Rezania, Vahid; Tuszynski, Jack
2016-01-01
In this paper, we develop a spatio-temporal modeling approach to describe blood and drug flow, as well as drug uptake and elimination, on an approximation of the liver. Extending on previously developed computational approaches, we generate an approximation of a liver, which consists of a portal and hepatic vein vasculature structure, embedded in the surrounding liver tissue. The vasculature is generated via constrained constructive optimization, and then converted to a spatial grid of a selected grid size. Estimates for surrounding upscaled lobule tissue properties are then presented appropriate to the same grid size. Simulation of fluid flow and drug metabolism (hepatic clearance) are completed using discretized forms of the relevant convective-diffusive-reactive partial differential equations for these processes. This results in a single stage, uniformly consistent method to simulate equations for blood and drug flow, as well as drug metabolism, on a 3D structure representative of a liver. PMID:27649537
Model studies of blood flow in basilar artery with 3D laser Doppler anemometer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Frolov, S. V.; Sindeev, S. V.; Liepsch, D.; Balasso, A.; Proskurin, S. G.; Potlov, A. Y.
2015-03-01
It is proposed an integrated approach to the study of basilar artery blood flow using 3D laser Doppler anemometer for identifying the causes of the formation and development of cerebral aneurysms. Feature of the work is the combined usage of both mathematical modeling and experimental methods. Described the experimental setup and the method of measurement of basilar artery blood flow, carried out in an interdisciplinary laboratory of Hospital Rechts der Isar of Technical University of Munich. The experimental setup used to simulate the blood flow in the basilar artery and to measure blood flow characteristics using 3D laser Doppler anemometer (3D LDA). Described a method of numerical studies carried out in Tambov State Technical University and the Bakoulev Center for Cardiovascular Surgery. Proposed an approach for sharing experimental and numerical methods of research to identify the causes of the basilar artery aneurysms.
Analysis and dynamic 3D visualization of cerebral blood flow combining 3D and 4D MR image sequences
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Forkert, Nils Daniel; Säring, Dennis; Fiehler, Jens; Illies, Till; Möller, Dietmar; Handels, Heinz
2009-02-01
In this paper we present a method for the dynamic visualization of cerebral blood flow. Spatio-temporal 4D magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) image datasets and 3D MRA datasets with high spatial resolution were acquired for the analysis of arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). One of the main tasks is the combination of the information of the 3D and 4D MRA image sequences. Initially, in the 3D MRA dataset the vessel system is segmented and a 3D surface model is generated. Then, temporal intensity curves are analyzed voxelwise in the 4D MRA image sequences. A curve fitting of the temporal intensity curves to a patient individual reference curve is used to extract the bolus arrival times in the 4D MRA sequences. After non-linear registration of both MRA datasets the extracted hemodynamic information is transferred to the surface model where the time points of inflow can be visualized color coded dynamically over time. The dynamic visualizations computed using the curve fitting method for the estimation of the bolus arrival times were rated superior compared to those computed using conventional approaches for bolus arrival time estimation. In summary the procedure suggested allows a dynamic visualization of the individual hemodynamic situation and better understanding during the visual evaluation of cerebral vascular diseases.
Quantification of blood perfusion using 3D power Doppler: an in-vitro flow phantom study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Raine-Fenning, N. J.; Ramnarine, K. V.; Nordin, N. M.; Campbell, B. K.
2004-01-01
Three-dimensional (3D) power Doppler data is increasingly used to assess and quantify blood flow and tissue perfusion. The objective of this study was to assess the validity of common 3D power Doppler vascularity indices by quantification in well characterised in-vitro flow models. A computer driven gear pump was used to circulate a steady flow of a blood mimicking fluid through various well characterised flow phantoms to investigate the effect of the number of flow channels, flow rate, depth dependent tissue attenuation, blood mimic scatter particle concentration and ultrasound settings. 3D Power Doppler data were acquired with a Voluson 530D scanner and 7.5 MHz transvaginal transducer (GE Kretz). Virtual Organ Computer-aided Analysis software (VOCAL) was used to quantify the vascularisation index (VI), flow index (FI) and vascularisation-flow index (VFI). The vascular indices were affected by many factors, some intuitive and some with more complex or unexpected relationships (e.g. VI increased linearly with an increase in flow rate, blood mimic scatter particle concentration and number of flow channels, and had a complex dependence on pulse repetition frequency). Use of standardised settings and appropriate calibration are required in any attempt at relating vascularity indices with flow.
Flow effects of blood constitutive equations in 3D models of vascular anomalies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Neofytou, Panagiotis; Tsangaris, Sokrates
2006-06-01
The effects of different blood rheological models are investigated numerically utilizing two three- dimensional (3D) models of vascular anomalies, namely a stenosis and an abdominal aortic aneurysm model. The employed CFD code incorporates the SIMPLE scheme in conjunction with the finite-volume method with collocated arrangement of variables. The approximation of the convection terms is carried out using the QUICK differencing scheme, whereas the code enables also multi-block computations, which are useful in order to cope with the two-block grid structure of the current computational domain. Three non-Newtonian models are employed, namely the Casson, Power-Law and Quemada models, which have been introduced in the past for modelling the rheological behaviour of blood and cover both the viscous as well as the two-phase character of blood. In view of the haemodynamical mechanisms related to abnormalities in the vascular network and the role of the wall shear stress in initiating and further developing of arterial diseases, the present study focuses on the 3D flow field and in particular on the distribution as well as on both low and high values of the wall shear stress in the vicinity of the anomaly. Finally, a comparison is made between the effects of each rheological model on the aforementioned parameters. Results show marked differences between simulating blood as Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluid and furthermore the Power-Law model exhibits different behaviour in all cases compared to the other models whereas Quemada and Casson models exhibit similar behaviour in the case of the stenosis but different behaviour in the case of the aneurysm.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carlsohn, Matthias F.; Kemmling, André; Petersen, Arne; Wietzke, Lennart
2016-04-01
Cerebral aneurysms require endovascular treatment to eliminate potentially lethal hemorrhagic rupture by hemostasis of blood flow within the aneurysm. Devices (e.g. coils and flow diverters) promote homeostasis, however, measurement of blood flow within an aneurysm or cerebral vessel before and after device placement on a microscopic level has not been possible so far. This would allow better individualized treatment planning and improve manufacture design of devices. For experimental analysis, direct measurement of real-time microscopic cerebrovascular flow in micro-structures may be an alternative to computed flow simulations. An application of microscopic aneurysm flow measurement on a regular basis to empirically assess a high number of different anatomic shapes and the corresponding effect of different devices would require a fast and reliable method at low cost with high throughout assessment. Transparent three dimensional 3D models of brain vessels and aneurysms may be used for microscopic flow measurements by particle image velocimetry (PIV), however, up to now the size of structures has set the limits for conventional 3D-imaging camera set-ups. On line flow assessment requires additional computational power to cope with the processing large amounts of data generated by sequences of multi-view stereo images, e.g. generated by a light field camera capturing the 3D information by plenoptic imaging of complex flow processes. Recently, a fast and low cost workflow for producing patient specific three dimensional models of cerebral arteries has been established by stereo-lithographic (SLA) 3D printing. These 3D arterial models are transparent an exhibit a replication precision within a submillimeter range required for accurate flow measurements under physiological conditions. We therefore test the feasibility of microscopic flow measurements by PIV analysis using a plenoptic camera system capturing light field image sequences. Averaging across a sequence of
MRI-based aortic blood flow model in 3D ballistocardiography.
Lejeune, L; Prisk, G K; Nonclercq, A; Migeotte, P-F
2015-01-01
Ballistocardiography (BCG) is a non-invasive technique which measures the acceleration of a body induced by cardiovascular activity, namely the force exerted by the beating heart. A one dimensional aortic flow model based on the transmission lines theory is developped and applied to the simulation of three dimensional BCG. A four-element Windkessel model is used to generate the pressure-wave. Using transverse MRI slices of a human subject, a reconstruction of the aorta allows the extraction of parameters used to relate the local change in mass of the 1D flow model to 3D acceleration BCG. Simulated BCG curves are then compared qualitatively with the ensemble average curves of the same subject recorded in sustained microgravity. Confirming previous studies, the main features of the y-axis are well simulated. The simulated z-axis, never attempted before, shows important similarities. The simulated x-axis is less faithful and suggests the presence of reflections.
Phatharacorn, Prateep; Chiangga, Surasak; Yupapin, Preecha
2016-11-20
The whispering gallery mode (WGM) is generated by light propagating within a nonlinear micro-ring resonator, which is modeled and made by an InGaAsP/InP material, and called a Panda ring resonator. An imaging probe can also be formed by the micro-conjugate mirror function for the appropriate Panda ring parameter control. The 3D WGM probe can be generated and used for a 3D sensor head and imaging probe. The analytical details and simulation results are given, in which the simulation results are obtained by using the MATLAB and Optiwave programs. From the obtained results, such a design system can be configured to be a thin-film sensor system that can contact the sample surface for the required measurements The outputs of the system are in the form of a WGM beam, in which the 3D WGM probe is also available with the micro-conjugate mirror function. Such a 3D probe can penetrate into the blood vessel and content, from which the time delay among those probes can be detected and measured, and where finally the blood flow rate can be calculated and the blood content 3D image can also be seen and used for medical diagnosis. The tested results have shown that the blood flow rate of 0.72-1.11 μs^{-1}, with the blood density of 1060 kgm^{-3}, can be obtained.
3D Flow Visualization Using Texture Advection
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kao, David; Zhang, Bing; Kim, Kwansik; Pang, Alex; Moran, Pat (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
Texture advection is an effective tool for animating and investigating 2D flows. In this paper, we discuss how this technique can be extended to 3D flows. In particular, we examine the use of 3D and 4D textures on 3D synthetic and computational fluid dynamics flow fields.
Antonova, N; Dong, X; Tosheva, P; Kaliviotis, E; Velcheva, I
2014-01-01
The results for blood flow in the carotid artery bifurcation on the basis of numerical simulation of Navier-Stokes equations are presented in this study. Four cases of carotid bifurcation are considered: common carotid artery (CCA) bifurcation without stenoses and cases with one, two and three stenoses are also presented. The results are obtained by performing numerical simulations considering one pulse wave period based on the finite volume discretization of Navier-Stokes equations. The structures of the flow around the bifurcation are obtained and the deformation of the pulse wave from common carotid artery (CCA) to the internal carotid artery (ICA) and external carotid artery (ECA) is traced. The axial velocity and wall shear stress (WSS) distribution and contours are presented considering the characteristic time points. The results of the WSS distribution around the bifurcation allow a prediction of the probable sites of stenosis growth.
Berclaz, Corinne; Szlag, Daniel; Nguyen, David; Extermann, Jérôme; Bouwens, Arno; Marchand, Paul J.; Nilsson, Julia; Schmidt-Christensen, Anja; Holmberg, Dan; Grapin-Botton, Anne; Lasser, Theo
2016-01-01
In diabetes, pancreatic β-cells play a key role. These cells are clustered within structures called islets of Langerhans inside the pancreas and produce insulin, which is directly secreted into the blood stream. The dense vascularization of islets of Langerhans is critical for maintaining a proper regulation of blood glucose homeostasis and is known to be affected from the early stage of diabetes. The deep localization of these islets inside the pancreas in the abdominal cavity renders their in vivo visualization a challenging task. A fast label-free imaging method with high spatial resolution is required to study the vascular network of islets of Langerhans. Based on these requirements, we developed a label-free and three-dimensional imaging method for observing islets of Langerhans using extended-focus Fourier domain Optical Coherence Microscopy (xfOCM). In addition to structural imaging, this system provides three-dimensional vascular network imaging and dynamic blood flow information within islets of Langerhans. We propose our method to deepen the understanding of the interconnection between diabetes and the evolution of the islet vascular network. PMID:27895996
Sun, Yawen; Cao, Wenwei; Ding, Weina; Wang, Yao; Han, Xu; Zhou, Yan; Xu, Qun; Zhang, Yong; Xu, Jianrong
2016-01-01
Abnormal reductions in cortical cerebral blood flow (CBF) have been identified in subcortical vascular cognitive impairment (SVCI). However, little is known about the pattern of CBF reduction in relation with the degree of cognitive impairment. CBF measured with three-dimensional (3D) Arterial Spin Labeling (ASL) perfusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) helps detect functional changes in subjects with SVCI. We aimed to compare CBF maps in subcortical ischemic vascular disease (SIVD) subjects with and without cognitive impairment and to detect the relationship of the regions of CBF reduction in the brain with the degree of cognitive impairment according to the z-score. A total of 53 subjects with SVCI and 23 matched SIVD subjects without cognitive impairment (controls), underwent a whole-brain 3D ASL MRI in the resting state. Regional CBF (rCBF) was compared voxel wise by using an analysis of variance design in a statistical parametric mapping program, with patient age and sex as covariates. Correlations were calculated between the rCBF value in the whole brain and the z-score in the 53 subjects with SVCI. Compared with the control subjects, SVCI group demonstrated diffuse decreased CBF in the brain. Significant positive correlations were determined in the rCBF values in the left hippocampus, left superior temporal pole gyrus, right superior frontal orbital lobe, right medial frontal orbital lobe, right middle temporal lobe, left thalamus and right insula with the z-scores in SVCI group. The noninvasively quantified resting CBF demonstrated altered CBF distributions in the SVCI brain. The deficit brain perfusions in the temporal and frontal lobe, hippocampus, thalamus and insula was related to the degree of cognitive impairment. Its relationship to cognition indicates the clinical relevance of this functional marker. Thus, our results provide further evidence for the mechanisms underlying the cognitive deficit in patients with SVCI. PMID:27630562
XML3D and Xflow: combining declarative 3D for the Web with generic data flows.
Klein, Felix; Sons, Kristian; Rubinstein, Dmitri; Slusallek, Philipp
2013-01-01
Researchers have combined XML3D, which provides declarative, interactive 3D scene descriptions based on HTML5, with Xflow, a language for declarative, high-performance data processing. The result lets Web developers combine a 3D scene graph with data flows for dynamic meshes, animations, image processing, and postprocessing.
Application of fuzzy connectedness in 3D blood vessel extraction.
Lv, Xinrong; Zou, Hua
2010-01-01
Three-dimensional (3D) segmentation of blood vessels plays a very important role in solving some practical problems such as diagnosis of vessels diseases. Because of the effective segmentation for 2D images, the fuzzy connectedness segmentation method is introduced to extract vascular structures from 3D blood vessel volume dataset. In the experiments, three segmentation methods including thresholding method, region growing method and fuzzy connectedness method are all used to extract the vascular structures, and their results are compared. The results indicate that fuzzy connectedness method is better than thresholding method in connectivity of segmentation results, and better than region growing method in precision of segmentation results.
Recent Advances in Visualizing 3D Flow with LIC
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Interrante, Victoria; Grosch, Chester
1998-01-01
Line Integral Convolution (LIC), introduced by Cabral and Leedom in 1993, is an elegant and versatile technique for representing directional information via patterns of correlation in a texture. Although most commonly used to depict 2D flow, or flow over a surface in 3D, LIC methods can equivalently be used to portray 3D flow through a volume. However, the popularity of LIC as a device for illustrating 3D flow has historically been limited both by the computational expense of generating and rendering such a 3D texture and by the difficulties inherent in clearly and effectively conveying the directional information embodied in the volumetric output textures that are produced. In an earlier paper, we briefly discussed some of the factors that may underlie the perceptual difficulties that we can encounter with dense 3D displays and outlined several strategies for more effectively visualizing 3D flow with volume LIC. In this article, we review in more detail techniques for selectively emphasizing critical regions of interest in a flow and for facilitating the accurate perception of the 3D depth and orientation of overlapping streamlines, and we demonstrate new methods for efficiently incorporating an indication of orientation into a flow representation and for conveying additional information about related scalar quantities such as temperature or vorticity over a flow via subtle, continuous line width and color variations.
Liu, Wenjia; Liu, Jie; Lou, Xin; Zheng, Dandan; Wu, Bing; Wang, Danny J J; Ma, Lin
2017-02-27
Changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF) may occur with acute exposure to high altitude; however, the CBF of the brain parenchyma has not been studied to date. In this study, identical magnetic resonance scans using arterial spin labeling (ASL) were performed to study the haemodynamic changes at both sea level and high altitude. We found that with acute exposure to high altitude, the CBF in acute mountain sickness (AMS) subjects was higher (P < 0.05), while the CBF of non-AMS subjects was lower (P > 0.05) compared with those at sea level. Moreover, magnetic resonance angiography in both AMS and non-AMS subjects showed a significant increase in the cross-sectional areas of the internal carotid, basilar, and middle cerebral arteries on the first day at high altitude. These findings support that AMS may be related to increased CBF rather than vasodilation; these results contradict most previous studies that reported no relationship between CBF changes and the occurrence of AMS. This discrepancy may be attributed to the use of ASL for CBF measurement at both sea level and high altitude in this study, which has substantial advantages over transcranial Doppler for the assessment of CBF.
Liu, Wenjia; Liu, Jie; Lou, Xin; Zheng, Dandan; Wu, Bing; Wang, Danny J. J.; Ma, Lin
2017-01-01
Changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF) may occur with acute exposure to high altitude; however, the CBF of the brain parenchyma has not been studied to date. In this study, identical magnetic resonance scans using arterial spin labeling (ASL) were performed to study the haemodynamic changes at both sea level and high altitude. We found that with acute exposure to high altitude, the CBF in acute mountain sickness (AMS) subjects was higher (P < 0.05), while the CBF of non-AMS subjects was lower (P > 0.05) compared with those at sea level. Moreover, magnetic resonance angiography in both AMS and non-AMS subjects showed a significant increase in the cross-sectional areas of the internal carotid, basilar, and middle cerebral arteries on the first day at high altitude. These findings support that AMS may be related to increased CBF rather than vasodilation; these results contradict most previous studies that reported no relationship between CBF changes and the occurrence of AMS. This discrepancy may be attributed to the use of ASL for CBF measurement at both sea level and high altitude in this study, which has substantial advantages over transcranial Doppler for the assessment of CBF. PMID:28240265
Slope instability in complex 3D topography promoted by convergent 3D groundwater flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reid, M. E.; Brien, D. L.
2012-12-01
Slope instability in complex topography is generally controlled by the interaction between gravitationally induced stresses, 3D strengths, and 3D pore-fluid pressure fields produced by flowing groundwater. As an example of this complexity, coastal bluffs sculpted by landsliding commonly exhibit a progression of undulating headlands and re-entrants. In this landscape, stresses differ between headlands and re-entrants and 3D groundwater flow varies from vertical rainfall infiltration to lateral groundwater flow on lower permeability layers with subsequent discharge at the curved bluff faces. In plan view, groundwater flow converges in the re-entrant regions. To investigate relative slope instability induced by undulating topography, we couple the USGS 3D limit-equilibrium slope-stability model, SCOOPS, with the USGS 3D groundwater flow model, MODFLOW. By rapidly analyzing the stability of millions of potential failures, the SCOOPS model can determine relative slope stability throughout the 3D domain underlying a digital elevation model (DEM), and it can utilize both fully 3D distributions of pore-water pressure and material strength. The two models are linked by first computing a groundwater-flow field in MODFLOW, and then computing stability in SCOOPS using the pore-pressure field derived from groundwater flow. Using these two models, our analyses of 60m high coastal bluffs in Seattle, Washington showed augmented instability in topographic re-entrants given recharge from a rainy season. Here, increased recharge led to elevated perched water tables with enhanced effects in the re-entrants owing to convergence of groundwater flow. Stability in these areas was reduced about 80% compared to equivalent dry conditions. To further isolate these effects, we examined groundwater flow and stability in hypothetical landscapes composed of uniform and equally spaced, oscillating headlands and re-entrants with differing amplitudes. The landscapes had a constant slope for both
Lattice Boltzmann Method for 3-D Flows with Curved Boundary
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mei, Renwei; Shyy, Wei; Yu, Dazhi; Luo, Li-Shi
2002-01-01
In this work, we investigate two issues that are important to computational efficiency and reliability in fluid dynamics applications of the lattice, Boltzmann equation (LBE): (1) Computational stability and accuracy of different lattice Boltzmann models and (2) the treatment of the boundary conditions on curved solid boundaries and their 3-D implementations. Three athermal 3-D LBE models (D3QI5, D3Ql9, and D3Q27) are studied and compared in terms of efficiency, accuracy, and robustness. The boundary treatment recently developed by Filippova and Hanel and Met et al. in 2-D is extended to and implemented for 3-D. The convergence, stability, and computational efficiency of the 3-D LBE models with the boundary treatment for curved boundaries were tested in simulations of four 3-D flows: (1) Fully developed flows in a square duct, (2) flow in a 3-D lid-driven cavity, (3) fully developed flows in a circular pipe, and (4) a uniform flow over a sphere. We found that while the fifteen-velocity 3-D (D3Ql5) model is more prone to numerical instability and the D3Q27 is more computationally intensive, the 63Q19 model provides a balance between computational reliability and efficiency. Through numerical simulations, we demonstrated that the boundary treatment for 3-D arbitrary curved geometry has second-order accuracy and possesses satisfactory stability characteristics.
Unsteady 3D flow simulations in cranial arterial tree
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grinberg, Leopold; Anor, Tomer; Madsen, Joseph; Karniadakis, George
2008-11-01
High resolution unsteady 3D flow simulations in major cranial arteries have been performed. Two cases were considered: 1) a healthy volunteer with a complete Circle of Willis (CoW); and 2) a patient with hydrocephalus and an incomplete CoW. Computation was performed on 3344 processors of the new half petaflop supercomputer in TACC. Two new numerical approaches were developed and implemented: 1) a new two-level domain decomposition method, which couples continuous and discontinuous Galerkin discretization of the computational domain; and 2) a new type of outflow boundary conditions, which imposes, in an accurate and computationally efficient manner, clinically measured flow rates. In the first simulation, a geometric model of 65 cranial arteries was reconstructed. Our simulation reveals a high degree of asymmetry in the flow at the left and right parts of the CoW and the presence of swirling flow in most of the CoW arteries. In the second simulation, one of the main findings was a high pressure drop at the right anterior communicating artery (PCA). Due to the incompleteness of the CoW and the pressure drop at the PCA, the right internal carotid artery supplies blood to most regions of the brain.
Ultrasonic 3-D Vector Flow Method for Quantitative In Vivo Peak Velocity and Flow Rate Estimation.
Holbek, Simon; Ewertsen, Caroline; Bouzari, Hamed; Pihl, Michael Johannes; Hansen, Kristoffer Lindskov; Stuart, Matthias Bo; Thomsen, Carsten; Nielsen, Michael Bachmann; Jensen, Jorgen Arendt
2017-03-01
Current clinical ultrasound (US) systems are limited to show blood flow movement in either 1-D or 2-D. In this paper, a method for estimating 3-D vector velocities in a plane using the transverse oscillation method, a 32×32 element matrix array, and the experimental US scanner SARUS is presented. The aim of this paper is to estimate precise flow rates and peak velocities derived from 3-D vector flow estimates. The emission sequence provides 3-D vector flow estimates at up to 1.145 frames/s in a plane, and was used to estimate 3-D vector flow in a cross-sectional image plane. The method is validated in two phantom studies, where flow rates are measured in a flow-rig, providing a constant parabolic flow, and in a straight-vessel phantom ( ∅=8 mm) connected to a flow pump capable of generating time varying waveforms. Flow rates are estimated to be 82.1 ± 2.8 L/min in the flow-rig compared with the expected 79.8 L/min, and to 2.68 ± 0.04 mL/stroke in the pulsating environment compared with the expected 2.57 ± 0.08 mL/stroke. Flow rates estimated in the common carotid artery of a healthy volunteer are compared with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measured flow rates using a 1-D through-plane velocity sequence. Mean flow rates were 333 ± 31 mL/min for the presented method and 346 ± 2 mL/min for the MRI measurements.
Multigrid calculations of 3-D turbulent viscous flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yokota, Jeffrey W.
1989-01-01
Convergence properties of a multigrid algorithm, developed to calculate compressible viscous flows, are analyzed by a vector sequence eigenvalue estimate. The full 3-D Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations are integrated by an implicit multigrid scheme while a k-epsilon turbulence model is solved, uncoupled from the flow equations. Estimates of the eigenvalue structure for both single and multigrid calculations are compared in an attempt to analyze the process as well as the results of the multigrid technique. The flow through an annular turbine is used to illustrate the scheme's ability to calculate complex 3-D flows.
Coherent structures in 3D viscous time-periodic flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Znaien, J. G.; Speetjens, M. F. M.; Trieling, R. R.; Clercx, H. J. H.
2010-11-01
Periodically driven laminar flows occur in many industrial processes from food-mixing devices to micro-mixer in lab-on-a-chip systems. The present study is motivated by better understanding fundamental transport phenomena in three-dimensional viscous time-periodic flows. Both numerical simulation and three-dimensional Particle Tracking Velocimetry measurements are performed to investigate the 3D advection of a passive scalar in a lid-driven cylindrical cavity flow. The flow is forced by a time-periodic in-plane motion of one endwall via a given forcing protocol. We concentrate on the formation and interaction of coherent structures due to fluid inertia, which play an important role in 3D mixing by geometrically determining the tracer transport. The disintegration of these structures by fluid inertia reflects an essentially 3D route to chaos. Data from tracking experiments of small particles will be compared with predictions from numerical simulations on transport of passive tracers.
Customizable engineered blood vessels using 3D printed inserts.
Pinnock, Cameron B; Meier, Elizabeth M; Joshi, Neeraj N; Wu, Bin; Lam, Mai T
2016-04-15
Current techniques for tissue engineering blood vessels are not customizable for vascular size variation and vessel wall thickness. These critical parameters vary widely between the different arteries in the human body, and the ability to engineer vessels of varying sizes could increase capabilities for disease modeling and treatment options. We present an innovative method for producing customizable, tissue engineered, self-organizing vascular constructs by replicating a major structural component of blood vessels - the smooth muscle layer, or tunica media. We utilize a unique system combining 3D printed plate inserts to control construct size and shape, and cell sheets supported by a temporary fibrin hydrogel to encourage cellular self-organization into a tubular form resembling a natural artery. To form the vascular construct, 3D printed inserts are adhered to tissue culture plates, fibrin hydrogel is deposited around the inserts, and human aortic smooth muscle cells are then seeded atop the fibrin hydrogel. The gel, aided by the innate contractile properties of the smooth muscle cells, aggregates towards the center post insert, creating a tissue ring of smooth muscle cells. These rings are then stacked into the final tubular construct. Our methodology is robust, easily repeatable and allows for customization of cellular composition, vessel wall thickness, and length of the vessel construct merely by varying the size of the 3D printed inserts. This platform has potential for facilitating more accurate modeling of vascular pathology, serving as a drug discovery tool, or for vessel repair in disease treatment.
USM3D Predictions of Supersonic Nozzle Flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Carter, Melissa B.; Elmiligui, Alaa A.; Campbell, Richard L.; Nayani, Sudheer N.
2014-01-01
This study focused on the NASA Tetrahedral Unstructured Software System CFD code (USM3D) capability to predict supersonic plume flow. Previous studies, published in 2004 and 2009, investigated USM3D's results versus historical experimental data. This current study continued that comparison however focusing on the use of the volume souring to capture the shear layers and internal shock structure of the plume. This study was conducted using two benchmark axisymmetric supersonic jet experimental data sets. The study showed that with the use of volume sourcing, USM3D was able to capture and model a jet plume's shear layer and internal shock structure.
3-D ultrafast Doppler imaging applied to the noninvasive mapping of blood vessels in vivo.
Provost, Jean; Papadacci, Clement; Demene, Charlie; Gennisson, Jean-Luc; Tanter, Mickael; Pernot, Mathieu
2015-08-01
Ultrafast Doppler imaging was introduced as a technique to quantify blood flow in an entire 2-D field of view, expanding the field of application of ultrasound imaging to the highly sensitive anatomical and functional mapping of blood vessels. We have recently developed 3-D ultrafast ultrasound imaging, a technique that can produce thousands of ultrasound volumes per second, based on a 3-D plane and diverging wave emissions, and demonstrated its clinical feasibility in human subjects in vivo. In this study, we show that noninvasive 3-D ultrafast power Doppler, pulsed Doppler, and color Doppler imaging can be used to perform imaging of blood vessels in humans when using coherent compounding of 3-D tilted plane waves. A customized, programmable, 1024-channel ultrasound system was designed to perform 3-D ultrafast imaging. Using a 32 × 32, 3-MHz matrix phased array (Vermon, Tours, France), volumes were beamformed by coherently compounding successive tilted plane wave emissions. Doppler processing was then applied in a voxel-wise fashion. The proof of principle of 3-D ultrafast power Doppler imaging was first performed by imaging Tygon tubes of various diameters, and in vivo feasibility was demonstrated by imaging small vessels in the human thyroid. Simultaneous 3-D color and pulsed Doppler imaging using compounded emissions were also applied in the carotid artery and the jugular vein in one healthy volunteer.
3D Printed Micro Free-Flow Electrophoresis Device.
Anciaux, Sarah K; Geiger, Matthew; Bowser, Michael T
2016-08-02
The cost, time, and restrictions on creative flexibility associated with current fabrication methods present significant challenges in the development and application of microfluidic devices. Additive manufacturing, also referred to as three-dimensional (3D) printing, provides many advantages over existing methods. With 3D printing, devices can be made in a cost-effective manner with the ability to rapidly prototype new designs. We have fabricated a micro free-flow electrophoresis (μFFE) device using a low-cost, consumer-grade 3D printer. Test prints were performed to determine the minimum feature sizes that could be reproducibly produced using 3D printing fabrication. Microfluidic ridges could be fabricated with dimensions as small as 20 μm high × 640 μm wide. Minimum valley dimensions were 30 μm wide × 130 μm wide. An acetone vapor bath was used to smooth acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) surfaces and facilitate bonding of fully enclosed channels. The surfaces of the 3D-printed features were profiled and compared to a similar device fabricated in a glass substrate. Stable stream profiles were obtained in a 3D-printed μFFE device. Separations of fluorescent dyes in the 3D-printed device and its glass counterpart were comparable. A μFFE separation of myoglobin and cytochrome c was also demonstrated on a 3D-printed device. Limits of detection for rhodamine 110 were determined to be 2 and 0.3 nM for the 3D-printed and glass devices, respectively.
An annotation system for 3D fluid flow visualization
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Loughlin, Maria M.; Hughes, John F.
1995-01-01
Annotation is a key activity of data analysis. However, current systems for data analysis focus almost exclusively on visualization. We propose a system which integrates annotations into a visualization system. Annotations are embedded in 3D data space, using the Post-it metaphor. This embedding allows contextual-based information storage and retrieval, and facilitates information sharing in collaborative environments. We provide a traditional database filter and a Magic Lens filter to create specialized views of the data. The system has been customized for fluid flow applications, with features which allow users to store parameters of visualization tools and sketch 3D volumes.
Computational analysis of flow in 3D propulsive transition ducts
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sepri, Paavo
1990-01-01
A numerical analysis of fully three dimensional, statistically steady flows in propulsive transition ducts being considered for use in future aircraft of higher maneuverability is investigated. The purpose of the transition duct is to convert axisymmetric flow from conventional propulsion systems to that of a rectangular geometry of high aspect ratio. In an optimal design, the transition duct would be of minimal length in order to reduce the weight penalty, while the geometrical change would be gradual enough to avoid detrimental flow perturbations. Recent experiments conducted at the Propulsion Aerodynamics Branch have indicated that thrust losses in ducts of superelliptic cross-section can be surprisingly low, even if flow separation occurs near the divergent walls. In order to address the objective of developing a rational design procedure for optimal transition ducts, it is necessary to have available a reliable computational tool for the analysis of flows achieved in a sequence of configurations. Current CFD efforts involving complicated geometries usually must contend with two separate but interactive aspects: namely, grid generation and flow solution. The first two avenues of the present investigation were comprised of suitable grid generation for a class of transition ducts of superelliptic cross-section, and the subsequent application of the flow solver PAB3D to this geometry. The code, PAB3D, was developed as a comprehensive tool for the solution of both internal and external high speed flows. The third avenue of investigation has involved analytical formulations to aid in the understanding of the nature of duct flows, and also to provide a basis of comparison for subsequent numerical solutions. Numerical results to date include the generation of two preliminary grid systems for duct flows, and the initial application of PAB3D to the corresponding geometries, which are of the class tested experimentally.
The 3D Flow Field Around an Embedded Planet
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fung, Jeffrey; Artymowicz, Pawel; Wu, Yanqin
2015-10-01
3D modifications to the well-studied 2D flow topology around an embedded planet have the potential to resolve long-standing problems in planet formation theory. We present a detailed analysis of the 3D isothermal flow field around a 5 Earth-mass planet on a fixed circular orbit, simulated using our graphics processing unit hydrodynamics code PEnGUIn. We find that, overall, the horseshoe region has a columnar structure extending vertically much beyond the Hill sphere of the planet. This columnar structure is only broken for some of the widest horseshoe streamlines, along which high altitude fluid descends rapidly into the planet’s Bondi sphere, performs one horseshoe turn, and exits the Bondi sphere radially in the midplane. A portion of this flow exits the horseshoe region altogether, which we refer to as the “transient” horseshoe flow. The flow continues as it rolls up into a pair of up-down symmetric horizontal vortex lines shed into the wake of the planet. This flow, unique to 3D, affects both planet accretion and migration. It prevents the planet from sustaining a hydrostatic atmosphere due to its intrusion into the Bondi sphere, and leads to a significant corotation torque on the planet, unanticipated by 2D analysis. In the reported simulation, starting with a {{Σ }}˜ {r}-3/2 radial surface density profile, this torque is positive and partially cancels with the negative differential Lindblad torque, resulting in a factor of three slower planet migration rate. Finally, we report 3D effects can be suppressed by a sufficiently large disk viscosity, leading to results similar to 2D.
Myosin IIA dependent retrograde flow drives 3D cell migration.
Shih, Wenting; Yamada, Soichiro
2010-04-21
Epithelial cell migration is an essential part of embryogenesis and tissue regeneration, yet their migration is least understood. Using our three-dimensional (3D) motility analysis, migrating epithelial cells formed an atypical polarized cell shape with the nucleus leading the cell front and a contractile cell rear. Migrating epithelial cells exerted traction forces to deform both the anterior and posterior extracellular matrix toward the cell body. The cell leading edge exhibited a myosin II-dependent retrograde flow with the magnitude and direction consistent with surrounding network deformation. Interestingly, on a two-dimensional substrate, myosin IIA-deficient cells migrated faster than wild-type cells, but in a 3D gel, these myosin IIA-deficient cells were unpolarized and immobile. In contrast, the migration rates of myosin IIB-deficient cells were similar to wild-type cells. Therefore, myosin IIA, not myosin IIB, is required for 3D epithelial cell migration.
Finite element solver for 3-D compressible viscous flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Reddy, K. C.; Reddy, J. N.
1986-01-01
The space shuttle main engine (SSME) has extremely complex internal flow structure. The geometry of the flow domain is three-dimensional with complicated topology. The flow is compressible, viscous, and turbulent with large gradients in flow quantities and regions of recirculations. The analysis of the flow field in SSME involves several tedious steps. One is the geometrical modeling of the particular zone of the SSME being studied. Accessing the geometry definition, digitalizing it, and developing surface interpolations suitable for an interior grid generator require considerable amount of manual labor. There are several types of grid generators available with some general-purpose finite element programs. An efficient and robust computational scheme for solving 3D Navier-Stokes equations has to be implemented. Post processing software has to be adapted to visualize and analyze the computed 3D flow field. The progress made in a project to develop software for the analysis of the flow is discussed. The technical approach to the development of the finite element scheme and the relaxation procedure are discussed. The three dimensional finite element code for the compressible Navier-Stokes equations is listed.
A finite element solver for 3-D compressible viscous flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Reddy, K. C.; Reddy, J. N.; Nayani, S.
1990-01-01
Computation of the flow field inside a space shuttle main engine (SSME) requires the application of state of the art computational fluid dynamic (CFD) technology. Several computer codes are under development to solve 3-D flow through the hot gas manifold. Some algorithms were designed to solve the unsteady compressible Navier-Stokes equations, either by implicit or explicit factorization methods, using several hundred or thousands of time steps to reach a steady state solution. A new iterative algorithm is being developed for the solution of the implicit finite element equations without assembling global matrices. It is an efficient iteration scheme based on a modified nonlinear Gauss-Seidel iteration with symmetric sweeps. The algorithm is analyzed for a model equation and is shown to be unconditionally stable. Results from a series of test problems are presented. The finite element code was tested for couette flow, which is flow under a pressure gradient between two parallel plates in relative motion. Another problem that was solved is viscous laminar flow over a flat plate. The general 3-D finite element code was used to compute the flow in an axisymmetric turnaround duct at low Mach numbers.
SALE3D. ICEd-ALE Treatment of 3-D Fluid Flow
Amsden, A.A.; Ruppel, H.M.
1992-01-14
SALE3D calculates three-dimensional fluid flow at all speeds, from the incompressible limit to highly supersonic. An implicit treatment of the pressure calculation similar to that in the Implicit Continuous-fluid Eulerian (ICE) technique provides this flow speed flexibility. In addition, the computing mesh may move with the fluid in a typical Lagrangian fashion, be held in an Eulerian manner, or move in some arbitrarily specified way to provide a continuous rezoning capability. This latitude results from use of an Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) treatment of the mesh. The partial differential equations solved are the Navier-Stokes equations and the mass and internal energy equations. The fluid pressure is determined from an equation of state and supplemented with an artificial viscous pressure for the computation of shock waves. The computing mesh consists of a three-dimensional network of arbitrarily shaped, six-sided deformable cells, and a variety of user-selectable boundary conditions are provided in the program.
3D critical layers in fully-developed turbulent flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Saxton-Fox, Theresa; McKeon, Beverley
2016-11-01
Recent work has shown that 3D critical layers drive self-sustaining behavior of exact coherent solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations (Wang et al. 2007; Hall and Sherwin 2010; Park and Graham 2015). This study investigates the role of 3D critical layers in fully-developed turbulent flows. 3D critical layer effects are identified in instantaneous snapshots of turbulent boundary layers in both experimental and DNS data (Wu et al. 2014). Additionally, a 3D critical layer effect is demonstrated to appear using only a few resolvent response modes from the resolvent analysis of McKeon and Sharma 2010, with phase relationships appropriately chosen. Connections are sought to the thin shear layers observed in turbulent boundary layers (Klewicki and Hirschi 2004; Eisma et al. 2015) and to amplitude modulation observations (Mathis et al. 2009; Duvvuri and McKeon 2014). This research is made possible by the Department of Defense through the National Defense & Engineering Graduate Fellowship (NDSEG) Program and by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research Grant # FA9550-12-1-0060. The support of the Center for Turbulence Research (CTR) summer program at Stanford is gratefully acknowledged.
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... the same time, the veins carry oxygen-poor blood (shown in blue) from the tissues back toward the heart. From there, it passes to the lungs to receive more oxygen. This cycle repeats itself when oxygen-rich blood returns to the heart from the lungs, which ...
Optic flow aided navigation and 3D scene reconstruction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rollason, Malcolm
2013-10-01
An important enabler for low cost airborne systems is the ability to exploit low cost inertial instruments. An Inertial Navigation System (INS) can provide a navigation solution, when GPS is denied, by integrating measurements from inertial sensors. However, the gyrometer and accelerometer biases of low cost inertial sensors cause compound errors in the integrated navigation solution. This paper describes experiments to establish whether (and to what extent) the navigation solution can be aided by fusing measurements from an on-board video camera with measurements from the inertial sensors. The primary aim of the work was to establish whether optic flow aided navigation is beneficial even when the 3D structure within the observed scene is unknown. A further aim was to investigate whether an INS can help to infer 3D scene content from video. Experiments with both real and synthetic data have been conducted. Real data was collected using an AR Parrot quadrotor. Empirical results illustrate that optic flow provides a useful aid to navigation even when the 3D structure of the observed scene is not known. With optic flow aiding of the INS, the computed trajectory is consistent with the true camera motion, whereas the unaided INS yields a rapidly increasing position error (the data represents ~40 seconds, after which the unaided INS is ~50 metres in error and has passed through the ground). The results of the Monte Carlo simulation concur with the empirical result. Position errors, which grow as a quadratic function of time when unaided, are substantially checked by the availability of optic flow measurements.
Optimization of a Hybrid Magnetic Bearing for a Magnetically Levitated Blood Pump via 3-D FEA
Cheng, Shanbao; Olles, Mark W.; Burger, Aaron F.; Day, Steven W.
2011-01-01
In order to improve the performance of a magnetically levitated (maglev) axial flow blood pump, three-dimensional (3-D) finite element analysis (FEA) was used to optimize the design of a hybrid magnetic bearing (HMB). Radial, axial, and current stiffness of multiple design variations of the HMB were calculated using a 3-D FEA package and verified by experimental results. As compared with the original design, the optimized HMB had twice the axial stiffness with the resulting increase of negative radial stiffness partially compensated for by increased current stiffness. Accordingly, the performance of the maglev axial flow blood pump with the optimized HMBs was improved: the maximum pump speed was increased from 6000 rpm to 9000 rpm (50%). The radial, axial and current stiffness of the HMB was found to be linear at nominal operational position from both 3-D FEA and empirical measurements. Stiffness values determined by FEA and empirical measurements agreed well with one another. The magnetic flux density distribution and flux loop of the HMB were also visualized via 3-D FEA which confirms the designers’ initial assumption about the function of this HMB. PMID:22065892
Optimization of a Hybrid Magnetic Bearing for a Magnetically Levitated Blood Pump via 3-D FEA.
Cheng, Shanbao; Olles, Mark W; Burger, Aaron F; Day, Steven W
2011-10-01
In order to improve the performance of a magnetically levitated (maglev) axial flow blood pump, three-dimensional (3-D) finite element analysis (FEA) was used to optimize the design of a hybrid magnetic bearing (HMB). Radial, axial, and current stiffness of multiple design variations of the HMB were calculated using a 3-D FEA package and verified by experimental results. As compared with the original design, the optimized HMB had twice the axial stiffness with the resulting increase of negative radial stiffness partially compensated for by increased current stiffness. Accordingly, the performance of the maglev axial flow blood pump with the optimized HMBs was improved: the maximum pump speed was increased from 6000 rpm to 9000 rpm (50%). The radial, axial and current stiffness of the HMB was found to be linear at nominal operational position from both 3-D FEA and empirical measurements. Stiffness values determined by FEA and empirical measurements agreed well with one another. The magnetic flux density distribution and flux loop of the HMB were also visualized via 3-D FEA which confirms the designers' initial assumption about the function of this HMB.
Simulation of 3D Chaotic Electroconvection in Shear Flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Davidson, Scott; Mani, Ali
2016-11-01
Electroconvection, a microscale electrohydrodynamic phenomenon with chaotic features reminiscent of turbulence, provides the dominant transport mechanism in many electrochemical processes where ions are driven through ion-selective surfaces under large applied voltages. Electrodialysis, for example, desalinates water by flowing it between layers of ion-selective membranes with alternating selectivity while an electric field is applied normal to the membranes. This process leads to alternating channels becoming enriched and depleted of ions. Despite its key importance, much about how electroconvection enhances ion transport, particularly in the presence of crossflow, remains a mystery. We present results of 3D direct numerical simulations of electroconvection in a canonical geometry of an electrolyte between an ion-selective membrane and a reservoir with periodic sides subject to applied shear flow. We analyze the effects of crossflow on both flow statistics and qualitative structures in the fully chaotic regime. Stanford Graduate Fellowship, NSF GRFP.
Using flow information to support 3D vessel reconstruction from rotational angiography
Waechter, Irina; Bredno, Joerg; Weese, Juergen; Barratt, Dean C.; Hawkes, David J.
2008-07-15
For the assessment of cerebrovascular diseases, it is beneficial to obtain three-dimensional (3D) morphologic and hemodynamic information about the vessel system. Rotational angiography is routinely used to image the 3D vascular geometry and we have shown previously that rotational subtraction angiography has the potential to also give quantitative information about blood flow. Flow information can be determined when the angiographic sequence shows inflow and possibly outflow of contrast agent. However, a standard volume reconstruction assumes that the vessel tree is uniformly filled with contrast agent during the whole acquisition. If this is not the case, the reconstruction exhibits artifacts. Here, we show how flow information can be used to support the reconstruction of the 3D vessel centerline and radii in this case. Our method uses the fast marching algorithm to determine the order in which voxels are analyzed. For every voxel, the rotational time intensity curve (R-TIC) is determined from the image intensities at the projection points of the current voxel. Next, the bolus arrival time of the contrast agent at the voxel is estimated from the R-TIC. Then, a measure of the intensity and duration of the enhancement is determined, from which a speed value is calculated that steers the propagation of the fast marching algorithm. The results of the fast marching algorithm are used to determine the 3D centerline by backtracking. The 3D radius is reconstructed from 2D radius estimates on the projection images. The proposed method was tested on computer simulated rotational angiography sequences with systematically varied x-ray acquisition, blood flow, and contrast agent injection parameters and on datasets from an experimental setup using an anthropomorphic cerebrovascular phantom. For the computer simulation, the mean absolute error of the 3D centerline and 3D radius estimation was 0.42 and 0.25 mm, respectively. For the experimental datasets, the mean absolute
Using flow information to support 3D vessel reconstruction from rotational angiography.
Waechter, Irina; Bredno, Joerg; Weese, Juergen; Barratt, Dean C; Hawkes, David J
2008-07-01
For the assessment of cerebrovascular diseases, it is beneficial to obtain three-dimensional (3D) morphologic and hemodynamic information about the vessel system. Rotational angiography is routinely used to image the 3D vascular geometry and we have shown previously that rotational subtraction angiography has the potential to also give quantitative information about blood flow. Flow information can be determined when the angiographic sequence shows inflow and possibly outflow of contrast agent. However, a standard volume reconstruction assumes that the vessel tree is uniformly filled with contrast agent during the whole acquisition. If this is not the case, the reconstruction exhibits artifacts. Here, we show how flow information can be used to support the reconstruction of the 3D vessel centerline and radii in this case. Our method uses the fast marching algorithm to determine the order in which voxels are analyzed. For every voxel, the rotational time intensity curve (R-TIC) is determined from the image intensities at the projection points of the current voxel. Next, the bolus arrival time of the contrast agent at the voxel is estimated from the R-TIC. Then, a measure of the intensity and duration of the enhancement is determined, from which a speed value is calculated that steers the propagation of the fast marching algorithm. The results of the fast marching algorithm are used to determine the 3D centerline by backtracking. The 3D radius is reconstructed from 2D radius estimates on the projection images. The proposed method was tested on computer simulated rotational angiography sequences with systematically varied x-ray acquisition, blood flow, and contrast agent injection parameters and on datasets from an experimental setup using an anthropomorphic cerebrovascular phantom. For the computer simulation, the mean absolute error of the 3D centerline and 3D radius estimation was 0.42 and 0.25 mm, respectively. For the experimental datasets, the mean absolute
MPSalsa 3D Simulations of Chemically Reacting Flows
Many important scientific and engineering applications require a detailed analysis of complex systems with coupled fluid flow, thermal energy transfer, mass transfer and nonequilibrium chemical reactions. Currently, computer simulations of these complex reacting flow problems are limited to idealized systems in one or two spatial dimensions when coupled with a detailed, fundamental chemistry model. The goal of our research is to develop, analyze and implement advanced MP numerical algorithms that will allow high resolution 3D simulations with an equal emphasis on fluid flow and chemical kinetics modeling. In our research, we focus on the development of new, fully coupled, implicit solution strategies that are based on robust MP iterative solution methods (copied from http://www.cs.sandia.gov/CRF/MPSalsa/). These simulations are needed for scientific and technical areas such as: combustion research for transportation, atmospheric chemistry modeling for pollution studies, chemically reacting flow models for analysis and control of manufacturing processes, surface catalytic reactors for methane to methanol conversion and chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process modeling for production of advanced semiconductor materials (http://www.cs.sandia.gov/CRF/MPSalsa/).
This project website provides six QuickTime videos of these simulations, along with a small image gallery and slideshow animations. A list of related publications and conference presentations is also made available.
Energy flow in passive and active 3D cochlear model
Wang, Yanli; Steele, Charles; Puria, Sunil
2015-12-31
Energy flow in the cochlea is an important characteristic of the cochlear traveling wave, and many investigators, such as von Békésy and Lighthill, have discussed this phenomenon. Particularly after the discovery of the motility of the outer hair cells (OHCs), the nature of the power gain of the cochlea has been a fundamental research question. In the present work, direct three-dimensional (3D) calculations of the power on cross sections of the cochlea and on the basilar membrane are performed based on a box model of the mouse cochlea. The distributions of the fluid pressure and fluid velocity in the scala vestibuli are presented. The power output from the OHCs and the power loss due to fluid viscous damping are calculated along the length of the cochlea. This work provides a basis for theoretical calculations of the power gain of the OHCs from mechanical considerations.
Energy flow in passive and active 3D cochlear model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Yanli; Puria, Sunil; Steele, Charles
2015-12-01
Energy flow in the cochlea is an important characteristic of the cochlear traveling wave, and many investigators, such as von Békésy and Lighthill, have discussed this phenomenon. Particularly after the discovery of the motility of the outer hair cells (OHCs), the nature of the power gain of the cochlea has been a fundamental research question. In the present work, direct three-dimensional (3D) calculations of the power on cross sections of the cochlea and on the basilar membrane are performed based on a box model of the mouse cochlea. The distributions of the fluid pressure and fluid velocity in the scala vestibuli are presented. The power output from the OHCs and the power loss due to fluid viscous damping are calculated along the length of the cochlea. This work provides a basis for theoretical calculations of the power gain of the OHCs from mechanical considerations.
Slat Cove Unsteadiness Effect of 3D Flow Structures
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Choudhari, Meelan M.; Khorrami, Mehdi R.
2006-01-01
Previous studies have indicated that 2D, time accurate computations based on a pseudo-laminar zonal model of the slat cove region (within the framework of the Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes equations) are inadequate for predicting the full unsteady dynamics of the slat cove flow field. Even though such computations could capture the large-scale, unsteady vorticity structures in the slat cove region without requiring any external forcing, the simulated vortices were excessively strong and the recirculation zone was unduly energetic in comparison with the PIV measurements for a generic high-lift configuration. To resolve this discrepancy and to help enable physics based predictions of slat aeroacoustics, the present paper is focused on 3D simulations of the slat cove flow over a computational domain of limited spanwise extent. Maintaining the pseudo-laminar approach, current results indicate that accounting for the three-dimensionality of flow fluctuations leads to considerable improvement in the accuracy of the unsteady, nearfield solution. Analysis of simulation data points to the likely significance of turbulent fluctuations near the reattachment region toward the generation of broadband slat noise. The computed acoustic characteristics (in terms of the frequency spectrum and spatial distribution) within short distances from the slat resemble the previously reported, subscale measurements of slat noise.
Gas-kinetic BGK Schemes for 3D Viscous Flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jiang, Jin; Qian, Yuehong
2009-11-01
Gas-kinetic BGK scheme developed as an Euler and Navier-Stokes solver is dated back to the early 1990s. There are now numerous literatures on the method. Here we focused on extending this approach to 3D viscous flow. Firstly, to validate the code, some test cases are carried out, including 1D Sod problem, interaction between shock and boundary layer. Then to improve its computational efficiency, two main convergence acceleration techniques, which are local time-stepping and implicit residual smoothing, have adopted and tested. The results indicate that the speed-up to convergence steady state is significant. The last is to incorporate turbulence model into current code with the increasing Reynolds number. As a proof of accuracy, the transonic flow over ONERA M6 wing and pressure distributions at various selected span-wise directions have been tested. The results are in good agreement with experimental data, which implies the extension to turbulent flow is very encouraging and of good help for further development.
Parallel Cartesian grid refinement for 3D complex flow simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Angelidis, Dionysios; Sotiropoulos, Fotis
2013-11-01
A second order accurate method for discretizing the Navier-Stokes equations on 3D unstructured Cartesian grids is presented. Although the grid generator is based on the oct-tree hierarchical method, fully unstructured data-structure is adopted enabling robust calculations for incompressible flows, avoiding both the need of synchronization of the solution between different levels of refinement and usage of prolongation/restriction operators. The current solver implements a hybrid staggered/non-staggered grid layout, employing the implicit fractional step method to satisfy the continuity equation. The pressure-Poisson equation is discretized by using a novel second order fully implicit scheme for unstructured Cartesian grids and solved using an efficient Krylov subspace solver. The momentum equation is also discretized with second order accuracy and the high performance Newton-Krylov method is used for integrating them in time. Neumann and Dirichlet conditions are used to validate the Poisson solver against analytical functions and grid refinement results to a significant reduction of the solution error. The effectiveness of the fractional step method results in the stability of the overall algorithm and enables the performance of accurate multi-resolution real life simulations. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy under Award Number DE-EE0005482.
Isotropic 3D Black Blood MRI of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Wall and Intraluminal Thrombus
Zhu, Chengcheng; Haraldsson, Henrik; Faraji, Farshid; Owens, Christopher; Gasper, Warren; Ahn, Sinyeob; Liu, Jing; Laub, Gerhard; Hope, Michael D.; Saloner, David
2015-01-01
Introduction The aortic wall and intraluminal thrombus (ILT) have been increasingly studied as potential markers of progressive disease with abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs). Our goal was to develop a high resolution, 3D black blood MR technique for AAA wall and ILT imaging within a clinically acceptable scan time. Methods Twenty two patients with AAAs (maximal diameter 4.3±1.0cm), along with five healthy volunteers, were imaged at 3T with a 3D T1-weighted fast-spin-echo sequence using variable flip angle trains (SPACE) with a preparation pulse (DANTE) for suppressing blood signal. Volunteers and ten patients were also scanned with SPACE alone for comparison purposes. The signal to noise ratio (SNR) and the aortic wall/ILT to lumen contrast to noise ratio (CNR) were measured. Qualitative image scores (1–4 scale) assessing the inner lumen and outer wall boundaries of AAA were performed by two blinded reviewers. In patients with ILT, the ratio of ILT signal intensity (ILTSI) over psoas muscle SI (MuscleSI) was calculated, and the signal heterogeneity of ILT was quantified as standard deviation (SD) over the mean. Results All subjects were imaged successfully with an average scan time of 7.8±0.7 minutes. The DANTE preparation pulse for blood suppression substantially reduced flow artifacts in SPACE with lower lumen SNR (8.8 vs. 21.4, p<0.001) and improved the wall/ILT to lumen CNR (9.9 vs. 6.3, p<0.001) in patients. Qualitative assessment showed improved visualization of lumen boundaries (73% higher scores on average, p=0.01) and comparable visualization of outer wall boundary (p>0.05). ILT was present in ten patients, with relatively high signal and a wide SD (average ILTSI/MuscleSI 1.42±0.48 (range 0.75–2.11) ) and with SD/mean of 27.7%±6.6% (range 19.6% – 39.4%). Conclusion High resolution, 3D black blood MRI of AAAs can be achieved in a clinical accepted scan time with reduction of flow artifacts using the DANTE preparation pulse. Signal characteristics
Simultaneous 3D Strain and Flow Fields Measurement of a Model Artery under Unsteady Flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Toloui, Mostafa; Sheng, Jian
2011-11-01
Fluid-Structure Interaction imposes challenges in both aero-elasticity and biomedical studies. A simultaneous solid deformation and fluid flow measurement technique based on digital in-line holographic particle tracking velocimetry (PTV) has been developed. It allows us to measure concurrently 3D strain field of a deforming structure and the unsteady flow near it. To facilitate the measurement, both wall and flow are seeded with tracer particles distinguished by size. The motion of these tracers provides the 3D deformation of the wall and the 3D velocity distribution of the flow separately. A fully index matched facility including transparent artery and NaI solution is constructed to enable observations near the wall or through the complex geometry. An arterial model with the inner diameter of 9.5 mm and the thickness of 0.9 mm is manufactured from the cross-linked transparent PDMS at the mixing ratio of 1:10 and doped with mono-dispersed 19 μm polystyrene particles. A cinematic holographic PTV system is used to trace the 3D particle motion in the model and flow simultaneously. Preliminary study is performed within a sample volume of 15 × 15 × 75 mm with the spatial resolution of 7.4 μm in lateral and 10 μm in depth. Uncertainty and accuracy analysis will be reported. NSF Grant No: CBET-0844647.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kwak, D.; Chang, J. L. C.; Rogers, S. E.; Rosenfeld, M.
1990-01-01
Methods developed for aerospace applied to mechanics of biofluids. Report argues use of advanced computational fluid dynamics to analyze flows of biofluids - especially blood. Ability to simulate numerically and visualize complicated, time-varying three-dimensional flows contributes to understanding of phenomena in heart and blood vessels, offering potential for development of treatments for abnormal flow conditions.
Recent Enhancements to USM3D Unstructured Flow Solver for Unsteady Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pandya, Mohagna J.; Frink, Neal T.; Abdol-Hamid, Khaled S.; Chung, James J.
2004-01-01
The NASA USM3D unstructured flow solver is undergoing extensions to address dynamic flow problems in support of NASA and NAVAIR efforts to study the applicability of Computational Fluid Dynamics tools for the prediction of aircraft stability and control characteristics. The initial extensions reported herein include two second-order time stepping schemes, Detached-Eddy Simulation, and grid motion. This paper reports the initial code verification and validation assessment of the dynamic flow capabilities of USM3D. The cases considered are the classic inviscid shock-tube problem, low Reynolds number wake shedding from a NACA 0012 airfoil, high Reynolds number DES-based wake shedding from a 4-to-1 length-to-diameter cylinder, and forced pitch oscillation of a NACA 0012 airfoil with inviscid and turbulent flow.
Effects of Presence, Copresence, and Flow on Learning Outcomes in 3D Learning Spaces
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hassell, Martin D.; Goyal, Sandeep; Limayem, Moez; Boughzala, Imed
2012-01-01
The level of satisfaction and effectiveness of 3D virtual learning environments were examined. Additionally, 3D virtual learning environments were compared with face-to-face learning environments. Students that experienced higher levels of flow and presence also experienced more satisfaction but not necessarily more effectiveness with 3D virtual…
Brien, Dianne L.; Reid, Mark E.
2007-01-01
Landslides are a common problem on coastal bluffs throughout the world. Along the coastal bluffs of the Puget Sound in Seattle, Washington, landslides range from small, shallow failures to large, deep-seated landslides. Landslides of all types can pose hazards to human lives and property, but deep-seated landslides are of significant concern because their large areal extent can cause extensive property damage. Although many geomorphic processes shape the coastal bluffs of Seattle, we focus on large (greater than 3,000 m3), deepseated, rotational landslides that occur on the steep bluffs along Puget Sound. Many of these larger failures occur in advance outwash deposits of the Vashon Drift (Qva); some failures extend into the underlying Lawton Clay Member of the Vashon Drift (Qvlc). The slope stability of coastal bluffs is controlled by the interplay of three-dimensional (3-D) variations in gravitational stress, strength, and pore-water pressure. We assess 3-D slope-stability using SCOOPS (Reid and others, 2000), a computer program that allows us to search a high-resolution digital-elevation model (DEM) to quantify the relative stability of all parts of the landscape by computing the stability and volume of thousands of potential spherical failures. SCOOPS incorporates topography, 3-D strength variations, and 3-D pore pressures. Initially, we use our 3-D analysis methods to examine the effects of topography and geology by using heterogeneous material properties, as defined by stratigraphy, without pore pressures. In this scenario, the least-stable areas are located on the steepest slopes, commonly in Qva or Qvlc. However, these locations do not agree well with observations of deep-seated landslides. Historically, both shallow colluvial landslides and deep-seated landslides have been observed near the contact between Qva and Qvlc, and commonly occur in Qva. The low hydraulic conductivity of Qvlc impedes ground-water flow, resulting in elevated pore pressures at the
Provost, J.; Papadacci, C.; Demene, C.; Gennisson, J-L.; Tanter, M.; Pernot, M.
2016-01-01
Ultrafast Doppler Imaging was introduced as a technique to quantify blood flow in an entire 2-D field of view, expanding the field of application of ultrasound imaging to the highly sensitive anatomical and functional mapping of blood vessels. We have recently developed 3-D Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging, a technique that can produce thousands of ultrasound volumes per second, based on three-dimensional plane and diverging wave emissions, and demonstrated its clinical feasibility in human subjects in vivo. In this study, we show that non-invasive 3-D Ultrafast Power Doppler, Pulsed Doppler, and Color Doppler Imaging can be used to perform quantitative imaging of blood vessels in humans when using coherent compounding of three-dimensional tilted plane waves. A customized, programmable, 1024-channel ultrasound system was designed to perform 3-D Ultrafast Imaging. Using a 32X32, 3-MHz matrix phased array (Vermon, France), volumes were beamformed by coherently compounding successive tilted plane wave emissions. Doppler processing was then applied in a voxel-wise fashion. 3-D Ultrafast Power Doppler Imaging was first validated by imaging Tygon tubes of varying diameter and its in vivo feasibility was demonstrated by imaging small vessels in the human thyroid. Simultaneous 3-D Color and Pulsed Doppler Imaging using compounded emissions were also applied in the carotid artery and the jugular vein in one healthy volunteer. PMID:26276956
Single-layer microfluidic device to realize hydrodynamic 3D flow focusing.
Eluru, Gangadhar; Julius, Lourdes Albina Nirupa; Gorthi, Sai Siva
2016-10-18
The recent rapid growth of microfluidic applications has witnessed the emergence of several particle flow focusing techniques for analysis and/or further processing. The majority of flow focusing techniques employ an external sheath fluid to achieve sample flow focusing independent of the flow rate, in contrast to sheath-free techniques. However, the introduction of a sheath fluid to surround the sample fluid has complicated the device design and fabrication, generally involving multi-layer fabrication and bonding of multiple polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) layers. Several promising efforts have been made to reduce the complexity of fabrication. However, most of these methods involved the use of inertial/Dean effects, which in turn demanded the use of higher sample flow rates. In this paper, we report a method of flow focusing that uses a sheath fluid to enclose the sample in a single layer of PDMS, and that possesses applicability for a wide range of sample flow rates. This method of flow focusing uses abrupt channel depth variation and a shift of one of the sample-sheath junctions (termed as 'junction-shift') against the direction of the sample flow. This configuration serves to manipulate the sample fluid with respect to the sheath fluid and achieve the desired flow focusing. This design facilitates the attainment of 3D flow focusing in two sequential steps (depth-wise and then along the lateral direction) and in distinct regions, hence enabling the regions to be used in imaging and non-imaging flow cytometric applications, respectively. Simulations were performed to characterize and determine the optimum set of design parameters. Experimental demonstrations of this technique were carried out by focusing fluorescein dye and blood cells in flow.
Implementation of Flow Tripping Capability in the USM3D Unstructured Flow Solver
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pandya, Mohagna J.; Abdol-Harrid, Khaled S.; Campbell, Richard L.; Frink, Neal T.
2006-01-01
A flow tripping capability is added to an established NASA tetrahedral unstructured parallel Navier-Stokes flow solver, USM3D. The capability is based on prescribing an appropriate profile of turbulence model variables to energize the boundary layer in a plane normal to a specified trip region on the body surface. We demonstrate this approach using the k-e two-equation turbulence model of USM3D. Modification to the solution procedure primarily consists of developing a data structure to identify all unstructured tetrahedral grid cells located in the plane normal to a specified surface trip region and computing a function based on the mean flow solution to specify the modified profile of the turbulence model variables. We leverage this data structure and also show an adjunct approach that is based on enforcing a laminar flow condition on the otherwise fully turbulent flow solution in user specified region. The latter approach is applied for the solutions obtained using other one- and two-equation turbulence models of USM3D. A key ingredient of the present capability is the use of a graphical user-interface tool PREDISC to define a trip region on the body surface in an existing grid. Verification of the present modifications is demonstrated on three cases, namely, a flat plate, the RAE2822 airfoil, and the DLR F6 wing-fuselage configuration.
Implementation of Flow Tripping Capability in the USM3D Unstructured Flow Solver
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pandya, Mohagna J.; Abdol-Hamid, Khaled S.; Campbell, Richard L.; Frink, Neal T.
2006-01-01
A flow tripping capability is added to an established NASA tetrahedral unstructured parallel Navier-Stokes flow solver, USM3D. The capability is based on prescribing an appropriate profile of turbulence model variables to energize the boundary layer in a plane normal to a specified trip region on the body surface. We demonstrate this approach using the k-epsilon two-equation turbulence model of USM3D. Modification to the solution procedure primarily consists of developing a data structure to identify all unstructured tetrahedral grid cells located in the plane normal to a specified surface trip region and computing a function based on the mean flow solution to specify the modified profile of the turbulence model variables. We leverage this data structure and also show an adjunct approach that is based on enforcing a laminar flow condition on the otherwise fully turbulent flow solution in user-specified region. The latter approach is applied for the solutions obtained using other one-and two-equation turbulence models of USM3D. A key ingredient of the present capability is the use of a graphical user-interface tool PREDISC to define a trip region on the body surface in an existing grid. Verification of the present modifications is demonstrated on three cases, namely, a flat plate, the RAE2822 airfoil, and the DLR F6 wing-fuselage configuration.
Flow Web: a graph based user interface for 3D flow field exploration
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Lijie; Shen, Han-Wei
2010-01-01
While there have been intensive efforts in developing better 3D flow visualization techniques, little attention has been paid to the design of better user interfaces and more effective data exploration work flow. In this paper, we propose a novel graph-based user interface called Flow Web to enable more systematic explorations of 3D flow data. The Flow Web is a node-link graph that is constructed to highlight the essential flow structures where a node represents a region in the field and a link connects two nodes if there exist particles traveling between the regions. The direction of an edge implies the flow path, and the weight of an edge indicates the number of particles traveling through the connected nodes. Hierarchical flow webs are created by splitting or merging nodes and edges to allow for easy understanding of the underlying flow structures. To draw the Flow Web, we adopt force based graph drawing algorithms to minimize edge crossings, and use a hierarchical layout to facilitate the study of flow patterns step by step. The Flow Web also supports user queries to the properties of nodes and links. Examples of the queries for node properties include the degrees, complexity, and some associated physical attributes such as velocity magnitude. Queries for edges include weights, flow path lengths, existence of circles and so on. It is also possible to combine multiple queries using operators such as and , or, not. The FlowWeb supports several types of user interactions. For instance, the user can select nodes from the subgraph returned by a query and inspect the nodes with more details at different levels of detail. There are multiple advantages of using the graph-based user interface. One is that the user can identify regions of interest much more easily since, unlike inspecting 3D regions, there is very little occlusion. It is also much more convenient for the user to query statistical information about the nodes and links at different levels of detail. With
Segmentation and length measurement of the abdominal blood vessels in 3-D MRI images.
Babin, Danilo; Vansteenkiste, Ewout; Pizurica, Aleksandra; Philips, Wilfried
2009-01-01
In diagnosing diseases and planning surgeries the structure and length of blood vessels is of great importance. In this research we develop a novel method for the segmentation of 2-D and 3-D images with an application to blood vessel length measurements in 3-D abdominal MRI images. Our approach is robust to noise and does not require contrast-enhanced images for segmentation. We use an effective algorithm for skeletonization, graph construction and shortest path estimation to measure the length of blood vessels of interest.
Numerical interactive grid generation for 3-D flow calculations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jacobs, J. M. J. W.; Kassies, A.; Boerstoel, J. W.; Buijsen, F.; Kuijvenhoven, J. L.
1988-08-01
A method for the generation of three-dimensional block-structured grids is described. The grid generation process is decomposed into two major stages: block decomposition of the flow domain and construction of a grid in each block. Examples of grids are shown together with flow solver results. Improvements and future extensions of the present concepts are discussed.
Label-free characterization of white blood cells by measuring 3D refractive index maps
Yoon, Jonghee; Kim, Kyoohyun; Park, HyunJoo; Choi, Chulhee; Jang, Seongsoo; Park, YongKeun
2015-01-01
The characterization of white blood cells (WBCs) is crucial for blood analyses and disease diagnoses. However, current standard techniques rely on cell labeling, a process which imposes significant limitations. Here we present three-dimensional (3D) optical measurements and the label-free characterization of mouse WBCs using optical diffraction tomography. 3D refractive index (RI) tomograms of individual WBCs are constructed from multiple two-dimensional quantitative phase images of samples illuminated at various angles of incidence. Measurements of the 3D RI tomogram of WBCs enable the separation of heterogeneous populations of WBCs using quantitative morphological and biochemical information. Time-lapse tomographic measurements also provide the 3D trajectory of micrometer-sized beads ingested by WBCs. These results demonstrate that optical diffraction tomography can be a useful and versatile tool for the study of WBCs. PMID:26504637
Gas flow environmental and heat transfer nonrotating 3D program
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Geil, T.; Steinhoff, J.
1983-01-01
A complete set of benchmark quality data for the flow and heat transfer within a large rectangular turning duct is being compiled. These data will be used to evaluate and verify three dimensional internal viscous flow models and computational codes. The analytical objective is to select such a computational code and define the capabilities of this code to predict the experimental results. Details of the proper code operation will be defined and improvements to the code modeling capabilities will be formulated.
A 3D velocimetry study of the flow through prosthetic heart valves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ledesma, R.; Zenit, R.; Pulos, G.; Sanchez, E.; Juarez, A.
2006-11-01
Blood damage commonly appears in medical valve prothesis. It is a mayor concern for the designers and surgeons. It is well known that this damage and other complications result from the modified fluid dynamics through the replacement valve. To evaluate the performance of prosthetic heart valves, it is necessary to study the flow through them. To conduct this study , we have built a flow channel that emulates cardiac conditions and allows optical access such that a 3D-PIV velocimetry system could be used. The experiments are aimed to reconstruct the downstream structure of the flow through a mechanical and a bio-material tricuspid heart valve prothesis. Preliminary results show that the observed coherent structures can be related with haemolysis and trombosis, illnesses commonly found in valve prothesis recipients. The mean flow, the levels of strain rate and the turbulence intensity generated by the valves can also be directly related to blood damage. In general, bio-material made valves tend to reduce these complications.
Segmented Domain Decomposition Multigrid For 3-D Turbomachinery Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Celestina, M. L.; Adamczyk, J. J.; Rubin, S. G.
2001-01-01
A Segmented Domain Decomposition Multigrid (SDDMG) procedure was developed for three-dimensional viscous flow problems as they apply to turbomachinery flows. The procedure divides the computational domain into a coarse mesh comprised of uniformly spaced cells. To resolve smaller length scales such as the viscous layer near a surface, segments of the coarse mesh are subdivided into a finer mesh. This is repeated until adequate resolution of the smallest relevant length scale is obtained. Multigrid is used to communicate information between the different grid levels. To test the procedure, simulation results will be presented for a compressor and turbine cascade. These simulations are intended to show the ability of the present method to generate grid independent solutions. Comparisons with data will also be presented. These comparisons will further demonstrate the usefulness of the present work for they allow an estimate of the accuracy of the flow modeling equations independent of error attributed to numerical discretization.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ku, David N.
Blood flow in arteries is dominated by unsteady flow phenomena. The cardiovascular system is an internal flow loop with multiple branches in which a complex liquid circulates. A nondimensional frequency parameter, the Womersley number, governs the relationship between the unsteady and viscous forces. Normal arterial flow is laminar with secondary flows generated at curves and branches. The arteries are living organs that can adapt to and change with the varying hemodynamic conditions. In certain circumstances, unusual hemodynamic conditions create an abnormal biological response. Velocity profile skewing can create pockets in which the direction of the wall shear stress oscillates. Atherosclerotic disease tends to be localized in these sites and results in a narrowing of the artery lumena stenosis. The stenosis can cause turbulence and reduce flow by means of viscous head losses and flow choking. Very high shear stresses near the throat of the stenosis can activate platelets and thereby induce thrombosis, which can totally block blood flow to the heart or brain. Detection and quantification of stenosis serve as the basis for surgical intervention. In the future, the study of arterial blood flow will lead to the prediction of individual hemodynamic flows in any patient, the development of diagnostic tools to quantify disease, and the design of devices that mimic or alter blood flow. This field is rich with challenging problems in fluid mechanics involving three-dimensional, pulsatile flows at the edge of turbulence.
Laser direct writing 3D structures for microfluidic channels: flow meter and mixer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lin, Chih-Lang; Liu, Yi-Jui; Lin, Zheng-Da; Wu, Bo-Long; Lee, Yi-Hsiung; Shin, Chow-Shing; Baldeck, Patrice L.
2015-03-01
The 3D laser direct-writing technology is aimed at the modeling of arbitrary three-dimensional (3D) complex microstructures by scanning a laser-focusing point along predetermined trajectories. Through the perspective technique, the details of designed 3D structures can be properly fabricated in a microchannel. This study introduces a direct reading flow meter and a 3D passive mixer fabricated by laser direct writing for microfluidic applications. The flow meter consists of two rod-shaped springs, a pillar, an anchor, and a wedge-shaped indicator, installed inside a microfluidic channel. The indicator is deflected by the flowing fluid while restrained by the spring to establish an equilibrium indication according to the flow rate. The measurement is readily carried out by optical microscopy observation. The 3D passive Archimedes-screw-shaped mixer is designed to disturb the laminar flow 3D direction for enhancing the mixing efficiency. The simulation results indicate that the screw provides 3D disturbance of streamlines in the microchannel. The mixing demonstration for fluids flowing in the micrchannel approximately agrees with the simulation result. Thanks to the advantage of the laser direct writing technology, this study performs the ingenious applications of 3D structures for microchannels.
Quasi-3D Modeling and Efficient Simulation of Laminar Flows in Microfluidic Devices.
Islam, Md Zahurul; Tsui, Ying Yin
2016-10-03
A quasi-3D model has been developed to simulate the flow in planar microfluidic systems with low Reynolds numbers. The model was developed by decomposing the flow profile along the height of a microfluidic system into a Fourier series. It was validated against the analytical solution for flow in a straight rectangular channel and the full 3D numerical COMSOL Navier-Stokes solver for flow in a T-channel. Comparable accuracy to the full 3D numerical solution was achieved by using only three Fourier terms with a significant decrease in computation time. The quasi-3D model was used to model flows in a micro-flow cytometer chip on a desktop computer and good agreement between the simulation and the experimental results was found.
Quasi-3D Modeling and Efficient Simulation of Laminar Flows in Microfluidic Devices
Islam, Md. Zahurul; Tsui, Ying Yin
2016-01-01
A quasi-3D model has been developed to simulate the flow in planar microfluidic systems with low Reynolds numbers. The model was developed by decomposing the flow profile along the height of a microfluidic system into a Fourier series. It was validated against the analytical solution for flow in a straight rectangular channel and the full 3D numerical COMSOL Navier-Stokes solver for flow in a T-channel. Comparable accuracy to the full 3D numerical solution was achieved by using only three Fourier terms with a significant decrease in computation time. The quasi-3D model was used to model flows in a micro-flow cytometer chip on a desktop computer and good agreement between the simulation and the experimental results was found. PMID:27706104
3D automatic Cartesian grid generation for Euler flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Melton, John E.; Enomoto, Francis Y.; Berger, Marsha J.
1993-01-01
We describe a Cartesian grid strategy for the study of three dimensional inviscid flows about arbitrary geometries that uses both conventional and CAD/CAM surface geometry databases. Initial applications of the technique are presented. The elimination of the body-fitted constraint allows the grid generation process to be automated, significantly reducing the time and effort required to develop suitable computational grids for inviscid flowfield simulations.
Lattice Boltzmann Model of 3D Multiphase Flow in Artery Bifurcation Aneurysm Problem.
Abas, Aizat; Mokhtar, N Hafizah; Ishak, M H H; Abdullah, M Z; Ho Tian, Ang
2016-01-01
This paper simulates and predicts the laminar flow inside the 3D aneurysm geometry, since the hemodynamic situation in the blood vessels is difficult to determine and visualize using standard imaging techniques, for example, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Three different types of Lattice Boltzmann (LB) models are computed, namely, single relaxation time (SRT), multiple relaxation time (MRT), and regularized BGK models. The results obtained using these different versions of the LB-based code will then be validated with ANSYS FLUENT, a commercially available finite volume- (FV-) based CFD solver. The simulated flow profiles that include velocity, pressure, and wall shear stress (WSS) are then compared between the two solvers. The predicted outcomes show that all the LB models are comparable and in good agreement with the FVM solver for complex blood flow simulation. The findings also show minor differences in their WSS profiles. The performance of the parallel implementation for each solver is also included and discussed in this paper. In terms of parallelization, it was shown that LBM-based code performed better in terms of the computation time required.
Lattice Boltzmann Model of 3D Multiphase Flow in Artery Bifurcation Aneurysm Problem
Abas, Aizat; Mokhtar, N. Hafizah; Ishak, M. H. H.; Abdullah, M. Z.; Ho Tian, Ang
2016-01-01
This paper simulates and predicts the laminar flow inside the 3D aneurysm geometry, since the hemodynamic situation in the blood vessels is difficult to determine and visualize using standard imaging techniques, for example, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Three different types of Lattice Boltzmann (LB) models are computed, namely, single relaxation time (SRT), multiple relaxation time (MRT), and regularized BGK models. The results obtained using these different versions of the LB-based code will then be validated with ANSYS FLUENT, a commercially available finite volume- (FV-) based CFD solver. The simulated flow profiles that include velocity, pressure, and wall shear stress (WSS) are then compared between the two solvers. The predicted outcomes show that all the LB models are comparable and in good agreement with the FVM solver for complex blood flow simulation. The findings also show minor differences in their WSS profiles. The performance of the parallel implementation for each solver is also included and discussed in this paper. In terms of parallelization, it was shown that LBM-based code performed better in terms of the computation time required. PMID:27239221
Quasi-3D Cytoskeletal Dynamics of Osteocytes under Fluid Flow
Baik, Andrew D.; Lu, X. Lucas; Qiu, Jun; Huo, Bo; Hillman, Elizabeth M.C.; Dong, Cheng; Guo, X. Edward
2010-01-01
Osteocytes respond to dynamic fluid shear loading by activating various biochemical pathways, mediating a dynamic process of bone formation and resorption. Whole-cell deformation and regional deformation of the cytoskeleton may be able to directly regulate this process. Attempts to image cellular deformation by conventional microscopy techniques have been hindered by low temporal or spatial resolution. In this study, we developed a quasi-three-dimensional microscopy technique that enabled us to simultaneously visualize an osteocyte's traditional bottom-view profile and a side-view profile at high temporal resolution. Quantitative analysis of the plasma membrane and either the intracellular actin or microtubule (MT) cytoskeletal networks provided characterization of their deformations over time. Although no volumetric dilatation of the whole cell was observed under flow, both the actin and MT networks experienced primarily tensile strains in all measured strain components. Regional heterogeneity in the strain field of normal strains was observed in the actin networks, especially in the leading edge to flow, but not in the MT networks. In contrast, side-view shear strains exhibited similar subcellular distribution patterns in both networks. Disruption of MT networks caused actin normal strains to decrease, whereas actin disruption had little effect on the MT network strains, highlighting the networks' mechanical interactions in osteocytes. PMID:21044578
Numerical grid generation in 3D Euler-flow simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boerstoel, J. W.
1988-04-01
The technical problems with grid generation are analyzed and an overview of proposed solutions is given. The usefulness of grid-generation techniques, for the numerical simulation of Euler (and Navier-Stokes) flows around complex three-dimensional aerodynamic configurations, is illustrated. It is shown that the core of the grid-generation problem is a topology problem. The following remarks are sketched: grid generation is a subtask in a numerical simulation of a flow in industrial and research environments; the design requirements of a grid generation concern the geometrical imput, the desired grid as output, the technical means to control grid resolution and quality and turnaround time performance; the construction of a blocked grid can be subdivided in a block-decomposition task and a grid-point distribution task. A technique for using connectivity relations to define conventions about local coordinate systems in edges, faces and blocks is presented. Experiences are reported and an example concerning a 96-blocked grid around a complex aerodynamic configuration is given. Concepts for improvements in the presented technique are discussed.
Synthetic benchmark for modeling flow in 3D fractured media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de Dreuzy, Jean-Raynald; Pichot, Géraldine; Poirriez, Baptiste; Erhel, Jocelyne
2013-01-01
Intensity and localization of flows in fractured media have promoted the development of a large range of different modeling approaches including Discrete Fracture Networks, pipe networks and equivalent continuous media. While benchmarked usually within site studies, we propose an alternative numerical benchmark based on highly-resolved Discrete Fracture Networks (DFNs) and on a stochastic approach. Test cases are built on fractures of different lengths, orientations, aspect ratios and hydraulic apertures, issuing the broad ranges of topological structures and hydraulic properties classically observed. We present 18 DFN cases, with 10 random simulations by case. These 180 DFN structures are provided and fully documented. They display a representative variety of the configurations that challenge the numerical methods at the different stages of discretization, mesh generation and system solving. Using a previously assessed mixed hybrid finite element method (Erhel et al., 2009a), we systematically provide reference flow and head solutions. Because CPU and memory requirements stem mainly from system solving, we study direct and iterative sparse linear solvers. We show that the most cpu-time efficient method is a direct multifrontal method for small systems, while conjugate gradient preconditioned by algebraic multrigrid is more relevant at larger sizes. Available results can be used further as references for building up alternative numerical and physical models in both directions of improving accuracy and efficiency.
3D Reacting Flow Analysis of LANTR Nozzles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stewart, Mark E. M.; Krivanek, Thomas M.; Hemminger, Joseph A.; Bulman, M. J.
2006-01-01
This paper presents performance predictions for LANTR nozzles and the system implications for their use in a manned Mars mission. The LANTR concept is rocket thrust augmentation by injecting Oxygen into the nozzle to combust the Hydrogen exhaust of a Nuclear Thermal Rocket. The performance predictions are based on three-dimensional reacting flow simulations using VULCAN. These simulations explore a range of O2/H2 mixture ratios, injector configurations, and concepts. These performance predictions are used for a trade analysis within a system study for a manned Mars mission. Results indicate that the greatest benefit of LANTR will occur with In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU). However, Hydrogen propellant volume reductions may allow greater margins for fitting tanks within the launch vehicle where packaging issues occur.
Detecting particles flowing through interdigitated 3D microelectrodes.
Bianchi, Elena; Rollo, Enrica; Kilchenmann, Samuel; Bellati, Francesco M; Accastelli, Enrico; Guiducci, Carlotta
2012-01-01
Counting cells in a large microchannel remains challenging and is particularly critical for in vitro assays, such as cell adhesion assays. This paper addresses this issue, by presenting the development of interdigitated three-dimensional electrodes, which are fabricated around passivated pillarshaped silicon microstructures, to detect particles in a flow. The arrays of micropillars occupy the entire channel height and detect the passage of the particle through their gaps by monitoring changes in the electrical resistance. Impedance measurements were employed in order to characterize the electrical equivalent model of the system and to detect the passage of particles in real-time. Three different geometrical micropillar configurations were evaluated and numerical simulations that supported the experimental activity were used to characterize the sensitive volume in the channel. Moreover, the signal-to-noise-ratio related to the passage of a single particle through an array was plotted as a function of the dimension and number of micropillars.
Engineering an in vitro air-blood barrier by 3D bioprinting
Horváth, Lenke; Umehara, Yuki; Jud, Corinne; Blank, Fabian; Petri-Fink, Alke; Rothen-Rutishauser, Barbara
2015-01-01
Intensive efforts in recent years to develop and commercialize in vitro alternatives in the field of risk assessment have yielded new promising two- and three dimensional (3D) cell culture models. Nevertheless, a realistic 3D in vitro alveolar model is not available yet. Here we report on the biofabrication of the human air-blood tissue barrier analogue composed of an endothelial cell, basement membrane and epithelial cell layer by using a bioprinting technology. In contrary to the manual method, we demonstrate that this technique enables automatized and reproducible creation of thinner and more homogeneous cell layers, which is required for an optimal air-blood tissue barrier. This bioprinting platform will offer an excellent tool to engineer an advanced 3D lung model for high-throughput screening for safety assessment and drug efficacy testing. PMID:25609567
Representativeness of 2D models to simulate 3D unstable variable density flow in porous media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Knorr, Bastian; Xie, Yueqing; Stumpp, Christine; Maloszewski, Piotr; Simmons, Craig T.
2016-11-01
Variable density flow in porous media has been studied primarily using numerical models because it is a semi-chaotic and transient process. Most of these studies have been 2D, owing to the computational restrictions on 3D simulations, and the ability to observe variable density flow in 2D experimentation. However, it is recognised that variable density flow is a three-dimensional process. A 3D system may cause weaker variable density flow than a 2D system due to stronger dispersion, but may also result in bigger fingers and hence stronger variable density flow because of more space for fingers to coalesce. This study aimed to determine the representativeness of 2D modelling to simulate 3D variable density flow. 3D homogeneous sand column experiments were conducted at three different water flow velocities with three different bromide tracer solutions mixed with methanol resulting in different density ratios. Both 2D axisymmetric and 3D numerical simulations were performed to reproduce experimental data. Experimental results showed that the magnitude of variable density flow increases with decreasing flow rates and decreasing density ratios. The shapes of the observed breakthrough curves differed significantly from those produced by 2D axisymmetric and 3D simulations. Compared to 2D simulations, the onset of instabilities was delayed but the growth was more pronounced in 3D simulations. Despite this difference, both 2D axisymmetric and 3D models successfully simulated mass recovery with high efficiency (between 77% and 99%). This study indicates that 2D simulations are sufficient to understand integrated features of variable density flow in homogeneous sand column experiments.
Evolution of 3-D geologic framework modeling and its application to groundwater flow studies
Blome, Charles D.; Smith, David V.
2012-01-01
In this Fact Sheet, the authors discuss the evolution of project 3-D subsurface framework modeling, research in hydrostratigraphy and airborne geophysics, and methodologies used to link geologic and groundwater flow models.
The 2D and 3D hypersonic flows with unstructured meshes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Thareja, Rajiv
1993-01-01
Viewgraphs on 2D and 3D hypersonic flows with unstructured meshes are presented. Topics covered include: mesh generation, mesh refinement, shock-shock interaction, velocity contours, mesh movement, vehicle bottom surface, and adapted meshes.
3D-Flow processor for a programmable Level-1 trigger (feasibility study)
Crosetto, D.
1992-10-01
A feasibility study has been made to use the 3D-Flow processor in a pipelined programmable parallel processing architecture to identify particles such as electrons, jets, muons, etc., in high-energy physics experiments.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Parikh, Paresh; Pirzadeh, Shahyar; Loehner, Rainald
1990-01-01
A set of computer programs for 3-D unstructured grid generation, fluid flow calculations, and flow field visualization was developed. The grid generation program, called VGRID3D, generates grids over complex configurations using the advancing front method. In this method, the point and element generation is accomplished simultaneously, VPLOT3D is an interactive, menudriven pre- and post-processor graphics program for interpolation and display of unstructured grid data. The flow solver, VFLOW3D, is an Euler equation solver based on an explicit, two-step, Taylor-Galerkin algorithm which uses the Flux Corrected Transport (FCT) concept for a wriggle-free solution. Using these programs, increasingly complex 3-D configurations of interest to aerospace community were gridded including a complete Space Transportation System comprised of the space-shuttle orbitor, the solid-rocket boosters, and the external tank. Flow solutions were obtained on various configurations in subsonic, transonic, and supersonic flow regimes.
Segmentation of brain blood vessels using projections in 3-D CT angiography images.
Babin, Danilo; Vansteenkiste, Ewout; Pizurica, Aleksandra; Philips, Wilfried
2011-01-01
Segmenting cerebral blood vessels is of great importance in diagnostic and clinical applications, especially in quantitative diagnostics and surgery on aneurysms and arteriovenous malformations (AVM). Segmentation of CT angiography images requires algorithms robust to high intensity noise, while being able to segment low-contrast vessels. Because of this, most of the existing methods require user intervention. In this work we propose an automatic algorithm for efficient segmentation of 3-D CT angiography images of cerebral blood vessels. Our method is robust to high intensity noise and is able to accurately segment blood vessels with high range of luminance values, as well as low-contrast vessels.
Quaini, A.; Canic, S.; Glowinski, R.; Igo, S.; Hartley, C.J.; Zoghbi, W.; Little, S.
2011-01-01
This work presents a validation of a fluid-structure interaction computational model simulating the flow conditions in an in vitro mock heart chamber modeling mitral valve regurgitation during the ejection phase during which the trans-valvular pressure drop and valve displacement are not as large. The mock heart chamber was developed to study the use of 2D and 3D color Doppler techniques in imaging the clinically relevant complex intra-cardiac flow events associated with mitral regurgitation. Computational models are expected to play an important role in supporting, refining, and reinforcing the emerging 3D echocardiographic applications. We have developed a 3D computational fluid-structure interaction algorithm based on a semi-implicit, monolithic method, combined with an arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian approach to capture the fluid domain motion. The mock regurgitant mitral valve corresponding to an elastic plate with a geometric orifice, was modeled using 3D elasticity, while the blood flow was modeled using the 3D Navier-Stokes equations for an incompressible, viscous fluid. The two are coupled via the kinematic and dynamic conditions describing the two-way coupling. The pressure, the flow rate, and orifice plate displacement were measured and compared with numerical simulation results. In-line flow meter was used to measure the flow, pressure transducers were used to measure the pressure, and a Doppler method developed by one of the authors was used to measure the axial displacement of the orifice plate. The maximum recorded difference between experiment and numerical simulation for the flow rate was 4%, the pressure 3.6%, and for the orifice displacement 15%, showing excellent agreement between the two. PMID:22138194
Reacting Multi-Species Gas Capability for USM3D Flow Solver
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Frink, Neal T.; Schuster, David M.
2012-01-01
The USM3D Navier-Stokes flow solver contributed heavily to the NASA Constellation Project (CxP) as a highly productive computational tool for generating the aerodynamic databases for the Ares I and V launch vehicles and Orion launch abort vehicle (LAV). USM3D is currently limited to ideal-gas flows, which are not adequate for modeling the chemistry or temperature effects of hot-gas jet flows. This task was initiated to create an efficient implementation of multi-species gas and equilibrium chemistry into the USM3D code to improve its predictive capabilities for hot jet impingement effects. The goal of this NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) assessment was to implement and validate a simulation capability to handle real-gas effects in the USM3D code. This document contains the outcome of the NESC assessment.
Strategies for Effectively Visualizing a 3D Flow Using Volume Line Integral Convolution
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Interrante, Victoria; Grosch, Chester
1997-01-01
This paper discusses strategies for effectively portraying 3D flow using volume line integral convolution. Issues include defining an appropriate input texture, clarifying the distinct identities and relative depths of the advected texture elements, and selectively highlighting regions of interest in both the input and output volumes. Apart from offering insights into the greater potential of 3D LIC as a method for effectively representing flow in a volume, a principal contribution of this work is the suggestion of a technique for generating and rendering 3D visibility-impeding 'halos' that can help to intuitively indicate the presence of depth discontinuities between contiguous elements in a projection and thereby clarify the 3D spatial organization of elements in the flow. The proposed techniques are applied to the visualization of a hot, supersonic, laminar jet exiting into a colder, subsonic coflow.
ODTLES : a model for 3D turbulent flow based on one-dimensional turbulence modeling concepts.
McDermott, Randy; Kerstein, Alan R.; Schmidt, Rodney Cannon
2005-01-01
This report describes an approach for extending the one-dimensional turbulence (ODT) model of Kerstein [6] to treat turbulent flow in three-dimensional (3D) domains. This model, here called ODTLES, can also be viewed as a new LES model. In ODTLES, 3D aspects of the flow are captured by embedding three, mutually orthogonal, one-dimensional ODT domain arrays within a coarser 3D mesh. The ODTLES model is obtained by developing a consistent approach for dynamically coupling the different ODT line sets to each other and to the large scale processes that are resolved on the 3D mesh. The model is implemented computationally and its performance is tested and evaluated by performing simulations of decaying isotropic turbulence, a standard turbulent flow benchmarking problem.
Segmentation of Blood Vessels and 3D Representation of CMR Image
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jiji, G. W.
2013-06-01
Current cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) technology allows the determination of patient-individual coronary tree structure, detection of infarctions, and assessment of myocardial perfusion. The purpose of this work is to segment heart blood vessels and visualize it in 3D. In this work, 3D visualisation of vessel was performed into four phases. The first step is to detect the tubular structures using multiscale medialness function, which distinguishes tube-like structures from and other structures. Second step is to extract the centrelines of the tubes. From the centreline radius the cylindrical tube model is constructed. The third step is segmentation of the tubular structures. The cylindrical tube model is used in segmentation process. Fourth step is to 3D representation of the tubular structure using Volume . The proposed approach is applied to 10 datasets of patients from the clinical routine and tested the results with radiologists.
Event-Based 3D Motion Flow Estimation Using 4D Spatio Temporal Subspaces Properties.
Ieng, Sio-Hoi; Carneiro, João; Benosman, Ryad B
2016-01-01
State of the art scene flow estimation techniques are based on projections of the 3D motion on image using luminance-sampled at the frame rate of the cameras-as the principal source of information. We introduce in this paper a pure time based approach to estimate the flow from 3D point clouds primarily output by neuromorphic event-based stereo camera rigs, or by any existing 3D depth sensor even if it does not provide nor use luminance. This method formulates the scene flow problem by applying a local piecewise regularization of the scene flow. The formulation provides a unifying framework to estimate scene flow from synchronous and asynchronous 3D point clouds. It relies on the properties of 4D space time using a decomposition into its subspaces. This method naturally exploits the properties of the neuromorphic asynchronous event based vision sensors that allows continuous time 3D point clouds reconstruction. The approach can also handle the motion of deformable object. Experiments using different 3D sensors are presented.
Event-Based 3D Motion Flow Estimation Using 4D Spatio Temporal Subspaces Properties
Ieng, Sio-Hoi; Carneiro, João; Benosman, Ryad B.
2017-01-01
State of the art scene flow estimation techniques are based on projections of the 3D motion on image using luminance—sampled at the frame rate of the cameras—as the principal source of information. We introduce in this paper a pure time based approach to estimate the flow from 3D point clouds primarily output by neuromorphic event-based stereo camera rigs, or by any existing 3D depth sensor even if it does not provide nor use luminance. This method formulates the scene flow problem by applying a local piecewise regularization of the scene flow. The formulation provides a unifying framework to estimate scene flow from synchronous and asynchronous 3D point clouds. It relies on the properties of 4D space time using a decomposition into its subspaces. This method naturally exploits the properties of the neuromorphic asynchronous event based vision sensors that allows continuous time 3D point clouds reconstruction. The approach can also handle the motion of deformable object. Experiments using different 3D sensors are presented. PMID:28220057
Corner flow control in high through-flow axial commercial fan/booster using blade 3-D optimization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhu, Fang; Jin, Donghai; Gui, Xingmin
2012-02-01
This study is aimed at using blade 3-D optimization to control corner flows in the high through-flow fan/booster of a high bypass ratio commercial turbofan engine. Two kinds of blade 3-D optimization, end-bending and bow, are focused on. On account of the respective operation mode and environment, the approach to 3-D aerodynamic modeling of rotor blades is different from stator vanes. Based on the understanding of the mechanism of the corner flow and the consideration of intensity problem for rotors, this paper uses a variety of blade 3-D optimization approaches, such as loading distribution optimization, perturbation of departure angles and stacking-axis manipulation, which are suitable for rotors and stators respectively. The obtained 3-D blades and vanes can improve the corner flow features by end-bending and bow effects. The results of this study show that flows in corners of the fan/booster, such as the fan hub region, the tip and hub of the vanes of the booster, are very complex and dominated by 3-D effects. The secondary flows there are found to have a strong detrimental effect on the compressor performance. The effects of both end-bending and bow can improve the flow separation in corners, but the specific ways they work and application scope are somewhat different. Redesigning the blades via blade 3-D optimization to control the corner flow has effectively reduced the loss generation and improved the stall margin by a large amount.
Three-dimensional potential flows from functions of a 3D complex variable
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kelly, Patrick; Panton, Ronald L.; Martin, E. D.
1990-01-01
Potential, or ideal, flow velocities can be found from the gradient of an harmonic function. An ordinary complex valued analytic function can be written as the sum of two real valued functions, both of which are harmonic. Thus, 2D complex valued functions serve as a source of functions that describe two-dimensional potential flows. However, this use of complex variables has been limited to two-dimensions. Recently, a new system of three-dimensional complex variables has been developed at the NASA Ames Research Center. As a step toward application of this theory to the analysis of 3D potential flow, several functions of a three-dimensional complex variable have been investigated. The results for two such functions, the 3D exponential and 3D logarithm, are presented in this paper. Potential flows found from these functions are investigated. Important characteristics of these flows fields are noted.
Correlations of Surface Deformation and 3D Flow Field in a Compliant Wall Turbulent Channel Flow.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Jin; Zhang, Cao; Katz, Joseph
2015-11-01
This study focuses on the correlations between surface deformation and flow features, including velocity, vorticity and pressure, in a turbulent channel flow over a flat, compliant Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) wall. The channel centerline velocity is 2.5 m/s, and the friction Reynolds number is 2.3x103. Analysis is based on simultaneous measurements of the time resolved 3D velocity and surface deformation using tomographic PIV and Mach-Zehnder Interferometry. The volumetric pressure distribution is calculated plane by plane by spatially integrating the material acceleration using virtual boundary, omni-directional method. Conditional sampling based on local high/low pressure and deformation events reveals the primary flow structures causing the deformation. High pressure peaks appear at the interface between sweep and ejection, whereas the negative deformations peaks (dent) appear upstream, under the sweeps. The persistent phase lag between flow and deformations are presumably caused by internal damping within the PDMS. Some of the low pressure peaks and strong ejections are located under the head of hairpin vortices, and accordingly, are associated with positive deformation (bump). Others bumps and dents are correlated with some spanwise offset large inclined quasi-streamwise vortices that are not necessarily associated with hairpins. Sponsored by ONR.
Multi-planar velocimetry for 3D reconstruction of the flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Falahatpisheh, Ahmad; Pedrizzetti, Gianni; Kheradvar, Arash
2012-11-01
Several extensions of PIV have been proposed for measurements of 3D fields which are restricted for full-volume quantification. We have introduced a fundamentally different solution for experimentally characterizing the incompressible and time-periodic flows in 3D, such as those found in the cardiovascular system. 2D velocity data, acquired by 2C-PIV in multiple planes, is reconstructed to a 3D velocity field taking advantage of the incompressibility of the flow. Using 2D samples instead of scanning the entire 3D domain leads to higher temporal/spatial resolutions since each slice is acquired in a 2D fashion. Hence, there is the possibility of extension to other (medical) imaging modalities that cannot employ advanced 3D optical techniques. 2C-velocimetry on two perpendicular stacks is used for 3D interpolation. The interpolated velocity field is then corrected to satisfy the incompressibility constraint by adding an irrotational velocity field that projects the velocity into a divergence-free vector field space. The method has been validated by exemplary flows having both compact and non-compact structures and different levels of noise. The results show improvements in the reliability of the reconstructed vector field. Application to cardiac flow is also verified.
Inverse cascades sustained by the transfer rate of angular momentum in a 3D turbulent flow.
López-Caballero, Miguel; Burguete, Javier
2013-03-22
The existence of energy cascades as signatures of conserved magnitudes is one of the universal characteristics of turbulent flows. In homogeneous 3D turbulence, the energy conservation produces a direct cascade from large to small scales, although in 2D, it produces an inverse cascade pointing towards small wave numbers. In this Letter, we present the first evidence of an inverse cascade in a fully developed 3D experimental turbulent flow where the conserved magnitude is the angular momentum. Two counterrotating flows collide in a central region where very large fluctuations are produced, generating a turbulent drag that transfers the external torque between different fluid layers.
Inverse Cascades Sustained by the Transfer Rate of Angular Momentum in a 3D Turbulent Flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
López-Caballero, Miguel; Burguete, Javier
2013-03-01
The existence of energy cascades as signatures of conserved magnitudes is one of the universal characteristics of turbulent flows. In homogeneous 3D turbulence, the energy conservation produces a direct cascade from large to small scales, although in 2D, it produces an inverse cascade pointing towards small wave numbers. In this Letter, we present the first evidence of an inverse cascade in a fully developed 3D experimental turbulent flow where the conserved magnitude is the angular momentum. Two counterrotating flows collide in a central region where very large fluctuations are produced, generating a turbulent drag that transfers the external torque between different fluid layers.
Adaptive 3D single-block grids for the computation of viscous flows around wings
Hagmeijer, R.; Kok, J.C.
1996-12-31
A robust algorithm for the adaption of a 3D single-block structured grid suitable for the computation of viscous flows around a wing is presented and demonstrated by application to the ONERA M6 wing. The effects of grid adaption on the flow solution and accuracy improvements is analyzed. Reynolds number variations are studied.
The performance & flow visualization studies of three-dimensional (3-D) wind turbine blade models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sutrisno, Prajitno, Purnomo, W., Setyawan B.
2016-06-01
Recently, studies on the design of 3-D wind turbine blades have a less attention even though 3-D blade products are widely sold. In contrary, advanced studies in 3-D helicopter blade tip have been studied rigorously. Studies in wind turbine blade modeling are mostly assumed that blade spanwise sections behave as independent two-dimensional airfoils, implying that there is no exchange of momentum in the spanwise direction. Moreover, flow visualization experiments are infrequently conducted. Therefore, a modeling study of wind turbine blade with visualization experiment is needed to be improved to obtain a better understanding. The purpose of this study is to investigate the performance of 3-D wind turbine blade models with backward-forward swept and verify the flow patterns using flow visualization. In this research, the blade models are constructed based on the twist and chord distributions following Schmitz's formula. Forward and backward swept are added to the rotating blades. Based on this, the additional swept would enhance or diminish outward flow disturbance or stall development propagation on the spanwise blade surfaces to give better blade design. Some combinations, i. e., b lades with backward swept, provide a better 3-D favorable rotational force of the rotor system. The performance of the 3-D wind turbine system model is measured by a torque meter, employing Prony's braking system. Furthermore, the 3-D flow patterns around the rotating blade models are investigated by applying "tuft-visualization technique", to study the appearance of laminar, separated, and boundary layer flow patterns surrounding the 3-dimentional blade system.
Improving segmentation of 3D touching cell nuclei using flow tracking on surface meshes.
Li, Gang; Guo, Lei
2012-01-01
Automatic segmentation of touching cell nuclei in 3D microscopy images is of great importance in bioimage informatics and computational biology. This paper presents a novel method for improving 3D touching cell nuclei segmentation. Given binary touching nuclei by the method in Li et al. (2007), our method herein consists of several steps: surface mesh reconstruction and curvature information estimation; direction field diffusion on surface meshes; flow tracking on surface meshes; and projection of surface mesh segmentation to volumetric images. The method is validated on both synthesised and real 3D touching cell nuclei images, demonstrating its validity and effectiveness.
HPIV based volumetric 3D flow description in the roughness sublayer of a turbulent channel flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Talapatra, Siddharth; Katz, Joseph
2011-11-01
Microscopic HPIV is utilized to resolve the 3D flow in the roughness sublayer of a boundary layer over a rough wall at Reτ=3400, consisting of pyramidal elements with height of k=0.45mm and 3.3mm wavelength. Typically, ~7000 particles are tracked in a 3.2 ×2.1 ×1.8mm3 volume, whose wall-normal extent is -0.2 < y / k < 4.67, y=0 being the roughness peak. These measurements are facilitated by matching the refractive index of the fluid with that of the acrylic rough wall. Results show that the sublayer is flooded by complex coherent structures scaled between 1-2 k. They are mostly aligned with roughness grooves, but some wrap around the pyramids, and stretch to a streamwise orientation by a relatively fast channeling flow that develops between the pyramid ridgelines. Occasionally, structures eject away from the roughness sublayer at a steep angle to the mean flow. Using the 300 realizations processed so far, the spatial variations in mean velocity and Reynolds stresses are compared to 2D PIV results, and trends generally (but not always) agree. In particular, there is a rapid increase in all Reynolds stress components close y=0. Conditional sampling is used to extract statistically significant structures. Sponsored by ONR (grant No. 000140-91-10-0-7).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, L. M.; Shu, C.; Wang, Y.; Sun, Y.
2016-08-01
The sphere function-based gas kinetic scheme (GKS), which was presented by Shu and his coworkers [23] for simulation of inviscid compressible flows, is extended to simulate 3D viscous incompressible and compressible flows in this work. Firstly, we use certain discrete points to represent the spherical surface in the phase velocity space. Then, integrals along the spherical surface for conservation forms of moments, which are needed to recover 3D Navier-Stokes equations, are approximated by integral quadrature. The basic requirement is that these conservation forms of moments can be exactly satisfied by weighted summation of distribution functions at discrete points. It was found that the integral quadrature by eight discrete points on the spherical surface, which forms the D3Q8 discrete velocity model, can exactly match the integral. In this way, the conservative variables and numerical fluxes can be computed by weighted summation of distribution functions at eight discrete points. That is, the application of complicated formulations resultant from integrals can be replaced by a simple solution process. Several numerical examples including laminar flat plate boundary layer, 3D lid-driven cavity flow, steady flow through a 90° bending square duct, transonic flow around DPW-W1 wing and supersonic flow around NACA0012 airfoil are chosen to validate the proposed scheme. Numerical results demonstrate that the present scheme can provide reasonable numerical results for 3D viscous flows.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Saris, Anne E. C. M.; Nillesen, Maartje M.; Lopata, Richard G. P.; de Korte, Chris L.
2013-03-01
Automated segmentation of 3D echocardiographic images in patients with congenital heart disease is challenging, because the boundary between blood and cardiac tissue is poorly defined in some regions. Cardiologists mentally incorporate movement of the heart, using temporal coherence of structures to resolve ambiguities. Therefore, we investigated the merit of temporal cross-correlation for automated segmentation over the entire cardiac cycle. Optimal settings for maximum cross-correlation (MCC) calculation, based on a 3D cross-correlation based displacement estimation algorithm, were determined to obtain the best contrast between blood and myocardial tissue over the entire cardiac cycle. Resulting envelope-based as well as RF-based MCC values were used as additional external force in a deformable model approach, to segment the left-ventricular cavity in entire systolic phase. MCC values were tested against, and combined with, adaptive filtered, demodulated RF-data. Segmentation results were compared with manually segmented volumes using a 3D Dice Similarity Index (3DSI). Results in 3D pediatric echocardiographic images sequences (n = 4) demonstrate that incorporation of temporal information improves segmentation. The use of MCC values, either alone or in combination with adaptive filtered, demodulated RF-data, resulted in an increase of the 3DSI in 75% of the cases (average 3DSI increase: 0.71 to 0.82). Results might be further improved by optimizing MCC-contrast locally, in regions with low blood-tissue contrast. Reducing underestimation of the endocardial volume due to MCC processing scheme (choice of window size) and consequential border-misalignment, could also lead to more accurate segmentations. Furthermore, increasing the frame rate will also increase MCC-contrast and thus improve segmentation.
Implementation of Advanced Two Equation Turbulence Models in the USM3D Unstructured Flow Solver
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wang, Qun-Zhen; Massey, Steven J.; Abdol-Hamid, Khaled S.
2000-01-01
USM3D is a widely-used unstructured flow solver for simulating inviscid and viscous flows over complex geometries. The current version (version 5.0) of USM3D, however, does not have advanced turbulence models to accurately simulate complicated flow. We have implemented two modified versions of the original Jones and Launder k-epsilon "two-equation" turbulence model and the Girimaji algebraic Reynolds stress model in USM3D. Tests have been conducted for three flat plate boundary layer cases, a RAE2822 airfoil and an ONERA M6 wing. The results are compared with those from direct numerical simulation, empirical formulae, theoretical results, and the existing Spalart-Allmaras one-equation model.
Recursive estimation of 3D motion and surface structure from local affine flow parameters.
Calway, Andrew
2005-04-01
A recursive structure from motion algorithm based on optical flow measurements taken from an image sequence is described. It provides estimates of surface normals in addition to 3D motion and depth. The measurements are affine motion parameters which approximate the local flow fields associated with near-planar surface patches in the scene. These are integrated over time to give estimates of the 3D parameters using an extended Kalman filter. This also estimates the camera focal length and, so, the 3D estimates are metric. The use of parametric measurements means that the algorithm is computationally less demanding than previous optical flow approaches and the recursive filter builds in a degree of noise robustness. Results of experiments on synthetic and real image sequences demonstrate that the algorithm performs well.
Improvements on digital inline holographic PTV for 3D wall-bounded turbulent flow measurements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Toloui, Mostafa; Mallery, Kevin; Hong, Jiarong
2017-04-01
Three-dimensional (3D) particle image velocimetry (PIV) and particle tracking velocimetry (PTV) provide the most comprehensive flow information for unraveling the physical phenomena in a wide range of fluid problems, from microfluidics to wall-bounded turbulent flows. Compared with other 3D PIV techniques, such as tomographic PIV and defocusing PIV, the digital inline holographic PTV (DIH-PTV) provides 3D flow measurement solution with high spatial resolution, low cost optical setup, and easy alignment and calibration. Despite these advantages, DIH-PTV suffers from major limitations including poor longitudinal resolution, human intervention (i.e. requirement for manually determined tuning parameters during tracer field reconstruction and extraction), limited tracer concentration, small sampling volume and expensive computations, limiting its broad use for 3D flow measurements. In this study, we present our latest developments on minimizing these challenges, which enables high-fidelity DIH-PTV implementation to larger sampling volumes with significantly higher particle seeding densities suitable for wall-bounded turbulent flow measurements. The improvements include: (1) adjustable window thresholding; (2) multi-pass 3D tracking; (3) automatic wall localization; and (4) continuity-based out-of-plane velocity component computation. The accuracy of the proposed DIH-PTV method is validated with conventional 2D PIV and double-view holographic PTV measurements in smooth-wall turbulent channel flow experiments. The capability of the technique in characterization of wall-bounded turbulence is further demonstrated through its application to flow measurements for smooth- and rough-wall turbulent channel flows. In these experiments, 3D velocity fields are measured within sampling volumes of 14.7 × 50.0 × 14.4 mm3 (covering the entire depth of the channel) with a velocity resolution of <1.1 mm/vector. Overall, the presented DIH-PTV method and
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bureau, Lionel; Coupier, Gwennou; Dubois, Frank; Duperray, Alain; Farutin, Alexander; Minetti, Christophe; Misbah, Chaouqi; Podgorski, Thomas; Tsvirkun, Daria; Vysokikh, Mikhail
2017-01-01
The absence of gravity during space flight can alter cardio-vascular functions partially due to reduced physical activity. This affects the overall hemodynamics, and in particular the level of shear stresses to which blood vessels are submitted. Long-term exposure to space environment is thus susceptible to induce vascular remodeling through a mechanotransduction cascade that couples vessel shape and function with the mechanical cues exerted by the circulating cells on the vessel walls. Central to such processes, the glycocalyx - i.e. the micron-thick layer of biomacromolecules that lines the lumen of blood vessels and is directly exposed to blood flow - is a major actor in the regulation of biochemical and mechanical interactions. We discuss in this article several experiments performed under microgravity, such as the determination of lift force and collective motion in blood flow, and some preliminary results obtained in artificial microfluidic circuits functionalized with endothelium that offer interesting perspectives for the study of the interactions between blood and endothelium in healthy condition as well as by mimicking the degradation of glycocalyx caused by long space missions. A direct comparison between experiments and simulations is discussed. xml:lang="fr"
Migration dynamics of breast cancer cells in a tunable 3D interstitial flow chamber.
Haessler, Ulrike; Teo, Jeremy C M; Foretay, Didier; Renaud, Philippe; Swartz, Melody A
2012-04-01
The migration of cells such as leukocytes, tumor cells, and fibroblasts through 3D matrices is critical for regulating homeostasis and immunity and for driving pathogenesis. Interstitial flow through the extracellular matrix, which can substantially increase during inflammation and in the tumor microenvironment, can influence cell migration in multiple ways. Leukocytes and tumor cells are heterogeneous in their migration responses to flow, yet most 3D migration studies use endpoint measurements representing average characteristics. Here we present a robust new microfluidic device for 3D culture with live imaging under well-controlled flow conditions, along with a comparison of analytical methods for describing the migration behavior of heterogeneous cell populations. We then use the model to provide new insight on how interstitial flow affects MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell invasion, phenomena that are not seen from averaged or endpoint measurements. Specifically, we find that interstitial flow increases the percentage of cells that become migratory, and increases migrational speed in about 20% of the cells. It also increases the migrational persistence of a subpopulation (5-10% of cells) in the positive or negative flow direction. Cells that migrated upstream moved faster but with less directedness, whereas cells that migrated in the direction of flow moved at slower speeds but with higher directedness. These findings demonstrate how fluid flow in the tumor microenvironment can enhance tumor cell invasion by directing a subpopulation of tumor cells in the flow direction; i.e., towards the draining lymphatic vessels, a major route of metastasis.
Time-lapse 3-D seismic imaging of shallow subsurface contaminant flow.
McKenna, J; Sherlock, D; Evans, B
2001-12-01
This paper presents a physical modelling study outlining a technique whereby buoyant contaminant flow within water-saturated unconsolidated sand was remotely monitored utilizing the time-lapse 3-D (TL3-D) seismic response. The controlled temperature and pressure conditions, along with the high level of acquisition repeatability attainable using sandbox physical models, allow the TL3-D seismic response to pore fluid movement to be distinguished from all other effects. TL3-D seismic techniques are currently being developed to monitor hydrocarbon reserves within producing reservoirs in an endeavour to improve overall recovery. However, in many ways, sandbox models under atmospheric conditions more accurately simulate the shallow subsurface than petroleum reservoirs. For this reason, perhaps the greatest application for analogue sandbox modelling is to improve our understanding of shallow groundwater and environmental flow mechanisms. Two fluid flow simulations were conducted whereby air and kerosene were injected into separate water-saturated unconsolidated sand models. In both experiments, a base 3-D seismic volume was recorded and compared with six later monitor surveys recorded while the injection program was conducted. Normal incidence amplitude and P-wave velocity information were extracted from the TL3-D seismic data to provide visualization of contaminant migration. Reflection amplitudes displayed qualitative areal distribution of fluids when a suitable impedance contrast existed between pore fluids. TL3-D seismic reflection tomography can potentially monitor the change in areal distribution of fluid contaminants over time, indicating flow patterns. However, other research and this current work have not established a quantifiable relationship between either normal reflection amplitudes and attenuation and fluid saturation. Generally, different pore fluids will have unique seismic velocities due to differences in compressibility and density. The predictable
Parallel Finite Element Solution of 3D Rayleigh-Benard-Marangoni Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Carey, G. F.; McLay, R.; Bicken, G.; Barth, B.; Pehlivanov, A.
1999-01-01
A domain decomposition strategy and parallel gradient-type iterative solution scheme have been developed and implemented for computation of complex 3D viscous flow problems involving heat transfer and surface tension effects. Details of the implementation issues are described together with associated performance and scalability studies. Representative Rayleigh-Benard and microgravity Marangoni flow calculations and performance results on the Cray T3D and T3E are presented. The work is currently being extended to tightly-coupled parallel "Beowulf-type" PC clusters and we present some preliminary performance results on this platform. We also describe progress on related work on hierarchic data extraction for visualization.
Kinematics and flow fields in 3D around swimming lamprey using light field PIV
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lehn, Andrea M.; Techet, Alexandra H.
2016-11-01
The fully time-resolved 3D kinematics and flow field velocities around freely swimming sea lamprey are derived using 3D light field imaging PIV. Lighthill's Elongated Body Theory (EBT) predicts that swimmers with anguilliform kinematics likened to lamprey, and similarly eels, will exhibit relatively poor propulsive efficiency. However, previous experimental studies of eel locomotion utilizing 2D PIV suggest disagreement with EBT estimates of wake properties; although, the thrust force generated by such swimmers has yet to be fully resolved using 3D measurements. A light field imaging array of multiple high-speed cameras is used to perform 3D synthetic aperture PIV around ammocoete sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus). Fluid mechanics equations are used to determine thrust force generation, leading experimental studies closer to underpinning the physical mechanisms that enable aquatic locomotion of long, slender undulatory swimmers.
3-D model of a radial flow sub-watt methanol fuel processor
Holladay, J. D.; Wang, Y.
2015-10-01
A 3-D model is presented for a novel sub-watt packed bed reactor. The reactor uses an annular inlet flow combined with a radial flow packed bed reactor. The baseline reactor is compared to a reactor with multiple outlets and a reactor with 3 internal fins. Increasing the outlets from 1 to 4 did improve the flow distribution, but did not increase the performance in the simulation. However, inserting fins allowed a decrease in temperature with same inlet flow of approximately 35K. Or the inlet flow rate could be increased by a factor of 2.8x while maintaining >99% conversion.
Modelling pulmonary blood flow.
Tawhai, Merryn H; Burrowes, Kelly S
2008-11-30
Computational model analysis has been used widely to understand and interpret complexity of interactions in the pulmonary system. Pulmonary blood transport is a multi-scale phenomenon that involves scale-dependent structure and function, therefore requiring different model assumptions for the microcirculation and the arterial or venous flows. The blood transport systems interact with the surrounding lung tissue, and are dependent on hydrostatic pressure gradients, control of vasoconstriction, and the topology and material composition of the vascular trees. This review focuses on computational models that have been developed to study the different mechanisms contributing to regional perfusion of the lung. Different models for the microcirculation and the pulmonary arteries are considered, including fractal approaches and anatomically-based methods. The studies that are reviewed illustrate the different complementary approaches that can be used to address the same physiological question of flow heterogeneity.
Dynamics of Capillary-Driven Flow in 3D Printed Open Microchannels.
Lade, Robert K; Hippchen, Erik J; Macosko, Christopher W; Francis, Lorraine F
2017-03-28
Microchannels have applications in microfluidic devices, patterns for micromolding, and even flexible electronic devices. Three-dimensional (3D) printing presents a promising alternative manufacturing route for these microchannels due to the technology's relative speed and the design freedom it affords its users. However, the roughness of 3D printed surfaces can significantly influence flow dynamics inside of a microchannel. In this work, open microchannels are fabricated using four different 3D printing techniques: fused deposition modeling (FDM), stereolithography (SLA), selective laser sintering, and multi jet modeling. Microchannels printed with each technology are evaluated with respect to their surface roughness, morphology, and how conducive they are to spontaneous capillary filling. Based on this initial assessment, microchannels printed with FDM and SLA are chosen as models to study spontaneous, capillary-driven flow dynamics in 3D printed microchannels. Flow dynamics are investigated over short (∼10(-3) s), intermediate (∼1 s), and long (∼10(2) s) time scales. Surface roughness causes a start-stop motion down the channel due to contact line pinning, while the cross-sectional shape imparted onto the channels during the printing process is shown to reduce the expected filling velocity. A significant delay in the onset of Lucas-Washburn dynamics (a long-time equilibrium state where meniscus position advances proportionally to the square root of time) is also observed. Flow dynamics are assessed as a function of printing technology, print orientation, channel dimensions, and liquid properties. This study provides the first in-depth investigation of the effect of 3D printing on microchannel flow dynamics as well as a set of rules on how to account for these effects in practice. The extension of these effects to closed microchannels and microchannels fabricated with other 3D printing technologies is also discussed.
Numerical Optimization Strategy for Determining 3D Flow Fields in Microfluidics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eden, Alex; Sigurdson, Marin; Mezic, Igor; Meinhart, Carl
2015-11-01
We present a hybrid experimental-numerical method for generating 3D flow fields from 2D PIV experimental data. An optimization algorithm is applied to a theory-based simulation of an alternating current electrothermal (ACET) micromixer in conjunction with 2D PIV data to generate an improved representation of 3D steady state flow conditions. These results can be used to investigate mixing phenomena. Experimental conditions were simulated using COMSOL Multiphysics to solve the temperature and velocity fields, as well as the quasi-static electric fields. The governing equations were based on a theoretical model for ac electrothermal flows. A Nelder-Mead optimization algorithm was used to achieve a better fit by minimizing the error between 2D PIV experimental velocity data and numerical simulation results at the measurement plane. By applying this hybrid method, the normalized RMS velocity error between the simulation and experimental results was reduced by more than an order of magnitude. The optimization algorithm altered 3D fluid circulation patterns considerably, providing a more accurate representation of the 3D experimental flow field. This method can be generalized to a wide variety of flow problems. This research was supported by the Institute for Collaborative Biotechnologies through grant W911NF-09-0001 from the U.S. Army Research Office.
Digital holography particle image velocimetry for the measurement of 3D t-3c flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shen, Gongxin; Wei, Runjie
2005-10-01
In this paper a digital in-line holographic recording and reconstruction system was set up and used in the particle image velocimetry for the 3D t-3c (the three-component (3c), velocity vector field measurements in a three-dimensional (3D), space field with time history ( t)) flow measurements that made up of the new full-flow field experimental technique—digital holographic particle image velocimetry (DHPIV). The traditional holographic film was replaced by a CCD chip that records instantaneously the interference fringes directly without the darkroom processing, and the virtual image slices in different positions were reconstructed by computation using Fresnel-Kirchhoff integral method from the digital holographic image. Also a complex field signal filter (analyzing image calculated by its intensity and phase from real and image parts in fast fourier transform (FFT)) was applied in image reconstruction to achieve the thin focus depth of image field that has a strong effect with the vertical velocity component resolution. Using the frame-straddle CCD device techniques, the 3c velocity vector was computed by 3D cross-correlation through space interrogation block matching through the reconstructed image slices with the digital complex field signal filter. Then the 3D-3c-velocity field (about 20 000 vectors), 3D-streamline and 3D-vorticiry fields, and the time evolution movies (30 field/s) for the 3D t-3c flows were displayed by the experimental measurement using this DHPIV method and techniques.
Finite volume and finite element methods applied to 3D laminar and turbulent channel flows
Louda, Petr; Příhoda, Jaromír; Sváček, Petr; Kozel, Karel
2014-12-10
The work deals with numerical simulations of incompressible flow in channels with rectangular cross section. The rectangular cross section itself leads to development of various secondary flow patterns, where accuracy of simulation is influenced by numerical viscosity of the scheme and by turbulence modeling. In this work some developments of stabilized finite element method are presented. Its results are compared with those of an implicit finite volume method also described, in laminar and turbulent flows. It is shown that numerical viscosity can cause errors of same magnitude as different turbulence models. The finite volume method is also applied to 3D turbulent flow around backward facing step and good agreement with 3D experimental results is obtained.
3D cultured immortalized human hepatocytes useful to develop drugs for blood-borne HCV
Aly, Hussein Hassan; Shimotohno, Kunitada; Hijikata, Makoto
2009-02-06
Due to the high polymorphism of natural hepatitis C virus (HCV) variants, existing recombinant HCV replication models have failed to be effective in developing effective anti-HCV agents. In the current study, we describe an in vitro system that supports the infection and replication of natural HCV from patient blood using an immortalized primary human hepatocyte cell line cultured in a three-dimensional (3D) culture system. Comparison of the gene expression profile of cells cultured in the 3D system to those cultured in the existing 2D system demonstrated an up-regulation of several genes activated by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR{alpha}) signaling. Furthermore, using PPAR{alpha} agonists and antagonists, we also analyzed the effect of PPAR{alpha} signaling on the modulation of HCV replication using this system. The 3D in vitro system described in this study provides significant insight into the search for novel anti-HCV strategies that are specific to various strains of HCV.
Numerical simulation of a combined oxidation ditch flow using 3D k-epsilon turbulence model.
Luo, Lin; Li, Wei-min; Deng, Yong-sen; Wang, Tao
2005-01-01
The standard three dimensional(3D) k-epsilon turbulence model was applied to simulate the flow field of a small scale combined oxidation ditch. The moving mesh approach was used to model the rotor of the ditch. Comparison of the computed and the measured data is acceptable. A vertical reverse flow zone in the ditch was found, and it played a very important role in the ditch flow behavior. The flow pattern in the ditch is discussed in detail, and approaches are suggested to improve the hydrodynamic performance in the ditch.
3D microfilter device for viable circulating tumor cell (CTC) enrichment from blood.
Zheng, Siyang; Lin, Henry K; Lu, Bo; Williams, Anthony; Datar, Ram; Cote, Richard J; Tai, Yu-Chong
2011-02-01
Detection of circulating tumor cells has emerged as a promising minimally invasive diagnostic and prognostic tool for patients with metastatic cancers. We report a novel three dimensional microfilter device that can enrich viable circulating tumor cells from blood. This device consists of two layers of parylene membrane with pores and gap precisely defined with photolithography. The positions of the pores are shifted between the top and bottom membranes. The bottom membrane supports captured cells and minimize the stress concentration on cell membrane and sustain cell viability during filtration. Viable cell capture on device was investigated with scanning electron microscopy, confocal microscopy, and immunofluorescent staining using model systems of cultured tumor cells spiked in blood or saline. The paper presents and validates this new 3D microfiltration concept for circulation tumor cell enrichment application. The device provides a highly valuable tool for assessing and characterizing viable enriched circulating tumor cells in both research and clinical settings.
Farooqi, Kanwal M; Lengua, Carlos Gonzalez; Weinberg, Alan D; Nielsen, James C; Sanz, Javier
2016-08-01
The method of cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) three-dimensional (3D) image acquisition and post-processing which should be used to create optimal virtual models for 3D printing has not been studied systematically. Patients (n = 19) who had undergone CMR including both 3D balanced steady-state free precession (bSSFP) imaging and contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) were retrospectively identified. Post-processing for the creation of virtual 3D models involved using both myocardial (MS) and blood pool (BP) segmentation, resulting in four groups: Group 1-bSSFP/MS, Group 2-bSSFP/BP, Group 3-MRA/MS and Group 4-MRA/BP. The models created were assessed by two raters for overall quality (1-poor; 2-good; 3-excellent) and ability to identify predefined vessels (1-5: superior vena cava, inferior vena cava, main pulmonary artery, ascending aorta and at least one pulmonary vein). A total of 76 virtual models were created from 19 patient CMR datasets. The mean overall quality scores for Raters 1/2 were 1.63 ± 0.50/1.26 ± 0.45 for Group 1, 2.12 ± 0.50/2.26 ± 0.73 for Group 2, 1.74 ± 0.56/1.53 ± 0.61 for Group 3 and 2.26 ± 0.65/2.68 ± 0.48 for Group 4. The numbers of identified vessels for Raters 1/2 were 4.11 ± 1.32/4.05 ± 1.31 for Group 1, 4.90 ± 0.46/4.95 ± 0.23 for Group 2, 4.32 ± 1.00/4.47 ± 0.84 for Group 3 and 4.74 ± 0.56/4.63 ± 0.49 for Group 4. Models created using BP segmentation (Groups 2 and 4) received significantly higher ratings than those created using MS for both overall quality and number of vessels visualized (p < 0.05), regardless of the acquisition technique. There were no significant differences between Groups 1 and 3. The ratings for Raters 1 and 2 had good correlation for overall quality (ICC = 0.63) and excellent correlation for the total number of vessels visualized (ICC = 0.77). The intra-rater reliability was good for Rater A (ICC = 0.65). Three models were successfully printed
Liepsch, D; Pflugbeil, G; Matsuo, T; Lesniak, B
1998-04-01
Pulsatile flow, wall distensibility, non-Newtonian flow characteristics of blood in flow separation regions, and high/low blood pressure were studied in elastic silicon rubber models having a compliance similar to human vessels and the same surface structure as the biological intima models of (1) a healthy carotid artery model, (2) a 90% stenosis in the ICA, and (3) 80% stenosis in both the internal and external carotid arteries. Flow was visualized for steady flow and pulsatile studies to localize flow separation regions and reattachment points. Local velocity was measured with a 1-, 2-, or 3-D laser-Doppler-anemometer (LDA). Flow in the unstenosed model was Re = 250. In the stenosed models, the Re number decreased to Re = 180 and 213 under the same experimental conditions. High velocity fluctuations with vortices were found in the stenosed models. The jet flow in the stenosis increased up to 4 m/s. With an increasing bifurcation angle, the separation regions in the ECA and ICA increased. Increased flow (Re = 350) led to an increase in flow separation and high velocity shear gradients. The highest shear stresses were nearly 20 times higher than normal. The 90% stenosis created high velocity shear gradients and velocity fluctuations. Downstream of the stenoses, eddies were found over the whole cross-section. In the healthy model a slight flow separation region was observed in the ICA at the branching cross-section whereas in the stenosed models, the flow separation regions extended far into the ICA. We conclude that a detailed understanding of flow is necessary before vascular surgery is performed especially before artificial grafts or patches are implanted.
3-D Flow Field Diagnostics and Validation Studies using Stereoscopic Tracking Velocimetry
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cha, Soyoung Stephen; Ramachandran, Narayanan; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
The measurement of 3-D three-component velocity fields is of great importance in both ground and space experiments for understanding materials processing and fluid physics. Here, we present the investigation results of stereoscopic tracking velocimetry (STV) for measuring 3-D velocity fields. The effort includes diagnostic technology development, experimental velocity measurement, and comparison with analytical and numerical computation. The advantages of STV stems from the system simplicity for building compact hardware and in software efficiency for continual near-real-time process monitoring. It also has illumination flexibility for observing volumetric flow fields from arbitrary directions. STV is based on stereoscopic CCD observations of particles seeded in a flow. Neural networks are used for data analysis. The developed diagnostic tool is tested with a simple directional solidification apparatus using Succinonitrile. The 3-D velocity field in the liquid phase is measured and compared with results from detailed numerical computations. Our theoretical, numerical, and experimental effort has shown STV to be a viable candidate for reliably quantifying the 3-D flow field in materials processing and fluids experiments.
Ances, B M.; Sisti, D; Vaida, F; Liang, C L.; Leontiev, O; Perthen, J E.; Buxton, R B.; Benson, D; Smith, D M.; Little, S J.; Richman, D D.; Moore, D J.; Ellis, R J.
2009-01-01
Objective: HIV enters the brain soon after infection causing neuronal damage and microglial/astrocyte dysfunction leading to neuropsychological impairment. We examined the impact of HIV on resting cerebral blood flow (rCBF) within the lenticular nuclei (LN) and visual cortex (VC). Methods: This cross-sectional study used arterial spin labeling MRI (ASL-MRI) to measure rCBF within 33 HIV+ and 26 HIV− subjects. Nonparametric Wilcoxon rank sum test assessed rCBF differences due to HIV serostatus. Classification and regression tree (CART) analysis determined optimal rCBF cutoffs for differentiating HIV serostatus. The effects of neuropsychological impairment and infection duration on rCBF were evaluated. Results: rCBF within the LN and VC were significantly reduced for HIV+ compared to HIV− subjects. A 2-tiered CART approach using either LN rCBF ≤50.09 mL/100 mL/min or LN rCBF >50.09 mL/100 mL/min but VC rCBF ≤37.05 mL/100 mL/min yielded an 88% (29/33) sensitivity and an 88% (23/26) specificity for differentiating by HIV serostatus. HIV+ subjects, including neuropsychologically unimpaired, had reduced rCBF within the LN (p = 0.02) and VC (p = 0.001) compared to HIV− controls. A temporal progression of brain involvement occurred with LN rCBF significantly reduced for both acute/early (<1 year of seroconversion) and chronic HIV-infected subjects, whereas rCBF in the VC was diminished for only chronic HIV-infected subjects. Conclusion: Resting cerebral blood flow (rCBF) using arterial spin labeling MRI has the potential to be a noninvasive neuroimaging biomarker for assessing HIV in the brain. rCBF reductions that occur soon after seroconversion possibly reflect neuronal or vascular injury among HIV+ individuals not yet expressing neuropsychological impairment. GLOSSARY AEH = acute/early HIV infection; ANOVA = analysis of variance; ASL-MRI = arterial spin labeling MRI; CART = classification and regression tree; CBF = cerebral blood flow; CH = chronic HIV
Intuitive Visualization of Transient Flow: Towards a Full 3D Tool
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Michel, Isabel; Schröder, Simon; Seidel, Torsten; König, Christoph
2015-04-01
Visualization of geoscientific data is a challenging task especially when targeting a non-professional audience. In particular, the graphical presentation of transient vector data can be a significant problem. With STRING Fraunhofer ITWM (Kaiserslautern, Germany) in collaboration with delta h Ingenieurgesellschaft mbH (Witten, Germany) developed a commercial software for intuitive 2D visualization of 3D flow problems. Through the intuitive character of the visualization experts can more easily transport their findings to non-professional audiences. In STRING pathlets moving with the flow provide an intuition of velocity and direction of both steady-state and transient flow fields. The visualization concept is based on the Lagrangian view of the flow which means that the pathlets' movement is along the direction given by pathlines. In order to capture every detail of the flow an advanced method for intelligent, time-dependent seeding of the pathlets is implemented based on ideas of the Finite Pointset Method (FPM) originally conceived at and continuously developed by Fraunhofer ITWM. Furthermore, by the same method pathlets are removed during the visualization to avoid visual cluttering. Additional scalar flow attributes, for example concentration or potential, can either be mapped directly to the pathlets or displayed in the background of the pathlets on the 2D visualization plane. The extensive capabilities of STRING are demonstrated with the help of different applications in groundwater modeling. We will discuss the strengths and current restrictions of STRING which have surfaced during daily use of the software, for example by delta h. Although the software focusses on the graphical presentation of flow data for non-professional audiences its intuitive visualization has also proven useful to experts when investigating details of flow fields. Due to the popular reception of STRING and its limitation to 2D, the need arises for the extension to a full 3D tool
Thermal analysis modeling and simulation of spent nuclear fuel canister using CFDS-FLOW3D
Lee, S.Y.
1995-04-01
The computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code CFDS-FLOW3D (version 3.3) has been utilized to model a three-dimensional thermal analysis of the spent nuclear fuel dry storage mockup test. The Experimental Thermal-Fluids (ETF) group obtained experimental data to benchmark computer codes for verifying the dry storage of aluminum-clad spent nu clear fuel. This report provides CFDS-FLOW3D detailed predictions and benchmark, against the test data. Close comparison of the computational results with the experimental data provide verification that the code can be used to predict reasonably accurate convective flow and thermal behavior of a typical foreign research reactor fuel, such as the Material and Testing Reactor (MTR) design tested, while stored in a dry storage facility.
A fast and accurate method to predict 2D and 3D aerodynamic boundary layer flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bijleveld, H. A.; Veldman, A. E. P.
2014-12-01
A quasi-simultaneous interaction method is applied to predict 2D and 3D aerodynamic flows. This method is suitable for offshore wind turbine design software as it is a very accurate and computationally reasonably cheap method. This study shows the results for a NACA 0012 airfoil. The two applied solvers converge to the experimental values when the grid is refined. We also show that in separation the eigenvalues remain positive thus avoiding the Goldstein singularity at separation. In 3D we show a flow over a dent in which separation occurs. A rotating flat plat is used to show the applicability of the method for rotating flows. The shown capabilities of the method indicate that the quasi-simultaneous interaction method is suitable for design methods for offshore wind turbine blades.
SALE-3D: a simplified ALE computer program for calculating three-dimensional fluid flow
Amsden, A.A.; Ruppel, H.M.
1981-11-01
This report presents a simplified numerical fluid-dynamics computing technique for calculating time-dependent flows in three dimensions. An implicit treatment of the pressure equation permits calculation of flows far subsonic without stringent constraints on the time step. In addition, the grid vertices may be moved with the fluid in Lagrangian fashion or held fixed in an Eulerian manner, or moved in some prescribed manner to give a continuous rezoning capability. This report describes the combination of Implicit Continuous-fluid Eulerian (ICE) and Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) to form the ICEd-ALE technique in the framework of the Simplified-ALE (SALE-3D) computer program, for which a general flow diagram and complete FORTRAN listing are included. Sample problems show how to modify the code for a variety of applications. SALE-3D is patterned as closely as possible on the previously reported two-dimensional SALE program.
Numerical modelling of gravel unconstrained flow experiments with the DAN3D and RASH3D codes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sauthier, Claire; Pirulli, Marina; Pisani, Gabriele; Scavia, Claudio; Labiouse, Vincent
2015-12-01
Landslide continuum dynamic models have improved considerably in the last years, but a consensus on the best method of calibrating the input resistance parameter values for predictive analyses has not yet emerged. In the present paper, numerical simulations of a series of laboratory experiments performed at the Laboratory for Rock Mechanics of the EPF Lausanne were undertaken with the RASH3D and DAN3D numerical codes. They aimed at analysing the possibility to use calibrated ranges of parameters (1) in a code different from that they were obtained from and (2) to simulate potential-events made of a material with the same characteristics as back-analysed past-events, but involving a different volume and propagation path. For this purpose, one of the four benchmark laboratory tests was used as past-event to calibrate the dynamic basal friction angle assuming a Coulomb-type behaviour of the sliding mass, and this back-analysed value was then used to simulate the three other experiments, assumed as potential-events. The computational findings show good correspondence with experimental results in terms of characteristics of the final deposits (i.e., runout, length and width). Furthermore, the obtained best fit values of the dynamic basal friction angle for the two codes turn out to be close to each other and within the range of values measured with pseudo-dynamic tilting tests.
Delft3D-FLOW on PRACE infrastructures for real life hydrodynamic applications.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Donners, John; Genseberger, Menno; Jagers, Bert; de Goede, Erik; Mourits, Adri
2013-04-01
PRACE, the Partnership for Advanced Computing in Europe, offers access to the largest high-performance computing systems in Europe. PRACE invites and helps industry to increase their innovative potential through the use of the PRACE infrastructure. This poster describes different efforts to assist Deltares with porting the open-source simulation software Delft3D-FLOW to PRACE infrastructures. Analysis of the performance on these infrastructures has been done for real life flow applications. Delft3D-FLOW is a 2D and 3D shallow water solver which calculates non-steady flow and transport phenomena resulting from tidal and meteorological forcing on a curvilinear, boundary fitted grid in Cartesian or spherical coordinates. It also includes a module which sediment transport (both suspended and bed total load) and morphological changes for an arbitrary number of cohesive and non-cohesive fractions. As Delft3D-FLOW has been developed over several decades, with a variety of functionality and over 350k lines of source code, porting to PRACE infrastructures needs some effort. At the moment Delft3D-FLOW uses MPI with domain decomposition in one direction as its parallellisation approach. Because it is hard to identify scaling issues if one immediately starts with a complex case with many features enabled, different cases with increasing complexity have been used to investigate scaling of this parallellisation approach on several PRACE platforms. As a base reference case we started with a schematic high-resolution 2D hydrodynamic model of the river Waal that turned out to be surprisingly well-suited to the highly-parallel PRACE machines. Although Delft3D-FLOW employs a sophisticated build system, several modifications were required to port it to most PRACE systems due to the use of specific, highly-tuned compilers and MPI-libraries. After this we moved to a 3D hydrodynamic model of Rotterdam harbour that includes sections of the rivers Rhine and Meuse and a part of the North
Numerical and experimental investigation of the 3D free surface flow in a model Pelton turbine
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fiereder, R.; Riemann, S.; Schilling, R.
2010-08-01
This investigation focuses on the numerical and experimental analysis of the 3D free surface flow in a Pelton turbine. In particular, two typical flow conditions occurring in a full scale Pelton turbine - a configuration with a straight inlet as well as a configuration with a 90 degree elbow upstream of the nozzle - are considered. Thereby, the effect of secondary flow due to the 90 degree bending of the upstream pipe on the characteristics of the jet is explored. The hybrid flow field consists of pure liquid flow within the conduit and free surface two component flow of the liquid jet emerging out of the nozzle into air. The numerical results are validated against experimental investigations performed in the laboratory of the Institute of Fluid Mechanics (FLM). For the numerical simulation of the flow the in-house unstructured fully parallelized finite volume solver solver3D is utilized. An advanced interface capturing model based on the classic Volume of Fluid method is applied. In order to ensure sharp interface resolution an additional convection term is added to the transport equation of the volume fraction. A collocated variable arrangement is used and the set of non-linear equations, containing fluid conservation equations and model equations for turbulence and volume fraction, are solved in a segregated manner. For pressure-velocity coupling the SIMPLE and PISO algorithms are implemented. Detailed analysis of the observed flow patterns in the jet and of the jet geometry are presented.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fleming, J. L.; Simpson, R. L.
1997-01-01
Laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV) measurements and hydrogen bubble flow visualization techniques were used to examine the near-wall flow structure of 2D and 3D turbulent boundary layers (TBLs) over a range of low Reynolds numbers. The goals of this research were (1) an increased understanding of the flow physics in the near wall region of turbulent boundary layers,(2) to observe and quantify differences between 2D and 3D TBL flow structures, and (3) to document Reynolds number effects for 3D TBLs. The LDV data have provided results detailing the turbulence structure of the 2D and 3D TBLs. These results include mean Reynolds stress distributions, flow skewing results, and U and V spectra. Effects of Reynolds number for the 3D flow were also examined. Comparison to results with the same 3D flow geometry but at a significantly higher Reynolds number provided unique insight into the structure of 3D TBLs. While the 3D mean and fluctuating velocities were found to be highly dependent on Reynolds number, a previously defined shear stress parameter was discovered to be invariant with Reynolds number. The hydrogen bubble technique was used as a flow visualization tool to examine the near-wall flow structure of 2D and 3D TBLs. Both the quantitative and qualitative results displayed larger turbulent fluctuations with more highly concentrated vorticity regions for the 2D flow.
Multigrid Computations of 3-D Incompressible Internal and External Viscous Rotating Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sheng, Chunhua; Taylor, Lafayette K.; Chen, Jen-Ping; Jiang, Min-Yee; Whitfield, David L.
1996-01-01
This report presents multigrid methods for solving the 3-D incompressible viscous rotating flows in a NASA low-speed centrifugal compressor and a marine propeller 4119. Numerical formulations are given in both the rotating reference frame and the absolute frame. Comparisons are made for the accuracy, efficiency, and robustness between the steady-state scheme and the time-accurate scheme for simulating viscous rotating flows for complex internal and external flow applications. Prospects for further increase in efficiency and accuracy of unsteady time-accurate computations are discussed.
3-D High-Lift Flow-Physics Experiment - Transition Measurements
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
McGinley, Catherine B.; Jenkins, Luther N.; Watson, Ralph D.; Bertelrud, Arild
2005-01-01
An analysis of the flow state on a trapezoidal wing model from the NASA 3-D High Lift Flow Physics Experiment is presented. The objective of the experiment was to characterize the flow over a non-proprietary semi-span three-element high-lift configuration to aid in assessing the state of the art in the computation of three-dimensional high-lift flows. Surface pressures and hot-film sensors are used to determine the flow conditions on the slat, main, and flap. The locations of the attachments lines and the values of the attachment line Reynolds number are estimated based on the model surface pressures. Data from the hot-films are used to determine if the flow is laminar, transitional, or turbulent by examining the hot-film time histories, statistics, and frequency spectra.
An Experimental Study of Mixing Dynamics in 3D Granular Flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zaman, Zafir
Compared with the mixing of fluids, the mixing and segregation of granular materials remains one of the big questions of science. Unlike fluids, granular materials segregate based on differences in particle properties, such as density and size. For 2D granular flows, a dynamical systems framework has been effective in describing regions of mixing and segregation. However, computational and theoretical results are just starting to form a framework for 3D granular flows, such as the bi-axial spherical tumbler (BST) flow. This thesis builds on this emerging framework through a series of experimental studies with theoretical and model support with the goal of better understanding 3D mixing. The first study tests the commonly used assumption in continuum models of granular flow that single axis tumbler flow is two dimensional. Utilizing both surface and destructive subsurface imaging, this study shows that weak 3D deviations occur in the form of an axial drift within single axis tumbler flow of varying material spanwise depth. Afterward, this thesis focuses on the development of a custom-built X-ray imaging system to non-destructively visualize the tumbler subsurface. The second study revisits the axial drift and demonstrates that wall roughness impacts the curvature and overall displacement of particle trajectories throughout the tumbler domain using subsurface particle trajectories provided by the X-ray imaging system. Finally, mixing in the fully 3D BST flow is studied. In particular, 3D persistent mixing barriers that are predicted by the dynamical systems framework are shown to exist. Some barriers are remarkably persistent for as much as 500 protocol iterations despite the presence of collisional diffusion. The structures arise from two competing effects, the cutting and shuffling action of the protocol and the stretching from the flowing layer. The tumbling protocol controls the mixing behavior as well as the types of non-mixing barriers observed. Supplementary
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Iftekhar, Ahmed Tashfin; Ho, Jenny Che-Ting; Mellinger, Axel; Kaya, Tolga
2017-03-01
Sweat-based physiological monitoring has been intensively explored in the last decade with the hopes of developing real-time hydration monitoring devices. Although the content of sweat (electrolytes, lactate, urea, etc.) provides significant information about the physiology, it is also very important to know the rate of sweat at the time of sweat content measurements because the sweat rate is known to alter the concentrations of sweat compounds. We developed a calorimetric based flow rate sensor using PolydimethylSiloxane that is suitable for sweat rate applications. Our simple approach on using temperature-based flow rate detection can easily be adapted to multiple sweat collection and analysis devices. Moreover, we have developed a 3D finite element analysis model of the device using COMSOL Multiphysics™ and verified the flow rate measurements. The experiment investigated flow rate values from 0.3 μl/min up to 2.1 ml/min, which covers the human sweat rate range (0.5 μl/min-10 μl/min). The 3D model simulations and analytical model calculations covered an even wider range in order to understand the main physical mechanisms of the device. With a verified 3D model, different environmental heat conditions could be further studied to shed light on the physiology of the sweat rate.
Skeletonization algorithm-based blood vessel quantification using in vivo 3D photoacoustic imaging
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meiburger, K. M.; Nam, S. Y.; Chung, E.; Suggs, L. J.; Emelianov, S. Y.; Molinari, F.
2016-11-01
Blood vessels are the only system to provide nutrients and oxygen to every part of the body. Many diseases can have significant effects on blood vessel formation, so that the vascular network can be a cue to assess malicious tumor and ischemic tissues. Various imaging techniques can visualize blood vessel structure, but their applications are often constrained by either expensive costs, contrast agents, ionizing radiations, or a combination of the above. Photoacoustic imaging combines the high-contrast and spectroscopic-based specificity of optical imaging with the high spatial resolution of ultrasound imaging, and image contrast depends on optical absorption. This enables the detection of light absorbing chromophores such as hemoglobin with a greater penetration depth compared to purely optical techniques. We present here a skeletonization algorithm for vessel architectural analysis using non-invasive photoacoustic 3D images acquired without the administration of any exogenous contrast agents. 3D photoacoustic images were acquired on rats (n = 4) in two different time points: before and after a burn surgery. A skeletonization technique based on the application of a vesselness filter and medial axis extraction is proposed to extract the vessel structure from the image data and six vascular parameters (number of vascular trees (NT), vascular density (VD), number of branches (NB), 2D distance metric (DM), inflection count metric (ICM), and sum of angles metric (SOAM)) were calculated from the skeleton. The parameters were compared (1) in locations with and without the burn wound on the same day and (2) in the same anatomic location before (control) and after the burn surgery. Four out of the six descriptors were statistically different (VD, NB, DM, ICM, p < 0.05) when comparing two anatomic locations on the same day and when considering the same anatomic location at two separate times (i.e. before and after burn surgery). The study demonstrates an
Switchable 3D optofluidic Y-branch waveguides tuned by Dean flows
Li, L.; Zhu, X.Q.; Liang, L.; Zuo, Y. F.; Xu, Y. S.; Yang, Y.; Yuan, Y. J.; Huang, Q. Q.
2016-01-01
Optical branch waveguides are one of the most important optical elements and have been widely exploited for optical communication systems. However, prevailing devices are typically solid and have limit in tunability. Liquid optical devices have attracted more interest for the advantage of tunability of liquid media, but their signals suffer serious leakage if the refractive index (RI) of liquid is smaller than that of solid channels. This paper demonstrates the tunable three-dimensional (3D) optofluidic Y-branch waveguides in plannar microchannels by simply introducing Dean flow. This device can reconfigure 3D Y-branch profiles and separate the intensity of light as tunable ratio from 0 to 1 by adjusting the flow rates with low loss. Different from the prevailing 2D liquid counterparts, the 3D configuration offer much more freedom in the selection of liquid media as liquid’s RI can be totally independent to the solid channel structure. The transmission loss through the device is estimated to 0.97 db when the splitting angle is 10°, which shows the light is confined better in the 3D liquid structures than traditional 2D liquid counterparts. The Y-branch waveguides show potential in applications of integrated optofluidic devices. PMID:27910958
Switchable 3D optofluidic Y-branch waveguides tuned by Dean flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, L.; Zhu, X. Q.; Liang, L.; Zuo, Y. F.; Xu, Y. S.; Yang, Y.; Yuan, Y. J.; Huang, Q. Q.
2016-12-01
Optical branch waveguides are one of the most important optical elements and have been widely exploited for optical communication systems. However, prevailing devices are typically solid and have limit in tunability. Liquid optical devices have attracted more interest for the advantage of tunability of liquid media, but their signals suffer serious leakage if the refractive index (RI) of liquid is smaller than that of solid channels. This paper demonstrates the tunable three-dimensional (3D) optofluidic Y-branch waveguides in plannar microchannels by simply introducing Dean flow. This device can reconfigure 3D Y-branch profiles and separate the intensity of light as tunable ratio from 0 to 1 by adjusting the flow rates with low loss. Different from the prevailing 2D liquid counterparts, the 3D configuration offer much more freedom in the selection of liquid media as liquid’s RI can be totally independent to the solid channel structure. The transmission loss through the device is estimated to 0.97 db when the splitting angle is 10°, which shows the light is confined better in the 3D liquid structures than traditional 2D liquid counterparts. The Y-branch waveguides show potential in applications of integrated optofluidic devices.
Understanding thermal Marangoni flow in water sessile evaporating drops via 3D-PTV
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rossi, Massimiliano; Marin, Alvaro; Kaehler, Christian J.
2016-11-01
Understanding the flow inside sessile evaporating drops is of great interest both from a fundamental and technological point of view. Despite strong research efforts in the recent years, a complete picture on the phenomena involved in this process and a way to control them is still far to be reached. This is due to a lack of reliable experimental data on the internal flow but more dramatically on the interfacial flow. A relevant open debate concerns the role played by the Marangoni flow induced by thermal gradients. We recently show how 3D particle tracking techniques are suitable to measure the internal flow of drops and to derive quantities such as surface shear and surface tension differences. Such experiments also indicated an increase of the thermal Marangoni flow as the droplet becomes thinner, in disagreement with current theoretical models and simulations. A possible reason for that could be a discrepancy of the imposed boundary conditions in the simulations and the experimental ones. This work follows up these observations with fully 3D time-resolved measurements of the flow inside drops evaporating on a quartz substrate, which temperature is controlled using a feedback temperature control and a microscope incubator system. Supported by DFG, Grant No. KA 1808/22.
Simulation of 3-D Nonequilibrium Seeded Air Flow in the NASA-Ames MHD Channel
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gupta, Sumeet; Tannehill, John C.; Mehta, Unmeel B.
2004-01-01
The 3-D nonequilibrium seeded air flow in the NASA-Ames experimental MHD channel has been numerically simulated. The channel contains a nozzle section, a center section, and an accelerator section where magnetic and electric fields can be imposed on the flow. In recent tests, velocity increases of up to 40% have been achieved in the accelerator section. The flow in the channel is numerically computed us ing a 3-D parabolized Navier-Stokes (PNS) algorithm that has been developed to efficiently compute MHD flows in the low magnetic Reynolds number regime: The MHD effects are modeled by introducing source terms into the PNS equations which can then be solved in a very efficient manner. The algorithm has been extended in the present study to account for nonequilibrium seeded air flows. The electrical conductivity of the flow is determined using the program of Park. The new algorithm has been used to compute two test cases that match the experimental conditions. In both cases, magnetic and electric fields are applied to the seeded flow. The computed results are in good agreement with the experimental data.
3D flow study in a mildly stenotic coronary artery phantom using a whole volume PIV method.
Brunette, J; Mongrain, R; Laurier, J; Galaz, R; Tardif, J C
2008-11-01
Blood flow dynamics has an important role in atherosclerosis initiation, progression, plaque rupture and thrombosis eventually causing myocardial infarction. In particular, shear stress is involved in platelet activation, endothelium function and secondary flows have been proposed as possible variables in plaque erosion. In order to investigate these three-dimensional flow characteristics in the context of a mild stenotic coronary artery, a whole volume PIV method has been developed and applied to a scaled-up transparent phantom. Experimental three-dimensional velocity data was processed to estimate the 3D shear stress distributions and secondary flows within the flow volume. The results show that shear stress reaches values out of the normal and atheroprotective range at an early stage of the obstructive pathology and that important secondary flows are also initiated at an early stage of the disease. The results also support the concept of a vena contracta associated with the jet in the context of a coronary artery stenosis with the consequence of higher shear stresses in the post-stenotic region in the blood domain than at the vascular wall.
Quasi 3D modeling of water flow and solute transport in vadose zone and groundwater
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yakirevich, A.; Kuznetsov, M.; Weisbrod, N.; Pachepsky, Y. A.
2013-12-01
The complexity of subsurface flow systems calls for a variety of concepts leading to the multiplicity of simplified flow models. One commonly used simplification is based on the assumption that lateral flow and transport in unsaturated zone is insignificant unless the capillary fringe is involved. In such cases the flow and transport in the unsaturated zone above groundwater level can be simulated as a 1D phenomenon, whereas through groundwater they are viewed as 2D or 3D phenomena. A new approach for a numerical scheme for 3D variably saturated flow and transport is presented. A Quasi-3D approach allows representing flow in the 'vadose zone - aquifer' system by a series of 1D Richards' equations solved in variably-saturated zone and by 3D-saturated flow equation in groundwater (modified MODFLOW code). The 1D and 3D equations are coupled at the phreatic surface in a way that aquifer replenishment is calculated using the Richards' equation, and solving for the moving water table does not require definition of the specific yield parameter. The 3D advection-dispersion equation is solved in the entire domain by the MT3D code. Using implicit finite differences approximation to couple processes in the vadose zone and groundwater provides mass conservation and increase of computational efficiency. The above model was applied to simulate the impact of irrigation on groundwater salinity in the Alto Piura aquifer (Northern Peru). Studies on changing groundwater quality in arid and semi-arid lands show that irrigation return flow is one of the major factors contributing to aquifer salinization. Existing mathematical models do not account explicitly for the solute recycling during irrigation on a daily scale. Recycling occurs throughout the unsaturated and saturated zones, as function of the solute mass extracted from pumping wells. Salt concentration in irrigation water is calculated at each time step as a function of concentration of both surface water and groundwater
Key parameters in blood-surface interactions of 3D bioinspired ceramic materials.
Díaz-Rodríguez, P; González, P; Serra, J; Landin, M
2014-08-01
Direct contact of materials with blood components may trigger numerous processes which ultimately lead to hemolysis, clot formation and recruitment of inflammatory cells. In this study, the blood-surface interactions for two inert bioinspired ceramic scaffolds obtained from natural resources; biomorphic carbon and silicon carbides (bioSiC) from different origins have been studied. The response of the blood in contact with carbon is well known, however little has been identified on the influence of their 3D porous structure. Moreover, to our knowledge, there is no reference in the literature about the hemocompatibility of biomorphic silicon carbide as a porous scaffold. The experimental results showed the surface energy to be crucial to evaluate the hemocompatibility of a material however the surface topography and material porosity are also parameters to be considered. Surface roughness modifies clot formation whereas for protein adsorption total sample porosity seems to be the key parameter to be considered for hydrophilic materials (biomorphic silicon carbides), while the size of the pores determines the hemolytic response.
Stratified shear flow in an inclined duct: near-instantaneous 3D velocity and density measurements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Partridge, Jamie; Lefauve, Adrien; Dalziel, Stuart; Linden, Paul
2016-11-01
We present results from a new experimental setup to study the exchange flow in an inclined square duct between two reservoirs containing fluids of different densities. This system can exhibit stratified shear wave motions, and has a distinct parameter threshold above which turbulence is triggered and progressively fills a larger fraction of the duct. To probe these intrinsically 3D flows, we introduce a new setup in which a traversing laser sheet allows us to obtain near-instantaneous 3D velocity and density fields. Three components of velocity are measured on successive 2D planes using stereo particle image velocimetry (PIV) with density information obtained simultaneously using laser induced fluorescence (LIF). Supported by EPSRC Programme Grant EP/K034529/1 entitled "Mathematical Underpinnings of Stratified Turbulence".
Simulation of a 3D unsteady flow in an axial turbine stage
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Straka, Petr
2012-04-01
The contribution deals with a numerical simulation of an unsteady flow in an axial turbine stage. The solution is performed using an in-house numerical code developed in the Aeronautical and Test Institute, Plc. in Prague. The numerical code is based on a finite volume discretization of governing equations (Favre averaged Navier-Stokes equations) and a two-equations turbulence model. The temporal integration is based on the implicit second-order backward Euler formula, which is realized through the iteration process in dual time. The proposed numerical method is used for solution of the 3D, unsteady, viscous turbulent flow of a perfect gas in the axial turbine stage. The flow path consists of an input nozzle, stator blade-wheel, rotor blade-wheel, a shroud-seal gap and a diffuser. Attention is paid to the influence of a secondary flow structures, such as generated vortices and flow in shroud-seal gap.
Numerical investigations on cavitation intensity for 3D homogeneous unsteady viscous flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Leclercq, C.; Archer, A.; Fortes-Patella, R.
2016-11-01
The cavitation erosion remains an industrial issue. In this paper, we deal with the cavitation intensity which can be described as the aggressiveness - or erosive capacity - of a cavitating flow. The estimation of this intensity is a challenging problem both in terms of modelling the cavitating flow and predicting the erosion due to cavitation. For this purpose, a model was proposed to estimate cavitation intensity from 3D unsteady cavitating flow simulations. An intensity model based on pressure and void fraction derivatives was developped and applied to a NACA 65012 hydrofoil tested at LMH-EPFL (École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne) [1]. 2D and 3D unsteady cavitating simulations were performed using a homogeneous model with void fraction transport equation included in Code_Saturne with cavitating module [2]. The article presents a description of the numerical code and the physical approach considered. Comparisons between 2D and 3D simulations, as well as between numerical and experimental results obtained by pitting tests, are analyzed in the paper.
Electric Current Filamentation Induced by 3D Plasma Flows in the Solar Corona
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nickeler, Dieter H.; Wiegelmann, Thomas; Karlický, Marian; Kraus, Michaela
2017-03-01
Many magnetic structures in the solar atmosphere evolve rather slowly, so they can be assumed as (quasi-)static or (quasi-)stationary and represented via magnetohydrostatic (MHS) or stationary magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equilibria, respectively. While exact 3D solutions would be desired, they are extremely difficult to find in stationary MHD. We construct solutions with magnetic and flow vector fields that have three components depending on all three coordinates. We show that the noncanonical transformation method produces quasi-3D solutions of stationary MHD by mapping 2D or 2.5D MHS equilibria to corresponding stationary MHD states, that is, states that display the same field-line structure as the original MHS equilibria. These stationary MHD states exist on magnetic flux surfaces of the original 2D MHS states. Although the flux surfaces and therefore also the equilibria have a 2D character, these stationary MHD states depend on all three coordinates and display highly complex currents. The existence of geometrically complex 3D currents within symmetric field-line structures provides the basis for efficient dissipation of the magnetic energy in the solar corona by ohmic heating. We also discuss the possibility of maintaining an important subset of nonlinear MHS states, namely force-free fields, by stationary flows. We find that force-free fields with nonlinear flows only arise under severe restrictions of the field-line geometry and of the magnetic flux density distribution.
Numerical simulation of the 3D unsteady turbulent flow in a combustion chamber
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stuparu, Adrian; Holotescu, Sorin
2011-06-01
The influence of turbulence models on the 3D unsteady flow in a combustion chamber with a central bluff body is analyzed. Three different turbulence models are used (realizable k-ɛ, Reynolds Stress Model and Large Eddy Simulation) and a comparison is made on the evolution of the velocity field over time. The numerical simulation of the gas flow in the combustion chamber was performed using FLUENT 6.3 software and the computational geometry, consisting of a structured mesh with 810,000 cells, was built using the pre-processor GAMBIT 2.4. The extent of the recirculation region behind the bluff body was determined for each turbulence model.
Numerical simulation of the 3D unsteady turbulent flow in a combustion chamber
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stuparu, Adrian; Holotescu, Sorin
2011-06-01
The influence of turbulence models on the 3D unsteady flow in a combustion chamber with a central bluff body is analyzed. Three different turbulence models are used ( realizable k-ɛ, Reynolds Stress Model and Large Eddy Simulation) and a comparison is made on the evolution of the velocity field over time. The numerical simulation of the gas flow in the combustion chamber was performed using FLUENT 6.3 software and the computational geometry, consisting of a structured mesh with 810,000 cells, was built using the pre-processor GAMBIT 2.4. The extent of the recirculation region behind the bluff body was determined for each turbulence model.
Nonhydrostatic granular flow over 3-D terrain: New Boussinesq-type gravity waves?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Castro-Orgaz, Oscar; Hutter, Kolumban; Giraldez, Juan V.; Hager, Willi H.
2015-01-01
granular mass flow is a basic step in the prediction and control of natural or man-made disasters related to avalanches on the Earth. Savage and Hutter (1989) pioneered the mathematical modeling of these geophysical flows introducing Saint-Venant-type mass and momentum depth-averaged hydrostatic equations using the continuum mechanics approach. However, Denlinger and Iverson (2004) found that vertical accelerations in granular mass flows are of the same order as the gravity acceleration, requiring the consideration of nonhydrostatic modeling of granular mass flows. Although free surface water flow simulations based on nonhydrostatic depth-averaged models are commonly used since the works of Boussinesq (1872, 1877), they have not yet been applied to the modeling of debris flow. Can granular mass flow be described by Boussinesq-type gravity waves? This is a fundamental question to which an answer is required, given the potential to expand the successful Boussinesq-type water theory to granular flow over 3-D terrain. This issue is explored in this work by generalizing the basic Boussinesq-type theory used in civil and coastal engineering for more than a century to an arbitrary granular mass flow using the continuum mechanics approach. Using simple test cases, it is demonstrated that the above question can be answered in the affirmative way, thereby opening a new framework for the physical and mathematical modeling of granular mass flow in geophysics, whereby the effect of vertical motion is mathematically included without the need of ad hoc assumptions.
Analysis of periodic 3D viscous flows using a quadratic discrete Galerkin boundary element method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chan, Chiu Y.; Beris, Antony N.; Advani, Suresh G.
1994-05-01
A discrete Galerkin boundary element technique with a quadratic approximation of the variables was developed to simulate the three-dimensional (3D) viscous flow established in periodic assemblages of particles in suspensions and within a periodic porous medium. The Batchelor's unit-cell approach is used. The Galerkin formulation effectively handles the discontinuity in the traction arising in flow boundaries with edges or corners, such as the unit cell in this case. For an ellipsoidal dilute suspension over the range of aspect ratio studied (1 to 54), the numerical solutions of the rotational velocity of the particles and the viscosity correction were found to agree with the analytic values within 0.2% and 2% respectively, even with coarse meshes. In a suspension of cylindrical particles the calculated period of rotation agreed with the experimental data. However, Burgers' predictions for the correction to the suspension viscosity were found to be 30% too low and therefore the concept of the equivalent ellipsoidal ratio is judged to be inadequate. For pressure-driven flow through a fixed bed of fibers, the prediction on the permeability was shown to deviate by as much as 10% from the value calculated based on approximate permeability additivity rules using the corresponding values for planar flow past a periodic array of parallel cylinders. These applications show the versatility of the technique for studying viscous flows in complicated 3D geometries.
Flow measurements in a model centrifugal pump by 3-D PIV
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, H.; Xu, H. R.; Liu, C.
2012-11-01
PIV (Particle Image Velocimetry), as an non-intrusive flow measurements technology, is widely used to investigate the flow fields in many areas. 3-D (three Dimensional) PIV has seldom been used to measure flow field in rotational impeller of centrifugal pump due to the difficulty of calibration in samll space. In this article, a specially manufactured water tank was used to perform the calibration for 3-D PIV measurement. The instantaneous absolute velocity in one impeller passage was obtained by merging of three sub zones and the relative velocity was acquired by velocity decomposition. The result shows that, when the pump runs at the condition of design flow rate, the radial component velocity Wr appears a concave distribution except the condition of R=45 mm. With the increase of radius, the circumference location of the minimum radial component velocity Wr moves from the pressure side to the suction side. At the same time, the tangential component velocity Wθ on the suction side decreases gradually with the increase of radius, while the component on the pressure side increases gradually. The secondary flow in different radius section has also been shown. At last, the error of PIV measurements was analyzed, which shows that the test results are accurate and the measured data is reliable.
Numerical and experimental study of gas flows in 2D and 3D microchannels
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guo, Xiaohui; Huang, Chihyung; Alexeenko, Alina; Sullivan, John
2008-02-01
In the experiments conducted at Purdue, the air flow in rectangular cross-section microchannels was investigated using pressure sensitive paint. The high resolution pressure measurements were obtained for inlet-to-outlet pressure ratios from 1.76 to 20 with the outlet Knudsen numbers in the range from 0.003 to 0.4 based on the hydraulic diameter of 151.7 µm and the length-to-height ratio of about 50. In the slip flow regime, the air flow was simulated by the 2D and 3D Navier-Stokes equations with no-slip and slip boundary conditions. For various pressure ratios, the entrance flow development, compressibility and rarefaction effects were observed in both experiments and numerical simulations. It was found that the accurate modeling of gas flows in finite-length channels requires the inlet and outlet reservoirs to be included in computations. Effects of entrance geometry on the friction factor were studied for 3D cases. In both experiments and numerical modeling, significant pressure drop was found starting at the inlet chamber. The numerical modeling also predicted an apparent temperature drop at the channel exit.
A modular segmented-flow platform for 3D cell cultivation.
Lemke, Karen; Förster, Tobias; Römer, Robert; Quade, Mandy; Wiedemeier, Stefan; Grodrian, Andreas; Gastrock, Gunter
2015-07-10
In vitro 3D cell cultivation is promised to equate tissue in vivo more realistically than 2D cell cultivation corresponding to cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. Therefore, a scalable 3D cultivation platform was developed. This platform, called pipe-based bioreactors (pbb), is based on the segmented-flow technology: aqueous droplets are embedded in a water-immiscible carrier fluid. The droplet volumes range from 60 nL to 20 μL and are used as bioreactors lined up in a tubing like pearls on a string. The modular automated platform basically consists of several modules like a fluid management for a high throughput droplet generation for self-assembly or scaffold-based 3D cell cultivation, a storage module for incubation and storage, and an analysis module for monitoring cell aggregation and proliferation basing on microscopy or photometry. In this report, the self-assembly of murine embryonic stem cells (mESCs) to uniformly sized embryoid bodies (EBs), the cell proliferation, the cell viability as well as the influence on the cell differentiation to cardiomyocytes are described. The integration of a dosage module for medium exchange or agent addition will enable pbb as long-term 3D cell cultivation system for studying stem cell differentiation, e.g. cardiac myogenesis or for diagnostic and therapeutic testing in personalized medicine.
3D image-based characterization and flow modeling of quartz-filled microfractures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Prodanovic, M.; Eichhubl, P.; Bryant, S. L.; Davis, J. S.; Wanat, E. C.
2011-12-01
Accurate representation of geometry has first order influence on multiphase fluid flow in porous media on all relevant scales. 3D X-Ray computed microtomography (XCMT) has proved crucial in providing geometry information of many porous and fractured media of interest. Here we characterize 3D XCMT images of natural, quartz-filled fractures in tight gas sandstone from Piceance Basin, Colorado, and then build a representative flow model. While many rough-walled fractures have been analyzed/modeled using XCMT, this is to our knowledge the first 3D characterization and flow modeling of quartz-filled fractures. Natural quartz-filled fractures in samples analyzed are found to be very constricted, with many crystals bridging across the fracture but keeping large portions open to flow. In addition, this causes extreme local aperture variation. The affiliated pore space can be divided into fracture pores connected via very tight channels: a characterization typical for sandstones rather than microfractures, but with aspect ratios much higher than those found in sandstones. Single phase flow simulation in these network shows that the absolute permeability is about 100 times larger than in a conventional sandstone. We further simulate two phase fluid displacement directly in the pore space (using level-set based progressive quasi-static algorithm): both drainage and imbibition are characterized by discrete jumps in capillary-pressure vs. saturation relationships, as well as large residual saturations. Future work will include connecting the fracture network that represents both inter-granular and intra-granular porosity in the neighboring matrix.
Variational formulation of hybrid problems for fully 3-D transonic flow with shocks in rotor
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Liu, Gao-Lian
1991-01-01
Based on previous research, the unified variable domain variational theory of hybrid problems for rotor flow is extended to fully 3-D transonic rotor flow with shocks, unifying and generalizing the direct and inverse problems. Three variational principles (VP) families were established. All unknown boundaries and flow discontinuities (such as shocks, free trailing vortex sheets) are successfully handled via functional variations with variable domain, converting almost all boundary and interface conditions, including the Rankine Hugoniot shock relations, into natural ones. This theory provides a series of novel ways for blade design or modification and a rigorous theoretical basis for finite element applications and also constitutes an important part of the optimal design theory of rotor bladings. Numerical solutions to subsonic flow by finite elements with self-adapting nodes given in Refs., show good agreement with experimental results.
3D-PTV measurement of the phototactic movement of algae in shear flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maeda, Tatsuyuki; Ishikawa, Takuji; Ueno, Hironori; Numayama-Tsuruta, Keiko; Imai, Yosuke; Yamaguchi, Takami
2012-11-01
Recently, swimming motion of algae cells is researched actively, because algae fuel is one of the hottest topic in engineering. It is known that algae swim toward the light for photosynthesis however, the effect of a background flow on the unidirectional swimming is unclear. In this study, we used Volvox as a model alga and placed them in a simple shear flow with or without light stimulus. The shear flow was generated by moving two flat sheets in the opposite direction tangentially. A red LED light (wave length 660 nm) was used as an observation light source, and a white LED light was used to stimulate cells for the phototaxis. The trajectories of individual cells were measured by a 3D-PTV system, consists of a pair of high-speed camera with macro lenses. The results were analyzed to understand the effect of the background shear flow on the phototaxis of cells.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Panov, L. V.; Chirkov, D. V.; Cherny, S. G.; Pylev, I. M.
2014-01-01
A new approach was proposed for simulation of unsteady cavitating flow in the flow passage of a hydraulic power plant. 1D hydro-acoustics equations are solved in the penstock domain. 3D equations of turbulent flow of isothermal compressible liquid-vapor mixture are solved in the turbine domain. Cavitation is described by a transfer equation for liquid phase with a source term which is responsible for evaporation and condensation. The developed method was applied for simulation of pulsations in pressure, discharge, and total energy propagating along the flow conduit of the hydraulic power plant. Simulation results are in qualitative and quantitative agreement with experiment. The influence of key physical and numerical parameters like discharge, cavitation number, penstock length, time step, and vapor density on simulation results was studied.
Slip flow through a converging microchannel: experiments and 3D simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Varade, Vijay; Agrawal, Amit; Pradeep, A. M.
2015-02-01
An experimental and 3D numerical study of gaseous slip flow through a converging microchannel is presented in this paper. The measurements reported are with nitrogen gas flowing through the microchannel with convergence angles (4°, 8° and 12°), hydraulic diameters (118, 147 and 177 µm) and lengths (10, 20 and 30 mm). The measurements cover the entire slip flow regime and a part of the continuum and transition regimes (the Knudsen number is between 0.0004 and 0.14); the flow is laminar (the Reynolds number is between 0.5 and 1015). The static pressure drop is measured for various mass flow rates. The overall pressure drop increases with a decrease in the convergence angle and has a relatively large contribution of the viscous component. The numerical solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations with Maxwell’s slip boundary condition explore two different flow behaviors: uniform centerline velocity with linear pressure variation in the initial and the middle part of the microchannel and flow acceleration with nonlinear pressure variation in the last part of the microchannel. The centerline velocity and the wall shear stress increase with a decrease in the convergence angle. The concept of a characteristic length scale for a converging microchannel is also explored. The location of the characteristic length is a function of the Knudsen number and approaches the microchannel outlet with rarefaction. These results on gaseous slip flow through converging microchannels are observed to be considerably different than continuum flow.
Locally conservative groundwater flow in the continuous Galerkin method using 3-D prismatic patches
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Qiang; Zhao, Yingwang; Lin, Yu-Feng F.; Xu, Hua
2016-11-01
A new procedure has been developed to improve the velocity field computed by the continuous Galerkin finite element method (CG). It enables extending the postprocessing algorithm proposed by Cordes and Kinzelbach (1992) to three-dimensional (3-D) models by using prismatic patches for saturated groundwater flow. This approach leverages a dual mesh to preserve local mass conservation and provides interpolated velocities based on consistent fluxes. To develop this 3-D approach, a triangular conservative patch is introduced by computing not only advection fluxes, but also vertical infiltrations, storage changes, and other sink or source terms. This triangular patch is then used to develop a prismatic patch, which consists of subprisms in two layers. By dividing a single two-layer patch into two separate one-layer patches, two dimensional (2-D) algorithms can be applied to compute velocities. As a consequence, each subelement is able to preserve local mass conservation. A hypothetical 3-D model is used to evaluate the precision of streamlines and flow rates generated by this approach and the FEFLOW simulation program.
3D Laboratory Measurements of Forces, Flows, and Collimation in Arched Flux Tubes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Haw, Magnus; Bellan, Paul
2016-10-01
Fully 3D, vector MHD force measurements from an arched, current carrying flux tube (flux rope) are presented. The experiment consists of two arched plasma-filled flux ropes each powered by a capacitor bank. The two loops are partially overlapped, as in a Venn diagram, and collide and reconnect during their evolution. B-field data is taken on the lower plasma arch using a 54 channel B-dot probe. 3D volumetric data is acquired by placing the probe at 2700 locations and taking 5 plasma shots at each location. The resulting data set gives high resolution (2cm, 10ns) volumetric B-field data with high reproducibility (deviation of 3% between shots). Taking the curl of the measured 3D B-field gives current densities (J) in good agreement with measured capacitor bank current. The JxB forces calculated from the data have a strong axial component at the base of the current channel and are shown to scale linearly with axial gradients in current density. Assuming force balance in the flux tube minor radius direction, we infer near-Alfvenic axial flows from the footpoint regions which are consistent with the measured axial forces. Flux tube collimation is observed in conjunction with these axial flows. These dynamic processes are relevant to the stability and dynamics of coronal loops. Supported provided by NSF, AFOSR.
Calcium signaling in response to fluid flow by chondrocytes in 3D alginate culture.
Degala, Satish; Williams, Rebecca; Zipfel, Warren; Bonassar, Lawrence J
2012-05-01
Quantifying the effects of mechanical loading on the metabolic response of chondrocytes is difficult due to complicated structure of cartilage ECM and the coupled nature of the mechanical stimuli presented to the cells. In this study we describe the effects of fluid flow, particularly hydrostatic pressure and wall shear stress, on the Ca(2+) signaling response of bovine articular chondrocytes in 3D culture. Using well-established alginate hydrogel system to maintain spherical chondrocyte morphology, we altered solid volume fraction to change scaffold mechanics. Fluid velocities in the bulk of the scaffolds were directly measured via an optical technique and scaffold permeability and aggregate modulus was characterized to quantify the mechanical stimuli presented to cells. Ca(2+) signaling response to direct perfusion of chondrocyte-seeded scaffolds increased monotonically with flow rate and was found more directly dependent on fluid velocity rather than shear stress or hydrostatic pressure. Chondrocytes in alginate scaffolds responded to fluid flow at velocities and shear stresses 2-3 orders of magnitude lower than seen in previous monolayer studies. Our data suggest that flow-induced Ca(2+) signaling response of chondrocytes in alginate culture may be due to mechanical signaling pathways, which is influenced by the 3D nature of cell shape.
Cauchy's almost forgotten Lagrangian formulation of the Euler equation for 3D incompressible flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Frisch, Uriel; Villone, Barbara
2014-09-01
Two prized papers, one by Augustin Cauchy in 1815, presented to the French Academy and the other by Hermann Hankel in 1861, presented to Göttingen University, contain major discoveries on vorticity dynamics whose impact is now quickly increasing. Cauchy found a Lagrangian formulation of 3D ideal incompressible flow in terms of three invariants that generalize to three dimensions the now well-known law of conservation of vorticity along fluid particle trajectories for two-dimensional flow. This has very recently been used to prove analyticity in time of fluid particle trajectories for 3D incompressible Euler flow and can be extended to compressible flow, in particular to cosmological dark matter. Hankel showed that Cauchy's formulation gives a very simple Lagrangian derivation of the Helmholtz vorticity-flux invariants and, in the middle of the proof, derived an intermediate result which is the conservation of the circulation of the velocity around a closed contour moving with the fluid. This circulation theorem was to be rediscovered independently by William Thomson (Kelvin) in 1869. Cauchy's invariants were only occasionally cited in the 19th century - besides Hankel, foremost by George Stokes and Maurice Lévy - and even less so in the 20th until they were rediscovered via Emmy Noether's theorem in the late 1960, but reattributed to Cauchy only at the end of the 20th century by Russian scientists.
Squire's transformation and 3D Optimal Perturbations in Bounded Parallel Shear Flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chomaz, Jean-Marc; Soundar Jerome, J. John
2011-11-01
The aim of this short communication is to present the implication of Squire's transformation on the optimal transient growth of arbitrary 3D disturbances in parallel shear flow bounded in the cross-stream direction. To our best knowledge this simple property has never been discussed before. In particular it allows to express the long-time optimal growth for perturbations of arbitrary wavenumbers as the product of the gains from the 2D optimal at a lower Reynolds number itself due to the Orr-mechanism by a term that may be identified as due to the lift-up mechanism. This property predict scalings for the 3D optimal perturbation well verified by direct computation. It may be extended to take into account buoyancy effect.
A 3-D nonisothermal flow simulation and pulling force model for injection pultrusion processes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mustafa, Ibrahim
1998-12-01
Injected Pultrusion (IP) is an efficient way of producing high quality, low cost, high volume and constant cross-section polymeric composites. This process has been developed recently, and the efforts to optimize it are still underway. This work is related to the development of a 3-D non-isothermal flow model for the IP processes. The governing equations for transport of mass, momentum and, energy are formulated by using a local volume averaging approach, and the Finite Element/Control Volume method is used to solve the system of equations numerically. The chemical species balance equation is solved in the Lagrangian frame of reference whereas the energy equation is solved using Galerkin, SU (Streamline Upwind), and SUPG (Streamline Upwind Petrov Galerkin) approaches. By varying degrees of freedom and the flow rates of the resin, it is shown that at high Peclet numbers the SUPG formulation performs better than the SU and the Galerkin methods in all cases. The 3-D model predictions for degree of cure and temperature are compared with a one dimensional analytical solution and the results are found satisfactory. Moreover, by varying the Brinkman Number, it is shown that the effect of viscous dissipation is insignificant. The 3-D flow simulations have been carried out for both thin and thick parts and the results are compared with the 2-D model. It is shown that for thick parts 2-D simulations render erroneous results. The effect of changing permeability on the flow fronts is also addressed. The effect of increasing taper angle on the model prediction is also investigated. A parametric study is conducted to isolate optimum conditions for both isothermal and non-isothermal cases using a straight rectangular die and a die with a tapered inlet. Finally, a simple pulling force model is developed and the pulling force required to pull the carbon-epoxy fiber resin system is estimated for dies of varying tapered inlet.
Predictions of bubbly flows in vertical pipes using two-fluid models in CFDS-FLOW3D code
Banas, A.O.; Carver, M.B.; Unrau, D.
1995-09-01
This paper reports the results of a preliminary study exploring the performance of two sets of two-fluid closure relationships applied to the simulation of turbulent air-water bubbly upflows through vertical pipes. Predictions obtained with the default CFDS-FLOW3D model for dispersed flows were compared with the predictions of a new model (based on the work of Lee), and with the experimental data of Liu. The new model, implemented in the CFDS-FLOW3D code, included additional source terms in the {open_quotes}standard{close_quotes} {kappa}-{epsilon} transport equations for the liquid phase, as well as modified model coefficients and wall functions. All simulations were carried out in a 2-D axisymmetric format, collapsing the general multifluid framework of CFDS-FLOW3D to the two-fluid (air-water) case. The newly implemented model consistently improved predictions of radial-velocity profiles of both phases, but failed to accurately reproduce the experimental phase-distribution data. This shortcoming was traced to the neglect of anisotropic effects in the modelling of liquid-phase turbulence. In this sense, the present investigation should be considered as the first step toward the ultimate goal of developing a theoretically sound and universal CFD-type two-fluid model for bubbly flows in channels.
3-D trajectory model for MDT using micro-spheres implanted within large blood vessels
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Choomphon-anomakhun, Natthaphon; Natenapit, Mayuree
2016-09-01
Implant assisted magnetic drug targeting (IA-MDT) using ferromagnetic spherical targets implanted within large blood vessels and subjected to a uniform externally applied magnetic field (H0) has been investigated and reported for the first time. The capture areas (As) of magnetic drug carrier particles (MDCPs) were determined from the analysis of particle trajectories simulated from equations of motion. Then, the effects of various parameters, such as types of ferromagnetic materials in the targets and MDCPs, blood flow rates, mass fraction of the ferromagnetic material in the MDCPs, average radii of MDCPs (Rp) and the strength of H0 on the As were obtained. Furthermore, the effects of saturation magnetization of the ferromagnetic materials in the MDCPs and within the targets on the As were analyzed. After this, the suitable strengths of H0 and Rp for IA-MDT designs were reported. Dimensionless As, ranging from 2 to 7, was obtained with Rp ranging from 500 to 2500 nm, μ0H0 less than 0.8 T and a blood flow rate of 0.1 m s-1. The target-MDCP materials considered are iron-iron, iron-magnetite and SS409-magnetite, respectively.
3-D segmentation of retinal blood vessels in spectral-domain OCT volumes of the optic nerve head
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Kyungmoo; Abràmoff, Michael D.; Niemeijer, Meindert; Garvin, Mona K.; Sonka, Milan
2010-03-01
Segmentation of retinal blood vessels can provide important information for detecting and tracking retinal vascular diseases including diabetic retinopathy, arterial hypertension, arteriosclerosis and retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). Many studies on 2-D segmentation of retinal blood vessels from a variety of medical images have been performed. However, 3-D segmentation of retinal blood vessels from spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) volumes, which is capable of providing geometrically accurate vessel models, to the best of our knowledge, has not been previously studied. The purpose of this study is to develop and evaluate a method that can automatically detect 3-D retinal blood vessels from spectral-domain OCT scans centered on the optic nerve head (ONH). The proposed method utilized a fast multiscale 3-D graph search to segment retinal surfaces as well as a triangular mesh-based 3-D graph search to detect retinal blood vessels. An experiment on 30 ONH-centered OCT scans (15 right eye scans and 15 left eye scans) from 15 subjects was performed, and the mean unsigned error in 3-D of the computer segmentations compared with the independent standard obtained from a retinal specialist was 3.4 +/- 2.5 voxels (0.10 +/- 0.07 mm).
3D nozzle flow simulations including state-to-state kinetics calculation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cutrone, L.; Tuttafesta, M.; Capitelli, M.; Schettino, A.; Pascazio, G.; Colonna, G.
2014-12-01
In supersonic and hypersonic flows, thermal and chemical non-equilibrium is one of the fundamental aspects that must be taken into account for the accurate characterization of the plasma. In this paper, we present an optimized methodology to approach plasma numerical simulation by state-to-state kinetics calculations in a fully 3D Navier-Stokes CFD solver. Numerical simulations of an expanding flow are presented aimed at comparing the behavior of state-to-state chemical kinetics models with respect to the macroscopic thermochemical non-equilibrium models that are usually used in the numerical computation of high temperature hypersonic flows. The comparison is focused both on the differences in the numerical results and on the computational effort associated with each approach.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alhendal, Yousuf; Turan, Ali
2016-12-01
Two dimensional axisymmetric and three-dimensional VOF simulations of gas/liquid transient flow were performed using a multiphase flow algorithm based on the finite-volume method. The results for motion of a multiple bubbles of a heterogeneous sizes aligned horizontally and perpendicular to a hot surface incorporating thermocapillary forces in a rotating liquid in a zero-gravity environment have been presented for the first time. No bubbles broke in any of the cases observed. The results also show that collision and agglomeration of bubbles of unequal sizes diameter are different from those of similar size diameters presented from earlier research work of Alhendal et al. Acta Astronaut. 117, 484-496 (2015). Different flow patterns such as thermocapillary bubble migration, collision, and stream function were observed and presented for the 2-D and 3-D models.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Clifford, Philip S.
2011-01-01
Organ blood flow is determined by perfusion pressure and vasomotor tone in the resistance vessels of the organ. Local factors that regulate vasomotor tone include myogenic and metabolic autoregulation, flow-mediated and conducted responses, and vasoactive substances released from red blood cells. The relative importance of each of these factors…
Numerical simulation of unsteady flow characteristics for cavitation around a 3-D hydrofoil
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ahn, S. H.; Xiao, Y. X.; Wang, Z. W.
2015-01-01
At present it is possible to predict more accurately by various numerical methods established for cavitation simulation around a hydrofoil. However, for the solution of the complex unsteady cavity flow, it is still marginal. In this paper, numerical method is adopted to simulate cavitation around 3-D NACA0015 hydrofoil with homogeneous two-phase flow calculation using commercial code CFX-solver with two turbulence models, the standard RNG k-epsilon turbulence model and the modified RNG k-epsilon turbulence model respectively. First, pressure coefficient for non-cavitating flow, time averaged values of unsteady cavity flow around a hydrofoil are verified to simulate more closely to an actual cavity flow. And then frequency analysis is performed with Fast Fourier Transform. The results show that the calculation results with modified RNG k-epsilon turbulence model agree with experimental results in terms of mean cavity length and pressure drop, but the unsteady flow characteristics of oscillating cavitation still deviate slightly in terms of unsteady cavity flow.
Mimicking Natural Laminar to Turbulent Flow Transition: A Systematic CFD Study Using PAB3D
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pao, S. Paul; Abdol-Hamid, Khaled S.
2005-01-01
For applied aerodynamic computations using a general purpose Navier-Stokes code, the common practice of treating laminar to turbulent flow transition over a non-slip surface is somewhat arbitrary by either treating the entire flow as turbulent or forcing the flow to undergo transition at given trip locations in the computational domain. In this study, the possibility of using the PAB3D code, standard k-epsilon turbulence model, and the Girimaji explicit algebraic stresses model to mimic natural laminar to turbulent flow transition was explored. The sensitivity of flow transition with respect to two limiters in the standard k-epsilon turbulence model was examined using a flat plate and a 6:1 aspect ratio prolate spheroid for our computations. For the flat plate, a systematic dependence of transition Reynolds number on background turbulence intensity was found. For the prolate spheroid, the transition patterns in the three-dimensional boundary layer at different flow conditions were sensitive to the free stream turbulence viscosity limit, the reference Reynolds number and the angle of attack, but not to background turbulence intensity below a certain threshold value. The computed results showed encouraging agreements with the experimental measurements at the corresponding geometry and flow conditions.
A Laminar Flow-Based Microfluidic Tesla Pump via Lithography Enabled 3D Printing.
Habhab, Mohammed-Baker; Ismail, Tania; Lo, Joe Fujiou
2016-11-23
Tesla turbine and its applications in power generation and fluid flow were demonstrated by Nicholas Tesla in 1913. However, its real-world implementations were limited by the difficulty to maintain laminar flow between rotor disks, transient efficiencies during rotor acceleration, and the lack of other applications that fully utilize the continuous flow outputs. All of the aforementioned limits of Tesla turbines can be addressed by scaling to the microfluidic flow regime. Demonstrated here is a microscale Tesla pump designed and fabricated using a Digital Light Processing (DLP) based 3D printer with 43 µm lateral and 30 µm thickness resolutions. The miniaturized pump is characterized by low Reynolds number of 1000 and a flow rate of up to 12.6 mL/min at 1200 rpm, unloaded. It is capable of driving a mixer network to generate microfluidic gradient. The continuous, laminar flow from Tesla turbines is well-suited to the needs of flow-sensitive microfluidics, where the integrated pump will enable numerous compact lab-on-a-chip applications.
A Laminar Flow-Based Microfluidic Tesla Pump via Lithography Enabled 3D Printing
Habhab, Mohammed-Baker; Ismail, Tania; Lo, Joe Fujiou
2016-01-01
Tesla turbine and its applications in power generation and fluid flow were demonstrated by Nicholas Tesla in 1913. However, its real-world implementations were limited by the difficulty to maintain laminar flow between rotor disks, transient efficiencies during rotor acceleration, and the lack of other applications that fully utilize the continuous flow outputs. All of the aforementioned limits of Tesla turbines can be addressed by scaling to the microfluidic flow regime. Demonstrated here is a microscale Tesla pump designed and fabricated using a Digital Light Processing (DLP) based 3D printer with 43 µm lateral and 30 µm thickness resolutions. The miniaturized pump is characterized by low Reynolds number of 1000 and a flow rate of up to 12.6 mL/min at 1200 rpm, unloaded. It is capable of driving a mixer network to generate microfluidic gradient. The continuous, laminar flow from Tesla turbines is well-suited to the needs of flow-sensitive microfluidics, where the integrated pump will enable numerous compact lab-on-a-chip applications. PMID:27886051
Reconstruction and Visualization of Coordinated 3D Cell Migration Based on Optical Flow.
Kappe, Christopher P; Schütz, Lucas; Gunther, Stefan; Hufnagel, Lars; Lemke, Steffen; Leitte, Heike
2016-01-01
Animal development is marked by the repeated reorganization of cells and cell populations, which ultimately determine form and shape of the growing organism. One of the central questions in developmental biology is to understand precisely how cells reorganize, as well as how and to what extent this reorganization is coordinated. While modern microscopes can record video data for every cell during animal development in 3D+t, analyzing these videos remains a major challenge: reconstruction of comprehensive cell tracks turned out to be very demanding especially with decreasing data quality and increasing cell densities. In this paper, we present an analysis pipeline for coordinated cellular motions in developing embryos based on the optical flow of a series of 3D images. We use numerical integration to reconstruct cellular long-term motions in the optical flow of the video, we take care of data validation, and we derive a LIC-based, dense flow visualization for the resulting pathlines. This approach allows us to handle low video quality such as noisy data or poorly separated cells, and it allows the biologists to get a comprehensive understanding of their data by capturing dynamic growth processes in stills. We validate our methods using three videos of growing fruit fly embryos.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shahraeeni, E.; Firoozabadi, A.
2012-12-01
We present a 3D model for fully compositional multi-phase multi-component flow in porous media with species transfer between the phases. Phase properties are modeled with the Peng-Robinson equation of state. Because phase properties may exhibit strong discontinuities, we approximate the mass transport update by the means of discontinuous Galerkin method. Pressure and velocity fields are continuous across the whole domain of solution, which is guaranteed by using the mixed hybrid finite element method. Complexity of the flow necessitates the use of either very fine mesh or higher-order schemes. The use of higher-order finite element methods significantly reduces numerical dispersion and grid orientation effects that plague traditional finite difference methods. We have shown that in 3D the convergence rate of our scheme is twice as first order method and the CPU time may improve up to three orders of magnitude for the same level of accuracy. Our numerical model facilitates accurate simulation of delicate feature of compositional flow like fingering and CO2 injection in complex reservoirs for a broad range of applications, including CO2 sequestration in finite aquifer and water flooded reservoirs with transfer of all species between the phases.
Simulation of the 3D viscoelastic free surface flow by a parallel corrected particle scheme
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jin-Lian, Ren; Tao, Jiang
2016-02-01
In this work, the behavior of the three-dimensional (3D) jet coiling based on the viscoelastic Oldroyd-B model is investigated by a corrected particle scheme, which is named the smoothed particle hydrodynamics with corrected symmetric kernel gradient and shifting particle technique (SPH_CS_SP) method. The accuracy and stability of SPH_CS_SP method is first tested by solving Poiseuille flow and Taylor-Green flow. Then the capacity for the SPH_CS_SP method to solve the viscoelastic fluid is verified by the polymer flow through a periodic array of cylinders. Moreover, the convergence of the SPH_CS_SP method is also investigated. Finally, the proposed method is further applied to the 3D viscoelastic jet coiling problem, and the influences of macroscopic parameters on the jet coiling are discussed. The numerical results show that the SPH_CS_SP method has higher accuracy and better stability than the traditional SPH method and other corrected SPH method, and can improve the tensile instability. Project supported by the Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Province, China (Grant Nos. BK20130436 and BK20150436) and the Natural Science Foundation of the Higher Education Institutions of Jiangsu Province, China (Grant No. 15KJB110025).
Blood Flow in the Microcirculation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Secomb, Timothy W.
2017-01-01
The microcirculation is an extensive network of microvessels that distributes blood flow throughout living tissues. Reynolds numbers are much less than 1, and the equations of Stokes flow apply. Blood is a suspension of cells with dimensions comparable to microvessel diameters. Highly deformable red blood cells, which transport oxygen, have a volume concentration (hematocrit) of 40–45% in humans. In the narrowest capillaries, these cells move in single file with a surrounding lubricating layer of plasma. In larger vessels, the red blood cells migrate toward the centerline, reducing the resistance to blood flow. Vessel walls are coated with a layer of macromolecules that restricts flow. At diverging bifurcations, hematocrit is not evenly distributed in the downstream vessels. Other particles are driven toward the walls by interactions with red blood cells. These physiologically important phenomena are discussed here from a fluid mechanical perspective.
Decay of the 3D viscous liquid-gas two-phase flow model with damping
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Yinghui
2016-08-01
We establish the optimal Lp - L2(1 ≤ p < 6/5) time decay rates of the solution to the Cauchy problem for the 3D viscous liquid-gas two-phase flow model with damping and analyse the influences of the damping on the qualitative behaviors of solution. It is observed that the fraction effect of the damping affects the dispersion of fluids and enhances the time decay rate of solution. Our method of proof consists of Hodge decomposition technique, Lp - L2 estimates for the linearized equations, and delicate energy estimates.
Computing 3-D steady supersonic flow via a new Lagrangian approach
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Loh, C. Y.; Liou, M.-S.
1993-01-01
The new Lagrangian method introduced by Loh and Hui (1990) is extended for 3-D steady supersonic flow computation. Details of the conservation form, the implementation of the local Riemann solver, and the Godunov and the high resolution TVD schemes are presented. The new approach is robust yet accurate, capable of handling complicated geometry and reactions between discontinuous waves. It keeps all the advantages claimed in the 2-D method of Loh and Hui, e.g., crisp resolution for a slip surface (contact discontinuity) and automatic grid generation along the stream.
Reactive Flow Modeling of Liquid Explosives via ALE3D/Cheetah Simulations
Kuo, I W; Bastea, S; Fried, L E
2010-03-10
We carried out reactive flow simulations of liquid explosives such as nitromethane using the hydrodynamic code ALE3D coupled with equations of state and reaction kinetics modeled by the thermochemical code Cheetah. The simulation set-up was chosen to mimic cylinder experiments. For pure unconfined nitromethane we find that the failure diameter and detonation velocity dependence on charge diameter are in agreement with available experimental results. Such simulations are likely to be useful for determining detonability and failure behavior for a wide range of experimental conditions and explosive compounds.
Segmentation of bone structures in 3D CT images based on continuous max-flow optimization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pérez-Carrasco, J. A.; Acha-Piñero, B.; Serrano, C.
2015-03-01
In this paper an algorithm to carry out the automatic segmentation of bone structures in 3D CT images has been implemented. Automatic segmentation of bone structures is of special interest for radiologists and surgeons to analyze bone diseases or to plan some surgical interventions. This task is very complicated as bones usually present intensities overlapping with those of surrounding tissues. This overlapping is mainly due to the composition of bones and to the presence of some diseases such as Osteoarthritis, Osteoporosis, etc. Moreover, segmentation of bone structures is a very time-consuming task due to the 3D essence of the bones. Usually, this segmentation is implemented manually or with algorithms using simple techniques such as thresholding and thus providing bad results. In this paper gray information and 3D statistical information have been combined to be used as input to a continuous max-flow algorithm. Twenty CT images have been tested and different coefficients have been computed to assess the performance of our implementation. Dice and Sensitivity values above 0.91 and 0.97 respectively were obtained. A comparison with Level Sets and thresholding techniques has been carried out and our results outperformed them in terms of accuracy.
Flow integration transform: detecting shapes in matrix-array 3D ultrasound data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stetten, George D.; Caines, Michael; von Ramm, Olaf T.
1995-03-01
Matrix-array ultrasound produces real-time 3D images of the heart, by employing a square array of transducers to steer the ultrasound beam in three dimensions electronically with no moving parts. Other 3D modalities such as MR, MUGA, and CT require the use of gated studies, which combine many cardiac cycles to produce a single average cycle. Three- dimensional ultrasound eliminates this restriction, in theory permitting the continuous measurement of cardiac ventricular volume, which we call the volumetricardiogram. Towards implementing the volumetricardiogram, we have developed the flow integration transform (FIT), which operates on a 2D slice within the volumetric ultrasound data. The 3D ultrasound machine's scan converter produces a set of such slices in real time, at any desired location and orientation, to which the FIT may then be applied. Although lacking rotational or scale invariance, the FIT is designed to operate in dedicated hardware where an entire transform could be completed within a few microseconds with present integrated circuit technology. This speed would permit the application of a large battery of test shapes, or the evolution of the test shape to converge on that of the actual target.
Large-eddy simulation of 3D turbulent flow past a complete marine hydrokinetic turbine
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kang, S.; Sotiropoulos, F.
2011-12-01
A high-resolution computational framework was recently developed by Kang et al (Adv. Water Resour., submitted) for simulating three-dimensional (3D), turbulent flow past real-life, complete marine hydrokinetic (MHK) turbine configurations. In this model the complex turbine geometry is resolved by employing the curvilinear immersed boundary (CURVIB) method, which solves the 3D unsteady incompressible Navier-Stokes equations in generalized curvilinear domains with embedded arbitrarily complex, moving and/or stationary immersed boundaries (Ge and Sotiropoulos, 2007). Turbulence is simulated using the large-eddy simulation (LES) approach adapted in the context of the CURVIB method, with a wall model based on solving the simplified boundary layer equations used to reconstruct boundary conditions near all solid surfaces (Kang et al., 2011). The model can resolve the flow patterns generated by the rotor and all stationary components of the turbine as well as the interactions of the flow structures with the channel bed. We apply this model to carry out LES of the flow past the model-size hydrokinetic turbine deployed in the St. Anthony Falls Laboratory main channel. The mean velocities and second-order turbulence statistics measured in the downstream wake using acoustic Doppler velocimetry (ADV) are compared with the LES results. The comparisons show that the computed mean velocities and turbulent stresses are in good agreement with the measurements. The high-resolution LES data are used to explore physically important downstream flow characteristics such as the time-averaged wake structure, recovery of cross-sectionally averaged power potential, near-bed scour potential, etc. This work is supported by Verdant Power.
Study on 3-D simulation of flow and turbidity in an oxbow lake in tidal compartment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yokoyama, H.; Momonoe, H.; Hamamoto, S.
2010-12-01
We aimed to make flow and turbidity simulation model for an oxbow lake in tidal compartment. The oxbow has two bottle-necks and inflow river from urban district. Bed topography of the oxbow is former meandering channel of large-basin river. Therefore characteristic of flow and water quality is complex. First, field observation was conducted to clarify the characteristics of flow and water quality in the oxbow. From observation results, flow and resuspension phenomena in the oxbow were affected by wind and tide, and the balance of the two factors changed longitudinally. Next, we built 3-D simulation model of flow which took account of the field observation results. In order to investigate effective water quality improvement, we set some test cases: condition of wind, inflow river were changed. From the simulation results, tide was the most important factor, however at the upper part of the oxbow, where the tidal power seemed to be weaker, flow and turbidity were clearly affected by the wind.
Multi-cellular 3D human primary liver cell culture elevates metabolic activity under fluidic flow.
Esch, Mandy B; Prot, Jean-Matthieu; Wang, Ying I; Miller, Paula; Llamas-Vidales, Jose Ricardo; Naughton, Brian A; Applegate, Dawn R; Shuler, Michael L
2015-05-21
We have developed a low-cost liver cell culture device that creates fluidic flow over a 3D primary liver cell culture that consists of multiple liver cell types, including hepatocytes and non-parenchymal cells (fibroblasts, stellate cells, and Kupffer cells). We tested the performance of the cell culture under fluidic flow for 14 days, finding that hepatocytes produced albumin and urea at elevated levels compared to static cultures. Hepatocytes also responded with induction of P450 (CYP1A1 and CYP3A4) enzyme activity when challenged with P450 inducers, although we did not find significant differences between static and fluidic cultures. Non-parenchymal cells were similarly responsive, producing interleukin 8 (IL-8) when challenged with 10 μM bacterial lipoprotein (LPS). To create the fluidic flow in an inexpensive manner, we used a rocking platform that tilts the cell culture devices at angles between ±12°, resulting in a periodically changing hydrostatic pressure drop between reservoirs and the accompanying periodically changing fluidic flow (average flow rate of 650 μL min(-1), and a maximum shear stress of 0.64 dyne cm(-2)). The increase in metabolic activity is consistent with the hypothesis that, similar to unidirectional fluidic flow, primary liver cell cultures increase their metabolic activity in response to fluidic flow periodically changes direction. Since fluidic flow that changes direction periodically drastically changes the behavior of other cells types that are shear sensitive, our findings support the theory that the increase in hepatic metabolic activity associated with fluidic flow is either activated by mechanisms other than shear sensing (for example increased opportunities for gas and metabolite exchange), or that it follows a shear sensing mechanism that does not depend on the direction of shear. Our mode of device operation allows us to evaluate drugs under fluidic cell culture conditions and at low device manufacturing and operation
Decay of the 3D inviscid liquid-gas two-phase flow model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Yinghui
2016-06-01
We establish the optimal {Lp-L2(1 ≤ p < 6/5)} time decay rates of the solution to the Cauchy problem for the 3D inviscid liquid-gas two-phase flow model and analyze the influences of the damping on the qualitative behaviors of solution. Compared with the viscous liquid-gas two-phase flow model (Zhang and Zhu in J Differ Equ 258:2315-2338, 2015), our results imply that the friction effect of the damping is stronger than the dissipation effect of the viscosities and enhances the decay rate of the velocity. Our proof is based on Hodge decomposition technique, the {Lp-L2} estimates for the linearized equations and an elaborate energy method.
Adhikari, Deepak; Gemmell, Brad J; Hallberg, Michael P; Longmire, Ellen K; Buskey, Edward J
2015-11-01
We describe an automated, volumetric particle image velocimetry (PIV) and tracking method that measures time-resolved, 3D zooplankton trajectories and surrounding volumetric fluid velocity fields simultaneously and non-intrusively. The method is demonstrated for groups of copepods flowing past a wall-mounted cylinder. We show that copepods execute escape responses when subjected to a strain rate threshold upstream of a cylinder, but the same threshold range elicits no escape responses in the turbulent wake downstream. The method was also used to document the instantaneous slip velocity of zooplankton and the resulting differences in trajectory between zooplankton and non-inertial fluid particles in the unsteady wake flow, showing the method's capability to quantify drift for both passive and motile organisms in turbulent environments. Applications of the method extend to any group of organisms interacting with the surrounding fluid environment, where organism location, larger-scale eddies and smaller-scale fluid deformation rates can all be tracked and analyzed.
Respiratory motion correction in 3-D PET data with advanced optical flow algorithms.
Dawood, Mohammad; Buther, Florian; Jiang, Xiaoyi; Schafers, Klaus P
2008-08-01
The problem of motion is well known in positron emission tomography (PET) studies. The PET images are formed over an elongated period of time. As the patients cannot hold breath during the PET acquisition, spatial blurring and motion artifacts are the natural result. These may lead to wrong quantification of the radioactive uptake. We present a solution to this problem by respiratory-gating the PET data and correcting the PET images for motion with optical flow algorithms. The algorithm is based on the combined local and global optical flow algorithm with modifications to allow for discontinuity preservation across organ boundaries and for application to 3-D volume sets. The superiority of the algorithm over previous work is demonstrated on software phantom and real patient data.
Brightness-compensated 3-D optical flow algorithm for monitoring cochlear motion patterns
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
von Tiedemann, Miriam; Fridberger, Anders; Ulfendahl, Mats; de Monvel, Jacques Boutet
2010-09-01
A method for three-dimensional motion analysis designed for live cell imaging by fluorescence confocal microscopy is described. The approach is based on optical flow computation and takes into account brightness variations in the image scene that are not due to motion, such as photobleaching or fluorescence variations that may reflect changes in cellular physiology. The 3-D optical flow algorithm allowed almost perfect motion estimation on noise-free artificial sequences, and performed with a relative error of <10% on noisy images typical of real experiments. The method was applied to a series of 3-D confocal image stacks from an in vitro preparation of the guinea pig cochlea. The complex motions caused by slow pressure changes in the cochlear compartments were quantified. At the surface of the hearing organ, the largest motion component was the transverse one (normal to the surface), but significant radial and longitudinal displacements were also present. The outer hair cell displayed larger radial motion at their basolateral membrane than at their apical surface. These movements reflect mechanical interactions between different cellular structures, which may be important for communicating sound-evoked vibrations to the sensory cells. A better understanding of these interactions is important for testing realistic models of cochlear mechanics.
Flow-Through Stream Modeling with MODFLOW and MT3D: Certainties and Limitations.
Ben Simon, Rose; Bernard, Stéphane; Meurville, Charles; Rebour, Vincent
2015-01-01
This paper aims to assess MODFLOW and MT3D capabilities for simulating the spread of contaminants from a river exhibiting an unusual relationship with an alluvial aquifer, with the groundwater head higher than the river head on one side and lower on the other (flow-through stream). A series of simulation tests is conducted using a simple hypothetical model so as to characterize and quantify these limitations. Simulation results show that the expected contaminant spread could be achieved with a specific configuration composed of two sets of parameters: (1) modeled object parameters (hydraulic groundwater gradient, hydraulic conductivity values of aquifer and streambed), and (2) modeling parameters (vertical discretization of aquifer, horizontal refinement of stream modeled with River [RIV] package). The influence of these various parameters on simulation results is investigated, and potential complications and errors are identified. Contaminant spread from stream to aquifer is not always reproduced by MT3D due to the RIV package's inability to simulate lateral exchange fluxes between stream and aquifer. This paper identifies the need for a MODFLOW streamflow package allowing lateral stream-aquifer interactions and streamflow routine calculations. Such developments could be of particular interest for modeling contaminated flow-through streams.
Brightness-compensated 3-D optical flow algorithm for monitoring cochlear motion patterns.
von Tiedemann, Miriam; Fridberger, Anders; Ulfendahl, Mats; de Monvel, Jacques Boutet
2010-01-01
A method for three-dimensional motion analysis designed for live cell imaging by fluorescence confocal microscopy is described. The approach is based on optical flow computation and takes into account brightness variations in the image scene that are not due to motion, such as photobleaching or fluorescence variations that may reflect changes in cellular physiology. The 3-D optical flow algorithm allowed almost perfect motion estimation on noise-free artificial sequences, and performed with a relative error of <10% on noisy images typical of real experiments. The method was applied to a series of 3-D confocal image stacks from an in vitro preparation of the guinea pig cochlea. The complex motions caused by slow pressure changes in the cochlear compartments were quantified. At the surface of the hearing organ, the largest motion component was the transverse one (normal to the surface), but significant radial and longitudinal displacements were also present. The outer hair cell displayed larger radial motion at their basolateral membrane than at their apical surface. These movements reflect mechanical interactions between different cellular structures, which may be important for communicating sound-evoked vibrations to the sensory cells. A better understanding of these interactions is important for testing realistic models of cochlear mechanics.
Eulerian and Lagrangian methods for vortex tracking in 2D and 3D flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Yangzi; Green, Melissa
2014-11-01
Coherent structures are a key component of unsteady flows in shear layers. Improvement of experimental techniques has led to larger amounts of data and requires of automated procedures for vortex tracking. Many vortex criteria are Eulerian, and identify the structures by an instantaneous local swirling motion in the field, which are indicated by closed or spiral streamlines or pathlines in a reference frame. Alternatively, a Lagrangian Coherent Structures (LCS) analysis is a Lagrangian method based on the quantities calculated along fluid particle trajectories. In the current work, vortex detection is demonstrated on data from the simulation of two cases: a 2D flow with a flat plate undergoing a 45 ° pitch-up maneuver and a 3D wall-bounded turbulence channel flow. Vortices are visualized and tracked by their centers and boundaries using Γ1, the Q criterion, and LCS saddle points. In the cases of 2D flow, saddle points trace showed a rapid acceleration of the structure which indicates the shedding from the plate. For channel flow, saddle points trace shows that average structure convection speed exhibits a similar trend as a function of wall-normal distance as the mean velocity profile, and leads to statistical quantities of vortex dynamics. Dr. Jeff Eldredge and his research group at UCLA are gratefully acknowledged for sharing the database of simulation for the current research. This work was supported by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research under AFOSR Award No. FA9550-14-1-0210.
Pelton turbine Needle erosion prediction based on 3D three- phase flow simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chongji, Z.; Yexiang, X.; Wei, Z.; Yangyang, Y.; Lei, C.; Zhengwei, W.
2014-03-01
Pelton turbine, which applied to the high water head and small flow rate, is widely used in the mountainous area. During the operation period the sediment contained in the water does not only induce the abrasion of the buckets, but also leads to the erosion at the nozzle which may damage the needle structure. The nozzle and needle structure are mainly used to form high quality cylindrical jet and increase the efficiency of energy exchange in the runner to the most. Thus the needle erosion will lead to the deformation of jet, and then may cause the efficiency loss and cavitation. The favourable prediction of abrasion characteristic of needle can effectively guide the optimization design and maintenance of needle structure. This paper simulated the unsteady three-dimensional multi-phase flow in the nozzle and injected jet flow. As the jet containing water and sediment is injected into the free atmosphere air with high velocity, the VOF model was adopted to predict the water and air flow. The sediment is simplified into round solid particle and the discrete particle model (DPM) was employed to predict the needle abrasion characteristic. The sand particle tracks were analyzed to interpret the mechanism of sand erosion on the needle surface. And the numerical result of needle abrasion was obtained and compared with the abrasion field observation. The similarity of abrasion pattern between the numerical results and field observation illustrated the validity of the 3D multi-phase flow simulation method.
Computed Tomography 3-D Imaging of the Metal Deformation Flow Path in Friction Stir Welding
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schneider, Judy; Beshears, Ronald; Nunes, Arthur C., Jr.
2005-01-01
In friction stir welding (FSW), a rotating threaded pin tool is inserted into a weld seam and literally stirs the edges of the seam together. To determine optimal processing parameters for producing a defect free weld, a better understanding of the resulting metal deformation flow path is required. Marker studies are the principal method of studying the metal deformation flow path around the FSW pin tool. In our study, we have used computed tomography (CT) scans to reveal the flow pattern of a lead wire embedded in a FSW weld seam. At the welding temperature of aluminum, the lead becomes molten and is carried with the macro-flow of the weld metal. By using CT images, a 3-dimensional (3D) image of the lead flow pattern can be reconstructed. CT imaging was found to be a convenient and comprehensive way of collecting and displaying tracer data. It marks an advance over previous more tedious and ambiguous radiographic/metallographic data collection methods.
Viscous Incompressible Flow Computations for 3-D Steady and Unsteady Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kwak, Dochan
2001-01-01
This viewgraph presentation gives an overview of viscous incompressible flow computations for three-dimensional steady and unsteady flows. Details are given on the use of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) as an engineering tool, solution methods for incompressible Navier-Stokes equations, numerical and physical characteristics of the primitive variable approach, and the role of CFD in the past and in current engineering and research applications.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fung, Y. C.
1995-05-01
This conference on physiology and function covers a wide range of subjects, including the vasculature and blood flow, the flow of gas, water, and blood in the lung, the neurological structure and function, the modeling, and the motion and mechanics of organs. Many technologies are discussed. I believe that the list would include a robotic photographer, to hold the optical equipment in a precisely controlled way to obtain the images for the user. Why are 3D images needed? They are to achieve certain objectives through measurements of some objects. For example, in order to improve performance in sports or beauty of a person, we measure the form, dimensions, appearance, and movements.
Anderson, Jeff R; Klucznik, Richard; Diaz, Orlando; Zhang, Y Jonathan; Britz, Gavin W; Grossman, Robert G; Karmonik, Christof
2015-01-01
Phase contrast MRI (pcMRI) was used to measure flow before and after placement of a flow diverter (n = 3). Decreases from 18% to 31% in flow velocity were seen in the inflow jet of the aneurysms. Flow patterns were also compared. It was observed that the gross aneurysmal flow patterns were maintained after flow diverter placement despite decreased fluid velocities. All measurements were carried out in 3D printed aneurysm replicas.
Test Problems for Reactive Flow HE Model in the ALE3D Code and Limited Sensitivity Study
Gerassimenko, M.
2000-03-01
We document quick running test problems for a reactive flow model of HE initiation incorporated into ALE3D. A quarter percent change in projectile velocity changes the outcome from detonation to HE burn that dies down. We study the sensitivity of calculated HE behavior to several parameters of practical interest where modeling HE initiation with ALE3D.
Endovascular blood flow measurement system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khe, A. K.; Cherevko, A. A.; Chupakhin, A. P.; Krivoshapkin, A. L.; Orlov, K. Yu
2016-06-01
In this paper an endovascular measurement system used for intraoperative cerebral blood flow monitoring is described. The system is based on a Volcano ComboMap Pressure and Flow System extended with analogue-to-digital converter and PC laptop. A series of measurements performed in patients with cerebrovascular pathologies allows us to introduce “velocity-pressure” and “flow rate-energy flow rate” diagrams as important characteristics of the blood flow. The measurement system presented here can be used as an additional instrument in neurosurgery for assessment and monitoring of the operation procedure. Clinical data obtained with the system are used for construction of mathematical models and patient-specific simulations. The monitoring of the blood flow parameters during endovascular interventions was approved by the Ethics Committee at the Meshalkin Novosibirsk Research Institute of Circulation Pathology and included in certain surgical protocols for pre-, intra- and postoperative examinations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vinsard, G.; Dufour, S.; Saatdjian, E.; Mota, J. P. B.
2016-03-01
Chaotic advection can effectively enhance the heat transfer rate between a boundary and fluids with high Prandtl number. These fluids are usually highly viscous and thus turbulent agitation is not a viable solution since the energy required to mix the fluid would be prohibitive. Here, we analyze previously obtained results on chaotic advection and heat transfer in two similar 2-D periodic flows and on their corresponding 3-D periodic flows when an axial velocity component is superposed. The two flows studied are the flow between eccentric rotating cylinders and the flow between confocal ellipses. For both of these flows the analysis is simplified because the Stokes equations can be solved analytically to obtain a closed form solution. For both 2-D periodic flows, we show that chaotic heat transfer is enhanced by the displacement of the saddle point location during one period. Furthermore, the enhancement by chaotic advection in the elliptical geometry is approximately double that obtained in the cylindrical geometry because there are two saddle points instead of one. We also explain why, for high eccentricity ratios, there is no heat transfer enhancement in the cylindrical geometry. When an axial velocity component is added to both of these flows so that they become 3-D, previous work has shown that there is an optimum modulation frequency for which chaotic advection and heat transfer enhancement is a maximum. Here we show that the optimum modulation frequency can be derived from results without an axial flow. We also explain by physical arguments other previously unanswered questions in the published data.
The mantle wedge's transient 3-D flow regime and thermal structure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Davies, D. R.; Le Voci, G.; Goes, S.; Kramer, S. C.; Wilson, C. R.
2016-01-01
Arc volcanism, volatile cycling, mineralization, and continental crust formation are likely regulated by the mantle wedge's flow regime and thermal structure. Wedge flow is often assumed to follow a regular corner-flow pattern. However, studies that incorporate a hydrated rheology and thermal buoyancy predict internal small-scale-convection (SSC). Here, we systematically explore mantle-wedge dynamics in 3-D simulations. We find that longitudinal "Richter-rolls" of SSC (with trench-perpendicular axes) commonly occur if wedge hydration reduces viscosities to Pa s, although transient transverse rolls (with trench-parallel axes) can dominate at viscosities of Pa s. Rolls below the arc and back arc differ. Subarc rolls have similar trench-parallel and trench-perpendicular dimensions of 100-150 km and evolve on a 1-5 Myr time-scale. Subback-arc instabilities, on the other hand, coalesce into elongated sheets, usually with a preferential trench-perpendicular alignment, display a wavelength of 150-400 km and vary on a 5-10 Myr time scale. The modulating influence of subback-arc ridges on the subarc system increases with stronger wedge hydration, higher subduction velocity, and thicker upper plates. We find that trench-parallel averages of wedge velocities and temperature are consistent with those predicted in 2-D models. However, lithospheric thinning through SSC is somewhat enhanced in 3-D, thus expanding hydrous melting regions and shifting dehydration boundaries. Subarc Richter-rolls generate time-dependent trench-parallel temperature variations of up to K, which exceed the transient 50-100 K variations predicted in 2-D and may contribute to arc-volcano spacing and the variable seismic velocity structures imaged beneath some arcs.
Simulation of abrasive flow machining process for 2D and 3D mixture models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dash, Rupalika; Maity, Kalipada
2015-12-01
Improvement of surface finish and material removal has been quite a challenge in a finishing operation such as abrasive flow machining (AFM). Factors that affect the surface finish and material removal are media viscosity, extrusion pressure, piston velocity, and particle size in abrasive flow machining process. Performing experiments for all the parameters and accurately obtaining an optimized parameter in a short time are difficult to accomplish because the operation requires a precise finish. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation was employed to accurately determine optimum parameters. In the current work, a 2D model was designed, and the flow analysis, force calculation, and material removal prediction were performed and compared with the available experimental data. Another 3D model for a swaging die finishing using AFM was simulated at different viscosities of the media to study the effects on the controlling parameters. A CFD simulation was performed by using commercially available ANSYS FLUENT. Two phases were considered for the flow analysis, and multiphase mixture model was taken into account. The fluid was considered to be a
Inverse cascades sustained by the transfer rate of angular momentum in a 3D turbulent flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Burguete, Javier; Lopez-Caballero, Miguel
2013-11-01
The existence of energy cascades as signatures of conserved magnitudes is one of the universal characteristics of turbulent flows. In this work we present the evidence of an inverse cascade in a fully developed 3D experimental turbulent flow where the conserved magnitude is the angular momentum. We analyze the behavior of a fluid in a closed cavity where two inhomogeneous and strongly turbulent flows collide in a thin region. The experimental volume is a closed cylinder (diameter of 20 cm) where two impellers rotate in opposite directions. A key characteristic of this setup the high stability of the propellers (the instantaneous fluctuations are below 0 . 1 %). We have performed PIV and LDA measurements of the velocity fields. Typical characteristics of the turbulent flow in this setup are: turbulence intensity 50 % , the Reλ = 900 , the Taylor microscale λT = 1 . 8 mm and the integral scale LI = 15 mm. The analysis of the data series reveal that below the injection scales an inverse cascade can be identified (-1/3 in time, -7/3 in space) that can be explained as the transfer of angular momentum between the diferent fluid layers. A. de la Torre, J. Burguete, Phys Rev Lett 99 (2007) 054101. M. Lopez-Caballero, J. Burguete, Phys Rev Lett 110 (2013) 124501.
Micro flow cytometer with self-aligned 3D hydrodynamic focusing.
Testa, Genni; Persichetti, Gianluca; Bernini, Romeo
2015-01-01
A micro flow cytometer with a single step 3D hydrodynamic flow focusing has been developed. The proposed design is capable to create a single-file particle stream that is self-aligned with an integrated optical fiber-based detection system, regardless of the flow rate ratio between the focusing and core liquids. The design approach provides the ability to adjust the stream size while keeping the position of the focused stream centered with respect to the focusing channel. The device has been fabricated by direct micro milling of PMMA sheets. Experimental validation of the hydrodynamic sheath focusing effect has been presented and sample stream with tuneable size from about 18 to 50 μm was measured. Flow cytometry measurements have been performed by using 10-23 μm fluorescent particles. From the analysis of the signals collected at each transit event we can confirm that the device was capable to align and measure microparticles with a good coefficient of variance.
Micro flow cytometer with self-aligned 3D hydrodynamic focusing
Testa, Genni; Persichetti, Gianluca; Bernini, Romeo
2014-01-01
A micro flow cytometer with a single step 3D hydrodynamic flow focusing has been developed. The proposed design is capable to create a single-file particle stream that is self-aligned with an integrated optical fiber-based detection system, regardless of the flow rate ratio between the focusing and core liquids. The design approach provides the ability to adjust the stream size while keeping the position of the focused stream centered with respect to the focusing channel. The device has been fabricated by direct micro milling of PMMA sheets. Experimental validation of the hydrodynamic sheath focusing effect has been presented and sample stream with tuneable size from about 18 to 50 μm was measured. Flow cytometry measurements have been performed by using 10-23 μm fluorescent particles. From the analysis of the signals collected at each transit event we can confirm that the device was capable to align and measure microparticles with a good coefficient of variance. PMID:25657874
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Peng, Zhangli; Pak, On Shun; Young, Yuan-Nan; Liu, Allen; Stone, Howard
2015-11-01
We investigate the gating of mechanosensing channels (Mscls) on vesicles and cell membranes under different flow conditions using a multiscale approach. At the cell level (microns), the membrane tension is calculated using a 3D two-component whole-cell membrane model based on dissipative particle dynamics (DPD), including the cortex cytoskeleton and its interactions with the lipid bilayer. At the Mscl level (nanometers), we predict the relation between channel gating and the membrane tension obtained from a cell-level model using a semi-analytical model based on the bilayer hydrophobic mismatch energy. We systematically study the gating of Mscls of vesicles and cell membranes in constricted channel flows and shear flows, and explore the dependence of the gating on flow rate, cell shape and size. The results provide guidance for future experiments in inducing Mscl opening for various purposes such as drug delivery.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lassen, Niels A.; And Others
1978-01-01
Discusses the use of radioactive isotopes to graphically represent changes in the amount of blood flowing in areas of the human cerebral cortex, reflecting changes in the activity of those areas. Numerous illustrations are included. (Author/MA)
Spacetime Stereo and 3D Flow via Binocular Spatiotemporal Orientation Analysis.
Sizintsev, Mikhail; Wildes, Richard P
2014-11-01
This paper presents a novel approach to recovering estimates of 3D structure and motion of a dynamic scene from a sequence of binocular stereo images. The approach is based on matching spatiotemporal orientation distributions between left and right temporal image streams, which encapsulates both local spatial and temporal structure for disparity estimation. By capturing spatial and temporal structure in this unified fashion, both sources of information combine to yield disparity estimates that are naturally temporal coherent, while helping to resolve matches that might be ambiguous when either source is considered alone. Further, by allowing subsets of the orientation measurements to support different disparity estimates, an approach to recovering multilayer disparity from spacetime stereo is realized. Similarly, the matched distributions allow for direct recovery of dense, robust estimates of 3D scene flow. The approach has been implemented with real-time performance on commodity GPUs using OpenCL. Empirical evaluation shows that the proposed approach yields qualitatively and quantitatively superior estimates in comparison to various alternative approaches, including the ability to provide accurate multilayer estimates in the presence of (semi)transparent and specular surfaces.
Properties of a monopivot centrifugal blood pump manufactured by 3D printing.
Nishida, Masahiro; Negishi, Takumi; Sakota, Daisuke; Kosaka, Ryo; Maruyama, Osamu; Hyakutake, Toru; Kuwana, Katsuyuki; Yamane, Takashi
2016-12-01
An impeller the same geometry as the impeller of a commercial monopivot cardiopulmonary bypass pump was manufactured using 3D printing. The 3D-printed impeller was integrated into the pump casing of the commercially available pump to form a 3D-printed pump model. The surface roughness of the impeller, the hydraulic performance, the axial displacement of the rotating impeller, and the hemolytic properties of the 3D-printed model were measured and compared with those of the commercially available model. Although the surface roughness of the 3D-printed model was significantly larger than that of the commercially available model, the hydraulic performance of the two models almost coincided. The hemolysis level of the 3D-printed model roughly coincided with that of the commercially available model under low-pressure head conditions, but increased greatly under high-pressure head conditions, as a result of the narrow gap between the rotating impeller and the pump casing. The gap became narrow under high-pressure head conditions, because the axial thrust applied to the impeller increased with increasing impeller rotational speed. Moreover, the axial displacement of the rotating impeller was twice that of the commercially available model, confirming that the elastic deformation of the 3D-printed impeller was larger than that of the commercially available impeller. These results suggest that trial models manufactured by 3D printing can reproduce the hydraulic performance of the commercial product. However, both the surface roughness and the deformation of the trial models must be considered to precisely evaluate the hemolytic properties of the model.
Potential for 3-D hyporheic exchange flow along a succession of pool-riffle sequences
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Käser, Daniel; Binley, Andrew; Krause, Stefan; Heathwaite, Louise
2010-05-01
Pool-riffle sequences are key geomorphological features that can influence the ecology of streams by inducing a flow exchange between surface water and groundwater - a process called hyporheic exchange flow (HEF). The objective of this research was to test the suitability of a simple 3-D groundwater model for characterizing HEF induced by pool-riffle sequences that had been the focus of experimental study. Three reaches of 20 m were modelled separately. While the bed topography was surveyed and represented at a high resolution, the permeability distribution referred to a simple conceptual model consisting of two superposed layers. One hypothesis was that, despite its simplicity, the calibrated model would produce an acceptable fit between observed and simulated heads because its permeability structure resembled the natural system. The potential complexity of hyporheic flow patterns is well-known, yet this study highlights the usefulness of a simple conceptual model coupled to mechanistic flow equations for describing HEF in 3-D. The error structure of the calibrated model provides insight into various site-specific features. The root mean square error between computed and observed hydraulic heads (relative to the head drop over the structure) is comparable to other studies with more elaborate permeability structures. After calibration, a sensitivity analysis was conducted in order to determine the influence of permeability contrast between the layers, depth of the permeability interface, and basal flux on three HEF characteristics: residence time, lateral and vertical extent, and total flux. Results indicate that permeability characteristics can affect HEF in different ways. For example, the vertical extent is deepest in homogeneous conditions, whereas the lateral extent is not significantly affected by permeability contrast, or by the depth of the interface between the two layers. Thus bank piezometers may be insufficient to calibrate groundwater models of HEF
Multilevel local refinement and multigrid methods for 3-D turbulent flow
Liao, C.; Liu, C.; Sung, C.H.; Huang, T.T.
1996-12-31
A numerical approach based on multigrid, multilevel local refinement, and preconditioning methods for solving incompressible Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations is presented. 3-D turbulent flow around an underwater vehicle is computed. 3 multigrid levels and 2 local refinement grid levels are used. The global grid is 24 x 8 x 12. The first patch is 40 x 16 x 20 and the second patch is 72 x 32 x 36. 4th order artificial dissipation are used for numerical stability. The conservative artificial compressibility method are used for further improvement of convergence. To improve the accuracy of coarse/fine grid interface of local refinement, flux interpolation method for refined grid boundary is used. The numerical results are in good agreement with experimental data. The local refinement can improve the prediction accuracy significantly. The flux interpolation method for local refinement can keep conservation for a composite grid, therefore further modify the prediction accuracy.
Progress Toward Overset-Grid Moving Body Capability for USM3D Unstructured Flow Solver
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pandyna, Mohagna J.; Frink, Neal T.; Noack, Ralph W.
2005-01-01
A static and dynamic Chimera overset-grid capability is added to an established NASA tetrahedral unstructured parallel Navier-Stokes flow solver, USM3D. Modifications to the solver primarily consist of a few strategic calls to the Donor interpolation Receptor Transaction library (DiRTlib) to facilitate communication of solution information between various grids. The assembly of multiple overlapping grids into a single-zone composite grid is performed by the Structured, Unstructured and Generalized Grid AssembleR (SUGGAR) code. Several test cases are presented to verify the implementation, assess overset-grid solution accuracy and convergence relative to single-grid solutions, and demonstrate the prescribed relative grid motion capability.
Ouldarbi, L; Pérret, G; Lemaitre, P; Porcheron, E; Coëtmellec, S; Gréhan, G; Lebrun, D; Brunel, M
2015-09-01
We present a system to characterize a triphasic flow in a 3D volume (air bubbles and solid irregular particles in water) using only one CCD sensor. A cylindrical interferometric out-of-focus imaging setup is used to determine simultaneously the 3D position and the size of bubbles and irregular sand particles in a flow. The 3D position of the particles is deduced from the ellipticity of their out-of-focus image. The size of bubbles is deduced from analysis of interference fringes. The characteristics of irregular sand particles are obtained from analysis of their speckle-like pattern. Experiments are confirmed by simulations.
Multigrid direct numerical simulation of the whole process of flow transition in 3-D boundary layers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Liu, Chaoqun; Liu, Zhining
1993-01-01
A new technology was developed in this study which provides a successful numerical simulation of the whole process of flow transition in 3-D boundary layers, including linear growth, secondary instability, breakdown, and transition at relatively low CPU cost. Most other spatial numerical simulations require high CPU cost and blow up at the stage of flow breakdown. A fourth-order finite difference scheme on stretched and staggered grids, a fully implicit time marching technique, a semi-coarsening multigrid based on the so-called approximate line-box relaxation, and a buffer domain for the outflow boundary conditions were all used for high-order accuracy, good stability, and fast convergence. A new fine-coarse-fine grid mapping technique was developed to keep the code running after the laminar flow breaks down. The computational results are in good agreement with linear stability theory, secondary instability theory, and some experiments. The cost for a typical case with 162 x 34 x 34 grid is around 2 CRAY-YMP CPU hours for 10 T-S periods.
Magnetic Damping of g-Jitter Driven Flows: 3-D Calculations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shang, D. Y.; Li, B. Q.; deGroh, H. C.
1997-01-01
A 3-D numerical model is developed to represent the oscillating natural convection induced in a cylindrical cavity filled with Ga-doped germanium with and without the presence of an external magnetic field. The model is developed based on the penalty-finite element solution of the equations describing the transport of momentum, heat and solutal element as well as the electromagnetic field distribution in the melt pool. Automatic time step control is applied to help speed up the calculations. Numerical simulations are conducted to study the convection and magnetic damping effects as a function of frequency, directions and amplitudes of g-jitter and also the direction and magnitudes of the applied magnetic fields. The results show that the g-jitter driven flow is time dependent and exhibits a complex recirculating convection pattern in three dimensions and that an applied magnetic field can be employed to suppress this deleterious convective flow and both magnitude and orientation of the applied field are important in magnetic damping of the g-jitter induced convective flows.
DNS of Sheared Particulate Flows with a 3D Explicit Finite-Difference Scheme
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Perrin, Andrew; Hu, Howard
2007-11-01
A 3D explicit finite-difference code for direct simulation of the motion of solid particulates in fluids has been developed, and a periodic boundary condition implemented to study the effective viscosity of suspensions in shear. The code enforces the no-slip condition on the surface of spherical particles in a uniform Cartesian grid with a special particle boundary condition based on matching the Stokes flow solutions next to the particle surface with a numerical solution away from it. The method proceeds by approximating the flow next to the particle surface as a Stokes flow in the particle's local coordinates, which is then matched to the finite difference update in the bulk fluid on a ``cage'' of grid points near the particle surface. (The boundary condition is related to the PHYSALIS method (2003), but modified for explicit schemes and with an iterative process removed.) Advantages of the method include superior accuracy of the scheme on a relatively coarse grid for intermediate particle Reynolds numbers, ease of implementation, and the elimination of the need to track the particle surface. For the sheared suspension, the effects of fluid and solid inertia and solid volume fraction on effective viscosity at moderate particle Reynolds numbers and concentrated suspensions will be discussed.
A Novel Flow-Perfusion Bioreactor Supports 3D Dynamic Cell Culture
Sailon, Alexander M.; Allori, Alexander C.; Davidson, Edward H.; Reformat, Derek D.; Allen, Robert J.; Warren, Stephen M.
2009-01-01
Background. Bone engineering requires thicker three-dimensional constructs than the maximum thickness supported by standard cell-culture techniques (2 mm). A flow-perfusion bioreactor was developed to provide chemotransportation to thick (6 mm) scaffolds. Methods. Polyurethane scaffolds, seeded with murine preosteoblasts, were loaded into a novel bioreactor. Control scaffolds remained in static culture. Samples were harvested at days 2, 4, 6, and 8 and analyzed for cellular distribution, viability, metabolic activity, and density at the periphery and core. Results. By day 8, static scaffolds had a periphery cell density of 67% ± 5.0%, while in the core it was 0.3% ± 0.3%. Flow-perfused scaffolds demonstrated peripheral cell density of 94% ± 8.3% and core density of 76% ± 3.1% at day 8. Conclusions. Flow perfusion provides chemotransportation to thick scaffolds. This system may permit high throughput study of 3D tissues in vitro and enable prefabrication of biological constructs large enough to solve clinical problems. PMID:20037739
Dynamic coupling between fluid flow and vein growth in fractures: a 3D numerical model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schwarz, J.-O.; Enzmann, F.
2012-04-01
Fluid flow is one of the main mass transport mechanisms in the Earth's crust and abundant mineral vein networks are important indicators for fluid flow and fluid rock interaction. These systems are dynamic and part of the so called RTM processes (reaction-transport-mechanics). Understanding of mineral vein systems requires coupling of these processes. Here we present a conceptional model for dynamic vein growth of syntaxial, posttectonic veins generated by advective fluid flow and show first results of a numerical model for this scenario. Vein generation requires three processes to occur: (i) fracture generation by mechanical stress e.g. hydro-fracturing, (ii) flow of a supersaturated fluid on that fracture and (iii) crystallization of phase(s) on or in the fracture. 3D synthetic fractures are generated with the SynFrac code (Ogilvie, et al. 2006). Subsequently solutions of the Navier-Stokes equation for this fracture are computed by a computational fluid dynamics code called GeoDict (Wiegmann 2007). Transport (advective and diffusive) of chemical species to growth sites in the fracture and vein growth are computed by a self-written MATLAB script. The numerical model discretizes the wall rock and fracture geometry by volumetric pixels (voxels). Based on this representation, the model computes the three basic functions for vein generation: (a) nucleation, (b) fluid flow with transport of chemical species and (c) growth. The following conditions were chosen for these three modules. Nucleation is heterogeneous and occurs instantaneously at the wall rock/fracture interface. Advective and diffusive flow of a supersaturated fluid and related transport of chemical species occurs according to the computed fluid flow field by GeoDict. Concentration of chemical species at the inflow is constant, representing external fluid buffering. Changes/decrease in the concentration of chemical species occurs only due to vein growth. Growth of nuclei is limited either by transport of
Hyperhomocysteinemia decreases bone blood flow.
Tyagi, Neetu; Vacek, Thomas P; Fleming, John T; Vacek, Jonathan C; Tyagi, Suresh C
2011-01-25
Elevated plasma levels of homocysteine (Hcy), known as hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy), are associated with osteoporosis. A decrease in bone blood flow is a potential cause of compromised bone mechanical properties. Therefore, we hypothesized that HHcy decreases bone blood flow and biomechanical properties. To test this hypothesis, male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with Hcy (0.67 g/L) in drinking water for 8 weeks. Age-matched rats served as controls. At the end of the treatment period, the rats were anesthetized. Blood samples were collected from experimental or control rats. Biochemical turnover markers (body weight, Hcy, vitamin B(12), and folate) were measured. Systolic blood pressure was measured from the right carotid artery. Tibia blood flow was measured by laser Doppler flow probe. The results indicated that Hcy levels were significantly higher in the Hcy-treated group than in control rats, whereas vitamin B(12) levels were lower in the Hcy-treated group compared with control rats. There was no significant difference in folate concentration and blood pressure in Hcy-treated versus control rats. The tibial blood flow index of the control group was significantly higher (0.78 ± 0.09 flow unit) compared with the Hcy-treated group (0.51 ± 0.09). The tibial mass was 1.1 ± 0.1 g in the control group and 0.9 ± 0.1 in the Hcy-treated group. The tibia bone density was unchanged in Hcy-treated rats. These results suggest that Hcy causes a reduction in bone blood flow, which contributes to compromised bone biomechanical properties.
Enhancement of USM3D Unstructured Flow Solver for High-Speed High-Temperature Shear Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pandya, Mohagna J.; Abdol-Hamid, Khaled S.; Frink, Neal T.
2009-01-01
Large temperature and pressure fluctuations have a profound effect on turbulence development in transonic and supersonic jets. For high-speed, high-temperature jet flows, standard turbulence models lack the ability to predict the observed mixing rate of a shear layer. Several proposals to address this deficiency have been advanced in the literature to modify the turbulence transport equations in a variety of ways. In the present study, some of the most proven and simple modifications to two-equation turbulence models have been selected and implemented in NASA's USM3D tetrahedral Navier-Stokes flow solver. The modifications include the addition of compressibility correction and pressure dilatation terms in the turbulence transport equations for high-speed flows, and the addition of a simple modification to the Boussinesq's closure model coefficient for high-temperature jets. The efficacy of the extended models is demonstrated by comparison with experimental data for two supersonic axisymmetric jet test cases at design pressure ratio.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Angelidis, Dionysios; Chawdhary, Saurabh; Sotiropoulos, Fotis
2016-11-01
A novel numerical method is developed for solving the 3D, unsteady, incompressible Navier-Stokes equations on locally refined fully unstructured Cartesian grids in domains with arbitrarily complex immersed boundaries. Owing to the utilization of the fractional step method on an unstructured Cartesian hybrid staggered/non-staggered grid layout, flux mismatch and pressure discontinuity issues are avoided and the divergence free constraint is inherently satisfied to machine zero. Auxiliary/hanging nodes are used to facilitate the discretization of the governing equations. The second-order accuracy of the solver is ensured by using multi-dimension Lagrange interpolation operators and appropriate differencing schemes at the interface of regions with different levels of refinement. The sharp interface immersed boundary method is augmented with local near-boundary refinement to handle arbitrarily complex boundaries. The discrete momentum equation is solved with the matrix free Newton-Krylov method and the Krylov-subspace method is employed to solve the Poisson equation. The second-order accuracy of the proposed method on unstructured Cartesian grids is demonstrated by solving the Poisson equation with a known analytical solution. A number of three-dimensional laminar flow simulations of increasing complexity illustrate the ability of the method to handle flows across a range of Reynolds numbers and flow regimes. Laminar steady and unsteady flows past a sphere and the oblique vortex shedding from a circular cylinder mounted between two end walls demonstrate the accuracy, the efficiency and the smooth transition of scales and coherent structures across refinement levels. Large-eddy simulation (LES) past a miniature wind turbine rotor, parameterized using the actuator line approach, indicates the ability of the fully unstructured solver to simulate complex turbulent flows. Finally, a geometry resolving LES of turbulent flow past a complete hydrokinetic turbine illustrates
3D Markov Process for Traffic Flow Prediction in Real-Time
Ko, Eunjeong; Ahn, Jinyoung; Kim, Eun Yi
2016-01-01
Recently, the correct estimation of traffic flow has begun to be considered an essential component in intelligent transportation systems. In this paper, a new statistical method to predict traffic flows using time series analyses and geometric correlations is proposed. The novelty of the proposed method is two-fold: (1) a 3D heat map is designed to describe the traffic conditions between roads, which can effectively represent the correlations between spatially- and temporally-adjacent traffic states; and (2) the relationship between the adjacent roads on the spatiotemporal domain is represented by cliques in MRF and the clique parameters are obtained by example-based learning. In order to assess the validity of the proposed method, it is tested using data from expressway traffic that are provided by the Korean Expressway Corporation, and the performance of the proposed method is compared with existing approaches. The results demonstrate that the proposed method can predict traffic conditions with an accuracy of 85%, and this accuracy can be improved further. PMID:26821025
Ghost particle velocimetry: accurate 3D flow visualization using standard lab equipment.
Buzzaccaro, Stefano; Secchi, Eleonora; Piazza, Roberto
2013-07-26
We describe and test a new approach to particle velocimetry, based on imaging and cross correlating the scattering speckle pattern generated on a near-field plane by flowing tracers with a size far below the diffraction limit, which allows reconstructing the velocity pattern in microfluidic channels without perturbing the flow. As a matter of fact, adding tracers is not even strictly required, provided that the sample displays sufficiently refractive-index fluctuations. For instance, phase separation in liquid mixtures in the presence of shear is suitable to be directly investigated by this "ghost particle velocimetry" technique, which just requires a microscope with standard lamp illumination equipped with a low-cost digital camera. As a further bonus, the peculiar spatial coherence properties of the illuminating source, which displays a finite longitudinal coherence length, allows for a 3D reconstruction of the profile with a resolution of few tenths of microns and makes the technique suitable to investigate turbid samples with negligible multiple scattering effects.
A 3D moving mesh Finite Element Method for two-phase flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Anjos, G. R.; Borhani, N.; Mangiavacchi, N.; Thome, J. R.
2014-08-01
A 3D ALE Finite Element Method is developed to study two-phase flow phenomena using a new discretization method to compute the surface tension forces. The computational method is based on the Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian formulation (ALE) and the Finite Element Method (FEM), creating a two-phase method with an improved model for the liquid-gas interface. An adaptive mesh update procedure is also proposed for effective management of the mesh to remove, add and repair elements, since the computational mesh nodes move according to the flow. The ALE description explicitly defines the two-phase interface position by a set of interconnected nodes which ensures a sharp representation of the boundary, including the role of the surface tension. The proposed methodology for computing the curvature leads to accurate results with moderate programming effort and computational cost. Static and dynamic tests have been carried out to validate the method and the results have compared well to analytical solutions and experimental results found in the literature, demonstrating that the new proposed methodology provides good accuracy to describe the interfacial forces and bubble dynamics. This paper focuses on the description of the proposed methodology, with particular emphasis on the discretization of the surface tension force, the new remeshing technique, and the validation results. Additionally, a microchannel simulation in complex geometry is presented for two elongated bubbles.
A digital holography set-up for 3D vortex flow dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lebon, Benoît; Perret, Gaële; Coëtmellec, Sébastien; Godard, Gilles; Gréhan, Gérard; Lebrun, Denis; Brossard, Jérôme
2016-06-01
In the present paper, a digital in-line holography (DIH) set-up, with a converging beam, is used to take three-dimensional (3D) velocity measurements of vortices. The vortices are formed periodically at the edges of a submerged horizontal plate submitted to regular waves. They take the form of vortex filaments that extend from side to side of the channel. They undergo strongly three-dimensional instability mechanisms that remain very complicated to characterize experimentally. The experiments are performed in a 10 × 0.3 × 0.3 m3 wave flume. The DIH set-up is performed using a modulated laser diode emitting at the wavelength of 640 nm and a lensless CCD camera. The beam crosses the channel side to side. To reveal the flow dynamics, 30-μm hydrogen bubbles are generated at the edge of the plate to serve as tracers. Their locations are recorded on the holograms multiple times to access the dynamics of the flow. This method leads to an accuracy in the order of 100 μm on the axial location. Those measurements have been validated with stereo-PIV measurements. A very good agreement is found on time-averaged velocity fields between the two techniques.
USM3D Simulations of Saturn V Plume Induced Flow Separation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Deere, Karen; Elmlilgui, Alaa; Abdol-Hamid, K. S.
2011-01-01
The NASA Constellation Program included the Ares V heavy lift cargo vehicle. During the design stage, engineers questioned if the Plume Induced Flow Separation (PIFS) that occurred along Saturn V rocket during moon missions at some flight conditions, would also plague the newly proposed rocket. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) was offered as a tool for initiating the investigation of PIFS along the Ares V rocket. However, CFD best practice guidelines were not available for such an investigation. In an effort to establish a CFD process and define guidelines for Ares V powered simulations, the Saturn V vehicle was used because PIFS flight data existed. The ideal gas, computational flow solver USM3D was evaluated for its viability in computing PIFS along the Saturn V vehicle with F-1 engines firing. Solutions were computed at supersonic freestream conditions, zero degree angle of attack, zero degree sideslip, and at flight Reynolds numbers. The effects of solution sensitivity to grid refinement, turbulence models, and the engine boundary conditions on the predicted PIFS distance along the Saturn V were discussed and compared to flight data from the Apollo 11 mission AS-506.
Numerical Calculations of 3-D High-Lift Flows and Comparison with Experiment
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Compton, William B, III
2015-01-01
Solutions were obtained with the Navier-Stokes CFD code TLNS3D to predict the flow about the NASA Trapezoidal Wing, a high-lift wing composed of three elements: the main-wing element, a deployed leading-edge slat, and a deployed trailing-edge flap. Turbulence was modeled by the Spalart-Allmaras one-equation turbulence model. One case with massive separation was repeated using Menter's two-equation SST (Menter's Shear Stress Transport) k-omega turbulence model in an attempt to improve the agreement with experiment. The investigation was conducted at a free stream Mach number of 0.2, and at angles of attack ranging from 10.004 degrees to 34.858 degrees. The Reynolds number based on the mean aerodynamic chord of the wing was 4.3 x 10 (sup 6). Compared to experiment, the numerical procedure predicted the surface pressures very well at angles of attack in the linear range of the lift. However, computed maximum lift was 5% low. Drag was mainly under predicted. The procedure correctly predicted several well-known trends and features of high-lift flows, such as off-body separation. The two turbulence models yielded significantly different solutions for the repeated case.
Simulation of bacteria transport processes in a river with Flow3D
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schwarzwälder, Kordula; Bui, Minh Duc; Rutschmann, Peter
2014-05-01
Water quality aspects are getting more and more important due to the European water Framework directive (WFD). One problem related to this topic is the inflow of untreated wastewater due to combined sewer overflows into a river. The wastewater mixture contains even bacteria like E. coli and Enterococci which are markers for water quality. In our work we investigated the transport of these bacteria in river Isar by using a large-scale flume in the outside area of our lab (Oskar von Miller Institute). Therefor we could collect basic data and knowledge about the processes which occur during bacteria sedimentation and remobilisation. In our flume we could use the real grain with the exact size distribution curve as in the river Isar which we want to simulate and we had the chance to nurture a biofilm which is realistic for the analysed situation. This biofilm plays an important role in the remobilisation processes, because the bacteria are hindered to be washed out back into the bulk phase as fast and in such an amount as this would happen without biofilm. The results of our experiments are now used for a module in the 3D software Flow3D to simulate the effects of a point source inlet of raw wastewater on the water quality. Therefor we have to implement the bacteria not as a problem of concentration with advection and diffusion but as single particles which can be inactivated during the process of settling and need to be hindered from remobilisation by the biofilm. This biofilm has special characteristic, it is slippery and has a special thickness which influences the chance of bacteria being removed. To achieve realistic results we have to include the biofilm with more than a probabilistic-tool to make sure that our module is transferable. The module should be as flexible as possible to be improved step by step with increasing quality of dataset.
Experimental Investigation of Material Flows Within FSWs Using 3D Tomography
Charles R. Tolle; Timothy A. White; Karen S. Miller; Denis E. Clark; Herschel B. Smartt
2008-06-01
There exists significant prior work using tracers or pre-placed hardened markers within friction stir welding (FSWing) to experimentally explore material flow within the FSW process. Our experiments replaced markers with a thin sheet of copper foil placed between the 6061 aluminum lap and butt joints that were then welded. The absorption characteristics of x-rays for copper and aluminum are significantly different allowing for non-destructive evaluation (NDE) methods such as x-ray computed tomography (CT) to be used to demonstrate the material movement within the weldment on a much larger scale than previously shown. 3D CT reconstruction of the copper components of the weldment allows for a unique view into the final turbulent state of the welding process as process parameters are varied. The x-ray CT data of a section of the weld region was collected using a cone-beam x-ray imaging system developed at the INL. Six-hundred projections were collected over 360-degrees using a 160-kVp Bremsstrahlung x-ray generator (25-micrometer focal spot) and amorphoussilicon x-ray detector. The region of the object that was imaged was about 3cm tall and 1.5cm x 1cm in cross section, and was imaged at a magnification of about 3.6x. The data were reconstructed on a 0.5x0.5x0.5 mm3 voxel grid. After reconstruction, the aluminum and copper could be easily discriminated using a gray level threshold allowing visualization of the copper components. Fractal analysis of the tomographic reconstructed material topology is investigated as a means to quantify macro level material flow based on process parameters. The results of multi-pass FSWs show increased refinement of the copper trace material. Implications of these techniques for quantifying process flow are discussed.
Turbulence modeling for subsonic separated flows over 2-D airfoils and 3-D wings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rosen, Aaron M.
Accurate predictions of turbulent boundary layers and flow separation through computational fluid dynamics (CFD) are becoming more and more essential for the prediction of loads in the design of aerodynamic flight components. Standard eddy viscosity models used in many commercial codes today do not capture the nonequilibrium effects seen in a separated flow and thus do not generally make accurate separation predictions. Part of the reason for this is that under nonequilibrium conditions such as a strong adverse pressure gradient, the history effects of the flow play an important role in the growth and decay of turbulence. More recent turbulence models such as Olsen and Coakley's Lag model and Lillard's lagRST model seek to simulate these effects by lagging the turbulent variables when nonequilibrium effects become important. The purpose of the current research is to assess how these nonequilibrium turbulence models capture the separated regions on various 2-D airfoils and 3-D wings. Nonequilibrium models including the Lag model and the lagRST model are evaluated in comparison with three baseline models (Spalart-Allmaras, Wilcox's k-omega, and Menter's SST) using a modified version of the OVERFLOW code. Tuning the model coefficients of the Lag and lagRST models is also explored. Results show that the various lagRST formulations display an improvement in velocity profile predictions over the standard RANS models, but have trouble capturing the edge of the boundary layer. Experimental separation location measurements were not available, but several trends are noted which may be useful to tuning the model coefficients in the future.
Heat Flow Partitioning Between Continents and Oceans - from 2D to 3D
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moresi, L. N.; Cooper, C. M.; Lenardic, A.
2010-12-01
Scalings derived from thermal network theory explain how the presence of continents can influence the Earth’s overall heat loss. Intuitively, it may seem that increasing the proportion of a planet’s surface area covered by continents would decrease the efficiency of heat transfer given that continents do not participate in convective overturn. However, this ignores the potential feedback between the insulating effect of continents and the temperature-dependent viscosity of the mantle (Lenardic et al, 2005, Cooper et al, 2007). When this feedback is considered, a clear regime exists in which the partial stagnation and insulation of the surface by buoyant continental crust can lead to an increase in heat flow compared to the uninsulated case. The numerical results used to verify the scalings have mostly been conducted in two dimensions in order to cover a very wide range of Rayleigh number, fraction of continental coverage, and continental thickness. However as more recent results show that the configuration of the crust also plays a role in determining the heat flow partitioning and global heat flow (See Lenardic et al, “Continents, Super-Continents, Mantle Thermal Mixing, and Mantle Thermal Isolation” in this session), we have begun to repeat this exhaustive and exhausting 2D study in 3D. Cooper, C.M., A. Lenardic, and L.-N. Moresi "Effects of continental insulation and the partioning of heat producing elements on the Earth's heat loss." Geophys. Res. Lett., 33 ,10.1029, 2006. Lenardic, A., L.-N. Moresi, A.M. Jellinek, and M. Manga "Continental insulation, mantle cooling, and the surface area of oceans and continents." Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 234 ,317-333, 2005.
Mao, Xiaole; Lin, Sz-Chin Steven; Dong, Cheng; Huang, Tony Jun
2009-06-07
In this work, we demonstrate an on-chip microfluidic flow cytometry system based on a three-dimensional (3D) hydrodynamic focusing technique, microfluidic drifting. By inducing Dean flow in a curved microfluidic channel, microfluidic drifting can be used to hydrodynamically focus cells or particles in the vertical direction and enables the 3D hydrodynamic focusing in a single-layer planar microfluidic device. Through theoretical calculation, numerical simulation, and experimental characterization, we found that the microfluidic drifting technique can be effectively applied to three-dimensionally focus microparticles with density and size equivalent to those of human CD4+ T lymphocytes. In addition, we developed a flow cytometry platform by integrating the 3D focusing device with a laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) detection system. The system was shown to provide effective high-throughput flow cytometry measurements at a rate of greater than 1700 cells s(-1).
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hardy, Terry L.; Tomsik, Thomas M.
1990-01-01
As part of the National Aero-Space Plane (NASP) project, the multi-dimensional effects of gravitational force, initial tank pressure, initial ullage temperature, and heat transfer rate on the 2-D temperature profiles were studied. FLOW-3D, a commercial finite difference fluid flow model, was used for the evaluation. These effects were examined on the basis of previous liquid hydrogen experimental data with gaseous hydrogen pressurant. FLOW-3D results were compared against an existing 1-D model. In addition, the effects of mesh size and convergence criteria on the analytical results were investigated. Suggestions for future modifications and uses of FLOW-3D for modeling of a NASP tank are also presented.
Label-free 3D imaging of microstructure, blood, and lymphatic vessels within tissue beds in vivo.
Zhi, Zhongwei; Jung, Yeongri; Wang, Ruikang K
2012-03-01
This Letter reports the use of an ultrahigh resolution optical microangiography (OMAG) system for simultaneous 3D imaging of microstructure and lymphatic and blood vessels without the use of an exogenous contrast agent. An automatic algorithm is developed to segment the lymphatic vessels from the microstructural images based on the fact that the lymph fluid is optically transparent. An OMAG system is developed that utilizes a broadband supercontinuum light source, providing an axial resolution of 2.3 μm and lateral resolution of 5.8 μm, capable of resolving the capillary vasculature and lymphatic vessels innervating microcirculatory tissue beds. Experimental demonstration is performed by showing detailed 3D lymphatic and blood vessel maps, coupled with morphology, within mouse ears in vivo.
Regulation of intestinal blood flow.
Matheson, P J; Wilson, M A; Garrison, R N
2000-09-01
The gastrointestinal system anatomically is positioned to perform two distinct functions: to digest and absorb ingested nutrients and to sustain barrier function to prevent transepithelial migration of bacteria and antigens. Alterations in these basic functions contribute to a variety of clinical scenarios. These primary functions intrinsically require splanchnic blood flow at both the macrovascular and microvascular levels of perfusion. Therefore, a greater understanding of the mechanisms that regulate intestinal vascular perfusion in the normal state and during pathophysiological conditions would be beneficial. The purpose of this review is to summarize the current understanding regarding the regulatory mechanisms of intestinal blood flow in fasted and fed conditions and during pathological stress.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hong, Jiarong; Toloui, Mostafa; Mallery, Kevin
2016-11-01
Three-dimensional PIV and PTV provides the most comprehensive flow information for unraveling the physical phenomena in a wide range of fluid problems, from microfluidics to wall-bounded turbulent flows. Compared with other commercialized 3D PIV techniques, such as tomographic PIV and defocusing PIV, the digital inline holographic PTV (namely DIH-PTV) provides 3D flow measurement solution with high spatial resolution, low cost optical setup, and easy alignment and calibration. Despite these advantages, DIH-PTV suffers from major limitations including poor longitudinal resolution, human intervention (i.e. requirement for manually determined tuning parameters during tracer field reconstruction and extraction), limited tracer concentration, small sampling volume and expensive computations, limiting its broad use for 3D flow measurements. Here we will report our latest work on improving DIH-PTV method through an integration of deconvolution algorithm, iterative removal method and GPU computation to overcome some of abovementioned limitations. We will also present the application of our DIH-PTV for measurements in the following sample cases: (i) flows in bio-filmed microchannel with 50-60 μm vector spacing within sampling volumes of 1 mm (streamwise) x 1 mm (wall-normal) x 1 mm (spanwise); (ii) turbulent flows over smooth and rough surfaces (1.1 mm vector spacing within 15 mm x 50 mm x 15 mm); (iii) 3D distribution and kinematics of inertial particles in turbulent air duct flow.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Perrin, A.; Hu, H.
2006-11-01
We have extended previous work on an 2D explicit finite-difference code for direct simulation of the motion of solid particles in a fluid to 3D. It is challenging to enforce the no-slip condition on the surface of spherical particles in a uniform Cartesian grid. We have implemented a treatment of the boundary condition similar to that in the PHYSALIS method of Takagi et. al. (2003), which is based on matching the Stokes flow solutions next to the particle surface with a numerical solution away from it. The original PHYSALIS method was developed for implicit flow solvers, and required an iterative process to match the Stokes flow solutions with the numerical solution. However, it was easily adapted to work with the present explicit scheme, and found to be more efficient since no iterative process is required in the matching. The method proceeds by approximating the flow next to the particle surface as a Stokes flow in the particle’s local coordinates, which is then matched to the numerically computed external flow on a ``cage'' of grid points near the particle surface. Advantages of the method include superior accuracy of the scheme on a relatively coarse grid for intermediate Reynolds numbers, ease of implementation, and the elimination of the need to track the particle surface. Several examples are presented, including flow over a stationary sphere in a square tube, sedimentation of a particle, and dropping, kissing, and tumbling of two particles. This research is supported by a GAANN fellowship from the U.S. Dept. of Education.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Leigh, S. J.; Purssell, C. P.; Billson, D. R.; Hutchins, D. A.
2014-09-01
Flow sensing is an essential technique required for a wide range of application environments ranging from liquid dispensing to utility monitoring. A number of different methodologies and deployment strategies have been devised to cover the diverse range of potential application areas. The ability to easily create new bespoke sensors for new applications is therefore of natural interest. Fused deposition modelling is a 3D printing technology based upon the fabrication of 3D structures in a layer-by-layer fashion using extruded strands of molten thermoplastic. The technology was developed in the late 1980s but has only recently come to more wide-scale attention outside of specialist applications and rapid prototyping due to the advent of low-cost 3D printing platforms such as the RepRap. Due to the relatively low-cost of the printers and feedstock materials, these printers are ideal candidates for wide-scale installation as localized manufacturing platforms to quickly produce replacement parts when components fail. One of the current limitations with the technology is the availability of functional printing materials to facilitate production of complex functional 3D objects and devices beyond mere concept prototypes. This paper presents the formulation of a simple magnetite nanoparticle-loaded thermoplastic composite and its incorporation into a 3D printed flow-sensor in order to mimic the function of a commercially available flow-sensing device. Using the multi-material printing capability of the 3D printer allows a much smaller amount of functional material to be used in comparison to the commercial flow sensor by only placing the material where it is specifically required. Analysis of the printed sensor also revealed a much more linear response to increasing flow rate of water showing that 3D printed devices have the potential to at least perform as well as a conventionally produced sensor.
Thermocapillary bubble flow and coalescence in a rotating cylinder: A 3D study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alhendal, Yousuf; Turan, A.; Al-mazidi, M.
2015-12-01
The process of thermocapillary bubbles rising in a rotating 3D cylinder in zero gravity was analysed and presented numerically with the aid of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) by means of the volume of fluid (VOF) method. Calculations were carried out to investigate in detail the effect of the rotational speed of the hosted liquid on the trajectory of both single and group bubbles driven by the Marangoni force in zero-gravity conditions. For rotational speeds from 0.25 to 2 rad/s, bubble displacement with angular motion was found to be directed between the hotter surface and the rotational axis. This is contrary to the conventional bubble flow from areas of high pressure to low pressure, radial direction, or from cold to hot regions, axial direction. The results demonstrate that for the ratio of rotational speeds to the thermocapillary bubble velocity larger than unity, the surface tension gradient is the dominant force and the bubble motion towards the hotter. On the other hand, for ratio less than 1, the bubble motion is dominated and is significantly affected by centrifugal force. As rotation speed increases, the amount of deflection increases and the Marangoni effect vanishes. The current study is novel in the sense that single- and multi-bubble motion incorporating thermocapillary forces in a rotating liquid in a zero-gravity environment has never been numerically investigated.
A Quasi-3-D Theory for Impedance Eduction in Uniform Grazing Flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Watson, W. R.; Jones, M. G.; Parrott, T. L.
2005-01-01
A 2-D impedance eduction methodology is extended to quasi-3-D sound fields in uniform or shearing mean flow. We introduce a nonlocal, nonreflecting boundary condition to terminate the duct and then educe the impedance by minimizing an objective function. The introduction of a parallel, sparse, equation solver significantly reduces the wall clock time for educing the impedance when compared to that of the sequential band solver used in the 2-D methodology. The accuracy, efficiency, and robustness of the methodology is demonstrated using two examples. In the first example, we show that the method reproduces the known impedance of a ceramic tubular test liner. In the second example, we illustrate that the approach educes the impedance of a four-segment liner where the first, second, and fourth segments consist of a perforated face sheet bonded to honeycomb, and the third segment is a cut from the ceramic tubular test liner. The ability of the method to educe the impedances of multisegmented liners has the potential to significantly reduce the amount of time and cost required to determine the impedance of several uniform liners by allowing them to be placed in series in the test section and to educe the impedance of each segment using a single numerical experiment. Finally, we probe the objective function in great detail and show that it contains a single minimum. Thus, our objective function is ideal for use with local, inexpensive, gradient-based optimizers.
Calculation of the virtual current in an electromagnetic flow meter with one bubble using 3D model.
Zhang, Xiao-Zhang; Li, Yantao
2004-04-01
Based on the theory of electromagnetic induction flow measurement, the Laplace equation in a complicated three-dimensional (3D) domain is solved by an alternating method. Virtual current potentials are obtained for an electromagnetic flow meter with one spherical bubble inside. The solutions are used to investigate the effects of bubble size and bubble position on the virtual current. Comparisons are done among the cases of 2D and 3D models, and of point electrode and large electrode. The results show that the 2D model overestimates the effect, while large electrodes are least sensitive to the bubble. This paper offers fundamentals for the study of the behavior of an electromagnetic flow meter in multiphase flow. For application, the results provide a possible way to estimate errors of the flow meter caused by multiphase flow.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gubchenko, V. M.
2015-12-01
The formation of magnetic structures in moving hot solar coronal plasma and hot collisionless laser-produced plasma, as determined by nonlinear criteria for weak and strong magnetization on the basis of the friction parameter Γ B and Alfven number M A, is considered within the Vlasov and Maxwell equations in the second part of the work. The flow velocities are lower then the thermal electron velocity. The energy and pulse anisotropy parameters of a flow, which determine its electromagnetic properties in the Cherenkov resonance line, are calculated by shape of particle distribution function (PDF). The ratio of these parameters is the Q-factor G V ; it characterizes the electromagnetic properties of a plasma flow and is expressed via the ratio of diamagnetic and resistive current densities or via the ratio of irregular and diamagnetic plasma scales. A particle flow is similar to a conductive medium at G V ≪ 1 and a diamagnetic medium at G V ≫ 1. The following cases are considered. (1) A plasma flow is specified by an isotropic PDF and interacts with distributed magnetization. Expressions for anisotropy parameters are derived, 3D field structures in the tail wake are found, and a possibility of topological reconstruction into a compact state under variation in the parameter G V is shown. (2) A plasma flow is specified by an isotropic PDF; a steady-state diamagnetic current layer, characterized by an anisotropic PDF, is immersed inside it. The system is in the diamagnetic state G ≫ 1. The generalized anisotropy parameter is calculated and a possibility of the excitation of three types of diamagnetic structures with low resistive currents is shown. (3) The nonlinear dynamics of anisotropic quasi-current-free plasma ( G =-1), in which the diamagnetic and resistive current densities locally compensate each other in the phase space of particle velocities, is studied. This dynamics is implemented in the long wavelength limit in plasma with an anisotropic PDF.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Izham, Mohamad Yusoff; Muhamad Uznir, Ujang; Alias, Abdul Rahman; Ayob, Katimon; Wan Ruslan, Ismail
2011-04-01
Existing 2D data structures are often insufficient for analysing the dynamism of saturation excess overland flow (SEOF) within a basin. Moreover, all stream networks and soil surface structures in GIS must be preserved within appropriate projection plane fitting techniques known as georeferencing. Inclusion of 3D volumetric structure of the current soft geo-objects simulation model would offer a substantial effort towards representing 3D soft geo-objects of SEOF dynamically within a basin by visualising saturated flow and overland flow volume. This research attempts to visualise the influence of a georeference system towards the dynamism of overland flow coverage and total overland flow volume generated from the SEOF process using VSG data structure. The data structure is driven by Green-Ampt methods and the Topographic Wetness Index (TWI). VSGs are analysed by focusing on spatial object preservation techniques of the conformal-based Malaysian Rectified Skew Orthomorphic (MRSO) and the equidistant-based Cassini-Soldner projection plane under the existing geodetic Malaysian Revised Triangulation 1948 (MRT48) and the newly implemented Geocentric Datum for Malaysia (GDM2000) datum. The simulated result visualises deformation of SEOF coverage under different georeference systems via its projection planes, which delineate dissimilar computation of SEOF areas and overland flow volumes. The integration of Georeference, 3D GIS and the saturation excess mechanism provides unifying evidence towards successful landslide and flood disaster management through envisioning the streamflow generating process (mainly SEOF) in a 3D environment.
Regulation of Coronary Blood Flow.
Goodwill, Adam G; Dick, Gregory M; Kiel, Alexander M; Tune, Johnathan D
2017-03-16
The heart is uniquely responsible for providing its own blood supply through the coronary circulation. Regulation of coronary blood flow is quite complex and, after over 100 years of dedicated research, is understood to be dictated through multiple mechanisms that include extravascular compressive forces (tissue pressure), coronary perfusion pressure, myogenic, local metabolic, endothelial as well as neural and hormonal influences. While each of these determinants can have profound influence over myocardial perfusion, largely through effects on end-effector ion channels, these mechanisms collectively modulate coronary vascular resistance and act to ensure that the myocardial requirements for oxygen and substrates are adequately provided by the coronary circulation. The purpose of this series of Comprehensive Physiology is to highlight current knowledge regarding the physiologic regulation of coronary blood flow, with emphasis on functional anatomy and the interplay between the physical and biological determinants of myocardial oxygen delivery. © 2017 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 7:321-382, 2017.
Time-resolved fuel injector flow characterisation based on 3D laser Doppler vibrometry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Crua, Cyril; Heikal, Morgan R.
2014-12-01
Hydrodynamic turbulence and cavitation are known to play a significant role in high-pressure atomizers, but the small geometries and extreme operating conditions hinder the understanding of the flow’s characteristics. Diesel internal flow experiments are generally conducted using x-ray techniques or on transparent, and often enlarged, nozzles with different orifice geometries and surface roughness to those found in production injectors. In order to enable investigations of the fuel flow inside unmodified injectors, we have developed a new experimental approach to measure time-resolved vibration spectra of diesel nozzles using a 3D laser vibrometer. The technique we propose is based on the triangulation of the vibrometer and fuel pressure transducer signals, and enables the quantitative characterisation of quasi-cyclic internal flows without requiring modifications to the injector, the working fluid, or limiting the fuel injection pressure. The vibrometer, which uses the Doppler effect to measure the velocity of a vibrating object, was used to scan injector nozzle tips during the injection event. The data were processed using a discrete Fourier transform to provide time-resolved spectra for valve-closed-orifice, minisac and microsac nozzle geometries, and injection pressures ranging from 60 to 160 MPa, hence offering unprecedented insight into cyclic cavitation and internal mechanical dynamic processes. A peak was consistently found in the spectrograms between 6 and 7.5 kHz for all nozzles and injection pressures. Further evidence of a similar spectral peak was obtained from the fuel pressure transducer and a needle lift sensor mounted into the injector body. Evidence of propagation of the nozzle oscillations to the liquid sprays was obtained by recording high-speed videos of the near-nozzle diesel jet, and computing the fast Fourier transform for a number of pixel locations at the interface of the jets. This 6-7.5 kHz frequency peak is proposed to be the
Investigation of foam flow in a 3D printed porous medium in the presence of oil.
Osei-Bonsu, Kofi; Grassia, Paul; Shokri, Nima
2017-03-15
Foams demonstrate great potential for displacing fluids in porous media which is applicable to a variety of subsurface operations such as the enhanced oil recovery and soil remediation. The application of foam in these processes is due to its unique ability to reduce gas mobility by increasing its effective viscosity and to divert gas to un-swept low permeability zones in porous media. The presence of oil in porous media is detrimental to the stability of foams which can influence its success as a displacing fluid. In the present work, we have conducted a systematic series of experiments using a well-characterised porous medium manufactured by 3D printing technique to evaluate the influence of oil on the dynamics of foam displacement under different boundary conditions. The effects of the type of oil, foam quality and foam flow rate were investigated. Our results reveal that generation of stable foam is delayed in the presence of light oil in the porous medium compared to heavy oil. Additionally, it was observed that the dynamics of oil entrapment was dictated by the stability of foam in the presence of oil. Furthermore, foams with high gas fraction appeared to be less stable in the presence of oil lowering its recovery efficiency. Pore-scale inspection of foam-oil dynamics during displacement revealed formation of a less stable front as the foam quality increased, leading to less oil recovery. This study extends the physical understanding of oil displacement by foam in porous media and provides new physical insights regarding the parameters influencing this process.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chojnicki, K. N.; Yoon, H.; Martinez, M. J.
2015-12-01
Understanding reactive flow in geomaterials is important for optimizing geologic carbon storage practices, such as using pore space efficiently. Flow paths can be complex in large degrees of geologic heterogeneities across scales. In addition, local heterogeneity can evolve as reactive transport processes alter the pore-scale morphology. For example, dissolved carbon dioxide may react with minerals in fractured rocks, confined aquifers, or faults, resulting in heterogeneous cementation (and/or dissolution) and evolving flow conditions. Both path and flow complexities are important and poorly characterized, making it difficult to determine their evolution with traditional 2-D transport models. Here we characterize the development of 3-D pore-scale flow with an evolving pore configuration due to calcium carbonate (CaCO3) precipitation and dissolution. A simple pattern of a microfluidic pore network is used initially and pore structures will become more complex due to precipitation and dissolution processes. At several stages of precipitation and dissolution, we directly visualize 3-D velocity vectors using micro particle image velocimetry and a laser scanning confocal microscope. Measured 3-D velocity vectors are then compared to 3-D simulated flow fields which will be used to simulate reactive transport. Our findings will highlight the importance of the 3-D flow dynamics and its impact on estimating reactive surface area over time. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000. This material is based upon work supported as part of the Center for Frontiers of Subsurface Energy Security, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences under Award Number DE-SC0001114.
SIMULATIONS OF 2D AND 3D THERMOCAPILLARY FLOWS BY A LEAST-SQUARES FINITE ELEMENT METHOD. (R825200)
Numerical results for time-dependent 2D and 3D thermocapillary flows are presented in this work. The numerical algorithm is based on the Crank-Nicolson scheme for time integration, Newton's method for linearization, and a least-squares finite element method, together with a matri...
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Boyle, R. J.; Haas, J. E.; Katsanis, T.
1984-01-01
A method for calculating turbine stage performance is described. The usefulness of the method is demonstrated by comparing measured and predicted efficiencies for nine different stages. Comparisons are made over a range of turbine pressure ratios and rotor speeds. A quasi-3D flow analysis is used to account for complex passage geometries. Boundary layer analyses are done to account for losses due to friction. Empirical loss models are used to account for incidence, secondary flow, disc windage, and clearance losses.
Ashby, S.F.; Falgout, R.D.; Smith, S.G.; Fogwell, T.W.
1994-09-01
This paper discusses the numerical simulation of groundwater flow through heterogeneous porous media. The focus is on the performance of a parallel multigrid preconditioner for accelerating convergence of conjugate gradients, which is used to compute the hydraulic pressure head. The numerical investigation considers the effects of enlarging the domain, increasing the grid resolution, and varying the geostatistical parameters used to define the subsurface realization. The results were obtained using the PARFLOW groundwater flow simulator on the Cray T3D massively parallel computer.
Chen, Alvin I.; Balter, Max L.; Maguire, Timothy J.; Yarmush, Martin L.
2016-01-01
This paper presents a portable imaging device designed to detect peripheral blood vessels for cannula insertion that are otherwise difficult to visualize beneath the skin. The device combines near infrared stereo vision, ultrasound, and real-time image analysis to map the 3D structure of subcutaneous vessels. We show that the device can identify adult forearm vessels and be used to guide manual insertions in tissue phantoms with increased first-stick accuracy compared to unassisted cannulation. We also demonstrate that the system may be coupled with a robotic manipulator to perform automated, image-guided venipuncture. PMID:27981261
Experimental Analysis of 3D Flow in Scroll Casing of Multi-Blade Fan for Air-Conditioner
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kitadume, Michio; Kawahashi, Masaaki; Hirahara, Hiroyuki; Uchida, Tadashi; Yanagawa, Hideki
The multi-blade fan, which has been widely used as a blower for air-conditioning systems of vehicles, is one of the well-established fluid machinery. However, many factors must be considered in its practical design because the flow generated in the fan is quite complicated with three-dimensionality and unsteadiness. The fundamental fan performance is primarily determined by the impeller of the fan, and is also affected by the scroll casing. However, the theoretical estimation of the effect of the casing on the performance has not been well established. In order to estimate the casing effect on fan performance, detailed three-dimensional (3D) flow analysis in the casing is necessary. Stereoscopic PIV (SPIV) is one of the useful techniques for experimental analysis of 3D flow fields. There are some difficulties in practical application of SPIV for flow analysis in fluid machinery with complicated geometry, but the results obtained provide useful information for understanding the 3D flow field. In this report, experimental investigation of the flow in the scroll casing has been carried out using PIV and SPIV under the premise of downsizing automobile air conditioner fans.
3D CFD modeling of subsonic and transonic flowing-gas DPALs with different pumping geometries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yacoby, Eyal; Sadot, Oren; Barmashenko, Boris D.; Rosenwaks, Salman
2015-10-01
Three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (3D CFD) modeling of subsonic (Mach number M ~ 0.2) and transonic (M ~ 0.9) diode pumped alkali lasers (DPALs), taking into account fluid dynamics and kinetic processes in the lasing medium is reported. The performance of these lasers is compared with that of supersonic (M ~ 2.7 for Cs and M ~ 2.4 for K) DPALs. The motivation for this study stems from the fact that subsonic and transonic DPALs require much simpler hardware than supersonic ones where supersonic nozzle, diffuser and high power mechanical pump (due to a drop in the gas total pressure in the nozzle) are required for continuous closed cycle operation. For Cs DPALs with 5 x 5 cm2 flow cross section pumped by large cross section (5 x 2 cm2) beam the maximum achievable power of supersonic devices is higher than that of the transonic and subsonic devices by only ~ 3% and ~ 10%, respectively. Thus in this case the supersonic operation mode has no substantial advantage over the transonic one. The main processes limiting the power of Cs supersonic DPALs are saturation of the D2 transition and large ~ 60% losses of alkali atoms due to ionization, whereas the influence of gas heating is negligible. For K transonic DPALs both the gas heating and ionization effects are shown to be unimportant. The maximum values of the power are higher than those in Cs transonic laser by ~ 11%. The power achieved in the supersonic and transonic K DPAL is higher than for the subsonic version, with the same resonator and K density at the inlet, by ~ 84% and ~ 27%, respectively, showing a considerable advantaged of the supersonic device over the transonic one. For pumping by rectangular beams of the same (5 x 2 cm2) cross section, comparison between end-pumping - where the laser beam and pump beam both propagate at along the same axis, and transverse-pumping - where they propagate perpendicularly to each other, shows that the output power and optical-to-optical efficiency are not
HEMP 3D -- a finite difference program for calculating elastic-plastic flow
Wilkins, M.L.
1993-05-26
The HEMP 3D program can be used to solve problems in solid mechanics involving dynamic plasticity and time dependent material behavior and problems in gas dynamics. The equations of motion, the conservation equations, and the constitutive relations are solved by finite difference methods following the format of the HEMP computer simulation program formulated in two space dimensions and time. Presented here is an update of the 1975 report on the HEMP 3D numerical technique. The present report includes the sliding surface routines programmed by Robert Gulliford.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Ho Jun; Lee, Hae June
2016-06-01
The wide applicability of capacitively coupled plasma (CCP) deposition has increased the interest in developing comprehensive numerical models, but CCP imposes a tremendous computational cost when conducting a transient analysis in a three-dimensional (3D) model which reflects the real geometry of reactors. In particular, the detailed flow features of reactive gases induced by 3D geometric effects need to be considered for the precise calculation of radical distribution of reactive species. Thus, an alternative inclusive method for the numerical simulation of CCP deposition is proposed to simulate a two-dimensional (2D) CCP model based on the 3D gas flow results by simulating flow, temperature, and species fields in a 3D space at first without calculating the plasma chemistry. A numerical study of a cylindrical showerhead-electrode CCP reactor was conducted for particular cases of SiH4/NH3/N2/He gas mixture to deposit a hydrogenated silicon nitride (SiN x H y ) film. The proposed methodology produces numerical results for a 300 mm wafer deposition reactor which agree very well with the deposition rate profile measured experimentally along the wafer radius.
Numerical Simulations of High-Frequency Respiratory Flows in 2D and 3D Lung Bifurcation Models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Zixi; Parameswaran, Shamini; Hu, Yingying; He, Zhaoming; Raj, Rishi; Parameswaran, Siva
2014-07-01
To better understand the human pulmonary system and optimize the high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) design, numerical simulations were conducted under normal breathing frequency and HFOV condition using a CFD code Ansys Fluent and its user-defined C programs. 2D and 3D double bifurcating lung models were created, and the geometry corresponds to fifth to seventh generations of airways with the dimensions based on the Weibel's pulmonary model. Computations were carried out for different Reynolds numbers (Re = 400 and 1000) and Womersley numbers (α = 4 and 16) to study the air flow fields, gas transportation, and wall shear stresses in the lung airways. Flow structure was compared with experimental results. Both 2D and 3D numerical models successfully reproduced many results observed in the experiment. The oxygen concentration distribution in the lung model was investigated to analyze the influence of flow oscillation on gas transport inside the lung model.
Kim, Hyojin; Prasain, Nutan; Vemula, Sasidhar; Ferkowicz, Michael J; Yoshimoto, Momoko; Voytik-Harbin, Sherry L; Yoder, Mervin C
2015-09-01
Human cord blood (CB) is enriched in circulating endothelial colony forming cells (ECFCs) that display high proliferative potential and in vivo vessel forming ability. Since diminished ECFC survival is known to dampen the vasculogenic response in vivo, we tested how long implanted ECFC survive and generate vessels in three-dimensional (3D) type I collagen matrices in vitro and in vivo. We hypothesized that human platelet lysate (HPL) would promote cell survival and enhance vasculogenesis in the 3D collagen matrices. We report that the percentage of ECFC co-cultured with HPL that were alive was significantly enhanced on days 1 and 3 post-matrix formation, compared to ECFC alone containing matrices. Also, co-culture of ECFC with HPL displayed significantly more vasculogenic activity compared to ECFC alone and expressed significantly more pro-survival molecules (pAkt, p-Bad and Bcl-xL) in the 3D collagen matrices in vitro. Treatment with Akt1 inhibitor (A-674563), Akt2 inhibitor (CCT128930) and Bcl-xL inhibitor (ABT-263/Navitoclax) significantly decreased the cell survival and vasculogenesis of ECFC co-cultured with or without HPL and implicated activation of the Akt1 pathway as the critical mediator of the HPL effect on ECFC in vitro. A significantly greater average vessel number and total vascular area of human CD31(+) vessels were present in implants containing ECFC and HPL, compared to the ECFC alone implants in vivo. We conclude that implantation of ECFC with HPL in vivo promotes vasculogenesis and augments blood vessel formation via diminishing apoptosis of the implanted ECFC.
Herland, Anna; van der Meer, Andries D; FitzGerald, Edward A; Park, Tae-Eun; Sleeboom, Jelle J F; Ingber, Donald E
2016-01-01
Neurovascular inflammation is a major contributor to many neurological disorders, but modeling these processes in vitro has proven to be difficult. Here, we microengineered a three-dimensional (3D) model of the human blood-brain barrier (BBB) within a microfluidic chip by creating a cylindrical collagen gel containing a central hollow lumen inside a microchannel, culturing primary human brain microvascular endothelial cells on the gel's inner surface, and flowing medium through the lumen. Studies were carried out with the engineered microvessel containing endothelium in the presence or absence of either primary human brain pericytes beneath the endothelium or primary human brain astrocytes within the surrounding collagen gel to explore the ability of this simplified model to identify distinct contributions of these supporting cells to the neuroinflammatory response. This human 3D BBB-on-a-chip exhibited barrier permeability similar to that observed in other in vitro BBB models created with non-human cells, and when stimulated with the inflammatory trigger, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), different secretion profiles for granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were observed depending on the presence of astrocytes or pericytes. Importantly, the levels of these responses detected in the 3D BBB chip were significantly greater than when the same cells were co-cultured in static Transwell plates. Thus, as G-CSF and IL-6 have been reported to play important roles in neuroprotection and neuroactivation in vivo, this 3D BBB chip potentially offers a new method to study human neurovascular function and inflammation in vitro, and to identify physiological contributions of individual cell types.
FitzGerald, Edward A.; Park, Tae-Eun; Sleeboom, Jelle J. F.; Ingber, Donald E.
2016-01-01
Neurovascular inflammation is a major contributor to many neurological disorders, but modeling these processes in vitro has proven to be difficult. Here, we microengineered a three-dimensional (3D) model of the human blood-brain barrier (BBB) within a microfluidic chip by creating a cylindrical collagen gel containing a central hollow lumen inside a microchannel, culturing primary human brain microvascular endothelial cells on the gel’s inner surface, and flowing medium through the lumen. Studies were carried out with the engineered microvessel containing endothelium in the presence or absence of either primary human brain pericytes beneath the endothelium or primary human brain astrocytes within the surrounding collagen gel to explore the ability of this simplified model to identify distinct contributions of these supporting cells to the neuroinflammatory response. This human 3D BBB-on-a-chip exhibited barrier permeability similar to that observed in other in vitro BBB models created with non-human cells, and when stimulated with the inflammatory trigger, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), different secretion profiles for granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were observed depending on the presence of astrocytes or pericytes. Importantly, the levels of these responses detected in the 3D BBB chip were significantly greater than when the same cells were co-cultured in static Transwell plates. Thus, as G-CSF and IL-6 have been reported to play important roles in neuroprotection and neuroactivation in vivo, this 3D BBB chip potentially offers a new method to study human neurovascular function and inflammation in vitro, and to identify physiological contributions of individual cell types. PMID:26930059
Blood vessel staining in the myocardium for 3D visualization down to the smallest capillaries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Müller, Bert; Fischer, Jens; Dietz, Ulrich; Thurner, Philipp J.; Beckmann, Felix
2006-05-01
Blood vessels formed after medical interventions such as radiofrequency treatment have to be visualized down to the capillary level with diameters of about 5 μm to validate neo-vascularization. Synchrotron radiation-based micro-computed tomography (SRμCT) provides the necessary spatial resolution. Since both the vessels and the surrounding tissue mainly consist of water the difference in absorption is extremely weak. Therefore, it is necessary to search for appropriate contrast agents and to develop suitable staining protocols, which finally allow segmenting the vessel tree. Among the contrast agents used in medicine lyophilic salts with a mean particle diameter of 1.5 μm such as CaSO 4, SrSO 4 and BaSO 4 are most appropriate to stain the vessels. The combination of these salts with a commercially available embedding kit (JB-4, Polysciences Inc.) allows tissue fixation and long-term storage in solid state. Intensity-based segmentation algorithms enable the vessel tree extraction in selected parts of the stained myocardium using the SRμCT data.
A Biochip with a 3D microfluidic architecture for trapping white blood cells
Tripathi, Anurag; Riddell, James; Chronis, Nikos
2013-01-01
We present a microfluidic biochip for trapping single white blood cells (WBCs). The novel biochip, microfabricated using standard surface micromachining processes, consists of an array of precisely engineered microholes that confine single cells in a tight, three dimensional space and mechanically immobilize them. A high (> 87%) trapping efficiency was achieved when WBC-containing samples were delivered to the biochip at the optimal pressure of 3 psi. The biochip can efficiently trap up to 7,500 cells, maintaining a high trapping efficiency even when the number of cells is extremely low (~200 cells). We believe that the developed biochip can be used as a standalone unit in a biology/clinical lab for trapping WBCs as well as other cell types and imaging them using a standard fluorescent microscope at the single cell level. Furthermore, it can be integrated with other miniaturized optical modules to construct a portable platform for counting a wide variety of cells and therefore it can be an excellent tool for monitoring human diseases at the point-of-care. PMID:23935241
Large-Eddy simulation of pulsatile blood flow.
Paul, Manosh C; Mamun Molla, Md; Roditi, Giles
2009-01-01
Large-Eddy simulation (LES) is performed to study pulsatile blood flow through a 3D model of arterial stenosis. The model is chosen as a simple channel with a biological type stenosis formed on the top wall. A sinusoidal non-additive type pulsation is assumed at the inlet of the model to generate time dependent oscillating flow in the channel and the Reynolds number of 1200, based on the channel height and the bulk velocity, is chosen in the simulations. We investigate in detail the transition-to-turbulent phenomena of the non-additive pulsatile blood flow downstream of the stenosis. Results show that the high level of flow recirculation associated with complex patterns of transient blood flow have a significant contribution to the generation of the turbulent fluctuations found in the post-stenosis region. The importance of using LES in modelling pulsatile blood flow is also assessed in the paper through the prediction of its sub-grid scale contributions. In addition, some important results of the flow physics are achieved from the simulations, these are presented in the paper in terms of blood flow velocity, pressure distribution, vortices, shear stress, turbulent fluctuations and energy spectra, along with their importance to the relevant medical pathophysiology.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jang, Jaeseong; Ahn, Chi Young; Jeon, Kiwan; Choi, Jung-il; Lee, Changhoon; Seo, Jin Keun
2015-03-01
A reconstruction method is proposed here to quantify the distribution of blood flow velocity fields inside the left ventricle from color Doppler echocardiography measurement. From 3D incompressible Navier- Stokes equation, a 2D incompressible Navier-Stokes equation with a mass source term is derived to utilize the measurable color flow ultrasound data in a plane along with the moving boundary condition. The proposed model reflects out-of-plane blood flows on the imaging plane through the mass source term. For demonstrating a feasibility of the proposed method, we have performed numerical simulations of the forward problem and numerical analysis of the reconstruction method. First, we construct a 3D moving LV region having a specific stroke volume. To obtain synthetic intra-ventricular flows, we performed a numerical simulation of the forward problem of Navier-Stokes equation inside the 3D moving LV, computed 3D intra-ventricular velocity fields as a solution of the forward problem, projected the 3D velocity fields on the imaging plane and took the inner product of the 2D velocity fields on the imaging plane and scanline directional velocity fields for synthetic scanline directional projected velocity at each position. The proposed method utilized the 2D synthetic projected velocity data for reconstructing LV blood flow. By computing the difference between synthetic flow and reconstructed flow fields, we obtained the averaged point-wise errors of 0.06 m/s and 0.02 m/s for u- and v-components, respectively.
LavaSIM: the effect of heat transfer in 3D on lava flow characteristics (Invited)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fujita, E.
2013-12-01
Characteristics of lava flow are governed by many parameters like lava viscosity, effusion rate, ground topography, etc. The accuracy and applicability of lava flow simulation code is evaluated whether the numerical simulation can reproduce these features quantitatively, which is important from both strategic and scientific points of views. Many lava flow simulation codes are so far proposed, and they are classified into two categories, i.e., the deterministic and the probabilistic models. LavaSIM is one of the former category models, and has a disadvantage of time consuming. But LavaSIM can solves the equations of continuity, motion, energy by step and has an advantage in the calculation of three-dimensional analysis with solid-liquid two phase flow, including the heat transfer between lava, solidified crust, air, water and ground, and three-dimensional convection in liquid lava. In other word, we can check the detailed structure of lava flow by LavaSIM. Therefore, this code can produce both channeled and fan-dispersive flows. The margin of the flow is solidified by cooling and these solidified crusts control the behavior of successive lava flow. In case of a channel flow, the solidified margin supports the stable central main flow and elongates the lava flow distance. The cross section of lava flow shows that the liquid lava flows between solidified crusts. As for the lava extrusion flow rate, LavaSIM can include the time function as well as the location of the vents. In some cases, some parts of the solidified wall may be broken by the pressure of successive flow and/or re-melting. These mechanisms could characterize complex features of the observed lava flows at many volcanoes in the world. To apply LavaSIM to the benchmark tests organized by V-hub is important to improve the lava flow evaluation technique.
Extension of a three-dimensional viscous wing flow analysis user's manual: VISTA 3-D code
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Weinberg, Bernard C.; Chen, Shyi-Yaung; Thoren, Stephen J.; Shamroth, Stephen J.
1990-01-01
Three-dimensional unsteady viscous effects can significantly influence the performance of fixed and rotary wing aircraft. These effects are important in both flows about helicopter rotors in forward flight and flows about three-dimensional (swept and tapered) supercritical wings. A computational procedure for calculating such flow field was developed. The procedure is based upon an alternating direction technique employing the Linearized Block Implicit method for solving three-dimensional viscous flow problems. In order to demonstrate the viability of this method, two- and three-dimensional problems are computed. These include the flow over a two-dimensional NACA 0012 airfoil under steady and oscillating conditions, and the steady, skewed, three-dimensional flow on a flat plate. Although actual three-dimensional flows over wings were not obtained, the ground work was laid for considering such flows. In this report a description of the computer code is given.
Quasi 3D modeling of water flow in vadose zone and groundwater
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
The complexity of subsurface flow systems calls for a variety of concepts leading to the multiplicity of simplified flow models. One habitual simplification is based on the assumption that lateral flow and transport in unsaturated zone are not significant unless the capillary fringe is involved. In ...
Fast particles identification in programmable form at level-0 trigger by means of the 3D-Flow system
Crosetto, Dario B.
1998-10-30
The 3D-Flow Processor system is a new, technology-independent concept in very fast, real-time system architectures. Based on either an FPGA or an ASIC implementation, it can address, in a fully programmable manner, applications where commercially available processors would fail because of throughput requirements. Possible applications include filtering-algorithms (pattern recognition) from the input of multiple sensors, as well as moving any input validated by these filtering-algorithms to a single output channel. Both operations can easily be implemented on a 3D-Flow system to achieve a real-time processing system with a very short lag time. This system can be built either with off-the-shelf FPGAs or, for higher data rates, with CMOS chips containing 4 to 16 processors each. The basic building block of the system, a 3D-Flow processor, has been successfully designed in VHDL code written in ''Generic HDL'' (mostly made of reusable blocks that are synthesizable in different technologies, or FPGAs), to produce a netlist for a four-processor ASIC featuring 0.35 micron CBA (Ceil Base Array) technology at 3.3 Volts, 884 mW power dissipation at 60 MHz and 63.75 mm sq. die size. The same VHDL code has been targeted to three FPGA manufacturers (Altera EPF10K250A, ORCA-Lucent Technologies 0R3T165 and Xilinx XCV1000). A complete set of software tools, the 3D-Flow System Manager, equally applicable to ASIC or FPGA implementations, has been produced to provide full system simulation, application development, real-time monitoring, and run-time fault recovery. Today's technology can accommodate 16 processors per chip in a medium size die, at a cost per processor of less than $5 based on the current silicon die/size technology cost.
Vescovi, D.; Berzi, D.; Richard, P.
2014-05-15
We use existing 3D Discrete Element simulations of simple shear flows of spheres to evaluate the radial distribution function at contact that enables kinetic theory to correctly predict the pressure and the shear stress, for different values of the collisional coefficient of restitution. Then, we perform 3D Discrete Element simulations of plane flows of frictionless, inelastic spheres, sheared between walls made bumpy by gluing particles in a regular array, at fixed average volume fraction and distance between the walls. The results of the numerical simulations are used to derive boundary conditions appropriated in the cases of large and small bumpiness. Those boundary conditions are, then, employed to numerically integrate the differential equations of Extended Kinetic Theory, where the breaking of the molecular chaos assumption at volume fraction larger than 0.49 is taken into account in the expression of the dissipation rate. We show that the Extended Kinetic Theory is in very good agreement with the numerical simulations, even for coefficients of restitution as low as 0.50. When the bumpiness is increased, we observe that some of the flowing particles are stuck in the gaps between the wall spheres. As a consequence, the walls are more dissipative than expected, and the flows resemble simple shear flows, i.e., flows of rather constant volume fraction and granular temperature.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Starodubtsev, Y. V.; Gogolev, I. G.; Solodov, V. G.
2005-06-01
The paper describes 3D numerical Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) model and approximate sector approach for viscous turbulent flow through flow path of one stage axial supercharge gas turbine of marine diesel engine. Computational data are tested by comparison with experimental data. The back step flow path opening and tip clearance jet are taken into account. This approach could be applied for variety of turbine theory and design tasks: for offer optimal design in order to minimize kinetic energy stage losses; for solution of partial supply problem; for analysis of flow pattern in near extraction stages; for estimation of rotational frequency variable forces on blades; for sector vane adjustment (with thin leading edges mainly), for direct flow modeling in the turbine etc. The development of this work could be seen in the direction of unsteady stage model application.
Resolving the 3D velocity field inside a Roughness Sublayer in a turbulent channel flow using HPIV
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Talapatra, Siddharth; Katz, Joseph
2010-11-01
Microscopic holographic PIV is used to measure the 3D velocity field within the roughness sublayer of a turbulent channel flow at Reτ of 3400. Recording holograms through a rough surface is facilitated by matching the optical refractive index of the rough wall with that of the working fluid, a concentrated solution of NaI in water. The pyramidal roughness height is k=0.45mm, the sample volume size is 3.2x1.8x1.8mm^3, the long dimension being in the streamwise direction, and the wall-normal range is -0.33
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Min; Chen, Yi-Feng; Ma, Guo-Wei; Zhou, Jia-Qing; Zhou, Chuang-Bing
2016-10-01
This study investigates the impacts of surface roughness on the nonlinear fluid flow through three-dimensional (3D) self-affine rock fractures, whose original surface roughness is decomposed into primary roughness (i.e. the large-scale waviness of the fracture morphology) and secondary roughness (i.e. the small-scale unevenness) with a wavelet analysis technique. A 3D Lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) is adopted to predict the flow physics in rock fractures numerically created with and without consideration of the secondary roughness, respectively. The simulation results show that the primary roughness mostly controls the pressure distribution and fracture flow paths at a large scale, whereas the secondary roughness determines the nonlinear properties of the fluid flow at a local scale. As the pressure gradient increases, the secondary roughness enhances the local complexity of velocity distribution by generating and expanding the eddy flow and back flow regions in the vicinity of asperities. It was found that the Forchheimer's law characterizes well the nonlinear flow behavior in fractures of varying roughness. The inertial effects induced by the primary roughness differ only marginally in fractures with the roughness exponent varying from 0.5 to 0.8, and it is the secondary roughness that significantly enhances the nonlinear flow and leads to earlier onset of nonlinearity. Further examined were the effects of surface roughness on the transmissivity, hydraulic aperture and the tortuosity of flow paths, demonstrating again the dominant role of the secondary roughness, especially for the apparent transmissivity and the equivalent hydraulic aperture at high pressure gradient or high Reynolds number. The results may enhance our understanding of the role of surface roughness in the nonlinear flow behaviors in natural rock fractures.
Holme, Margaret N; Schulz, Georg; Deyhle, Hans; Weitkamp, Timm; Beckmann, Felix; Lobrinus, Johannes A; Rikhtegar, Farhad; Kurtcuoglu, Vartan; Zanette, Irene; Saxer, Till; Müller, Bert
2014-01-01
A key problem in X-ray computed tomography is choosing photon energies for postmortem specimens containing both soft and hard tissues. Increasing X-ray energy reduces image artifacts from highly absorbing hard tissues including plaque, but it simultaneously decreases contrast in soft tissues including the endothelium. Therefore, identifying the lumen within plaque-containing vessels is challenging. Destructive histology, the gold standard for tissue evaluation, reaches submicron resolution in two dimensions, whereas slice thickness limits spatial resolution in the third. We present a protocol to systematically analyze heterogeneous tissues containing weakly and highly absorbing components in the original wet state, postmortem. Taking the example of atherosclerotic human coronary arteries, the successively acquired 3D data of benchtop and synchrotron radiation-based tomography are validated by histology. The entire protocol requires ∼20 working days, enables differentiation between plaque, muscle and fat tissues without using contrast agents and permits blood flow simulations in vessels with plaque-induced constrictions.
3-D flow and scour near a submerged wing dike: ADCP measurements on the Missouri River
Jamieson, E.C.; Rennie, C.D.; Jacobson, R.B.; Townsend, R.D.
2011-01-01
Detailed mapping of bathymetry and three-dimensional water velocities using a boat-mounted single-beam sonar and acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) was carried out in the vicinity of two submerged wing dikes located in the Lower Missouri River near Columbia, Missouri. During high spring flows the wing dikes become submerged, creating a unique combination of vertical flow separation and overtopping (plunging) flow conditions, causing large-scale three-dimensional turbulent flow structures to form. On three different days and for a range of discharges, sampling transects at 5 and 20 m spacing were completed, covering the area adjacent to and upstream and downstream from two different wing dikes. The objectives of this research are to evaluate whether an ADCP can identify and measure large-scale flow features such as recirculating flow and vortex shedding that develop in the vicinity of a submerged wing dike; and whether or not moving-boat (single-transect) data are sufficient for resolving complex three-dimensional flow fields. Results indicate that spatial averaging from multiple nearby single transects may be more representative of an inherently complex (temporally and spatially variable) three-dimensional flow field than repeated single transects. Results also indicate a correspondence between the location of calculated vortex cores (resolved from the interpolated three-dimensional flow field) and the nearby scour holes, providing new insight into the connections between vertically oriented coherent structures and local scour, with the unique perspective of flow and morphology in a large river.
3D tomographic reconstruction of the internal velocity field of an immiscible drop in a shear flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kerdraon, Paul; Dalziel, Stuart B.; Goldstein, Raymond E.; Landel, Julien R.; Peaudecerf, Francois J.
2015-11-01
We study experimentally the internal flow of a drop attached to a flat substrate and immersed in an immiscible shear flow. Transport inside the drop can play a crucial role in cleaning applications. Internal advection can enhance the mass transfer across the drop surface, thus increasing the cleaning rate. We used microlitre water-glycerol drops on a hydrophobic substrate. The drops were spherical and did not deform significantly under the shear flow. An oil phase of relative viscosity 0.01 to 1 was flowed over the drop. Typical Reynolds numbers inside the drops were of the order of 0.1 to 10. Using confocal microscopy, we performed 3D tomographic reconstruction of the flow field in the drop. The in-plane velocity field was measured using micro-PIV, and the third velocity component was computed from incompressibility. To our knowledge, this study gives the first experimental measurement of the three-dimensional internal velocity field of a drop in a shear flow. Numerical simulations and theoretical models published in the past 30 years predict a toroidal internal recirculation flow, for which the entire surface flows streamwise. However, our measurements reveal a qualitatively different picture with a two-lobed recirculation, featuring two stagnation points at the surface and a reverse surface flow closer to the substrate. This finding appears to be independent of Reynolds number and viscosity ratio in the ranges studied; we conjecture that the observed flow is due to the effect of surfactants at the drop surface.
Structure-Function Studies of Blood and Air Capillaries in Chicken Lung Using 3D Electron Microscopy
West, John B.; Fu, Zhenxing; Deerinck, Thomas J.; Mackey, Mason R.; Obayashi, James T.; Ellisman, Mark H.
2010-01-01
Avian pulmonary capillaries differ from those of mammals in three important ways. The blood-gas barrier is much thinner, it is more uniform in thickness, and the capillaries are far more rigid when their transmural pressure is altered. The thinness of the barrier is surprising because it predisposes the capillaries to stress failure. A possible mechanism for these differences is that avian pulmonary capillaries, unlike mammalian, are supported from the outside by air capillaries, but the details of the support are poorly understood. To clarify this we studied the blood and air capillaries in chicken lung using transmission electron microscopy (EM) and two relatively new techniques that allow 3D visualization: electron tomography and serial block-face scanning EM. These studies show that the pulmonary capillaries are flanked by epithelial bridges composed of two extremely thin epithelial cells with large surface areas. The junctions of the bridges with the capillary walls show thickening of the epithelial cells and an accumulation of extracellular matrix. Collapse of the pulmonary capillaries when the pressure outside them is increased is apparently prevented by the guy wire-like action of the epithelial bridges. The enlarged junctions between the bridges and the walls could provide a mechanism that limits the hoop stress in the capillary walls when the pressure inside them is increased. The support of the pulmonary capillaries may also be explained by an interdependence mechanism whereby the capillaries are linked to a rigid assemblage of air capillaries. These EM studies show the supporting structures in greater detail than has previously been possible, particularly in 3D, and they allow a more complete analysis of the mechanical forces affecting avian pulmonary capillaries. PMID:20038456
Axisymmetric Granular Collapse: A Transient 3D Flow Test of Viscoplasticity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lacaze, Laurent; Kerswell, Rich R.
2009-03-01
A viscoplastic continuum theory has recently been proposed to model dense, cohesionless granular flows [P. Jop , Nature (London)NATUAS0028-0836 441, 727 (2006)10.1038/nature04801]. We confront this theory for the first time with a transient, three-dimensional flow situation—the simple collapse of a cylinder of granular matter onto a horizontal plane—by extracting stress and strain rate tensors directly from soft particle simulations. These simulations faithfully reproduce the different flow regimes and capture the observed scaling laws for the final deposit. Remarkably, the theoretical hypothesis that there is a simple stress-strain rate tensorial relationship does seem to hold across the whole flow even close to the rough boundary provided the flow is dense enough. These encouraging results suggest viscoplastic theory is more generally applicable to transient, multidirectional, dense flows and open the way for quantitative predictions in real applications.
PSE-3D Instability Analysis and Application to Flow Over an Elliptic Cone
2015-04-01
important to understand transition in this flow regime since the process can be slower than in incompressible flow and is critical to prediction of...solver by Gosse et al. [2010]. The stability analysis results reveal that the leading unstable modes peak on the mushroom -like structure formed near the...behavior of a laminar flow field upon the introduction of small- amplitude perturbations, in order to improve the understanding of the processes
The Effect of Lutein Supplementation on Blood Plasma Levels of Complement Factor D, C5a and C3d
Tian, Yuan; Kijlstra, Aize; van der Veen, Rob L. P.; Makridaki, Maria; Murray, Ian J.; Berendschot, Tos T. J. M.
2013-01-01
Lutein is selectively taken up by the primate retina and plays an important role as a filter for harmful blue light and as an antioxidant. Recent studies have shown that lutein has systemic anti-inflammatory properties. Dietary lutein has been associated with reduced circulating levels of inflammatory biomarkers such as CRP and sICAM. Whether lutein also affects activation of the complement system has not yet been addressed and was the purpose of the study described here. Seventy-two subjects with signs of early macular degeneration were randomly assigned to receive either a 10 mg lutein supplement or a placebo during one year. EDTA blood samples were collected at 0, 4, 8 and 12 months. Complement factor D (CFD), a rate limiting component of the alternative pathway of complement activation and the complement activation products C5a and C3d were determined in the plasma samples by ELISA. A significant 0.11 µg/ml monthly decrease in plasma CFD concentration was observed in the lutein group (p<0.001), resulting in a 51% decrease from 2.3 µg/ml at baseline to 1.0 µg/ml at 12 months. The C5a concentration showed a significant 0.063ng/ml monthly decrease in the lutein group (p<0.001) resulting in a 36% decrease from 2.2ng/ml at baseline to 1.6ng/ml at 12 months. The C3d concentration showed a significant 0.19µg/ml monthly decrease in the lutein group (p=0.004) that gave rise to a 9% decrease from 15.4µg/ml at baseline to 14.4µg/ml at 12 months. In the placebo group we found a significant 0.04 µg/ml monthly decrease in plasma CFD concentration, whereas no changes were observed for C5a and C3d. Lutein supplementation markedly decreases circulating levels of the complement factors CFD, C5a and C3d levels, which might allow a simple method to control this inflammatory pathway of the innate immune system. PMID:24009749
Some potential blood flow experiments for space
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cokelet, G. R.; Meiselman, H. J.; Goldsmith, H. L.
1979-01-01
Blood is a colloidal suspension of cells, predominantly erythrocytes, (red cells) in an aqueous solution called plasma. Because the red cells are more dense than the plasma, and because they tend to aggregate, erythrocyte sedimentation can be significant when the shear stresses in flowing blood are small. This behavior, coupled with equipment restrictions, has prevented certain definitive fluid mechanical studies from being performed with blood in ground-based experiments. Among such experiments, which could be satisfactorily performed in a microgravity environment, are the following: (1) studies of blood flow in small tubes, to obtain pressure-flow rate relationships, to determine if increased red cell aggregation can be an aid to blood circulation, and to determine vessel entrance lengths, and (2) studies of blood flow through vessel junctions (bifurcations), to obtain information on cell distribution in downstream vessels of (arterial) bifurcations, and to test flow models of stratified convergent blood flows downstream from (venous) bifurcations.
Axisymmetric Granular Collapse: a Transient 3D flow Test of Viscoplasticity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kerswell, Rich; Lacaze, Laurent
2008-11-01
The collapse of a stationary cylinder of granular material onto a horizontal plan is a deceptively simple experiment rich in flow behaviour. Using 3-dimensional soft particle simulations, we reproduce the observed scaling laws for the maximum final runout and height of the deposit as a function of the initial aspect ratio. The flow simulations of this unsteady, largely axisymmetric flow are then used to confront a recently-introduced visco-plastic continuum theory (Jop, Forterre & Pouliquen, Nature, 441,727,2006) which has seen some success modelling steady, unidirectional flows.
Warped AdS3 , dS3 , and flows from N =(0 ,2 ) SCFTs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
O'Colgáin, Eoin
2015-05-01
We present the general form of all timelike supersymmetric solutions to three-dimensional U (1 )3 gauged supergravity, a known consistent truncation of string theory. We uncover a rich vacuum structure, including an infinite class of new timelike-warped AdS3 (Gödel) and timelike-warped dS3 critical points. We outline the construction of supersymmetric flows, driven by irrelevant scalar operators in the SCFT, which interpolate between critical points. For flows from AdS3 to Gödel, the natural candidate for the central charge decreases along the flow. Flows to timelike-warped dS3 exhibit topology change.
Sarkar, Avik; Milioli, Fernando E.; Ozarkar, Shailesh; Li, Tingwen; Sun, Xin; Sundaresan, Sankaran
2016-10-01
The accuracy of fluidized-bed CFD predictions using the two-fluid model can be improved significantly, even when using coarse grids, by replacing the microscopic kinetic-theory-based closures with coarse-grained constitutive models. These coarse-grained constitutive relationships, called filtered models, account for the unresolved gas-particle structures (clusters and bubbles) via sub-grid corrections. Following the previous 2-D approaches of Igci et al. [AIChE J., 54(6), 1431-1448, 2008] and Milioli et al. [AIChE J., 59(9), 3265-3275, 2013], new filtered models are constructed from highly-resolved 3-D simulations of gas-particle flows. Although qualitatively similar to the older 2-D models, the new 3-D relationships exhibit noticeable quantitative and functional differences. In particular, the filtered stresses are strongly dependent on the gas-particle slip velocity. Closures for the filtered inter-phase drag, gas- and solids-phase pressures and viscosities are reported. A new model for solids stress anisotropy is also presented. These new filtered 3-D constitutive relationships are better suited to practical coarse-grid 3-D simulations of large, commercial-scale devices.
3D Numerical Simulation of Turbulent Buoyant Flow and Heat Transport in a Curved Open Channel
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
A three-dimensional buoyancy-extended version of kappa-epsilon turbulence model was developed for simulating the turbulent flow and heat transport in a curved open channel. The density- induced buoyant force was included in the model, and the influence of temperature stratification on flow field was...
Xia, Yidong; Luo, Hong; Frisbey, Megan; Nourgaliev, Robert
2014-07-01
A set of implicit methods are proposed for a third-order hierarchical WENO reconstructed discontinuous Galerkin method for compressible flows on 3D hybrid grids. An attractive feature in these methods are the application of the Jacobian matrix based on the P1 element approximation, resulting in a huge reduction of memory requirement compared with DG (P2). Also, three approaches -- analytical derivation, divided differencing, and automatic differentiation (AD) are presented to construct the Jacobian matrix respectively, where the AD approach shows the best robustness. A variety of compressible flow problems are computed to demonstrate the fast convergence property of the implemented flow solver. Furthermore, an SPMD (single program, multiple data) programming paradigm based on MPI is proposed to achieve parallelism. The numerical results on complex geometries indicate that this low-storage implicit method can provide a viable and attractive DG solution for complicated flows of practical importance.
LDA measurement of the passage flow field in a 3-D airfoil cascade
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stauter, R. C.; Fleeter, S.
1986-01-01
Three-dimensional internal flow computational models are currently being developed to predict the flow through turbomachinery blade rows. For these codes to be of quantitative value, they must be verified with data obtained in experiments which model the fundamental flow phenomena. In this paper, the complete three-dimensional flow field through a subsonic annular cascade of cambered airfoils is experimentally quantified. In particular, detailed three-dimensional data are obtained to quantify the inlet velocity profile, the cascade passage velocity field, and the exit region flow field. The primary instrumentation for acquiring these data is a single-channel Laser Doppler Anemometer operating in the backscatter mode, with chordwise distributions of airfoil surface static pressure taps also utilized. Appropriate data are correlated with predictions from the MERIDL/TSONIC codes.
3-D flow and scour near a submerged wing dike: ADCP measurements on the Missouri River
Jamieson, E.C.; Rennie, C.D.; Jacobson, R.B.; Townsend, R.D.
2011-01-01
Detailed mapping of bathymetry and three-dimensional water velocities using a boat-mounted single-beam sonar and acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) was carried out in the vicinity of two submerged wing dikes located in the Lower Missouri River near Columbia, Missouri. During high spring flows the wing dikes become submerged, creating a unique combination of vertical flow separation and overtopping (plunging) flow conditions, causing large-scale three-dimensional turbulent flow structures to form. On three different days and for a range of discharges, sampling transects at 5 and 20 m spacing were completed, covering the area adjacent to and upstream and downstream from two different wing dikes. The objectives of this research are to evaluate whether an ADCP can identify and measure large-scale flow features such as recirculating flow and vortex shedding that develop in the vicinity of a submerged wing dike; and whether or not moving-boat (single-transect) data are sufficient for resolving complex three-dimensional flow fields. Results indicate that spatial averaging from multiple nearby single transects may be more representative of an inherently complex (temporally and spatially variable) three-dimensional flow field than repeated single transects. Results also indicate a correspondence between the location of calculated vortex cores (resolved from the interpolated three-dimensional flow field) and the nearby scour holes, providing new insight into the connections between vertically oriented coherent structures and local scour, with the unique perspective of flow and morphology in a large river. Copyright 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.
Linear and nonlinear instability and ligament dynamics in 3D laminar two-layer liquid/liquid flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ó Náraigh, Lennon; Valluri, Prashant; Scott, David; Bethune, Iain; Spelt, Peter
2013-11-01
We consider the linear and nonlinear stability of two-phase density-matched but viscosity contrasted fluids subject to laminar Poiseuille flow in a channel, paying particular attention to the formation of three-dimensional waves. The Orr-Sommerfeld-Squire analysis is used along with DNS of the 3D two-phase Navier-Stokes equations using our newly launched TPLS Solver (http://edin.ac/10cRKzS). For the parameter regimes considered, we demonstrate the existence of two distinct mechanisms whereby 3D waves enter the system, and dominate at late time. There exists a direct route, whereby 3D waves are amplified by the standard linear mechanism; for certain parameter classes, such waves grow at a rate less than but comparable to that of most-dangerous two-dimensional mode. Additionally, there is a weakly nonlinear route, whereby a purely spanwise wave couples to a streamwise mode and grows exponentially. We demonstrate these mechanisms in isolation and in concert. Consideration is also given to the ultimate state of these waves: persistent three-dimensional nonlinear waves are stretched and distorted by the base flow, thereby producing regimes of ligaments, ``sheets,'' or ``interfacial turbulence.'' HECToR RAP/dCSE Project e174, HPC-Europa 2.
Lesman, Ayelet; Blinder, Yaron; Levenberg, Shulamit
2010-02-15
Novel tissue-culture bioreactors employ flow-induced shear stress as a means of mechanical stimulation of cells. We developed a computational fluid dynamics model of the complex three-dimensional (3D) microstructure of a porous scaffold incubated in a direct perfusion bioreactor. Our model was designed to predict high shear-stress values within the physiological range of those naturally sensed by vascular cells (1-10 dyne/cm(2)), and will thereby provide suitable conditions for vascular tissue-engineering experiments. The model also accounts for cellular growth, which was designed as an added cell layer grown on all scaffold walls. Five model variants were designed, with geometric differences corresponding to cell-layer thicknesses of 0, 50, 75, 100, and 125 microm. Four inlet velocities (0.5, 1, 1.5, and 2 cm/s) were applied to each model. Wall shear-stress distribution and overall pressure drop calculations were then used to characterize the relation between flow rate, shear stress, cell-layer thickness, and pressure drop. The simulations showed that cellular growth within 3D scaffolds exposes cells to elevated shear stress, with considerably increasing average values in correlation to cell growth and inflow velocity. Our results provide in-depth analysis of the microdynamic environment of cells cultured within 3D environments, and thus provide advanced control over tissue development in vitro.
The NCOREL computer program for 3D nonlinear supersonic potential flow computations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Siclari, M. J.
1983-01-01
An innovative computational technique (NCOREL) was established for the treatment of three dimensional supersonic flows. The method is nonlinear in that it solves the nonconservative finite difference analog of the full potential equation and can predict the formation of supercritical cross flow regions, embedded and bow shocks. The method implicitly computes a conical flow at the apex (R = 0) of a spherical coordinate system and uses a fully implicit marching technique to obtain three dimensional cross flow solutions. This implies that the radial Mach number must remain supersonic. The cross flow solutions are obtained by using type dependent transonic relaxation techniques with the type dependency linked to the character of the cross flow velocity (i.e., subsonic/supersonic). The spherical coordinate system and marching on spherical surfaces is ideally suited to the computation of wing flows at low supersonic Mach numbers due to the elimination of the subsonic axial Mach number problems that exist in other marching codes that utilize Cartesian transverse marching planes.
Packing, alignment and flow of shape-anisotropic grains in a 3D silo experiment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Börzsönyi, Tamás; Somfai, Ellák; Szabó, Balázs; Wegner, Sandra; Mier, Pascal; Rose, Georg; Stannarius, Ralf
2016-09-01
Granular material flowing through bottlenecks, like the openings of silos, tend to clog and thus inhibit further flow. We study this phenomenon in a three-dimensional hopper for spherical and shape-anisotropic particles by means of x-ray tomography. The x-ray tomograms provide information on the bulk of the granular filling, and allows us to determine the particle positions and orientations inside the silo. In addition, it allows us to calculate local packing densities in different parts of the container. We find that in the flowing zone of the silo particles show a preferred orientation and thereby a higher order. Similarly to simple shear flows, the average orientation of the particles is not parallel to the streamlines but encloses a certain angle with it. In most parts of the hopper, the angular distribution of the particles did not reach the one corresponding to stationary shear flow, thus the average orientation angle in the hopper deviates more from the streamlines than in stationary shear flows. In the flowing parts of the silo, shear induced dilation is observed, which is more pronounced for elongated grains than for nearly spherical particles. The clogged state is characterized by a dome, i.e. the geometry of the layer of grains blocking the outflow. The shape of the dome depends on the particle shape.
Simulation of 3-D viscous flow within a multi-stage turbine
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Adamczyk, John J.; Celestina, Mark L.; Beach, Tim A.; Barnett, Mark
1989-01-01
This work outlines a procedure for simulating the flow field within multistage turbomachinery which includes the effects of unsteadiness, compressibility, and viscosity. The associated modeling equations are the average passage equation system which governs the time-averaged flow field within a typical passage of a blade row embedded within a multistage configuration. The results from a simulation of a low aspect ratio stage and a one-half turbine will be presented and compared with experimental measurements. It will be shown that the secondary flow field generated by the rotor causes the aerodynamic performance of the downstream vane to be significantly different from that of an isolated blade row.
Kim, Kyoohyun; Choe, Kibaek; Park, Inwon; Kim, Pilhan; Park, YongKeun
2016-01-01
Intravital microscopy is an essential tool that reveals behaviours of live cells under conditions close to natural physiological states. So far, although various approaches for imaging cells in vivo have been proposed, most require the use of labelling and also provide only qualitative imaging information. Holographic imaging approach based on measuring the refractive index distributions of cells, however, circumvent these problems and offer quantitative and label-free imaging capability. Here, we demonstrate in vivo two- and three-dimensional holographic imaging of circulating blood cells in intact microcapillaries of live mice. The measured refractive index distributions of blood cells provide morphological and biochemical properties including three-dimensional cell shape, haemoglobin concentration, and haemoglobin contents at the individual cell level. With the present method, alterations in blood flow dynamics in live healthy and sepsis-model mice were also investigated. PMID:27605489
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Kyoohyun; Choe, Kibaek; Park, Inwon; Kim, Pilhan; Park, Yongkeun
2016-09-01
Intravital microscopy is an essential tool that reveals behaviours of live cells under conditions close to natural physiological states. So far, although various approaches for imaging cells in vivo have been proposed, most require the use of labelling and also provide only qualitative imaging information. Holographic imaging approach based on measuring the refractive index distributions of cells, however, circumvent these problems and offer quantitative and label-free imaging capability. Here, we demonstrate in vivo two- and three-dimensional holographic imaging of circulating blood cells in intact microcapillaries of live mice. The measured refractive index distributions of blood cells provide morphological and biochemical properties including three-dimensional cell shape, haemoglobin concentration, and haemoglobin contents at the individual cell level. With the present method, alterations in blood flow dynamics in live healthy and sepsis-model mice were also investigated.
Cutaneous blood flow in psoriasis
Klemp, P.; Staberg, B.
1983-12-01
The disappearance rate of /sup 133/Xe was studied in 20 patients with psoriasis vulgaris, using an epicutaneous labeling technique in involved skin lesions or normal-appearing skin of the proximal extensor site of the forearm. Control experiments were performed in 10 normal subjects. Calculations of the cutaneous blood flow (CBF) in psoriatic skin lesions were performed using a tissue-to-blood partition coefficient for /sup 133/Xe, lambda c,pso, of 1.2 ml/100 g/min. lambda c,pso was estimated after the relative content of water, lipids, and proteins had been analyzed in psoriatic skin biopsies of 6 patients with untreated psoriasis. The mean relative content of water was markedly reduced to 23.5 +/- 1.5% (SEM), and lipids and proteins were markedly increased to 2.5 +/- 0.7% and 74.0 +/- 2.2, respectively, compared to previously published data for normal skin (water 72.5%, lipids 1%, proteins 26.5%). Mean CBF in untreated psoriatic skin was 63.5 +/- 9.0 ml/100 g/min. This was significantly higher than the mean CBF in 10 normal subjects, 6.3 +/- 0.5 ml/100 g/min (p much less than 0.0001). Mean CBF in normal-appearing skin in patients with psoriasis was 11.0 +/- 1.3 ml/100 g/min. This was significantly higher than CBF in normal subjects (p less than 0.0002).
Bocanegra Evans, Humberto; Gorumlu, Serdar; Aksak, Burak; Castillo, Luciano; Sheng, Jian
2016-01-01
Understanding how fluid flow interacts with micro-textured surfaces is crucial for a broad range of key biological processes and engineering applications including particle dispersion, pathogenic infections, and drag manipulation by surface topology. We use high-speed digital holographic microscopy (DHM) in combination with a correlation based de-noising algorithm to overcome the optical interference generated by surface roughness and to capture a large number of 3D particle trajectories in a microfluidic channel with one surface patterned with micropillars. It allows us to obtain a 3D ensembled velocity field with an uncertainty of 0.06% and 2D wall shear stress distribution at the resolution of ~65 μPa. Contrary to laminar flow in most microfluidics, we find that the flow is three-dimensional and complex for the textured microchannel. While the micropillars affect the velocity flow field locally, their presence is felt globally in terms of wall shear stresses at the channel walls. These findings imply that micro-scale mixing and wall stress sensing/manipulation can be achieved through hydro-dynamically smooth but topologically rough micropillars. PMID:27353632
PAB3D: Its History in the Use of Turbulence Models in the Simulation of Jet and Nozzle Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Abdol-Hamid, Khaled S.; Pao, S. Paul; Hunter, Craig A.; Deere, Karen A.; Massey, Steven J.; Elmiligui, Alaa
2006-01-01
This is a review paper for PAB3D s history in the implementation of turbulence models for simulating jet and nozzle flows. We describe different turbulence models used in the simulation of subsonic and supersonic jet and nozzle flows. The time-averaged simulations use modified linear or nonlinear two-equation models to account for supersonic flow as well as high temperature mixing. Two multiscale-type turbulence models are used for unsteady flow simulations. These models require modifications to the Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations. The first scheme is a hybrid RANS/LES model utilizing the two-equation (k-epsilon) model with a RANS/LES transition function, dependent on grid spacing and the computed turbulence length scale. The second scheme is a modified version of the partially averaged Navier-Stokes (PANS) formulation. All of these models are implemented in the three-dimensional Navier-Stokes code PAB3D. This paper discusses computational methods, code implementation, computed results for a wide range of nozzle configurations at various operating conditions, and comparisons with available experimental data. Very good agreement is shown between the numerical solutions and available experimental data over a wide range of operating conditions.
Pedersen, John A; Lichter, Seth; Swartz, Melody A
2010-03-22
Interstitial flow is an important regulator of various cell behaviors both in vitro and in vivo, yet the forces that fluid flow imposes on cells embedded in a 3D extracellular matrix (ECM), and the effects of matrix architecture on those forces, are not well understood. Here, we demonstrate how fiber alignment can affect the shear and pressure forces on the cell and ECM. Using computational fluid dynamics simulations, we show that while the solutions of the Brinkman equation accurately estimate the average fluid shear stress and the drag forces on a cell within a 3D fibrous medium, the distribution of shear stress on the cellular surface as well as the peak shear stresses remain intimately related to the pericellular fiber architecture and cannot be estimated using bulk-averaged properties. We demonstrate that perpendicular fiber alignment of the ECM yields lower shear stress and pressure forces on the cells and higher stresses on the ECM, leading to decreased permeability, while parallel fiber alignment leads to higher stresses on cells and increased permeability, as compared to a cubic lattice arrangement. The Spielman-Goren permeability relationships for fibrous media agreed well with CFD simulations of flow with explicitly considered fibers. These results suggest that the experimentally observed active remodeling of ECM fibers by fibroblasts under interstitial flow to a perpendicular alignment could serve to decrease the shear and drag forces on the cell.
Fluid Flow Processes Study: from a 3D seismic data set in the Pointer Ridge offshore SW Taiwan
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Han, Wei-Chung; Liu, Char-Shine; Chen, Liwen; Chi, Wu-Cheng; Lin, Che-Chuan
2016-04-01
This study analyzes a 3D seismic cube in the Pointer Ridge for understanding the fluid flow processes in subsurface. Pointer Ridge is a ridge situated on the passive China continental margin and is suggested as a potential prospect for future gas hydrate development. High methane flux rate, active gas venting and seismic chimneys have been observed in this area, which are direct evidences for active ongoing fluid migration processes. To find the possible fluid conduits and to understand how the fluids have migrated along those conduits, we firstly identify the structural and sedimentary features from this 3D seismic cube in our study area. Secondly, seismic attribute analyses are carried out for detecting fluid conduits and evaluating the contribution of recognized faults/fractures for fluid flow, respectively. Finally, we propose conceptual models to illustrate how fluids have migrated along those conduits to the seafloor and how those conduits have developed. The results show: 1) a major NE-SW striking normal fault (PR Fault) separates a depositional field on the hanging wall and a erosional field on the footwall; 2) the PR Fault zone itself and the chimneys in its footwall act as main conduits for focused fluid flow migrating to the seafloor; 3) the development of the chimneys in the Pointer Ridge area are highly controlled by the erosion and deposition processes. Since the ongoing fluid flow processes will increase the seafloor instabilities and the Pointer Ridge is a gas hydrate leaking site, our results could provide useful information for further risk evaluation.
Extension of the Johnson-King turbulence model to the 3-D flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Abid, Ridha
1988-01-01
A critical evaluation of the eddy viscosity model of Johnson and King extended to the three-dimensional case has been performed for three-dimensional boundary layer flows. The turbulence model is evaluated by a detailed comparison with available experimental data for incompressible flows over an infinite swept wing and near an idealized wing-body junction. The isotropic model of Johnson and King is found to work much better than the Cebeci-Smith model, especially in regions of strong cross flow. The significant decrease in the shear stress magnitude is almost reproduced. This means that this effect is as important as the nonisotropic eddy viscosity. The introduction of Rotta's modification to account for nonisotropic eddy viscosity in the Johnson-King formulation is found to have little effect on the predictions. The cross-flow properties are the most strongly affected.
Blood Cell Interactions and Segregation in Flow
Munn, Lance L.; Dupin, Michael M.
2009-01-01
For more than a century, pioneering researchers have been using novel experimental and computational approaches to probe the mysteries of blood flow. Thanks to their efforts, we know that blood cells generally prefer to migrate to the axis of flow, that red and white cells segregate in flow, and that cell deformability and their tendency to reversibly aggregate contribute to the non-Newtonian nature of this unique fluid. All of these properties have beneficial physiological consequences, allowing blood to perform a variety of critical functions. Our current understanding of these unusual flow properties of blood have been made possible by the ingenuity and diligence of a number of researchers, including Harry Goldsmith, who developed novel technologies to visualize and quantify the flow of blood at the level of individual cells. Here we summarize efforts in our lab to continue this tradition and to further our understanding of how blood cells interact with each other and with the blood vessel wall. PMID:18188702
Using 3D CFD to reconcile different views of confluence flow structure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lane, S. N.
2001-05-01
River channel confluences have seen considerable attention in recent years. The aim of this presentation is to demonstrate how CFD has been used to evaluate and expand some of the results that have emerged from field and laboratory studies. Central to this research has been the use of three-dimensional numerical modelling techniques that are able to represent key hydrodynamic processes in confluences (e.g. water surface super-elevation, topographic forcing of flow, shear-driven turbulence), and to provide predictions of important explanatory variables (e.g. dynamic pressure). The research design is based upon using numerical simulation to explore interactions between amongst governing variables (e.g. tributary momentum ratio, degree of asymmetry, junction angle, tributary bed discordance). On the basis of more than 50 simulations of 'laboratory-style' confluences and a smaller number of field cases, this paper identifies the key controls upon confluence flow structures, and the potential influence of these structures upon geomorphological processes within the confluence. This demonstrates: (i) how divergence of opinion over confluence flow processes has resulted from different methods of instrument rotation in the field; (ii) the importance of both streamline curvature and flow separation as controls upon flow structure development; and (iii) the periodic nature of the flow structures that are seen in confluence environments, and which may be misunderstood when a series of time-averaged measurements are made in the field.
Calculations of separated 3-D flows with a pressure-staggered Navier-Stokes equations solver
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kim, S.-W.
1991-01-01
A Navier-Stokes equations solver based on a pressure correction method with a pressure-staggered mesh and calculations of separated three-dimensional flows are presented. It is shown that the velocity pressure decoupling, which occurs when various pressure correction algorithms are used for pressure-staggered meshes, is caused by the ill-conditioned discrete pressure correction equation. The use of a partial differential equation for the incremental pressure eliminates the velocity pressure decoupling mechanism by itself and yields accurate numerical results. Example flows considered are a three-dimensional lid driven cavity flow and a laminar flow through a 90 degree bend square duct. For the lid driven cavity flow, the present numerical results compare more favorably with the measured data than those obtained using a formally third order accurate quadratic upwind interpolation scheme. For the curved duct flow, the present numerical method yields a grid independent solution with a very small number of grid points. The calculated velocity profiles are in good agreement with the measured data.
TITAN2F: a pseudo-3-D model of 2-phase debris flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Córdoba, G.; Sheridan, M. F.; Pitman, E. B.
2015-06-01
Debris flows, avalanches, landslides, and other geophysical mass flows can contain O(106-1010) m3 or more of material. These flows commonly consist of mixture of soil and rocks with a significant quantity of interstitial fluid. They can be tens of meters deep, and their runouts can extend many kilometers. The complicated rheology of such a mixture challenges every constitutive model that can reasonably be applied; the range of length and timescales involved in such mass flows challenges the computational capabilities of existing systems.This paper extends recent efforts to develop a depth averaged "thin layer" model for geophysical mass flows that contain a mixture of solid material and fluid. Concepts from the engineering community are integrated with phenomenological findings in geo-science, resulting in a theory that accounts for the principal solid and fluid forces as well as interactions between the phases, across a wide range of solid volume fraction. A principal contribution here is to present drag and phase interaction terms that comport with the literature in geo-sciences. The program predicts the evolution of the concentration and dynamic pressure. The theory is validated with with data from one dimensional dam break solutions and it is verified with data from artificial channel experiments.
Borazjani, Iman; Ge, Liang; Le, Trung; Sotiropoulos, Fotis
2013-01-01
We develop an overset-curvilinear immersed boundary (overset-CURVIB) method in a general non-inertial frame of reference to simulate a wide range of challenging biological flow problems. The method incorporates overset-curvilinear grids to efficiently handle multi-connected geometries and increase the resolution locally near immersed boundaries. Complex bodies undergoing arbitrarily large deformations may be embedded within the overset-curvilinear background grid and treated as sharp interfaces using the curvilinear immersed boundary (CURVIB) method (Ge and Sotiropoulos, Journal of Computational Physics, 2007). The incompressible flow equations are formulated in a general non-inertial frame of reference to enhance the overall versatility and efficiency of the numerical approach. Efficient search algorithms to identify areas requiring blanking, donor cells, and interpolation coefficients for constructing the boundary conditions at grid interfaces of the overset grid are developed and implemented using efficient parallel computing communication strategies to transfer information among sub-domains. The governing equations are discretized using a second-order accurate finite-volume approach and integrated in time via an efficient fractional-step method. Various strategies for ensuring globally conservative interpolation at grid interfaces suitable for incompressible flow fractional step methods are implemented and evaluated. The method is verified and validated against experimental data, and its capabilities are demonstrated by simulating the flow past multiple aquatic swimmers and the systolic flow in an anatomic left ventricle with a mechanical heart valve implanted in the aortic position. PMID:23833331
Finite element methods of analysis for 3D inviscid compressible flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Peraire, Jaime
1990-01-01
The applicants have developed a finite element based approach for the solution of three-dimensional compressible flows. The procedure enables flow solutions to be obtained on tetrahedral discretizations of computational domains of complex form. A further development was the incorporation of a solution adaptive mesh strategy in which the adaptivity is achieved by complete remeshing of the solution domain. During the previous year, the applicants were working with the Advanced Aerodynamics Concepts Branch at NASA Ames Research Center with an implementation of the basic meshing and solution procedure. The objective of the work to be performed over this twelve month period was the transfer of the adaptive mesh technology and also the undertaking of basic research into alternative flow algorithms for the Euler equations on unstructured meshes.
Buoyancy effects on the 3D MHD stagnation-point flow of a Newtonian fluid
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Borrelli, A.; Giantesio, G.; Patria, M. C.; Roşca, N. C.; Roşca, A. V.; Pop, I.
2017-02-01
This work examines the steady three-dimensional stagnation-point flow of an electrically conducting Newtonian fluid in the presence of a uniform external magnetic field H0 under the Oberbeck-Boussinesq approximation. We neglect the induced magnetic field and examine the three possible directions of H0 which coincide with the directions of the axes. In all cases it is shown that the governing nonlinear partial differential equations admit similarity solutions. We find that the flow has to satisfy an ordinary differential problem whose solution depends on the Hartmann number M, the buoyancy parameter λ and the Prandtl number Pr. The skin-friction components along the axes are computed and the stagnation-point is classified. The numerical integration shows the existence of dual solutions and the occurrence of the reverse flow for some values of the parameters.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Siclari, Michael J.
1988-01-01
A computer code called NCOREL (for Nonconical Relaxation) has been developed to solve for supersonic full potential flows over complex geometries. The method first solves for the conical at the apex and then marches downstream in a spherical coordinate system. Implicit relaxation techniques are used to numerically solve the full potential equation at each subsequent crossflow plane. Many improvements have been made to the original code including more reliable numerics for computing wing-body flows with multiple embedded shocks, inlet flow through simulation, wake model and entropy corrections. Line relaxation or approximate factorization schemes are optionally available. Improved internal grid generation using analytic conformal mappings, supported by a simple geometric Harris wave drag input that was originally developed for panel methods and internal geometry package are some of the new features.
Assessment of an Unstructured-Grid Method for Predicting 3-D Turbulent Viscous Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Frink, Neal T.
1996-01-01
A method Is presented for solving turbulent flow problems on three-dimensional unstructured grids. Spatial discretization Is accomplished by a cell-centered finite-volume formulation using an accurate lin- ear reconstruction scheme and upwind flux differencing. Time is advanced by an implicit backward- Euler time-stepping scheme. Flow turbulence effects are modeled by the Spalart-Allmaras one-equation model, which is coupled with a wall function to reduce the number of cells in the sublayer region of the boundary layer. A systematic assessment of the method is presented to devise guidelines for more strategic application of the technology to complex problems. The assessment includes the accuracy In predictions of skin-friction coefficient, law-of-the-wall behavior, and surface pressure for a flat-plate turbulent boundary layer, and for the ONERA M6 wing under a high Reynolds number, transonic, separated flow condition.
Romanov, Valentin; Gale, Bruce; Eckman, Josh; Miles, Adam; Brooks, Benjamin
2013-01-01
The protein microarray platform while innovative still poses a number of challenges which can only be met through creative and sophisticated system design. Pin printing while allowing for flexibility as to the type of medium printed does not offer the kind of spot reproducibility that a very sensitive application may require. The Continuous Flow Microspotter (CFM) was designed to not only allow for flexibility and reproducibility but to also achieve solution stability through flow scaling. This study uses the emerging CFM for printing protein and antibodies three dimensionally for general protein microarray applications. Consistent spot morphology, a continual and persistent problem in traditional pin printed microarrays, was compared under variable printed flow rates. The final assessment was performed using a rudimentary shear model. Force effects discussion and statistical data was used to demonstrate the versatility of the system.
An investigation of factors influencing the calibration of 5-hole probes for 3-D flow measurements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dominy, R. G.; Hodson, H. P.
1992-06-01
The effects of Reynolds number, Mach number and turbulence on the calibrations of commonly used types of 5-hole probe are discussed. The majority of the probes were calibrated at the exit from a transonic nozzle over a range of Reynolds numbers at subsonic and transonic Mach numbers. Additional information relating to the flow structure were obtained from a large scale, low speed wind tunnel. The results confirmed the existence of two distinct Reynolds number effects. Flow separation around the probe head affects the calibrations at relatively low Reynolds numbers while changes in the detailed structure of the flow around the sensing holes affects the calibrations even when the probe is nulled. Compressibility is shown to have little influence upon the general behavior of these probes in terms of Reynolds number sensitivity but turbulence can effect the reliability of probe calibrations at typical test Reynolds numbers.
Unstructured grid methods for the simulation of 3D transient flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Morgan, K.; Peraire, J.; Peiro, J.
1994-06-01
A description of the research work undertaken under NASA Research Grant NAGW-2962 has been given. Basic algorithmic development work, undertaken for the simulation of steady three dimensional inviscid flow, has been used as the basis for the construction of a procedure for the simulation of truly transient flows in three dimensions. To produce a viable procedure for implementation on the current generation of computers, moving boundary components are simulated by fixed boundaries plus a suitably modified boundary condition. Computational efficiency is increased by the use of an implicit time stepping scheme in which the equation system is solved by explicit multistage time stepping with multigrid acceleration. The viability of the proposed approach has been demonstrated by considering the application of the procedure to simulation of a transonic flow over an oscillating ONERA M6 wing.
Unstructured grid methods for the simulation of 3D transient flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Morgan, K.; Peraire, J.; Peiro, J.
1994-01-01
A description of the research work undertaken under NASA Research Grant NAGW-2962 has been given. Basic algorithmic development work, undertaken for the simulation of steady three dimensional inviscid flow, has been used as the basis for the construction of a procedure for the simulation of truly transient flows in three dimensions. To produce a viable procedure for implementation on the current generation of computers, moving boundary components are simulated by fixed boundaries plus a suitably modified boundary condition. Computational efficiency is increased by the use of an implicit time stepping scheme in which the equation system is solved by explicit multistage time stepping with multigrid acceleration. The viability of the proposed approach has been demonstrated by considering the application of the procedure to simulation of a transonic flow over an oscillating ONERA M6 wing.
Regional cerebral blood flow in schizophrenia
Mathew, R.J.; Duncan, G.C.; Weinman, M.L.; Barr, D.L.
1982-10-01
Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured via xenon133 inhalation technique in 23 patients with schizophrenia and 18 age- and sex-matched controls. The mean blood flow to both hemispheres was found to be lower for the patients. The patients and their controls did not differ on interhemispheric differences in blood flow. There were no differences in rCBF between medicated and unmedicated, subchronic and chronic, and paranoid and nonparanoid patients. Hallucinations were associated with reduced blood flow to several postcentral regions.
Local cooling reduces regional bone blood flow.
Venjakob, Arne J; Vogt, Stephan; Stöckl, Klaus; Tischer, Thomas; Jost, Philipp J; Thein, Eckart; Imhoff, Andreas B; Anetzberger, Hermann
2013-11-01
Local cooling is very common after bone and joint surgery. Therefore the knowledge of bone blood flow during local cooling is of substantial interest. Previous studies revealed that hypothermia leads to vasoconstriction followed by decreased blood flow levels. The aim of this study was to characterize if local cooling is capable of inducing reduced blood flow in bone tissue using a stepwise-reduced temperature protocol in experimental rabbits. To examine bone blood flow we utilized the fluorescent microsphere (FM) method. In New Zealand white rabbits one randomly chosen hind limb was cooled stepwise from 32 to 2°C, whereas the contra lateral hind limb served as control. Injection of microspheres was performed after stabilization of bone and muscle temperature at each temperature level. Bones were removed, dissected and fluorescence intensity was determined to calculate blood flow values. We found that blood flow of all cooled regions decreased relative to the applied external temperature. At maximum cooling blood flow was almost completely disrupted, indicating local cooling as powerful regulatory mechanism for regional bone blood flow (RBBF). Postoperative cooling therefore may lead to strongly decreased bone blood flow values. As a result external cooling has capacity to both diminish bone healing and reduce bleeding complications.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tang, H.; Qu, K.
2014-12-01
A hybrid method that couples a geophysical fluid dynamics model to a fully 3D fluid dynamics model is the most feasible and promising approach to simulate coastal ocean flow phenomena that involve multiple types of physics spanning a vast range of temporal and spatial scales. We propose such a hybrid method that couples the Finite Volume Coastal Ocean Model (FVCOM) with the Solver for Incompressible Flow on Overset Meshes (SIFOM); the former is used to simulate large-scale estuary flows, and the latter is employed to capture small-scale local processes. The coupling involves distinct governing equations, different numerical algorithms, and dissimilar grids, and it is two-way and realized using the Schwartz alternative iteration. In this presentation, the proposed method will be outlined, and a few applications that are newly produced by it but cannot be handled by other conventional approaches will be presented.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shalaev, V. I.
2016-10-01
Singularities appearing in solutions of 3D laminar boundary layer (BL) equations, when two streamline families are collided, are discussed. For conical bodies, equations are investigated using asymptotic methods. Analytical solutions are obtained for the outer BL region; their singularities in the runoff plane are studied. The asymptotic flow structure near the singularity is constructed on the base of Navier-Stokes equations at large Reynolds numbers. For different flow regions analytical solutions are found and are matched with BL equation solutions. Properties of BL equations for the near-wall region in the runoff plane are investigated and a criterion of the solution disappearing is found. It is shown that this criterion separates two different topological flow structures and corresponds to the singularity appearance in this plane in solutions of full equations. Calculations confirmed obtained results are presented.
Xia, Yidong; Luo, Hong; Frisbey, Megan; ...
2014-07-01
A set of implicit methods are proposed for a third-order hierarchical WENO reconstructed discontinuous Galerkin method for compressible flows on 3D hybrid grids. An attractive feature in these methods are the application of the Jacobian matrix based on the P1 element approximation, resulting in a huge reduction of memory requirement compared with DG (P2). Also, three approaches -- analytical derivation, divided differencing, and automatic differentiation (AD) are presented to construct the Jacobian matrix respectively, where the AD approach shows the best robustness. A variety of compressible flow problems are computed to demonstrate the fast convergence property of the implemented flowmore » solver. Furthermore, an SPMD (single program, multiple data) programming paradigm based on MPI is proposed to achieve parallelism. The numerical results on complex geometries indicate that this low-storage implicit method can provide a viable and attractive DG solution for complicated flows of practical importance.« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moortgat, J.; Firoozabadi, A.
2013-12-01
Most problems of interest in hydrogeology and subsurface energy resources involve complex heterogeneous geological formations. Such domains are most naturally represented in numerical reservoir simulations by unstructured computational grids. Finite element methods are a natural choice to describe fluid flow on unstructured meshes, because the governing equations can be readily discretized for any grid-element geometry. In this work, we consider the challenging problem of fully compositional three-phase flow in 3D unstructured grids, discretized by tetrahedra, prisms, or hexahedra, and compare to simulations on 3D structured grids. We employ a combination of mixed hybrid finite element methods to solve for the pressure and flux fields in a fractional flow formulation, and higher-order discontinuous Galerkin methods for the mass transport equations. These methods are well suited to simulate flow in heterogeneous and fractured reservoirs, because they provide a globally continuous pressure and flux field, while allowing for sharp discontinuities in the phase properties, such as compositions and saturations. The increased accuracy from using higher-order methods improves the modeling of highly non-linear flow, such as gravitational and viscous fingering. We present several numerical examples to study convergence rates and the (lack of) sensitivity to gridding/mesh orientation, and mesh quality. These examples consider gravity depletion, water and gas injection in oil saturated subsurface reservoirs with species exchange between up to three fluid phases. The examples demonstrate the wide applicability of our chosen finite element methods in the study of challenging multiphase flow problems in porous, geometrically complex, subsurface media.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Peres, Noele; Poncet, Sébastien; Serre, Eric
2012-08-01
The present work proposes a collocation spectral method for solving the three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations using cylindrical coordinates. The whole diameter -R⩽r⩽R is discretized with an even number of radial Gauss-Lobatto collocation points and an angular shift is introduced in the Fourier transform that avoid pole and parity conditions usually required. The method keeps the spectral convergence that reduces the number of grid points with respect to lower-order numerical methods. The grid-points distribution densifies the mesh only near the boundaries that makes the algorithm well-suited to simulate rotating cavity flows where thin layers develop along the walls. Comparisons with reliable experimental and numerical results of the literature show good quantitative agreements for flows driven by rotating discs in tall cylinders and thin inter-disc cavities. Associated to a spectral vanishing viscosity [E. Séverac, E. Serre, A spectral vanishing viscosity for the LES of turbulent flows within rotating cavities, J. Comp. Phys. 226 (2007) 1234-1255], the method provides very promising LES results of turbulent cavity flows.
Computer Tomography 3-D Imaging of the Metal Deformation Flow Path in Friction Stir Welding
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schneider, Judy; Beshears, Ronald; Nunes, Arthur C., Jr.
2004-01-01
In friction stir welding, a rotating threaded pin tool is inserted into a weld seam and literally stirs the edges of the seam together. This solid-state technique has been successfully used in the joining of materials that are difficult to fusion weld such as aluminum alloys. To determine optimal processing parameters for producing a defect free weld, a better understanding of the resulting metal deformation flow path is required. Marker studies are the principal method of studying the metal deformation flow path around the FSW pin tool. In our study, we have used computed tomography (CT) scans to reveal the flow pattern of a lead wire embedded in a FSW weld seam. At the welding temperature of aluminum, the lead becomes molten and thus tracks the aluminum deformation flow paths in a unique 3-dimensional manner. CT scanning is a convenient and comprehensive way of collecting and displaying tracer data. It marks an advance over previous more tedious and ambiguous radiographic/metallographic data collection methods.
3D Heart Model and 4D Flow MRI 20 Years after Spiral Arterial Switch Operation
Sievers, Hans-Hinrich; Kheradvar, Arash; Kramer, Hans-Heiner; Rickers, Carsten
2016-01-01
Case of a patient is presented here 20 years after spiral direct anastomosis of the great arteries in an arterial switch operation. Three-dimensional model of the heart combined with four-dimensional flow magnetic resonance imaging presents a novel comprehensive way to assess surgical results. PMID:28018823
Investigation on 3D t wake flow structures of swimming bionic fish
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shen, G.-X.; Tan, G.-K.; Lai, G.-J.
2012-10-01
A bionic experimental platform was designed for the purpose of investigating time accurate three-dimensional flow field, using digital particle image velocimetry (DSPIV). The wake behind the flapping trail of a robotic fish model was studied at high spatial resolution. The study was performed in a water channel. A robot fish model was designed and built. The model was fixed onto a rigid support framework using a cable-supporting method, with twelve stretched wires. The entire tail of the model can perform prescribed motions in two degrees of freedom, mainly in carangiform mode, by driving its afterbody and lunate caudal fin respectively. The DSPIV system was set up to operate in a translational manner, measuring velocity field in a series of parallel slices. Phase locked measurements were repeated for a number of runs, allowing reconstruction of phase average flow field. Vortex structures with phase history of the wake were obtained. The study reveals some new and complex three-dimensional flow structures in the wake of the fish, including "reverse hairpin vortex" and "reverse Karman S-H vortex rings", allowing insight into physics of this complex flow.
3D Evolution of Jets in Clusters of Galaxies - A comparison with Herbig-Haro Flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Max, Camenzind; Martin, Krause; Markus, Thiele
A comparison is drawn between jet propagation in molecular clouds and jets launched by galaxies in clusters. The biggest difference between the two types of jets is found in the density contrast. While the cocoon plasma in extragalactic jets has now been detected in X-rays, the corresponding cocoon gas for Herbig-Haro flows is barely visible.
New Method for the Characterization of 3D Preferential Flow Paths at the Field
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
Preferential flow paths development in the field is the result of the complex interaction of multiple processes relating to the soil's structure, moisture condition, stress level, and biological activities. Visualizing and characterizing the cracking behavior and preferential paths evolution with so...
Massively parallel computation of 3D flow and reactions in chemical vapor deposition reactors
Salinger, A.G.; Shadid, J.N.; Hutchinson, S.A.; Hennigan, G.L.; Devine, K.D.; Moffat, H.K.
1997-12-01
Computer modeling of Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) reactors can greatly aid in the understanding, design, and optimization of these complex systems. Modeling is particularly attractive in these systems since the costs of experimentally evaluating many design alternatives can be prohibitively expensive, time consuming, and even dangerous, when working with toxic chemicals like Arsine (AsH{sub 3}): until now, predictive modeling has not been possible for most systems since the behavior is three-dimensional and governed by complex reaction mechanisms. In addition, CVD reactors often exhibit large thermal gradients, large changes in physical properties over regions of the domain, and significant thermal diffusion for gas mixtures with widely varying molecular weights. As a result, significant simplifications in the models have been made which erode the accuracy of the models` predictions. In this paper, the authors will demonstrate how the vast computational resources of massively parallel computers can be exploited to make possible the analysis of models that include coupled fluid flow and detailed chemistry in three-dimensional domains. For the most part, models have either simplified the reaction mechanisms and concentrated on the fluid flow, or have simplified the fluid flow and concentrated on rigorous reactions. An important CVD research thrust has been in detailed modeling of fluid flow and heat transfer in the reactor vessel, treating transport and reaction of chemical species either very simply or as a totally decoupled problem. Using the analogy between heat transfer and mass transfer, and the fact that deposition is often diffusion limited, much can be learned from these calculations; however, the effects of thermal diffusion, the change in physical properties with composition, and the incorporation of surface reaction mechanisms are not included in this model, nor can transitions to three-dimensional flows be detected.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, Nan; Song, Yang; Wang, Jia; Li, Zhen-hua; He, An-zhi
2012-11-01
Moiré tomography is an important technique to diagnose the flow field. However, the traditional moiré deflectometry cannot meet the requirements of Volume Moiré Tomography (VMT). In this Letter, an improved moiré deflected system based on double orthogonal gratings is introduced for real 3-D reconstruction. The proposed method could obtain the first-order partial derivatives in two vertical directions of the projection in one time. Comparing with the traditional moiré deflectometry, the proposed system is more effective and easier to realize the multi-direction data acquisition.
Computational results for flows over 2-D ramp and 3-D obstacle with an upwind Navier-Stokes solver
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Venkatapathy, Ethiraj
1990-01-01
An implicit, finite-difference, upwind, full Navier-Stokes solver was applied to supersonic/hypersonic flows over two-dimensional ramps and three-dimensional obstacle. Some of the computed results are presented. The numerical scheme used in the study is an implicit, spacially second order accurate, upwind, LU-ADI scheme based on Roe's approximate Reimann solver with MUSCL differencing of Van Leer. An algebraic grid generation scheme based on generalized interpolation scheme was used in generating the grids for the various 2-D and 3-D problems.
Computational results for 2-D and 3-D ramp flows with an upwind Navier-Stokes solver
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Venkatapathy, Ethiraj
1991-01-01
An implicit, finite-difference, upwind, full Navier-Stokes solver was applied to supersonic/hypersonic flows over two-dimensional ramps and three-dimensional obstacle. Some of the computed results are presented. The numerical scheme used in the study is an implicit, spatially second order accurate, upwind, LU-ADI scheme based on Roe's approximate Reimann solver with MUSCL differencing of Van Leer. An algebraic grid generation scheme based on generalized interpolation scheme was used in generating the grids for the various 2-D and 3-D problems.
Validation of a Node-Centered Wall Function Model for the Unstructured Flow Code FUN3D
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Carlson, Jan-Renee; Vasta, Veer N.; White, Jeffery
2015-01-01
In this paper, the implementation of two wall function models in the Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) computational uid dynamics (CFD) code FUN3D is described. FUN3D is a node centered method for solving the three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations on unstructured computational grids. The first wall function model, based on the work of Knopp et al., is used in conjunction with the one-equation turbulence model of Spalart-Allmaras. The second wall function model, also based on the work of Knopp, is used in conjunction with the two-equation k-! turbulence model of Menter. The wall function models compute the wall momentum and energy flux, which are used to weakly enforce the wall velocity and pressure flux boundary conditions in the mean flow momentum and energy equations. These wall conditions are implemented in an implicit form where the contribution of the wall function model to the Jacobian are also included. The boundary conditions of the turbulence transport equations are enforced explicitly (strongly) on all solid boundaries. The use of the wall function models is demonstrated on four test cases: a at plate boundary layer, a subsonic di user, a 2D airfoil, and a 3D semi-span wing. Where possible, different near-wall viscous spacing tactics are examined. Iterative residual convergence was obtained in most cases. Solution results are compared with theoretical and experimental data for several variations of grid spacing. In general, very good comparisons with data were achieved.
Dual FIB-SEM 3D imaging and lattice boltzmann modeling of porosimetry and multiphase flow in chalk.
Rinehart, Alex; Petrusak, Robin; Heath, Jason E.; Dewers, Thomas A.; Yoon, Hongkyu
2010-12-01
Mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP) is an often-applied technique for determining pore throat distributions and seal analysis of fine-grained rocks. Due to closure effects, potential pore collapse, and complex pore network topologies, MIP data interpretation can be ambiguous, and often biased toward smaller pores in the distribution. We apply 3D imaging techniques and lattice-Boltzmann modeling in interpreting MIP data for samples of the Cretaceous Selma Group Chalk. In the Mississippi Interior Salt Basin, the Selma Chalk is the apparent seal for oil and gas fields in the underlying Eutaw Fm., and, where unfractured, the Selma Chalk is one of the regional-scale seals identified by the Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership for CO2 injection sites. Dual focused ion - scanning electron beam and laser scanning confocal microscopy methods are used for 3D imaging of nanometer-to-micron scale microcrack and pore distributions in the Selma Chalk. A combination of image analysis software is used to obtain geometric pore body and throat distributions and other topological properties, which are compared to MIP results. 3D data sets of pore-microfracture networks are used in Lattice Boltzmann simulations of drainage (wetting fluid displaced by non-wetting fluid via the Shan-Chen algorithm), which in turn are used to model MIP procedures. Results are used in interpreting MIP results, understanding microfracture-matrix interaction during multiphase flow, and seal analysis for underground CO2 storage.
3D numerical study of tumor microenvironmental flow in response to vascular-disrupting treatments.
Wu, Jie; Cai, Yan; Xu, Shixiong; Longs, Quan; Ding, Zurong; Dong, Cheng
2012-06-01
The effects of vascular-disrupting treatments on normalization of tumor microvasculature and its microenvironmental flow were investigated, by mathematical modeling and numerical simulation of tumor vascular-disrupting and tumor haemodynamics. Four disrupting approaches were designed according to the abnormal characteristics of tumor microvasculature compared with the normal one. The results predict that the vascular-disrupting therapies could improve tumor microenvironment, eliminate drug barrier and inhibit metastasis of tumor cells to some extent. Disrupting certain types of vessels may get better effects. In this study, the flow condition on the networks with "vascular-disrupting according to flowrate" is the best comparing with the other three groups, and disrupting vessels of lower maturity could effectively enhance fluid transport across vasculature into interstitial space.
Flow transition with 2-D roughness elements in a 3-D channel
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Liu, Zhining; Liu, Chaoquin; Mccormick, Stephen F.
1993-01-01
We develop a new numerical approach to study the spatially evolving instability of the streamwise dominant flow in the presence of roughness elements. The difficulty in handling the flow over the boundary surface with general geometry is removed by using a new conservative form of the governing equations and an analytical mapping. The numerical scheme uses second-order backward Euler in time, fourth-order central differences in all three spatial directions, and boundary-fitted staggered grids. A three-dimensional channel with multiple two-dimensional-type roughness elements is employed as the test case. Fourier analysis is used to decompose different Fourier modes of the disturbance. The results show that surface roughness leads to transition at lower Reynolds number than for smooth channels.
Fundamental Experimental and Numerical Investigation of Active Control of 3-D Flows
2011-10-06
Farnsworth, J., Gressick, W. and Amitay, M., 2009, “Active Control of Flow Separation and Structural Vibrations of Wind Turbine Blades ”, Wind Energy, DOI...Ciuryla et. al., 2007). More recently it has been used for vibration suppression in wind turbines by Maldonado et. al. (2009). Synthetic jets have...10.1002/we.336 (in print ). Mallinson, S.G., Hong, G. and Reizes, J.A., 1999, “Some Characterstics of Synthetic Jets”, AIAA Paper 99-3651. Mallinson
Finite-difference model for 3-D flow in bays and estuaries
Smith, Peter E.; Larock, Bruce E.; ,
1993-01-01
This paper describes a semi-implicit finite-difference model for the numerical solution of three-dimensional flow in bays and estuaries. The model treats the gravity wave and vertical diffusion terms in the governing equations implicitly, and other terms explicitly. The model achieves essentially second-order accurate and stable solutions in strongly nonlinear problems by using a three-time-level leapfrog-trapezoidal scheme for the time integration.
Turbulence Statistics Over 3D Roughness in a Turbulent Channel Flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hong, Jiarong; Katz, Joseph; Schultz, Michael
2009-11-01
This study focuses on the near-wall flow field within a turbulent channel flow over a rough surface. Performing experiments in a facility containing a fluid with the same refractive index as the acrylic rough plate facilitates PIV measurements very near the wall. Presently, the flow in the vicinity of uniformly distributed 0.45mm high pyramids at Reτ=3400-5418 is resolved at a vector spacing of 63um, ˜9 wall units. Data in a streamwise-wall-normal plane shows that below one roughness height, there is an upsurge of , and there are substantial spatial variations in , and
Simulation of suspension flow of finite-size spherical particles in a 3D square channel
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gao, Hui; Wang, Lian-Ping
2008-11-01
Suspension flow of finite-size particles in a turbulent gas is of importance to many engineering applications and natural phenomena. As a first step, the present work focuses on the motion and hydrodynamic interaction of finite-size particles in the absence of background carrier-fluid turbulence. The major challenge for an accurate simulation is twofold: an efficient implementation of no-slip boundary conditions on the moving particle surface and an accurate representation of short-range lubrication effects that typically are not resolved numerically. A Navier-Stokes based hybrid approach (i.e., Physalis) developed by Prosperetti and co-workers is employed to solve the suspension flows of a pair of finite-size, freely-moving particles at finite particle Reynolds numbers. A lubrication force representation, designed by Ladd, involving particle relative location and velocity, is incorporated to capture the short-range interactions between particles. The accuracy of the representation and its compatibility with the flow simulation will be examined. A mesoscopic lattice Boltzmann equation (LBE) approach is also used to simulate the same problem for cross validation. Specific implementation issues will be addressed. Comparison with available numerical data will also be discussed.
A natural flow wing design employing 3-D nonlinear analysis applied at supersonic speeds
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bauer, Steven X. S.; Wood, Richard M.; Brown, S. Melissa
1989-01-01
A wing-design study has been conducted on a 65-deg-swept leading-edge delta wing in which a near-conical geometry was employed to take advantage of the naturally occurring conical flow which arises over such a wing in a supersonic flow field. Three-dimensional nonlinear analysis methods were used in the study. In preliminary design, wing planform, design conditions, and near-conical concept were derived and a baseline standard wing (conventional airfoil distribution) and a baseline near-conical wing were chosen. During the initial analysis, a full-potential solver was employed to determine the aerodynamic characteristics of the baseline standard delta wing and the near-conical delta wing. Modifications due to airfoil thickness, leading-edge radius, and camber were then applied to the baseline near-conical wing. The final design employed a Euler solver to analyze the best wing configurations found in the initial design, and to extend this study to develop a more refined wing. Benefits due to each modification are discussed, and a final natural flow wing geometry is chosen and its aerodynamic characteristics are compared with the baseline wings.
Assessment of 3D Codes for Predicting Liner Attenuation in Flow Ducts
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Watson, W. R.; Nark, D. M.; Jones, M. G.
2008-01-01
This paper presents comparisons of seven propagation codes for predicting liner attenuation in ducts with flow. The selected codes span the spectrum of methods available (finite element, parabolic approximation, and pseudo-time domain) and are collectively representative of the state-of-art in the liner industry. These codes are included because they have two-dimensional and three-dimensional versions and can be exported to NASA's Columbia Supercomputer. The basic assumptions, governing differential equations, boundary conditions, and numerical methods underlying each code are briefly reviewed and an assessment is performed based on two predefined metrics. The two metrics used in the assessment are the accuracy of the predicted attenuation and the amount of wall clock time to predict the attenuation. The assessment is performed over a range of frequencies, mean flow rates, and grazing flow liner impedances commonly used in the liner industry. The primary conclusions of the study are (1) predicted attenuations are in good agreement for rigid wall ducts, (2) the majority of codes compare well to each other and to approximate results from mode theory for soft wall ducts, (3) most codes compare well to measured data on a statistical basis, (4) only the finite element codes with cubic Hermite polynomials capture extremely large attenuations, and (5) wall clock time increases by an order of magnitude or more are observed for a three-dimensional code relative to the corresponding two-dimensional version of the same code.
Single-Camera Stereoscopy Setup to Visualize 3D Dusty Plasma Flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Romero-Talamas, C. A.; Lemma, T.; Bates, E. M.; Birmingham, W. J.; Rivera, W. F.
2016-10-01
A setup to visualize and track individual particles in multi-layered dusty plasma flows is presented. The setup consists of a single camera with variable frame rate, and a pair of adjustable mirrors that project the same field of view from two different angles to the camera, allowing for three-dimensional tracking of particles. Flows are generated by inclining the plane in which the dust is levitated using a specially designed setup that allows for external motion control without compromising vacuum. Dust illumination is achieved with an optics arrangement that includes a Powell lens that creates a laser fan with adjustable thickness and with approximately constant intensity everywhere. Both the illumination and the stereoscopy setup allow for the camera to be placed at right angles with respect to the levitation plane, in preparation for magnetized dusty plasma experiments in which there will be no direct optical access to the levitation plane. Image data and analysis of unmagnetized dusty plasma flows acquired with this setup are presented.
Hou, Hui-Hsiung; Tsai, Chien-Hsiung; Fu, Lung-Ming; Yang, Ruey-Jen
2009-07-01
This study presents a novel 3-D hydrodynamic focusing technique for micro-flow cytometers. In the proposed approach, the sample stream is compressed initially in the horizontal direction by a set of sheath flows such that it is constrained to the central region of the microchannel and is then focused in the vertical direction by a second pair of sheath flows. Thereafter, the focused sample stream passes over a micro-weir structure positioned directly beneath an optical detection system to capture polystyrene beads fluorescent signal. The microchannel configuration and operational parameters are optimized by performing a series of numerical simulations. An experimental investigation is then performed using a micro-flow cytometer fabricated using conventional micro-electro-mechanical systems techniques and an isotropic wet etching method. The results indicate that the two sets of sheath flows successfully constrain the sample stream within a narrow, well-defined region of the microchannel. Furthermore, the micro-weir structure prompts the separation of a mixed sample of 5 and 10 microm polystyrene beads in the vertical direction and ensures that the beads flow through the detection region of the microchannel in a sequential fashion and can therefore be reliably detected and counted.
Blood flow reprograms lymphatic vessels to blood vessels
Chen, Chiu-Yu; Bertozzi, Cara; Zou, Zhiying; Yuan, Lijun; Lee, John S.; Lu, MinMin; Stachelek, Stan J.; Srinivasan, Sathish; Guo, Lili; Vincente, Andres; Mericko, Patricia; Levy, Robert J.; Makinen, Taija; Oliver, Guillermo; Kahn, Mark L.
2012-01-01
Human vascular malformations cause disease as a result of changes in blood flow and vascular hemodynamic forces. Although the genetic mutations that underlie the formation of many human vascular malformations are known, the extent to which abnormal blood flow can subsequently influence the vascular genetic program and natural history is not. Loss of the SH2 domain–containing leukocyte protein of 76 kDa (SLP76) resulted in a vascular malformation that directed blood flow through mesenteric lymphatic vessels after birth in mice. Mesenteric vessels in the position of the congenital lymphatic in mature Slp76-null mice lacked lymphatic identity and expressed a marker of blood vessel identity. Genetic lineage tracing demonstrated that this change in vessel identity was the result of lymphatic endothelial cell reprogramming rather than replacement by blood endothelial cells. Exposure of lymphatic vessels to blood in the absence of significant flow did not alter vessel identity in vivo, but lymphatic endothelial cells exposed to similar levels of shear stress ex vivo rapidly lost expression of PROX1, a lymphatic fate–specifying transcription factor. These findings reveal that blood flow can convert lymphatic vessels to blood vessels, demonstrating that hemodynamic forces may reprogram endothelial and vessel identity in cardiovascular diseases associated with abnormal flow. PMID:22622036
Increased hippocampal blood volume and normal blood flow in schizophrenia.
Talati, Pratik; Rane, Swati; Skinner, Jack; Gore, John; Heckers, Stephan
2015-06-30
Neuroimaging studies have provided compelling evidence for abnormal hippocampal activity in schizophrenia. Most studies made inferences about baseline hippocampal activity using a single hemodynamic parameter (e.g., blood volume or blood flow). Here we studied several hemodynamic measures in the same cohort to test the hypothesis of increased hippocampal activity in schizophrenia. We used dynamic susceptibility contrast- (DSC-) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to assess blood volume, blood flow, and mean transit time in the hippocampus of 15 patients with chronic schizophrenia and 15 healthy controls. Left and right hippocampal measurements were combined for absolute measures of cerebral blood volume (CBV), cerebral blood flow (CBF), and mean transit time (MTT). We found significantly increased hippocampal CBV, but normal CBF and MTT, in schizophrenia. The uncoupling of CBV and CBF could be due to several factors, including antipsychotic medication, loss of cerebral perfusion pressure, or angiogenesis. Further studies need to incorporate several complementary imaging modalities to better characterize hippocampal dysfunction in schizophrenia.
Multifractality of cerebral blood flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
West, Bruce J.; Latka, Miroslaw; Glaubic-Latka, Marta; Latka, Dariusz
2003-02-01
Scale invariance, the property relating time series across multiple scales, has provided a new perspective of physiological phenomena and their underlying control systems. The traditional “signal plus noise” paradigm of the engineer was first replaced with a model in which biological time series have a fractal structure in time (Fractal Physiology, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1994). This new paradigm was subsequently shown to be overly restrictive when certain physiological signals were found to be characterized by more than one scaling parameter and therefore to belong to a class of more complex processes known as multifractals (Fractals, Plenum Press, New York, 1988). Here we demonstrate that in addition to heart rate (Nature 399 (1999) 461) and human gait (Phys. Rev. E, submitted for publication), the nonlinear control system for cerebral blood flow (CBF) (Phys. Rev. Lett., submitted for publication; Phys. Rev. E 59 (1999) 3492) is multifractal. We also find that this multifractality is greatly reduced for subjects with “serious” migraine and we present a simple model for the underlying control process to describe this effect.
Hu, Zhihong; Niemeijer, Meindert; Abràmoft, Michael D; Lee, Kyungmoo; Garvin, Mona K
2010-01-01
We present a method for automatically segmenting the blood vessels in optic nerve head (ONH) centered spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) volumes, with a focus on the ability to segment the vessels in the region near the neural canal opening (NCO). The algorithm first pre-segments the NCO using a graph-theoretic approach. Oriented Gabor wavelets rotated around the center of the NCO are applied to extract features in a 2-D vessel-aimed projection image. Corresponding oriented NCO-based templates are utilized to help suppress the false positive tendency near the NCO boundary. The vessels are identified in a vessel-aimed projection image using a pixel classification algorithm. Based on the 2-D vessel profiles, 3-D vessel segmentation is performed by a triangular-mesh-based graph search approach in the SD-OCT volume. The segmentation method is trained on 5 and is tested on 10 randomly chosen independent ONH-centered SD-OCT volumes from 15 subjects with glaucoma. Using ROC analysis, for the 2-D vessel segmentation, we demonstrate an improvement over the closest previous work with an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.81 (0.72 for previously reported approach) for the region around the NCO and 0.84 for the region outside the NCO (0.81 for previously reported approach).
3-D Maxwell fluid flow over an exponentially stretching surface using 3-stage Lobatto IIIA formula
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Awais, M.; Hayat, T.; Ali, Aamir
2016-05-01
The present study looks at the three dimensional boundary layer flow driven by an exponentially stretching surface. An upper-convected Maxwell (UCM) fluid is considered. Characteristics here are characterized by rheological constitutive equations of upper convected Maxwell (UCM) fluid. Involved mathematical modeling constitutes a nonlinear differential system. 3-stage Lobatto IIIA formula is employed to construct the numerical solutions whereas analytic solutions are computed using HAM. Both solutions are compared and found in good agreement. The velocity components are analyzed for the Deborah number and ratio parameters.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Farrell, C.; Adamczyk, J.
1981-01-01
The three-dimensional flow in a turbomachinery blade row was approximated by correcting for streamtube convergence and radius change in the throughflow direction. The method is a fully conservative solution of the full potential equation incorporating the finite volume technique on body fitted periodic mesh, with an artificial density imposed in the transonic region to insure stability and the capture of shock waves. Comparison of results for several supercritical blades shows good agreement with their hodograph solutions. Other calculations for these profiles as well as standard NACA blade sections indicate that this is a useful scheme analyzing both the design and off-design performance of turbomachinery blading.
2011-01-01
equipped backpack and with an echosounder-equipped electric kayak . The meandering reach (Figure 2) is a deep (~10m) channel with flows around 0.5m/s...Kootenai River, ID on 12-16 August 2010. The study reach contained a number of natural channel features, such as a pool-riffle sequence and bank...irregularities, which influence transverse mixing. The dye was released at a constant rate for one hour from a kayak fixed in the center of the channel
A continuous flow microfluidic calorimeter: 3-D numerical modeling with aqueous reactants
Sen, Mehmet A.; Kowalski, Gregory J.; Fiering, Jason; Larson, Dale
2015-01-01
A computational analysis of the reacting flow field, species diffusion and heat transfer processes with thermal boundary layer effects in a microchannel reactor with a coflow configuration was performed. Two parallel adjacent streams of aqueous reactants flow along a wide, shallow, enclosed channel in contact with a substrate, which is affixed to a temperature controlled plate. The Fluent computational fluid dynamics package solved the Navier–Stokes, mass transport and energy equations. The energy model, including the enthalpy of reaction as a nonuniform heat source, was validated by calculating the energy balance at several control volumes in the microchannel. Analysis reveals that the temperature is nearly uniform across the channel thickness, in the direction normal to the substrate surface; hence, measurements made by sensors at or near the surface are representative of the average temperature. Additionally, modeling the channel with a glass substrate and a silicone cover shows that heat transfer is predominantly due to the glass substrate. Finally, using the numerical results, we suggest that a microcalorimeter could be based on this configuration, and that temperature sensors such as optical nanohole array sensors could have sufficient spatial resolution to determine enthalpy of reaction. PMID:25937678
Noise and Turbulence Generate 3D Zombie Vortices in Stably Stratified Rotating Shear Flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pei, Suyang; Marcus, Philip S.; Jiang, Chung-Hsiang; Hassanzadeh, Pedram; Lecoanet, Daniel; Barranco, Joseph A.
2013-11-01
We showed previously that a linearly stable shearing, rotating, stably stratified flow has a finite-amplitude instability creating ``zombie vortices'' that self-replicate and fill the domain. Our flows were initialized with perturbations of one or two vortices. Our motivation was to determine whether ``dead zones'' in protoplanetary disks were stable, or whether they could be de-stabilized to produce vortices necessary for the final part of star formation and for planet formation. To be more relevant to astrophysics, we choose the initial conditions to be noise or turbulence with a Kolmogorov spectrum with small kinetic energy and Mach number. In a Kolmogorov spectrum, the largest eddies determine the kinetic energy and Mach number, while the smallest determine the vorticity and Rossby number Ro ≡ ω / f , where ω is the vertical vorticity and f is the Coriolis parameter. The protoplanetary disks (which have large inertial ranges due to their large Reynolds numbers), can have large Rossby numbers, but weak Mach numbers and kinetic energies. It is important to know whether the triggering of the finite-amplitude instability that creates zombie vortices depends on threshold values of Mach number, kinetic energy, or the Rossby number. Here, we show it is the latter.
Numerical investigation of the 3D flow field generated by a self-propelling manta ray
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pederzani, Jean-Noel; Haj-Hariri, Hossein
2010-11-01
A mixed Lagrangian-Eulerian approach is used to solve the three dimensional Navier-Stokes equation around a self-propelling manta ray. The motion of the manta ray is prescribed using a kinematic model fitted to actual biological data. The dependence of thrust production mechanism on Strouhal and Reynolds numbers is investigated. The vortex core structures are accurately plotted using the λ2 criteria; and a correlation between wake structures and propulsive performance is established. This insight is critical in understanding the key flow features that a bio-inspired autonomous vehicle should reproduce in order to swim efficiently. The solution method is implemented on a block-structured Cartesian grid using a volume of fluid approach. To enhance the computational efficiency, a parallel adaptive mesh refinement technique is used. The present method is validated for the flow around a sphere. A basic station keeping control problem for a pitching and lagging wing is also analyzed to show the capability of the code to aid in controller design and stability analysis.
3D Mixing Inside a Neutrally Buoyant Drop Driven by Electrohydrodynamic Flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Xiumei; Homsy, G. M.
2007-11-01
For a neutrally buoyant drop subjected to a uniform electric field, the internal flow is the well-known Taylor circulation. In Phys. Fluids 19 013102 (2007), we theoretically studied three dimensional mixing by periodically switching a uniform electric field through an angle α. Periodically switching the field is equivalent to periodically changing the symmetry axis of the Taylor circulation. For α=0.5 π, there is no chaotic mixing because the common heteroclinic trajectories form the separatrix of the flow. For other switching angles, chaotic advection is generated due to perturbations of the heteroclinic trajectory. Experimental investigations of mixing were carried out using a nearly isopycnic silicone oil/castor oil system. For α=0.5 π, our experiments show the existence of symmetry planes. In addition, two blobs of particles are observed to maintain almost invariant shapes for very long time, indicating the absence of chaotic mixing, as predicted by the theory. For other switching angles, experiments show the penetration of symmetry planes by tracer particles. However it is difficult to draw definitive conclusions regarding chaotic mixing because of charge relaxation, long initial transients and drop translation effects.
Vascular structure determines pulmonary blood flow distribution
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hlastala, M. P.; Glenny, R. W.
1999-01-01
Scientific knowledge develops through the evolution of new concepts. This process is usually driven by new methodologies that provide observations not previously available. Understanding of pulmonary blood flow determinants advanced significantly in the 1960s and is now changing rapidly again, because of increased spatial resolution of regional pulmonary blood flow measurements.
Zeinali, Soheila; Çetin, Barbaros; Oliaei, Samad Nadimi Bavil; Karpat, Yiğit
2015-07-01
Microfluidics is the combination of micro/nano fabrication techniques with fluid flow at microscale to pursue powerful techniques in controlling and manipulating chemical and biological processes. Sorting and separation of bio-particles are highly considered in diagnostics and biological analyses. Dielectrophoresis (DEP) has offered unique advantages for microfluidic devices. In DEP devices, asymmetric pair of planar electrodes could be employed to generate non-uniform electric fields. In DEP applications, facing 3D sidewall electrodes is considered to be one of the key solutions to increase device throughput due to the generated homogeneous electric fields along the height of microchannels. Despite the advantages, fabrication of 3D vertical electrodes requires a considerable challenge. In this study, two alternative fabrication techniques have been proposed for the fabrication of a microfluidic device with 3D sidewall electrodes. In the first method, both the mold and the electrodes are fabricated using high precision machining. In the second method, the mold with tilted sidewalls is fabricated using high precision machining and the electrodes are deposited on the sidewall using sputtering together with a shadow mask fabricated by electric discharge machining. Both fabrication processes are assessed as highly repeatable and robust. Moreover, the two methods are found to be complementary with respect to the channel height. Only the manipulation of particles with negative-DEP is demonstrated in the experiments, and the throughput values up to 105 particles / min is reached in a continuous flow. The experimental results are compared with the simulation results and the limitations on the fabrication techniques are also discussed.
3D pressure imaging of an aircraft propeller blade-tip flow by phase-locked stereoscopic PIV
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ragni, D.; van Oudheusden, B. W.; Scarano, F.
2012-02-01
The flow field at the tip region of a scaled DHC Beaver aircraft propeller, running at transonic speed, has been investigated by means of a multi-plane stereoscopic particle image velocimetry setup. Velocity fields, phase-locked with the blade rotational motion, are acquired across several planes perpendicular to the blade axis and merged to form a 3D measurement volume. Transonic conditions have been reached at the tip region, with a revolution frequency of 19,800 rpm and a relative free-stream Mach number of 0.73 at the tip. The pressure field and the surface pressure distribution are inferred from the 3D velocity data through integration of the momentum Navier-Stokes equation in differential form, allowing for the simultaneous flow visualization and the aerodynamic loads computation, with respect to a reference frame moving with the blade. The momentum and pressure data are further integrated by means of a contour-approach to yield the aerodynamic sectional force components as well as the blade torsional moment. A steady Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes numerical simulation of the entire propeller model has been used for comparison to the measurement data.
Quasi 3D modelling of water flow in the sandy soil
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rezaei, Meisam; Seuntjens, Piet; Joris, Ingeborg; Boënne, Wesley; De Pue, Jan; Cornelis, Wim
2016-04-01
Monitoring and modeling tools may improve irrigation strategies in precision agriculture. Spatial interpolation is required for analyzing the effects of soil hydraulic parameters, soil layer thickness and groundwater level on irrigation management using hydrological models at field scale. We used non-invasive soil sensor, a crop growth (LINGRA-N) and a soil hydrological model (Hydrus-1D) to predict soil-water content fluctuations and crop yield in a heterogeneous sandy grassland soil under supplementary irrigation. In the first step, the sensitivity of the soil hydrological model to hydraulic parameters, water stress, crop yield and lower boundary conditions was assessed after integrating models at one soil column. Free drainage and incremental constant head conditions were implemented in a lower boundary sensitivity analysis. In the second step, to predict Ks over the whole field, the spatial distributions of Ks and its relationship between co-located soil ECa measured by a DUALEM-21S sensor were investigated. Measured groundwater levels and soil layer thickness were interpolated using ordinary point kriging (OK) to a 0.5 by 0.5 m in aim of digital elevation maps. In the third step, a quasi 3D modelling approach was conducted using interpolated data as input hydraulic parameter, geometric information and boundary conditions in the integrated model. In addition, three different irrigation scenarios namely current, no irrigation and optimized irrigations were carried out to find out the most efficient irrigation regime. In this approach, detailed field scale maps of soil water stress, water storage and crop yield were produced at each specific time interval to evaluate the best and most efficient distribution of water using standard gun sprinkler irrigation. The results show that the effect of the position of the groundwater level was dominant in soil-water content prediction and associated water stress. A time-dependent sensitivity analysis of the hydraulic
Pancreatic islet blood flow and its measurement.
Jansson, Leif; Barbu, Andreea; Bodin, Birgitta; Drott, Carl Johan; Espes, Daniel; Gao, Xiang; Grapensparr, Liza; Källskog, Örjan; Lau, Joey; Liljebäck, Hanna; Palm, Fredrik; Quach, My; Sandberg, Monica; Strömberg, Victoria; Ullsten, Sara; Carlsson, Per-Ola
2016-05-01
Pancreatic islets are richly vascularized, and islet blood vessels are uniquely adapted to maintain and support the internal milieu of the islets favoring normal endocrine function. Islet blood flow is normally very high compared with that to the exocrine pancreas and is autonomously regulated through complex interactions between the nervous system, metabolites from insulin secreting β-cells, endothelium-derived mediators, and hormones. The islet blood flow is normally coupled to the needs for insulin release and is usually disturbed during glucose intolerance and overt diabetes. The present review provides a brief background on islet vascular function and especially focuses on available techniques to measure islet blood perfusion. The gold standard for islet blood flow measurements in experimental animals is the microsphere technique, and its advantages and disadvantages will be discussed. In humans there are still no methods to measure islet blood flow selectively, but new developments in radiological techniques hold great hopes for the future.
Pancreatic islet blood flow and its measurement
Jansson, Leif; Barbu, Andreea; Bodin, Birgitta; Drott, Carl Johan; Espes, Daniel; Gao, Xiang; Grapensparr, Liza; Källskog, Örjan; Lau, Joey; Liljebäck, Hanna; Palm, Fredrik; Quach, My; Sandberg, Monica; Strömberg, Victoria; Ullsten, Sara; Carlsson, Per-Ola
2016-01-01
Pancreatic islets are richly vascularized, and islet blood vessels are uniquely adapted to maintain and support the internal milieu of the islets favoring normal endocrine function. Islet blood flow is normally very high compared with that to the exocrine pancreas and is autonomously regulated through complex interactions between the nervous system, metabolites from insulin secreting β-cells, endothelium-derived mediators, and hormones. The islet blood flow is normally coupled to the needs for insulin release and is usually disturbed during glucose intolerance and overt diabetes. The present review provides a brief background on islet vascular function and especially focuses on available techniques to measure islet blood perfusion. The gold standard for islet blood flow measurements in experimental animals is the microsphere technique, and its advantages and disadvantages will be discussed. In humans there are still no methods to measure islet blood flow selectively, but new developments in radiological techniques hold great hopes for the future. PMID:27124642
Code and Solution Verification of 3D Numerical Modeling of Flow in the Gust Erosion Chamber
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yuen, A.; Bombardelli, F. A.
2014-12-01
Erosion microcosms are devices commonly used to investigate the erosion and transport characteristics of sediments at the bed of rivers, lakes, or estuaries. In order to understand the results these devices provide, the bed shear stress and flow field need to be accurately described. In this research, the UMCES Gust Erosion Microcosm System (U-GEMS) is numerically modeled using Finite Volume Method. The primary aims are to simulate the bed shear stress distribution at the surface of the sediment core/bottom of the microcosm, and to validate the U-GEMS produces uniform bed shear stress at the bottom of the microcosm. The mathematical model equations are solved by on a Cartesian non-uniform grid. Multiple numerical runs were developed with different input conditions and configurations. Prior to developing the U-GEMS model, the General Moving Objects (GMO) model and different momentum algorithms in the code were verified. Code verification of these solvers was done via simulating the flow inside the top wall driven square cavity on different mesh sizes to obtain order of convergence. The GMO model was used to simulate the top wall in the top wall driven square cavity as well as the rotating disk in the U-GEMS. Components simulated with the GMO model were rigid bodies that could have any type of motion. In addition cross-verification was conducted as results were compared with numerical results by Ghia et al. (1982), and good agreement was found. Next, CFD results were validated by simulating the flow within the conventional microcosm system without suction and injection. Good agreement was found when the experimental results by Khalili et al. (2008) were compared. After the ability of the CFD solver was proved through the above code verification steps. The model was utilized to simulate the U-GEMS. The solution was verified via classic mesh convergence study on four consecutive mesh sizes, in addition to that Grid Convergence Index (GCI) was calculated and based on
Patterning process exploration of metal 1 layer in 7nm node with 3D patterning flow simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gao, Weimin; Ciofi, Ivan; Saad, Yves; Matagne, Philippe; Bachmann, Michael; Oulmane, Mohamed; Gillijns, Werner; Lucas, Kevin; Demmerle, Wolfgang; Schmoeller, Thomas
2015-03-01
In 7mn node (N7), the logic design requires the critical poly pitch (CPP) of 42-45nm and metal 1 (M1) pitch of 28- 32nm. Such high pattern density pushes the 193 immersion lithography solution toward its limit and also brings extremely complex patterning scenarios. The N7 M1 layer may require a self-aligned quadruple patterning (SAQP) with triple litho-etch (LE3) block process. Therefore, the whole patterning process flow requires multiple exposure+etch+deposition processes and each step introduces a particular impact on the pattern profiles and the topography. In this study, we have successfully integrated a simulation tool that enables emulation of the whole patterning flow with realistic process-dependent 3D profile and topology. We use this tool to study the patterning process variations of N7 M1 layer including the overlay control, the critical dimension uniformity (CDU) budget and the lithographic process window (PW). The resulting 3D pattern structure can be used to optimize the process flow, verify design rules, extract parasitics, and most importantly, simulate the electric field and identify hot spots for dielectric reliability. As an example application, we will report extractions of maximum electric field at M1 tipto- tip which is one of the most critical patterning locations and we will demonstrate the potential of this approach for investigating the impact of process variations on dielectric reliability. We will also present simulations of an alternative M1 patterning flow, with a single exposure block using extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) and analyze its advantages compared to the LE3 block approach.
Barlebo, H.C.; Rosbjerg, D.; Hill, M.C.
1996-01-01
An extensive amount of data including hydraulic heads, hydraulic conductivities and concentrations of several solutes from controlled injections have been collected during the MADE 1 and MADE 2 experiments at a heterogeneous site near Columbus, Mississippi. In this paper the use of three-dimensional inverse groundwater models including simultaneous estimation of flow and transport parameters is proposed to help identify the dominant characteristics at the site. Simulations show that using a hydraulic conductivity distribution obtained from 2187 borehole flowmeter tests directly in the model produces poor matches to the measured hydraulic heads and tritium concentrations. Alternatively, time averaged hydraulic head maps are used to define zones of constant hydraulic conductivity to be estimated. Preliminary simulations suggest that in the case of conservative transport many, but not all, of the major plume characteristics can be explained by large-scale heterogeneity in recharge and hydraulic conductivity.
3D Flow Simulation Using Lattice Boltzmann Method on Real Carbonate Core-Plug Samples
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Islam, A.; Faisal, T. F.; Chevalier, S.; Jouini, M. S.; Jouiad, M.; Sassi, M.
2014-12-01
Digital Rock Physics (DRP) is a novel technology that could be used to generate accurate, fast and cost effective special core analysis (SCAL) properties to support reservoir characterization and simulation tools. This work focuses on running numerical simulations using the Lattice Boltzmann algorithm on reconstructed volume from microCT images of carbonate core-plug samples at different resolutions. The porous media was first reconstructed from the retrieved image slices. Then the open-source software, Palabos was used to run the Lattice Boltzmann algorithm to simulate single phase flow in the medium and determine the permeability. The results were analyzed according to the resolutions of the original microCT images and the scale of the micro-plug.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Farrell, C.; Adamczyk, J.
1981-01-01
A reliable method is presented for calculating the flowfield about a cascade of arbitrary 2-D airfoils. The method approximates the three-dimensional flow in a turbomachinery blade row by correcting for streamtube convergence and radius change in the throughflow direction. The method is a fully conservative solution of the full potential equation incorporating the finite volume technique on a body-fitted periodic mesh, with an artificial density imposed in the transonic region to ensure stability and the capture of shock waves. Comparison of results for several supercritical blades shows good agreement with their hodograph solutions. Other calculations for these profiles as well as standard NACA blade sections indicate that this is a useful scheme for analyzing both the design and off-design performance of turbomachinery blading.
Intercomparison of 3D pore-scale flow and solute transport simulation methods
Yang, Xiaofan; Mehmani, Yashar; Perkins, William A.; Pasquali, Andrea; Schonherr, Martin; Kim, Kyungjoo; Perego, Mauro; Parks, Michael L.; Trask, Nathaniel; Balhoff, Matthew T.; Richmond, Marshall C.; Geier, Martin; Krafczyk, Manfred; Luo, Li -Shi; Tartakovsky, Alexandre M.; Scheibe, Timothy D.
2015-09-28
In this study, multiple numerical approaches have been developed to simulate porous media fluid flow and solute transport at the pore scale. These include (1) methods that explicitly model the three-dimensional geometry of pore spaces and (2) methods that conceptualize the pore space as a topologically consistent set of stylized pore bodies and pore throats. In previous work we validated a model of the first type, using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes employing a standard finite volume method (FVM), against magnetic resonance velocimetry (MRV) measurements of pore-scale velocities. Here we expand that validation to include additional models of the first type based on the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) and smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH), as well as a model of the second type, a pore-network model (PNM). The PNM approach used in the current study was recently improved and demonstrated to accurately simulate solute transport in a two-dimensional experiment. While the PNM approach is computationally much less demanding than direct numerical simulation methods, the effect of conceptualizing complex three-dimensional pore geometries on solute transport in the manner of PNMs has not been fully determined. We apply all four approaches (FVM-based CFD, LBM, SPH and PNM) to simulate pore-scale velocity distributions and (for capable codes) nonreactive solute transport, and intercompare the model results. Comparisons are drawn both in terms of macroscopic variables (e.g., permeability, solute breakthrough curves) and microscopic variables (e.g., local velocities and concentrations). Generally good agreement was achieved among the various approaches, but some differences were observed depending on the model context. The intercomparison work was challenging because of variable capabilities of the codes, and inspired some code enhancements to allow consistent comparison of flow and transport simulations across the full suite of methods. This study provides support
Benchmark Study of 3D Pore-scale Flow and Solute Transport Simulation Methods
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Scheibe, T. D.; Yang, X.; Mehmani, Y.; Perkins, W. A.; Pasquali, A.; Schoenherr, M.; Kim, K.; Perego, M.; Parks, M. L.; Trask, N.; Balhoff, M.; Richmond, M. C.; Geier, M.; Krafczyk, M.; Luo, L. S.; Tartakovsky, A. M.
2015-12-01
Multiple numerical approaches have been developed to simulate porous media fluid flow and solute transport at the pore scale. These include 1) methods that explicitly model the three-dimensional geometry of pore spaces and 2) methods that conceptualize the pore space as a topologically consistent set of stylized pore bodies and pore throats. In previous work we validated a model of the first type, using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes employing standard finite volume method (FVM), against magnetic resonance velocimetry (MRV) measurements of pore-scale velocities. Here we expand that benchmark study to include additional models of the first type based on the immersed-boundary method (IMB), lattice Boltzmann method (LBM), and smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH), as well as a model of the second type, a pore-network model (PNM). While the PNM approach is computationally much less demanding than direct numerical simulation methods, the effect of conceptualizing complex three-dimensional pore geometries in the manner of PNMs has not been fully determined. We apply all five approaches (FVM-based CFD, IMB, LBM, SPH and PNM) to simulate pore-scale velocity distributions and nonreactive solute transport, and intercompare the model results. Comparisons are drawn both in terms of macroscopic variables (e.g., permeability, solute breakthrough curves) and microscopic variables (e.g., local velocities and concentrations). Generally good agreement was achieved among the various approaches, but some differences were observed depending on the model context. The benchmark study was challenging because of variable capabilities of the codes, and inspired some code enhancements to allow consistent comparison of flow and transport simulations across the full suite of methods. This study provides support for confidence in a variety of pore-scale modeling methods, and motivates further development and application of pore-scale simulation methods.
Intercomparison of 3D pore-scale flow and solute transport simulation methods
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Xiaofan; Mehmani, Yashar; Perkins, William A.; Pasquali, Andrea; Schönherr, Martin; Kim, Kyungjoo; Perego, Mauro; Parks, Michael L.; Trask, Nathaniel; Balhoff, Matthew T.; Richmond, Marshall C.; Geier, Martin; Krafczyk, Manfred; Luo, Li-Shi; Tartakovsky, Alexandre M.; Scheibe, Timothy D.
2016-09-01
Multiple numerical approaches have been developed to simulate porous media fluid flow and solute transport at the pore scale. These include 1) methods that explicitly model the three-dimensional geometry of pore spaces and 2) methods that conceptualize the pore space as a topologically consistent set of stylized pore bodies and pore throats. In previous work we validated a model of the first type, using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes employing a standard finite volume method (FVM), against magnetic resonance velocimetry (MRV) measurements of pore-scale velocities. Here we expand that validation to include additional models of the first type based on the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) and smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH), as well as a model of the second type, a pore-network model (PNM). The PNM approach used in the current study was recently improved and demonstrated to accurately simulate solute transport in a two-dimensional experiment. While the PNM approach is computationally much less demanding than direct numerical simulation methods, the effect of conceptualizing complex three-dimensional pore geometries on solute transport in the manner of PNMs has not been fully determined. We apply all four approaches (FVM-based CFD, LBM, SPH and PNM) to simulate pore-scale velocity distributions and (for capable codes) nonreactive solute transport, and intercompare the model results. Comparisons are drawn both in terms of macroscopic variables (e.g., permeability, solute breakthrough curves) and microscopic variables (e.g., local velocities and concentrations). Generally good agreement was achieved among the various approaches, but some differences were observed depending on the model context. The intercomparison work was challenging because of variable capabilities of the codes, and inspired some code enhancements to allow consistent comparison of flow and transport simulations across the full suite of methods. This study provides support for confidence
Blood hyperviscosity with reduced skin blood flow in scleroderma
McGrath, M. A.; Peek, R.; Penny, R.
1977-01-01
The vascular complications of scleroderma have previously been attributed to the progressive obliteration of small vessels. Our study was carried out to determine whether abnormalities of blood viscosity occur in this disease, thereby contributing to the ischaemic process. Blood viscosity was measured in 20 patients using a rotational viscometer. At a high rate of shear, blood hyperviscosity was found in 35% of the patients and at a low rate of shear, in 70%. In addition there was a significant increase in the plasma viscosity which implicates changes in plasma proteins (fibrinogen, immunoglobulins) as causing the hyperviscosity. Measurement of the hand blood flow by venous occlusion plethysmography showed reduced flow at 32°, 27°, and 20°C. A unique finding was a delayed recovery of the blood flow after cooling. These observations suggest that the increased resistance to blood flow in skin affected by scleroderma may be caused by an interaction between the occlusive vascular lesion and blood hyperviscosity. In addition, blood flow patterns and hyperviscosity could help distinguish scleroderma from primary Raynaud's disease. PMID:596950
Subcutaneous blood flow in psoriasis
Klemp, P.
1985-03-01
The simultaneously recorded disappearance rates of /sup 133/xe from subcutaneous adipose tissue in the crus were studied in 10 patients with psoriasis vulgaris using atraumatic labeling of the tissue in lesional skin (LS) areas and symmetrical, nonlesional skin (NLS) areas. Control experiments were performed bilaterally in 10 younger, healthy subjects. The subcutaneous washout rate constant was significantly higher in LS, 0.79 +/- 0.05 min-1 x 10(2) compared to the washout rate constant of NLS, 0.56 +/- 0.07 min-1. 10(2), or the washout rate constant in the normal subjects, 0.46 +/- 0.17 min-1 x 10(2). The mean washout rate constant in NLS was 25% higher than the mean washout rate constant in the normal subjects. The difference was, however, not statistically significant. Differences in the washout rate constants might be due to abnormal subcutaneous tissue-to-blood partition (lambda) in the LS--and therefore not reflecting the real differences in the subcutaneous blood flow (SBF). The lambda for /sup 133/Xe was therefore measured--using a double isotope washout method (/sup 133/Xe and (/sup 131/I)antipyrine)--in symmetrical sites of the lateral crus in LS and NLS of 10 patients with psoriasis vulgaris and in 10 legs of normal subjects. In LS the lambda was 4.52 +/- 1.67 ml/g, which was not statistically different from that of NLS, 5.25 +/- 2.19 ml/g, nor from that of normal subcutaneous tissue, 4.98 +/- 1.04 ml/g. Calculations of the SBF using the obtained lambda values gave a significantly higher SBF in LS, 3.57 +/- 0.23 ml/100 g/min, compared to SBF in the NLS, 2.94 +/- 0.37 ml/100 g/min. There was no statistically significant difference between SBF in NLS and SBF in the normal subjects. The increased SBF in LS of psoriatics might be a secondary phenomenon to an increased heat loss in the lesional skin.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xin, Shihe; Le Quéré, Patrick
2012-06-01
Following our previous two-dimensional (2D) studies of flows in differentially heated cavities filled with air, we studied the stability of 2D natural convection flows in these cavities with respect to 3D periodic perturbations. The basis of the numerical methods is a time-stepping code using the Chebyshev spectral collocation method and the direct Uzawa method for velocity-pressure coupling. Newton's iteration, Arnoldi's method and the continuation method have been used in order to, respectively, compute the 2D steady-state base solution, estimate the leading eigenmodes of the Jacobian and perform linear stability analysis. Differentially heated air-filled cavities of aspect ratios from 1 to 7 were investigated. Neutral curves (Rayleigh number versus wave number) have been obtained. It turned out that only for aspect ratio 7, 3D stationary instability occurs at slightly higher Rayleigh numbers than the onset of 2D time-dependent flow and that for other aspect ratios 3D instability always takes place before 2D time-dependent flows. 3D unstable modes are stationary and anti-centro-symmetric. 3D nonlinear simulations revealed that the corresponding pitchfork bifurcations are supercritical and that 3D instability leads only to weak flow in the third direction. Further 3D computations are also performed at higher Rayleigh number in order to understand the effects of the weak 3D fluid motion on the onset of time-dependent flow. 3D flow structures are responsible for the onset of time-dependent flow for aspect ratios 1, 2 and 3, while for larger aspect ratios they do not alter the transition scenario, which was observed in the 2D cases and that vertical boundary layers become unstable to traveling waves.
Intercomparison of 3D pore-scale flow and solute transport simulation methods
Yang, Xiaofan; Mehmani, Yashar; Perkins, William A.; ...
2015-09-28
In this study, multiple numerical approaches have been developed to simulate porous media fluid flow and solute transport at the pore scale. These include (1) methods that explicitly model the three-dimensional geometry of pore spaces and (2) methods that conceptualize the pore space as a topologically consistent set of stylized pore bodies and pore throats. In previous work we validated a model of the first type, using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes employing a standard finite volume method (FVM), against magnetic resonance velocimetry (MRV) measurements of pore-scale velocities. Here we expand that validation to include additional models of the firstmore » type based on the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) and smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH), as well as a model of the second type, a pore-network model (PNM). The PNM approach used in the current study was recently improved and demonstrated to accurately simulate solute transport in a two-dimensional experiment. While the PNM approach is computationally much less demanding than direct numerical simulation methods, the effect of conceptualizing complex three-dimensional pore geometries on solute transport in the manner of PNMs has not been fully determined. We apply all four approaches (FVM-based CFD, LBM, SPH and PNM) to simulate pore-scale velocity distributions and (for capable codes) nonreactive solute transport, and intercompare the model results. Comparisons are drawn both in terms of macroscopic variables (e.g., permeability, solute breakthrough curves) and microscopic variables (e.g., local velocities and concentrations). Generally good agreement was achieved among the various approaches, but some differences were observed depending on the model context. The intercomparison work was challenging because of variable capabilities of the codes, and inspired some code enhancements to allow consistent comparison of flow and transport simulations across the full suite of methods. This study provides
Mechanics of blood flow in the microcirculation.
Secomb, T W
1995-01-01
The microcirculation in most tissues consists of an intricate network of very narrow tubes. In analyses of blood flow through the microcirculation, inertial effects can be neglected, but continuum models for blood cannot be assumed, since blood is a concentrated suspension of cells with dimensions comparable to vessel diameters. These cells strongly influence blood flow. About 45% of blood volume consists of red blood cells, whose key mechanical properties are known. A red cell has a fluid interior, surrounded by a flexible membrane, which strongly resists area changes, but bends and shears easily. White blood cells are comparable in size but much less numerous. They are less flexible than red cells and capable of active locomotion. Other suspended elements are much smaller than red cells: This review focuses on the mechanics of red cell motion in the microcirculation. Experimental and theoretical studies of blood flow in uniform tubes, bifurcations and networks are discussed. Comparisons between predicted and observed flows in networks imply that resistance to blood flow in living microvessels is higher than that in uniform tubes with corresponding diameters. Living microvessels have non-uniform geometries, and red cells must deform continually to traverse them. Theoretical results are presented implying that these transient deformations contribute to increased flow resistance in the microcirculation.
A numerical investigation of the 3-D flow in shell and tube heat exchangers
Prithiviraj, M.; Andrews, M.J.
1996-12-31
A three-dimensional computer program for simulation of the flow and heat transfer inside Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers has been developed. The simulation of shell and tube heat exchangers is based on a distributed resistance method that uses a modified two equation {kappa}-{epsilon} turbulence model along with non-equilibrium wall functions. Volume porosities and non-homogeneous surface permeabilities account for the obstructions due to the tubes and arbitrary arrangement of baffles. Sub-models are described for baffle-shell and baffle-tube leakage, shellside and tubeside heat transfer, with geometry generators for tubes, baffles, and nozzle inlets and outlets. The sub-models in HEATX use parameters that have not been altered from their published values. Computed heat transfer and pressure drop are compared with experimental data from the Delaware project (Bell, 1963). Numerically computed pressure drops are also compared for different baffle cuts, and different number of baffles with the experiments of Halle et al. (1984) which were performed in an industrial sized heat exchanger at Argonne National Labs. Discussion of the results is given with particular reference to global and local properties such as pressure drop, temperature variation, and heat transfer coefficients. Good agreement is obtained between the experiments and HEATX computations for the shellside pressure drop and outlet temperatures for the shellside and tubeside streams.
Langenberg, Christoph; Bellomo, Rinaldo; May, Clive; Wan, Li; Egi, Moritoki; Morgera, Stanislao
2005-01-01
Introduction To assess changes in renal blood flow (RBF) in human and experimental sepsis, and to identify determinants of RBF. Method Using specific search terms we systematically interrogated two electronic reference libraries to identify experimental and human studies of sepsis and septic acute renal failure in which RBF was measured. In the retrieved studies, we assessed the influence of various factors on RBF during sepsis using statistical methods. Results We found no human studies in which RBF was measured with suitably accurate direct methods. Where it was measured in humans with sepsis, however, RBF was increased compared with normal. Of the 159 animal studies identified, 99 reported decreased RBF and 60 reported unchanged or increased RBF. The size of animal, technique of measurement, duration of measurement, method of induction of sepsis, and fluid administration had no effect on RBF. In contrast, on univariate analysis, state of consciousness of animals (P = 0.005), recovery after surgery (P < 0.001), haemodynamic pattern (hypodynamic or hyperdynamic state; P < 0.001) and cardiac output (P < 0.001) influenced RBF. However, multivariate analysis showed that only cardiac output remained an independent determinant of RBF (P < 0.001). Conclusion The impact of sepsis on RBF in humans is unknown. In experimental sepsis, RBF was reported to be decreased in two-thirds of studies (62 %) and unchanged or increased in one-third (38%). On univariate analysis, several factors not directly related to sepsis appear to influence RBF. However, multivariate analysis suggests that cardiac output has a dominant effect on RBF during sepsis, such that, in the presence of a decreased cardiac output, RBF is typically decreased, whereas in the presence of a preserved or increased cardiac output RBF is typically maintained or increased. PMID:16137349
Field observations of swash zone flow patterns and 3D morphodynamics
Puelo, Jack A.; Holland, K. Todd; Kooney, Timothy N.; Sallenger,, Asbury H.; Edge, Billy L.
2001-01-01
Rapid video measurements of foreshore morphology and velocity were collected at Duck, NC in 1997 to investigate sediment transport processes in the swash zone. Estimates of foreshore evolution over a roughly 30 m cross-shore by 80 m alongshore study area were determined using a stereogrammetric technique. During the passage of a small storm (offshore wave heights increased from 1.4 to 2.5 m), the foreshore eroded nearly 40 cm in less than 4 hours. Dense, horizontal surface velocities were measured over a sub-region (roughly 30 m by 40 m) of the study area using a new particle image velocimetry technique. This technique was able to quantify velocities across the bore front approaching 5 m s–1 as well as the rapid velocities in the very shallow backwash flows. The velocity and foreshore topography measurements were used to test a three-dimensional energetics-based sediment transport model. Even though these data represent the most extensive and highly resolved swash measurements to date, the results showed that while the model could predict some of the qualitative trends in the observed foreshore change, it was a poor predictor of the observed magnitudes of foreshore change. Model — data comparisons differed by roughly an order of magnitude with observed foreshore changes on the order of 10's of centimeters and model predictions on the order of meters. This poor comparison suggests that future models of swash-zone sediment transport may require the inclusion of other physical processes such as bore turbulence, fluid accelerations and skewness, infiltration/exfiltration, water depth variations, and variable friction factors (to name a few).
Saha, Debashish; Babler, Matthaus U; Holzner, Markus; Soos, Miroslav; Lüthi, Beat; Liberzon, Alex; Kinzelbach, Wolfgang
2016-01-12
Aggregates grown in mild shear flow are released, one at a time, into homogeneous isotropic turbulence, where their motion and intermittent breakup is recorded by three-dimensional particle tracking velocimetry (3D-PTV). The aggregates have an open structure with a fractal dimension of ∼2.2, and their size is 1.4 ± 0.4 mm, which is large, compared to the Kolmogorov length scale (η = 0.15 mm). 3D-PTV of flow tracers allows for the simultaneous measurement of aggregate trajectories and the full velocity gradient tensor along their pathlines, which enables us to access the Lagrangian stress history of individual breakup events. From this data, we found no consistent pattern that relates breakup to the local flow properties at the point of breakup. Also, the correlation between the aggregate size and both shear stress and normal stress at the location of breakage is found to be weaker, when compared with the correlation between size and drag stress. The analysis suggests that the aggregates are mostly broken due to the accumulation of the drag stress over a time lag on the order of the Kolmogorov time scale. This finding is explained by the fact that the aggregates are large, which gives their motion inertia and increases the time for stress propagation inside the aggregate. Furthermore, it is found that the scaling of the largest fragment and the accumulated stress at breakup follows an earlier established power law, i.e., dfrag ∼ σ(-0.6) obtained from laminar nozzle experiments. This indicates that, despite the large size and the different type of hydrodynamic stress, the microscopic mechanism causing breakup is consistent over a wide range of aggregate size and stress magnitude.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moortgat, Joachim; Amooie, Mohammad Amin; Soltanian, Mohamad Reza
2016-10-01
We present a new implicit higher-order finite element (FE) approach to efficiently model compressible multicomponent fluid flow on unstructured grids and in fractured porous subsurface formations. The scheme is sequential implicit: pressures and fluxes are updated with an implicit Mixed Hybrid Finite Element (MHFE) method, and the transport of each species is approximated with an implicit second-order Discontinuous Galerkin (DG) FE method. Discrete fractures are incorporated with a cross-flow equilibrium approach. This is the first investigation of all-implicit higher-order MHFE-DG for unstructured triangular, quadrilateral (2D), and hexahedral (3D) grids and discrete fractures. A lowest-order implicit finite volume (FV) transport update is also developed for the same grid types. The implicit methods are compared to an Implicit-Pressure-Explicit-Composition (IMPEC) scheme. For fractured domains, the unconditionally stable implicit transport update is shown to increase computational efficiency by orders of magnitude as compared to IMPEC, which has a time-step constraint proportional to the pore volume of discrete fracture grid cells. However, when lowest-order Euler time-discretizations are used, numerical errors increase linearly with the larger implicit time-steps, resulting in high numerical dispersion. Second-order Crank-Nicolson implicit MHFE-DG and MHFE-FV are therefore presented as well. Convergence analyses show twice the convergence rate for the DG methods as compared to FV, resulting in two to three orders of magnitude higher computational efficiency. Numerical experiments demonstrate the efficiency and robustness in modeling compressible multicomponent flow on irregular and fractured 2D and 3D grids, even in the presence of fingering instabilities.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rao, Satish
2015-03-01
Experimental studies show strong strengthening effects for micrometer-scale FCC as well as two-phase superalloy crystals, even at high initial dislocation densities. This talk shows results from large-scale 3-D discrete dislocation simulations (DDS) used to explicitly model the deformation behavior of FCC Ni (flow stress and strain-hardening) as well as superalloy microcrystals for diameters ranging from 1 - 20 microns. The work shows that two size-sensitive athermal hardening processes, beyond forest and precipitation hardening, are sufficient to develop the dimensional scaling of the flow stress, stochastic stress variation, flow intermittency and, high initial strain-hardening rates, similar to experimental observations for various materials. In addition, 3D dislocation dynamics simulations are used to investigate strain-hardening characteristics and dislocation microstructure evolution with strain in large 20 micron size Ni microcrystals (bulk-like) under three different loading axes: 111, 001 and 110. Three different multi-slip loading axes, < 111 > , < 001 > and < 110 > , are explored for shear strains of ~0.03 and final dislocation densities of ~1013/m2. The orientation dependence of initial strain hardening rates and dislocation microstructure evolution with strain are discussed. The simulated strain hardening results are compared with experimental data under similar loading conditions from bulk single-crystal Ni. Finally, atomistic simulation results on the operation of single arm sources in Ni bipillars with a large angle grain boundary is discussed. The atomistic simulation results are compared with experimental mechanical behavior data on Cu bipillars with a similar large angle grain boundary. This work was supported by AFOSR (Dr. David Stargel), and by a grant of computer time from the DOD High Performance Computing Modernization Program, at the Aeronautical Systems Center/Major Shared Resource Center.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moortgat, Joachim; Firoozabadi, Abbas
2016-06-01
Problems of interest in hydrogeology and hydrocarbon resources involve complex heterogeneous geological formations. Such domains are most accurately represented in reservoir simulations by unstructured computational grids. Finite element methods accurately describe flow on unstructured meshes with complex geometries, and their flexible formulation allows implementation on different grid types. In this work, we consider for the first time the challenging problem of fully compositional three-phase flow in 3D unstructured grids, discretized by any combination of tetrahedra, prisms, and hexahedra. We employ a mass conserving mixed hybrid finite element (MHFE) method to solve for the pressure and flux fields. The transport equations are approximated with a higher-order vertex-based discontinuous Galerkin (DG) discretization. We show that this approach outperforms a face-based implementation of the same polynomial order. These methods are well suited for heterogeneous and fractured reservoirs, because they provide globally continuous pressure and flux fields, while allowing for sharp discontinuities in compositions and saturations. The higher-order accuracy improves the modeling of strongly non-linear flow, such as gravitational and viscous fingering. We review the literature on unstructured reservoir simulation models, and present many examples that consider gravity depletion, water flooding, and gas injection in oil saturated reservoirs. We study convergence rates, mesh sensitivity, and demonstrate the wide applicability of our chosen finite element methods for challenging multiphase flow problems in geometrically complex subsurface media.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Avettand-Fènoël, Marie-Noëlle; Taillard, Roland; Laye, Julien; Odièvre, Thierry
2014-02-01
The current microstructural investigation performed at various scales deals with the three-dimensional (3-D) material flow in thick dissimilar Airware™ 2050 friction-stir butt welds (Airware, Newport Beach, CA) because of the scarcity of the results obtained with thicker than 8 mm joints and the lack of detailed interpretation of features in the longitudinal direction. An additional originality consists in the study of material flow under the probe tip. In the current case of thick plates, the variation of local temperature along the weld depth is of key importance for the material flow. Indeed, it governs the slight difference of local mechanical behavior between both materials and therefore the shift of the interface, which was clearly put into evidence by means of a difference of Mn content as small as 0.3 pct between both alloys. This importance of temperature for the malleability also entails the pear shape of the nugget as well as a change of grains orientation along the depth in the thermomechanically affected zone. Due to the modification of tool-material adhesion with temperature, a new phenomenological model of material flow for thick friction-stir welds is proposed. In accordance with their difference of origin, the coexistence of onion rings and serrated interface is also highlighted.
Dual FIB-SEM 3D Imaging and Lattice Boltzmann Modeling of Porosimetry and Multiphase Flow in Chalk
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rinehart, A. J.; Yoon, H.; Dewers, T. A.; Heath, J. E.; Petrusak, R.
2010-12-01
Mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP) is an often-applied technique for determining pore throat distributions and seal analysis of fine-grained rocks. Due to closure effects, potential pore collapse, and complex pore network topologies, MIP data interpretation can be ambiguous, and often biased toward smaller pores in the distribution. We apply 3D imaging techniques and lattice-Boltzmann modeling in interpreting MIP data for samples of the Cretaceous Selma Group Chalk. In the Mississippi Interior Salt Basin, the Selma Chalk is the apparent seal for oil and gas fields in the underlying Eutaw Fm., and, where unfractured, the Selma Chalk is one of the regional-scale seals identified by the Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership for CO2 injection sites. Dual focused ion - scanning electron beam and laser scanning confocal microscopy methods are used for 3D imaging of nanometer-to-micron scale microcrack and pore distributions in the Selma Chalk. A combination of image analysis software is used to obtain geometric pore body and throat distributions and other topological properties, which are compared to MIP results. 3D data sets of pore-microfracture networks are used in Lattice Boltzmann simulations of drainage (wetting fluid displaced by non-wetting fluid via the Shan-Chen algorithm), which in turn are used to model MIP procedures. Results are used in interpreting MIP results, understanding microfracture-matrix interaction during multiphase flow, and seal analysis for underground CO2 storage. This work was supported by the US Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences as part of an Energy Frontier Research Center. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Company, for the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.
Radioisotopic flow scanning for portal blood flow and portal hypertension
Hesdorffer, C.S.; Bezwoda, W.R.; Danilewitz, M.D.; Esser, J.D.; Tobias, M.
1987-08-01
The use of a simple, noninvasive, isotope scanning technique for the determination of relative portal blood flow and detection of portal hypertension is described. Using this technique the presence of portal hypertension was demonstrated in seven of nine patients known to have elevated portal venous pressure. By contrast, esophageal varices were demonstrated in only five of these patients, illustrating the potential value of the method. Furthermore, this technique has been adapted to the study of portal blood flow in patients with myeloproliferative disorders with splenomegaly but without disturbances in hepatic architecture. Results demonstrate that the high relative splenic flow resulting from the presence of splenomegaly may in turn be associated with elevated relative portal blood flow and portal hypertension. The theoretic reasons for the development of flow-related portal hypertension and its relationship to splenic blood flow are discussed.
3D ultrafast ultrasound imaging in vivo.
Provost, Jean; Papadacci, Clement; Arango, Juan Esteban; Imbault, Marion; Fink, Mathias; Gennisson, Jean-Luc; Tanter, Mickael; Pernot, Mathieu
2014-10-07
Very high frame rate ultrasound imaging has recently allowed for the extension of the applications of echography to new fields of study such as the functional imaging of the brain, cardiac electrophysiology, and the quantitative imaging of the intrinsic mechanical properties of tumors, to name a few, non-invasively and in real time. In this study, we present the first implementation of Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging in 3D based on the use of either diverging or plane waves emanating from a sparse virtual array located behind the probe. It achieves high contrast and resolution while maintaining imaging rates of thousands of volumes per second. A customized portable ultrasound system was developed to sample 1024 independent channels and to drive a 32 × 32 matrix-array probe. Its ability to track in 3D transient phenomena occurring in the millisecond range within a single ultrafast acquisition was demonstrated for 3D Shear-Wave Imaging, 3D Ultrafast Doppler Imaging, and, finally, 3D Ultrafast combined Tissue and Flow Doppler Imaging. The propagation of shear waves was tracked in a phantom and used to characterize its stiffness. 3D Ultrafast Doppler was used to obtain 3D maps of Pulsed Doppler, Color Doppler, and Power Doppler quantities in a single acquisition and revealed, at thousands of volumes per second, the complex 3D flow patterns occurring in the ventricles of the human heart during an entire cardiac cycle, as well as the 3D in vivo interaction of blood flow and wall motion during the pulse wave in the carotid at the bifurcation. This study demonstrates the potential of 3D Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging for the 3D mapping of stiffness, tissue motion, and flow in humans in vivo and promises new clinical applications of ultrasound with reduced intra--and inter-observer variability.
3D ultrafast ultrasound imaging in vivo
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Provost, Jean; Papadacci, Clement; Esteban Arango, Juan; Imbault, Marion; Fink, Mathias; Gennisson, Jean-Luc; Tanter, Mickael; Pernot, Mathieu
2014-10-01
Very high frame rate ultrasound imaging has recently allowed for the extension of the applications of echography to new fields of study such as the functional imaging of the brain, cardiac electrophysiology, and the quantitative imaging of the intrinsic mechanical properties of tumors, to name a few, non-invasively and in real time. In this study, we present the first implementation of Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging in 3D based on the use of either diverging or plane waves emanating from a sparse virtual array located behind the probe. It achieves high contrast and resolution while maintaining imaging rates of thousands of volumes per second. A customized portable ultrasound system was developed to sample 1024 independent channels and to drive a 32 × 32 matrix-array probe. Its ability to track in 3D transient phenomena occurring in the millisecond range within a single ultrafast acquisition was demonstrated for 3D Shear-Wave Imaging, 3D Ultrafast Doppler Imaging, and, finally, 3D Ultrafast combined Tissue and Flow Doppler Imaging. The propagation of shear waves was tracked in a phantom and used to characterize its stiffness. 3D Ultrafast Doppler was used to obtain 3D maps of Pulsed Doppler, Color Doppler, and Power Doppler quantities in a single acquisition and revealed, at thousands of volumes per second, the complex 3D flow patterns occurring in the ventricles of the human heart during an entire cardiac cycle, as well as the 3D in vivo interaction of blood flow and wall motion during the pulse wave in the carotid at the bifurcation. This study demonstrates the potential of 3D Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging for the 3D mapping of stiffness, tissue motion, and flow in humans in vivo and promises new clinical applications of ultrasound with reduced intra—and inter-observer variability.
Postradiation regional cerebral blood flow in primates
Cockerham, L.G.; Cerveny, T.J.; Hampton, J.D.
1986-06-01
Early transient incapacitation (ETI) is the complete cessation of performance during the first 30 min after radiation exposure and performance decrement (PD) is a reduction in performance at the same time. Supralethal doses of radiation have been shown to produce a marked decrease in regional cerebral blood flow in primates concurrent with hypotension and a dramatic release of mast cell histamine. In an attempt to elucidate mechanisms underlying the radiation-induced ETI/PD phenomenon and the postradiation decrease in cerebral blood flow, primates were exposed to 100 Gy (1 Gy = 100 rads), whole-body, gamma radiation. Pontine and cortical blood flows were measured by hydrogen clearance, before and after radiation exposure. Systemic blood pressures were determined simultaneously. Systemic arterial histamine levels were determined preradiation and postradiation. Data obtained indicated that radiated animals showed a decrease in blood flow of 63% in the motor cortex and 51% in the pons by 10 min postradiation. Regional cerebral blood flow of radiated animals showed a slight recovery 20 min postradiation, followed by a fall to the 10 min nadir by 60 min postradiation. Immediately, postradiation systemic blood pressure fell 67% and remained at that level for the remainder of the experiment. Histamine levels in the radiated animals increased a hundredfold 2 min postradiation. This study indicates that regional cerebral blood flow decreases postradiation with the development of hypotension and may be associated temporally with the postradiation release of histamine.
Buchanan, Cara F; Verbridge, Scott S; Vlachos, Pavlos P; Rylander, Marissa Nichole
2014-01-01
Endothelial cells lining blood vessels are exposed to various hemodynamic forces associated with blood flow. These include fluid shear, the tangential force derived from the friction of blood flowing across the luminal cell surface, tensile stress due to deformation of the vessel wall by transvascular flow, and normal stress caused by the hydrodynamic pressure differential across the vessel wall. While it is well known that these fluid forces induce changes in endothelial morphology, cytoskeletal remodeling, and altered gene expression, the effect of flow on endothelial organization within the context of the tumor microenvironment is largely unknown. Using a previously established microfluidic tumor vascular model, the objective of this study was to investigate the effect of normal (4 dyn/cm2), low (1 dyn/cm2), and high (10 dyn/cm2) microvascular wall shear stress (WSS) on tumor-endothelial paracrine signaling associated with angiogenesis. It is hypothesized that high WSS will alter the endothelial phenotype such that vascular permeability and tumor-expressed angiogenic factors are reduced. Results demonstrate that endothelial permeability decreases as a function of increasing WSS, while co-culture with tumor cells increases permeability relative to mono-cultures. This response is likely due to shear stress-mediated endothelial cell alignment and tumor-VEGF-induced permeability. In addition, gene expression analysis revealed that high WSS (10 dyn/cm2) significantly down-regulates tumor-expressed MMP9, HIF1, VEGFA, ANG1, and ANG2, all of which are important factors implicated in tumor angiogenesis. This result was not observed in tumor mono-cultures or static conditioned media experiments, suggesting a flow-mediated paracrine signaling mechanism exists with surrounding tumor cells that elicits a change in expression of angiogenic factors. Findings from this work have significant implications regarding low blood velocities commonly seen in the tumor vasculature
Lim, Jong-Min; Bertrand, Nicolas; Valencia, Pedro M.; Rhee, Minsoung; Langer, Robert; Jon, Sangyong; Farokhzad, Omid C.; Karnik, Rohit
2014-01-01
Microfluidic synthesis of nanoparticles (NPs) can enhance the controllability and reproducibility in physicochemical properties of NPs compared to bulk synthesis methods. However, applications of microfluidic synthesis are typically limited to in vitro studies due to low production rates. Herein, we report the parallelization of NP synthesis by 3D hydrodynamic flow focusing (HFF) using a multilayer microfluidic system to enhance the production rate without losing the advantages of reproducibility, controllability, and robustness. Using parallel 3D HFF, polymeric poly(lactide-co-glycolide)-b-polyethyleneglycol (PLGA-PEG) NPs with sizes tunable in the range of 13–150 nm could be synthesized reproducibly with high production rate. As a proof of concept, we used this system to perform in vivo pharmacokinetic and biodistribution study of small (20 nm diameter) PLGA-PEG NPs that are otherwise difficult to synthesize. Microfluidic parallelization thus enables synthesis of NPs with tunable properties with production rates suitable for both in vitro and in vivo studies. PMID:23969105
Symmetry-plane model of 3D Euler flows: Mapping to regular systems and numerical solutions of blowup
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mulungye, Rachel M.; Lucas, Dan; Bustamante, Miguel D.
2014-11-01
We introduce a family of 2D models describing the dynamics on the so-called symmetry plane of the full 3D Euler fluid equations. These models depend on a free real parameter and can be solved analytically. For selected representative values of the free parameter, we apply the method introduced in [M.D. Bustamante, Physica D: Nonlinear Phenom. 240, 1092 (2011)] to map the fluid equations bijectively to globally regular systems. By comparing the analytical solutions with the results of numerical simulations, we establish that the numerical simulations of the mapped regular systems are far more accurate than the numerical simulations of the original systems, at the same spatial resolution and CPU time. In particular, the numerical integrations of the mapped regular systems produce robust estimates for the growth exponent and singularity time of the main blowup quantity (vorticity stretching rate), converging well to the analytically-predicted values even beyond the time at which the flow becomes under-resolved (i.e. the reliability time). In contrast, direct numerical integrations of the original systems develop unstable oscillations near the reliability time. We discuss the reasons for this improvement in accuracy, and explain how to extend the analysis to the full 3D case. Supported under the programme for Research in Third Level Institutions (PRTLI) Cycle 5 and co-funded by the European Regional Development Fund.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fletcher, Michael J.; Won, Mark J.; Cosentino, Gary B.; Te, Alexander
1993-01-01
Subsonic inlet ducts for advanced, high-performance aircraft are evolving towards complex three-dimensional shapes for reasons of overall integration and weight. These factors lead to diffuser geometries that may sacrifice inlet performance, unless careful attention to design details and boundary layer management techniques are employed. The ability of viscous computational fluid dynamic (CFD) analysis of such geometries to aid the aircraft configurator in this complex design problem is herein examined. The RANS-3D Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes solver is applied to model the complex flowfield occurring in a representative diffuser geometry and the solutions are compared to experimental results from a static test of the inlet duct. The computational results are shown to compare very favorably with experimental results over a range of mass flow rates, including those involving large amounts of separation in the diffuser. In addition, a novel grid topology is presented, and two turbulence models are evaluated in this study as part of the RANS-3D code.
Carbon dioxide and liver blood flow.
Dutton, R; Levitzky, M; Berkman, R
1976-01-01
This study was designed to determine blood flow to the liver during hypercapnia and combined hypercapnia-hypoxia with the portal vein and hepatic artery intact except for placement of an electromagnetic flow probe around these vessels. Twenty mongrel dogs weighing 30-45 kg were anesthetized with pentobarbital and flow probes and occluders were surgically implanted. Ten of these dogs were subjected to hypercapnia alone. During inspiration of 6% CO2 in room air, portal vein flow increased from 588 +/- 73 ml/min to 731 +/- 113 ml/min (p less than .05), while hepatic artery flow did not change significantly from its control mean of 221 +/- 38 ml/min. In the remaining dogs, inhalation of 6% O2 resulted in a reduction of portal blood flow within 30 min from 527 +/- 55 ml/min to 381 +/- 41 ml/min (p less than .01). Again, mean hepatic artery flow did not increase significantly above its control of 273 +/- 43 ml/min. Subsequent inhalation of 6% CO2 plus 6% O2 (combined hypercapniahypoxia) for 30 min in these same animals resulted in a significant increase of portal vein blood flow from 514 +/- 46 ml/min to 716 +/- 116 ml/min (p less than .05). Thus, hypercapnia alone increases total liver blood flow, primarily by an increase in portal vein flow. Hypoxia results in a decrease in portal vein flow. The superimposition of hypercapnia on hypoxia restores blood flow to a level close to that found with hypercapnia alone. Hypercapnia in the range of 63 +/- 4 mmHg PCO2 overwhelms the tendency toward a reduction of portal vein blood flow induced by an arterial PO2 of 42 +/- 5 mmHg in the presence of mild hypocapnia (PCO2 : 30.2 +/- 1 mmHg).
Pak, Tannaz; Butler, Ian B.; Geiger, Sebastian; van Dijke, Marinus I. J.; Sorbie, Ken S.
2015-01-01
Using X-ray computed microtomography, we have visualized and quantified the in situ structure of a trapped nonwetting phase (oil) in a highly heterogeneous carbonate rock after injecting a wetting phase (brine) at low and high capillary numbers. We imaged the process of capillary desaturation in 3D and demonstrated its impacts on the trapped nonwetting phase cluster size distribution. We have identified a previously unidentified pore-scale event during capillary desaturation. This pore-scale event, described as droplet fragmentation of the nonwetting phase, occurs in larger pores. It increases volumetric production of the nonwetting phase after capillary trapping and enlarges the fluid−fluid interface, which can enhance mass transfer between the phases. Droplet fragmentation therefore has implications for a range of multiphase flow processes in natural and engineered porous media with complex heterogeneous pore spaces. PMID:25646491
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rivers, Melissa; Hunter, Craig; Vatsa, Veer
2017-01-01
Two Navier-Stokes codes were used to compute flow over the High-Lift Common Research Model (HL-CRM) in preparation for a wind tunnel test to be performed at the NASA Langley Research Center 14-by-22-Foot Subsonic Tunnel in fiscal year 2018. Both flight and wind tunnel conditions were simulated by the two codes at set Mach numbers and Reynolds numbers over a full angle-of-attack range for three configurations: cruise, landing and takeoff. Force curves, drag polars and surface pressure contour comparisons are shown for the two codes. The lift and drag curves compare well for the cruise configuration up to 10deg angle of attack but not as well for the other two configurations. The drag polars compare reasonably well for all three configurations. The surface pressure contours compare well for some of the conditions modeled but not as well for others.
Simulating Ice-Flow and Calving on Store Glacier, West Greenland, with a 3D Full Stokes Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Todd, J.; Christoffersen, P.; Zwinger, T.; Luckman, A. J.; Benn, D.
2015-12-01
The mass balance and long-term stability of the ice sheets in Greenland and Antarctica depend heavily on the dynamics of their ice-ocean margins. Iceberg calving accounts for the majority of the net annual loss of ice in Antarctica and around half of that from Greenland. Furthermore, climate driven changes to dynamics at these calving margins can be transmitted far inland. Thus, predicting future sea level contribution from the cryosphere requires an improved understanding of calving, and the processes which link it to climate and ice-sheet flow. We present results from a new 3D calving model coupled to a full-Stokes, time evolving glacier dynamic model, implemented for Store Glacier, a 5-km-wide calving glacier in the Uummannaq region of West Greenland, which flows at a rate of 20 m/day at its terminus. The model is developed using the open source finite element package Elmer/Ice, with the criterion that calving occurs when surface and basal crevasses meet. Crevasses open in response to tensile stresses near the terminus and water pressure at the bed. When the model was applied in 2D for the central flowline of Store Glacier, we found that basal topography exerts overarching control on the long term position of the calving front, while ice mélange buttressing allows the seasonal extension of a floating tongue, which collapses in early summer. New results emerging from implementation of calving in a 3D model indicate significant spatial heterogeneity in calving dynamics because the northern half of the terminus is grounded whereas the southern half is floating. This contrasting setting affects calving dynamics, further underlining the importance of geometry and basal topography, and suggesting that lower dimensional calving models may miss important aspects of calving dynamics. Our results also suggest that implementing grounding line dynamics is important for modelling calving, even for glaciers which are, for the most part, firmly grounded.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
LeVeque, R. J.; Motley, M. R.
2015-12-01
A series of tsunami wave basin experiments of flow through a scale model of Seaside, Oregon have been used as validation data for a 2015 benchmarking workshop hosted by the National Tsunami Mitigation Program, which focused on better understanding the ability of tsunami models to predict flow velocities and inundation depths following a coastal inundation event. As researchers begin to assess the safety of coastal infrastructures, proper assessment of tsunami-induced forces on coastal structures is critical. Hydrodynamic forces on these structures are fundamentally proportional to the local momentum flux of the fluid, and experimental data included momentum flux measurements at many instrumented gauge locations. The GeoClaw tsunami model, which solves the two-dimensional shallow water equations, was compared against other codes during the benchmarking workshop, and more recently a three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics model using the open-source OpenFOAM software has been developed and results from this model are being compared with both the experimental data and the 2D GeoClaw results. In addition, the 3D model allows for computation of fluid forces on the faces of structures, permitting an investigation of the common use of momentum flux as a proxy for these forces. This work aims to assess the potential to apply these momentum flux predictions locally within the model to determine tsunami-induced forces on critical structures. Difficulties in working with these data sets and cross-model comparisons will be discussed. Ultimately, application of the more computationally efficient GeoClaw model, informed by the 3D OpenFOAM models, to predict forces on structures at the community scale can be expected to improve the safety and resilience of coastal communities.
RELAP5-3D Analysis of Pressure Perturbation at the Peach Bottom BWR During Low-Flow Stability Tests
Lombardi Costa, Antonella; Petruzzi, Alessandro; D'Auria, Francesco
2006-07-01
Experimental and theoretical studies about the BWR (Boiling Water Reactor) stability have been performed to design a stable core configuration. BWR instabilities can be caused by inter-dependencies between thermal-hydraulic and reactivity feedback parameters such as the void-coefficient, for example, during a pressure perturbation event. In the present work, the pressure perturbation is considered in order to study in detail this type of transient. To simulate this event, including the strong feedback effects between core neutronic and reactor thermal-hydraulics, and to verify core behavior and evaluate parameters related to safety, RELAP5-3D code has been used in the analyses. The simulation was performed making use of Peach Bottom-2 BWR data to predict the dynamics of a real reactor during this type of event. Stability tests were conducted in the Peach Bottom 2 BWR, in 1977, and were done along the low-flow end of the rated power-flow line, and along the power-flow line corresponding to minimum recirculation pump speed. The calculated results are herein compared against the available experimental data. (authors)
Blood flow and oxygen uptake during exercise
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mitchell, J. W.; Stolwijk, J. A. J.; Nadel, E. R.
1973-01-01
A model is developed for predicting oxygen uptake, muscle blood flow, and blood chemistry changes under exercise conditions. In this model, the working muscle mass system is analyzed. The conservation of matter principle is applied to the oxygen in a unit mass of working muscle under transient exercise conditions. This principle is used to relate the inflow of oxygen carried with the blood to the outflow carried with blood, the rate of change of oxygen stored in the muscle myoglobin, and the uptake by the muscle. Standard blood chemistry relations are incorporated to evaluate venous levels of oxygen, pH, and carbon dioxide.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Deeb, R.; Kulasegaram, S.; Karihaloo, B. L.
2014-12-01
In part I of this two-part paper, a three-dimensional Lagrangian smooth particle hydrodynamics method has been used to model the flow of self-compacting concrete (SCC) with or without short steel fibres in the slump cone test. The constitutive behaviour of this non-Newtonian viscous fluid is described by a Bingham-type model. The 3D simulation of SCC without fibres is focused on the distribution of large aggregates (larger than or equal to 8 mm) during the flow. The simulation of self-compacting high- and ultra-high- performance concrete containing short steel fibres is focused on the distribution of fibres and their orientation during the flow. The simulation results show that the fibres and/or heavier aggregates do not precipitate but remain homogeneously distributed in the mix throughout the flow.
Blood flow and permeability in microvessels
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sugihara-Seki, Masako; Fu, Bingmei M.
2005-07-01
The mechanics of blood flow in microvessels and microvessel permeability are reviewed. In the first part, characteristics of blood flow in vivo and in vitro are described from a fluid-mechanical point of view, and mathematical models for blood flow in microvessels are presented. Possible causes of the increased flow resistance obtained in vivo compared to in vitro are examined, including the effects of irregularities of vessel lumen, the presence of endothelial surface glycocalyx and white blood cells. In the second part, the ultrastructural pathways and mechanisms whereby endothelial cells and the clefts between the cells modulate microvessel permeability to water and solutes are introduced. Previous and current models for microvessel permeability to water and solutes are reviewed. These models examine the role of structural components of interendothelial cleft, such as junction strands and surface glycocalyx, in the determination of water and solute transport across the microvessel walls. Transport models in the tissue space surrounding the microvessel are also described.
Blood flow quantification using optical flow methods in a body fitted coordinate system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maday, Peter; Brosig, Richard; Endres, Jurgen; Kowarschik, Markus; Navab, Nassir
2014-03-01
In this paper a blood flow quantification method that is based on a physically motivated dense 2D flow estimation algorithm is outlined. It yields accurate time varying volumetric flow rate measurements based on digital subtraction angiography (DSA) image sequences, with robustness to significant inter-frame displacements. Time varying volumetric flow rates are estimated for individual non-branching vascular segments based on the estimated 2D flow fields and a 3D vessel segmentation from a 3D Rotational Angiography (3DRA) acquisition. The novelty of the approach lies in the use of a vessel aligned coordinate system for the problem formulation. The coordinate functions are generated using the Schwarz-Christoffel1(SC) map that yields a solution with coordinate lines aligned with the vessel boundaries. The use of vessel aligned coordinates enables the easy and accurate handling of boundary conditions in the irregular domain of a vessel lumen while only requiring slight modifications to the used finite difference approach. Unlike traditional coarse to fine methods we use an anisotropic scaling strategy that enables the estimation of flows with larger inter frame displacements. The evaluation of our method is based on highly realistic synthetic DSA datasets for a number of cases. Ground truth volumetric flow rate values are compared against the measurements and a high degree of fidelity is observed. Performance measures are obtained with varying flow velocities and acquisition rates.
Development of a Compact & Easy-to-Use 3-D Camera for High Speed Turbulent Flow Fields
2013-12-05
the 2-D Radon transform to 3-D space, i.e., the 3-D Radon transform. It is proposed that the 3-D Radon transform also has an inverse as does the 2-D...Nishimura, D.G., Principles of magnetic resonance imaging. 1996: Stanford University. 41. Deans, S.R., The Radon transform and some of its applications...2007: DoverPublications. com. 42. Averbuch, A. and Y. Shkolnisky, 3D Fourier based discrete Radon transform. Applied and Computational Harmonic
Blood flow computation in phase-contrast MRI by minimal paths in anisotropic media.
Schwenke, Michael; Hennemuth, Anja; Fischer, Bernd; Friman, Ola
2011-01-01
In this paper, anisotropic Fast Marching is employed to compute blood flow trajectories as minimal paths in 3D phase-contrast MRI images. Uncertainty in the estimated blood flow vectors is incorporated in a tensor which is used as metric for the anisotropic Fast Marching. A flow connectivity distribution is computed simultaneously to the Fast Marching. Based on the connectivity distribution the most likely flow trajectories can be identified. Results are presented for several PC MRI data sets and the capability of the method to indicate uncertainty of the flow trajectories is shown.
Age and gender related differences in aortic blood flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Enevoldsen, Marie Sand; Pedersen, Mads Møller; Hemmsen, Martin Christian; Lönn, Lars; Henneberg, Kaj-Åge; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt
2012-03-01
The abdominal aorta (AA) is predisposed to development of abdominal aneurysms (AAA), a focal dilatation with fatal consequences if left untreated. The blood flow patterns is thought to play an important role in the development of AAA. The purpose of this work is to investigate the blood flow patterns within a group of healthy volunteers (six females, eight males) aged 23 to 76 years to identify changes and differences related to age and gender. The healthy volunteers were categorized by gender (male/female) and age (below/above 35 years). Subject-specific flow and geometry data were acquired using the research interface on a Profocus ultrasound scanner (B-K Medical, Herlev, Denmark; segmentation of 3D magnetic resonance angiography (Magnetom Trio, Siemens Healthcare, Erlangen, Germany). The largest average diameter was among the elderly males (19.7 (+/- 1.33) mm) and smallest among the young females (12.4 (+/- 0.605) mm). The highest peak systolic velocity was in the young female group (1.02 (+/- 0.336) m/s) and lowest in the elderly male group (0.836 (+/- 0.127) m/s). A geometrical change with age was observed as the AA becomes more bended with age. This also affects the blood flow velocity patterns, which are markedly different from young to elderly. Thus, changes in blood flow patterns in the AA related to age and gender are observed. Further investigations are needed to determine the relation between changes in blood flow patterns and AAA development.
3D Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging In Vivo
Provost, Jean; Papadacci, Clement; Arango, Juan Esteban; Imbault, Marion; Gennisson, Jean-Luc; Tanter, Mickael; Pernot, Mathieu
2014-01-01
Very high frame rate ultrasound imaging has recently allowed for the extension of the applications of echography to new fields of study such as the functional imaging of the brain, cardiac electrophysiology, and the quantitative real-time imaging of the intrinsic mechanical properties of tumors, to name a few, non-invasively and in real time. In this study, we present the first implementation of Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging in three dimensions based on the use of either diverging or plane waves emanating from a sparse virtual array located behind the probe. It achieves high contrast and resolution while maintaining imaging rates of thousands of volumes per second. A customized portable ultrasound system was developed to sample 1024 independent channels and to drive a 32×32 matrix-array probe. Its capability to track in 3D transient phenomena occurring in the millisecond range within a single ultrafast acquisition was demonstrated for 3-D Shear-Wave Imaging, 3-D Ultrafast Doppler Imaging and finally 3D Ultrafast combined Tissue and Flow Doppler. The propagation of shear waves was tracked in a phantom and used to characterize its stiffness. 3-D Ultrafast Doppler was used to obtain 3-D maps of Pulsed Doppler, Color Doppler, and Power Doppler quantities in a single acquisition and revealed, for the first time, the complex 3-D flow patterns occurring in the ventricles of the human heart during an entire cardiac cycle, and the 3-D in vivo interaction of blood flow and wall motion during the pulse wave in the carotid at the bifurcation. This study demonstrates the potential of 3-D Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging for the 3-D real-time mapping of stiffness, tissue motion, and flow in humans in vivo and promises new clinical applications of ultrasound with reduced intra- and inter-observer variability. PMID:25207828
Nutrient and nonnutrient renal blood flow
Young, J.S.; Passmore, J.C.; Hartupee, D.A.; Baker, C.H. )
1990-06-01
The role of prostaglandins in the distribution of total renal blood flow (TRBF) between nutrient and nonnutrient compartments was investigated in anesthetized mongrel dogs. Renal blood flow distribution was assessed by the xenon 133 freeze-dissection technique and by rubidium 86 extraction after ibuprofen treatment. Ibuprofen (13 mg/kg) significantly decreased TRBF by 16.3% +/- 1.2% (mean +/- SEM electromagnetic flow probe; p less than 0.005), but did not alter blood flows to the outer cortex (3.7 vs 4.3 ml/min per gram), the inner cortex (2.6 vs 2.7 ml/min per gram), and the other medulla (1.5 vs 1.5 ml/min per gram), which suggests a decrease in nonnutrient flow. In a separate group of animals the effect of reduced blood flow on the nutrient and nonnutrient components was determined by mechanically reducing renal arterial blood flow by 48%. Unlike the ibuprofen group, nutrient blood flows were proportionally reduced with the mechanical decrease in TRBF in the outer cortex (1.9 ml/min per gram, p less than 0.05), the inner cortex (1.4 ml/min per gram, p less than 0.05), and the outer medulla (0.8 ml/min per gram, p less than 0.01). These results indicate no shift between nutrient and nonnutrient compartments. Nutrient and nonnutrient renal blood flows of the left kidney were also determined by 86Rb extraction. After ibuprofen treatment, nonextracted 86Rb decreased to 12.1% from the control value of 15.6% (p less than 0.05). Mechanical reduction of TRBF did not significantly decrease the proportion of unextracted 86Rb (18.7%).
Blood flow quantification using 1D CFD parameter identification
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brosig, Richard; Kowarschik, Markus; Maday, Peter; Katouzian, Amin; Demirci, Stefanie; Navab, Nassir
2014-03-01
Patient-specific measurements of cerebral blood flow provide valuable diagnostic information concerning cerebrovascular diseases rather than visually driven qualitative evaluation. In this paper, we present a quantitative method to estimate blood flow parameters with high temporal resolution from digital subtraction angiography (DSA) image sequences. Using a 3D DSA dataset and a 2D+t DSA sequence, the proposed algorithm employs a 1D Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model for estimation of time-dependent flow values along a cerebral vessel, combined with an additional Advection Diffusion Equation (ADE) for contrast agent propagation. The CFD system, followed by the ADE, is solved with a finite volume approximation, which ensures the conservation of mass. Instead of defining a new imaging protocol to obtain relevant data, our cost function optimizes the bolus arrival time (BAT) of the contrast agent in 2D+t DSA sequences. The visual determination of BAT is common clinical practice and can be easily derived from and be compared to values, generated by a 1D-CFD simulation. Using this strategy, we ensure that our proposed method fits best to clinical practice and does not require any changes to the medical work flow. Synthetic experiments show that the recovered flow estimates match the ground truth values with less than 12% error in the mean flow rates.
A New Approach to Sap Flow Measurement Using 3D Printed Gauges and Open-source Electronics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ham, J. M.; Miner, G. L.; Kluitenberg, G. J.
2015-12-01
A new type of sap flow gauge was developed to measure transpiration from herbaceous plants using a modified heat pulse technique. Gauges were fabricated using 3D-printing technology and low-cost electronics to keep the materials cost under $20 (U.S.) per sensor. Each gauge consisted of small-diameter needle probes fastened to a 3D-printed frame. One needle contained a resistance heater to provide a 6 to 8 second heat pulse while the other probes measured the resultant temperature increase at two distances from the heat source. The data acquisition system for the gauges was built from a low-cost Arduino microcontroller. The system read the gauges every 10 minutes and stored the results on a SD card. Different numerical techniques were evaluated for estimating sap velocity from the heat pulse data - including analytical solutions and parameter estimation approaches . Prototype gauges were tested in the greenhouse on containerized corn and sunflower. Sap velocities measured by the gauges were compared to independent gravimetric measurements of whole plant transpiration. Results showed the system could measure daily transpiration to within 3% of the gravimetric measurements. Excellent agreement was observed when two gauges were attached the same stem. Accuracy was not affected by rapidly changing transpiration rates observed under partly cloudy conditions. The gauge-based estimates of stem thermal properties suggested the system may also detect the onset of water stress. A field study showed the gauges could run for 1 to 2 weeks on a small battery pack. Sap flow measurements on multiple corn stems were scaled up by population to estimate field-scale transpiration. During full canopy cover, excellent agreement was observed between the scaled-up sap flow measurements and reference crop evapotranspiration calculated from weather data. Data also showed promise as a way to estimate real-time canopy resistance required for model verification and development. Given the low
A 3D-CFD code for accurate prediction of fluid flows and fluid forces in seals
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Athavale, M. M.; Przekwas, A. J.; Hendricks, R. C.
1994-01-01
Current and future turbomachinery requires advanced seal configurations to control leakage, inhibit mixing of incompatible fluids and to control the rotodynamic response. In recognition of a deficiency in the existing predictive methodology for seals, a seven year effort was established in 1990 by NASA's Office of Aeronautics Exploration and Technology, under the Earth-to-Orbit Propulsion program, to develop validated Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) concepts, codes and analyses for seals. The effort will provide NASA and the U.S. Aerospace Industry with advanced CFD scientific codes and industrial codes for analyzing and designing turbomachinery seals. An advanced 3D CFD cylindrical seal code has been developed, incorporating state-of-the-art computational methodology for flow analysis in straight, tapered and stepped seals. Relevant computational features of the code include: stationary/rotating coordinates, cylindrical and general Body Fitted Coordinates (BFC) systems, high order differencing schemes, colocated variable arrangement, advanced turbulence models, incompressible/compressible flows, and moving grids. This paper presents the current status of code development, code demonstration for predicting rotordynamic coefficients, numerical parametric study of entrance loss coefficients for generic annular seals, and plans for code extensions to labyrinth, damping, and other seal configurations.
Liu, C.; Liu, Z.
1994-12-31
A new multilevel technology was developed in this study which provides a successful numerical simulation for the whole process of flow transition in 3-D flat plate boundary layers, including linear growth, secondary instability, breakdown, and transition on a relatively coarse grid with low CPU cost. A fourth-order finite difference scheme on stretched and staggered grids, a fully implicit time-marching technique, a semi-coarsening multigrid based on the so-called approximate line-box relaxation, and a buffer domain for the outflow boundary conditions were all employed for high-order accuracy, good stability, and fast convergence. A new fine-coarse-fine grid mapping technique was developed to catch the large eddies and represent main roles of small eddies to keep the code running after the laminar flow breaks down. The computational results are in good agreement with linear stability theory, secondary instability theory, and some experiments. The computation also reproduced the K-type and C-type transition observed by laboratory experiments. The CPU cost for a typical case is around 2-9 CRAY-YMP hours.
A σ-coordinate model for 3D free-surface flows using an unstructured finite-volume technique
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Uh Zapata, Miguel
2016-11-01
The aim of this work is to develop a numerical solution of three-dimensional free-surface flows using a σ-coordinate model, a projection method and an unstructured finite-volume technique. The coordinate transformation is used in order to overcome difficulties arising from free surface elevation and irregular geometry. The projection method consists to combine the momentum and continuity equations in order to establish a Poisson-type equation for the non-hydrostatic pressure. A cell-centered finite volume method with a triangular mesh in the horizontal direction is used to simulate the flows with free-surfaces, in which the average values of conserved variables are stored at the centre of each element. A parallel algorithm is also presented for the finite volume discretization of the 3D Navier-Stokes equations. The proposed parallel method is formulated by using a multi-color SOR method, a block domain decomposition and interprocessor data communication techniques with Message Passing Interface. The model has been validated by several benchmarks which numerical simulations are in good agreement with the corresponding analytical and existing experimental results.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhai, Lu-Sheng; Zong, Yan-Bo; Wang, Hong-Mei; Yan, Cong; Gao, Zhong-Ke; Jin, Ning-De
2017-03-01
Horizontal oil-water two-phase flows often exist in many industrial processes. Uncovering the dynamic mechanism of the flow pattern transition is of great significance for modeling the flow parameters. In this study we propose a method called multi-scale distribution entropy (MSDE) in a coupled 3D phase space, and use it to characterize the flow pattern transitions in horizontal oil-water two-phase flows. Firstly, the proposed MSDE is validated with Lorenz system and ARFIMA processes. Interestingly, it is found that the MSDE is dramatically associated with the cross-correlations of the coupled time series. Then, through conducting the experiment of horizontal oil-water two-phase flows, the upstream and downstream flow information is collected using a conductance cross-correlation velocity probe. The coupled cross-correlated signals are investigated using the MSDE method, and the results indicate that the MSDE is an effective tool uncovering the complex dynamic behaviors of flow pattern transitions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Di Leo, J. F.; Li, Z.; Walker, A. M.; Wookey, J.; Kendall, J.; Ribe, N. M.; Tommasi, A.
2012-12-01
Observations of shear wave splitting are often interpreted as being due to strain-induced crystal alignment of olivine in the convecting upper mantle, and the polarization of the fast shear wave is frequently taken to directly indicate the direction of mantle flow. Caution must be exercised when making such inferences, as the relationship between olivine lattice-preferred orientation (LPO) and fast direction is dependent on many factors, including the entire deformation history. This is especially the case in regions where complex time-dependent mantle flow is expected, e.g., subduction zones. Observations of shear wave splitting at subduction zones are varied, ranging from trench-perpendicular to -parallel fast directions, or a combination of both. Rigorously interpreting this variety of observations requires modeling which properly accounts for LPO development in the near-slab mantle environment. To this end, we simulate olivine LPO evolution caused by defomation of polycrystalline aggregates as they deform and move along pathlines extracted from a 3-D mantle flow model at a subduction zone (Li & Ribe, 2012). The model is based on 3-D boundary-element numerical simulations of a dense fluid sheet (representing the slab) with a geometry approximating that of the Sangihe subduction zone in Indonesia, where trench-parallel fast directions have recently been measured and ascribed to trench-parallel sub-slab mantle flow (Di Leo et al., 2012). This subduction zone is unique in that it is part of the only double-sided subduction system on Earth. At the Sangihe trench, the Molucca Sea plate is subducting westwards beneath the Eurasian plate. However, this microplate is also subducting eastwards at the nearby Halmahera trench. To test whether the measured trench-parallel fast directions are due to sub-slab mantle flow, and whether this is only possible due to the double-sided geometry, we use two different flow models: one with single- and one with double-sided subduction
21 CFR 870.2120 - Extravascular blood flow probe.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-04-01
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Extravascular blood flow probe. 870.2120 Section... blood flow probe. (a) Identification. An extravascular blood flow probe is an extravascular ultrasonic or electromagnetic probe used in conjunction with a blood flowmeter to measure blood flow in...
21 CFR 870.2120 - Extravascular blood flow probe.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-04-01
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Extravascular blood flow probe. 870.2120 Section... blood flow probe. (a) Identification. An extravascular blood flow probe is an extravascular ultrasonic or electromagnetic probe used in conjunction with a blood flowmeter to measure blood flow in...
21 CFR 870.2120 - Extravascular blood flow probe.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-04-01
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Extravascular blood flow probe. 870.2120 Section... blood flow probe. (a) Identification. An extravascular blood flow probe is an extravascular ultrasonic or electromagnetic probe used in conjunction with a blood flowmeter to measure blood flow in...
21 CFR 870.2120 - Extravascular blood flow probe.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-04-01
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Extravascular blood flow probe. 870.2120 Section... blood flow probe. (a) Identification. An extravascular blood flow probe is an extravascular ultrasonic or electromagnetic probe used in conjunction with a blood flowmeter to measure blood flow in...
21 CFR 870.2120 - Extravascular blood flow probe.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Extravascular blood flow probe. 870.2120 Section... blood flow probe. (a) Identification. An extravascular blood flow probe is an extravascular ultrasonic or electromagnetic probe used in conjunction with a blood flowmeter to measure blood flow in...
Modeling Blood Flow in the Aorta.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
McConnell, Colin J.; Carmichael, Jonathan B.; DeMont, M. Edwin
1997-01-01
Presents an exercise to demonstrate two fundamental concepts of fluid mechanics: the Reynolds number and the Principle of Continuity. The exercise demonstrates flow in a major blood vessel, such as the aorta, with and without a stenosis. Students observe the transition from laminar to turbulent flow as well as downstream persistence of turbulence.…
3D CFD modeling of flowing-gas DPALs with different pumping geometries and various flow velocities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yacoby, Eyal; Waichman, Karol; Sadot, Oren; Barmashenko, Boris D.; Rosenwaks, Salman
2017-01-01
Scaling-up flowing-gas diode pumped alkali lasers (DPALs) to megawatt class power is studied using accurate three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics model, taking into account the effects of temperature rise and losses of alkali atoms due to ionization. Both the maximum achievable power and laser beam quality are estimated for Cs and K lasers. We examined the influence of the flow velocity and Mach number M on the maximum achievable power of subsonic and supersonic lasers. For Cs DPAL devices with M = 0.2 - 3 the output power increases with increasing M by only 20%, implying that supersonic operation mode has only small advantage over subsonic. In contrast, the power achievable in K DPALs strongly depends on M. The output power increases by 100% when M increases from 0.2 to 4, showing a considerable advantage of supersonic device over subsonic. The reason for the increase of the power with M in both Cs and K DPALs is the decrease of the temperature due to the gas expansion in the flow system. However, the power increase for K lasers is much larger than for the Cs devices mainly due to the much smaller fine-structure splitting of the 2P states ( 58 cm-1 for K and 554 cm-1 for Cs), which results in a much stronger effect of the temperature decrease in K DPALs. For pumping by beams of the same rectangular cross section, comparison between end-pumping and transverse-pumping shows that the output power is not affected by the pump geometry. However, the intensity of the output laser beam in the case of transverse-pumped DPALs is strongly non-uniform in the laser beam cross section resulting in higher brightness and better beam quality in the far field for the end-pumping geometry where the intensity of the output beam is uniform.
Nanoparticle transport and binding dynamics in blood flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Yaling; Tan, Jifu; Thomas, Antony
2012-02-01
Nanoparticulate systems have been widely used in diagnostic imaging and targeted therapeutic applications in recent years. Most current studies on nanoparticle drug delivery considered a Newtonian fluid with suspending spherical nanoparticles. However, blood is a complex biological fluid composed of deformable cells, proteins, platelets, and plasma. For blood flow in capillary, arterioles and venules, the particulate nature of the blood need to be considered in the delivery process. Non-Newtonian effects such as the cell-free-layer and nanoparticle-cell interaction will largely influence both the dispersion and binding rates, thus impact targeted delivery efficacy. A 3D multiscale particle-cell hybrid model is developed to model nanoparticle transport, dispersion, and adhesion dynamics in blood suspension. The motion and deformation of red blood cell is captured through Immersed Finite Element method. The motions and bindings of individual nanoparticles of various shapes are tracked through Brownian adhesion dynamics and molecular ligand-receptor binding kinetics. Nanoparticle dispersion and binding coefficients are derived from the developed model under various rheology conditions. The influences of vascular flow rate, geometry, nanoparticle size on nanoparticle distribution and delivery efficacy are characterized. A non-uniform nanoparticle distribution profile with higher particle concentration near the vessel wall is observed. Such distribution leads to 50% higher particle binding rate compared to the case without RBC considered. The tumbling motion of RBCs in the core region of the capillary is found to enhance nanoparticle dispersion. The modeled binding results are validated through designed experiments in microfluidic devices.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bartzke, Gerhard; Kuhlmann, Jannis; Huhn, Katrin
2016-04-01
The entrainment of single grains and, hence, their erosion characteristics are dependent on fluid forcing, grain size and density, but also shape variations. To quantitatively describe and capture the hydrodynamic conditions around individual grains, researchers commonly use empirical approaches such as laboratory flume tanks. Nonetheless, it is difficult with such physical experiments to measure the flow velocities in the direct vicinity or within the pore spaces of sediments, at a sufficient resolution and in a non-invasive way. As a result, the hydrodynamic conditions in the water column, at the fluid-porous interface and within pore spaces of a granular medium of various grain shapes is not yet fully understood. For that reason, there is a strong need for numerical models, since these are capable of quantifying fluid speeds within a granular medium. A 3D-SPH (Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics) numerical wave tank model was set up to provide quantitative evidence on the flow velocities in the direct vicinity and in the interior of granular beds composed of two shapes as a complementary method to the difficult task of in situ measurement. On the basis of previous successful numerical wave tank models with SPH, the model geometry was chosen in dimensions of X=2.68 [m], Y=0.48 [m], and Z=0.8 [m]. Three suites of experiments were designed with a range of particle shape models: (1) ellipsoids with the long axis oriented in the across-stream direction, (2) ellipsoids with the long axis oriented in the along-stream direction, and (3) spheres. Particle diameters ranged from 0.04 [m] to 0.08 [m]. A wave was introduced by a vertical paddle that accelerated to 0.8 [m/s] perpendicular to the granular bed. Flow measurements showed that the flow velocity values into the beds were highest when the grains were oriented across the stream direction and lowest in case when the grains were oriented parallel to the stream, indicating that the model was capable to simulate simultaneously
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moreno, P. A.; Bombardelli, F. A.
2012-12-01
-dimensional (HR3D) velocity field can be used as a representation of near bed open-channel flows. Both approaches are used to simulate saltating sediment particles using a 3D Lagrangian particle tracking model. This tracking model is composed by generalized sub-models for particle collision with the bed, bed-roughness representation, and particle free-flight between wall collisions. We analyze the hydrodynamic forces (drag, virtual mass, lift, Basset, Magnus and buoyancy) involved in particle saltation. For validation purposes, we compare our simulation results with experimental data from Niño and García (1998) and Lee and Hsu (1994). Finally we use the logarithmic velocity profile to analyze the importance of particle-particle collision using a sub-model based on the conservation of linear and angular momentum during collision. We analyze simulation results with different particle sizes within the sand range, different flow intensities, and different particle concentrations, in terms of particle diffusion and changes in velocity, rotation and trajectory during collision. To identify the importance of particle-particle collisions, simulations with and without collision among particles were carried out.
Sneddon, Kristen W.; Powers, Michael H.; Johnson, Raymond H.; Poeter, Eileen P.
2002-01-01
Dense nonaqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs) are a pervasive and persistent category of groundwater contamination. In an effort to better understand their unique subsurface behavior, a controlled and carefully monitored injection of PCE (perchloroethylene), a typical DNAPL, was performed in conjunction with the University of Waterloo at Canadian Forces Base Borden in 1991. Of the various geophysical methods used to monitor the migration of injected PCE, the U.S. Geological Survey collected 500-MHz ground penetrating radar (GPR) data. These data are used in determining calibration parameters for a multiphase flow simulation. GPR data were acquired over time on a fixed two-dimensional surficial grid as the DNAPL was injected into the subsurface. Emphasis is on the method of determining DNAPL saturation values from this time-lapse GPR data set. Interactive full-waveform GPR modeling of regularized field traces resolves relative dielectric permittivity versus depth profiles for pre-injection and later-time data. Modeled values are end members in recursive calculations of the Bruggeman-Hanai-Sen (BHS) mixing formula, yielding interpreted pre-injection porosity and post-injection DNAPL saturation values. The resulting interpreted physical properties of porosity and DNAPL saturation of the Borden test cell, defined on a grid spacing of 50 cm with 1-cm depth resolution, are used as observations for calibration of a 3-D multiphase flow simulation. Calculated values of DNAPL saturation in the subsurface at 14 and 22 hours after the start of injection, from both the GPR and the multiphase flow modeling, are interpolated volumetrically and presented for visual comparison.
Anionic biopolymers as blood flow sensors.
Siegel, G; Walter, A; Kauschmann, A; Malmsten, M; Buddecke, E
1996-01-01
The finding of flow-dependent vasodilation rests on the basic observation that with an increase in blood flow the vessels become wider, with a decrease the vascular smooth muscle cells contract. Proteoheparan sulphate could be the sensor macromolecule at the endothelial cell membrane-blood interface, that reacts on the shear stress generated by the flowing blood, and that informs and regulates the vascular smooth muscle cells via a signal transduction chain. This anionic biopolyelectrolyte possesses viscoelastic and specific ion binding properties which allow a change of its configuration in dependence on shear stress and electrostatic charge density. The blood flow sensor undergoes a conformational transition from a random coil to an extended filamentous state with increasing flow, whereby Na+ ions from the blood are bound. Owing to the intramolecular elastic recoil forces of proteoheparan sulphate the slowing of a flow rate causes an entropic coiling, the expulsion of Na+ ions and thus an interruption of the signal chain. Under physiological conditions, the conformation and Na+ binding proved to be extremely Ca(2+)-sensitive while K+ and Mg2+ ions play a minor role for the susceptibility of the sensor. Via counterion migration of the bound Na+ ions along the sensor glycosaminoglycan side chains and following Na+ passage through an unspecific ion channel in the endothelial cell membrane, the signal transduction chain leads to a membrane depolarization with Ca2+ influx into the cells. This stimulates the EDRF/NO production and release from the endothelial cells. The consequence is vasodilation.
Bancroft, Gregory N.; Sikavitsas, Vassilios I.; van den Dolder, Juliette; Sheffield, Tiffany L.; Ambrose, Catherine G.; Jansen, John A.; Mikos, Antonios G.
2002-01-01
Bone is a complex highly structured mechanically active 3D tissue composed of cellular and matrix elements. The true biological environment of a bone cell is thus derived from a dynamic interaction between responsively active cells experiencing mechanical forces and a continuously changing 3D matrix architecture. To investigate this phenomenon in vitro, marrow stromal osteoblasts were cultured on 3D scaffolds under flow perfusion with different rates of flow for an extended period to permit osteoblast differentiation and significant matrix production and mineralization. With all flow conditions, mineralized matrix production was dramatically increased over statically cultured constructs with the total calcium content of the cultured scaffolds increasing with increasing flow rate. Flow perfusion induced de novo tissue modeling with the formation of pore-like structures in the scaffolds and enhanced the distribution of cells and matrix throughout the scaffolds. These results represent reporting of the long-term effects of fluid flow on primary differentiating osteoblasts and indicate that fluid flow has far-reaching effects on osteoblast differentiation and phenotypic expression in vitro. Flow perfusion culture permits the generation and study of a 3D, actively modeled, mineralized matrix and can therefore be a valuable tool for both bone biology and tissue engineering. PMID:12242339
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bancroft, Gregory N.; Sikavitsas, Vassilios I.; van den Dolder, Juliette; Sheffield, Tiffany L.; Ambrose, Catherine G.; Jansen, John A.; Mikos, Antonios G.; McIntire, L. V. (Principal Investigator)
2002-01-01
Bone is a complex highly structured mechanically active 3D tissue composed of cellular and matrix elements. The true biological environment of a bone cell is thus derived from a dynamic interaction between responsively active cells experiencing mechanical forces and a continuously changing 3D matrix architecture. To investigate this phenomenon in vitro, marrow stromal osteoblasts were cultured on 3D scaffolds under flow perfusion with different rates of flow for an extended period to permit osteoblast differentiation and significant matrix production and mineralization. With all flow conditions, mineralized matrix production was dramatically increased over statically cultured constructs with the total calcium content of the cultured scaffolds increasing with increasing flow rate. Flow perfusion induced de novo tissue modeling with the formation of pore-like structures in the scaffolds and enhanced the distribution of cells and matrix throughout the scaffolds. These results represent reporting of the long-term effects of fluid flow on primary differentiating osteoblasts and indicate that fluid flow has far-reaching effects on osteoblast differentiation and phenotypic expression in vitro. Flow perfusion culture permits the generation and study of a 3D, actively modeled, mineralized matrix and can therefore be a valuable tool for both bone biology and tissue engineering.
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
Noroviruses (NoV) are a leading cause of gastroenteritis worldwide. An in vitro model for NoV replication remains elusive, making study of the virus difficult. One publication utilizing a 3-dimensional (3D) intestinal model derived from Int407 cells reported NoV replication and extensive cytopathi...
Gomez, Alberto; de Vecchi, Adelaide; Jantsch, Martin; Shi, Wenzhe; Pushparajah, Kuberan; Simpson, John M; Smith, Nicolas P; Rueckert, Daniel; Schaeffter, Tobias; Penney, Graeme P
2015-11-01
We demonstrate a new method to recover 4D blood flow over the entire ventricle from partial blood velocity measurements using multiple 3D+t colour Doppler images and ventricular wall motion estimated using 3D+t BMode images. We apply our approach to realistic simulated data to ascertain the ability of the method to deal with incomplete data, as typically happens in clinical practice. Experiments using synthetic data show that the use of wall motion improves velocity reconstruction, shows more accurate flow patterns and improves mean accuracy particularly when coverage of the ventricle is poor. The method was applied to patient data from 6 congenital cases, producing results consistent with the simulations. The use of wall motion produced more plausible flow patterns and reduced the reconstruction error in all patients.
Wu, Wenming; Trinh, Kieu The Loan; Lee, Nae Yoon
2015-03-07
We introduce a new strategy for fabricating a seamless three-dimensional (3D) helical microreactor utilizing a silicone tube and a paraffin mold. With this method, various shapes and sizes of 3D helical microreactors were fabricated, and a complicated and laborious photolithographic process, or 3D printing, was eliminated. With dramatically enhanced portability at a significantly reduced fabrication cost, such a device can be considered to be the simplest microreactor, developed to date, for performing the flow-through polymerase chain reaction (PCR).
An implantable blood pressure and flow transmitter.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rader, R. D.; Meehan, J. P.; Henriksen, J. K. C.
1973-01-01
A miniature totally implantable FM/FM telemetry system has been developed to simultaneously measure blood pressure and blood flow, thus providing an appreciation of the hemodynamics of the circulation to the entire body or to a particular organ. Developed for work with animal subjects, the telemetry system's transmission time is controlled by an RF signal that permits an operating life of several months. Pressure is detected by a miniature intravascular transducer and flow is detected by an extravascular interferometric ultrasonic technique. Both pressure and flow are calibrated prior to implanting. The pressure calibration can be checked after the implanting by cannulation; flow calibration can be verified only at the end of the experiment by determining the voltage output from the implanted sensing system as a function of several measured flow rates. The utility of this device has been established by its use in investigating canine renal circulation during exercise, emotional encounters, administration of drugs, and application of accelerative forces.
Numerical model of water flow and solute accumulation in vertisols using HYDRUS 2D/3D code
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Weiss, Tomáš; Dahan, Ofer; Turkeltub, Tuvia
2015-04-01
Keywords: dessication-crack-induced-salinization, preferential flow, conceptual model, numerical model, vadose zone, vertisols, soil water retention function, HYDRUS 2D/3D Vertisols cover a hydrologically very significant area of semi-arid regions often through which water infiltrates to groundwater aquifers. Understanding of water flow and solute accumulation is thus very relevant to agricultural activity and water resources management. Previous works suggest a conceptual model of dessication-crack-induced-salinization where salinization of sediment in the deep section of the vadose zone (up to 4 m) is induced by subsurface evaporation due to convective air flow in the dessication cracks. It suggests that the salinization is induced by the hydraulic gradient between the dry sediment in the vicinity of cracks (low potential) and the relatively wet sediment further from the main cracks (high potential). This paper presents a modified previously suggested conceptual model and a numerical model. The model uses a simple uniform flow approach but unconventionally prescribes the boundary conditions and the hydraulic parameters of soil. The numerical model is bound to one location close to a dairy farm waste lagoon, but the application of the suggested conceptual model could be possibly extended to all semi-arid regions with vertisols. Simulations were conducted using several modeling approaches with an ultimate goal of fitting the simulation results to the controlling variables measured in the field: temporal variation in water content across thick layer of unsaturated clay sediment (>10 m), sediment salinity and salinity the water draining down the vadose zone to the water table. The development of the model was engineered in several steps; all computed as forward solutions by try-and-error approach. The model suggests very deep instant infiltration of fresh water up to 12 m, which is also supported by the field data. The paper suggests prescribing a special atmospheric
Assessment of a 3-D boundary layer code to predict heat transfer and flow losses in a turbine
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vatsa, V. N.
1983-01-01
The prediction of the complete flow field in a turbine passage is an extremely difficult task due to the complex three dimensional pattern which contains separation and attachment lines, a saddle point and horseshoe vortex. Whereas, in principle such a problem can be solved using full Navier-Stokes equations, in reality methods based on a Navier-Stokes solution procedure encounter difficulty in accurately predicting surface quantities (e.g., heat transfer) due to grid limitations imposed by the speed and size of the existing computers. On the other hand the overall problem is strongly three dimensional and too complex to be analyzed by the current design methods based on inviscid and/or viscous strip theories. Thus there is a strong need for enhancing the current prediction techniques through inclusion of 3-D viscous effects. A potentially simple and cost effective way to achieve this is to use a prediction method based on three dimensional boundary layer (3-DBL) theory. The major objective of this program is to assess the applicability of such a 3-DBL approach for the prediction of heat loads, boundary layer growth, pressure losses and streamline skewing in critical areas of a turbine passage. A brief discussion of the physical problem addressed here along with the overall approach is presented.
Bammer, Roland; Hope, Thomas A.; Aksoy, Murat; Alley, Marcus T.
2012-01-01
Exact knowledge of blood flow characteristics in the major cerebral vessels is of great relevance for diagnosing cerebrovascular abnormalities. This involves the assessment of hemodynamically critical areas as well as the derivation of biomechanical parameters such as wall shear stress and pressure gradients. A time-resolved, 3D phase-contrast (PC) MRI method using parallel imaging was implemented to measure blood flow in three dimensions at multiple instances over the cardiac cycle. The 4D velocity data obtained from 14 healthy volunteers were used to investigate dynamic blood flow with the use of multiplanar reformatting, 3D streamlines, and 4D particle tracing. In addition, the effects of magnetic field strength, parallel imaging, and temporal resolution on the data were investigated in a comparative evaluation at 1.5T and 3T using three different parallel imaging reduction factors and three different temporal resolutions in eight of the 14 subjects. Studies were consistently performed faster at 3T than at 1.5T because of better parallel imaging performance. A high temporal resolution (65 ms) was required to follow dynamic processes in the intracranial vessels. The 4D flow measurements provided a high degree of vascular conspicuity. Time-resolved streamline analysis provided features that have not been reported previously for the intracranial vasculature. PMID:17195166
Michalek, Petr; Richtera, Lukas; Krejcova, Ludmila; Nejdl, Lukas; Kensova, Renata; Zitka, Jan; Kopel, Pavel; Heger, Zbynek; Adam, Vojtech; Kizek, Rene
2016-02-01
Peptide-peptide interactions are crucial in the living cell as they lead to the formation of the numerous types of complexes. In this study, synthetic peptides containing 11 of cysteines (α-domain of metallothionein (MT)) and sialic acid binding region (130-loop of hemagglutinin (HA)) were employed. The aim of the experiment was studying the interactions between MT and HA-derived peptides. For this purpose, fragments were tagged with cysteines at C-terminal part to serve as ligand sites for PbS and CuS quantum dots (QDs), and therefore these conjugates can be traced and quantified during wide spectrum of methods. As a platform for interaction, γ-Fe2O3 paramagnetic particles modified with tetraethyl orthosilicate and (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (hydrodynamic diameter 30-40 nm) were utilized and MT/HA interactions were examined using multi-instrumental approach including electrochemistry, electrophoretic methods, and MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry. It was found that peptides enter mutual creation of complexes, which are based on some of nonbonded interactions. The higher willingness to interact was observed in MT-derived peptides toward immobilized HA. Finally, we designed and manufactured flow-through electrochemical 3D printed device (reservoir volume 150 μL) and utilized it for automated analysis of the HA/MT metal labels. Under the optimal conditions, (deposition time and flow rate 80 s and 1.6 mL/min for CuS and 120 s and 1.6 mL/min PbS, respectively), the results of peptide-conjugated QDs were comparable with atomic absorption spectrometry.
3D crustal-scale heat-flow regimes at a developing active margin (Taranaki Basin, New Zealand)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kroeger, K. F.; Funnell, R. H.; Nicol, A.; Fohrmann, M.; Bland, K. J.; King, P. R.
2013-04-01
The Taranaki Basin in the west of New Zealand's North Island has evolved from a rifted Mesozoic Gondwana margin to a basin straddling the Neogene convergent Australian-Pacific plate margin. However, given its proximity to the modern subduction front, Taranaki Basin is surprisingly cold when compared to other convergent margins. To investigate the effects of active margin evolution on the thermal regime of the Taranaki Basin we developed a 3D crustal-scale forward model using the petroleum industry-standard basin-modelling software Petromod™. The crustal structure inherited from Mesozoic Gondwana margin breakup and processes related to modern Hikurangi convergent margin initiation are identified to be the main controls on the thermal regime of the Taranaki Basin. Present-day surface heat flow across Taranaki on average is 59 mW/m2, but varies by as much as 30 mW/m2 due to the difference in crustal heat generation between mafic and felsic basement terranes alone. In addition, changes in mantle heat advection, tectonic subsidence, crustal thickening and basin inversion, together with related sedimentary processes result in variability of up to 10 mW/m2. Modelling suggests that increased heating of the upper crust due to additional mantle heat advection following the onset of subduction is an ongoing process and heating has only recently begun to reach the surface, explaining the relatively low surface heat flow. We propose that the depth of the subducted slab and related mantle convection processes control the thermal and structural regimes in the Taranaki Basin. The thermal effects of the subduction initiation process are modified and overprinted by the thickness, structure and composition of the lithosphere.
GLP-2 and mesenteric blood flow.
Hansen, Lasse Bremholm
2013-05-01
The 33 amino acid peptide hormone GLP-2 is produced by enteroendocrine L-cells, the density of which is highest in the ileum and the colon, in response to the presence of nutrients in the lumen. The biological effect of GLP-2 is mediated by activation of a G-protein-coupled 7-transmembrane receptor. GLP-2 receptors are expressed in the brainstem, lungs, stomach, small intestine and colon, but not in the heart. It has been shown in several animal studies that GLP-2 infusion increases intestinal blood flow and that this increase is confined to the small intestine. The aim of the three studies, on which the thesis is based, was to investigate basic physiological effects of GLP-2, in healthy volunteers and in SBS patients, with focus on the effects on mesenteric blood flow, blood flow at other vascular sites and effects on cardiac parameters. These parameters have been evaluated after both meal stimulation and GLP-2 administration. The studies showed the following results: Blood flow: In all three studies, blood flow changes in the SMA after GLP-2 administration were similar regarding changes over time and degree of change. Blood flow changes were similar to changes seen after a standard meal. Only RI changes were registered in all three studies, but the TAMV changes in study 2 and 3 had similar characteristics. Cardiovascular parameters: In all three studies no significant changes in blood pressure were registered in relation to GLP-2 administration. In study two and three, where cardiac parameters also were registered by impedance cardiography, increases in CO and SV were seen. Plasma GLP-2: There were, as expected, supraphysiological GLP-2 plasma levels after SC administration. All three studies have shown rapid changes in mesenteric blood flow after administration GLP-2. The changes have been the same both in regards to time to maximum changes (increase) and relatively close in regards to maximum extent of change. The changes in the SBS patients were less than in
Estimation of Blood Flow With Radioactive Tracers
Bassingthwaighte, James B.; Holloway, G. Allen
2010-01-01
The techniques of tracer dilution in the circulation, and of tracer uptake by and washout from an organ, may be described using expressions that are general and are not dependent on specific models such as exponentials. The expressions have been applied to the measurement of cardiac output using impulse and constant rate injection techniques. Further expressions have been given for estimating organ blood flow from inflow/outflow concentration-time curves, washout curves, and from the distribution of deposited tracer. Some problems with respect to the use of deposition techniques as they are ordinarily applied to the estimation of regional blood flow must be considered, particularly where there are capillary beds in series or where there is countercurrent diffusional shunting of diffusible tracers between inflow and outflow. This review deals with these various aspects of tracer theory as they relate to the measurement of blood flow. PMID:775641
Luteal blood flow and luteal function
Takasaki, Akihisa; Tamura, Hiroshi; Taniguchi, Ken; Asada, Hiromi; Taketani, Toshiaki; Matsuoka, Aki; Yamagata, Yoshiaki; Shimamura, Katsunori; Morioka, Hitoshi; Sugino, Norihiro
2009-01-01
Background Blood flow in the corpus luteum (CL) is associated with luteal function. The present study was undertaken to investigate whether luteal function can be improved by increasing CL blood flow in women with luteal phase defect (LFD). Methods Blood flow impedance in the CL was measured by transvaginal color-pulsed-Doppler-ultrasonography and was expressed as a resistance index (RI). The patients with both LFD [serum progesterone (P) concentrations < 10 ng/ml during mid-luteal phase] and high CL-RI (≥ 0.51) were given vitamin-E (600 mg/day, n = 18), L-arginine (6 g/day, n = 14) as a potential nitric oxide donor, melatonin (3 mg/day, n = 13) as an antioxidant, or HCG (2,000 IU/day, n = 10) during the subsequent menstrual cycle. Results In the control group (n = 11), who received no medication to increase CL blood flow, only one patient (9%) improved in CL-RI and 2 patients (18%) improved in serum P. Vitamin-E improved CL-RI in 15 patients (83%) and improved serum P in 12 patients (67%). L-arginine improved CL-RI in all the patients (100%) and improved serum P in 10 patients (71%). HCG improved CL-RI in all the patients (100%) and improved serum P in 9 patients (90%). Melatonin had no significant effect. Conclusion Vitamin-E or L-arginine treatment improved luteal function by decreasing CL blood flow impedance. CL blood flow is a critical factor for luteal function. PMID:19144154
The Role of Neuronal Signaling in Controlling Cerebral Blood Flow
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Drake, Carrie T.; Iadecola, Costantino
2007-01-01
Well-regulated blood flow within the brain is vital to normal function. The brain's requirement for sufficient blood flow is ensured by a tight link between neural activity and blood flow. The link between regional synaptic activity and regional cerebral blood flow, termed functional hyperemia, is the basis for several modern imaging techniques…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Jin-Tae; Liberzon, Alex; Chamorro, Leonardo P.
2015-11-01
The distinctive differences between two jet flows that share the same hydraulic diameter dh = 0.01 m and Re ~ 6000, but different (nozzle) shape are explored via 3D Particle Tracking Velocimetry using OpenPTV (http://www.openptv.net). The two jets are formed from circular and semicircular pipes and released in a quiescent water tank of 40 dh height, 40 dh wide, and 200 dh long. The recirculating system is seeded with 100 μm particles, where flow measurements are performed in the intermediate flow field (14.5 < x /dh <18.5) at 550Hz for a total of ~ 30,000 frames. Analysis is focused on the spatial distribution of the local flow acceleration and curvature of the Lagrangian trajectories. The velocity and acceleration of particles are estimated by low-pass filtering their position with a moving cubic spline fitting, while the curvature is obtained from the Frenet-Serret equations. Probability density functions (p.d.f.) of these quantities are obtained at various sub-volumes containing a given streamwise velocity range, and compared between the two cases to evaluate the memory effects in the intermediate flow field.
Blood flow characteristics in the aortic arch
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Prahl Wittberg, Lisa; van Wyk, Stevin; Mihaiescu, Mihai; Fuchs, Laszlo; Gutmark, Ephraim; Backeljauw, Philippe; Gutmark-Little, Iris
2012-11-01
The purpose with this study is to investigate the flow characteristics of blood in the aortic arch. Cardiovascular diseases are associated with specific locations in the arterial tree. Considering atherogenesis, it is claimed that the Wall Shear Stress (WSS) along with its temporal and spatial gradients play an important role in the development of the disease. The WSS is determined by the local flow characteristics, that in turn depends on the geometry as well as the rheological properties of blood. In this numerical work, the time dependent fluid flow during the entire cardiac cycle is fully resolved. The Quemada model is applied to account for the non-Newtonian properties of blood, an empirical model valid for different Red Blood Cell loading. Data obtained through Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging have been used in order to reconstruct geometries of the the aortic arch. Here, three different geometries are studied out of which two display malformations that can be found in patients having the genetic disorder Turner's syndrome. The simulations show a highly complex flow with regions of secondary flow that is enhanced for the diseased aortas. The financial support from the Swedish Research Council (VR) and the Sweden-America Foundation is gratefully acknowledged.
Transcutaneous measurement of volume blood flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Daigle, R. E.; Mcleod, F. D.; Miller, C. W.; Histand, M. B.; Wells, M. K.
1974-01-01
Blood flow velocity measurements, using Doppler velocimeter, are described. The ability to measure blood velocity using ultrasound is derived from the Doppler effect; the change in frequency which occurs when sound is reflected or transmitted from a moving target. When ultrasound of the appropriate frequency is transmitted through a moving blood stream, the blood cells act as point scatterers of ultrasonic energy. If this scattered ultrasonic energy is detected, it is found to be shifted in frequency according to the velocity of the blood cells, nu, the frequency of the incident sound, f sub o, the speed of sound in the medium, c, and the angle between the sound beam and the velocity vector, o. The relation describing this effect is known as the Doppler equation. Delta f = 2 f sub o x nu x cos alpha/c. The theoretical and experimental methods are evaluated.
Fink, Christian; Ley, Sebastian; Puderbach, Michael; Plathow, Christian; Bock, Michael; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich
2004-07-01
The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility of contrast-enhanced 3D perfusion MRI and MR angiography (MRA) of pulmonary embolism (PE) in pigs using a single injection of the blood pool contrast Gadomer. PE was induced in five domestic pigs by injection of autologous blood thrombi. Contrast-enhanced first-pass 3D perfusion MRI (TE/TR/FA: 1.0 ms/2.2 ms/40 degrees; voxel size: 1.3 x 2.5 x 4.0 mm3; TA: 1.8 s per data set) and high-resolution 3D MRA (TE/TR/FA: 1.4 ms/3.4 ms/40 degrees; voxel size: 0.8 x 1.0 x 1.6 mm3) was performed during and after a single injection of 0.1 mmol/kg body weight of Gadomer. Image data were compared to pre-embolism Gd-DTPA-enhanced MRI and post-embolism thin-section multislice CT (n = 2). SNR measurements were performed in the pulmonary arteries and lung. One animal died after induction of PE. In all other animals, perfusion MRI and MRA could be acquired after a single injection of Gadomer. At perfusion MRI, PE could be detected by typical wedge-shaped perfusion defects. While the visualization of central PE at MRA correlated well with the CT, peripheral PE were only visualized by CT. Gadomer achieved a higher peak SNR of the lungs compared to Gd-DTPA (21 +/- 8 vs. 13 +/- 3). Contrast-enhanced 3D perfusion MRI and MRA of PE can be combined using a single injection of the blood pool contrast agent Gadomer.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cuadra, Camille; Suarez, John Kenneth; Biton, Nophi Ian; Cabacaba, Krichi May; Lapidez, John Phillip; Santiago, Joy; Mahar Francisco Lagmay, Alfredo; Malano, Vicente
2014-05-01
On average, 20 typhoons enter the Philippine area of responsibility annually, making it vulnerable to different storm hazards. Apart from the frequency of tropical cyclones, the archipelagic nature of the country makes it particularly prone to storm surges. On 08 November 2013, Haiyan, a Category 5 Typhoon with maximum one-minute sustained wind speed of 315 kph, hit the central region of the Philippines. In its path, the howler devastated Bantayan Island, a popular tourist destination. The island is located north of Cebu City, the second largest metropolis of the Philippines in terms of populace. Having been directly hit by Typhoon Haiyan, Bantayan Island was severely damaged by strong winds and storm surges, with more than 11,000 houses totally destroyed while 5,000 more suffered minor damage. The adverse impacts of possible future storm surge events in the island can only be mitigated if hazard maps that depict inundation of the coastal areas of Bantayan are generated. To create such maps, Delft3D-Flow, a hydrodynamic model was used to simulate storm surges. These simulations were made over a 10-m per pixel resolution Digital Elevation Model (DEM) and the General Bathymetric Chart of the Oceans (GEBCO) bathymetry. The results of the coastal inundation model for Typhoon Haiyan's storm surges were validated using data collected from field work and local government reports. The hydrodynamic model of Bantayan was then calibrated using the field data and further simulations were made with varying typhoon tracks. This was done to generate scenarios on the farthest possible inland incursion of storm surges. The output of the study is a detailed storm surge inundation map that depicts safe zones for development of infrastructure near coastal areas and for construction of coastal protection structures. The storm surge inundation map can also be used as basis for disaster preparedness plans of coastal communities threatened by approaching typhoons.
Lagrangian 3D particle tracking in high-speed flows: Shake-The-Box for multi-pulse systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Novara, Matteo; Schanz, Daniel; Reuther, Nico; Kähler, Christian J.; Schröder, Andreas
2016-08-01
The Shake-The-Box (STB) particle tracking technique, recently introduced for time-resolved 3D particle image velocimetry (PIV) images, is applied here to data from a multi-pulse investigation of a turbulent boundary layer flow with adverse pressure gradient in air at 36 m/s ( Re τ = 10,650). The multi-pulse acquisition strategy allows for the recording of four-pulse long time-resolved sequences with a time separation of a few microseconds. The experimental setup consists of a dual-imaging system and a dual-double-cavity laser emitting orthogonal polarization directions to separate the four pulses. The STB particle triangulation and tracking strategy is adapted here to cope with the limited amount of realizations available along the time sequence and to take advantage of the ghost track reduction offered by the use of two independent imaging systems. Furthermore, a correction scheme to compensate for camera vibrations is discussed, together with a method to accurately identify the position of the wall within the measurement domain. Results show that approximately 80,000 tracks can be instantaneously reconstructed within the measurement volume, enabling the evaluation of both dense velocity fields, suitable for spatial gradients evaluation, and highly spatially resolved boundary layer profiles. Turbulent boundary layer profiles obtained from ensemble averaging of the STB tracks are compared to results from 2D-PIV and long-range micro particle tracking velocimetry; the comparison shows the capability of the STB approach in delivering accurate results across a wide range of scales.
Effects of aortic irregularities on blood flow.
Prahl Wittberg, Lisa; van Wyk, Stevin; Fuchs, Laszlo; Gutmark, Ephraim; Backeljauw, Philippe; Gutmark-Little, Iris
2016-04-01
Anatomic aortic anomalies are seen in many medical conditions and are known to cause disturbances in blood flow. Turner syndrome (TS) is a genetic disorder occurring only in females where cardiovascular anomalies, particularly of the aorta, are frequently encountered. In this study, numerical simulations are applied to investigate the flow characteristics in four TS patient- related aortic arches (a normal geometry, dilatation, coarctation and elongation of the transverse aorta). The Quemada viscosity model was applied to account for the non-Newtonian behavior of blood. The blood is treated as a mixture consisting of water and red blood cells (RBC) where the RBCs are modeled as a convected scalar. The results show clear geometry effects where the flow structures and RBC distribution are significantly different between the aortas. Transitional flow is observed as a jet is formed due to a constriction in the descending aorta for the coarctation case. RBC dilution is found to vary between the aortas, influencing the WSS. Moreover, the local variations in RBC volume fraction may induce large viscosity variations, stressing the importance of accounting for the non-Newtonian effects.
Ergot alkaloids decrease rumen epithelial blood flow
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
Two experiments were conducted to determine if ergot alkaloids affect blood flow to the absorptive surface of the rumen of steers. Steers (n=8 total) were pair-fed alfalfa cubes at 1.5× NEM and received ground endophyte-infected tall fescue seed (E+) or endophyte-free tall fescue seed (E-) via rumen...
Acetabular blood flow during total hip arthroplasty
ElMaraghy, Amr W.; Schemitsch, Emil H.; Waddell, James P.
2000-01-01
Objective To determine the immediate effect of reaming and insertion of the acetabular component with and without cement on periacetabular blood flow during primary total hip arthroplasty (THA). Design A clinical experimental study. Setting A tertiary referral and teaching hospital in Toronto. Patients Sixteen patients (9 men, 7 women) ranging in age from 30 to 78 years and suffering from arthritis. Intervention Elective primary THA with a cemented (8 patients) and noncemented (8 patients) acetabular component. All procedures were done by a single surgeon who used a posterior approach. Main outcome measure Acetabular bone blood-flow measurements made with a laser Doppler flowmeter before reaming, after reaming and after insertion of the acetabular prosthesis. Results Acetabular blood flow after prosthesis insertion was decreased by 52% in the noncemented group (p < 0.001) and 59% in the cemented group (p < 0.001) compared with baseline (prereaming) values. Conclusion The significance of these changes in periacetabular bone blood flow during THA may relate to the extent of bony ingrowth, periprosthetic remodelling and ultimately the incidence of implant failure because of aseptic loosening. PMID:10851413
Local aggregation characteristics of microscale blood flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kaliviotis, Efstathios; Sherwood, Joseph M.; Dusting, Jonathan; Balabani, Stavroula
2015-11-01
Erythrocyte aggregation (EA) is an important aspect of microvascular flows affecting blood flow and viscosity. Microscale blood flows have been studied extensively in recent years using computational and microfluidic based approaches. However, the relationship between the local structural characteristics of blood and the velocity field has not been quantified. We report simultaneous measurements of the local velocity, aggregation and haematocrit distributions of human erythrocytes flowing in a microchannel. EA was induced using Dextran and flows were imaged using brightfield microscopy. Local aggregation characteristics were investigated using statistical and edge-detection image processing techniques while velocity profiles were obtained using PIV algorithms. Aggregation intensity was found to strongly correlate with local variations in velocity in both the central and wall regions of the channel. The edge detection method showed that near the side wall large aggregates are associated with high local velocities and low local shear rates. In the central region large aggregates occurred in regions of low velocity and high erythrocyte concentration. The results demonstrate the combined effect of haematocrit and velocity distributions on local aggregation characteristics.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Muñoz-Cobo, José; Chiva, Sergio; El Aziz Essa, Mohamed; Mendes, Santos
2012-08-01
Two phase flow experiments with different superficial velocities of gas and water were performed in a vertical upward isothermal cocurrent air-water flow column with conditions ranging from bubbly flow, with very low void fraction, to transition flow with some cap and slug bubbles and void fractions around 25%. The superficial velocities of the liquid and the gas phases were varied from 0.5 to 3 m/s and from 0 to 0.6 m/s, respectively. Also to check the effect of changing the surface tension on the previous experiments small amounts of 1-butanol were added to the water. These amounts range from 9 to 75 ppm and change the surface tension. This study is interesting because in real cases the surface tension of the water diminishes with temperature, and with this kind of experiments we can study indirectly the effect of changing the temperature on the void fraction distribution. The following axial and radial distributions were measured in all these experiments: void fraction, interfacial area concentration, interfacial velocity, Sauter mean diameter and turbulence intensity. The range of values of the gas superficial velocities in these experiments covered the range from bubbly flow to the transition to cap/slug flow. Also with transition flow conditions we distinguish two groups of bubbles in the experiments, the small spherical bubbles and the cap/slug bubbles. Special interest was devoted to the transition region from bubbly to cap/slug flow; the goal was to understand the physical phenomena that take place during this transition A set of numerical simulations of some of these experiments for bubbly flow conditions has been performed by coupling a Lagrangian code, that tracks the three dimensional motion of the individual bubbles in cylindrical coordinates inside the field of the carrier liquid, to an Eulerian model that computes the magnitudes of continuous phase and to a 3D random walk model that takes on account the fluctuation in the velocity field of the
Bishop, Gregory W; Satterwhite, Jennifer E; Bhakta, Snehasis; Kadimisetty, Karteek; Gillette, Kelsey M; Chen, Eric; Rusling, James F
2015-01-01
A consumer-grade fused filament fabrication (FFF) 3D printer was used to construct fluidic devices for nanoparticle preparation and electrochemical sensing. Devices were printed using poly(ethylene terephthalate) and featured threaded ports to connect polyetheretherketone (PEEK) tubing via printed fittings prepared from acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS). These devices included channels designed to have 800 μm × 800 μm square cross sections and were semitransparent to allow visualization of the solution-filled channels. A 3D-printed device with a Y-shaped mixing channel was used to prepare Prussian blue nanoparticles (PBNPs) under flow rates of 100 to 2000 μL min(-1). PBNPs were then attached to gold electrodes for hydrogen peroxide sensing. 3D-printed devices used for electrochemical measurements featured threaded access ports into which a fitting equipped with reference, counter, and PBNP-modified working electrodes could be inserted. PBNP-modified electrodes enabled amperometric detection of H2O2 in the 3D-printed channel by flow-injection analysis, exhibiting a detection limit of 100 nM and linear response up to 20 μM. These experiments show that a consumer-grade FFF printer can be used to fabricate low-cost fluidic devices for applications similar to those that have been reported with more expensive 3D-printing methods.
Bishop, Gregory W.; Satterwhite, Jennifer E.; Bhakta, Snehasis; Kadimisetty, Karteek; Gillette, Kelsey M.; Chen, Eric; Rusling, James F.
2015-01-01
A consumer-grade fused filament fabrication (FFF) 3D printer was used to construct fluidic devices for nanoparticle preparation and electrochemical sensing. Devices were printed using poly(ethylene terephthalate) and featured threaded ports to connect polyetheretherketone (PEEK) tubing via printed fittings prepared from acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS). These devices included channels designed to have 800 × 800 µm2 square cross sections and were semitransparent to allow visualization of the solution-filled channels. A 3D-printed device with a Y-shaped mixing channel was used to prepare Prussian blue nanoparticles (PBNPs) under flow rates of 100 to 2000 µL min−1. PBNPs were then attached to gold electrodes for hydrogen peroxide sensing. 3D-printed devices used for electrochemical measurements featured threaded access ports into which a fitting equipped with reference, counter, and PBNP-modified working electrodes could be inserted. PBNP-modified electrodes enabled amperometric detection of H2O2 in the 3D-printed channel by flow-injection analysis, exhibiting a detection limit of 100 nM and linear response up to 20 µM. These experiments show that a consumer-grade FFF printer can be used to fabricate low-cost fluidic devices for applications similar to those that have been reported with more expensive 3D-printing methods. PMID:25901660
D'Alessandro, Brian; Dhawan, Atam P
2012-11-01
Subsurface information about skin lesions, such as the blood volume beneath the lesion, is important for the analysis of lesion severity towards early detection of skin cancer such as malignant melanoma. Depth information can be obtained from diffuse reflectance based multispectral transillumination images of the skin. An inverse volume reconstruction method is presented which uses a genetic algorithm optimization procedure with a novel population initialization routine and nudge operator based on the multispectral images to reconstruct the melanin and blood layer volume components. Forward model evaluation for fitness calculation is performed using a parallel processing voxel-based Monte Carlo simulation of light in skin. Reconstruction results for simulated lesions show excellent volume accuracy. Preliminary validation is also done using a set of 14 clinical lesions, categorized into lesion severity by an expert dermatologist. Using two features, the average blood layer thickness and the ratio of blood volume to total lesion volume, the lesions can be classified into mild and moderate/severe classes with 100% accuracy. The method therefore has excellent potential for detection and analysis of pre-malignant lesions.
Dexmedetomidine decreases the oral mucosal blood flow.
Kawaai, Hiroyoshi; Yoshida, Kenji; Tanaka, Eri; Togami, Kohei; Tada, Hitoshi; Ganzberg, Steven; Yamazaki, Shinya
2013-12-01
There is an abundance of blood vessels in the oral cavity, and intraoperative bleeding can disrupt operations. There have been some interesting reports about constriction of vessels in the oral cavity, one of which reported that gingival blood flow in cats is controlled by sympathetic α-adrenergic fibres that are involved with vasoconstriction. Dexmedetomidine is a sedative and analgesic agent that acts through the α-2 adrenoceptor, and is expected to have a vasoconstrictive action in the oral cavity. We have focused on the relation between the effects of α-adrenoceptors by dexmedetomidine and vasoconstriction in oral tissues, and assessed the oral mucosal blood flow during sedation with dexmedetomidine. The subjects comprised 13 healthy male volunteers, sedated with dexmedetomidine in a loading dose of 6 μg/kg/h for 10 min and a continuous infusion of 0.7 μg/kg/h for 32 min. The mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), cardiac output (CO), stroke volume (SV), systemic vascular resistance (SVR), and palatal mucosal blood flow (PMBF) were measured at 0, 5, 10, 12, 22, and 32 min after the start of the infusion. The HR, CO, and PBMF decreased significantly during the infusion even though there were no differences in the SV. The SVR increased significantly but the PMBF decreased significantly. In conclusion, PMBF was reduced by the mediating effect of dexmedetomidine on α-2 adrenoceptors.
Measurement of Liver Blood Flow: A Review
Stansby, G. P.; Hobbs, K. E. F.; Hawkes, D. J.; Colchester, A. C. F.
1991-01-01
The study of hepatic haemodynamics is of importance in understanding both hepatic physiology and disease processes as well as assessing the effects of portosystemic shunting and liver transplantation. The liver has the most complicated circulation of any organ and many physiological and pathological processes can affect it1,2. This review surveys the methods available for assessing liver blood flow, examines the different parameters being measured and outlines problems of applicability and interpretation for each technique. The classification of these techniques is to some extent arbitrary and several so called “different” methods may share certain common principles. The methods reviewed have been classified into two groups (Table 1): those primarily reflecting flow through discrete vessels or to the whole organ and those used to assess local microcirculatory blood flow. All techniques have their advantages and disadvantages and in some situations a combination may provide the most information. In addition, because of the many factors affecting liver blood flow and sinusoidal perfusion, readings in a single subject may vary depending on positioning, recent food intake, anxiety, anaesthesia and drug therapy. This must be borne in mind if different studies are to be meaningfully compared. PMID:1931785
A Modeling of Cerebral Blood Flow Changes due to Head Motion for fNIRS
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Takahashi, Kosuke; Tanaka, Takayuki; Nara, Hiroyuki; Kaneko, Shun'ichi; Inoue, Masao; Shimizu, Shunji; Kojima, Satoru
2013-04-01
A method is proposed for measuring brain activity during exercises involving head motion by using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), which investigates cerebral hemodynamics. Obtaining measurements during exercise is difficult because cerebral blood flow changes due to the head motion component (HMC), in addition to neural activity. HMC is an undesirable artifact in the measurement of hemodynamic response caused by neural activity, and as such, it must be estimated and eliminated. In our experiments, cerebral blood flow and head motion were measured during repeated passive forward bending of the subjects. Head motion was measured by 3-D motion capture, and HMC was estimated by deriving a relation between head motion and cerebral blood flow, where the pitch angle was found to be suitable for estimating HMC. In this research, an assumption was made that cerebral blood flow caused by neural activity and that caused by postural change were additive, and thus HMC was eliminated by subtraction.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xie, Yifan; Wu, Jichun; Nan, Tongchao; Xue, Yuqun; Xie, Chunhong; Ji, Haifeng
2017-03-01
In this paper, an efficient triple-grid multiscale finite element method (ETMSFEM) is proposed for 3D groundwater simulation in heterogeneous porous media. The main idea of this method is to employ new 3D linear base functions and the domain decomposition technique to solve the local reduced elliptical problem, thereby simplifying the base function construction process and improving the efficiency. Furthermore, by using the ETMSFEM base functions, this method can solve Darcy's equation with high efficiency to obtain a continuous velocity field. Therefore, this method can considerably reduce the computational cost of solving for heads and velocities, which is crucial for large-scale 3D groundwater simulations. In the application section, we present numerical examples to compare the ETMSFEM with several classical methods to demonstrate its efficiency and effectiveness.
Boegel, Marco; Hoelter, Philip; Redel, Thomas; Maier, Andreas; Hornegger, Joachim; Doerfler, Arnd
2015-01-01
Subarachnoid hemorrhage due to a ruptured cerebral aneurysm is still a devastating disease. Planning of endovascular aneurysm therapy is increasingly based on hemodynamic simulations necessitating reliable vessel segmentation and accurate assessment of vessel diameters. In this work, we propose a fully-automatic, locally adaptive, gradient-based thresholding algorithm. Our approach consists of two steps. First, we estimate the parameters of a global thresholding algorithm using an iterative process. Then, a locally adaptive version of the approach is applied using the estimated parameters. We evaluated both methods on 8 clinical 3D DSA cases. Additionally, we propose a way to select a reference segmentation based on 2D DSA measurements. For large vessels such as the internal carotid artery, our results show very high sensitivity (97.4%), precision (98.7%) and Dice-coefficient (98.0%) with our reference segmentation. Similar results (sensitivity: 95.7%, precision: 88.9% and Dice-coefficient: 90.7%) are achieved for smaller vessels of approximately 1mm diameter.
Caffeine reduces myocardial blood flow during exercise.
Higgins, John P; Babu, Kavita M
2013-08-01
Caffeine consumption has been receiving increased interest from both the medical and lay press, especially given the increased amounts now available in energy products. Acute ingestion of caffeine usually increases cardiac work; however, caffeine impairs the expected proportional increase in myocardial blood flow to match this increased work of the heart, most notably during exercise. This appears to be mainly due to caffeine's effect on blocking adenosine-induced vasodilatation in the coronary arteries in normal healthy subjects. This review summarizes the available medical literature specifically relating to pure caffeine tablet ingestion and reduced exercise coronary blood flow, and suggests possible mechanisms. Further studies are needed to evaluate this effect for other common caffeine-delivery systems, including coffee, energy beverages, and energy gels, which are often used for exercise performance enhancement, especially in teenagers and young athletes.
Myocardial blood flow: Roentgen videodensitometry techniques
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Smith, H. C.; Robb, R. A.; Wood, E. H.
1975-01-01
The current status of roentgen videodensitometric techniques that provide an objective assessment of blood flow at selected sites within the coronary circulation were described. Roentgen videodensitometry employs conventional radiopaque indicators, radiological equipment and coronary angiographic techniques. Roentgen videodensitometry techniques developed in the laboratory during the past nine years, and for the past three years were applied to analysis of angiograms in the clinical cardiac catheterization laboratory.
Deterministic Aperiodic Sickle Cell Blood Flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Atsaves, Louis; Harris, Wesley
2013-11-01
In this paper sickle cell blood flow in the capillaries is modeled as a hydrodynamical system. The hydrodynamical system consists of the axisymmetric unsteady, incompressible Navier-Stokes equations and a set of constitutive equations for oxygen transport. Blood cell deformation is not considered in this paper. The hydrodynamical system is reduced to a system of non-linear partial differential equations that are then transformed into a system of three autonomous non-linear ordinary differential equations and a set of algebraic equations. We examine the hydrodynamical system to discern stable/unstable, periodic/nonperiodic, reversible/irreversible properties of the system. The properties of the solutions are driven in large part by the coefficients of the governing system of equations. These coefficients depend on the physiological properties of the sickle cell blood. The chaotic nature of the onset of crisis in sickle cell patients is identified. Research Assistant.
Blood flow dynamics in heart failure
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shoemaker, J. K.; Naylor, H. L.; Hogeman, C. S.; Sinoway, L. I.
1999-01-01
BACKGROUND: Exercise intolerance in heart failure (HF) may be due to inadequate vasodilation, augmented vasoconstriction, and/or altered muscle metabolic responses that lead to fatigue. METHODS AND RESULTS: Vascular and metabolic responses to rhythmic forearm exercise were tested in 9 HF patients and 9 control subjects (CTL) during 2 protocols designed to examine the effect of HF on the time course of oxygen delivery versus uptake (protocol 1) and on vasoconstriction during exercise with 50 mm Hg pressure about the forearm to evoke a metaboreflex (protocol 2). In protocol 1, venous lactate and H+ were greater at 4 minutes of exercise in HF versus CTL (P<0.05) despite similar blood flow and oxygen uptake responses. In protocol 2, mean arterial pressure increased similarly in each group during ischemic exercise. In CTL, forearm blood flow and vascular conductance were similar at the end of ischemic and ambient exercise. In HF, forearm blood flow and vascular conductance were reduced during ischemic exercise compared with the ambient trial. CONCLUSIONS: Intrinsic differences in skeletal muscle metabolism, not vasodilatory dynamics, must account for the augmented glycolytic metabolic responses to moderate-intensity exercise in class II and III HF. The inability to increase forearm vascular conductance during ischemic handgrip exercise, despite a normal pressor response, suggests that enhanced vasoconstriction of strenuously exercising skeletal muscle contributes to exertional fatigue in HF.
Gender Differences in Ocular Blood Flow
Schmidl, Doreen; Garhöfer, Gerhard; Popa-Cherecheanu, Alina
2015-01-01
Gender medicine has been a major focus of research in recent years. The present review focuses on gender differences in the epidemiology of the most frequent ocular diseases that have been found to be associated with impaired ocular blood flow, such as age-related macular degeneration, glaucoma and diabetic retinopathy. Data have accumulated indicating that hormones have an important role in these diseases, since there are major differences in the prevalence and incidence between men and pre- and post-menopausal women. Whether this is related to vascular factors is, however, not entirely clear. Interestingly, the current knowledge about differences in ocular vascular parameters between men and women is sparse. Although little data is available, estrogen, progesterone and testosterone are most likely important regulators of blood flow in the retina and choroid, because they are key regulators of vascular tone in other organs. Estrogen seems to play a protective role since it decreases vascular resistance in large ocular vessels. Some studies indicate that hormone therapy is beneficial for ocular vascular disease in post-menopausal women. This evidence is, however, not sufficient to give any recommendation. Generally, remarkably few data are available on the role of sex hormones on ocular blood flow regulation, a topic that requires more attention in the future. PMID:24892919
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Imms, Ryan; Hu, Sijung; Azorin-Peris, Vicente; Trico, Michaël.; Summers, Ron
2014-03-01
Non-contact imaging photoplethysmography (PPG) is a recent development in the field of physiological data acquisition, currently undergoing a large amount of research to characterize and define the range of its capabilities. Contact-based PPG techniques have been broadly used in clinical scenarios for a number of years to obtain direct information about the degree of oxygen saturation for patients. With the advent of imaging techniques, there is strong potential to enable access to additional information such as multi-dimensional blood perfusion and saturation mapping. The further development of effective opto-physiological monitoring techniques is dependent upon novel modelling techniques coupled with improved sensor design and effective signal processing methodologies. The biometric signal and imaging processing platform (bSIPP) provides a comprehensive set of features for extraction and analysis of recorded iPPG data, enabling direct comparison with other biomedical diagnostic tools such as ECG and EEG. Additionally, utilizing information about the nature of tissue structure has enabled the generation of an engineering model describing the behaviour of light during its travel through the biological tissue. This enables the estimation of the relative oxygen saturation and blood perfusion in different layers of the tissue to be calculated, which has the potential to be a useful diagnostic tool.
Kulp, Scott; Gao, Mingchen; Zhang, Shaoting; Qian, Zhen; Voros, Szilard; Metaxas, Dimitris; Axel, Leon
2011-01-01
In this paper, we present a method to simulate and visualize blood flow through the human heart, using the reconstructed 4D motion of the endocardial surface of the left ventricle as boundary conditions. The reconstruction captures the motion of the full 3D surfaces of the complex features, such as the papillary muscles and the ventricular trabeculae. We use visualizations of the flow field to view the interactions between the blood and the trabeculae in far more detail than has been achieved previously, which promises to give a better understanding of cardiac flow. Finally, we use our simulation results to compare the blood flow within one healthy heart and two diseased hearts.
Buck, Ursula; Kneubuehl, Beat; Näther, Silvio; Albertini, Nicola; Schmidt, Lars; Thali, Michael
2011-03-20
For crime scene investigation in cases of homicide, the pattern of bloodstains at the incident site is of critical importance. The morphology of the bloodstain pattern serves to determine the approximate blood source locations, the minimum number of blows and the positioning of the victim. In the present work, the benefits of the three-dimensional bloodstain pattern analysis, including the ballistic approximation of the trajectories of the blood drops, will be demonstrated using two illustrative cases. The crime scenes were documented in 3D, using the non-contact methods digital photogrammetry, tachymetry and laser scanning. Accurate, true-to-scale 3D models of the crime scenes, including the bloodstain pattern and the traces, were created. For the determination of the areas of origin of the bloodstain pattern, the trajectories of up to 200 well-defined bloodstains were analysed in CAD and photogrammetry software. The ballistic determination of the trajectories was performed using ballistics software. The advantages of this method are the short preparation time on site, the non-contact measurement of the bloodstains and the high accuracy of the bloodstain analysis. It should be expected that this method delivers accurate results regarding the number and position of the areas of origin of bloodstains, in particular the vertical component is determined more precisely than using conventional methods. In both cases relevant forensic conclusions regarding the course of events were enabled by the ballistic bloodstain pattern analysis.
Microconfined flow behavior of red blood cells.
Tomaiuolo, Giovanna; Lanotte, Luca; D'Apolito, Rosa; Cassinese, Antonio; Guido, Stefano
2016-01-01
Red blood cells (RBCs) perform essential functions in human body, such as gas exchange between blood and tissues, thanks to their ability to deform and flow in the microvascular network. The high RBC deformability is mainly due to the viscoelastic properties of the cell membrane. Since an impaired RBC deformability could be found in some diseases, such as malaria, sickle cell anemia, diabetes and hereditary disorders, there is the need to provide further insight into measurement of RBC deformability in a physiologically relevant flow field. Here, RBCs deformability has been studied in terms of the minimum apparent plasma-layer thickness by using high-speed video microscopy of RBCs flowing in cylindrical glass capillaries. An in vitro systematic microfluidic investigation of RBCs in micro-confined conditions has been performed, resulting in the determination of the RBCs time recovery constant, RBC volume and surface area and RBC membrane shear elastic modulus and surface viscosity. It has been noticed that the deformability of RBCs induces cells aggregation during flow in microcapillaries, allowing the formation of clusters of cells. Overall, our results provide a novel technique to estimate RBC deformability and also RBCs collective behavior, which can be used for the analysis of pathological RBCs, for which reliable quantitative methods are still lacking.
Amor, Rumelo; Mahajan, Sumeet; Amos, William Bradshaw; McConnell, Gail
2014-12-08
Standing-wave excitation of fluorescence is highly desirable in optical microscopy because it improves the axial resolution. We demonstrate here that multiplanar excitation of fluorescence by a standing wave can be produced in a single-spot laser scanning microscope by placing a plane reflector close to the specimen. We report here a variation in the intensity of fluorescence of successive planes related to the Stokes shift of the dye. We show by the use of dyes specific for the cell membrane how standing-wave excitation can be exploited to generate precise contour maps of the surface membrane of red blood cells, with an axial resolution of ≈90 nm. The method, which requires only the addition of a plane mirror to an existing confocal laser scanning microscope, may well prove useful in studying diseases which involve the red cell membrane, such as malaria.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Amor, Rumelo; Mahajan, Sumeet; Amos, William Bradshaw; McConnell, Gail
2014-12-01
Standing-wave excitation of fluorescence is highly desirable in optical microscopy because it improves the axial resolution. We demonstrate here that multiplanar excitation of fluorescence by a standing wave can be produced in a single-spot laser scanning microscope by placing a plane reflector close to the specimen. We report here a variation in the intensity of fluorescence of successive planes related to the Stokes shift of the dye. We show by the use of dyes specific for the cell membrane how standing-wave excitation can be exploited to generate precise contour maps of the surface membrane of red blood cells, with an axial resolution of ~90 nm. The method, which requires only the addition of a plane mirror to an existing confocal laser scanning microscope, may well prove useful in studying diseases which involve the red cell membrane, such as malaria.
Meadow, W; Rudinsky, B; Raju, T; John, E; Fornell, L; Shankararao, R
1999-03-01
We investigated whether blood flow determined by a flow probe situated on one common carotid artery provided an accurate estimation of unilateral cerebral blood flow (CBF) in piglets. In eight anesthetized, mechanically ventilated piglets, blood flow determined by an ultrasonic flow probe placed on the right common carotid artery was correlated with CBF determined by microspheres under two experimental conditions: 1) before ligation of the right external carotid artery with both the right external and internal carotid circulations intact [common carotid artery blood flow (CCABF) condition], and 2) after ligation of the right external carotid artery (ipsilateral to the flow probe) with all residual right-sided carotid artery blood flow directed through the right internal carotid artery [internal carotid artery blood flow (ICABF) condition]. The left carotid artery was not manipulated in any way in either protocol. Independent correlations of unilateral CCABF and ICABF with microsphere-determined unilateral CBF were highly significant over a 5-fold range of CBF induced by hypercarbia or hypoxia (r = 0.94 and 0.92, respectively; both p < 0.001). The slope of the correlation of unilateral CCABF versus unilateral CBF was 1.68 +/- 0.19 (SEM), suggesting that CCABF overestimated CBF by 68%. The slope of the correlation of unilateral ICABF versus unilateral CBF did not differ significantly from unity (1.06 +/- 0.15), and the y intercept did not differ significantly from zero [-1.3 +/- 5.2 (SEM) mL]. Consequently, unilateral ICABF determined by flow probe accurately reflected unilateral CBF determined by microspheres under these conditions. Flow probe assessments of CCABF and ICABF in piglets may provide information about dynamic aspects of vascular control in the cerebral circulation that has heretofore been unavailable.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Le Voci, Giuseppe; Davies, Rhodri; Goes, Saskia; Kramer, Stephan; Wilson, Cian
2014-05-01
Arc volcanism at subduction zones is likely regulated by the mantle wedge's flow regime and thermal structure and, hence, numerous