TN=27.0 and 28.5 K, respectively, whose mechanism remains in debate. We report the break-junction experiments on 4 f /5 d -hole and 5 d -electron doped CeO s2A l10 as well as nondoped CeR u2A l10 . The differential conductance spectra d I /d V for T =Os and Ru show three gap structures; two hybridization gaps V1, V2 and an AFM gap VAF, whose magnitudes for T =Os are 15 -50 % larger than for T =Ru . Doping of 4 f /5 d holes and 5 d electrons in CeO s2A l10 changes the d I /d V spectrum in very different ways. Nevertheless, in all cases, the suppression of V1 is well correlated with those of VAF and TN. Furthermore, the zero-bias conductance decreases on cooling below T* (>TN ) only in the doping region where V1 and VAF coexist. This fact indicates that the unusual AFM order is preceded by the decrease in the density of states in the presence of V1.

  10. Scattering of electromagnetic waves from 3D multilayer random rough surfaces based on the second-order small perturbation method: energy conservation, reflectivity, and emissivity.

    PubMed

    Sanamzadeh, Mohammadreza; Tsang, Leung; Johnson, Joel T; Burkholder, Robert J; Tan, Shurun

    2017-03-01

    A theoretical investigation of energy conservation, reflectivity, and emissivity in the scattering of electromagnetic waves from 3D multilayer media with random rough interfaces using the second-order small perturbation method (SPM2) is presented. The approach is based on the extinction theorem and develops integral equations for surface fields in the spectral domain. Using the SPM2, we calculate the scattered and transmitted coherent fields and incoherent fields. Reflected and transmitted powers are then found in the form of 2D integrations over wavenumber in the spectral domain. In the integrand, there is a summation over the spectral densities of each of the rough interfaces with each weighted by a corresponding kernel function. We show in this paper that there exists a "strong" condition of energy conservation in that the kernel functions multiplying the spectral density of each interface obey energy conservation exactly. This means that energy is conserved independent of the roughness spectral densities of the rough surfaces. Results of this strong condition are illustrated numerically for up to 50 rough interfaces without requiring specification of surface roughness properties. Two examples are illustrated. One is a multilayer configuration having weak contrasts between adjacent layers, random layer thicknesses, and randomly generated permittivity profiles. The second example is a photonic crystal of periodically alternating permittivities of larger dielectric contrast. The methodology is applied to study the effect of roughness on the brightness temperatures of the Antarctic ice sheet, which is characterized by layers of ice with permittivity fluctuations in addition to random rough interfaces. The results show that the influence of roughness can significantly increase horizontally polarized thermal emission while leaving vertically polarized emissions relatively unaffected.

  11. Effect of L1{sub 2} ordering in antiferromagnetic Ir-Mn epitaxial layer on exchange bias of FePd films

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Y. C.; Duh, J. G. E-mail: lin.yg@nsrrc.org.tw; Hsiao, S. N. E-mail: lin.yg@nsrrc.org.tw; Liu, S. H.; Su, S. H.; Chiu, K. F.; Hsieh, W. C.; Chen, S. K.; Lin, Y. G. E-mail: lin.yg@nsrrc.org.tw; Lee, H. Y.; Sung, C. K.

    2015-05-07

    Two series of samples of single-layer IrMn and IrMn/FePd bilayer films, deposited on a single-crystal MgO substrate at different IrMn deposition temperatures (T{sub s} = 300–700 °C), were investigated using magnetron sputtering. L1{sub 2} ordering was revealed for the 30 nm-thick IrMn epitaxial (001) films with T{sub s} ≥ 400 °C, determined by synchrotron radiation x-ray diffractometry (XRD). XRD results also provide evidence of the epitaxial growth of the IrMn films on MgO substrate. Increasing T{sub s} from 400 to 700 °C monotonically increases the ordering parameter of L1{sub 2} phases from 0.17 to 0.81. An in-plane exchange bias field (H{sub eb}) of 22 Oe is obtained in a 10 nm-thick FePd film that is deposited on the disordered IrMn films. As the L1{sub 2} ordering of the IrMn layers increases, the H{sub eb} gradually decreases to 0 Oe, meaning that the exchange bias behavior vanishes. The increased surface roughness, revealed by atomic force microscopy, of the epitaxial IrMn layers with increasing T{sub s} cannot be the main cause of the decrease in H{sub eb} due to the compensated surface spins regardless of the disordered and ordered (001) IrMn layers. The change of antiferromagnetic structure from the A1 to the L1{sub 2} phase was correlated with the evolution of H{sub eb}.

  12. Antiferromagnetic long-range spin ordering in Fe- and NiF e2 -doped BaTi O3 multiferroic layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbier, A.; Aghavnian, T.; Badjeck, V.; Mocuta, C.; Stanescu, D.; Magnan, H.; Rountree, C. L.; Belkhou, R.; Ohresser, P.; Jedrecy, N.

    2015-01-01

    We report on the Fe doping and on the comparative Ni-Fe codoping with composition close to NiF e2 of fully oxidized BaTi O3 layers (˜20 nm) elaborated by atomic oxygen plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy; specifically any role of oxygen vacancies can be excluded in our films. Additionally to the classical in situ laboratory tools, the films were thoroughly characterized by synchrotron radiation x-ray diffraction and x-ray absorption spectroscopy. For purely Fe-doped layers, the native tetragonal perovskite structure evolves rapidly toward cubiclike up to 5% doping level above which the crystalline order disappears. On the contrary, low codoping levels (˜5 %NiF e2 ) fairly improve the thin film crystalline structure and surface smoothness; high levels (˜27%) lead to more crystallographically disordered films, although the tetragonal structure is preserved. Synchrotron radiation magnetic dichroic measurements reveal that metal clustering does not occur, that the Fe valence evolves from Fe2 + for low Fe doping levels to Fe3 + for high doping levels, and that the introduction of Ni favors the occurrence of the Fe2 + valence in the films. For the lower codoping levels it seems that Fe2 + substitutes Ba2 +, whereas Ni2 + always substitutes Ti4 +. Ferromagnetic long-range ordering can be excluded with great sensitivity in all samples as deduced from our x-ray magnetic absorption circular dichroic measurements. On the contrary, our linear dichroic x-ray absorption results support antiferromagnetic long-range ordering while piezoforce microscopy gives evidence of a robust ferroelectric long-range ordering showing that our films are excellent candidates for magnetic exchange coupled multiferroic applications.

  13. Antiferromagnetic Dirac semimetals in two dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jing

    2017-03-01

    The search for symmetry-protected two-dimensional (2D) Dirac semimetals analogous to graphene is important both for fundamental and practical interest. The 2D Dirac cones are protected by crystalline symmetries and magnetic ordering may destroy their robustness. Here we propose a general framework to classify stable 2D Dirac semimetals in spin-orbit coupled systems having the combined time-reversal and inversion symmetries, and show the existence of the stable Dirac points in 2D antiferromagnetic semimetals. Compared to 3D Dirac semimetals which fall into two distinct classes, Dirac semimetals in 2D with combined time-reversal and inversion symmetries belong to a single class which is closely related to the nonsymmorphic space-group symmetries. We further provide a concrete model in antiferromagnetic semimetals which supports symmetry-protected 2D Dirac points. The symmetry breaking in such systems leads to 2D chiral topological states such as quantum anomalous Hall insulator and chiral topological superconductor phases.

  14. Europeana and 3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pletinckx, D.

    2011-09-01

    The current 3D hype creates a lot of interest in 3D. People go to 3D movies, but are we ready to use 3D in our homes, in our offices, in our communication? Are we ready to deliver real 3D to a general public and use interactive 3D in a meaningful way to enjoy, learn, communicate? The CARARE project is realising this for the moment in the domain of monuments and archaeology, so that real 3D of archaeological sites and European monuments will be available to the general public by 2012. There are several aspects to this endeavour. First of all is the technical aspect of flawlessly delivering 3D content over all platforms and operating systems, without installing software. We have currently a working solution in PDF, but HTML5 will probably be the future. Secondly, there is still little knowledge on how to create 3D learning objects, 3D tourist information or 3D scholarly communication. We are still in a prototype phase when it comes to integrate 3D objects in physical or virtual museums. Nevertheless, Europeana has a tremendous potential as a multi-facetted virtual museum. Finally, 3D has a large potential to act as a hub of information, linking to related 2D imagery, texts, video, sound. We describe how to create such rich, explorable 3D objects that can be used intuitively by the generic Europeana user and what metadata is needed to support the semantic linking.

  15. Paramagnetic molecule induced strong antiferromagnetic exchange coupling on a magnetic tunnel junction based molecular spintronics device.

    PubMed

    Tyagi, Pawan; Baker, Collin; D'Angelo, Christopher

    2015-07-31

    This paper reports our Monte Carlo (MC) studies aiming to explain the experimentally observed paramagnetic molecule induced antiferromagnetic coupling between ferromagnetic (FM) electrodes. Recently developed magnetic tunnel junction based molecular spintronics devices (MTJMSDs) were prepared by chemically bonding the paramagnetic molecules between the FM electrodes along the tunnel junction's perimeter. These MTJMSDs exhibited molecule-induced strong antiferromagnetic coupling. We simulated the 3D atomic model analogous to the MTJMSD and studied the effect of molecule's magnetic couplings with the two FM electrodes. Simulations show that when a molecule established ferromagnetic coupling with one electrode and antiferromagnetic coupling with the other electrode, then theoretical results effectively explained the experimental findings. Our studies suggest that in order to align MTJMSDs' electrodes antiparallel to each other, the exchange coupling strength between a molecule and FM electrodes should be ∼50% of the interatomic exchange coupling for the FM electrodes.

  16. First-order phase transition from an antiferromagnetic ferroelectric to a cycloidal multiferroic with weak ferromagnetism during the joint action of applied magnetic and electric fields

    SciTech Connect

    Pikin, S. A. Lyubutin, I. S.

    2013-09-15

    The thermodynamics of the phase transition in a perovskite-like multiferroic, in which an antiferromagnetic ferroelectric transforms into a new magnetic state where a spiral spin structure and weak ferromagnetism can coexist in applied magnetic field H, is described. This state forms as a result of a first-order phase transition at a certain temperature (below Neel temperature T{sub N}), where a helicoidal magnetic structure appears due to the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya effect. In this case, the axes of electric polarization and the helicoid of magnetic moments are mutually perpendicular and lie in the ab plane, which is normal to principal axis c. Additional electric polarization p, which decreases the total polarization of the ferroelectric P, appears in the ab plane. The effect of applied magnetic and electric fields on the properties of a multiferroic with a helicoidal magnetic structure is described. An alternating electric field is shown to cause a field-linear change in magnetic moment m, whose sign is opposite to the sign of the change of electric field E. The detected hysteretic phenomena that determine the temperature ranges of overheating and supercooling of each phase are explained. A comparison with the experimental data is performed.

  17. Quantum Monte Carlo analysis of a charge ordered insulating antiferromagnet: the Ti4O7 Magnéli phase

    SciTech Connect

    Benali, Anouar; Shulenburger, Luke; Krogel, Jaron T.; Zhong, Xiaoliang; Kent, Paul R. C.; Heinonen, Olle

    2016-06-07

    The Magnéli phase Ti4O7 is an important transition metal oxide with a wide range of applications because of its interplay between charge, spin, and lattice degrees of freedom. At low temperatures, it has non-trivial magnetic states very close in energy, driven by electronic exchange and correlation interactions. In this paper, we have examined three low-lying states, one ferromagnetic and two antiferromagnetic, and calculated their energies as well as Ti spin moment distributions using highly accurate quantum Monte Carlo methods. We compare our results to those obtained from density functional theory-based methods that include approximate corrections for exchange and correlation. Our results confirm the nature of the states and their ordering in energy, as compared with density-functional theory methods. However, the energy differences and spin distributions differ. Finally, a detailed analysis suggests that non-local exchange–correlation functionals, in addition to other approximations such as LDA+U to account for correlations, are needed to simultaneously obtain better estimates for spin moments, distributions, energy differences and energy gaps.

  18. Quantum Monte Carlo analysis of a charge ordered insulating antiferromagnet: The Ti4O7 Magneli phase

    SciTech Connect

    Benali, Anouar; Shulenburger, Luke; Krogel, Jaron T.; Zhong, Xiaoling; Kent, Paul R. C.; Heinonen, Olle

    2016-06-07

    The Magneli phase Ti4O7 is an important transition metal oxide with a wide range of applications because of its interplay between charge, spin, and lattice degrees of freedom. At low temperatures, it has non-trivial magnetic states very close in energy, driven by electronic exchange and correlation interactions. We have examined three low- lying states, one ferromagnetic and two antiferromagnetic, and calculated their energies as well as Ti spin moment distributions using highly accurate Quantum Monte Carlo methods. We compare our results to those obtained from density functional theory- based methods that include approximate corrections for exchange and correlation. Our results confirm the nature of the states and their ordering in energy, as compared with density-functional theory methods. However, the energy differences and spin distributions differ. Here, a detailed analysis suggests that non-local exchange-correlation functionals, in addition to other approximations such as LDA+U to account for correlations, are needed to simultaneously obtain better estimates for spin moments, distributions, energy differences and energy gaps.

  19. Spin diffusion and torques in disordered antiferromagnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manchon, Aurelien

    2017-03-01

    We have developed a drift-diffusion equation of spin transport in collinear bipartite metallic antiferromagnets. Starting from a model tight-binding Hamiltonian, we obtain the quantum kinetic equation within Keldysh formalism and expand it to the lowest order in spatial gradient using Wigner expansion method. In the diffusive limit, these equations track the spatio-temporal evolution of the spin accumulations and spin currents on each sublattice of the antiferromagnet. We use these equations to address the nature of the spin transfer torque in (i) a spin-valve composed of a ferromagnet and an antiferromagnet, (ii) a metallic bilayer consisting of an antiferromagnet adjacent to a heavy metal possessing spin Hall effect, and in (iii) a single antiferromagnet possessing spin Hall effect. We show that the latter can experience a self-torque thanks to the non-vanishing spin Hall effect in the antiferromagnet.

  20. Spin diffusion and torques in disordered antiferromagnets.

    PubMed

    Manchon, Aurelien

    2017-03-15

    We have developed a drift-diffusion equation of spin transport in collinear bipartite metallic antiferromagnets. Starting from a model tight-binding Hamiltonian, we obtain the quantum kinetic equation within Keldysh formalism and expand it to the lowest order in spatial gradient using Wigner expansion method. In the diffusive limit, these equations track the spatio-temporal evolution of the spin accumulations and spin currents on each sublattice of the antiferromagnet. We use these equations to address the nature of the spin transfer torque in (i) a spin-valve composed of a ferromagnet and an antiferromagnet, (ii) a metallic bilayer consisting of an antiferromagnet adjacent to a heavy metal possessing spin Hall effect, and in (iii) a single antiferromagnet possessing spin Hall effect. We show that the latter can experience a self-torque thanks to the non-vanishing spin Hall effect in the antiferromagnet.

  1. Drastic changes in electronic properties of Kondo semiconductor CeRu2Al10 induced by Rh doping: Anisotropic transport properties in the antiferromagnetic ordered state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanida, H.; Nohara, H.; Nakagawa, F.; Yoshida, K.; Sera, M.; Nishioka, T.

    2016-10-01

    Electrical resistivity (ρ ), thermopower, and specific heat measurements have been performed on the novel Kondo semiconductor Ce (Ru1-xRhx) 2Al10 (x =0 , 0.02, 0.03, and 0.05), which has been attracting a great deal of interest due to an unusual antiferromagnetic (AFM) order below T0, in order to clarify the Rh doping effect on the anisotropy of the electronic properties in the ordered state. In CeRu2Al10 , ρ shows an anisotropic increase below T0 independently of the electric current direction. We propose the existence of two different mechanisms to explain the anisotropic increase of ρ . One is an isotropic charge gap which enhances ρ below T0 isotropically, although its origin is not known at present. The other is an anisotropic suppression of ρ which originates from the anisotropic c-f hybridization and is largest along the orthorhombic a axis. By the Rh doping, the anisotropic temperature dependence of ρ below T0 is drastically changed. For I ∥b , the increase is almost completely suppressed and a metallic-like behavior is observed, whereas it is small and isotropic for I ∥a and c . From these results, we propose that as a result of the destruction of the spin-gap excitation by the Rh doping, a metallic-like electronic state is formed along the b axis and the small isotropic charge gap is opened in the a c plane. By taking into account the present results and the still high T0 even in x =0.05 , we conclude that the AFM order in the Rh-doped CeRu2Al10 should be viewed as unusual as the AFM order in CeRu2Al10 although the localized character of the Ce-4 f electron is apparently enhanced by the Rh doping. We have also examined the evolution of the AFM ordered state from x =0 to x =0.05 , where the AFM ordered moment (mAF) is aligned along the c axis in x =0 and a axis in x =0.05 . From the results of those experiments in magnetic field, we have revealed that the spin reorientation from mAF∥c to mAF∥a takes place quite abruptly just at xc˜0

  2. Combinatorial 3D Mechanical Metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coulais, Corentin; Teomy, Eial; de Reus, Koen; Shokef, Yair; van Hecke, Martin

    2015-03-01

    We present a class of elastic structures which exhibit 3D-folding motion. Our structures consist of cubic lattices of anisotropic unit cells that can be tiled in a complex combinatorial fashion. We design and 3d-print this complex ordered mechanism, in which we combine elastic hinges and defects to tailor the mechanics of the material. Finally, we use this large design space to encode smart functionalities such as surface patterning and multistability.

  3. PLOT3D/AMES, APOLLO UNIX VERSION USING GMR3D (WITHOUT TURB3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buning, P.

    1994-01-01

    five groups: 1) Grid Functions for grids, grid-checking, etc.; 2) Scalar Functions for contour or carpet plots of density, pressure, temperature, Mach number, vorticity magnitude, helicity, etc.; 3) Vector Functions for vector plots of velocity, vorticity, momentum, and density gradient, etc.; 4) Particle Trace Functions for rake-like plots of particle flow or vortex lines; and 5) Shock locations based on pressure gradient. TURB3D is a modification of PLOT3D which is used for viewing CFD simulations of incompressible turbulent flow. Input flow data consists of pressure, velocity and vorticity. Typical quantities to plot include local fluctuations in flow quantities and turbulent production terms, plotted in physical or wall units. PLOT3D/TURB3D includes both TURB3D and PLOT3D because the operation of TURB3D is identical to PLOT3D, and there is no additional sample data or printed documentation for TURB3D. Graphical capabilities of PLOT3D version 3.6b+ vary among the implementations available through COSMIC. Customers are encouraged to purchase and carefully review the PLOT3D manual before ordering the program for a specific computer and graphics library. There is only one manual for use with all implementations of PLOT3D, and although this manual generally assumes that the Silicon Graphics Iris implementation is being used, informative comments concerning other implementations appear throughout the text. With all implementations, the visual representation of the object and flow field created by PLOT3D consists of points, lines, and polygons. Points can be represented with dots or symbols, color can be used to denote data values, and perspective is used to show depth. Differences among implementations impact the program's ability to use graphical features that are based on 3D polygons, the user's ability to manipulate the graphical displays, and the user's ability to obtain alternate forms of output. The Apollo implementation of PLOT3D uses some of the capabilities of

  4. PLOT3D/AMES, APOLLO UNIX VERSION USING GMR3D (WITH TURB3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buning, P.

    1994-01-01

    five groups: 1) Grid Functions for grids, grid-checking, etc.; 2) Scalar Functions for contour or carpet plots of density, pressure, temperature, Mach number, vorticity magnitude, helicity, etc.; 3) Vector Functions for vector plots of velocity, vorticity, momentum, and density gradient, etc.; 4) Particle Trace Functions for rake-like plots of particle flow or vortex lines; and 5) Shock locations based on pressure gradient. TURB3D is a modification of PLOT3D which is used for viewing CFD simulations of incompressible turbulent flow. Input flow data consists of pressure, velocity and vorticity. Typical quantities to plot include local fluctuations in flow quantities and turbulent production terms, plotted in physical or wall units. PLOT3D/TURB3D includes both TURB3D and PLOT3D because the operation of TURB3D is identical to PLOT3D, and there is no additional sample data or printed documentation for TURB3D. Graphical capabilities of PLOT3D version 3.6b+ vary among the implementations available through COSMIC. Customers are encouraged to purchase and carefully review the PLOT3D manual before ordering the program for a specific computer and graphics library. There is only one manual for use with all implementations of PLOT3D, and although this manual generally assumes that the Silicon Graphics Iris implementation is being used, informative comments concerning other implementations appear throughout the text. With all implementations, the visual representation of the object and flow field created by PLOT3D consists of points, lines, and polygons. Points can be represented with dots or symbols, color can be used to denote data values, and perspective is used to show depth. Differences among implementations impact the program's ability to use graphical features that are based on 3D polygons, the user's ability to manipulate the graphical displays, and the user's ability to obtain alternate forms of output. The Apollo implementation of PLOT3D uses some of the capabilities of

  5. [3D emulation of epicardium dynamic mapping].

    PubMed

    Lu, Jun; Yang, Cui-Wei; Fang, Zu-Xiang

    2005-03-01

    In order to realize epicardium dynamic mapping of the whole atria, 3-D graphics are drawn with OpenGL. Some source codes are introduced in the paper to explain how to produce, read, and manipulate 3-D model data.

  6. 3d-3d correspondence revisited

    DOE PAGES

    Chung, Hee -Joong; Dimofte, Tudor; Gukov, Sergei; ...

    2016-04-21

    In fivebrane compactifications on 3-manifolds, we point out the importance of all flat connections in the proper definition of the effective 3d N = 2 theory. The Lagrangians of some theories with the desired properties can be constructed with the help of homological knot invariants that categorify colored Jones polynomials. Higgsing the full 3d theories constructed this way recovers theories found previously by Dimofte-Gaiotto-Gukov. As a result, we also consider the cutting and gluing of 3-manifolds along smooth boundaries and the role played by all flat connections in this operation.

  7. Conduction electrons mediating the evolution from antiferromagnetic to ferromagnetic ordering in Gd (Co1-yFey) 2Zn20 (0 ≤y ≤1 )

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabrera-Baez, M.; Naranjo-Uribe, A.; Osorio-Guillén, J. M.; Rettori, C.; Avila, M. A.

    2017-03-01

    GdFe2Zn20 is a complex cagelike compound with an unusually high ferromagnetic ordering temperature (TC=86 K) for a very diluted Gd3 + magnetic sublattice, embedded in a matrix that features strong electron-electron correlations. Here, we report on a magnetic and electronic study of the substitutional intermetallic system Gd (Co1-yFey) 2Zn20 combining magnetization measurements plus first-principles density functional theory (DFT) calculations with temperature-dependent electron spin resonance (ESR). After accounting for electron-electron correlations and itinerant molecular field effects, the ESR results indicate that the exchange interaction between the Gd3 + is processed via a single band of d -type electrons at the Fermi level and the exchange interaction is covalent in nature [J (0) f d<0 ] with a strong conduction electron (c e ) momentum transfer dependence [Jf d(q ) ] . The DFT calculations support this scenario by indicating a major contribution of d -type c e at the Fermi level and a spin polarization in (Y,Gd ) Fe2Zn20 wherein the most stable configuration is antiferromagnetic between Gd3 + and c e spins. Our results demonstrate that the standard Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida mechanism cannot explain the ferromagnetic behavior of GdFe2Zn20 and a superexchangelike mechanism is proposed for this magnetic interaction. An "extended phase diagram" for the double substitution sequence YCo2Zn20→GdCo2Zn20→GdFe2Zn20 is presented and discussed.

  8. 3D polymer scaffold arrays.

    PubMed

    Simon, Carl G; Yang, Yanyin; Dorsey, Shauna M; Ramalingam, Murugan; Chatterjee, Kaushik

    2011-01-01

    We have developed a combinatorial platform for fabricating tissue scaffold arrays that can be used for screening cell-material interactions. Traditional research involves preparing samples one at a time for characterization and testing. Combinatorial and high-throughput (CHT) methods lower the cost of research by reducing the amount of time and material required for experiments by combining many samples into miniaturized specimens. In order to help accelerate biomaterials research, many new CHT methods have been developed for screening cell-material interactions where materials are presented to cells as a 2D film or surface. However, biomaterials are frequently used to fabricate 3D scaffolds, cells exist in vivo in a 3D environment and cells cultured in a 3D environment in vitro typically behave more physiologically than those cultured on a 2D surface. Thus, we have developed a platform for fabricating tissue scaffold libraries where biomaterials can be presented to cells in a 3D format.

  9. 3D and Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meulien Ohlmann, Odile

    2013-02-01

    Today the industry offers a chain of 3D products. Learning to "read" and to "create in 3D" becomes an issue of education of primary importance. 25 years professional experience in France, the United States and Germany, Odile Meulien set up a personal method of initiation to 3D creation that entails the spatial/temporal experience of the holographic visual. She will present some different tools and techniques used for this learning, their advantages and disadvantages, programs and issues of educational policies, constraints and expectations related to the development of new techniques for 3D imaging. Although the creation of display holograms is very much reduced compared to the creation of the 90ies, the holographic concept is spreading in all scientific, social, and artistic activities of our present time. She will also raise many questions: What means 3D? Is it communication? Is it perception? How the seeing and none seeing is interferes? What else has to be taken in consideration to communicate in 3D? How to handle the non visible relations of moving objects with subjects? Does this transform our model of exchange with others? What kind of interaction this has with our everyday life? Then come more practical questions: How to learn creating 3D visualization, to learn 3D grammar, 3D language, 3D thinking? What for? At what level? In which matter? for whom?

  10. Superconductivity, antiferromagnetism, and neutron scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tranquada, John M.; Xu, Guangyong; Zaliznyak, Igor A.

    2014-01-01

    High-temperature superconductivity in both the copper-oxide and the iron-pnictide/chalcogenide systems occurs in close proximity to antiferromagnetically ordered states. Neutron scattering has been an essential technique for characterizing the spin correlations in the antiferromagnetic phases and for demonstrating how the spin fluctuations persist in the superconductors. While the nature of the spin correlations in the superconductors remains controversial, the neutron scattering measurements of magnetic excitations over broad ranges of energy and momentum transfers provide important constraints on the theoretical options. We present an overview of the neutron scattering work on high-temperature superconductors and discuss some of the outstanding issues.

  11. Rearrangement of the antiferromagnetic ordering at high magnetic fields in SmFeAsO and SmFeAsO0.9F0.1 single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weyeneth, S.; Moll, P. J. W.; Puzniak, R.; Ninios, K.; Balakirev, F. F.; McDonald, R. D.; Chan, H. B.; Zhigadlo, N. D.; Katrych, S.; Bukowski, Z.; Karpinski, J.; Keller, H.; Batlogg, B.; Balicas, L.

    2011-04-01

    The low-temperature antiferromagnetic state of the Sm ions in both nonsuperconducting SmFeAsO and superconducting SmFeAsO0.9F0.1 single crystals was studied by magnetic torque, magnetization, and magnetoresistance measurements in magnetic fields up to 60 T and temperatures down to 0.6 K. We uncover in both compounds a distinct rearrangement of the antiferromagnetically ordered Sm moments near 35-40 T. This is seen in both static and pulsed magnetic fields as a sharp change in the sign of the magnetic torque, which is sensitive to the magnetic anisotropy and hence to the magnetic moment in the ab plane, (i.e., the FeAs layers), and as a jump in the magnetization for magnetic fields perpendicular to the conducting planes. This rearrangement of magnetic ordering in 35-40 T is essentially temperature independent and points toward a canted or a partially polarized magnetic state in high magnetic fields. However, the observed value for the saturation moment above this rearrangement, suggests that the complete suppression of the antiferromagnetism related to the Sm-moments would require fields in excess of 60 T. Such a large field value is particularly remarkable when compared to the relatively small Néel temperature TN≃5 K, suggesting very anisotropic magnetic exchange couplings. At the transition, magnetoresistivity measurements show a crossover from positive to negative field dependence, indicating that the charge carriers in the FeAs planes are sensitive to the magnetic configuration of the rare-earth elements. This points towards a finite magnetic/electronic coupling between the SmO and the FeAs layers which are likely to mediate the exchange interactions leading to the long-range antiferromagnetic order of the Sm ions.

  12. Three-dimensional critical phase diagram of the Ising antiferromagnet CeRh2Si2 under intense magnetic field and pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knafo, W.; Settai, R.; Braithwaite, D.; Kurahashi, S.; Aoki, D.; Flouquet, J.

    2017-01-01

    Using novel instrumentation to combine extreme conditions of intense pulsed magnetic field up to 60 T and high pressure up to 4 GPa, we have established the three-dimensional (3D) magnetic field-pressure-temperature phase diagram of a pure stoichiometric heavy-fermion antiferromagnet (CeRh2Si2 ). We find a temperature- and pressure-dependent decoupling of the critical and pseudometamagnetic fields at the borderlines of antiferromagnetism and strongly-correlated paramagnetism. This 3D phase diagram is representative of a class of heavy-fermion Ising antiferromagnets, where long-range magnetic ordering is decoupled from a maximum in the magnetic susceptibility. The combination of extreme conditions enabled us to characterize different quantum phase transitions, where peculiar quantum critical properties are revealed. The interest to couple the effects of magnetic field and pressure on quantum-critical correlated-electron systems is stressed.

  13. Recent developments in the magnetic study of the deformed pyrochlore lattice M2(OH)3X (M = 3d magnetic ions, X = Cl, Br) - exotic magnetic order in Ni2(OH)3Cl and controlled spin-spin interactions in Co2(OH)3Cl1-xBrx and (Co1-xFex)2(OH)3Cl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, X. G.; Hagihala, M.; Fujihala, M.; Kawae, T.

    2009-01-01

    Following the discovery of frustrated magnetism in deformed pyrochlore lattice Cu2(OH)3Cl and Co2(OH)3Cl we have extensively investigated the material series in the chemical formula of M2(OH)3X, with M = Cu, Co, Ni, Fe, Mn, and X = Cl, Br, or I. In atacamite-structure Ni2(OH)3Cl, strong geometric frustration and an exotic antiferromagnetic transition below 5 K was found. While neutron diffraction witnessed unambiguously an antiferromagnetic long-range order, the μSR method can't 'see' this order, instead, the detected local field behaved quite like a dynamically fluctuating one. For the system of Co2(OH)3Cl, the magnetic state is very sensitive to both the anion and cation substitution. While Co2(OH)3Cl behaves like a zero-field kagomé ice ferromagnet, a completely substituted version of Co2(OH)3Br becomes antiferromagnetic although there is little difference in the crystal structure. The antiferromagnetic Co2(OH)3Br showed complicated magnetic transitions. Meanwhile, partially substituted Co2(OH)3Cl1-xBrx transforms from ferromagnetic to antiferromagnetic with increasing the x ratio. The results suggest that the interaction on the kagome-lattice plane is antiferromagnetic while that on the triangular lattice plane is ferromagnetic. For the substituted series (Co1-xFex)2(OH)3Cl a spin glass state is observed.

  14. Intrinsic magnetization of antiferromagnetic textures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tveten, Erlend G.; Müller, Tristan; Linder, Jacob; Brataas, Arne

    2016-03-01

    Antiferromagnets (AFMs) exhibit intrinsic magnetization when the order parameter spatially varies. This intrinsic spin is present even at equilibrium and can be interpreted as a twisting of the homogeneous AFM into a state with a finite spin. Because magnetic moments couple directly to external magnetic fields, the intrinsic magnetization can alter the dynamics of antiferromagnetic textures under such influence. Starting from the discrete Heisenberg model, we derive the continuum limit of the free energy of AFMs in the exchange approximation and explicitly rederive that the spatial variation of the antiferromagnetic order parameter is associated with an intrinsic magnetization density. We calculate the magnetization profile of a domain wall and discuss how the intrinsic magnetization reacts to external forces. We show conclusively, both analytically and numerically, that a spatially inhomogeneous magnetic field can move and control the position of domain walls in AFMs. By comparing our model to a commonly used alternative parametrization procedure for the continuum fields, we show that the physical interpretations of these fields depend critically on the choice of parametrization procedure for the discrete-to-continuous transition. This can explain why a significant amount of recent studies of the dynamics of AFMs, including effective models that describe the motion of antiferromagnetic domain walls, have neglected the intrinsic spin of the textured order parameter.

  15. 3D Imaging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hastings, S. K.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses 3 D imaging as it relates to digital representations in virtual library collections. Highlights include X-ray computed tomography (X-ray CT); the National Science Foundation (NSF) Digital Library Initiatives; output peripherals; image retrieval systems, including metadata; and applications of 3 D imaging for libraries and museums. (LRW)

  16. X-ray Diffraction Study of Order-Disorder Phase Transition in CuMPt6 (M=3d Elements) Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Ejaz; Takahashi, Miwako; Iwasaki, Hiroshi; Ohshima, Ken-ichi

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the ordering behavior of ternary CuMPt6 alloys with M=Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, and Ni by high-temperature polycrystalline X-ray diffraction. The alloys undergo a phase transition from the fcc disordered state to the Cu3Au-type ordered state, except for the alloy with M=Ni, in which only short-range order forms. The transition temperature Tc is highest (1593 K) for M=Ti and decreases almost monotonically with increasing atomic number to 1153 K for M=Co. The observed dependence of ordering tendency on the atomic number of M is discussed in the light of the theory of ordering in transition-metal alloys and its significance for the study of ordering in ternary alloys.

  17. Long-range antiferromagnetic order in malonate-based compounds Na2M(H2C3O4)2·2H2O (M = Mn, Fe, Co, Ni).

    PubMed

    Rousse, G; Radtke, G; Klein, Y; Ahouari, H

    2016-02-14

    The recently discovered metal-malonate compounds of formulae Na2M(H2C3O4)2·2H2O with M = Mn, Fe, Co, Ni are investigated for their magnetic properties. While the Cu-based material is a weak ferromagnet, all other members present antiferromagnetic interactions. Neutron powder diffraction experiments reveal the establishment of a long range magnetic order at low temperature in the Pbca Shubnikov magnetic group. The magnetic structures are characterized by antiferromagnetic layers perpendicular to [001]. These layers are stacked antiparallel (M = Fe) or parallel (M = Mn, Ni) in the (a, c) plane. Magnetic moments are collinear to b for the former and to c for the latter. The M = Co malonate exhibits a non-collinear magnetic structure intermediate between the two latter, with components along b and c. Density functional theory calculations indicate that the dominant magnetic interaction, J1, occurs along a malonate group via a carboxylate and links two transition metals within the same layer, while other interactions (inter- or intra-layer) are much weaker, so that these compounds present the dominant characteristics of 2D-antiferromagnets.

  18. AE3D

    SciTech Connect

    Spong, Donald A

    2016-06-20

    AE3D solves for the shear Alfven eigenmodes and eigenfrequencies in a torodal magnetic fusion confinement device. The configuration can be either 2D (e.g. tokamak, reversed field pinch) or 3D (e.g. stellarator, helical reversed field pinch, tokamak with ripple). The equations solved are based on a reduced MHD model and sound wave coupling effects are not currently included.

  19. Strong magnetoelastic coupling at the transition from harmonic to anharmonic order in NaFe(WO 4)2 with 3 d5 configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holbein, S.; Ackermann, M.; Chapon, L.; Steffens, P.; Gukasov, A.; Sazonov, A.; Breunig, O.; Sanders, Y.; Becker, P.; Bohatý, L.; Lorenz, T.; Braden, M.

    2016-09-01

    The crystal structure of the double tungstate NaFe (WO4)2 arises from that of the spin-driven multiferroic MnWO4 by inserting nonmagnetic Na layers. NaFe (WO4)2 exhibits a three-dimensional incommensurate spin-spiral structure at low temperature and zero magnetic field, which, however, competes with commensurate order induced by magnetic field. The incommensurate zero-field phase corresponds to the condensation of a single irreducible representation but it does not imply ferroelectric polarization because spirals with opposite chirality coexist. Sizable anharmonic modulations emerge in this incommensurate structure, which are accompanied by large magnetoelastic anomalies, while the onset of the harmonic order is invisible in the thermal-expansion coefficient. In magnetic fields applied along the monoclinic axis, we observe a first-order transition to a commensurate structure that again is accompanied by large magnetoelastic effects. The large magnetoelastic coupling, a reduction of the b lattice parameter, is thus associated only with the commensurate order. Upon releasing the field at low temperature, the magnetic order transforms to another commensurate structure that considerably differs from the incommensurate low-temperature phase emerging upon zero-field cooling. The latter phase, which exhibits a reduced ordered moment, seems to be metastable.

  20. Interplay of 3 d-5 d interactions in high-TC osmium-based double perovskites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, A. E.; Calder, S.; Morrow, R.; Woodward, P. M.; Yan, J. Q.; Winn, B.; Lumsden, M. D.; Christianson, A. D.

    2015-03-01

    In 3d-5d systems the strongly magnetic 3d orbitals and extended 5d orbitals with enhanced spin-orbit coupling lead to a range of high TC magnetic states and novel behavior not present in systems consisting solely of 3d or 5d ions. The two distinct octahedral sites in double perovskites A2 BB 'O6 allow an ordered 3d-5d structure to form, providing a variety of systems to be investigated. Unravelling the interactions controlling these systems, however, is an open challenge. The highest known TC in such a system, 725K, is found in insulator Sr2CrOsO6. This questions the theory for high-TCs in systems such as TC=400K Sr2FeReO6 which relies on half-metallic behavior. To unravel the nature of the interactions in 3d-5d systems, we have studied the series of compounds Sr2 X OsO6. We have utilized elastic and inelastic neutron scattering to probe the spin states in the systems, and therefore test predictions that the magnetic interactions are controlled by a frustrated AFM Heisenberg model. By studying the series, we are able to relate changes in the spin wave spectrum to dramatic changes in the magnetic order from TN = 95 K antiferromagnetism to TC = 725 K ferrimagnetism.

  1. Domain walls in antiferromagnetically coupled multilayer films.

    PubMed

    Hellwig, Olav; Berger, Andreas; Fullerton, Eric E

    2003-11-07

    We report experimentally observed magnetic domain-wall structures in antiferromagnetically coupled multilayer films with perpendicular anisotropy. Our studies reveal a first-order phase transition from domain walls with no net moment to domain walls with ferromagnetic cores. The transition originates from the competition between dipolar and exchange energies, which we tune by means of layer thickness. Although observed in a synthetic antiferromagnetic system, such domain-wall structures may be expected to occur in A-type antiferromagnets with anisotropic exchange coupling.

  2. 3-D Seismic Interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Gregory F.

    2009-05-01

    This volume is a brief introduction aimed at those who wish to gain a basic and relatively quick understanding of the interpretation of three-dimensional (3-D) seismic reflection data. The book is well written, clearly illustrated, and easy to follow. Enough elementary mathematics are presented for a basic understanding of seismic methods, but more complex mathematical derivations are avoided. References are listed for readers interested in more advanced explanations. After a brief introduction, the book logically begins with a succinct chapter on modern 3-D seismic data acquisition and processing. Standard 3-D acquisition methods are presented, and an appendix expands on more recent acquisition techniques, such as multiple-azimuth and wide-azimuth acquisition. Although this chapter covers the basics of standard time processing quite well, there is only a single sentence about prestack depth imaging, and anisotropic processing is not mentioned at all, even though both techniques are now becoming standard.

  3. Radiochromic 3D Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oldham, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Radiochromic materials exhibit a colour change when exposed to ionising radiation. Radiochromic film has been used for clinical dosimetry for many years and increasingly so recently, as films of higher sensitivities have become available. The two principle advantages of radiochromic dosimetry include greater tissue equivalence (radiologically) and the lack of requirement for development of the colour change. In a radiochromic material, the colour change arises direct from ionising interactions affecting dye molecules, without requiring any latent chemical, optical or thermal development, with important implications for increased accuracy and convenience. It is only relatively recently however, that 3D radiochromic dosimetry has become possible. In this article we review recent developments and the current state-of-the-art of 3D radiochromic dosimetry, and the potential for a more comprehensive solution for the verification of complex radiation therapy treatments, and 3D dose measurement in general.

  4. Bootstrapping 3D fermions

    DOE PAGES

    Iliesiu, Luca; Kos, Filip; Poland, David; ...

    2016-03-17

    We study the conformal bootstrap for a 4-point function of fermions <ψψψψ> in 3D. We first introduce an embedding formalism for 3D spinors and compute the conformal blocks appearing in fermion 4-point functions. Using these results, we find general bounds on the dimensions of operators appearing in the ψ × ψ OPE, and also on the central charge CT. We observe features in our bounds that coincide with scaling dimensions in the GrossNeveu models at large N. Finally, we also speculate that other features could coincide with a fermionic CFT containing no relevant scalar operators.

  5. Bootstrapping 3D fermions

    SciTech Connect

    Iliesiu, Luca; Kos, Filip; Poland, David; Pufu, Silviu S.; Simmons-Duffin, David; Yacoby, Ran

    2016-03-17

    We study the conformal bootstrap for a 4-point function of fermions <ψψψψ> in 3D. We first introduce an embedding formalism for 3D spinors and compute the conformal blocks appearing in fermion 4-point functions. Using these results, we find general bounds on the dimensions of operators appearing in the ψ × ψ OPE, and also on the central charge CT. We observe features in our bounds that coincide with scaling dimensions in the GrossNeveu models at large N. Finally, we also speculate that other features could coincide with a fermionic CFT containing no relevant scalar operators.

  6. Half-metallic diluted antiferromagnetic semiconductors.

    PubMed

    Akai, H; Ogura, M

    2006-07-14

    The possibility of half-metallic antiferromagnetism, a special case of ferrimagnetism with a compensated magnetization, in the diluted magnetic semiconductors is highlighted on the basis of the first-principles electronic structure calculation. As typical examples, the electrical and magnetic properties of II-VI compound semiconductors doped with 3d transition metal ion pairs--(V, Co) and (Fe, Cr)--are discussed.

  7. Venus in 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plaut, Jeffrey J.

    1993-01-01

    Stereographic images of the surface of Venus which enable geologists to reconstruct the details of the planet's evolution are discussed. The 120-meter resolution of these 3D images make it possible to construct digital topographic maps from which precise measurements can be made of the heights, depths, slopes, and volumes of geologic structures.

  8. 3D photoacoustic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carson, Jeffrey J. L.; Roumeliotis, Michael; Chaudhary, Govind; Stodilka, Robert Z.; Anastasio, Mark A.

    2010-06-01

    Our group has concentrated on development of a 3D photoacoustic imaging system for biomedical imaging research. The technology employs a sparse parallel detection scheme and specialized reconstruction software to obtain 3D optical images using a single laser pulse. With the technology we have been able to capture 3D movies of translating point targets and rotating line targets. The current limitation of our 3D photoacoustic imaging approach is its inability ability to reconstruct complex objects in the field of view. This is primarily due to the relatively small number of projections used to reconstruct objects. However, in many photoacoustic imaging situations, only a few objects may be present in the field of view and these objects may have very high contrast compared to background. That is, the objects have sparse properties. Therefore, our work had two objectives: (i) to utilize mathematical tools to evaluate 3D photoacoustic imaging performance, and (ii) to test image reconstruction algorithms that prefer sparseness in the reconstructed images. Our approach was to utilize singular value decomposition techniques to study the imaging operator of the system and evaluate the complexity of objects that could potentially be reconstructed. We also compared the performance of two image reconstruction algorithms (algebraic reconstruction and l1-norm techniques) at reconstructing objects of increasing sparseness. We observed that for a 15-element detection scheme, the number of measureable singular vectors representative of the imaging operator was consistent with the demonstrated ability to reconstruct point and line targets in the field of view. We also observed that the l1-norm reconstruction technique, which is known to prefer sparseness in reconstructed images, was superior to the algebraic reconstruction technique. Based on these findings, we concluded (i) that singular value decomposition of the imaging operator provides valuable insight into the capabilities of

  9. Novel morphology changes from 3D ordered macroporous structure to V2O5 nanofiber grassland and its application in electrochromism

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Zhongqiu; Lv, Haiming; Zhang, Xiang; Yang, Haowei; Tian, Yanlong; Li, Na; Zhao, Jiupeng; Li, Yao

    2015-01-01

    Because vanadium pentoxide (V2O5) is the only oxide that shows both anodic and cathodic coloration electrochromism, the reversible lithium ion insertion/extraction processes in V2O5 lead to not only reversible optical parameter changes but also multicolor changes for esthetics. Because of the outstanding electrochemical properties of V2O5 nanofibers, they show great potential to enhance V2O5 electrochromism. However, the development and practical application of V2O5 nanofibers are still lacking, because traditional preparation approaches have several drawbacks, such as multiple processing steps, unsatisfactory electrical contact with the substrate, expensive equipment, and rigorous experimental conditions. Herein, we first report a novel and convenient strategy to prepare grass-like nanofiber-stacked V2O5 films by a simple annealing treatment of an amorphous, three-dimensionally ordered macroporous vanadia film. The V2O5 nanofiber grassland exhibits promising transmittance modulation, fast switching responses, and high color contrast because of the outstanding electrochemical properties of V2O5 nanofibers as well as the high Li-ion diffusion coefficients and good electrical contact with the substrate. Moreover, the morphology transformation mechanism is investigated in detail. PMID:26578383

  10. Self-assembled synthesis of 3D Cu(In1 - xGax)Se2 nanoarrays by one-step electroless deposition into ordered AAO template

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Bin; Zhou, Tao; Zheng, Maojun; Xiong, Zuzhou; Zhu, Changqing; Li, Hong; Wang, Faze; Ma, Li; Shen, Wenzhong

    2014-07-01

    Quaternary nanostructured Cu(In1 - xGax)Se2 (CIGS) arrays were successfully fabricated via a novel and simple solution-based protocol on the electroless deposition method, using a flexible, highly ordered anodic aluminium oxide (AAO) substrate. This method does not require electric power, complicated sensitization processes, or complexing agents, but provides nearly 100% pore fill factor to AAO templates. The field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) images show that we obtained uniformly three-dimensional nanostructured CIGS arrays, and we can tailor the diameter and wall thicknesses of the nanostructure by adjusting the pore diameter of the AAO and metal Mo layer. Their chemical composition was determined by energy-dispersive spectroscopy analysis, which is very close to the stoichiometric value. The Raman spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) further confirm the formation of nanostructured CIGS with prominent chalcopyrite structure. The nanostructured CIGS arrays can support the design of low-cost, highlight-trapping, and enhanced carrier collection nanostructured solar cells.

  11. Self-assembled synthesis of 3D Cu(In(1-x)Ga(x))Se2 nanoarrays by one-step electroless deposition into ordered AAO template.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bin; Zhou, Tao; Zheng, Maojun; Xiong, Zuzhou; Zhu, Changqing; Li, Hong; Wang, Faze; Ma, Li; Shen, Wenzhong

    2014-07-25

    Quaternary nanostructured Cu(In1 - xGax)Se2 (CIGS) arrays were successfully fabricated via a novel and simple solution-based protocol on the electroless deposition method, using a flexible, highly ordered anodic aluminium oxide (AAO) substrate. This method does not require electric power, complicated sensitization processes, or complexing agents, but provides nearly 100% pore fill factor to AAO templates. The field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) images show that we obtained uniformly three-dimensional nanostructured CIGS arrays, and we can tailor the diameter and wall thicknesses of the nanostructure by adjusting the pore diameter of the AAO and metal Mo layer. Their chemical composition was determined by energy-dispersive spectroscopy analysis, which is very close to the stoichiometric value. The Raman spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) further confirm the formation of nanostructured CIGS with prominent chalcopyrite structure. The nanostructured CIGS arrays can support the design of low-cost, highlight-trapping, and enhanced carrier collection nanostructured solar cells.

  12. 3D Microperfusion Model of ADPKD

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    Stratasys 3D printer . PDMS was cast in the negative molds in order to create permanent biocompatible plastic masters (SmoothCast 310). All goals of task...1 AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0304 TITLE: 3D Microperfusion Model of ADPKD PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: David L. Kaplan CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION...ADDRESS. 1. REPORT DATE October 2015 2. REPORT TYPE Annual Report 3. DATES COVERED 15 Sep 2014 - 14 Sep 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 3D

  13. Higher-order compositional modeling of three-phase flow in 3D fractured porous media based on cross-flow equilibrium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moortgat, Joachim; Firoozabadi, Abbas

    2013-10-01

    Numerical simulation of multiphase compositional flow in fractured porous media, when all the species can transfer between the phases, is a real challenge. Despite the broad applications in hydrocarbon reservoir engineering and hydrology, a compositional numerical simulator for three-phase flow in fractured media has not appeared in the literature, to the best of our knowledge. In this work, we present a three-phase fully compositional simulator for fractured media, based on higher-order finite element methods. To achieve computational efficiency, we invoke the cross-flow equilibrium (CFE) concept between discrete fractures and a small neighborhood in the matrix blocks. We adopt the mixed hybrid finite element (MHFE) method to approximate convective Darcy fluxes and the pressure equation. This approach is the most natural choice for flow in fractured media. The mass balance equations are discretized by the discontinuous Galerkin (DG) method, which is perhaps the most efficient approach to capture physical discontinuities in phase properties at the matrix-fracture interfaces and at phase boundaries. In this work, we account for gravity and Fickian diffusion. The modeling of capillary effects is discussed in a separate paper. We present the mathematical framework, using the implicit-pressure-explicit-composition (IMPEC) scheme, which facilitates rigorous thermodynamic stability analyses and the computation of phase behavior effects to account for transfer of species between the phases. A deceptively simple CFL condition is implemented to improve numerical stability and accuracy. We provide six numerical examples at both small and larger scales and in two and three dimensions, to demonstrate powerful features of the formulation.

  14. Solitonlike magnetization textures in noncollinear antiferromagnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulloa, Camilo; Nunez, A. S.

    2016-04-01

    We show that proper control of magnetization textures can be achieved in noncollinear antiferromagnets. This opens the versatile toolbox of domain-wall manipulation in the context of a different family of materials. In this way, we show that noncollinear antiferromagnets are a good prospect for applications in the context of antiferromagnetic spintronics. As in many noncollinear antiferromagnets, the order parameter field takes values in SO(3). By performing a gradient expansion in the energy functional we derive an effective theory that accounts for the physics of the magnetization of long-wavelength excitations. We apply our formalism to static and dynamic textures such as domain walls and localized oscillations, and identify topologically protected textures that are spatially localized. Our results are applicable to the exchange-bias materials Mn3X , with X =Ir,Rh,Pt .

  15. New skeletal 3D polymeric inorganic cluster [W4S16Cu16Cl16]n with Cu in mixed-valence states: solid-state synthesis, crystal structure, and third-order nonlinear optical properties.

    PubMed

    Cai, Ya; Wang, Yan; Li, Yizhi; Wang, Xiaoshu; Xin, Xinquan; Liu, Caiming; Zheng, Hegen

    2005-12-12

    A new 3D polymeric inorganic cluster with Cu in mixed-valence states was synthesized by the solid-state reaction of (NH4)2WS4, S8, CuCl, and Et4NCl; S8 may be regarded as the oxidizing agent converting Cu(I) to Cu(II) and causing the polymerization of [WS4]2-. The third-order nonlinear optical (NLO) properties are determined, and the results show that the cluster exhibits both large NLO absorptive and strong refractive behaviors.

  16. 3D-graphite structure

    SciTech Connect

    Belenkov, E. A. Ali-Pasha, V. A.

    2011-01-15

    The structure of clusters of some new carbon 3D-graphite phases have been calculated using the molecular-mechanics methods. It is established that 3D-graphite polytypes {alpha}{sub 1,1}, {alpha}{sub 1,3}, {alpha}{sub 1,5}, {alpha}{sub 2,1}, {alpha}{sub 2,3}, {alpha}{sub 3,1}, {beta}{sub 1,2}, {beta}{sub 1,4}, {beta}{sub 1,6}, {beta}{sub 2,1}, and {beta}{sub 3,2} consist of sp{sup 2}-hybridized atoms, have hexagonal unit cells, and differ in regards to the structure of layers and order of their alternation. A possible way to experimentally synthesize new carbon phases is proposed: the polymerization and carbonization of hydrocarbon molecules.

  17. Twin Peaks - 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The two hills in the distance, approximately one to two kilometers away, have been dubbed the 'Twin Peaks' and are of great interest to Pathfinder scientists as objects of future study. 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. The white areas on the left hill, called the 'Ski Run' by scientists, may have been formed by hydrologic processes.

    The IMP is a stereo imaging system with color capability provided by 24 selectable filters -- twelve filters per 'eye.

    Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  18. 3D Audio System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Ames Research Center research into virtual reality led to the development of the Convolvotron, a high speed digital audio processing system that delivers three-dimensional sound over headphones. It consists of a two-card set designed for use with a personal computer. The Convolvotron's primary application is presentation of 3D audio signals over headphones. Four independent sound sources are filtered with large time-varying filters that compensate for motion. The perceived location of the sound remains constant. Possible applications are in air traffic control towers or airplane cockpits, hearing and perception research and virtual reality development.

  19. Tunable negative thermal expansion related with the gradual evolution of antiferromagnetic ordering in antiperovskite manganese nitrides Ag1-xNMn3+x (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.6)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, J. C.; Tong, P.; Tong, W.; Lin, S.; Wang, B. S.; Song, W. H.; Zou, Y. M.; Sun, Y. P.

    2015-02-01

    The thermal expansion and magnetic properties of antiperovskite manganese nitrides Ag1-xNMn3+x were reported. The substitution of Mn for Ag effectively broadens the temperature range of negative thermal expansion and drives it to cryogenic temperatures. As x increases, the paramagnetic (PM) to antiferromagnetic (AFM) phase transition temperature decreases. At x ˜ 0.2, the PM-AFM transition overlaps with the AFM to glass-like state transition. Above x = 0.2, two new distinct magnetic transitions were observed: One occurs above room temperature from PM to ferromagnetic (FM), and the other one evolves at a lower temperature (T*) below which both AFM and FM orderings are involved. Further, electron spin resonance measurement suggests that the broadened volume change near T* is closely related with the evolution of Γ5g AFM ordering.

  20. Long-range magnetic order in the Heisenberg pyrochlore antiferromagnets G d2G e2O7 and G d2P t2O7 synthesized under high pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, X.; Cai, Y. Q.; Cui, Q.; Lin, C. J.; Dun, Z. L.; Matsubayashi, K.; Uwatoko, Y.; Sato, Y.; Kawae, T.; Lv, S. J.; Jin, C. Q.; Zhou, J.-S.; Goodenough, J. B.; Zhou, H. D.; Cheng, J.-G.

    2016-12-01

    G d2S n2O7 and G d2T i2O7 have been regarded as good experimental realizations of the classical Heisenberg pyrochlore antiferromagnet with dipolar interaction. The former was found to adopt the Palmer-Chalker state via a single, first-order transition at TN≈1 K , while the latter enters a distinct, partially ordered state through two successive transitions at TN 1≈1 K and TN 2= 0.75 K . To shed more light on their distinct magnetic ground states, we have synthesized two more gadolinium-based pyrochlore oxides, G d2G e2O7 and G d2P t2O7 , under high-pressure conditions and performed detailed characterizations via x-ray powder diffraction, dc and ac magnetic susceptibility, and specific heat measurements down to 100 mK. We found that both compounds enter a long-range antiferromagnetically ordered state through a single, first-order transition at TN= 1.4 K for G d2G e2O7 and TN= 1.56 K for G d2P t2O7 , with the specific heat anomaly similar to that of G d2S n2O7 rather than G d2T i2O7 . Interestingly, the low-temperature magnetic specific heat values of both G d2G e2O7 and G d2P t2O7 were found to follow nicely the T3 dependence as expected for a three-dimensional antiferromagnet with gapless spin-wave excitations. We have rationalized the enhancement of TN in terms of the reduced Gd-Gd distances for the chemically pressurized G d2G e2O7 and the addition of extra superexchange pathways through the empty Pt -eg orbitals for G d2P t2O7 . Our current study has expanded the family of gadolinium-based pyrochlores and permits us to achieve a better understanding of their distinct magnetic properties in a more comprehensive perspective.

  1. Phase Diagram of a Three-Dimensional Antiferromagnet with Random Magnetic Anisotropy

    SciTech Connect

    Perez, Felio A.; Borisov, Pavel; Johnson, Trent A.; Stanescu, Tudor D.; Trappen, Robbyn; Holcomb, Mikel B.; Lederman, David; Fitzsimmons, M. R.; Aczel, Adam A.; Hong, Tao

    2015-03-04

    Three-dimensional (3D) antiferromagnets with random magnetic anisotropy (RMA) that were experimentally studied to date have competing two-dimensional and three-dimensional exchange interactions which can obscure the authentic effects of RMA. The magnetic phase diagram of FexNi1-xF2 epitaxial thin films with true random single-ion anisotropy was deduced from magnetometry and neutron scattering measurements and analyzed using mean field theory. Regions with uniaxial, oblique and easy plane anisotropies were identified. A RMA-induced glass region was discovered where a Griffiths-like breakdown of long-range spin order occurs.

  2. Phase Diagram of a Three-Dimensional Antiferromagnet with Random Magnetic Anisotropy

    DOE PAGES

    Perez, Felio A.; Borisov, Pavel; Johnson, Trent A.; ...

    2015-03-04

    Three-dimensional (3D) antiferromagnets with random magnetic anisotropy (RMA) that were experimentally studied to date have competing two-dimensional and three-dimensional exchange interactions which can obscure the authentic effects of RMA. The magnetic phase diagram of FexNi1-xF2 epitaxial thin films with true random single-ion anisotropy was deduced from magnetometry and neutron scattering measurements and analyzed using mean field theory. Regions with uniaxial, oblique and easy plane anisotropies were identified. A RMA-induced glass region was discovered where a Griffiths-like breakdown of long-range spin order occurs.

  3. 3D Surgical Simulation

    PubMed Central

    Cevidanes, Lucia; Tucker, Scott; Styner, Martin; Kim, Hyungmin; Chapuis, Jonas; Reyes, Mauricio; Proffit, William; Turvey, Timothy; Jaskolka, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the development of methods for computer-aided jaw surgery. Computer-aided jaw surgery allows us to incorporate the high level of precision necessary for transferring virtual plans into the operating room. We also present a complete computer-aided surgery (CAS) system developed in close collaboration with surgeons. Surgery planning and simulation include construction of 3D surface models from Cone-beam CT (CBCT), dynamic cephalometry, semi-automatic mirroring, interactive cutting of bone and bony segment repositioning. A virtual setup can be used to manufacture positioning splints for intra-operative guidance. The system provides further intra-operative assistance with the help of a computer display showing jaw positions and 3D positioning guides updated in real-time during the surgical procedure. The CAS system aids in dealing with complex cases with benefits for the patient, with surgical practice, and for orthodontic finishing. Advanced software tools for diagnosis and treatment planning allow preparation of detailed operative plans, osteotomy repositioning, bone reconstructions, surgical resident training and assessing the difficulties of the surgical procedures prior to the surgery. CAS has the potential to make the elaboration of the surgical plan a more flexible process, increase the level of detail and accuracy of the plan, yield higher operative precision and control, and enhance documentation of cases. Supported by NIDCR DE017727, and DE018962 PMID:20816308

  4. Martian terrain - 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    An area of rocky terrain near the landing site of the Sagan Memorial Station can be seen in this image, taken in stereo by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. This image is part of a 3D 'monster' panorama of the area surrounding the landing site.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

    Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  5. Twofold enhancement of the hidden-order/large-moment antiferromagnetic phase boundary in the URu2-xFexSi₂ system

    DOE PAGES

    Kanchanavatee, N.; Janoschek, M.; Baumbach, R. E.; ...

    2011-12-16

    Electrical resistivity, specific heat, and magnetization measurements on URu2-xFexSi₂ reveal a twofold enhancement of the “hidden-order” (HO)/large-moment antiferromagnetic (LMAFM) phase boundary T₀(x). The T₀(Pch) curve, obtained by converting x to “chemical pressure” Pch, is strikingly similar to the T₀(P) curve, where P is applied pressure, for URu₂Si₂ both exhibit a “kink” at 1.5 GPa and a maximum at ~7 GPa. This similarity suggests that the HO-LMAFM transition at 1.5 GPa in URu₂Si₂ occurs at x ≈ 0.2 (Pch≈1.5 GPa) in URu2-xFexSi₂. URu2-xFexSi₂ provides an opportunity for studying the HO and LMAFM phases with methods that probe the electronic structure [e.g.,more » scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES), and point-contact spectroscopy (PCS)] but cannot be used under pressure.« less

  6. Twofold enhancement of the hidden-order/large-moment antiferromagnetic phase boundary in the URu2-xFexSi₂ system

    SciTech Connect

    Kanchanavatee, N.; Janoschek, M.; Baumbach, R. E.; Hamlin, J. J.; Zocco, D. A.; Huang, K.; Maple, M. B.

    2011-12-16

    Electrical resistivity, specific heat, and magnetization measurements on URu2-xFexSi₂ reveal a twofold enhancement of the “hidden-order” (HO)/large-moment antiferromagnetic (LMAFM) phase boundary T₀(x). The T₀(Pch) curve, obtained by converting x to “chemical pressure” Pch, is strikingly similar to the T₀(P) curve, where P is applied pressure, for URu₂Si₂ both exhibit a “kink” at 1.5 GPa and a maximum at ~7 GPa. This similarity suggests that the HO-LMAFM transition at 1.5 GPa in URu₂Si₂ occurs at x ≈ 0.2 (Pch≈1.5 GPa) in URu2-xFexSi₂. URu2-xFexSi₂ provides an opportunity for studying the HO and LMAFM phases with methods that probe the electronic structure [e.g., scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES), and point-contact spectroscopy (PCS)] but cannot be used under pressure.

  7. Microscopic magnetic nature of K2NiF4-type 3d transition metal oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugiyama, J.; Nozaki, H.; Umegaki, I.; Higemoto, W.; Ansaldo, E. J.; Brewer, J. H.; Sakurai, H.; Kao, T.-H.; Yang, H.-D.; Månsson, M.

    2014-12-01

    In order to elucidate the magnetic nature of K2NiF4-type 3d transition metal oxides, we have measured μ+SR spectra for Sr2VO4, LaSrVO4, and Sr2CrO4 using powder samples. ZF- and wTF-μ+SR measurements propose that Sr2VO4 enters into the static antiferromagnetic (AF) order phase below 8 K. In addition, TF-μ+SR measurements evidence that the transition at 105 K is not magnetic but structural and/or electronic in origin. For LaSrVO4, static long-range order has not been observed down to 20 K, while, as T decreases from 145 K, wTF asymmetry starts to decrease below 60 K, suggesting the appearance and evolution of localized magnetic moments below 60 K. For Sr2CrO4, by contrast, both ZF- and wTF-μ+SR have confirmed the presence of antiferromagnetic order below 117 K, as predicted in the χ(T) curve.

  8. 3D field harmonics

    SciTech Connect

    Caspi, S.; Helm, M.; Laslett, L.J.

    1991-03-30

    We have developed an harmonic representation for the three dimensional field components within the windings of accelerator magnets. The form by which the field is presented is suitable for interfacing with other codes that make use of the 3D field components (particle tracking and stability). The field components can be calculated with high precision and reduced cup time at any location (r,{theta},z) inside the magnet bore. The same conductor geometry which is used to simulate line currents is also used in CAD with modifications more readily available. It is our hope that the format used here for magnetic fields can be used not only as a means of delivering fields but also as a way by which beam dynamics can suggest correction to the conductor geometry. 5 refs., 70 figs.

  9. Lattice-distortion Induced Magnetic Transition from Low-temperature Antiferromagnetism to High-temperature Ferrimagnetism in Double Perovskites A2FeOsO6 (A = Ca, Sr).

    PubMed

    Hou, Y S; Xiang, H J; Gong, X G

    2015-08-20

    High-temperature insulating ferrimagnetism is investigated in order to further reveal its physical mechanisms, as well as identify potentially important scientific and practical applications relative to spintronics. For example, double perovskites such as Sr2FeOsO6 and Ca2FeOsO6 are shown to have puzzling magnetic properties. The former is a low-temperature antiferromagnet while the latter is a high-temperature insulating ferrimagnet. In order to understand the underlying mechanisms, we have investigated the frustrated magnetism of A2FeOsO6 by employing density functional theory and maximally-localized Wannier functions. We find lattice distortion enhances the antiferromagnetic nearest-neighboring Fe-O-Os interaction, however weakens the antiferromagnetic interactions via the Os-O-O-Os and Fe-O-Os-O-Fe paths, so is therefore responsible for the magnetic transition from the low-temperature antiferromagnetism to the high-temperature ferrimagnetism as the decrease of the A(2+) ion radii. Also discussed is the 5d(3)-3d(5) superexchange. We propose that such superexchange is intrinsically antiferromagnetic instead of ferromagnetic as previously thought. Our work clearly illustrates the magnetic frustration can be effectively relieved by lattice distortion, thus paving the way for tuning of complex magnetism in yet other 3d-5d (4d) double perovskites.

  10. Lattice-distortion Induced Magnetic Transition from Low-temperature Antiferromagnetism to High-temperature Ferrimagnetism in Double Perovskites A2FeOsO6 (A = Ca, Sr)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Y. S.; Xiang, H. J.; Gong, X. G.

    2015-08-01

    High-temperature insulating ferrimagnetism is investigated in order to further reveal its physical mechanisms, as well as identify potentially important scientific and practical applications relative to spintronics. For example, double perovskites such as Sr2FeOsO6 and Ca2FeOsO6 are shown to have puzzling magnetic properties. The former is a low-temperature antiferromagnet while the latter is a high-temperature insulating ferrimagnet. In order to understand the underlying mechanisms, we have investigated the frustrated magnetism of A2FeOsO6 by employing density functional theory and maximally-localized Wannier functions. We find lattice distortion enhances the antiferromagnetic nearest-neighboring Fe-O-Os interaction, however weakens the antiferromagnetic interactions via the Os-O-O-Os and Fe-O-Os-O-Fe paths, so is therefore responsible for the magnetic transition from the low-temperature antiferromagnetism to the high-temperature ferrimagnetism as the decrease of the A2+ ion radii. Also discussed is the 5d3-3d5 superexchange. We propose that such superexchange is intrinsically antiferromagnetic instead of ferromagnetic as previously thought. Our work clearly illustrates the magnetic frustration can be effectively relieved by lattice distortion, thus paving the way for tuning of complex magnetism in yet other 3d-5d (4d) double perovskites.

  11. Itinerant Antiferromagnetism in RuO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berlijn, T.; Snijders, P. C.; Delaire, O.; Zhou, H.-D.; Maier, T. A.; Cao, H.-B.; Chi, S.-X.; Matsuda, M.; Wang, Y.; Koehler, M. R.; Kent, P. R. C.; Weitering, H. H.

    2017-02-01

    Bulk rutile RuO2 has long been considered a Pauli paramagnet. Here we report that RuO2 exhibits a hitherto undetected lattice distortion below approximately 900 K. The distortion is accompanied by antiferromagnetic order up to at least 300 K with a small room temperature magnetic moment of approximately 0.05 μB as evidenced by polarized neutron diffraction. Density functional theory plus U (DFT +U ) calculations indicate that antiferromagnetism is favored even for small values of the Hubbard U of the order of 1 eV. The antiferromagnetism may be traced to a Fermi surface instability, lifting the band degeneracy imposed by the rutile crystal field. The combination of high Néel temperature and small itinerant moments make RuO2 unique among ruthenate compounds and among oxide materials in general.

  12. Tailoring exchange couplings in magnetic topological-insulator/antiferromagnet heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Qing Lin; Kou, Xufeng; Grutter, Alexander J.; Yin, Gen; Pan, Lei; Che, Xiaoyu; Liu, Yuxiang; Nie, Tianxiao; Zhang, Bin; Disseler, Steven M.; Kirby, Brian J.; Ratcliff, William, II; Shao, Qiming; Murata, Koichi; Zhu, Xiaodan; Yu, Guoqiang; Fan, Yabin; Montazeri, Mohammad; Han, Xiaodong; Borchers, Julie A.; Wang, Kang L.

    2017-01-01

    Magnetic topological insulators such as Cr-doped (Bi,Sb)2Te3 provide a platform for the realization of versatile time-reversal symmetry-breaking physics. By constructing heterostructures exhibiting Néel order in an antiferromagnetic CrSb and ferromagnetic order in Cr-doped (Bi,Sb)2Te3, we realize emergent interfacial magnetic phenomena which can be tailored through artificial structural engineering. Through deliberate geometrical design of heterostructures and superlattices, we demonstrate the use of antiferromagnetic exchange coupling in manipulating the magnetic properties of magnetic topological insulators. Proximity effects are shown to induce an interfacial spin texture modulation and establish an effective long-range exchange coupling mediated by antiferromagnetism, which significantly enhances the magnetic ordering temperature in the superlattice. This work provides a new framework on integrating topological insulators with antiferromagnetic materials and unveils new avenues towards dissipationless topological antiferromagnetic spintronics.

  13. Magnetic engineering in 3d transition metals on phosphorene by strain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Xiaolin; Niu, Chunyao; Wang, Jianjun; Yu, Weiyang; Ren, XiaoYan; Zhu, Zhili

    2017-04-01

    Using first-principles density functional theory (DFT) calculations, we systematically investigate the strain effects on the adsorption energies, magnetic ordering and electronic properties of 3d transition metal (TM) atoms (from Sc to Co) adsorbed on phosphorene (P). We find that the adsorption energy of TM can be enhanced by compressive strain whereas weakened by tensile strain. Our results show that strain plays a decisive role in the magnetic moments as well as the magnetic coupling states of TM adatoms. Importantly, the transitions from antiferromagnetic (AFM) state to ferromagnetic (FM) state or to another different AFM ordering can be induced by strain effect. In addition, we observe the semiconductor to metal or half-metal transitions in some TM@P systems by applying strain. Our findings shed a new light on precisely engineering the magnetic properties and electronic properties of the TM@P systems, which will have great potential applications in spin electronics and other related fields.

  14. Intraoral 3D scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kühmstedt, Peter; Bräuer-Burchardt, Christian; Munkelt, Christoph; Heinze, Matthias; Palme, Martin; Schmidt, Ingo; Hintersehr, Josef; Notni, Gunther

    2007-09-01

    Here a new set-up of a 3D-scanning system for CAD/CAM in dental industry is proposed. The system is designed for direct scanning of the dental preparations within the mouth. The measuring process is based on phase correlation technique in combination with fast fringe projection in a stereo arrangement. The novelty in the approach is characterized by the following features: A phase correlation between the phase values of the images of two cameras is used for the co-ordinate calculation. This works contrary to the usage of only phase values (phasogrammetry) or classical triangulation (phase values and camera image co-ordinate values) for the determination of the co-ordinates. The main advantage of the method is that the absolute value of the phase at each point does not directly determine the coordinate. Thus errors in the determination of the co-ordinates are prevented. Furthermore, using the epipolar geometry of the stereo-like arrangement the phase unwrapping problem of fringe analysis can be solved. The endoscope like measurement system contains one projection and two camera channels for illumination and observation of the object, respectively. The new system has a measurement field of nearly 25mm × 15mm. The user can measure two or three teeth at one time. So the system can by used for scanning of single tooth up to bridges preparations. In the paper the first realization of the intraoral scanner is described.

  15. 'Diamond' in 3-D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This 3-D, microscopic imager mosaic of a target area on a rock called 'Diamond Jenness' was taken after NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity ground into the surface with its rock abrasion tool for a second time.

    Opportunity has bored nearly a dozen holes into the inner walls of 'Endurance Crater.' On sols 177 and 178 (July 23 and July 24, 2004), the rover worked double-duty on Diamond Jenness. Surface debris and the bumpy shape of the rock resulted in a shallow and irregular hole, only about 2 millimeters (0.08 inch) deep. The final depth was not enough to remove all the bumps and leave a neat hole with a smooth floor. This extremely shallow depression was then examined by the rover's alpha particle X-ray spectrometer.

    On Sol 178, Opportunity's 'robotic rodent' dined on Diamond Jenness once again, grinding almost an additional 5 millimeters (about 0.2 inch). The rover then applied its Moessbauer spectrometer to the deepened hole. This double dose of Diamond Jenness enabled the science team to examine the rock at varying layers. Results from those grindings are currently being analyzed.

    The image mosaic is about 6 centimeters (2.4 inches) across.

  16. Prominent rocks - 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Many prominent rocks near the Sagan Memorial Station are featured in this image, taken in stereo by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. Wedge is at lower left; Shark, Half-Dome, and Pumpkin are at center. Flat Top, about four inches high, is at lower right. The horizon in the distance is one to two kilometers away.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

    Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  17. Dynamics of antiferromagnetic skyrmion driven by the spin Hall effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Chendong; Song, Chengkun; Wang, Jianbo; Liu, Qingfang

    2016-10-01

    Magnetic skyrmion moved by the spin-Hall effect is promising for the application of the generation racetrack memories. However, the Magnus force causes a deflected motion of skyrmion, which limits its application. Here, we create an antiferromagnetic skyrmion by injecting a spin-polarized pulse in the nanostripe and investigate the spin Hall effect-induced motion of antiferromagnetic skyrmion by micromagnetic simulations. In contrast to ferromagnetic skyrmion, we find that the antiferromagnetic skyrmion has three evident advantages: (i) the minimum driving current density of antiferromagnetic skyrmion is about two orders smaller than the ferromagnetic skyrmion; (ii) the velocity of the antiferromagnetic skyrmion is about 57 times larger than the ferromagnetic skyrmion driven by the same value of current density; (iii) antiferromagnetic skyrmion can be driven by the spin Hall effect without the influence of Magnus force. In addition, antiferromagnetic skyrmion can move around the pinning sites due to its property of topological protection. Our results present the understanding of antiferromagnetic skyrmion motion driven by the spin Hall effect and may also contribute to the development of antiferromagnetic skyrmion-based racetrack memories.

  18. How We 3D-Print Aerogel

    SciTech Connect

    2015-04-23

    A new type of graphene aerogel will make for better energy storage, sensors, nanoelectronics, catalysis and separations. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory researchers have made graphene aerogel microlattices with an engineered architecture via a 3D printing technique known as direct ink writing. The research appears in the April 22 edition of the journal, Nature Communications. The 3D printed graphene aerogels have high surface area, excellent electrical conductivity, are lightweight, have mechanical stiffness and exhibit supercompressibility (up to 90 percent compressive strain). In addition, the 3D printed graphene aerogel microlattices show an order of magnitude improvement over bulk graphene materials and much better mass transport.

  19. An Improved Version of TOPAZ 3D

    SciTech Connect

    Krasnykh, Anatoly

    2003-07-29

    An improved version of the TOPAZ 3D gun code is presented as a powerful tool for beam optics simulation. In contrast to the previous version of TOPAZ 3D, the geometry of the device under test is introduced into TOPAZ 3D directly from a CAD program, such as Solid Edge or AutoCAD. In order to have this new feature, an interface was developed, using the GiD software package as a meshing code. The article describes this method with two models to illustrate the results.

  20. Paramagnetic and Antiferromagnetic Spin Seebeck Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Stephen

    We report on the observation of the longitudinal spin Seebeck effect in both antiferromagnetic and paramagnetic insulators. By using a microscale on-chip local heater, it is possible to generate a large thermal gradient confined to the chip surface without a large increase in the total sample temperature. This technique allows us to easily access low temperatures (200 mK) and high magnetic fields (14 T) through conventional dilution refrigeration and superconducting magnet setups. By exploring this regime, we detect the spin Seebeck effect through the spin-flop transition in antiferromagnetic MnF2 when a large magnetic field (>9 T) is applied along the easy axis direction. Using the same technique, we are also able to resolve a spin Seebeck effect from the paramagnetic phase of geometrically frustrated antiferromagnet Gd3Ga5O12 (gadolinium gallium garnet) and antiferromagnetic DyScO3 (DSO). Since these measurements occur above the ordering temperatures of these two materials, short-range magnetic order is implicated as the cause of the spin Seebeck effect in these systems. The discovery of the spin Seebeck effect in these two materials classes suggest that both antiferromagnetic spin waves and spin excitations from short range magnetic order may be used to generate spin current from insulators and that the spin wave spectra of individual materials are highly important to the specifics of the longitudinal spin Seebeck effect. Since insulating antiferromagnets and paramagnets are far more common than the typical insulating ferrimagnetic materials used in spin Seebeck experiments, this discovery opens up a large new class of materials for use in spin caloritronic devices. All authors acknowledge support of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Science, Basic Energy Sciences (BES), Materials Sciences and Engineering Division. The use of facilities at the Center for Nanoscale Materials, was supported by the U.S. DOE, BES under Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357.

  1. 3D palmprint data fast acquisition and recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaoxu; Huang, Shujun; Gao, Nan; Zhang, Zonghua

    2014-11-01

    This paper presents a fast 3D (Three-Dimension) palmprint capturing system and develops an efficient 3D palmprint feature extraction and recognition method. In order to fast acquire accurate 3D shape and texture of palmprint, a DLP projector triggers a CCD camera to realize synchronization. By generating and projecting green fringe pattern images onto the measured palm surface, 3D palmprint data are calculated from the fringe pattern images. The periodic feature vector can be derived from the calculated 3D palmprint data, so undistorted 3D biometrics is obtained. Using the obtained 3D palmprint data, feature matching test have been carried out by Gabor filter, competition rules and the mean curvature. Experimental results on capturing 3D palmprint show that the proposed acquisition method can fast get 3D shape information of palmprint. Some initial experiments on recognition show the proposed method is efficient by using 3D palmprint data.

  2. 3D whiteboard: collaborative sketching with 3D-tracked smart phones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lue, James; Schulze, Jürgen P.

    2014-02-01

    We present the results of our investigation of the feasibility of a new approach for collaborative drawing in 3D, based on Android smart phones. Our approach utilizes a number of fiduciary markers, placed in the working area where they can be seen by the smart phones' cameras, in order to estimate the pose of each phone in the room. Our prototype allows two users to draw 3D objects with their smart phones by moving their phones around in 3D space. For example, 3D lines are drawn by recording the path of the phone as it is moved around in 3D space, drawing line segments on the screen along the way. Each user can see the virtual drawing space on their smart phones' displays, as if the display was a window into this space. Besides lines, our prototype application also supports 3D geometry creation, geometry transformation operations, and it shows the location of the other user's phone.

  3. Emergent Antiferromagnetism out of the "Hidden-Order" State in URu2Si2: High Magnetic Field Nuclear Magnetic Resonance to 40 T

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakai, H.; Tokunaga, Y.; Kambe, S.; Urbano, R. R.; Suzuki, M.-T.; Kuhns, P. L.; Reyes, A. P.; Tobash, P. H.; Ronning, F.; Bauer, E. D.; Thompson, J. D.

    2014-06-01

    Very high field Si29-NMR measurements using a fully Si29-enriched URu2Si2 single crystal were carried out in order to microscopically investigate the "hidden order" (HO) state and adjacent magnetic phases in the high field limit. At the lowest measured temperature of 0.4 K, a clear anomaly reflecting a Fermi surface instability near 22 T inside the HO state is detected by the Si29 shift, Kc29. Moreover, a strong enhancement of Kc29 develops near a critical field Hc≃35.6 T, and the Si29-NMR signal disappears suddenly at Hc, indicating the total suppression of the HO state. Nevertheless, a weak and shifted Si29-NMR signal reappears for fields higher than Hc at 4.2 K, providing evidence for a magnetic structure within the magnetic phase caused by the Ising-type anisotropy of the uranium ordered moments.

  4. A pseudo-3D approach based on electron backscatter diffraction and backscatter electron imaging to study the character of phase boundaries between Mg and long period stacking ordered phase in a Mg–2Y–Zn alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Afshar, Mehran Zaefferer, Stefan

    2015-03-15

    In Mg–2 at.% Y–1 at.% Zn alloys, the LPSO (Long Period Stacking Ordered) phase is important to improve mechanical properties of the material. The aim of this paper is to present a study on the phase boundary character in these two-phase alloys. Using EBSD pattern analysis it was found that the 24R structure is the dominant LPSO phase structure in the current alloy. The phase boundary character between the Mg matrix and the LPSO phase was investigated using an improved pseudo-3D EBSD (electron backscatter diffraction) technique in combination with BSE or SE (backscatter or secondary electron) imaging. A large amount of very low-angle phase boundaries was detected. The (0 0 0 2) plane in the Mg matrix which is parallel to the (0 0 0 24) plane in the LPSO phase was found to be the most frequent plane for these phase boundaries. This plane is supposed to be the habit plane of the eutectic co-solidification of the Mg matrix and the LPSO phase. - Highlights: • It is shown that for the investigated alloy the LPSO phase has mainly 24R crystal structure. • A new method is presented which allows accurate determination of the 5-parameter grain or phase boundary character. • It is found that the low-angle phase boundaries appearing in the alloy all have basal phase boundary planes.

  5. Development of 3D video and 3D data services for T-DMB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, Kugjin; Lee, Hyun; Hur, Namho; Kim, Jinwoong

    2008-02-01

    In this paper, we present motivation, system concept, and implementation details of stereoscopic 3D visual services on T-DMB. We have developed two types of 3D visual service : one is '3D video service', which provides 3D depth feeling for a video program by sending left and right view video streams, and the other is '3D data service', which provides presentation of 3D objects overlaid on top of 2D video program. We have developed several highly efficient and sophisticated transmission schemes for the delivery of 3D visual data in order to meet the system requirements such as (1) minimization of bitrate overhead to comply with the strict constraint of T-DMB channel bandwidth; (2) backward and forward compatibility with existing T-DMB; (3) maximize the eye-catching effect of 3D visual representation while reducing eye fatigue. We found that, in contrast to conventional way of providing a stereo version of a program as a whole, the proposed scheme can lead to variety of efficient and effective 3D visual services which can be adapted to many business models.

  6. Antiferromagnetic domains in epitaxial thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scholl, Andreas

    2002-03-01

    Interface and surface effects play a central role in modern magnet structures. Magnetic exchange coupling and bias, spin injection across the boundary between magnetic and non-magnetic layers, and the surface and interface anisotropy in multilayers are examples for interface phenomena that are utilized in magneto-electronics. In particular, the microscopic origin of exchange bias at ferromagnet/antiferromagnet interfaces is still an unsolved problem despite of intense research, driven by the important application of exchange bias in hard disk read-heads and magnetic RAM. Knowledge of the microscopic magnetic structure in antiferromagnetic thin films and surfaces is of crucial importance for a better understanding of the exchange bias effect. Microscopic experiments on magnetically coupled ferromagnet/antiferromagnet layers using X-ray Photoemission Electron Microscopy (X-PEEM) now provide a new insight into the microscopic processes at this important interface. Using a combination of x-ray magnetic dichroism (XMD) contrast and microscopic electron yield detection we have resolved the magnetic domain structure in LaFeO3 and NiO thin films and crystals. The antiferromagnetic domain structure is linked to the crystallographic structure of the material and vanishes approaching the magnetic ordering temperature. Ferromagnetic films grown on the antiferromagnetic substrate show a corresponding ferromagnetic domain structure, an uniaxial exchange anistropy and a local bias which increases with decreasing domain size, suggesting a statistical origin of the bias effect. The role of uncompensated interface spins will also be discussed. We will present first experiments on magnetic interlayer coupling across metallic antiferromagnets, which suggest a similar origin of bias in full-metallic exchange bias system. A. Scholl et al., Science 287, 1014 (2000), F. Nolting et al., Nature 405, 767 (2000), H. Ohldag et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 2878 (2001)

  7. Spin liquid state in the 3D frustrated antiferromagnet PbCuTe2O6: NMR and muon spin relaxation studies

    SciTech Connect

    Khuntia, P.; Bert, F.; Mendels, P.; Koteswararao, B.; Mahajan, A. V.; Baenitz, M.; Chou, F. C.; Baines, C.; Amato, A.; Furukawa, Y.

    2016-03-11

    In this study, PbCuTe2O6 is a rare example of a spin liquid candidate featuring a three-dimensional magnetic lattice. Strong geometric frustration arises from the dominant antiferromagnetic interaction that generates a hyperkagome network of Cu2+ ions although additional interactions enhance the magnetic lattice connectivity. Through a combination of magnetization measurements and local probe investigations by NMR and muon spin relaxation down to 20 mK, we provide robust evidence for the absence of magnetic freezing in the ground state. The local spin susceptibility probed by the NMR shift hardly deviates from the macroscopic one down to 1 K pointing to a homogeneous magnetic system with a low defect concentration. The saturation of the NMR shift and the sublinear power law temperature (T) evolution of the 1/T1 NMR relaxation rate at low T point to a nonsinglet ground state favoring a gapless fermionic description of the magnetic excitations. Below 1 K a pronounced slowing down of the spin dynamics is witnessed, which may signal a reconstruction of spinon Fermi surface. Nonetheless, the compound remains in a fluctuating spin liquid state down to the lowest temperature of the present investigation.

  8. 3D Spectroscopy in Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mediavilla, Evencio; Arribas, Santiago; Roth, Martin; Cepa-Nogué, Jordi; Sánchez, Francisco

    2011-09-01

    Preface; Acknowledgements; 1. Introductory review and technical approaches Martin M. Roth; 2. Observational procedures and data reduction James E. H. Turner; 3. 3D Spectroscopy instrumentation M. A. Bershady; 4. Analysis of 3D data Pierre Ferruit; 5. Science motivation for IFS and galactic studies F. Eisenhauer; 6. Extragalactic studies and future IFS science Luis Colina; 7. Tutorials: how to handle 3D spectroscopy data Sebastian F. Sánchez, Begona García-Lorenzo and Arlette Pécontal-Rousset.

  9. Spherical 3D isotropic wavelets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanusse, F.; Rassat, A.; Starck, J.-L.

    2012-04-01

    Context. Future cosmological surveys will provide 3D large scale structure maps with large sky coverage, for which a 3D spherical Fourier-Bessel (SFB) analysis in spherical coordinates is natural. Wavelets are particularly well-suited to the analysis and denoising of cosmological data, but a spherical 3D isotropic wavelet transform does not currently exist to analyse spherical 3D data. Aims: The aim of this paper is to present a new formalism for a spherical 3D isotropic wavelet, i.e. one based on the SFB decomposition of a 3D field and accompany the formalism with a public code to perform wavelet transforms. Methods: We describe a new 3D isotropic spherical wavelet decomposition based on the undecimated wavelet transform (UWT) described in Starck et al. (2006). We also present a new fast discrete spherical Fourier-Bessel transform (DSFBT) based on both a discrete Bessel transform and the HEALPIX angular pixelisation scheme. We test the 3D wavelet transform and as a toy-application, apply a denoising algorithm in wavelet space to the Virgo large box cosmological simulations and find we can successfully remove noise without much loss to the large scale structure. Results: We have described a new spherical 3D isotropic wavelet transform, ideally suited to analyse and denoise future 3D spherical cosmological surveys, which uses a novel DSFBT. We illustrate its potential use for denoising using a toy model. All the algorithms presented in this paper are available for download as a public code called MRS3D at http://jstarck.free.fr/mrs3d.html

  10. Development of a 3D pixel module for an ultralarge screen 3D display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashiba, Toshihiko; Takaki, Yasuhiro

    2004-10-01

    A large screen 2D display used at stadiums and theaters consists of a number of pixel modules. The pixel module usually consists of 8x8 or 16x16 LED pixels. In this study we develop a 3D pixel module in order to construct a large screen 3D display which is glass-free and has the motion parallax. This configuration for a large screen 3D display dramatically reduces the complexity of wiring 3D pixels. The 3D pixel module consists of several LCD panels, several cylindrical lenses, and one small PC. The LCD panels are slanted in order to differentiate the distances from same color pixels to the axis of the cylindrical lens so that the rays from the same color pixels are refracted into the different horizontal directions by the cylindrical lens. We constructed a prototype 3D pixel module, which consists of 8x4 3D pixels. The prototype module is designed to display 300 different patterns into different horizontal directions with the horizontal display angle pitch of 0.099 degree. The LCD panels are controlled by a small PC and the 3D image data is transmitted through the Gigabit Ethernet.

  11. 3D Elevation Program—Virtual USA in 3D

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lukas, Vicki; Stoker, J.M.

    2016-04-14

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) uses a laser system called ‘lidar’ (light detection and ranging) to create a virtual reality map of the Nation that is very accurate. 3D maps have many uses with new uses being discovered all the time.  

  12. A new member of ferrous sulfates, FeSO{sub 4}·2H{sub 2}O with PtS topology showing spin-canted long-range antiferromagnetic ordering

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Long; Liu, Wei Cao, Lixin; Su, Ge; Gao, Rongjie; Yang, Hongzhan

    2015-11-15

    A sanderite ferrous sulfate FeSO{sub 4}·2H{sub 2}O has been synthesized by the hydro/solvothermal method. Its crystal structure (Pccn, a=6.3160 Å, b=7.7550 Å, c=8.9880 Å, V=440.2 Å{sup 3}, Z=4) can be regarded as the condensation of alternately corner-shared FeO{sub 4}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2} octahedra and SO{sub 4} tetrahedra with a similar topology of PtS. By structural comparison with the known hydrated ferrous sulfates, the structural relation among them has been noted and discussed in detail. A variable temperature magnetic study shows a spin-canted long-range antiferromagnetic ordering in the low temperature regime, which might result from a possible phase transition during the cooling from the high temperature. - Graphical abstract: As a new number of ferrous sulfates, sanderite FeSO{sub 4}·2H{sub 2}O has been synthesized under hydro/solvothermal conditions, which exhibits a similar topology of PtS. - Highlights: • Sanderite ferrous sulfate has been synthesized. • The topology of its structure is similar to that of PtS. • A structural relation between these hydrated ferrous sulfates is discovered.

  13. 3D World Building System

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    This video provides an overview of the Sandia National Laboratories developed 3-D World Model Building capability that provides users with an immersive, texture rich 3-D model of their environment in minutes using a laptop and color and depth camera.

  14. 3D Buckligami: Digital Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Hecke, Martin; de Reus, Koen; Florijn, Bastiaan; Coulais, Corentin

    2014-03-01

    We present a class of elastic structures which exhibit collective buckling in 3D, and create these by a 3D printing/moulding technique. Our structures consist of cubic lattice of anisotropic unit cells, and we show that their mechanical properties are programmable via the orientation of these unit cells.

  15. 3D World Building System

    SciTech Connect

    2013-10-30

    This video provides an overview of the Sandia National Laboratories developed 3-D World Model Building capability that provides users with an immersive, texture rich 3-D model of their environment in minutes using a laptop and color and depth camera.

  16. LLNL-Earth3D

    SciTech Connect

    2013-10-01

    Earth3D is a computer code designed to allow fast calculation of seismic rays and travel times through a 3D model of the Earth. LLNL is using this for earthquake location and global tomography efforts and such codes are of great interest to the Earth Science community.

  17. Market study: 3-D eyetracker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    A market study of a proposed version of a 3-D eyetracker for initial use at NASA's Ames Research Center was made. The commercialization potential of a simplified, less expensive 3-D eyetracker was ascertained. Primary focus on present and potential users of eyetrackers, as well as present and potential manufacturers has provided an effective means of analyzing the prospects for commercialization.

  18. Euro3D Science Conference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, J. R.

    2004-02-01

    The Euro3D RTN is an EU funded Research Training Network to foster the exploitation of 3D spectroscopy in Europe. 3D spectroscopy is a general term for spectroscopy of an area of the sky and derives its name from its two spatial + one spectral dimensions. There are an increasing number of instruments which use integral field devices to achieve spectroscopy of an area of the sky, either using lens arrays, optical fibres or image slicers, to pack spectra of multiple pixels on the sky (``spaxels'') onto a 2D detector. On account of the large volume of data and the special methods required to reduce and analyse 3D data, there are only a few centres of expertise and these are mostly involved with instrument developments. There is a perceived lack of expertise in 3D spectroscopy spread though the astronomical community and its use in the armoury of the observational astronomer is viewed as being highly specialised. For precisely this reason the Euro3D RTN was proposed to train young researchers in this area and develop user tools to widen the experience with this particular type of data in Europe. The Euro3D RTN is coordinated by Martin M. Roth (Astrophysikalisches Institut Potsdam) and has been running since July 2002. The first Euro3D science conference was held in Cambridge, UK from 22 to 23 May 2003. The main emphasis of the conference was, in keeping with the RTN, to expose the work of the young post-docs who are funded by the RTN. In addition the team members from the eleven European institutes involved in Euro3D also presented instrumental and observational developments. The conference was organized by Andy Bunker and held at the Institute of Astronomy. There were over thirty participants and 26 talks covered the whole range of application of 3D techniques. The science ranged from Galactic planetary nebulae and globular clusters to kinematics of nearby galaxies out to objects at high redshift. Several talks were devoted to reporting recent observations with newly

  19. 3D vision system assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pezzaniti, J. Larry; Edmondson, Richard; Vaden, Justin; Hyatt, Bryan; Chenault, David B.; Kingston, David; Geulen, Vanilynmae; Newell, Scott; Pettijohn, Brad

    2009-02-01

    In this paper, we report on the development of a 3D vision system consisting of a flat panel stereoscopic display and auto-converging stereo camera and an assessment of the system's use for robotic driving, manipulation, and surveillance operations. The 3D vision system was integrated onto a Talon Robot and Operator Control Unit (OCU) such that direct comparisons of the performance of a number of test subjects using 2D and 3D vision systems were possible. A number of representative scenarios were developed to determine which tasks benefited most from the added depth perception and to understand when the 3D vision system hindered understanding of the scene. Two tests were conducted at Fort Leonard Wood, MO with noncommissioned officers ranked Staff Sergeant and Sergeant First Class. The scenarios; the test planning, approach and protocols; the data analysis; and the resulting performance assessment of the 3D vision system are reported.

  20. 3D printing in dentistry.

    PubMed

    Dawood, A; Marti Marti, B; Sauret-Jackson, V; Darwood, A

    2015-12-01

    3D printing has been hailed as a disruptive technology which will change manufacturing. Used in aerospace, defence, art and design, 3D printing is becoming a subject of great interest in surgery. The technology has a particular resonance with dentistry, and with advances in 3D imaging and modelling technologies such as cone beam computed tomography and intraoral scanning, and with the relatively long history of the use of CAD CAM technologies in dentistry, it will become of increasing importance. Uses of 3D printing include the production of drill guides for dental implants, the production of physical models for prosthodontics, orthodontics and surgery, the manufacture of dental, craniomaxillofacial and orthopaedic implants, and the fabrication of copings and frameworks for implant and dental restorations. This paper reviews the types of 3D printing technologies available and their various applications in dentistry and in maxillofacial surgery.

  1. PLOT3D user's manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walatka, Pamela P.; Buning, Pieter G.; Pierce, Larry; Elson, Patricia A.

    1990-01-01

    PLOT3D is a computer graphics program designed to visualize the grids and solutions of computational fluid dynamics. Seventy-four functions are available. Versions are available for many systems. PLOT3D can handle multiple grids with a million or more grid points, and can produce varieties of model renderings, such as wireframe or flat shaded. Output from PLOT3D can be used in animation programs. The first part of this manual is a tutorial that takes the reader, keystroke by keystroke, through a PLOT3D session. The second part of the manual contains reference chapters, including the helpfile, data file formats, advice on changing PLOT3D, and sample command files.

  2. Femtosecond optomagnetism in dielectric antiferromagnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bossini, D.; Rasing, Th

    2017-02-01

    Optical femtosecond manipulation of magnetic order is attractive for the development of new concepts for ultrafast magnetic recording. Theoretical and experimental investigations in this research area aim at establishing a physical understanding of magnetic media in light-induced non-equilibrium states. Such a quest requires one to adjust the theory of magnetism, since the thermodynamical concepts of elementary excitations and spin alignment determined by the exchange interaction are not applicable on the femtosecond time-scale after the photo-excitation. Here we report some key milestones concerning the femtosecond optical control of spins in dielectric antiferromagnets, whose spin dynamics is by nature faster than that of ferromagnets and can be triggered even without any laser heating. The recent progress of the opto-magnetic effect in the sub-wavelength regime makes this exciting research area even more promising, in terms of both fundamental breakthroughs and technological perspectives.

  3. Spin reorientation via antiferromagnetic coupling

    SciTech Connect

    Ranjbar, M.; Sbiaa, R.; Dumas, R. K.; Åkerman, J.; Piramanayagam, S. N.

    2014-05-07

    Spin reorientation in antiferromagnetically coupled (AFC) Co/Pd multilayers, wherein the thickness of the constituent Co layers was varied, was studied. AFC-Co/Pd multilayers were observed to have perpendicular magnetic anisotropy even for a Co sublayer thickness of 1 nm, much larger than what is usually observed in systems without antiferromagnetic coupling. When similar multilayer structures were prepared without antiferromagnetic coupling, this effect was not observed. The results indicate that the additional anisotropy energy contribution arising from the antiferromagnetic coupling, which is estimated to be around 6 × 10{sup 6} ergs/cm{sup 3}, induces the spin-reorientation.

  4. Direct measurement of antiferromagnetic domain fluctuations.

    PubMed

    Shpyrko, O G; Isaacs, E D; Logan, J M; Feng, Yejun; Aeppli, G; Jaramillo, R; Kim, H C; Rosenbaum, T F; Zschack, P; Sprung, M; Narayanan, S; Sandy, A R

    2007-05-03

    Measurements of magnetic noise emanating from ferromagnets owing to domain motion were first carried out nearly 100 years ago, and have underpinned much science and technology. Antiferromagnets, which carry no net external magnetic dipole moment, yet have a periodic arrangement of the electron spins extending over macroscopic distances, should also display magnetic noise. However, this must be sampled at spatial wavelengths of the order of several interatomic spacings, rather than the macroscopic scales characteristic of ferromagnets. Here we present a direct measurement of the fluctuations in the nanometre-scale superstructure of spin- and charge-density waves associated with antiferromagnetism in elemental chromium. The technique used is X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy, where coherent X-ray diffraction produces a speckle pattern that serves as a 'fingerprint' of a particular magnetic domain configuration. The temporal evolution of the patterns corresponds to domain walls advancing and retreating over micrometre distances. This work demonstrates a useful measurement tool for antiferromagnetic domain wall engineering, but also reveals a fundamental finding about spin dynamics in the simplest antiferromagnet: although the domain wall motion is thermally activated at temperatures above 100 K, it is not so at lower temperatures, and indeed has a rate that saturates at a finite value-consistent with quantum fluctuations-on cooling below 40 K.

  5. How to See Shadows in 3D

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parikesit, Gea O. F.

    2014-01-01

    Shadows can be found easily everywhere around us, so that we rarely find it interesting to reflect on how they work. In order to raise curiosity among students on the optics of shadows, we can display the shadows in 3D, particularly using a stereoscopic set-up. In this paper we describe the optics of stereoscopic shadows using simple schematic…

  6. Crowdsourcing Based 3d Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somogyi, A.; Barsi, A.; Molnar, B.; Lovas, T.

    2016-06-01

    Web-based photo albums that support organizing and viewing the users' images are widely used. These services provide a convenient solution for storing, editing and sharing images. In many cases, the users attach geotags to the images in order to enable using them e.g. in location based applications on social networks. Our paper discusses a procedure that collects open access images from a site frequently visited by tourists. Geotagged pictures showing the image of a sight or tourist attraction are selected and processed in photogrammetric processing software that produces the 3D model of the captured object. For the particular investigation we selected three attractions in Budapest. To assess the geometrical accuracy, we used laser scanner and DSLR as well as smart phone photography to derive reference values to enable verifying the spatial model obtained from the web-album images. The investigation shows how detailed and accurate models could be derived applying photogrammetric processing software, simply by using images of the community, without visiting the site.

  7. Unassisted 3D camera calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atanassov, Kalin; Ramachandra, Vikas; Nash, James; Goma, Sergio R.

    2012-03-01

    With the rapid growth of 3D technology, 3D image capture has become a critical part of the 3D feature set on mobile phones. 3D image quality is affected by the scene geometry as well as on-the-device processing. An automatic 3D system usually assumes known camera poses accomplished by factory calibration using a special chart. In real life settings, pose parameters estimated by factory calibration can be negatively impacted by movements of the lens barrel due to shaking, focusing, or camera drop. If any of these factors displaces the optical axes of either or both cameras, vertical disparity might exceed the maximum tolerable margin and the 3D user may experience eye strain or headaches. To make 3D capture more practical, one needs to consider unassisted (on arbitrary scenes) calibration. In this paper, we propose an algorithm that relies on detection and matching of keypoints between left and right images. Frames containing erroneous matches, along with frames with insufficiently rich keypoint constellations, are detected and discarded. Roll, pitch yaw , and scale differences between left and right frames are then estimated. The algorithm performance is evaluated in terms of the remaining vertical disparity as compared to the maximum tolerable vertical disparity.

  8. Lattice-distortion Induced Magnetic Transition from Low-temperature Antiferromagnetism to High-temperature Ferrimagnetism in Double Perovskites A2FeOsO6 (A = Ca, Sr)

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Y. S.; Xiang, H. J.; Gong, X. G.

    2015-01-01

    High-temperature insulating ferrimagnetism is investigated in order to further reveal its physical mechanisms, as well as identify potentially important scientific and practical applications relative to spintronics. For example, double perovskites such as Sr2FeOsO6 and Ca2FeOsO6 are shown to have puzzling magnetic properties. The former is a low-temperature antiferromagnet while the latter is a high-temperature insulating ferrimagnet. In order to understand the underlying mechanisms, we have investigated the frustrated magnetism of A2FeOsO6 by employing density functional theory and maximally-localized Wannier functions. We find lattice distortion enhances the antiferromagnetic nearest-neighboring Fe-O-Os interaction, however weakens the antiferromagnetic interactions via the Os-O-O-Os and Fe-O-Os-O-Fe paths, so is therefore responsible for the magnetic transition from the low-temperature antiferromagnetism to the high-temperature ferrimagnetism as the decrease of the A2+ ion radii. Also discussed is the 5d3-3d5 superexchange. We propose that such superexchange is intrinsically antiferromagnetic instead of ferromagnetic as previously thought. Our work clearly illustrates the magnetic frustration can be effectively relieved by lattice distortion, thus paving the way for tuning of complex magnetism in yet other 3d–5d (4d) double perovskites. PMID:26289139

  9. Microscopic and macroscopic signatures of antiferromagnetic domain walls.

    PubMed

    Jaramillo, R; Rosenbaum, T F; Isaacs, E D; Shpyrko, O G; Evans, P G; Aeppli, G; Cai, Z

    2007-03-16

    Magnetotransport measurements on small single crystals of Cr, the elemental antiferromagnet, reveal the hysteretic thermodynamics of the domain structure. The temperature dependence of the transport coefficients is directly correlated with the real-space evolution of the domain configuration as recorded by x-ray microprobe imaging, revealing the effect of antiferromagnetic domain walls on electron transport. A single antiferromagnetic domain wall interface resistance is deduced to be of order 5 x 10(-5) mu Omega cm(2) at a temperature of 100 K.

  10. Superplastic forming using NIKE3D

    SciTech Connect

    Puso, M.

    1996-12-04

    The superplastic forming process requires careful control of strain rates in order to avoid strain localizations. A load scheduler was developed and implemented into the nonlinear finite element code NIKE3D to provide strain rate control during forming simulation and process schedule output. Often the sheets being formed in SPF are very thin such that less expensive membrane elements can be used as opposed to shell elements. A large strain membrane element was implemented into NIKE3D to assist in SPF process modeling.

  11. Resistive properties and phase diagram of the organic antiferromagnetic metal κ -(BETS) 2FeCl4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunz, Michael; Biberacher, Werner; Kushch, Natalia D.; Miyazaki, Akira; Kartsovnik, Mark V.

    2016-11-01

    The low-temperature electronic state of the layered organic charge-transfer salt κ -(BETS) 2FeCl4 was probed by interlayer electrical resistance measurements under magnetic field. Both above and below TN=0.47 K, the temperature of antiferromagnetic ordering of 3 d -electron spins of Fe3 + localized in the insulating anion layers, a nonsaturating linear R (T ) dependence has been observed. A weak superconducting signal has been detected in the antiferromagnetic state, at temperatures ≤0.2 K. Despite the very high crystal quality, only a tiny fraction of the sample appears to be superconducting. Aside from a small kink feature in the resistivity, the impact of the antiferromagnetic ordering of localized Fe3 + spins on the conduction π -electron system is clearly manifested in the Fermi surface reconstruction, as evidenced by Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations. The "magnetic-field-temperature" phase diagrams for the field directions parallel to each of the three principal crystal axes have been determined. For magnetic field along the easy axis, a spin-flop transition has been found. Similarities and differences between the present material and the sister compound κ -(BETS) 2FeBr4 are discussed.

  12. 3D Simulation: Microgravity Environments and Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Steve L.; Dischinger, Charles; Estes, Samantha; Parker, Nelson C. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Most, if not all, 3-D and Virtual Reality (VR) software programs are designed for one-G gravity applications. Space environments simulations require gravity effects of one one-thousandth to one one-million of that of the Earth's surface (10(exp -3) - 10(exp -6) G), thus one must be able to generate simulations that replicate those microgravity effects upon simulated astronauts. Unfortunately, the software programs utilized by the National Aeronautical and Space Administration does not have the ability to readily neutralize the one-G gravity effect. This pre-programmed situation causes the engineer or analysis difficulty during micro-gravity simulations. Therefore, microgravity simulations require special techniques or additional code in order to apply the power of 3D graphic simulation to space related applications. This paper discusses the problem and possible solutions to allow microgravity 3-D/VR simulations to be completed successfully without program code modifications.

  13. Autofocus for 3D imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee-Elkin, Forest

    2008-04-01

    Three dimensional (3D) autofocus remains a significant challenge for the development of practical 3D multipass radar imaging. The current 2D radar autofocus methods are not readily extendable across sensor passes. We propose a general framework that allows a class of data adaptive solutions for 3D auto-focus across passes with minimal constraints on the scene contents. The key enabling assumption is that portions of the scene are sparse in elevation which reduces the number of free variables and results in a system that is simultaneously solved for scatterer heights and autofocus parameters. The proposed method extends 2-pass interferometric synthetic aperture radar (IFSAR) methods to an arbitrary number of passes allowing the consideration of scattering from multiple height locations. A specific case from the proposed autofocus framework is solved and demonstrates autofocus and coherent multipass 3D estimation across the 8 passes of the "Gotcha Volumetric SAR Data Set" X-Band radar data.

  14. Antiferromagnetic spin Seebeck effect.

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Stephen M.; Zhang, Wei; KC, Amit; Borisov, Pavel; Pearson, John E.; Jiang, J. Samuel; Lederman, David; Hoffmann, Axel; Bhattacharya, Anand

    2016-03-03

    We report on the observation of the spin Seebeck effect in antiferromagnetic MnF2. A device scale on-chip heater is deposited on a bilayer of MnF2 (110) (30nm)/Pt (4 nm) grown by molecular beam epitaxy on a MgF2(110) substrate. Using Pt as a spin detector layer, it is possible to measure the thermally generated spin current from MnF2 through the inverse spin Hall effect. The low temperature (2–80 K) and high magnetic field (up to 140 kOe) regime is explored. A clear spin-flop transition corresponding to the sudden rotation of antiferromagnetic spins out of the easy axis is observed in the spin Seebeck signal when large magnetic fields (>9T) are applied parallel to the easy axis of the MnF2 thin film. When the magnetic field is applied perpendicular to the easy axis, the spin-flop transition is absent, as expected.

  15. Antiferromagnetic Spin Seebeck Effect.

    PubMed

    Wu, Stephen M; Zhang, Wei; Kc, Amit; Borisov, Pavel; Pearson, John E; Jiang, J Samuel; Lederman, David; Hoffmann, Axel; Bhattacharya, Anand

    2016-03-04

    We report on the observation of the spin Seebeck effect in antiferromagnetic MnF_{2}. A device scale on-chip heater is deposited on a bilayer of MnF_{2} (110) (30  nm)/Pt (4 nm) grown by molecular beam epitaxy on a MgF_{2} (110) substrate. Using Pt as a spin detector layer, it is possible to measure the thermally generated spin current from MnF_{2} through the inverse spin Hall effect. The low temperature (2-80 K) and high magnetic field (up to 140 kOe) regime is explored. A clear spin-flop transition corresponding to the sudden rotation of antiferromagnetic spins out of the easy axis is observed in the spin Seebeck signal when large magnetic fields (>9  T) are applied parallel to the easy axis of the MnF_{2} thin film. When the magnetic field is applied perpendicular to the easy axis, the spin-flop transition is absent, as expected.

  16. Antiferromagnetic Spin Seebeck Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Stephen M.; Zhang, Wei; KC, Amit; Borisov, Pavel; Pearson, John E.; Jiang, J. Samuel; Lederman, David; Hoffmann, Axel; Bhattacharya, Anand

    2016-03-01

    We report on the observation of the spin Seebeck effect in antiferromagnetic MnF2 . A device scale on-chip heater is deposited on a bilayer of MnF2 (110) (30 nm )/Pt (4 nm) grown by molecular beam epitaxy on a MgF2 (110) substrate. Using Pt as a spin detector layer, it is possible to measure the thermally generated spin current from MnF2 through the inverse spin Hall effect. The low temperature (2-80 K) and high magnetic field (up to 140 kOe) regime is explored. A clear spin-flop transition corresponding to the sudden rotation of antiferromagnetic spins out of the easy axis is observed in the spin Seebeck signal when large magnetic fields (>9 T ) are applied parallel to the easy axis of the MnF2 thin film. When the magnetic field is applied perpendicular to the easy axis, the spin-flop transition is absent, as expected.

  17. Full-color holographic 3D printer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takano, Masami; Shigeta, Hiroaki; Nishihara, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Masahiro; Takahashi, Susumu; Ohyama, Nagaaki; Kobayashi, Akihiko; Iwata, Fujio

    2003-05-01

    A holographic 3D printer is a system that produces a direct hologram with full-parallax information using the 3-dimensional data of a subject from a computer. In this paper, we present a proposal for the reproduction of full-color images with the holographic 3D printer. In order to realize the 3-dimensional color image, we selected the 3 laser wavelength colors of red (λ=633nm), green (λ=533nm), and blue (λ=442nm), and we built a one-step optical system using a projection system and a liquid crystal display. The 3-dimensional color image is obtained by synthesizing in a 2D array the multiple exposure with these 3 wavelengths made on each 250mm elementary hologram, and moving recording medium on a x-y stage. For the natural color reproduction in the holographic 3D printer, we take the approach of the digital processing technique based on the color management technology. The matching between the input and output colors is performed by investigating first, the relation between the gray level transmittance of the LCD and the diffraction efficiency of the hologram and second, by measuring the color displayed by the hologram to establish a correlation. In our first experimental results a non-linear functional relation for single and multiple exposure of the three components were found. These results are the first step in the realization of a natural color 3D image produced by the holographic color 3D printer.

  18. Magnetic Properties of 3D Printed Toroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bollig, Lindsey; Otto, Austin; Hilpisch, Peter; Mowry, Greg; Nelson-Cheeseman, Brittany; Renewable Energy; Alternatives Lab (REAL) Team

    Transformers are ubiquitous in electronics today. Although toroidal geometries perform most efficiently, transformers are traditionally made with rectangular cross-sections due to the lower manufacturing costs. Additive manufacturing techniques (3D printing) can easily achieve toroidal geometries by building up a part through a series of 2D layers. To get strong magnetic properties in a 3D printed transformer, a composite filament is used containing Fe dispersed in a polymer matrix. How the resulting 3D printed toroid responds to a magnetic field depends on two structural factors of the printed 2D layers: fill factor (planar density) and fill pattern. In this work, we investigate how the fill factor and fill pattern affect the magnetic properties of 3D printed toroids. The magnetic properties of the printed toroids are measured by a custom circuit that produces a hysteresis loop for each toroid. Toroids with various fill factors and fill patterns are compared to determine how these two factors can affect the magnetic field the toroid can produce. These 3D printed toroids can be used for numerous applications in order to increase the efficiency of transformers by making it possible for manufacturers to make a toroidal geometry.

  19. Quantum annealing with antiferromagnetic fluctuations.

    PubMed

    Seki, Yuya; Nishimori, Hidetoshi

    2012-05-01

    We introduce antiferromagnetic quantum fluctuations into quantum annealing in addition to the conventional transverse-field term. We apply this method to the infinite-range ferromagnetic p-spin model, for which the conventional quantum annealing has been shown to have difficulties in finding the ground state efficiently due to a first-order transition. We study the phase diagram of this system both analytically and numerically. Using the static approximation, we find that there exists a quantum path to reach the final ground state from the trivial initial state that avoids first-order transitions for intermediate values of p. We also study numerically the energy gap between the ground state and the first excited state and find evidence for intermediate values of p for which the time complexity scales polynomially with the system size at a second-order transition point along the quantum path that avoids first-order transitions. These results suggest that quantum annealing would be able to solve this problem with intermediate values of p efficiently, in contrast to the case with only simple transverse-field fluctuations.

  20. Superplot3d: an open source GUI tool for 3d trajectory visualisation and elementary processing.

    PubMed

    Whitehorn, Luke J; Hawkes, Frances M; Dublon, Ian An

    2013-09-30

    When acquiring simple three-dimensional (3d) trajectory data it is common to accumulate large coordinate data sets. In order to examine integrity and consistency of object tracking, it is often necessary to rapidly visualise these data. Ordinarily, to achieve this the user must either execute 3d plotting functions in a numerical computing environment or manually inspect data in two dimensions, plotting each individual axis.Superplot3d is an open source MATLAB script which takes tab delineated Cartesian data points in the form x, y, z and time and generates an instant visualization of the object's trajectory in free-rotational three dimensions. Whole trajectories may be instantly presented, allowing for rapid inspection. Executable from the MATLAB command line (or deployable as a compiled standalone application) superplot3d also provides simple GUI controls to obtain rudimentary trajectory information, allow specific visualization of trajectory sections and perform elementary processing.Superplot3d thus provides a framework for non-programmers and programmers alike, to recreate recently acquired 3d object trajectories in rotatable 3d space. It is intended, via the use of a preference driven menu to be flexible and work with output from multiple tracking software systems. Source code and accompanying GUIDE .fig files are provided for deployment and further development.

  1. From 3D view to 3D print

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dima, M.; Farisato, G.; Bergomi, M.; Viotto, V.; Magrin, D.; Greggio, D.; Farinato, J.; Marafatto, L.; Ragazzoni, R.; Piazza, D.

    2014-08-01

    In the last few years 3D printing is getting more and more popular and used in many fields going from manufacturing to industrial design, architecture, medical support and aerospace. 3D printing is an evolution of bi-dimensional printing, which allows to obtain a solid object from a 3D model, realized with a 3D modelling software. The final product is obtained using an additive process, in which successive layers of material are laid down one over the other. A 3D printer allows to realize, in a simple way, very complex shapes, which would be quite difficult to be produced with dedicated conventional facilities. Thanks to the fact that the 3D printing is obtained superposing one layer to the others, it doesn't need any particular work flow and it is sufficient to simply draw the model and send it to print. Many different kinds of 3D printers exist based on the technology and material used for layer deposition. A common material used by the toner is ABS plastics, which is a light and rigid thermoplastic polymer, whose peculiar mechanical properties make it diffusely used in several fields, like pipes production and cars interiors manufacturing. I used this technology to create a 1:1 scale model of the telescope which is the hardware core of the space small mission CHEOPS (CHaracterising ExOPlanets Satellite) by ESA, which aims to characterize EXOplanets via transits observations. The telescope has a Ritchey-Chrétien configuration with a 30cm aperture and the launch is foreseen in 2017. In this paper, I present the different phases for the realization of such a model, focusing onto pros and cons of this kind of technology. For example, because of the finite printable volume (10×10×12 inches in the x, y and z directions respectively), it has been necessary to split the largest parts of the instrument in smaller components to be then reassembled and post-processed. A further issue is the resolution of the printed material, which is expressed in terms of layers

  2. Spin-polarized photoelectron diffraction from magnetically-ordered solids and surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinković, B.; Hermsmeier, B.; Fadley, C. S.

    1986-02-01

    We report the first experimental observation of Spin-Polarized Photoelectron Diffraction (SPPD), an effect which shows considerable promise for studying short-range order in magnetic solids and surfaces. The detection of photoelectron spin polarization in this experiment is provided by 3s-level multiplet splittings in 3d metals and their compounds; thus no external spin detector is required. Measurements on antiferromagnetic KMnF 3 show spin asymmetries of as high as 17% due to short-range order.

  3. YouDash3D: exploring stereoscopic 3D gaming for 3D movie theaters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schild, Jonas; Seele, Sven; Masuch, Maic

    2012-03-01

    Along with the success of the digitally revived stereoscopic cinema, events beyond 3D movies become attractive for movie theater operators, i.e. interactive 3D games. In this paper, we present a case that explores possible challenges and solutions for interactive 3D games to be played by a movie theater audience. We analyze the setting and showcase current issues related to lighting and interaction. Our second focus is to provide gameplay mechanics that make special use of stereoscopy, especially depth-based game design. Based on these results, we present YouDash3D, a game prototype that explores public stereoscopic gameplay in a reduced kiosk setup. It features live 3D HD video stream of a professional stereo camera rig rendered in a real-time game scene. We use the effect to place the stereoscopic effigies of players into the digital game. The game showcases how stereoscopic vision can provide for a novel depth-based game mechanic. Projected trigger zones and distributed clusters of the audience video allow for easy adaptation to larger audiences and 3D movie theater gaming.

  4. PLOT3D/AMES, DEC VAX VMS VERSION USING DISSPLA (WITH TURB3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buning, P.

    1994-01-01

    five groups: 1) Grid Functions for grids, grid-checking, etc.; 2) Scalar Functions for contour or carpet plots of density, pressure, temperature, Mach number, vorticity magnitude, helicity, etc.; 3) Vector Functions for vector plots of velocity, vorticity, momentum, and density gradient, etc.; 4) Particle Trace Functions for rake-like plots of particle flow or vortex lines; and 5) Shock locations based on pressure gradient. TURB3D is a modification of PLOT3D which is used for viewing CFD simulations of incompressible turbulent flow. Input flow data consists of pressure, velocity and vorticity. Typical quantities to plot include local fluctuations in flow quantities and turbulent production terms, plotted in physical or wall units. PLOT3D/TURB3D includes both TURB3D and PLOT3D because the operation of TURB3D is identical to PLOT3D, and there is no additional sample data or printed documentation for TURB3D. Graphical capabilities of PLOT3D version 3.6b+ vary among the implementations available through COSMIC. Customers are encouraged to purchase and carefully review the PLOT3D manual before ordering the program for a specific computer and graphics library. There is only one manual for use with all implementations of PLOT3D, and although this manual generally assumes that the Silicon Graphics Iris implementation is being used, informative comments concerning other implementations appear throughout the text. With all implementations, the visual representation of the object and flow field created by PLOT3D consists of points, lines, and polygons. Points can be represented with dots or symbols, color can be used to denote data values, and perspective is used to show depth. Differences among implementations impact the program's ability to use graphical features that are based on 3D polygons, the user's ability to manipulate the graphical displays, and the user's ability to obtain alternate forms of output. The VAX/VMS/DISSPLA implementation of PLOT3D supports 2-D polygons as

  5. PLOT3D/AMES, DEC VAX VMS VERSION USING DISSPLA (WITHOUT TURB3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buning, P. G.

    1994-01-01

    five groups: 1) Grid Functions for grids, grid-checking, etc.; 2) Scalar Functions for contour or carpet plots of density, pressure, temperature, Mach number, vorticity magnitude, helicity, etc.; 3) Vector Functions for vector plots of velocity, vorticity, momentum, and density gradient, etc.; 4) Particle Trace Functions for rake-like plots of particle flow or vortex lines; and 5) Shock locations based on pressure gradient. TURB3D is a modification of PLOT3D which is used for viewing CFD simulations of incompressible turbulent flow. Input flow data consists of pressure, velocity and vorticity. Typical quantities to plot include local fluctuations in flow quantities and turbulent production terms, plotted in physical or wall units. PLOT3D/TURB3D includes both TURB3D and PLOT3D because the operation of TURB3D is identical to PLOT3D, and there is no additional sample data or printed documentation for TURB3D. Graphical capabilities of PLOT3D version 3.6b+ vary among the implementations available through COSMIC. Customers are encouraged to purchase and carefully review the PLOT3D manual before ordering the program for a specific computer and graphics library. There is only one manual for use with all implementations of PLOT3D, and although this manual generally assumes that the Silicon Graphics Iris implementation is being used, informative comments concerning other implementations appear throughout the text. With all implementations, the visual representation of the object and flow field created by PLOT3D consists of points, lines, and polygons. Points can be represented with dots or symbols, color can be used to denote data values, and perspective is used to show depth. Differences among implementations impact the program's ability to use graphical features that are based on 3D polygons, the user's ability to manipulate the graphical displays, and the user's ability to obtain alternate forms of output. The VAX/VMS/DISSPLA implementation of PLOT3D supports 2-D polygons as

  6. Speaking Volumes About 3-D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    In 1999, Genex submitted a proposal to Stennis Space Center for a volumetric 3-D display technique that would provide multiple users with a 360-degree perspective to simultaneously view and analyze 3-D data. The futuristic capabilities of the VolumeViewer(R) have offered tremendous benefits to commercial users in the fields of medicine and surgery, air traffic control, pilot training and education, computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing, and military/battlefield management. The technology has also helped NASA to better analyze and assess the various data collected by its satellite and spacecraft sensors. Genex capitalized on its success with Stennis by introducing two separate products to the commercial market that incorporate key elements of the 3-D display technology designed under an SBIR contract. The company Rainbow 3D(R) imaging camera is a novel, three-dimensional surface profile measurement system that can obtain a full-frame 3-D image in less than 1 second. The third product is the 360-degree OmniEye(R) video system. Ideal for intrusion detection, surveillance, and situation management, this unique camera system offers a continuous, panoramic view of a scene in real time.

  7. Scaling relations of three-dimensional random-exchange quantum antiferromagnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Deng-Ruei; Jiang, Fu-Jiun

    2015-11-01

    The thermal and ground state properties of a class of three-dimensional (3D) random-exchange spin-1/2 antiferromagnets are studied using first principles quantum Monte Carlo method. Our motivation is to examine whether the newly discovered universal scaling properties, which connect the Néel temperature and the staggered magnetization density, for the clean 3D quantum dimerized Heisenberg models remain valid for the random-exchange models considered here. Remarkably, similar to the clean systems, our Monte Carlo results indicate that these scaling relations also emerge for the considered models with the introduced antiferromagnetic randomness. The scope of the validity of these scaling properties for the 3D quantum antiferromagnets is investigated as well.

  8. PLOT3D/AMES, GENERIC UNIX VERSION USING DISSPLA (WITHOUT TURB3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buning, P.

    1994-01-01

    five groups: 1) Grid Functions for grids, grid-checking, etc.; 2) Scalar Functions for contour or carpet plots of density, pressure, temperature, Mach number, vorticity magnitude, helicity, etc.; 3) Vector Functions for vector plots of velocity, vorticity, momentum, and density gradient, etc.; 4) Particle Trace Functions for rake-like plots of particle flow or vortex lines; and 5) Shock locations based on pressure gradient. TURB3D is a modification of PLOT3D which is used for viewing CFD simulations of incompressible turbulent flow. Input flow data consists of pressure, velocity and vorticity. Typical quantities to plot include local fluctuations in flow quantities and turbulent production terms, plotted in physical or wall units. PLOT3D/TURB3D includes both TURB3D and PLOT3D because the operation of TURB3D is identical to PLOT3D, and there is no additional sample data or printed documentation for TURB3D. Graphical capabilities of PLOT3D version 3.6b+ vary among the implementations available through COSMIC. Customers are encouraged to purchase and carefully review the PLOT3D manual before ordering the program for a specific computer and graphics library. There is only one manual for use with all implementations of PLOT3D, and although this manual generally assumes that the Silicon Graphics Iris implementation is being used, informative comments concerning other implementations appear throughout the text. With all implementations, the visual representation of the object and flow field created by PLOT3D consists of points, lines, and polygons. Points can be represented with dots or symbols, color can be used to denote data values, and perspective is used to show depth. Differences among implementations impact the program's ability to use graphical features that are based on 3D polygons, the user's ability to manipulate the graphical displays, and the user's ability to obtain alternate forms of output. The UNIX/DISSPLA implementation of PLOT3D supports 2-D polygons as

  9. PLOT3D/AMES, GENERIC UNIX VERSION USING DISSPLA (WITH TURB3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buning, P.

    1994-01-01

    five groups: 1) Grid Functions for grids, grid-checking, etc.; 2) Scalar Functions for contour or carpet plots of density, pressure, temperature, Mach number, vorticity magnitude, helicity, etc.; 3) Vector Functions for vector plots of velocity, vorticity, momentum, and density gradient, etc.; 4) Particle Trace Functions for rake-like plots of particle flow or vortex lines; and 5) Shock locations based on pressure gradient. TURB3D is a modification of PLOT3D which is used for viewing CFD simulations of incompressible turbulent flow. Input flow data consists of pressure, velocity and vorticity. Typical quantities to plot include local fluctuations in flow quantities and turbulent production terms, plotted in physical or wall units. PLOT3D/TURB3D includes both TURB3D and PLOT3D because the operation of TURB3D is identical to PLOT3D, and there is no additional sample data or printed documentation for TURB3D. Graphical capabilities of PLOT3D version 3.6b+ vary among the implementations available through COSMIC. Customers are encouraged to purchase and carefully review the PLOT3D manual before ordering the program for a specific computer and graphics library. There is only one manual for use with all implementations of PLOT3D, and although this manual generally assumes that the Silicon Graphics Iris implementation is being used, informative comments concerning other implementations appear throughout the text. With all implementations, the visual representation of the object and flow field created by PLOT3D consists of points, lines, and polygons. Points can be represented with dots or symbols, color can be used to denote data values, and perspective is used to show depth. Differences among implementations impact the program's ability to use graphical features that are based on 3D polygons, the user's ability to manipulate the graphical displays, and the user's ability to obtain alternate forms of output. The UNIX/DISSPLA implementation of PLOT3D supports 2-D polygons as

  10. Macrophage podosomes go 3D.

    PubMed

    Van Goethem, Emeline; Guiet, Romain; Balor, Stéphanie; Charrière, Guillaume M; Poincloux, Renaud; Labrousse, Arnaud; Maridonneau-Parini, Isabelle; Le Cabec, Véronique

    2011-01-01

    Macrophage tissue infiltration is a critical step in the immune response against microorganisms and is also associated with disease progression in chronic inflammation and cancer. Macrophages are constitutively equipped with specialized structures called podosomes dedicated to extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation. We recently reported that these structures play a critical role in trans-matrix mesenchymal migration mode, a protease-dependent mechanism. Podosome molecular components and their ECM-degrading activity have been extensively studied in two dimensions (2D), but yet very little is known about their fate in three-dimensional (3D) environments. Therefore, localization of podosome markers and proteolytic activity were carefully examined in human macrophages performing mesenchymal migration. Using our gelled collagen I 3D matrix model to obligate human macrophages to perform mesenchymal migration, classical podosome markers including talin, paxillin, vinculin, gelsolin, cortactin were found to accumulate at the tip of F-actin-rich cell protrusions together with β1 integrin and CD44 but not β2 integrin. Macrophage proteolytic activity was observed at podosome-like protrusion sites using confocal fluorescence microscopy and electron microscopy. The formation of migration tunnels by macrophages inside the matrix was accomplished by degradation, engulfment and mechanic compaction of the matrix. In addition, videomicroscopy revealed that 3D F-actin-rich protrusions of migrating macrophages were as dynamic as their 2D counterparts. Overall, the specifications of 3D podosomes resembled those of 2D podosome rosettes rather than those of individual podosomes. This observation was further supported by the aspect of 3D podosomes in fibroblasts expressing Hck, a master regulator of podosome rosettes in macrophages. In conclusion, human macrophage podosomes go 3D and take the shape of spherical podosome rosettes when the cells perform mesenchymal migration. This work

  11. 3D Printed Bionic Nanodevices.

    PubMed

    Kong, Yong Lin; Gupta, Maneesh K; Johnson, Blake N; McAlpine, Michael C

    2016-06-01

    The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological and functional materials could enable the creation of bionic devices possessing unique and compelling geometries, properties, and functionalities. Indeed, interfacing high performance active devices with biology could impact a variety of fields, including regenerative bioelectronic medicines, smart prosthetics, medical robotics, and human-machine interfaces. Biology, from the molecular scale of DNA and proteins, to the macroscopic scale of tissues and organs, is three-dimensional, often soft and stretchable, and temperature sensitive. This renders most biological platforms incompatible with the fabrication and materials processing methods that have been developed and optimized for functional electronics, which are typically planar, rigid and brittle. A number of strategies have been developed to overcome these dichotomies. One particularly novel approach is the use of extrusion-based multi-material 3D printing, which is an additive manufacturing technology that offers a freeform fabrication strategy. This approach addresses the dichotomies presented above by (1) using 3D printing and imaging for customized, hierarchical, and interwoven device architectures; (2) employing nanotechnology as an enabling route for introducing high performance materials, with the potential for exhibiting properties not found in the bulk; and (3) 3D printing a range of soft and nanoscale materials to enable the integration of a diverse palette of high quality functional nanomaterials with biology. Further, 3D printing is a multi-scale platform, allowing for the incorporation of functional nanoscale inks, the printing of microscale features, and ultimately the creation of macroscale devices. This blending of 3D printing, novel nanomaterial properties, and 'living' platforms may enable next-generation bionic systems. In this review, we highlight this synergistic integration of the unique properties of nanomaterials with the

  12. Magnetism in a graphene-4 f -3 d hybrid system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huttmann, Felix; Klar, David; Atodiresei, Nicolae; Schmitz-Antoniak, Carolin; Smekhova, Alevtina; Martínez-Galera, Antonio J.; Caciuc, Vasile; Bihlmayer, Gustav; Blügel, Stefan; Michely, Thomas; Wende, Heiko

    2017-02-01

    We create an interface of graphene with a metallic and magnetic support that leaves its electronic structure largely intact. This is achieved by exposing epitaxial graphene on ferromagnetic thin films of Co and Ni to vapor of the rare earth metal Eu at elevated temperatures, resulting in the intercalation of an Eu monolayer in between graphene and its substrate. The system is atomically well defined, with the Eu monolayer forming a (√{3 }×√{3 }) R 30∘ superstructure with respect to the graphene lattice. Thereby, we avoid the strong hybridization with the (Ni,Co) substrate 3 d states that otherwise drastically modify the electronic structure of graphene. This picture is suggested by our x-ray absorption spectroscopy measurements which show that after Eu intercalation the empty 2 p states of C atoms resemble more the ones measured for graphite in contrast to graphene directly bound to 3 d ferromagnetic substrates. We use x-ray magnetic circular dichroism at the Co and Ni L2 ,3 and Eu M4 ,5 as an element-specific probe to investigate magnetism in these systems. An antiferromagnetic coupling between Eu and Co/Ni moments is found, which is so strong that a magnetic moment of the Eu layer can be detected at room temperature. Density functional theory calculations confirm the antiferromagnetic coupling and provide an atomic insight into the magnetic coupling mechanism.

  13. Effect of disorder in the frustrated Ising FCC antiferromagnet: phase diagram and stretched exponential relaxation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngo, V. Thanh; Hoang, D. Tien; Diep, H. T.; Campbell, I. A.

    2014-04-01

    In this paper, we study the phase transition in a face-centered-cubic antiferromagnet with Ising spins as a function of the concentration p of ferromagnetic bonds randomly introduced into the system. Such a model describes the spin-glass phase at strong bond disorder. Using the standard Monte Carlo simulation and the powerful Wang-Landau flat-histogram method, we carry out in this work intensive simulations over the whole range of p. We show that the first-order transition disappears with a tiny amount of ferromagnetic bonds, namely p 0.01, in agreement with theories and simulations on other 3D models. The antiferromagnetic long-range order is also destroyed with a very small p (≃5%). With increasing p, the system changes into a spin glass and then to a ferromagnetic phase when p > 0.65. The phase diagram in the space (Tc, p) shows an asymmetry, unlike the case of the ±J Ising spin glass on the simple cubic lattice. We calculate the relaxation time around the spin-glass transition temperature and we show that the spin autocorrelation follows a stretched exponential relaxation law where the factor b is equal to ≃1/3 at the transition as suggested by the percolation-based theory. This value is in agreement with experiments performed on various spin glasses and with Monte Carlo simulations on different SG models.

  14. Petal, terrain & airbags - 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Portions of the lander's deflated airbags and a petal are at the lower area of this image, taken in stereo by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. The metallic object at lower right is part of the lander's low-gain antenna. This image is part of a 3D 'monster

    Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  15. 3D Computations and Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Couch, R; Faux, D; Goto, D; Nikkel, D

    2004-04-05

    This project consists of two activities. Task A, Simulations and Measurements, combines all the material model development and associated numerical work with the materials-oriented experimental activities. The goal of this effort is to provide an improved understanding of dynamic material properties and to provide accurate numerical representations of those properties for use in analysis codes. Task B, ALE3D Development, involves general development activities in the ALE3D code with the focus of improving simulation capabilities for problems of mutual interest to DoD and DOE. Emphasis is on problems involving multi-phase flow, blast loading of structures and system safety/vulnerability studies.

  16. Weyl magnons in breathing pyrochlore antiferromagnets

    PubMed Central

    Li, Fei-Ye; Li, Yao-Dong; Kim, Yong Baek; Balents, Leon; Yu, Yue; Chen, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Frustrated quantum magnets not only provide exotic ground states and unusual magnetic structures, but also support unconventional excitations in many cases. Using a physically relevant spin model for a breathing pyrochlore lattice, we discuss the presence of topological linear band crossings of magnons in antiferromagnets. These are the analogues of Weyl fermions in electronic systems, which we dub Weyl magnons. The bulk Weyl magnon implies the presence of chiral magnon surface states forming arcs at finite energy. We argue that such antiferromagnets present a unique example, in which Weyl points can be manipulated in situ in the laboratory by applied fields. We discuss their appearance specifically in the breathing pyrochlore lattice, and give some general discussion of conditions to find Weyl magnons, and how they may be probed experimentally. Our work may inspire a re-examination of the magnetic excitations in many magnetically ordered systems. PMID:27650053

  17. Antiferromagnetic inclusions in lunar glass

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thorpe, A.N.; Senftle, F.E.; Briggs, Charles; Alexander, Corrine

    1974-01-01

    The magnetic susceptibility of 11 glass spherules from the Apollo 15, 16, and 17 fines and two specimens of a relatively large glass spherical shell were studied as a function of temperature from room temperature to liquid helium temperatures. All but one specimen showed the presence of antiferromagnetic inclusions. Closely spaced temperature measurements of the magnetic susceptibility below 77 K on five of the specimens showed antiferromagnetic temperature transitions (Ne??el transitions). With the exception of ilmenite in one specimen, these transitions did not correspond to any transitions in known antiferromagnetic compounds. ?? 1974.

  18. PLOT3D/AMES, UNIX SUPERCOMPUTER AND SGI IRIS VERSION (WITH TURB3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buning, P.

    1994-01-01

    five groups: 1) Grid Functions for grids, grid-checking, etc.; 2) Scalar Functions for contour or carpet plots of density, pressure, temperature, Mach number, vorticity magnitude, helicity, etc.; 3) Vector Functions for vector plots of velocity, vorticity, momentum, and density gradient, etc.; 4) Particle Trace Functions for rake-like plots of particle flow or vortex lines; and 5) Shock locations based on pressure gradient. TURB3D is a modification of PLOT3D which is used for viewing CFD simulations of incompressible turbulent flow. Input flow data consists of pressure, velocity and vorticity. Typical quantities to plot include local fluctuations in flow quantities and turbulent production terms, plotted in physical or wall units. PLOT3D/TURB3D includes both TURB3D and PLOT3D because the operation of TURB3D is identical to PLOT3D, and there is no additional sample data or printed documentation for TURB3D. Graphical capabilities of PLOT3D version 3.6b+ vary among the implementations available through COSMIC. Customers are encouraged to purchase and carefully review the PLOT3D manual before ordering the program for a specific computer and graphics library. There is only one manual for use with all implementations of PLOT3D, and although this manual generally assumes that the Silicon Graphics Iris implementation is being used, informative comments concerning other implementations appear throughout the text. With all implementations, the visual representation of the object and flow field created by PLOT3D consists of points, lines, and polygons. Points can be represented with dots or symbols, color can be used to denote data values, and perspective is used to show depth. Differences among implementations impact the program's ability to use graphical features that are based on 3D polygons, the user's ability to manipulate the graphical displays, and the user's ability to obtain alternate forms of output. In addition to providing the advantages of performing complex

  19. PLOT3D/AMES, UNIX SUPERCOMPUTER AND SGI IRIS VERSION (WITHOUT TURB3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buning, P.

    1994-01-01

    five groups: 1) Grid Functions for grids, grid-checking, etc.; 2) Scalar Functions for contour or carpet plots of density, pressure, temperature, Mach number, vorticity magnitude, helicity, etc.; 3) Vector Functions for vector plots of velocity, vorticity, momentum, and density gradient, etc.; 4) Particle Trace Functions for rake-like plots of particle flow or vortex lines; and 5) Shock locations based on pressure gradient. TURB3D is a modification of PLOT3D which is used for viewing CFD simulations of incompressible turbulent flow. Input flow data consists of pressure, velocity and vorticity. Typical quantities to plot include local fluctuations in flow quantities and turbulent production terms, plotted in physical or wall units. PLOT3D/TURB3D includes both TURB3D and PLOT3D because the operation of TURB3D is identical to PLOT3D, and there is no additional sample data or printed documentation for TURB3D. Graphical capabilities of PLOT3D version 3.6b+ vary among the implementations available through COSMIC. Customers are encouraged to purchase and carefully review the PLOT3D manual before ordering the program for a specific computer and graphics library. There is only one manual for use with all implementations of PLOT3D, and although this manual generally assumes that the Silicon Graphics Iris implementation is being used, informative comments concerning other implementations appear throughout the text. With all implementations, the visual representation of the object and flow field created by PLOT3D consists of points, lines, and polygons. Points can be represented with dots or symbols, color can be used to denote data values, and perspective is used to show depth. Differences among implementations impact the program's ability to use graphical features that are based on 3D polygons, the user's ability to manipulate the graphical displays, and the user's ability to obtain alternate forms of output. In addition to providing the advantages of performing complex

  20. Model-based 3D SAR reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knight, Chad; Gunther, Jake; Moon, Todd

    2014-06-01

    Three dimensional scene reconstruction with synthetic aperture radar (SAR) is desirable for target recognition and improved scene interpretability. The vertical aperture, which is critical to reconstruct 3D SAR scenes, is almost always sparsely sampled due to practical limitations, which creates an underdetermined problem. This papers explores 3D scene reconstruction using a convex model-based approach. The approach developed is demonstrated on 3D scenes, but can be extended to SAR reconstruction of sparsely sampled signals in the spatial and, or, frequency domains. The model-based approach enables knowledge-aided image formation (KAIF) by incorporating spatial, aspect, and sparsity magnitude terms into the image reconstruction. The incorporation of these terms, which are based on prior scene knowledge, will demonstrate improved results compared to traditional image formation algorithms. The SAR image formation problem is formulated as a second order cone program (SOCP) and the results are demonstrated on 3D scenes using simulated data and data from the GOTCHA data collect.1 The model-based results are contrasted against traditional backprojected images.

  1. Simulation of 3D diamond detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forcolin, G. T.; Oh, A.; Murphy, S. A.

    2017-02-01

    3D diamond detectors present an interesting prospect for future Particle Physics experiments. They have been studied in detail at beam tests with 120 GeV protons and 4 MeV protons. To understand the observations that have been made, simulations have been carried out using Synopsys TCAD in order to explain the movement of charge carriers within the sample, as well as the effects of charge sharing. Reasonable agreement has been observed between simulation and experiment.

  2. The World of 3-D.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayshark, Robin K.

    1991-01-01

    Students explore three-dimensional properties by creating red and green wall decorations related to Christmas. Students examine why images seem to vibrate when red and green pieces are small and close together. Instructions to conduct the activity and construct 3-D glasses are given. (MDH)

  3. 3D Printing: Exploring Capabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuels, Kyle; Flowers, Jim

    2015-01-01

    As 3D printers become more affordable, schools are using them in increasing numbers. They fit well with the emphasis on product design in technology and engineering education, allowing students to create high-fidelity physical models to see and test different iterations in their product designs. They may also help students to "think in three…

  4. SNL3dFace

    SciTech Connect

    Russ, Trina; Koch, Mark; Koudelka, Melissa; Peters, Ralph; Little, Charles; Boehnen, Chris; Peters, Tanya

    2007-07-20

    This software distribution contains MATLAB and C++ code to enable identity verification using 3D images that may or may not contain a texture component. The code is organized to support system performance testing and system capability demonstration through the proper configuration of the available user interface. Using specific algorithm parameters the face recognition system has been demonstrated to achieve a 96.6% verification rate (Pd) at 0.001 false alarm rate. The system computes robust facial features of a 3D normalized face using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Fisher Linear Discriminant Analysis (FLDA). A 3D normalized face is obtained by alighning each face, represented by a set of XYZ coordinated, to a scaled reference face using the Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm. The scaled reference face is then deformed to the input face using an iterative framework with parameters that control the deformed surface regulation an rate of deformation. A variety of options are available to control the information that is encoded by the PCA. Such options include the XYZ coordinates, the difference of each XYZ coordinates from the reference, the Z coordinate, the intensity/texture values, etc. In addition to PCA/FLDA feature projection this software supports feature matching to obtain similarity matrices for performance analysis. In addition, this software supports visualization of the STL, MRD, 2D normalized, and PCA synthetic representations in a 3D environment.

  5. Making Inexpensive 3-D Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manos, Harry

    2016-01-01

    Visual aids are important to student learning, and they help make the teacher's job easier. Keeping with the "TPT" theme of "The Art, Craft, and Science of Physics Teaching," the purpose of this article is to show how teachers, lacking equipment and funds, can construct a durable 3-D model reference frame and a model gravity…

  6. What is 3D good for? A review of human performance on stereoscopic 3D displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McIntire, John P.; Havig, Paul R.; Geiselman, Eric E.

    2012-06-01

    This work reviews the human factors-related literature on the task performance implications of stereoscopic 3D displays, in order to point out the specific performance benefits (or lack thereof) one might reasonably expect to observe when utilizing these displays. What exactly is 3D good for? Relative to traditional 2D displays, stereoscopic displays have been shown to enhance performance on a variety of depth-related tasks. These tasks include judging absolute and relative distances, finding and identifying objects (by breaking camouflage and eliciting perceptual "pop-out"), performing spatial manipulations of objects (object positioning, orienting, and tracking), and navigating. More cognitively, stereoscopic displays can improve the spatial understanding of 3D scenes or objects, improve memory/recall of scenes or objects, and improve learning of spatial relationships and environments. However, for tasks that are relatively simple, that do not strictly require depth information for good performance, where other strong cues to depth can be utilized, or for depth tasks that lie outside the effective viewing volume of the display, the purported performance benefits of 3D may be small or altogether absent. Stereoscopic 3D displays come with a host of unique human factors problems including the simulator-sickness-type symptoms of eyestrain, headache, fatigue, disorientation, nausea, and malaise, which appear to effect large numbers of viewers (perhaps as many as 25% to 50% of the general population). Thus, 3D technology should be wielded delicately and applied carefully; and perhaps used only as is necessary to ensure good performance.

  7. PLOT3D/AMES, SGI IRIS VERSION (WITHOUT TURB3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buning, P.

    1994-01-01

    five groups: 1) Grid Functions for grids, grid-checking, etc.; 2) Scalar Functions for contour or carpet plots of density, pressure, temperature, Mach number, vorticity magnitude, helicity, etc.; 3) Vector Functions for vector plots of velocity, vorticity, momentum, and density gradient, etc.; 4) Particle Trace Functions for rake-like plots of particle flow or vortex lines; and 5) Shock locations based on pressure gradient. TURB3D is a modification of PLOT3D which is used for viewing CFD simulations of incompressible turbulent flow. Input flow data consists of pressure, velocity and vorticity. Typical quantities to plot include local fluctuations in flow quantities and turbulent production terms, plotted in physical or wall units. PLOT3D/TURB3D includes both TURB3D and PLOT3D because the operation of TURB3D is identical to PLOT3D, and there is no additional sample data or printed documentation for TURB3D. Graphical capabilities of PLOT3D version 3.6b+ vary among the implementations available through COSMIC. Customers are encouraged to purchase and carefully review the PLOT3D manual before ordering the program for a specific computer and graphics library. There is only one manual for use with all implementations of PLOT3D, and although this manual generally assumes that the Silicon Graphics Iris implementation is being used, informative comments concerning other implementations appear throughout the text. With all implementations, the visual representation of the object and flow field created by PLOT3D consists of points, lines, and polygons. Points can be represented with dots or symbols, color can be used to denote data values, and perspective is used to show depth. Differences among implementations impact the program's ability to use graphical features that are based on 3D polygons, the user's ability to manipulate the graphical displays, and the user's ability to obtain alternate forms of output. In each of these areas, the IRIS implementation of PLOT3D offers

  8. PLOT3D/AMES, SGI IRIS VERSION (WITH TURB3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buning, P.

    1994-01-01

    five groups: 1) Grid Functions for grids, grid-checking, etc.; 2) Scalar Functions for contour or carpet plots of density, pressure, temperature, Mach number, vorticity magnitude, helicity, etc.; 3) Vector Functions for vector plots of velocity, vorticity, momentum, and density gradient, etc.; 4) Particle Trace Functions for rake-like plots of particle flow or vortex lines; and 5) Shock locations based on pressure gradient. TURB3D is a modification of PLOT3D which is used for viewing CFD simulations of incompressible turbulent flow. Input flow data consists of pressure, velocity and vorticity. Typical quantities to plot include local fluctuations in flow quantities and turbulent production terms, plotted in physical or wall units. PLOT3D/TURB3D includes both TURB3D and PLOT3D because the operation of TURB3D is identical to PLOT3D, and there is no additional sample data or printed documentation for TURB3D. Graphical capabilities of PLOT3D version 3.6b+ vary among the implementations available through COSMIC. Customers are encouraged to purchase and carefully review the PLOT3D manual before ordering the program for a specific computer and graphics library. There is only one manual for use with all implementations of PLOT3D, and although this manual generally assumes that the Silicon Graphics Iris implementation is being used, informative comments concerning other implementations appear throughout the text. With all implementations, the visual representation of the object and flow field created by PLOT3D consists of points, lines, and polygons. Points can be represented with dots or symbols, color can be used to denote data values, and perspective is used to show depth. Differences among implementations impact the program's ability to use graphical features that are based on 3D polygons, the user's ability to manipulate the graphical displays, and the user's ability to obtain alternate forms of output. In each of these areas, the IRIS implementation of PLOT3D offers

  9. TACO3D. 3-D Finite Element Heat Transfer Code

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, W.E.

    1992-03-04

    TACO3D is a three-dimensional, finite-element program for heat transfer analysis. An extension of the two-dimensional TACO program, it can perform linear and nonlinear analyses and can be used to solve either transient or steady-state problems. The program accepts time-dependent or temperature-dependent material properties, and materials may be isotropic or orthotropic. A variety of time-dependent and temperature-dependent boundary conditions and loadings are available including temperature, flux, convection, and radiation boundary conditions and internal heat generation. Additional specialized features treat enclosure radiation, bulk nodes, and master/slave internal surface conditions (e.g., contact resistance). Data input via a free-field format is provided. A user subprogram feature allows for any type of functional representation of any independent variable. A profile (bandwidth) minimization option is available. The code is limited to implicit time integration for transient solutions. TACO3D has no general mesh generation capability. Rows of evenly-spaced nodes and rows of sequential elements may be generated, but the program relies on separate mesh generators for complex zoning. TACO3D does not have the ability to calculate view factors internally. Graphical representation of data in the form of time history and spatial plots is provided through links to the POSTACO and GRAPE postprocessor codes.

  10. 3-D Force-balanced Magnetospheric Configurations

    SciTech Connect

    Sorin Zaharia; C.Z. Cheng; K. Maezawa

    2003-02-10

    The knowledge of plasma pressure is essential for many physics applications in the magnetosphere, such as computing magnetospheric currents and deriving magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling. A thorough knowledge of the 3-D pressure distribution has however eluded the community, as most in-situ pressure observations are either in the ionosphere or the equatorial region of the magnetosphere. With the assumption of pressure isotropy there have been attempts to obtain the pressure at different locations by either (a) mapping observed data (e.g., in the ionosphere) along the field lines of an empirical magnetospheric field model or (b) computing a pressure profile in the equatorial plane (in 2-D) or along the Sun-Earth axis (in 1-D) that is in force balance with the magnetic stresses of an empirical model. However, the pressure distributions obtained through these methods are not in force balance with the empirical magnetic field at all locations. In order to find a global 3-D plasma pressure distribution in force balance with the magnetospheric magnetic field, we have developed the MAG-3D code, that solves the 3-D force balance equation J x B = (upside-down delta) P computationally. Our calculation is performed in a flux coordinate system in which the magnetic field is expressed in terms of Euler potentials as B = (upside-down delta) psi x (upside-down delta) alpha. The pressure distribution, P = P(psi,alpha), is prescribed in the equatorial plane and is based on satellite measurements. In addition, computational boundary conditions for y surfaces are imposed using empirical field models. Our results provide 3-D distributions of magnetic field and plasma pressure as well as parallel and transverse currents for both quiet-time and disturbed magnetospheric conditions.

  11. Laser printing of 3D metallic interconnects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beniam, Iyoel; Mathews, Scott A.; Charipar, Nicholas A.; Auyeung, Raymond C. Y.; Piqué, Alberto

    2016-04-01

    The use of laser-induced forward transfer (LIFT) techniques for the printing of functional materials has been demonstrated for numerous applications. The printing gives rise to patterns, which can be used to fabricate planar interconnects. More recently, various groups have demonstrated electrical interconnects from laser-printed 3D structures. The laser printing of these interconnects takes place through aggregation of voxels of either molten metal or of pastes containing dispersed metallic particles. However, the generated 3D structures do not posses the same metallic conductivity as a bulk metal interconnect of the same cross-section and length as those formed by wire bonding or tab welding. An alternative is to laser transfer entire 3D structures using a technique known as lase-and-place. Lase-and-place is a LIFT process whereby whole components and parts can be transferred from a donor substrate onto a desired location with one single laser pulse. This paper will describe the use of LIFT to laser print freestanding, solid metal foils or beams precisely over the contact pads of discrete devices to interconnect them into fully functional circuits. Furthermore, this paper will also show how the same laser can be used to bend or fold the bulk metal foils prior to transfer, thus forming compliant 3D structures able to provide strain relief for the circuits under flexing or during motion from thermal mismatch. These interconnect "ridges" can span wide gaps (on the order of a millimeter) and accommodate height differences of tens of microns between adjacent devices. Examples of these laser printed 3D metallic bridges and their role in the development of next generation electronics by additive manufacturing will be presented.

  12. Forensic 3D scene reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Little, Charles Q.; Small, Daniel E.; Peters, Ralph R.; Rigdon, J. B.

    2000-05-01

    Traditionally law enforcement agencies have relied on basic measurement and imaging tools, such as tape measures and cameras, in recording a crime scene. A disadvantage of these methods is that they are slow and cumbersome. The development of a portable system that can rapidly record a crime scene with current camera imaging, 3D geometric surface maps, and contribute quantitative measurements such as accurate relative positioning of crime scene objects, would be an asset to law enforcement agents in collecting and recording significant forensic data. The purpose of this project is to develop a fieldable prototype of a fast, accurate, 3D measurement and imaging system that would support law enforcement agents to quickly document and accurately record a crime scene.

  13. 3D Printed Robotic Hand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pizarro, Yaritzmar Rosario; Schuler, Jason M.; Lippitt, Thomas C.

    2013-01-01

    Dexterous robotic hands are changing the way robots and humans interact and use common tools. Unfortunately, the complexity of the joints and actuations drive up the manufacturing cost. Some cutting edge and commercially available rapid prototyping machines now have the ability to print multiple materials and even combine these materials in the same job. A 3D model of a robotic hand was designed using Creo Parametric 2.0. Combining "hard" and "soft" materials, the model was printed on the Object Connex350 3D printer with the purpose of resembling as much as possible the human appearance and mobility of a real hand while needing no assembly. After printing the prototype, strings where installed as actuators to test mobility. Based on printing materials, the manufacturing cost of the hand was $167, significantly lower than other robotic hands without the actuators since they have more complex assembly processes.

  14. Comparing swimsuits in 3D.

    PubMed

    van Geer, Erik; Molenbroek, Johan; Schreven, Sander; deVoogd-Claessen, Lenneke; Toussaint, Huib

    2012-01-01

    In competitive swimming, suits have become more important. These suits influence friction, pressure and wave drag. Friction drag is related to the surface properties whereas both pressure and wave drag are greatly influenced by body shape. To find a relationship between the body shape and the drag, the anthropometry of several world class female swimmers wearing different suits was accurately defined using a 3D scanner and traditional measuring methods. The 3D scans delivered more detailed information about the body shape. On the same day the swimmers did performance tests in the water with the tested suits. Afterwards the result of the performance tests and the differences found in body shape was analyzed to determine the deformation caused by a swimsuit and its effect on the swimming performance. Although the amount of data is limited because of the few test subjects, there is an indication that the deformation of the body influences the swimming performance.

  15. Forensic 3D Scene Reconstruction

    SciTech Connect

    LITTLE,CHARLES Q.; PETERS,RALPH R.; RIGDON,J. BRIAN; SMALL,DANIEL E.

    1999-10-12

    Traditionally law enforcement agencies have relied on basic measurement and imaging tools, such as tape measures and cameras, in recording a crime scene. A disadvantage of these methods is that they are slow and cumbersome. The development of a portable system that can rapidly record a crime scene with current camera imaging, 3D geometric surface maps, and contribute quantitative measurements such as accurate relative positioning of crime scene objects, would be an asset to law enforcement agents in collecting and recording significant forensic data. The purpose of this project is to develop a feasible prototype of a fast, accurate, 3D measurement and imaging system that would support law enforcement agents to quickly document and accurately record a crime scene.

  16. [Real time 3D echocardiography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, F.; Shiota, T.; Thomas, J. D.

    2001-01-01

    Three-dimensional representation of the heart is an old concern. Usually, 3D reconstruction of the cardiac mass is made by successive acquisition of 2D sections, the spatial localisation and orientation of which require complex guiding systems. More recently, the concept of volumetric acquisition has been introduced. A matricial emitter-receiver probe complex with parallel data processing provides instantaneous of a pyramidal 64 degrees x 64 degrees volume. The image is restituted in real time and is composed of 3 planes (planes B and C) which can be displaced in all spatial directions at any time during acquisition. The flexibility of this system of acquisition allows volume and mass measurement with greater accuracy and reproducibility, limiting inter-observer variability. Free navigation of the planes of investigation allows reconstruction for qualitative and quantitative analysis of valvular heart disease and other pathologies. Although real time 3D echocardiography is ready for clinical usage, some improvements are still necessary to improve its conviviality. Then real time 3D echocardiography could be the essential tool for understanding, diagnosis and management of patients.

  17. 3D Geo: An Alternative Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgopoulos, A.

    2016-10-01

    The expression GEO is mostly used to denote relation to the earth. However it should not be confined to what is related to the earth's surface, as other objects also need three dimensional representation and documentation, like cultural heritage objects. They include both tangible and intangible ones. In this paper the 3D data acquisition and 3D modelling of cultural heritage assets are briefly described and their significance is also highlighted. Moreover the organization of such information, related to monuments and artefacts, into relational data bases and its use for various purposes, other than just geometric documentation is also described and presented. In order to help the reader understand the above, several characteristic examples are presented and their methodology explained and their results evaluated.

  18. Recent Development in 3D Food Printing.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fan; Zhang, Min; Bhandari, Bhesh

    2015-10-19

    Robots and softwares have been significantly improving our daily lives by rendering us much convenience. And 3D printing is a typical example, for it is going to usher in a new era of localized manufacturing that is actually based on digital fabrication by layer-by-layer deposition in three dimensional space. In terms of food industry, the revolution that three-dimensional printing technologies is bringing to food manufacturing is convenience of low-cost customized fabrication and even precise nutrition control. This paper is aimed to give a brief introduction of recent development of food printing and material property of food ingredients that can be used to design the 3D food matrix and investigate the relationship between process parameters and resulting printed food properties in order to establish a food manufacturing process with this new food production approach.

  19. GPU-Accelerated Denoising in 3D (GD3D)

    SciTech Connect

    2013-10-01

    The raw computational power GPU Accelerators enables fast denoising of 3D MR images using bilateral filtering, anisotropic diffusion, and non-local means. This software addresses two facets of this promising application: what tuning is necessary to achieve optimal performance on a modern GPU? And what parameters yield the best denoising results in practice? To answer the first question, the software performs an autotuning step to empirically determine optimal memory blocking on the GPU. To answer the second, it performs a sweep of algorithm parameters to determine the combination that best reduces the mean squared error relative to a noiseless reference image.

  20. Magmatic Systems in 3-D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kent, G. M.; Harding, A. J.; Babcock, J. M.; Orcutt, J. A.; Bazin, S.; Singh, S.; Detrick, R. S.; Canales, J. P.; Carbotte, S. M.; Diebold, J.

    2002-12-01

    Multichannel seismic (MCS) images of crustal magma chambers are ideal targets for advanced visualization techniques. In the mid-ocean ridge environment, reflections originating at the melt-lens are well separated from other reflection boundaries, such as the seafloor, layer 2A and Moho, which enables the effective use of transparency filters. 3-D visualization of seismic reflectivity falls into two broad categories: volume and surface rendering. Volumetric-based visualization is an extremely powerful approach for the rapid exploration of very dense 3-D datasets. These 3-D datasets are divided into volume elements or voxels, which are individually color coded depending on the assigned datum value; the user can define an opacity filter to reject plotting certain voxels. This transparency allows the user to peer into the data volume, enabling an easy identification of patterns or relationships that might have geologic merit. Multiple image volumes can be co-registered to look at correlations between two different data types (e.g., amplitude variation with offsets studies), in a manner analogous to draping attributes onto a surface. In contrast, surface visualization of seismic reflectivity usually involves producing "fence" diagrams of 2-D seismic profiles that are complemented with seafloor topography, along with point class data, draped lines and vectors (e.g. fault scarps, earthquake locations and plate-motions). The overlying seafloor can be made partially transparent or see-through, enabling 3-D correlations between seafloor structure and seismic reflectivity. Exploration of 3-D datasets requires additional thought when constructing and manipulating these complex objects. As numbers of visual objects grow in a particular scene, there is a tendency to mask overlapping objects; this clutter can be managed through the effective use of total or partial transparency (i.e., alpha-channel). In this way, the co-variation between different datasets can be investigated

  1. Huge positive magnetoresistance in antiferromagnetic double perovskite metals.

    PubMed

    Singh, Viveka Nand; Majumdar, Pinaki

    2014-07-23

    Metals with large positive magnetoresistance are rare. We demonstrate that antiferromagnetic metallic states, as have been predicted for the double perovskites, are excellent candidates for huge positive magnetoresistance. An applied field suppresses long range antiferromagnetic order leading to a state with short range antiferromagnetic correlations and strong electronic scattering. The field induced resistance ratio can be more than tenfold, at moderate field, in a structurally ordered system, and continues to be almost twofold even in systems with ∼ 25% antisite disorder. Although our explicit demonstration is in the context of a two- dimensional spin-fermion model of the double perovskites, the mechanism we uncover is far more general, complementary to the colossal negative magnetoresistance process, and would operate in other local moment metals that show a field driven suppression of non-ferromagnetic order.

  2. Emergence of soliton chirality in a quantum antiferromagnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, Hans-Benjamin; Kulda, Jiri; Roessli, Bertrand; Visser, Dirk; Krämer, Karl W.; Güdel, Hans-Ulrich; Böni, Peter

    2005-12-01

    Left- and right-handed chiral matter is present at every scale ranging from seashells to molecules to elementary particles. In magnetism, chirality may be inherited from the asymmetry of the underlying crystal structure, or it may emerge spontaneously. In particular, there has been a long-standing search for chiral spin states that emerge spontaneously with the disappearance of antiferromagnetic long-range order. Here we identify a generic system supporting such a behaviour and report on experimental evidence for chirality associated with the quantum dynamics of solitons in antiferromagnetic spin chains. The soliton chirality observed by polarized neutron scattering is in agreement with theoretical predictions and is a manifestation of a Berry phase. Our observations provide the first example of the emergence of spin currents and hidden chiral order that accompany the disappearance of antiferromagnetic order, a scheme believed to lie at the heart of the enigmatic normal state of cuprate superconductors.

  3. Hedgehog Excitations and their Superconducting Cores in the Antiferromagnetic State of SO(5) Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldbart, Paul M.

    1998-03-01

    Zhang's SO(5) approach to the physics of high-temperature superconducting materials(S.-C. Zhang, Science 275), 1089 (1997). contains the possibility that the antiferromagnetic state should support novel excitations that resemble antiferromagnetic hedgehogs at large distances but are predominantly superconducting inside a core region(P. M. Goldbart, Antiferromagnetic hedgehogs with superconducting cores); cond- mat/9711088 (UIUC Preprint P-97-10-030-iii).. Neither singular nor topologically stable, in contrast with their hedgehog cousins in pure antiferromagnetism, these excitations are what hedgehogs become when antiferromagnetic order is permitted to `` escape'' toward superconductivity---a central element in Zhang's approach. We describe the structure of antiferromagnetic hedgehog excitations with superconducting cores within the context of Zhang's approach to high-temperature superconducting materials, and touch upon a number of the experimental implications that these excitations engender.

  4. Array servo scanning micro EDM of 3D micro cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, Hao; Li, Yong; Yi, Futing

    2010-12-01

    Micro electro discharge machining (Micro EDM) is a non-traditional processing technology with the special advantages of low set-up cost and few cutting force in machining any conductive materials regardless of their hardness. As well known, die-sinking EDM is unsuitable for machining the complex 3D micro cavity less than 1mm due to the high-priced fabrication of 3D microelectrode itself and its serous wear during EDM process. In our former study, a servo scanning 3D micro-EDM (3D SSMEDM) method was put forward, and our experiments showed it was available to fabricate complex 3D micro-cavities. In this study, in order to improve machining efficiency and consistency accuracy for array 3D micro-cavities, an array-servo-scanning 3D micro EDM (3D ASSMEDM) method is presented considering the complementary advantages of the 3D SSMEDM and the array micro electrodes with simple cross-section. During 3D ASSMEDM process, the array cavities designed by CAD / CAM system can be batch-manufactured by servo scanning layer by layer using array-rod-like micro tool electrodes, and the axial wear of the array electrodes is compensated in real time by keeping discharge gap. To verify the effectiveness of the 3D ASSMEDM, the array-triangle-micro cavities (side length 630 μm) are batch-manufactured on P-doped silicon by applying the array-micro-electrodes with square-cross-section fabricated by LIGA process. Our exploratory experiment shows that the 3D ASSMEDM provides a feasible approach for the batch-manufacture of 3D array-micro-cavities of conductive materials.

  5. Array servo scanning micro EDM of 3D micro cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, Hao; Li, Yong; Yi, Futing

    2011-05-01

    Micro electro discharge machining (Micro EDM) is a non-traditional processing technology with the special advantages of low set-up cost and few cutting force in machining any conductive materials regardless of their hardness. As well known, die-sinking EDM is unsuitable for machining the complex 3D micro cavity less than 1mm due to the high-priced fabrication of 3D microelectrode itself and its serous wear during EDM process. In our former study, a servo scanning 3D micro-EDM (3D SSMEDM) method was put forward, and our experiments showed it was available to fabricate complex 3D micro-cavities. In this study, in order to improve machining efficiency and consistency accuracy for array 3D micro-cavities, an array-servo-scanning 3D micro EDM (3D ASSMEDM) method is presented considering the complementary advantages of the 3D SSMEDM and the array micro electrodes with simple cross-section. During 3D ASSMEDM process, the array cavities designed by CAD / CAM system can be batch-manufactured by servo scanning layer by layer using array-rod-like micro tool electrodes, and the axial wear of the array electrodes is compensated in real time by keeping discharge gap. To verify the effectiveness of the 3D ASSMEDM, the array-triangle-micro cavities (side length 630 μm) are batch-manufactured on P-doped silicon by applying the array-micro-electrodes with square-cross-section fabricated by LIGA process. Our exploratory experiment shows that the 3D ASSMEDM provides a feasible approach for the batch-manufacture of 3D array-micro-cavities of conductive materials.

  6. Elastic wave modelling in 3D heterogeneous media: 3D grid method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jianfeng, Zhang; Tielin, Liu

    2002-09-01

    We present a new numerical technique for elastic wave modelling in 3D heterogeneous media with surface topography, which is called the 3D grid method in this paper. This work is an extension of the 2D grid method that models P-SV wave propagation in 2D heterogeneous media. Similar to the finite-element method in the discretization of a numerical mesh, the proposed scheme is flexible in incorporating surface topography and curved interfaces; moreover it satisfies the free-surface boundary conditions of 3D topography naturally. The algorithm, developed from a parsimonious staggered-grid scheme, solves the problem using integral equilibrium around each node, instead of satisfying elastodynamic differential equations at each node as in the conventional finite-difference method. The computational cost and memory requirements for the proposed scheme are approximately the same as those used by the same order finite-difference method. In this paper, a mixed tetrahedral and parallelepiped grid method is presented; and the numerical dispersion and stability criteria on the tetrahedral grid method and parallelepiped grid method are discussed in detail. The proposed scheme is successfully tested against an analytical solution for the 3D Lamb problem and a solution of the boundary method for the diffraction of a hemispherical crater. Moreover, examples of surface-wave propagation in an elastic half-space with a semi-cylindrical trench on the surface and 3D plane-layered model are presented.

  7. INCORPORATING DYNAMIC 3D SIMULATION INTO PRA

    SciTech Connect

    Steven R Prescott; Curtis Smith

    2011-07-01

    provide superior results and insights. We also couple the state model with the dynamic 3D simulation analysis representing events (such as flooding) to determine which (if any) components fail. Not only does the simulation take into account any failed items from the state model, but any failures caused by the simulation are incorporated back into the state model and factored into the overall results. Using this method we incorporate accurate 3D simulation results, eliminate static-based PRA issues, and have time ordered failure information.

  8. Interactive 3D Mars Visualization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, Mark W.

    2012-01-01

    The Interactive 3D Mars Visualization system provides high-performance, immersive visualization of satellite and surface vehicle imagery of Mars. The software can be used in mission operations to provide the most accurate position information for the Mars rovers to date. When integrated into the mission data pipeline, this system allows mission planners to view the location of the rover on Mars to 0.01-meter accuracy with respect to satellite imagery, with dynamic updates to incorporate the latest position information. Given this information so early in the planning process, rover drivers are able to plan more accurate drive activities for the rover than ever before, increasing the execution of science activities significantly. Scientifically, this 3D mapping information puts all of the science analyses to date into geologic context on a daily basis instead of weeks or months, as was the norm prior to this contribution. This allows the science planners to judge the efficacy of their previously executed science observations much more efficiently, and achieve greater science return as a result. The Interactive 3D Mars surface view is a Mars terrain browsing software interface that encompasses the entire region of exploration for a Mars surface exploration mission. The view is interactive, allowing the user to pan in any direction by clicking and dragging, or to zoom in or out by scrolling the mouse or touchpad. This set currently includes tools for selecting a point of interest, and a ruler tool for displaying the distance between and positions of two points of interest. The mapping information can be harvested and shared through ubiquitous online mapping tools like Google Mars, NASA WorldWind, and Worldwide Telescope.

  9. 3D Nanostructuring of Semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blick, Robert

    2000-03-01

    Modern semiconductor technology allows to machine devices on the nanometer scale. I will discuss the current limits of the fabrication processes, which enable the definition of single electron transistors with dimensions down to 8 nm. In addition to the conventional 2D patterning and structuring of semiconductors, I will demonstrate how to apply 3D nanostructuring techniques to build freely suspended single-crystal beams with lateral dimension down to 20 nm. In transport measurements in the temperature range from 30 mK up to 100 K these nano-crystals are characterized regarding their electronic as well as their mechanical properties. Moreover, I will present possible applications of these devices.

  10. What Lies Ahead (3-D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This 3-D cylindrical-perspective mosaic taken by the navigation camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit on sol 82 shows the view south of the large crater dubbed 'Bonneville.' The rover will travel toward the Columbia Hills, seen here at the upper left. The rock dubbed 'Mazatzal' and the hole the rover drilled in to it can be seen at the lower left. The rover's position is referred to as 'Site 22, Position 32.' This image was geometrically corrected to make the horizon appear flat.

  11. Making Inexpensive 3-D Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manos, Harry

    2016-03-01

    Visual aids are important to student learning, and they help make the teacher's job easier. Keeping with the TPT theme of "The Art, Craft, and Science of Physics Teaching," the purpose of this article is to show how teachers, lacking equipment and funds, can construct a durable 3-D model reference frame and a model gravity well tailored to specific class lessons. Most of the supplies are readily available in the home or at school: rubbing alcohol, a rag, two colors of spray paint, art brushes, and masking tape. The cost of these supplies, if you don't have them, is less than 20.

  12. A Clean Adirondack (3-D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This is a 3-D anaglyph showing a microscopic image taken of an area measuring 3 centimeters (1.2 inches) across on the rock called Adirondack. The image was taken at Gusev Crater on the 33rd day of the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit's journey (Feb. 5, 2004), after the rover used its rock abrasion tool brush to clean the surface of the rock. Dust, which was pushed off to the side during cleaning, can still be seen to the left and in low areas of the rock.

  13. 3D Printed Shelby Cobra

    SciTech Connect

    Love, Lonnie

    2015-01-09

    ORNL's newly printed 3D Shelby Cobra was showcased at the 2015 NAIAS in Detroit. This "laboratory on wheels" uses the Shelby Cobra design, celebrating the 50th anniversary of this model and honoring the first vehicle to be voted a national monument. The Shelby was printed at the Department of Energy’s Manufacturing Demonstration Facility at ORNL using the BAAM (Big Area Additive Manufacturing) machine and is intended as a “plug-n-play” laboratory on wheels. The Shelby will allow research and development of integrated components to be tested and enhanced in real time, improving the use of sustainable, digital manufacturing solutions in the automotive industry.

  14. Freehand 3D ultrasound breast tumor segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Qi; Ge, Yinan; Ou, Yue; Cao, Biao

    2007-12-01

    It is very important for physicians to accurately determine breast tumor location, size and shape in ultrasound image. The precision of breast tumor volume quantification relies on the accurate segmentation of the images. Given the known location and orientation of the ultrasound probe, We propose using freehand three dimensional (3D) ultrasound to acquire original images of the breast tumor and the surrounding tissues in real-time, after preprocessing with anisotropic diffusion filtering, the segmentation operation is performed slice by slice based on the level set method in the image stack. For the segmentation on each slice, the user can adjust the parameters to fit the requirement in the specified image in order to get the satisfied result. By the quantification procedure, the user can know the tumor size varying in different images in the stack. Surface rendering and interpolation are used to reconstruct the 3D breast tumor image. And the breast volume is constructed by the segmented contours in the stack of images. After the segmentation, the volume of the breast tumor in the 3D image data can be obtained.

  15. Two Eyes, 3D: Stereoscopic Design Principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, Aaron; Subbarao, M.; Wyatt, R.

    2013-01-01

    Two Eyes, 3D is a NSF-funded research project about how people perceive highly spatial objects when shown with 2D or stereoscopic ("3D") representations. As part of the project, we produced a short film about SN 2011fe. The high definition film has been rendered in both 2D and stereoscopic formats. It was developed according to a set of stereoscopic design principles we derived from the literature and past experience producing and studying stereoscopic films. Study participants take a pre- and post-test that involves a spatial cognition assessment and scientific knowledge questions about Type-1a supernovae. For the evaluation, participants use iPads in order to record spatial manipulation of the device and look for elements of embodied cognition. We will present early results and also describe the stereoscopic design principles and the rationale behind them. All of our content and software is available under open source licenses. More information is at www.twoeyes3d.org.

  16. Magnetic phases of the quasi-two-dimensional antiferromagnet CuCrO2 on a triangular lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakhratov, Yu. A.; Svistov, L. E.; Kuhns, P. L.; Zhou, H. D.; Reyes, A. P.

    2016-09-01

    We have carried out Cu,6563 NMR spectra measurements in a magnetic field up to about 45 T on a single crystal of a multiferroic triangular antiferromagnet CuCrO2. The measurements were performed for magnetic fields aligned along the crystal c axis. Field and temperature evolution of the spectral shape demonstrates a number of phase transitions. It was found that the 3D magnetic ordering takes place in the low field range (H ≲15 T). At higher fields magnetic structures form within individual triangular planes whereas the spin directions of the magnetic ions from neighboring planes are not correlated. It is established that the 2D-3D transition is hysteretic in field and temperature. Line-shape analysis reveals several possible magnetic structures existing within individual planes for different phases of CuCrO2. Within certain regions on the magnetic H -T phase diagram of CuCrO2 a 3D magnetic ordering with tensor order parameter is expected.

  17. Positional Awareness Map 3D (PAM3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, Monica; Allen, Earl L.; Yount, John W.; Norcross, April Louise

    2012-01-01

    The Western Aeronautical Test Range of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s Dryden Flight Research Center needed to address the aging software and hardware of its current situational awareness display application, the Global Real-Time Interactive Map (GRIM). GRIM was initially developed in the late 1980s and executes on older PC architectures using a Linux operating system that is no longer supported. Additionally, the software is difficult to maintain due to its complexity and loss of developer knowledge. It was decided that a replacement application must be developed or acquired in the near future. The replacement must provide the functionality of the original system, the ability to monitor test flight vehicles in real-time, and add improvements such as high resolution imagery and true 3-dimensional capability. This paper will discuss the process of determining the best approach to replace GRIM, and the functionality and capabilities of the first release of the Positional Awareness Map 3D.

  18. Ising antiferromagnet on the 2-uniform lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Unjong

    2016-08-01

    The antiferromagnetic Ising model is investigated on the twenty 2-uniform lattices using the Monte Carlo method based on the Wang-Landau algorithm and the Metropolis algorithm to study the geometric frustration effect systematically. Based on the specific heat, the residual entropy, and the Edwards-Anderson freezing order parameter, the ground states of them were determined. In addition to the long-range-ordered phase and the spin ice phase found in the Archimedean lattices, two more phases were found. The partial long-range order is long-range order with exceptional disordered sites, which give extensive residual entropy. In the partial spin ice phase, the partial freezing phenomenon appears: A majority of sites are frozen without long-range order, but the other sites are fluctuating even at zero temperature. The spin liquid ground state was not found in the 2-uniform lattices.

  19. 3D printed bionic ears.

    PubMed

    Mannoor, Manu S; Jiang, Ziwen; James, Teena; Kong, Yong Lin; Malatesta, Karen A; Soboyejo, Winston O; Verma, Naveen; Gracias, David H; McAlpine, Michael C

    2013-06-12

    The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological tissue with functional electronics could enable the creation of bionic organs possessing enhanced functionalities over their human counterparts. Conventional electronic devices are inherently two-dimensional, preventing seamless multidimensional integration with synthetic biology, as the processes and materials are very different. Here, we present a novel strategy for overcoming these difficulties via additive manufacturing of biological cells with structural and nanoparticle derived electronic elements. As a proof of concept, we generated a bionic ear via 3D printing of a cell-seeded hydrogel matrix in the anatomic geometry of a human ear, along with an intertwined conducting polymer consisting of infused silver nanoparticles. This allowed for in vitro culturing of cartilage tissue around an inductive coil antenna in the ear, which subsequently enables readout of inductively-coupled signals from cochlea-shaped electrodes. The printed ear exhibits enhanced auditory sensing for radio frequency reception, and complementary left and right ears can listen to stereo audio music. Overall, our approach suggests a means to intricately merge biologic and nanoelectronic functionalities via 3D printing.

  20. 3D Printable Graphene Composite

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Xiaojun; Li, Dong; Jiang, Wei; Gu, Zheming; Wang, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Zengxing; Sun, Zhengzong

    2015-01-01

    In human being’s history, both the Iron Age and Silicon Age thrived after a matured massive processing technology was developed. Graphene is the most recent superior material which could potentially initialize another new material Age. However, while being exploited to its full extent, conventional processing methods fail to provide a link to today’s personalization tide. New technology should be ushered in. Three-dimensional (3D) printing fills the missing linkage between graphene materials and the digital mainstream. Their alliance could generate additional stream to push the graphene revolution into a new phase. Here we demonstrate for the first time, a graphene composite, with a graphene loading up to 5.6 wt%, can be 3D printable into computer-designed models. The composite’s linear thermal coefficient is below 75 ppm·°C−1 from room temperature to its glass transition temperature (Tg), which is crucial to build minute thermal stress during the printing process. PMID:26153673

  1. 3D Printed Bionic Ears

    PubMed Central

    Mannoor, Manu S.; Jiang, Ziwen; James, Teena; Kong, Yong Lin; Malatesta, Karen A.; Soboyejo, Winston O.; Verma, Naveen; Gracias, David H.; McAlpine, Michael C.

    2013-01-01

    The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological tissue with functional electronics could enable the creation of bionic organs possessing enhanced functionalities over their human counterparts. Conventional electronic devices are inherently two-dimensional, preventing seamless multidimensional integration with synthetic biology, as the processes and materials are very different. Here, we present a novel strategy for overcoming these difficulties via additive manufacturing of biological cells with structural and nanoparticle derived electronic elements. As a proof of concept, we generated a bionic ear via 3D printing of a cell-seeded hydrogel matrix in the precise anatomic geometry of a human ear, along with an intertwined conducting polymer consisting of infused silver nanoparticles. This allowed for in vitro culturing of cartilage tissue around an inductive coil antenna in the ear, which subsequently enables readout of inductively-coupled signals from cochlea-shaped electrodes. The printed ear exhibits enhanced auditory sensing for radio frequency reception, and complementary left and right ears can listen to stereo audio music. Overall, our approach suggests a means to intricately merge biologic and nanoelectronic functionalities via 3D printing. PMID:23635097

  2. Martian terrain & airbags - 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Portions of the lander's deflated airbags and a petal are at lower left in this image, taken in stereo by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. This image is part of a 3D 'monster' panorama of the area surrounding the landing site.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

    Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  3. Martian terrain & airbags - 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Portions of the lander's deflated airbags and a petal are at the lower area of this image, taken in stereo by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. This image is part of a 3D 'monster' panorama of the area surrounding the landing site.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

    Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  4. 3D structured illumination microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dougherty, William M.; Goodwin, Paul C.

    2011-03-01

    Three-dimensional structured illumination microscopy achieves double the lateral and axial resolution of wide-field microscopy, using conventional fluorescent dyes, proteins and sample preparation techniques. A three-dimensional interference-fringe pattern excites the fluorescence, filling in the "missing cone" of the wide field optical transfer function, thereby enabling axial (z) discrimination. The pattern acts as a spatial carrier frequency that mixes with the higher spatial frequency components of the image, which usually succumb to the diffraction limit. The fluorescence image encodes the high frequency content as a down-mixed, moiré-like pattern. A series of images is required, wherein the 3D pattern is shifted and rotated, providing down-mixed data for a system of linear equations. Super-resolution is obtained by solving these equations. The speed with which the image series can be obtained can be a problem for the microscopy of living cells. Challenges include pattern-switching speeds, optical efficiency, wavefront quality and fringe contrast, fringe pitch optimization, and polarization issues. We will review some recent developments in 3D-SIM hardware with the goal of super-resolved z-stacks of motile cells.

  5. Thermophoresis of an antiferromagnetic soliton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Se Kwon; Tchernyshyov, Oleg; Tserkovnyak, Yaroslav

    2015-07-01

    We study the dynamics of an antiferromagnetic soliton under a temperature gradient. To this end, we start by phenomenologically constructing the stochastic Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation for an antiferromagnet with the aid of the fluctuation-dissipation theorem. We then derive the Langevin equation for the soliton's center of mass by the collective coordinate approach. An antiferromagentic soliton behaves as a classical massive particle immersed in a viscous medium. By considering a thermodynamic ensemble of solitons, we obtain the Fokker-Planck equation, from which we extract the average drift velocity of a soliton. The diffusion coefficient is inversely proportional to a small damping constant α , which can yield a drift velocity of tens of m/s under a temperature gradient of 1 K/mm for a domain wall in an easy-axis antiferromagnetic wire with α ˜10-4 .

  6. Chiral Magnetic Effect and Anomalous Hall Effect in Antiferromagnetic Insulators with Spin-Orbit Coupling.

    PubMed

    Sekine, Akihiko; Nomura, Kentaro

    2016-03-04

    We search for dynamical magnetoelectric phenomena in three-dimensional correlated systems with spin-orbit coupling. We focus on the antiferromagnetic insulator phases where the dynamical axion field is realized by the fluctuation of the antiferromagnetic order parameter. It is shown that the dynamical chiral magnetic effect, an alternating current generation by magnetic fields, emerges due to such time dependences of the order parameter as antiferromagnetic resonance. It is also shown that the anomalous Hall effect arises due to such spatial variations of the order parameter as antiferromagnetic domain walls. Our study indicates that spin excitations in antiferromagnetic insulators with spin-orbit coupling can result in nontrivial charge responses. Moreover, observing the chiral magnetic effect and anomalous Hall effect in our system is equivalent to detecting the dynamical axion field in condensed matter.

  7. 3D Printing of Graphene Aerogels.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiangqiang; Zhang, Feng; Medarametla, Sai Pradeep; Li, Hui; Zhou, Chi; Lin, Dong

    2016-04-06

    3D printing of a graphene aerogel with true 3D overhang structures is highlighted. The aerogel is fabricated by combining drop-on-demand 3D printing and freeze casting. The water-based GO ink is ejected and freeze-cast into designed 3D structures. The lightweight (<10 mg cm(-3) ) 3D printed graphene aerogel presents superelastic and high electrical conduction.

  8. Quasi 3D dispersion experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakucz, P.

    2003-04-01

    This paper studies the problem of tracer dispersion in a coloured fluid flowing through a two-phase 3D rough channel-system in a 40 cm*40 cm plexi-container filled by homogen glass fractions and colourless fluid. The unstable interface between the driving coloured fluid and the colourless fluid develops viscous fingers with a fractal structure at high capillary number. Five two-dimensional fractal fronts have been observed at the same time using four cameras along the vertical side-walls and using one camera located above the plexi-container. In possession of five fronts the spatial concentration contours are determined using statistical models. The concentration contours are self-affine fractal curves with a fractal dimension D=2.19. This result is valid for disperison at high Péclet numbers.

  9. ShowMe3D

    SciTech Connect

    Sinclair, Michael B

    2012-01-05

    ShowMe3D is a data visualization graphical user interface specifically designed for use with hyperspectral image obtained from the Hyperspectral Confocal Microscope. The program allows the user to select and display any single image from a three dimensional hyperspectral image stack. By moving a slider control, the user can easily move between images of the stack. The user can zoom into any region of the image. The user can select any pixel or region from the displayed image and display the fluorescence spectrum associated with that pixel or region. The user can define up to 3 spectral filters to apply to the hyperspectral image and view the image as it would appear from a filter-based confocal microscope. The user can also obtain statistics such as intensity average and variance from selected regions.

  10. 3D Printed Shelby Cobra

    ScienceCinema

    Love, Lonnie

    2016-11-02

    ORNL's newly printed 3D Shelby Cobra was showcased at the 2015 NAIAS in Detroit. This "laboratory on wheels" uses the Shelby Cobra design, celebrating the 50th anniversary of this model and honoring the first vehicle to be voted a national monument. The Shelby was printed at the Department of Energy’s Manufacturing Demonstration Facility at ORNL using the BAAM (Big Area Additive Manufacturing) machine and is intended as a “plug-n-play” laboratory on wheels. The Shelby will allow research and development of integrated components to be tested and enhanced in real time, improving the use of sustainable, digital manufacturing solutions in the automotive industry.

  11. Supernova Remnant in 3-D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    wavelengths. Since the amount of the wavelength shift is related to the speed of motion, one can determine how fast the debris are moving in either direction. Because Cas A is the result of an explosion, the stellar debris is expanding radially outwards from the explosion center. Using simple geometry, the scientists were able to construct a 3-D model using all of this information. A program called 3-D Slicer modified for astronomical use by the Astronomical Medicine Project at Harvard University in Cambridge, Mass. was used to display and manipulate the 3-D model. Commercial software was then used to create the 3-D fly-through.

    The blue filaments defining the blast wave were not mapped using the Doppler effect because they emit a different kind of light synchrotron radiation that does not emit light at discrete wavelengths, but rather in a broad continuum. The blue filaments are only a representation of the actual filaments observed at the blast wave.

    This visualization shows that there are two main components to this supernova remnant: a spherical component in the outer parts of the remnant and a flattened (disk-like) component in the inner region. The spherical component consists of the outer layer of the star that exploded, probably made of helium and carbon. These layers drove a spherical blast wave into the diffuse gas surrounding the star. The flattened component that astronomers were unable to map into 3-D prior to these Spitzer observations consists of the inner layers of the star. It is made from various heavier elements, not all shown in the visualization, such as oxygen, neon, silicon, sulphur, argon and iron.

    High-velocity plumes, or jets, of this material are shooting out from the explosion in the plane of the disk-like component mentioned above. Plumes of silicon appear in the northeast and southwest, while those of iron are seen in the southeast and north. These jets were already known and Doppler velocity measurements have been made for these

  12. Met.3D - a new open-source tool for interactive 3D visualization of ensemble weather forecasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rautenhaus, Marc; Kern, Michael; Schäfler, Andreas; Westermann, Rüdiger

    2015-04-01

    We introduce Met.3D, a new open-source tool for the interactive 3D visualization of numerical ensemble weather predictions. The tool has been developed to support weather forecasting during aircraft-based atmospheric field campaigns, however, is applicable to further forecasting, research and teaching activities. Our work approaches challenging topics related to the visual analysis of numerical atmospheric model output -- 3D visualisation, ensemble visualization, and how both can be used in a meaningful way suited to weather forecasting. Met.3D builds a bridge from proven 2D visualization methods commonly used in meteorology to 3D visualization by combining both visualization types in a 3D context. It implements methods that address the issue of spatial perception in the 3D view as well as approaches to using the ensemble in order to assess forecast uncertainty. Interactivity is key to the Met.3D approach. The tool uses modern graphics hardware technology to achieve interactive visualization of present-day numerical weather prediction datasets on standard consumer hardware. Met.3D supports forecast data from the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts and operates directly on ECMWF hybrid sigma-pressure level grids. In this presentation, we provide an overview of the software --illustrated with short video examples--, and give information on its availability.

  13. 3-D QSAutogrid/R: an alternative procedure to build 3-D QSAR models. Methodologies and applications.

    PubMed

    Ballante, Flavio; Ragno, Rino

    2012-06-25

    Since it first appeared in 1988 3-D QSAR has proved its potential in the field of drug design and activity prediction. Although thousands of citations now exist in 3-D QSAR, its development was rather slow with the majority of new 3-D QSAR applications just extensions of CoMFA. An alternative way to build 3-D QSAR models, based on an evolution of software, has been named 3-D QSAutogrid/R and has been developed to use only software freely available to academics. 3-D QSAutogrid/R covers all the main features of CoMFA and GRID/GOLPE with implementation by multiprobe/multiregion variable selection (MPGRS) that improves the simplification of interpretation of the 3-D QSAR map. The methodology is based on the integration of the molecular interaction fields as calculated by AutoGrid and the R statistical environment that can be easily coupled with many free graphical molecular interfaces such as UCSF-Chimera, AutoDock Tools, JMol, and others. The description of each R package is reported in detail, and, to assess its validity, 3-D QSAutogrid/R has been applied to three molecular data sets of which either CoMFA or GRID/GOLPE models were reported in order to compare the results. 3-D QSAutogrid/R has been used as the core engine to prepare more that 240 3-D QSAR models forming the very first 3-D QSAR server ( www.3d-qsar.com ) with its code freely available through R-Cran distribution.

  14. The PRISM3D paleoenvironmental reconstruction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dowsett, H.; Robinson, M.; Haywood, A.M.; Salzmann, U.; Hill, Daniel; Sohl, L.E.; Chandler, M.; Williams, Mark; Foley, K.; Stoll, D.K.

    2010-01-01

    The Pliocene Research, Interpretation and Synoptic Mapping (PRISM) paleoenvironmental reconstruction is an internally consistent and comprehensive global synthesis of a past interval of relatively warm and stable climate. It is regularly used in model studies that aim to better understand Pliocene climate, to improve model performance in future climate scenarios, and to distinguish model-dependent climate effects. The PRISM reconstruction is constantly evolving in order to incorporate additional geographic sites and environmental parameters, and is continuously refined by independent research findings. The new PRISM three dimensional (3D) reconstruction differs from previous PRISM reconstructions in that it includes a subsurface ocean temperature reconstruction, integrates geochemical sea surface temperature proxies to supplement the faunal-based temperature estimates, and uses numerical models for the first time to augment fossil data. Here we describe the components of PRISM3D and describe new findings specific to the new reconstruction. Highlights of the new PRISM3D reconstruction include removal of Hudson Bay and the Great Lakes and creation of open waterways in locations where the current bedrock elevation is less than 25m above modern sea level, due to the removal of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet and the reduction of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet. The mid-Piacenzian oceans were characterized by a reduced east-west temperature gradient in the equatorial Pacific, but PRISM3D data do not imply permanent El Niño conditions. The reduced equator-to-pole temperature gradient that characterized previous PRISM reconstructions is supported by significant displacement of vegetation belts toward the poles, is extended into the Arctic Ocean, and is confirmed by multiple proxies in PRISM3D. Arctic warmth coupled with increased dryness suggests the formation of warm and salty paleo North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) and a more vigorous thermohaline circulation system that may

  15. Needle segmentation using 3D Hough transform in 3D TRUS guided prostate transperineal therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Qiu Wu; Yuchi Ming; Ding Mingyue; Tessier, David; Fenster, Aaron

    2013-04-15

    Purpose: Prostate adenocarcinoma is the most common noncutaneous malignancy in American men with over 200 000 new cases diagnosed each year. Prostate interventional therapy, such as cryotherapy and brachytherapy, is an effective treatment for prostate cancer. Its success relies on the correct needle implant position. This paper proposes a robust and efficient needle segmentation method, which acts as an aid to localize the needle in three-dimensional (3D) transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) guided prostate therapy. Methods: The procedure of locating the needle in a 3D TRUS image is a three-step process. First, the original 3D ultrasound image containing a needle is cropped; the cropped image is then converted to a binary format based on its histogram. Second, a 3D Hough transform based needle segmentation method is applied to the 3D binary image in order to locate the needle axis. The position of the needle endpoint is finally determined by an optimal threshold based analysis of the intensity probability distribution. The overall efficiency is improved through implementing a coarse-fine searching strategy. The proposed method was validated in tissue-mimicking agar phantoms, chicken breast phantoms, and 3D TRUS patient images from prostate brachytherapy and cryotherapy procedures by comparison to the manual segmentation. The robustness of the proposed approach was tested by means of varying parameters such as needle insertion angle, needle insertion length, binarization threshold level, and cropping size. Results: The validation results indicate that the proposed Hough transform based method is accurate and robust, with an achieved endpoint localization accuracy of 0.5 mm for agar phantom images, 0.7 mm for chicken breast phantom images, and 1 mm for in vivo patient cryotherapy and brachytherapy images. The mean execution time of needle segmentation algorithm was 2 s for a 3D TRUS image with size of 264 Multiplication-Sign 376 Multiplication-Sign 630 voxels. Conclusions

  16. Synthesis, structure and properties of a 3D acentric coordination polymer with noninterpenetrated (10,3)-d topology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lun, Huijie; Li, Xuefei; Wang, Xiao; Li, Haiyan; Li, Yamin; Bai, Yan

    2017-01-01

    A new coordination polymer, {[Mn(HPIDC)(H2O)]·2H2O}n (1) (H3PIDC = 2-(pyridin-4-yl)-1H-imidazole-4,5-dicarboxylic acid), has been obtained by hydrothermal method and structurally characterized by X-ray single crystal diffraction, elemental analysis and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). X-ray single crystal diffraction reveals that compound 1 crystallizing in acentric Pna21 space group, exhibits an ultimate racemic three-dimension framework with rare noninterpenetrated (10,3)-d (or utp) topology due to the alternate array of left- and right-handed helixes. Moreover, compound 1 also features ferroelectric, nonlinear optical (NLO) and antiferromagnetic behaviors.

  17. 3D simulation for solitons used in optical fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasile, F.; Tebeica, C. M.; Schiopu, P.; Vladescu, M.

    2016-12-01

    In this paper is described 3D simulation for solitions used in optical fibers. In the scientific works is started from nonlinear propagation equation and the solitons represents its solutions. This paper presents the simulation of the fundamental soliton in 3D together with simulation of the second order soliton in 3D. These simulations help in the study of the optical fibers for long distances and in the interactions between the solitons. This study helps the understanding of the nonlinear propagation equation and for nonlinear waves. These 3D simulations are obtained using MATLAB programming language, and we can observe fundamental difference between the soliton and the second order/higher order soliton and in their evolution.

  18. A colour image reproduction framework for 3D colour printing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Kaida; Sohiab, Ali; Sun, Pei-li; Yates, Julian M.; Li, Changjun; Wuerger, Sophie

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, the current technologies in full colour 3D printing technology were introduced. A framework of colour image reproduction process for 3D colour printing is proposed. A special focus was put on colour management for 3D printed objects. Two approaches, colorimetric colour reproduction and spectral based colour reproduction are proposed in order to faithfully reproduce colours in 3D objects. Two key studies, colour reproduction for soft tissue prostheses and colour uniformity correction across different orientations are described subsequently. Results are clear shown that applying proposed colour image reproduction framework, performance of colour reproduction can be significantly enhanced. With post colour corrections, a further improvement in colour process are achieved for 3D printed objects.

  19. Highly compressible 3D periodic graphene aerogel microlattices

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Cheng; Han, T. Yong-Jin; Duoss, Eric B.; Golobic, Alexandra M.; Kuntz, Joshua D.; Spadaccini, Christopher M.; Worsley, Marcus A.

    2015-04-22

    Graphene is a two-dimensional material that offers a unique combination of low density, exceptional mechanical properties, large surface area and excellent electrical conductivity. Recent progress has produced bulk 3D assemblies of graphene, such as graphene aerogels, but they possess purely stochastic porous networks, which limit their performance compared with the potential of an engineered architecture. Here we report the fabrication of periodic graphene aerogel microlattices, possessing an engineered architecture via a 3D printing technique known as direct ink writing. The 3D printed graphene aerogels are lightweight, highly conductive and exhibit supercompressibility (up to 90% compressive strain). Moreover, the Young’s moduli of the 3D printed graphene aerogels show an order of magnitude improvement over bulk graphene materials with comparable geometric density and possess large surface areas. Ultimately, adapting the 3D printing technique to graphene aerogels realizes the possibility of fabricating a myriad of complex aerogel architectures for a broad range of applications.

  20. Highly compressible 3D periodic graphene aerogel microlattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Cheng; Han, T. Yong-Jin; Duoss, Eric B.; Golobic, Alexandra M.; Kuntz, Joshua D.; Spadaccini, Christopher M.; Worsley, Marcus A.

    2015-04-01

    Graphene is a two-dimensional material that offers a unique combination of low density, exceptional mechanical properties, large surface area and excellent electrical conductivity. Recent progress has produced bulk 3D assemblies of graphene, such as graphene aerogels, but they possess purely stochastic porous networks, which limit their performance compared with the potential of an engineered architecture. Here we report the fabrication of periodic graphene aerogel microlattices, possessing an engineered architecture via a 3D printing technique known as direct ink writing. The 3D printed graphene aerogels are lightweight, highly conductive and exhibit supercompressibility (up to 90% compressive strain). Moreover, the Young's moduli of the 3D printed graphene aerogels show an order of magnitude improvement over bulk graphene materials with comparable geometric density and possess large surface areas. Adapting the 3D printing technique to graphene aerogels realizes the possibility of fabricating a myriad of complex aerogel architectures for a broad range of applications.

  1. Highly compressible 3D periodic graphene aerogel microlattices

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Cheng; Han, T. Yong-Jin; Duoss, Eric B.; Golobic, Alexandra M.; Kuntz, Joshua D.; Spadaccini, Christopher M.; Worsley, Marcus A.

    2015-01-01

    Graphene is a two-dimensional material that offers a unique combination of low density, exceptional mechanical properties, large surface area and excellent electrical conductivity. Recent progress has produced bulk 3D assemblies of graphene, such as graphene aerogels, but they possess purely stochastic porous networks, which limit their performance compared with the potential of an engineered architecture. Here we report the fabrication of periodic graphene aerogel microlattices, possessing an engineered architecture via a 3D printing technique known as direct ink writing. The 3D printed graphene aerogels are lightweight, highly conductive and exhibit supercompressibility (up to 90% compressive strain). Moreover, the Young's moduli of the 3D printed graphene aerogels show an order of magnitude improvement over bulk graphene materials with comparable geometric density and possess large surface areas. Adapting the 3D printing technique to graphene aerogels realizes the possibility of fabricating a myriad of complex aerogel architectures for a broad range of applications. PMID:25902277

  2. Isothermal anisotropic magnetoresistance in antiferromagnetic metallic IrMn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galceran, R.; Fina, I.; Cisneros-Fernández, J.; Bozzo, B.; Frontera, C.; López-Mir, L.; Deniz, H.; Park, K.-W.; Park, B.-G.; Balcells, Ll.; Martí, X.; Jungwirth, T.; Martínez, B.

    2016-10-01

    Antiferromagnetic spintronics is an emerging field; antiferromagnets can improve the functionalities of ferromagnets with higher response times, and having the information shielded against external magnetic field. Moreover, a large list of aniferromagnetic semiconductors and metals with Néel temperatures above room temperature exists. In the present manuscript, we persevere in the quest for the limits of how large can anisotropic magnetoresistance be in antiferromagnetic materials with very large spin-orbit coupling. We selected IrMn as a prime example of first-class moment (Mn) and spin-orbit (Ir) combination. Isothermal magnetotransport measurements in an antiferromagnetic-metal(IrMn)/ferromagnetic-insulator thin film bilayer have been performed. The metal/insulator structure with magnetic coupling between both layers allows the measurement of the modulation of the transport properties exclusively in the antiferromagnetic layer. Anisotropic magnetoresistance as large as 0.15% has been found, which is much larger than that for a bare IrMn layer. Interestingly, it has been observed that anisotropic magnetoresistance is strongly influenced by the field cooling conditions, signaling the dependence of the found response on the formation of domains at the magnetic ordering temperature.

  3. Isothermal anisotropic magnetoresistance in antiferromagnetic metallic IrMn

    PubMed Central

    Galceran, R.; Fina, I.; Cisneros-Fernández, J.; Bozzo, B.; Frontera, C.; López-Mir, L.; Deniz, H.; Park, K.-W.; Park, B.-G.; Balcells, Ll.; Martí, X.; Jungwirth, T.; Martínez, B.

    2016-01-01

    Antiferromagnetic spintronics is an emerging field; antiferromagnets can improve the functionalities of ferromagnets with higher response times, and having the information shielded against external magnetic field. Moreover, a large list of aniferromagnetic semiconductors and metals with Néel temperatures above room temperature exists. In the present manuscript, we persevere in the quest for the limits of how large can anisotropic magnetoresistance be in antiferromagnetic materials with very large spin-orbit coupling. We selected IrMn as a prime example of first-class moment (Mn) and spin-orbit (Ir) combination. Isothermal magnetotransport measurements in an antiferromagnetic-metal(IrMn)/ferromagnetic-insulator thin film bilayer have been performed. The metal/insulator structure with magnetic coupling between both layers allows the measurement of the modulation of the transport properties exclusively in the antiferromagnetic layer. Anisotropic magnetoresistance as large as 0.15% has been found, which is much larger than that for a bare IrMn layer. Interestingly, it has been observed that anisotropic magnetoresistance is strongly influenced by the field cooling conditions, signaling the dependence of the found response on the formation of domains at the magnetic ordering temperature. PMID:27762278

  4. Adapting 3D Equilibrium Reconstruction to Reconstruct Weakly 3D H-mode Tokamaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cianciosa, M. R.; Hirshman, S. P.; Seal, S. K.; Unterberg, E. A.; Wilcox, R. S.; Wingen, A.; Hanson, J. D.

    2015-11-01

    The application of resonant magnetic perturbations for edge localized mode (ELM) mitigation breaks the toroidal symmetry of tokamaks. In these scenarios, the axisymmetric assumptions of the Grad-Shafranov equation no longer apply. By extension, equilibrium reconstruction tools, built around these axisymmetric assumptions, are insufficient to fully reconstruct a 3D perturbed equilibrium. 3D reconstruction tools typically work on systems where the 3D components of signals are a significant component of the input signals. In nominally axisymmetric systems, applied field perturbations can be on the order of 1% of the main field or less. To reconstruct these equilibria, the 3D component of signals must be isolated from the axisymmetric portions to provide the necessary information for reconstruction. This presentation will report on the adaptation to V3FIT for application on DIII-D H-mode discharges with applied resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs). Newly implemented motional stark effect signals and modeling of electric field effects will also be discussed. Work supported under U.S. DOE Cooperative Agreement DE-AC05-00OR22725.

  5. Unidirectional Order and 3D Stacking of Stripes in Orthorhombic Pr1.67Sr0.33NiO4 and Nd1.67Sr0.33NiO4.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hücker, Markus; Tranquada, John M.; Gu, Gen D.; Zimmermann, Martin V.; Büchner, Bernd K.

    2006-03-01

    The crystal structure and charge stripe order in Pr1. 67Sr0.33NiO4 and Nd1. 67Sr0.33NiO4 was studied by means of single crystal x-ray diffraction in zero and high electric fields. In contrast to tetragonal La1.67Sr0.33NiO4, these crystals are orthorhombic at room temperature. We find that the distortion of the NiO2 planes associated with the orthorhombic strain dictates the direction of the charge stripes. The critical temperature for charge stripe order is the same as in La1.67Sr0.33NiO4 (TCO˜245 K), i.e., it does not depend on the crystal symmetry. A second structural transition observed only in Nd1.67Sr0.33NiO4 at temperatures T˜100 K has no noticeable influence on the stripe order. In crystals with a hole content very close to 1/3 we observe a tripling of the charge stripe unit cell along the c-axis for temperatures T < 225 K, which indicates a strong tendency towards a well defined three dimensional order. A high electric field applied to Nd1.67Sr0.33NiO4 had no noticeable impact on the charge stripe order, i.e., a sliding of stripes was not observed. The work at Brookhaven was supported by the Office of Science, U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC02-98CH10886.

  6. Identification of a Griffiths singularity in a geometrically frustrated antiferromagnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Jitender; Panja, Soumendra Nath; Dengre, Shanu; Nair, Sunil

    2017-02-01

    We report the observation of a Griffiths phase in the geometrically frustrated antiferromagnet DyBaCo 4O 7 +δ . Its onset is identified using measurements of the thermoremanent magnetization, which appears to be superior to conventional in-field measurement protocols for the characterization of the Griffiths phase. Within this phase, the temporal relaxation of magnetization exhibits a functional form which is expected for Heisenberg systems, reflecting the nature of spin interactions in this class of materials. Interestingly, the effective Co 2 + /Co 3 + ratio tailored by varying the oxygen nonstoichiometry δ is only seen to influence the antiferromagnetic ordering temperature (T N ), leaving the Griffiths temperature (T G ) invariant.

  7. Spin excitations in the antiferromagnet NaNiO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Brion, S.; Darie, C.; Holzapfel, M.; Talbayev, D.; Mihály, L.; Simon, F.; Jánossy, A.; Chouteau, G.

    2007-03-01

    In NaNiO2 , Ni3+ ions form a quasi-two-dimensional triangular lattice of S=1/2 spins. The magnetic order observed below 20K has been described as an A type antiferromagnet with ferromagnetic layers weakly coupled antiferromagnetically. We studied the magnetic excitations with the electron spin resonance for frequencies 1-20cm-1 , in magnetic fields up to 14T . The bulk of the results are interpreted in terms of a phenomenological model involving biaxial anisotropy for the spins: a strong easy-plane term, and a weaker anisotropy within the plane.

  8. Spin Excitations in the Antiferromagnet NaNiO2

    SciTech Connect

    de Brion,S.; Darie, C.; Holzapfel, M.; Talbayev, D.; Mihaly, L.; Simon, F.; Janossy, A.; Chouteau, G.

    2007-01-01

    In NaNiO2 , Ni3+ ions form a quasi-two-dimensional triangular lattice of S=1/2 spins. The magnetic order observed below 20K has been described as an A type antiferromagnet with ferromagnetic layers weakly coupled antiferromagnetically. We studied the magnetic excitations with the electron spin resonance for frequencies 1 20cm-1 , in magnetic fields up to 14T . The bulk of the results are interpreted in terms of a phenomenological model involving biaxial anisotropy for the spins: a strong easy-plane term, and a weaker anisotropy within the plane

  9. Spin transport through the metallic antiferromagnet FeMn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saglam, H.; Zhang, W.; Jungfleisch, M. B.; Sklenar, J.; Pearson, J. E.; Ketterson, J. B.; Hoffmann, A.

    2016-10-01

    We investigate spin transport through metallic antiferromagnets using measurements based on spin pumping combined with inverse spin Hall effects in N i80F e20/FeMn /W trilayers. The relatively large magnitude and opposite sign of spin Hall effects in W compared to FeMn enable an unambiguous detection of spin currents transmitted through the entire FeMn layer thickness. Using this approach we can detect two distinctively different spin transport regimes, which we associate with electronic and magnonic spin currents, respectively. The latter can extend to relatively large distances (≈9 nm) and is enhanced when the antiferromagnetic ordering temperature is close to the measurement temperature.

  10. Orientational transitions in antiferromagnetic liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakhlevnykh, A. N.; Petrov, D. A.

    2016-09-01

    The orientational phases in an antiferromagnetic liquid crystal (ferronematic) based on the nematic liquid crystal with the negative anisotropy of diamagnetic susceptibility are studied in the framework of the continuum theory. The ferronematic was assumed to be compensated; i.e., in zero field, impurity ferroparticles with the magnetic moments directed parallel and antiparallel to the director are equiprobably distributed in it. It is established that under the action of a magnetic field the ferronematic undergoes orientational transitions compensated (antiferromagnetic) phase-non-uniform phase-saturation (ferrimagnetic) phase. The analytical expressions for threshold fields of the transitions as functions of material parameters are obtained. It is shown that with increasing magnetic impurity segregation parameter, the threshold fields of the transitions significantly decrease. The bifurcation diagram of the ferronematic orientational phases is built in terms of the energy of anchoring of magnetic particles with the liquid-crystal matrix and magnetic field. It is established that the Freedericksz transition is the second-order phase transition, while the transition to the saturation state can be second- or first-order. In the latter case, the suspension exhibits orientational bistability. The orientational and magnetooptical properties of the ferronematic in different applied magnetic fields are studied.

  11. Spin dynamics simulations for a nanoscale Heisenberg antiferromagnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Zhuofei; Landau, D. P.; Brown, G.; Stocks, G. M.

    2010-03-01

    Thermoinduced magnetization(TiM) is a novel response which was predicted to occur in nanoscale antiferromagnetic materials. Extensive Monte Carlo simulations footnotetextG. Brown, A. Janotti, M. Eisenbach, and G. M. Stocks, Phys.Rev.B 72, 140405(2005) have shown that TiM is an intrinsic property of the antiferromagnetic classical Heisenberg model below the Neel temperature. To obtain a fundamental understanding of TiM, spin dynamics(SD) simulations are performed to study the spin wave behavior, which seems to be the cause of TiM. A classical Heisenberg model with an antiferromagnetic nearest-neighbor exchange interaction and uniaxial single-site anisotropy is studied. Simple-cubic lattices with free boundary conditions are used. We employed the fast spin dynamics algorithms with fourth-order Suzuki-Trotter decompositions of the exponential operator. Additional small excitation peaks due to surface effects are found in transverse S(q,w).

  12. Magnetic phase diagrams of classical triangular and kagome antiferromagnets.

    PubMed

    Gvozdikova, M V; Melchy, P-E; Zhitomirsky, M E

    2011-04-27

    We investigate the effect of geometrical frustration on the H-T phase diagrams of the classical Heisenberg antiferromagnets on triangular and kagome lattices. The phase diagrams for the two models are obtained from large-scale Monte Carlo simulations. For the kagome antiferromagnet, thermal fluctuations are unable to lift degeneracy completely and stabilize translationally disordered multipolar phases. We find a substantial difference in the temperature scales of the order by disorder effect related to different degeneracy of the low- and the high-field classical ground states in the kagome antiferromagnet. In the low-field regime, the Kosterlitz-Thouless transition into a spin-nematic phase is produced by unbinding of half-quantum vortices.

  13. Quasi-3D space charge simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Xi; /Fermilab

    2007-04-01

    The longitudinal space charge effect is simulated by binning the longitudinal beam profile in order to calculate the force on the bins using the binned particle distribution via FFT, and applying momentum kick based upon this space charge force to macro-particles. Usually, the longitudinal space charge kick is calculated once per turn since the longitudinal profile doesn't change much in a single turn. Besides, the longitudinal profile is used as a weighting factor for the transverse space charge force. The transverse space charge effect is simulated by projecting the 3-D beam to a 2-D Gaussian distribution in order to use the complex error function to compute the transverse space charge force, and applying this space charge force to macro-particles. One transverse space charge calculation per scale length of the beam shape variation requires at least ten transverse space charge force calculations per betatron oscillation.

  14. Lattice Boltzmann Method for 3-D Flows with Curved Boundary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mei, Renwei; Shyy, Wei; Yu, Dazhi; Luo, Li-Shi

    2002-01-01

    In this work, we investigate two issues that are important to computational efficiency and reliability in fluid dynamics applications of the lattice, Boltzmann equation (LBE): (1) Computational stability and accuracy of different lattice Boltzmann models and (2) the treatment of the boundary conditions on curved solid boundaries and their 3-D implementations. Three athermal 3-D LBE models (D3QI5, D3Ql9, and D3Q27) are studied and compared in terms of efficiency, accuracy, and robustness. The boundary treatment recently developed by Filippova and Hanel and Met et al. in 2-D is extended to and implemented for 3-D. The convergence, stability, and computational efficiency of the 3-D LBE models with the boundary treatment for curved boundaries were tested in simulations of four 3-D flows: (1) Fully developed flows in a square duct, (2) flow in a 3-D lid-driven cavity, (3) fully developed flows in a circular pipe, and (4) a uniform flow over a sphere. We found that while the fifteen-velocity 3-D (D3Ql5) model is more prone to numerical instability and the D3Q27 is more computationally intensive, the 63Q19 model provides a balance between computational reliability and efficiency. Through numerical simulations, we demonstrated that the boundary treatment for 3-D arbitrary curved geometry has second-order accuracy and possesses satisfactory stability characteristics.

  15. 3D Kitaev spin liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermanns, Maria

    The Kitaev honeycomb model has become one of the archetypal spin models exhibiting topological phases of matter, where the magnetic moments fractionalize into Majorana fermions interacting with a Z2 gauge field. In this talk, we discuss generalizations of this model to three-dimensional lattice structures. Our main focus is the metallic state that the emergent Majorana fermions form. In particular, we discuss the relation of the nature of this Majorana metal to the details of the underlying lattice structure. Besides (almost) conventional metals with a Majorana Fermi surface, one also finds various realizations of Dirac semi-metals, where the gapless modes form Fermi lines or even Weyl nodes. We introduce a general classification of these gapless quantum spin liquids using projective symmetry analysis. Furthermore, we briefly outline why these Majorana metals in 3D Kitaev systems provide an even richer variety of Dirac and Weyl phases than possible for electronic matter and comment on possible experimental signatures. Work done in collaboration with Kevin O'Brien and Simon Trebst.

  16. 3D multiplexed immunoplasmonics microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergeron, Éric; Patskovsky, Sergiy; Rioux, David; Meunier, Michel

    2016-07-01

    Selective labelling, identification and spatial distribution of cell surface biomarkers can provide important clinical information, such as distinction between healthy and diseased cells, evolution of a disease and selection of the optimal patient-specific treatment. Immunofluorescence is the gold standard for efficient detection of biomarkers expressed by cells. However, antibodies (Abs) conjugated to fluorescent dyes remain limited by their photobleaching, high sensitivity to the environment, low light intensity, and wide absorption and emission spectra. Immunoplasmonics is a novel microscopy method based on the visualization of Abs-functionalized plasmonic nanoparticles (fNPs) targeting cell surface biomarkers. Tunable fNPs should provide higher multiplexing capacity than immunofluorescence since NPs are photostable over time, strongly scatter light at their plasmon peak wavelengths and can be easily functionalized. In this article, we experimentally demonstrate accurate multiplexed detection based on the immunoplasmonics approach. First, we achieve the selective labelling of three targeted cell surface biomarkers (cluster of differentiation 44 (CD44), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and voltage-gated K+ channel subunit KV1.1) on human cancer CD44+ EGFR+ KV1.1+ MDA-MB-231 cells and reference CD44- EGFR- KV1.1+ 661W cells. The labelling efficiency with three stable specific immunoplasmonics labels (functionalized silver nanospheres (CD44-AgNSs), gold (Au) NSs (EGFR-AuNSs) and Au nanorods (KV1.1-AuNRs)) detected by reflected light microscopy (RLM) is similar to the one with immunofluorescence. Second, we introduce an improved method for 3D localization and spectral identification of fNPs based on fast z-scanning by RLM with three spectral filters corresponding to the plasmon peak wavelengths of the immunoplasmonics labels in the cellular environment (500 nm for 80 nm AgNSs, 580 nm for 100 nm AuNSs and 700 nm for 40 nm × 92 nm AuNRs). Third, the developed

  17. Weak arrest-like and field-driven first order magnetic phase transitions of itinerant Fe3Ga4 revealed by magnetization and magnetoresistance isotherms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samatham, S. Shanmukharao; Suresh, K. G.

    2017-01-01

    The detailed magnetic study of complex 3d-electron based Fe3Ga4 is reported. It undergoes paramagnetic to antiferromagnetic (TN) and antiferromagnetic to ferromagnetic (TC) transitions respectively around 380 and 70 K. The thermal hysteresis of field-cooled cooling (FCC) and field-cooled warming (FCW) hints at first order phase transition below Curie temperature. A weak phase coexistence of ferro and antiferromagnetic phases is suggested by exploring the arrest-like first-order phenomenon. In the intermediate temperature range, field-driven metamagnetic transition from antiferro to ferromagnetic phase is confirmed. Further bringing the system very near to TN, field-induced transitions disappear and above TN predominant paramagnetic contribution is evident. The magnetic H-T phase diagram distinguishing different magnetic phases of Fe3Ga4 is obtained.

  18. Glnemo2: Interactive Visualization 3D Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambert, Jean-Charles

    2011-10-01

    Glnemo2 is an interactive 3D visualization program developed in C++ using the OpenGL library and Nokia QT 4.X API. It displays in 3D the particles positions of the different components of an nbody snapshot. It quickly gives a lot of information about the data (shape, density area, formation of structures such as spirals, bars, or peanuts). It allows for in/out zooms, rotations, changes of scale, translations, selection of different groups of particles and plots in different blending colors. It can color particles according to their density or temperature, play with the density threshold, trace orbits, display different time steps, take automatic screenshots to make movies, select particles using the mouse, and fly over a simulation using a given camera path. All these features are accessible from a very intuitive graphic user interface. Glnemo2 supports a wide range of input file formats (Nemo, Gadget 1 and 2, phiGrape, Ramses, list of files, realtime gyrfalcON simulation) which are automatically detected at loading time without user intervention. Glnemo2 uses a plugin mechanism to load the data, so that it is easy to add a new file reader. It's powered by a 3D engine which uses the latest OpenGL technology, such as shaders (glsl), vertex buffer object, frame buffer object, and takes in account the power of the graphic card used in order to accelerate the rendering. With a fast GPU, millions of particles can be rendered in real time. Glnemo2 runs on Linux, Windows (using minGW compiler), and MaxOSX, thanks to the QT4API.

  19. An unusual 3D interdigitated architecture assembled from Keggin polyoxometalates and dinuclear copper(II) complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Pang, Haijun; Yang, Ming; Kang, Lu; Ma, Huiyuan; Liu, Bo; Li, Shaobin; Liu, Heng

    2013-02-15

    A novel organic-inorganic hybrid compound, [Cu{sub 2}(bipy){sub 3}({mu}{sub 1}-H{sub 2}O){sub 2}({mu}{sub 2}-H{sub 2}O)({mu}{sub 2}-OH)(H{sub 2}BW{sub 12}O{sub 40})]{center_dot}4 H{sub 2}O (1) (bipy=4,4 Prime -bipy), has been synthesized in hydrothermal condition and characterized by elemental analysis, IR spectrum, TG analysis and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Compound 1 possesses poly-pendant layered motifs composed of 12-tungstoborates and dinuclear copper(II) complexes, in which the mono-coordinated bipy molecules are orderly appended to both sides of the layer, respectively. Adjacent layers mutually engage in a zipper-like pattern to result in a novel 3D interdigitated architecture. The variable-temperature magnetic susceptibility of 1 showed that there existed weak antiferromagnetic interaction in 1. Toward the reduction of hydrogen peroxide, 1 has good electrocatalytic activity and remarkable stability. - A new compound has been obtained, which represents the first interdigitated architecture assembled by POMs and dinuclear copper(II) complexes. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The first example of interdigitated architecture assembled by POMs and dinuclear copper(II) complexes is observed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A zipper-like pattern is observed in the structure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The IR, TG, XRPD, magnetism and electrochemical property of the title compound were studied.

  20. Suitability for 3D Printed Parts for Laboratory Use

    SciTech Connect

    Zwicker, Andrew P.; Bloom, Josh; Albertson, Robert; Gershman, Sophia

    2014-08-01

    3D printing has become popular for a variety of users, from industrial to the home hobbyist, to scientists and engineers interested in producing their own laboratory equipment. In order to determine the suitability of 3D printed parts for our plasma physics laboratory, we measured the accuracy, strength, vacuum compatibility, and electrical properties of pieces printed in plastic. The flexibility of rapidly creating custom parts has led to the 3D printer becoming an invaluable resource in our laboratory and is equally suitable for producing equipment for advanced undergraduate laboratories.

  1. An interactive multiview 3D display system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhaoxing; Geng, Zheng; Zhang, Mei; Dong, Hui

    2013-03-01

    The progresses in 3D display systems and user interaction technologies will help more effective 3D visualization of 3D information. They yield a realistic representation of 3D objects and simplifies our understanding to the complexity of 3D objects and spatial relationship among them. In this paper, we describe an autostereoscopic multiview 3D display system with capability of real-time user interaction. Design principle of this autostereoscopic multiview 3D display system is presented, together with the details of its hardware/software architecture. A prototype is built and tested based upon multi-projectors and horizontal optical anisotropic display structure. Experimental results illustrate the effectiveness of this novel 3D display and user interaction system.

  2. Superfast 3D absolute shape measurement using five binary patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyun, Jae-Sang; Zhang, Song

    2017-03-01

    This paper presents a method that recovers high-quality 3D absolute coordinates point by point with only five binary patterns. Specifically, three dense binary dithered patterns are used to compute the wrapped phase; and the average intensity is combined with two additional binary patterns to determine fringe order pixel by pixel in phase domain. The wrapped phase is temporarily unwrapped point by point by referring to the fringe order. We further developed a computational framework to reduce random noise impact due to dithering, defocusing and random noise. Since only five binary fringe patterns are required to recover one 3D frame, extremely high speed 3D shape measurement can be achieved. For example, we developed a system that captures 2D images at 3333 Hz, and thus performs 3D shape measurement at 667 Hz.

  3. Laser Based 3D Volumetric Display System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-03-01

    Literature, Costa Mesa, CA July 1983. 3. "A Real Time Autostereoscopic Multiplanar 3D Display System", Rodney Don Williams, Felix Garcia, Jr., Texas...8217 .- NUMBERS LASER BASED 3D VOLUMETRIC DISPLAY SYSTEM PR: CD13 0. AUTHOR(S) PE: N/AWIU: DN303151 P. Soltan, J. Trias, W. Robinson, W. Dahlke 7...laser generated 3D volumetric images on a rotating double helix, (where the 3D displays are computer controlled for group viewing with the naked eye

  4. True 3d Images and Their Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Z.; wang@hzgeospace., zheng.

    2012-07-01

    A true 3D image is a geo-referenced image. Besides having its radiometric information, it also has true 3Dground coordinates XYZ for every pixels of it. For a true 3D image, especially a true 3D oblique image, it has true 3D coordinates not only for building roofs and/or open grounds, but also for all other visible objects on the ground, such as visible building walls/windows and even trees. The true 3D image breaks the 2D barrier of the traditional orthophotos by introducing the third dimension (elevation) into the image. From a true 3D image, for example, people will not only be able to read a building's location (XY), but also its height (Z). true 3D images will fundamentally change, if not revolutionize, the way people display, look, extract, use, and represent the geospatial information from imagery. In many areas, true 3D images can make profound impacts on the ways of how geospatial information is represented, how true 3D ground modeling is performed, and how the real world scenes are presented. This paper first gives a definition and description of a true 3D image and followed by a brief review of what key advancements of geospatial technologies have made the creation of true 3D images possible. Next, the paper introduces what a true 3D image is made of. Then, the paper discusses some possible contributions and impacts the true 3D images can make to geospatial information fields. At the end, the paper presents a list of the benefits of having and using true 3D images and the applications of true 3D images in a couple of 3D city modeling projects.

  5. Backhoe 3D "gold standard" image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorham, LeRoy; Naidu, Kiranmai D.; Majumder, Uttam; Minardi, Michael A.

    2005-05-01

    ViSUAl-D (VIsual Sar Using ALl Dimensions), a 2004 DARPA/IXO seedling effort, is developing a capability for reliable high confidence ID from standoff ranges. Recent conflicts have demonstrated that the warfighter would greatly benefit from the ability to ID targets beyond visual and electro-optical ranges[1]. Forming optical-quality SAR images while exploiting full polarization, wide angles, and large bandwidth would be key evidence such a capability is achievable. Using data generated by the Xpatch EM scattering code, ViSUAl-D investigates all degrees of freedom available to the radar designer, including 6 GHz bandwidth, full polarization and angle sampling over 2π steradians (upper hemisphere), in order to produce a "literal" image or representation of the target. This effort includes the generation of a "Gold Standard" image that can be produced at X-band utilizing all available target data. This "Gold Standard" image of the backhoe will serve as a test bed for future more relevant military targets and their image development. The seedling team produced a public release data which was released at the 2004 SPIE conference, as well as a 3D "Gold Standard" backhoe image using a 3D image formation algorithm. This paper describes the full backhoe data set, the image formation algorithm, the visualization process and the resulting image.

  6. Evaluating scatterometry 3D capabilities for EUV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jie; Kritsun, Oleg; Dasari, Prasad; Volkman, Catherine; Wallow, Tom; Hu, Jiangtao

    2013-04-01

    Optical critical dimension (OCD) metrology using scatterometry has been demonstrated to be a viable solution for fast and non-destructive in-line process control and monitoring. As extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) is more widely adopted to fabricate smaller and smaller patterns for electronic devices, scatterometry faces new challenges due to several reasons. For 14nm node and beyond, the feature size is nearly an order of magnitude smaller than the shortest wavelength used in scatterometry. In addition, thinner resist layer is used in EUVL compared with conventional lithography, which leads to reduced measurement sensitivity. Despite these difficulties, tolerance has reduced for smaller feature size. In this work we evaluate 3D capability of scatterometry for EUV process using spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE). Three types of structures, contact holes, tip-to-tip, and tip-to-edge, are studied to test CD and end-gap metrology capabilities. The wafer is processed with focus and exposure matrix. Good correlations to CD-SEM results are achieved and good dynamic precision is obtained for all the key parameters. In addition, the fit to process provides an independent method to evaluate data quality from different metrology tools such as OCD and CDSEM. We demonstrate 3D capabilities of scatterometry OCD metrology for EUVL using spectroscopic ellipsometry, which provides valuable in-line metrology for CD and end-gap control in electronic circuit fabrications.

  7. 3D Tracking via Shoe Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Li, Fangmin; Liu, Guo; Liu, Jian; Chen, Xiaochuang; Ma, Xiaolin

    2016-01-01

    Most location-based services are based on a global positioning system (GPS), which only works well in outdoor environments. Compared to outdoor environments, indoor localization has created more buzz in recent years as people spent most of their time indoors working at offices and shopping at malls, etc. Existing solutions mainly rely on inertial sensors (i.e., accelerometer and gyroscope) embedded in mobile devices, which are usually not accurate enough to be useful due to the mobile devices’ random movements while people are walking. In this paper, we propose the use of shoe sensing (i.e., sensors attached to shoes) to achieve 3D indoor positioning. Specifically, a short-time energy-based approach is used to extract the gait pattern. Moreover, in order to improve the accuracy of vertical distance estimation while the person is climbing upstairs, a state classification is designed to distinguish the walking status including plane motion (i.e., normal walking and jogging horizontally), walking upstairs, and walking downstairs. Furthermore, we also provide a mechanism to reduce the vertical distance accumulation error. Experimental results show that we can achieve nearly 100% accuracy when extracting gait patterns from walking/jogging with a low-cost shoe sensor, and can also achieve 3D indoor real-time positioning with high accuracy. PMID:27801839

  8. 3D Printing and Its Urologic Applications

    PubMed Central

    Soliman, Youssef; Feibus, Allison H; Baum, Neil

    2015-01-01

    3D printing is the development of 3D objects via an additive process in which successive layers of material are applied under computer control. This article discusses 3D printing, with an emphasis on its historical context and its potential use in the field of urology. PMID:26028997

  9. Teaching Geography with 3-D Visualization Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anthamatten, Peter; Ziegler, Susy S.

    2006-01-01

    Technology that helps students view images in three dimensions (3-D) can support a broad range of learning styles. "Geo-Wall systems" are visualization tools that allow scientists, teachers, and students to project stereographic images and view them in 3-D. We developed and presented 3-D visualization exercises in several undergraduate courses.…

  10. Expanding Geometry Understanding with 3D Printing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochran, Jill A.; Cochran, Zane; Laney, Kendra; Dean, Mandi

    2016-01-01

    With the rise of personal desktop 3D printing, a wide spectrum of educational opportunities has become available for educators to leverage this technology in their classrooms. Until recently, the ability to create physical 3D models was well beyond the scope, skill, and budget of many schools. However, since desktop 3D printers have become readily…

  11. Beowulf 3D: a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engle, Rob

    2008-02-01

    This paper discusses the creative and technical challenges encountered during the production of "Beowulf 3D," director Robert Zemeckis' adaptation of the Old English epic poem and the first film to be simultaneously released in IMAX 3D and digital 3D formats.

  12. 3D Flow Visualization Using Texture Advection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kao, David; Zhang, Bing; Kim, Kwansik; Pang, Alex; Moran, Pat (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Texture advection is an effective tool for animating and investigating 2D flows. In this paper, we discuss how this technique can be extended to 3D flows. In particular, we examine the use of 3D and 4D textures on 3D synthetic and computational fluid dynamics flow fields.

  13. Validation of 3D multimodality roadmapping in interventional neuroradiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruijters, Daniel; Homan, Robert; Mielekamp, Peter; van de Haar, Peter; Babic, Drazenko

    2011-08-01

    Three-dimensional multimodality roadmapping is entering clinical routine utilization for neuro-vascular treatment. Its purpose is to navigate intra-arterial and intra-venous endovascular devices through complex vascular anatomy by fusing pre-operative computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance (MR) with the live fluoroscopy image. The fused image presents the real-time position of the intra-vascular devices together with the patient's 3D vascular morphology and its soft-tissue context. This paper investigates the effectiveness, accuracy, robustness and computation times of the described methods in order to assess their suitability for the intended clinical purpose: accurate interventional navigation. The mutual information-based 3D-3D registration proved to be of sub-voxel accuracy and yielded an average registration error of 0.515 mm and the live machine-based 2D-3D registration delivered an average error of less than 0.2 mm. The capture range of the image-based 3D-3D registration was investigated to characterize its robustness, and yielded an extent of 35 mm and 25° for >80% of the datasets for registration of 3D rotational angiography (3DRA) with CT, and 15 mm and 20° for >80% of the datasets for registration of 3DRA with MR data. The image-based 3D-3D registration could be computed within 8 s, while applying the machine-based 2D-3D registration only took 1.5 µs, which makes them very suitable for interventional use.

  14. 3-D Perspective Pasadena, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This perspective view shows the western part of the city of Pasadena, California, looking north towards the San Gabriel Mountains. Portions of the cities of Altadena and La Canada, Flintridge are also shown. The image was created from three datasets: the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) supplied the elevation data; Landsat data from November 11, 1986 provided the land surface color (not the sky) and U.S. Geological Survey digital aerial photography provides the image detail. The Rose Bowl, surrounded by a golf course, is the circular feature at the bottom center of the image. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory is the cluster of large buildings north of the Rose Bowl at the base of the mountains. A large landfill, Scholl Canyon, is the smooth area in the lower left corner of the scene. This image shows the power of combining data from different sources to create planning tools to study problems that affect large urban areas. In addition to the well-known earthquake hazards, Southern California is affected by a natural cycle of fire and mudflows. Wildfires strip the mountains of vegetation, increasing the hazards from flooding and mudflows for several years afterwards. Data such as shown on this image can be used to predict both how wildfires will spread over the terrain and also how mudflows will be channeled down the canyons. The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11, 2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission was designed to collect three dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency

  15. Random Ising antiferromagnet on Bethe-like lattices with triangular loops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokota, Terufumi

    2016-04-01

    Phase diagrams for a random Ising antiferromagnet on Bethe-like lattices with triangular loops are obtained. Triangular loops cause strong geometrical frustration for the Ising antiferromagnet. Spin glass states appear by introducing randomness in the interaction between Ising spins. The random Ising antiferromagnet is studied by the replica method using global order parameter. The phase diagrams are compared with those for the corresponding random Ising ferromagnet to see the effects of the geometrical frustration. Antiferromagnetic phase does not appear for M ≤ 4 where M is the number of the corner sharing triangles on the Bethe-like lattices. In these cases, spin glass phase appears with a reentrant behavior. Spin glass phase in the random antiferromagnet appears for much weaker randomness than that in the corresponding random ferromagnet.

  16. Ising antiferromagnet on the Archimedean lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Unjong

    2015-06-01

    Geometric frustration effects were studied systematically with the Ising antiferromagnet on the 11 Archimedean lattices using the Monte Carlo methods. The Wang-Landau algorithm for static properties (specific heat and residual entropy) and the Metropolis algorithm for a freezing order parameter were adopted. The exact residual entropy was also found. Based on the degree of frustration and dynamic properties, ground states of them were determined. The Shastry-Sutherland lattice and the trellis lattice are weakly frustrated and have two- and one-dimensional long-range-ordered ground states, respectively. The bounce, maple-leaf, and star lattices have the spin ice phase. The spin liquid phase appears in the triangular and kagome lattices.

  17. On the efficiency of the hybrid and the exact second-order sampling formulations of the EnKF: a reality-inspired 3-D test case for estimating biodegradation rates of chlorinated hydrocarbons at the port of Rotterdam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gharamti, Mohamad E.; Valstar, Johan; Janssen, Gijs; Marsman, Annemieke; Hoteit, Ibrahim

    2016-11-01

    This study considers the assimilation problem of subsurface contaminants at the port of Rotterdam in the Netherlands. It involves the estimation of solute concentrations and biodegradation rates of four different chlorinated solvents. We focus on assessing the efficiency of an adaptive hybrid ensemble Kalman filter and optimal interpolation (EnKF-OI) and the exact second-order sampling formulation (EnKFESOS) for mitigating the undersampling of the estimation and observation errors covariances, respectively. A multi-dimensional and multi-species reactive transport model is coupled to simulate the migration of contaminants within a Pleistocene aquifer layer located around 25 m below mean sea level. The biodegradation chain of chlorinated hydrocarbons starting from tetrachloroethene and ending with vinyl chloride is modeled under anaerobic environmental conditions for 5 decades. Yearly pseudo-concentration data are used to condition the forecast concentration and degradation rates in the presence of model and observational errors. Assimilation results demonstrate the robustness of the hybrid EnKF-OI, for accurately calibrating the uncertain biodegradation rates. When implemented serially, the adaptive hybrid EnKF-OI scheme efficiently adjusts the weights of the involved covariances for each individual measurement. The EnKFESOS is shown to maintain the parameter ensemble spread much better leading to more robust estimates of the states and parameters. On average, a well tuned hybrid EnKF-OI and the EnKFESOS respectively suggest around 48 and 21 % improved concentration estimates, as well as around 70 and 23 % improved anaerobic degradation rates, over the standard EnKF. Incorporating large uncertainties in the flow model degrades the accuracy of the estimates of all schemes. Given that the performance of the hybrid EnKF-OI depends on the quality of the background statistics, satisfactory results were obtained only when the uncertainty imposed on the background

  18. Calculated electronic structures and Néel temperatures of half-metallic diluted antiferromagnetic semiconductors.

    PubMed

    Ogura, M; Takahashi, C; Akai, H

    2007-09-12

    The possibility of half-metallic diluted antiferromagnetic semiconductors of II-VI compounds is investigated on the basis of first-principles electronic structure calculation. The electronic structures of ZnS, ZnSe, ZnO, CdS and CdSe doped with two kinds of 3d transition metal ions are calculated using the Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker (KKR) method and their magnetic transition temperatures are determined using a cluster-type approximation. It is predicted that II-VI compound semiconductors doped with two kinds of magnetic ions might be good candidates for half-metallic antiferromagnets.

  19. Catalysts of self-assembled Pt@CeO2-δ-rich core-shell nanoparticles on 3D ordered macroporous Ce1-xZrxO2 for soot oxidation: nanostructure-dependent catalytic activity.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yuechang; Jiao, Jinqing; Zhang, Xindong; Jin, Baofang; Zhao, Zhen; Xiong, Jing; Li, Yazhao; Liu, Jian; Li, Jianmei

    2017-03-30

    The catalytic performance in heterogeneous catalytic reactions consisting of solid reactants is strongly dependent on the nanostructure of the catalysts. Metal-oxides core-shell (MOCS) nanostructures have potential to enhance the catalytic activity for soot oxidation reactions as a result of optimizing the density of active sites located at the metal-oxide interface. Here, we report a facile strategy for fabricating nanocatalysts with self-assembled Pt@CeO2-δ-rich core-shell nanoparticles (NPs) supported on three-dimensionally ordered macroporous (3DOM) Ce1-xZrxO2via the in situ colloidal crystal template (CCT) method. The nanostructure-dependent activity of the catalysts for soot oxidation were investigated by means of SEM, TEM, H2-TPR, XPS, O2-isothermal chemisorption, soot-TPO and so on. A CeO2-δ-rich shell on a Pt core is preferentially separated from Ce1-xZrxO2 precursors and could self-assemble to form MOCS nanostructures. 3DOM structures can enhance the contact efficiency between catalysts and solid reactants (soot). Pt@CeO2-δ-rich core-shell nanostructures can optimize the density of oxygen vacancies (Ov) as active sites located at the interface of Pt-Ce1-xZrxO2. Remarkably, 3DOM Pt@CeO2-δ-rich/Ce1-xZrxO2 catalysts show super catalytic performance and strongly nanostructure-dependent activity for soot oxidation in the absence of NO and NO2. For example, the T50 of the 3DOM Pt@CeO2-δ-rich/Ce0.8Zr0.2O2 catalyst is lowered down to 408 °C, and the reaction rate of the 3DOM Pt@CeO2-δ-rich/Ce0.2Zr0.8O2 catalyst (0.12 μmol g(-1) s(-1)) at 300 °C is 4 times that of the 3DOM Pt/Ce0.2Zr0.8O2 catalyst (0.03 μmol g(-1) s(-1)). The structures of 3DOM Ce1-xZrxO2-supported Pt@CeO2-δ-rich core-shell NPs are decent systems for deep oxidation of solid reactants or macromolecules, and this facile technique for synthesizing catalysts has potential to be applied to other element compositions.

  20. Case study: Beauty and the Beast 3D: benefits of 3D viewing for 2D to 3D conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handy Turner, Tara

    2010-02-01

    From the earliest stages of the Beauty and the Beast 3D conversion project, the advantages of accurate desk-side 3D viewing was evident. While designing and testing the 2D to 3D conversion process, the engineering team at Walt Disney Animation Studios proposed a 3D viewing configuration that not only allowed artists to "compose" stereoscopic 3D but also improved efficiency by allowing artists to instantly detect which image features were essential to the stereoscopic appeal of a shot and which features had minimal or even negative impact. At a time when few commercial 3D monitors were available and few software packages provided 3D desk-side output, the team designed their own prototype devices and collaborated with vendors to create a "3D composing" workstation. This paper outlines the display technologies explored, final choices made for Beauty and the Beast 3D, wish-lists for future development and a few rules of thumb for composing compelling 2D to 3D conversions.

  1. Mini 3D for shallow gas reconnaissance

    SciTech Connect

    Vallieres, T. des; Enns, D.; Kuehn, H.; Parron, D.; Lafet, Y.; Van Hulle, D.

    1996-12-31

    The Mini 3D project was undertaken by TOTAL and ELF with the support of CEPM (Comite d`Etudes Petrolieres et Marines) to define an economical method of obtaining 3D seismic HR data for shallow gas assessment. An experimental 3D survey was carried out with classical site survey techniques in the North Sea. From these data 19 simulations, were produced to compare different acquisition geometries ranging from dual, 600 m long cables to a single receiver. Results show that short offset, low fold and very simple streamer positioning are sufficient to give a reliable 3D image of gas charged bodies. The 3D data allow a much more accurate risk delineation than 2D HR data. Moreover on financial grounds Mini-3D is comparable in cost to a classical HR 2D survey. In view of these results, such HR 3D should now be the standard for shallow gas surveying.

  2. 3D toroidal physics: Testing the boundaries of symmetry breaking

    SciTech Connect

    Spong, Donald A.

    2015-05-15

    Toroidal symmetry is an important concept for plasma confinement; it allows the existence of nested flux surface MHD equilibria and conserved invariants for particle motion. However, perfect symmetry is unachievable in realistic toroidal plasma devices. For example, tokamaks have toroidal ripple due to discrete field coils, optimized stellarators do not achieve exact quasi-symmetry, the plasma itself continually seeks lower energy states through helical 3D deformations, and reactors will likely have non-uniform distributions of ferritic steel near the plasma. Also, some level of designed-in 3D magnetic field structure is now anticipated for most concepts in order to provide the plasma control needed for a stable, steady-state fusion reactor. Such planned 3D field structures can take many forms, ranging from tokamaks with weak 3D edge localized mode suppression fields to stellarators with more dominant 3D field structures. This motivates the development of physics models that are applicable across the full range of 3D devices. Ultimately, the questions of how much symmetry breaking can be tolerated and how to optimize its design must be addressed for all fusion concepts. A closely coupled program of simulation, experimental validation, and design optimization is required to determine what forms and amplitudes of 3D shaping and symmetry breaking will be compatible with the requirements of future fusion reactors.

  3. Research of range-gated 3D imaging technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Haitao; Zhao, Hongli; Youchen, Fan

    2016-10-01

    Laser image data-based target recognition technology is one of the key technologies of laser active imaging systems. This paper discussed the status quo of 3-D imaging development at home and abroad, analyzed the current technological bottlenecks, and built a prototype of range-gated systems to obtain a set of range-gated slice images, and then constructed the 3-D images of the target by binary method and centroid method, respectively, and by constructing different numbers of slice images explored the relationship between the number of images and the reconstruction accuracy in the 3-D image reconstruction process. The experiment analyzed the impact of two algorithms, binary method and centroid method, on the results of 3-D image reconstruction. In the binary method, a comparative analysis was made on the impact of different threshold values on the results of reconstruction, where 0.1, 0.2, 0.3 and adaptive threshold values were selected for 3-D reconstruction of the slice images. In the centroid method, 15, 10, 6, 3, and 2 images were respectively used to realize 3-D reconstruction. Experimental results showed that with the same number of slice images, the accuracy of centroid method was higher than the binary algorithm, and the binary algorithm had a large dependence on the selection of threshold; with the number of slice images dwindling, the accuracy of images reconstructed by centroid method continued to reduce, and at least three slice images were required in order to obtain one 3-D image.

  4. 3D toroidal physics: Testing the boundaries of symmetry breakinga)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spong, Donald A.

    2015-05-01

    Toroidal symmetry is an important concept for plasma confinement; it allows the existence of nested flux surface MHD equilibria and conserved invariants for particle motion. However, perfect symmetry is unachievable in realistic toroidal plasma devices. For example, tokamaks have toroidal ripple due to discrete field coils, optimized stellarators do not achieve exact quasi-symmetry, the plasma itself continually seeks lower energy states through helical 3D deformations, and reactors will likely have non-uniform distributions of ferritic steel near the plasma. Also, some level of designed-in 3D magnetic field structure is now anticipated for most concepts in order to provide the plasma control needed for a stable, steady-state fusion reactor. Such planned 3D field structures can take many forms, ranging from tokamaks with weak 3D edge localized mode suppression fields to stellarators with more dominant 3D field structures. This motivates the development of physics models that are applicable across the full range of 3D devices. Ultimately, the questions of how much symmetry breaking can be tolerated and how to optimize its design must be addressed for all fusion concepts. A closely coupled program of simulation, experimental validation, and design optimization is required to determine what forms and amplitudes of 3D shaping and symmetry breaking will be compatible with the requirements of future fusion reactors.

  5. Characterization of the antiferromagnetism in Ag(pyz)2(S2O8) with a two-dimensional square lattice of Ag 2+ ions (Ag=silver, Pyz-pyrdzine, S2O8=sulfate)

    SciTech Connect

    Singleton, John; Mc Donald, R; Sengupta, P; Cox, S; Manson, J; Southerland, H; Warter, M; Stone, K; Stephens, P; Lancaster, T; Steele, A; Blundell, S; Baker, P; Pratt, F; Lee, C; Whangbo, M

    2009-01-01

    X-ray powder diffraction and magnetic susceptibility measurements show that Ag(pyz){sub 2}(S{sub 2}O{sub 8}) consists of 2D square nets of Ag{sup 2+} ions resulting from the corner-sharing of axially elongated AgN{sub 4}O{sub 2} octahedra and exhibits characteristic 2D antiferromagnetism. Nevertheless, {mu}{sup +}Sr measurements indicate that Ag(pyz){sub 2}(S{sub 2}O{sub 8}) undergoes 3D magnetic ordering below 7.8(3) K.

  6. Quasi-3D Algorithm in Multi-scale Modeling Framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, J.; Arakawa, A.

    2008-12-01

    As discussed in the companion paper by Arakawa and Jung, the Quasi-3D (Q3D) Multi-scale Modeling Framework (MMF) is a 4D estimation/prediction framework that combines a GCM with a 3D anelastic vector vorticity equation model (VVM) applied to a Q3D network of horizontal grid points. This paper presents an outline of the recently revised Q3D algorithm and a highlight of the results obtained by application of the algorithm to an idealized model setting. The Q3D network of grid points consists of two sets of grid-point arrays perpendicular to each other. For a scalar variable, for example, each set consists of three parallel rows of grid points. Principal and supplementary predictions are made on the central and the two adjacent rows, respectively. The supplementary prediction is to allow the principal prediction be three-dimensional at least to the second-order accuracy. To accommodate a higher-order accuracy and to make the supplementary predictions formally three-dimensional, a few rows of ghost points are added at each side of the array. Values at these ghost points are diagnostically determined by a combination of statistical estimation and extrapolation. The basic structure of the estimation algorithm is determined in view of the global stability of Q3D advection. The algorithm is calibrated using the statistics of past data at and near the intersections of the two sets of grid- point arrays. Since the CRM in the Q3D MMF extends beyond individual GCM boxes, the CRM can be a GCM by itself. However, it is better to couple the CRM with the GCM because (1) the CRM is a Q3D CRM based on a highly anisotropic network of grid points and (2) coupling with a GCM makes it more straightforward to inherit our experience with the conventional GCMs. In the coupled system we have selected, prediction of thermdynamic variables is almost entirely done by the Q3D CRM with no direct forcing by the GCM. The coupling of the dynamics between the two components is through mutual

  7. a Fast Method for Measuring the Similarity Between 3d Model and 3d Point Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zongliang; Li, Jonathan; Li, Xin; Lin, Yangbin; Zhang, Shanxin; Wang, Cheng

    2016-06-01

    This paper proposes a fast method for measuring the partial Similarity between 3D Model and 3D point Cloud (SimMC). It is crucial to measure SimMC for many point cloud-related applications such as 3D object retrieval and inverse procedural modelling. In our proposed method, the surface area of model and the Distance from Model to point Cloud (DistMC) are exploited as measurements to calculate SimMC. Here, DistMC is defined as the weighted distance of the distances between points sampled from model and point cloud. Similarly, Distance from point Cloud to Model (DistCM) is defined as the average distance of the distances between points in point cloud and model. In order to reduce huge computational burdens brought by calculation of DistCM in some traditional methods, we define SimMC as the ratio of weighted surface area of model to DistMC. Compared to those traditional SimMC measuring methods that are only able to measure global similarity, our method is capable of measuring partial similarity by employing distance-weighted strategy. Moreover, our method is able to be faster than other partial similarity assessment methods. We demonstrate the superiority of our method both on synthetic data and laser scanning data.

  8. 3D quantitative phase imaging of neural networks using WDT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Taewoo; Liu, S. C.; Iyer, Raj; Gillette, Martha U.; Popescu, Gabriel

    2015-03-01

    White-light diffraction tomography (WDT) is a recently developed 3D imaging technique based on a quantitative phase imaging system called spatial light interference microscopy (SLIM). The technique has achieved a sub-micron resolution in all three directions with high sensitivity granted by the low-coherence of a white-light source. Demonstrations of the technique on single cell imaging have been presented previously; however, imaging on any larger sample, including a cluster of cells, has not been demonstrated using the technique. Neurons in an animal body form a highly complex and spatially organized 3D structure, which can be characterized by neuronal networks or circuits. Currently, the most common method of studying the 3D structure of neuron networks is by using a confocal fluorescence microscope, which requires fluorescence tagging with either transient membrane dyes or after fixation of the cells. Therefore, studies on neurons are often limited to samples that are chemically treated and/or dead. WDT presents a solution for imaging live neuron networks with a high spatial and temporal resolution, because it is a 3D imaging method that is label-free and non-invasive. Using this method, a mouse or rat hippocampal neuron culture and a mouse dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neuron culture have been imaged in order to see the extension of processes between the cells in 3D. Furthermore, the tomogram is compared with a confocal fluorescence image in order to investigate the 3D structure at synapses.

  9. Automated 3D vascular segmentation in CT hepatic venography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fetita, Catalin; Lucidarme, Olivier; Preteux, Francoise

    2005-08-01

    In the framework of preoperative evaluation of the hepatic venous anatomy in living-donor liver transplantation or oncologic rejections, this paper proposes an automated approach for the 3D segmentation of the liver vascular structure from 3D CT hepatic venography data. The developed segmentation approach takes into account the specificities of anatomical structures in terms of spatial location, connectivity and morphometric properties. It implements basic and advanced morphological operators (closing, geodesic dilation, gray-level reconstruction, sup-constrained connection cost) in mono- and multi-resolution filtering schemes in order to achieve an automated 3D reconstruction of the opacified hepatic vessels. A thorough investigation of the venous anatomy including morphometric parameter estimation is then possible via computer-vision 3D rendering, interaction and navigation capabilities.

  10. 3D unstructured mesh discontinuous finite element hydro

    SciTech Connect

    Prasad, M.K.; Kershaw, D.S.; Shaw, M.J.

    1995-07-01

    The authors present detailed features of the ICF3D hydrodynamics code used for inertial fusion simulations. This code is intended to be a state-of-the-art upgrade of the well-known fluid code, LASNEX. ICF3D employs discontinuous finite elements on a discrete unstructured mesh consisting of a variety of 3D polyhedra including tetrahedra, prisms, and hexahedra. The authors discussed details of how the ROE-averaged second-order convection was applied on the discrete elements, and how the C++ coding interface has helped to simplify implementing the many physics and numerics modules within the code package. The author emphasized the virtues of object-oriented design in large scale projects such as ICF3D.

  11. Finite-temperature transition of the antiferromagnetic Heisenberg model on a distorted kagome lattice.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Hiroshi; Okubo, Tsuyoshi; Kawamura, Hikaru

    2012-08-03

    Motivated by the recent experiment on kagome-lattice antiferromagnets, we study the zero-field ordering behavior of the antiferromagnetic classical Heisenberg model on a uniaxially distorted kagome lattice by Monte Carlo simulations. A first-order transition, which has no counterpart in the corresponding undistorted model, takes place at a very low temperature. The origin of the transition is ascribed to a cooperative proliferation of topological excitations inherent to the model.

  12. Spin-density-wave antiferromagnetism of Cr in Fe/Cr(001) superlattices

    SciTech Connect

    Fullerton, E.E.; Bader, S.D.; Robertson, J.L.

    1996-10-01

    The antiferromagnetic spin-density-wave (SDW) order of Cr layers in Fe/Cr(001) superlattices was investigated by neutron scattering. For Cr thickness 51-190 {Angstrom}, a transverse SDW is formed for all temperatures below Neel temperature with a single wavevector Q normal to the layers. A coherent magnetic structure forms with the nodes of the SDW near the Fe-Cr interfaces. For thinner Cr layers, the magnetic scattering can be described by commensurate antiferromagnetic order.

  13. 3-D Technology Approaches for Biological Ecologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Liyu; Austin, Robert; U. S-China Physical-Oncology Sciences Alliance (PS-OA) Team

    Constructing three dimensional (3-D) landscapes is an inevitable issue in deep study of biological ecologies, because in whatever scales in nature, all of the ecosystems are composed by complex 3-D environments and biological behaviors. Just imagine if a 3-D technology could help complex ecosystems be built easily and mimic in vivo microenvironment realistically with flexible environmental controls, it will be a fantastic and powerful thrust to assist researchers for explorations. For years, we have been utilizing and developing different technologies for constructing 3-D micro landscapes for biophysics studies in in vitro. Here, I will review our past efforts, including probing cancer cell invasiveness with 3-D silicon based Tepuis, constructing 3-D microenvironment for cell invasion and metastasis through polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) soft lithography, as well as explorations of optimized stenting positions for coronary bifurcation disease with 3-D wax printing and the latest home designed 3-D bio-printer. Although 3-D technologies is currently considered not mature enough for arbitrary 3-D micro-ecological models with easy design and fabrication, I hope through my talk, the audiences will be able to sense its significance and predictable breakthroughs in the near future. This work was supported by the State Key Development Program for Basic Research of China (Grant No. 2013CB837200), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11474345) and the Beijing Natural Science Foundation (Grant No. 7154221).

  14. 3D change detection - Approaches and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Rongjun; Tian, Jiaojiao; Reinartz, Peter

    2016-12-01

    Due to the unprecedented technology development of sensors, platforms and algorithms for 3D data acquisition and generation, 3D spaceborne, airborne and close-range data, in the form of image based, Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) based point clouds, Digital Elevation Models (DEM) and 3D city models, become more accessible than ever before. Change detection (CD) or time-series data analysis in 3D has gained great attention due to its capability of providing volumetric dynamics to facilitate more applications and provide more accurate results. The state-of-the-art CD reviews aim to provide a comprehensive synthesis and to simplify the taxonomy of the traditional remote sensing CD techniques, which mainly sit within the boundary of 2D image/spectrum analysis, largely ignoring the particularities of 3D aspects of the data. The inclusion of 3D data for change detection (termed 3D CD), not only provides a source with different modality for analysis, but also transcends the border of traditional top-view 2D pixel/object-based analysis to highly detailed, oblique view or voxel-based geometric analysis. This paper reviews the recent developments and applications of 3D CD using remote sensing and close-range data, in support of both academia and industry researchers who seek for solutions in detecting and analyzing 3D dynamics of various objects of interest. We first describe the general considerations of 3D CD problems in different processing stages and identify CD types based on the information used, being the geometric comparison and geometric-spectral analysis. We then summarize relevant works and practices in urban, environment, ecology and civil applications, etc. Given the broad spectrum of applications and different types of 3D data, we discuss important issues in 3D CD methods. Finally, we present concluding remarks in algorithmic aspects of 3D CD.

  15. RT3D tutorials for GMS users

    SciTech Connect

    Clement, T.P.; Jones, N.L.

    1998-02-01

    RT3D (Reactive Transport in 3-Dimensions) is a computer code that solves coupled partial differential equations that describe reactive-flow and transport of multiple mobile and/or immobile species in a three dimensional saturated porous media. RT3D was developed from the single-species transport code, MT3D (DoD-1.5, 1997 version). As with MT3D, RT3D also uses the USGS groundwater flow model MODFLOW for computing spatial and temporal variations in groundwater head distribution. This report presents a set of tutorial problems that are designed to illustrate how RT3D simulations can be performed within the Department of Defense Groundwater Modeling System (GMS). GMS serves as a pre- and post-processing interface for RT3D. GMS can be used to define all the input files needed by RT3D code, and later the code can be launched from within GMS and run as a separate application. Once the RT3D simulation is completed, the solution can be imported to GMS for graphical post-processing. RT3D v1.0 supports several reaction packages that can be used for simulating different types of reactive contaminants. Each of the tutorials, described below, provides training on a different RT3D reaction package. Each reaction package has different input requirements, and the tutorials are designed to describe these differences. Furthermore, the tutorials illustrate the various options available in GMS for graphical post-processing of RT3D results. Users are strongly encouraged to complete the tutorials before attempting to use RT3D and GMS on a routine basis.

  16. 3D Stratigraphic Modeling of Central Aachen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, M.; Neukum, C.; Azzam, R.; Hu, H.

    2010-05-01

    , -y, -z coordinates, down-hole depth, and stratigraphic information are available. 4) We grouped stratigraphic units into four main layers based on analysis of geological settings of the modeling area. The stratigraphic units extend from Quaternary, Cretaceous, Carboniferous to Devonian. In order to facilitate the determination of each unit boundaries, a series of standard code was used to integrate data with different descriptive attributes. 5) The Quaternary and Cretaceous units are characterized by subhorizontal layers. Kriging interpolation was processed to the borehole data in order to estimate data distribution and surface relief for the layers. 6) The Carboniferous and Devonian units are folded. The lack of software support, concerning simulating folds and the shallow depth of boreholes and cross sections constrained the determination of geological boundaries. A strategy of digitalizing the fold surfaces from cross sections and establishing them as inclined strata was followed. The modeling was simply subdivided into two steps. The first step consisted of importing data into the modeling software. The second step involved the construction of subhorizontal layers and folds, which were constrained by geological maps, cross sections and outcrops. The construction of the 3D stratigraphic model is of high relevance to further simulation and application, such as 1) lithological modeling; 2) answering simple questions such as "At which unit is the water table?" and calculating volume of groundwater storage during assessment of aquifer vulnerability to contamination; and 3) assigned by geotechnical properties in grids and providing them for user required application. Acknowledgements: Borehole data is kindly provided by the Municipality of Aachen. References: 1. Janet T. Watt, Jonathan M.G. Glen, David A. John and David A. Ponce (2007) Three-dimensional geologic model of the northern Nevada rift and the Beowawe geothermal system, north-central Nevada. Geosphere, v. 3

  17. Antiferromagnetic spin flop and exchange bias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nogués, J.; Morellon, L.; Leighton, C.; Ibarra, M. R.; Schuller, Ivan K.

    2000-03-01

    The effect of the antiferromagnetic spin flop on exchange bias has been investigated in antiferromagnetic (MnF2)-ferromagnetic (Fe) bilayers. Cooling and measuring in fields larger than the antiferromagnetic spin-flop field, HSF, causes an irreversible reduction of the magnitude of the exchange bias field, HE. This indicates that, contrary to what is normally assumed, the interface spin structure does not remain ``frozen in'' below TN if large enough fields are applied.

  18. 3D measurement for rapid prototyping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albrecht, Peter; Lilienblum, Tilo; Sommerkorn, Gerd; Michaelis, Bernd

    1996-08-01

    Optical 3-D measurement is an interesting approach for rapid prototyping. On one hand it's necessary to get the 3-D data of an object and on the other hand it's necessary to check the manufactured object (quality checking). Optical 3-D measurement can realize both. Classical 3-D measurement procedures based on photogrammetry cause systematic errors at strongly curved surfaces or steps in surfaces. One possibility to reduce these errors is to calculate the 3-D coordinates from several successively taken images. Thus it's possible to get higher spatial resolution and to reduce the systematic errors at 'problem surfaces.' Another possibility is to process the measurement values by neural networks. A modified associative memory smoothes and corrects the calculated 3-D coordinates using a-priori knowledge about the measurement object.

  19. 3-D analysis of grain selection process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arao, Tomoka; Esaka, Hisao; Shinozuka, Kei

    2012-07-01

    It is known that the grain selection plays an important role in the manufacturing process for turbine blades. There are some analytical or numerical models to treat the grain selection. However, the detailed mechanism of grain selection in 3-D is still uncertain. Therefore, an experimental research work using Al-Cu alloy has been carried out in order to understand the grain selection in 3-D.A mold made by Al2O3 was heated to 600 °C ( = liquids temperature of the alloy) and was set on a water-colded copper chill plate. Molten Al-20 wt%Cu alloy was cast into the mold and unidirectional solidified ingot was prepared. The size of ingot was approximately phi25×65H mm. To obtain the thermal history, 4 thermocouples were placed in the mold. It is confirmed that the alloy solidified unidirectionally from bottom to top. Solidified structure on a longitudinal cross section was observed and unidirectional solidification up to 40 mm was ensured. EBSD analysis has been performed on horizontal cross section at an interval of ca.200 μm. These observations were carried out 7-5 mm from the bottom surface. Crystallographic orientation of primary Al phase and size of solidified grains were characterized. A large solidified grain, the crystallographic orientation of which is approximately <101> along heat flow direction, is observed near the lowest cross section. The area of <101> grain decreased as solidification proceeded. On the other hand, it is found that the area of <001> grain increased.

  20. Antiferromagnetism and superconductivity in the half-Heusler semimetal HoPdBi.

    PubMed

    Pavlosiuk, Orest; Kaczorowski, Dariusz; Fabreges, Xavier; Gukasov, Arsen; Wiśniewski, Piotr

    2016-01-05

    We observed the coexistence of superconductivity and antiferromagnetic order in the single-crystalline ternary pnictide HoPdBi, a plausible topological semimetal. The compound orders antiferromagnetically at TN = 1.9 K and exhibits superconductivity below Tc = 0.7 K, which was confirmed by magnetic, electrical transport and specific heat measurements. The specific heat shows anomalies corresponding to antiferromagnetic ordering transition and crystalline field effect, but not to superconducting transition. Single-crystal neutron diffraction indicates that the antiferromagnetic structure is characterized by the propagation vector. Temperature variation of the electrical resistivity reveals two parallel conducting channels of semiconducting and metallic character. In weak magnetic fields, the magnetoresistance exhibits weak antilocalization effect, while in strong fields and temperatures below 50 K it is large and negative. At temperatures below 7 K Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations with two frequencies appear in the resistivity. These oscillations have non-trivial Berry phase, which is a distinguished feature of Dirac fermions.

  1. Photorefractive Polymers for Updateable 3D Displays

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-02-24

    Final Performance Report 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 01-01-2007 to 11-30-2009 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Photorefractive Polymers for Updateable 3D ...ABSTRACT During the tenure of this project a large area updateable 3D color display has been developed for the first time using a new co-polymer...photorefractive polymers have been demonstrated. Moreover, a 6 inch × 6 inch sample was fabricated demonstrating the feasibility of making large area 3D

  2. 3D carotid plaque MR Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Dennis L.

    2015-01-01

    SYNOPSIS There has been significant progress made in 3D carotid plaque magnetic resonance imaging techniques in recent years. 3D plaque imaging clearly represents the future in clinical use. With effective flow suppression techniques, choices of different contrast weighting acquisitions, and time-efficient imaging approaches, 3D plaque imaging offers flexible imaging plane and view angle analysis, large coverage, multi-vascular beds capability, and even can be used in fast screening. PMID:26610656

  3. 3-D Extensions for Trustworthy Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    3- D Extensions for Trustworthy Systems (Invited Paper) Ted Huffmire∗, Timothy Levin∗, Cynthia Irvine∗, Ryan Kastner† and Timothy Sherwood...address these problems, we propose an approach to trustworthy system development based on 3- D integration, an emerging chip fabrication technique in...which two or more integrated circuit dies are fabricated individually and then combined into a single stack using vertical conductive posts. With 3- D

  4. Hardware Trust Implications of 3-D Integration

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-01

    enhancing a commod- ity processor with a variety of security functions. This paper examines the 3-D design approach and provides an analysis concluding...of key components. The question addressed by this paper is, “Can a 3-D control plane provide useful secure services when it is conjoined with an...untrust- worthy computation plane?” Design-level investigation of this question yields a definite yes. This paper explores 3- D applications and their

  5. Digital holography and 3-D imaging.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Partha; Barbastathis, George; Kim, Myung; Kukhtarev, Nickolai

    2011-03-01

    This feature issue on Digital Holography and 3-D Imaging comprises 15 papers on digital holographic techniques and applications, computer-generated holography and encryption techniques, and 3-D display. It is hoped that future work in the area leads to innovative applications of digital holography and 3-D imaging to biology and sensing, and to the development of novel nonlinear dynamic digital holographic techniques.

  6. Magnetic structure and orbital ordering in tetragonal and monoclinic KCrF(3) from first-principles calculations.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yuanhui; Hao, Xianfeng; Lv, Minfeng; Wu, Zhijian; Zhou, Defeng; Meng, Jian

    2008-04-28

    KCrF(3) has been systematically investigated by using the full-potential linearized augmented plane wave plus local orbital method within the generalized gradient approximation and the local spin density approximation plus the on-site Coulomb repulsion approach. The total energies for ferromagnetic and three different antiferromagnetic configurations are calculated in the high-temperature tetragonal and low-temperature monoclinic phases, respectively. It reveals that the ground state is the A-type antiferromagnetic in both phases. Furthermore, the ground states of the two phases are found to be Mott-Hubbard insulators with the G-type orbital ordering pattern. In addition, our calculations show the staggered orbital ordering of the 3d(x(2) ) and 3d(y(2) ) orbitals for the tetragonal phase and the 3d(z(2) ) and 3d(x(2) ) orbitals for the monoclinic phase, which is in agreement with the available data. More importantly, the relationship between magnetic structure and orbital ordering as well as the origin of the orbital ordering are analyzed in detail.

  7. Dimensional accuracy of 3D printed vertebra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogden, Kent; Ordway, Nathaniel; Diallo, Dalanda; Tillapaugh-Fay, Gwen; Aslan, Can

    2014-03-01

    3D printer applications in the biomedical sciences and medical imaging are expanding and will have an increasing impact on the practice of medicine. Orthopedic and reconstructive surgery has been an obvious area for development of 3D printer applications as the segmentation of bony anatomy to generate printable models is relatively straightforward. There are important issues that should be addressed when using 3D printed models for applications that may affect patient care; in particular the dimensional accuracy of the printed parts needs to be high to avoid poor decisions being made prior to surgery or therapeutic procedures. In this work, the dimensional accuracy of 3D printed vertebral bodies derived from CT data for a cadaver spine is compared with direct measurements on the ex-vivo vertebra and with measurements made on the 3D rendered vertebra using commercial 3D image processing software. The vertebra was printed on a consumer grade 3D printer using an additive print process using PLA (polylactic acid) filament. Measurements were made for 15 different anatomic features of the vertebral body, including vertebral body height, endplate width and depth, pedicle height and width, and spinal canal width and depth, among others. It is shown that for the segmentation and printing process used, the results of measurements made on the 3D printed vertebral body are substantially the same as those produced by direct measurement on the vertebra and measurements made on the 3D rendered vertebra.

  8. FastScript3D - A Companion to Java 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koenig, Patti

    2005-01-01

    FastScript3D is a computer program, written in the Java 3D(TM) programming language, that establishes an alternative language that helps users who lack expertise in Java 3D to use Java 3D for constructing three-dimensional (3D)-appearing graphics. The FastScript3D language provides a set of simple, intuitive, one-line text-string commands for creating, controlling, and animating 3D models. The first word in a string is the name of a command; the rest of the string contains the data arguments for the command. The commands can also be used as an aid to learning Java 3D. Developers can extend the language by adding custom text-string commands. The commands can define new 3D objects or load representations of 3D objects from files in formats compatible with such other software systems as X3D. The text strings can be easily integrated into other languages. FastScript3D facilitates communication between scripting languages [which enable programming of hyper-text markup language (HTML) documents to interact with users] and Java 3D. The FastScript3D language can be extended and customized on both the scripting side and the Java 3D side.

  9. 3D Printing in Instructional Settings: Identifying a Curricular Hierarchy of Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Abbie

    2015-01-01

    A report of a year-long study in which the author engaged in 3D printing activity in order to determine how to facilitate and support skill building, concept attainment, and increased confidence with its use among teachers. Use of 3D printing tools and their applications in instructional settings are discussed. A hierarchy of 3D printing…

  10. 3D shock-bubble interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hejazialhosseini, Babak; Rossinelli, Diego; Koumoutsakos, Petros

    2013-09-01

    We present a simulation for the interactions of shockwaves with light spherical density inhomogeneities. Euler equations for two-phase compressible flows are solved in a 3D uniform resolution finite volume based solver using 5th order WENO reconstructions of the primitive quantities, HLL-type numerical fluxes and 3rd order TVD time stepping scheme. In this study, a normal Mach 3 shockwave in air is directed at a helium bubble with an interface Atwood number of -0.76. We employ 4 billion cells on a supercomputing cluster and demonstrate the development of this flow until relatively late times. Shock passage compresses the bubble and deposits baroclinic vorticity on the interface. Initial distribution of the vorticity and compressions lead to the formation of an air jet, interface roll-ups and the formation of a long lasting vortical core, the white core. Compressed upstream of the bubble turns into a mixing zone and as the vortex ring distances from this mixing zone, a plume-shaped region is formed and sustained. Close observations have been reported in previous experimental works. The visualization is presented in a fluid dynamics video.

  11. Impact of orthogonal exchange coupling on magnetic anisotropy in antiferromagnetic oxides/ferromagnetic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuświk, Piotr; Lana Gastelois, Pedro; Głowiński, Hubert; Przybylski, Marek; Kirschner, Jürgen

    2016-10-01

    The influence of interface exchange coupling on magnetic anisotropy in the antiferromagnetic oxide/Ni system is investigated. We show how interfacial exchange coupling can be employed not only to pin the magnetization of the ferromagnetic layer but also to support magnetic anisotropy to orient the easy magnetization axis perpendicular to the film plane. The fact that this effect is only observed below the Néel temperature of all investigated antiferromagnetic oxides with significantly different magnetocrystalline anisotropies gives evidence that antiferromagnetic ordering is a source of the additional contribution to the perpendicular effective magnetic anisotropy.

  12. Impact of orthogonal exchange coupling on magnetic anisotropy in antiferromagnetic oxides/ferromagnetic systems.

    PubMed

    Kuświk, Piotr; Gastelois, Pedro Lana; Głowiński, Hubert; Przybylski, Marek; Kirschner, Jürgen

    2016-10-26

    The influence of interface exchange coupling on magnetic anisotropy in the antiferromagnetic oxide/Ni system is investigated. We show how interfacial exchange coupling can be employed not only to pin the magnetization of the ferromagnetic layer but also to support magnetic anisotropy to orient the easy magnetization axis perpendicular to the film plane. The fact that this effect is only observed below the Néel temperature of all investigated antiferromagnetic oxides with significantly different magnetocrystalline anisotropies gives evidence that antiferromagnetic ordering is a source of the additional contribution to the perpendicular effective magnetic anisotropy.

  13. Imaging Current-Induced Switching of Antiferromagnetic Domains in CuMnAs.

    PubMed

    Grzybowski, M J; Wadley, P; Edmonds, K W; Beardsley, R; Hills, V; Campion, R P; Gallagher, B L; Chauhan, J S; Novak, V; Jungwirth, T; Maccherozzi, F; Dhesi, S S

    2017-02-03

    The magnetic order in antiferromagnetic materials is hard to control with external magnetic fields. Using x-ray magnetic linear dichroism microscopy, we show that staggered effective fields generated by electrical current can induce modification of the antiferromagnetic domain structure in microdevices fabricated from a tetragonal CuMnAs thin film. A clear correlation between the average domain orientation and the anisotropy of the electrical resistance is demonstrated, with both showing reproducible switching in response to orthogonally applied current pulses. However, the behavior is inhomogeneous at the submicron level, highlighting the complex nature of the switching process in multidomain antiferromagnetic films.

  14. Ultrafast spin dynamics and switching via spin transfer torque in antiferromagnets with weak ferromagnetism

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae Heon; Grünberg, Peter; Han, Song Hee; Cho, Beongki

    2016-01-01

    The spin-torque driven dynamics of antiferromagnets with Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction (DMI) were investigated based on the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert-Slonczewski equation with antiferromagnetic and ferromagnetic order parameters (l and m, respectively). We demonstrate that antiferromagnets including DMI can be described by a 2-dimensional pendulum model of l. Because m is coupled with l, together with DMI and exchange energy, close examination of m provides fundamental understanding of its dynamics in linear and nonlinear regimes. Furthermore, we discuss magnetization reversal as a function of DMI and anisotropy energy induced by a spin current pulse. PMID:27713522

  15. Ultrafast spin dynamics and switching via spin transfer torque in antiferromagnets with weak ferromagnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Tae Heon; Grünberg, Peter; Han, Song Hee; Cho, Beongki

    2016-10-01

    The spin-torque driven dynamics of antiferromagnets with Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction (DMI) were investigated based on the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert-Slonczewski equation with antiferromagnetic and ferromagnetic order parameters (l and m, respectively). We demonstrate that antiferromagnets including DMI can be described by a 2-dimensional pendulum model of l. Because m is coupled with l, together with DMI and exchange energy, close examination of m provides fundamental understanding of its dynamics in linear and nonlinear regimes. Furthermore, we discuss magnetization reversal as a function of DMI and anisotropy energy induced by a spin current pulse.

  16. Imaging Current-Induced Switching of Antiferromagnetic Domains in CuMnAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grzybowski, M. J.; Wadley, P.; Edmonds, K. W.; Beardsley, R.; Hills, V.; Campion, R. P.; Gallagher, B. L.; Chauhan, J. S.; Novak, V.; Jungwirth, T.; Maccherozzi, F.; Dhesi, S. S.

    2017-02-01

    The magnetic order in antiferromagnetic materials is hard to control with external magnetic fields. Using x-ray magnetic linear dichroism microscopy, we show that staggered effective fields generated by electrical current can induce modification of the antiferromagnetic domain structure in microdevices fabricated from a tetragonal CuMnAs thin film. A clear correlation between the average domain orientation and the anisotropy of the electrical resistance is demonstrated, with both showing reproducible switching in response to orthogonally applied current pulses. However, the behavior is inhomogeneous at the submicron level, highlighting the complex nature of the switching process in multidomain antiferromagnetic films.

  17. Visual Semantic Based 3D Video Retrieval System Using HDFS

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, C.Ranjith; Suguna, S.

    2016-01-01

    This paper brings out a neoteric frame of reference for visual semantic based 3d video search and retrieval applications. Newfangled 3D retrieval application spotlight on shape analysis like object matching, classification and retrieval not only sticking up entirely with video retrieval. In this ambit, we delve into 3D-CBVR (Content Based Video Retrieval) concept for the first time. For this purpose, we intent to hitch on BOVW and Mapreduce in 3D framework. Instead of conventional shape based local descriptors, we tried to coalesce shape, color and texture for feature extraction. For this purpose, we have used combination of geometric & topological features for shape and 3D co-occurrence matrix for color and texture. After thriving extraction of local descriptors, TB-PCT (Threshold Based- Predictive Clustering Tree) algorithm is used to generate visual codebook and histogram is produced. Further, matching is performed using soft weighting scheme with L2 distance function. As a final step, retrieved results are ranked according to the Index value and acknowledged to the user as a feedback .In order to handle prodigious amount of data and Efficacious retrieval, we have incorporated HDFS in our Intellection. Using 3D video dataset, we future the performance of our proposed system which can pan out that the proposed work gives meticulous result and also reduce the time intricacy. PMID:28003793

  18. Visual Semantic Based 3D Video Retrieval System Using HDFS.

    PubMed

    Kumar, C Ranjith; Suguna, S

    2016-08-01

    This paper brings out a neoteric frame of reference for visual semantic based 3d video search and retrieval applications. Newfangled 3D retrieval application spotlight on shape analysis like object matching, classification and retrieval not only sticking up entirely with video retrieval. In this ambit, we delve into 3D-CBVR (Content Based Video Retrieval) concept for the first time. For this purpose, we intent to hitch on BOVW and Mapreduce in 3D framework. Instead of conventional shape based local descriptors, we tried to coalesce shape, color and texture for feature extraction. For this purpose, we have used combination of geometric & topological features for shape and 3D co-occurrence matrix for color and texture. After thriving extraction of local descriptors, TB-PCT (Threshold Based- Predictive Clustering Tree) algorithm is used to generate visual codebook and histogram is produced. Further, matching is performed using soft weighting scheme with L2 distance function. As a final step, retrieved results are ranked according to the Index value and acknowledged to the user as a feedback .In order to handle prodigious amount of data and Efficacious retrieval, we have incorporated HDFS in our Intellection. Using 3D video dataset, we future the performance of our proposed system which can pan out that the proposed work gives meticulous result and also reduce the time intricacy.

  19. Phase Sensitive Cueing for 3D Objects in Overhead Images

    SciTech Connect

    Paglieroni, D

    2005-02-04

    Locating specific 3D objects in overhead images is an important problem in many remote sensing applications. 3D objects may contain either one connected component or multiple disconnected components. Solutions must accommodate images acquired with diverse sensors at various times of the day, in various seasons of the year, or under various weather conditions. Moreover, the physical manifestation of a 3D object with fixed physical dimensions in an overhead image is highly dependent on object physical dimensions, object position/orientation, image spatial resolution, and imaging geometry (e.g., obliqueness). This paper describes a two-stage computer-assisted approach for locating 3D objects in overhead images. In the matching stage, the computer matches models of 3D objects to overhead images. The strongest degree of match over all object orientations is computed at each pixel. Unambiguous local maxima in the degree of match as a function of pixel location are then found. In the cueing stage, the computer sorts image thumbnails in descending order of figure-of-merit and presents them to human analysts for visual inspection and interpretation. The figure-of-merit associated with an image thumbnail is computed from the degrees of match to a 3D object model associated with unambiguous local maxima that lie within the thumbnail. This form of computer assistance is invaluable when most of the relevant thumbnails are highly ranked, and the amount of inspection time needed is much less for the highly ranked thumbnails than for images as a whole.

  20. The Feasibility of 3d Point Cloud Generation from Smartphones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alsubaie, N.; El-Sheimy, N.

    2016-06-01

    This paper proposes a new technique for increasing the accuracy of direct geo-referenced image-based 3D point cloud generated from low-cost sensors in smartphones. The smartphone's motion sensors are used to directly acquire the Exterior Orientation Parameters (EOPs) of the captured images. These EOPs, along with the Interior Orientation Parameters (IOPs) of the camera/ phone, are used to reconstruct the image-based 3D point cloud. However, because smartphone motion sensors suffer from poor GPS accuracy, accumulated drift and high signal noise, inaccurate 3D mapping solutions often result. Therefore, horizontal and vertical linear features, visible in each image, are extracted and used as constraints in the bundle adjustment procedure. These constraints correct the relative position and orientation of the 3D mapping solution. Once the enhanced EOPs are estimated, the semi-global matching algorithm (SGM) is used to generate the image-based dense 3D point cloud. Statistical analysis and assessment are implemented herein, in order to demonstrate the feasibility of 3D point cloud generation from the consumer-grade sensors in smartphones.

  1. Person identification by using 3D palmprint data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Xuefei; Huang, Shujun; Gao, Nan; Zhang, Zonghua

    2016-11-01

    Person identification based on biometrics is drawing more and more attentions in identity and information safety. This paper presents a biometric system to identify person using 3D palmprint data, including a non-contact system capturing 3D palmprint quickly and a method identifying 3D palmprint fast. In order to reduce the effect of slight shaking of palm on the data accuracy, a DLP (Digital Light Processing) projector is utilized to trigger a CCD camera based on structured-light and triangulation measurement and 3D palmprint data could be gathered within 1 second. Using the obtained database and the PolyU 3D palmprint database, feature extraction and matching method is presented based on MCI (Mean Curvature Image), Gabor filter and binary code list. Experimental results show that the proposed method can identify a person within 240 ms in the case of 4000 samples. Compared with the traditional 3D palmprint recognition methods, the proposed method has high accuracy, low EER (Equal Error Rate), small storage space, and fast identification speed.

  2. 3D cinema to 3DTV content adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasakethu, L.; Blondé, L.; Doyen, D.; Huynh-Thu, Q.

    2012-03-01

    3D cinema and 3DTV have grown in popularity in recent years. Filmmakers have a significant opportunity in front of them given the recent success of 3D films. In this paper we investigate whether this opportunity could be extended to the home in a meaningful way. "3D" perceived from viewing stereoscopic content depends on the viewing geometry. This implies that the stereoscopic-3D content should be captured for a specific viewing geometry in order to provide a satisfactory 3D experience. However, although it would be possible, it is clearly not viable, to produce and transmit multiple streams of the same content for different screen sizes. In this study to solve the above problem, we analyze the performance of six different disparity-based transformation techniques, which could be used for cinema-to-3DTV content conversion. Subjective tests are performed to evaluate the effectiveness of the algorithms in terms of depth effect, visual comfort and overall 3D quality. The resultant 3DTV experience is also compared to that of cinema. We show that by applying the proper transformation technique on the content originally captured for cinema, it is possible to enhance the 3DTV experience. The selection of the appropriate transformation is highly dependent on the content characteristics.

  3. 3D ultrafast ultrasound imaging in vivo.

    PubMed

    Provost, Jean; Papadacci, Clement; Arango, Juan Esteban; Imbault, Marion; Fink, Mathias; Gennisson, Jean-Luc; Tanter, Mickael; Pernot, Mathieu

    2014-10-07

    Very high frame rate ultrasound imaging has recently allowed for the extension of the applications of echography to new fields of study such as the functional imaging of the brain, cardiac electrophysiology, and the quantitative imaging of the intrinsic mechanical properties of tumors, to name a few, non-invasively and in real time. In this study, we present the first implementation of Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging in 3D based on the use of either diverging or plane waves emanating from a sparse virtual array located behind the probe. It achieves high contrast and resolution while maintaining imaging rates of thousands of volumes per second. A customized portable ultrasound system was developed to sample 1024 independent channels and to drive a 32  ×  32 matrix-array probe. Its ability to track in 3D transient phenomena occurring in the millisecond range within a single ultrafast acquisition was demonstrated for 3D Shear-Wave Imaging, 3D Ultrafast Doppler Imaging, and, finally, 3D Ultrafast combined Tissue and Flow Doppler Imaging. The propagation of shear waves was tracked in a phantom and used to characterize its stiffness. 3D Ultrafast Doppler was used to obtain 3D maps of Pulsed Doppler, Color Doppler, and Power Doppler quantities in a single acquisition and revealed, at thousands of volumes per second, the complex 3D flow patterns occurring in the ventricles of the human heart during an entire cardiac cycle, as well as the 3D in vivo interaction of blood flow and wall motion during the pulse wave in the carotid at the bifurcation. This study demonstrates the potential of 3D Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging for the 3D mapping of stiffness, tissue motion, and flow in humans in vivo and promises new clinical applications of ultrasound with reduced intra--and inter-observer variability.

  4. 3D ultrafast ultrasound imaging in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Provost, Jean; Papadacci, Clement; Esteban Arango, Juan; Imbault, Marion; Fink, Mathias; Gennisson, Jean-Luc; Tanter, Mickael; Pernot, Mathieu

    2014-10-01

    Very high frame rate ultrasound imaging has recently allowed for the extension of the applications of echography to new fields of study such as the functional imaging of the brain, cardiac electrophysiology, and the quantitative imaging of the intrinsic mechanical properties of tumors, to name a few, non-invasively and in real time. In this study, we present the first implementation of Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging in 3D based on the use of either diverging or plane waves emanating from a sparse virtual array located behind the probe. It achieves high contrast and resolution while maintaining imaging rates of thousands of volumes per second. A customized portable ultrasound system was developed to sample 1024 independent channels and to drive a 32  ×  32 matrix-array probe. Its ability to track in 3D transient phenomena occurring in the millisecond range within a single ultrafast acquisition was demonstrated for 3D Shear-Wave Imaging, 3D Ultrafast Doppler Imaging, and, finally, 3D Ultrafast combined Tissue and Flow Doppler Imaging. The propagation of shear waves was tracked in a phantom and used to characterize its stiffness. 3D Ultrafast Doppler was used to obtain 3D maps of Pulsed Doppler, Color Doppler, and Power Doppler quantities in a single acquisition and revealed, at thousands of volumes per second, the complex 3D flow patterns occurring in the ventricles of the human heart during an entire cardiac cycle, as well as the 3D in vivo interaction of blood flow and wall motion during the pulse wave in the carotid at the bifurcation. This study demonstrates the potential of 3D Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging for the 3D mapping of stiffness, tissue motion, and flow in humans in vivo and promises new clinical applications of ultrasound with reduced intra—and inter-observer variability.

  5. An aerial 3D printing test mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirsch, Michael; McGuire, Thomas; Parsons, Michael; Leake, Skye; Straub, Jeremy

    2016-05-01

    This paper provides an overview of an aerial 3D printing technology, its development and its testing. This technology is potentially useful in its own right. In addition, this work advances the development of a related in-space 3D printing technology. A series of aerial 3D printing test missions, used to test the aerial printing technology, are discussed. Through completing these test missions, the design for an in-space 3D printer may be advanced. The current design for the in-space 3D printer involves focusing thermal energy to heat an extrusion head and allow for the extrusion of molten print material. Plastics can be used as well as composites including metal, allowing for the extrusion of conductive material. A variety of experiments will be used to test this initial 3D printer design. High altitude balloons will be used to test the effects of microgravity on 3D printing, as well as parabolic flight tests. Zero pressure balloons can be used to test the effect of long 3D printing missions subjected to low temperatures. Vacuum chambers will be used to test 3D printing in a vacuum environment. The results will be used to adapt a current prototype of an in-space 3D printer. Then, a small scale prototype can be sent into low-Earth orbit as a 3-U cube satellite. With the ability to 3D print in space demonstrated, future missions can launch production hardware through which the sustainability and durability of structures in space will be greatly improved.

  6. Antiferromagnet-induced perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in ferromagnetic/antiferromagnetic/ferromagnetic trilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Bo-Yao; Lin, Po-Han; Tsai, Ming-Shian; Shih, Chun-Wei; Lee, Meng-Ju; Huang, Chun-Wei; Jih, Nae-Yeou; Wei, Der-Hsin

    2016-08-01

    This study demonstrates the effect of antiferromagnet-induced perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) on ferromagnetic/antiferromagnetic/ferromagnetic (FM/AFM/FM) trilayers and reveals its interplay with a long-range interlayer coupling between separated FM layers. In epitaxially grown 12 monolayer (ML) Ni/Co/Mn/5 ML Co/Cu(001) films, magnetic hysteresis loops and element-resolved magnetic domain imaging showed that the magnetization direction of the top layers of 12 ML Ni/Co films could be changed from the in-plane direction to the perpendicular direction, when the thickness of the Mn films (tMn) was greater than a critical value close to the thickness threshold associated with the onset of AFM ordering (tMn=3.5 ML). The top FM layers exhibited a significantly enhanced PMA when tMn increased further, and this enhancement can be attributed to a strengthened AFM ordering of the volume moments of the Mn films, as evidenced by the presence of induced domain frustration. By contrast, the long-range interlayer coupling presented clear effects only when tMn was at a lower coverage.

  7. Anomalous surface segregation behaviour of some 3d elements in ferromagnetic iron.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Michèle; Gupta, Raju P

    2013-10-16

    The segregation of Cr in Fe is known to be anomalous since the barrier for surface segregation of Cr is not determined by the topmost surface layer, as one would expect, but rather by the subsurface layer where the energy of segregation is much larger and endothermic. This has been attributed to a complex interaction involving the antiferromagnetism of Cr and the ferromagnetism of Fe. We report in this paper the results of our ab initio electronic structure calculations on the segregation behaviour of all the 3d elements on the (1 0 0) surface of ferromagnetic iron in the hope of better understanding this phenomenon. We find a similar behaviour for the segregation of the next antiferromagnetic 3d element Mn in Fe, where the subsurface layer is also found to block the segregation of Mn to the surface. On the other hand, ferromagnetic Co exhibits a normal segregation behaviour. The elements Sc, Cu and Ni do not form solid solutions with ferromagnetic iron. The early elements Ti and V are non-magnetic in their metallic states, but are strongly polarized by Fe, and develop magnetic moments which are aligned antiferromagnetically to those of Fe atoms. While the subsurface layer blocks the segregation of Ti to the surface, no blocking behaviour is found for the segregation of V. The segregation behaviour of all these elements is strongly correlated with the displacement of the solute atoms on the surface of Fe. The elements showing anomalous segregation behaviour are all displaced upwards on the surface, while those showing normal segregation are pulled inwards. These results indicate that the antiferromagnetism of the segregating element plays the key role in the anomalous segregation behaviour in Fe.

  8. Integration of real-time 3D image acquisition and multiview 3D display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhaoxing; Geng, Zheng; Li, Tuotuo; Li, Wei; Wang, Jingyi; Liu, Yongchun

    2014-03-01

    Seamless integration of 3D acquisition and 3D display systems offers enhanced experience in 3D visualization of the real world objects or scenes. The vivid representation of captured 3D objects displayed on a glasses-free 3D display screen could bring the realistic viewing experience to viewers as if they are viewing real-world scene. Although the technologies in 3D acquisition and 3D display have advanced rapidly in recent years, effort is lacking in studying the seamless integration of these two different aspects of 3D technologies. In this paper, we describe our recent progress on integrating a light-field 3D acquisition system and an autostereoscopic multiview 3D display for real-time light field capture and display. This paper focuses on both the architecture design and the implementation of the hardware and the software of this integrated 3D system. A prototype of the integrated 3D system is built to demonstrate the real-time 3D acquisition and 3D display capability of our proposed system.

  9. Immersive 3D Geovisualization in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philips, Andrea; Walz, Ariane; Bergner, Andreas; Graeff, Thomas; Heistermann, Maik; Kienzler, Sarah; Korup, Oliver; Lipp, Torsten; Schwanghart, Wolfgang; Zeilinger, Gerold

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we investigate how immersive 3D geovisualization can be used in higher education. Based on MacEachren and Kraak's geovisualization cube, we examine the usage of immersive 3D geovisualization and its usefulness in a research-based learning module on flood risk, called GEOSimulator. Results of a survey among participating students…

  10. A 3D Geostatistical Mapping Tool

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, W. W.; Stevenson, Graig; Patel, Ketan; Wang, Jun

    1999-02-09

    This software provides accurate 3D reservoir modeling tools and high quality 3D graphics for PC platforms enabling engineers and geologists to better comprehend reservoirs and consequently improve their decisions. The mapping algorithms are fractals, kriging, sequential guassian simulation, and three nearest neighbor methods.

  11. 3D Printing. What's the Harm?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Love, Tyler S.; Roy, Ken

    2016-01-01

    Health concerns from 3D printing were first documented by Stephens, Azimi, Orch, and Ramos (2013), who found that commercially available 3D printers were producing hazardous levels of ultrafine particles (UFPs) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) when plastic materials were melted through the extruder. UFPs are particles less than 100 nanometers…

  12. Topology dictionary for 3D video understanding.

    PubMed

    Tung, Tony; Matsuyama, Takashi

    2012-08-01

    This paper presents a novel approach that achieves 3D video understanding. 3D video consists of a stream of 3D models of subjects in motion. The acquisition of long sequences requires large storage space (2 GB for 1 min). Moreover, it is tedious to browse data sets and extract meaningful information. We propose the topology dictionary to encode and describe 3D video content. The model consists of a topology-based shape descriptor dictionary which can be generated from either extracted patterns or training sequences. The model relies on 1) topology description and classification using Reeb graphs, and 2) a Markov motion graph to represent topology change states. We show that the use of Reeb graphs as the high-level topology descriptor is relevant. It allows the dictionary to automatically model complex sequences, whereas other strategies would require prior knowledge on the shape and topology of the captured subjects. Our approach serves to encode 3D video sequences, and can be applied for content-based description and summarization of 3D video sequences. Furthermore, topology class labeling during a learning process enables the system to perform content-based event recognition. Experiments were carried out on various 3D videos. We showcase an application for 3D video progressive summarization using the topology dictionary.

  13. 3D elastic control for mobile devices.

    PubMed

    Hachet, Martin; Pouderoux, Joachim; Guitton, Pascal

    2008-01-01

    To increase the input space of mobile devices, the authors developed a proof-of-concept 3D elastic controller that easily adapts to mobile devices. This embedded device improves the completion of high-level interaction tasks such as visualization of large documents and navigation in 3D environments. It also opens new directions for tomorrow's mobile applications.

  14. 3D Printing of Molecular Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Adam; Olson, Arthur

    2016-01-01

    Physical molecular models have played a valuable role in our understanding of the invisible nano-scale world. We discuss 3D printing and its use in producing models of the molecules of life. Complex biomolecular models, produced from 3D printed parts, can demonstrate characteristics of molecular structure and function, such as viral self-assembly,…

  15. 3D Printed Block Copolymer Nanostructures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scalfani, Vincent F.; Turner, C. Heath; Rupar, Paul A.; Jenkins, Alexander H.; Bara, Jason E.

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of 3D printing has dramatically advanced the availability of tangible molecular and extended solid models. Interestingly, there are few nanostructure models available both commercially and through other do-it-yourself approaches such as 3D printing. This is unfortunate given the importance of nanotechnology in science today. In this…

  16. Infrastructure for 3D Imaging Test Bed

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-05-11

    analysis. (c.) Real time detection & analysis of human gait: using a video camera we capture walking human silhouette for pattern modeling and gait ... analysis . Fig. 5 shows the scanning result result that is fed into a Geo-magic software tool for 3D meshing. Fig. 5: 3D scanning result In

  17. Wow! 3D Content Awakens the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Dan

    2010-01-01

    From her first encounter with stereoscopic 3D technology designed for classroom instruction, Megan Timme, principal at Hamilton Park Pacesetter Magnet School in Dallas, sensed it could be transformative. Last spring, when she began pilot-testing 3D content in her third-, fourth- and fifth-grade classrooms, Timme wasn't disappointed. Students…

  18. Stereo 3-D Vision in Teaching Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zabunov, Svetoslav

    2012-01-01

    Stereo 3-D vision is a technology used to present images on a flat surface (screen, paper, etc.) and at the same time to create the notion of three-dimensional spatial perception of the viewed scene. A great number of physical processes are much better understood when viewed in stereo 3-D vision compared to standard flat 2-D presentation. The…

  19. Pathways for Learning from 3D Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrier, L. Mark; Rab, Saira S.; Rosen, Larry D.; Vasquez, Ludivina; Cheever, Nancy A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to find out if 3D stereoscopic presentation of information in a movie format changes a viewer's experience of the movie content. Four possible pathways from 3D presentation to memory and learning were considered: a direct connection based on cognitive neuroscience research; a connection through "immersion"…

  20. 3D, or Not to Be?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norbury, Keith

    2012-01-01

    It may be too soon for students to be showing up for class with popcorn and gummy bears, but technology similar to that behind the 3D blockbuster movie "Avatar" is slowly finding its way into college classrooms. 3D classroom projectors are taking students on fantastic voyages inside the human body, to the ruins of ancient Greece--even to faraway…